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Select The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

driwancybermuseum comic history collections,Uncategorized More stats
2
2012/07/29
Published
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2012/04/16
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The Comic History Collections part one Detective Comic

The Comic history

Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Prive Limited E-BOOK in CD-ROM Edition

Special for Premium Member

Copyright@2012

 

 

March 1937

The first detetctive Comic no 1 in March 1937

the detective comic no 40 june 1937 Batman

1938

The detective comic no 21 in 19281939

The Detective Comic no 27 the Batman in  1939

Synopsis for “The Case of the Chemical Syndicate”

Commissioner Gordon learns that a chemical industrialist named Lambert has just been murdered. It appears as if Lambert’s son is guilty of the crime, but he confesses only to finding his father’s body. Bruce Wayne is present at the crime scene and decides to investigate as the Batman.

Exploring Lambert’s contacts, he discovers the names of his old business partners, Steven Crane, Paul Rogers and Alfred Stryker. Shortly thereafter, Steven Crane is found dead in his home. Paul Rogers learns of the murder and seeks out the last surviving business partner, Alfred Stryker. But Stryker reveals himself to be behind the crimes and kidnaps Rogers. He wants total control over their business interests.

Batman swoops down inside of Stryker’s chemical factory and rescues Rogers. Stryker tries to attack him but Batman beats him back, toppling the criminal into a vat of acid

 

April 194

The Detective Comic no 33 in nopember  1939

0

 

Detective comic no 38 The Robin in 1940

1941

The detective comic no 41 in 1941

AND WILL SEEN THE INFO LIKE THIS AND CLICK TO VIEW

OR YOU WANT TO FIND THE INDONESIAN STAMP OR REVEBNUE  POSTAL HISTORY

WRITE IN SERACH BOD

DAI NIPPON HISTORY

AND YOU WILL SEEN THIS

DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION iNDONESIA

THE CLICK VIEW

The Sample Of Driwan E=book IN CD-ROM:” Dai Nippon Occupation Eastren Indonesia Area 1942-1945″

This is is the sample Od Dr Iwan CD-rom without illustration and not edited, the complete Cd with illustration exist but only for premium member please subscribed via comment

The Dai Nippon War In Indonesia

Book Three

The dai Nippon Occupation Eastren Area of Indonesia

 

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy.MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Sebior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

While in Tokyo

 Major-General Kawaguchi

was informed that the enemy strength in British Borneo was estimated at approximately 1,000 regular soldiers (mostly Indians) and 2,500 native volunteers, with a probable further

5,600 Dutch soldiers in Dutch Borneo.

 Intelligence sources reported that the entire island was covered with dense jungle with only a few poor roads near the river mouths. The only means of transportation was possible by water. Information in regard to weather and terrain was very scant and not very reliable and there was only one small scale map of the island available.

 

Immediately upon his return to

Canton

 from Tokyo, the Detachment commander proceeded to

 

Sanya,

Hainan Island,

to attend a conference with the Commander-in-Chief of the Southern Expeditionary Fleet and the Direct Escort Fleet commander in order to reach an agreement on co-operative measures in the event of war.

 

 

It was decided that the first Japanese landings would be made at aerawk in

Miri

and

Serian

in order to capture vital oilfields and airfields in these towns. Part of the force would remain in this area to reestablish Miri oilfield while the main body would advance and capture the Kuching airfield. All units of the Kawaguchi Detachment had to receive special training in landing under cover of darkness and in jungle fighting, and naturally they also had to change their equipment and would have to be given special survival and field sanitation training.

On 20 November 1941,

 The Kawaguchi’s Brigade was activated in Tokyo (Japan), and placed under

 the direct command of the Southern Army.

It was commanded by

Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi

 

 and it was composed mainly of

 the following Japanese units stationed at Canton, southern China, which had been previously

 under the command of the Japanese  18th Infantry Division:

Order of Battle for Japanese forces
Sarawak, December 1941
Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi(commander) 
35thInfantry Brigade Headquarters 
124th Infantry Regiment
one platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
a unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
a unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
a unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

In addition, the following units from Japan and Manchuria were to be used to reinforce the Detachment:

33rd Field AA Battalion
one company of the 26th Independent Engineer Regiment
(minus two platoons)
2nd Independent Engineer Company
80th Independent Radio Platoon
37th Fixed Radio Unit
a unit from the Oil Drilling Section of the 21st Field Ordnance Depot
1st Field Well Drilling Company
2nd Field Well Drilling Company
3rd Field Well Drilling Company
4th Field Well Drilling Company
48th Anchorage Headquarters
118th Land Duty Company

 

 
 

Top of Form

(Satoru Nibo) Satoshi Nibo. 05 5 (1916) Taisho,

 

born as the eldest son of eight siblings in a village Naoki Ijuin Gujo Hioki, Kagoshima Prefecture. July 13 (1938) Showa, commissioned second lieutenant. August

Indonesia Independence Revolution and War Book and CD-ROM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION & WAR 1945-1950

Based On Dr Iwan Postal And Document Collection

                   

                          

                              CREATED BY Dr IWAN S

                                  

Limited edition 100 expls

        Private Publication Special for Collectors member

                                     Jakarta,2012                                                                                   

@copyright Dr Iwan S ,201hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR WAR 1945-1950

Edisi Terbatas 100 eksp

Publikasi Pribadi Khusus untuk Kolektor postal Histori

Penulis : Dr Iwan S

Editor  : Anton J.S.

Penyunting : Lily W.

Photographer : Albert SDO & INDRA SANUSI

NAMA PEMILIK: Dr Iwan S

NO. PERCOBAAN 001

@Copyright Dr Iwan S 2011

 

Private Limited E-book Special For Collectors.

Copyright @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

Hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

PS.THE common economic 100 CDand lux complte special  CD_ROM  only ten CDexist now,please suncribed via comment.

INTRODUCTION

PREFACE-PENGANTAR

1.The Situation of Indonesia Indepennce Revolution and war  1945-195o, manywritten by local and overseas writers , butbased onfactual informationfrom a collectionof documentsandpersonalitemshave not beenmanypoststhatwere writtenbyauthors fromIndonesiaby using theIndonesian language andBritain, this is becausenot manypeopleIndonesia, which hasdocumentsandobjectsthat heading, generallyin Indonesia  were burnedoutor destroyedwhendisplaced,and atthe endbrokenfrom floods. Generally whentheresult ofthe politicalsituationduringthe Indonesian Independence Revolution and War  1945-195oin generalpeopleare veryafraid tokeeppersonalrecordsrelated towarthat couldbecomeevidence oftheirinvolvementaskolaburator Dutch Nica or republic  soldiersandtroopsfighter  willaccusetheyspy from each side in their area   with the consequentadverse to the document or collections owner.

  Situasi revolusi dan Perang Kemerdeaan Indonesia  1945-1950,sudah banyak ditulis oleh  penulis dalam dan luar luar negeri, tetapi yang berdasarkan informasi factual dari koleksi dokumen and benda pos pribadi belum banyak yang ditulis oleh pengarang dari Indonesia dengan mengunakan bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Ingris, hal ini karena tidak banyak bangsa Indonesia yang memiliki dokumen-dokumen and benda pos tersebut ,umumnya  habis dibakar atau musnah saat mengungsi ,dan paling akhir rusak akibat banjir. Umumnya saat tersebut akibat situasi politis saat perang  kemerdekaan Indonesia  1945-1950 ,pada umumnya rakyat Indonesia sangat takut menyimpan arsip pribadi terkait perang tersebut  yang dapat menjadi bukti mereka terlibat sebagai kolaburator tentara  Belanda Nica atau  dan pasukan Repoeblik Indonesia , Tentara Belanda Nica atau Tentara repoeblik Indonesia   akan menuduh mereka mata-mata   dengan akibat yang  merugikan sipemilik.

2.One of a rare republic Indonesia Sumatra   postalcard   one year Indonesian Independence have found by the writers at  Bukittinggi in 1985, and this rare collections had gave the motivation to write the special book for Indonesian,Japan and Dutch  postal history collectors and another collectors from all over the world. Please look that cover illustration below.

Salah satu koleksi langka kartu pos pos Sumatra peringatan satu tahun merdeka  yang ditemui oleh penulis di Bukittinggi tahun 1985 , dan koleksi langka ini  memberikan motivasi untuk menulis suatu buku khusus untuk kolektor phillatelis di Indonesia,Jepang dan Belanda  serta kolektor  lainnya.dari seluruh dunia.

3.After Indonesian Independence revolution and war finish and Indonesia became  the unity Republic Indonesia in 1950 , many stamp and postal history collectors Collected     the collection as the factual fact of history, one of the Dutch biggest collector Mr Vrijdag  asking Mr V.Esbensen to made the catalogue of his very amazing collections.and some of my collection also be the based ,mr V.Esbensen told me what you are doing will be the great collections if your country became development country.    In 1985, Mr PR Bulterman     from dutch visit me in Padang,when he look at my collections he told me how amazing that collections, he want to bought because some of the collectionnhe never seen before , but I did not want to sell to him, but in 1988 I sold several collections To Mr Karel from Jakarta Indonesia because  I need fund to move and study to Jakarta,  but the illustration of collections I still have,and after that in 1994 I am starting to collect again until now, the biggest colletion will be the based on this book including postal history stamp and revenue, numismatic ,document and picture collections       

 

  Setelah Kemerdekaan Indonesia revolusi dan perang selesai dan Indonesia menjadi kesatuan Republik Indonesia pada tahun 1950, banyak cap pos dan kolektor sejarah Dikumpulkan koleksi sebagai kenyataan faktual sejarah, salah satu yang terbesar kolektor Mr Belanda Vrijdag meminta Mr V. Esbensen untuk dibuat katalog dari collections.and nya sangat menakjubkan beberapa koleksi saya juga berdasarkan, mr V. Esbensen mengatakan kepada saya apa yang Anda lakukan akan menjadi koleksi besar jika negara anda menjadi negara pembangunan.Pada tahun 1985, Bapak PR Bulterman dari belanda mengunjungi saya di Padang, ketika ia melihat koleksi saya dia mengatakan saya bagaimana menakjubkan yang koleksi, dia ingin membeli karena beberapa collectionnhe tidak pernah terlihat sebelumnya, tetapi saya tidak ingin menjual kepadanya, namun pada tahun 1988 saya menjual beberapa koleksi untuk Bapak Karel dari Jakarta Indonesia karena saya membutuhkan dana untuk bergerak dan studi ke Jakarta, namun ilustrasi koleksi saya masih punya, dan setelah itu pada tahun 1994 saya mulai mengumpulkan lagi sampai sekarang, colletion terbesar akan didasarkan pada buku ini termasuk sejarah perangko pos dan pendapatan, numismatik, dokumen dan koleksi gambar        .                               

    

4.In 2009 I am starting to write a simple story and add in my internet blog with the same name with historic  chronolic ,many comment and asked me to edit this simple story with more interesting style and illustrated with more professional photography..

Tahun 2009 penulis memulai suatu tulisan sederhana sebagai pecobaan, di tampilkan dalam suatu blog internet dengan nama yang sama dengan penampilan kronologis historis, banyak tanggapan dan saran agar penulis mengedit dan menyusun tulisan yang lebih sederhan dengan gaya ,cerita yang lebih menarik dilengkapi illustrasi koleksi yang tehnik fotografi yang canggih.

5.The professional writing starting in June 2010 until august  2012 ,with more professional proposal help by the professional team editor,layout and photography, as the firs issue in Private productions limited 100 expl in CR-Rom.

Penulisan dimulai bulan Juni 2011 sampai Augustus 2012  dengan rencana yang lebih matang dibantu oleh suatu tim editor,layout dan,photography ,sebagai penerbitan pertama secara pribadi akan di terbitkan edisi terbatas  100 eksemplar dalam CR-ROM

6.I know that this book have many lack of information and written technologically , that is why I need more comment and corrections to made this book more complete and more best performance in the future.

Penulis menyadari buku ini masih banyak kekurangan dan kekeliruan sehingga diharapkan koreksi ,saran dan tambahan informasi agar dapat disempurnakan.

8.Thanks very much to all my friends for their comment that made this book created as the proposal on time, and will lauching in order to celebrate  the67th Indonesia Indepedence day August 17thth 2012 may be  at International Phillatelic Exhibition Indonesia 20122  at June 2012 , I am sorry I cannot listed the name of my friends here.without then this book cannot write in good and interesting, also takns very much to my collectors who visit my three internet Web Blog site

hhtp://www. unqiecollections.wordpress.com ,  hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com.  hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

IF YOU WANT TO GET THE COMPLETE cd-rom,SPECIAL FOR  INDONESIAN COLLECTORS ONLY,

OLEASE SEND YOUR KOPI Ktp WITH COMPLETE ADRRESS AND NO TELPON TO DR IWAN EMAIL

iq=WANSUWANDY@GMAIL.COM

AFTER YOU SEND  rP.500.000)(LIMA RATUS RIBU RUPIAH) LIWAT atm bca KEPADA dR iWAN,cd AKAN DIKRIM KERUMAH ANDA LIWAT tITITPAN kILAT,BIAYA SUDAH TERMASUK ONGKOS KIRIM.

 

THANKS FOR VISIT DR IWAN CYBERMUSUEUM WEB BLOG

studi banding soemitro dan soedirman dua tokoh masa lalu DENGAN Prabowo dan jokowi tokoh masa kini

STUDI BANDING DUA TOKOH MASA LALU YANG SUDAH MULAI DILUPAKAN DENGAN DUA TOKOH MASA KINI YANG LAGI TOP

DISUNTING OLE

Dr Iwan Uwandy<MHA

bUku Elektronik gratis  Bagi

SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

BERDASARKAN ARTIKEL KARANGAN SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

Dengan Bantuan Kemajuan Teknologi

GOOGLE EKSPLORASI

KATA PENGANTAR

Dipagi yang sejuk ini  sya terbangun karen lampu tiba-tiba padam gelap

tal dapat tidur tetapi segera hidup lagi terang dalam sekejap berubah situasi

BEGITU JUGALAH DENGAN DUA TOKOH MASA LALU YANG SUDAH MULAI DILUPAKAN DAN TERANG DUA TOKOH MASA KINI YANG LAGI POPULER TERANG BENDERANG

KEDUA TOKOH ITU ADA HUBUNGANNYA.

Supaya pembaca tidak bosan saya tidak mencantumkan nama pengarang artikel dan refrensi terkait,karena saya anggap ini karangan seluruh rakyat indonesia dan

di tujukkan kepada seluruh rakyat Indonesia

Saya buat dipagi buta agar mata jadi bisa tidur lagi dalam waktu secepat mungkin.

Ayo kita muali

INILAH HASIL STUDI BANDING PENDAPAT RAKYAT INDONESIA TENTANG DUA TOKOH MASA LALU DAN DUA TOKOH MASA KINI

Semoga ada gunanya demi untuk kemajuan Bangsa dan negara Yang Kita Cintai Ini

Jakarta 1 April 2014

KATA ORANG DULU BERBOHONG DI HARI  APRIL MOB INI TIDAK ADA DOSANYA,TETAPI INI BUKAN BOHONG,SAYA JADI INGAT DULU TEMAN SAYA MENGUNDANG PESTA DANSA DI APRIL MOB BANYAK MUDA MUDI TERKECOH KARENA PESTA TAK ADA

TETAPI APRIL MOB TAHUN INI ADALAH KEJADIAN SEBENARNYA

PESTA DEMMOKRASI DIMULAI

HASIL STUDI BANDING, UCAPAN TERIMA KASIH KEPADA PENCIP[TA GOOGLE,ANDA TELAH MEMBANTU SAYA DAN SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

SIAPA ITU DUA TOKOH MASA LALU DAN MASA KINI ?

SOEMITRO

Sumitro Djojohadikusumo Suara Merdeka 2 Apr 1952 p1.jpg

Prof. Dr. Raden Mas Soemitro Djojohadikoesoemo (often spelt Sumitro Djojohadikusumo) (born in Kebumen, Central Java on May 29, 1917 and died in Jakarta on March 9, 2001) was one of Indonesia‘s most prominent economists. During his lifetime Sumitro held several prominent roles including the Dean of the Faculty of Economics at the University of Indonesia.

Soemitro’s children include the current Presidential candidate Prabowo Subianto and the Indonesian entrepreneur Hashim Djojohadikusumo. Bianti Djiwandono, his daughter is married to the former Governor of Bank Indonesia, Soedradjad Djiwandono. His son Prabowo was briefly married to Titiek Hediati, the daughter of former Indonesian president Suharto

Prabowo wapres.jpeg

Prabowo Subianto (born 17 October 1951) is an Indonesian businessman, politician and former Lieutenant General in the Indonesian National Armed Forces. In the Indonesian presidential election, 2009 he ran for the vice-presidency as part of Megawati Sukarnoputri‘s campaign for president.[1] In November 2011, Prabowo announced his intention to run for president in the next Indonesian presidential election, 2014.[2] Prabowo is the son of Sumitro Djojohadikusumo, an Indonesian economist, and is also the former husband of Siti Hediati “Titiek” Suharto, the late President Suharto‘s daughter

 

 

 

 

 

Biografi Jendral Besar Soedirman. Seluruh masyarakat Indonesia pasti mengenal salah satu pahlawan besar ini, namanya sangat terkenal di Indonesia diaalah Jendral Besar Soedirman menurut Ejaan Soewandi dibaca Sudirman, Jenderal besar Indonesia ini lahir di Bodas Karangjati, Rembang, Purbalingga, 24 Januari 1916. Jenderal Sudirman merupakan salah satu tokoh besar di antara sedikit orang lainnya yang pernah dilahirkan oleh suatu revolusi. Saat usianya masih 31 tahun ia sudah menjadi seorang jenderal. Meski menderita sakit paru-paru yang parah, ia tetap bergerilya melawan Belanda. Ia berlatar belakang seorang guru HIS Muhammadiyah di Cilacap dan giat di kepanduan Hizbul Wathan

Ketika pendudukan Jepang, ia masuk tentara Pembela Tanah Air (Peta) di Bogor yang begitu tamat pendidikan, langsung menjadi Komandan Batalyon di Kroya. Menjadi Panglima Divisi V/Banyumas sesudah TKR terbentuk, dan akhirnya terpilih menjadi Panglima Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia (Panglima TNI). Ia merupakan Pahlawan Pembela Kemerdekaan yang tidak perduli pada keadaan dirinya sendiri demi mempertahankan Republik Indonesia yang dicintainya. Ia tercatat sebagai Panglima sekaligus Jenderal pertama dan termuda Republik ini.

Sudirman merupakan salah satu pejuang dan pemimpin teladan bangsa ini. Pribadinya teguh pada prinsip dan keyakinan, selalu mengedepankan kepentingan masyarakat banyak dan bangsa di atas kepentingan pribadinya. Ia selalu konsisten dan konsekuen dalam membela kepentingan tanah air, bangsa, dan negara. Hal ini boleh dilihat ketika Agresi Militer II Belanda. Ia yang dalam keadaan lemah karena sakit tetap bertekad ikut terjun bergerilya walaupun harus ditandu. Dalam keadaan sakit, ia memimpin dan memberi semangat pada prajuritnya untuk melakukan perlawanan terhadap Belanda. Itulah sebabnya kenapa ia disebutkan merupakan salah satu tokoh besar yang dilahirkan oleh revolusi negeri ini.

Sudirman yang dilahirkan di Bodas Karangjati, Purbalingga, 24 Januari 1916, ini memperoleh pendidikan formal dari Sekolah Taman Siswa, sebuah sekolah yang terkenal berjiwa nasional yang tinggi. Kemudian ia melanjut ke HIK (sekolah guru) Muhammadiyah, Solo tapi tidak sampai tamat. Sudirman muda yang terkenal disiplin dan giat di organisasi Pramuka Hizbul Wathan ini kemudian menjadi guru di sekolah HIS Muhammadiyah di Cilacap. Kedisiplinan, jiwa pendidik dan kepanduan itulah kemudian bekal pribadinya hingga bisa menjadi pemimpin tertinggi Angkatan Perang.

Sementara pendidikan militer diawalinya dengan mengikuti pendidikan tentara Pembela Tanah Air (Peta) di Bogor. Setelah selesai pendidikan, ia diangkat menjadi Komandan Batalyon di Kroya. Ketika itu, pria yang memiliki sikap tegas ini sering memprotes tindakan tentara Jepang yang berbuat sewenang-wenang dan bertindak kasar terhadap anak buahnya. Karena sikap tegasnya itu, suatu kali dirinya hampir saja dibunuh oleh tentara Jepang.

Setelah Indonesia merdeka, dalam suatu pertempuran dengan pasukan Jepang, ia berhasil merebut senjata pasukan Jepang di Banyumas. Itulah jasa pertamanya sebagai tentara pasca kemerdekaan Indonesia. Sesudah Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR) terbentuk, ia kemudian diangkat menjadi Panglima Divisi V/Banyumas dengan pangkat Kolonel. Dan melalui Konferensi TKR tanggal 2

//
Nopember 1945, ia terpilih menjadi Panglima Besar TKR/Panglima Angkatan Perang Republik Indonesia. Selanjutnya pada tanggal 18 Desember 1945, pangkat Jenderal diberikan padanya lewat pelantikan Presiden. Jadi ia memperoleh pangkat Jenderal tidak melalui Akademi Militer atau pendidikan tinggi lainnya sebagaimana lazimnya, tapi karena prestasinya.Ketika pasukan sekutu datang ke Indonesia dengan alasan untuk melucuti tentara Jepang, ternyata tentara Belanda ikut dibonceng. Karenanya, TKR akhirnya terlibat pertempuran dengan tentara sekutu. Demikianlah pada Desember 1945, pasukan TKR yang dipimpin oleh Sudirman terlibat pertempuran melawan tentara Inggris di Ambarawa. Dan pada tanggal 12 Desember tahun yang sama, dilancarkanlah serangan serentak terhadap semua kedudukan Inggris. Pertempuran yang berkobar selama lima hari itu akhirnya memaksa pasukan Inggris mengundurkan diri ke Semarang.Pada saat pasukan Belanda kembali melakukan agresinya atau yang lebih dikenal dengan Agresi Militer II Belanda, Ibukota Negara RI berada di Yogyakarta sebab Kota Jakarta sebelumnya sudah dikuasai. Jenderal Sudirman yang saat itu berada di Yogyakarta sedang sakit. Keadaannya sangat lemah akibat paru-parunya yang hanya tingggal satu yang berfungsi.Dalam Agresi Militer II Belanda itu, Yogyakarta pun kemudian berhasil dikuasai Belanda. Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta serta beberapa anggota kabinet juga sudah ditawan. Melihat keadaan itu, walaupun Presiden Soekarno sebelumnya telah menganjurkannya untuk tetap tinggal dalam kota untuk melakukan perawatan. Namun anjuran itu tidak bisa dipenuhinya karena dorongan hatinya untuk melakukan perlawanan pada Belanda serta mengingat akan tanggungjawabnya sebagai pemimpin tentara.Maka dengan ditandu, ia berangkat memimpin pasukan untuk melakukan perang gerilya. Kurang lebih selama tujuh bulan ia berpindah-pindah dari hutan yang satu ke hutan yang lain, dari gunung ke gunung dalam keadaan sakit dan lemah sekali sementara obat juga hampir-hampir tidak ada. Tapi kepada pasukannya ia selalu memberi semangat dan petunjuk seakan dia sendiri tidak merasakan penyakitnya. Namun akhirnya ia harus pulang dari medan gerilya, ia tidak bisa lagi memimpin Angkatan Perang secara langsung, tapi pemikirannya selalu dibutuhkan.Sudirman yang pada masa pendudukan Jepang menjadi anggota Badan Pengurus Makanan Rakyat dan anggota Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Keresidenan Banyumas, ini pernah mendirikan koperasi untuk menolong rakyat dari bahaya kelaparan. Jenderal yang mempunyai jiwa sosial yang tinggi, ini akhirnya harus meninggal pada usia yang masih relatif muda, 34 tahun.

Pada tangal 29 Januari 1950, Panglima Besar ini meninggal dunia di Magelang dan dimakamkan di Taman Makam Pahlawan Semaki, Yogyakarta. Ia dinobatkan sebagai Pahlawan Pembela Kemerdekaan.

Berikut Ini Data Lengkap Tengtang Jendral Besar Soedirman
Nama:
Jenderal Sudirman
Lahir:
Bodas Karangjati, Purbalingga, 24 Januari 1916
Meninggal:
Magelang, 29 Januari 1950

Agama:
Islam
Pendidikan Fomal:
– Sekolah Taman Siswa
– HIK Muhammadiyah, Solo (tidak tamat)
Pendidikan Tentara:
Pembela Tanah Air (Peta) di Bogor
Pengalaman Pekerjaan:
Guru di HIS Muhammadiyah di Cilacap
Pengalaman Organisasi:
Kepanduan Hizbul Wathan
Jabatan di Militer:
– Panglima Besar TKR/TNI, dengan pangkat Jenderal
– Panglima Divisi V/Banyumas, dengan pangkat Kolonel
– Komandan Batalyon di Kroya
Tanda Penghormatan:
Pahlawan Pembela Kemerdekaan
Meniggal:
Magelang, 29 Januari 1950
Dimakamkan:
Taman Makam Pahlawan Semaki, Yogyakarta

Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

Jokowi adalah tokoh pemimpin terpuji Walikota Solo dan berperan memperomosikan Mobil ESEMKA. Ir. Joko Widodo (Jokowi) adalah walikota Kota Surakarta (Solo) untuk dua kali masa bhakti 2005-2015. Wakil walikotanya adalah F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo. Jokowi lahir di Surakarta pada 21 Juni 1961. Agama Jokowi adalah Islam. Pada 2012 Jokowi memenangkan Pilkada DKI Jakarta dan ditetapkan sebagi Gubernur DKI Jakarta. Banyak pihak optimis dengan kinerja Jokowi dan wakilnya Ahok untuk memperbaiki kota Jakarta yang semerawut.
Jokowi

Biografi Jokowi (Joko Widodo)

Jokowi meraih gelar insinyur dari Fakultas Kehutanan UGM pada tahun 1985. Ketika mencalonkan diri sebagai walikota Solo, banyak yang meragukan kemampuan pria yang berprofesi sebagai pedagang mebel rumah dan taman ini; bahkan hingga saat ia terpilih. Namun setahun setelah ia memimpin, banyak gebrakan progresif dilakukan olehnya. Ia banyak mengambil contoh pengembangan kota-kota di Eropa yang sering ia kunjungi dalam rangka perjalanan bisnisnya.

Di bawah kepemimpinannya, Solo mengalami perubahan yang pesat. Branding untuk kota Solo dilakukan dengan menyetujui moto “Solo: The Spirit of Java“. Langkah yang dilakukannya cukup progresif untuk ukuran kota-kota di Jawa: ia mampu merelokasi pedagang barang bekas di Taman Banjarsari hampir tanpa gejolak untuk merevitalisasi fungsi lahan hijau terbuka, memberi syarat pada investor untuk mau memikirkan kepentingan publik, melakukan komunikasi langsung rutin dan terbuka (disiarkan oleh televisi lokal) dengan masyarakat. Taman Balekambang, yang terlantar semenjak ditinggalkan oleh pengelolanya, dijadikannya taman. Jokowi juga tak segan menampik investor yang tidak setuju dengan prinsip kepemimpinannya. Sebagai tindak lanjut branding ia mengajukan Surakarta untuk menjadi anggota Organisasi Kota-kota Warisan Dunia dan diterima pada tahun 2006. Langkahnya berlanjut dengan keberhasilan Surakarta menjadi tuan rumah Konferensi organisasi tersebut pada bulan Oktober 2008 ini. Pada tahun 2007 Surakarta juga telah menjadi tuan rumah Festival Musik Dunia (FMD) yang diadakan di kompleks Benteng Vastenburg yang terancam digusur untuk dijadikan pusat bisnis dan perbelanjaan. FMD pada tahun 2008 diselenggarakan di komplek Istana Mangkunegaran.

Berkat prestasi tersebut, Jokowi terpilih menjadi salah satu dari “10 Tokoh 2008″ oleh Majalah Tempo.

Asal Nama Julukan Jokowi

“Jokowi itu pemberian nama dari buyer saya dari Prancis,” begitu kata Wali Kota Solo, Joko Widodo, saat ditanya dari mana muncul nama Jokowi. Kata dia, begitu banyak nama dengan nama depan Joko yang jadi eksportir mebel kayu. Pembeli dari luar bingung untuk membedakan, Joko yang ini apa Joko yang itu. Makanya, dia terus diberi nama khusus, ‘Jokowi’. Panggilan itu kemudian melekat sampai sekarang. Di kartu nama yang dia berikan tertulis, Jokowi, Wali Kota Solo. Belakangan dia mengecek, di Solo yang namanya persis Joko Widodo ada 16 orang.

Saat ini, Jokowi menjabat untuk periode kedua. Kemenangan mutlak diperoleh saat pemilihan wali kota tahun lalu. Nama Jokowi kini tidak hanya populer, tapi kepribadiannya juga disukai masyarakat. Setidaknya, ketika pergi ke pasar-pasar, para pedagang beramai-ramai memanggilnya, atau paling tidak berbisik pada orang sebelahnya, “Eh..itu Pak Joko.”

Bagaimana ceritanya sehingga dia bisa dicintai masyarakat Solo? Kebijakan apa saja yang telah membuat rakyatnya senang? Mengapa pula dia harus menginjak pegawainya? Berikut wawancara wartawan Republika, Ditto Pappilanda, dengan Jokowi dalam kebersamaannya sepanjang setengah hari di seputaran Solo.

Sikap apa yang Anda bawa dalam menjalankan karier sebagai birokrat?
Secara prinsip, saya hanya bekerja untuk rakyat. Hanya itu, simpel. Saya enggak berpikir macam-macam, wong enggak bisa apa-apa. Mau dinilai tidak baik, silakan, mau dinilai baik, ya silakan. Saya kan tugasnya hanya bekerja. Enggak ada kemauan macam-macam. Enggak punya target apa-apa. Bekerja. Begitu saja.

Bener, saya tidak muluk-muluk dan sebenarnya yang kita jalankan pun semua orang bisa ngerjain. Hanya, mau enggak. Punya niat enggak. Itu saja. Enggak usah tinggi-tinggi. Sederhana sekali.

Contoh, lima tahun yang lalu, pelayanan KTP kita di kecamatan semrawut. KTP bisa dua minggu, bisa tiga minggu selesai. Tidak ada waktu yang jelas. Bergantung pada yang meminta, seminggu bisa, dua minggu bisa. Tapi, dengan memperbaiki sistem, apa pun akan bisa berubah. Menyiapkan sistem, kemudian melaksanakan sistem itu, dan kalau ada yang enggak mau melaksanakan sistem, ya, saya injak.

Awalnya reaksi internal bagaimana?
Ya biasa, resistensi setahun di depan, tapi setelah itu, ya, biasa saja. Semuanya kalau sudah biasa, ya semuanya senang. Ya, kita mengerti itu masalah kue, ternyata ya juga bisa dilakukan.

Untuk mengubah sistem proses KTP itu, tiga lurah saya copot, satu camat saya copot. Saat itu, ketika rapat diikuti 51 lurah, ada tiga lurah yang kelihatan tidak niat. Enggak mungkin satu jam, pak, paling tiga hari, kata mereka. Besoknya lurah itu tidak menjabat. Kalau saya, gitu saja. Rapat lima camat lagi, ada satu camat, sulit pak, karena harus entri data. Wah ini sama, lah. Ya, sudah.

Nyatanya, setelah mereka hilang, sistemnya bisa jalan. Seluruh kecamatan sekarang sudah seperti bank. Tidak ada lagi sekat antara masyarakat dan pegawai, terbuka semua. Satu jam juga sudah jadi. Rupiah yang harus dibayar sesuai perda, Rp 5.000.

Anda juga punya pengalaman menarik dalam penanganan Pedagang Kaki Lima (PKL) yang kemudian banyak menjadi rujukan?
Iya. Sekarang banyak daerah-daerah ke sini, mau mengubah mindset. Oh ternyata penanganan (PKL) bisa tanpa berantem. Memang tidak mudah. Pengalaman kami waktu itu adalah memindahkan PKL di Kecamatan Banjarsari yang sudah dijadikan tempat jualan bahkan juga tempat tinggal selama lebih dari 20 tahun. Kawasan itu sebetulnya kawasan elite, tapi karena menjadi tempat dagang sekaligus tempat tinggal, yang terlihat adalah kekumuhan.

Lima tahun yang lalu, mereka saya undang makan di sini (ruang rapat rumah dinas wali kota). Saya ajak makan siang, saya ajak makan malam. Saya ajak bicara. Sampai 54 kali, saya ajak makan siang, makan malam, seperti ini. Tujuh bulan seperti ini. Akhirnya, mereka mau pindah. Enggak usah di-gebukin.

Mengapa butuh tujuh bulan, mengapa tidak di tiga bulan pertama?
Kita melihat-melihat angin, lah. Kalau Anda lihat, pertama kali mereka saya ajak ke sini, mereka semuanya langsung pasang spanduk. Pokoknya kalau dipindah, akan berjuang sampai titik darah penghabisan, nyiapin bambu runcing. Bahkan, ada yang mengancam membakar balai kota.

Situasi panas itu sampai pertemuan ke berapa?
Masih sampai pertemuan ke-30. Pertemuan 30-50 baru kita berbicara. Mereka butuh apa, mereka ingin apa, mereka khawatir mengenai apa. Dulu, mereka minta sembilan trayek angkot untuk menuju wilayah baru. Kita beri tiga angkutan umum. Jalannya yang sempit, kita perlebar.

Yang sulit itu, mereka meminta jaminan omzet di tempat yang baru sama seperti di tempat yang lama. Wah, bagaimana wali kota disuruh menjamin seperti itu. Jawaban saya, rezeki yang atur di atas, tapi nanti selama empat bulan akan saya iklankan di televisi lokal, di koran lokal, saya pasang spanduk di seluruh penjuru kota. Akhirnya, mereka mau pindah.

Pindahnya mereka saya siapkan 45 truk, saya tunggui dua hari, mereka pindah sendiri-sendiri. Pindahnya mereka dari tempat lama ke tempat baru saya kirab dengan prajurit keraton. Ini yang enggak ada di dunia mana pun. Mereka bawa tumpeng satu per satu sebagai simbol kemakmuran. Artinya, pindahnya senang. Tempat yang lama sudah jadi ruang terbuka hijau kembali.

Omzetnya di tempat yang baru?
Bisa empat kali. Bisa tanya ke sana, jangan tanya saya. Tapi, ya kira-kira ada yang sepuluh kali, ada yang empat kali. Rata-rata empat kali. Ada yang sebulan Rp 300 juta. Itu sudah bukan PKL lagi, geleng-geleng saya.

Bagaimana dengan PKL yang lain?
Setelah yang eks-PKL Banjarsari pindah, tidak sulit meyakinkan yang lain. Cukup pertemuan tiga sampai tujuh kali pertemuan selesai. Sampai saat ini, kita sudah pindahkan 23 titik PKL, tidak ada masalah.

Lha yang repot sekarang ini malah pedagang PKL itu minta direlokasi. Kita yang nggak punya duit. Sampai sekarang ini, masih 38 persen PKL yang belum direlokasi. Jadi, kalau masih melihat PKL di jalan atau trotoar, itu bagian dari 38 persen tadi.

Tampaknya, pemberdayaan pasar menjadi perhatian Anda?
Oiya. Kita sudah merenovasi 34 pasar dan membangun pasar yang baru di tujuh lokasi. Jika dikelola dengan baik, pasar ini mendatangkan pendapatan daerah yang besar.

Dulu, ketika saya masuk, pendapatan dari pasar hanya Rp 7,8 miliar, sekarang Rp 19,2 miliar. Hotel hanya Rp 10 miliar, restoran Rp 5 miliar, parkir Rp 1,8 miliar, advertising Rp 4 miliar. Hasil Rp 19,2 miliar itu hanya dari retribusi harian Rp 2.600. Pedagangnya banyak sekali, kok. Ini yang harus dilihat. Asal manajemennya bagus, enggak rugi kita bangun-bangun pasar. Masyarakat-pedagang terlayani, kita dapat income seperti itu.

Sementara kalau mal, enggak tahu saya, paling bayar IMB saja, kita mau tarik apa? Makanya, mal juga kita batasi. Begitu juga hypermarket kita batasi. Bahkan, minimarket juga saya stop izinnya. Rencananya dulu akan ada 60-80 yang buka, tapi tidak saya izinkan. Sekarang hanya ada belasan.

Tapi, sepertinya Pasar Klewer belum tersentuh ya, kondisinya masih kurang nyaman?
Klewer itu, waduh. Duitnya gede sekali. Kemarin, dihitung investor, Rp 400 miliar. Duit dari mana? Anggaran berapa puluh tahun, kita mau cari jurus apa belum ketemu. Anggaran belanja Solo Rp 780 miliar, tahun ini Rp 1,26 triliun. Tidak mampu kita. Pedagang di Klewer lebih banyak, 3.000-an pedagang, pasarnya juga besar sekali. Di situ, yang Solo banyak, Sukoharjo banyak, Sragen banyak, Jepara ada, Pekalongan ada, Tegal ada. Batik dari mana-mana. Tapi, saya yakin ada jurusnya, hanya belum ketemu aja.

Soal pendidikan, di beberapa daerah sudah banyak dilakukan pendidikan gratis, apakah di Solo juga begitu?
Kita beda. Di sini, kita menerbitkan kartu untuk siswa, ada platinum, gold, dan silver. Mereka yang paling miskin itu memperoleh kartu platinum. Mereka ini gratis semuanya, mulai dari uang pangkal sampai kebutuhan sekolah dan juga biaya operasional. Kemudian, yang gold itu mendapat fasilitas, tapi tak sebanyak platinum. Begitu juga yang silver, hanya dibayari pemkot untuk kebutuhan tertentu.

Itu juga yang diberlakukan untuk kesehatan?
Iya, ada kartu seperti itu, ada gold dan silver. Gold ini untuk mereka yang masuk golongan sangat miskin. Semua gratis, perawatan rawat inap, bahkan cuci darah pun untuk yang gold ini gratis.

Tampaknya, sekarang masyarakat sudah percaya pada Anda, padahal di awal terpilih, banyak yang sangsi?
Yah, satu tahun, lah. Namanya belum dikenal, saya kan bukan potongan wali kota, kurus, jelek. Saya juga enggak pernah muncul di Solo, apalagi bisnis saya 100 persen ekspor. Ada yang sangsi, ya biar saja, sampai sekarang enggak apa-apa. Mau sangsi, mau menilai jelek, terserah orang.

Dulu, apa niat awalnya jadi wali kota?
Enggak ada niat, kecelakaan. Ndak tahu itu. Dulu, pilkada pertama, kita dapat suara 37 persen, menang tipis. Wong saya bukan orang terkenal, kok. Yang lain terkenal semuanya kan, saya enggak. Tapi, kelihatannya masyarakat sudah malas dengan orang terkenal. Mau coba yang enggak terkenal. Coba-coba, jadi saya bilang kecelakaan tadi itu memang betul.

Hal apa yang paling mengesankan selama Anda menjadi wali kota?
Paling mengesankan? Paling mengesankan itu, kalau dulu, kan, wali kota mesti meresmikan hal yang gede-gede. Meresmikan mal terbesar besar misalnya. Tapi, sekarang, gapura, pos ronda, semuanya saya yang buka, kok. Pos ronda minta dibuka wali kota, gapura dibuka wali kota, ya gimana rakyat yang minta, buka aja. Ya, kadang-kadang lucu juga. Tapi kita nikmati.

Apa kesulitan yang paling pertama Anda temui saat menjabat sebagai wali kota?
Masalah aturan. Betul. Kita, kalau di usaha, mencari yang se-simpel mungkin, seefisien mungkin. Tapi, kita di pemerintahan enggak bisa, ada tahapan aturan. Meskipun anggaran ada, aturannya enggak terpenuhi, enggak bisa jalani. Harusnya, bisa kita kerjain dua minggu, harus menunggu dua tahun. Banyak aturan-aturan yang justru membelenggu kita sendiri, terlalu prosedural. Kita ini jadi negara prosedur.

Apa pertimbangannya saat Anda mencalonkan untuk kali kedua?
Sebetulnya, saya enggak mau. Mau balik lagi ke habitat tukang kayu. Saat itu, setiap hari datang berbondong-bondong berbagai kelompok yang mendorong saya maju lagi. Mereka katakan, ini suara rakyat. Saya berpikir, ini benar ndak, apa hanya rekayasa politik. Dua minggu saya cuti, pusing saya mikir itu. Saya pulang, okelah saya survei saja. Saya survei pertama, dapatnya 87 persen. Enggak percaya, saya survei lagi, dapatnya 87 persen lagi.

Setelah survei itu, saya melihat, benar-benar ada keinginan masyarakat. Jadi, yang datang ke saya itu benar. Dan ternyata memang saya dapat hampir 91 persen. Saya lihat ada harapan dan ekspektasi yang terlalu besar. Perhitungan saya 65-70 persen. Hitungan di atas kertas 65:35, atau 60:40, kira-kira.

Ada kekhwatiran tidak, ketika lepas jabatan, semua yang Anda bangun tetap terjaga?
Pertama ada blueprint, ada concept plan kota. Paling tidak, pemimpin baru nanti enggak usah pakai 100 persen, seenggaknya 70 persen. Jangan sampai, sudah SMP, kembali lagi ke TK. Saya punya kewajiban juga untuk menyiapkan dan memberi tahu apa yang harus dilakukan nantinya.

Biodata Joko Widodo

Nama : Joko Widodo
Tempat Tanggal Lahir: Surakarta, 21 Juni 1961
Agama : Islam
Pekerjaan : Pengusaha
Agama : Islam
Profil Facebook : jokowi
Akun twitter : jokowi_do2
Email: jokowi@indo.net.id
Alamat Kantor : Jl. Jend. Sudirman No. 2 Telp. 644644, 642020, Psw 400, Fax. 646303
Alamat Rumah Dinas : Rumah Dinas Loji Gandrung Jl. Slamet Riyadi No. 261 Telp. 712004
HP. 0817441111
Pendidikan:

  • SDN 111 Tirtoyoso Solo
  • SMPN 1 Solo
  • SMAN 6 Solo
  • Fakultas Kehutanan UGM Yogyakarta lulusan 1985

Karir:

  • Pendiri Koperasi Pengembangan Industri Kecil Solo (1990)
  • Ketua Bidang Pertambangan & Energi Kamar Dagang dan Industri Surakarta (1992-1996)
  • Ketua Asosiasi Permebelan dan Industri Kerajinan Indonesia Surakarta (2002-2007)

Penghargaan:

  • Joko Widodo terpilih menjadi salah satu dari “10 Tokoh 2008″
  • Menjadi walikota terbaik tahun 2009
  • Pak Joko Widodo jg meraih penghargaan Bung Hatta Award, atas kepemimpinan dan kinerja beliau selama membangun dan memimpin kota Solo.
  • Universitas Sebelas Maret Surakarta (UNS) Award

Selain itu, berkat kepemimpinan beliau (dan tentunya semua pihak yg membantu), kota Solo jg banyak meraih penghargaan, di antaranya

  • Kota Pro-Investasi dari Badan Penanaman Modal Daerah Jawa Tengah
  • Kota Layak Anak dari Kementerian Negara Pemberdayaan Perempuan
  • Wahana Nugraha dari Departemen Perhubungan
  • Sanitasi dan Penataan Permukiman Kumuh dari Departemen Pekerjaan Umum
  • Kota dengan Tata Ruang Terbaik ke-2 di Indonesiaa

FEUI berdiri pada tanggal 18 September 1950 dan saat ini terletak di Kampus UI Depok. Kelahiran fakultas ini bermula ketika Jurusan Sosial Ekonomi Fakultas Hukum Universitas Indonesia (FHUI) memisahkan diri dan memilih untuk berdiri secara independen dengan membentuk fakultas baru, yaitu Fakultas Ekonomi. Pada saat yang bersamaan mahasiswa Akademi Nasional yang juga mengkaji ilmu ekonomi bergabung dengan fakultas baru tersebut. Maka jadilah mereka sebagai mahasiswa angkatan pertama di FEUI.

Pada tahun-tahun awal kelahiran FEUI, Kegiatan perkuliahan berlangsung dengan kondisi darurat. Ketika itu, jumlah staf pengajar sangat terbatas, dan hanya ada satu pengajar yang berkebangsaan Indonesia di sana, yaitu Prof. MR. R. Soenario Kolopaking yang juga menjadi dekan pertama FEUI. Kegiatan perkuliahan diadakan di tiga tempat, yaitu Aula Perguruan Tinggi Ilmu Kepolisian di Jalan Tambak, Gedung Kesenian Pasar Baru dah Gedung Adhoc Stat (yang sekarang bappenas di jalan Diponegoro). Urusan administrasi pun harus ditangani oleh mahasiswa sendiri.

Pada tahun 1951, Prof. Soenario selaku Dekan FEUI menyatakan mengundurkan diri. Beberapa perwakilan mahasiswa angkatan pertama kemudian menemui Dr. Soemitro dan memintanya menjadi Dekan FEUI, dan ia menyetujuinya. Kesediaan Soemitro—walaupun saat itu belum menjadi guru besar—merupakan penyelesaian bagi masalah kepemimpinan FEUI. Pada masa kepemimpinan Dr. Soemitro ini, FEUI mengirimkan beberapa asisten peneliti untuk tugas belajar di berbagai universitas di Amerika Serikat dengan dukungan dana dari Ford Foundation. Selain itu, FEUI juga mendatangkan staf pengajar dari AS, dan dengan sendirinya mengurangi dominasi pengajar berkebangsaan Belanda di kampus. Jurusan yang ada di FEUI juga ditambah, dari yang awalnya hanya mempunyai satu jurusan (Ekonomi Perusahaan), dikembangkan menjadi tiga jurusan, yaitu Ekonomi Umum, Sosiologi Ekonomi, dan Ekonomi Perusahaan. Kegiatan FEUI pada periode ini mulai meluas ke bidang penelitian, yang dilakukan melalui Seminar Ekonomi Perusahaan dan Balai Penyelidikan Masyarakat. Selanjutnya Balai Penyelidikan Masyarakat berubah menjadi Lembaga Penyelidikan Ekonomi dan Masyarakat tahun 1953.

Pada tahun 1964, Prof. Widjojo Nitisastro ditunjuk sebagai Dekan FEUI. Belaiu adalah dekan pertama yang merupakan lulusan FEUI. Pada masa terjadi perubahan yang cukup banyak terutama dalam pembentukan institusi pendukung. Lembaga yang pertama dibentuk oleh Widjojo ini adalah Lembaga Demografi, tahun 1964. Tahun berikutnya menyusul pembentukan Laboratorium Statistik. Dalam bidang akademik, perubahan terjadi menyangkut awal tahun ajaran, dari bulan September menjadi Februari, namun hal ini terjadi lebih dikarenakan oleh krisis politik Indonesia.

Pada tahun-tahun berikutnya, FEUI berkembang dengan pesat. Pada masa kepemimpinan Prof. Ali Wardhana (1968-1978), Iluni FEUI dibentuk. Pada tahun 1982, sistem perkuliahan berubah dari sistem tingkat ke sistem SKS. Pada masa kepemimpinan Prof. Dr. Mohammad Arsjad Anwar (1988-1994), kampus FEUI di Salemba dipindahkan ke kampus UI Depok.

Hingga saat ini, FEUI telah dipimpin oleh 15 Dekan. Jabatan Dekan saat ini dipegang oleh Ari Kuncoro yang terpilih untuk masa jabatan 2013-2017

SUMITRO: SOEHARTO LEMAH TERHADAP ANAK-ANAKNYA

Perintahnya bukan hanya diculik, tapi mungkin lebih jauh lagi.

 

Ketika Letjen TNI Prabowo Subianto dipecat dari ABRI, banyak mata menatap ke arah Prof. Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo—ayah Prabowo yang juga mantan Menteri Perdagangan dan Menristek pada pemerintahan Soeharto. Menjelang turunnya Soeharto dari kursi kepresidenan, Sumitro sempat melontarkan sejumlah kritik keras terhadap kepemimpinan presiden yang juga besannya itu. Lalu apa yang dirasakannya ketika Prabowo dipecat? Apa pula pandangannya tentang 32 tahun kekuasaan Soeharto? DeTAK beruntung berkesempatan mewawancarai guru besar ekonomi UI yang oleh sejumlah kalangan digelari sebagai “Ayatullah” ekonomi Indonesia itu. Berikut petikan wawancara yang dilakukan di rumah­nya hari Minggu (6/9/1998) sore lalu:

 

Menurut Anda, apa yang paling krusial dari keadaan sekarang ini?

Yang menamakan  diri  pemerintahan, agregate kenegaraan itu memer­lukan legitimasi. Sekarang yang ada baru legalitas. Saya mengadakan pembedaan antara legality (keabsahan hukum) dan legitimacy (pen­gakuan mandat rakyat—Red.). Legality bisa saja dibikin dan sekarang ini memang dibikin. Tapi legitimacy atau mandat dari rakyat itu belum.

 

Indikasinya?

Sekarang itu masyarakat kita, dunia lembaga formal, DPR/MPR, semua sedang resah terus. Begitu juga para politisi yang kurang puas, para profesional, para akademisinya ribut terus. Semua menghendaki reformasi, tapi apa reformasi yang dimaui, kurang jelas. Ini yang secepatnya harus diatasi.

 

Dengan situasi seperti ini, bagaimana cara memenangkan kepercayaan rakyat dan dunia luar?

Salah satunya lewat pemilu. Tapi pemilu yang pelaksanaannya den­gan undang-undang pemilihan yang sudah direformasi, yang sudah dijanjikan. Walau pasti tidak mungkin perfek, tapi itu kan legal for­mal sekaligus legitimasi yang diperlukan.

 

Tapi bagaimana bila ternyata ABRI masih bersikeras mendukung hanya Golkar?

Mungkin ABRI tidak melihat alternatif lain selain Golkar.

 

Apa tidak mungkin sikap ini merupakan kelanjutan budaya poli­tik selama tiga puluh tahun yang diwariskan Soeharto?

Memang budaya politik yang saya rasa tertanam selama 32 tahun, merupakan hambatan dari demokrasi tulen. Tentang hak rakyat dan kedaulatan rakyat, dalam benak, pikiran dan perasaan masyarakat sekarang ini masih pada pengertian siapa yang punya legalitas itu dominan. Pokoknya, seolah yang berkuasa selalu benar terus.

 

Kembali ke masalah Pak Harto. Dalam kaitan psiko-politik Pak Harto ditempatkan sebagai masih memainkan peran penting, menurut Anda?

Bahwasanya orang-orang masih melihat di belakang Habibie dan Wiranto ada bayangan Soeharto, itu juga psikologis sifatnya. Tapi saya nggak lihat itu. Saya rasa, saya kenal besan saya itu dengan baik, walaupun nggak tahu seluruhnya, tapi saya pernah bekerja dekat dengan dia.

 

Pandangan Anda terhadap Pak Harto yang sekarang banyak menerima hujatan?

Saya rasa masalahnya lain dulu lain sekarang. Pada awal bekerja de­ngan Pak Harto, waktu itu menurut saya dia baik dan hebat. Selama 10 tahun sebagai pembantu presiden, kita para teknokrat berhasil membangun, dan gawatnya ekonomi bisa diatasi. Karena kita bisa percaya dan bisa mengandalkan dia secara sepenuhnya. Masa itu dia benar-benar pegang janji dan kata-katanya. Begitu banyak kritik di luar negeri, dan untuk setiap kesalahan yang dilakukan oleh menteri­-menterinya, Pak Harto selalu bersikap, “Sudahlah saya tanggung jawab.” Hebatnya di situ.

 

Mitro - Bio Crop Outer copy

 

Sekarang ini bagaimana?

Sesudah itu memang ada perubahan. Seingat saya, 10 tahun terakhir ini yang paling kentara buat saya.

 

Permasalahan intinya apa?

Dua hal, terlalu lemah terhadap anak-anaknya dan pengaruh yang sangat merugikan masyarakat dan negara dari kelakuan anak-­anaknya. Dan selain itu Soeharto terlalu lama berkuasa, kombinasi dua itulah yang terbaca oleh saya.

 

Di satu sisi betul bahwa anak-anaknya juga turut menciptakan suasana yang tidak menguntungkan. Tapi apakah ada kemung­kinan bahwa sebetulnya the real Soeharto ya seperti itu. Seperti tuduhan rakus harta dan haus kekuasaan. Menurut Anda?

Haus kekuasaan mungkin. Tapi greedy material thing (rakus harta benda), arahnya menurut saya, pribadinya loh, itu tidak. Jadi dia ambil kekayaan supaya kekuasaan semakin kuat terkonsentrasi padanya. Seperti kasus yayasan-yayasan, semua itu untuk kekuasaan. Dia jadikan salah satu sumber dana menghimpun keku­atan untuk mempengaruhi orang lain. He needs money to buy power, lebih mengarah ke sana. Tapi memang… pengaruh anak-anaknya besar sekali.

 

Perhatian pada anak yang berlebihan ini, sebagai mantan menteri dan besan, adakah penjelasan rasional yang Anda bisa sampaikan?

Mungkin begini… Saya pernah membicarakan masalah ini dengan orang tua saya, ibu saya. Memang ada semacam beban kejiwaan masa lalu. Suatu waktu dalam satu acara keluarga, waktu saya berusa­ha memperkenalkan keluarga kami dan nanya perihal keluarga Pak Harto, tanpa saya duga dia berbicara dengan sangat intens mengenai masa lalu dirinya.

 

Tepatnya kapan kejadian itu?

Oh, itu saat saya melamar Titiek (untuk jadi isteri Prabowo—Red.). Yah, ini saya buka sekalian saja. Pak Harto bercerita bahwa sewaktu dia masih dalam kandungan, ibunya sudah mengasingkan  diri  dari dunia keduniaan. “Jadi sejak lahir saya sebenarnya enggak kenal ibu kandung saya. Jadi saya besar di desa. Saya jadi rebutan saat saya umur 10 tahun, antara keluarga yang mengasuh saya dengan bapak kandung saya. Kemudian saya dikompromikan ditaruh di Wonogiri, di keluarga mantri, bapaknya Sudwikatmono. Makanya Sudwikatmono lebih dari saudara kandung….” Begitu menurut ceritanya.

 

prabowo004

 

Makna dari peristiwa itu?

ltulah yang membuat dirinya berlebih terhadap anak-anaknya. Karena tidak mau anak-anaknya bernasib seperti masa kecilnya yang gelap keluarga dan kasih sayang orang tua aslinya. Makanya sekarang ia tebus dengan memberikan segalanya pada anak-­anaknya.

 

Artinya, dalam hal ini posisi anak di sini dengan posisi bangsa dan negara, menurut Anda, kira-kira kalau Pak Harto disuruh mengambil pilihan, dia akan memilih yang mana?

Nyatanya dia pilih anaknya. Kenapa? Saudara tadi bicara soal sindrom, saya rasa dia juga terbiasa merasakan ungkapan l‘Etat c’est moi, negara adalah saya. Itu ‘kan sindrom budaya keraton juga, tuh. Seperti Amangkurat VII, bukan Amangkurat I.

 

Anda sebagai besan pernah nggak menegur?

Mungkin saya satu-satunya. Dua kali tentang anaknya. Saya dengar bahwa Benny Moerdani juga pernah singgung itu, tapi dimarahi. Saya dengar dari Sudharmono.

Saya datang ke dia, nggak tahu persis kapan, mungkin kira-kira 6-7 tahun lalu, dua kali saya nanya di Cendana. Saya kan Ketua Umum IKPN (Ikatan Koperasi Pegawai Negeri), saya sampaikan bahwa putra-­putra Bapak sudah menjadi isu politik. Saya sengaja nggak mengritik, hanya menyampaikan fakta saja. Dia diam, tidak ada perubahan. Saya nggak tahu apa dia marah atau dia terima. Waktu saya pamit, di pintu dia bilang, “Iya Pak Mitro, saya menyadari anak-anak saya terkena isu politik.” Nah, saya kan lega.

 

Mengapa hasilnya tetap sama, tak ada perubahan berarti?

Wah, itu yang saya sulit mengerti…

 

Bagaimana Anda memposisikan Pak Harto sebagai seorang besan?

Ini hubungan yang sifatnya pribadi, jadi saya akan bicara secara umum saja. Saya kira tidak usahlah menilai hubungan pribadi dalam konteks pembicaraan ini.

Saya tidak pernah membantah bahwa saya mempunyai utang budi politik kepada Soeharto, sebab dialah yang memungkinkan saya kembali ke tanah air dari pengasingan. Dia sengaja mengirim Ali Moertopo untuk menemui saya dan meminta saya pulang. Akan tetapi utang budi saya yang paling utama dan lebih luas lagi ialah kepada rakyat dan masyarakat bangsa saya. Di kala kepentingan rak­yat dilanggar, dan ini terjadi beberapa kali dalam pengalaman saya, waktu itu juga saya harus berpihak pada kepentingan rakyat banyak.

 

Kalau Anda sendiri terhadap anak-anak Anda bagaimana?

Waktu Hashim (adik Prabowo) selesai sekolah, saya masih dalam kabinet. Ketika dia mengatakan mau bisnis di Indonesia, saya jawab, “Selama saya masih jadi menteri, Please… Not in Indonesia!” Makanya dia kerja di luar waktu itu.

November 1977, saya datang kepada Pak Harto, lalu saya katakan, “Nanti tahun 1978 saudara akan mempertimbangkan susunan kabi­net, saya jangan dimasukkan lagi, saya sudah mendekati 60 tahun…. Hashim itu mau berkarir di bidang bisnis, selama saya masih dalam pemerintahan nggak saya perkenankan….”

 

Jawaban Pak Harto?

You know what he said, yang mengejutkan dia bilang soal Hashim… “Kalau begitu Pak Mitro enggak adil terhadap anak-anak.” Nah, coba itu kan pandangan yang sangat berbeda. Sementara saya selalu anjurkan kepada anak-anak saya untuk tidak bergantung pada bantu­an dan kemampuan orang tua. Maklum etos itu telah saya tanamkan sejak saya jadi buron politik di zaman pemerintahan Bung Karno. Hidup di luar negeri itu harus mandiri. Kalau soal anak, Pak Harto memang sangat lemah dan di situlah kelemahannya yang mendasar.

 

Sebagai ayah, Anda sendiri bagaimana menghadapi kasus Prabowo ini?

Begini, saya mulai dengan dua hal dulu. Saya mengingatkan apa yang pernah saya bilang selalu sebagai prinsip dasar yang tak dapat ditawar-tawar lagi oleh setiap anggota keluarga: unequivocally, human dignity, dan social justice merupakan hal yang harus selalu dijunjung tinggi. Tanpa itu, mau jadi apa kita?!

Saya nggak bisa membayangkan menghadapi situasi sekarang. Itu pertama. Kedua, dengan situasi sekarang saya sekeluarga mendukung segenap langkah yang bertujuan menegakkan keadilan masyarakat, termasuk dalam kasus Prabowo.

Mengadili perwira dalam tata cara yang tidak fair dan tidak kesatria itu yang tidak saya setuju. Dalam kaitan human dignity dan human right, jangan atasan harus selalu benar…. Saya masih ingat tahun per­tama dia di Akabri, taruna di situ diajar untuk “kejam” sekali. Taruna kedua, ketiga, itu boleh apa saja terhadap juniornya. Di West Point nggak boleh begitu. Jadi darnpak dari budaya pendidikan seperti itu, saya rasa sekarang it is danger, apalagi seperti menghadapi Raja Jawa ini (Soeharto—Red.), jenderal-jenderal nggak berani.

 

prabowo 03

 

Kembali pada kasus Prabowo, bagaimana dia sebagai militer dalam pandangan Anda?

Dalam beberapa hal Bowo mungkin kompromi. Seperti saya kasih kasus di Timor Timur itu, nggak mungkin sama komando mem­bangkang atasannya. Tapi ada kasus dia ternyata membangkang. Karena tidak mau nurut perintah disuruh membunuh tawanan perang yang tak bersenjata. Saya mendukung langkah-langkah dia yang seperti itu, walau terkena sanksi tak apalah.

 

Termasuk yang sekarang?

Kasus Bowo khusus kali ini kok seakan-akan asas keadilan ini jadi kabur. Karena, pertama, Prabowo pada khususnya dan Kopassus pada umumnya, seolah yang paling bersalah dan satu-satunya yang diper­salahkan. Bahwa ada berbagai instansi dan kesatuan yang terlibat, mengapa harus ditutup-tutupi? Toh semua yang terjadi merupakan satu paket program, untuk menegakkan kekuasaan, status quo.

 

Jadi, dalam kasus Prabowo, Anda bukan tidak setuju untuk diusut tuntas?

Caranya itu, loh. Dan, ini kan juga diakui oleh bekas-bekas korban penculikan. Mereka tidak ingin hanya Kopassus. Dengan dibawa ke Kramat (wilayah komando Kodam V Jaya—Red.), jelas yang terlibat bukan hanya Kopassus. Tapi mengapa semua seolah-olah terpusat ke Bowo, semua kecaman ditujukan ke dia?! Apakah seorang Prabowo begitu berkuasa hingga bisa perintah sana-sini ke berbagai daerah dan institusi? Padahal, menurut seorang mantan Kasad, seperti ditulis DeTAK, kalau dalam ABRI ada oknum yang salah itu dua tingkat di atas kena, turut bertanggung jawab. Sebagai Danjen Kopassus kan dia punya dua atasan, KSAD dan Pangab waktu itu, mereka nggak mungkin nggak tahu, seharusnya mereka tahu!

 

Tapi ada juga kebiasaan yang mengatakan bahwa bisa saja mere­ka nggak tahu karena…

Maksud Saudara adanya Pangti? Yak, seperti yang dibenarkan oleh
Hasnan Habib, Pangti itu (Soeharto—Red.) punya kebiasaan untuk langsung kasih perintah ke bawahan tanpa menghiraukan tingkat-tingkat hierarki. Saya itu sebagai menteri kadang-kadang di-by pass (dipo­tong). Nah, itu kebiasaan Raja Jawa. Tapi bagi dia that’s right. Jadi tidak pernah ada keberanian mengungkap secara kesatria tentang KSAD, Pangab, dan Pangti. Kalau yang tiga ini dipertanyakan baru ada pengertian justice, keadilan, that’s about it.

 

Hal lain yang Anda anggap sebagai penyimpangan keadilan?

Intinya seperti tadi itu, tapi cara pemberitaan dari sementara kalang­an media dari dalam maupun luar negeri juga patut disesalkan, kare­na banyak berita cenderung mengandung hukuman. Seolah tidak ada asas praduga tak bersalah yang dipegang. Sudah cenderung meng­hakimi. Beberapa di antaranya tidak segan-segan membikin profil­-profil personality yang sudah menodai tabiat pribadinya.

 

prabowo007

 

Seperti apa misalnya?

Salah satu media menulis, Prabowo kemarin pergi umroh dan sekarang dia entah di mana… Padahal jelas dia ada di sini. Untung Gus Dur turut membantah isu tersebut. Kemarin, tanggal 1 September, kita merayakan ulang tahun istri saya. Bowo ada di sini dengan Titiek dan anaknya. Jadi apa maksud melancarkan pemberitaan yang menyudutkan itu? Ini kan sudah merusak citra pribadi dan nilai personality dia (Prabowo).

 

Mengapa tidak secara resmi dilakukan bantahan?

Saya enggak mau seakan-akan karena dia itu anak saya maka saya bela-­bela, kita hanya ingin melihat ada justice, keadilan. Harapan saya hanyalah adanya perlakuan dan tanggapan terhadap Prabowo secara adil dan lancar. Tapi mengapa asas keadilan seakan-akan jadi kabur?

Tentu saya enggak mau bilang bahwa dia itu seluruhnya benar, tapi semua salah pun saya tidak berani katakan.

 

Tapi kenapa dari keluarga Bapak seringkali tidak menggunakan hak jawab?

Karena, pertama, dalam proses ini kan Bowo terus-menerus diproses dalam DKP, kita tidak mau tambah mempersulit kedudukannya. Jangan sampai ada distorsi atas tragedi yang ada.

 

Dengan dipecatnya Bowo, bagaimana perasaan sebagai seorang ayah?

Sedih tentunya. Karena saya tahu Bowo… Dia itu kan hanya men­jalankan perintah. Sebagai militer, sulit saya untuk sepenuhnya menyalahkan dia. Kalau dia seorang sipil, jelas dia telah melanggar hak asasi manusia. Tapi kalau memang mau mengusut sesuatu, hen­daknya bersifat menyeluruh.

 

Maksud Anda?

Cari siapa dalang sesungguhnya di balik berbagai peristiwa. Mengapa tidak usut tuntas kasus Tanjung Priok, Kasus Lampung, dan lainnya?

 

Kalau bicara keadilan, artinya posisi Pangti pun harus diper­tanyakan?

Iya, dong. Asal-usulnya dari sana kok. Mengapa tidak usut tuntas kasus Tanjung Priok, Lampung, dan lainnya? Siapa yang paling bertanggung jawab? Saya katakan ini bukan dengan dasar dendam atau sentimen. Saya bukan pendendam. Dulu saya jadi buronnya Bung Karno, tapi hubungan saya dengan Bu Fatmawati sangat baik. Jadi semata-mata hal ini saya lakukan karena menegakkan keadilan sudah menjadi kebutuhan dan tuntutan masyarakat luas.

 

Bicara soal keadilan, dalam hal DKP yang harus menggunakan norma-norma militer dalam menegakkan kehormatan perwira, kesan Anda bagaimana?

Saya sendiri kurang tahu persis apa yang terjadi. Bowo juga enggak mau banyak omong selama proses ini. Tapi kadang-kadang kan ada kebocoran juga. Bukan dari Bowo saja, tapi ada lah yang lapor. Saya ‘kan dulu mengajar di mana-mana, di Seskoad, Seskogab, Lemhanas, dan masih banyak lagi.

 

Kenyataannya, proses belum selesai tapi hukuman sudah dijatuhkan, bagaimana Anda menanggapi hal ini?

Dari sudut legalitas kan segalanya sudah diserahkan pada Pangab. Apa ada kemungkinan proses pengusutan berkembang sampai ke tingkat yang lebih tinggi, jawabannya ya dan tidak. Saya merasa kemungkinan ada juga keseganan untuk meneruskan. Kalau toh dianggap secara legalitas final, secara morality sebenarnya belum final.

 

Khusus dalam kasus putra Anda, Prabowo?

Yah, kalau saudara mau bersikap kritis, coba bertanya; mengapa 9 (sembilan) aktivis yang diculik selamat semuanya, tapi yang 14 (empat belas) lainnya masih hilang sampai hari ini, apa ya mereka masih hidup?

 

Maksud Anda?

Karena yang sembilan orang itu, memang sepengetahuan Bowo dan dibebaskan dengan selamat atas kehendak Bowo pribadi.

 

Maksud katapribadi dalam kaitan ini?

Karena perintahnya tidak begitu.

 

Bagaimana perintah itu sebenarnya?

Perintahnya bukan hanya diculik, tapi mungkin lebih jauh lagi.

 

Dihabiskan maksudnya?

(Menjawab hanya dengan anggukkan kepala sambil menyimpan suatu perasaan yang terkesan sangat dalam).

 

Setahu Anda siapa yang memerintahkan Prabowo melakukan hal itu?

Siapa lagi kalau bukan seseorang yang sangat berkuasa?

 

*) Dimuat di Tabloid DETAK No. 09/I, 8-14 September 1998.

 

Kelebihan Prabowo sebagai Capres 2014

 

Beberapa pembaca menanyakan tentang penyebab Prabowo Subianto menduduki posisi teratas sebagai calon presiden paling disukai rakyat. Berbagai sebab saling terkait yang menyebabkan dukungan tinggi terhadap mantan Komandan Jenderal Kopassus pada masa Soeharto itu.

Pertama, Prabowo Subianto memiliki karakter sebabagi pemimpin. Buktinya beliau memimpin banyak organisasi selepas pensiun sebagai militer.

Kedua, Prabowo memiliki partai, Partai Gerindra. Dengan memiliki partai publik menjadi jelas akan arah pencalonannya. Prabowo berbeda dengan para tokoh lain yang tidak memiliki partai seperti Mahfud MD, Anies Baswedan, Dahlan Iskan.

Ketiga, Prabowo berasal dari suku Jawa. Mau tidak mau, suka tidak suka mayoritas penduduk tinggal di pulau Jawa. Faktor Jawa Prabowo menjadi nilai lebih.

Keempat, Prabowo beragama Islam. Meski primordialisme semakin terkikis, namun pada kenyataannya sebagian besar masyarakat masih sangat kental dengan semangat segergitas. Ini dibuktikan dengan beberapa pilgub yang dimenangkan justru oleh kelompok kader pengusung semangat segregitas-primordialis seperti PKS misalnya.

Kelima, Prabowo hanya membutuhkan kehormatan sebagai presiden. Prabowo sudah memiliki kekayaan yang didapatkan secara sah bukan karena korupsi seperti yang dilakukan oleh banyak partai.

Keenam, Prabowo adalah sosok nasionalis yang mampu menjaga tanah air, pulau dan perairan Indonesia dan akan membela sampai titik darah penghabisan. Prabowo pernah membuktikan dengan berbagai operasi di Papua, Timor Timur. Prabowo akan membebaskan Sipadan-Ligitan dari genggaman Malaysia.

Ketujuh, Prabowo laki-laki. Di Indonesia masyarakat Islam tradisional dan jumud dengan diwakili oleh Ustadz Wahabi selalu mendorong anti calon presiden perempuan. Contoh Megawati ditolak oleh MPR menjadi Presiden meskipun PDIP pemenang Pemilu 1999.

Melihat 7 kekuatan dan kelebihan Prabowo Subianto tersebut sudah selayaknya Prabowo memimpin dalam berbagai polling dan survey. Namun demikian musuh politik Prabowo seperti PKS – yang pada zaman Soeharto kelompok Islam dimarjinalisasikan – menjadikan Prabowo sebagai musuh. Prabowo selalu dituduh oleh kalangan kiri dan kelompok LSM kampung sebagai orang yang terlibat dalam kasus Operasi Mawar yang tidak pernah terbukti. Semakin besar dan tinggi elektabilitas Prabowo, semakin kencang tolakan dan upaya musuh yang tidak nasionalis menghadang Prabowo. Namun bukti elektabilitas tinggi Prabowo menunjukkan masyarakat sudah paham kampanye kotor terhadap Prabowo.

Selamat datang Presiden Prabowo.

Salam bahagia ala saya.

Ini Kelebihan dan Kelemahan Prabowo-Hatta

Kamis, 07 Februari 2013, 19:16 WIB

Komentar : 1
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Prabowo Subianto
Prabowo Subianto

REPUBLIKA.CO.ID, JAKARTA -– Ketua DPP Partai Demokrat, Sutan Bhatoegana, menilai Prabowo Subianto merupakan figur yang cukup menjanjikan diusung sebagai calon presiden (capres).

“Pak Prabowo saya kira cukup menjanjikan,” kata Sutan ketika dihubungi, Kamis (7/2). Sutan mengatakan, sebagai capres Prabowo memiliki sejumlah keunggulan.

Pertama, Prabowo memiliki karir kepemimpinan yang baik di bidang militer. Kedua, Prabowo pernah menempuh pendidikan di luar negeri. Hal ini tentu membuat Prabowo mampu menguasai bahasa asing yang dibutuhkan dalam misi-misi diplomasi Indonesia.

Ketiga, Prabowo figur yang matang secara finansial. Kondisi ini bisa memberikan harapan kepada masyarakat Prabowo tidak korupsi saat menjadi presiden. “Ini sisi positifnya,” ujar Sutan.

Terlepas dari segala kelebihannya, Prabowo juga memiliki sejumlah kekurangan. Sutan mengatakan, kekurangan utama Prabowo dan kasus HAM yang menjerat dirinya. Dia mengatakan kasus HAM yang menjerat Prabowo sampai saat ini belum tuntas. “Ini akan menjadi batu sandungan Prabowo,” katanya.

Selain itu, Prabowo juga memiliki kelemahan dalam mengelola kepemimpinan diri. Menurut Sutan sebelum memimpin negara, seorang pemimpin mesti bisa memimpin diri sendiri.

Dia menyatakan Prabowo sampai saat ini belum memiliki pendamping. Dia berharap Prabowo bisa segera melengkapi kekurangannya ini. “Supaya seorang laki-laki itu sukses kalau didampingi wanita yang kuat. Pemimpin harus bisa memimpin keluarga,” ujarnya.

Terkait nama Hatta Rajasa yang digadang-gadang bakal menjadi pasangan Prabowo di bursa Capres-Cawapres Pemilu 2014, Sutan juga punya pendapat. Figur Hatta menurutnya memili pengalaman yang baik di bidang organisasi. “Kekuatan Hatta dia punya pengalaman. Piawai memimpin organisasi,” katanya.

Sayang Hatta punya kelemahan elementer sebagai calon pemimpin. Hatta, imbuh Sutan, tidak berasal dari kalangan Jawa. Betapapun, mayoritas pemilih Indonesia berasal dari suku Jawa. “Meskipun tidak tertulis presiden bukan orang Jawa, rata-rata penduduk republik masih berasal dari Jawa,” ujarnya.

Prabowo, Bangunkan ‘Macan Tidur’

 

 

Plus minus Jokowi-JK dan Prabowo-Hatta menurut pengamat

Reporter : Mardani | Senin, 19 Mei 2014 11:09
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Plus minus Jokowi-JK dan Prabowo-Hatta menurut pengamat

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POLLING PEMBACA : PARTAI PEMILU | CALON PRESIDEN

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Merdeka.com – Dua pasang capres cawapres bakal bertarung di Pilpres 2014. Pasangan JokowiJusuf Kalla (JK) hari ini bakal deklarasi dan mendaftar ke KPU.

Sementara, pasangan Prabowo SubiantoHatta Rajasa bakal deklarasi dan mendaftar ke KPU besok. Koordinator Peneliti Pusat Penelitian Politik Nasional Lembaga Ilmu Pengetahuan Indonesia (LIPI), Irine Gayatri menilai, dua pasang capres cawapres itu memiliki kelebihan dan kekurangan masing-masing.

Pasangan Jokowi-JK menurutnya memiliki kelebihan dari sisi elektabilitas. Selain itu, Jokowi tidak memiliki jejak Orde Baru.

“Kebijakan-kebijakannya (Jokowi saat jadi wali kota dan gubernur) populis atau berkaitan dengan yang diinginkan rakyat,” kata Irine kepada merdeka.com, Senin (19/5).

Menurutnya, saat menjabat sebagai wali kota Solo, Jokowi berhasil merelokasi pedagang kecil tanpa menimbulkan konflik sedikitpun. Saat menjadi Gubernur DKI, Jokowi menyediakan berbagai fasilitas untuk rakyat kecil seperti Rusun dan Kampung Deret.

“Memang semuanya belum tuntas (kinerja Jokowi di DKI) tapi setidaknya sudah kelihatan hasilnya,” katanya.

Namun yang menjadi kelemahan pasangan ini, menurutnya, cawapres Jokowi yakni Jusuf Kalla (JK) sudah sangat senior dari sisi usia.

“Pak JK harus manut kepada Presiden jika nanti terpilih. Dia kan Wapres, jangan seperti dulu ambil langkah sendiri,” katanya.

Sementara, pasangan Prabowo-Hatta menurutnya juga memiliki kelebihan dari sisi popularitas. Sosok Prabowo memiliki popularitas yang tidak boleh disepelekan.

Selain itu, pasangan ini memiliki dukungan dari partai-partai Islam seperti PPP, PKS dan PAN yang dapat menarik massa Islam. Namun di sisi lain pasangan ini juga memiliki kelemahan. Salah satunya adalah nama Prabowo yang selama ini kerap dikait-kaitkan dengan kasus penculikan aktivis 1997-1998.

“Kalau Prabowo, saat dia masih jadi Kopassus ada kasus pelanggaran HAM yang belum tuntas dan itu warisan politik Orde Baru. Meski sudah belasan tahun masih membekas korban-korban masih menuntut keadilan,” katanya.

“Jadi ada problem pada Prabowo. Hatta dari sisi ekonomi kita bisa lihat dia yang pro modal,” katanya.

Semakin Terlihat Kelebihan Jokowi dan Tampak Kelemahan Prabowo

 

Agak mengherankan, kedua kubu pasti sangat serius menjaga citra dan pasti terus menerus berpikir untuk memperluas pengaruh dan menebarkan kesan positif, tetapi hasil yang diraih tidak selalu seperti yang diharapkan. Sampai sejauh ini, Jokowi lebih beruntung mendapat nilai plus, sedangkan Prabowo seperti semakin mendapat nilai minus.

Jokowi yang di waktu lalu dianggab tidak memiliki vivi misi, akhir-akhir ini mematahkan tuduhan itu karena selain telah memasukkan visi misinya ke KPU, juga dalam berbagai kesempatan sangat tangkas menjelaskan gagasan-gagasannya untuk membangun Indonesia dalam bidang ekonomi, pertanian, pendidikan, dll. Jokowi yang diragukan ke-Islam-annya, dengan mantap pula membuyarkan tuduhan itu dengan bukti-bukti bahwa dia sudah berkali-kali haji dan umrah, ayah-ibunya juga, dan saudara-daudarinya juga. Bahkan Pimpinan Muhammadyad Dr. Din Syamsuddin pun sudah “menguji” ke-Islaman-an Jokowi dan tidak meragukan. Dan hampir semua tudingan atau “black campaign” yang ditujukan kepada Jokowi selama ini, satu satu rontok dan tak bersambut dimanapun.

Sebaliknya, kelebihan Jokowi semakin terlihat dari hari ke hari. Walauapun Jokowi tidak orator ulung, tidak ahli retorika, tetapi bahasanya kalau berpidato sangat mudah dicerna dan menyegarkan, hal itu disempurnakan pula oleh bahasa tubuhnya memancarkan kesungguhan dan ketulusan. Dalam berbagai kesempatan dia berkeliling Indonesia, selalu dan selalu kelihatan bahasa kesederhanaan, kesungguhan, ketulusan, dan sama sekali tidak ada kepura-puraan pada dirinya. Kata-katanya yang simple dan tidak banyak “bumbu” mampu menyemburkan sedemikian besar pengharapan bagi rakyat yang mendengar. Tak mengherankan, kalau banyak orang terutama ibu-ibu kalau mendengar dia berbicara di TV hanyut dalam keharuan dan ada yang menitikkan air mata.

Perjuangan Jokowi meraih kursi Preside RI seperti sudah mendapat restu Tuhan Yang Maha Kuasa. Langkah dan ucapan Jokowi semakin hari semakin mantap dan mengena di hati banyak orang. Tak mengeherankan jika kemudian banyak pujian dan dukungan yang mengalir ke arahnya. Orang-orang dan kelompok-kelompok yang mendukungnya pun relatif tidak bermasalah, orang-orang yang berkarakter kuat, dan kalaupun ada yang terkait dengan masalah di masa lalu kemungkinan besar “sudah bertobat” karena tidak ada lagi yang mengungkitnya.

Yang menyejukkan akhir-akhir ini adalah sikap dan gaya Jusuf Kalla. Tadinya banyak yang berpikir negatif kalau cawapres Jokowi adalah Jusuf Kalla. Kalla dikhawatirkan akan dominan, akan ada matahari kembar dalam kepemimpinan nasional. Tetapi Jusuf Kalla menegaskan, “kalau terpilih nanti, saya akan benar-benar sebagai pembantu presiden, saya akan bekerja sesuai kehendak Presiden.” Dan Jokowi pun menegaskan, dirinya dan Jusuf Kalla akan membuat pembagian tugas (Jokowi tidak menyebut dirinya yang membuat pembagian tugas, tetapi dirinya dan Yusuf Kalla — itu menunjukkan jiwa besar dan kerendahan hatinya). Mudah-mudahan, Jokowi – Jusuf Kalla adalah duet pemimpin nasional yang efektif untuk membawa kemajuan yang signifikan bagi bangsa dan negara.

* * *

Capres Prabowo, sebenarnya sudah membentangkan visi dan misi yang jelas yang akan diusung kalau terpilih menjadi presiden. Bagus, sulit untuk dibilang jelek, walaupun tidak terlalu istimewa. Prabowo pun lancar menjelaskan visi misinya, dan gaya pidatonya berapi-api. Masalahnya adalah intonasi suara Prabowo kalau berpidato tidak enak didengar, bahasa tubuhnyapun tidak enak dilihat. Padahal dalam ilmu komunikasi, intonasi suara dan bahasa tubuh lebih kuat pengaruhnya dari materi pembicaraan. Ada kesan intonasi suara dan gerak tubuh dibuat-buat, bahkan berlebihan, dan mungkin itu hasil training.

Sama seperti Jokowi, Prabowo pun banyak diterpa isu, mendapat tudingan dan black campaign. Tetapi, jika tudingan terhadap Jokowi sudah banyak yang patah dan lewat, tudingan terhadap Prabowo masih kokoh, seperti soal isu pelanggaran HAM, berkarakter kasar, tidak mampu menjaga keharmonisan keluarga (bagaimana Prabowo menjaga keutuhan negara kalau menjaga keutuhan keluarga pun tidak becus?). Ada kesan, Prabowo suka banyak bicara, bicaranya meledak-ledak — itu semakin lama semakin tidak disukai banyak orang.  Penyebabnya: dari intonasi dan bahasa tubuh Prabowo tampak dia tidak sungguh-sungguh, tidak tulus, tidak rendah hati.  Entah kenapa, ya begitulah adanya.

Sejak awal Prabowo membuka pintu untuk terjadinya “tenda besar” sebagai pendukungnya, tenda besar itu bagi parpol, kelompok, dan individu. Memang terwujud juga tenda besar itu, parpol pendukung Prabowo lebih besar dari parpol pendukung Jokowi, dan banyak kelomppok dan individu yang sudah menyatakan dukungan terhadap prabowo.  Lalu, Prabowo pun selalu dengan senyum yang sumringah menyambut setiap kelompok dan individu yang datang untuk memberi dukungan.

Tapi di situ pulalah masalahnya, banyak kemudian kelompok dan orang yang bergabung dengan Prabowo membawa sekaligus masalah. PPP sudah sejak awal masuk membawa masalah (walaupun terakhir seperti reda), lalu SDA yang ngotot mendukung Prabowo ternyata menjadi tersangka korupsi. Rhoma Irama, yang tukang ngambek dan bermimpin jadi Capres itu bergabung dengan Prabowo meninggalkan PKB. Mahfud, yang ternyata tidak lebih baik dari Rhoma Irama pun bergabung dengan Prabowo bahkan menjadi pimpinan tim sukses Prabowo, padahal jelas-jelas Mahfud selama ini sangat ingin menjadi cawapres Jokowi. ARB, Ketua Umum Golkar, yang bertahun-tahun mengiklankan diri sebagai capres, yang berulangkali ngotot tidak mau dievaluasi pencapresannya, bergubung dengan Prabowo setelah ditolak Megawati. ARB adalah contoh manusia tidak berpendirian kuat, selalu menggunakan hitungan bisnis dalam bekerja, dan dia adalah orang yang pernah menciptakan masalah besar di Indonesia: Lapindo. Bergabung pula dengannya serombongan orang Golkar, istimewa: Akbar Tanjung, yang selama ini sangat dikenal sebagai “belut politik”. Kemudian ada lagi HT, mantan partner Wiranto sebagai bakal cawapres. Dia ada contoh paling ideal dari manusia yang tidak tahu diri, tidak tau dimana bimi dipijak dan langit dijinjing. Dia bergabung dengan Prabowo setelah pecah dengan Surya Paloh dan bubar dengan Wiranto. Dia memang kaya, tetapi pelit, dia hanya mengandalkan tv-tvnya dan asuransi.

Prabowo Subianto dan Hatta Rajasa menjadi “Prahara”, singkatan yang bagus tetapi bermakna tidak bagus. Sepertinya memang tidak bagus, karean Hatta yang dari Muhammadyah ini belum tentu mendapat dukungan dari Islam non-Muhammadya. Lagi pula, Hatta selama ini tak terlalu menarik jika diasumsikan sebagai capres maupun cawapres. Mungkin harapan Prabowo untuk menarik dukungan SBY atau Demokrat? SBY masih bingung dan mungkin akan bingung untuk memihak salah satu: Jokowi-Kalla atau Prahara? Mungkin benar kata pengamat, matanya melirik Jokowi tapi hatinya pada Prabowo?

Yang jelas, sampai pada hari ini, kelemahan Prabowo semakin tampak. Tidak tahu besok-besok ada perubahan.

TERIMA KASIH GOOGLE, DALAM SEKEJAP SAYA TELAH ,MENGUMPULKAN INFO HASIL STUDI BANDING DUA TOKOH MASA LALU SOEMITRO DAN SOEDIRMAN 

DAN

DUA TOKOH MASA KINI

PRABOOWO DAN JOKOWI

INI HASIL PIKIRAN SELURUHJ RAKYAT INDONESIA’

UNTUK SELURUH RAKYAT INDONESIA

TERAKHIR BAGAIMANA PENDAPAT OBAMA TENTANG MEREKA

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Obama, Prabowo, dan Jokowi

HILLARY Rodham Clinton berang. Menjawab pertanyaan wartawan dari kantor berita ABC News, dia menyangkal  tim suksesnya berada di belakang pemuatan foto Barack Obama yang diunggah oleh drudgereport.com. “Saya tidak tahu apa pun tentang [foto] itu,” kata Nyonya Clinton kepada Teddy Davis dan Jacqueline Klingebiel, wartawan ABC News yang mewawancarainya, 25 Februari 2008.

Foto yang ditanyakan oleh dua wartawan itu adalah foto Obama mengenakan baju tradisional Somalia lengkap dengan serbannya. Sebetulnya foto itu biasa saja, namun tersebar saat musim kampanye calon presiden dari Partai Demokrat, ketika Obama dan Hillary bersaing sengit mendapatkan tiket sebagai kandidat presiden dari partainya. Lewat foto itu, Obama seolah hendak digambarkan sebagai pemeluk Islam, agama yang sukses dikampanyekan oleh George W Bush sebagai agamanya para teroris, dan karena itu Obama harus ditolak sebagai calon presiden.

Dan ini yang menjadi biang persoalan: redaksi drudgereport mengaku mendapatkan foto Obama dari email yang dikirim oleh “staf Hillary.” Sebuah pernyataan yang niscaya habis-habisan disangkal oleh kubu Hillary. Mereka menyatakan, tidak pernah melihat email itu. “Kalau ada penyelidikan independen tentang foto itu, kami akan menyambutnya,” kata Howard Wolfson, juru bicara tim sukses Hillary.

Wolfson mungkin benar, tapi foto itu telah menjadi “persoalan” tersendiri. Sebagian publik Amerika termakan dengan isu agama Obama. Sebelum pemilihan di Texas dan Ohio, sebagian orang bahkan sudah beranggapan Obama beragama Islam atau dekat dengan orang-orang Islam. Banyak media di Amerika Serikat dan Inggris yang kemudian latah mengecam Hillary. Dia dan tim suksesnya dituduh telah melancarkan kampanye buruk untuk menjatuhkan pesaingnya. Kantor berita BBC menuding, kampanye semacam itu sudah dilakukan setahun sebelumnya, ketika kubu Hillary menyebut Obama bergama Islam.

Apa tanggapan Obama?

Dia sama sekali tidak membantah. Orang yang mengenakan serban seperti terlihat di foto yang disebarkan oleh drudgereport diakuinya adalah dirinya.

Foto itu diambil ketika dia melawat ke Kenya, negara asal dari ayah kandung Obama, dua tahun sebelum dia diusung sebagai salah satu kandidat presiden Partai Demokrat. Berpidato dalam sebuah kampanye, Obama menyatakan, siapa pun tahu, ketika berkunjung ke sebuah negara, seseorang tak bisa menolak untuk didaulat mengenakan baju yang dihadiahkan oleh penduduk negara itu. “Adalah menyedihkan, jika dugaan tentang [foto] itu benar berasal dari kubu Clinton; karena pada saat yang sama dia menekankan perlu memperbaiki hubungan yang lebih baik di seluruh dunia,” kata Obama.

Di musim semi enam tahun lalu itu, kampanye dan persaingan dari dua calon presiden Partai Demokrat memang berlangsung panas. Dua kubu saling memburukkan dan membusukkan. Sentimen ras dan agama disebarluaskan, dan Obama adalah sasaran yang paling rentan diserang karena kulit dan latar belakang keluarganya yang berasal dari Afrika. Dia dianggap tidak pantas memimpin Amerika.

Lalu setelah memenangkan pertarungan di partainya, dan terpilih menjadi presiden Amerika mengalahkan John McCain dari Partai Republik; latar belakang Obama terus dipersoalkan. Dia baru menjabat presiden selama enam bulan, tapi “Birthers”, sebuah kelompok kecil yang terdiri dari orang-orang yang percaya dengan teori konspirasi, melancarkan tuduhan: kewarganegaraan Obama diragukan dan sebab itu dianggap tidak bisa menjadi presiden Amerika.

Mereka tidak percaya dengan dokumen resmi Obama, dan menyatakan Obama sebetulnya lahir di Kenya atau Indonesia. Mereka juga tidak peduli dengan fakta bahwa andai pun benar Obama lahir di luar negeri, tapi salah satu orang tuanya adalah warga Amerika dan itu berarti Obama adalah tetap warga Amerika.

Semua tuduhan itu bisa saja dianggap sebagai kurang kerjaan, tapi Birther bukan gerakan remeh kendati mungkin tidak begitu popular di Amerika. Lou Dobbs, wartawan CNN, malah memperbesar kontroversi yang ditiupkan Birther dengan terus melemparkan pertanyaan tentang kewarganegaraan Obama. Pembawa acara radio beraliran kanan Rush Limbaugh mengulang-ulang topik kewarganegaraan Obama. Lalu kelompok konservatif yang sudah tidak senang dengan terpilihnya Obama sebagai presiden dengan senang hati menerima semua rumor yang menjelekkan Obama. Mereka seperti mendapatkan amunisi baru, setelah di masa kampanye gagal menuduh Obama sebagai pemakai narkoba, homo dan negro.

Tuduhan-tuduhan yang memburukkan dan membusukkan seseorang karena sentimen ras, agama, dan latar belakang keluarga seperti yang pernah terjadi pada masa kampanye calon presiden Amerika itu; juga berlangsung di Indonesia. Diulang-ulang dan bisa jauh lebih buruk. Dulu, istri Susilo Bambang Yudhoyono pernah diisukan beragama Kristen, ketika SBY untuk kali pertama maju ke Pemilihan Presiden 2004. Di musim kampanye 2009, telah disebarkan desas-desus bahwa Herawati, beragama Katolik. Herawati adalah istri Boediono calon wakil presiden dari calon presiden SBY.

Namanya juga isu, tentu saja tak terlalu jelas darimana asalnya gosip tentang agama Bu Hera, kecuali dari selebaran yang dibagi-bagikan di Asrama Haji, Medan. Saat itu Jusuf Kalla yang bertarung sebagai calon presiden berkampanye di sana. Lalu, seolah memang sudah menunggu, selebaran berisi isu agama Bu Hera diterkam oleh kubu SBY-Boediono. Dianggap sebagai kampanye super negatif. Rizal Mallarangeng, juru bicara tim kampanye SBY-Boediono tak hanya mengancam melaporkan kasus selebaran di Asrama Haji Medan ke Bawaslu, melainkan menuntut Kalla untuk meminta maaf. Kalla terbahak dan balik menuduh Rizal telah salah alamat, karena selebaran itu sama sekali tidak berhubungan dengan JK-Wiranto.

Kini, dua calon presiden, Prabowo Subianto dan Joko Widodo berikut keluarga dan masa lalu mereka tak luput dari sasaran kampanye busuk. Jokowi dianggap sebagai bukan muslim dan hajinya dinilai pencitraan; seolah menjadi nonmuslim adalah dosa. Agama ibunya Prabowo yang Kristen dibesar-besarkan. Anak lelakinya yang berkarir sebagai perancang mode diolok-olok dan direndahkan. Jokowi dituduh berbohong karena menutupi asal-usul keluarganya. Dianggap keturunan Cina, kendati seluruh keluarganya sudah membantah dan menjelaskan dengan terang. Kewarganegaraan Prabowo diungkit-ungkit padahal sudah sejak 1998 yang bersangkutan menyatakan menolak menjadi warga negara Jordania.

Benar, agama dan ras, seperti juga masa lalu, bisa menjadi sesuatu yang buruk sehingga menjadi bahan kampanye paling murah yang bisa dijual mahal. Ia bisa didaurulang untuk menuai simpati atau kebencian, menciptakan kebencian, atau rasa iba. Memalukan tentu saja, tapi kekuasaan seringkali diperoleh dengan cara-cara yang sungguh memuakkan dan tidak adil.

Di musim pemilu seperti sekarang, celakanya, sebagian media ikut menyulap meja redaksinya menjadi menjadi tungku api besar. Desas-desus dijadikan fakta dan fakta dijadikan prasangka. Sebagian lagi dengan terang-terangan memihak pada kepentingan para pemilik modal yang memilih berkubu dengan Jokowi atau Prabowo. Lalu, tim sukses dan para pendukung bertepuk tangan mengelu-elukan calon mereka masing-masing seolah manusia paling saleh.

Ya, ini memang musim pemilu; dan enam tahun lalu itu, meskipun dikampanyekan busuk dan direndahkan, Obama bukan saja terpilih sebagai calon presiden dari partainya tapi juga terpilih sebagai presiden Amerika.

demikianlah hasil studi banding berdasarkan karangan rakyat indonesia melalui eksplorasi google

silahkan anda pilih yang mana

jangan golput

rayakan hari demokrasi yang sangat membahagiakan selruh rakyat indonesia

sehingga dapat dibanggakan oleh seluruh dunia

semoga allah yang mahakuasa memberika redho dan rahmatnya kepada pemimpin bangsa indonesia mendatang

selamat pilpres 2014

prabowo atau jokowi

tr ?

TERSERAH ANDA

SAYA SENDIRI TIDAK MEMBACA PENDAPAT RAKYAT INDONESIA,PENDAPAT SAYA

RAHASIA LHO

NANTI AKAN SAYA TUSUK WAJAH PILIHAN SAYA

SALAM DARI DR IWAN SUWANDY,MHA’ PEBNEMU DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

KOLEKTOR PALING UNIK DI INDONESIA

 

 

pablo Picasso art collections

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Pablo Picasso, Chouette. Terre de faïence vase, 1968. Estimate: £6,000-8,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

source

http://heteromys3.rssing.com/chan-3271429/all_p190.html

LONDON.- Sotheby’s is to offer an exceptional selection of ceramics by Pablo Picasso in London on 7 May 2014. This follows Sotheby’s auction in March 2013 of Important Ceramics by Pablo Picasso from a Private Collection, in which all the ceramic lots sold. The comprehensive group of over 170 works represents an opportunity for collectors to acquire their own work of art by one of the 20th century’s most famous artists. The sale includes plates, vases, jugs, bowls and tiles designed by Picasso, depicting a range of classical and mythical forms alongside portraits of animals and people, as well as linocuts from this period. The individual pieces range in estimate from £400 to £60,000. 

Picasso constantly explored opportunities to break creative boundaries and challenge himself in innovative ways. A chance encounter with the owners of the renowned Madoura pottery in Vallauris in the south of France in 1946, when the artist was 64 years of age, was the starting point for his exploration of a whole new creative medium. Picasso remained enchanted by the freedom and expressive nature of ceramics throughout the last 25 years of his life. Working with the Ramié family during these years, Picasso found great satisfaction in working with clay. His freedom of thought and creative powers are clearly evident in these works, and the sense of playfulness for which he was so renowned.

The years Picasso spent in the region are understood to have been among the happiest of his life. At Madoura, he met his future wife and famed muse Jacqueline Roque, who was to remain his partner for over 20 years until his death in 1973. During his first year at the pottery, Picasso and his lover Françoise Gilot welcomed a son, Claude, who shared his name with the Patron Saint of Potters.

Since the Royal Academy’s flagship exhibition of Picasso’s ceramics in 1998 there has been a renewed appreciation for the artist’s experimentations with this art form. An exhibition currently on view in Sèvres until 19 May – Picasso, Ceramicist, and the Mediterranean – is the biggest ever dedicated to Picasso’s ceramics.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Quatre profils enlacés. Terre de faïence plate, a unique variant 1949. a unique variant with additional decoration by the artist on the underside, glazed and painted, with the Madoura and Empreinte Originale de Picasso stamps; diameter: 265mm 10½in. Estimate: £10,000-15,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

In 1949, Picasso produced six versions of ‘Four enlaced profiles’. The motif of the interlocking profiles dates to the mid-1920s, to a drawing by Picasso that was used as a design for a black and white mosaic floor at the Château de Clavary, near Grasse. In the ceramic version, the repeated profile is recognisably that of Françoise Gilot. Decorations painted directly on to the plate by Picasso make this unique variant particularly rare.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Taureau dans l’arène. Terre de faïence platter, 1948, from the edition of 450, inscribed ‘Edition Picasso’, glazed and painted, with the Madoura and d’Après Picasso stamps; width: 380mm 15in. Estimate: £4,000-6,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso repeatedly evoked the bullfight during the years following World War II when he was in the south of France. This platter depicts the bull standing proud in the centre, with spectators lining the ring. The bullfight had personal associations for Picasso; it symbolised Spain, the homeland that he decided not to return to after Franco had come to power in 1939. The profile of the standing bull is given dramatic emphasis with a delineated white contour and cloud-like white surround.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Gros oiseau corrida. Terre de faïence vase, 1953. numbered 7, from the edition of 25, partially glazed and painted, with the Madoura and d’Après Picasso stamps; height: 578mm 22 3/4 in. Estimate: £60,000-80,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

This large composite bird vase is decorated with bullfighting scenes on the oval body. When he was in Vallauris, Picasso attended bullfights in neighbouring towns. The confrontation between the mounted picador and the bull was a favourite motif, and Picasso enjoyed the company of the Spanish troupes of bullfighters who would take part in the corridas.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Profil de Jacqueline. Terre de faïence dish, 1956. from the edition of 100, with the Empreinte Originale de Picasso and Madoura stamps; diameter: 410mm 16in. Estimate: £8,000-12,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso met his second wife, Jacqueline Roque, when she was working in Madoura. The undecorated earthenware dish, in which Jacqueline’s head is seen in profile, her hair covered with a headscarf, was produced in both white and red earthenware versions.

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Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Vallauris. Silver plate, 1967, after the 1956 ceramic design. numbered 7/20, inscribed‘Picasso‘, published by François and Pierre Hugo, 1967, Paris, with the original wooden presentation box; diameter: 415mm 16½in. Estimate: £20,000-30,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

After World War II, an annual summer exhibition took place in Vallauris, and Picasso began to produce posters for the event. In 1956, the design of the Vallauris exhibition poster was used on the commemorative ceramic dishes that he produced in the same year. Within an oval central image, a frontal view of a faun in the centre is flanked by profiles at either side. The faun’s horns protrude beyond the rim of the oval. The name of the town and the date were carved in reverse into the plaster, so that they would read correctly; though the final ‘s’ of Vallauris is reversed. Discussions with François Hugo and his son, Pierre, the renowned gold- and silversmiths, about an edition in silver began in 1956, and took a full ten years to develop, before being fully realised in 1967. During this time, Picasso chose to keep private the development of the silver plates.

This work is accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Pierre Hugo.

181635136

image

Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Visage en forme de trèfle. Gold pendant, 1973. with the stamped signature and numbered 1/20 on the reverse, also stamped ‘Hugo’, with the goldsmith’s mark ‘FH’ and numbered ‘1683’ and ‘1621’, with the original fitted wooden case incised ‘Picasso‘; 43 by 52mm 1 3/4 by 2 1/8 in. Estimate: £7,000-10,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Gold pieces by Picasso are rarely seen on the auction market. From an early edition that Picasso produced with François Hugo – who designed limited-edition jewellery interpretations for Picasso, Jean Cocteau, Max Ernst and Coco Chanel – this medallion is stamped with the ‘FH’ goldsmith’s mark and ‘Hugo’. The collaboration between Picasso and Hugo was important to both men, and their friendship endured until the end of Picasso’s life.

This work is accompanied by a certificate of authenticity from Pierre Hugo.

8d3ee35df1c45a0b9ccf7f6d65026295

95414102

Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Vase aztèque aux quatre visages. Terre de faïence vase, 1957. numbered 37/50, inscribed‘Madoura’ and ‘Edition Picasso’, partially glazed and painted, with the Madoura and Edition Picasso stamps; height: 540mm 21in. Estimate: £25,000-35,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

8d3ee35df1c45a0b9ccf7f6d65026295 (2)

Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Vase aztèque aux quatre visages. Terre de faïence vase, 1957. numbered 84/100, inscribed ‘Edition Picasso’ and ‘Madoura’, painted, with the Edition Picasso and Madoura stamps; height: 560mm 22in. Estimate: £35,000-40,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso’s Aztec vases look back to Pre-Columbian stirrup heads, with their round handles topping the design, and like his forebears, he saw the potential in transforming the vase into a head. Picasso decorated each side so that faces appear on all of them, with an eye shared between adjacent faces. The handle is painted to give the appearance of a braid of hair, and in this example, is shaped into a circular form above the front of the woman’s face – modelled on Jacqueline – which has a circular mark above her nose, like a Hindu caste mark.

95414102

95414181

Pablo Picasso (1881 – 1973), Chouette. Terre de faïence vase, 1968. numbered 472/500, with the workshop numbering, incised ‘Edition Picasso‘ and ‘Madoura‘, partially glazed and painted, with the Madoura and Edition Picasso stamps; height: 297mm 11 3/4 in. Estimate: £6,000-8,000. Photo: Sotheby’s

Picasso came up with the idea of representing a bird (mostly owls) with composite pots of his own design. The open neck of the vase formed the head; an amphora, turned sideways, became the body; and a neck positioned at the end of the amphora formed the tail, with all the assembled components placed on another neck to create a stand. Picasso adopted and tamed an injured owl, when he was working in Antibes in the south of France in 1946, and named it Ubu, an assonant of the French word for owl, ‘hibou’

Dr Iwan CD-ROM”The Chinese Empress Dowager Xici HIstory Collections”

THIS THE SAMPLE OF DR IWAN CD ROM,THE COMPLETE INFO WITH AMIZING HISTORY COLLECTIONS  PICTURES AND POSTAL HISYORY COLLECTION EXIST

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The Chinese

History Collections

1835-1914

Lady Niuhuru (1837-1881). She was the daughter of Niuhuru Muyangga and his concubine Lady Giyang. She was "Imperial Concubine Zhen" (1852), "Noble Consort Zhen" (1852), and Empress of China (1852-1861) as the wife of The Xianfeng Emperor (Yizhu). After her husband's death she was given the title "Empress Mother Empress Dowager Ci'an". She was given the posthumous title "Empress Xiao Zhen Xian". She had no children.

Cixi - Dowager Empress of China - also known as T'zu-hsi

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,mHA

Copyeight @ 2014

 

1835

Cixi was born in the winter of 1835. According to the information listed on a red sheet (File No. 1247) within “Miscellaneous Pieces of the Palace” (a Qing dynasty documentation package retrieved from the First Historical Archives of China), Cixi was the daughter of Huizheng, an ordinary official from the Manchu Yehenara clan. Palace archives also show that Huizheng was a member of the Bordered Blue Banner of the Eight Banners, and was working in Beijing during the year of Cixi’s birth, indicating that Cixi was born in Beijing. Also, the file recorded the location of Cixi’s childhood home, which was Firewood Alley of West Sipailou, Beijing (Chinese: 西四牌楼劈柴胡同).

1836

Chinese Empire, 1836 (July 4th) early folded entire from London to Canton, from a London firm “W. I. Hall & Co.” to “Wetmore & Co” in Canton, with oblong framed British company in China firm chop alongside, VF piece of early Chinese trading history, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 19,000

 

 

1851

In 1851, Cixi participated in the selection for consorts to the new Xianfeng Emperor alongside sixty other candidates. Cixi was one of the few candidates chosen to stay. She was placed in the 6th rank of consorts, and styled “Noble Lady Lan” (Chinese: 贵人). Among the other chosen candidates were Noble Lady Li of Tatala clan (later Consort Li), Concubine Yun of Wugiya clan, and Concubine Zhen of Niuhuru clan (later Xianfeng’s empress consort).

1854

Lady Niuhuru (1837-1881). She was the daughter of Niuhuru Muyangga and his concubine Lady Giyang. She was "Imperial Concubine Zhen" (1852), "Noble Consort Zhen" (1852), and Empress of China (1852-1861) as the wife of The Xianfeng Emperor (Yizhu). After her husband's death she was given the title "Empress Mother Empress Dowager Ci'an". She was given the posthumous title "Empress Xiao Zhen Xian". She had no children.

In 1854, Cixi was elevated to the 5th rank of consorts and given a title, styled “Imperial Concubine Yi” (Chinese: ). In 1855, Cixi became pregnant.

1856

On 27 April 1856, she gave birth to Zaichun, the Xianfeng Emperor’s only surviving son. Soon afterward, she was elevated to the 4th rank of consorts, styled “Consort Yi” (Chinese: 懿妃).[2] In 1857, when her son reached his first birthday, Cixi was elevated to the 3rd rank consorts, and styled “Noble Consort Yi” (Chinese: 贵妃). This rank placed her second only to the Empresswithin Xianfeng’s harem.

Unlike many other women in the imperial harem, Cixi was known for her ability to read and write Chinese. This granted her ample opportunities to help the ailing emperor in daily state governing. On various occasions, the Xianfeng Emperor had Cixi read palace memorials for him, and leave instructions on the memorials according to his will. As a result, Cixi became well-informed about state affairs, and learned the art of state governing from the ailing emperor.[3]

 

(Empress Dowager Tzu-hsi; Chinese: 慈禧太后; pinyin: Cíxǐ Tàihòu; Wade–Giles: Tz’u2-hsi3 T’ai4-hou4; Mandarin pronunciation: [tsʰǐɕì tʰâɪ̯ xɤ̂ʊ̯]; Manchu: Tsysi taiheo; 29 November 1835 – 15 November 1908), of the ManchuYehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.

Selected as an imperial concubine for

《咸丰皇帝朝服像》.jpg

 

the Xianfeng Emperor

 in her adolescence, she gave birth to a son, in 1856.

1860

In September 1860, British and French troops attacked Peking (Beijing) during the closing stages of the Second Opium War,

1856

 

Second Opium War 1856-1880

 

 

and by the following month had burned the Emperor’s exquisite Old Summer Palace to the ground. The attack, under the command of Lord Elgin, was mounted in retaliation for the arrest on 18 September of British diplomatic envoy Harry Parkes and the torture and execution of a number of western hostages. The Xianfeng Emperor and his entourage, including Cixi, fled Beijing for the safety of Rehe in Manchuria.[4] On hearing the news of the destruction of the Old Summer Palace, the Xianfeng Emperor (who was already showing signs of dementia) fell into a depression, turned heavily to alcohol and drugs, and became seriously ill.[5]

 

 

 

1861

File:《璇闱日永图》.jpg

empress dowager Ci’an

On 22 August 1861 the Xianfeng Emperor died at Rehe Palace in the city of Rehe (now Chengde, Hebei). Before his death, he summoned eight of his most prestigious ministers, headed by Sushun, Zaiyuan, and Duanhua, and named them the “Eight Regent Ministers” to direct and support the future Emperor. His heir, the son of Noble Consort Yi (future Empress Dowager Cixi), was only five years old. It is commonly assumed that on his deathbed, the Xianfeng Emperor summoned his Empress and Noble Consort Yi, and gave each of them a stamp. He hoped that when his son ascended the throne, his Empress and Noble Consort Yi would cooperate in harmony and, together, help the young emperor to grow and mature also meant as a check on the power of the eight regents however there is no evidence for this and it is unlikely he would ever have intended for the women to have any political power. It is possible that the seal allegedly given as a symbol for the child was really a present for noble consort yi (Cixi ) herself as informal seals numbered in the thousands and weren’t political items but objects of art commissioned for pleasure by emperors to stamp on things like paintings or given as presents to the concubines.[6] Upon the death of the Xianfeng Emperor, his Empress Consort, aged 25, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Ci’an(popularly known as the East Empress Dowager because she lived in the Eastern Zhong-Cui Palace), and Noble Consort Yi, aged 27, was elevated to the title Empress Dowager Cixi (popularly known as the West Empress Dowager because she lived inside the Western Chuxiu Palace).

By the time of the Xianfeng Emperor’s death,

Empress Dowager Cixi had become a shrewd strategist. In Jehol, while waiting for an astrologically favorable time to transport the coffin back to Beijing, Cixi conspired with powerful court officials and imperial relatives to seize power.

 Cixi’s position as the lower-ranked Empress Dowager had no political power attached. In addition, her son the young emperor was not a political force himself.

As a result, it became necessary for her to ally herself with other powerful figures. the late emperor’s principal wife, the Empress Dowager Ci’an, Cixi suggested that they become co-reigning Empress Dowagers, with powers exceeding the Eight Regent Ministers, the two had long been close friends since Cixi first came to the harem .[7]

Tensions grew among the Eight Regent Ministers, headed by Sushun, and the two Empresses Dowager.

The ministers did not appreciate Cixi’s interference in political affairs, and the frequent confrontations left the Empress Dowager Ci’an frustrated.

 Ci’an often refused to come to court audiences, leaving Empress Dowager Cixi to deal with the ministers alone.

Secretly, Empress Dowager Cixi began gathering the support of talented ministers, soldiers, and others who were ostracized by the Eight Regent Ministers for personal or political reasons.

Among them was Prince Gong, who had great ambitions and was at that time excluded from the power circle, and the Prince Chun, the sixth and seventh sons of the Daoguang Emperor, respectively. While she aligned herself with these Princes, a memorial came fromShandong asking for Cixi to “listen to politics behind the curtains”, i.e., asking Cixi to become the ruler. The same petition also asked Prince Gong to enter the political arena as a principal “aide to the Emperor.”

When the Emperor’s funeral procession left for Beijing, Cixi took advantage of her alliances with Princes Gong and Chun.

She and the boy Emperor returned to the capital before the rest of the party, along with Zaiyuan and Duanhua, two of the principal regents, while Sushun was left to accompany the deceased Emperor’s procession. Cixi’s early return to Beijing meant that she had more time to plan with Prince Gong, and ensure that the power base of the Eight Regent Ministers was divided between Sushun and his allies, Zaiyuan and Duanhua.

History was re-written and the Regents were dismissed for having carried out incompetent negotiations with the “barbarians” which had caused Xianfeng Emperor to flee to Jehol “greatly against his will,” among other charges.[7]

To display her high moral standards, Cixi executed only three of the eight regent ministers.

Prince Gong had suggested that Sushun and others be executed by the most painful method, known as slow slicing, but Dowager Cixi declined the suggestion and ordered that Sushun be beheaded, while the other two also marked for execution, Zaiyuan and Duanhua, were given white silks to allow them to commit suicide.

 In addition, Cixi refused outright the idea of executing the family members of the ministers, as would be done in accordance with Imperial tradition of an alleged usurper. Ironically, Qing Imperial tradition also dictated that women and princes were never to engage in politics. In breaking with tradition, Cixi became the only Qing Dynasty Empress to rule from “behind the curtains” (垂簾聽政).

This palace coup is known as the “Xinyou Palace Coup” (Chinese: 辛酉政變) in China after the name of the year 1861 in the Sexagenary cycle.

 

The Empress  Dowager Cixi

 

 

With Xianfeng’s death in 1861 the young boy became the Tongzhi Emperor and she became Empress Dowager. Cixi ousted a group of regents appointed by the late emperor and assumed regency, which she shared with the Empress Dowager Ci’an. Cixi then consolidated control over the dynasty when, at the death of the Tongzhi Emperor, contrary to the dynastic rules of succession, she installed her nephew as the Guangxu Emperor in 1875. Although she refused to adopt Western models of government, she supported technological and military reforms and the Self-Strengthening Movement. Cixi rejected the Hundred Days’ Reforms of 1898 as impractical and detrimental to dynastic power and placed the Guangxu Emperor under house arrest for supporting reformers. After the Boxer Rebellion and the invasion of Allied armies, external and internal pressures led Cixi to effect institutional changes of just the sort she had resisted and to appoint reform-minded officials. The dynasty collapsed in late 1911, three years after her death, and the Republican Era was inaugurated 1 January 1912.

Historians both in China and abroad have generally portrayed her as a despot and villain responsible for the fall of the dynasty, while others have suggested that her opponents among the reformers succeeded in making her a scapegoat for problems beyond her control, that she stepped in to prevent disorder, that she was no more ruthless than other rulers, and that she was even an effective if reluctant reformer in the last years of her life.[1]

In November 1861,

 a few days following the coup, Cixi was quick to reward Yixin,

the Prince Gong, for his help.

 He was made head of the General Affairs Office and the Internal Affairs Office, and his daughter was made a Gurun Princess, a title usually bestowed only on the Empress’s first-born daughter.

Yixin’s allowance also increased twofold. However, Cixi avoided giving Yixin the absolute political power that princes such as Dorgon exercised during the Shunzhi Emperor‘s reign. As one of the first acts from behind the curtains, Cixi (nominally along with Ci’an) issued two important Imperial Edicts on behalf of the Emperor.

The first stated that the two Empresses Dowager were to be the sole decision makers “without interference,” and the second changed the boy Emperor’s era name from Qixiang (祺祥; “Auspicious”) to Tongzhi (同治; “collective stable”).

However, despite being the sole decision makers, both Ci’an and Cixi were forced to rely on the Grand Council and a complex series of procedures in order to deal with affairs of state. When state documents came in, they were to be first forwarded to the dowager empresses, and then referred back to the prince adviser and the Grand Council. Having discussed the matters, the prince and his colleagues would seek the instruction of the dowager empresses at audiences and imperial orders would be drawn up accordingly, with drafts having to be approved by the dowagers before edicts were issued.[8]

It also seems that their most important role during the regency was merely to apply their seals to edicts, a merely mechanical role in a complex bureaucracy.[9]

 

Cixi’s entrance as the absolute power figure in China came at a time of internal chaos and foreign challenges. The effects of the Second Opium War were still hovering over the country, as the Taiping Rebellion continued its seemingly unstoppable advance through China’s south, eating up the Qing Empire bit by bit. Internally, both the national bureaucracy and regional authorities were infested with corruption. 1861 happened to be the year of official examinations, whereby officials of all levels presented their political reports from the previous three years. Cixi decided that the time was ripe for a bureaucratic overhaul, where she personally sought audience with all officials above the level of provincial governor, who had to report to her personally. Cixi took on part of the role usually given to the Bureaucratic Affairs Department (吏部). Cixi also executed two prominent officials to serve as examples as a more immediate solution: Qingying, a militaryshilang who had tried to bribe his way out of demotion, and He Guiqing, then Viceroy of Liangjiang, who fled Changzhou in the wake of an incoming Taiping army as opposed to trying to defend the city.

Another significant challenge Cixi faced was the increasingly decrepit state of the country’s Manchu elite. Since the beginning of the dynasty most major positions at court had been held by Manchus, and Emperors had generally shown contempt for powerful Han Chinese. Cixi, again in a reversal of Imperial tradition, entrusted the country’s most powerful military unit against the Taiping army into the hands of a Han Chinese, Zeng Guofan. Additionally, in the next three years, Cixi appointed Han Chinese officials to become governors of all southern Chinese provinces, raising alarm bells in an administration traditionally fond of Manchu dominance

 

Elle était très mal perçue par les Han car elle était Mandchoue. A l’école, on m’a enseigné (et donc pas qu’a moi) qu’elle était une mauvaise impératrice et qu’elle était en partie responsable du désastre qui frappa la chine alors. De plus elle a fuie la capitale, abandonnant le peuple …bref elle n’était vraiment pas bien vu à l’époque et jusqu’à il a peu. Depuis deux ou trois ans les chaines chinoises diffusent des reportages qui réabilitent un peu son image, mais bon ce n’est pas la souveraine la plus populaire de la chine ancienne, loin de là.

 Welcome scene painted on a panel of the Long Corridor

Summer palace painting

 

The Qing Imperial paintings occupies an important position among the court painters. With its original , somewhat poetic theme and fine, precise grushwork it ranks among the best Chinese figure paintings. An aptitute fr figure paintings from an early age, and this is borne out by varius anecdote.


The Qing Empress had her Hall repaired and was so proud of the newly whitewashed walls that when Her Majesty out she order a serving kasim boy to make sure that no one touched and dirtied them. But after the the fall of china imperial, some off the imperial painting in dirty and almost off because no one tooke care that very rare imperial paintings.before all became broken and faded , I think better I install the imperial painting in my blog and my be the native Chinese Painting collector will help me to write the more best narations .


The Qing Empress eager to paint something on the wall, sent the by off to have a meal and took advantage of his abscence to her majesty aske the court painter to stack up some tables and stand on them to paint a portrait of Confucius. When the servant boy came back and saw the snow-white wall covered with a painting he burst into tears for fear of his Majesty’s eager. But the Qing emperor ‘s father in Law on his return was so struck by the lifelike figure of Confucius that he went down on his knees to worship it, thingking Confucius had descended to protect the Royal house.


The legend story about how the Qing imperial painter copied the earlier imperial artist’s works. Having heard that there were stone inscriptions of the potraits oth the seventy-two diciples of Confucius by Li Kung Lin on the walls of the Hangchow Prefectural Collage, The imperial painter sailed dwn the river Chientang to Hangchow with the necessary equipment and before long returned with a set of carefully made rubbings. For ten days he stayed at home behind closed doors to study LiKung lin technique, and when he showed his copies of potraits and the original rubbings to his friends they praised the close likeness he had acchieved.

 But he still was not satisfied. he worked for ten more days and this time when he showed the results to his friends he was delighted to be told that they further from the originals, for instead of merely making faithful copies he had displayed originality, freely interpreting Li Kung Lin’s manner and improving his own style. This had been the purposed f his study. The cnturs of his figures are graceful yet dignbified, vivid and strong with a suureness of touch that makes every strke seeminevitable. The lines of the drapery not only suggest the texture of the material but the way it cling to the figure. Pleats,seams,curves and fld are painted simply and precisely, while the pstures and gestures are brilliantly executed,corresponding closely to the speed and force of each figure’s movement, with a natural grace and harmny between the contour
lines and the folds of the garment.


The soul of figure painting lies in characterization, and the technique of line-drawing might be called the mainstay of characterization. For a painting like the court ladies is made entirely of lines, quite unlike Chinese paintings of the “boneless” type in which artist generally make sketches without any outline and the apply colour washed. If all the lines here were removed these would be no painting left, and this is te most important feaurure of Qing Imperial painting.


To give each line such accuracy that it is a generalized expression or ordinary movements means understanding the general rules governing gestures and movements and depicting them with a minimum of fine lines. This can only be achieved by long and hard practice and not by talent alone.The Qing Imperial painter’s line drawing technique show that he was both gifted and painstaking. He neither disobeyed the rules of plastic art to make a parade of his versatility not stopped to thoughtless, naturalistic sketching. His brushwork is charcaterized by simplicity,dignity and natural grace, yet careful thought obviously went into each line, for we cannt find a single careless strke and the whole work shows his mastery of technique.
Many of the Qing Imperial painters themes are inspired by the plataeu of mountains , landscaped and palace hall , they shows originality in their composition and brushwork.
One of the Qing Imperial painter hearing that there was a “Love-seed Court’ with a tree bearing the red seeds, he paid a special visit to it but he saw only green leaves but no red seeds. He write a poem :

summer palac jade ship at aummer palace lake

Red seeds grow in the south
How many shots have they put frt this spring?
Pick them inplenty,friend
For these are seeds of love!

The theme of Qing Imperial Painting illustrations :

1. The Mountain landscape : six paintings

2. The Palace hall : three paintings

3. The Bird : two paintings

4. The Court ladies : three paintings

 

5. The Human figures :three paintings including Confucius.

6. Pagoda : one paintings

@copyright Dr Iwan s 2010

This the original painting forbidden to Copy. Illustrations provenance dr Iwan bought from the Qing Imperial family by my Grandpa which he bring to Sumatra as the souvenier, this timeforbidden to take photos in summer palace because the painting became more vade and broken, please save our heritage special for the Chinese overseas collectors please this picture became your refrences,I will put in my collaboration with Zheng he Museum Penang.

The Qing Imperial Ceramic”

 

Imperial Spitting Vase

Imperial Head-pillow

Imperial Rice Bowl & soup Bowl

Imperial Chopestick holder

Imperial Stoneware figurine

Imperial Stempcup

Empress coverbox

Empress coverbox

Imperial cover box

Empress yellow Tea Cup

Imperial Meiping Vase

 

Imperial stoneware Tea Pot

Imperial red Vase

The Qing imperial vase

 

 


 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

I.INTODUCTIONS
After 36 years research fromthe first time found the Qing Dynasty postmark collections in 1974 , very difficult to found the special catalogue about this type collections.
After the google had the special tools to explored allin informations in the Internet , I found enough information to start to report my reasearch.

During Qing Dynasty, before joined UPU , all the latter send abroad must added the stamps from the country which had joined UPU, because the local stamps didn’t accepted.

After the first local port stamps first issue at Shangai in 1863, the first Local Post Shanghai Postmark were issued and follow by the other Local Port Postmark like Amoy,Foochow, Chinkiang etc.

The first Qing Imperial postmark were the Pa Kua,special chinese characters used five strip, and by cutting one or more line will made the special meaning, every city used this pa kua postmark with meaning the initial of the city.In 2007 I have found the first Pa kua postmark on Japan coil dragon stamps 1 c many Indonesian collectors didn.t want to collect this stamp because they think this postmark was blob and bad.
Pa means five, Kua means line,

In 1896, the Qing emperor issued a special decree giving official recgnation to the European postal syatem and the Ancient I Chan and Manchu Postal system were ended.Many European have their postoffice in China with their own postmark, the first postmaek found was the German pstal Office at Kiatschou. (read the complete history “The Qing Imperial Postal History” in this blog.)

After joined UPU, the Qing postal system issued the internationalpostmark . round bigger like dollar coin, and this postmark called Qing Dollar Post mark, after that many types of postmark like double ring and Belingual postmark were issued.

The last dynasty (emperor Puyi) have issued the special Temple of heaven stamps. Every year the Qing emperor prayed at this temple, and also issued the bilingual Date(BLD) postmark like Foochow, tengyoe ,Peking, Chungking. in 1909-1910, the last year of Qing Dynasty postal service , and after that ROC postal service begun with their own postmark Shanghai Lunar date and official government postage paid stationer postcard of Statistical departement.

This reaseach report, was the first time with chronologic historic postmark , because many auctioner couldn’t gave the exact informations, they only said good Qing Postmark , some writers like Wikipedia have given the best narration f the Postmark , also some e-bay canada auction with the complete informations but many without the exact information, because too difficult to read the chinese characters.
I hope after read and look the illustrations, many collectors begin to understand the Qing Postmark, but stillmany informations need please the specialist collecter comment.
Dr Iwan s. the founder of uniquecolection.wordpress.com Blog.
@ copyright Dr Iwan S 2010.

1867

  •  

 

Manchu mariée Pékin, Penchilie Province, China [1867] John Thomson

 

 

 

·         CHINE 1880

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:43

 

 

 

·         Femme Manchu de 1869 Pekin

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE 1860 le 28 Novembre 2011 à 23:55

 

Exemple de Coiffure sur une province tartre ou Manchu Femme, Frontview, Pékin, Petchili, Chine [1869] John Thomson. photographe.

Intitulé: (vue de face) Exemple de Coiffure sur une femme tartare ou mandchous, qui porte une longue robe à manches longues matelassé.Le cheveu est enroulé autour d’une bande plate de bois.Pékin, Petchili Province, China [1869] J Thomson  des travaux de réparation étendue aux manches et au visage, le fond était tout simplement dépouillé, des ajustements dans le contraste et la tonalité.

Voici un autre classique de John Thomson (quoique avec restauration étendue), retrouvée dans la collection fantastique Wellcome de son travail.Thomson a continué de fasciner les gens, après un siècle, son travail a récemment retourné en Chine, où de nombreux Chinois pour la première fois sont de voir l’essence de leurs ancêtres à travers son art éternel.Wellcome Collection de Thomson peut être trouvé ici:

library.wellcome.ac.uk/node267.html

Cette fille fait apparu dans plusieurs des tableaux de Thomson.Il était évident qu’il a passé quelque temps à photographier une équipe de modèles Manchu tant dans leur entoure naturelles et en face d’une toile de fond portable.Essentiellement mon soupçon personnelle est que son processus a été remarquablement similaire à une séance photo des temps modernes.Bien sûr, il n’a pas eu flashs électroniques ou de films numériques, mais avait plutôt de regarder sous un drap noir à l’envers inversé l’image sur une plaque de verre mat DIM.Photographie en ces jours était véritablement une entreprise monumentale.

Comme un historien amateur, je sais que la retouche est un tabou flagrante.Cependant, en tant que photographe et artiste regardant une belle fille, j’ai trouvé l’envie de nettoyer l’image trop grande pour résister.J’ai commencé tout simplement désireux d’enlever la tache grosse de son front, et avant que je le savais, j’étais déjà reconstruire ses manches, LOL …

L’image originale non retouchée peut être vu ici:

www.flickr.com/photos/ralphrepo_photolog/3974179434/

Imaginez que, étant captivé et séduit par une femme qui est sans doute mort depuis plus d’un siècle.Je suppose que certains de beauté est en effet hors du temps.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1850

Taiping Rebellion 1850-1911

 


1859

Opium War In 1859

 1875

File:Emperor Guangxu.jpg

11th Qing Emperor of ChinaReign25 February 1875 – 14 November 1908
(33 years, 263 days)PredecessorTongzhi EmperorSuccessorXuantong EmperorRegentEmpress Dowager Ci’an
(1875-1881)
Empress Dowager Cixi
(1875-1908) SpouseEmpress Xiaodingjing
Consort Jin
Consort ZhenFull nameChinese: Aixin Jueluo Zaitian (愛新覺羅·載湉)
Manchu: Aisin-Gioro hala i Dzai Tiyan
Mongolian: Altan-Gioro Sai TiyanEra name and datesChinese: Guangxu (光緒)
Manchu: Badarangga Doro
Mongolian: Badaragultu Törü: 6 February 1875 – 21 January 1909Posthumous nameEmperor Tongtian Chongyun Dazhong Zhizheng Jingwen Weiwu Renxiao Ruizhi Duanjian Kuanqin Jing
(同天崇運大中至正經文緯武仁孝睿智端儉寬勤景皇帝)

 

(1800-1915)

Large dragon 1878

1886

Shanghai, 1886, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS 117a, 117ci), a lovely mint pair of these eye-catching varieties, o.g., Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

Shanghai, 1886-88, Small Dragon, 40cash on 100cash yellow, red surcharge varieties (Scott 117 vars. Chan LS117a & ci), two lovely used examples showing surcharge inverted and reading from top left to bottom right varieties, Very Fine, scarce pair, each unpriced used.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,500.

1888

 

 

 

Qing court the internal political struggle, the senior likes and dislikes, and other reasons, after 1888

Empress Xi Ci Stamp

 

CHINESE IMPERIAL POSTAL SEALED

Chinese Empire, 1888, Small Dragon, 1ca bright green, perf 11½ (Scott 13. Chan 19), margin block of 4, o.g., very lightly hinged at top, never hinged at bottom, beautiful front & back, a choice block, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,600

 

 

1890

the Northern Fleet funding substantially reduced, to naval equipment update in 1890 was forced to completely terminate. For the Navy and technology are advancing by leaps and bounds, Japan by two naval expansion in the case of the rapid rise.

 

In 1892,

Robert Hart suggested to Tsungli Yamen to establish a national post office again,

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shanghai Local Post Card

1893

Shanghai, 1893, Double Dragons, 5¢ carmine pink, left half with inverted surcharge (Chan LS141a), with watermarked paper, Type I with Shanghai double circle postmark in blue, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

1894

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca value color proof on very thin cigarette paper (Scott 16 var.), without gum as issued, complete margins all around, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing, 1 ca orange red, imperf horizontally (Scott 16 var.), vertical pair, used with complete Shanghai seal chop in dark blue; some overall aged toning, stamp Very Fine, rare item. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing, mint group (Scott 16-20,22. Chan 22-26, 28), comprising 1ca(3), 2ca(3), 3ca(3), 4 ca(2), 5ca and 9ca, most with o.g., 12 values, a clean group, generally F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday 1st Printing (Scott 16-18, 20-24. Chan 22-24, 26-30), group of 11 values, comprised 1ca, 2ca, 3ca (2), 5ca, 6ca, 9ca (2), 12ca, 24 ca(2), majority very fine, odd faults on couple of values as expected, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 4,500. Realized HK$ 9,000

Chinese Empire, 1894, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 1st Printing,1ca-24ca complete (Scott 16-26. Chan 22-33), neat cancels, very clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 10,000

 

 

 

 

To the outbreak of the Sino in 1894,

the original Northern Fleet warships, regardless of speed, rate of fire, are behind Japan. While the Empress Dowager Cixi morbid extravagance and waste, to include the Navy’s military spending, including state financial burden of non-constructive

The summer of early 1894,

Japan provoke Sino aimed at aggression against the DPRK and China. September 17, 1894, the main force of the Northern Navy and the main force of the Japanese combined fleet encountered in the waters Yalu River, the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese Navy’s first decisive naval battle known as the Yellow Sea Dadonggou.

The picture shows a Japanese war ship “Atlantis pill” shot to the naval battle scene, near the Japanese combined fleet warships, the virtual shadow of the ship in the distant smoke is the Jigong the Northern Fleet to Japan’s combined fleet

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The beginning of the Battle of Yalu River,

the intention of the Northern Navy cross team cut off at multiple points, disrupting the formation of the Japanese columns, however, the Northern Navy Gejian ship age old, and the speed of the fire completely overwhelmed by the Japanese failed to achieve the established tactical objectives, and ultimatelyinto was the siege of the Japanese. Has suffered serious injuries of the Northern Navy “Zhiyuan” ship under the command of Captain Deng Shichang Japanese ship launched a suicide assault, the intent in order to reverse the situation, and ultimately fall short unfortunately, was sunk by the Japanese. Deng Shichang fell into the meaning of not only students, refused to rescue, Daohai was martyred.

Battle of Yalu River ended with the defeat of the Northern Navy, Northern Navy was sunk by a number of large ships, but failed to sink a Japanese ship, the loss of ship equipment too heavy, the loss of the Yellow Sea naval supremacy. The Japanese army has launched the Battle of Port Arthur and Weihai, an attempt to annihilate the Northern Navy cleared the final obstacles to landing Bohai Bay. In February 1895, experienced a bitter struggle, the downfall of the Northern Navy ammunition aid must in Weihai. The picture shows before the destruction of the Northern Navy after the Japanese torpedo hit the stranded flagship be far “to avoid falling into the scene after the rival blew.

Carved in the of Weihai land fall, Northern Naval Commander Ding Yu to organize all of the Marines through the Gulf backs against the wall on the shore of the Japanese launched a counterattack final Marines advantage of the Japanese oppression to Longmiao mouth Beach, annihilated.Ding Yu suicide. The picture shows the post-war Japanese army shot near in Longmiao mouth killed in the Northern officers and men of the Marine Corps remains.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

(5) 1890
The Local Port shinaghai stamps double dragon were issued.

(6) 1893
The Local port stamps were issued from several port : Chefoo, Hankou(Hankow) and Chongqing(Chungqing),

(7) 1894

(a)The Local port stamps were issued from several port :Fuzhou(Foochow) , Zhenjiang(Chinkiang), Wuhu, Yichang(Ichang) and Tianjin(Tientsin).

(b) The French Post Office in Chine issued Chine surharge France stamps .(many types surcharge at many area also issued ,like Mongtse ,Yunnan Fu,Hoi-Hao , Canton,Pac Hoi,Tchong King and Kuong Tcheuo)

(8) 1895
The Local port stamps were issued from Amoy(xianmen) .

and later in 1895

made a 4 chapter, 44 articles of Postal Guide for the modern postal service. In 1896 Robert Hart succeeded in founding the Imperial Post Office and appointed the Inspector General of Posts. Money came from Customs Funds. The innumerable rules, regulations and problems that had to be overcome were legion. He paid attention to every possible matter from opening a new department to the design of a postage stamp.

 

1895

Amoy, 1895, First Issue, 2¢ blue, Type 1 (Scott 3. Chan LA3), block of 4, o.g., fresh mint, Very Fine, scarce block.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200.

 

 

 

Chefoo, 1895 (20 July) US – Chefoo combination piece, franked by 5¢ US Grant issue (Scott 270) tied to piece along with Chefoo 1¢ Pagoda by “Chefoo 20 JUL 95 Local Post” cds and 5¢ Grant additionally cancelled by duplex “1” and partial “Postal Agency Jul 31 Shanghai;” nice combination, F-VF.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,000.

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, Overprinted on ½¢ wide spaced (Scott J9, var. Chan LCHD8 & 8di), horizontal 4 stamps used on piece, second stamp showing “U” in “”DUE”” inserted by hand variety, Very Fine, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

Chinkiang, Postage Due, 1895, 15¢ carmine, black over red overprint, both inverted (Scott J12cd. Chan LCHO24b), horizontal pair, o.g.; fresh, bright pair which is sensibly reinforced, right stamp tiny, pinpoint thin speck, otherwise F.-V.F., striking variety, scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,500.

 

Hankow, Postage Dues, 1895, Type III complete (Chan LHD11-13), o.g.; 10¢ carmine with shallow thin spot, otherwise F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 4,000 – 5,000. Realized HK$ 7,500

February 17, 1895,

the Japanese Navy with the landing in the island of Liu, Ji-Canton C, the town of medium remaining 10 ship for the Japanese army captured the northern fleet was wiped out. Subsequently, the Qing government sent Li plenipotentiary to Japan to peace, and the “Sino-Japanese Treaty of Shimonoseki was signed on April 17, the Sino-end. The destruction of the Northern Navy also marks the failure of the Westernization Movement, the Qing Empire’s international standing has plummeted, and once again become the object of the powers creeping. The picture shows the Japanese occupation of the Northern Navy Liugongdao Navy hall

  • 战舰军港尽失,拨银数千万两打造的北洋海军成为众矢之的。而清廷内部的门户派系斗争,更让海军衙门在战争结束之前就被撤销。1895428日,光绪帝颁布上谕将大批海军军官革职查办。三个月后,北洋海军各级职务从建制上被正式取消。从1874讨论南北洋海防,到1895年北洋海军覆灭,前后历时21年。图为北洋海军覆灭后,幸存官兵被集中至威海遣散。

battleship naval port lose dial Silver number of 10.002 million to build the Northern Navy become common knowledge. The Qing government portal within the factional fighting, leaving the Navy Yamen before the end of the war has been revoked. April 28, 1895, the Guangxu Emperor issued the Edict of a large number of naval officers dismissed and punished. Three months later, the Northern Navy positions at all levels from the establishment was officially canceled. Yang Hai Phong to discuss North-South from 1874 to 1895 collapse of the Northern Navy, and it took 21 years. The picture shows after the destruction of the Northern Navy, the surviving officers and men were concentrated to Weihai severance.

Tong Bingxue

Tong Bingxue, a 37 years old Chinese media professional; a keen collector, a well-known old photograph collector in Beijing; the founder and owner of “China Photography Museum Online” and “China Old Photo” websites. In 2003, he started the collection and research of medals and China photographs for each Expo.

Bonding to Expo

During the early 2003, Tong run into an original photograph of China in the 1876 Philadelphia Expo. Just to learn about the photograph, he started his search. Later, he found out, China actually had always been a part of the Expo history. Ever since the first 1851 Expo in London, China almost attended every major expo there was. Only none of those historical records was never gathered or filed. As a result, people’s reorganization of the expo was automatically limited a handful events such as the 1915 Panama expo. So, Tong started to collect the materials and evidence of the Chinese presentation in the expo history, such as photographs, etching and other items.

Devoted to The Collection

“Through so many years, what I did was a study of the expo rather than a merely collection.” Talking about the collecting experience, Tong has learnt and felt a lot.

“Due to the fact that there was no actual expo museum, no one ever thought about or conducted the research of expo items and collectables, thus there is no existing publishing to refer to. My research contains quite a lot of gathering, investigating and comparing. The evidence that bonds China and the expo is even less and looser; also what I was able to retrieve was all before 1904 and unofficial, I had to rely on the English record more than the local government records, and that cost me too much time.”

 

Not only time consuming, his collection was also rather expensive. “In auctions, those items are not very often to run into, even if I did, they usually cost a lot. This one time, I was trying to acquire a medal of ‘New Invention and New Technology’. I asked a friend in Germany to keep an eye for me, and it took him two years to find one in a local auction. At the end I had to get it, I wasn’t even thinking how much it would cost me.”

 

 

True value Revealed

With his full heart on the collection, he had no other attention to spear, and as the 2010 Shanghai expo getting closer, his collections true value started to reveal.

Finally in May 2009, the “Expo Medals & China Expo Images” exhibition opened in Shanghai, and many more are able to share his passion about the expo. In his mind, the event nowadays is more about the display of advanced culture and concepts; it fits more to mankind’s true value of developing. Although many awards set for the exhibitors are long gone, but by the learning of expo and the way these awards changes, would surely help people to understand the current expo. As a glance back on the history, and flip through the medals, surely will brought us the will to discover the developing of our unique civilization.

Tong Bingxue’s Sites

China Photography Museum Online: www.chinaoldphoto.com
Tong Bingxue’s blog: http://tongbingxue.blshe.com/

 

Tong Bingxue’s Collection

 

The Original Photo of Jade Tower (翠玉宝塔) in Paris Expo 1937

 

A Panorama of China pavillion in Panama Expo 1915

 

The original stereo photo of China industry model in 1904

 

 

The Exterior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1889

 

The Estampe Featuring A Chinese Writer in Expo 1878

 

The Interior View of China Pavillion in Paris Expo 1878

 

The Estampe of a Night Show in Chinese Theatre in Paris Expo 1867

 

China Pavillion in the First World Expo Ever in London in 1851

 

The Estampe of Sir. Xi Sheng (希生) (the third one from the right)  from Guangdong, London Expo 1851

 

 

The Front of the Souvenir Badge of Sir Xi Sheng (希生), Showed in the Openning Ceremony of the First World’s Fair in London

 

The Front Side of “New Invention and New Technology” Medal in London Expo 1851

 

The Back Side of “New Invention and New Technology” Medal in London Expo 1851

 

Travel Notes of the Panama Pacific International Exposition

 

 

The Table Shield of “Holy Mother Statue” in St Louis Expo 1904

 

 

The Official Invitation for the Reception to Celebrate Empress Dowager Cixi’s 70th Birthday, St Louis Expo 1904

 

The Chinese Pavilion Pass at St Louis Expo 1904, It Was the First Ticket Ever in China’s World Expo History

 

The First Photo of Qing Authorities Taken in World Expo, St Louis Expo 1904

 

The estampe of China pavillion in Paris Expo 1900

 

The First Photograph of China in World Expo History, London 1851

 

Fine China Utensil in the Openning Ceremony of London Expo 1851

 

The Chinese Pavillion in London Expo 1851

 

 

W. B. Thornhill,Shanghai, 1895 first edition published by Stanley Gibbons, with notes and publishers’ prices, Extremely Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200. Realized HK$ 2,600

 

 

(9) 1896

(a) The Local Port stamps were issued from Nanjing(Nanking)

(b) The Qing Emperor issued a special decree giving official recognation to the “European” postals system (knowns as Foreign uniform in China ) and bringing to an end the old I cHan and Minchu Postal service .
This postal system was for many years operated by the Chinese Maritime Custom.

1896

Chinkiang, Official, 1896, 15¢ carmine, inverted overprint variety (Scott O8a. Chan LCHO8var), o.g., never hinged, pristine mint, F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,200

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 + var. Chan LHD6 + 6a), a lovely vertical strip of 3, top stamp showing large top of left character variety, fresh, Very Fine, scarce multiple.
Estimate HK$ 1,200 – 1,600.

Hankow, Postage Due, 1896, 2¢ violet on buff, Type II (Scott J6 var. Chan LHD6a), an attractive example, showing large top of left character variety, used, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,400.

1897

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure ½¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 3ca orange, wide spacing, imperf horizontally (Scott 47c. Chan 56eii), vertical strip of 3, o.g., lightly hinged, fresh, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 34,000 – 40,000.

May,5th.1897

 


Off Cover Used surcharge Cixi birthday 1 cent block four CDS custom Hankow Mai 3 1897

Chinese Empire, 1897, Empress Dowager 60th Birthday, 2nd Printing, 4ca pale rose (Scott 19n. Chan 25S), o.g., fresh and F.-V.F., scarce.
Estimate HK$ 2,400 – 3,000.

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 1¢ on Empress Dowager 1st Printing 1ca vermilion, wide spacing (Scott 39. Chan 48), o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,100

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing, mint group (Scott 47//55, 73-74. Chan 56//64, 82-83), plus re-engraved set, comprised ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢, 8¢, 10¢ and 30¢, re-engraved ½¢ missing corner and 2¢(2), total 14 values, majority clean and fresh overall condition, o.g., F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 6,000 – 7,000. Realized HK$ 11,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, mint group (Scott 28//36), comprising ½¢(4), including pair shifted perfs, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 8¢(2) one with “8” shifted to right, 10¢ on 6¢, 10¢ on 9¢ and 10¢ on 12¢, o.g. on all values, one 8¢ bottom straight edge, clean group, 13 values, F.-V.F.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000. Realized HK$ 9,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Wide Spacing (Scott 47-51, 53-55), 8 values without 8¢ on 6ca, but with extra values, comprising ½¢(2), 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢ on 9ca(2), 10¢/12ca and 30¢/24ca, total 11 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,500 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, 2nd Printing, Narrow Spacing, mint & used group (Scott 65//71, 73. Chan 74-79, 83), comprised mint ½¢(2), 1¢(2), 2¢, 4¢, 10¢ and used ½¢, 1¢(3), 2¢(2), 10¢ on 9ca, 10¢ on 12ca, minor varieties noted, plus ½¢ on 3ca, total 17 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small Figure Surcharges on Empress Dowager, used selection (Scott 28//36), comprised of ½¢(3), 1¢(2), 2¢(2), 4¢, 5¢(4) including pair, 8¢(3), 10¢ on 6ca, 10¢ on 9ca used on piece, 10¢ on 12ca with nearly complete “Tangku” cds in blue, overall F-VF, some faults expected, 18 values.
Estimate HK$ 2,800 – 3,500. Realized HK$ 7,500

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large Figure 30¢ on Empress Dowager 2nd Printing 24ca dark red, 2mm spacing (Scott 55a. Chan 64d), o.g., F.-V.FRealized HK$ 18,000

Surcharge Revenue

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), o.g., small hinge remnant, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 5,000

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,400

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), o.g., hinge remnant; perfs trimmed close at top, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 3,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78), block of 4, part o.g., F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 26,000

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 78. Chan 87), 3 examples, one mint and two used copies, the former has small gum thinned spot, used fine, all with surcharges shifted to the right, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 80. Chan 88), used, fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 2,200

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), o.g., clean, exceptionally well centered, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), surcharge slightly shifted to left; small thin top left corner, Fair exampleRealized HK$ 6,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), used, well centered, Very FineRealized HK$ 6,500

 

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small 2¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 79. Chan 84), neat large part Customs postmark, good color and centering, Very FineRealized HK$ 19,000

good value as shown by the large surcharge type

 

1897 Red Revenue 4c small type surcharge $US16,000

1897 Red Revenue 4c large type surcharge $US150

 

 

 

 

Please do NOT ask members in general threads like this if items shown are for sale.
Many members show items of interest which they value greatly as part of their collection, not becuase they want to sell them. It is not appropriate to ask that question here and may cause embarrassment to members.

The separate Sales Forum is used by members specifically to list the items they wish to sell, so keep checking there if there is anything anyone is selling that you may wish to buy.
Also, if you are looking for a specific stamp or stamps, you can always start a thread in the Wanted Forum, giving details of what you want and how much you are willing to pay. (Gavin)

Dr Iwan notes, I have ever seen the small overprint from Mr Untung Rahardjo in Jkarata, and I didinot know that the smallest low price, I am lucky I didsinot buy the small overprint from him because I asked him almost 1000 US dollar,be careful to buy this stamps,you must learn the inforemations in this CD-ROM)


Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), o.g., hinge remnant, clean, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 11,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large 4¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 82. Chan 89), has o.g. but used example, neat part Shanghai Dollar chop cancel, good color and superb centering, exceptional beauty, Very FineRealized HK$ 4,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Small $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 86), regummed, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 38,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 14, surcharge shifted downward, o.g., good color, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 40,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), used, clean, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

Chinese Empire, 1897, Large $1 on 3¢ Red Revenue (Scott 84. Chan 90), position 7, used with complete strike of Swatow Pakua cancel, good color and centering, Extremely FineRealized

  • The Opium Wars
  • Boxer Uprising was a proto-nationalist movement by the “Righteous Harmony Society”
  • Qing Government ignored or even enciouraged Boxer rebels, at the same time Qing Dynasty supported
  • Western Forces
  • to crush the revolt

 

1900

Kick On The Butt. Chinese imperial punisment in 1900

 

 

 

·

 1905

The early Qing emperors adopted the bureaucratic structures and institutions from the preceding Ming dynasty but split rule between Han Chinese and Manchus, with some positions also given to Mongols.[54] Like previous dynasties, the Qing recruited officials via the imperial examination system, until the system was abolished in 1905. The Qing divided the positions into civil and military positions, each having nine grades or ranks, each subdivided into a and b categories. Civil appointments ranged from attendant to the emperor or a Grand Secretary in the Forbidden City (highest) to being a prefectural tax collector, deputy jail warden, deputy police commissioner or tax examiner. Military appointments ranged from being a field marshal or chamberlain of the imperial bodyguard to a third class sergeant, corporal or a first or second class private.[55]

 

 

 

 

 

The formal structure of the Qing government

centered on the Emperor as the absolute ruler, who presided over six Boards (Ministries[c]), each headed by two presidents[d] and assisted by four vice presidents.[e] In contrast to the Ming system, however, Qing ethnic policy dictated that appointments were split between Manchu noblemen and Han officials who had passed the highest levels of the state examinations. The Grand Secretariat,[f] which had been an important policy-making body under the Ming, lost its importance during the Qing and evolved into an imperial chancery. The institutions which had been inherited from the Ming formed the core of the Qing “Outer Court,” which handled routine matters and was located in the southern part of the Forbidden City.

In order not to let the routine administration take over the running of the empire, the Qing emperors made sure that all important matters were decided in the “Inner Court,” which was dominated by the imperial family and Manchu nobility and which was located in the northern part of the Forbidden City. The core institution of the inner court was the Grand Council.[g] It emerged in the 1720s under the reign of the Yongzheng Emperor as a body charged with handling Qing military campaigns against the Mongols, but it soon took over other military and administrative duties and served to centralize authority under the crown.[56] The Grand Councillors[h] served as a sort of privy council to the emperor.

The Six Ministries and their respective areas of responsibilities were as follows:

2000-cash banknote from 1859

  • Board of Civil Appointments[i]

The personnel administration of all civil officials – including evaluation, promotion, and dismissal. It was also in charge of the “honours list”.

  • Board of Finance[j]

The literal translation of the Chinese word hu () is “household”. For much of Qing history, the government’s main source of revenue came from taxation on landownership supplemented by official monopolies on salt, which was an essential household item, and tea. Thus, in the predominantly agrarian Qing dynasty, the “household” was the basis of imperial finance. The department was charged with revenue collection and the financial management of the government.

  • Board of Rites[k]

This board was responsible for all matters concerning court protocol. It organized the periodic worship of ancestors and various gods by the emperor, managed relations with tributary nations, and oversaw the nationwide civil examination system.

  • Board of War[l]

Unlike its Ming predecessor, which had full control over all military matters, the Qing Board of War had very limited powers. First, the Eight Banners were under the direct control of the emperor and hereditary Manchu and Mongol princes, leaving the ministry only with authority over the Green Standard Army. Furthermore, the ministry’s functions were purely administrative campaigns and troop movements were monitored and directed by the emperor, first through the Manchu ruling council, and later through the Grand Council.

  • Board of Punishments[m]

The Board of Punishments handled all legal matters, including the supervision of various law courts and prisons. The Qing legal frameworkwas relatively weak compared to modern day legal systems, as there was no separation of executive and legislative branches of government. The legal system could be inconsistent, and, at times, arbitrary, because the emperor ruled by decree and had final say on all judicial outcomes. Emperors could (and did) overturn judgements of lower courts from time to time. Fairness of treatment was also an issue under the apartheid system practised by the Manchu government over the Han Chinese majority. To counter these inadequacies and keep the population in line, the Qing government maintained a very harsh penal code towards the Han populace, but it was no more severe than previous Chinese dynasties.

A postage stamp from Yantai(Chefoo) in the Qing dynasty

  • Board of Works[n]

The Board of Works handled all governmental building projects, including palaces, temples and the repairs of waterways and flood canals. It was also in charge of minting coinage.

From the early Qing, the central government was characterized by a system of dual appointments by which each position in the central government had a Manchu and a Han Chinese assigned to it. The Han Chinese appointee was required to do the substantive work and the Manchu to ensure Han loyalty to Qing rule.[57] The distinction between Han Chinese and Manchus extended to their court costumes. During theQianlong Emperor‘s reign, for example, members of his family were distinguished by garments with a small circular emblem on the back, whereas Han officials wore clothing with a square emblem.

In addition to the six boards, there was a Lifan Yuan unique to the Qing government. This institution was established to supervise the administration of Tibet and the Mongol lands. As the empire expanded, it took over administrative responsibility of all minority ethnic groups living in and around the empire, including early contacts with Russia — then seen as a tribute nation. The office had the status of a full ministry and was headed by officials of equal rank. However, appointees were at first restricted only to candidates of Manchu and Mongol ethnicity, until later open to Han Chinese as well.

Even though the Board of Rites and Lifan Yuan performed some duties of a foreign office, they fell short of developing into a professional foreign service. It was not until 1861 — a year after losing the Second Opium War to the Anglo-French coalition — that the Qing government bowed to foreign pressure and created a proper foreign affairs office known as the Zongli Yamen. The office was originally intended to be temporary and was staffed by officials seconded from the Grand Council. However, as dealings with foreigners became increasingly complicated and frequent, the office grew in size and importance, aided by revenue from customs duties which came under its direct jurisdiction.

There was also another government institution called Imperial Household Department which was unique to the Qing dynasty. It was established before the fall of the Ming, but it became mature only after 1661, following the death of the Shunzhi Emperor and the accession of his son, the Kangxi Emperor.[58] The department’s original purpose was to manage the internal affairs of the imperial family and the activities of the inner palace (in which tasks it largely replaced eunuchs), but it also played an important role in Qing relations with Tibet and Mongolia, engaged in trading activities (jade, ginseng, salt, furs, etc.), managed textile factories in the Jiangnan region, and even published books.[59]Relations with the Salt Superintendents and salt merchants, such as those at Yangzhou, were particularly lucrative, especially since they were direct, and did not go through absorptive layers of bureaucracy. The department was manned by booi,[o] or “bondservants,” from the Upper Three Banners.[60] By the 19th century, it managed the activities of at least 56 subagencies.[58][61]

Source

Wiki

1907

 

·         CHINE 1907

Par Dona Rodrigue dans CHINE ANNEES 1900 le 29 Novembre 2011 à 00:01

 

 

 

 

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Hankow, 1897 P.P.C. “Pour Prendre Congé” overprint issue complete (Chan LH26-30), full o.g., fresh mint, F.-V.F., scarce set.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

Hankow, Postage Due, 1895, 20¢ blue on buff, Type III (Scott J13. Chan LHD13), used, full margins, fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 1,000 – 1,500.

China was not a U.P.U. member in the Ch’ing (Qing) Dynasty. When the Imperial Post Office started operation in 1897,

mail exchange with foreign countries had to rely on so called “Guest Posts” – alien postal organizations set up and operated in China by Western Powers.

In general, each of the foreign offices handled certain area of the world, and the I.P.O. also had preference for transmission. For instense, mail originated from Wenchow and north sent to Shanghai and forwarded to F.P.O., B.P.O. and I.J.P.O. Mail originated from Foochow and south sent through Hong Kong via H.K.P.O.

There were some exception, for example, mail for U.S. originated from Foochow sent to Shanghai I.J.P.O. instead of Hong Kong(126)

 

Japan print

London print

 

The Qing Postmark History

Pa kua Tientsin

Pa Kua Shanghai

Pa Kua Wuhu

Dollar date Wuhu

Dollar Date Canton

Dollar Date Amoy

Dollar Date Tientsin

Dollar Date Peking

Dollar Date Chinkiang

Dollar Date Kiukiang

Dollar Date Ichang

Shanghai official

Shanghai Local post

S.Custom airmail matter

Custom Shanghai

Peking 1901

BL Chefoo 1901

Local Yunnanfu

Local Kuling

Local Nanchang

Local Ningpo

BL Kiukiang

Local Kaomi

Local Kucheng 1911

Local Tibet

Chnagsitian Tumbstone

Japan CPO Shanghai 1897

DaiNippon military CPO

British PO Shanghai

Russian PO

Russian CPO

French CPO 1897

French PO Langson 1902

German CPO 1900

HS Foochow 1904

Local Changsa 1904

Bisect 1906

Qing Card DD1897

Qing Card 1900

Qing Card 1907

Qing Card 1910

Stationer card 1911

Postal Commisioner 1911

Lunar Date 1911

BLD Chungking 1909

BLD Peking 1910

BLDP Bilingual Date postmark

Belgian China P.O.

Local Postmark 1894

1897

January,1st.1897

The Imperial Post Office was planned to inaugurate on January 1st, 1897, and changing the currency used for postage unit from Candarin of Silver to Silver Dollar.

 

Due to some delay on schedule, the Imperial Post Office officially opened

 

on February 20th.1897

 

Initially, Customs issues were overprinted with the new currency until new stamps were issued later that year.

After the Customs Post transformed into Imperial Post, all the Local Post offices closed in 1897 except Shanghai LPO that was absorbed by the I.P.O. The rest of the postal setups still operated until later times.(126)


October 1897

The first regular issue – ICP Coiling Dragon – October 1 1897

Since the English inscription on this issue is Imperial Chinese Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue

According to The History of Chinese Postage Stamps Volume II (published December 2004), archives of Imperial Post Office verified that this set of definitives was designed by R. A. de Villard and engraved and printed in Japan by retired Italian artist and master engraver Edoardo Chiossone as a private contractor, and the process employed was typographic not lithographic as its old name suggested.


Used One cemt Coilling Dragon brown  postmark  Pa-Kua Beijing

(Dr Iwan collection)

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post, 50¢ blue green, color error (Scott 94b. Chan 100b), clean o.g., scarce shade,very well centered, VF, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 8,500

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), with 8 additional shades, o.g., overall fresh, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1897, Imperial Chinese Post Coiling Dragon Series complete (Scott 86-97. Chan 92-103), $2, $5 appear to be no gum, others with large part o.g., vivid bright colors throughout, good to well centered, F.-V.F. setRealized HK$ 18,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (May 27) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing blue “Customs 27 May 97 Chungking” handstamp, with Japan 5s Koban tied by Shanghai 11 Jun 97 IJPO cds from China inland Mission corner card with “Hankow” crossed out and replaced by “Chungking”. Reverse shows brown Shanghai large dollar chop date 7 Jun97, Yokohama 17 Jun transit Vancouver JU 30 transit and Philadelphia Jul 7 receiver. Scarce combination of markings, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 8,500

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 19) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, a lovely cover, with front showing bold, black “Chungking 19 Jun 97 Customes” handstamp, and 5s Japanese Koban, tied by “Shanghai 8 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows a wonderful array of clear markings including brown Shanghai 7 Jul large dollar chop, Yokohama 12 Jul transit, S.F. transit and Philadelphia Aug 9 receiver. Excellent usage, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 13,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jul 5) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, showing on front a lovely strike in black of “Chungking 5 Jul 97 Customs” oval dater along with vertical pair of 5s Japanese Koban which is cancelled “Shanghai 23 July 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse offers a wonderful range of marking including a brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 29 Jul transit and Philadelphia Aug 17 receiver. Atrractive and F-VF, a choice coverRealized HK$ 22,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (Jun 9) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, front showing nice strike of “Chungking 9 Jun 97 Customs” oval handstamp, along with 5s Japanese Koban, which is cancelled by “Shanghai 21 Jun 97 IJPO” cds. Reverse shows lovely, brown Shanghai 20 Jul 97 large dollar chop, Yokohama 26 Jun transit, Tacoma, Wash. Jul 16 transit and Philadelphia July 21 receiver. Lovely usage, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 15,000

Chinese Empire, 1897 (July 11) cover front from Chinkiang to North Carolina, franked by 5s Japanese Victory issue, tied by clean, “Shanghai 19 Jul 97 IJPO” cds. Front shows at lower left a choice strike in brown of Chinkiang small Customs chop and missionary corner card. Very scarce combination, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 18,000

 

(10) 1898

(a)The Local provisional courier stamps from Wei Hai Wei Leased Area were Issued.

(b) German Post office in China issued surgharge China on German stamps.

(c) British Postoffice in China Issued postmark A 11-shanghai used on Hongkong stamps ( also issued postmark from another area like cds shanghai and other area)

.

CIP Coiling Dragon – January 1898Since the English inscription on this issue is Chinese Imperial Post, collectors called it as ICP Issue.Designed by R. A. de Villard. Engraved by Rapkin and his son (dragon), A. B. Hill (carp) and Joseph (wild goose) of Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), with and without watermark.

 

 

 

 

1898

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Apr 18) cover from Shanghai to Wellington, New Zealand, 10¢ rate with large 10 surcharge, franked with “Large Ten” Chinese character surcharge 10¢ on 30¢ QV (Scott 69a, Yang 54b), postmarked Shanghai cds, Ap/18/98, manuscript “Via Hong Kong Sorres Straits” and reverse Hong Kong “D” Ap/22/98 cds transit and Wellington/NZ 26 My 98 cds receiver alongside, “Large Ten” surcharge is rare, used on commercial cover possibly unique, rough opening, not affecting the attractiveness of this rare coverRealized HK$ 4,500

Chinese Empire, 1898 (Jan 4) prepaid subscriber cover from Chungking to Philadelphia, with front showing Chungking 4 Jan 98 large dollar chop along with two 5s Japanese Kobans, which are tied by “Shanghai 22 Jan IJPO” cds. Reverse shows black Shanghai 22 Jan 98 large dollar chop, Yokohama 27 Jan transit and SF Feb 18 1898 Paid All transit andvery light and indistinct Philadelphia receiver. This cover when compared with the other, surrounding covers from thsi missionary correspondence, shows the transition from the Chungking oval to the large dollar dater. F-VF, a lovely item. Realized HK$ 20,000

Chinese Empire, 1898, Chinese Imperial Post, 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢, Waterlow & Sons trial color proof in maroon (Scott 104-106 vars. Chan 110-112 vars.), block of 9, overprinted” Specimen” and security punched, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 20,000

1898 (5 Oct)


 


1st Imperial Postal card Peking to Hungary.

Re-direct to Bosnia …. franked with Coil Dragon 1/2 x6.

Tied by Peking large dollar chop, via British PO in China.

Franked with Hong Kong QV 2c x2.

Tied by Shanghai cds.

 

 

 

 

(11) 1899

(a)The Local provisional courier LKT at Wei Hai wei were issued

(b) The first Russia Imperial Post office in China issued the KHTAH(Kitai) surchaged on Russia stamps were issued.

 

1899

Chinese imperial picture postcard sent from Tsung base Kiatsou  9n februaty,26th.1899

 

 

In mid-1899

a standard circular cancellation was introduced, having the town name in Chinese above and English below.

 

Underneath, the date is expressed in the Western calendar.

 

 

 

Early 20th Century

 

Puyi

 

Aixinjueluo Puyi (né à Pékin le 7 février1906 et mort dans la même ville le 17 octobre1967), connu sous le nom de Puyi (chinois traditionnel : 溥儀, chinois simplifié : , pinyin : Pǔyí), également orthographié Pou-yi ou P’ou-yi mais appelé également de son nom de règne Xuāntǒng, est le douzième et dernier empereur (末代皇帝) issu de la dynastie Qing, la dernière qui régna sur l’Empire chinois. Il est le fils de Zaifeng deuxième prince de Chun, deuxième fils de Yixuan premier prince de Chun, lui-même septième fils de l’empereur Daoguang. Il est né dans la trente-deuxième année du règne de l’empereur Guangxu.

Le dernier empereur (1908-1912)

Guangxu étant toujours sans enfant à 30 ans, sa tante Cixi, l’impératrice douairière de Chine et détentrice réelle du pouvoir, nomme par décret Puyi pour assurer sa succession. L’enfant a alors 2 ans et 10 mois.

Au lendemain de cette nomination, Guangxu décède, et, le surlendemain, c’est Cixi elle-même qui rend l’âme.

L’intronisation officielle de Puyi se déroule le 2 décembre 1908, son père assurant la régence.

À l’époque, la Chine connaît de nombreux désordres, et depuis longtemps la dynastie mandchoue est contestée (révolte des Taipings au siècle précédent, révolte des Boxers de 1899 à 1901, mouvements insurrectionnels du Guangdong et du Guangxi entre 1905 et 1911).

Le général Yuan Shikai, nommé pour mater les mouvements de révolte, et notamment le soulèvement de Wuchang du 10 octobre1911, se retourne contre le pouvoir en place et pousse le jeune empereur à abdiquer le 12 février1912, mettant fin à la dynastie Qing et à la période féodale.

Prisonnier dans la Cité interdite (1912-1924)

Malgré la proclamation de la République de Chine le 1er janvier 1912, donc quelques jours avant sa destitution de jure et selon les huit “Articles veillant au traitement favorable de l’Empereur après son abdication”, arrangement conclus entre la maison impériale Qing et le gouvernement républicain, il reçoit de ce dernier l’autorisation de conserver son titre et de demeurer – et même de fait est obligé de vivre – dans la Cité interdite. Lui et sa famille garderont l’usage de la « cour intérieure » (partie nord de la cité), tandis que la « cour extérieure » (partie sud) revenait aux autorités républicaines. En outre, il bénéficie d’une liste civile conséquente.

En 1917, un général conservateur partisan des Qing, le général Zhang Xun, profitant du désaccord du Président de la République et de son Premier ministre quant aux puissances à soutenir dans le conflit européen de la Grande Guerre, envoie ses troupes à Pékin, soit près de 5 000 hommes. Le 1erjuillet1917, il rétablit Puyi dans sa fonction d’empereur, ce qui suscite une réaction unanime des républicains et des seigneurs de guerre. Le 13 juillet suivant, Duan Qirui, le Premier ministre démis, pousse Puyi à abdiquer de nouveau.

1912

dministrative divisions

Main article: History of the administrative divisions of China before 1912 § Provinces and Protectorates under the Qing dynasty

Qing dynasty in 1833

Qing China reached its largest extent during the 18th century, when it ruled China proper (eighteen provinces) as well as the areas of present day Manchuria (Northeast China), Inner Mongolia, Outer Mongolia, Xinjiang and Tibet, at approximately 13 million km2 in size. There were originally 18 provinces, all of which in China proper, but later this number was increased to 22, with Manchuria and Xinjiang being divided or turned into provinces. Taiwan, originally part of Fujian province, became a province of its own in the 19th century, but was ceded to the Empire of Japan following the First Sino-Japanese War by the end of the century. In addition, many surrounding countries, such as Korea (Joseon dynasty), Vietnam and Nepal, weretributary states of China during much of this period. The Katoor dynasty of Afghanistan also paid tribute to the Qing dynasty of China until the mid-19th century.[62] During the Qing dynasty the Chinese claimed suzerainty over the Taghdumbash Pamirin the south west of Tashkurgan Tajik Autonomous County but permitted the Mir of Hunza to administer the region in return for a tribute. Until 1937 the inhabitants paid tribute to the Mir of Hunza, who exercised control over the pastures.[63] Khanate of Kokand were forced to submit as protectorate and pay tribute to the Qing dynasty in China between 1774 and 1798.

  1. Northern and southern circuits of Tian Shan (later became Xinjiang province) – including several small semi-autonomous khanates such as Kumul Khanate
  2. Outer Mongolia KhalkhaKobdo leagueKöbsgölTannu Urianha
  3. Inner Mongolia - 6 leagues (Jirim, Josotu, Juu Uda, Shilingol, Ulaan Chab, Ihe Juu)
  4. Other Mongolian leagues – Alshaa khoshuu (League-level khoshuu), Ejine khoshuu, Ili khoshuu (in Xinjiang), Köke Nuur league; directly ruled areas: Dariganga (Special region designated as Emperor’s pasture), Guihua Tümed,ChakharHulunbuir
  5. Tibet (Ü-Tsang and western Kham, approximately the area of present-day Tibet Autonomous Region)
  6. Manchuria (Northeast China, later became provinces)
  1. Zhili
  2. Henan
  3. Shandong
  4. Shanxi
  5. Shaanxi
  6. Gansu
  7. Hubei
  8. Hunan
  9. Guangdong
  10. Guangxi
  11. Sichuan
  12. Yunnan
  13. Guizhou
  14. Jiangsu
  15. Jiangxi
  16. Zhejiang
  17. Fujian (incl. Taiwan until 1885)
  18. Anhui
  • Additional provinces in the late Qing dynasty
  1. Xinjiang
  2. Taiwan (until 1895)
  3. Fengtian, later renamed and known today as Liaoning
  4. Jilin
  5. Heilongjiang

Territorial administration[edit]

The Qing Empire in 1870.

The Qing organization of provinces was based on the fifteen administrative units set up by the Ming dynasty, later made into eighteen provinces by splitting for example, Huguang into Hubei and Hunan provinces. The provincial bureaucracy continued the Yuan and Ming practice of three parallel lines, civil, military, and censorate, or surveillance. Each province was administered by a governor (巡撫, xunfu) and a provincial military commander (提督, tidu). Below the province wereprefectures (, fu) operating under a prefect (知府, zhīfǔ), followed by subprefectures under a subprefect. The lowest unit was the county, overseen by a magistrate. The eighteen provinces are also known as “China proper”. The position of viceroyor governor-general (總督, zongdu) was the highest rank in the provincial administration. There were eight regional viceroys in China proper, each usually took charge of two or three provinces. The Viceroy of Zhili, who was responsible for the area surrounding the capital Beijing, is usually considered as the most honorable and powerful viceroy among the eight.

  1. Viceroy of Zhili – in charge of Zhili
  2. Viceroy of Shaan-Gan – in charge of Shaanxi and Gansu
  3. Viceroy of Liangjiang – in charge of JiangsuJiangxi, and Anhui
  4. Viceroy of Huguang – in charge of Hubei and Hunan
  5. Viceroy of Sichuan – in charge of Sichuan
  6. Viceroy of Min-Zhe – in charge of FujianTaiwan, and Zhejiang
  7. Viceroy of Liangguang – in charge of Guangdong and Guangxi
  8. Viceroy of Yun-Gui – in charge of Yunnan and Guizhou

By the mid-18th century, the Qing had successfully put outer regions such as Inner and Outer Mongolia, Tibet and Xinjiang under its control. Imperial commissioners and garrisons were sent to Mongolia and Tibet to oversee their affairs. These territories were also under supervision of a central government institution called Lifan Yuan. Qinghaiwas also put under direct control of the Qing court. Xinjiang, also known as Chinese Turkestan, was subdivided into the regions north and south of the Tian Shan mountains, also known today as Dzungaria and Tarim Basin respectively, but the post of Ili General was established in 1762 to exercise unified military and administrative jurisdiction over both regions. Likewise, Manchuria was also governed by military generals until its division into provinces, though some areas of Xinjiang and Manchuria were lost to the Russian Empire in the mid-19th century. Manchuria was originally separated from China proper by the Inner Willow Palisade, a ditch and embankment planted with willows intended to restrict the movement of the Han Chinese into Manchuria, as the area was off-limits to the Han Chinese until the Qing government started colonizing the area with them later on in the dynasty’s rule, especially since the 1860s.[64]

Qing China in 1892

With respect to these outer regions, the Qing maintained imperial control, with the emperor acting as Mongol khan, patron ofTibetan Buddhism and protector of Muslims. However, Qing policy changed with the establishment of Xinjiang province in 1884. During The Great Game era, taking advantage of the Dungan revolt in northwest China, Yaqub Beg invaded Xinjiang from Central Asia with support from the Russian Empire, and made himself the ruler of the kingdom of Kashgaria. The Qing court sent forces to defeat Yaqub Beg and Xinjiang was reconquered, and then the political system of China proper was formally applied onto Xinjiang. The Kumul Khanate, which was incorporated into the Qing empire as a vassal after helping Qing defeat the Zunghars in 1757, maintained its status after Xinjiang turned into a province through the end of the dynasty in the Xinhai Revolution up until 1930.[65] In early 20th century, Great Britain sent an expedition force to Tibet and forced Tibetans to sign a treaty. The Qing court responded by asserting Chinese sovereignty over Tibet,[66] resulting in the 1906 Anglo-Chinese Convention signed between Britain and China. The British agreed not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet, while China engaged not to permit any other foreign state to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.[67] Furthermore, similar to Xinjiang which was converted into a province earlier, the Qing government also turned Manchuria into three provinces in the early 20th century, officially known as the “Three Northeast Provinces“, and established the post of Viceroy of Three Northeast Provinces to oversee these provinces, making the total number of regional viceroys to nin

 

 

Dès 1919,

Puyi reçoit une éducation occidentale de son précepteur, un Écossais diplômé d’Oxford, Reginald Johnston(en), officier du bureau colonial britannique parlant le mandarin et féru d’histoire ainsi que de poésie chinoise. Johnston n’est pas vraiment un enseignant, mais exerce une grande influence sur Puyi. Sous sa conduite, ce dernier s’intéresse à tout ce qui vient d’Occident. Grâce à lui, il apprend l’anglais dès l’âge de 13 ans, au point de demander à Johnston de l’aider à lui trouver un nom anglais. Parmi la liste des noms de souverains britanniques que lui procure Johnston, Puyi choisit celui de Henry. C’est encouragé par l’éducation de Reginald Johnston que Puyi coupe sa natte, symbole du pouvoir mandchou (voir article sur les Taipings qui coupèrent leur natte en signe de protestation contre le pouvoir en place).


Le prince mondain (1924-1932)

En 1924, dans la tourmente qui entoure le renversement du Président de la République Cao Kun, les accords passés sont annulés. Puyi est expulsé de la Cité interdite, enceinte dont il n’était pas sorti depuis 15 ans, par les troupes de Feng Yuxiang. Il retourne dans le palais paternel.

Il tente, par le truchement de Reginald Johnston, de s’expatrier en Angleterre. Mais, pour ne pas froisser la Chine, les Britanniques lui refusent tout visa. Il se tourne alors vers l’Empire du Japon qui, en 1925, accepte de l’accueillir dans l’enclave de Tianjin. Il y mène une vie mondaine dans les milieux occidentaux des concessions.

Empereur du Mandchoukouo (1932-1945)

Les Japonais convoitent les richesses de la Mandchourie (fer et charbon, notamment), et à ce titre préservent Puyi, en qualité de représentant de la dynastie mandchoue qui avait encore ses fidèles.

En 1931, le Japon fait la conquête de ce territoire, et crée un état fantoche sous le nom de « Grand État mandchou (ou Mandchoukouo) de Chine ». Malgré les protestations du Guomindang auprès de la Société des Nations, et les déclarations de cette dernière qui considérait que le Mandchoukouo faisait partie intégrale de la Chine, les Japonais placent Puyi à sa tête en 1932, mais sans lui donner de pouvoirs réels.

 

Le Japon, soucieux de jeter des bases durables sur le sol chinois, met alors en place un vaste plan d’émigration vers le Mandchoukouo de populations japonaises et coréennes – la Corée ayant été annexée par le Japon en 1910 – le but étant de faire venir un million de personnes en 20 ans. Cet afflux de migrants se fait aux dépens des populations locales qui se voient dépossédées de leurs terres.

Fort occupé à combattre l’influence grandissante du Parti communiste chinois de Mao Tsé-toung, le Guomindang finit par signer un cessez-le-feu avec les Japonais en 1931.

En 1932, la Société des Nations module ses positions quant au problème mandchou en déclarant, que « [...] le nouvel état créé est un protectorat plutôt qu’un véritable état indépendant », même si elle préconise l’adoption d’un plan d’intervention internationale pour la Mandchourie ; de ce fait, le Japon quitte la SDN le 27 mars 1933.

Puyi veut regagner son titre d’empereur ; c’est une quasi obsession. Aussi, en octobre 1933, quand le Japon en quête d’une image moins conquérante et d’une certaine légitimité lui fait la proposition de reprendre son titre impérial, il accepte, malgré les innombrables victimes de guerre chinoises et la spoliation des terres au bénéfice des immigrants nippons et coréens.

Le 1ermars1934, Puyi, sous le nom de « Kangdle », est sacré Empereur pour la troisième fois.

Puyi espère que cette intronisation n’est qu’une étape, et qu’une victoire du Japon en fera de nouveau l’Empereur de toute la Chine.

Toutefois, les exactions japonaises dans le pays, ainsi que l’influence de celle qui sera sa deuxième concubine, Tan Yuling, une Chinoise d’origine mandchoue, amène Puyi à s’affirmer devant ses « amis » japonais et à s’opposer à eux. Aussi, pour resserrer les liens entre l’Empereur et ses alliés, un mariage est-il célébré en 1938 entre l’un des frères de Puyi, Pujie, et la princesse Hiro Saga, parente de l’Empereur Hirohito. Au cas où Puyi viendrait à disparaître sans descendance, Pujie porterait le titre impérial. Mieux encore, un enfant mâle issu de ce mariage, donc de sang mêlé chinois et nippon, ferait un Empereur idéal pour le Mandchoukouo. Pujie et Hiro Saga ont bien un enfant, mais c’est une fille. Quant à Tan Yuling, elle décède en 1942, à l’âge de 22 ans. Puyi, qui lui portait une réelle affection, aura toujours un doute sur la cause de ce décès puisqu’elle était soignée par un médecin japonais.

Puyi et Hiroito

Le Guomindang s’alliant au Parti communiste chinois contre l’envahisseur nippon, Puyi n’a d’autre solution que continuer à appuyer les Japonais. Son sort est lié au leur, et à l’issue de la guerre, non pas celle qui oppose simplement deux pays d’Asie, mais celle qui embrase le monde entier.

Le 17 août 1945, deux jours après la capitulation du Japon, Puyi abdique pour la troisième fois.

Afin d’assurer sa sécurité, les Japonais l’invitent à s’envoler pour le Japon. L’avion atterrit à Shenyang et Puyi est arrêté par les Soviétiques. Très probablement a-t-il été livré aux Russes par ses protecteurs, bien que ce point n’ait jamais pu être élucidé.

Prisonnier des Soviétiques (1945-1950)

Le 19 août 1945, Puyi se retrouve en résidence surveillée à Tchita, dans le sud de la Sibérie, puis à Khabarovsk.

En août 1946, il est entendu comme témoin au Tribunal militaire international de Tokyo, dont le but est de juger les criminels de guerre en Asie. De témoin à accusé la distance est mince, mais Puyi sait se préserver. À l’issue de son audition, qui dure sept jours, le Guomindang demande son extradition vers la Chine, ce que refuse l’Union Soviétique qui soutient le Parti Communiste Chinois.

En Chine, le conflit qui oppose les nationalistes aux communistes tourne à l’avantage de ces derniers. Pressentant le pire, et craignant pour sa vie s’il devait retourner dans son pays, Puyi demande à Staline à rester définitivement en Union Soviétique, mais sa lettre demeure sans réponse.

La République populaire de Chine est proclamée à Pékin le 1eroctobre1949 par Mao Tsé-toung. Quelques mois plus tard, au début de 1950, Mao en voyage en URSS demande l’extradition vers la Chine de Puyi et des autres dignitaires mandchous exilés avec lui. Staline accepte.

La rééducation (1950-1959)

Puyi est transféré dans le « camp de rééducation pour criminels de guerre » de Fushun, sous le matricule 981. La guerre de Corée éclate en septembre 1950. Quelques mois après, et du fait de la proximité de Fushun avec la frontière sino-coréenne, Puyi est transféré dans un autre camp à l’intérieur du pays où il reste deux ans. En 1954, quelques mois après la fin du conflit coréen (27 juillet 1953), il retourne au camp de Fushun.

Une enquête est diligentée sur place en vue d’un procès éventuel. Accablé par les confessions de ses amis et de sa famille, Puyi est reconnu coupable de nombreux crimes contre le peuple chinois et le PCC, au premier chef figurant la conspiration avec le Japon.

Puyi rédige alors une confession dans laquelle il fait amende honorable, ce qui lui vaudra la clémence du « Grand Timonier » qui optera pour sa « rééducation » plutôt que pour son exécution.

Un peu plus tard, en septembre 1959, Mao Tsé-toung décrète l’amnistie de certains criminels de guerre, dont Puyi.

Un Chinois comme les autres (1959-1967)

Commence alors une nouvelle vie pour l’ancien empereur. Ainsi, pour le nouvel an de l’année 1960, Zhou Enlai le convoque et, comme le raconte le demi-frère cadet de Puyi, Puren, dans le film “Puyi. The Last Emperor of China” (cf infra), le premier ministre lui suggère d’écrire le livre de sa vie. Il lui trouve également un travail de jardinier au Jardin botanique de Pékin.

 

Quelque temps plus tard, c’est Mao Tsé-toung lui-même qui le reçoit, et qui lui conseille également de rédiger son histoire. De plus, il lui préconise de se remarier.

Ces conseils sont suivis. En avril 1962, Puyi épouse une infirmière, Li Shuxian, et la confession de Fushun sert de base au livre qui sort en 1964, sous le titre “La première moitié de ma vie”. Cet ouvrage est traduit dans de nombreuses langues. En France, il est édité par Flammarion sous le titre “J’étais empereur de Chine”. Il faudra attendre 2007 pour que paraisse la version intégrale, la précédente ayant été expurgée de 160 000 mots[réf. nécessaire].

Il devient ensuite bibliothécaire au sein de la Conférence consultative politique du peuple chinois, avec un salaire de 100 yuans par mois, avant de devenir lui-même membre de cette institution en 1964, et ce jusqu’à sa mort.

La Révolution culturelle vient troubler cette quiétude : ses revenus sont réduits, son mobilier en partie confisqué. Mais il évite l’humiliation publique comme la pratiquaient couramment les gardes rouges.

Peu après, ses médecins diagnostiquent un cancer des reins et de la vessie.

 

Puyi et Wan Rong, vers 1920.

 

Famille

    • L’Empereur a eu deux épouses :
      • Sa première épouse est Wan Rong (婉容) (1906 – 1946). Ils se marient en 1922, et elle porte le titre d’Impératrice. Capturée par les communistes, elle meurt empoisonnée à la prison de Yanji en 1946.
      • Sa seconde épouse est Li Shuxian (李淑賢) (1925 – 1997). Ils se marient en 1962.
    • Il a eu aussi trois concubines:
      • Sa première concubine est Wen Xiu (淑妃) (1909–1953), qui devient concubine impériale en 1922 jusqu’en 1931, date de son divorce.
      • Sa deuxième concubine est Tan Yuling (谭玉龄) (1920 – 1942), morte dans des conditions non élucidées.
      • Sa troisième concubine est Li Yuqin (李玉琴) (1928-2001) qui n’a que quinze ans à l’époque du mariage en 1943. Elle divorce en 1958.

Puyi s’est éteint sans laisser de descendance.

    • Il a eu aussi plusieurs frères dont deux ont joué un rôle dans l’histoire de la Chine :
      • Pujie (1907–1994)
      • Puren (1918 – ) (qui prendra plus tard le nom de Jin Youzhi).

 

 

Mariage de PUYI en 1922

 

 

 

 

1900

(1)1900

(a)The first CEF Chine Expedition Force sucharge on British India stamps were Issued.

(b) The Japanese Post Office in China issued surchage China in kanji character on Japan stamps.

2.20th Century

(1) 1900

January 1900

1900 (19 Jan) The China Gazette Newspaper Hankow to Switzerland, franked Coil Dragon 2c x2, tied by Hankow cds, via Shanghai franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by PO in Shanghai cds.

 

(a)postally used cover send from Tumbstone postmark changsitien post office on LCP stamp to destination shanghai bilingual date postmark jan.6.1900.

 

(b)In 1900, Cheng shih-liang led another uprising at Huichow. Dr Sun instructed Shih Chien-ju and Teng Yin-nan to provide supportive revolutionary activity in Canton. The uprising at Huichow failed. Shih Chien-ju then decided to assasinate Governur Te Shou. He dug a tunnel t the governr’s ffice from a house nearby and planted explosives. But Te Shou was not killed and Shih Chien-ju was arrest and put to death.

1900s Russian Railway Post card

 

(c)Joint Force of the eight great powers entering Beijing in August.1900 during the Boxer incident.
The Boxer uprising broke out in the nothern china ,perhaps fearing futher foreign intervention,Cixi threw in her supprt to then anti foteihn bands.The chinese military was unable to preventing the Allied army from marching on Beijing and seizing the forbidden city.
The Chinese military was under equipped and under funded partly because Cixi had earlier consumed precious funds to build a stone Boat of Purity in the old Summer palace.
The British Expeditionary Force Postal in Beijing issued their stamps surcharge C.E.F on india stamps with their own postmark.

 

 

 

 

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Latest News”.

 

(d) The Japan Imperial Post Office in china issued the surcharge China in kanji char on Japan stamps with their own postmark.

1900’s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Selling Fisches”.

 

Look at the front cover of the  postcard

Inside


1900s Tientsin Colour PPC showing “Crossing the River”.

(e) London coil dragon stamp 2 cent(2x) used Peking Postmark jul.1-1900 , RH Rober Hart postal used Cover.thirteen Hart covers reprt by Sam Chiu (2001), 11 cover recorded by Li Zha-ning, So few Hert cover this day.Hart had ordered hislatter papers and papers printed with initial R.H. (lok at illustration)

 

(f) Postally used cover with Wuchow Bilingual date postmark July14,1900.

 

(g) German post office in china postmark Tsingtau Kiaurshow cds Mar.24.1900 on bloch four china surcharga on german stamp 10 Pf.

October,29th.1900

1900 (29 Oct) PPC Shanghai to Germany, franked with Coil Dragon 1/2c, 1c & 2c (2), tied by Shanghai cds, additional franked with French PO in China 10c, tied by French PO in Shanghai cds, boxed No. 8 postal agency cancel under the French stamp

November 1900

1900 (3 Nov) Imperial 1st postal card sent to Germany, tied by Germany Military Exposition cancel, boxed blue cachet & Bromberg arrival cds

 

(2)1901

February,1901

 

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction

( 126,Back O’Bourke,)

Feb 21 1901

 

Peking oval Bilingual Postmark Feb 21 1901 on JCP stamp 2 c and 10 c.

British Post Office Shanghai CDS feb. 21,1901

German PO in China 1901 Reichspost opt “China” set

 

Chinese Empire, 1901, BRA 5¢ on Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon ½¢ chocolate, green surcharge (Scott 98 var. Chan BRA 1), with usual BRA postmark in blue; odd toning spots, otherwise F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 700

April,20th.1901

As a vital communications link, the North China Railway was captured by Russian forces during operations against the Boxers. Control of the line was subsequently, in February 1901, assigned to the Chine Expeditionary Force (C.E.F.) and a British Railway Administration (B.R.A.) was set up to run it. By international agreement the line was to provide postal services for the other national contingents and also, to a lesser extent, for the civilian population. Travelling post offices were introduced, and on 20 April 1901, a late letter service for which an additional fee of 5c was charged.

The B.R.A. stamp (in use for only 30 days) on the cover above was used for the collection of the 5c late letter fee and was affixed to correspondence by a postal official at the railway station. The late fee was abolished on 20 May 1901 and the stamp withdrawn.

The C.E.F. stamps consisted of the 10 ordinary Indian definitives from 3 pies to 1 rupee current in 1900, with various portraits of Queen Victoria.

Ordinary C.E.F. stamps were used on mail transmitted by the railway, recognisable by the special railway cancellations incorporating a C.E.F. number with the words ‘SET NO.’ and ‘IN’ or ‘OUT’ to indicate the direction.

 

June,9th.1901

Why China and Indochina be on this piece:


fragmen cover  with Indochina stamp and china stamps CDS Lung chow 9 jun 1901 and Langson(the border between Vietnam(north) and China south(Kiangshi) 1 jun 1901
If possible, please tell me where Lung Chow is?


‘Longzhou (龙州县; pinyin: LóngzhÅ
u Xiàn) is a county in the Guangxi province of China, near the border with Vietnam (location: 22 21′ N., 106 45′ E.). It is under the jurisdiction of the prefecture-level city Chongzuo.

Longzhou lies in a circular valley at the junction of the Xunjiang and Guijiang rivers.’

So this piece may have travelled across the border.

And by the bye, ‘Langson’ looks awfully like a Vietnamese version of the Chinese name. Perhaps a twin town: one on either side of the border?

 

Lạng SÆ¡n (Langson, è«’å±±) has nothing to do with Lung Chow/Longzhou (龍州 / 龙州). I’ve just checked, and Longzhou borders Vietnam’s province of Cao Bằng, not Lạng SÆ¡n.

My guess is that this must be a philatelic item. In 1901, Longzhou and Langson were under the same control of the French in Hanoi, travel from one place to another was therefore fairly easy.


There is something not right about these stamps and postmarks. The placement of one of the Chinese stamps (postmarked 8 June) overlaps the French Indochina stamp (postmarked 1 June). This makes sense. But the 1 June postmark overlaps onto the Chinese stamp postmarked 8 June.

This could only happen if both the Chinese and French Indochinese stamps were already on the cover when the French Indochinese stamp was postmarked. A week later the Chinese stamps were postmarked. Sounds like a philatelic usage to me

the Chinese cancel is 9 June, and the Vietnamese one 10 days later, 19 June.


In that case both the Chinese and French Indochina stamps would still have to have been on the cover before the Chinese stamp was postmarked 9 June because the Chinese stamp overlaps the French Indochina stamp. The French Indochina stamp was then postmarked 19 June with the postmark overlapping onto the China stamp.

An interesting problem.


 

July,16th.1901

 

Chefoo bilingual date post mark 16 jul 01 on LCP stamp.

 

August,16th.1901

Imperial 2nd postal card reply portion 1901 (16 Aug) Nanking to Germany, additional franked with Coil Dragon 5c x5, tied by Nanking cds, bottom with German ship cancel & arrival cds

Chinese Empire, 1901 (Nov 28) registered combination cover from Chunkiang? to Yokohama, Japan, a neat standard size envelope, franked with pair of 10¢ green coiling Dragon tied by bisected light cds with 10s Kiku Blue offices in China vertical pair alongside tied by dark blue Shanghai IJPO 16 Dec 01 dater. IJPO Shanghai registration label applied with straight Registered handstamp in purple. Large red “R” handstamp in Red alongside, docket 4198 in blue, red wax seals over flap on reverse. A clean neat colorful cover, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,000

 

Chinese Empire, 1901 (April 21) picture post card from Chefoo to Italy, franked on front by 4¢ Coiling Dragon tied by Chefoo 4/21 cds, while address side bears pair of 2¢ hong Kong Victoria’s tied by Shanghai Ap 26 01 British PO transit, Shanghai 25 April Chinese PO transit and Roma Jun 28 receiver. neat and Very Fine, nice usageRealized HK$ 1,800

German Offices in China, 1901 (Feb. 2)

 

oversized cover from Tsingtau to Germany, franked with 30 pf pair overprinted straight “China” issue, tied with Tseingtau standard German Offices cds alongside bearing small surcharge ½¢ on 3ca Dowager, Coiling Dragon issue ½¢, 1¢, 2¢, 4¢, 5¢, 10¢. 20¢, 30¢ and 50¢ lightly postmarked oval “Kiaochow” cancels, due to light cancellations all the stamps further cancelled by blue crayon diagonal strokes, also registered handstamp being crossed out, on reverse oval transit in black and German receiver alongside, a colorful cover with two punched holes on left edge of envelope NOT affecting stamps, a Fine cover. Realized HK$ 1,300

1902

(3)1902
Postally use cover with Franch Indochina Lang Son Tonkin CDS 10 SEp 02 on LCP 2 cent to arrival Hanoi Tonkin CDS on French Indochina stamps

 

Chinese Empire, 1902 (Dec 18) First Issue post card usage from Chungking to Philadelphia, 1¢ card uprated by 1¢ and 2¢ Coiling Dragons, all tied by Choice strikes of Kweiyang double-margin tombstone chops. Front additionally shows Chungking 18 Dec 02 cds, Shanghai bilingual 3 Jan 03 cds along with French PO Shang-Hai 3 JANU 03 cds, Nagasaki 6 Jan transit, Yokohama 8 Jan transit and Phila Jan 31 1903 arrivial. A spectacular card with wonderful eye-appeal, F-VF, a beauty! Realized HK$ 15,000

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 1901, ½¢, 1¢ and 2¢ in ultramarine, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 110, 111, 112 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, unpunched (quite unusual), overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 5,000

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in blue green, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 116 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at bottom left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, pristine, Very Fine and choiceRealized HK$ 4,500

 

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Coiling Dragon, 4¢, 5¢ and 10¢ in orange brown, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 113, 114, 115 vars.), a left margin vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at top right, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine, scarceRealized HK$ 3,800

Chinese Empire, 1902, Chinese Imperial Post Jumping Carp, 30¢ and 50¢ in violet, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 117, 118, 119 vars.), a vertical strip of 3, each stamp punched at lower left, overprinted “Waterlow & Sons Ltd, Specimen”, without gum as issued, Very Fine and choice. Realized HK$ 2,400

 

 

 

1902-03 Flying Geese $1

 

 

Followed by the Boxer of the change and the Russo-Japanese War, the Qing government aware of the reconstruction of the Navy is still the only way.

1902 onwards,

a large number of former Northern naval officer to open recovery officer, and the establishment of the Naval Academy, from the talent to start rebuilding the Navy.

[ 转自

 

 

 

 

German Offices in China, 1902 (Oct. 2)

postcard from Tongku to Germany, German black & white photo postcard, on front franked with 5pf green with straight “China” overprint tied by Tongku/Deutsche post cds 2 Oct/02 with bilingual Tongku bisected postmark and Lwickau/German receiver 10/11/02 alongside on picture side, bearing ICP Coiling Dragon ½¢ brown pair, large 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue and 2¢ red Coiling Dragon, tied by bilingual bisected Tongku cds 2/Oct/02. 1¢ on 3¢ Red Revenue with surcharge shifted to the right, Very Fine, Royal Philatelic Society photo certificate.
Estimate HK$ 5,000 – 6,000

 

 

 

 

 

 

1903

January,10th.1903

1903 (10 Jan) post card Shanghai to Cuba, additional franked Coil Dragon 4c, tied by Shanghai cds, alongside with Shanghai French PO cancel, via USA San Francisco transit, with Cuba arrival cds

 

Chinese Empire, 1903 & 1906 uprated 1¢ postal card usages to Philadelphia, two 1¢ cards, comprised of Oct 1903 card, uprated by 1¢ & 2¢ marginal coiling Dragons tied by Shanghai cdss to Philadelphia, plus a lovely 1906 1¢ uprated card with lunar cancels and tombstone branch marking to US as well. Interesting pair, F-VFRealized HK$ 7,000

October 1903

Bisect stamps

October,22th.1903

A stamp cut into two parts, each part paying postage to the amount of half the face value of the complete stamp. This practice has been authorized to overcome a temporary shortage of certain denominations. The most famous bisect is the Foochow Bisect, popularly called 颶風票 – hurricane stamp or 颱風票 – typhoon stamp by collectors.

On October 22, 1903, because of the shortage of 1 cent stamps, the postmaster of Foochow ordered that the 2 cents red coiling dragon stamps to be bisected diagonally into two halves. Each half stamp was used as 1 cent and handstamped with a specially made boxed “Postage 1 Cent Paid” rubber stamp. This bisect was used from 22 to 24, three days only.

 

 

1904


The second and third CEF surharge on British India stamp were issued

British Military PO 1904 KEVII opt C.E.F

1904 Postage Due opt

 

 

 

 

Chinese Expulsion 1904

1904
Dr Sun with London Supporters in 1904 (photo).

After organizing the Tung meng Hui in Tokyo, dr Sun toured England,belgium,France and germany in the revolutionary cause.

 

In this year The Qing Imperial Post issued London print coilling dragon surcharge with Postage due and also issue london print 1st blue Postage Due stamp

 

June 1904

Chungking Lunar Date postmark on besect JPC stamp b 2 c with Chngking local stamp destination au.6.1904.

 

The late Qing Dynasty naval battleship “sea”, where “sea Sum”, “sea-chips”, “Hairong”

After the revolution, uprising, “sky” sank the ship ran aground in 1904.

“Hai Qi” ships in the Revolution occurs by cruiser team command Cheng Biguang led to the identity of the Qing Dynasty naval warships to visit, to participate in the review a naval ceremony of the coronation of George V, King of England. The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship to visit during the moored New York, USA.

1905

(5)1905
(a) Returning to Japan in July of 1905, Dr sun was welcomed by Chinese student. He brought revolutinary organizations together in the Tung meng Hui.
(b)On July.20th.1905, student from 17 Chinese province studying in Japan organized the Tung Meng Hui (Society of Revolutionary Alliance).
Dr Sun addressed the Tokyo meeting on the importance of democratic revolution in China.
In the manifesto issued by the Tung meng hui revolutionaries occured the first mention of the Republic of China as the name for entity to succed the Qing Dynasty. These ideas were precursors of Dr Sun’s three principles of the People (Nationalism,Democracy and Social Welfare) , which provided the guidelines for estabilsment and development of the Republic of China(ROC).
(c)The Qing Imperial Post issued the 1st Express stamps.

 

The photo shows 1905 during the Russo-Japanese War, Port Arthur, the Japanese officer witnessed the Russian warships were sunk to the scene.

1906

(6)1906
In April 1906, the Changsa Post Office have permission for bisect LCP 2 cent cancelled Changsa Bilingual postmark 10 april 06(1906)

 

Naval Academy graduates to study in Japan is increasing year by year. In 1906,

17 graduates of the Jiangnan Naval Academy class of the fifth driving, 12 were sent to Japan. A lot of Navy trainees in Japan revolutionary ideas, and pave the way for the future defection.

The picture shows the Qing government and some officers of the Navy to receive the warship photo in Japan and shipyard officials.

(7)1907
(a)Chiang Kai-shek went to Japan in 1907 to continue his military studies.
(b) Shanglai Local postmark nov 19 o7 on green Shanghai postal stationar card 3rd issue ic.

1908

May 1908


. Shanghai postal stationer postcard 1 c , not clear post mark arrival Canton Bilingual date postmark21.5. 08

november,5th.1908


Transit Shnaghai Chine cds postmark 5.11-08
(b)In November,14th .1908 the emperor Guangxu was died, and the forensic reported the caused by Acute Arsenic pisoning.


In November ,15th,1908

Cixi having installed Puyi as the new emperor of he qing Dynasty.

 

 

 

 

 

1908 (15 Nov)

PPC Egypt Alexandria to China, franked with Pyramid, tied by Alexandria cds, via Suez, Shanghai, Tangku with transit cds, bottom with Chang Lang Cheng postal agency arrival cds.

During early periods, vessels sailing from England to China had to go around the Cape of Good Hope of Africa, and used to take as long as four to six months to get there. Since the completion of the construction of the Suez Canal and its opening in October of 1869, this Sino-England mail route via Suez cut transit time to 40 or 60 days

In November , 16th 1908

Empress dowager Cixi died in the hallof graceful Bird at the middle sea of Zhong nan hoi , her death came only one day after the death of the Guangzu emperor.

 

(c)The Belgian Post Office in China issued surcharge Chine of belgia stamp with their wn postmark

1908
Belgian Post Office in China issued surxharge Chine on Belgian stamps.

 

 

 

 

1909
The fourth CEF surharge on British India stamps were isssued

1906

Ta ching government bank 1906

$5,-

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1907

Ta ching government bank 1907

one  dollar,

 

 

1908

Ta ching government bank 1908,

Five dollars

 

 

 

1909

Imperial ningpo bank

Five dollars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1909

 

Chinese general bank of communication 1909

1 dollar

 

 

 

 

5 dollars

10 dollars

 

 

1909


Temple of Heaven stamp issued by Hsuan Tung

used with Chungking biligual date(BLD) postmsark 25 Nov 1909. and Chungking transit postmark 24 nov 9 and Hankow destination postmark 1 dec 09.

 

1909

Temple of Heaven stamp

(1909) Temple of Heaven – Hsuan Tung First Year Commemorative

The first and only Commemorative issue – Special Commemoration Stamps – September 8 1909 Designer and engraver unknown. Printed by Waterlow & Sons Limited, London. The printing methods used was Line-engraving (Recess printing), in two colors and unwatermarked.

 

 

 

there is a controversy on who actually designed and engraved the “Temple of Heaven”. Americans Lorenzo J. Hatch & William Grant have been credited by some for the work, but again it is debated by some.

 

In 1908,

the Imperial Chinese government sent a representative, Chen Chin Tao, to the United States, Great Britain, France and Germany to investigate stamp production styles and to determine which method was least susceptible to counterfeiting.

 

The Chinese government decided that United States’ manufacturing technique was most suitable for its purposes.

The Imperial government asked two Americans, Lorenzo J. Hatch and William A. Grant, to establish a Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing. Hatch was a renowned artist and engraver whose experience included more than 15 years at the United States Bureau of Engraving and Printing.

 

Hatch had also spent a number of years working at both the Western Banknote Company of Chicago and the International Bank Note Company. After overcoming some initial reluctance, Lorenzo Hatch signed a six-year contract with the Chinese government.

William A. Grant, an engraver and designer, was an expert in creating the lettering, script, vignettes, geometrical lathe work, scrolls and cycloid twirls that filled bank note and stamp backgrounds.

 

A particularly skilled engraver, Grant specialized in detail engraving which helped make bank notes and stamps difficult to counterfeit. Grant was in charge of the engraving room at the American Bank Note Company when he agreed to accompany Hatch to China.

Hatch and Grant established the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing in 1909.

 

They were responsible for the design and production of all the early Chinese Republic issues. The production of the first stamps of the Chinese Bureau of Engraving and Printing was very much a collaborative effort.

 

While Lorenzo Hatch was primarily responsible for the design of the stamp and prepared most of the vignettes, William Grant applied his special skills to reducing the frame and scrollwork, as well doing the lettering and much of the actual engraving.

 

 

 

Chinese Empire, 1909, Temple of Heaven, mint & used group (Scott 131-133. Chan 137-139), comprising mint 2¢(3), 3¢(3), 7¢(4) with or without gum, used 2¢(4), 3¢ & 7¢, 16 values, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 1,200

 

Chinese Empire, 1909 printed local addressed registered cover, franked with complete set “Temple of Heaven” issue, individual postmarked by Shanghai registered cancels, handstamped Registered/Shanghai #132, with similar Shanghai receiver “Index 1″ on reverse, a fine cover used on second day of issue, Very Fine. Realized HK$ 6,500

Chinese Empire, 1909 cover from Fukien to England via Siberia, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven and 2¢ green & 4¢ brown coiling dragons tied by Fukien bilingual cds, on reverse various transit marks and Frome/England receiver Ja/15/10, minor imperfection, F-VF, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 7,500

Chinese Empire, 1909 (Sept 15) small cover from Peking to Germany, franked with 3¢ & 7¢ Temple of Heaven issue, tied by Peking bilingual bisected cds (15 Sept 09), VF and clean cover, Very FineRealized HK$ 2,400

 

French Indo-Chine 1908

Canton surcharge

This set alone costs 233 €, according to my Yvert

From left to right, they dipict: a Cambodian, an Annam (Central Vietnam at that time), a Muong (mountainous region of north Vietnam), a Laotian, and a Tonkin (currently northern Vietnam), all in traditional costumes.

Were they not overprinted – valid only in Indochina, the cost is 149 €, with the last 10 Fr stamp alone worth 100 €.

Compare these two:

 

 

1909

July .15th, 1909,

the Qing court set up to organize the Naval Affairs, by the carrier Xun Sa town of ice act as deputy to the organization of the Admiralty, the combined north and south, two ocean navy, change the set up cruiser team and the Yangtze River Fleet.

China for the first time a unified naval command structure and the Navy Command.

Contained a truly just appointed and announced an ambitious development of the Navy for seven years planning, plan a quick Tim made ​​eight first-class battleship, cruiser more than 20 ships, all kinds of soldiers round 10, the preparation of the first, second, third teamwater torpedo; the establishment of the ocean naval port and dock; the establishment of the naval College.

1909 to 1910, set out Xun Sa town ice has visited Europe and the United States, ordered the ships. The picture shows the contained truly, Sa the town of ice and his entourage visited the British navy, two left, front row, respectively Sa town ice contained Xun.

Although the Qing government to establish a naval command structure at all levels, but for the suspicion of the Han Chinese, the upper large number enabled the royal family, Banners, which agents Navy Marshal Zai Feng, Lord of the Admiralty contained truly do not understand naval operations, Sa town ice, althoughtechnical education, have to moderation by the royal family.

Mostly Navy grassroots officers origin Chuanzheng some there Liuyang experience, sense of lack of allegiance to the Qing court, and Banners dictatorship, a profound understanding of the upper corruption, widespread disappointment. These officers can be divided into two factions of Guangdong, Fujian, with each other intrigue, serious internal friction. The picture shows the ship “Horizon” custom-made in Britain

Boxer ordered before the “sea” cruiser Hai Qi “sky” Hai Chen and Hai, Hai “have arrived in the main the end of the Qing Navy. The naval powers had been involved in an arms race, one of the main battleship tonnage in the United Kingdom, equivalent to the sum of the entire tonnage of the Qing Dynasty cruiser team.

Aspects of naval port, Port Arthur, Weihai powers lease, coastal ports and more being carved up, the Qing court preparation in Xiangshan, Zhejiang, Xingang, but until Qing death also did not finish. After the cause of the picture shows the “sky” sister ship “Hai Qi” ship, the Chinese side received a photo of the ship officers in the ship, second row third from right human Sa town ice.

 

Of the 20th century,

to follow the example of Japan to become a big fashion in the late Qing Dynasty. The Navy purchased the ship and to study the focus turned to Japan. 1909, 14 ships in order fully to China total displacement of 5700 tons.

These warships, constitute the main later Yangtze River Fleet. The picture shows the custom-made in Japan, “Chu Qian warship instrument

 

 

 

1909,

1909 4th Express Delivery stamp

…. 3rd section

 

 

Sa town ice, has been appointed as the preparation for the Lord of the Admiralty and Navy admirals, the unification of the Bureaucracy, flag-style uniforms, orders the implementation of the first scientific management of China’s modern navy.

Same year in August 24 to September 24,

contained Xun, Sa town ice from Beijing toured the nine coastal (and the Yangtze River) province of Hai Phong, and inspected the naval school, shipyards, and participated in the Xiangshan provision of Hong Kong ceremony.

To the Revolution broke out in a total of 16 years and a half in October 1911, the Qing government purchased warships 39 with a displacement of 34,728 tons (all failed to China, excluding warships).

Domestic warship 24, a total of 10,564 tons displacement. Northern Navy seems to be to revive the prestige. The photo shows portraits of the Bodhisattva town ice.

 

 

 

 

 

November,19th.1909

Off cover used Temple of Heaven stamps CDS BLD Bilingual Date  Teng Yue 9.Nov.1909(Dr Iwan collections)

1910

1910 (Apr 10)

Chinese Empire, 1910 (Apr 10) picture postcard from Lungchow to England, franked on picture side CIP Coiling Dragon 1¢ and 3¢ Temple of Heaven, each tied by strike of Lungchow 14th Apr/10 bisected bilingual cds, on reverse similar Lungchow date & French style Lang-son/Tonkin 15 April/10 transit cds alongside, VF, accompanied with Experts & Consultants Ltd photo certificate #1870, scarce Lungchow usage. Realized HK$ 6,500

April,11th.1910

Peking Bilingual Date(BLD) postmark 11 Apr 10 on Temple of Heaven stamp 1 c and 4 cent.

China, Manchu Ladies Of The Palace Being Warned To Stop Smoking [c1910-1925]

 

 

In June of 1910

Chiang was initatited into the Tung meng hui and met Dr sun Yat-sen.

1910’s Cigarette advertising postcard, f.w CIP opt. “ROC” 1c. Tied by rare postal agent cancel.

1911
The Chinese General post office was formed

 

Due to the differences in currency between Tibet and other parts of China, especially the popularity of Indian Rupee in Tibetan commercial market, the I.P.O. finally decided to issue a set of postage stamps in Rupee values and restricted for use in Tibet. A set of 11 values of the CIP coiling dragon stamps were overprinted with Chinese. Issued in March 1911
1911 Cover …. sent Tibet locally, franked Coil Dragon opt Tibet 1/2c & 1c pair, tied by Yatung large dollar cancel, plus double ring arrival cancel

Tibet 1911 Coil Dragon otp

feb 4 1911

 

Postal Postage Paid statistical department inspectorate general stationer cover send with shanghai lunar dater postmark

March 27 1911

 

Postally used cover from Kucheng lunar postmark to Tiebet lunar postmark transit Tihua (urumtsi), Transit Peking lunar postmark and peking belingual postmark

 


On March 29,1911,

some of 170 revolutionaries attacked the Kwangtung-Kwangsi Governor’s office in Canton under command of Huang Hsing. they were determined to prevail or die. Although it failed because of lack of reinfrcemetns, the uprising roused the people against the Qing manchu.

 

(cThe March 29

uprising at canton was the 10th under Dr Sun yat-sen’s direct leadership.Although traumatic, it sent out shock waves that rocked qing manchu rule. the do-or-die spirit of these revolutionaries is enshrined in Chinese history.

The remains of 72 martyrs were entobed at Yellow Flower mound in Canton, this site became a shrine of the national Revolution. Eight-six revolutionaries are known to have been killed in the incident and they may have been more,this day later became the martyr Day and the next year as Youth day.

 

Shanghai Postal Commissioner postmark Apr 18 1911.


In September,1911.

the Wuchang revolutinaries rise up and overthrew the Qing dynasty.

 

 

October.10th,1911


The Tung Meng Hui provided leadership for eight uprisings against Qing Dynasty at Huangkang Chaochow ,Huichow,Chinlien,Chennankuan,Shangsu in Chienlien, Hokow in Yunnan,Yellow Flower Mound in Canton and Wuchang.

The last of these on Octber 10.1911

led the dwnfall of the Qing Dymasty and the birth of the ROC. The shot fired at Wuchnag brought an immediate response from Tung meng Hui members in Shanghai under the leadership of Chen Chi-mei. The successive victories of the revolutionaries quickly convinced the Qing Mancus that they could not loner prevail. and the downfall of the Qing dynasty came quickly.

 

In October 13 , 1911.

Chiang leading more than a hundred do-or-die commandos who attacked government office at hangchow and capture the Manchu Governor. Chiang had returned to Shanghai and joined Chen Chi-mai for nanking-Shnaghai-hanchow area. He then hurried to Hangcxhow to head the successful revolutionary attack of October 13.

 

Chinese General Post office were opened, with special postmark another administration pstmarklike registered, revenue etc.

 

 

 

Long flagship team’s defection of the Chinese Navy toward Xinhai
Since the Westernization Movement suffered bitterly from imperialist intrusion, the Qing government had invested heavily to create one of Asia’s largest naval. Accept the Western-style military training, equipped with world-class battleship of the “Dragon’s flagship team, becoming a scene in the late Qing. After the defeat of the Sino-‘s modern navy is not dead. 17 years after the Revolution of 1911, the Qing court this placed an army of recycled high hopes, but one after another uprising, switch to the revolutionary ranks, becoming the Qing dynasty’s ironic footnote.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

The late Qing Dynasty two Opium Wars, the Qing government deeply Haiphong empty aimed at “self-defense” Westernization Movement, including the construction of the focus is to create a modern naval. Organize the beginning of the Chinese Navy as a teacher In the United Kingdom, a large number of advanced weapons and equipment purchased from the United Kingdom, Germany and other European countries. The picture shows the custom-made by the Qing government in the UK “mosquito boats. These gunboats steel wooden outsourcing, known as the “mosquito boats” can be used for coastal defense but does not have ocean-going capability.

 

 

As the most grassroots level officers and sailors of the Qing Dynasty Cantonese, Fujianese, and the Rebel officers and men students, the uprising of the Association, the main vessels, the the Qing residue around the vessels uprisings. The picture shows the Jiujiang Army civil affairs, Linsen convince the naval uprising.

 

 

Reconstruction of the navy of the Qing government, already in the Qing court has not yet collapsed when all the uprising become an important military power in the hands of revolutionaries. The picture shows the uprising sailors preparing to attack Nanjing.

 

The picture shows the Navy’s carrier-based Norden flying cannon to be demolished ashore to participate in the attack on Nanjing.

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

May 8, 1911,

the Qing government set up a royal cabinet, around the constitutionalists disappointed revolutionary activities has become more active.

October 10,

the Wuchang Uprising opened the curtain of the 1911 Revolution. Viceroy Rui Cheng parked in a hurry to escape Wuhan Jiang surface gunboat refuge.

On the 12th, the Qing court quickly set up a siege agencies, Army the Minister Yinchang unified command, rushed to the Wuhan repression.

The picture shows the Qing to the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the purposes of Fire Attack, Hankou Market flames

 

 

November,21th.1911

1911 (21 Nov) Cover Macau to Hong Kong,

 

franked Macau bisect stamp, tied by Macau cds, reverse with Lappa customs transit cds, Hong Kong arrival cancel

 

 

 

December 6th.1911 ,

the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the Navy General Command was established in Shanghai, acclaimed Cheng Biguang Navy chief, Huang Zhongying deputy commander, Tang Xiang Ming cruiser commander of the Qing court has to lift the load Xun Navy Minister from office by the Deputy Minister Tan Xuehengas the last Lord of the Admiralty, but neither the sea, nor the Navy.

Lapel with Jianghan view of the three towns, a huge ship role, and the Navy to help destroy the Qing court lie in Sa town ice rate. Sa town ice on the 13th since the Gao Temple rate “Chu” Chu Yu Chu and Qin, Chu Qian Jiang, Jian Wei gunboats and torpedo boats 6 set sail on the 15th to the Hankou middle of the river than the Army as early as two days notice consular corps, naval vessels in place, will open the shelling of the city. The picture shows the Wuhan Jiang surface of the Yangtze River Naval warships

Phase for a large number of revolution in the early uprising in the new army, the navy to join the revolution rarely. A ships range of sectors, a two-person rallying cry is difficult to control the ship; two treatment much better than the Army, leading to a naval officer in the politically more conservative; the focus of the work of the three revolutionaries are mainly concentrated in the new army and secret societies .

Therefore, for the rulers, the Navy is an important tool that they used to suppress the people to resist. Combined with the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Water is weak, the Yangtze River Fleet to pose a major threat. The picture shows the primitive gun ship of the Revolutionary Armed Forces of Jiujiang.

The Manchu three main cruiser and Hai “,” Hairong “,” sea Sum “has also been ordered to move into Wuhan Jiang surface assist in the fight. The three ship officers and men of the “naive” more sympathy for the revolution is the mainstream. Hoi Sum “ship officer Zhang Yi Bo contact the officers and men of the battleship, and are not aimed to make war, not venting is fired at the surface of the river. While other gunboats how ships of the original attribution of Hubei Province, the crew out of the incense of love do not want to force war. Above left: to raise the sea “; upper right:” sea Sum “; the following diagram: Hairong.

The commander in chief Sa town ice Mongolian Banners, but it is a career naval officer, but also teachers and students of friendship, and Li Yuan-hung arrangement came later did not actively attack the Revolutionary Armed Forces.

 

When receiving the letter of Li’s instigation, he also noncommittal, neither the response to the revolution, nor hard to combat. Navy and the Revolutionary Armed Forces of more than 3000 meters apart on the radio, each other shells are nothing but fall on the water, did not result in losses. Part of the naval officers and men have been germination of the idea of sympathy for the uprising, the Revolutionary Armed Forces continue to fight for the Navy. The picture shows the Revolutionary Armed Forces of the xiang next to the guard.

 

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

Surcharges, 3p – 1r (Scott 1-10. Chan T1-10), a scarce group short only the rare 2r on $2, o.g., F.-V.F Realized HK$ 6,500

Tibet (Chinese Offices), 1911,

 

 

Surcharges, 1r on $1 and 2r on $2 key values (Scott 10-11. Chan T10-11), o.g., both trace of hinge mark, clean smooth gum, choice examples, scarce this nice, Very Fine Realized HK$ 22,000

1912

1912 Coil Dragon Waterlow overprint “CHMK”

The revolution of 1911 resulted in overprints on the imperial stamps in 1912; at Foochow to indicate that the post office was effectively a neutral area available to both sides, and at Nanking and Shanghai reading “Republic of China”. An additional set of overprints were produced by Waterlow and Sons in London, and postmasters throughout the country made their own unofficial overprints using the same characters(126)

(6) 1912
The Republic of China (Koumintang) exsitance had already been firmly established .

(12) 1912
The founding Father Dr Sun Yat-sen leaves Shanghai station the morning of the Newyear’s day ,1912 for his Nanking swearing-in as the Republic of China’s provisional President.
Please collectors be patien, this informations still in prcess, the illustration will install one by on

 

Tibet, 1912, Local Issue,

1/6t – 1t, five values (Scott 1-5. Chan TL1-TL5), mint, without gum, huge to wide margins all around, good colors, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 800 – 1,200.

 

Chinese Republic, Group of 6 examples all with specimen overprints, 1912-1923 (Scott 192-3, 240-1, 253 & 260), comprising President Yuan Shih-Kai 3¢ and 5¢ First Peking Junk Issue, 1½¢ and 13¢ and 2nd Peking Printing 4¢ and 15¢, the former two values without gum, others o.g., overall fresh and clean, 6 values. Realized HK$ 500

Chinese Republic, 1912, Foochow “Provisional Neutrality”, 3¢ slate green (Scott 134. Chan 140), group of 4 items, comprised of 2 mint and 2 used examples; one mint copy light crease, F.-V.F. or better, one stamp each signed Bloch and Livingston. Realized HK$ 4,000

Chinese Republic, 1912, Nanking “Provisional Neutrality”, 7¢ maroon (Scott 140. Chan 146), used, fresh, F.-V.F., signed Livingston. Realized HK$ 1,800

February 12, 1912,

the Qing emperor abdicated, China more than two thousand years of the autocratic monarchy to an end. The picture shows the Tang Xiang Ming led the main fleet is to go northward into the Bohai Bay, the the Qing final without a ship attack.

 

 

Found on the New York media, all ship officers and sailors back of the head, “Hai Qi, Qing Dynasty China is typical of the Okanagan pigtails is no longer intact. It turned out that as early as in the “Hai Qi” left Shanghai, as reported to the Qing court, the officers of the ship had been all cut off the braids. “Hai Qi” ship has also become only a whole crew of the ship in the Navy of the Manchu government to cut off the braids of warships.

The picture shows the “Hai Qi” ship soldiers cut off the braids to attend the welcoming ceremony held by the New York official

[ 转自铁血社区 http://bbs.tiexue.net/ ]

 

1912

As a fellow old friend of Sun Yat-sen, Cheng Biguang revolutionary message, after discussion, convened by the ship’s officers and men, and ordered the revolutionaries station starboard side, unwilling to stand portside, the results of the whole crew, together with the visit to the United States when the New York shipyard factorylong gift ship cat “station to starboard.

January 1, 1912,

far in the UK “Hai Qi ship held a changing of the guard ceremony, lowered the Qing Dynasty Huanglong flag, rising five-color flag of the Republic. “Hai Qi” ship in May 1912, after 30,850 sea miles voyage back to the port of departure to Shanghai at this time the land of China is no longer the imperial era.

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 146-160. Chan 152-166), full o.g., never hinged, good color, key values well centered, scarce, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

Chinese Republic, 1912, Statistical Dept. “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose, overprint inverted (Scott 158a. Chan 164b), cancelled Kuang-Tong, Kuan-Chow (Canton) June 17, 1st Year, clean and well centered, Very Fine, a major rarity, signed Livingston, ex Pedersen.
Estimate HK$ 140,000 – 160,000

One of 10 documented examples known and fourth copy referenced in”The Inverted Overprint Chung Hwa Min Kuo” by Henry Nyi, in “The China Clipper”, Volume 56, No. 6, pages 196-199

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprint, $1 red & pale rose (Scott 175 & var. Chan 181, 181a), horizontal pair with right sheet margin, left stamp with “One” retouched, part original glazed gum, lightly hinged top margin, extremely fresh, F.-V.F., rare in pair.
Estimate HK$ 25,000 – 30,000.

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Waterlow & Sons “Republic” Overprints complete (Scott 163-177. Chan 169-174), full o.g., several never hinged, clean, F.-V.FRealized HK$ 20,000

January,1st.1912

On January 1, 1912, Sun Yat-sen officially declared the establishment of the Republic of China and was inaugurated in Nanjing as the first Provisional President.

 

But power in Beijing already had passed to Yuan Shikai, who had effective control of the Beiyang Army, the most powerful military force in China at the time.

 

To prevent civil war and possible foreign intervention from undermining the infant republic, Sun agreed to Yuan’s demand that China be united under a Beijing government headed by Yuan.

 

February,5th.1912

 

1912 (5 FEB) Coil Dragon 3c opt “Provisional Neutrality”. On piece with “Foochow” cancel.

 

1912 Anhwei Hochow Local black opt

Coil Dragon 2c in block of 4. tied by Hochow cancel

 

On March. 10th,1912

 

in Beijing, Yuan Shikai was sworn in as the second Provisional President of the Republic of China.

 

A poster that commemorates the permanent President of the Republic of China Yuan Shikai and the provisional President of the Republic Sun Yat-sen.

The republic that Sun Yat-sen and his associates envisaged evolved slowly.

 

Although there were many political parties each vying for supremacy in the legislature, the revolutionists lacked an army, and the power of Yuan Shikai began to outstrip that of parliament. Yuan revised the constitution at will and became dictatorial.

 

May 1912

 

1912 (22 May)

 

Registered cover Swatow to Germany, franked Coil Dragon opt “CHMK” stamps x8, total postage 47c, tied by Swatow cds,

 

 

with German arrival cds

 

In August 1912,

 

the Kuomintang (Nationalist Party) was founded by Song Jiaoren, one of Sun’s associates

.

It was an amalgamation of small political groups, including Sun’s Tong menghui.

 

 

December 1912

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

Yuan Shih-kai should request a set of stamps featuring Sun Yat-sen with the inscription “In Commemoration of the Revolution” at the end of 1912.

 

Sun Yat-sen would lead a “second revolution” against Yuan Shih-kai within the year.

 

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution

 

December,14th 1912

Commemoration the Revolution 1st Design Specimen Set

 

The first new designs of the Republic were two commemorative sets of 12 each,

the first set depicting Sun Yat-sen

.

 

 

 

 

 

and

second Yuan Shikai, both issued on 14 December, 1912

 

 

1912 Commemoration the Revolution 2nd Design Set

 

 

 

1st Design and 1st Commemorative of the new republic, President Yuan Shih-Kai December 14th 1912

 

2nd Design of the New Republic Dr. Sun Yat-sen December 14th 1912

The first issues of the new Chinese Republic ran into a few problems. The original design for the first commemorative issue of 1912 displayed a map of China bearing the inscription, “The Republic of China” in English and Chinese. After the design had been approved, the stamps printed and made ready for distribution, President Yuan Shih-kai ordered the stamps destroyed. The original issue depicting the map was burned, but some stamps survived the fire. Three partially burned stamps of the original map issue were part of Grant’s collection and are now in the US National Postal museum.

In their place, President Yuan Shih-kai demanded the creation of a commemorative design baring his portrait and the legend, “In Commemoration of the Republic.” The president also requested a second stamp design. That issue featured a portrait of Dr. Sun Yat-sen with the inscription, “In Commemoration of the Revolution.” Dr. Sun Yat-sen, considered the leader of the first Chinese Revolution, and the provisional President of China, had voluntarily yielded the office to his successor, Yuan Shih-kai.

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives nearly complete (Scott 178-187, 189), 11 values without $2 value, mint, plus a short set 1¢-$1 used, 21 values, all o.g. except 1¢ without gum, generally F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 4,000

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-189. Chan 184-195), o.g., clean fresh appearance, F.-V. Realized HK$ 12,000

 

 

Chinese Republic, 1912, Revolution and Republic Commemoratives complete (Scott 178-201. Chan 184-207), o.g., clean, F.-V.F. Realized HK$ 22,000

 

China Postage Dues 1912

“Provisional Neutrality” Overprints
Chan D17-D22

1913

In the national elections held in February 1913

 

for the new bicameral parliament, Song Jiao-ren campaigned against the Yuan Sin-kai administration, whose representation at the time was largely by the Republican Party, led by Liang Qichao.

 

Song Jiao-ren was an able campaigner and the Kuomintang won a majority of seats.

 

 

 

1912

One hundred cents

Ten dollars

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

China Postage Due 1913 complete set of eight

Overprinted “Specimen” in red

London Printing

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1913

1913 (24 Dec)

Yuan Shih-Kai colour postal card Jiansu to Shanghai

 

 

1914
The Republic of China Postal system formally became a party to the International Postal Convension(UPU)

 

British Military PO 1914-22 C.E.F. opt on KGV

 

 

 

 

1915

China related covers, composed of registered red band Coiling Dragon cover, 1915 censored India to Canton cover, US Consular Service cover from Tsinan to USA and PPC from Shanghai US Postal Agency to New York

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Post 1915

1921

Chinese Republic, 1921, Postal Service issue plus overprinted for use in Sinkiang complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 243-246, Sink. 39-42), o.g., F.-V.FEstimate HK$ 3,000 – 3,500.

Chinese Republic, 1923, Constitution complete, overprinted “Specimen” (Scott 270-273. Chan 289-292), clean o.g., Post Office fresh, Very Fine.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 2,500.

 

 

 

 

The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

 

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 


The eve of World War II Japanese occupation of China’s northeast,

the German occupation of Hungary and Czechoslovakia, and not much reaction to the international community, the major powers of that time is not for these to each other fell, and the West countries are looking to Hitler and Stalin’s rally. However, if this time, Germany and Japan, timely close hand, enjoy the vested interests, and the major powers in the world to form a strategic balance or form an interest group, and perhaps no World War II, many countries of the world’s history and fate must be rewritten.
Is likely the three northeastern provinces do lose, there is Taiwan and Taiwan, Japan and the Soviet Union may reach some kind of treaty to carve up the Northeast and North Korea, endless civil resistance will not change the basis of the occupied and assimilation with the extension of time slowly popular.

Moreover, the domestic Kuomintang-Communist but also the civil war, no matter who wins, I’m afraid that did not have the power to recover the Northeast, a long time to become the next “Sino-Russian Treaty, Russia is not occupied millions of square kilometers of territory in China. ? . . .

United States would not make great efforts and Japan against, the Cold War could be one, and anyone with who is anti-Japanese control in Northeast Asia, the United States control of the West Asia and the Americas, dominated the Middle East, Europe, Germany replaced Britain as the leader of the European, to become anti- Russia’s outpost. Running out of Time and the proxy war between the great powers will only be formed, each maintain their own sphere of inter

 

est, to form a triangular race for the situation. The majority of African and Latin countries, perhaps a subsidiary of the big countries or colonies, the imperialist countries to treat this issue is highly consistent.
Fortunately, history is not so simple, but the greed of the rulers of the reason the impossible idea of ​​who is the leader at all mutual destruction, completely failed to reach the balance of power between the major powers. Ever since, the power consumption between the great powers, developing countries may rise. Rather fight the country has been unable to control the situation, so they formed a modern military and interests of the alliance, NATO.

[Original]

are greedy angered disaster, rewrite World War II history of the wonderful comments
Since the 1918

is destined to Japan once again a war

, it should be said that Chiang Kai-shek or heavy commitment,

dual 12 Incident after the Chinese army began a large-scale training and consolidation, the Japanese fear China’s retaliation was to strike first.

The fuse of war in China is 918, the direct cause of a major shift of public opinion and government action in the 12 pairs of events after 77 Incident, only one will come sooner or later inevitable event.

As for the results of that war, Japan doomed to fail, too big to Japan’s fundamentally impossible to directly effective rule.

 

The Great Unification of the Chinese people is too heavy, even if Japan does not get involved, after the Chinese government to achieve the complete reunification reunification of the war is bound to initiate the Northeast. Floor living looking through the history books, as long as the Han Chinese is not the rule of a government under the rule of China appear a variety of of Nanzheng or Northern Expedition.

The Japanese can assimilation northeast, but to make the Northeast people say Japanese words, to get to three generations, the Chinese government enough time to unite the force. If Japan does not respond to the 37 years of behavior of large-scale anti-Japan, the Japanese economy is devastated after losing China’s vast market, and the cohesion of the anti-Japanese banner within 20 years will be able to train a sufficient and Japan the army of the war, the result is in Japanese Liangbai with injury, the Japanese lost the status of the world’s second power, which is that Japan will not be tolerated.

 

The following is a reference to three days to play a fish in the 13 floor speech:
China’s War of Resistance Against Japan from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary

Austria, Germany as part of, I still think so! Bismarck allow Austria split only because of the lack of strength means of compromise, Hitler merged Austria is correct, and the Austrians are also supported.


China’s War of Resistance Against Japan

from the nine hundred and eighteen, counting even if the Japanese expansion in China have never stopped the anti-Japanese
German invasion of the Czech Republic, Austria-Hungary to a war a bit different in the past 20 years, people have not forgotten when Austria-Hungary brilliant many people see the German annexation moved to tears in a dream to rebuild the glory of the former Austria-Hungary Said somewhat reluctantly.

 

Germany pre stations the upper hand, you have to know a lot of interest is being carved up. For example, in fact, Germany playing Poland and the cooperation of the Soviet Union. Our textbook does not mention nothing German ultimate goal of waging war is the Soviet Union, but the beginning does not terminate the action entirely in Asia, Japan ignore the strategic interests of the United States and Britain, the United States entered the war is also a matter of time, but because the U.S. blockade of Japan is also on the route a direct result of the war accelerated.
Not the case. Japan and Germany have their own special circumstances. Germany quickly gained the upper hand after the World War, but Hitler really want to end the war (“He won a large sum of money the gambler, the only thought is to get out of the tables” – Ciano), but Britain does not will allow this to win the money to leave the gaming tables (it really lost all), and Stalin launched an attack in the Romanian problem,

 

Hitler is the last straw. Japan in World War II strategic confusion, not a core strategy, mainly because of the armed forces of the Government opposition, contradiction between Navy and Army, as well as the complex relationships within the army, September 18 Incident, the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, Incident of August in this context, the emperor and the government and the Chinese that there is no need to full-scale war broke out, but the army of interest groups did not listen to their command. Italy just with the wrong person. This is not greedy, but helpless.
Time after the global financial crisis period, the transfer of domestic conflicts in countries like Japan and Germany as light occupation of several areas can not solve domestic contradictions, can only continue to fight to keep playing

Can there be so easy to stop, it is impossible to stop, like Japan, the war decision is not even the politicians, but by the military (or even junior officers) decided to sub-fascists in power aggression while in power The Cabinet also had to step down, the ruling by the soldiers to support the invasion of China. If the Nazis do not continue to expand, waiting for them can only be a step down, by an advocate of continued expansion of political parties in power. The development of history is its inevitability, not an individual can be determined.
People never know where to draw a weak country at that time the aggressor is so vulnerable, they have no reason not to invasion and occupation. Until the violation of the powerful interests was only intervention. But the arrow has been shot
Back head
World War II, Japan was the initiator of the war is also a defeated country, or a very small proportion of Japanese troops to surrender in the war, killed in action rate is relatively high, especially in Southeast Asia and mainland Japan islands contention, and some the Japanese army annihilated, few survive, even if the Japanese soldiers were injured, most of them choose to commit suicide, according to more, as well as Japan’s Kamikaze Mission Impossible, etc. will not surrender, the impression Japanese soldiers are very brave, not afraid of death! Is not the case, Japan is an imperial society, the Emperor is the God of the hearts of the Japanese, and allegiance to the emperor after the death of heaven, into the shrine has become immortal! These ideas from childhood to instill in the hearts of the Japanese control of the Japanese spirit, the spirit of that generation of Japanese soldiers have been such allegiance to the emperor, after death into God’s thinking is firmly under control, lie said that more has become truth, when Japanese soldiers did most of the fear of death, when Japanese soldiers, death is a glorious thing, in many wars, the Japanese soldiers were surrounded, in the case of exhaustion, in the Union Army a strong network of fire, often also organize an intensive group impact, it plainly is to look for dead, to die! Scrambling to die people go – the Shrine, imagines himself to be God! It can be said that the small Japanese army in World War II, is not afraid of death, but can only say that is not afraid of death, far from doing battle brave, is a group of “loyalty to the emperor’s death as God” thinking firmly to fool and control, almost no own thinking is training to become a killing machine, the metamorphosis of a small Japanese!

 

1923

the 1923 set “Temple of Heaven” released October 17th of that year with the Sinkiang overprint.

 

 

 

 

 

 

  1. A Bullet For Chiang1 May 1926
    Canton
    Republic of China (Kuomintang)Chiang Kai-Shek walked down the corridor of the Kuomintang Headquarters. He was in a good mood today. He had recently outmanoeuvred Wang Jingwei into leaving China a month ago at the behest of the Kuomintang Central Committee, by claiming that the left-wing of the party had been conspiring with the communists. The Committee agreed that the left-wing of the party needed to take a step back. For the last month Chiang had built up his power and managed to negotiate with the Russians.
    He was on his way to a meeting to confirm the new deal which would reduce the role of the Communists in the party. His wife, Chen Jieru, was accompanying him and his personal bodyguards to the meeting as well. He looked over at her and smiled, he was truly fortunate to have her as his wife. Down the corridor he saw a young man with an armful of newspapers coming the opposite way. Chiang assumed he was just a low level party member running an errand for one of the Council members.
    As the man came closer to Chiang he swiftly pulled his hand out from under the papers and pointed a revolver towards him. The man shouted as he pulled up the gun “You robbed my cousin of everything, DIE!”
    One of Chiang’s bodyguards reacted instantly, jumping right at the assassin but didn’t get to him before he fired off a single round. The bodyguard wrestled him to the ground and knocked the gun away. He threw the man against the wall and one of the other bodyguards emptied all of his rounds into him. The first bodyguard turned his head around at the sound of Chen’s high pitched scream.
    Chiang’s body was lying on the ground surrounded by the rest of his bodyguards and his wife cradling the body. Blood was covering her clothes and pooling on the floor. The bodyguards all had grim looks on their faces, there would be hell to pay for failing to protect Chiang.Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, by Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing, Guangzhou, Republic of ChinaDespite Chiang’s rise to power after the attempted coup [1], there was one thing he hadn’t counted on and that was Xu Chu, a young cousin of the deposed general, Xu Chongzhi. Xu confronted Chiang and accused him of stealing his cousin’s army and executing two other generals that he had been allied with, right before shooting him directly in the head. Xu was killed by Chiang’s bodyguards and they had to lead a weeping Chen Jieru away from the scene. Chiang’s death left a power vacuum in the Kuomintang, since he had become the main military and political leader in the last few months and it would be difficult for the Kuomintang leaders to find someone else able to fill both roles.5-8 May 1926With the death of Chiang Kai-Shek, the Kuomintang (KMT) leadership is thrown into turmoil. Chiang had been the major military and political leader and had managed to sideline his major opponents who had been contending for leadership of the party, Wang Jingwei and Hu Hanmin, in the previous months.The remaining party leaders and KMT warlord allies meet in Canton to decide on who should be elected as head of the committee and who should command the National Revolutionary Army. The right-wing of the party dominates, since Wang and his allies were driven out by Chiang. A decision is reached after much debate, Hu Hanmin continues his role as premier of the party [2], but this is a role with little function, Li Zongren, military governor of Guangxi, is appointed as the new commander-in-chief of the army.Tan Yankai as Chairman of the National Government [3] has become the main leader of the KMT, but he has little influence with the army. He holds the political power but must rely on Li to command the soldiers. He gives Li orders to begin preparing the soldiers for a confrontation with the warlord armies. Tan also secretly contacts Wang Jingwei and advises him that returning soon to China could be in his best interests [4].From “Political Leaders of the Republic of China: Volume 2, 1925-1935”, By Roy Wu, © 1990 University of Hong Kong PressTan Yankai may have been the nominal head of the Kuomintang, but he had little support. The right-wing faction saw him as a puppet of Wang Jingwei, with no military influence at all. The left-wing faction thought that he should have supported Wang earlier in the year, but instead he had sat on the sidelines. Tan had to delicately balance the party needs and he reshuffled the positions to keep both factions happy as well as continue the now slightly unsettled alliance with the CCP, against which there was a growing resentment [5].In addition to this was the growing sentiment that the Kuomintang had to start opposing the northern warlords sooner rather than later, in order to gain international recognition and expand its base of control. Tan would have to ensure that the military had a capable commander for the upcoming Northern Expedition.

 

Kuomintang leadership as at 15 May 1926:

Chairman of the National Government- Tan Yankai
Chairman of the KMT Executive Committee- Zhang Jingjiang
Head of the Organisational Department-Chen Guofu
National Revolutionary Army Commander-in-Chief- Li Zongren
President of Whampoa Military Academy-Li Jishen

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

Wang Jingwei returned to Guangzhou on the 30 May 1926 after hearing of the divisions in the Kuomintang leadership, following Chiang’s death. An added advantage for him now, was the fact that his friend Tan Yankai was the party chairman and Wang thought it would not be difficult to sway enough of the party to his side to become its new leader. Wang would find it a more difficult road than he anticipated however and the disagreements between left and right would emerge strongly during and after the Northern Expedition. This was further complicated by Wang’s dislike of the CCP and his attempts to sideline them. When the march north started, many of the communist members of the Kuomintang had already decided not to take part, which made it much more difficult in convincing the people in the north that they were being freed by a progressive force, as well as reducing the aid from the Soviet Union. Eventually the Soviet advisor, Borodin stepped in and insisted that the CCP fully cooperate in order to overthrow the warlords and remake China.
They grudgingly did so, as they still were friendly with some of the left-wing Kuomintang but there was now a deep suspicion amongst them that would contaminate the Northern Expedition and split the Kuomintang, despite the work that Sun Yat-Sen had done in building up a Kuomintang-CCP alliance.


Chiang Kai-Shek, posing for a picture one week before his assassination.


Tan Yankai, Kuomintang Chairman.


Kuomintang members after the party meeting on 15 May 1926.

[1] A coup instigated by Wang Jingwei and the leftists, known as the Zhongshan Warship Incident. Wang attempted to have Chiang kidnapped by the captain of the Zhongshan on his way to Whampoa. Chiang was warned by his wife and organised against the conspiracy, arresting several CCP-KMT members and forcing Wang out of the country. Chiang gained in power after this and was able to control more of the party, despite continuing the alliance with the CCP and the USSR.

[2] Hu was suspected in the assassination of Liao Zhongkai and arrested. In OTL he supported Chiang after the Ninghan Split.

[3] This position is theoretically the top one in the KMT. In OTL Chiang took over from Tan and became supreme military and political leader, while the premier and other political roles were reduced in importance.

[4] Tan was an ally of Wang, but went along with the other Kuomintang leaders in supporting Chiang after the Zhongshan Incident. Here with Chiang’s death Tan feels that Wang will be able to win back control of the party and also be able to control the military. He may be Chairman, but his support is not huge and he only obtained the position due to Wang leaving.

[5] The Zhongshan Incident and Chiang’s assassination has made the right-wing and moderate Kuomintang members become more concerned about the communists and they are beginning to see why Chiang wanted to be rid of them. The anti-communist faction is led by Li Jishen and Chen Guofu, and Wang Jingwei is distrustful and suspicious of them, despite being the leader of the left-wing of the party that is allied with them.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

2. To The North

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

To better understand the situation in northern China at the start of 1926, it is necessary to provide a list of the factions of major warlords-
Zhang Zuolin-Fengtian Clique, controlling Manchuria and the north-east
Feng Yuxiang-Guominjun Clique, controlling a large area in the north-west
Wu Peifu-Zhili Clique, controlling the central plains
Sun Chuanfang,-Zhili Clique, controlling the east coast
Yan Xishan, Shanxi Clique, controlling Shanxi province

Beijing was under the control of Duan Qirui, his Anhui Clique had been mostly destroyed and his position as President was in name only [1]. True control was shared between Zhang and Feng, but disagreements between them had finally resulted in all out war and Zhang allied with Wu against Feng.

The Guominjun armies were hard pressed and were soon defeated and most of their soldiers fled, some of them passed through Shanxi, where troops attacked them for encroaching on their territory [2]. Duan was removed from office in April and Feng left China for the Soviet Union, though he would return in a few months. Zhang and Wu were now the most powerful leaders in the north but again disagreements on how to govern broke out. Wu wanted to return Cao Kun to the presidency while Zhang was a monarchist and distrusted the republican government. A weak series of governments ruled from the capital, but had little power and Zhang and Wu retained direct control over their own regions. A more important consequence of the war however, was the fact that Zhili had moved much of its army north, leaving its southern flank exposed to the ambitious Kuomintang government, which was preparing to launch its Northern Expedition.


Regions of warlord control.
Taken from “Great Moments in Chinese History” by Hsu Win-chin, Republic Press 1990

Li Zongren, speaking at Whampoa Military Academy before the Northern Expedition, 21 July 1926.

-“Students of Whampoa, soldiers of the National Army. I stand here before you as your commander, but also as your comrade. Our nation has been through turbulent times and continues to go through them. But with your courage and determination, along with the vision of a free, united China, left to us by President Sun Yat-Sen, we will prevail. The chaos in the north will be ended and we will restore China as it should be. As I take command of this expedition, I pledge to uphold the values that Sun and Chiang held. Values which will see us victorious over those who still follow the old ways and allow the new ways to usher in a strong China.”


Soldiers at Whampoa rallying for the Northern Expedition.


Li Zongren, Commander of the Kuomintang Army.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

On the 20 July 1926 the Northern Expedition began. This was the first true military test of the Republic’s National Revolutionary Army and its leadership. The training at Whampoa, Russian arms and advisors, the strong will and morale of the soldiers and the warm welcome they received from most of the common people as they marched north combined to be a deadly combination for the warlords. The first major battle was fought at Changsha in Hunan province, where General Tang Shengzhi was leading a rebellion against Wu Peifu. Tang had been supported by troops from the Guangxi Clique for some time and with the Northern Expedition his army become one of the eight that made up the NRA.

Ironically while the military was strong, in particular Li Zongren led a capable campaign against the northern warlords, politically the Kuomintang was struggling. Chiang’s death had left a power vacuum and three main contenders emerged to take the spotlight. Tan Yankai had no control over the left and right factions of the party and throughout the Northern Expedition he only kept his position as chairman because neither faction wanted to instigate political problems in the middle of the campaign [3].

Wang Jing-wei had managed to gather back much of the power and influence he once had and was slowly garnering support from most of the left and some of the middle ground in the party as well as having support from Tan, the current Chairman. His main problem was that despite his strong party influence, he had very little military power, though this would change by the end of the Northern Expedition. Hu Hanmin represented the moderate right-wing of the Kuomintang and despite his tarnishing by Chiang, he was the most popular man among the moderates. But his support base was small and he didn’t appeal to either of the extremes as a leader.
The final contender for leadership was Chen Lifu, while the other two had been close protégés of Sun Yat-Sen, Chen had come to the party later. However Chen had been close with Chiang Kai-Shek, had the backing of H. H. Kung, one of the richest men in China, and he and his elder brother, Chen Guofu, controlled a large number of interests via the growing secret police organisation they had begun to establish. He had support among the traditionalists, anti-communists and also from the underworld which controlled China’s opium trade [4]. Chen was the closest thing Chiang had to a successor, but he did not have the same military experience and thus his support from Whampoa and the NRA was mild. Whoever could garner the most support from the army generals was the one most likely to emerge as the leader of the Kuomintang.

[1] Duan had been placed as president as a figurehead, after the Second Zhili-Fengtian War and his small number soldiers only operated in Beijing.

[2] Yan Xishan tried to remain neutral, which meant that he attacked any forces in his territory, or risk being accused of aiding them.

[3] This is not exactly true. Political infighting began almost after the first battle had been fought. The CCP members started giving power to the poor peasants in areas that the KMT had conquered and staged worker’s uprisings. In addition the KMT left and right began contesting for power and Tan was simply left as Chairman until the each side decided to make their move.

[4] The opium trade in China provided large funds for the Nationalists, particularly via Big-Eared Du’s Green Gang in Shanghai.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

 

Trouble In Th 3. Clash Of Arms

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang government was an astounding success. Wu Peifu and Sun Chuanfang’s armies were beaten back by the much more modern and capably led armies of Li Zongren and Li Jishen. Everywhere the warlord armies were pushed back, the common people celebrated their liberation and welcomed the new republican soldiers. Much of this support of the Kuomintang by the common people can be attributed to the extreme taxation, poverty and famines that had plagued the warlord controlled regions, while the Kuomintang was seen as being a government for the people, aided by its ties to the CCP. An additional benefit of the victories, other than morale and support was the influx of new young men signing up to join the KMT army. Many wanted to be part of the great revolution which was finally overthrowing the warlords and bringing China into the modern world.

By the end of the first year both warlords in central China had been utterly defeated their soldiers either dead, exiled or having switched sides to the KMT. After taking the cities of Wuhan, Shanghai and Nanjing the KMT was now in control of a large part of China. There was only one other powerful warlord still to contend with, the Mukden Tiger, Zhang Zuolin-warlord of Manchuria, whose own Fengtian Army outnumbered the KMT forces. [1]


Zhang Zuolin, The Mukden Tiger.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

The Battle of Huaibei is a defining moment in modern Chinese history. It marked the end of the corrupt warlord era of the last two decades [2] and showed the world that the revolutionary Kuomintang had the military strength and support that they very well could indeed unify the people of China into a modern nation.

On the plains north of the city of Zhang had managed to gather all of his elite troops that had served with him for many years. Throughout March the Fengtian and other warlord forces made their way into the plains, travelling along the shores of Lake Taihu and heading south. The main Kuomintang force was stationed in and around Suzhou, but when Li first heard reports of Zhang’s gathering army he quickly organized his generals into action. Li’s meeting with his generals went on for several hours as they discussed the strategy they would need to hold back the far greater numbers of Zhang’s army.

A rundown of the numbers at first glance seems to overwhelmingly favour the warlords. Zhang had four army corps which made up the bulk of his most loyal soldiers from the north, each of which had 30,000 men. He had also managed to bring in the forces of several allies, namely Tang Yulin and Zhang Jingyao, who contributed another 50,000 men. And finally the remnants of the Central China warlord armies had been placed under the command of Xu Kun who was eager to avenge the series of defeats his commander, Sun had suffered near Nanchang. He had at least 20,000 men under his command. In addition to this the warlord forces had several other armies spread out between Peking and Nanking, which were in place in case of any of the other Nationalist forces tried to make any further moves north.

In contrast the Kuomintang only had an army of just over 100,000 men garrisoned at Suzhou and many of the units in this army had been battered and experienced casualties in the previous campaign, thus many of the actual units were under strength from their original numbers. However because of this, the men in this army had a great deal of experience and were likely the best fighting force in China at the time. In addition to this they were far better equipped than their foes. The NRA soldiers were almost all supplied with Hanyang 88 rifles, a very reliable copy of the German Gewehr 88 and had more modern artillery devices than the warlord armies. Much of the lack of equipment amongst the warlord troops can be contributed to the miserly nature of their leaders, which is described in detail in Bennett’s Money From A Stone: Greed of the Warlords and Hu’s Lords Of Ruin. While the pay of many warlord soldiers was substantial and they lived far more luxuriant lives compared to most civilians in warlord controlled areas, this was not reflected in the standard of their supplies and equipment, much of which had to be traded for or bought on the black market [3].

The final and, in my opinion, most important multiplier [4] was the army officers and commanders. While Zhang’s army had some decent commanders, including Xu Kun-perhaps one of China’s best military leaders at the time, as well as Zhang Zongchang and Li Jinglin, but on the whole it was lacking sorely in competent leadership. Even Zhang’s direct forces had generals that were very cautious and held back constantly during combat. The officers were even worse. The system of corrupt, kleptocratic rule that governed the warlord territories spilled over into the military, such that any man in a position above his fellow soldiers would abuse his power and privileges. Thus the soldiers were hardly likely to be keen to follow their officers, who were even less likely to inspire their men.

The NRA forces however had some of the best generals in China and several of them were present at Huaibei, Li Zongren-who had commanded his own separate forces and land before joining the KMT [5] and would go on to command the most successful Chinese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. Bai Chongxi had two divisions under his command and some brilliant tacticians, namely, Chen Jitang, Zhang Fakui and Xue Yue. Also participating in the battle was Chen Cheng, a young soldier who would demonstrate his leadership qualities for the first time at Huaibei, taking command of his unit when the captain was killed and would go on to hand the Chinese Communists their final defeat at Harbin in 1945.


Details of the Battle of Huaibei from Interpedia.

[1] Without Chiang’s decision to implement a communist purge in April, the KMT forces have not been split and confused and been able to defeat Wu and Sun much quicker. In addition Li Zongren and Li Jishen have made better military decisions without Chiang’s pride interfering in operations. There are still some strong anti-communist forces in the KMT, though without total military control they have decided to wait until the Northern Expedition has been completed.

[2] Strictly speaking the warlord era had not been going on for two decades, and it certainly didn’t end with this battle. There still numerous warlords in the west and north who would remain independent for some time and others that would go on to work with the Kuomintang government.

[3] Many soldiers in fact provided their own weapons and equipment, as the relics they were given were susceptible to jamming or outright failure. This added to their own personal costs and meant that some units were well-equipped while others were very under-equipped. This isn’t to say this is the case with all of the warlord troops but a large number of them certainly.

[4] Force multiplier is not a phrase used in TTL, people simply use multiplier when talking about military combat factors.

[5] Li Zongren was the leader of the Guangxi Clique which in OTL was closely allied with Chiang until 1928 and turned against him in the Central Plains War, with Chiang gone the Guangxi remain a vital part of the NRA.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

4. The Decisive Battle

North of the city of Huaibei two armies stand ready to face each other in the battle which will decide the outcome of the Northern Expedition. On one side is Li Zongren, NRA Commander-in-Chief, Guangxi warlord and Kuomintang soldier, on the other is Zhang Zuolin, the lord of Manchuria, the Northern Tiger and self-proclaimed Grand Marshal of the Republic of China.

20 March 1927
East of Huaibei
Anhui Province, Republic of China

General Li Zongren, military commander of the National Revolutionary Army looked over his men as they prepared for the most difficult battle of the entire Northern Expedition. Despite being some of the best soldiers from Whampoa, they were sorely outnumbered by Zhang’s forces, most of the other sections of the army were still keeping order at Nanjing and Wuhan, the need to keep these important urban centres secure was a high priority and they could be attacked by any of the other warlords at any moment. So He Yingqin remained in Nanjing along with much of the Kuomintang leadership, while Li Jishen had three armies at Wuhan, and he was here facing off against all that the northern warlords could gather against him.

Despite the fierce morning sun, Li refrained from squinting his eyes. The warlord forces were no doubt going to arrive any minute and he hoped that his plan would work, if not Zhang’s troops would pour into central China and split the KMT-held territory that had taken so much blood and effort to win. The sudden sound of gunfire pulled him out of his thoughts, that would be Bai’s units engaging the arriving enemy forces. He told his generals to get ready, they would be making their move soon.


The battle begins.

Textbook and reading material for History 402: China’s Move Into The Modern World, University of Natal, taught by Professor Dineke Weers.
“Breath Of The Dragon: A Military History Of Modern China”
© 1999 By Jonathan Drake
Crescent History Publishing, Pretoria, South Africa

Li strategy may have been fairly simple, but it was also effective. The warlord forces were using their overwhelming numbers to simply attack the NRA head on and hope that they would force them into a surrender o retreat eventually. Li had rightly predicted that they would do this and devised a plan to deal with it. Li had placed the bulk of his units behind the mountains and hills northeast of Huaibei. Bai Chongxi would have his units displayed nearer to the city and present as a target for the warlord soldiers. When enough of the enemy had charged forward at Bai’s men, Li and his soldiers would outflank the warlord forces, driving into their sides. The plan also hinged on General Tang Yulin, a Fengtian commander in the warlord armies. Tang had met with Li several times in secret in the previous few weeks and was sympathetic to the Kuomintang cause. Li had managed to convince him to use this battle to turn on his hated allies and join the NRA.

As Li forces engaged the shocked warlord soldiers from the west, Tang had positioned his force where it could do the most damage to the surprised forces. Tang gave the order for his men to turn on their allies after Li’s soldiers had forced the warlord troops to retreat some distance and absolutely shattered their remaining morale. Most of the warlord commanders saw the deteriorating situation and gave orders for their men to retreat in order to preserve what they could of their own forces. This led to much confusion and an orderly retreat turned into a debacle with most of the warlord forces taking heavy casualties. In addition to this Zhang Zuolin was killed when his horse threw him off, scared by a nearby artillery strike and he cracked his skull on a rock on the ground. Some of the warlord commanders put up resistance over the next week or so, but they were easily dealt with, as they were isolated from each other and captured or killed. By the morning of 30 March, the NRA was completely victorious having driven the warlord army from the region completely and securing central China for the Kuomintang. News of the battle quickly spread and other warlords were standing down and pledging their loyalty to the Kuomintang. Huaibei represented the end of the Northern Expedition and the destruction of the remaining northern warlords, in fact even the new leader of what remained of Fengtian, Zhang Xueliang-the former leaders son, joined the Kuomintang in another six months, when they were recognised as the legitimate government of China internationally. China had overcome the second stage of revolution [1] and was well on its way to progressing into a modern nation. However there were several more internal bumps that would occur before the road begun to smooth.


General Tang Yulin, leading his officers to meet with General Li after the battle

[1] Drake considers the Xinhai Revolution the first stage and the Northern Expedition the second stage.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

5. Consolidation

Taken from “The Many Headed Dragon: Warlords in China”
By Rodger Stevens
© 1970, Bluewood Books
Philadelphia, USA

The end of the first part of the Northern Expedition brought the Kuomintang into the spotlight in China and their support surged. There were still some warlords in the north that retained power and even after Huaibei they managed to maintain their independence, despite the international recognition that the Wuhan based Kuomintang government received after January 1927. Ironically these warlords that remained after the Northern Expedition had only been minor leaders previously and while many of them were connected with the new government and recognised its rule, they still ruled their provinces with a great deal of independence, such as Long Yun, Sheng Shicai , Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang and Yan Xishan [1].

The Kuomintang allowed these warlords to keep their rule of provinces, as the Northern Expedition had exhausted the Kuomintang armies and they needed time to recover and establish their rule. This meant focussing on governing rather than fighting warlords that were willing to accept the new order. In addition some of the former warlords who had joined the NRA still tired to retain a form of independence, in terms of keeping control of their armies, but the new leadership was happy to accept this provided that those armies continued to fight for them, especially considering the new problems that would soon come to pass with the CCP.


Several of the Kuomintang allied warlords, from left to right, Long Yun, Ma Hongkui, Feng Yuxiang

6 February 1928
Wuhan, Republic of China

 

 

Chen Duxiu and Zhou Enlai were addressing their comrades in a large meeting hall. The Chinese Communist Party had for a long time been allies and many of them members of the Kuomintang and they both expected that to continue despite the recent problems many of their members had faced with the military and the right-wing of the party. Though neither of them had met with Wang in the last week, which was troubling, he usually held joint meetings for the entire party and was constantly giving them assurances that the CCP were important members of the new government.

Zhou stepped out of the main room after he was finished speaking to go and relieve himself, he had had some huangjiu [2] to drink earlier and it had seemed to go right through him. As he was doing so, he heard Chen speaking from the hall. Then he heard the doors open and Chen stopped. He heard some loud voices after that and several shouts of outrage. He finished what he was doing, but waited before going back inside. He put his head against the wall to see if he could hear better. Just as he did so, the sound of gunfire cracked through the wall and he withdrew his head in horror. He didn’t what had happened, but whatever it was, wasn’t good. He fled out the side door and ran as fast as he could to check the other party building in the city.

Taken from “Sun Yat-Sen’s Heirs”, By Liao Yanshi, © 1988, Lotus Flower Publishing-Guangzhou, Republic of China

The goodwill that had existed between the KMT and CCP was quick to disintegrate in 1928. Despite Sun Yat-sen’s wish that all Chinese revolutionaries cooperated together there was a substantial amount of distrust from the KMT rightwing. This had been increased in the wake of Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination and during the Northern Expedition. Chinese communists had instigated uprisings during the Northern Expedition in several cities as well as several peasant revolts, which brought some alarm to many of the KMT leaders as well as their new warlord allies.
However Wang Jingwei had been close to the communists for quite some time and showed every sign of continuing the cooperation with them, despite what his later actions and attitude towards communists would reveal.

Wang had included them in his new Wuhan based government and met with their top leaders, Chen Duxiu, Li Dazhao and Xiang Zhongfa. In the north and east, anti-communist actions were already being taken by several KMT and warlord province rulers, in Beiping [3], Shanghai, Nanjing and Hangzhou armed gangs sanctioned by the city rulers would go out and disrupt CCP and labour union meetings in an effort to keep them from organising.


Warlord soldiers having just raided a communist HQ

This situation could not continue forever, the communists were reaching a point of striking back while the right-wing KMT had practically declared war. On 18 January Wang had a meeting with several key KMT leaders as well as generals, Li Zongren and Li Jishen. During the meeting Wang was presented with evidence that the Comintern had plans to use the CCP to replace the left-wing KMT and take over the party. (This was in fact true, Stalin had given Mikhail Borodin secret orders to this effect but told him not to implement them until the time was right, they were leaked and eventually ended up in the hands of one of Chen Guofu’s agents, who presented them to Wang)
Wang agreed with the other leaders that it was time to end the alliance with the communists before the Comintern ordered them to take over the party.
Wang stopped meeting with the communists and started planning the actions required to remove them, a dangerous move since it could have tipped them off to his intentions, but they remained unaware right up until the February Purge began.

From ‘Bloody Politics: A History of Ideological Violence’, By Brad Miller, © 1989, HGO Publishing-Chicago, USA

The February Purge
Location: Republic of China, various cities
Perpetrators: Kuomintang Government and allied warlords

After the Northern Expedition carried out by the Kuomintang’s National Revolutionary Army had succeeded in ousting the former warlords and unified China, tensions between the left and right soon increased. The Communists had worked hand in hand with the Kuomintang since Sun Yat-Sen had decided that all the revolutionaries need to work together and many of them were party members, but since his death there had been a growing anti-communist faction. This was only exacerbated by the Zhongshan incident and Chiang Kai-Shek’s assassination, which despite contrary claims, was not perpetrated by a communist agent. This claim was likely used as a way to discredit the CCP and curb their increasing power. Wang Jingwei, one of Sun’s successors had newly made his way to the top of the party and was in the precarious position of balancing the various interests and factions, one of the larger factors to weigh in on his decision to turn on the communists was due to many of the prominent NRA generals being very anti-communist and Wang needed their support to maintain his position. The first act of which became the February Purge happened on the 6 February 1928. Several communist leaders were holding a large party meeting in downtown Wuhan when soldiers stormed into the building and started making arrests. Anyone who tried to resist was shot down and in fact the soldiers had orders that made it clear, any small action could be interpreted as ‘resisting’. Among the first few killed was Chen Duxiu, one of the founders of the CCP. In addition Xiong Zhongfa was arrested at the house he was living in and hundreds of other communists were rounded up and taken into custody or in many cases executed on the spot. This was soon repeated in most of the other major cities in China and the CCP was dealt a hefty blow to its influence in the urban areas. Their response came quickly though and organised peasant rebellions broke out in March against KMT rule, led by important communists who had escaped the purge in the cities-Li Dazhao, Li Lisan, Zhou Enlai, Bo Gu, Fang Zhimin, and Mao Zedong. The Chinese Civil War had begun.


Rounding up communist prisoners in Wuhan

[1] Just as they did in OTL.

[2] Chinese yellow wine or liquor.

[3] Northern Peace-Beijing was renamed to this after OTL Northern Expedition as well.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

6. Party Splinters

March 1928
The Chinese Civil War between the Nationalists and Communists has begun. The February purge has decimated the CCP in the cities and led to the execution of many prominent communist leaders. The communist response was to organise large peasant uprisings against the government. Throughout the countryside in the provinces of Guangdong, Hunan, and Jiangxi large armies of peasants and workers mobilised and staged uprisings. A major battle is taking place in the cities of Fuzhou and Nanchang, the new Chinese Red Army commanded by He Long and Bo Gu has almost taken the city form the few remaining government forces. Meanwhile a much larger NRA force, commanded by Li Jishen is moving south in an attempt to retake the provincial capital.

6 May 1928
Hunan Province
Republic of China (recognised)
Hunan Soviet (proclaimed)

Mao Zedong was one of the last to retreat from the battlefield, as commander of his forces he felt responsible for them and refused to abandon his position until his comrades had escaped as well. Once the Kuomintang army had engaged his forces it was clear who was going to win, the enemy had overwhelmed them with sheer numbers.
Mao turned and spoke to his fellow communist and military commander, Lin Biao.
“We held out as long as we could, but they were too strong for us comrade” he said shaking his head.
“It isn’t over” replied Lin “This fight is just beginning, our army is intact and we can still fight these traitors.” And he gestured his hand at the advancing NRA force.
Mao nodded “You’re right. But from now we have to be smarter in how we fight, engaging the government forces in direct battle cannot work any longer. We have to conserve our forces, attack them when they are weak and lest expected. Spread the party message throughout the countryside until the peasants and workers outnumber the government soldiers and we can beat them back.”
Lin nodded in approval “Guerrilla warfare. Where are we heading for now?”
“Further west” replied Mao “we can avoid the Kuomintang in the mountains and regroup there.”
“Will the others be able to join us?” [1]
“I hope so. Last I heard Nanchang had fallen to Li Jishen and that rabid dog of a general has started slaughtering as many of our comrades as he can get his hands on, He’s forces were scattered. Bo Gu and Zhu De are still fighting but there are far too many for them to defeat. If they can make it here, we can consolidate forces and change our tactics. Ah, good, we had best be going.”
The last of Mao’s soldiers had retreated from the battlefield and Mao and Lin began leading them away on their horses.

 

 



Communist general Mao Zedong in 1928

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

I wasn’t with Mao and Lin after their first losses, but they talked about it a lot during the Great March. It was then that the first developed the idea of turning the war into a protracted guerrilla struggle rather than large scale revolution. I barely escaped Nanchang with my life, fleeing in disguise as I had in Nanjing. After the failure in Nanchang, we were desperate, the Kuomintang armies were closing in and half of the Second Front Army had been killed or captured. There was little choice, we had to follow Mao to his hideout in the mountains [2]. So we marched west and found ourselves in the mountains soon to join the other forces making their way there. Once we had recovered things didn’t seem so bad, we still had a sizeable army and support among many of the peasants, but the government forces seemed to be everywhere. Then we received word that Zhang Guotao had returned and started his own uprising in Sichuan and Guizhou, and had declared the part of the province he ruled over as the Chinese Soviet State. We bided our time and waited for the right moment to sneak through the gaps between the enemy forces.


The flag of the Chinese Soviet State


CCP leaders gathering in Guiyang

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK
The initial seizures of Nanchang and Jiangxi province were relatively easy for the communist forces. There regions did not have large garrisons of NRA soldiers and many in the region had communist sympathies, in fact the party had spent a great deal of time appealing to the peasants and focussed on increasing their numbers. In addition to this many of the best communist military leaders, men who had lead forces in the Northern Expedition, took command of the communist soldiers and proved their worth. But eventually they ran out of time. Wang Jingwei had made his decision to rid himself of them and he stuck by it, indeed he may have had little choice, siding with the communists meant that he could align himself with the right wing of the Kuomintang, which included the ever growing secret police force led by the Chen brothers, the money and connections of several rich families and last, but not least connections to China’s underworld, which brought in a substantial amount of money from the growing opium epidemic [3].

In addition to this Wang badly needed some strong military allies and he choose generals that had given the best performance in the Northern Expedition, Li Zongren, Li Jishen, Bai Chongxi and He Yingqin. These men commanded some of the best and brightest from Whampoa, many of whom would go on to receive German military training and serve as the strong backbone of the NRA in the future. Wang needed these men firmly on his side and they had a large amount antipathy for the communists, so the communists had to go. But despite the quick campaigns to dismantle the communist holdings in the south and the brief uprisings in Shandong and Anhui, they were far from easy to eradicate completely. In fact several independent minded warlord allies, refused to attack them for fear of taking losses, since the only real power they could command came from the size of their armies. This gave the communists a reprieve and they were consolidated in the west, mostly in Sichuan under Zhang Guotao, recently returned from the Soviet Union and now the most senior member of the CCP after the recent purges and executions. But not all of the communists joined Zhang in his Chinese Soviet State, Mao Zedong had decided the war needed to be turned into a guerrilla struggle that would slowly wear away at the nationalists, so he only briefly stopped in Sichuan to resupply and conduct raids on the nearby nationalist armies. Before the end of the year he would have taken his men north on the Great March. The bulk of the communist forces under Zhang would not be easy to break for the nationalists, but the hammer came down in the spring of 1929. Four armies of the NRA were converging on the region with every intention of sealing off any escape and wiping them out completely.

[1] Lin is referring to the other Red Army forces further east. The make-up of these forces are the Second Front Red Army and the Third Front Red Army. The First Front Red Army was based further north, under the command of Li Dazhao and Ye Ting and has been mostly wiped out by the NRA.

[2] The idea of going to Hunan suggested by He Long is taken more seriously TTL since Mao’s army is already there and the Kuomintang already has an extremely large force in Guangdong.

[3] At this point is still fairly limited in China, but Warren is writing with the benefit of hindsight and as per OTL the opium trade will increase significantly via the Green Gang’s connection to the Kuomintang.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

. Two Red Eggs In The Basket

Taken from “The Battle For China:1927-1945”, By Eric Warren © 1999, Blackwoods Books, London, UK

Despite the fierce resistance put up by the communists in Sichuan they eventually lost out to the inevitable. Li Jishen was in command of the four armies converging on them and he had no intention of allowing them to escape. He made sure that he spread enough troops along the western and northern routes to attempt to stop the communist forces from retreating. However this didn’t stop all of them completely. Enough communists through themselves into the fight at Luzhou that Li was forced to recall some of his units to help him in the battle. This was in fact a strategy that Zhang Guotao had decided on in order to allow a large portion of the communists to escape north, closer to the Soviet Union. Mao Zedong had in fact already taken his forces north near to the mountainous region of Yan’an and Zhang had hoped to join him there. While this strategy did work for a time and allowed many communists to escape the region it was almost for nought. When most of the major battles in Sichuan had finished by 12 January 1929, Li Jishen was already directing troops to pursue the retreating communists. Continued harassment of their force and ambushes by the warlord troops of Ma Hongkui reduced the 100,000 strong force down to about 15,000. By the time Zhang and his remaining men arrived in Yan’an, Mao had already departed further north towards Manchuria, where he would set up his base of resistance which would endure for almost a decade.

With little hope left Zhang decided that defeat was inevitable and he allowed his men to go wherever they wished while he went into exile to Soviet-controlled Mongolia. Most of his men scattered into the countryside, and the Kuomintang declared a victory, but many of them would resurge years later in command of communist guerrilla bands which would cause numerous headaches to the government. In addition to this another group of communists had managed to link up with the southern army of Bo Gu and Zhu De. This group included Zhang Wentian who pushed for a move south towards Tibet where they could lie low and continue the struggle as Mao was now doing in the north. For now there remained two large groupings of communists in China, both in fairly secure areas which were difficult for large forces to reach them. Wang Jingwei had every intention of finishing them off, but had been convinced that they were finished as a fighting force and he had other concerns on his mind, like the reorganising of the Kuomintang armies and the first invasions of one of the greatest threats to the Republic.


A portrayal of the Nationalist victory over the communists at Luzhou


Communist soldiers crossing the Yangtze River to head south to Tibet

Taken from “Our Struggle”, By Deng Xiaoping © 1979, Editorial Atlantida. Buenos Aires, People’s Republic of Argentina
Note-This Book is banned in the Republic of China

They were black days in early 1929, more and more of our comrades were being captured every day, but Mao was like a steady rock of morale that kept us going. We headed further north until we reached the wild, untamed lands of Manchuria. The territory may have been under the control of the Young Warlord [1], but his control was limited to the major cities. Holed up in the Xing’an region, Mao set to work rebuilding and retraining us as effective guerrillas. It would prove invaluable, for Manchuria was about to be invaded, giving us an opportunity to train in warfare and also gain many more recruits to our cause. We also received word that Zhang had managed to hold up in the Tibet region and he was clamouring to be the rightful ruler of the CCP. Mao would make him eat those words in the years to come. Zhang had nothing on his brilliant leadership in battle, or his effectiveness at galvanising troops. I was placed in charge of some the new recruits in May of 1929 and the first thing I had to do was give them a proper revolutionary attitude. Many of them had joined up, simply because they didn’t like their warlord overlords, but they knew nothing about the worker’s cause. The first batch was sitting on some rocks awaiting me one morning and I could tell I would have my work cut out for me.

14 July 1929
Sichuan Province
Republic of China

Sweat trickled down Li Jishen’s forehead. The summer sun was scorching him, but he didn’t bother moving towards his tent. He waited and watched as the horseman rode towards his command headquarters. As he got closer, Li could see an official government banner on the horse’s side, it was likely a messenger from Wuhan.
The man pulled his horse up towards Li and his officers, stopped and climbed off.
“General sir, a message from President Wang.” [2]
He handed the envelope to Li who thanked him and bid him goodbye. Li opened it and began reading, his face developed a slight frown.
“General?” asked General Chen Mingshu, his second-in-command “what is it?”
Li sighed and said ‘We’ve being ordered to proceed immediately to Wuhan. The president has called meeting of all generals and subordinates.”
“But we haven’t finished chasing down these communist dogs!”said Chen.
“Yes” agreed Li “but Feng ahs been testing his authority against Wang for some time now and my guess is Wang has finally decided to implement changes to the armed forces that I recommended to him months ago, Feng will be satisfied, but in the long run I suspect it will curb his independent streak and make him a more useful part of the government. There’s not much more the rest of these traitors can do anyway. They’re leaderless, divided and finished. Tell the others to make ready to move out.”


General Li Jishen, who destroyed the communist forces in the Sichuan Campaign of 1929.

[1] Zhang Xueliang

[2] After the Northern Expedition, the Nationalist government was reorganised in a similar way as OTL, with the Executive Yuan, thought there are differences. The title of premier does not exist, the Yuan being headed by the president, while there is the administrative role is the Chairman, which shares many of the duties as OTL premier.

__________________
Not By A Mine-Complete
Flaming Dragons-A Warlord China Alternate History

8. Fast Times At Whampoa Military Academy

18 April 1995
Los Angeles
USA

Moving to Los Angeles may have been the best move that John Lau [1] had ever made. Despite the lack of radiation around southern China and Hong Kong, the British colony had been flooded to the brim with refugees fleeing the chaotic mainland. The last year had seen some semblance of order restored to the still-liveable parts of China, but the government was only surviving by the skin of its teeth. So the people still left the country in droves, seeking a better life in places like Hong Kong, South Japan, Vietnam, even Korea, which had taken some damage [2] from the nuclear exchange between the old Chinese government and the former USSSR, but had managed to secure plenty of aid from Europe and the US.

John had tried his hand at acting in Hong Kong, but the growth of the film industry had been killed off by the flood of refugees and people having far greater concerns than investing in films. So he had come to America, where things seemed heavenly in comparison. And after a few minor roles in some films and one big role last year, he had managed to land the main character in a large scale historical film. Granted it was about Chinese history, which no doubt helped him, but there was no end of actors in LA and enough of them were Asian that he still had to compete for the role. And here he was now, ready and dressed in costume to begin filming in what he hoped would lead to fame and fortune.

“Ready John?” asked Daniel Spielberg [3], the director. Having him as director only made the film even more important for John. Spielberg had won several Academy Awards for his past films and his last historical film Three Days Of Blood [4], had received Best Film. He was one of the biggest names in Hollywood and John was excited to be working with him.
John nodded and stood up from his seat and made his way towards the set. It was a replica of Whampoa Military Academy as it looked in the 1920’s.
John heard the phrase “Action” and stood up to the podium to re-enact the famous speech Li had made at Whampoa shortly before the Northern Expedition.
He put a stern look on his face, hoping to capture Li’s military training and spoke to the extras that were standing below him as the cameras rolled.

From the LA Entertainment News-October 1995 Issue
Review of ‘Raising Flags: The True Story Of General Li Zongren’
By John Mabell
Despite broaching a controversial subject, Spielberg has managed to pull off what this critic considers another Oscar winning film. While any historical film will be biased in certain ways, Spielberg has managed to maintain an incredible amount of historical accuracy, while also balancing the need for plenty of action and drama. Hong Kong native John Lau has certainly come a long way since starting out in Hollywood and word is that he will be in the running for Best Actor for numerous awards.

As for the film itself, it gives us a brief view of Li’s early life and rise to power in south China, before becoming the Republic’s key military figure, then there is plenty of action detailing the battles that made up the Chinese Civil War and the Chinese part of World War II. Interspersed with this is Li’s struggle amongst the various government factions during the and after the war and his eventual rise to president in the chaotic aftermath of the assassination of President Wang in 1947. More action follows in the with the brief Sino-Soviet Border War and the spin-off conflicts in Korea, Japan and Vietnam as Li takes control of his country in more turbulent times.

The pacing of the film does at times feel slow, but this is more than made up for in the large scale battle sequences and tense dramatic moments between the various historical figures. The length provides enough slow and fast paced material to flesh out into a 2 hour and 45 minute epic that is certainly worth waiting in line at the box office for.


A film poster for Raising Flags, starring John Lau as Li Zongren.

Discussion at on http://www.althist.org
Thread started by LI-2
Topic: Could anyone else have done as good a job as Li Zongren as commander of the Kuomintang Army?

Jackhigh: This is a tough question. Do you mean as commander of the army or do you mean could someone else have done an army job and also gone on to become an impressive leader? For the latter I would say no.

LI-2: No, only could someone have stepped into place and commanded the NRA during the Chinese Civil War and Japanese invasion as well as Li did.

Blackguard: I suspect Li Jishen or He Yingqin would have been decent commanders but Li Zongren had more experience in politics and his position in both the army and the government was pretty crucial during the Clique Crisis, he managed to persuade President Wang to allow the warlords to maintain regional control and independent armies while some of them were on the verge of outright rebellion, a war between them at this time would have been devastating and could have allowed the communists to regroup and gain more ground. Not to mention the state of the Chinese armies when it came to the war with Japan.

Agoraphobiaaa: I reckon if Li had died during the late 1920s somewhere then Zhang Fakui would have been made commander of the army. He was very close to Wang Jingwei and his ‘Iron Army’ 4th corps was the one that had inflicted the final defeat on Zhang Zuolin. This gave him a very large status amongst the other generals. Its fortunate he shared similar aims to Li Zongren (anti-communism, regional independence) otherwise he may have tried to take power form him, but as it was he was content to follow Li, though they had some disagreements during the Clique Crisis. Zhang led some capable campaigns against the Japanese as well, in Nanjing, and Wuhan.

Democratic Bob: No Li Zongren in command equals Warlord Civil War in 1928.

LI-2: Seems like there are some candidates, but there is something else I should mention Li Zongren came up with the strategy of prolonged resistance that was very effective against the Japanese, would anyone else have thought this up? Otherwise the IJA could have made it much further into central China, perhaps even forcing the KMT to surrender.

Jackhigh: Doubtful. For Japan to conquer China would require far more men than they actually had, at worst it would allow more men to be used in the Pacific and delay the US victory perhaps, but the end result is the same. On Li Zongren, apparently Zhang Xueliang’s decision to fight the Japanese in Manchuria, came after he had a heated phone conversation with Li and Wang Jingwei, without Li would he have still fought them, or would he have kept to his orders and let them march into Manchuria?

(8)1917
Italia Post Office in China issued surharge Pechino and Tientsin on Italia stamps.

(9) 1919
US Post office in China issue surchaged Shanghai China stamps

Something a little different. For some time after Outer Mongolia was established, China refused to recognise it, and required Chinese stamps on mail coming across the border. This example was sent from Ulan Bator to Zhangjiakou (Kalgan) in Inner Mongolia:

 

 

 

 

1931

Chinese Republic, 1931-37, Dr. Sun Yat-sen London Print, single & double circle Types I & II (Scott 290-306. Chan 305//328), mint complete set & extra values, Type I extra 1¢ value and Type II 2¢(3), 4¢, 5¢(3), 15¢ dark green, 15¢ scarlet (2), 20¢, 25¢, $1(3), $2(2), $5(2) including narrow & wide type varieties, 27 values, o.g., lightly hinged or never hinged, clean, fresh, F.-V.F. group. Realized HK$ 1,100

a Coiling Dragon cover franked with strip of 5 2¢ green one missing, a red band cover franked with 11 1¢ Martyrs including a block of 10 and a pair of 5¢ SYS, and a forwarded gold yuan red band.
Estimate HK$ 2,000 – 3,000.

1925

End OF Qing dynasty in 1925

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Hari ini tengah malam  jam 2.30 WIB saya terbangun dari mimpi yang indah di pagi yang cukup dingin,mimpin menemukan suatu koleksi yang unik ,misterius dan langka yang merupakan hobi saya sejak dari umur tiga tahun yaitu tahun 1948. Tidak terasa telah 66 tahun yang lalu telah berlalu.

sya dnegan ayah Djohan Oetama dan Ibu Anna Tjoa thaun 1950 saat berusia  1o thaun di Bukittinggi

Saya masih ingat dengan jelas seluruh pebngala,am yang saya alami mulai tahun 1958 sampai saat ini 27 April 2014 ,saat hari raya Islam Iraak Mirajd,maaf kalau ejaanny tidak benar karena saya seorang  yang beragama Katolik yang dibaptis saat berumur satu bulan di kota Padang oleh Pastor atau di Jawa disebut Romo,saying saya lupa menanyakam kepada ibu saya yang sudah almarhum siapa namanya,tetapi ibu pernah bercerita sebagai Ibu Permandian saya adalah Tante Saya .adik Ibu bernama  Lies yang menikah denah dengan seorang putra le;ahiran Cilacap Jawa Tengah bernama A>R> Abdisa yang namanya cukup unik yang berarti Anton Rahmat Abadi Tuhan Yang Maha Esa, Ia semula ingin berbakti menjadi Iman atau Pendeta Katolik tetepai jatuh cinta kepada Tante saya,Lies Abdisa yang unik juga orangnya.

 

Tante Lies Abdisa, tubuhnya tidak tinggi hanya sekitar satu meter empat puluh lima cm, sedangkan Omm AR Abdusa satu meter Sembilan puluh sentimeter, saya heran mengapa ia jatuh cinta pada Tante yang sangat jauh beda tingginya tersebut.

Menururt Oom Abdisa saat bertemu tane Lies,saat bekerja bersama-sama di kantor  hanya melihat Tante Lies lagi duduk, dan persahabatan terjalin kemudia melalisurat-menyurat liwat kantor Pos saja,karena sat itu Tante Lies yang tamatan MULO setingkat SMP selarang yang langka saat itu, sedangkan Oom Abdisa Tamatan HBS setingkat SMEA yang juga langka saat itu.

Tante Lies Abdisa sebagai IBu Permandian sangat saying ke Pada saya ,mungkin karena tampilan saya yang unik sehingga anaknyapun diberi nama yang sama dengan saya GOAN, itulah nama sebelum diganti nama dengan IWAN yang lafalnya hamper sama .khususnya Wan atau Ove  yang berate nomor Satu, sebenarny ada tambahan dibelakangnya yang tidak pernah saya pergunakan adalah nama orang tua saya DJOHAN OUETAMA yang berarti Juara Pertama,

 

Djohan Oetama ayah sayaadalah ayah Teladan yang mengasuh anaknya sampai menjadi Sarjana , tiga dokter,seorang putri DO drop out fakultas Ikmu Fisiika UNPAD Bandung karena menikah dengan seorang Sarjana Tehnik Eletro ITB Bandung yang berasal dari Smarang, namanya juga unik, John Widyono  aat menjadi Warga Negara USA yang saat ini berdomisis di San Diego USA dan dulunya di Los Angeles sejak tahun 1978,sebelumnya ia WNI bernama Jahja Widiono dari nama kelahiranya Oei Tjong Bing.

Seluruh keluarga saya adlah sarjana mulai dari saudara,ipar,isteri dan anak-anaknya ,memang Ayah saya pantas dijadikan teladan karena selain membina keluarganya ia juga membina enam adikknya yang seluruhnya lelaki  yang sekolahnya hanya sampai tingkat sekolah Dasar saja, dan pernah seluruh adikknya bekerja bersamanya.

 

Ayah saya Djohan Oetama, dulunya juga memiliki nama yang unik Gho Tjia Bo,mengapa namanya seperti nama wanita,menurut keterangnya dulu kakanya sebanyak tiga orang seluruhnya lelaki meninggal saat kanak-kanak,sehingga oleh ayahnya,kakek saya Gho Kim Thian yang namanya juga unik Kim itu emas Thian Tuhan,jadi namanya terlalu berat dan kuat memberi nama wanita Tja Bo kemudian diganti ayah jadi Tjia Bo,dan  ia menjadi sangat senang waktu ganti nama jadi Djoan Oetama,nama permandiannya John, tetapi kemudian saya jadi bangga juga karena kaisar dinasti Han yang pertama bernama Dai Bo .

 

, kakek berasla dari Zhang Chou atauTjiang Tjioe denganmarga Gho atau Wu turunanan dinasti Han yang sangat istimewa di tanah leluhur Tiongkok, karena hamper seluruh Kaisar di sana yang berasal dari suku Han adalah dari marga Wu seperti kaisar Tiongkok yang paling terkenal dan berkuasa didunia Asia Kaisat Hung WU,dengan admiralnya yang sangat terkenal di Indonesia Admiral Cheng Ho atau dalam lafal Mandari Zheng He, mengapa Gho jadi Wu ,karena dalam ucpan Gho mirip U atau Wu,sehingga dikenal dngan Ng U atau marga Wu,tetapi di Mlaysia dikenal dengan GOH, misalnya Goh Cheow Tong perdana Menteri Singapore,menantu Perdana menteri  dan Pendiri Singapua Lee Koan Yoe,maaf bila lafalnya keliru, mengapa banyak minta maaf .karena biasanya banyak ahli bahasa sering mengkritik saya, maklum saya seorang dokter bukan ahli bashasa, bukan ahli sastra, bukan penulis terdiriik khus, saya kurang memperhatikan catatan kaki sehingga banyka yang mengeluh saya lupa menulis nama sumber info saya, kembali maaf saya adlah kolektor benda unik,langka dan misteirus yang paling banyak jenis dan jumlahnya ,yang bekerja seorang diri membangun suatu koleksi yang superunik,super raksasa dalam jumlah, yang kta orang baratAmizing Collection Yang dihimpun dalam sebuah Museum berlokasi di Ho,e Office dan sebuah Aparte=men dikawasan kelapa Gading Jkaarta Utara,yang demikian banyaknya sampai penuh sesak utuk jalan saja sudah susah,Isteri saya Lily Widjaja, bekas mudrid saya di SMA,

saya dan guru sya Pak Saelan Sofyanto di SNA Don Bosco Padang

yang bertemu saya saat Kuliah Di Fakultas Kedokteran, tetapi umur kami berbeda hamper delapan tahun, saya menikah dengan pasangan yang lebih muda, agar disaat saya tua renta ada yang mengayomi saya,karena saya tidak memiliki Putri,

saya dan isteri Lily saat Pernikahan di tahun 1974

Lily yang dulunya bersifat sederhana ,dengan penampilan standard,ternyata kemudian adlah seorang inu dan nenek muda yang paling unik dan istimewa,

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

memiliki dua putra dengan selar sarjana tehnik,satu tekmik mesin dan satu tehnik geologi,lulusan ITB dan UGM dua universitas yang terbaik di Indonesia, satu luslusan SMA Kanisisius Jakarta dan satu SMA Don Boskos Pulo Mas Jkarta , masing-masing memiliki keunikan,dan saat ini sudah memiliki karier yang mantap yang tertua Albert Suwandy Djohan Oetama (ASDO) General Maneger Kepala Projek Eksplorasi Minyak PERTAMINA daerah Jambi, GM termuda di PERTAMINA berusia 39 tahun, sedangka puta kedua Anton Jimmi Suwandy, GM Marketing Toyota Astra ,yang merupakan GM termuda  berusia 37 tahun.

In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.

Tak terasa sudah banyak yang saya ceritakan,dalam tempo beberapa menit saya dapat bercerita demikian banyak informasi mengenai apa saja ,

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 

History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 

khususnya yang unik ,lang,dan menarik, sedemikian cepatnya sampai banyak orang berkata baterainya sangat kuat, itulah turunan dari Ibu saya,dan menurun kepada anak saya yang pertama Albert,sedangkan isteri sya kurang banyak bercerita,selalu mendengarkan dengan cermat dan segera memberikan koreksi sama dengan putra kedua Anton, good listener, but me Good talking.

      

Cerita sementara kita hentikan dulu akan disambung dalam bab-bab berikutnya,kata putra saya Albert hangan bercerita lebih dari lima belas menit nanti pendengar hilang konsentrasinya,dan minatnya jadi hilanng,\Baiklah hentikan dulu membaca ceita yag paling sru dan menarik alias amazing yang pernah anda jumpai di dalam hidup anda.

    

 

Pembaca yang terhormat sebelum saya mengakhiri karya tulis ini,yang saya persiapkan secara marathon sampai tanggal 9 pebruari 2015,hari kelahiran saya, untuk merayakan hari jadi saya k4e Tujuh Puluh , karya tulis terbatas ini akan saya sajikan bedah bukunya pada saat perayaan Hari Kelahiran saya yang ke Tujuh Puluh.

 

Sebagai Syukur kepada Yang Maha Kuasa,yang telah meanugrahkan saya kesehatan yang sudah mulai menurun tetpi dapat dikendalikan oleh say sendiri dibantuoleh parah ahli superspesialis dibidang kedokteran seperti DR MED Supit ahli mata lulusasa Frakfurt Germa,dan Ahli Ginjal DR MED Salim Lim yang juga ahlipenyakit Dalam da superspesialis Ginjal lulusan Fakultas Kedokteran Frakfurt Jerman,di Rs Ghra Keoya dimana Isteri sya Lily ,Amd PK,SKM,MM menjadi konsultas Rekam media da Peningkatan Mutu RS.

Kepada merekalah khususnya saya mengucaplan terima kasih ,tanpa mereka semuanya yang saya capai sampai hari kelahiran yang tujuh puluh dapat di capai dengan sukses.

Selain itu terima kasih kepada seluruh saudara saya,yang saya cintai,juga seluruh keluarga besar terutama putra,mantau,dan tiga cucu ku tercinta Cessa,Celine  dan Anti wlliam.

Terakhir terima kasih kepada seluruh sahabat saya yang telah memberikan saya semangat untuk tetapi hidup sehat sampai saat ini, semangat agar hidup seratus tahun lagi me;lihat cucuc dan penerus saya mencapai sukse dengan motto Alam terkembang Jadi Guru artinya Belajar dari Masa Lalu, buat perencanaan yang strategis agar dapat berhasil.

Last But Not Least tentunya terima kasih kepada para pembaca dan pengunjung setia web blog sya Dr Iwan Cybermuseum,Iwan suwandy da Uniquecullection,wordpress.Com

Istirahat lagi ya,selamat tidur ,mimpi yang indah,yang menarik ,unik dan amazing

Sampai jumpa lagi

Jakarta,27 April 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy Gho,MHA

Bagi Yang berminat untuk memperoleh CD-ROM ini akan diterbitkan padan bulan pebruari 2005

dapat memesannya sejak jari ini liwat emailsaya

iwansuwandy@gmail.com

autobiografi yang saya tulis tanpa kacamata dari lubujk hati yang paling dalam untuk mengenang perjalanan hidupsaya agar dapat dijadikan

masukan bagi seluruh rakyat indonesia dan dunia,khususnya keluarga besar saya

Doakan agar buku ini dapat disiapkan dengan koleksi yang diatata secara apik secara kronologis beruoa

Dr Iwan Masterpiece collection

Yang unik,misterius,langka dan menarik

pokyny akata orang bule

Amizing Book

Terima Kasih salam

Dr Iwan Suwandy Gho,MHA

 

REKOR MURI

YTH ADMIN MURI
BERSAMA INI SAY KIRIM INFORMASI PENGUSULAN WEB BLOG
DRIWANCYBERMUSEUM SEBAGAI
CYBERMUSEUM KOLEKSI FAKTA HISTORI TERBANYAK YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN SEJARAH INDONESIA DAN DUNIA BAIK JENIS MAUPUN TAMPILANNYA YANG DIKELOLA SEOARANG PENSIUNA POLRI BERUSIA  69 TAHUN SEORANG DIRI

SEBAGAI DASAR DILAMPIRKAN DATA DIBAWAH INI

Dr Iwan Cybermuseum
Web Blog
Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
Museum Internet yang menyajikan koleksi terbanyak jenis Koleksi yang terkait dengan sejarah Indonesia dan dunia dan jumlah artikelnay
Yang merupakan karya seorang pensiunan POLRI
berusia 70 tahun
Driwancybermuseum di kunjungi oleh
694.551 dalam enam tahun
tertinggi
3227 per hari
Total Artikel
955
Catatan satu tahuntak aktif karena operasi katarak disertai laser kelainan retina pada kedua mata tahun 2013

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

THE FOUNDER

Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM

SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

 B.Introduction
a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://http://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://http://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://http://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showcase:

The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:

INTRODUCTION (PENDAHULUAN)

1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future

DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM CD-ROM

PROJEK MUSEUM SEJARAH  LELUHUR TIONGHOA DI INDONESIA

Driwancybermuseum

d

PROPOSAL PENGEMBANGAN MUSEUM DAN PUSAT STUDI SEJARAH LELUHUR TIONGHOA INDONESIA

Djohan Gho ,Toako kedua marga gho Padang,ayah Dr Iwan Gho

The Chinese Ancestor

INDONESIA

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy ,MHA

Senior Supterintendans (Ret)

The founder ofDriwancybermuseum

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Home Office and Galery

Pegangsaan Indah Barat II Blok G 1/12

Pondok Gading Utama

Kelapa Gading

Kelurahan Pegangsaan dua

Jakarta Utara (14250)

DKI

Indonesia

Telp; +62-21.4526823

Mobile:+62.815.994.73.01

My Motto

Leatn from the past

To succeed now and the future

In my loving bitrh homeland

Minangkabau

Alam Takambang Jadi Guru

Means

The Undeveloped Nature So Teacher

I always remember The Minang poem

 

Pandan island located far behind

Pulau Pandan ja’u ditangah dibaliek

 


the Geese’s island amid the bodies let destroyed to be land destroyed the favor of conceived remembered well

 

pulau Angso Duo bia badan hancui dikanduang tanah

 

budi baik dikanang Juo

 

 

 

 

 

KATA PENGANTAR

Proposal ini disusun untuk para generasi penerus marga Tionghoa Indonesia dan seluruh dunia agar mereka mengetahui dan belajar dari para leluhurnya agar dapat sukses saat ini dan dimasa mendatang.

Informasi hasil penelitian ini akan dimanfaatkan dalam menyusun

MUSEUM SEJARAH LELUHUR INDONESIA

DAN MUSEUM LELUHUR MARGA WU INDONESIA

        Terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada berbagai pihak yang tela membantu saya sehingga karya tulis ini dapat terwujud, terutama kepada ketua Margo Utomo Indonesia Bp Ali Husein Wu dan Himawan .

Jakarta Juni 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy Gho,MHA

 

 

 

PENDAHULUAN

Pada hari minggu tanggal 11 Mai 2014, Dr Iwan Gho telah dilaksanakan pertemuan kekeluargaan di Rumah Makan Central Kelapa Gadung Jakarta Utara

Antara DRiwancybermuseum dengan Pimpinan Marga Gho (Wu) Indonesia yang berkedudukan di Jakarta, dalam rangka perkenalan untkuk mencapai kesepakatan

pengembangan Museum Sejarah Leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia UMUMNYA DAN Marga Gho Khususnya

di kompleks Taman Budaya Tionghoa yang telah didirikan Di Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

yang diberi nama

Plaza Persaudaraan dan disahkan oleh

Ketua Yayasan Harapan Kita Jendral Besar H.M.Soeharto ,mantan Presiden Republik Indonesia ke dua tahun 2006

 

Plaza Persaudaraan ini di bangun diatas tanah milik Yayasan Harapan kita

Sumbangan dari

Bapak Sugiono, Yayasan setia Kawan Magelang,Bapak Pandji Wisaksana,

Bapak Somboon Yuprapan,Ibu Ratana Yuprapan dan Bapak DR Boedi Niranata

Dengan batu peringatan yang ditulis dengan aksara Mandarin

Mrs Lily Oei SKM,MM (wife of Dr Iwan Gho) didepan batu peringatan

Taman Budaya Budaya Tionghoa Indonesia

Taman Mini

“INDONESIA INDAH”

Dengan tulisan aksara mandarin Zhen Qiang Ih Cia Road 17-8-2011

Pada hari Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia ke 66

PLAZA PERSAUDARAAN

INI TERDIRI DARI

BANGUNAN YANG DIDIRIKAN ATAS SUMBANGAN BERBAGAI

DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM MENYEDIAKAN CD-ROM KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR INDONESIA

BAGI YANG BERMINAT SILAHKAN MEMESAN LIWAT EMAIL DR IWAN

iwansuwandy@gmai>com
CONTOH INFO CD-ROM DAPAT DILIHAT DENGAN

MENGETIK JENIS KOLEKSI YANG INGIN DIKETAHUUU SEPERTI

KERAMI

FILATELI

HISTORY COLLECTION

DAN LAIN-LAIN

PESANAN DAPAT DIKIRIM KE EMAIL DR IWAN

DENGAN MENGUPLOAD KOPI KTP SERTA ALAMAT DAN NOMOR TILPON AGAR KIRIMAN SAMPAI DENGAN SELAMAT LIWAT TITIPAN KILAT SETELAH ANDA MENGIRIMKAN BUJTI SETORAN BIAYA cd-ROM DAN BIAYA KIRIM RP 500.00(LIMA RATUS RBU RUPIAH) KE REKENING ATM BCA YAN NOMORNYA AKAN DIBERITAHU

BEBERAPA CONTOH DAPAT DILIHAT DIBAWAH INI

rencana kerjasama dengan

museum Zheng he Penang Malaysia

 

 

Koleksi Dr Iwan Cybermuseum Galery Jakr

The Chinese Kapitan history collections

The First Photo of Qing Authorities Taken in World Expo, St Louis Expo 1904

THE  CHINESE OVERSEAS KAPITAN HISTORY COLLCTIONS

IN INDOENSIA AND MALAYA

PART TWO A

DUTCH EAST INDIE 19th CENTURY

 

 

Kapitan Cina Medan Tjong A Fie

CREATED By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2013

 

INTRODUCTIONS

 

Kapitan Cina deli  medan (leutenant rank) in 1880

Dr Med Supit’s Grand grandpa

Kapitan cina Deli Medan

Name unidentified  marga Tan

 

Kapitein der Chinezen te Soerabaja 1880

 

 

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

 SELAIN ITTU DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM AKAN MEMBANGUN MUSEUM LELUHUR TIONGHOA INDONESIA

PROPOSAL PENGEMBANGAN MUSEUM DAN PUSAT STUDI SEJARAH LELUHUR TIONGHOA INDONESIA

Djohan Gho ,Toako kedua marga gho Padang,ayah Dr Iwan Gho

The Chinese Ancestor

INDONESIA

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2014

Dr Iwan Suwandy ,MHA

Senior Supterintendans (Ret)

The founder ofDriwancybermuseum

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Home Office and Galery

Pegangsaan Indah Barat II Blok G 1/12

Pondok Gading Utama

Kelapa Gading

Kelurahan Pegangsaan dua

Jakarta Utara (14250)

DKI

Indonesia

Telp; +62-21.4526823

Mobile:+62.815.994.73.01

My Motto

Leatn from the past

To succeed now and the future

In my loving bitrh homeland

Minangkabau

Alam Takambang Jadi Guru

Means

The Undeveloped Nature So Teacher

I always remember The Minang poem

 

Pandan island located far behind

Pulau Pandan ja’u ditangah dibaliek

 


the Geese’s island amid the bodies let destroyed to be land destroyed the favor of conceived remembered well

 

pulau Angso Duo bia badan hancui dikanduang tanah

 

budi baik dikanang Juo

 

 

 

 

 

KATA PENGANTAR

Proposal ini disusun untuk para generasi penerus marga Tionghoa Indonesia dan seluruh dunia agar mereka mengetahui dan belajar dari para leluhurnya agar dapat sukses saat ini dan dimasa mendatang.

Informasi hasil penelitian ini akan dimanfaatkan dalam menyusun

MUSEUM SEJARAH LELUHUR INDONESIA

DAN MUSEUM LELUHUR MARGA WU INDONESIA

        Terima kasih saya ucapkan kepada berbagai pihak yang tela membantu saya sehingga karya tulis ini dapat terwujud, terutama kepada ketua Margo Utomo Indonesia Bp Ali Husein Wu dan Himawan .

Jakarta Juni 2014

Dr Iwan suwandy Gho,MHA

 

 

 

PENDAHULUAN

Pada hari minggu tanggal 11 Mai 2014, Dr Iwan Gho telah dilaksanakan pertemuan kekeluargaan di Rumah Makan Central Kelapa Gadung Jakarta Utara

Antara DRiwancybermuseum dengan Pimpinan Marga Gho (Wu) Indonesia yang berkedudukan di Jakarta, dalam rangka perkenalan untkuk mencapai kesepakatan

pengembangan Museum Sejarah Leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia UMUMNYA DAN Marga Gho Khususnya

di kompleks Taman Budaya Tionghoa yang telah didirikan Di Taman Mini Indonesia Indah

yang diberi nama

Plaza Persaudaraan dan disahkan oleh

Ketua Yayasan Harapan Kita Jendral Besar H.M.Soeharto ,mantan Presiden Republik Indonesia ke dua tahun 2006

 

Plaza Persaudaraan ini di bangun diatas tanah milik Yayasan Harapan kita

Sumbangan dari

Bapak Sugiono, Yayasan setia Kawan Magelang,Bapak Pandji Wisaksana,

Bapak Somboon Yuprapan,Ibu Ratana Yuprapan dan Bapak DR Boedi Niranata

Dengan batu peringatan yang ditulis dengan aksara Mandarin

Mrs Lily Oei SKM,MM (wife of Dr Iwan Gho) didepan batu peringatan

Taman Budaya Budaya Tionghoa Indonesia

Taman Mini

“INDONESIA INDAH”

Dengan tulisan aksara mandarin Zhen Qiang Ih Cia Road 17-8-2011

Pada hari Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia ke 66

PLAZA PERSAUDARAAN

INI TERDIRI DARI

BANGUNAN YANG DIDIRIKAN ATAS SUMBANGAN BERBAGAI

MARGA TIONGHOA INDONESIA DAN DIANTARANYA

 

MARGA GHO(WU)

 

 

 

 

MARGA HAKKA

 

 

MUSEUM PERANAKAN INDONESIA

SUMBANGAN YAYASAN LESTARI BUDAYA TIONGHOA INDONESIA

YANG BERISI KOLEKSI

 

Pada bulan Juni 2014 bertempat di Kantor Margo Utomo Indonesia di Kemayoran Jakarta pada hari minggu tanggal 8 Juni 2014 Taman telah diadakan pertemuan antara Ketua Marga Gho(Wu) Margo Utomo Indonesia Bp Ali Husein Wu , Dr Iwan Suwandy Gho dan Ketua yayasan Pelestarian Budaya Tionghoa Indonesia Brigjen TNI(P) Teddy untuk merencanakan pembangunan dan Pengembangan Fasilitas yang terkait dengan Leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia yaitu

 

1.Museum leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia.

Berupa

  1. Museum Admiral Cheng Ho yang terkait juga dengan leluhur marga Wu kaisar Hung Wu pendiri dinasti Ming

Museum berada didalam perut Kapal Cheng HO yang di tata dalam sebuah lorong container

yang dapat dicontoh dari

Kapal Cheng Ho

 

 

di museum Guangzhao

Tiongkok

dan

 

Lorong container untuk memajang koleksi terkait Admiral Cheng Ho termasuk

Kepala Patung Cheng Ho Koleksi Dr Iwan serta dan

Keramik era Ming Awal

 

 

terkait dengan Kaisar Hung Wu leluhur marga Wu koleksi Dr Iwan dan donator

 

Sejarah admiral Zheng he dan Kaisar Hubg Wu akan disusun sejara kronologis termasuk ekspedisi Cheng Ho Ke Indonesia dilengkapi ilustrasi keramik temuan diwilayah yang dikunjungi.

Dipajang dalam

Lorong Kontainer Museum

Contoh dari museum di Penang

After the Qing dynasty fell in 1911, Sun Yat-sen, the father of today’s China and a native son of Guangzhou, established here the headquarters of the Nationalist Party, then briefly, the nation’s capital.

City, estimated population (2003): 4,653,131, capital of Guangdong province, China. Located on the Zhu (Pearl) River about 80 miles (130 km) from the sea, it is southern China’s chief port.

Incorporated in the Chinese empire in the 3rd century BC, it later became an important city under the Ming dynasty. The first Chinese seaport opened to foreigners, it was regularly visited by Arab and Hindu trad

 

 

contoh museum Hakka di Meizhou Tiongkok

.

 

.

 

 

 

 tokoh hakka Di Dunia

 

Sun Yat Sen, Deng Zao Ping,Lee Kwan Yu

.

.

keramik hakka dengan simbol matahari,kupu-kupu dan pohon cemara

Bangunla sebelum matahari terbit,kemudian bekerja sekuat tenaga  seperti pohon cemara ,membuat yang indah seperti kupu-kupu.dan berhenti bekerja dan pulang kerumah saat matahari terbenam

 

 

 

pakaian Hakka

 

 

 

 

 

  •  

     

 

 

 

makanan hakka

  

 

kaligrafi hakka

 

 

hakka canada

 

 hakka opera

 

 

 

 

c.Pusat Studi seni sastra Tionghoa Indonesia bertempat di Kantor Margo Utomo Indonesia di Kemayoran Jakarta

Pusat Studi terdiri dari

Perpustakaan Buku-Buku terkait sastra Tionghoa baik yang lama maupun dan baru serta mengumpulkan kliping majalah dan info dari eksplorasi Internet.

 

 

saya akan menyumbangkan beberapa koleksi saya

 

 

dalam rangka membangun suatu museum baru

di kawasan TMII dengan Nama

The History Museum of Tionghoa Ancestor

Museum Sejarah leluhur Tionghoa Indonesia

 

Lokasi museum

Cheng Ho

Berlokasi di Tanah

Taman Budaya Tionghoa Taman Mini Indonesia Indah Jakarta

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pusat studi

koleksi seni budaya Tionghoa Indonesia

yang terkait dengan

arti motif simbolis

 

 

dari

karya seni Tionghoa yang ditemui di Indonesia baik yang berasal dari Tiongkok atau leluhur Tionghoa dan etnis Indonesia Lain.

Koleksi seni budaya tersebut berupa

Keramik,

sulaman,

dan karya seni dari kayu dan metal termasuk

perhiasan

traditional Tionghoa.

Hasil penelitian akan di tampilkan

di gedung yang dibangun beberapa marga Tionghoa termasuk marga Wu(Gho) di Taman Budaya Tionghoa Taman Mini Indonesia Indah Jakarta.

 

Sebagai Referensi dapat dipergunakan Hasil Penelitian Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

The Tionghoa Art Motif Found in Indonesia

 

 

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

STUDIES RESULTS

Discuss Of Result

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Koleksi Dr Iwan Cybermuseum Galery Jakrta

c.Pusat Studi seni sastra Tionghoa Indonesia bertempat di Kantor Margo Utomo Indonesia di Kemayoran Jakarta

Pusat Studi terdiri dari

Perpustakaan Buku-Buku terkait sastra Tionghoa baik yang lama maupun dan baru serta mengumpulkan kliping majalah dan info dari eksplorasi Internet.

Pusat studi

seni sastra Tionghoa ini melakukan konservasi koleksi sastra kuno Tionghoa dan menterjemahkannya

Koleksi seni musik Tionghoa

yang dilengkapi koleksi alat musik traditional Tionghoa dan sound system untuk memperdengarkan seni musik traditional tionghoa

piring hitam playrecord lama opera tionghoa

Sebagian koleksi ini akan di tampilkan didalam sebuah ruangan pameran khusus,ruang arsip perpustakaan yang dapat melindungi koleksi yang langka tersebut dan ada ruangan pengunjung perpustakaan dilengkapi system informasi untuk menampilkan abstrak dari koleksi dan ada fasilitas untuk scanning dengan biaya khusus bagi pada mahasiswa dan sastrawan sinology dan arkeologi Tionghoa Indonesia dan manca Negara.

 

JUGA DIKANTOR MARGO UTOMO KEMAYORAN JAKARTA

DIKEMBANGKAN SEBUAH MUSEUM SEJARAH LELUHUR MARGA WU(GH0)

YANG BERISI PROFILE LELUHUR MARGA WU SEPERTI

 

NGKONGCO WU

 

EMPEROR SUN QUAN OF WU DURING THREE KINGDOM(SAM KOK)

YANG SEBELUMNYA ADALAH JENDRAL DYNASTY HAN TERAKHIR YANG MEDIRIKAN KERAJAAN WU DAN BERSAMA LIBEI OF WEI KINGDOM WIN AGAINST CAO-CAO ATTACKED AT RED CLIF YANG DAPAT KITA SAKSIKAN DALAM FILM TERKENAL SAM KOK

 

EMPEROR HUNG WU OF MING DYNASTY

PENDIRI KERAJAAN YANG PALING TERKENAL DAN PALING KAYA DIDUNIAKERAJAAN MING DAN IA MEMERINTAHKAN

 

ADMIRAL CHENG HO KE SELURUH DUNIA UNTUK TUJUH KALI MISI PERSAHATAN DAN HAMPIR SELURUH KERAJAAN DIASIA BERDULI KEPADA KERAJAAN MING

 

MAKCO WU

EMPRESS WU XE TIAN

KAISAR WANITA SATU-SATUNYA DI KERAJAAN TIONGKOK

 

 

 

 

Seluruh koleksi museum dan pusat studi adalah hak cipta pemiliknya dan dapat dijadikan ilLustrasi produksi pernik ekonomis kreatif seperti

kaus,

gantungan kunci ,

dan perhiasan

dengan fragmen keramik Tiongkok yang indah dan langka yang ditemukan di Indonesia,serta

 

pernik patung shio

dan leluhur tionghoa termasuk foto leluhur kapitan Tionghoa dan leluhur terkenal seperti delapan dewa,konfusius dsbnya

 

 

 

2. Pembangunan Museum Sejarah Leluhur Marga Wu(Gho) Indonesia

Lokasi Kantor Margo Utomo (marga Wu) Kemayoran Jakarta

Apabila di setujui

Dr Iwan Gho akan segera melakukan penelitian untuk memperoleh Informasi Sejarah Leluhur Gho (Wu) di tanah leluhur dan di Indonesia

 

 

Museum ini dibagi atas Tiga bagian

Pertama Leluhur Wu Sebelum Dinasti Ming

Kedua Leluhur Wu semasa Dinasti Ming

Ketiga Leluhur Wu era KoloniaL

Penelitian dilakukan dengan studi kepustakaan dan studi artefak dan relik histori yang terkait yang akan di tampilkan dalam museum leluhur Marga WU Indonesia yang akan dibangun di Jakarta

 

Donator Yang diharapkan

Dari Marga Wu

Pemilik Kopi Cap Kapal Api Surabaya dan

Gho Giap Soei Padang pemilik perkebunan sawit dan pertambangan batu bara dsbnya

Dari Marga Hakka

Prof DR Tahir MBA

Pemilik Bank Mayapada dan Rumah sakit Honoris Tangerang

Sumbangan dari warga Tionghoa dengan melelang koleksi keramik yang dibawa Admiral Cheng Ho yang akan dipajang di lorong container didalam perut museum kapal Cheng Ho dengan mencantumkan nama penyumbang

Pembangunan Kapal Cheng Ho tentunya sangat memerlukan biaya Tinggi untuk itu diharapkan

Pemilik Kopi cap Kapal Api

yang terkait dengan kapal mereknya

dan

Bank Mayapada yang terkait dengan

leluhur marga hakka pekerja pembangunan kapal chng Ho bersedia memberikan sumbangan ,juga dari donator lainnya

Mari Kita Berdoa agar rencana ini dapat terlaksana dengan cepat demi Genreasi Tionghoa Simasa Mendatang dan meningkatkan parawisata dan ekonomi kreatif di Indonesia

 

untuk itu kita akan

menemui

menteri parawisata

Ibu Marie Elka Pangestu yang adalah warga marga tionghoa puteri dari

DR Pang Lay Kim

Untuk memberikan bantuan moril dan materiel

 

 

 

This Special show dedicated to my in memoriam loving father

Djohan Gho(WU TJIA BO)

And mother

Anna Tjoa Giok Lan

 

dari mana kakek Saya Gho Kim Thian berasal dan juga banyak orang Hokian Di

artchina ceramic motif

 

 Peranakan Tionghoa Serui

papua serui - tukang.jpg

TERIMA KASIH ATAS pesanan cd rom dan
mohon doa restu agAR RENCANA [EMBANGUNAN MUSEUM LELUHUR TIONGHOA INDONESIA DAPAT SEGERA TERWUJUD

DR IWAN SUWANDY GHO,MHA