Pameran Koleksi Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok Produksi Jing De Zhen kuno

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                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

Pameran Keramik Langka Kerajaan Tiongkok  Produksi  Jing De Zhen

Frame Pertama : 

Dr Iwan’s  Jing De Zhen private Collections Found In Indonesia

I.Yuan Dinasty

1.The Red Inglaze

2.The Qinh-pai glaze

3. The White Sufu

4.The Tobi Seji

5a The Mohamedan Blue

5 Celadon

II.Ming Dinasty.

1.Spiritual Animal

1) Dragon

2a) rare unusual decoration Fish flying to the gate of heaven and incarnationatuio to Dragon

2b)Chillin

3)horse

4) Ming kui_xing,the god of literatur

compare with NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 Kuixing

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯头), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle. 

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

2. Lucky Fengsui long life  Animal

3. Lucky Fengsui Flower Chrysanthenum  and lotus  etc

4.Lucky Shou loglife and happ1ness calligraphy

5. The Eight Type of Buddhis  Emblem

6.Monochrome blue king

7.Polichrome santsai

8. insect

III.Transisi Ming-Qing

 

IV.Qing Dinasty

1) The early Qing (Kang Hsi)

2) The Lates Qing

Frame Kedua:

Sejarah Kiln Jing de Zhen (google explorations)

Keramik Jingdezhen

Mangkuk glasir Qingbai (“Blueish-green)yang diukiran (carved) disain  bunga peony , Jingdezhen, Song Selatan , 1127-1279.

Keramik Jingdezhen  (Chinese: 景德镇陶瓷) , terutama  porcelain, diproduksi di  Jingdezhen, China. Jingdezhen dijakini sudah memproduksi keramik sejak abad ke enam sebelum Masehi (is believed to have produced pottery as early as the sixth century CE).

Daftar Isi (Contents)

Jingdezhen bluish-white ware

Vase Fonthill merupakan poselein Jin de zhen paling dini  yang ditemukan di Eropa tahun 1338,(tipe seperti ini belum pernah ditemui di Indonesia-Dr Iwan) 

Jingdezhen ware became particularly important from the Song period with the production of Qingbai (青白, “Blueish-white”) ware(keramik Jin de Zhen menjadi sangat terkenal sejak memproduksi keramik jenis Qingbai). The Jingdezhen Qingbai was a transparent and jade-like type of porcelain, with a blueish-white glaze. Decoration was made by delicate carving or incising.(Keramik Qingbai memiliki warna yang transparant seperti batu giok-jade -kumala -warna putih kebiruan dengan dekorasi jenis  sayatan-incised atau diukir)[1]

The earliest piece of Chinese porcelain documented to have reached Europe, was a Qingbai porcelain bottle from Jingdezhen, which arrived in Europe in the middle of the 14th century: the Fonthill vase.(jenis keramik yang paling awal dikirim ke Eropa adalah jenis Botol Qingbai dari Jing de Zhen, yang tiba di Euro pada pertengahan abad ke -14: vase Fonthill)

Later, Jingdezhen produced Shufu ware, named after the two character inscription on some pieces. Shufu may mean the pieces were ordered for the Shumiyuan (Ministry of Defense). The Shufu pieces have a thick, somewhat opaque, glaze, almost white in color, with a faint blue-green tint,look Dr Iwan private collection below (Kemudian ,Jing de Zhen memproduksi keramik yang dinamakan Shufu. Shufu berarti keramik yang dipesan untuk Shumiyuan-menteri Pertahanan. Keramik Shufu tebal ,opak-padat,glasir bewarna putih dengan tinta bewarna  biru-kehijauan , lihat koleksi Dr iwan dibawah ini)

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Qingbai glazed lamp, Jingdezhen ware, 1271-1368.

Shufu stem bowl, Jingdezhen, 1271-1368.

Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain

Early blue and white porcelain, manufactured circa 1335, Jingdezhen.(tipe seperti ini juga terdapat dimuseum Tukrki Tokapi Sayai,banyak yang di tiru saat juga ada tirusn tersebut di Indonesia,saya menemukan artifact fragment kemdi bawang ini yang asli di Kalimantan Barat,silahkan perhatikan illustrasi dibawah ini untuk memahami bentuk yang orisinil untuk dijadikan alat pembanding dengan koleksi anda atau koleksi lain yang palsu-Dr Iwan)

Yuan Jing De Zhen Porcelain development of china

27 六

Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen of china pottery

Yuan less than a hundred years in our history, but the development of porcelain pottery in the history of our country still has a very important position, can not be ignored. Porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty in its considerable weight handicrafts, fifteen years from the Yuanshizhu Emperor Yuan (1278) set up in Jingdezhen, “Fuliang porcelain Bureau” can be seen, this is my first time at the local establishment of the ruling class Porcelain management agencies, Jingdezhen Porcelain for the Ming and Qing government opened the first of its kind, also known as the largest one stroke after Jingdezhen ceramics producing future. Famous Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen kilns have Hutian, Zhu Shan, Lok Ma Bridge, the Goddess of Mercy Court, had family get, and mainly produce blue white porcelain, copper red vitreous enamel, egg albumin cobalt blue vitreous enamel and porcelain. Also fired in the blue and underglaze red porcelain, ceramic history of China opened a new bright page. This is also in the Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen greatest contribution, is also a milestone in the history of Chinese ceramic creation. In porcelain technology, the more the invention of the dual formula approach kaolin mined system plus tires, burn and create conditions for the large objects. Department of Jingdezhen blue and white Yuan Dynasty was founded in, it is blank on the porcelain painted with cobalt decoration, and then the transparent glazes, 1200 ℃ in order to restore the flame around a firing temperature of porcelain, also known as “underglaze blue,” ” Glaze in Green “,” white glaze blue flowers. ” Yuan blue and white porcelain of Jingdezhen porcelain stone plus with the dual method of kaolin system tire. Taizhi delicate white, due to high levels of obviousness deformation of aluminum oxide. Glaze slightly flashing blue, Guangrun translucent, bright and clear, with a rich ruby blue Xiangying harmony. Decorated with pine, bamboo, plum, flowers, birds, birds and animals, the main character profile. Objects are mostly large, with bottles, cans, plates, bowls and so on. Jingdezhen blue and white great achievements in the Yuan Dynasty, Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain features:

1, as more special with a glaze to glaze coloring stability, rich and gaudy green quiet;

2, as the underglaze blue and white color, ornamentation Wing do not brown off, beautiful and durable;

3, decorated mostly white blue flower, like a fresh purer traditional Chinese ink painting, timeless elegance.

And Red is an important element of the invention of the mid-Jingdezhen.

Contemporary blue and white porcelain manufacturing processes and substantially the same. It is made of copper oxide colorant, the tire on the painting decoration, the cover applied transparent glaze, reducing flame atmosphere at high temperature firing. Because of the red pattern in underglaze, it said and Red.

 And Red on the kiln atmosphere, demanding, difficult to burn than blue, so production is very low, Yuan underglaze red porcelain excavated and handed down the extremely rare. Underglaze red and blue in decorative patterns and glazes are slightly different, more sculptural simplicity underglaze red, theme quite small, glaze with darker levels, the decorative lines often bloom.

随机文章

From the mid-14th century, Jindezhen began to mass-produced underglaze blue porcelain.[1] During the Ming period, official kilns for Imperial productions were established in Jingdezhen.[1]

Dish with underglaze blue design of interlaced flowers, Jingdezhen ware, Xuande Reign 1426-1435, Ming, Shanghai Museum

Dish with underglazed blue design of 2 lions playing a ball, Jingdezhen ware, mid 15th century, Shanghai Museum

Foliated dish with underglaze blue design of melons, bamboo and grapes, Jingdezhen ware, Yuan, 1271-1368, Shanghai Museum

Qing period

With the Qing period, designs became more varied, combined folk and Imperial styles, and Jingdezhen ware became famous around the world.[1] Export were hampered after the French jesuit François Xavier d’Entrecolles visited Jingdezhen and wrote to Europe about its manufacturing secret between 1712 and 1720. From that point, European countries would start to rival Chinese porcelain productions, initially by imitating Chinese styles, and later by developing their own original artistic patterns.

Cowpea-red glazed seal-box, Jingdezhen ware, Kangxi reign 1662-1722, Shanghai Museum

Dish with underglazed blue and overglazed red design of clouds and dragons, Jingdezhen ware, Yongzheng reign 1723-1735, Qing, Shanghai Museum

Main article: Jingdezhen ware

Early Kangxi 17th Century, Jingdezhen Ware, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan,koleksi pribadi Dr iwan yang ditemukan di Indonesia mutunya agak kurang dari koleksi Nantoyoso diatas Qing awal Kang hsi ,mungkin produksi dinasti Qing akhir lihatlah dibawah ini

Ming plate with grape design, 15th century, Jingdezhen kilns, Jiangxi. British Museum.

Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen’s porcelain has been famous not only in China but in time it became known internationally for being “as thin as paper, as white as jade, as bright as a mirror, and as sound as a bell”. The late Guo Moruo, a senior official who was also a famous historian and scholar of PRC wrote a poem that says (in translation): “China is well known in the world for its porcelain, and Jingdezhen is the most well-known centre, with the highest quality porcelain in China”.[2]

Most Jingdezhen porcelain is valued by collectors of antique porcelain throughout the world. According to media reports, a blue and white porcelain jar produced in Jingdezhen during the Yuan Dynasty was auctioned for the equivalent of RMB 230,000,000 yuan in London, UK in July 12, 2005. This was the highest price achieved by a piece of porcelain in the history of all porcelain auctions of the world. The reason for the high price is experts believe that the blue and white Yuan Dynasty porcelain has a dominant position in the history of Chinese ceramics. It represents the pinnacle of the development of Chinese blue and white porcelain.[7][8]

During the Cultural Revolution, Jingdezhen produced a large number of porcelain Mao badges and statues of a seated Mao Zedong.

Jingdezhen soft paste porcelain flower holder, “Famille Rose”, 1736-1796, Qianlong period.

Jingdezhen blue and white plate, mid-14th century.

 Rail

The WanGan Railway (Wan:Anhui Province; Gan:Jiangxi Province) connects Jingdezhen to many key cities in China such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Hefei, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Nanchang, Kunming and Guiyang, etc. In addition, the Jiu-Jing-Qu Railway (Jiujiang- Jingdezhen – Quzhou) is under construction. In the near future, the two railwaylines will intersect in Jingdezhen, which will make the city the most important railway transportation hub in Jiangxi Province and East China. The Jingdezhen Railway Station is located in the city center and is under the control of the Nanchang Bureau of Railways.

 Air

The Airlines Routes of Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen Airport is located at Luojian Village, northwest of Jingdezhen city, and about 8 km from the city’s downtown.

CAAC statistics show that in 2008 Jingdezhen Airport served 189,256 passengers. This ranks the airport 81st amongst all Chinese airports. Annual cargo and mail traffic was 119.8 tons; annual landings were 2424. By these measures the airport ranked 111 and 91 in China.[11]

There are flights from Jingdezhen to Beijing(CA), Shanghai(ZH), and Guangzhou (ZH), Shenzhen(ZH). There are no international flights. Jingdezhen Airport is the second largest airport in Jiangxi Province. The largest is at Nanchang.

Local transit

There was only one bus line in Jingdezhen before the 1980s, which was from Huang-ni-tou to Nan-men-tou with a total line distance of 7 kilometers. In that time , the city had no taxi service and the buses were channel-type bus, it could carry more than one hundred passengers at most at the same time. This kinds of buses were renewed when they were operated to the end of 1990s.

Currently,Jingdezhen public buses and taxis are the two main means of transportation within the city. Nearly more than 20 public bus lines crisscross the city and its countryside. Taxis in Jingdezhen are plentiful; fares start at ¥5 for the first 2 kilometers.

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Residents of rural Jingdezhen

 Attractions

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Historical Exhibition Area

  • Hutian Ancient Kiln Site

  • Porcelain Street

  • China Porcelain Garden

  • Lotus Pond
  • sanbao village created by world famous ceramic artist Jackson Li

Frame Ketiga:

Informasi Tentang Pabrik Keramik Terkenal di Tiongkok Jing De Zhen (berdasarkan Artikel “The World’s Ancient Porcelain Center” Lentz.Frank.S.National geography,Nov 1920 )

1.Illustrasi Pabrik tahun 1927

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*ill Para artis sedang melukis dekorasi porselein disalah satu pabrik keramik terbesar di tiongkok,Jing De zhen. Terlihat ribuan keramik sedang menunggu untuk dilukis decorasi biru dibawah glasir, dan setelah selesia dekorasi , glasir di diaplikasikan melalui beberapa cara  dengan “Dipping”, Dengan di hembus liwat sebuah tabung (tube), atau dengan “sprinkling”. Kemudian keramik tersebut siap untuk dikilatkan (furnance),trenyata saat itu tidak di goaok (brushing) atau di siram(pouring) seperti tempo dulu (penulis melihat pabrik secara langsung tahun 1927)

2.Lokasi

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*ill pabrik keramik Jing de Zhen  masih dilestarikan sampai saat ini

Pabrik Jing De zhen (juga disebut King-te-chen,King-te chin atau Chang-nan-chen) berada diprovinsi Kiangsi, dan merupakan pusat keramik bangsa Tiongkok ,saat in9i merupakan tanah air industri porseselein dunia. (This is the famous porcelain and pottery center of the nation – indeed, it is the original home of the porcelain industry of the world.)

3. Metode Produksi

Walaupun metode produksi masik primitif, kota ini dapat dikasifikasi sebagai pusat industri kendatipun demikian jarang dikunjungi , sehingga  penulis sangat tertariki untuk melihat lokasi yang kuno dan melihat dengan mata sendiri proses pembuatan keramik dari awal sampai selesai.

4. Bagaimana Caranya Mencapai Pabrik Jing Te Zhen 

Setelah menemulakan lokasi  Shanghai di peta tiongkok, kita harus menelusuri sungai  Yangtze ke   Kiukiang dengan rumah kapal Tiongkok , sebelah selatan dimana terletak danau  Po Yang Lake. Untuk mencapai  Jingdezhen dari  Kiukiang dengan kereta api ke  Nanchang. Perjalanan ini membutuhkan waktu satu hari walaupun jaraknya hanya  90 miles. Tidak terlihat disana pusat industri, tetapi ada toko porcelain yang menakjubkan yang disupply oleh perusahan kota keramik.

.5. Kota Jing De Zhen

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pemandangan Jingdezhen dengan cerobong asap dari Kiln,berbeda dari tempat lain di Tiongkok yang biasanya terlihat Menara dan temple.Bukit-bukit yang indah mengelilingi kota. Dipingir sungai terdapat pohon pinus dan camphor (barus), sedangkan pohon bambu tumbuh dengan subur.

Produksi keramik sudah dimulai pada dinasti  Han tahun 220 AD, saat itu merupakan  produksi keramik pertama di tiongkok ,mungkin gerabah sudah diproduksi beberapa abad sebelumya.

Sangat banyak keramik yang pecah atau rusak ditumpuk sepanjang tepi sungai di   Jingdezhen.dan disana terlihat   78 cerobong asap kuning yang besar .Kota dengan penduduk 300.000 , tetapi tidak ada surat kabar.Jingdezhen belum ada listrik dan telefon (is devoid of electric lights and telephones.)dan  beberapa  rickshaws saat ini sudah ada disana. 

Dipingir sunga terlihat sisa pecahan keramik dan keramik yang gagal produksi ditumpuk(padsa penelitian terakhir masih ditemukan pecahan artifact keramik dari dinasti Sung,dan Ming berada dibawah lapisan tanah disekitar pabrik keramik lama-Dr Iwan S lihat illustrasi dibawah ini)

.Di sekitar kota ini ditemui lusinan bahan baku keramik Clay yang sangat bagus terutama didistrik dekat danau Pao Yang .sehingga kota ini menjadi pusat produksi pabrik keramik.Tempat bahan keramik tersebut adalah Nan K’an, Yu Kan, Tung Kengn dan C’hi Men. At Ch’i Men, diperbatasan provinsi  Anhwei Province, disana seluruh gunung terdapat ” fine white clay.”yang dikenal sebagai kaolin atau the “bone” clay .

6. Cara Roda Pembuat Keramik dioperasikan

Seluruh bahan keramik “clay” dibawa dengan kapal datar  ke  Jingdezhen dalam bentuk bata kecil yang lunak bewarna putih . Ribuan pekerja Tiongkok terikat dengan pekerjaaan ini.

Setelah clay dibersihkan,dipisahkan dan dimurnikan (refined), kemudian disatukan sesuai dengan kebutuhan  dalam bervariasi secara  proposional , biasanya dengan mengunakan kaki oleh anak-anak sampai siap untuk dibuat keramik.

 

Clay yang lunak dan basah ditaruh di atas knob diatas roda putar pembuat keramik.

 Bentuk dari roda putar pembuat keramik sesuai penjelasan dalam buku sebagai berikut:

1.The potter’s wheel, which was invented by the Chinese, is a huge circular machine, about four feet in diameter, made of heavy timbers to lend it momentum. It rests on a perpendicular axis in a slight depression or pit, into which water and debris rapidly drain.

2.The potter is perched above the wheel, with one foot on either side, in order to allow sufficient space for the movement of his hands. After revolving the wheel swiftly with a short pole, he deftly and with mechanical precision fashions a plate, bowl or vase. After years of practice, he can estimate to within a hair’s breadth the proper size.

3.The piece is then removed and placed on a long tray in front of the potter, where it awaits the next artisan. Handles and other decorations, made in molds, are added, and then the whole is scraped smooth and allowed to dry until it is ready for the next process – the under-glaze decoration.

4.Several basic colors, like blue and red, can be painted on under the glaze. The glaze is next applied in various ways – by dipping, by blowing on with a tube, or by sprinkling.

 After the mark has been added the piece is ready for the furnace.

7.Straw and wood scarce; coal not suited for kilns

Porcelain placed in the kiln to be fired has to be protected in strong, cylindrical clay vessels, called saggers. These trays can be used from three to six times before they are ready for the scrap heap on the river bank. Every piece of porcelain, as it is set into the sagger, is placed on a small, round, clay chip, sprinkled with straw ashes. This prevents fusing together of the two pieces.

The fuel for the furnaces at Jingdezhen is of two kinds – straw and wood. Coal has been tried, but it was found that its fumes discolored the porcelain, and accordingly its use was discontinued. Straw is used to burn only the coarser ware.

The fuel problem is a very acute one and it is only with greatest difficulty that wood can be secured at all. The neighboring hills have long ago been deforested, and firewood must be transported to Jingdezhen in river boats, often from sources 200 or 300 miles distant. Boats piled high with straw, projecting over the sides almost to the capsizing point, are common sights all along the river. Wood-boats, too, are seen everywhere.

The kilns are large, egg-shaped ovens of brownish brick, fifty feet long and twelve feet high at the highest point. Because of the intense heat, both the kilns and chimneys must be rebuilt annually.

Every piece of porcelain is placed in the furnace with great precision and arranged according to the temperature which is necessary for its complete firing. Only certain pieces can be placed at the top of the kiln.

The furnace when full is entirely bricked up, and the whole contents are kept at a temperature of 1,600 to 2,000 degrees centigrade, usually for a night and a day, after which the kiln is allowed to cool off, and in due time the porcelain is removed. It has been found that one kiln is large enough to keep nine or ten factories in operation.

This completes the process if no decorations other than the under-glaze paintings are desired, but if more elaborate colorings are used, further burnings in a smaller kiln take place. In applying other ornamental designs the artist often spends weeks, or even months, in completing a single piece, as was the case with a beautiful vase portraying the five relationships, which we had the pleasure of inspecting in the leading factory in the city.

8.Porcelain is classified according to shape

We found porcelain to be classified, according to shape, as follows: “yuan c’hi” or round ware, which includes cups, bowls, saucers and plates; “tso c’hi” or irregular rounds, including teapots, vases, and small, flat ink and paint boxes; “tiao hsiang”, or irregulars, such as images, statues, representations of trees and other objects.

An interesting feature of the manufacturing process is that the factories are also classified according to the shape of the piece they produce – that is, Mr. Wang makes only round ware, or he may even confine himself to the manufacture of bowls, while Mr. Li’s factory is devoted entirely to the production of teapots.

Clustered around the Fukien Guild Hall, in the eastern part of the city, for example, we found about twenty Fukienese families devoting their entire time to the making of images and statues, such as the God of War, Goddess of Mercy, the Three Stars – Happiness, Longevity and Posterity – and the Gods of Harmony. Among the collection we also noticed some obscene pieces.

There is only one plant in Jingdezhen which produces all varieties of porcelain and pottery – the Kiangsi Porcelain Company. It was organized several years ago by a number of prominent stockholders on a modern basis. No foreigners are connected with it in any capacity. We hear a good deal these days about the inability of Chinese to run their own business firms, but the success of this company, which received the grand prize for the best exhibition of porcelain at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915, seems to indicate that they have some business capacity.

Boats loaded with soft, white clay bricks for the porcelain factories

Thousands of boats are engaged in hauling wood for the porcelain furnaces

Kneading clay by foot-power after it has been thoroughly cleansed and sifted

This milk-like liquid is the porcelain glaze ready to be blown or brushed upon the potters’ product

9.The imperial pottery’s long and noble history

Among the four hundred male employees of this concern are one hundred formerly engaged by the Imperial Pottery. In fact, with the downfall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, the Kiangsi Porcelain Company took over practically the entire plant of the famous old factory.

The Imperial Pottery had a long and noble history. It was established in the Sung Dynasty, which lasted from 960 to 1279 AD. The emperor Chiu Tsung, who founded the dynasty, established the manufactory at Jingdezhen, and down through the centuries each succeeding emperor gave it his support and encouragement. It is reported that it was a part of the Yuan Shih K’ai’s imperial plans to reopen the pottery on his ascendancy to the throne. This is but one of the would-be emperor’s dreams that was cut short by his sudden death.

Although the empire no longer exists, porcelain is still used in large quantities by officials in Peking. It was my pleasure on several occasions to meet at feasts President Hsu His Chang’s representative, who had been in Jingdezhen for several months purchasing special wares to be used as gifts in the capital. We visited the factory which filled his orders and saw there dozens of vases, in every stage of development, later to be presented to foreign ambassadors and Mongol princes.

Mixing porcelain clays
Some clays are brittle, some are tough. This is the method of mixing used in all the factories.

The potter at his wheel
After placing the ball of soft clay on the knob of the rapidly revolving wheel, he deftly forms a cup, vase or bowl with mechanical precision.

One method of applying glaze
Here the operator is blowing the glaze through a bamboo tube as the vase is slowly revolved by his toe.

Where the teapot multiplies
In the center of the porcelain industry the product is classified according to shape, as follows: “Yuan c’hi”, “tso c’hi” and “tiao hsiang” – round ware (cups, bowls, saucers, and plates), irregular rounds (teapots, vases, etc.), and irregulars (statues, trees, etc.). The factories are likewise classified according to the shape of the ware they manufacture.

A potter and his unfinished ware
Almost large enough to have served as the jars in which Ali Baba’s Forty Thieves concealed themselves! Those jars of Arabian Names might have been made in Jingdezhen, for China’s ancient porcelain center was manufacturing such wares as early as 220 A.D.[No, not really, production here started in Five Dynasties and Ali Babas jars would more likely have been Pegu or Martaban jars, and not from Jingdezhen at all. / JE]

Cheap porcelain piled high along porcelain street.

The way in which porcelain is moved from place to place.

No unemployment in the porcelain city

There is no unemployment in Jingdezhen. Work is plentiful, but industrial conditions are bad. Long hours, poor food, no rest days and unsanitary living conditions cause a great deal of dissatisfaction among the laborers.

The best decorative artists receive three dollars a day (Mexican)
The unskilled wielders of the brush can earn as little as fifteen cents a day, however, the men are paid not by the hour but according to the quality of their work and the number of pieces finished.

Workers are organized, first according to the parts of the country from which they come – Jingdezhen, from Anhwei and all other provinces. They are further formed into guilds, according to the kind of work upon which they are engaged. Strikes are infrequent, but there is seldom resort to violence. The Chamber of Commerce is a regular mediator.

Many women are engaged in various forms of porcelain production, such as painting, engraving, and lettering. The apprentice system prevails throughout the industry, as in every trade in China. It was interesting to note the artistic ability of a number of small boys engaged in paint birds, flowers, fish and bats, the last being an omen of good fortune.

Wages range from ten cents to one dollar per day, Mexican, for potters and molders. This includes food and room. The artist’s wage ranges from twelve cents to three dollars per day, varying not according to the number of hours but, but according to he number and quality of the pieces produced. But no artisan must work too long. If a man is found doing too much and working beyond the time limit, he is set upon by his fellow workers and severely beaten.

We learned from the revenue collector that about $5,000,000 worth of porcelain and pottery is shipped out of Jingdezhen every year. Every piece has to be hauled down the river in small boats to Raochow, whence it is reshipped in large junks to Shanghai and other cities. Most of this is for domestic use, the Chinese not yet having learned the value of stimulating international trade.

“Ling Lung”, or rice pattern dishes require much time and skill

Perhaps the most popular design of porcelain with foreigners is the “ling lung” or rice pattern found in dishes, cups and bowls. The Chinese have learned the art of producing foreign-style dinner sets in this pattern and are finding a ready market for them.

Making the famous rice-pattern ware
Patient skill and no small amount of time are required in making this pattern, which is known in Jingdezhen as “Ling lung” [devils' work]. It is made not by pressing kernels of the grain into the wet clay, but by cutting the apertures with a sharp knife, after which the holes are filled by repeatedly dipping into the glazing fluid.

Patient skill and no small amount of time are required for the making of rice pattern. The wet clay is first formed into a crude cup or plate on the potter’s wheel. After the piece has dried for several hours or for a day, it is carefully scraped with a special kind of knife which conforms to the curvature of the vessel. The next step is to cut in the kernel-shaped holes. This is done by a skilled workman, who uses a small, flexible steel lancet.

I had always thought that the rice pattern was made by pressing kernels of rice into the damp clay. It was not until I saw the actual process that this erroneous impression was corrected. After these small apertures have been completed the vessel is ready for the under-glaze painting. Decorating finished, the next step is to apply the glazing fluid. This is a thin, milky substance of high-grade porcelain. Sometimes the bowl is dipped, but the cold, raw liquid is usually put on with a soft wool brush.

The operation is repeated about thirty times, with an interval for drying, until all the holes are filled. Five or six coatings only can be applied in one day. The piece is then fired in the usual manner, and comes out of the furnace with the filled holes standing out in beautiful translucent designs.

The firm exporting the largest quantity of porcelain from Jingdezhen is a Chinese company in New York City.

Packing porcelain in rice straw to be shipped to America
The firm exporting the largest quantity of porcelain and pottery from Jingdezhen is a New York concern. Each piece is carefully packed by hand in rice straw before being packed in large boxes.

Each piece is carefully packed by hand in rice straw before it is packed in large boxes. These foreign boxes are made in Jingdezhen and after being marked both in Chinese and English, are shipped directly to New York.

Jingdezhen has a big future

The outstanding impression which a Westerner carries away from this teeming industrial city is the primitiveness of the methods in use. In not a single shop or factory does on find modern machines. Not even the simplest mechanical devices for operating a series of wheels by means of belts are to be found. Every pieces of porcelain is turned out by hand- or by foot.

Yet it is astonishing how much these patient workmen produce with their obsolete methods and crude devices. New ideas penetrate interior China slowly, but with the opening of the Nanking-Nanchang Railway, which has been planned and surveyed, Jingdezhen will assume as position of commercial influence that will astonish the world. The enormous clay deposits, together with the quantity of cheap labor, touched by the magic hand of a twentieth century artist engineer, will push this old and interesting city into a position that will far outshine her ancient glory.

FRAME EMPAT : JING DE ZHEN SAAT INI

1. INFO

1.Jalur Darat ke Jing de Zhen

  • Jalan Raya negara Tiongkok  G206 dari  Yantai, Shandong ke  Shantou, Guangdong.

2. Jalur Kereta Api

Jalan Kereta api  WanGan Railway (Wan:Anhui Province; Gan:Jiangxi Province) menghubungkan Jingdezhen ke banyak kota di Tiongkok seperti  Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Hefei, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Nanchang, Kunming dan Guiyang, etc. sebagai tambahan , jalan kereta api t Jiu-Jing-Qu Railway (Jiujiang- Jingdezhen – Quzhou) dalam pembangunan . Pada waktu tak lama lagi , dua jalur kereta api yang meliwati  Jingdezhen, tang membuat kota ini merupakan jalur kereta api yang paling penting di provinsi Jiangxi dan Timur Tiongkok . Stasiun Kereta api  Jingdezhen Railway lokasi di tengah kota  dan dibawah pengawasan   Nanchang Bureau of Railways.

 JALUR UDARA

Peta Rute Pesawat udara ke Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen Airport is located at Luojian Village, northwest of Jingdezhen city, and about 8 km from the city’s downtown.

CAAC statistics show that in 2008 Jingdezhen Airport served 189,256 passengers. This ranks the airport 81st amongst all Chinese airports. Annual cargo and mail traffic was 119.8 tons; annual landings were 2424. By these measures the airport ranked 111 and 91 in China.[11]

There are flights from Jingdezhen to Beijing(CA), Shanghai(ZH), and Guangzhou (ZH), Shenzhen(ZH). There are no international flights. Jingdezhen Airport is the second largest airport in Jiangxi Province. The largest is at Nanchang.

Transit Lokal

There was only one bus line in Jingdezhen before the 1980s, which was from Huang-ni-tou to Nan-men-tou with a total line distance of 7 kilometers. In that time , the city had no taxi service and the buses were channel-type bus, it could carry more than one hundred passengers at most at the same time. This kinds of buses were renewed when they were operated to the end of 1990s.

Currently,Jingdezhen public buses and taxis are the two main means of transportation within the city. Nearly more than 20 public bus lines crisscross the city and its countryside. Taxis in Jingdezhen are plentiful; fares start at ¥5 for the first 2 kilometers.

.[2]

Penduduk asli  Jingdezhen

 Attractions

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum
  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Historical Exhibition Area
  • Hutian Ancient Kiln Site
  • Porcelain Street
  • China Porcelain Garden
  • Lotus Pond
  • sanbao village created by world famous ceramic artist Jackson Li

2.PRODUK BARU JING DE ZHEN

3.PABRIK KERAMIK DAN TOKO KERAMIK JING DE ZHEN

selesai@ hak cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

2 responses to “Pameran Koleksi Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok Produksi Jing De Zhen kuno

  1. Pingback: The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia(continiu) | Driwancybermuseum's Blog

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