The RaeYuan Ceramic History Collections(sample)

This the sample of Dr Iwan CD-Rom,rthe complete CD please asked via email but you must upload you ID copy and complete adress,the price only for Indonesian country lima ratus ribvu rupiah including  sending cost by TIKI

The Yuan Ceramic History Cololection

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2014




I have just read a best info related with the Yuan Ceramic written By Mr Koh,Seaceramic and before I have written about the Yuan Ceramic History Collections.

I hope after read this twoo best articles and added the value of yuan ceramic from auction the collectors will understand about the yuan ceramic,the best ceramic in the world.

Jakarta,October 2014

DR Iwan suwandy,MHA



Yuan Period

During the Yuan period, cizhou, Jun and Longquan wares continued to supply traditional products to large  part of the domestic market.

The most important development was the increasing importance of Jingdezhen as a center for porcelain production. 

 An indication of its importance was the setting up of  the official Fuliang porcelain bureau (浮梁瓷局) in A.D 1278 whose functions included supervision and management of  porcelain production in Jingdezhen for official use.

Building on the foundation of Qingbai, Jingdezhen also developed the shufu wares.  But the most important event was the creation of Yuan blue and white wares and underglaze copper red decoration.  The blue and white displaced cizhou iron brown decoration as the main stream underglaze decoration in Ming and Qing Dynasty.  This is such a popular product that many people actually equate Chinese ceramics with blue and white.

Yuan court continued the Song policy to encourage overseas ceramics trade.  Longquan celadon was enormously popular as can be seen by the large quantity found overseas and in the number of Yuan longquan kilns sites.   Jingdezhen Qingbai/shufu and blue and whites were also important export items.



Jun Wares

During the Yuan period, Jun ware grew in popularity in Northern China. The number of kilns making Jun wares was enormous covering Henan, Hebei, Shanxi, and Inner Mongolia .  The vessels consisted of mainly bowl, plates and with small number of jars, censers and vases.  Interestingly, no Jun wares was excavated in region south of the Yangzi river.

They were essentially made for use domestically in Northern China. Yuan Jun vessels are typically heavily potted and have unglazed footring and base.

One rare exception of Southern China Jun produced during the period was  in Zhejiang Jinhua region.  In the Sinan shipwreck, there were some Jun wares which were from Jinhua Tiedian kiln (华铁店窑).


Dr Iwan Comment

I never seen this type in Indonesia

Cizhou wares

Cizhou wares continued to enjoy popularity in Northern China and mainly produced for domestic use.  However, some were also exported overseas and were excavated in Southeast Asia countries.

The main decorative style was underglaze iron-painted black/brown motif.

Dr Iwan Comment

I have found this type  at west borneo Tanjungpura site Ketapang near Pawan River.


Longquan Wares

Longquan celadon reached the peak of its production during the Yuan dynasty.  It is characterised by the production of large vessels such as large plates, guan jars and vases.  This is a great achievement as large vessels are not easy to produced successfully. Besides the continued use of curved/impressed motif, molded motif in relief also gained popularity during this period.   Some decorative elements such as iron-brown rust colour splashes/spots and biscuit form motif were also popular.


For more on longquan celadon, please read : Longquan wares

Compare with collections

Share by my friend edhie chen at facebook

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type from west borneo tanjungpura sites,and from sea shipwreck treasure jepara dan Malacca straits




Qingbai and Shufu wares

Qingbai wares continued to be popular during the Yuan dynasty.  During this period, some of the Qingbai products were decorated with iron-brown rust splashes/spots.

Yuan Qingbai horse on rider with brown spots

Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type at west borneo but brpken head and leg.

Yuan Qingbai with molded bird motif

Subsequently another form known as Shufu glaze was created.  It is thick, opaque and resemble the colour of goose egg.  The good ones however could have a sugary white tone.   The rough ones usually have a grayish tinge to the glaze.  The shufu vessels, consisting of mainly bowls and dishes,  were made in Hutian kilns which were located outside Jingdezhen, Jiangxi province. Some of the bowls and dishes have moulded relief motif and the chinese two chinese characters shu fu  [枢府] meaning “Privy council”.    Hence, such glaze type wares were also termed shufu wares.   Besides shufu, other characters included “tai xi” [太禧]meaning great happiness and “fu lu” [福禄meaning good fortune and emolument could be found.  However, majority have just either plain or  molded relief motif of flowers, dragon or phoenix. 

Such vessels are typically more thickly potted and for the bowls/dishes, there is pooling of glaze at the inner and outer mouth rim.

DR Iwan Comment

I found the same type,broken mouth  without spout at Aceh near lhoksemawe,dan rhe spout from west borneo near Ketapang tanjung pura sites


The starting date for production of shufu is still uncertain.  In the the Sinan wreck of about A.D 1325, there were some shufu wares. Some excavated examples in China with the word “tai xi” were probably made for the the official institution, Taixi Zongyin Yuan  [太禧宗禋院which dealt with religious rites of the imperial court.  It was set up in A.D. 1328.  

 Hence, they should be made at least after A.D. 1328.  A small number of shufu wares continued to be made in the Hongwu period.  

The glaze was subsequently further improved and a pleasing sugary white glaze known as Tianbai [甜白] was produced during the Yongle period.

Some shufu wares were decorated with overglaze red/green motif.  A very rare type was the embossed effect motif created by trailing the outline of motif with coloured-slip and completed with in-laid gold.  Most the the examples in existent are in Shanghai museum.  The enamels consisted of red, green, yellow, white, blue and torquose blue colour.  Vessels with such unique decorative techniques consisted of bowls, saucers, stem cups/bowls and, yuhuchun vases and censers.

Yuan overglaze red and green enameled stem cup


For more on Shufu ware, please read: Shufu (luan bai) wares



Types of  Jingdezhen Yuan Underglaze Decorations

In the Sinan cargo, there were a few pieces of qingbai glaze bowl with underglaze iron-brown decoration.  The production of this category of decoration was apparently small and did not win many admirers.  Cobalt oxide and to a much lesser extent copper oxide were found to be more suitable as medium for underglaze decoration on porcelain wares.

Underglaze blue and white wares

Yuan blue and whites were produced from about A.D 1330.   It was earlier thought to be around A.D 1319 (6th year of yuanyou (元祐))based on a pair of vases excavated in Hubei.  However, scientific test has confirmed that the colorant used is iron oxide and not cobalt


There are two types of Yuan blue and whites ie the high end type with vibrant blue and those small vessels with greyish tone blue.  Those which are found in the Middle East are generally the high-end type.  They consisted of large plates, guan jars, rectangular flat vases, meiping/ yuhuchun/ gourd-shape vases and big bowls.  The best collections are now in Topkapu Saray in Istanbul Turkey and Ardebil in Iran Bustan in Tehran.

The motif and composition on the pieces was similar to that of the David Vase.   It is termed Zhizheng type.  The quality is consistently very high and typically with different motifs organised within separate band.   For example, the David vase has 8 bands of motifs.  The glaze on the vessel is also more transparent with a tinge of blue.  It is very different from the Qingbai or shufu glaze found on those small blue and white vessels for the Southeast Asia market.

The varieties of motif are numerous ranging from many different type of flowers and floral scrolls, dragon, phoenix, crane, heron, mandarin duck, fish, mystical animals, Buddhist precious objects, clouds, waves, human and landscape depicting scene from ancient episode  from the 3 kingdom and Han Dynasty.  Visually the composition looks crowded as if the designer is adverse to leaving empty spaces.  But they do not look dis-organised or messy.  Another interesting approach is having some of the motifs reserved in a blue background.


Most of the lower quality blue and whites, such as small ewers, small jarlets, cups and bowls with a Qingbai or shufu glaze were exported  to Southeast Asia countries such as Philippines and Indonesia.  The design is generally simple, consisting of floral motif decorated with grayish local cobalt blue.  But there were small quantity of high quality guans, plates and vases with motifs arranged in separate bands as typified by the David vase.

Dr Iwan Comment

I never seen this type in Indonesia

It is generally believed that those high end type of blue and white with vibrant blue used imported cobalt. 

Those with greyish tone are decorated with local cobalt.  However, recent scientific tests have shown that all the Yuan blue and white used imported cobalt.

 The imported cobalt is called sumali [苏麻离青] or suboni [苏渤泥青] blue.  Some suggested sources of the imported cobalt are Kashan in Iran or Samarra in Iraq.


Dr Iwan Comment

I have found this type at tanjungpura stie west bponeo and Tuban

Look my collections

Please compare flower decoration left Anamese vs right Yuan -style


Best perfect decoration


Bold dark blue bead jarlet


Best style flower decoration

The earliest known example of Yuan underglaze copper red is probably the dish found in the Sinan shipwreck (A.D. 1325). It has two leaf incised, washed with a lighter copper red and calligraphy written in a thicker copper red pigment.  The dish was then covered with a Qingbai glaze and fired. Most of the known examples of the copper red were decorated with motif executed in pencilled style.  Majority has the Qingbai type glaze. The red is usually light and grayish to tone, indicating that control over the material is still not perfected.

Copper red is volatile and unstable during firing.  If too thinly applied, it may volatilise and lose its red colour.  If too thickly applied, it becomes unsightly darkish in tone.   There are a number of extant copper red vessels with impressed or incised motif.  The copper red was either washed over the motif or the motif reserved with red background.  They may be examples of early experimentation with copper red.

Yuan copper red ewer with floral motif recovered from the sea in Indonesia


Yuan copper red ewer with fish recovered from Indonesia Trowulan

There were also some vessels decorated with underglaze blue and copper red. A good example is the below guan in the David Percival Foundaton.  It has added decorative elements of trailed slip beaded lines and moulded decorative element luted and looks like open work in relief. This style of decoration was popular during the Yuan period and found on many Qingbai guan jar and yu hu chun vases.  The Qingbai glaze on such vessels appear more opaque and could sometime be confused with shufu glaze.







Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type in broken and not complete part

Look my collections


The beast and the beauty,s red flower body decorations

Best dark red body decoration

Dark brown red bold body decoration (anamese?)

Darkred splash body decoration

Simple perfect red decoration

simple decoration with bright red colour

Underglaze Copper Red ware


Monochrome Blue wares

Monochrome blue glaze was successfully produced during the Yuan period.  There a a beautiful sapphire colour tone. There were some examples of wine cup, saucer and vessel yi found in Hebei baoding.  There were traces of gold decoration on the vessels.


Updated by NK Koh  (14 Dec 2009)

Dr Iwan Comment

I have never seen this type in indonesia










Yuan Blue and white

On 12 Jul 2005, a Yuan blue and white jar depicting scene from an episode during the Warring states was sold by Christies for a record sum of US$27.7 million for Chinese work of art.

Yuan jar sold by Christies for record sum of US$27.7 million

This is indeed a dramatic change of fortune for Yuan Blue and white wares considering that little was known about them prior to A.D 1950.  Before A.D 1950  RL Hobson had in A.D 1929 highlighted a pair of Yuan vases in the Percival David Foundation in his writings. But it did not raise much interest.  The pioneering work in the identification of Yuan blue and white was done in A.D 1952 by Dr John Pope.  He identified a group of Yuan blue and white in the Istanbul Topkapi Museum and the Iran Ardebil Shrine which possesses motifs which are stylistically similar to those on the pair of David Vases.  The pair of vases was a donation to the temple by a devotee named Zhang Wenjin 张文进)seeking blessings for his family.  This is mentioned in the inscription on the neck of the vases. It also has a date Zhi Zheng (至正)11th year, ie A.D 1351.  Blue and white wares which are stylistically similar to the David vases are termed Zhi Zheng type.

The pair of vases was last placed in the Bejing Zhihua (智化)Temple but smuggled out of China in 1929 to Europe by a overseas chinese.  It subsequently ended up in the possession of Sir Percival David.

Subsequently, a pair of qingbai glaze pagoda-shaped vases with simple floral scrolls dated to Yuanyou (元祐) 6th year (A.D. 1319) was excavated in Hubei.  It was initially thought to be decorated with a grayish cobalt blue.  As the execution of the motif looks experimental and lacks the sophistication and maturity of the Zhi Zheng type blue and white, the Chinese experts viewed them as early Yuan Blue and white and termed them Yuanyou type.   However,  scientific test in Mar 2009 by the Shanghai Museum on one of the vases confirmed that the colorant used is iron oxide and not cobalt.

The Yuan You vase datd 1319 A.D in Hubei Museum.  Initially thought to be decorated with cobalt. Decorated with iron oxide pigment. 


David vase dated 1359 A.D 

Kiln and Production Commencement Date

Although the colorant of the pagoda shaped vase dated A.D 1310 is not cobalt, the motifs (such as the peony, the plantain leaves  and collar-shaped cloud on the shoulder of the vase) and multi-layered composition showed stylistic similarity with the subsequent blue and white. So, when did the Jingdezhen potters started using cobalt for decoration?

Some of the early Chinese writings related to ceramics may shed some lights.  In Jiangqi’s (蒋祈)writings Taoji (记) widely regarded as written between A.D 1322 – 1325, there was no mention of blue and white. HoweverWang Da Yuan (汪大渊), in his work Dao Yi Zhi lue (岛夷志略)which recorded his observations during his trips to Southeast Asia between A.D 1330 to 1339, he mentioned a group of exported porcelain termed Qingbai hua ci (青白花瓷). This could be literally interpreted as motif in blue and white.  It is more likely a reference to Blue and white and not qingbai wares.

So far, no Yuan blue and white from shipwreck or excavation has a dating earlier than A.D 1330.  In the Sinan shipwreck dated about A.D 1325, there were some shufu, iron-oxide decorated wares and a plate decorated with copper red calligraphy from Jingdezhen.  But no blue and white was found.

Kiln sites producing Yuan blue and white have been found in several sites in Jingdezhen and Hutian.  In Hutian, kiln sites located south of the river Nan were found to specialise in the production of large vessels, such as large plates, jars and vases, with mulit-layered motifs which were mainly found in Middle East collections.  Kiln sites located north of the river were found to produce those small vessels such as jarlet, bowls and dishes with simple motif,  which were commonly found in Philippines and Indonesia. The stratification of the kiln site, located South of the river Nan, showed the blue and white layer above the layer of shufu glaze vessels.  Although the actual date of production of the blue and white could not be ascertained,  they definitely made their appearance later than the shufu glaze vessels.

In Jingdezhen, the site at Luoma Qiao (马桥) were found to produce a large variety of vessels form such as including plates, cups, vases, jars and figurines.  There were also vessels such as jar, Yuhuchun vase decorated with underglaze copper red motifs. A fragment of small bowl with overglaze red/green motif was also recovered.

Fragments recovered from Jingdezhen Luoma Qiao


The site at Longzhu Ge (龙珠阁) specialised in producing vessels for the palace.  Dragons decorated on the jars were found to have 5 claws which was only permitted for imperial use.  Some of the vessels were glazed in blue or turquoise and decorated with gold motif.  In Yuan Dianzhang (元典章), it was decreed that the use of gold gild was prohibited by common folks.


Jar with 5 claws dragon from Longzhu Ge kiln site

From published sources, so far the earliest blue and white was a sherd with cobalt blue inscription and a date yuantong (统)3rd year (A.D 1335) mentioned. It was excavated in Jingdezhen Daijia nong (景德镇戴家弄).   There were quite a number of sherds with inscription indicating cyclical or Zhizheng date excavated in Jingdezhen.  All are dated to the A.D 1340s.

The Xuzhan Tang Museum (徐展堂艺术馆)has a big Yuan blue and white zhizheng type charger with vegetal and floral motif organised around several circular bands.  There is a faint ink inscription which when under ultra-violet light, the characters zhizheng 4th year (至正四年)ie A.D 1343 could be seen.

Hence, so far far evidence indicates that production of Yuan blue and white most probably started around A.D 1330.

Types of blue and white

The typical high quality Yuan blue and whites are in the form of large plates, guan jars, Rectangular flat vases, meiping/yuhuchun/gourd-shape vases and big bowls.  The best collections are now in Topkapu Saray in Istanbul Turkey and Ardebil in Iran Bustan in Tehran.  The motif and composition on the pieces was similar to that of the David Vase.   It is termed Zhizheng type.  The quality is consistently very high and typically with different motifs organised within separate band.   For example, the David vase has 8 bands of motifs.  The glaze on the vessel is also more transparent with a tinge of blue.  It is very different from the Qingbai or shufu glaze found on those small blue and white vessels for the Southeast Asia market.

The varieties of motif are numerous ranging from many different type of flowers and floral scrolls, dragon, phoenix, crane, heron, mandarin duck, fish, mystical animals, Buddhist precious objects, clouds, waves, human and landscape depicting scene from ancient episode  from the 3 kingdom and Han Dynasty.  The use of bands to organise motifs is not new and can been seen in earlier period such as those on Song Cizhou wares.  What is interesting and striking is the way the potter squeezed so many varied motifs into one composition on the vessel.  Visually it looks crowded as if the designer is adverse to leaving empty spaces.  However, they are well-organised and do not appear messy.  Another interesting approach is having some of the motifs reserved in a blue background.  One distinctive and refreshing element also worth noting is having motifs within cloud collars.   The early Yuan You 6th year vase mentioned earlier also has cloud collars on the shoulder.  But no motif was drawn within and it is obvious that despite the use of band to separate different motif, the whole composition is sparse and not crowded as in the Zhizheng type.

Big Plates in Beijing palace Museum

Ewer in Beijing palace Museum

Big Jar in Beijing palace Museum

Human motif vase in the Hubei Museum

Fragment of big bowl from Trowulan in Indonesia


Besides the above high quality types, many small ewers, small jarlets, cups and bowls with a Qingbai or shufu glaze were excavated in Southeast Asia countries such as Philippines and Indonesia  .  The design was generally simple, consisting of floral /cloud motif decorated with greyish cobalt blue executed in calligraphic style.

Such items were produced in Hutian kiln located South of River Nan

In Jingdezhen, a number of stem cups with simple human figures/floral motif were excavated.

Yuan blue and white stem cups

The blue and white exported to Middle East were generally of high quality.  However, it is a mis-conception that those exported to Southeast Asian countries are low quality blue and whites.  Excavations in Trowulan (in Java), the former capital of the Majapahit empire in Indonesia showed that quite a number (including vases and big jars) were of high quality.

Yuhuchun vases found in Trowulan


Type of Cobalt Used

Visually, it appears that two types of cobalt are used for Yuan blue and white.  The typical high quality type has a strong and vibrant shade of blue.  The blue on the small pieces appears greyish in tone.  Generally, it is believed that the former was decorated with imported cobalt and the latter local cobalt.  The below photos gives an idea of how local and imported cobalt is thought to appear visually.



Scientific analysis shows that the local cobalt is high on magnesium and low of iron oxide.  The imported cobalt is the reverse, ie. high on iron oxide and low on magnesium.  The high magnesium is believed to render the grayish tone to motif drawn using local cobalt.

However, recent scientific tests have consistently revealed that the cobalt used on those Yuan blue and white which appear greyish in colour tone is also imported cobalt.  It seems that other factors such as the firing temperature, the atmosphere and quality of the cobalt may have contributed to the greyish tone.

The chinese called the imported cobalt sumali [苏麻离青] or suboni [苏渤泥青] blue.  Some suggested sources of the imported cobalt are Kashan in Iran or Samarra in Iraq.


Underglaze blue and copper red

There were also some vessels decorated with underglaze blue and copper red. A good example is the below guan in the David Percival Foundaton.  It has added decorative elements of trailed slip beaded lines and moulded decorative element luted and looks like open work in relief. This style of decoration was popular during the Yuan period and found on many Qingbai guan jar and yu hu chun vases.



Written by : NK Koh (15 Dec 2009), updated 18 Feb 2012





Lecture: Opening the Microscopic World of Porcelain: Trace Model Research and Authentication of Yuan Underglaze Blue

Based upon the first two books in the Ceramics Trace Model Study Series, Survey of Ceramics Trace Model Study and Trace Model Research and Authentication: Yuan Dynasty Underglaze Blue Porcelain, this lecture looks into the application of microscopic research within Chinese Ceramics.

Using 500x digital magnification, the research team at Guangzhou Oriental Museum has put forth a new scientific field of research that focuses on the quantitative change and passage of time principles that govern the weathering of ancient ceramics. With sample selection extending from Jingdezhen to Inner Mongolia within China, and from Iran to the U.S. internationally, they have pulled together a sizeable database of ceramic trace samples that are used as the comparative DNA in scientific research and authentication of Chinese Porcelain.

The speaker, Matthew Bunney, Deputy Director of the Guangzhou Oriental Museum, has led a four year focus on the discovery and analyses of Yuan Dynasty Underglaze Blue Porcelain traces. He also pioneered a new technique of three-dimensional micro-imaging which opened a new world of ceramic observation and understanding, and is working to improve the field of ceramic authentication. Come and enjoy an evening of discovery and education on this interesting new field of scientific research, and be part of the first public audience in Asia to see the Microscopic World of Chinese Ceramics opened for all to enjoy.





Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type at west borneo,tuban,and shi[wreck Malacca straight

;ook my collections

”The Rare Yuan Snake Ceramic”


Very rare Yuan Snake

Rare Yuan Snake

emblem of medicine

Supranatural Power

Emblem of Evil

Yuan Snake ceramic

”The Rare Yuan Cock Ceramic”

Yuan Cock Mhammedan blue

Rare Yuan cock cup

Rare Yuan Cock ceramic

Hallo collectors,thankyou for click UCN today
RCD and UCN special show this day.









Dr Iwan Comment

I found this type from shipwreck Malacca straights





Without even bothering with whether the rpice is fair or too good to be true or the qualities of glaze and footring, the design of this is incorrect of rthe period.


 The central flower is lost in the roundel and the edge with the two peach (?) forms at 12 and 6 o’clock on the circle are not cohesive with each other or the rather spotty design of incised markings which look more like and attempt to populate with Ming clouds than the aesthetic of longquan celadon.


 THe barb of the foliate edging is flat and flabby. Here is a fragmentary example of what this aspires to.

Anthony M. Lee
Asian Art Research


It has all the features of a late Yuan celadon small dish. The ring of oxidized (Burnt Red) iron, from impurities within the paste,the effect caused through a reduction atmosphere, is a known mark of authentication, as well as the overall shape and design. I would declare it a genuine example, and a good one. 

Thanks for sharing Frank.

Regards, Lloyd




A Longquan celadon censer, any opinion regarding the date would be highly appreciated.

Kindly regards


The Ceramic Tenmoko History Collections

The Ceramic Tenmoko

History Collections



Created By

DR Iwan Suwnady,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-ROM Edition

Special For Ceramic Collectors

Copyright @ 2014




Pada tahun 1995-2014 di Jkrfta saya menemukan beberapa keramik dinasti Sung dengan glasir khusus yang terkenal dalam upacara minum the d Jepang, untuk menambah pengetahuan tentang keramik tenmoko yang sangat terkenal didunia ini saya telah menerbitkan sebuah CD-ROM,contoh ada di Web Blog saya hhtp://

Bagi yang berminat dapat menghubungi saya dengan syarat mengupload kopi kTPnya dan alamat lengkap,harga CD-Rom lima ratus ribu rupiah sudah termasuk ongkos kirim liwat Titipan Kilat.

Terima kasih telah mampir di web blog saya.

Belajar banyak agar koleksi anda dapat terkumpul yang langka,orisinil,dan tidak ketipu dengan koleksi palsu atau tiruan dari eropah dan yang baru

Jakarta November 2014

DR Iwa Suwandy,MHA


Jian Temmoku bowls (Jian Zhan)


Jian temmoku bowls were prized by tea connoisseurs during the Song Dynasty.  However, with changes to the tea drinking habits, it lost favour subsequently and awareness and knowledge of its eminent stature was erased from the Chinese memory with the passage of time. During the late Qing/Republican period, there was a revival of interest in these black glaze bowls as one category of antique Chinese ceramics for overseas collectors   Many of the antique ceramics, with some as early as the Neolithic period, were from ancient tombs/graves and kiln sites.  Many of the black glaze bowls that surfaced in the Shanghai and Beijing antique markets were defective bowls from kiln sites.  According to the Jianou chronicles (建欧县志) dated 18th year of Republican era  ie 1929 A.D,antique dealers  paid the villagers to illegally dig up Jian kiln black bowls and transport  them to Shanghai or Japan.

James Marshall Plumer, an American who served as a custom officer in Fuzhou in Fujian, got wind that the bowls originated from Shuji (水吉) in Jianyang (建阳)in Minbei (Northern Fujian).  He made a trip there in 1935 and collected numerous sherds and kiln furnitures such as clay separator and saggars.  He became a Chinese ceramics scholar and was noted for his study on Jian temmoku bowls.


Origin of the term Jian Zhan and Temmoku

The term Jian Zhan () first appeared in Japanese written sources during the early 14th century.   Zhan 盏)is a chinese word which means a small bowl during ancient time. Many writings related to Jian zhan mistook it to mean bowls from Jianyang as Shuiji where the kilns were located is now part of Jianyang county. But that only happened during the 20th century.  Prior to that, Shuiji came under the jurisdiction of Jianou (建欧) county.  In 207 A.D of the Eastern Han period, Jianou, known as Jianan (建安), was set up as a county.  It was elevated to prefecture status subsequently and renamed as Jianzhou (建州) in 621 A.D of the Tang era.  Cai Xiang (蔡襄) in his “Record of Tea”, Cha lu (), wrote : “.. The tea bowls made at Jianan have purplish black glaze with hare’s fur pattern. The body is slightly thicker and so retains the heat well.”  Hence, the term Jian Zhan is more likely refer to zhan from Jianan or Jianzhou.   However, in line with the Song convention of naming famous ceramics after the prefecture that they were made, such as Ding or Yue wares, it is most appropriate to understand it as meaning Jianzhou zhan.

Nowadays, it is common to refer to Jian Zhan as Temmoku (Tenmoku) bowls.  According to the Qing chronicle “Da Qing Yi Tong Zhi”  (大清一统志)”, Tianmu mountain (Tenmoku in Japanese), located in present day Zhejiang Linan city (临安市), had many zen sect temples during the Song/Yuan period.  Many Japanese monks went there to study and practice Zen Buddhism.  When returning to Japan, they brought back with them black glaze tea bowls which included those from Jianzhou and other kilns, which they termed Tenmoku bowls (天目碗)ie bowls from Tianmu mountian. Tea drinking is an effective means to stay awake during meditation.

In the Japanese work (禅林小歌dated 1394 – 1427 A.D, there appeared to be distinction between various types of Jian zhan and other types of tea bowls such as  Fuzhou zhan  (福州) and tenmoku.  However, subsequently the term tenmoku was used loosely to refer to all types of black/brown tea bowls.

Tianmu mountain in Linan city located west of  Hangzhou

Tea competition and Jian Zhan

Tea from Fujian Fuzhou and Jianzhou were mentioned in Tang Lu Yu’s treatise on tea (陆羽茶经).  By the Northern Song Dynasty, Jianzhou tea, ie Jian cha (建茶) achieved so much fame for its quality that in 977 A.D, Bei Yuan Yu Cha Yuan (北苑御茶园), an officially managed imperial  tea plantation was established in Jianzhou (present day Jianou city).  The tea leaves gone through the process of powdering, steaming and baking. After which, they were packed in cake form before sending to the palace.

Cai Xiang (1012 – 1048 A.D) ), a native of Xianyou (仙游) in Fujian, was once  in charge and supervised the official Beiyuan tea plantation.  During the stint in Jianzhou, he gained deep knowledge of a leisure activity called tea competition enjoyed by the locals.  He became an ardent convert.  Using his influence as a high ranking court official, he introduced the art of Fujian tea competition to the imperial court.   In his  treatise “Record of Tea”, Cai Xiang ranked  a type of white Jiancha called Dragon Pheonix tea (Longfeng tea 龙凤茶) and Jian purplish black glaze bowl with hare’s fur pattern as the best for tea competition. Through his active promotion, tea competition became a popular and noble activity of the imperial court and the literati class.  This activity gained a further boost during the late Northern Song Emperor Huizong’s reign ( AD 1101-1125).  He was a great connoisseur of the tea culture and displayed his in-depth understanding in a twelve-chapter dissertation “Discussion of Tea in the Daguan period ” (Da Guan cha lun 观茶录 ).  He too advocated Jian hare’s fur tea bowls as the best for tea competition.  The competition was judged based on certain criteria, such as the taste, fragrance, colour of the tea (white superior to yellowish tone).  During the contest,  the tea was whisked to white froth  The tea should stay well-mix and the first to show traces of residue loss was declared the loser.

Tea competitions became the favourite past time of the rich and poor in many areas in China. Due to popular demand, Jian kilns produced large quantity of tea bowls during the Song period.  For those common folks who could not afford Jian Zhan, they could avail themselves of cheaper version of tea bowls produced in other provinces and numerous other Fujian kilns.


Origin, dating and characteristics of Jian Zhan

Shuiji, a market town in present day Jianyang,was the location where the ancient Jian kilns were found.  Since 1960, 4 official archaeological excavations, ie in 1960, 1977, 1990 and 1991,  were carried out in Shuiji.  Kilns were discovered in small villages in:

  • Luhuaping (芦花坪) – celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Niupilun (牛皮仑)-   celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Daluhoumen (大路后) –  black glaze, small quantity celadon and blue and white sherds
  • Yuangtoukeng(源头坑) – black glaze sherds
  • Anweishan (庵尾山) –  celadon and black glaze sherds
  • Shuiweilan (水尾) - black glaze sherds
  • Yingzhanggan (营长乾) - black glaze and qingbai sherds
  • Qililan (七里) .- black glaze sherds


Based on archaelogical evidence, small scale celadon wares were produced during late Tang/5 Dynasty period in kilns located at sites such as  Luhuaping (芦花坪), Niupilun (牛皮仑) and Anweishan (庵尾山).  The wares consisting of bowls, plates, jars, ewers, cover boxes and etc.  The vessels which are generally rough and stylistically similar to the celebrated yue wares. The glaze is generally uneven and the lower portion of the external wall of the vessel is unglaze. The vessels were fired with protection of saggars.

By late 5 Dynasty/Early Northern Song, the Jian potters started to produce two types of shallow bowls with slightly in-curving rim.   The lower external wall and foot is unglaze.  The glaze is thin and black/dark brown in colour. The bowl is quite thinly potted with a slight protrusion on the inner base.  Below the rim, the wall is of relatively even thickness.  The paste is greyish or greyish brown.  Such bowls were recovered from the kiln in Anweishan (庵尾山).  The bowl was fired upright in a saggar.

Precursor of the typical Jian wares

Tao Gu (陶穀) (903 – 970 A.D) in his work Qingyilu (清异) wrote that among the tea bowls made in Min (Fujian), there are those decorated with partridge-feather mottles.  His work has often been quoted to back the dating of Jian tea bowls to 5 Dynasty/early Northern Song period.   It gives the impression that by late 5 Dynasty/early Northern Song, Jian potters were already producing the celebrated Jian zhan.  However, based on archaeological evidence, the bowls of late 5 Dynasty/Early Song period are generally rough as compared with the mature products of mid Northern Song onward.  Extant tea bowls with partridge-feather mottles are found in bowls which were stylistically  produced at least from mid Northern Song period onward.  In fact, the authenticity of Qingyilu is now being questioned by some Chinese scholars.  Some suggested that it was a fictitious work of late Northern Song period.

Based on the archaeological findings, the typical Jian tea bowls were produced from the Mid Northern Song (perhaps from 2nd quarter of 11th century) to late Southern Song period. Jian kilns also produced small quantity of  black glaze cups, bowl-shaped lamps and bo-shaoed bowls. There are at least 8 different types of tea bowls in 3 sizes that were produced during the duration.

From the bowls recovered from the kilns, it is clear that type 1, 3, 4, 5, 6, 8 and 8 were found in large quantity.  Type 1 with a conical form and an indent near the rim is the most classical form which is usually associated with the celebrated Jian Zhan.  Based on Jian bowls recovered from graves, this form became the dominant form from the late Northern Song period onward.  In fact this served as a prototype which was widely copied by potters from other kilns. Compared with those from other kilns, the typical Jian bowl has a thicker and lustrous glaze.  The paste is usually purplish black and more dense.  (It should be noted some especially the small size bowls have greyish or redish brown paste.  This is because they were placed in locations  which received uneven or lower heat while firing in the kiln). The unglaze lower portion is carefully finished.  It appears smooth and usually do not show shaving marks when trimming the external wall.  The wall of the bowl thickens as it descends towards the foot. The base is thick and the square cut foot is neat and the outer base sits within a shallow inner footring.

Some examples of Jian tea bowls

For tea  bowls sent as tribute to the palace, there are at least a portion which is marked with Gongyu (供御) ie tribute or Jinzhan (进盏) meaning to present bowl.  The characters are either incised or impressed.  They were found in the kilns dated mid Northern Song to Southern Song.

Besides Gongyu and Jinzhan mark, there are also others incised with chinese characters of surname/name of the potter/or kiln owner or Chinese character/chinese numeral which could indicate location which item was to be place in the kiln.

Bowls with glaze decorated with hare’s fur marking or  partridge feather mottles were highly prized by the Song tea culture connoisseurs.  Many Song literati made reference to them in their poems and commentary. Hare’s fur markings are silvery or rustic streaks which are found on the interior and exterior wall of the lustrous black glaze bowl.  According to Nigel Wood in his book “Chinese Glazes”, once the glaze melted, a layer of thin iron-rich droplets coalesced to form a thin layer within the glaze.  Some of the iron-rich droplets were brought ot the surface by bubbles and run down the sides of the bowl under the influence of gravity.  The iron oxide in these streaks crystalised out into silvery tone if under reduction or rustic tone if under oxidisation atmosphere.

Hare’s fur bowl with rustic streaks
Hare’s fur sherd  with silvery streaks


As regard Partridge feather’ glaze,  in the past there were debate on whether the markings actually refers to fine markings on the back of the partridge or large light-coloured spots on its breast.  Most argued that it cannot be the fine markings on the back as some other types of bird  also have similar marking.  On the other hand, large light-coloured spots is unique to a type of partridge in Fujian.  This is now the more widely accepted meaning for partridge feather mottles.  In 1988 a  shard with 66 carefully placed white glaze spots was excavated from the Shuiweilan (水尾)  kiln.  The base has a incised gong yu mark  suggesting that it was originally intended for tribute.  This is now acknowledged as partridge feather glaze. It make sense of a Northern Song poet’s description of a Jian bowl having markings that appear ‘like melting snow on dark water.

A Fujian partridge with white spots on the breast Jian sherd with white spots and gongyu mark

In the Japanese collections, there are some Jian Zhan with silvery or rustic oil-spots (termed Yuteki in Japanese). In DaDe Temple, Kyoto in Japan there is a Jian Zhan with oil-spots.   The silvery oil-spots are large, the result of several oil-spots congealed into bigger spots during firing.  Indeed, they resemble the partridge spots.  Those with smaller oil-spots are also classified as partridge feather type although strictly speaking the similarity is less convincing.



Oil spots Tenmoku in Japanese collection. The spots are smaller as compared with that from Dade temple


Oil spots tenmoku bowls are scarce.  According to Nigel Wood : “It happened occasionally that kiln temperatures began to fall while the glazes were still boiling, thereby fixing the iron-rich spots before they could run down into streaks. … The effect was copied in north China during the the Song and Jin period,  using a more reliable technique that involved the application of an iron-rich (and perhaps magnetite-based) slip beneath an ordinary black temmoku glaze. The success of this approach has meant that northern oil spot temmokus are less uncommon than the jian originals.”    His comments is important and rectify the erroneous explanations in some past published text that Jian hare’s fur and oil spots glaze involves the application of an iron-rich slip.

There are 4 extremely rare tenmoku bowls with yohen glaze in the Japanese collections.   The term Yohen means dazzling and brilliant kiln transmutation.  The  clusters of brown-colored spots of various sizes are either surrounded by light blue or deep blue or golden iridescent film.

In the past, no known example of Yohen was found outside Japan.  Few years ago, a broken piece was found in Hangzhou in a location near the imperial palace.

Yohen temmoku found in Hangzhou

By the late Southern Song period, Jian potters also manufactured qingbai wares with carved or impressed motif.  One of the kiln at Yingzhanggan (营长乾) has a layer of qingbai sherds above Jian zhan sherds layer.  This indicated that Jian kiln was facing stiff competition from Jingdezhen which produced Qingbai wares.  The decline popularity of Jian Zhan could also be linked to the decline in popularity of tea competition. To ensure their survival, some kilns were forced to branch out and  produce the increasingly more popular Qingbai wares.  Latest by early Yuan period, Jian kilns ceased production.


Temmoku bowls from other Fujian kilns

To meet the hugh domestic and overseas demand for temmoku bowls, they were also produced in large quantity in other kilns in Fujian, mainly in Jianyan (建阳), Wuyishan (武夷山), Songxi (松溪), Guangze (), Jianou (建瓯), Pucheng (蒲城), Nanping (南平) , Changting (长汀), Fuqing (), Minhou (闽侯) and Ningde (宁德).  Most of the sites produced a mix of celadon, qingbai and black wares.  For temmoku bowls, the dominant form produced were similar or variants of the Jian conical bowl with the indent near the rim.

Among the sites, those at Wuyishan Yulinting (武夷山遇林亭), Nanping Chayang (南平茶洋)  and Fuzhou Dongzhang (福州东张) were large in scale and were found in overseas  especially Japan.

Wuyishan Yulinting (武夷山遇林亭) produced an interesting form with decoration in gold.  In most instances, the decorations have faded and only traces could be seen.  The motif includes dragon phoenix, crane, pine, bamboo, prunus, flowers and orchid.   There were also those with auspicious wordings or landscape.  In some past ceramics publications, such bowls have been erroneously attributed to Jian kiln. Bowls from this kiln have mainly  greyish to greyish white paste.

A bowl with traces of gold decoration of auspicious phrase “寿山福海” connoting longevity

The medium size temmoku bowls from Nanping Chayang (南平茶洋) is distinguishable by a thin horizontal ridge where the foot meet the wall.  This feature appears to be unique to this kiln. The shaving marks are usually clearly seen on the unglaze lower external wall.

A medium size (12 cm dia. ) bowl from Nanping Chayang kiln

In the 1980s, local residents recovered a large number of small Temmoku tea bowls from a wreck at Bai Jiao (白礁) in Fujian Lianjiang Dinghai (连江定海).  The Fujian ceramic experts observed that many of the bowls were similar to those produced at Fuqing Dongzhang (请东张) and Minhou Nanyu (闽侯南屿) and dated them to Southern Song period. Dong Zhang kiln complex was large and comparable in size to that at the Jian complex.  They produced large quantities of temmoku and celadon bowls.  In the Japanese work (禅林小歌dated 1394 – 1427 A.D, a type of tea bowl  called Fuzhou zhan (福州) was mentioned.  During the Song/Yuan period, Fuqing and Minhou came under the jurisdiction of Fuzhou.  Hence, Fuzhou zhan most probably included tea bowls produced in those two counties.  In ancient sites in Japan Fukuoka and Kamakura, there were numerous similar type of tea bowls recovered and were dated to mid 12th to first half of 13th century.  Many Dongzhang bowls were also recovered from ancients sites in the coastal Fujian region.

After studying the large number of small tea bowls from the Lianjiang wreck in my collection, it is hard to confirm with certainty the actual kiln of production. Those from Dongzhang, Minhou Nanyu (闽侯南屿) and Ningde Feiluan (宁德飞鸾) appear similar.  They share the characteristics of having a casual finishing with poorly formed foot and shaving marks.  The profile of the conical bowl with the indent at the rim could vary to a large degree.  The lower wall could descent more gradually or steeply to the foot.  The glaze is more thinly applied and large number show a thinner layer of glaze especially at the lower wall near the foot.  Some of the bowls also have bluish white or rustic hare’s fur markings but are not well-defined and clear compared to those from the Jian Kiln.  The colour of the glaze ranges from black, black with rustic patches, brown, tea-dust or rustic .

Examples from Lianjiang wreck showing the different profile of the conical bowls

Examples from Lianjiang wreck.  Below one shows traces of hare’s fur markings


Some examples of temmoku bowls from the  Min Hou, Fuqing and Ningfei kilns are shown below.



Written by : NK Koh (15 Jul 2012)


  1. 建窑瓷叶文程/林忠干
  2. Hare’s Fur, Tortosieshell and Partridge Feathers  – Robert D. Mowry
  3. Chinese glazes – Nigel Wood







Pottery – Tenmoku

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Tenmoku Red Glaze Recipe Cone 6 Ceramic Glaze Custer Feldspar: 58.00 Grams Whiting: 17.00 Grams Flint: 14.00 Grams OM-4 (Ball Clay): 6.00 Grams Zinc Oxide: 5.00 Grams Copper Carbonate: 1.00 Grams More

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Tenmoku Glaze Recipe, ∆10 reduction Whiting 16.00 Custer Spar 44.00 OM-4 10.00 Silica 22.00 Wood Ash (unwashed) 7.00 ADD: RIO 9.0 Notes: This is a ∆10 Reduction glaze that will fire to a dark brown to black and will break on edges with a shiny finish. Will run if applied too thick and/or over fired. As always, test for your ingredients and firing conditions. Note: This glaze adds up to 99% not 100%, that’s how it was given to me many years ago. More


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Charles Vyse (1882-1971), a tenmoku glazed model of a Big Cat,incised ‘CHARLES VYSE CHELSEA’, 25cm high

See Cartlidge, Terence ‘Charles & Nell Vyse’ Shepton Beauchamp 2004, p. 48 for a similar example.






“Red Temmoku”

(11 October, 2004, with a followup)

Here is a Red Temmoku bowl, fired to cone 10r. The bowl is about
 across. It is made of Loafer’s Glory, from
Highwater Clays;
the glaze consists of Brick Clay from western Wisconsin;
Wood Ash (Oak, unwashed); and Red Iron Oxide (84% purity).
I strongly suspect that the yellow teadusty or
“corn-pollen” sprinkles, which show up
particularly well on the interior, result from the ~2.6%
MgO content of the Brick Clay; I get essentially the
same effect in other iron-rich glazes if I add enough
Mg. (Oddly, although all or nearly all of the ancient
Chinese high-iron Jianware glazes contain noticeable
MgO, very few modern Western “Temmoku”
glazes seem to use magnesium. Go figure.)








A fine and rare Konoha Temmoku tea bowl. Southern Song Dynasty, 12th/ 13th century.  Photo Sotheby’s

of ‘Jizhou’ manufacture, of conical shape with a small raised knob in the centre, covered with a fine opaque dark brown glaze that leaves the lip in a slightly lighter tone, and decorated on the inside with a large trefoil tree leaf with worm-eaten holes, forming an attractive yellowish-brown silhouette with fine veining, ivory-tinted edges and a honey-coloured stem, the low narrow footring and recessed base exposed in the pale biscuit; in Japanese ivory silk pouch (shifuku) with matching silk cushion and four corner posts, in ribbon-tied paulownia-wood box and cover, ribbon-tied black-lacquered outer box and cover, and brown cottonfuroshiki with inscribed wooden tag; 15.2cm., 6in. Estimate 60,000—80,000 GBP. Lot Sold 337,250 GBP

PROVENANCE: Collection of Alfred Clark (no. 609) (1930s).
Mayuyama & Co. Ltd, Tokyo.

EXHIBITED: International Exhibition of Chinese Art, Royal Academy of Arts, London, 1935-6, cat. no. 1150.

Arts de la Chine Ancienne, Musée de l’Orangerie, Paris, 1937, cat. no. 681.

Sung Dynasty Wares. Chun and Brown Glazes, Oriental Ceramic Society, London, 1952, cat. no. 178.

Bi no bi/Exhibition of Select Works of Ancient Chinese Art, Mitsukoshi, Nihonbashi, Tokyo, 1973, cat. no. 64.

Meiwan gojū sen. [Fifty famous tea bowls], Okayama Art Museum, Okayama, 1977, cat. no. 5.

Temmoku, Tokugawa Art Museum and Nezu Art Museum, Tokyo, 1979, cat. no. 83.

Chūgoku no tōji/Special Exhibition of Chinese Ceramics, Tokyo National Museum, Tokyo, 1994, cat. no. 212.

LITERATURE AND REFERENCES: Kōyama Fujiō, Tōji taikei [Outlines of ceramics], vol. 38: Temmoku, Tokyo, 1974, pls 40 and 41, and fig. 48.

Ryūsen Shūhō/Mayuyama, Seventy Years, Tokyo, 1976, vol. I, pl. 677.

NOTE: The ‘Jizhou’ kilns at Yonghezhen, Ji’an county in Jiangxi province, a region formerly called Jizhou, were not blessed with the finest raw materials for making stonewares, but came up with the most original ideas for decorating. They were unique in exploiting the chemical composition of real tree leaves for making tea bowls with most naturalistic – because natural – silhouette leaf designs. In Japan, these bowls have become known by the same term ‘temmoku‘ that designates black-glazed tea bowls of ‘Jian’ ware, but with the specification ‘konoha‘, ‘tree leaf’. The present bowl is among the finest of its type, of large, well-potted form, with a smooth brownish-black glaze and a leaf of interesting outline of a kind otherwise rarely used on such bowls

DR Iwan Tenmoko Collections



The end

Copyright @ 2014

Koin and ceramic found in Musi River Palembang snd other part Indonesia

The old coin  and other artifact found

in Musi River Palembang

Created BY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-book IN CD_Rom Edition

Special For Coin Collectors

Copyright @ 2014



 Terima kasih atas upload koleksi koin yang ditemukan dari penyelaman sungai Musi

oleh    Palembang  Numismatik dari face book

dan Djadoel kolekso

saya telah mengumpulkan berbagai kooleksi selama hamper lima puluh tahun dan koleksi dibawah ini sebagai contoh dari koleksi numismatic paklembang,untuk koleksi saya

dapat dipesan dalam CD-Rom Motif keramik Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia, Jenis koin tiongkok era sebelum tang,era tang,era sung.

Masing-masing CD berharga lima ratus ripiah,dapat dipesan liwat email


syaratnya anda harus mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap agar bila dikirim liwat Titipan Kilat dapat tiba dengan selamat dirumah anda harga sudah termnasuk biaya kirim,biaya dapat ditransfer liwat ATM BCA

Karya Tulis E-Book dalam CD_Rom ini merupak karya yang dapat menambah wawasan anda tentang sejarah dan mencegah terbeli koleksi palsu yang sekarang banyak beredar,CD ini hanya untuk kolektor senior yang serius dan memiliki modal cukp tinggi karena koleksi mahal saat ini dan tidak untuk pedagang karena dapat membuat palsunya,dan CD dilarang untuk di kopi,hormatilah hak cipya,tamp[ilan ini tanpa gambar.

Terimja kasih atas perhatiannya dan mampir di web


Jakarta November 2014


Koin Lokal Indonesia

Srivijaya coin



Matauang srivijaya ukuran jumbo 23 cm

Korek kuping perak


Majapahit or srivijaya

Round bullet coin



Front and back

Token buahsalak

Token bintang


Code Item : TAN-290
Koin Perak Krisynala Majapahit

Koin ini dipakai era Kerajaan Majapahit abad 12-13 sebelum

Koin majapahit

Koin Kerajaan Palembang Darusalam

Type 1

Type dua segi tujuh

Tipe 3 bundar

Berbagai jenis koin kerajaan palembang darusalam

Berbagai jenis token srivijaya

Segi lima,daun dan bulat

Close up with aksara

Token batangan perak

Koin kerajan cheribon

Koin timah Unidentified



Token chillin



Token kembang

Bulat dan kancing


Berbai jenis token

Koin kerajaan banten



Koin Lokal Kerajaan Malaysia

Compare with Literature





Koin timah kerajaan Malaysia


Koin serawak C.Brooke 1870,1884,1885 ,1890


Koin perunggu inggris


Token binatang

Koin buaya


Koin kura-kura,kodok dan gajah

Koin gajah

Koin  ular seperti huruf S




Token kura-kura



Kancing perunggu


Kancing perunggu majapahit dan srivijaya




Token perak spanyol





Lokal Dutch East Indie

Java 1810 Z


LN setengah stuiver



Koin raffles

Koin perunggu East India Compagny madras

Koin perak eic madras



Koin perunggu EIC island of Sumatra satu kepeng

Koin menangkabu satu kepeng

Berbagai jenis koin lokal


Koin perungu

Willem 1 Stuiver

Kpoin perak silver raider



Koin perak satu gulden

Wilhelmina dan willem II




Koin Perak

Koin willem III 2 1/2 gld tahun 1871




Token pulau sambu


Anak timbangan kuno




Medali belanda gambar rusa dan wanita

Temuan Lokal Lainnya




 Mangkuk cetakan bintang perunggu








Mat keris majapahit dengan pamor singa

Mata keris majapahoit berpamor





Trisula majapahit

Mata tombak majapahit

Mat tombak kecil

Cincin kura-kura dan bunga

Cincin stempel

Cincin stempel

Berbagai jenis cincin perak kuno








Ceramic dan Amulet tiongkok


A,ulet (jimat) Tiongkok



Gambar naga,orang dan kura-kura

Amulet gambar ular

Amulet gambar orang tiongkok


Buli-buli celadon dan putih qing-pai




Sung hitam

Berbagai maxam buli-buli sung putih


Kendi srivijaya

Sung putih

Patung keramik Guan Yu wra Tang

Berbagai macam kendi sung dan lokal

Mangkok Ming biru putih

Era wan-li






Era post wanly


Era Qing




Ping qing

Motif orang

Amulet(koin jimat)


Koin tiongkok

Koin tiongkok bentuk kerang


Koin Gobok Tiongkok

Era tang dan sung

Era sung



Gobok gelombang laut jepang


Copyright @ Dr Iwan 2014




The Old Ganesha Statue


nera same with my collactionTHE OLD GANESHA STATUE

Iwan Suwandy's photo.














Iwan Suwandy's photo.








Old Ganesha statue from Burma, made of Wood

Ganesha statue


File:Lord ganesha statue 72ft Bahadurgarh,Hariyana,India.jpg


the end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2014

Large old Ganesha from Burma, made of Wood





harga lima ratus ribu rupiah sudah termnasuk biaya kirim,sebelum dikirim anda harus mengupload kopi KTP dan alamat lengkap denagn no tilpon rumah

serta mengupload buku transfer ATM BCA

The Value Of Bung Karno Collections

Created By

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2014


Saya berau saja kembali dari travelling around Taiwan,and I look the amazing Chiang Khai Sek Memorial Hall.

Saya sangat ingin membangun Bung Karno Memorial Hall yang sama, tetapi saat saya menghubunggi keluarga bung karno teryata tidak ada jawabannya,mungkin pihak keluarga sibuk dengan kepentngan dirinya sendiri dan politik. Bung Karno sendiri telah membuat suatu buku yang sangat terjken yiatu Buku Koleksi Bung Karno yang diedit oleh pelukis terkenal Lee Man Fong yang terdiri dari lima jilid,dimanakan kini  koleksi  tersebut ? Hanya tuhan yang tahu.

Pak Harto telah membuat suatu museum yang sangat hebat didekat taman Mini Indonesia Indah yang diberi nama Museum PPurna Bhakti/ kita semua sudah pernah melihatnya,dan nilainya tidak dapat ditaksi sangat tinggi sekalai.

Beberapa hari yang lalu saya menemukan lagi empat foto bewarna asli yang kualitasnya sangat bagus yang terkait bung Karno yaitu saat beliau meninggal dunia, foto dirumah putra Bung Karno ada gambar lukisan bung Karno didinding,Guntur sukarnoputra berfoto bersama ibunya ,almarmuh Ibu Fatmawati,dan putra putrinya, kemudian foto Inu Fatmawati dengan ibu Ingit?dan Guntur,kemudian foto Ratna Sari dewi lagi berdoa dilator belakani oleh beberapa pendetea dari Jepang didepan makam Bung Karno,dan terakhir foto peti bung Karno yang diselimuti Benrdera merah Putih dan pasukan disampinginya sedang memberikan tembakan peringatan.

Saya telah mengupload di web blog saya


Berjudul Koleksi Bung Karno

Yang dapat dilihat di pendahuluan karya tilis ini

Banya kolektor saat ini tidak tahu jenis dan nilai harga koleksi yang terkait Bung Karno, untuk itu saya telah berusaha dengan segenap daya untuk menyusun dan mencari info terkait dengan koleksi Bung Karno yaitu koleksi Buku, Koleksi Foto dan koleksi dokumen terkait bung Karno, mengenai lukisan dan koleksi seni lain anda dapat mencarinya di karya tulis lainkarena sangat mahal dan sulit untuk menemukannya.


Karya tulis ini saya buat dalam bentuk e-book dalam CD-Rom agar lebih ekonomis dan gampang dikrim dengan biaya murah dan dapat dicegah pembajakan,karena bila jatuh ketangan pedagang nanti koleksi terkait Bung Karno akan jadi lebih mahal.

Terima aksih kepada segala teman-teman yang telah membantu syaa dalam menyusun karya tulis,khus kepada kelaurga Bung Karno saya perembahkan buku ini dan juga kepada seluruh rakyat Indoneisa,semoga ada yang mau jadi sponsor untuk mendirikan Bung Karno Memorial Hall seperti yang saya lihat di Yaipeh Taiwan.

Jkaarta. September 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA









Koleksi Bung Karno yang Dr Iwan Upload di Web Blognya.bila ad ayang tidak berkenan harap dimaafkan dan di koreksi.

Koleksi sejarah Bung Karno

Bagian Pertama




Kreasi Dr IWAN S Berdasarkan Koleksi Pribadi dan sumbangan teman-teman  Buku-Buku Karangan Bung Karno

serta Koleksi Unik pribadi lainnya yang terkait dengan Proklamator dan Presiden pertama RI.


Museum Dunia Maya  Pribadi untuk seluruh Bangsa Indonesia

Jakarta @Hak Cipta Dr IWAN S 2010

*rencana logo masih belum ditentukan menunggu persetujuan bila ada sponor, sementara dipergunakan  poster Bung Karno INGAT! saat pemilu pertama pencipta belum diketahui



Saya memberanikan diri membangun sebuah museum dunia maya atau cybermusuem KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO   khusus untuk seluruh rakyat Indonesia dan pecinta Bung Karno dimanapun ia berada , dengan penuh kesadaran atas keterbatasan saya yang hanya seorang pensiunan dokter, petualang dan kolektor benda unik serta informasi terkait lainnya yang tentunya bukan pakar dan ahli dibidang museum dunia maya , tetapi berandalkan  tekad  yang bulat dan pengalaman sebagai kolektor senior yang banyak membaca literatur terkait bidangnya menyusun tulisan dan illustrasi ini berdasarkan koleksi yang sudah dihimpun hampir lima puluh tahun dengan maksud dan tujuan agar informasi tentang koleksi Bung karno pribadi dan koleksi unik terkait Bung Karno dapat di ketahui oleh rakyat Indonesia terutama  generasi penerus  secara gratis, oleh karena itu saya perlu dukungan moriel ( semangat)  dan matriel (dana operasional untuk consultan profesional) , maka besar harapan saya seluruh kolektor Indonesia untuk mendukung proposal musuem dunia maya  ini liwat  komentar, dan dukungan sponsor dari pencinta Bung Karno seperti yaysan BK, Metro Tv , Penerbit PT Gramedia dan sebagainya.karena informasi yang ada saat saya eksplorasi dengan google di Internet masih sangat terbatas.

Saya sadar cybermuseum  ini dibuat dengan pengantar  bahasa Indonesia karena sesuai arahan proklamator dan presiden Republik Indonesia pertama yang lebih senang di sebut sebagai Bung Karno agar kita harus berdikari dan bangga dengan bangsa kita sendiri yang termasuk bangsa besar yang jumlah penduduknya nomor tiga didunia setelah Tiongkok dan India. Pecinta Bung Karno dari  bangsa asing sepantasnya mengenal bahasa Indonesia agar dapat meresapi tulisan ini karena banyak istilah yang sangat sulit untuk diterjemahkan kebahasa asing seperti Inggris, Jerman, spanyol atau Belanda, untuk itu penulis memohon maaf yang sebasar-besarnya,juga atas kekeliruan dan kekurangan yang masih ada dalam tulisan ini, masukan sangat diperlukan agar tulisan elektronik ini dpat disempurnakan pada edisi mendatang.lihatlah poster Bung Karno yang sangat kharismatik INGAT!!*001


Tidak lupa penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada seluruh teman-teman yang tidak dapat dituliskan namanya satu persatu ,terutama Pak  Herry Hutabarat, Pak Sofyan lampung,almarhum guru saya Frater Servaas dan almarhum Prof.Suparlan yang telah memberikan masukan ide untuk mengumpulkan koleksi serta informasi yang unik dan langka bagi generasi penerus.terimakasih juga kepada Pak Ali Baswedan yang telah menyokong terbitnya buku elektronik ini dan berkean memberikan tambahan informasi untuk Bab khusus tambahan KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO



Gagasan e-book tentang Bung Karno harus dilanjutkan. Sebab upaya Bapak itu bagian dari mencerdaskan bangsa. Selain itu, memperkaya khasanah tentang Bung Karno. Apa yang salah?
Kalau boleh saya urun rembuk, tentang BAB KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO, perlu ditambahkan KOLEKSI BENDA PUSAKA tokoh Proklamator itu. Ini bukan persoalan mistik. Benda-benda pusaka itu bagian dari sejarah panjang bangsa kita. Misalnya, Bung Karno pernah menerima pusaka Kanjeng Kiai Lepet dari PB X, berupa pedang yang dibuat pada masa pemerintahan PB IV. Benda-benda pusaka yang dimiliki Bung Karno pernah dimuat secara detail di Majalah KERIS, no: 1, tahun I, 15 feb – 16 Maret 2007. Dengan ikhlas saya bersedia memberikan copy majalah itu (berupa PDF) kalau berkenan.

Ali Baswedan


dukungan komentar diatas memberikan info bahwa pedang pusaka yang selalyu dibawa Bung Karno dibuat pada masa Pakubuwono IV, cerita lengkap akan di tampilkan setelah Pak Baswedan mengirmkan copy majalalah tersebut. saya memiliki foto pedang pusaka tersebut *003 dan *004

*003 *004.

Saya sangat gembira atas sokongan para kolektor Indonesia lainnya, lihat facebook saya iwansuwandy untuk tambahan informasi baru dan sokongan anda semua* 005



video dari Yayasan Bung Karno tetang pertemuan Bung Karno dengan Nehru India dan Nasser Mesir, saya sedang meminta sponsorship dan izin memanfaatkan buku terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno lama era Guntur sukarno

Soekarno – My Spirit

Pas kebetulan lagi bongkar-bongkar file di PC, ketemu slide show ini. Daripada dibuang lebih baik ditaruh di FB. Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.



Wednesday at 5:55pm · Comment ·LikeUnlike · View Feedback (3)Hide Feedback (3) · Share


Ivan Abisai Rivera Torres and Fikri Alamoudi like this.

Iwan Suwandy

terima kasi atas dukungannya,semoga yayasan Bung Karno bekenan menjadi sponsor proposak buku elektronik B ung Karno saya,dan mengizinkan koleksi yayasan BK di tampilkan dalam e-book tersbtu. ayo kolektor In donsia pencintai B ung kirimkan dukungan anda dalm komentra ini terima kasih.

4 hours ago ·LikeUnlike ·


Iwan Suwandy thanks for support me to writte e-book of Bung Karno Collection in Indonesia language Koleksi Bung Karno, I need million support .



ASIA uniquecollection discussion Group

bung karno poster collection during PEMILU,MORE INFO CLICK MY INTERENET BLOG

By:Iwan Suwandy


Wednesday at 5:44pm · Comment ·LikeUnlike · View Feedback (4)Hide Feedback (4) · Share


Ivan Abisai Rivera Torres and Fikri Alamoudi like this.

Fikri Alamoudi


Foto Bung Karno dan Mao dikirim oleh teman saya



agar saya segera dapat mengirimkan surat resmi kepada Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno untuk memeperoleh izi memanfaatkan informasi mereka dalam MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO  ini, dan apabila ada sponsor mungkin saya akan mengubah dari Premium E-BOOK  menjadi Free CYBER MUSEUM , silahkan kirim komentar sokongan terhadap gagasan  ini liwat blog internet dan facebook saya dengan nama yang sama iwansuwandy.



Selanjutnya bacalah Catatan saya tentang pribadi Bung Karno dan Koleksi pribadi Bung Karno sebagai  Pengantar buku elektronik  yang saat ini telah saya tingkatkan jadi MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA CYBERMUSEUM KOLSI BUNG KARNO  karena sangat banyak dukungan dan klik.dari pecinta Bung Karno.

Para teman-teman yang ingin melihat kolesi pribadi Dr Iwan yang terkait Bung Karno, silahkan melihat di msueum dunia Maya Dr Iwan , klik hhtp// terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

Jakarta  ,Juli 2010


PS Apabila sudah banyak komentar dukungan dan ada sponsor yang lambangnya  akan di catumkan dalam proposal ini, maka secara bertahap daftar koleksi dan illustrasi akan diinstall dalam proposal buku elektr0nik ini,oleh karena itu kirimkan segera dukungan dan sponsor anda liwat komentar di Blog ini dan Facebook saya. terima kasih atas dukungan dan sponsorshipnya.




saya dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di Tanah Minangkabau sumatera Tengah dulunya sekarang Sumatera barat, sehingga tokoh proklamator yang lebih dikenal adalah Bung Hatta,lihat foto kunjungan Bung Hatta ke Padang  tahun 1977 dismabut gubernur SUMBAR Haroen Zein dan Walikotanya Achiroel Yahya *005a foto ini karya Indra Sanusi dan sudah diberikan izin pengunaannya.


. Bung Karno pertama kali saya lihat tahun 1955 saat berkampanye dilapangan Tugu didepan SMA Don Bosco, saat ini  didepan Pengadilan negeri Padang yang sekarang sudah dibangun Museum Kota Padang, beliau berada diatas panggung tenda terpal persis saat itu saya sekolah di SD Andreas yang lokasinya disamping SMA Don Bosco ,kelas lima SD, kami beramai-ramai murid SD melihat Bung Karno pidoto,  beliau sangat pandai mempengaruhi semangat pendengar dengan jel jel Merdeka nya,sekali Merdeka Tetap merdeka tetapi apa yang dikatan beliau pupus dari ingatan saya.Saya telah banyak membaca literatur terkait beliau,sehingga saya mengerti bagaimana besarnya cinta Bung karno terhadap seni,sehingga beliau sering bertemu dengan seniman seperti seniman pelukis seperti Affandi, Basuki Abdullah,Dezentje,Le Man Fong,Henk Ngantung,Hendra Gunawan dan Sudjono, malah Henk Ngantung dipercayai menjadi Gubernur DKI tahun 1964*005aa

*005aa henk dan lukisannya pasar Jakarta.

, sayang beberapa dari pelukis tersebut ikut lembaga kesenian PKI(LEKRA)  sehingga hidup mereka sangat sengsara pada masa orde baru( Saya juga mengumpulkan koleksi masa Pak Harto,nanti kan saya tulis buku elektronik pada saat yang tepat).profil para pelukis senior tersebut umumnya saya kenal setelah melihat beberapa foto Bung Karno dengan mereka di istana Merdeka saat menyusun koleksi istana tersebut, juga difoto rumah Bung Karno pertama di jalan Pegangsaan didalam rumah tahun 1945 saat wawancara dengan wartawan terlihat lukisan Basuki Abdullah pantai Ternate berdasar lukisan cair air Bung Karno didinding dan disampingnya dipajang lukisan Fatmawati yang juga dilukis Basuki Abdullah yang sudah ada sejak masa revolusi kemerdekaan *002


Saya masih menyimpan tulisan Bung Karno tahun 1942 saat tentara Dai nippon baru membebaskan beliau dari Bengkulu ke Sumatera Barat dalam bentuk kliping,tidak jelas dari majalah mana, selain itu juga teman saya memberikan sebuah cetakan surat pribadi Bung Karno kepada para prajurit yang bertugas diperbatasan saat Konfrontasi Malaysia saat Hari raya Lebaran yang menurut informasi surat itu berada dalam bingkisan dari Bung Karno kepada prajurit tersbut,sungguh besar perhatian beliu kepada para para prajurit pejuang, pada saat masa perang kemerdekaan pernah ditenirt almanak dengan gambar bungakarno tahun 1946 dengan berbagai promosi perjuangan yang saat itu sangat riskan untuk memilikinya karena dapat ditangkap Belanda ,sungguh istimewa saya memiliki koleksi almanak perjuangan tersebut, juga kartupos peringatan satu tahun medreda 17 agustus 1946 *002asayang tidak memakai gambar profile Bung Karno tetapi merupakan temuan saya yang sangat spektakuler,begitu juga dengan berbagai koleksi lain yang dapat dilihat dan dibaca pada bab berikutnya.


Pada saat Sumatera Barat bergolak terhadap pemrintahan Pusat tahun 1957, istilah versi dari PRRI yang dipimhan Ahmad Husein dan Sjaruddin Prawira Negara (koleksi pribadi saya tentang  PRRI akan diteritkan pada masa mendatang) dan versi Pusat disebut pembrontak, Bung Karno pamornya sangat menurun dimata Rakyat Sumatera Barat, sehingga banyak arsip beliau dimusnahkan, tetapi sebagian telah saya selamatkan dan tersimpan rapi saat ini, apalagi ketika terjadinya peristiwa G30PKI 1965, masih terbayang saat Pak Harto Mengambil alih kekuasan dan saat beliau dilantik *002b dengan pidato yang sangat sederhana yang berbeda dengan pidato Bung Karno yang lebih kharismatik.

Saya melihat Bung Karno kedua kalinya dan terakhir pada saat beliau berpidato dalam upacara pembukaan Pekan Olah Raga  Nasional(PON) di Bandung tahun 1961, saya peserta PON cabang Tennis Lapangan, beliau sangat kharismatik, saya masih ingat sebelum mulai berpidato, Bung Karno meminta peserta dan penonton agar diam, beliau berkata Saya minta supaya Diam sebelum saya mengucapkan kata pembukaan, kemudian beliu menghardik dengan suara mengeleganr sebanyak lima kali DIAM!!! DIAM!!!DIAM!!! DAIM!!!DIAM!!! saya sungguh terpeosna akhirnya semuanya diam, tapi saya lupa apa yang beliau katakan, karena itu saya berusaha memiliki koleksi buku pidato Bung Karno,dan yang paling langka adalah terbitan tahun 1954 tentan Pindato-pidato Bung Karno dari 17 agustus 1945 sampai 17 agust 1954, banyak dari pidato tersebut tidak pernah diterbitkan,mungkin atas alasan politik, juga kata sambutan Bung Karno pada saat peringatan enam bulan Merdeka dalam Buku khusus terbiitan Harian Merdeka dengan judul Merdeka dengan illustrasi sampul depan KEPALAN BERWARNA MERAH DENGAN TULISAN MERDEKA*002c

buku ini  sangat historik dan langka. Tahun 2009 saya kembali menemukan buku langka  yang berhubungan dengan pidato Bung Karno saat har Kemerdekaan RI dari proklamasi 1945 sampai 1954 oleh Kementerian Penerangan RI bagian dokumentasi dengan judul  8  x 17 Agustus, karena dalam Bunku Bung Karno Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jilid kedua tidak dicantumkan pidato Bung Karno saat proklamsi kemerdekaan tujuh belas Agustus 1945, apa sebabnya slah dikomentari didalam hati pembaca  sendiri karena dapat menimb ulkan polemik dan diskusi yang tidak akan selesai, ini adalah fakta sejarah , yah diendapkan saja dalam memori anda, silahkan baca bersama dengan bab buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid kedua .

Saya hanya menyampaikan kesan yang sebenarnya berada dalam pikiran saya, tentanh hal lain sebaiknya saya tanpa komentar karena berbagai alasan, tetapi yang pasi bilau adalah proklamator,bapak bangsa  yang sangat kharismatik,energik, dan memiliki koleksi Bung Karno merupakan suatu Kebanggaan tersendiri,saya usulkan Yayasan Bung Karno mendirikan suatu museum yang megah untuk peringatan bagi Bung Karno dan saya bersedia menyumbangkan seluruh koleksi saya kepada museum tersebut ,tentunya harus berisi lengka[p baik sisi terang maupun gelap dari Beliau,kita menyadari mana ada manusia yang sempurna,tetapi yang jelas beliau telah memerdekakan Bangsa Indonesian yang sama-sama kita cintai.


Koleksi Pribadi Bung Karno tentunya masih berada pada Yayasan Bung Karno yang tahun 1979 dengan ketua putra pertama Bung Karno ,Guntur Sukarno, lihat illustrasi  Kata Pengantar Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno PADA BUKU BUNG KARNO & SENI  edisi pertama,terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno,Jakarta 1979,semoga yaysan tersebut tidak keberatan ditampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini.sebelumnya terimakasih Bung Guntur.(apabila sesudah satu bulan info ini ditayangkan tidak ada tegoran,maka illustrasi akan ditampilkan). Apabila ada izin,mungkin sebagian foto yang di close up dengan ukuran  lebih kuang 30% aslinya akan ditampilkan juga. Apabila tidak diizinkan terpaksa anggota melihatnya langsung pada buku aslinya atau dapat melihat diperpustakaan club.

Dalam buku aslinya  berisi Prawacana Penyusun Soedarmadji J.H. Damais dan para penulis Sitor Situmorang,Wiyoso Yudoseputro dan sudarmadji.Samburtan Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Guntur Sukarno,Sambutan Ketua Dewan Kesenian Jakarta Ajip Rosidi,Kata sambutan wakil PresideRepublik Indonesia Adam Malik,Kata Sambutan Menteri Kesejahteraan Rakyat Republik Indonesia Surono , Kata sambutan Kepala  daerak Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Tjokropranolo, Bung Karno Dan Seniman olh Sitor Situmorang, Bung Karno Dengan seni Oleh Wiyoso Yudoseputro, Bung Karno  Dengan Seni Rupa Oleh Sudarmaji, Daftar Benda Benda Pameran, Kepustakaan Pilihan , Ucapan terima Kasih.

Dalam era ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Bapak Guruh Sukarno Putra, ada sebuah video koleksi foto Bung karno yang sangat penting dilestarikan, beberapa foto tersebut ada dalam koleksi saya pribadi seperti foto kunjungan Bung Karno ke Amerika serikat.*002d bung Karno dan Guntur di Dyasney land naik kereta.


Saya sangat berharap agar koleksi yayasan Bung Karno ini dapat dizinkan untuk di tampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini dan mungkin nantinya berkemband menjadi suatu blog tersendiri dengan nama museum duniamaya koleksi Bung Karno dan juga dalam bahasa inggris CYBER MUSEUM BUNG KARNO’S COLLECTIONS , saya telah meng add video koleksi foto Bung Karno era Bapak Guruh , karena tidak dicantumkan hak cipta ,mohon maaf jika yayasan BK tidak berkenan, maka video tersebut dengan segera saya hapus, sebagai bahan pertimbangan Bung Karno tidak hanya milik yayasan Bung Karno dan keluarga Besar tetapi milik seluruh bangsa Indonesia dan dunia jadi termasuk barang pusaka dunia atau World Heritage jadi tidak dapat dijadikan Hak Cipta seseorang atau kelompok, saya saran UNESCO juga berkenan menjadi sponsor dalam melestarikan warisan Budaya Bangsa dunia ini.


1)Koleksi benda-benda Pusaka milik Bung karno, berdsarakan majalah lama milik teman saya bapak Ali Baswedan yang disumbangkan secara gratis untuk dimuat dalam buku elektronik KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO*TP-001.(sampai saat ini belum dikirimkan via e-mail dr Iwan s)

2) Photo Keris pusaka Bung Karno: a)*ill KP-002 pada masa perang Kemerdekaan Ri 1945-1950 ternyata berbentuk Keris.(dimana benda ini berada sekarang?)


dan b)* ill TP-003 beberapa foto Tongkat pusaka Bung Karno pada masa Orde Lama 1951-1965, apabila diperhatikan dengan saksama ternyata ada dua jenis

Dimanakah benda pusaka keris dan kedua jenis tongkat pusaka Bung KARNO tersebut diatas? perlu diteliti lebih lanjut yang merupakan PR Yayasan Bung Karno atau para pakar sejarah Indonesia  dan ini merupakan informasi pertama di dunia maya berdasarkan fot0 asli BUNG KASRNO yang diclose up , bagaimana manakjubkan bukan !!!!!


Secara kronologis akan saya informasikan perkembangan koleksi pribadi saya terkait bung Karno, tulisan ini akan saya tampilan secara bertahap disertai ilkustrasi, satu persatu menunggu komentar baik dari yaysan Bung Karno,keluarga besar mantan Presiden RI Ibu Megawati Sukarno Putri dan keluarga besar Bung Karno,serta para kolektor pencinta Bung Karno, harap setiap inifo dibaca dan dilihat dengan saksama,bila tidak berkenan harap kirim komentar via comment dan bila disetujui akan saya hapus dari tayangan, saya sadar berbicara teng Bapak bangsa  dan Proklamator itu sangat peka, makanya saya sang hati-hati, mohon komentar dan koreksi apakah buku elektronok ini perlu diteruskan atau dihentikan,saya sangat menunggu komentar, bila tidak segera saya hilangkan dari tayangan,bila ya mari sokong saya dengan komentar anda.terima kasih.Saya belum pernah lihat tayangan pribadi seperti ini di dalam maupun luar negeri. ok segara kirim komentar.

BAB SATU : KOLEKSI PRIBADI MILIK  BUNG KARNO(YAYASAN BUNG KARNO DAN KELUARGA BESAR BUNG KARNO dalam buku BUNG KARNO DAN SENI  TERBITAN PERTAMA YAYASAN BUNGKARNO KETUA GNTUR SUKARNO TAHUN 1979 (  dengan izin dari pemilik-masih menunggu perseutjuan, e-mail sudah dikirimkan belum ada jawaban sampai saat ini)











BR1-002 gambar asli dalam buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jidid satu halaman depan,bila diperhatikan close upnya dengan saksama ternyata Bung Karno memiliki tahi lalat diaats bibir kiri,pantas jago sebagai orator.foto ini dibuat saatBung Karno   lulus sekolah HBS.


Lihat mata bung karno

Lihat hidung dan bibir bung karno,ada tahi lalatnya












hal 652  JUDUL RUBRIK PERAJAAN MIRADJ isinya antara lain :

” Malam minggoe jl mesdjid  Kwitang penoeh dengan oemat Islam yang ingin toeroet merajakan  hari Mi’radj Nabi Besar kita Moehammad s.a.w.  dari kalangan oelama  ada terdengar chotbah  yang berharga malam itu.  Poen Ir  Sukarno ada djoega hadir  pada malam itoe  dan toroet memberikan pemandangan.”

hal 653  berisi berita : “Komite perajaan itoe (Mi’rajd )  serta Pergerakan Tiga A tjabang Djakarta. Foto  Oemat berdoejoen-doejoen membandjiri Keboen Binatang  terlihat didepan rombongan Bung Karno * 005

dan foto Ir soekarno lagi berchotbah dengan penoeh semangat dalam perajaan Mi’radj di Keboen Binatang*006



(Kebun binatang yang dimaksud adalah kebun binatang yang didirikan oleh pelukis Raden Saleh dibelakang Rumah Pribadinya-saat ini jadi rumah sakit Cikini dan kebun binatang berada   dijalan Cikini Raya Jakarta Pusat, saat ini sudah dipindahkan keluar kota Pasar Minggu dan di tempat tersebut didirikan Taman Ismael Marzuki.-Dr Iwan )




4)FOTO BUNG KARNO DENGAN JENDRAL TOYO DI JEPANG *DN OO3 (Kejujuran Saudara Tua,majalah Tempo,13 Desember   1986,hal 20)


5) INFORMASI PERTEMUAN BUNG KARNO DENGAN MAHASISWA SOEJATMIKO,SOEDARPO DAN SOEBADIO DIRUMAH BELIAU  PADA TAHUN 1943TANPA ILLUSTRASI *DN004( Soedjatmiko,Pilihan Dan peluang revolusi Indonesia setelah 45 tahun .Beberapa refleksi pribadi,Sejarah Pemikiran,Rekonstruki ,Persepsi no 1. MSI & GRamedia Pustaka Umum Jakarta 1991)

6) foto Bung Karno Ikut latihan Militer Tentara Pendudukan Jepang dalam majallah bahasa Belanda  ( Mr Mas slamet,Japamsche Intrigues,Buijten $Schipperhijn,Amsterdam,26 januari 1946,ex perpustakaan Biara Padua Tjitjurug,saat ini koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN S):

(1) foto illustrasi buku halaman  9, Bung Karno belajar hormat senjata kepada prajurit Dai Nippon *DN005


(2) Foto illustrasi buku halaman 10, BungKarno belajar menembaksenapan karaben kepada tenetara Dai Nippon*DN006


7) foto klipping karangan Bung Karno Judul Djawa Senotai! *o12 dan  foto lain dalam buku fatmawati anatara lain Foto Bung Karno berpidato  di Gang Kenari Djakarta *DN008 , Foto Bung Karno dan pemimpin pemerinatahan pendudukan Jepang Gunseikan *DN009, Bung Karno dan romusha *DN0010, Foto Bung Karno dan Ibu Fatmawati ketika lagu Indonesia Raya dinyanyikan dalam sebuah pertunjukan sandiwara “Fadjar Telah Menjinsing” dalam rangka memperinagti berdirinya Perserikatan Oesaha Sandiweara Jawa*DN 011,Foto Bung Karno Menyambut adanya Janji kemerdekaan dikemudian hari bersama pemuda-pemudi Djakarta *DN012, foto surat kabar Asia Raya  mengenai Indonesia Merdeka ,Kemerdekaan kemoedian didjanjikan Dai Nippon Taikoku*DN013, dan Foto Ibu Fatmawati menjahit bendera pusaka Merah Putih *DN014 ,Foto Bung Karno memimpin kerja bakti bersama para Romusha didaerah banten *DN015   ( buku  Bunga  rampai ?Karangan Ibu Fatmawati,kulit buku sudah hilang sehingga  info tak lengkap)

8)Dokumen asli Anggota Tjoeoe Sangi -In 2603(1943)*DN TSI001 dan oo2


(1) lembar pertama  foto Bung Karno sebagai Ketua *DN 016 dibagian tengah


dan 20 foto anggota di pingir dokumen *020  dan Dr Boentara *DN017 serta  dua puluh  anggota (nomor 21 -40) *DN018, serta tokoh terkenal BUng Hatta sebagai anggota no tiga puluh * DN019, Oto Iskandar Dinata no  tiga delapan*020, Profesor Hoesaein Djajadiningrat no anggota tiga *021 dan Wachid Hasyim (ayah alm Gus Dur) anggota nomor enam belas *022

(2) lembaran kedua foto dua orang wakil Ketua KOesoemo Oetojo *DN023




1) Pidato Presiden Soekarno Dalam mengumumkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia Pada Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 (8X17 Agustus,bag.dokumentasi,Kementrian Penerangan RI,Jakarta,Stensilan Asli,1954), bukuDBR jilid dua tidak dicantumkan.Sesuai dengan ejaan aslinya :  Saudara-saudara sekalian! Saja telah minta saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menjaksikan satu peristiwa maha-penting dalam sedjarah kita. Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa Indonesia telah berdjoang,untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita.Bahkan telah beratus-ratus tahun! Gelombangnja aksi kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naiknja dan ada turunnja,tetapi djiwa jita tetap menudju kearah tjita-tjita. Djuga didalam djaman Djepang,usaha kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan-nasional tidak berhenti-berhenti. Di dalam djaman Djepang ini,tampaknja sadja kita menjandarkan diri kepada mereka.Tetapi pada hakekatnja , tetap kita menjusun tenaga kita sendiri,tetap kita pertjaja kepada kekuatan sendiri. Sekarang tibalah saatnj kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dan nasib tanah air kita didalam tangan kita sendiri.Hanja bangsa jang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri,akan dapat berdiri dengan kuatnja. Maka kami,tadi malam telah mengadakan musjawarat dengan pemuka-pemuka rakjat Indonesia, dari seluruh Indonesia. Permusjawaratan itu seia-sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnja untuk menjatakan kemerdekaan kita. Saudara-saudara! Dengan ini kami menjatakan kebulatan tekad itu.Dengarkanlah proklamasi kami : PROKLAMASI. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan KEMERDEKAAN INDONESIA.  Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain, diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja. Djakarta ,17 Agustus 05 ,Atas nama bangsa Indonesia SOEKARNO-HATTA. Demikianlah,saudara-saudara! Kita sekarang telah merdeka! Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi jang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita! Mulai saat ini kita menjusun Negara kita! Negara Merdeka, Negara Republik Indonesia- merdeka kekal dan abadi.Insja Allah,Tuhan memberkati kemerdekaan kita itu!

( Pidato ini diketik tanpa spasi   sesuai kalimat aslinya, agar tidak ditambah atau dikurangi dari aslinya-Dr Iwan S)





(1) REPRO SURAT KABAR SOEARA ASIA TENTANG PROKLAMSI INDONESIA MERDEKA De ngan  narasi :  MAKA  TERSIARLAH PROKLAMASI INDONESIA MERDEKA -dalam soesana tekanan militer Djepang- diseloeroeh Tanah Air, bahkan diseloeroeh doenia melaloei lima  boeawana dan empat samoedra.


(3) tulisan hal -11 judul ” MENOEDJOE KE PARLEMEN SEMPOERNA,’  dengan illustrasi  foto bung karno dengan kabninet soekarno sebelah kiri dan  kabinet Sjahrir sebelah kanan(baca tulisan prof soedjatmiko  tentsang kolaburator Jepang dibaba masa pendudukan Jepang sbelum ini-pen) dengan narasi dibawah foto : PADA TABNGGAL 23 NOVEMBER 1945  KABINET SOEKARNO(KIRI)  MENYERAHKAN KEKUASAAN  KEPADA (KANAN) KABINET SJAHRIR ,  bung karno berada ditengah.

(4) hal 64 illustrasi foto Buung Karno,Bung Hatta dan Jendral Sudirman men injau Kapal perang Angkstsn Laut NRI, narasi :” ANGKATAN LAOET REPUBLIK INDONESIA MENDJAMIN KESELAMATAN NEGARA,NOEASA DAN BANGSA”



*ill.Bung Karno dan Pangeran Diponegoro



5) 28 JULI 1947


  1. MASA ORDE LAMA 1951-1965


3.BUKU TERBITAN KEMENTERIAN PENERANGAN TAHUN 1958 BERJUDUL  Beberapa fikiran dan pandangan :DUA PEDJUANG NASIONAL INDONESIA-YUGOSLAVIA Josip Broz-Tito  -Dr I r Hadji Soekarno, Pertjetakan Negara-Djakrta-443/B-1958. Buyku ini dengan gambar kulit depan kedua pejuang Nasional tersebut.

4.Buku terbitan Kedutaan Amerika Serikat Jakarta ,judul Foto=foto  dan Reportase tentang Perjalanan  PRESIDEN SOEKARNO DI AMERIKA SERIKAT, FOTO KULIST DEPAN  Bung Karno yang memegang tongkat pusakanya dan Guntur Sukarno didepan patung Abrahan Lincoln di tugu Lincoln Memorial ,Washington .D.C.  dan gambar halaman belakang di Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington ,sebuah panggung didirikan untuk menyambut kedatangan Presiden Soekarno setinggi kira-kira 10 meter,didampinggi oleh bendera-bendera Indonesia dan Amerika setinggi 10 meter. Dia ats panggung ini kepada Presiden Soekarno diserahkan Kunci Kota , ialah sebagai pernyataan selamat datang.

Buku brosur ini siterbitkan untuk memringati kunjungan Presiden Soekarno ke Amerika Serikat yang telah menimbulkan pengartian yang lebih baik dari tanggal 16 Mei – 3 Juni 1956.

Buku brosur  ini sangat menarik karena dilengkapi dengan  gambar peta perjalanan bung Karno, dan  illustrasi foto hitam putih dan berwarna sebanyak delan puluh satu gambar ilustrasi buku , dan pada kulit belakang bagian dlam tertulis ucapan bung karno dengan foto Bung Karnoi melambaikan tanggan :



2  MASA RIS(1949-1950)

  1. MASA ORDE LAMA (1951-1965)





*ill 001


Kreasi Dr IWAN S Berdasarkan Koleksi Pribadi dan sumbangan teman-teman,

Buku-Buku Karangan Bung Karno,

serta Koleksi Unik pribadi lainnya yang terkait dengan Proklamator dan Presiden pertama RI.

Museum Dunia Maya  Pribadi untuk seluruh Bangsa Indonesia.

Berisi Koleksi Bung Karno dari Tamat HBS sampai Pernikahan puri bungsunya Kartika Sukarno

* ill001 Bung Karno Profile saat lulus HBS (setingakat SMEA saat INI) dan *ill 002 Peata pernikahan Kartika Sykarno dengan suami , Ibu Dewi sukarno, Ibu Megawati,dan Bapak Guruh Sukarno Putra

*ill 002

Jakarta @Hak Cipta Dr IWAN S 2010









Saya memberanikan diri membangun sebuah museum Dunia Maya atau cybermusuem” KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO “  khusus untuk seluruh rakyat Indonesia dan pecinta Bung Karno dimanapun ia berada , dengan penuh kesadaran atas keterbatasan saya yang hanya seorang pensiunan dokter, petualang dan kolektor benda unik serta informasi terkait lainnya yang tentunya bukan pakar dan ahli dibidang museum dunia maya , tetapi berandalkan  tekad  yang bulat dan pengalaman sebagai kolektor senior yang banyak membaca literatur terkait bidangnya menyusun tulisan dan illustrasi ini berdasarkan koleksi yang sudah dihimpun hampir lima puluh tahun dengan maksud dan tujuan agar informasi tentang koleksi Bung karno pribadi dan koleksi unik terkait Bung Karno dapat di ketahui oleh rakyat Indonesia terutama  generasi penerus  secara gratis, oleh karena itu saya perlu dukungan moril ( semangat)  dan matrial (dana operasional untuk Konsultan profesional) , maka besar harapan saya seluruh kolektor Indonesia untuk mendukung proposal Musuem Dunia Maya  ini liwat  komentar, dan dukungan sponsor dari pencinta Bung Karno seperti yaysan BK, Metro Tv , Penerbit PT Gramedia dan sebagainya.karena informasi yang ada saat saya eksplorasi dengan google di Internet masih sangat terbatas.

Saya sadar Museum Dunia Maya   ini dibuat dengan pengantar  bahasa Indonesia ,karena sesuai arahan Proklamator dan Presiden Republik Indonesia Pertama yang lebih senang di sebut sebagai Bung Karno agar kita harus berdikari dan bangga dengan bangsa kita sendiri yang termasuk bangsa besar yang jumlah penduduknya nomor tiga didunia setelah Tiongkok dan India sehingga perguakanlah Bahsa Tanah Air sendir Bahasa Indonesia .

Pecinta Bung Karno dari  berbagai bangsa asing sepantasnya mengenal bahasa Indonesia agar dapat meresapi tulisan ini karena banyak istilah yang sangat sulit untuk diterjemahkan kebahasa asing seperti Inggris, Jerman, spanyol atau Belanda, untuk itu penulis memohon maaf yang sebesar-besarnya,juga atas kekeliruan dan kekurangan yang masih ada dalam tulisan ini, masukan sangat diperlukan agar tulisan elektronik ini dpat disempurnakan pada edisi mendatang.lihatlah poster Bung Karno yang sangat kharismatik INGAT!!*001


Tidak lupa penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada seluruh teman-teman yang tidak dapat dituliskan namanya satu persatu ,terutama Pak  Herry Hutabarat, Pak Sofyan lampung,almarhum guru saya Frater Servaas dan almarhum Prof.Suparlan yang telah memberikan masukan ide untuk mengumpulkan koleksi serta informasi yang unik dan langka bagi generasi penerus.terimakasih juga kepada Pak Ali Baswedan yang telah menyokong terbitnya buku elektronik ini dan berkean memberikan tambahan informasi untuk Bab khusus tambahan KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO.

Upload di web nomor dua

11 september 1941

Inilah sekelumit kisah asmara Sukarno – Fatmawati. Begitu unik. Begitu mambara. Begitu dalam. Berikut ini adalah sepenggal kalimat cinta Bung Karno kepada Fatmawati, melalui sepucuk surat cintanya tertanggal 11 September 1941…


O, Fatma, jang menjinarkan tjahja. Terangilah selaloe djalan djiwakoe, soepaja sampai dibahagia raja. Dalam swarganya tjinta-kasihmoe….


pertalian cinta terjadi saat Bung Karno diasingkan di Bengkulu. Ketika itu, tentu saja. Bung Karno sudah beristrikan Inggit Garnasih, dan tidak dikaruniai putra. Tetapi, bukan Bung Karno kalau tidak berjiwa ksatria. Meski harus mengorbankan hubungan yang begitu baik, tetapi niat menyunting Fatma, toh tetap diutarakan juga kepada Inggit.


Sepulang dari pengasingan, Bung Karno selalu murung. Ia benar-benar dilabrak demam cinta. Anak angkatnya, Ratna Juami dan suaminya, Asmara Hadi, mengetahui bahwa Bung Karno sedang demam cinta, demam rindu kepada Fatmawati nun di Bengkulu sana.


Ratna dan Asmara Hadi pula yang memohon-mohon kepada Inggit, agar merelakan Bung Karno menikahi Fatmawati.


Inggit keukeuh menolak dimadu, dan menyepakati perceraian.


Inggit sepakat kembali ke Bandung. Hari terakhir bersama Bung Karno, Inggit menyempatkan diri ke dokter gigi. Bung Karno masih setia menemani.

Bahkan ketika bertolak ke Kota Kembang, Bung Karno pun turut serta.

Turut membongkar barang-barang Inggit. Setelah mengecek dan memastikan tidak ada sesuatu yang tertinggal, Bung Karno pun mengucapkan selamat tinggal kepadanya


Juni 1943

Nah, bulan Juni 1943, Bung Karno menikahi Fatmawati. Bung Karno di Jakarta, sedangkan Fatmawati ada di Bengkulu.


Bagaimana mungkin? Bung Karno menikahi Fatmawati secara nikah wakil. Sebab, kalau harus mengurus perizinan ke Jakarta untuk Fatma dan seluruh keluarganya, pada saat itu, sangat musykil. Di sisi lain, karena tuntutan pergerakan dan perjuangan, Bung Karno pun tidak mungkin meninggalkan Jakarta ke Bengkulu untuk menikah. Di sisi lain, Bung Karno merasa, tidak mungkin bisa menahan lebih lama lagi untuk menikahi Fatmawati.

Menurut hukum Islam, perkawinan dapat dilangsungkan, asal ada pengantin perempuan dan sesuatu yang mewakili mempelai laki-laki. Maka, Bung Karno segera berkirim telegram kepada seorang kawan akrabnya di Bengkulu, dan memintanya menjadi wakil Bung Karno menikahi Fatmawati. Kawan Bung Karno ini pun bergegas ke rumah Fatmawati, dan menunjukkan telegram dari Bung Karno. Orangtua Fatmawati menyetujui gagasan itu. Alkisah, pengantin putri dan wakil Bung Karno pergi menghadap penghulu, dan sekalipun Famawati ada di Bengkulu dan Bung Karno di Jakarta, pernikahan itu pun dilangsungkan, dan keduanya sudah terikat tali perkawinan

(pena sukarno)

Proklmasi 17 agustus 1945

Pidato bung Karno













Raja Idrus dan Ratu Markonah. Kedua nama ini membuat geger Indonesia pada zaman presiden Soekarno. Waktu itu sekitar tahun 1950-an, Indonesia sedang berjuang membebaskan Irian Barat. Markonah berumur 50-an. Wajahnya lumayan menarik. Tapi ia memiliki cacat di matanya sehingga selalu memakai kaca mata hitam.

Pasangan suami-istri itu mengaku sebagai raja dan ratu Suku Anak Dalam, Sumatera. Mereka lantas menemui sejumlah pejabat dengan mengaku sedang melakukan muhibah ke sejumlah daerah di tanah air. Dengan dandanan yang meyakinkan, para pejabat pun menyambut dengan tangan terbuka atas kunjungan Raja Idrus dan sang permaisuri.

Hebatnya para pejabat memberikan sambutan yang luar biasa kepada mereka. Mereka dijamu, dielu-elukan, diajak foto bersama dan mendapat liputan media massa. Entah bagaimana ceritanya, kemudian ada seorang pejabat yang memperkenalkan sang raja dan ratu itu kepada Presiden Soekarno.

“Pejabat ini, saya nggak tahu namanya, menyampaikan ke Bung Karno, kalau Raja Idrus dan Ratu Markonah sudah seharusnya diterima di istana. Sebab raja dan ratu itu bisa membantu pembebasan Irian Barat,” jelas sejarahwan Universitas Indonesia (UI) Anhar Gonggong saat berbincang dengan detikcom.

Kala itu Bung Karno memang sedang membutuhkan dukungan rakyat untuk membebaskan Irian Barat yang masih dikuasai Belanda. Maka Soekarno pun mengundang Idrus dan Markonah ke Istana Merdeka. Di istana, tentu saja keduanya mendapat sambutan dan dijamu layaknya tamu terhormat. Tidak ketinggalan mereka juga diberi uang untuk misi membantu pembebasan Irian Barat. Bahkan diberitakan mereka menginap dan makan gratis di hotel selama berminggu-minggu.

Pertemuan Idrus dan Markonah dengan Bung Karno pun diberitakan media massa waktu itu. Koran Marhaen dan Duta Masyarakat waktu itu memasang foto pertemuan Markonah dengan Bung Karno. Di foto itu, Markonah dengan kaca mata hitamnya bersama sang suami berpose bersama Bung Karno. Di keterangan foto disebutkan, Raja Idrus dan Ratu Markonah akan membantu pembebasan Irian Barat.

Namuan kenyataan sering kali tidak seindah harapan. Fakta berbicara lain tentang Raja dan Ratu unik tersebut. Idrus dan Markonah yang dianggap raja dan ratu yang bisa membantu Indonesia membebaskan Irian Barat ternyata hanya penipu kelas kakap. Kedok mereka terbongkat saat suami istri itu jalan-jalan di sebuah pasar di Jakarta.

“Saat itu ada tukang becak yang mengenali Idrus, karena Idrus itu ternyata tukang becak. Dari sinilah wartawan melakukan investigasi dan membongkar kedok penipu itu. Markonah ternyata seorang pelacur kelas bawah di Tegal, Jawa Tengah. “Lucu itu, presiden kok bisa tertipu,” beber Anhar Gonggong yang kemudian tertawa terkekeh.

Anhar menganalisa, Soekarno bisa tertipu Idrus dan Markonah karena ia sedang mencari dukungan rakyat untuk proyek pembebasan Irian Barat. Selain itu juga, karena sebagai pemimpin, Bung Karno ingin menunjukkan dirinya dekat dengan rakyat. “Itu penyakit pemimpin kita, selalu ingin kelihatan dekat dengan rakyat,” ulas Anhar.

Skandal Idrus dan Markonah merupakan kasus penipuan nasional pertama yang dialami negeri ini dengan korban istana. Ternyata penipuan dengan korban istana tidak berhenti pada zaman Soekarno. Kasus serupa bahkan kembali berulang pada pemerintahan selanjutnya




Benang Merah Pidato Bung Karno (4-Selesai)

Berikut bagian ke-4 dari empat bagian nukilan pidato Bung Karno. Periode ini mengutip pidato Bung Karno periode 1961 – 1966. Setelah itu Bung Karno tidak lagi tampil membahana di podium peringatan Hari Proklamasi Kemerdekaan RI setiap tanggal 17 Agustus. Pidato tahun 1966 adalah pidato kenegaraan terakhirnya.







Dan sebagai tiap2 rakjat jang menderita, maka rakjat Indonesia ingin melepaskan diri daripada penderitaan itu. Dan dalam usaha untuk melepaskan diri daripada penderitaan itu, sekali lagi rakjat Indonesia menjalankan penderitaan2. Korbanan2 jang amat pedih. Untuk mengachiri pen-deritaan, rakjat Indonesia mendjalankan penderitaan. Ini tampaknja adalah satu paradox, tetapi paradox sedjarah, hisrorical-paradox. Penderitaan rakjat jang dilakukan oleh rakjat untuk melepaskan diri daripada penderitaan, sudah dikenal oleh kita semuanja. Dikenal olah kita semuanja dalam bentuk Pah-lawan-pahlawan jang gugur, jang mereka itu arwahnya pada ini hari kita peringati.

Dan Pahlawan2 yang gugur ini bukan sadja jang gugur sedjak kita memasuki taraf physical revolution didalam usaha kita untuk melepaskan diri kita daripada penderitaan, tetapi Pahlawan jang gugur, djuga sebelum adanja physical revolution kita itu, Pahlawan jang gugur dalam abad ke-17, Pahlawan-pahlawan jang gugur dalam abad ke-18, Pahlawan2 jang gugur dalam abad ke-19, Pahlawan jang jang gugur dalam apa jang kita namakan Gerakan Nasional, dan bukan sadja Pahlawan2 jang gugur, tetapi kita pada ini hari djuga memperingati semua Pahlawan2 daridjang telah menunjukkan kepahlawanannja diatas padang pelaksanaan Dharma Bhakti terhadap kepada Ibu Pratiwi.

Bukan sadja terbajang dihadapan mata chajal kita Pahlawan2 dari Sultan Agung Hanjokrokusumo, atau Pahlawan2 dari Untung Suropati, atau Pahlawan2 dari Trunodjojo, atau Pahlawan2 dari Sultan Hasanudin, atau Pahlawan2 dari Trunodjojo, atau Pahlawan2 dari Sultan Hasanudin, atau Pahlawan2 dari Pangeran Diponegoro, atau Pahlawan2 dari Teuku Tjiek Ditiro, atau Imam Bonjol, bukan hanya Pahlawan2 itu jang gugur dimedan pertempuran atau tidak gugur dimedan pertempuran, tetapi djuga Pahlawan2 kita didalam Gerakan Nasional, jang mereka itu bernama dan kita beri nama Pahlawan, oleh karena mereka telah mempersembahkan Dharma Bhaktinja serta kobanannja jang pahit-pedih diatas Persada Ibu Pratiwi.

Terbajang dimuka mata chajal kita, ratusan ribuan Pemimpin2 kita daripada Gerakan Nasional itu, jang telah meringkuk didalam pendjara. Terbajang dihadapan mata chajal kita, Pemimpin2 kita jang menderita pahit pedih, ditempat2 pembuangan. Terbajang dimata chayal kita, Pemimpin2 kita jang dengan muka bersenjum menaiki tiang penggantungan. Terbajang dimata chayal kita, Pemimpin2 kita jang menadahi pelor daripada squadron2 pendrelan2. Terbajang dimuka chayall kita, deritaan daripada rakjat kita jang untuk Perdjuangan itu mengorbankan segala2nja.

Ada jang mengorbankan suaminja, ada jang mengorbankan anaknja , ada jang mengorbankan harta-bendanja, ada jang mengorbankan isi-hati ketjintaan mereka jang mendjadi tiang daripada djiwa mereka itu. Pendek kata mengorbankan segala2nja, dan mereka ini Pahlawan pula.


Djikalau Saudara2 membatja Undang2 Dasar 45 itu, njata djelas bahwa semangat daripada Undang2 Dasar 45 ini ialah apa jang diamanatkan oleh Rakjat didalam ia punja penderitaan jang berwindu-windu, berabad-abad. Maka oleh karena itu ada baiknja barangkalil saja batjakan lebih dahulu Preambule daripada Undang2 Dasar itu:

“Bahwa sesunggunja Kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala Bangsa, dan oleh sebab itu maka pendjadjahan diatas
dunia harus dihapuskan, karena tidak sesuai dengan peri kemanusiaan dan peri keadilan. Dan perdjoangan pergerakan Kemerdekaan Indonesia telah sampailah kepada saat jang bahagia dengan selamat-sentausa menghantarkan Rakjat Indonseia kedepan pintu gerbang Kemerdekaan Negara Indonesia jang merdeka, bersatu, berdaulat, adil dan makmur.Atas berkat Rahmat Tuhan Jang Maha Kuasa, dan didorongkan oleh keinginan luhur supaja berkehidupan kebangsaan jang bebas — maka Rakjat Indonesia mennjatakan dengan ini Kemerdekaannja. Kemudian daripada itu untuk membentuk suatu Pemerintahan Negara Indonesia, jang melindungi segenap Bangsa Indonesia dan seluruh Tumpah Darah Indonsia, dan untuk memadjukan kesejahteraan umum, mentjerdaskan kehidupan Bangsa dan ikut melaksanakan ketertiban dunia jang berdasarkan Kemerdekaan, perdamaian abadi dan keadilan sosial, maka disusunlah Kemerdekaan Indonesia itu dalam Undang2 Dasar Negara Indonesia jang terbentuk dalam susunan negara Republik Indonesia
jang berkedaulatan Rakjat, dengan berdasarkan kepada ke-Tuhanan jang Maha Esa, Kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab, persatuan Indonesia dan Kerakjatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam Permusjawaratan Perwakilan serta dengan mewudjudkan satu Keadilan Sosial bagi seluruh rakjat Indonesia”.

Preambule ini Saudara2, saja ulangi lagi, mentjerminkan dengan tegas dan djelas: Amanat Pendeitaan Rakjat. Tjerminkan dengan djelas didalam kata-pembukaan ini, tiga kerangka sebagai jang saja utjapkan dalam pidato saja 17 Agustus 1959, jang kemudian terkenal dengan kata pidato Manipol.

Tiga kerangka, satu Negara Kesatuan, didalamnja satu masjarakat jang adil dan makmur, didalam rangkaian persahabatan dengan semua Bangsa didunia. Preambule ini Saudara2, dibuat dan dirantjangkan, kemudian disjahkan oleh Pemimpin2 kita sebelum kita mengadakan Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945. Apa sebab, kataku tadi, oleh karena Pemimpin2 kita pada waktu itu semuanja merasa meng-emban Amanat Penderitaan Rakjat sehingga didalam Preambule ini ditjerminkan olehnja apa yang diamanatkan oleh rakjat dengan deritaanja itu, kepada kita semua. Tiga kerangka ternjata tertulis didalamnja. Dan bukan saja tiga kerangka ini, sebagai Saudara2 pun telah mengetahui, didalam Preambule ini telah tertjermin pula Dasar daripada Negara jang akan datang, dan jang kemudian datang, jaitu jang terkenal dengan nama Pantjasila.


Saudara2, maka dengan Demikianlah Saudara2 sudah djelas, sebagai tadi saja katakan, pekerdjaan Saudara2 adalah berat mulia,— tetapi sebenarnja tidak terlalu berat, dan mulia,— malahan saja minta kepada Saudara2 jang mulia tetapi tidak terlalu berat. Saja minta kepada Saudara2 djanganlah bertele-tele, Saudara2.

Saudara2 tahu bahwa Konstituante, jang bersidang digedung ini bertele-tele, sehingga achirnja saja bubarkan Konstituante itu. Tetapi Saudara2 kemudian didalam gedung ini pula Depernas bersidang dan Depernas menebus, menebus noda, jang djatuh kepada tubuh bangsa Indonesia. Noda, oleh karena Bangsa Indonesia didalam Revolusi tidak boleh bertele-tele, padahal Konstituante bertele-tele, noda ini ditebus oleh Depernas, didalam waktu jang singkat Depernas telah menjusun ia punja pola. Oleh karena itu sebagai tadi saja njatakana saluut kehormatan kepada Depernas umumnja, chususnja kepada Ketuanja, Prof. Mr. Moh. Yamin.

Ingat Saudara2, sebagai tadi saja katakan, Pembangunan Semesta harus lekas berdjalan, garis besar haluan Negara harus lekas disjahkan atau diperkuat oleh Saudara2. Kita sudah memiliki Negara lima belas tahun lamanja, Negara memerlukan tegas haluannja, Pembangunan membutuhkan tegas garis2 besarnja. Segala alat perlembagaan jang tadi disebutkan oleh Saudara Ketua, baik M.P.R. maupun D.P.A., maupun Mandataris pada M.P.R. jang bernama Presiden, dengan ia punja pembantu2 pelaksanaan mandat daripada M.P.R. itu, maupun Lembaga jang telah saja adakan jang bernama Depernas, semua Lembaga2 ini tak lain tak bukan, hanjalah alat-alat Revolusi.

Meskipun Lembaga2 ini ditjantumkan didalam Undang2 Dasar 45, toh saja berkata Lembaga2 ini sekadar alat Revolusi, bahkan Undang2 Dasar 45 adalah alat Revolusi Saudara2, bahkan Negara adalah alat
Revolusi. Bahkan Negara adalah sekadar satu bagian sadja daripada Amanat Penderitaan Rakjatm, Negara itu adalah satu alat melaksanakan Amanat Penderitaan Rakjat, jaitu suatu Masjarakat jang Adil dan Maknur, satu hidup Merdeka, satu hidup Internasional jang bersahabat dan damai dengan semua bangsa. Saudara2 adalah alat2 Revolusi dan djanganlah Saudara2 bertele-tele, sebab sebagai tempo hari saja katakan kepada Konstituante, “ met of zonder Konstituante”,—dengan atau tanpa Konstituante, Revolusi berdjalan terus,. Perkataan itu saja ulangi kepada Saudara2, — “met of zonder M.P.R.S.”,— dengan atau tanpa M.P.R.S., Revolusi berdjalan terus, Revolusi berdjalan terus tanpa Presiden Soekarno. Revolusi berdjalan terus tanpa Kabinet Kerdja,— revolusi berdjalan terus “met of zonder D.P.A.”— Revolusi berdjalan terus “met of zonder D.P.R.G.R.— Revolusi berdjalan terus “met of zonder M.P.R.S.”

Oleh karena itu saja minta kesadaran tentang hal ini kepada Saudara2 sekalian, garis besar sadja Saudara tentukan, dan pekerdjaan Saudara2 dipermudahdengan sudah adanja Manipol dan USDEK. Garis2 besar pembangunan Saudara tentukan, sudah ada Pola Depernas,—mungkin sekali malahan saja beri tambahan bahan pertimbangan,—tentukan sekedar garis2 besar sadja didalam garis besar ini. Ada memang soal2 jang prinsipiil, misalnja dalam hal Pembangunan bagaimanakah sikap kita, terhadap kepada persoalan dan loan dari luar negeri, ini satu haljang prinsipiil, apakah kita membenarkan investement luar negeri dibumi Indonesia, atau kita sebagai sudah saja katakan prefeer loan diatas investement apakah pendirian M.P.R.S, tentang “Joint-Enterprise” ataukah tidak apakah M.P.R.S. akan mengatakan garis besar pembangunan harus dilaksanakan tanpa atau djikalau perlu “met joint-enterprise” dengan modal asing, bagaimana pendirian MPRS terhadap kepada persoalan “production sharing ”. “Production sharing”— bolehkah kita didalam usaha pembangunan kita mendjalankan politik “production sharing”—, ini adalah hal garis besar dan pokok, konsertir Saudara punja pikiran sekadar atas hal2 jang demikian itu, dan tidak memasuki soal2 jang demikian jang djlimet, apalagi soal angka2 Saudara. Ja, perlu Saudara menarik besar angka2, tetapi djangan sampai djlimet2. Sebab angka2 itupun datangnja dari siapa, dari mana dari manusia pula. Dari pada orang2 jang bekerdja disesuatu Biro, ia berkata bahwa angkanja buat itu sekian, angkanja buat itu sekian.

Saja minta Saudara2 djangan djlimet, tetapi sebagaimana saja katakan kepada D.P.R. tempo hari, dan djuga kepada Konstituante, tiap2 Dewan harus menginsjafi bahwa dia adalah alat Revolusi tiap2 Dewan djanganlah mendjadi tempat untuk berdebat sadja, tiap2 Dewan djanganlah mendjadi tempat sekadar mengutjapkan pidato2 sadja, tetapi saja mengharapkan daripada Dewan Perwakilan Rakjat, daripada Dewan Perantjang Nasional, daripada Konstituante tempo hari, supaja Dewan2 ini adalah Dewan2 jang menelorkan konsepsi2. Konsepsi2 bagaimana kita bisa memenuhi Amanat Penderitaan Rakjat. Jang diminta daripada Saudara2, dus jang diminta djuga daripada M.P.R.S., adalah konepsi. Saja minta kepada Saudara2 dan demikian pula Undang2 Dasar 45 tidak minta kepada Saudara2 Kedjlimetan, saja minta sekedar konsepsi. Undang2 Dasar 45 hanja meminta sekadar garis besar. Saja minta dus kepada Saudara2 individuil, supaja audara2 itu konseptor2, orang2 jang mengeluarkan tjipta, orang2 jang mengeluarkan rentjana baik politik maupun dilapangan pembangunan. Konseptor2 jang dikumpulkan didalam sidang besar jang bernama

Ini Saudara2 pekerdjaan jang mulia, oleh karena memang tidak ada satu Bangsa baik menjelesaikan Revolusi tanpa konsepsi. Revolusi adalah realisasi daripada konsepsi. Dan tidakkah kita telah berulang2 berkata bahwa Revolusi kita belum selesai! Konsepsi masih diperlukan.

Adakah diantara Saudara2, seseorang jang berkata bahwa Revolusi kita sudah selesai, djikalau ada Saudara2 mengatakan bahwa Revolusi kita sudah selesai, taanja, tanja kepada Rakjat, sudahkah Revolusi kita selesai?

Tiap2 orang dikalangan Rakjat akan berkata, Revolusi kita belum selesai. Sebab apa jang diamanatkan oleh Rakjat didalam ia punja penderitaan jang sepedih-pedihnja, berabad-abad, berpuluh-puluh tahun jalah belum terpenuhi.

Oleh karena Amanat Penderitaan Rakjat ini belum terpenuhi, maka oleh karena itulah Rakjat berkata, Revolusi belum selesai.

Kita masih didalam Revolusi, dan masih melandjutkan Revolusi, dan Revolusi ini adalah sebagai tadi saja katakan, satu paradox untuk melepaskan diri kita daripada penderitaan, kita mendjalankan penderitaan2. Untuk melepaskan kita daripada perbudakan, kita mendjalankan perdjoangan melawan
perbudakan2 itu meskipun perdjoangan itu minta penderitaan.

Barangkali Saudara2 ada orang jang berkata, kena apa ini, Presiden selalu mengajak Pemimpin2 ber-Revolusi, ber-Revolusi, ber-Revolusi,— tidakkah sudah tjukup penderitaan dalam Revolusi itu? Tidakkah tjukup penderitaan, kena apa Presiden selalu mengandjurkan teruskan Revolusi, teuskan Revolusi, teruskan Revolusi, padahal tiap2 manusia mengetahui bahwa Revolusi adalah penderitaan, adalah korban mana perlu, adalah pemereasan tenaga, dengan belum tentu saat itu telah tertebusnja djandji daripada Revolusi itu?

Djikalau ada orang jang berkata demikian kepadaku, aku akan mendjawab: ,, Selama belum da seorang Ibu datang kepada saja, bahwa ia menjalahkan saja. Bahwa puteranja mendjalankan Revolusi, selama belum ada seorang Ibu menuduh kepada saja, bahwa saja membuatputeranja itu berdjuang, berdjuang, berdjuang
bahkan menderita, menderita menderita, bahkan berkorban, berkorban, berkorban, selama belum ada seoarang ibu jang berkata demikian kepada saja, saja akan tetap berkata: Revolusi Indonesia Belum selesai”.

Dan dalam hal itu saja ulangi lagi kepada Saudara2, Revolusi kita belum selesai. Saudara2 adalah alat Revolusi, bekerdjalah sebagai alat Revolusi, tjekatan, gesit, tjepat, oleh karena Rakjat me-nunggu2, Rakjat menunggu-nunggu akan salah satu hasil daripada perlembagaan Negara ini, jaitu M.P.R.S.

Dengan demikian Saudara2, maka Amanat jang saja berikan ini, saja anggap sebagai peresmian, pembukaan, Sidang Pertama M.P.R.S.

Moga2 Tuhan selalu memberkati kita.

Terima kasih.


1961: Revolusi – Sosialisme Indonesia – Pimpinan Nasional (Resopim)

“…perlunya meresapkan adilnya Amanat Penderitaan Rakyat agar meresap pula tanggung jawab terhadapnya serta mustahilnya perjuangan besar kita berhasil tanpa Tritunggal Revolusi, ideologi nasional progresif dan pimpinan nasional.

1962: Tahun Kemenangan (Takem)

“kulancarkan gagasan untuk memperhebat pekerjaan Front Nasional, untuk menumpas perongrongan revolusi dari dalam, dan bahwa revolusi kita itu mengalami satu “selfpropelling growth” – satu, yaitu maju atas dasar kemajuan, mekar atas dasar kemekaran.

1963: Genta Suara Revolusi Indonesia (Gesuri)

“Tiada revolusi kalau ia tidak menjalankan konfrontasi terus-menerus dan kalau ia tidak merupakan satu disiplin yang hidup, bahwa diperlukan puluhan ribu kader di segala lapangan. Bahwa Dekon harus dilaksanakan dan tidak boleh diselewengkan karena “Dekon adalah Manipolnya ekonomi”, bahwa abad kita ini “abad nefo” dan saya mengambil inisiatif untuk menyelenggarakan Conefo dan akhirnya tahun yang lalu.”

1964: Tahun Vivere Pericoloso (Tavip)

“Kuformulasikan 6 hukum revolusi, yaitu bahwa revolusi harus mengambil sikap repat terhadap lawan dan kawan, harus dijalankan dari atas dan dari bawah, bahwa destruksi dan konstruksi harus dijalankan sekaligus, bahwa tahap pertama harus dirampungkan dulu kemudian tahap kedua, bahwa harus setia kepada Program Revolusi sendiri yaitu Manipol, dan bahwa harus punya sokoguru, punya pimpinan yang tepat dan kader-kader yang tepat, juga kuformulasikan Trisakti “berdaulat dalam politik, berdikari dalam ekonomi, dan berkepribadian dalam kebudayaan”.

1965: Capailah Bintang-bintang di Langit (Tahun Berdikari)

“Lima Azimat”: Nasakom (1926), Pancasila (1945), Manipol/Usdek (1959), Trisakti Tavip (1964), dan Berdikari (1965)- sebenarnya hanyalah hasil penggalianku, yang dua pertama dari masyarakat bangsaku, dan tiga terakhir dari Revolusi Agustus. Kelima pokok instruksiku itu harus terus disebar-sebarkan, diresapkan, diamalkan, sebab dari terlaksana-tidaknya instrukti itu tergantung pula baik tidaknya Front Nasional di hari-hari yang akan datang, baik tidaknya persatuan bangsa di hari-hari yang akan datang”.

1966: Jangan Sekali-kali Meninggalkan Sejarah (Jasmerah)

Abraham Lincoln, berkata: “one cannot escape history, orang tak dapat meninggalkan sejarah”, tetapi saya tambah : “Never leave history”. inilah sejarah perjuangan, inilah sejarah historymu. Peganglah teguh sejarahmu itu, never leave your own history! Peganglah yang telah kita miliki sekarang, yang adalah AKUMULASI dari pada hasil SEMUA perjuangan kita dimasa lampau. Jikalau engkau meninggalkan sejarah, engkau akan berdiri diatas vacuum, engkau akan berdiri diatas kekosongan dan lantas engkau menjadi bingung, dan akan berupa amuk, amuk belaka. Amuk, seperti kera kejepit di dalam gelap.

Begitulah. Tahun 1967 adalah tahun kemunduran. Tahun klimaks usaha pembunuhan terhadap Sukarno oleh anak bangsanya sendiri. Indonesia Raya diruntuhkan, di atasnya berdiri bangunan kapitalis bernama Orde Baru. Sejak itu, berubahlah Indonesia, dari sebuah bangsa berdikari menjadi bangsa yang kembali “terjajah” oleh asing. Hingga hari ini. (roso daras)



Presiden Soekarno 726

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Presiden Soekarno 731

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The Value Of Bung Karno book

Buku Koleksi Patung Lukisan bung Karno Jilid V

Edit by Lee Man Foong the famous painters

Printing China



Dr Iwan memiliki jilid V yang kulit bukunya




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The Value Of Bung Karno’s pictures

Value tiga juta rupiah










The value Of Bung Karno,s document


Dr Iwan have  

surat keputusan gubernur Henk Ngantung  Jakrta ditanda tangani Sukarno dengan lambang presiden

harga sulit di tentukan karena baru satu diketmukan


Surat Keputusan Presiden Soekarno dengan tanda tangan,

yang ada di bagian awal buku sebagai lampiran.


Bagian atas dari surat Keputusan Presiden Soekarno


Bagian bawah dari surat Keputusan Presiden 

lengkap dengan tanda tangan Soekarno




Copyright @ 2014

The Indonesian Radion History Collections

This is the smaple of Dr Iwan CD-Rom,if you want the CD

please contct my email,

wirh upload your ID card and complete adress,the price only limaratus ribu rupiah sudah termasuk

biaya kirim liqat titipankilat,hanya untuk dalam negeri indsonesia saja.


The Indonesian Radio History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @2014



Indonesia Radio Poster



Produk atau buatan Indonesia yang mendunia selanjutnya adalah Magno. Yaitu sebuah radio kayu asli buatan Indonesia yang sudah menebar frekuensi sampai Jepang, Amerika Serikat, Finlandia, Inggris, dan Prancis.

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Indonesian Radio History

Radio Buatan 1925 Masih Berfungsi Baik

2  0  0  0  0  0

SEJARAH: Pengunjung memperhatikan deretan radio kuno yang dipamerkan Padmaditya.


Di era yang serba modern seperti saat ini, di mana hampir semua alat berbasis teknologi mengalami proses modernisasi. Dari yang semula serba manual berubah menjadi serba elektronik. Termasuk radio. Media komunikasi andalan di era perjuangan kemerdekaan itu kini seolah dilupakan. Untuk itulah, Pelestari Audio Lama dan radio Tabung Yogyakarta (Padmaditya) melakukan pameran radio lama di Jakarta.HARIS SUPRIYANTO, Jakarta

JIKA melihat dari nama pameran ‘Radio Lama’, tentu sudah bisa membayangkan siapa saja yang tertarik untuk melihat barang- barang lawas yang dipertontonkan di area Gedung Bentara Budaya tersebut. Tak ada anak muda, pun eksekutif muda. Sejak pameran itu dibuka, ha nya dikunjungi puluhan orang paruh baya yang bisa dipastikan pecinta-pecinta barang antik.

Sesaat memasuki ruang pameran, terasa begitu hidup di zaman lampau, semua barang antik itu seakan mengajak kita menikmati aksesoris sebuah ruangan yang hanya dapat ditemui di masa sebelum kemedekaan Indonesia. ”Wah, ini keren nih,” bisik salah satu pengunjung kepada teman di sebelahnya, saat melihat sebuah Radio berbentuk kotak cukup besar berwarna cokelat, di sebelah ujung ruangan.

Sementara para pengunjung lainnya, juga terlihat sedang serius melihat radio-radio lain yang dijejer di sepanjang pinggir ruangan terse but. Selentingan terdengar, salah satu pengunjung menanyakan konsidi sebuah radio berwarna hitam buatan 1940an yang terpajang di sebelah kiri ruang. ”Yang ini sudah tidak ada sound-nya pak,” jawab salah satu panitia Pameran.

Suasana itulah yang tergambar dalam pameran radio lama yang digagas oleh Pelestari Audio Lama dan radio Tabung Yogyakarta (Pad maditya ). Bagi penggagas Padmaditya, di zaman serba teknologi ini, radio cukup lang ka ditemui di berbagai tempat. Padahal tak dapat dipungkiri, keberadaan sebuah alat yang mampu mengeluarkan suara melalui gelombang pendek itu sangat efektif memberikan informasi kepada publik, ter utama rakyat Indonesia diawal masa ke mer dekaan.

”Ya kan Pak Karno (Presiden Soekarno) dulu membacakan (teks) proklamasi kemerdekaan, disiarkan langsung melalui radio. Maka nya, sebenarnya radio itu punya sejarah penting bagi kita,” terang aktivis Padmaditya, Didi Sumarsidi, saat ditemui INDOPOS, di Gedung Bentara Budaya Jakarta. Padmaditya berdiri tahun 2011 dengan beranggotakan 11 orang.

Tujuannya untuk melestarikan audio lama yang sekaligus menyajikan kelebihan radio lama yang dapat dilihat dari bentuknya yang unik, artistik, kualitas suara analog yang berbeda dengan audio terkini. Bersama para komunitas pecinta Radio ‘Jadul’ itu, pihaknya memamerkan sekitar 60 berbagi jenis radio dengan variasi produksi antara tahun 1930-1970 yang beredar seantera Nusantara. Didi mengaku, pihaknya memiliki koleksi hingga 400-an radio dan megaphone kuno.

”Selain untuk melestarikan ben da ajaib pada jamannya, ini juga lebih se bagai media bersilahturami lewat media ra dio,” ujarnya. Di ruangan berukuran sekitar 6×20 centimeter itu, pameran bertajuk ”Layang Swara” yang merupakan pameran ketiga setelah sebelumnya dilgelar di Yogyakarta dan Surbaya itu memajang radio yang dibuat pada tahuntahun tersebut dengan merk yang terkenal seperti Philips atau Erres, juga Telefunken dan Blaupunk.

”Bahkan sekitar 10 radio di antara merupakan buatan setelah masa revolusi dan kemerdekaan pada tahun 1960-an, yaitu radio tran sistor yang lebih ringan, mudah dibawa, dan menghasilkan kualitas suara yang baik pula,” paparnya. ”Kondisi puluhan radio dan megaphone kuno itu nisbi bagus ya berkisar 80 persen lah, karena cukup terawat,” yakin Didi, sembari memperdengarkan suara radio yang dibuat pada tahun 1925 yang masih mampu menangkap gelombang AM dan FM. Yang tak kalah unik, Padmaditya juga memamerkan salah satu radio kuno dengan merek ”Philips Aida” keluaran sekitar tahun 1946 pasca-Perang Dunia I

  1. Radio buatan Ein dhoven, Belanda itu dipajang di sebelah kanan pintu masuk ruang Pameran. ”Radio ini dilengkapi dengan skala gelombang radio yang dihiasi dengan nama-nama kota dengan ejaan lama seperti Batavia, Soera baia, dan Bandoeng,” urainya, seraya menunjukkan nama-nama tersebut. Masih di sebelah kanan ruangan, berjejer dengan Philips Aida terpajang juga radio yang memiliki keunikan pada jarum gelombangnya yang mirip dengan jarum kompas dengan merk ”Philips Kompas”.

”Ini (Philips Kompas) juga diproduksi pasca- Perang Dunia II. Kalau yang ini ”Bence” radio yang pertama kali diproduksi di Indone sia pada tahun 1950-an, ini dibuat daerah Di noyo, Surabaya. Nah, kalau ini megaphone kuno yang pernah dipakai dalam film tentang Soegija Pranata,” tambah Didi, sambil bergeser ke sebelah kiri ruang pameran.

Salah satu anggota Pradmaditya, Didi Widianto mengaku, dirinya tertarik dengan radio kuno, karena desain yang unik, dan nilai sejarah atau kelangkaan. ”Suaranya juga lebih natural karena memakai tabung dan sifatnya analog, beda dengan sekarang yang menggunakan transistor dan rekayasa digital,” katanya, menunjukkan salah satu Radio yang ter letak diatas meja bebentuk bulat, ditengah ruangan tersebut. (*)

- See more at:




Radio Transistor Tjawang [01741]


Di hari-hari yang kian padat dengan ritme semakin cepat ini, mendengarkan siaran radio pemancar (bukan streaming radio online) lewat radio transistor tua benar-benar sebuah selingan bermutu tersendiri. Berfungsi normal, radio ini menangkap frekuensi MW dan SW dengan baik, dengan suara khas sound lawas.

 Seluruh elemen dan kenop komplit, cat asli tanpa cuil, lengkap dengan antena. Hanya ada goresan samar-samar bertuliskan “Tjawang Transistor” di body atas (mungkin pemilik sebelumnya sangat bangga dengan radio ini; lihat foto terakhir), dan ada sedikit lengkung di papan penutup body belakang (lihat foto ketiga). Merk Tjawang ini made in Indonesia, alias produksi dalam negeri, yang mulai beroperasi dari tahun 1954. Berkarakter






Indonesian Radio National

Radio National RE-4350B

Jenis radio ini merupakan salah satu favorit saya. Sebuah radio transistor jadul buatan National Gobel dengan 3 Band penerimaan, yakni MW, SW1, SW2 dan satu Input Auxiliary yang bertuliskan “Phono”.

Radio meja ini sekilas menyerupai sebuah radio tabung. Saya pun sempat mengira RE-4350B merupakan sebuah radio tabung, ketika dulu pertamakali saya melihatnya di salah pedagang barang antik di kota saya; Salatiga. Ketika itu saya sempat tawar-menawar dengan pedagang tersebut namun gagal mendapatkannya karena uang yang saya bawa ketika itu tidak mencukupi.

RE-4350B pertama saya jumpai di kios pedagang antik
RE-4350B yang dipajang di Perpustakaan Salatiga

Cukup menyesal juga ketika itu gagal transaksi, karena kondisi radio yang saya lihat pada saat itu masih nyaris sempurna. Radio produksi National Gobel sekitar awal 70an ini juga saya lihat ada di Perpustakaan Daerah Salatiga, sebagai pajangan antik yang diletakkan dalam lemari kaca. Hal tersebut membuat saya semakin berhasrat memiliki radio tersebut.

Kurang lebih setahun menginginkannya, akhirnya saya mendapatkan dari salah satu pemasok radio antik langganan saya. Saya cukup senang, meski kondisi RE-4350B yang saya dapatkan tidak se-sempurna yang dulu gagal saya dapatkan atau yang menjadi pajangan di Perpustakaan Umum di kota saya.


RE-4350B yang saya miliki

Radio Peralihan Dari Era Tabung

Body RE-4350B terbuat dari kayu lapis. Panel depan terbuat dari plastik dan penutup kain pada bagian loudspeaker nya. Ukuran dimensi radio ini boleh dibilang sangat besar untuk sebuah radio transistor, yakni: (panjang x tinggi x lebar) 404mm x 240mm x 150mm. Penampilannya sederhana namun elegan bagi saya.

Kain penutup speaker (salon) menempati 50% bidang depan bagian atas. Seharusnya terdapat emblem tulisan “Hi-fi Sound” yang terbuat dari plastik berwarna perak yang melekat di bagian atas salon (seperti tampak pada foto radio ini di kios pedagang antik yang gagal saya peroleh), namun pada radio yang saya punya emblem tersebut sudah hilang.




Tepat dibawah bidang salon terdapat strip plastik berwarna perak yang bertuliskan “3-Band National Solid State” di bagian tengah. Bidang kiri bawah ditemptkan skala meter tuning, dan sisi kanannya diisi 5 tombol kendali yakni (urutan dari kiri ke kanan): Tombol Volume berikut saklar ON-OFF, pengaturan Tone, saklar pemilih Band maupun Input Phono, tombol Fine Tuning, dan tombol Tuning. Sayangnya ketika saya dapatkan hanya 2 kenop saja yang ada, yaitu kenop Tone dan Band Selector. Tiga kenop lainnya sudah hilang. Sehingga terpaksa saya pasangkan kenop-kenop plastik seadanya dari koleksi kenop jadul yang saya punya.

Skala meter tuning di sisi kiri bawah
Kenop-kenop yang sebagian tidak ori

Input Phono mengingatkan kita pada masa-masa jaya-nya pemutar piringan hitam atau yang disebut Phonograph. Jadi radio ini menyediakan fungsi sebagai penguat / amplifier sinyal audio dari phonograph. Jika kita anlogikan pada era kini, bisa dibilang fungsi ini setara input dari iPod/ MP3 player.

Desain RE-4350B yang klasik ini tampaknya menyesuaikan trend penampilan radio-radio pada masa nya dulu, yakni radio-radio yang menggunakan tabung sebagai komponen aktifnya. Body radio besar. Ukuran yang besar ini memberikan nilai tambah bagi kualitas reproduksi suaranya.

Karena ruang akustik yang cukup besar maka suara yang dihasilkan pun menjadi Hi-fi. Cenderung nge-bass dan adem di telinga. Keras, namun tidak memekakkan telinga. Terlebih dengan tersedianya fasilitas pengaturan Tone, kita bisa mengatur tonasi suara yang dihasilkan. Biasanya saya mengatur Tone ke arah nge-bass ketika mendengarkan musik, dan cenderung treble ketika menyimak percakapan/ siaran berita dari gelombang radio luar negri melalui gelombang SW.

Sumber Daya

Radio antik ini bisa menggunakan AC maupun DC dalam pengoperasiannya. Pemilihan sumber daya baik AC maupun DC dipilih melalui saklar berwarna merah yang terdapat di bagian belakang radio.

Untuk sumberdaya AC, terdapat pilihan tegangan 110 volt atau 220 volt yang dilakukan dengan memutar saklar di bagian bawah radio menggunakan obeng minus. Pilihan tegangan ini di masa lalu sangat penting, mengingat pada era 70an besarnya tegangan AC belum sama di semua kota di Indonesia.


Untuk tegangan DC bisa menggunakan 6 buah baterai berukuran besar (D-size/ UM-1) atau menggunakan adaptor eksternal melalui port yang disediakan dibagian belakang pesawat. Meski pada port DC tersebut tertulis “12V DC”, namun saya kira 9v saja lebih aman dan lebih sesuai dengan perbandingan jumlah baterai yang digunakan (6 baterai x 1.5v = 9v).

Tutup belakang yang terbuat dari Hardboard
Port-port Antena luar, Grounding, Phonograph, Jack DC

Melihat ke Dalam

Ciri khas radio-radio transistor lawas National ketika hendak memasang baterai, adalah dengan jalan membuka tutup belakangnya. Tutup belakang terbuat dari hardboard yang dikunci dengan dua pengait berpuntir.

Wadah baterai melekat pada tutup hardboard, bukan pada bidang alas kabinet. Penempatan baterai secara vertikal seperti ini berpotensi baterai-baterai akan jatuh berantakan. Namun wadah baterai dibuat cukup rapat menjepit baterai, selain juga dilengkapi dengan selongsong-selongsong plastik guna menghindari baterai-baterai tersebut melejit.

Salah satu keunikan radio ini yakni menggunakan dua keping PCB yang terpisah. Satu PCB berisi rangkaian tuner dan oscillator, dan PCB lainnya merupakan rangkaian penguat-penguat IF serta Audio. Desain output audio-nya “transformerless” alias tidak menggunakan trafo IT-OT yang populer pada jamannya.


Port-port Antena luar, input Phono, serta DC Jack ter-solder langsung melalui kabel menuju titik-titik yang terkait pada PCB. Hal ini membuat kita perlu berhati-hati saat membuka tutup belakang, agar tak ada solderannya yang terlepas/ kabel yang terputus.


Beberapa hal yang membuat saya suka radio ini yaitu:
1. Penampilannya yang klasik, menyerupai radio tabung -tanpa harus mengkonsumsi listrik sebesar radio tabung.
2. Penerimaannya yang sensitif di semua Band.
3. Suaranya yang Hi-fi, empuk di telinga. FiturTone Control nya pun sangat bermanfaat.
4. Fasilitas Fine Tuning yang sangat berguna ketika men-tuning gelombang SW.
5. Adanya port eksternal Antena serta grounding. Saya selalu menyukai radio-radio yang menyediakan colokan Antena luar karena saya nilai radio tersebut di desain secara extendable, terutama untuk peningkatan daya penerimaannya. Penggunaan Antena luar yang dihubungkan langsung dengan antena teleskopik akan berbeda hasilnya dibanding penggunaan port eksternal Antena yang dirancang dengan baik.

Secara umum radio cantik ini layak untuk menjadi barang koleksi bagi penggemar radio-radio tua.


Vintage National Transistor 2 Band Radio Model RL 4240 – NOS

















Ini adalah radio transistor kuno merk NATIOANAL yang sangat terkenal. Produksi PT. National Gobel Indonesia.

Bahan dari triplek, dan plastik, dengan warna hitam, coklat dan sedikit kroom. Ada tiga  kenop yang berada dibagian depan yang berfungsi sebagai, pemilih band, pemutar gelombang, dan kenop untuk menghidupkan dan mematikan, serta mengatur kuat lemahnya suara.

Ada lubang jack untuk speaker luar pada bagian kanan bawah. semua bekerja dengan baik dan sempurna. Untuk pemasangan baterai ukuran D x 4, tinggal memutar skrup  pada bagian tutup belakang dan mendorongnya kebawah.

Radio ini sudah dilengkapi dengan jack adaptor. Untuk mendapatkan penerimaan terbaik pada memancar SW, kita tinggal meninggikan antenanya saja.
Ukuran panjang 35cm, tebal 12cm, dan tinggi sampai gagang 23cm. Berat 1.6kg tanpa batre.
Kondisi NOS, lengkap dengan bungkus,dan petunjuk aslinya. Berfungsi dengan baik.




Radio National – Gema Nusantara

Radio National, produksi National Gobel, Indonesia. Radio mungil dengan bentuk yang unik. Berfungsi dengan baik.













Radio reciver history

By wiki

Receiver (radio)

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

How radio communication works. Information such as sound is transformed into an electronic signal which is applied to a transmitter. The transmitter sends the information through space on a radio wave(electromagnetic wave). A receiver intercepts some of the radio wave and extracts the information-bearing electronic signal, which is converted back to its original form by a transducer such as a speaker.

In radio communications, a radio receiver is an electronic device that receives radio waves and converts the information carried by them to a usable form. It is used with an antenna. The antenna intercepts radio waves (electromagnetic waves) and converts them to tiny alternating currents which are applied to the receiver, and the receiver extracts the desired information. The receiver uses electronic filters to separate the desired radio frequency signal from all the other signals picked up by the antenna, an electronic amplifier to increase the power of the signal for further processing, and finally recovers the desired information throughdemodulation.

The information produced by the receiver may be in the form of sound (an audio signal), images (a video signal) or data (a digital signal).[1] A radio receiver may be a separate piece of electronic equipment, or anelectronic circuit within another device. Devices that contain radio receivers include television sets, radarequipment, two-way radios, cell phones, wireless computer networks, GPS navigation devices, satellite dishes, radio telescopes, bluetooth enabled devices, garage door openers, and baby monitors.

Early broadcast radio receiver. Truetone model from about 1940

In consumer electronics, the terms radio and radio receiver are often used specifically for receivers designed to reproduce the audio(sound) signals transmitted by radio broadcasting stations – historically the first mass-market commercial radio application.


Types of radio receivers[edit]

ALMA‘s Band 5 receivers detect electromagnetic radiation with wavelengths between about 1.4 and 1.8 millimetres (211 and 163 gigahertz).[2] The picture shows only peripheric components of the receiver such as the Local Oscillator multiplier chain. The main receiver components of the ALMA band 5 receiver, such as horn antennae, superconductive SIS mixers, and cryogenic low-noise amplifiers, reside on a cartridge that is inserted into a cryostat and cooled to 4K, 12K, and 90K, respectively

Various types of radio receivers may include:

Consumer audio receivers

In the context of home audio systems, the term “receiver” often refers to a combination of a tuner, a preamplifier, and a power amplifier all on the same chassis. Audiophiles will refer to such a device as an integrated receiver, while a single chassis that implements only one of the three component functions is called a discrete component. Some audio purists still prefer three discrete units – tuner, preamplifier and power amplifier – but the integrated receiver has, for some years, been the mainstream choice for music listening. The first integratedstereo receiver was made by the Harman Kardon company, and came onto the market in 1958. It had undistinguished performance, but it represented a breakthrough to the “all in one” concept of a receiver, and rapidly improving designs gradually made the receiver the mainstay of the marketplace. Many radio receivers also include a loudspeaker.



Hi-Fi / Home theater

Today AV receivers are a common component in a high-fidelity or home-theatre system. The receiver is generally the nerve centre of a sophisticated home-theatre system providing selectable inputs for a number of different audio components like record players, compact-disc players and CD-RW recorders, and tape decks ( like video cassette recorders (VCR) and video components (DVD players and DVD recorders, video game consoles, and television sets)).

With the decline of gramophone record vinyl discs, modern receivers tend to omit inputs for phonograph turntables, which have separate requirements of their own. All other common audio/visual components can use any of the identical line-level inputs on the receiver for playback, regardless of how they are marked (the “name” on each input is mostly for the convenience of the user). For instance, a second CD player can be plugged into an “Aux” input, and will work the same as it will in the “CD” input jacks.

Some receivers can also provide digital signal processors (DSP) to give a more realistic auditory illusion of listening in a concert hall. Digital audio S/PDIF and USB connections are also common today. The home theater receiver, in the vocabulary of consumer electronics, comprises both the ‘radio receiver’ and other functions, such as control, sound processing, and power amplification. The standalone radio receiver is usually known in consumer electronics as a tuner.

Some modern integrated receivers can send audio out to seven loudspeakers and an additional channel for a subwoofer and often include connections for headphones. Receivers vary greatly in price, and support stereophonic or surround sound. A high-quality receiver for dedicated audio-only listening (two channel stereo) can be relatively inexpensive; excellent ones can be purchased for $300 United States or less. Because modern receivers are purely electronic devices with no moving parts unlikeelectromechanical devices like turntables and cassette decks, they tend to offer many years of trouble-free service. In recent years, the home theater in a box has become common, which often integrates a surround-capable receiver with a DVD player. The user simply connects it to a television, perhaps other components, and a set of loudspeakers.

Portable radios

Portable radios include simple transistor radios that are typically monoaural and receive the AM, FM, or short wave broadcast bands. FM, and often AM, radios are sometimes included as a feature of portable DVD/CD, MP3 CD, and USB key players, as well as cassette player/recorders.

AM/FM stereo car radios can be a separate dashboard mounted component or a feature of in car entertainment systems.

A Boombox (or Boom-box)—also sometimes known as a Ghettoblaster or a Jambox, or (in parts of Europe) as a “radio-cassette”—is a name given to larger portable stereo systems capable of playing radio stations and recorded music, often at a high level of volume.

Self-powered portable radios, such as clockwork radios are used in developing nations or as part of an emergency preparedness kit.[3]





History of radio receivers

Early development


While James Clerk Maxwell was the first person to prove electromagnetic waves existed, in 1887 a German named Heinrich Hertz demonstrated these new waves by using spark gap equipment to transmit and receive radio or “Hertzian waves”.

The experiments were not followed up by Hertz. Starting in 1893 Nikola Tesla gave lectures and obtained patents on his high frequency wireless transmission work. But his primary interest was in wireless power transmission and that, along with other interests and experiments, kept him from exploring this system for “transmitting intelligence”.[4][5]


The world’s first radio receiver (thunderstorm register) was designed by a Russian engineer named Alexander Stepanovich Popov, and it was first seen at the All-Russia Exhibition 1896. He was the first to demonstrate the practical application of electromagnetic (radio) waves,[6] although he did not care to apply for a patent for his invention.


A primitive form of radio detector called a coherer enabled receiving radio signals, first used by Edouard Branly and subsequently improved on by Oliver Lodge. Many experimenters of the time made significant improvements to both radio receiving and transmitting apparatus, and in 1895 Guglielmo Marconi was the first to demonstrate practical radio communications, later achieving radio communication across the Atlantic in December 1901.

John Ambrose Fleming‘s development of an early thermionic valve to help detect radio waves was based upon a discovery by Thomas Edison (called “The Edison effect“), which essentially modified an early light bulb. Fleming dubbed it an “oscillation valve” because it functioned similarly to a one-way water valve.

The cat’s whisker detector was another kind of detectors developed, typically employing galena crystal with wire spring contact. By moving the wire to different points on the crystal, an optimal point of rectifying the signal was achieved.[7]



Valves (Tubes)


Lee de Forest‘s audion tube, a type of triode, emerged as a result of work done between 1905 and 1907, and was later applied to long distance telephone receiving circuits. The triode, functioning as an amplifier of signals, vastly improved radio receiver performance. The regenerative detector further improved performance. The introduction of air-evacuated valves was enabled by Irving Langmuir and H. J. Round.[7]








Autodyne and superheterodyne

The tuned radio frequency receiver (TRF) was introduced in the 1920s, along with the autodyne developed by H. J. Round and combining the functions of both mixer and oscillator in a single valve.

In France, Lucien Levy devised a system to convert signals to a lower frequency where the filter bandwidths could be narrowed, leading to a new type of receiver known as thesuperheterodyne, or supersonic heterodyne receiver.

Edwin Armstrong is credited with developing a receiver with a fixed intermediate frequency amplifier and filter. Although previously patented by Alexander Meissner, Armstrong was first to build a working model and so received the credit.


Further improvements came in 1926 with the introduction of the tetrode valve.[7]

Philips Radio Model 2511, 1928 and advertising shield









War and postwar developments

Military HF receiver, type BC-224-D (1942)

In 1939 the outbreak of war spurred receiver development. During this time a number of classic communications receivers were designed. Some like the National HRO are still sought by enthusiasts today and although they are relatively large by today’s standards, they can still give a good account of themselves under current crowded band conditions.




Transistor devices were introduced in the late 1940s and quickly replaced valves leading to the emergence of space and power savingtransistor radios in the 1960s.[7]

The integrated circuit was introduced in the late 1950s, further saving cost, space and power.[8] In the 1980s, the frequency synthesizerimproved on the ability to generate an accurate and stable local oscillator signal.[7]

Digital technologies

Many of the functions performed by analogue electronics can be performed by software instead. The benefit is that software is not affected by temperature, physical variables, electronic noise and manufacturing defects.[7] For really high-performance receivers, such as satellite communications receivers and military/naval receivers, two-stage (“double conversion”) and even three-stage (“triple conversion”) superheterodyne processing is frequently used. Single-conversion receivers are rather simple-minded in their nature.

DSP technology

DSP technology, short for digital signal processing, is the use of digital means to process signals and is coming into wide use in modern shortwave receivers. It is the basis of many areas of modern technology including cell phones, CD players, video recorders and computers. A digital signal is essentially a stream or sequence of numbers that relay a message through some sort of medium such as a wire. The primary benefit of DSP hardware in shortwave receivers is the ability to tailor the bandwidth of the receiver to current reception conditions and to the type of signal being listened to. A typical analog only receiver may have a limited number of fixed bandwidths, or only one, but a DSP receiver may have 40 or more individually selectable filters.



PC controlled radio receivers

“PC radios”, or radios that are designed to be controlled by a standard PC are controlled by specialized PC software using a serial port connected to the radio. A “PC radio” may not have a front-panel at all, and may be designed exclusively for computer control, which reduces cost.

Some PC radios have the great advantage of being field upgradable by the owner. New versions of the DSP firmware can be downloaded from the manufacturer’s web site and uploaded into the flash memory of the radio. The manufacturer can then in effect add new features to the radio over time, such as adding new filters, DSP noise reduction, or simply to correct bugs.

A full-featured radio control program allows for scanning and a host of other functions and, in particular, integration of databases in real-time, like a “TV-Guide” type capability. This is particularly helpful in locating all transmissions on all frequencies of a particular broadcaster, at any given time. Some control software designers have even integratedGoogle Earth to the shortwave databases, so it is possible to “fly” to a given transmitter site location with a click of a mouse. In many cases the user is able to see the transmitting antennas where the signal is originating from.

Radio control software


The field of software control of PC radios has grown rapidly in the last several years, with developers making a number of advances. Since the Graphical User Interface or GUI interface PC to the radio has unlimited flexibility, any number of new features can be added by the software designer. Features that can be found in advanced control software programs today include a band table, GUI controls corresponding to traditional radio controls, local time clock and a UTC clock, signal strength meter, an ILG database for shortwave listening with lookup capability, scanning capability, text-to-speech interface, and integrated Conference Server.




Software-defined radios

The next level in radio / software integration are so-called pure “software defined radios”. The distinction here is that all filtering, modulation and signal manipulation is done in software, usually by a PC soundcard or by a dedicated piece of DSP hardware. There may be a minimal RF front-end or traditional radio that supplies an IF to the SDR. SDR’s can go far beyond the usual demodulation capability of typical, and even high-end DSP shortwave radios. They can for example, record large swaths of the radio spectrum to a hard drive for “playback” at a later date. The same SDR that one minute is demodulating a simple AM broadcast may also be able to decode an HDTV broadcast in the next. A well known open-source project called GNU Radio is dedicated to evolving a high-performance SDR. All the source code for this SDR is freely downloadable and modifiable by anyone.





Sejarah radio

Sejarah radio adalah sejarah teknologi yang menghasilkan peralatan radio yang menggunakan gelombang radio. Awalnya sinyal pada siaran radio ditransmisikan melalui gelombang data yang kontinyu baik melalui modulasi amplitudo (AM), maupun modulasi frekuensi (FM). Metode pengiriman sinyal seperti ini disebut analog. Selanjutnya, seiring perkembangan teknologi ditemukanlah internet, dan sinyal digital yang kemudian mengubah cara transmisi sinyal radio

Sejarah Penggunaan Radio[sunting

Rata-rata pengguna awal radio adalah para maritim, yang menggunakan radio untuk mengirimkan pesan telegraf menggunakan kode morse antara kapal dan darat. Salah satu pengguna awal termasuk Angkatan Laut Jepang yang memata-matai armada Rusia saat Perang Tsushima pada tahun 1901. Salah satu penggunaan yang paling dikenang adalah saat tenggelamnya RMS Titanic pada tahun 1912, termasuk komunikasi antara operator di kapal yang tenggelam dengan kapal terdekat dan komunikasi ke stasiun darat. Radio digunakan untuk menyalurkan perintah dan komunikasi antara Angkatan Darat dan Angkatan Laut di kedua pihak pada Perang Dunia II; Jerman menggunakan komunikasiradio untuk pesan diplomatik ketika kabel bawah lautnya dipotong oleh Britania. Amerika Serikat menyampaikan Program 14 Titik Presiden Woodrow Wilson kepada Jermanmelalui radio ketika perang. Siaran mulai dapat dilakukan pada 1920-an, dengan populernya pesawat radio, terutama di Eropa dan Amerika Serikat. Selain siaran, siaran titik-ke-titik, termasuk telepon dan siaran ulang program radio, menjadi populer pada 1920-an dan 1930-an Penggunaan radio dalam masa sebelum perang adalah untuk mengembangan pendeteksian dan pelokasian pesawat dan kapal dengan penggunaan radar. Sekarang, radio banyak bentuknya, termasuk jaringan tanpa kabel, komunikasi bergerak di segala jenis, dan juga penyiaran radio. Sebelum televisi terkenal, siaran radio komersial termasuk drama, komedi, beragam show, dan banyak hiburan lainnya; tidak hanya berita dan musik saja.

Radio AM


Radio AM (modulasi amplitudo) bekerja dengan prinsip memodulasikan gelombang radio dan gelombang audio. Kedua gelombangg ini sama-sama memiliki amplitudo yang konstan. Namun proses modulasi ini kemudian mengubah amplitudo gelombang penghantar (radio) sesuai dengan amplitudo gelombang audio.

Pada tahun 1896 ilmuwan Italia, Guglielmo Marconi mendapat hak paten atas telegraf nirkabel yang menggunakan dua sirkuit. Pada saat itu sinyal ini hanya bisa dikirim pada jarak dekat. Namun, hal inilah yang memulai perkembangan teknologi radio. Pada tahun 1897 Marconi kembali mempublikasikan penemuan bahwa sinyal nirkabel dapat ditransmisikan pada jarak yang lebih jauh (12 mil). Selanjutnya, pada 1899 Marconi berhasil melakukan komunikasi nirkabel antara Perancis dan Inggris lewat Selat Inggris dengan menggunakan osilator Tesla.

John Ambrose Fleming pada tahun 1904 menemukan bahwa tabung audion dapat digunakan sebagai receiver nirkabel bagi teknologi radio ini. Dua tahun kemudian Dr. Lee deForest menemukan tabung elektron yang terdiri dari tiga elemen (triode audion). Penemuan ini memungkinkan gelombang suara ditransmisikan melalui sistem komunikasi nirkabel. Tetapi sinyal yang ditangkap masih sangat lemah. Barulah pada tahun 1912 [[Edwin Howard Armstrong menemukan penguat gelombang radio disebut juga radioamplifier. Alat ini bekerja dengan cara menangkap sinyal elektromagnetik dari transmisi radio dan memberikan sinyal balik dari tabung. Dengan begitu kekuatan sinyal akan meningkat sebanyak 20.000 kali perdetik. Suara yang ditangkap juga jauh lebih kuat sehingga bisa didengar langsung tanpa menggunakan earphone. Penemuan ini kemudian menjadi sangat penting dalam sistem komunikasi radio karena jauh lebih efisien dibandingkan alat terdahulu. Meskipun demikian hak paten atas amplifier jatuh ke tangan Dr. Lee deforest. Sampai saat ini radio amplifier masih menjadi teknologi inti pada pesawat radio.

Awalnya penggunanaan radio AM hanya untuk keperluan telegram nirkabel. Orang pertama yang melakukan siaran radio dengan suara manusia adalah Reginald Aubrey Fessenden. Ia melakukan siaran radio pertama dengan suara manusia pada 23 Desember 1900 pada jarak 50 mil (dari Cobb Island ke Arlington, Virginia) Saat ini radio AM tidak terlalu banyak digunakan untuk siaran radio komersial karena kualitas suara yang buruk.

Radio FM


Radio FM (modulasi frekuensi) bekerja dengan prinsip yang serupa dengan radio AM, yaitu dengan memodulasi gelombang radio (penghantar) dengan gelombang audio. Hanya saja, pada radio FM proses modulasi ini menyebabkan perubahan pada frekuensi.

Ketika radio AM umum digunakan, Armstrong menemukan bahwa masalah lain radio terletak pada jenis sinyal yang ditransmisikan. Pada saat itu gelombang audio ditransmisikan bersama gelombang radio dengan menggunakan modulasi amplitudo (AM). Modulasi ini sangat rentan akan gangguan cuaca. Pada akhir 1920-an Armstrong mulai mencoba menggunakan modulasi dimana amplitudo gelombang penghantar (radio) dibuat konstan. Pada tahun 1933 ia akhirnya menemukan sistem modulasi frekuensi (FM) yang menghasilkan suara jauh lebih jernih, serta tidak terganggu oleh cuaca buruk.

Sayangnya teknologi ini tidak serta merta digunakan secara massal. Depresi ekonomi pada tahun 1930-an menyebabkan industri radio enggan mengadopsi sistem baru ini karena mengharuskan penggantian transmiter dan receiver yang memakan banyak biaya. Baru pada tahun 1940 Armstrong bisa mendirikan stasiun radio FM pertama dengan biayanya sendiri. Dua tahun kemudian Federal Communication Comission (FCC) mengalokasikan beberapa frekuensi untuk stasiun radio FM yang dibangun Armstrong. Perlu waktu lama bagi modulasi frekuensi untuk menjadi sistem yang digunakan secara luas. Selain itu hak paten juga tidak kunjung didapatkan oleh Armstrong.

Frustasi akan segala kesulitan dalam memperjuangkan sistem FM, Armstrong mengakhiri hidupnya secara tragis dengan cara bunuh diri. Beruntung istrinya kemudian berhasil memperjuangkan hak-hak Armstrong atas penemuannya. Barulah pada akhir 1960-an FM menjadi sistem yang benar-benar mapan. Hampir 2000 stasiun radio FM tersebar di Amerika, FM menjadi penyokong gelombang mikro (microwave), pada akhirnya FM benar-benar diakui sebagai sistem unggulan di berbagai bidang komunikasi.






Radio internet[sunting 

Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Radio Internet

Penemuan internet mulai mengubah transmisi sinyal analog yang digunakan oleh radio konvensional. Radio internet (dikenal juga sebagai web radio, radio streaming dan e-radio) bekerja dengan cara mentransmisikan gelombang suara lewat internet. Prinsip kerjanya hampir sama dengan radio konvensional yang gelombang pendek (short wave), yaitu dengan menggunakan medium streaming berupa gelombang yang kontinyu. Sistem kerja ini memungkinkan siaran radio terdengar ke seluruh dunia asalkan pendengar memiliki perangkat internet. Itulah sebabnya banyak kaum ekspatriat yang menggunakan radio internet untuk mengobanti rasa kangen pada negara asalnya. Di Indonesia, umumnya radio internet dikolaborasikan dengan sistem radio analog oleh stasiun radio teresterial untuk memperluas jangkauan siarannya.

Radio satelit[sunting 

Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Radio satelit

Radio satelit mentransmisikan gelombang audio menggunakan sinyal digital. Berbeda dengan sinyal analog yang menggunakan gelombang kontinyu, gelombang suara ditransmisikan melalui sinyal digital yang terdiri atas kode-kode biner 0 dan 1. Sinyal ini ditransmisikan ke daerah jangkauan yang jauh lebih luas karena menggunakan satelit. Hanya saja siaran radio hanya dapat diterima oleh perangkat khusus yang bisa menerjemahkan sinyal terenkripsi. Siaran radio satelit juga hanya bisa diterima di tempat terbuka dimana antena pada pesawat radio memiliki garis pandang dengan satelit pemancar. Radio satelit hanya bisa bekerja yang tidak memiliki penghalang besar seperti terowongan atau gedung. Oleh karena itu perangkat radio satelit banyak dipromosikan untuk radio mobil. Untuk mendapat transmisi siaran yang baik, perlu dibuat stasiun repeater seperti di Amerika agar kualitas layanan prima.

Perangkat yang mahal (karena menggunakan satelit) membuat sistem ini komersil. Pendengar harus berlangganan untuk dapat mendengarkan siaran radio. Meskipun begitu kualitas suara yang dihasilkan sangat jernih, tidak lagi terdapat noise seperti siaran radio konvensional. Selain itu sebagian besar isi siaran juga bebas iklan dan pendengar memiliki jauh lebih banyak pilihan kanal siaran (lebih dari 120 kanal).

Perusahaan penyedia satelit radio dunia adalah Worldspace yang melayani siaran radio satelit di Amerika, Eropa, Asia, Australia, dan Afrika. Worldspace memiliki tiga satelit yang melayani wilayah berbeda. Di Indonesia, samapai tahun 2002 Worldspace telah bekerja sama dengan RRI, Radio trijaya, Borneo Wave Channel (Masima Group), dan Kompas Cyber Media sebagai pengisi konten layanan radio satelit dengan menggunakan satelit Asia Star. mbs fm suci manyar gresik








Radio berdefinisi tinggi (HD Radio)

Radio yang dikenal juga sebagai radio digital ini bekerja dengan menggabungkan sistem analog dan digital sekaligus. Dengan begitu memungkinkan dua stasiun digital dan analog berbagi frekuensi yang sama. Efisiensi ini membuat banyak konten bisa disiarkan pada posisi yang sama. Kualitas suara yang dihasilkan HD radio sama jernihnya dengan radio satelit, tetapi layanan yang ditawarkan gratis. Namun untuk dapat menerima siaran radio digital pendengar harus memiliki perangkat khusus yang dapat menangkap sinyal digital.



Sawyer, Stacey C. & Williams, Brian K. (2001). Using Information Technology, New York: McGraw-Hill Company.sumber wiki


Harga radio antik





Radio Antik Bx 745 A Philips


Rp. 4.500.000




Radio antik National


The end


Pajang Kingdom History Collections


Ini adalah contoh CD_Rom Dr Iwan yang tidak lengkap info dan ilustyrasinya,apabila anda ingin memiliki info yang lengkap pesanlah CD-ROM ini ke emalai


dengan mengupload kopi KYP dan alamat lengkap,haraga CD tiga ratus rupiah sudah termasuk biaya kirim liwat titipan kilay

Iilah contoh singkat riwayat yang angat hebat

The Pajang Kingdom History Collection

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Limited E-book In CD_ROM Edition

Special for senior collector and historian

Copyright @ 2014



Kerajaan Pajang adalah satu kerajaan yang berpusat di Jawa Tengah sebagai kelanjutan Kerajaan Demak. Komplekskeratonnya pada zaman ini tinggal tersisa berupa batas-batas fondasinya saja yang berada di perbatasan Kelurahan Pajang -Kota Surakarta dan Desa Makamhaji, Kartasura, Sukoharjo.

Peta Kerajaan Pajang

Foto Keraon Pajang saat ini



Nama negeri Pajang telah dikenal sejak zaman Kerajaan Majapahit. Menurut Nagarakretagama yang ditulis tahun 1365,

Gayam wuruk


bahwasanya pada zaman tersebut adik perempuan Hayam Wuruk (raja Majapahit saat itu) 

bernama asli Dyah Nertaja menjabat sebagai penguasa Pajang, bergelar Bhatara i Pajang, atau disingkat Bhre Pajang. Dyah Nertaja merupakan ibu dar



Wikramawardhana (raja Majapahit selanjutnya).

Berdasar naskah-naskah babad, bahwa negeri Pengging disebut sebagai cikal bakal Pajang. Cerita Rakyat yang melegenda menyebut bahwa Pengging sebagai kerajaan kuno yang pernah dipimpin Prabu Anglingdriya, musuh bebuyutan Prabu Baka raja Prambanan. Kisah ini dilanjutkan dengan dongeng berdirinya Candi Prambanan.

Ketika Majapahit dipimpin oleh



 Brawijaya (raja terakhir versi naskah babad), bahwa nama Pengging muncul kembali. Dikisahkan bahwa



putri Brawijaya yang bernama Retno Ayu Pembayun diculik



Menak Daliputih raja Blambangan


 putra Menak Jingga.



Muncul seorang pahlawan bernama Jaka Sengara yang berhasil merebut sang putri dan membunuh penculiknya.

Atas jasanya itu, kemudian Jaka Sengara diangkat oleh Brawijaya sebagai bupati Pengging dan dinikahkan dengan Retno Ayu Pembayun. Jaka Sengara kemudian bergelarAndayaningrat.

Kerajaan Pajan

Pajang terlihat sebagai kerajaan pertama yang muncul di pedalaman Jawa setelah runtuhnya kerajaan Muslim di daerah Pasisir.

Menurut naskah babad, Andayaningrat gugur di tangan Sunan Ngudung saat terjadinya perang antara Majapahit dan Demak. Ia kemudian digantikan oleh putranya, yang bernama Raden Kebo Kenanga, bergelar Ki Ageng Pengging. Sejak saat itu Pengging menjadi daerah bawahan Kerajaan Demak.

Beberapa tahun kemudian Ki Ageng Pengging dihukum mati karena dituduh hendak memberontak terhadap Demak. Putranya yang bergelar Jaka Tingkir setelah dewasa justru mengabdi ke Demak.

Prestasi Jaka Tingkir yang cemerlang dalam ketentaraan membuat ia diangkat sebagai menantu Trenggana, dan menjadi bupati Pajang bergelar Hadiwijaya. Wilayah Pajang saat itu meliputi daerah Pengging (sekarang kira-kira mencakup Boyolali dan Klaten), Tingkir (daerah Salatiga), Butuh, dan sekitarnya.

Sepeninggal Trenggana tahun 1546, selanjutnya Sunan Prawoto naik takhta. Namun Sultan Prawoto kemudian tewas dibunuh sepupunya, yaitu Arya Penangsang bupati Jipang tahun 1549. Setelah itu, Arya Penangsang juga berusaha membunuh Hadiwijaya namun gagal.

Dengan dukungan Ratu Kalinyamat (bupati Jepara dan puteri Trenggana), Hadiwijaya dan para pengikutnya berhasil mengalahkan Arya Penangsang. Hadiwijaya selanjutnya menjadi pewaris takhta Demak. Pada masa kepemimpinan Hadiwijaya ini, ibu kota Demak dipindahkan ke Pajang.


Pada awal berdirinya atau pada tahun 1549, bahwa wilayah Pajang yang terkait eksistensi Demak pada masa sebelumnya, hanya meliputi sebagian Jawa Tengah. Hal ini disebabkan karena negeri-negeri Jawa Timur banyak yang melepaskan diri sejak kematian Sultan Trenggana.

Pada tahun 1568 Hadiwijaya dan para adipati Jawa Timur dipertemukan di Giri Kedaton oleh Sunan Prapen. Dalam kesempatan itu, para adipati sepakat mengakui kedaulatan Pajang di atas negeri-negeri Jawa Timur. Sebagai tanda ikatan politik, Panji Wiryakrama dari Surabaya (pemimpin persekutuan adipati Jawa Timur) dinikahkan dengan puteri Hadiwijaya.

Negeri kuat lainnya, yaitu Madura juga berhasil ditundukkan Pajang. Pemimpinnya yang bernama Raden Pratanu alias Panembahan Lemah Dhuwur juga diambil sebagai menantu Hadiwijaya.

Peran Wali Songo  

Pada zaman Kerajaan Demak, majelis ulama Wali Songo memiliki peran penting, bahkan ikut mendirikan kerajaan tersebut. Majelis ini bersidang secara rutin selama periode tertentu dan ikut menentukan kebijakan politik Demak.

Sepeninggal Trenggana, peran Wali Songo ikut memudar. Sunan Kudus bahkan terlibat pembunuhan terhadap Sunan Prawoto, raja baru pengganti Trenggana.

Meskipun tidak lagi bersidang secara aktif, sedikit banyak para wali masih berperan dalam pengambilan kebijakan politik Pajang. Misalnya, Sunan Prapen bertindak sebagai pelantik Hadiwijaya sebagai raja. Ia juga menjadi mediator pertemuan Hadiwijaya dengan para adipati Jawa Timur tahun 1568. Sementara itu, Sunan Kalijaga juga pernah membantu Ki Ageng Pemanahan meminta haknya pada Hadiwijaya atas tanah Mataram sebagai hadiah sayembara menumpas Arya Penangsang.

Wali lain yang masih berperan menurut naskah babad adalah Sunan Kudus. Sepeninggal Hadiwijaya tahun 1582, ia berhasil menyingkirkan Pangeran Benawa dari jabatan putra mahkota, dan menggantinya dengan Arya Pangiri.

Dimungkinkan bahwa yang dimaksud dengan Sunan Kudus dalam naskah babad adalah Panembahan Kudus, yang mana Sunan Kudus sejatinya telah meninggal tahun 1550.

Pemberontakan Mataram   

Tanah Mataram dan Pati adalah dua hadiah Hadiwijaya untuk siapa saja yang mampu menumpas Arya Penangsang tahun 1549. Menurut laporan resmi peperangan, Arya Penangsang tewas dikeroyok Ki Ageng Pemanahan dan Ki Penjawi.

Ki Penjawi diangkat sebagai penguasa Pati sejak tahun 1549. Sedangkan Ki Ageng Pemanahan baru mendapatkan hadiahnya tahun 1556 berkat bantuan Sunan Kalijaga. Hal ini disebabkan karena Hadiwijaya mendengar ramalan Sunan Prapen bahwa di Mataram akan lahir kerajaan yang lebih besar dari pada Pajang.

Ramalan tersebut menjadi kenyataan ketika Mataram dipimpin Sutawijaya putra Ki Ageng Pemanahan sejak tahun 1575. Tokoh Sutawijaya inilah yang sebenarnya membunuhArya Penangsang. Daerah Mataram di bawah pimpinan Sutawijaya semakin hari semakin maju dan berkembang.

Pada tahun 1582 meletus perang Pajang dan Mataram disebabkan Sutawijaya membela adik iparnya, yaitu Tumenggung Mayang terkait hukum buang ke Semarang oleh Hadiwijaya kepada sang tumenggung. Perang tersebut dimenangkan pihak Mataram, meskipun pasukan Pajang berjumlah lebih besar.


Sepeninggal Hadiwijaya, terjadilah persaingan antara putra dan menantunya, yaitu Pangeran Benawa dan Arya Pangiri sebagai raja selanjutnya. Arya Pangiri didukung Panembahan Kudus berhasil naik takhta tahun 1583.

Pemerintahan Arya Pangiri hanya disibukkan dengan usaha balas dendam terhadap Mataram. Kehidupan rakyat Pajang terabaikan akibat kemelut tersebut. Hal itu membuatPangeran Benawa yang sudah tersingkir ke Jipang, merasa prihatin.

Pada tahun 1586 Pangeran Benawa bersekutu dengan Sutawijaya menyerbu Pajang. Meskipun pada tahun 1582 Sutawijaya memerangi Hadiwijaya, namun Pangeran Benawatetap menganggapnya sebagai saudara tua.

Perang antara Pajang melawan Mataram dan Jipang berakhir dengan kekalahan Arya Pangiri. Ia dikembalikan ke negeri asalnya yaitu Demak. Pangeran Benawa kemudian menjadi raja Pajang yang ketiga.

Pemerintahan Pangeran Benawa berakhir tahun 1587. Tidak ada putra mahkota yang menggantikannya sehingga Pajang pun dijadikan sebagai negeri bawahan Mataram. Yang menjadi bupati di sana ialah Pangeran Gagak Baning atau adik Sutawijaya.

Sutawijaya sendiri mendirikan Kerajaan Mataram, di mana ia sebagai raja pertama bergelar Panembahan Senopati.

Daftar Raja Pajang



  1. Jaka Tingkiratau Hadiwijaya
  2. ahlusunahwaljamaah-kum…
  3. Pangeran Benawa  atau Prabuwijaya



prabu wijaya


.Indah Record’s Ketoprak Mataram

Indah Record produced Java Wayang wong Ketoprak mataram ,look below:

The history Of Mataram Kingdom

a. Mataram kingdom’s history

Mataram Sultanate

Kota Gede, the former capital of Mataram Sultanate.

Timeline of Indonesian History
Early kingdoms
Kutai (4th century)
Tarumanagara (358–669)
Kalingga (6th to 7th century)
Srivijaya (7th to 13th centuries)
Sailendra (8th to 9th centuries)
Sunda Kingdom (669–1579)
Medang Kingdom (752–1045)
Kediri (1045–1221)
Singhasari (1222–1292)
Majapahit (1293–1500)
The rise of Muslim states
The spread of Islam (1200–1600)
Sultanate of Ternate (1257–present)
Malacca Sultanate (1400–1511)
Sultanate of Demak (1475–1548)
Aceh Sultanate (1496–1903)
Sultanate of Banten (1526–1813)
Mataram Sultanate (1500s–1700s)
European colonialism
The Portuguese (1512–1850)
Dutch East India Co. (1602–1800)
Dutch East Indies (1800–1942)
The emergence of Indonesia
National awakening (1899–1942)
Japanese occupation (1942–1945)
National revolution (1945–1950)
Independent Indonesia
Liberal democracy (1950–1957)
Guided Democracy (1957–1965)
Start of the New Order (1965–1966)
The New Order (1966–1998)
Reformasi era (1998–present)
v · d · e

The Sultanate of Mataram (pronounced muh-TAR-uhm) was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force in interior Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century.




 Javanese kingship

The name Mataram itself was never the official name of any polity. This name refers to the areas around present-day Yogyakarta. The two kingdoms that have existed in this region are both called “Mataram”, but the second kingdom is called Mataram Islam to distinguish it from the Hindu 9th-century Kingdom of Mataram. Javanese kingship varies from Western kingship, which is essentially based on the idea of legitimacy from the people (Democracy), or from God (divine authority), or both. The Javanese language does not include words with these meanings.

The concept of the Javanese kingdom is a mandala, or a center of the world, in the sense of both a central location and a central being, focused on the person of the king (variously called Sri Bupati, Sri Narendra, Sang Aji, Prabu). The king is regarded as a semi-divine being, a union of divine and human aspects (binathara, the passive form of “bathara”, god). Javanese kingship is a matter of royal-divine presence, not a specific territory or population. People may come and go without interrupting the identity of a kingdom which lies in the succession of semi-divine kings. Power, including royal power is not qualitatively different from the power of dukuns or shamans, but it is much stronger. Javanese kingship is not based on the legitimacy of a single individual, since anyone can contest power by tapa or asceticism, and many did contest the kings of Mataram.


The dates for events before the Siege of Batavia in the reign of Sultan Agung, third king of Mataram, are difficult to determine. There are several annals used by H.J. de Graaf in his histories such as Babad Sangkala and Babad Momana which contain list of events and dates in Javanese calendar (A.J., Anno Javanicus), but besides de Graaf’s questionable practice of simply adding 78 to Javanese years to obtain corresponding Christian years, the agreement between Javanese sources themselves is less than perfect.

The Javanese sources are very selective in putting dates to events. Events such as the rise and fall of kratons, the death of important princes, great wars, etc. are the only kind of events deemed important enough to be dated, by using a poetic formula called “candrasengkala”, which can be expressed verbally and pictorially, the rest being simply described in narrative succession without dates. Again these candrasengkalas do not always match the annals.

Therefore, it is suggested to follow the following rule of thumb: the dates from de Graaf and Ricklefs for the period before the Siege of Batavia can be accepted as best guess. For the period after the Siege of Batavia (1628–29) until the first War of Succession (1704), the years of events in which foreigners participated can be accepted as certain, but –again- are not always consistent with Javanese version of the story. The events in the period 1704-1755 can be dated with greater certainty since in this period the Dutch interfered deeply in Mataram affairs but events behind kraton walls are in general difficult to be dated precisely.

 The rise of Mataram

Details in Javanese sources about the early years of the kingdom are limited, and the line is unclear between the historical record and myths since there are indications of the efforts of later rulers, especially Agung, to establish a long line of legitimate descent by inventing predecessors. However, by the time more reliable records begin in the mid-17th century the kingdom was so large and powerful that most historians concur it had already been established for several generations.

According to Javanese records, the kings of Mataram were descended from one Ki Ageng Sela (Sela is a village near the present-day Demak). In the 1570s one of Ki Ageng Sela’s descendants, Kyai Gedhe Pamanahan became the ruler of the Mataram area with the support of the kingdom of Pajang to the north, near the current site of Surakarta (Solo). Pamanahan was often referred to as Kyai Gedhe Mataram.

Pamanahan’s son, Sutawijaya or Panembahan Senapati Ingalaga, replaced his father around 1584. Under Panembahan Senapati the kingdom grew substantially through regular military campaigns against Mataram’s overlord of Pajang and Pajang’s former overlord, Demak. After the defeat of Pajang, Senopati assumed royal status by wearing the title “Panembahan” (literally “one who is worshipped/sembah”). He began the fateful campaign to the East along the course of Solo River (Bengawan Solo) that was to bring endless conflicts and eventual demise of his kingdom. He conquered Madiun in 1590-1 and turned east from Madiun to conquer Kediri in 1591, and perhaps during the same time also conquered Jipang (present day Bojonegoro), Jagaraga (north of present day Magetan) and Ponorogo. His effort to conquer Banten in West Java in 1597 – witnessed by Dutch sailors – failed, perhaps due to lack of water transport. He reached east as far as Pasuruan, who may have used his threat to reduce pressure from the then powerful Surabaya.

The reign of Panembahan Seda ing Krapyak (circa 1601-1613), the son of Senapati, was dominated by further warfare, especially against powerful Surabaya, already a major center in East Java. He faced rebellion from his relatives who were installed in the newly conquered area of Demak (1602), Ponorogo (1607-8) and Kediri (1608). The first contact between Mataram and the Dutch East India Company (VOC) occurred under Krapyak. Dutch activities at the time were limited to trading from limited coastal settlements, so their interactions with the inland Mataram kingdom were limited, although they did form an alliance against Surabaya in 1613. Krapyak died that year.

 Mataram under Sultan Agung

Krapyak was succeeded by his son, Raden Mas Rangsang, who assumed the title Panembahan ing Alaga and later took the title of Sultan Agung Hanyokrokusumo (“Great Sultan“) after obtaining permission to wear “Sultan” from Mecca. Agung was responsible for the great expansion and lasting historical legacy of Mataram due to the extensive military conquests of his long reign from 1613 to 1646. He attacked Surabaya in 1614 and also Malang, south of Surabaya, and the eastern end of Java. In 1615, he conquered Wirasaba (present day Mojoagung, near Mojokerto). In 1616, Surabaya tried to attack Mataram but this army was crushed by Sultan Agung’s forces in Siwalan, Pajang (near Solo). The coastal city of Lasem, near Rembang, was conquered in 1616 and Pasuruan, south-east of Surabaya, was taken in 1617. Tuban, one of the oldest and biggest cities on the coast of Java, was taken in 1619.

Surabaya was Mataram’s most difficult enemy. Senapati had not felt strong enough to attack this powerful city and Krapyak attacked it to no avail. Sultan Agung weakened Surabaya by capturing Sukadana, Surabaya’s ally in southwest Kalimantan, in 1622 and the island of Madura, another ally of Surabaya, was taken in 1624 after a fierce battle. After five years of war Agung finally conquered Surabaya in 1625. The city was taken not through outright military invasion, but instead because Agung surrounded it on land and sea, starving it into submission. With Surabaya brought into the empire, the Mataram kingdom encompassed all of central and eastern Java, and Madura, except for the west and east end of the island and its mountainous south (except for Mataram – of course). In the west Banten and the Dutch settlement in Batavia remain outside Agung’s control. He tried in 1628-29 to drive the Dutch from Batavia, but failed.

By 1625, Mataram was undisputed ruler of Java. Such a mighty feat of arms, however, did not deter Mataram’s former overlords from rebellion. Pajang rebelled in 1617, and Pati rebelled in 1627. After the capture of Surabaya in 1625, expansion stopped while the empire was busied by rebellions. In 1630, Mataram crushed a rebellion in Tembayat (south east of Klaten) and in 1631-36, Mataram had to suppress rebellion of Sumedang and Ukur in West Java. Ricklefs and de Graaf argued that these rebellions in the later part of Sultan Agung’s reign was mainly due to his inability to capture Batavia in 1628-29, which shattered his reputation of invincibility and inspired Mataram’s vassal to rebel. This argument seems untenable due to two reason: first, rebellions against Sultan Agung already began as far back as 1617 and occurred in Pati even during his peak of invincibility after taking Surabaya in 1625. The second, and more importantly, the military failure to capture Batavia was not seen as political failure by Javanese point of view. See Siege of Batavia.

In 1645 Sultan Agung began building Imogiri, his burial place, about fifteen kilometers south of Yogyakarta. Imogiri remains the resting place of most of the royalty of Yogyakarta and Surakarta to this day. Agung died in the spring of 1646, leaving behind an empire that covered most of Java and stretched to its neighboring islands.

Struggles for power

Upon taking the throne, Agung’s son Susuhunan Amangkurat I tried to bring long-term stability to Mataram’s realm, murdering local leaders that were insufficiently deferential to him including the still-powerful noble from Surabaya, Pangeran Pekik, his father-in-law, and closing ports and destroying ships in coastal cities to prevent them from getting too powerful from their wealth. To further his glory, the new king abandoned Karta, Sultan Agung’s capital, and moved to a grander red-brick palace in Plered (formerly the palace was built of wood).

By the mid-1670s dissatisfaction with the king was turning into open revolt, beginning from the recalcitrant Eastern Java and creeping inward. The Crown Prince (future Amangkurat II) felt that his life was not safe in the court after he took his father’s concubine with the help of his maternal grandfather, Pangeran Pekik of Surabaya, making Amangkurat I suspicious of a conspiracy among Surabayan factions to grab power in the capital by using Pekiks’ grandson’s powerful position as the Crown Prince. He conspired with Panembahan Rama from Kajoran, west of Magelang, who proposed a stratagem in which the Crown Prince financed Rama’s son-in-law, Trunajaya, to begin a rebellion in the East Java. Raden Trunajaya, a prince from Madura, lead a revolt fortified by itinerant fighters from faraway Makassar that captured the king’s court at Mataram in mid-1677. The king escaped to the north coast with his eldest son, the future king Amangkurat II, leaving his younger son Pangeran Puger in Mataram. Apparently more interested in profit and revenge than in running a struggling empire, the rebel Trunajaya looted the court and withdrew to his stronghold in Kediri, East Java, leaving Puger in control of a weak court. Seizing this opportunity, Puger assumed the throne in the ruins of Plered with the title Susuhanan ing Alaga.

Amangkurat II and the beginning of foreign involvement

Amangkurat I died in Tegal just after his expulsion, making Amangkurat II king in 1677. He too was nearly helpless, having fled without an army nor treasury to build one. In an attempt to regain his kingdom, he made substantial concessions to the Dutch East India Company (VOC), who then went to war to reinstate him. For the Dutch, a stable Mataram empire that was deeply indebted to them would help ensure continued trade on favorable terms. They were willing to lend their military might to keep the kingdom together. The multinational Dutch forces, consisting of light-armed troops from Makasar and Ambon, in addition to heavily-equipped European soldiers, first defeated Trunajaya in Kediri in November 1628 and Trunajaya himself was captured in 1679 near Ngantang west of Malang, then in 1681, the alliance of VOC and Amangkurat II forced Susuhunan ing Alaga (Puger) to relinguish the throne in favor of his elder brother Amangkurat II. Since the fallen Plered was considered inauspicious, Amangkurat II move the capital to Kartasura in the land of Pajang (northern part of the stretch of land between Mount Merapi and Mount Lawu, the southern part being Mataram).

By providing help in regaining his throne, the Dutch brought Amangkurat II under their tight control. Amangkurat II was apparently unhappy with the situation, especially the increasing Dutch control of the coast, but he was helpless in the face of a crippling financial debt and the threat of Dutch military power. The king engaged in a series of intrigues to try to weaken the Dutch position without confronting them head on; for example, by trying to cooperate with other kingdoms such as Cirebon and Johor and the court sheltered people wanted by the Dutch for attacking colonial offices or disrupting shipping such as Untung Surapati. In 1685, Batavia sent Captain Tack, the officer who captured Trunojoyo, to capture Surapati and negotiate further details into the agreement between VOC and Amangkurat II but the king arranged a ruse in which he pretended to help Tack. Tack was killed when pursuing Surapati in Kartasura, then capital of Mataram (present day Kartasura near Solo), but Batavia decided to do nothing since the situation in Batavia itself was far from stable, such as the insurrection of Captain Jonker, native commander of Ambonese settlement in Batavia, in 1689. Mainly due to this incident, by the end of his reign, Amangkurat II was deeply distrusted by the Dutch, but Batavia were similarly uninterested in provoking another costly war on Java.

Wars of succession

Amangkurat II died in 1703 and was briefly succeeded by his son, Amangkurat III. However, this time the Dutch believed they had found a more reliable client, and hence supported his uncle Pangeran Puger, formerly Susuhunan ing Alaga, who had previously been defeated by VOC and Amangkurat II. Before the Dutch, he accused Amangkurat III of planning an uprising in East Java. Unlike Pangeran Puger, Amangkurat III inherited blood connection with Surabayan ruler, Jangrana II, from Amangkurat II and this lent credibility to the allegation that he cooperated with the now powerful Untung Surapati in Pasuruan. Panembahan Cakraningrat II of Madura, VOC’s most trusted ally, persuaded the Dutch to support Pangeran Puger. Though Cakraningrat II harbored personal hatred towards Puger, this move is understandable since alliance between Amangkurat III and his Surabaya relatives and Surapati in Bangil would be a great threat to Madura’s position, even though Jangrana II’s father was Cakraningrat II’s son-in-law. Pangeran Puger took the title of Pakubuwana I upon his accession in June 1704. The conflict between Amangkurat III and Pakubuwana I, the latter allied with the Dutch, usually termed First Javanese War of Succession, dragged on for five years before the Dutch managed to install Pakubuwana. In August 1705, Pakubuwono I’s retainers and VOC forces captured Kartasura without resistance from Amangkurat III, whose forces cowardly turned back when the enemy reached Ungaran. Surapati’s forces in Bangil, near Pasuruan, was crushed by the alliance of VOC, Kartasura and Madura in 1706. Jangrana II, who tended to side with Amangkurat III and did not venture any assistance to the capture of Bangil, was called to present himself before Pakubuwana I and murdered there by VOC’s request in the same year. Amangkurat III ran away to Malang with Surapati’s descendants and his remnant forces but Malang was then a no-man’s-land who offered no glory fit for a king. Therefore, though allied operations to the eastern interior of Java in 1706-08 did not gain much success in military terms, the fallen king surrendered in 1708 after being lured with the promises of household (lungguh) and land, but he was banished to Ceylon along with his wives and children. This is the end of Surabayan faction in Mataram, and – as we shall see later – this situation would ignite the political time bomb planted by Sultan Agung with his capture of Surabaya in 1625.

With the installation of Pakubuwana, the Dutch substantially increased their control over the interior of Central Java. Pakubuwana I was more than willing to agree to anything the VOC asked of him. In 1705 he agreed to cede the regions of Cirebon and eastern part of Madura (under Cakraningrat II), in which Mataram had no real control anyway, to the VOC. The VOC was given Semarang as new headquarters, the right to build fortresses anywhere in Java, a garrison in the kraton in Kartasura, monopoly over opium and textiles, and the right to buy as much rice as they wanted. Mataram would pay an annual tribute of 1300 metric tons of rice. Any debt made before 1705 was cancelled. In 1709, Pakubuwana I made another agreement with the VOC in which Mataram would pay annual tribute of wood, indigo and coffee (planted since 1696 by VOC’s request) in addition to rice. These tributes, more than anything else, made Pakubuwana I the first genuine puppet of the Dutch. On paper, these terms seemed very advantageous to the Dutch, since the VOC itself was in financial difficulties during the period of 1683-1710. But the ability of the king to fulfil the terms of agreement depended largely on the stability of Java, for which VOC has made a guarantee. It turned out later that the VOC’s military might was incapable of such a huge task.

The last years of Pakubuwana’s reign, from 1717 to 1719, were dominated by rebellion in East Java against the kingdom and its foreign patrons. The murder of Jangrana II in 1706 incited his three brothers, regents of Surabaya, Jangrana III, Jayapuspita and Surengrana, to raise a rebellion with the help of Balinese mercenaries in 1717. Pakubuwana I’s tributes to the VOC secured him a power which was feared by his subjects in Central Java, but this is for the first time since 1646 that Mataram was ruled by a king without any eastern connection. Surabaya had no reason to submit anymore and thirst for vengeance made the brother regents openly contest Mataram’s power in Eastern Java. Cakraningkrat III who ruled Madura after ousting the VOC’s loyal ally Cakraningrat II, had every reason to side with his cousins this time. The VOC managed to capture Surabaya after a bloody war in 1718 and Madura was pacified when Cakraningrat III was killed in a fight on board of the VOC’s ship in Surabaya in the same year though the Balinese mercenaries plundered eastern Madura and was repulsed by VOC in the same year. However, similar to the situation after Trunajaya’s uprising in 1675, the interior regencies in East Java (Ponorogo, Madiun, Magetan, Jogorogo) joined the rebellion en masse. Pakubuwana I sent his son, Pangeran Dipanagara (not to be confused with another prince with the same title who fought the Dutch in 1825-1830) to suppress the rebellion in the eastern interior but instead Dipanagara joined the rebel and assumed the messianic title of Panembahan Herucakra.

In 1719 Pakubuwana I died and his son Amangkurat IV took the throne in 1719, but his brothers, Pangeran Blitar and Purbaya contested the succession. They attacked the kraton in June 1719. When they were repulsed by the cannons in VOC’s fort, they retreated south to the land of Mataram. Another royal brother, Pangeran Arya Mataram, ran to Japara and proclaim himself king, thus began the Second War of Succession. Before the year ended, Arya Mataram surrendered and was strangled in Japara by king’s order and Blitar and Purbaya was dislodged from their stronghold in Mataram in November. In 1720, these two princes ran away to the still rebellious interior of East Java. Luckily for VOC and the young king, the rebellious regents of Surabaya, Jangrana III and Jayapuspita died in 1718-20 and Pangeran Blitar died in 1721. In May and June 1723, the remnants of the rebels and their leaders surrendered, including Surengrana of Surabaya, Pangeran Purbaya and Dipanagara, all of whom were banished to Ceylon, except Purbaya, who was taken to Batavia to serve as “backup” to replace Amangkurat IV in case of any disruption in the relationship between the king and VOC since Purbaya was seen to have equal “legitimacy” by VOC. It is obvious from these two Wars of Succession that even though VOC was virtually invincible in the field, mere military prowess was not sufficient to pacify Java.

 Court intrigues in 1723-1741

After 1723, the situation seemed to stabilize, much to the delight of the Dutch. Javanese nobility has learned that the alliance of VOC’s military with any Javanese faction makes them nearly invincible. It seemed that VOC’s plan to reap the profit from a stable Java under a kingdom which is deeply indebted to VOC would soon be realized. In 1726, Amangkurat IV fell to an illness that resembled poisoning. His son assumed the throne as Pakubuwana II, this time without any serious resistance from anybody. The history for the period of 1723 until 1741 was dominated by a series of intrigues which further showed the fragile nature of Javanese politics, held together by Dutch’s effort. In this relatively peaceful situation, the king could not gather the support of his “subjects” and instead was swayed by short-term ends siding with this faction for a moment and then to another. The king never seemed to lack challenges to his “legitimacy”. The descendants of Amangkurat III, who were allowed to return from Ceylon, and the royal brothers, especially Pangeran Ngabehi Loring Pasar and the banished Pangeran Arya Mangkunegara, tried to gain the support of the Dutch by spreading gossips of rebellion against the king and the patih (vizier), Danureja. At the same time, the patih tried to strengthen his position by installing his relatives and clients in the regencies, sometimes without king’s consent, at the expense of other nobles’ interests, including the powerful queens dowager, Ratu Amangkurat (Amangkurat IV’s wife) and Ratu Pakubuwana (Pakubuwana I’s wife), much to the confusion of the Dutch. The king tried to break the dominance of this Danureja by asking the help of the Dutch to banish him, but Danureja’s successor, Natakusuma, was influenced heavily by the Queen’s brother, Arya Purbaya, son of the rebel Pangeran Purbaya, who was also Natakusuma’s brother-in-law. Arya Purbaya’s erratic behavior in court, his alleged homosexuality which was abhorred by the pious king and rumors of his planning a rebellion against the “heathen” (the Dutch) caused unrest in Kartasura and hatred from the nobles. After his sister, the Queen, died of miscarriage in 1738, the king asked the Dutch to banish him, to which the Dutch complied gladly. Despite these faction strruggles, the situation in general did not show any signs of developing into full-scale war. Eastern Java was quiet: though Cakraningrat IV refused to pay homage to the court with various excuses, Madura was held under firm control by VOC and Surabaya did not stir. But dark clouds were forming. This time, the explosion came from the west: Batavia itself.

 Chinese War 1741-1743

In the meantime, the Dutch were contending with other problems. The excessive use of land for sugar cane plantation in the interior of West Java reduced the flow of water in Ciliwung River (which flows through the city of Batavia) and made the city canals an ideal breeding ground for mosquitoes, resulting in a series of malaria outbreak in 1733-1795. This was aggravated by the fall of sugar price in European market, bringing bankruptcy to sugar factories in the areas around Batavia (the Ommelanden), which were mostly operated and manned by Chinese labor. The unrest prompted VOC authorities to reduce the number of unlicensed Chinese settlers, who had been smuggled into Batavia by Chinese sugar factory owner. These laborers were loaded into ships out of Batavia but the gossip that these people were thrown to the sea as soon as the ship was beyond horizon caused panic among the Chinese. In 7 October 1740, several Chinese mob attacked Europeans outside the city and incited the Dutch to order a massacre two days later. The Chinese settlement in Batavia was looted for several days. The Chinese ran away and captured Bekasi, which was dislodged by VOC in June 1741.

In 1741, Chinese rebels were present in Central Java, particularly around Tanjung (Welahan), Pati, Grobogan, and Kaliwungu. In May 1741 Juwana was captured by the Chinese. The Javanese at first sided with the Dutch and reinforced Demak in 10 June 1741. Two days later, a detachment of Javanese forces together with VOC forces of European, Balinese and Buginese in Semarang to defend Tugu, west of Semarang. The Chinese rebel lured them into their main forces’s position in Mount Bergota through narrow road and ambushed them. The allied forces were dispersed and ran as fast as they could back to Semarang. The Chinese pursued them but were repulsed by Dutch cannons in the fortress. Semarang was seized by panic. By July 1741, the Chinese occupied Kaligawe, south of Semarang, Rembang, and besieged Jepara. This is the most dangerous time for VOC. Military superiority would enable VOC to hold Semarang without any support from Mataram forces, but it would mean nothing since a turbulent interior would disrupt trade and therefore profit, VOC’s main objective. One VOC high official, Abraham Roos, suggested that VOC assumed royal function in Java by denying Pakubuwana II’s “legitimacy” and asking the regents to take an oath of loyalty to VOC’s sovereignty. This was turned down by the Council of Indies (Raad van Indie) in Batavia, since even if VOC managed to conquer the coast, it would not be strong enough to conquer the mountainous interior of Java, which do not provide much level plain required by Western method of warfare. Therefore, the Dutch East India Company must support its superior but inadequate military by picking the right allies. One such ally had presented itself, that is Cakraningkrat IV of Madura who could be relied on to gold the eastern coast against the Chinese, but the interior of Eastern and Central Java was beyond the reach of this quarrelsome prince. Therefore, VOC had no choice but to side with Pakubuwana II.

VOC’s dire situation after the Battle of Tugu in July 1741 did not escape the king’s attention, but – like Amangkurat II – he avoided any open breach with VOC since his own kraton was not lacking of factions against him. He ordered Patih Natakusuma to do all the dirty work, such as ordering the Arch-Regent (Adipati) of Jipang (Bojonegoro), one Tumenggung Mataun, to join the Chinese. In September 1741, the king ordered Patih Natakusuma and several regents to help the Chinese besiege Semarang and let Natakusuma attack VOC garrison in Kartasura, who were starved into submission in August. However, reinforcement from VOC’s posts in Outer Islands were arriving since August and they were all wisely concentrated to repel the Chinese around Semarang. In the beginning of November, the Dutch attacked Kaligawe, Torbaya around Semarang, and repulsed the alliance of Javanese and Chinese forces who were stationed in four separate fortress and did not coordinate with each other. At the end of November, Cakraningrat IV had controlled the stretch of east coast from Tuban to Sedayu and the Dutch relieved Tegal of Chinese rebels. This caused Pakubuwana II to change sides and open negotiations with the Dutch.

In the next year 1742, the alliance of Javanese and Chinese let Semarang alone and captured Kudus and Pati in February. In March, Pakubuwana II sent a messenger to negotiate with the Dutch in Semarang and offered them absolute control over all northern coasts of Java and the privilege to appoint patih. VOC promptly sent van Hohendorff with a small force to observe the situation in Kartasura. Things began to get worse for Pakubuwana II. In April, the rebels set up Raden Mas Garendi, a descendant of Amangkurat III, as king with the title of Sunan Kuning.

In May, the Dutch agreed to support Pakubuwana II after considering that after all, the regencies in eastern interior were still loyal to this weak king but the Javano-Chinese rebel alliance had occupied the only road from Semarang to Kartasura and captured Salatiga. The princes in Mataram tried to attack the Javano-Chinese alliance but they were repulsed. On 30 June 1742, the rebels captured Kartasura and van Hohendorff had to run away from a hole in kraton wall with the helpless Pakubuwana II on his back. The Dutch, however, ignored Kartasura’s fate in rebel hands and concentrated its forces under Captain Gerrit Mom and Nathaniel Steinmets to repulse the rebels around Demak, Welahan, Jepara, Kudus and Rembang. By October 1742, the northern coast of Central Java was cleaned of the rebels, who seemed to disperse into the traditional rebel hideout in Malang to the east and the Dutch forces returned to Semarang in November. Cakraningrat IV, who wished to free the eastern coast of Java from Mataram influence, could not deter the Dutch from supporting Pakubuwana II but he managed to capture and plunder Kartasura in November 1742. In December 1742, VOC negotiated with Cakraningrat and managed to persuade him to relieve Kartasura of Madurese and Balinese troops under his pay. The treasures, however, remained in Cakraningrat’s hand.

The reinstatement of Pakubuwana II in Kartasura in 14 December 1742 marked the end of the Chinese war. It showed who was in control of the situation. Accordingly, Sunan Kuning surrendered in October 1743, followed by other rebel leaders. Cakraningrat IV was definitely not pleased with this situation and he began to make alliance with Surabaya, the descendants of Untung Surapati, and hired more Balinese mercenaries. He stopped paying tribute to VOC in 1744, and after a failed attempt to negotiate, the Dutch attacked Madura in 1745 and ousted Cakraningrat, who was banished to the Cape in 1746.

[edit] Division of Mataram

The divided Mataram in 1830, after the Java War.

The fall of Kartasura made the palace inauspicious for the king and Pakubuwana II built a new kraton in Surakarta or Solo and moved there in 1746. However, Pakubuwana II was far from secure in this throne. Raden Mas Said, or Pangeran Sambernyawa (meaning “Soul Reaper”), son of banished Arya Mangkunegara, who later would establish the princely house of Mangkunagara in Solo, and several other princes of the royal blood still maintained rebellion. Pakubuwana II declared that anyone who can suppress the rebellion in Sukawati, areas around present day Sragen, would be rewarded with 3000 households. Pangeran Mangkubumi, Pakuwana II’s brother, who would later establish the royal house of Yogyakarta took the challenge and defeated Mas Said in 1746. But when he claimed his prize, his old enemy, patih Pringgalaya, advised the king against it. In the middle of this problem, VOC’s Governor General, van Imhoff, paid a visit to the kraton, the first one to do so during the whole history of the relation between Mataram and VOC, in order to confirm the de facto Dutch possession of coastal and several interior regions. Pakubuwana II hesitantly accepted the cession in lieu of 20.000 real per year. Mangkubumi was dissatisfied with his brother’s decision to yield to van Imhoff’s insistence, which was made without consulting the other members of royal family and great nobles. van Imhoff had neither experience nor tactfulness to understand the delicate situation in Mataram and he rebuked Mangkubumi as “too ambitious” before the whole court when Mangkubumi claimed the 3000 households. This shameful treatment from a foreigner who had wrested the most prosperous lands of Mataram from his weak brother led him to raise his followers into rebellion in May 1746, this time with the help of Mas Said.

In the midst of Mangkubumi rebellion in 1749, Pakubuwana II fell ill and called van Hohendorff, his trusted friend who saved his life during the fall of Kartasura in 1742. He asked Hohendorff to assume control over the kingdom. Hohendorff was naturally surprised and refused, thinking that he would be made king of Mataram, but when the king insisted on it, he asked his sick friend to confirm it in writing. On 11 December 1749, Pakubuwana II signed an agreement in which the “sovereignty” of Mataram was given to VOC.

On 15 December 1749, Hohendorff announced the accession of Pakubuwana II’s son as the new king of Mataram with the title Pakubuwana III. However, three days earlier, Mangkubumi in his stronghold in Yogyakarta also announced his accession with the title Mangkubumi, with Mas Said as his patih. This rebellion got stronger day by day and even in 1753 the Crown Prince of Surakarta joined the rebels. VOC decided that it did have not the military capability to suppress this rebellion, though in 1752, Mas Said broke away from Hamengkubuwana. By 1754, all parties were tired of war and ready to negotiate.

The kingdom of Mataram was divided in 1755 under an agreement signed in Giyanti between the Dutch under the Governor General Nicolaas Hartingh and rebellious prince Mangkubumi. The treaty divided nominal control over central Java between Yogyakarta Sultanate, under Mangkubumi, and Surakarta, under Pakubuwana. Mas Said, however, proved to be stronger than the combined forces of Solo, Yogya and VOC. In 1756, he even almost captured Yogyakarta, but he realized that he could not defeat the three powers all by himself. In February 1757 he surrendered to Pakubuwana III and was given 4000 households, all taken from Pakubuwana III’s own lungguh, and a parcel of land near Solo, the present day Mangkunegaran Palace, and the title of “Pangeran Arya Adipati Mangkunegara”. This settlement proved successful in that political struggle was again confined to palace or inter-palace intrigues and peace was maintained until 1812.

b.Mataram Kingdom’s article

The Yogyakarta territory was once a large rain forest called “Alas Mentaok” (Mentaok Jungle) and Beringan Jungle of Paberingan. The Sultan of Pajang, Prince Hadiwijoyo (1546-1586) gave this jungle to Ki Gede Pemanahan and his son, Danang Sutowijoyo who was also an adopted son of the Sultan. As a reward for their services of extinguishing rebellion toward the Sultan that was led by ill Regent of Jipang Panolan, Haryo Penangsang. Along with Ki Juru Mertani and Ki Penjawi. Ki Gede Pemanahan stalled to cut off the jungle and founded a new country in Alas Mentaok tender the blessing of Sunan Kalijogo, a member of the nine greatest Javanese Islamic preachers (Wall Songo).
Along with the decline of the popularity of Pajang Sultanate. Ki Gede Pemanahan developed and spent a great effort la get more power in ruling the place presently known as Kota Cede. Deriving from the name of the jungle the had cut off to build a new place. Mentaok, they called their new regency “Mataram”, like the name of a great Hindu Kingdom in central Java in 7th century which is often called ancient Mataram Kingdom. For this hard effort then Ki Gede Pemanahan was honored with a new name as Adipati Haryo Mataram.
The one who succeeded to build Mataram Kingdom and centralized it in Kota Gede was Danang Sutowijoyo was also well-known as Ngabehi Loring Pasar for his dwelling was in the northern side of pasar (market) After beeing crowned as the Adipati (Regent) to be the successor of his father who had already passed away and honored with to new name. Panembahan Senopati, Danang Sutowijoyo rose a rebellion towards Pajang Sultanate and fought for his own power to role in Mataram. After winning the Great War against the armed soldiers of Pajang Sultanate, Danang Sutowijoyo Was crowned as the first King of Mataram and honored as Panembahan Senopati Ing Ngalogo Sayidin Panotogomo (1588-1601). In the reign of Panembahan Senopati who, as legend says, was helped by Kanjeng Ratu Kidul, the ruler and Queen of South Sea, Mataram Kingdom extended its territory to the places, which are now known as Sukoharjo, Klaten, Sragen as well as Surakarta.
When Sultan Paku Buwono III (1749-1788) was on the throne, they move their capital city of the Kingdom to Surakarta. It happened as the result of Gianti Treaty that vas hold on February 13rd, 1755 by Paku Buwono III, Prince Mangkubumi, and Van Johendotf the governor General of Netherland Indies as the initiator: This treaty was just used to persuade Prince Mangkubumi in order V.O.C. Under this treaty they agreed to divide Mataram into two, Surakarta Hadiningrat and Yogyakarta. Surakarta Hadiningrat was given to Paku Buwono and Yogyakarta to Prince Mangkubumi. Prince Mangkubumi then built a new Kingdom in the place that used to be Mataram Regency cutting of Beringan jungle near Garjitowati village, not so far front Kota Gede. This New Kingdom was called as Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat. Prince Mangkubumi sat on the throne as the first Sultan of Yogyakarta and honored with a new name, Sultan Hamengku Buwono I (1755-1792). Yogya lies in the center of Java’s ‘realm of the dead’, a city surrounded by anceint ruins. The Mataram empire of Central Java felt apart under Dutch pressure and formed the two states of Surakarta (Solo) and

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Sultan Pajang’s  History

Kingdom of Pajang

1568 ¹–1586
Capital Pajang
Language(s) Javanese
Religion Islam
Government Monarchy
 – 1568-1586 ¹ Hadiwijaya
 – Hadiwijaya assumes throne 1568 ¹
 – transfer of power to Mataram 1586
¹ (1548-1568 was interregnum due to various claimants after death of the last Demak ruler, King Trenggana of Demak Kingdom)

The Kingdom of Pajang (1568–1586) was founded a short-lived Muslim state in Java. It was established by Hadiwijaya or Jaka Tingkir, Lord of Boyolali, after ending civil war in and as successor to Sultanate of Demak. Hadiwijaya was a descendant of Brawijaya V, the last king of Majapahit, and Trenggana, the Sultan of Demak.

In the last battle against the last claimant of Demak, the vicious Arya Penangsang, Jaka Tingkir commissioned his greatest vassal: Ki Ageng Pamanahan and his son, Sutawijaya to destroy Arya Penangsang’s army. The two managed to defeat and kill Arya Penangsang and were thus awarded a fief in a forest called Alas Mentaok, now Kotagede, on which they founded their base for the future capital of Mataram Kingdom. (1)

Legend said that the King Hadiwijaya was very fond of Sutawijaya that he adopted Sutawijaya as the play-mate of his heir, Prince Banawa. Hadiwijaya’s rule was supposed to be succeeded by this weak-minded heir, but a rebellion by a vassal named Ario Pangiri forced the heir of King to seek asylum to his childhood friend, Sutawijaya.

Pledged to help, Sutawijaya gathered his army and defeated Ario Pangiri and seized the Pajang Palace. The Prince Banawa then submitted his crown to Sutawijaya and thus ended the history of Kingdom of Pajang in 1586, when Sutawijaya founded the greatest Islamic kingdom in Java: Mataram Sultanate.

Djoko Tingkir Info

Joko Tingkir, or sometimes written as Jaka Tingkir, is the founder and the first king of the Sultanate of Pajang. He ruled from 1549 to 1582. He is also known by the title of Sultan Hadiwijaya.


He was the son of Ki Ageng Pengging, born as Mas Karèbèt. When he was conceived, his father was having a wayang beber (shadow puppet) show performed by Ki Ageng Tingkir as the dalang. Both are the followers of Syekh Siti Jenar. Afterwards, unfortunately Ki Ageng Tingkir become sick and then died.

Ten years later, Ki Ageng Pengging was given capital punishment on the ground of rebellion against the Sultanate of Demak. Sunan Kudus become the executioner. After his husband’s death, Nyai Ageng Pengging also fell sick and died. So, since then Mas Karebet was taken care of by Nyai Ageng Tingkir, the widow of Ki Ageng Tingkir.

When he grew up, he became widely known as Jaka Tingkir. He followed the teaching of Sunan Kalijaga, as well as Ki Ageng Sela. He was also considered as related to the three grandsons of Ki Ageng Tingkir, Ki Juru Martani, Ki Ageng Pemanahan, and Ki Panjawi.

The Geanology of Jaka Tingkir

Abdurrohman (P. Sambud Bagda) bin Abdul Halim (P. Benawa) bin Abdurrahman (Jaka Tingkir) bin Ainul Yaqin (Sunan Giri) bin Ishak bin Ibrahim Asmura bin Jamaludin Husain bin Ahmad Syah Jalal bin Abdullah Khan bin Amir Abdul Malik bin Alawi bin Muhammad Shohibul Mirbat bin Ali Chali’ Qasam bin Alawi Muhammad bin Muhammad bin Alawi bin Ubaidillah bin Ahmad Al-Muhajir Ilallah bin Isa Arrumi bin Muhammad Annaqib bin Ali Al-’Uroidi bin Ja’far Shodiq bin Muhammad Al-Baqir bin Ali Zaenal Abidin bin Husein putra Siti Fathimah Az-Zahro binti Rasulillah, Muhammad saw

Ranji Joko Tingkir

Marga (saat dilahirkan) Pajang
Jenis Kelamin Pria
Nama lengkap (saat dilahirkan) Joko Tingkir
Nama lainnya Sultan Hadiwijaya, Raja Pajang, Sultan Pajang, Kanjeng Sultan Hadiwijoyo, Kanjeng Raden Hadiwijoyo, Kanjeng Sultan Kasunanan Pajang, Raden Mas Hadiwijoyo, Mas Karebet, Jaka Tingkir, Sri Baginda Datuk Palembang
Ayah ibu # Ki Ageng Kebo Kenongo [Pengging] Nyai Ratu Mandoko [Azmatkhan]


 kelahiran anak: Putri (no 13) [?]

 kelahiran anak: Pangeran Aryo Benowo [Pajang]

 kelahiran anak: Ratu Pembayun [Demak]

 perkawinan: Raden Rara Wuragil [Wuragil]

 perkawinan: Ratu Mas Cempaka [Demak]

Dari kakek nenek sampai cucu-cucu


kematian: 1518
kelahiran: Terdapat berbagai versi tentang asal-usul pendiri Kesultanan Demak. Menurut Babad Tanah Jawi, Raden Patah adalah putra Brawijaya raja terakhir Majapahit (versi babad) dari seorang selir Cina. Karena Ratu Dwarawati sang permaisuri yang berasal dari Campa
perkawinan: Putri selir / Garwa ampil
gelar: Arya Kenceng memimpin saudara-saudaranya sebagai penguasa Bali bawahan Majapahit. Arya Kenceng dan saudara-saudaranya dianggap sebagai leluhur raja-raja Tabanan dan Badung.
gelar: Arya Kutawandira dibawah pimpinan saudaranya Arya Kenceng dalam pemerintahan penguasa Bali yang menjadi bawahan Majapahit. Ia dianggap sebagai leluhur raja-raja Tabanan dan Badung.
gelar: Arya Sentong dibawah pimpinan saudaranya Arya Kenceng dalam pemerintahan penguasa Bali yang menjadi bawahan Majapahit. Arya Sentong dianggap sebagai leluhur Tabanan dan Badung.
gelar: Arya Belog dibawah pimpinan saudaranya Arya Kenceng dalam pemerintahan penguasa Bali yang menjadi bawahan Majapahit. Arya Belog dianggap sebagai leluhur Tabanan dan Badung.
pekerjaan: Adipati di Ponorogo
Ayah ibu
Ayah ibu
== 3 ==
== 3 ==



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