Yearly Archives: 2010

The Iran Collections Exhibition

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                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

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Showcase :

The  Iran History Collections Exhibition

Faravahar background
History of Iran
see also Kings of Persia · Timeline of Iran

[show]BCE
Prehistory  
Proto-Elamite period 3200–2800
Elamite dynasty 2800–550
Kassites 16th–12th cent.
Mannaeans 10th–7th cent.
Median Empire 728–550
Achaemenid Empire 550–330
Seleucid Empire 330–150
Parthian Empire 248–CE 226
[show]CE
Sassanid Empire 226–651
Islamic conquest 637–651
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Tahirid dynasty 821–873
Alavid dynasty 864–928
Sajid dynasty 889/890–929
Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
Samanid dynasty 875–999
Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043
Buyid dynasty 934–1062
Sallarid 942–979
Ma’munids 995-1017
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1187
Ghori dynasty 1149–1212
Seljuq dynasty 1037–1194
Khwarezmid dynasty 1077–1231
Ilkhanate 1256–1353
Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393
Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357
Sarbadars 1337–1376
Jalayerid dynasty 1339–1432
Timurid dynasty 1370–1506
Qara Qoyunlu 1407–1468
Aq Qoyunlu 1378–1508
Safavid dynasty 1501–1722/36
Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729
Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750
Zand dynasty 1750–1794
Qajar dynasty 1781–1925
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic since 1980

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Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BC. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange.

History of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, Greater Iran, which consists of the area from the Euphrates in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

The southwestern part of the Iranian plateau participated in the wider Ancient Near East with Elam, from the Early Bronze Age. The Persian Empire proper begins in the Iron Age, following the influx of Iranian peoples which gave rise to the Median, Achaemenid, the Parthians, the Sassanid dynasties during classical antiquity.

Once a major empire of superpower proportions,[1][2] Persia as it had long been called, has been overrun frequently and has had its territory altered throughout the centuries. Invaded and occupied by Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and others—and often caught up in the affairs of larger powers—Persia has always reasserted its national identity and has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity.

Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC.[3] The Medes unified Iran as a nation and empire in 625 BC.[4][4] The Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC) was the first of the Iranian empires to rule in Middle east and central Asia. They were succeeded by the Seleucid Empire, Parthians and Sassanids which governed Iran for almost 1,000 years.

The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656) and the end of the Sassanid Empire was a turning point in Iranian history. Islamicization in Iran took place during 8th to 10th century and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity and civilization.

After centuries of foreign occupation and short-lived native dynasties, Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty who established Shi’a Islam[5] as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.[6] Iran had been a monarchy ruled by a shah, or emperor, almost without interruption from 1501 until the 1979 Iranian revolution, when Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.[7][8]

Contents

 

Prehistory

Further information: Archaeological sites in Iran
Further information: Tappeh Sialk, Jiroft culture, and Shahr-i Sokhta

Paleolithic

The earliest archaeological artifacts in Iran were found in the Kashafrud and Ganj Par sites that date back to Lower Paleolithic. Mousterian Stone tools made by Neanderthal man have also been found.[9] There are also 9,000 year old human and animal figurines from Teppe Sarab in Kermanshah Province among the many other ancient artifacts.[9] There are more cultural remains of Neanderthal man dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period, which mainly have been found in the Zagros region and fewer in central Iran at sites such as Shanidar, Kobeh, Kunji, Bisetun, Tamtama, Warwasi, Palegawra, and Yafteh Cave.[10] Evidence for Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic periods are known mainly from the Zagros region in the caves of Kermanshah and Khoramabad.

Neolithic to Chalcolithic

Golden Cup excavated at National Museum of Iran. First half of first millennium BC.

Arg-e Bam Before the 2003 earthquake.

In the eighth millennium BC, agricultural communities such as Chogha Bonut (the earliest village in Susiana) [11][12] started to form in western Iran, either as a result of indigenous development or of outside influences.[13] Around about the same time the earliest known clay vessels and modeled human and animal terracotta figurines were produced at Ganj Dareh, also in western Iran.[13] The south-western part of Iran was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity’s first major crops were grown, in villages such as Susa (now a city still existing since 7000 BC)[14][15] and settlements such as Chogha Mish, dating back to 6800 BC;[3][16] there are 7,000 year old jars of wine excavated in the Zagros Mountains[17] (now on display at The University of Pennsylvania) and ruins of 7,000 year old settlements such as Sialk are further testament to that. The two main Neolithic Iranian settlements were the Zayandeh Rud River Civilization and Ganj Dareh.

Bronze Age

Dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC,[3] One of the earliest civilizations in Iranian plateau was the Jiroft Civilization in southeastern Iran, in the province of Kerman. It is one of the most artifact-rich archaeological sites in the Middle East. Archaeological excavations in Jiroft led to the discovery of several objects belonging to the fourth millennium BC, a time that goes beyond the age of civilization in Mesopotamia. There is a large quantity of objects decorated with highly distinctive engravings of animals, mythological figures, and architectural motifs. The objects and their iconography are unlike anything ever seen before by archeologists. Many are made from chlorite, a gray-green soft stone; others are in copper, bronze, terracotta, and even lapis lazuli. Recent excavations at the sites have produced the world’s earliest inscription which pre-dates Mesopotamian inscriptions.[18][19]

There are records of numerous ancient civilizations on the Iranian plateau before the arrival of Iranian tribes from Central Asia during the Early Iron Age. One of the main civilizations of Iran was the Elam to the east of Mesopotamia, which started from around 3000 BC.[20] The Jiroft culture occupied southeastern Iran and may have existed as far back as 3000 BC[21] The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanization into organized city states and the invention of writing (the Uruk period) in the Near East. While Bronze Age Elam made use of writing from an early time, the Proto-Elamite script remains undeciphered, and records from Sumer pertaining to Elam are scarce.

Further information: Tappeh Sialk, Jiroft civilization, Elam, and Mannaeans

Chogha Zanbil is one of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia and is considered to be the best preserved example in the world.

Early Iron Age

Records become more tangible with the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its records of incursions from the Iranian plateau. As early as the 10th and 9th century BC early Iranian peoples speaking arrived on the Iranian plateau from Central Asia (Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex) and/or via the Caucasus.[22] The arrival of Iranians on the Iranian plateau forced the Elamites to relinquish one area of their empire after another and to take refuge in Susiana, Khuzistan and nearby area, which only then became coterminous with Elam.[23] By the mid 1st millennium BC, Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau.

Antiquity

Median and Achaemenid Empire (650 BC–330 BC)

Main articles: Median Empire and Achaemenid Empire

The monument generally assumed to be the tomb of Cyrus the Great.

Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent.

The Immortal Soldiers at Darius’ palace at Susa.

Representation palace of Darius at Persepolis.

In 646 BC The Assyrian king Ashurbanipal sacked Susa, which ended Elamite supremacy in the region.[22] For over 150 years Assyrian kings of nearby Northern Mesopotamia were seeking to conquer Median tribes of Western Iran.[24] Under pressure from the Assyrian empire, the small kingdoms of the western Iranian plateau coalesced into increasingly larger and more centralized states.[22] In the second half of the 7th century BC, the Median tribes gained their independence and were united by Deioces. In 612 BC Cyaxares, Deioces‘ grandson, and the Babylonian king Nabopolassar invaded Assyria and laid siege to and eventually destroyed Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, which led to the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[25] The Medes are credited with the foundation of Iran as a nation and empire, and established the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified empire of the Medes and Persians leading to the Achaemenian Empire (648–330 BC).

After his father’s death in 559 BC, Cyrus the Great became king of Anshan but like his predecessors, Cyrus had to recognize Mede overlordship. In 552 BC Cyrus led his armies against the Medes and captured Ecbatana in 549 BC, effectively conquering the Median Empire and also inheriting Assyria. Cyrus later conquered Lydia and Babylon. Cyrus the Great created the Cyrus Cylinder, considered to be the first declaration of human rights and was the first king whose name has the suffix “Great”. After Cyrus’ death, his son Cambyses ruled for seven years (531-522 BC) and continued his father’s work of conquest, making significant gains in Egypt. A power struggle followed Cambyses’ death and, despite his tenuous connection to the royal line, Darius was declared king (ruled 522-486 BC).

Darius’ first capital was at Susa, and he started the building programme at Persepolis. He rebuilt a canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, a forerunner of the modern Suez Canal. He improved the extensive road system, and it is during his reign that mention is first made of the Royal Road (shown on map), a great highway stretching all the way from Susa to Sardis with posting stations at regular intervals. Major reforms took place under Darius. Coinage, in the form of the daric (gold coin) and the shekel (silver coin) was introduced (coinage had already been invented over a century before in Lydia ca. 660 BC),[26] and administrative efficiency was increased. The Old Persian language appears in royal inscriptions, written in a specially adapted version of cuneiform. Under Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Persian Empire eventually became the largest empire in human history up until that point, ruling and administrating over most of the then known world.[27] Their greatest achievement was the empire itself. The Persian Empire represented the world’s first superpower.[1][28] that was based on a model of tolerance and respect for other cultures and religions.[29]

In 499 BC Athens lent support to a revolt in Miletus which resulted in the sacking of Sardis. This led to an Achaemenid campaign against Greece known as the Greco-Persian Wars which lasted the first half of the 5th century BC. During the Greco-Persian wars Persia made some major advantages and razed Athens in 480 BC, but after a string of Greek victories the Persians were forced to withdraw while losing control of Macedonia, Thrace and Ionia. Fighting ended with the peace of Callias in 449 BC. In 404 BC following the death of Darius II Egypt rebelled under Amyrtaeus. Later Egyptian Pharaohs successfully resisted Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt until 343 BC when Egypt was reconquered by Artaxerxes III.

Panoramic view of Persepolis

The Hellenic conquest and the Seleucid Empire (312 BCE – 63 BCE)

Main article: Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC, (before Antiochus was defeated by the Romans).

In 334 BC-331 BC Alexander the Great, also known in the Zoroastrian Arda Wiraz Nâmag as “the accursed Alexander”, defeated Darius III in the battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, swiftly conquering the Persian Empire by 331 BC. Alexander’s empire broke up shortly after his death, and Alexander’s general, Seleucus I Nicator, tried to take control of Persia, Mesopotamia, and later Syria and Asia Minor. His ruling family is known as the Seleucid Dynasty. However he was killed in 281 BC by Ptolemy Keraunos. Greek language, philosophy, and art came with the colonists. During the Seleucid Dynasty throughout Alexander’s former empire, Greek became the common tongue of diplomacy and literature. Overland trade brought about some fascinating cultural exchanges. Buddhism came in from India, while Zoroastrianism travelled west to influence Judaism. Incredible statues of the Buddha in classical Greek styles have been found in Persia and Afghanistan, illustrating the mix of cultures that occurred around this time (See Greco-Buddhism).

Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD)

Main article: Parthian Empire

Bronze Statue of a Parthian prince, National Museum of Iran.

A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia.

Parthia was led by the Arsacid dynasty, who reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating the Greek Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 150 BC and 224 AD. It was the second native dynasty of ancient Iran (Persia). Parthia was the Eastern arch-enemy of the Roman Empire; and it limited Rome’s expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia). The Parthian armies included two types of cavalry: the heavily armed and armoured cataphracts and lightly armed but highly mobile mounted archers. For the Romans, who relied on heavy infantry, the Parthians were too hard to defeat, as both types of cavalry were much faster and more mobile than foot soldiers. On the other hand, the Parthians found it difficult to occupy conquered areas as they were unskilled in siege warfare. Because of these weaknesses, neither the Romans nor the Parthians were able to completely annex each other.

The Parthian empire lasted five centuries, longer than most Eastern Empires. The end of this long lasted empire came in 224 AD, when the empire was loosely organized and the last king was defeated by one of the empire’s vassals, the Persians of the Sassanian dynasty.

Sassanid Empire (224 – 651 AD)

Main article: Sassanid Empire

The first Shah of the Sassanid Empire, Ardashir I, started reforming the country both economically and militarily. The empire’s territory encompassed all of today’s Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of Syria, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia, India and Arabia. During Khosrau II‘s rule in 590-628, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon were also annexed to the Empire. The Sassanians called their empire Erânshahr (or Iranshahr, “Dominion of the Aryans”, i.e. of Iranians).[30]

The Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent.

Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam of Iranian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian I (kneeing) and Philip the Arab (standing) .

A chapter of Iran’s history followed after roughly six hundred years of conflict with the Roman Empire. During this time, the Sassanian and Romano-Byzantine armies clashed for influence in Mesopotamia, Armenia and the Levant. Under Justinian I, the war came to an uneasy peace with payment of tribute to the Sassanians. However the Sassanians used the deposition of the Byzantine Emperor Maurice as a casus belli to attack the Empire. After many gains, the Sassanians were defeated at Issus, Constantinople and finally Nineveh, resulting in peace. With the conclusion of the Roman-Persian wars, the war-exhausted Persians lost the Battle of al-Qâdisiyah (632) in Hilla, (present day Iraq) to the invading forces of Islam.

The Sassanian era, encompassing the length of the Late Antiquity period, is considered to be one of the most important and influential historical periods in Iran, and had a major impact on the world. In many ways the Sassanian period witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization, and constitutes the last great Iranian Empire before the adoption of Islam. Persia influenced Roman civilization considerably during Sassanian times,[31] their cultural influence extending far beyond the empire’s territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe,[32] Africa,[33] China and India[34] and also playing a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.[35] This influence carried forward to the Islamic world. The dynasty’s unique and aristocratic culture transformed the Islamic conquest and destruction of Iran into a Persian Renaissance.[32] Much of what later became known as Islamic culture, architecture, writing and other contributions to civilization, were taken from the Sassanian Persians into the broader Muslim world.[36]

Medieval Iran

Caliphate and Sultanate era

Main articles: Caliphate and Sultanate

Islamic Conquest

Main article: Islamic conquest of Iran

Stages of Islamic conquest      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

Muslims invaded Iran in the time of Umar (637) and conquered it after several great battles. Yazdegerd III fled from one district to another until a local miller killed him for his purse at Merv in 651.[37] By 674, Muslims had conquered Greater Khorasan (which included modern Iranian Khorasan province and modern Afghanistan, Transoxania, and Pakistan). The Islamic conquest of Persia led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. The majority of Iranians gradually converted to Islam. However, most of the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were absorbed by the new Islamic polity.

As Bernard Lewis has quoted[38]

“These events have been variously seen in Iran: by some as a blessing, the advent of the true faith, the end of the age of ignorance and heathenism; by others as a humiliating national defeat, the conquest and subjugation of the country by foreign invaders. Both perceptions are of course valid, depending on one’s angle of vision.”

Umayyad Caliphate

Main article: Umayyads

After the fall of Sasanian dynasty in 651, the Umayyad Arabs adopted many Persian customs especially the administrative and the court mannerisms. Arab provincial governors were undoubtedly either Persianized Arameans or ethnic Persians; certainly Persian remained the language of official business of the caliphate until the adoption of Arabic toward the end of the 7th century,[39] when in 692 minting began at the caliphal capital, Damascus. The new Islamic coins evolved from imitations of Sassanian coins (as well as Byzantine), and the Pahlavi script on the coinage was replaced with Arabic alphabet.

During the reign of the Ummayad dynasty, the Arab conquerors imposed Arabic as the primary language of the subject peoples throughout their empire. Hajjāj ibn Yusuf, who was not happy with the prevalence of the Persian language in the divan, ordered the official language of the conquered lands to be replaced by Arabic, sometimes by force.[40] In Biruni’s From The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries for example it is written:

“When Qutaibah bin Muslim under the command of Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef was sent to Khwarazmia with a military expedition and conquered it for the second time, he swiftly killed whomever wrote the Khwarazmian native language that knew of the Khwarazmian heritage, history, and culture. He then killed all their Zoroastrian priests and burned and wasted their books, until gradually the illiterate only remained, who knew nothing of writing, and hence their history was mostly forgotten.”[41]

There are a number of historians who see the rule of the Umayyads as setting up the “dhimmah” to increase taxes from the dhimmis to benefit the Arab Muslim community financially and by discouraging conversion.[42] Governors lodged complaints with the caliph when he enacted laws that made conversion easier, depriving the provinces of revenues.

In the 7th century AD, when many non-Arabs such as Persians entered Islam were recognized as Mawali and treated as second class citizens by the ruling Arab elite, until the end of the Umayyad dynasty. During this era Islam was initially associated with the ethnic identity of the Arab and required formal association with an Arab tribe and the adoption of the client status of mawali.[42] The half-hearted policies of the late Umayyads to tolerate non-Arab Muslims and Shi’as had failed to quell unrest among these minorities. With the death of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 743, the Islamic world was launched into civil war. Abu Muslim was sent to Khorasan by the Abbasids initially as a propagandist and then to revolt on their behalf. He took Merv defeating the Umayyad governor there Nasr ibn Sayyar. He became the de facto Abbasid governor of Khurasan. In 750, Abu Muslim became leader of the Abbasid army and defeated the Umayyads at the Battle of the Zab. Abu Muslim stormed Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad caliphate, later that year.

Abbasid Caliphate and Iranian semi-independent governments

Main articles: Abbasids, Tahirids, Saffarids, Ziyarids, Samanids, and Buyids

The Saffarid dynasty in 900 AD.

Map of Iranian Dynasties c. 1000

The Abbasid army consisted primarily of Khorasanians and was led by an Iranian general, Abu Muslim Khorasani. It contained both Iranian and Arab elements, and the Abbasids enjoyed both Iranian and Arab support. The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750.[43]

One of the first changes the Abbasids made after taking power from the Umayyads was to move the empire’s capital from Damascus, in Levant, to Iraq. The latter region was influenced by Persian history and culture, and moving the capital was part of the Persian mawali demand for Arab influence in the empire. The city of Baghdad was constructed on the Tigris River, in 762, to serve as the new Abbasid capital. The Abbasids established the position of vizier like Barmakids in their administration, which was the equivalent of a “vice-caliph”, or second-in-command. Eventually, this change meant that many caliphs under the Abbasids ended up in a much more ceremonial role than ever before, with the vizier in real power. A new Persian bureaucracy began to replace the old Arab aristocracy, and the entire administration reflected these changes, demonstrating that the new dynasty was different in many ways to the Umayyads.[44]

By the 9th century, Abbasid control began to wane as regional leaders sprang up in the far corners of the empire to challenge the central authority of the Abbasid caliphate.[44] The Abbasid caliphs began enlisting Turkic-speaking warriors who had been moving out of Central Asia into Transoxiana as slave warriors as early as the ninth century. Shortly thereafter the real power of the Abbasid caliphs began to wane; eventually they became religious figureheads while the warrior slaves ruled. As the power of the Abbasid caliphs diminished, a series of dynasties rose in various parts of Iran, some with considerable influence and power. Among the most important of these overlapping dynasties were the Tahirids in Khorasan (820-72); the Saffarids in Sistan (867-903); and the Samanids (875-1005), originally at Bokhara. The Samanids eventually ruled an area from central Iran to Pakistan.[43] By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control to the growing Persian faction known as the Buwayhid dynasty(934-1055). Since much of the Abbasid administration had been Persian anyway, the Buwayhid were quietly able to assume real power in Baghdad. The Buwayhid were defeated in the mid-11th century by the Seljuk Turks, who continued to exert influence over the Abbasids, while publicly pledging allegiance to them. The balance of power in Baghdad remained as such – with the Abbasids in power in name only – until the Mongol invasion of 1258 sacked the city and definitively ended the Abbasid dynasty.[44]

During the Abbassid period an enfranchisement was experienced by the mawali and a shift was made in political conception from that of a primarily Arab empire to one of a Muslim empire[45] and c. 930 a requirement was enacted that required all bureaucrats of the empire be Muslim.[42]

Islamic golden age, Shu’ubiyya movement and Persianization process

Islamization was a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population of Iran.

Richard Bulliet‘s “conversion curve” indicates that only about 10% of Iran converted to Islam during the relatively Arab-centric Umayyad period. Beginning in the Abassid period, with its mix of Persian as well as Arab rulers, the Muslim percentage of the population rose. As Persian Muslims consolidated their rule of the country, the Muslim population rose from approx. 40% in the mid 9th century to close to 100% by the end of 11th century.[45] Seyyed Hossein Nasr suggests that the rapid increase in conversion was aided by the Persian nationality of the rulers.[46]

Although Persians adopted the religion of their conquerors, over the centuries they worked to protect and revive their distinctive language and culture, a process known as Persianization. Arabs and Turks participated in this attempt.[47][48][49]

In the 9th and 10th centuries, non-Arab subjects of the Ummah created a movement called Shu’ubiyyah in response to the privileged status of Arabs. Most of those behind the movement were Persian, but references to Egyptians, Berbers and Aramaeans are attested.[50] Citing as its basis Islamic notions of equality of races and nations, the movement was primarily concerned with preserving Persian culture and protecting Persian identity, though within a Muslim context. The most notable effect of the movement was the survival of the Persian language to the present day.

The Samanid dynasty led the revival of Persian culture and the first important Persian poet after the arrival of Islam, Rudaki, was born during this era and was praised by Samanid kings. The Samanids also revived many ancient Persian festivals. Their successor, the Ghaznawids, who were of non-Iranian Turkic origin, also became instrumental in the revival of Persian.[51]

The culmination of the Persianization movement was the Shahname, the national epic of Iran, written almost entirely in Persian. This voluminous work, reflects Iran’s ancient history, its unique cultural values, its pre-islamic Zoroastrian religion, and its sense of nationhood.

According to Bernard Lewis:[38]

“Iran was indeed Islamized, but it was not Arabized. Persians remained Persians. And after an interval of silence, Iran reemerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam, eventually adding a new element even to Islam itself. Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. In a sense, Iranian Islam is a second advent of Islam itself, a new Islam sometimes referred to as Islam-i Ajam. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna…”

Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model.

The Islamization of Iran was to yield deep transformations within the cultural, scientific, and political structure of Iran’s society: The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine and art became major elements of the newly forming Muslim civilization. Inheriting a heritage of thousands of years of civilization, and being at the “crossroads of the major cultural highways”,[52] contributed to Persia emerging as what culminated into the “Islamic Golden Age“. During this period, hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance.[53]

The most important scholars of almost all of the Islamic sects and schools of thought were Persian or live in Iran including most notable and reliable Hadith collectors of Shia and Sunni like Shaikh Saduq, Shaikh Kulainy, Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Hakim al-Nishaburi, the greatest theologians of Shia and Sunni like Shaykh Tusi, Imam Ghazali, Imam Fakhr al-Razi and Al-Zamakhshari, the greatest physicians, astronomers, logicians, mathematicians, metaphysicians, philosophers and scientists like Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, the greatest Shaykh of Sufism like Rumi, Abdul-Qadir Gilani.

Turco-Persian dynasties

The Kharaghan twin towers, built in 1067 AD, Persia, contain tombs of Seljuki princes.

Main articles: Ghaznavids, Seljuks, and Khwarezmid Dynasty

In 962 a Turkish governor of the Samanids, Alptigin, conquered Ghazna (in present-day Afghanistan) and established a dynasty, the Ghaznavids, that lasted to 1186.[43] The Ghaznavid empire grew by taking all of the Samanid territories south of the Amu Darya in the last decade of the 10th century, and eventually occupied much of present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwest India. The Ghaznavids are generally credited with launching Islam into Hindu-dominated India. The invasion of India was undertaken in 1000 by the Ghaznavid ruler, Mahmud, and continued for several years. They were unable to hold power for long, however, particularly after the death of Mahmud in 1030. By 1040 the Seljuks had taken over the Ghaznavid lands in Iran.[44]

The Seljuks, who like the Ghaznavids were Turks, slowly conquered Iran over the course of the 11th century.[43] The dynasty had its origins in the Turcoman tribal confederations of Central Asia and marked the beginning of Turkic power in the Middle East. They established a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They set up an empire known as Great Seljuk Empire that stretched from Anatolia to Pakistan and was the target of the First Crusade. Today they are regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan, and they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language.[47][54][55] Their leader, Tughril Beg, turned his warriors against the Ghaznavids in Khorasan. He moved south and then west, conquering but not wasting the cities in his path. In 1055 the caliph in Baghdad gave Tughril Beg robes, gifts, and the title King of the East. Under Tughril Beg’s successor, Malik Shah (1072–1092), Iran enjoyed a cultural and scientific renaissance, largely attributed to his brilliant Iranian vizier, Nizam al Mulk. These leaders established the observatory where Omar Khayyám did much of his experimentation for a new calendar, and they built religious schools in all the major towns. They brought Abu Hamid Ghazali, one of the greatest Islamic theologians, and other eminent scholars to the Seljuk capital at Baghdad and encouraged and supported their work.[43]

Seljuq empire at the time of its greatest extent, at the death of Malik Shah I[citation needed]

When Malik Shah I died in 1092, the empire split as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. In Anatolia, Malik Shah I was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I who founded the Sultanate of Rûm and in Syria by his brother Tutush I. In Persia he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq in Iraq, Muhammad I in Baghdad and Ahmad Sanjar in Khorasan. As Seljuk power in Iran weakened, other dynasties began to step up in its place, including a resurgent Abbasid caliphate and the Khwarezmshahs. The Khwarezmid Empire was a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled in Central Asia. Originally vassals of the Seljuks, they took advantage of the decline of the Seljuks to expand into Iran.[56] In 1194 the Khwarezmshah Ala ad-Din Tekish defeated the Seljuk sultan Tugrul III in battle and the Seljuk empire in Iran collapsed. Of the former Seljuk Empire, only the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia remained.

A serious internal threat to the Seljuks during their reign came from the Ismailis, a secret sect with headquarters at Alamut between Rasht and Tehran. They controlled the immediate area for more than 150 years and sporadically sent out adherents to strengthen their rule by murdering important officials. Several of the various theories on the etymology of the word assassin derive from these killers.[43]

Mongols, Timurids and local governments

Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200.

The Khwarezmid Empire only lasted for a few decades, until the arrival of the Mongols. Genghis Khan had unified the Mongols, and under him the Mongol Empire quickly expanded in several directions, until by 1218 it bordered Khwarezm. At that time, the Khwarezmid Empire was ruled by Ala ad-Din Muhammad (1200–1220). Muhammad, like Genghis, was intent on expanding his lands and had gained the submission of most of Iran. He declared himself shah and demanded formal recognition from the Abbasid caliph an-Nasir. When the caliph rejected his claim, Ala ad-Din Muhammad proclaimed one of his nobles caliph and unnsuccessfully tried to depose an-Naisr.

The Mongol invasion of Iran began in 1219, after two diplomatic missions to Khwarezm sent by Genghis Khan had been massacred. During 1220–21 Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Tus, and Neyshabur were razed, and the whole populations were slaughtered. The Khwarezm-Shah fled, to die on an island off the Caspian coast.[57] Before his death in 1227, Genghis had reached western Azarbaijan, pillaging and burning cities along the way.

The Mongol invasion was disastrous to the Iranians. Although the Mongol invaders were eventually converted to Islam and accepted the culture of Iran, the Mongol destruction of the Islamic heartland marked a major change of direction for the region. Much of the six centuries of Islamic scholarship, culture, and infrastructure was destroyed as the invaders burned libraries, and replaced mosques with Buddhist temples.[58] The Mongols killed many civilians. Just in Merv and Urgench(Gorganj) about 2.5 million civilians were slaughtered.[59][verification needed] Destruction of qanat irrigation systems destroyed the pattern of relatively continuous settlement, producing numerous isolated oasis cities in a land where they had previously been rare.[60] A large number of people, particularly males, were killed; between 1220 and 1258, the total population of Iran may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.[61]

The Mongol Empire’s expansion and its successor khanates

After Genghis’ death, Iran was ruled by several Mongol commanders. Genghis’ grandson, Hulagu Khan, was tasked with expanding the Mongol empire in Iran in 1255. Arriving with an army, he established himself in the region and founded the Ilkhanate, which would rule Iran for the next eighty years. He seized Baghdad in 1258 and put the last Abbasid caliph to death. The westward advance of his forces was stopped by the Mamelukes, however, at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine in 1260. Hulagu’s campaigns against the Muslims also enraged Berke, khan of the Golden Horde and a convert to Islam. Hulagu and Berke fought against each other, demonstrating the weakening unity of the Mongol empire.

The rule of Hulagu’s great-grandson, Ghazan Khan (1295–1304) saw the establishment of Islam as the state religion of the Ilkhanate. Ghazan and his famous Iranian vizier, Rashid al-Din, brought Iran a partial and brief economic revival. The Mongols lowered taxes for artisans, encouraged agriculture, rebuilt and extended irrigation works, and improved the safety of the trade routes. As a result, commerce increased dramatically. Items from India, China, and Iran passed easily across the Asian steppes, and these contacts culturally enriched Iran. For example, Iranians developed a new style of painting based on a unique fusion of solid, two-dimensional Mesopotamian painting with the feathery, light brush strokes and other motifs characteristic of China. After Ghazan’s nephew Abu Said died in 1335, however, the Ilkhanate lapsed into civil war and was divided between several petty dynasties – most prominently the Jalayirids, Muzaffarids, Sarbadars and Kartids.

Map of the Timurid Empire

Iran remained divided until the arrival of Timur, who is variously described as of Mongol or Turkic origin. After establishing a power base in Transoxiana, he invaded Iran in 1381 and conquered it piece by piece. Timur’s campaigns were known for their brutality; many people were slaughtered and several cities were destroyed. His regime was characterized by its inclusion of Iranians in administrative roles and its promotion of architecture and poetry. His successors, the Timurids, maintained a hold on most of Iran until 1452, when they lost the bulk of it to Black Sheep Turkmen. The Black Sheep Turkmen were conquered by the White Sheep Turkmen under Uzun Hasan in 1468; Uzun Hasan and his successors were the masters of Iran until the rise of the Safavids.[62]

Sunnism and Shiism in pre-Safavid Iran

Main article: Islam in Iran

Haruniyah structure in Tus, Iran, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Ghazali is expected to be situated on the entrance of this monument

Sunnism was dominant form of Islam in most part of Iran from the beginning until rise of Safavids empire. Sunni Islam was more than 90% of population of Persia before Safavids. According to Mortaza Motahhari the majority of Iranian scholars and masses remained Sunni till the time of the Safavids.[63] The domination of Sunnis did not mean Shia were rootless in Iran. The writers of The Four Books of Shia were Iranian as well as many other great Shia scholars.

Imam Reza shrine, the greatest religious site in Iran, which was built in 9th century and the pilgrimage site for all Muslims since then

The domination of the Sunni creed during the first nine Islamic centuries characterizes the religious history of Iran during this period. There were however some exceptions to this general domination which emerged in the form of the Zaydīs of Tabaristan, the Buwayhid, the rule of Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah (r. Shawwal 703-Shawwal 716/1304-1316) and the Sarbedaran. Apart from this domination there existed, firstly, throughout these nine centuries, Shia inclinations among many Sunnis of this land and, secondly, original Imami Shiism as well as Zaydī Shiism had prevalence in some parts of Iran. During this period, Shia in Iran were nourished from Kufah, Baghdad and later from Najaf and Hillah.[64] Shiism were dominant sect in Tabaristan, Qom, Kashan, Avaj and Sabzevar. In many other areas merged population of Shia and Sunni lived.

During the 10th and 11th centuries, Fatimids sent Ismailis Da’i (missioners) to Iran as well as other Muslim lands. When Ismailis divided into two sects, Nizaris established their base in Iran. Hassan-i Sabbah conquered fortresses and captured Alamut in 1090 AD. Nizaris used this fortress until a Mongol raid in 1256 AD.

After the Mongol raid and fall of the Abbasids Sunni hierarchies suffered a lot. Not only did they loose the caliphate but also Sunni was not official madhab for a while. On the other hand Shia whose center wasn’t in Iran at that time didn’t suffered and for the first time it could invite other Muslims openly. Even several local Shia dynasties like Sarbadars were established during this time.

The main change occurred in the beginning of the 16th century, when Ismail I founded the Safavid dynastyand initiated a religious policy to recognize Shi’a Islam as the official religion of the Safavid Empire, and the fact that modern Iran remains an officially Shi’ite state is a direct result of Ismail’s actions.

Early modern era

Persia underwent a revival under the Safavid dynasty (1502–1736), the most prominent figure of which was Shah Abbas I. Some historians credit the Safavid dynasty for founding the modern nation-state of Iran. Iran’s contemporary Shia character, and significant segments of Iran’s current borders take their origin from this era (e.g. Treaty of Zuhab).

Safavid Empire (1502-1736)

Main articles: Safavid Empire, Afsharid dynasty, Zand dynasty, Qajar dynasty, and Pahlavi dynasty
The Safavid Empire at its 1512 (beginning) borders.

The Safavids were an Iranian[65] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[66] and Kurdish[67] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. Safavids established the greatest Iranian empire[68] since the Islamic conquest of Persia, and established the Ithnāʻashari school of Shi’a Islam[5] as the official religion of their empire.

The Safavid ruling dynasty was founded by Ismāil, from now known as Shāh Ismāil I.[69] Practically worshipped by his Qizilbāsh followers, Ismāil invaded Shirvan and avenged the death of his father. Afterwards, he went on a conquest campaign, capturing Tabriz in July 1501, where he enthroned himself the Shāh of Azerbaijan[70][71][72] and minted coins in his name, proclaiming Shi’ism the official religion of his domain.[5] Although initially the masters of Azerbaijan only, the Safavids had, in fact, won the struggle for power in Persia which had been going on for nearly a century between various dynasties and political forces. A year after his victory in Tabriz, Ismāil proclaimed most of Persia as his domain.[5] He soon conquered and unified Iran under his rule. Soon after, the new Safavid Empire conquered most of the modern day Afghanistan and Iraq.

Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet. Detail from a ceiling fresco; Chehel Sotoun Palace; Isfahan.

The greatest of the Safavid monarchs, Shah Abbas I the Great (1587–1629) came to power in 1587 aged 16. Abbas I first fought the Uzbeks, recapturing Herat and Mashhad in 1598. Then he turned against the Ottomans, recapturing Baghdad, eastern Iraq and the Caucasian provinces by 1622. He also used his new force to dislodge the Portuguese from Bahrain (1602) and the English navy from Hormuz (1622), in the Persian Gulf (a vital link in Portuguese trade with India). He expanded commercial links with the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. Thus Abbas I was able to break the dependence on the Qizilbash for military might and therefore was able to centralize control. The Safavid dynasty soon became a major power in the world and started the promotion of tourism in Iran. Under their rule Persian Architecture flowered again and saw many new monuments.

Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were ineffectual. The end of his reign, 1666, marked the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. Despite falling revenues and military threats, later shahs had lavish lifestyles. Shah Soltan Hosain (1694–1722) in particular was known for his love of wine and disinterest in governance.[73] The country was repeatedly raided on its frontiers. Finally, Ghilzai Pashtun chieftain named Mir Wais Khan began a rebellion in Kandahar and defeated the Safavid army. Later, in 1722 an Afghan army led by Mir Wais’ son Mahmud marched across eastern Iran, besieged, and sacked Isfahan. Mahmud proclaimed himself ‘Shah’ of Persia. Meanwhile, Persia’s imperial rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians, took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize territory for themselves.[74]

Nader Shah and his successors

Main articles: Afsharid dynasty and Zand dynasty

Nader Shah

Iran’s territorial integrity was restored by an Afshar warlord from Khorasan, Nader Shah. He defeated the Afghans and Ottomans, reinstalled the Safavids on the throne and negotiated Russian withdrawal. By 1736, Nader had become so powerful he was able to depose the Safavids and have himself crowned shah. Nader was one of the last great conquerors of Asia and his military reforms enabled his army to take Kandahar and invade Mughal India, sacking Delhi in 1739. But the increasing cruelty and oppressiveness of his later years provoked multiple revolts and, ultimately, Nader’s assassination in 1747.[75]

Nader’s death was followed by a period of anarchy in Iran as rival army commanders fought for power. Nader’s own family, the Afsharids, were soon reduced to holding on to a small domain in Khorasan. Ahmad Shah Durrani founded an independent state which became modern Afghanistan. From his capital Shiraz, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ruled “an island of relative calm and peace in an otherwise bloody and destructive period.”[76] His death in 1779 led to yet another civil war in which the Qajar dynasty eventually triumphed and became shahs of Iran.

Qajar dynasty (1796–1925)

Main articles: Qajar dynasty and Anglo-Persian War

Qajar era currency bill with depiction of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar.

By the 17th century, European countries, including Great Britain, Imperial Russia, and France, had already started establishing colonial footholds in the region. Iran as a result lost sovereignty over many of its provinces to these countries via the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Treaty of Gulistan, and others.

A new era in the History of Persia dawned with the Constitutional Revolution of Iran against the Shah in the late 19th and early 20th century. The Shah managed to remain in power, granting a limited constitution in 1906 (making the country a constitutional monarchy). The first Majlis (parliament) was convened on October 7, 1906.

The discovery of oil in 1908 by the British in Khuzestan spawned intense renewed interest in Persia by the British Empire (see William Knox D’Arcy and Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, now BP). Control of Persia remained contested between the United Kingdom and Russia, in what became known as The Great Game, and codified in the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, which divided Persia into spheres of influence, regardless of her national sovereignty.

A Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century

During World War I, the country was occupied by British and Russian forces but was essentially neutral (see Persian Campaign). In 1919, after the Russian revolution and their withdrawal, Britain attempted to establish a protectorate in Iran, which was unsuccessful.

Finally, the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan and the central power vacuum caused by the instability of the Qajar government resulted in the rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi and the establishing Pahlavi dynasty in 1925.

In 1921 military coup established Reza Khan, a Persian officer of the Persian Cossack Brigade, as the dominant figure in the next 20 years. Seyyed Zia’eddin Tabatabai was also a leader and important figure in the perpetration of the coup. The 1921 overthrow was not actually directed at the Qajar monarchy; according to Encyclopædia Iranica, it was targeted at officials who were in power and actually had a role in controlling the government; the cabinet and others who had a role in governing Persia.[77] In 1925, after being prime minister for a couple of years, Reza Shah became the king of Iran and established the Pahlavi dynasty.

Pahlavi era (1925-1979)

Main article: Pahlavi dynasty

Reza Shah Pahlavi

Reza Shah ruled for almost 16 years until September 16, 1941, when he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He established an authoritarian government that valued nationalism, militarism, secularism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda.[78] Reza Shah introduced many socio-economic reforms, reorganizing the army, government administration, and finances.[79] To his supporters his reign brought “law and order, discipline, central authority, and modern amenities – schools, trains, buses, radios, cinemas, and telephones”.[80] However, his attempts of modernisation have been criticised for being “too fast”[81] and “superficial”,[82] and his reign a time of “oppression, corruption, taxation, lack of authenticity” with “security typical of police states.” [80]

In particular he clashed with Iran’s clergy and devout Muslims. His laws and regulations required mosques to use chairs, all Iranian except qualifying Shia jurisconsults to wear western clothes including a hat with a brim, encouraged women to discard hijab, allowed mixing of the sexes. In 1935 bazaaris and villagers rose up at the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad chanting slogans such as `The Shah is a new Yezid.` Dozens were killed and hundreds were injured when troops finally quelled the unrest.[83]

World War II

Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953.

Reza Shah’s son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, came to power during World War II, when British and Indian forces from Iraq and Soviet forces from the north occupied Iran in August 1941. Iran was a vital oil-supply source and link in the Allied supply line for lend-lease supplies to the Soviet Union, and the allies were concerned over the then-Shah’s tacit pro-German sympathies. The next month the British forced Reza to abdicate in favour of his pro-British son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled until 1979.

At the Tehran Conference of 1943, the Tehran Declaration guaranteed the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. However, when the war actually ended, Soviet troops stationed in northwestern Iran not only refused to withdraw but backed revolts that established short-lived, pro-Soviet separatist national states in the northern regions of Azerbaijan and Iranian Kurdistan, the Azerbaijan People’s Government and the Republic of Kurdistan respectively, in late 1945.

Soviet troops did not withdraw from Iran proper until May 1946 after receiving a promise of oil concessions. The Soviet republics in the north were soon overthrown and the oil concessions were revoked.

Mohammad-Reza Shah

Initially there were hopes that post-occupation Iran could become a constitutional monarchy. The new, young Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi initially took a very hands-off role in government, and allowed parliament to hold a lot of power. Some elections were held in the first shaky years, although they remained mired in corruption. Parliament became chronically unstable, and from the 1947 to 1951 period Iran saw the rise and fall of six different prime ministers.

In 1951 Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq received the vote required from the parliament to nationalize the British-owned oil industry, in a situation known as the Abadan Crisis. Despite British pressure, including an economic blockade, the nationalization continued. Mossadegh was briefly removed from power in 1952 but was quickly re-appointed by the shah, due to a popular uprising in support of the premier and he, in turn, forced the Shah into a brief exile in August 1953 after a failed military coup by Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri. Shortly thereafter on August 19 a successful coup was headed by retired army general Fazlollah Zahedi, organized by the American (CIA) with the active support of the British (MI6) (known as Operation Ajax). The coup — with a black propaganda campaign designed to turn the population against Mossadegh — forced Mossadegh from office, and was remembered with anger by Iranians. Mossadegh was arrested and tried for treason. Found guilty, his sentence reduced to house arrest on his family estate while his foreign minister, Hossein Fatemi, was executed. Zahedi succeeded him as prime minister, and suppressed opposition to the Shah, specifically the National Front and Communist Tudeh Party.

Iran was ruled as an autocracy under the shah with American support from that time until the revolution. The Iranian entered into agreement with an international consortium of foreign companies which ran the Iranian oil facilities for the next 25 years spitting profits fifty-fifty with Iran but not allowing Iran to audit their accounts or have members on their board of directors. In 1957 martial law was ended after 16 years and Iran became closer to the West, joining the Baghdad Pact and receiving military and economic aid from the US. In 1961, Iran initiated a series of economic, social, agrarian and administrative reforms to modernize the country that became known as the Shah’s White Revolution.

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

The core of this program was land reform. Modernization and economic growth proceeded at an unprecedented rate, fueled by Iran’s vast petroleum reserves, the third-largest in the world. However the reforms, including the White Revolution, did not greatly improve economic conditions and the liberal pro-Western policies alienated certain Islamic religious and political groups. In early June 1963 several days of massive rioting in support of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini following the clerics arrested for a speech attacking the shah.

Two year later, premier Hassan Ali Mansur was assassinated and the internal security service, SAVAK, became more violently active. In the 1970s leftist guerilla groups such as Mujaheddin-e-Khalq (MEK), emerged and attacked regime and foreign targets.

Nearly a hundred Iran political prisoners were killed by the SAVAK during the decade before the revolution and many more were arrested and tortured.[84] The Islamic clergy, headed by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (who had been exiled in 1964), were becoming increasingly vociferous.

Iran greatly increased its defense budget and by the early 1970s was the region’s strongest military power. International relations with its neighbor Iraq were not good, mainly due to a dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. In November, 1971 Iranian forces seized control of three islands at the mouth of the Persian Gulf; in response Iraq expelled thousands of Iranian nationals. Following a number of clashes in April, 1969, Iran abrogated the 1937 accord and demanded a renegotiation.

In mid-1973, the Shah returned the oil industry to national control. Following the Arab-Israeli War of October 1973, Iran did not join the Arab oil embargo against the West and Israel. Instead it used the situation to raise oil prices, using the money gained for modernization and to increase defense spending.

A border dispute between Iraq and Iran was resolved with the signing of the Algiers Accord on March 6, 1975.

Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic

Further information: Iran hostage crisis, United States-Iran relations, Iran-Israel relations, and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Arrival of Ayatollah Khomeini on 1 February 1979 from France.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution,[85] was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.[8] Its time span can be said to have begun in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations,[86] and concluded with the approval of the new theocratic Constitution — whereby Ayatollah Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country — in December 1979. In between, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the country for exile in January 1979 after strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, and on February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran to a greeting of several million Iranians.[87] The final collapse of the Pahlavi dynasty occurred shortly after on February 11 when Iran’s military declared itself “neutral” after guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting. Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979 when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so.[88]

The ideology of revolutionary government was populist, nationalist and most of all Shi’a Islamic. Its unique constitution is based on the concept of velayat-e faqih the idea advanced by Khomeini that Muslims —- in fact everyone —- requires “guardianship”, in the form of rule or supervision by the leading Islamic jurist or jurists.[89] Khomeini served as this ruling jurist, or supreme leader, until his death in 1989.

Iran’s rapidly modernising, capitalist economy was replaced by populist and Islamic economic and cultural policies. Much industry was nationalized, laws and schools Islamicized, and Western influences banned.

The Islamic revolution also created great impact around the world. In the non-Muslim world it has changed the image of Islam, generating much interest in the politics and spirituality of Islam,[90] along with “fear and distrust towards Islam” and particularly the Islamic Republic and its founder.[91]

Khomeini era

Khomeini served as leader of the revolution or as Supreme Leader of Iran from 1979 to his death on June 3, 1989. This era was dominated by the consolidation of the revolution into a theocratic republic under Khomeini, and by the costly and bloody war with Iraq.

The consolidation lasted until 1982-3),[92][93] as Iran coped with the damage to its economy, military, and apparatus of government, and protests and uprisings by secularists, leftists, and more traditional Muslims — formerly ally revolutionaries but now rivals — were effectively suppressed. In the summer of 1979 a new constitution giving Khomeini a powerful post as guardian jurist Supreme Leader[94] and a clerical Council of Guardians power over legislation and elections, was drawn up by an Assembly of Experts for Constitution. The new constitution was approved by referendum in December 1979.

An early event in the history of the Islamic republic that had a long term impact was the Iran hostage crisis. Following the admitting of the former Shah of Iran into the United States for cancer treatment, on November 4, 1979, Iranian students seized US embassy personnel, labeling the embassy a “den of spies.”[95] Fifty-two hostages were held for 444 days until January 1981.[96] The takeover was enormously popular in Iran, where thousands gathered in support of the hostage takers, and it is thought to have strengthened the prestige of the Ayatollah Khomeini and consolidated the hold of anti-Americanism. It was at this time that Khomeini began referring to America as the “Great Satan.” In America, where it was considered a violation of the long-standing principle of international law that diplomats may be expelled but not held captive, it created a powerful anti-Iranian backlash. Relations between the two countries have remained deeply antagonistic and American international sanctions have hurt Iran’s economy.[97]

Shakinghands high.OGG

Donald Rumsfeld meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983. Rumsfeld visited again on 24 March 1984, the day the UN reported that Iraq had used mustard gas and tabun nerve agent against Iranian troops. The NY Times reported from Baghdad on 29 March 1984, that “American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and the U.S., and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name.”[98]

During the crisis, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein attempted to take advantage of the disorder of the Revolution, the weakness of the Iranian military and the revolution’s antagonism with Western governments. The once-strong Iranian military had been disbanded during the revolution, and with the Shah ousted, Hussein had ambitions to position himself as the new strong man of the Middle East. He also sought to expand Iraq’s access to the Persian Gulf by acquiring territories that Iraq had claimed earlier from Iran during the Shah’s rule. Of chief importance to Iraq was Khuzestan which not only boasted a substantial Arab population, but rich oil fields as well. On the unilateral behalf of the United Arab Emirates, the islands of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs became objectives as well. With these ambitions in mind, Hussein planned a full-scale assault on Iran, boasting that his forces could reach the capital within three days. On September 22, 1980 the Iraqi army invaded Iran at Khuzestan, precipitating the Iran–Iraq War. The attack took revolutionary Iran completely by surprise.

Iranian soldier with gas mask in the battlefield

Although Saddam Hussein’s forces made several early advances, by 1982, Iranian forces had pushed the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Khomeini sought to export his Islamic revolution westward into Iraq, especially on the majority Shi’a Arabs living in the country. The war then continued for six more years until 1988, when Khomeini, in his words, “drank the cup of poison” and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.

Tens of thousands of Iranian civilians and military personnel were killed when Iraq used chemical weapons in its warfare. Iraq was financially backed by Egypt, the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact states, the United States (beginning in 1983), France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, and the People’s Republic of China (which also sold weapons to Iran).

There were more than 100,000 Iranian victims[99] of Iraq’s chemical weapons during the eight-year war. The total Iranian casualties of the war were estimated to be between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Almost all relevant international agencies have confirmed that Saddam engaged in chemical warfare to blunt Iranian human wave attacks; these agencies unanimously confirmed that Iran never used chemical weapons during the war.[100][101][102][103]

Starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting about five months the government systematically executed thousands of political prisoners across Iran. This is commonly referred to as the 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners or the 1988 Iranian Massacre. The main target was the membership of the People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI), although a lesser number of political prisoners from other leftist groups were also included such as the Tudeh Party of Iran (Communist Party).[104][105] Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400 [106] to 30,000.[107][108]

Khamenei era

Khamenei standing beside the tomb of General Ali Sayyad Shirazi, Chief of the Armed Forces of Iran during the Iran–Iraq War was assassinated in 1999 by the MEK

On his deathbed in 1989, Khomeini appointed a 25-man Constitutional Reform Council which named Ali Khamenei as the next Supreme Leader, and made a number of changes to Iran’s constitution.[109] A smooth transition followed Khomeini’s death on June 3, 1989. While Khamenei lacked Khomeini’s “charisma and clerical standing”, he developed a network of supporters within Iran’s armed forces and its economically powerful religious foundations.[110] Under his reign Iran’s regime is said – by at least one observer – to resemble more “a clerical oligarchy … than an autocracy.” [110]

Succeeding Khamenei as president was pragmatic conservative Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who served two four-year terms and focused his efforts on rebuilding Iran’s economy and war-damaged infrastructure though low oil prices hampered this endeavour. His regime also successfully promoted birth control, cut military spending and normalized relations with neighbors such as Saudi Arabia.[111] During the Persian Gulf War in 1991 the country remained neutral, restricting its action to the condemnation of the U.S. and allowing fleeing Iraqi aircraft and refugees into the country.

Rafsanjani was succeeded in 1997 by the reformist Mohammad Khatami. His presidency was soon marked by tensions between the reform-minded government and an increasingly conservative and vocal clergy. This rift reached a climax in July 1999 when massive anti-government protests erupted in the streets of Tehran. The disturbances lasted over a week before police and pro-government vigilantes dispersed the crowds.

Khatami was re-elected in June 2001 but his efforts were repeatedly blocked by the religious Guardian Council. Conservative elements within Iran’s government moved to undermine the reformist movement, banning liberal newspapers and disqualifying candidates for parliamentary elections. This clampdown on dissent, combined with the failure of Khatami to reform the government, led to growing political apathy among Iran’s youth.

Mohammad Khatami, reformist President of Iran from 1997 to 2005.

In June 2003, anti-government protests by several thousand students took place in Tehran.[112][113] Several human rights protests also occurred in 2006.

In Iranian presidential election, 2005 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad,the mayor of Tehran, became the sixth president of Iran, after winning 62 percent of the vote in the run-off poll, against former president Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.[114] During the authorization ceremony he kissed Khamenei’s hand in demonstration of his loyalty to him.[115][116]

During this time, the American invasion of Iraq, overthrow of Sadam Hussein’s regime and empowerment of its Shi’a majority, all strengthened Iran’s position in the region particularly in the mainly Shia south of Iraq, where a top Shia leader in the week of September 3, 2006 renewed demands for an autonomous Shia region.[117] At least one commentator (Former U.S. Defense Secretary William S. Cohen) has stated that as of 2009 Iran’s growing power has eclipsed anti-Zionism as the major foreign policy issue in the middle east.[118]

During 2005 and 2006, there were claims that the United States and Israel were planning to attack Iran, for many different claimed reasons, including Iran’s civilian nuclear energy program which the United States and some other states fear could lead to a nuclear weapons program, crude oil and other strategic reasons (including the Iranian Oil Bourse), electoral reasons in the USA and in Iran. P.R. China and Russia oppose military action of any sort and oppose economic sanctions. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa forbidding the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. The fatwa was cited in an official statement by the Iranian government at an August 2005 meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.[119][120]

In 2009 Ahmadinejad’s relection was hotly disputed and marred by large protests that formed the “greatest domestic challenge” to the leadership of the Islamic Republic “in 30 years”.[121] Reformist opponent Mir-Hossein Mousavi and his supporters alleged voting irregularities and by 1 July 2009, 1000 people had been arrested and 20 killed in street demonstrations.[122] Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and other Islamic officials blamed foreign powers for fomenting the protest.[123]

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1a)Pangung Sandiwara bung Karno “Monte Carlo”Saat Dibuang di Bengkulu 1938-1942

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Naskah sebagai peninggalan produk masa lampau seringkali mengandung berbagai informasi tentang aspek kehidupan masyarakat lampaunya baik aspek ekonomi, politk, maupun sosial budaya (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 1997:10). Demikian juga dengan kumpulan naskah sandiwara toneel karya Bung Karno.
kumpulan naskah sandiwara karya Bung Karno ini berbentuk dialog – dan kadang-kadang pada bagian-bagian tertentu diperlukan monolog. Oleh karenanya naskah tersebut dapat dimasukkan dalam kategori teks drama. Dialog bergantian (giliran bicara), sekali-kali monolog, merupakan teks-teks yang disiapkan kepada para aktornya – tak seorangpun ada berperan sebagai juru cerita (dalang) yang berhubungan langsung dengan penonton (Jan Van Luxemburg dkk, 1986:160).
Jumlah naskah yang pernah ditulis oleh Bung Karno semasa pengasingannya di Ende (1934 – 1938) tercatat sebanyak dua belas judul (Cindy Adams, 1966:175 ; Lambert Giebels, 1999:200). Keduabelas judul tersebut, yang tercatat antara lain : Dr. Sjaitan; Ero Dinamik; Rahasia Kelimoetoe; Tahoen 1945; Don Louis Pereira; Koetkoetbi; Toberro, dan Kummi Torro ? -. Menurut cerita Pak Burhan Wahid, naskah Bung Karno yang diberi judul Toberro itu merupakan kepanjangan dari Tokyo – Berlin – dan Roma. Sayang, tak banyak data tentang naskah tersebut yang bisa diungkapkan.
Kemudian, semasa pengasingannya di Bengkulu (1938 – 1942), Bung Karno juga menulis beberapa naskah, antara lain : Rainbow (Poetri Kentjana Boelan); Hantoe Goenoeng Boengkoek; Si Ketjil (Klein’duimpje); dan Chungking Djakarta.
Sayangnya, dari sekian banyak naskah tersebut, yang sampai pada penulis, hanya ada empat buah naskah, yaitu : Dr. Sjaitan ; Chungking Djakarta; Koetkoetbi; dan Rainbow (Poteri Kentjana Boelan). Bahkan teks naskah Dr. Sjaitan sudah tidak lengkap – hanya ada dua bedrijf (babak) saja – semestinya, lengkapnya terdiri atas enam babak (Lambert Giebels, 1999: 201).
Namun demikian, melalui beberapa narasumber yang pernah diceriterakan kepada penulis, kandungan ceritera beberapa naskah seperti Hantoe Goenoeng Boengkoek, Dr. Sjaitan, maupun Si Ketjil (Klein’duimpje) masih dapat direkonstruksi.
Pesan Moral Bung Karno
Apa yang ditulis oleh Bung Karno adalah buah pikirannya. Dan buah pikirannya sangat dipengaruhi oleh latar belakang kehidupannya, serta semangat jiwa zamannya. Jelasnya, Bung Karno hidup dalam suasana zaman pergerakan melawan kolonialis, dan sebagai tokoh sentral dalam pergerakan kaum nasionalis yang sedang mengobarkan api semangat nasionalismenya, meskipun dalam kondisi fisik terkurung – jiwa – semangat tak terbendung.
Buah tulisannya sangat sarat dengan amanat – pesan moral perjuangan yang disampaikan kepada masyarakat – bangsa Indonesia ditengah pergolakan hidup dari alam penjajahan menuju alam kemerdekaan. Pesan moral tentang arti pentingnya sebuah kesadaran sosial, berbudaya, politik, jatidiri – prinsip hidup bermartabat, berjiwa satria, kegotong-royongan – solidaritas – kebersamaan lintas kultural, kesadaran berketuhanan, hampir semua tercakup didalam isi kandungan kumpulan naskahnya.
Nilai-nilai moral – etika, musyawarah, serta kepemimpinan nampak menonjol pada beberapa naskah karya Bung Karno, terlebih pada naskah Chungking Djakarta. Nilai-nilai tersebut nampaknya seperti menjadi salah satu kecenderungan dalam tradisi penulisan naskah – seperti yang terdapat juga pada kandungan naskah Tantu Panggelaran (Depdikbud : 1999), maupun Babat Lombok I (Depdikbud : 1999).
Pesan – amanat Bung Karno sebagai seorang nasionalis – patriotis yang tulen cukup jelas pada isi kandungan naskah Chungking Djakarta. Dalam naskah ini, Bung Karno mengingatkan bahwa setiap langkah perjuangan tentu saja banyak rintangannya. Dan rintangan terberat yang sering menghadangnya adalah sebuah pengkhianatan dalam seperjuangan. Atau lebih tegasnya lagi “musuh dalam selimut”. Namun pada akhirnya kebenaran selalu membuahkan kemenangan.
Tokoh Tjen Djit Tjioe dan Zakir Djohan dalam naskah Chungking Djakarta menggambarkan karakter dua orang pejuang yang gigih, ulet dalam mengemban misi perjuangannya dengan tulus, serta menjunjung semangat moralitas yang tinggi. Disisi lain, kedua tokoh ini menggambarkan solidaritas – kebersamaan lintas kultural. Konsep – wawasan nasionalisme – wawasan kebangsaan yang ingin dibangun oleh Bung Karno bukanlah konsep nasionalisme – kebangsaan yang sempit (chauvinistis). Nampaknya terbaca jelas melalui kedua tokoh Tjen dan Zakir yang mempunyai latar belakang budaya yang berbeda namun bersatu dalam semangat kesadaran nasionalisme – nasionalisme bangsa Asia melawan bangsa kolonial. Disamping itu, apa yang pernah dicita-citakan oleh Bung Karno dalam konsep pembangunan politiknya yang disebut dengan istilah – “membangun poros Jakarta – Peking” bisa jadi naskah Chungking Djakarta ini bagian dari perjalanan sebuah proses penuangan konsep dalam bentuk lain yang disamarkan. Sebaliknya, tokoh Jo Ho Sioe dan tokoh Abu menggambarkan karakter – sifat antagonistis, pengkhianatan terhadap bangsanya, haus kekuasaan – kebendaan, keserakahan – kebathilan, yang berujung pada kebinasaan. Sementara tokoh Miss Liliwoe mewakili sifat –watak patriotik yang tangguh dalam menghadapi berbagai tantangan. Demikian juga dengan gambaran tokoh Saminah dalam naskah Chungking Djakarta ini. Saminah digambarkan sebagai seorang yang teguh mempertahankan prinsip – jatidiri kebudayaannya – tak terpengaruh oleh silaunya dunia yang serba kebendaan. Pesan moral yang cukup mendalam tentang nafsu, keserakahan, kekuasaan yang tidak selamanya membawa kebahagiaan dalam kehidupan. Bahkan, sebaliknya membuat orang lupa diri yang berujung pada kebinasaan – seperti yang dicontohkan pada tokoh Abu dalam Chungking Djakarta.
Dan pada ujung ceritanya, Bung Karno memberikan pesan moral, bahwa pemberian penghargaan terhadap para pahlawan – pejuang sangat penting guna mengingatkan atas jasa-jasa perjuangan dalam membela tanah airnya. Seperti yang dicontohkan dalam akhir cerita ini, dimana Tjen Djit Tjioe dan Zakir Djohan mendapat tanda jasa perhargaan sebagai pejuang.
Sementara pada isi kandungan naskah Koetkoetbi yang ada kecenderungan kemiripan pola dengan isi kandungan dalam naskah Dr. Sjaitan, lebih banyak menonjolkan unsur magis – mistis – penuh horor sebagaimana kisah dalam cerita film Frankenstein. Dan ending dari cerita Koetkoetbi ini cukup menarik – seperti akhir cerita dalam judul sinetron “misteri Illahi” – atau “Dendam Siluman Buaya”. Kekuatan Allah – Sang Pencipta – Penguasa isi jagad raya menjadi dasar – landasan tingkat kesadaran religius – keimanan si penulis naskah yang cukup kuat.
Naskah Koetkoetbi ini ceritanya juga hampir mirip dengan cerita rekaan Jaelangkung – menggambarkan seseorang – manusia yang mencoba bermain-main dengan menghidupkan jasad orang yang sudah mati ratusan ribu tahun – yang kemudian membawa malapetaka baginya. Pesan moral yang disampaikan dalam Koetkoetbi ini selain berkaitan dengan pelestarian benda-benda cagar budaya, juga bahayanya – resikonya bermain-main dengan dunia mistis tanpa landasan kesadaran keimanan yang kuat. Dan akhirnya, hanyalah kekuatan Illahi lah yang harus ditempatkan diatas segalanya. Tiada tempat pertolongan selain melalui Allah.
Selanjutnya, dalam naskah Rainbow, selain membawa pesan moral dalam membangun semangat patriotik – berjiwa ksatria, lebih banyak memberikan pengajaran arti pentingnya sebuah kesadaran sejarah sebagai entitas – bagian yang tak terpisahkan dalam kebudayaan masyarakatnya. Pesan moral Bung Karno tentang arti pentingnya kesadaran sejarah, diperjelas pada selebaran pamlet sebelum pementasan Rainbow. Bahkan dalam pamlet tersebut diterangkan tahun-tahun peristiwa sejarah Bengkulu.
Bung Karno sangat sadar, bahwa masyarakat – bangsa Indonesia perlu mempelajari sejarah agar memiliki masa depan. Tampaknya sejalan dengan apa yang pernah dilontarkan oleh Michael Sturner, bahwa “Di negeri yang tanpa sejarah, masa depan masyarakatnya akan dikuasai oleh mereka yang menentukan isi ingatan, serta yang merumuskan konsep dan menafsirkan masa lampau” (Taufik Abdullah, 1995:35). Sejarawan Cicero pun pernah yang mengatakan, bahwa barang siapa tak kenal sejarahnya, akan tetap menjadi anak kecil” (Sartono Kartodirdjo, 1992:23). Dan jauh sebelumnya, orang Yunani Kuno pun sudah memperkenalkan apa yang disebut dengan “Historia Vitae Magistra” (sejarah adalah guru kehidupan). Bukankah Bung Karno juga sempat mengingatkan kita tentang “Jasmerah” (Jangan sekali-kali meninggalkan sejarah).

Sebelum Memimpin Monte Carlo
Sebagai seorang interniran (orang buangan politik) yang baru saja menginjakkan kakinya di bumi “Rafflesia” Bengkulu, tidak memungkinkan pada tahun pertama (1938) Bung Karno menerjunkan diri dalam kelompok seni musik orkestra Monte Carlo. Dan itu bukanlah tujuan utama Bung Karno untuk menerjunkan diri sebagai seorang “seniman” – melainkan semata sebagai media untuk menumbuhkankembangkan sebuah kesadaran nasionalisme kepada masyarakat yang sedang tertindas dalam belenggu kolonial.
Pada tahun pertama, Bung Karno lebih banyak disibukkan oleh kegiatan yang bersifat sosial – kemasyarakatan. Bung Karno memerlukan sebuah proses sosialisasi dengan lingkungan barunya untuk memahami tipologi serta kultur masyarakat Bengkulu. Dan ternyata, dalam waktu yang relatif singkat Bung Karno mampu menjalin komunikasi – interaksi sosial dengan beberapa tokoh masyarakat kota Bengkulu – terutama dari kalangan terpelajar, cerdik-pandai, guru, pegawai, usahawan, termasuk juga tokoh-tokoh penting Muhammadiyah – maupun Taman Siswa.
Di mata para tokoh pergerakan Bengkulu, nama Bung Karno sebagai tokoh pejuang sentral – nasional, memang sudah tidak asing lagi, karena mereka sudah sering mendengar, dan membaca tulisan-tulisan Bung Karno lewat media. Seperti yang diceritakan oleh M. Ali Hanafiah, salah seorang pendiri Taman Siswa Bengkulu, yang mendapat kehormatan kunjungan pertama Bung Karno ketika pertama kali menginjakkan kakinya di Bengkulu (M. Ali Hanafiah, 2003: 25). Bahkan kemudian, pada suatu hari, Bung Karno dikunjungi oleh Hassan Din, Ketua Muhammadiyah setempat menjadi guru sekolah Muhammadiyah (Cindy Adams, 1966:188). Kunjungan Hassan Din bersama istri dan anaknya Fatima (Fatmawati), serta adik Hassan Din ke rumah Bung Karno dikisahkan oleh Fatmawati dalam buku Catatan Kecil Bersama Bung Karno (Fatmawati, 1985:32).
Sejak bergabung dengan para tokoh perkumpulan seperti Muhammadiyah dan Taman Siswa setempat, Bung Karno semakin banyak pergaulan – sering terjun ke lapangan – keliling kota Bengkulu. Bung Karno semakin aktif dalam dunia pendidikan dan pengajaran. Dalam waktu yang relatif singkat, pengaruh Bung Karno di Bengkulu semakin besar, meski aktivitas Bung Karno Karno sepak terjang – gerak-gerik Bung Karno terus menerus diawasi oleh pemerintah Belanda melalui polisi intel.
Di Bengkulu, Bung Karno juga mempunyai banyak kawan dari kalangan orang Tionghoa, termasuk orang-orang Tionghoa yang bergerak dalam usaha perdagangan. Beberapa orang Tionghoa yang sering bergaul dan menjadi sahabat Bung Karno antara lain: Oey Tjeng Hien alias H.A. Abdoel Karim, Lie Tjoen Liem, Liem Bwe Seng, serta Tjan pemilik percetakan.
Rupanya Oey Tjeng Hien adalah kawan lamanya Bung Karno ketika sama-sama dengan duduk dalam Persyarikatan Islam – Persis di Bandung. Hien yang semula membuka usahanya di daerah Bintuhan (Bengkulu Selatan), lalu ditarik oleh Bung Karno untuk pindah ke kota Bengkulu. Hien akhirnya menuruti Bung Karno dan kemudian membuka usaha meubelnya di Suka Merindu bersama dengan Bung Karno sebagai arsiteknya. Di tempat itulah terpampang tulisan : Peroesahaan Meubel Soeka Merindoe dibawah pimpinan Ir. Soekarno. Hien bisa menduduki jabatan sebagai Wakil Ketua Muhammadiyah di Bengkulu itu juga atas desakan Bung Karno (Lambert Giebels, 2001:219).
Sedangkan hubungan Bung Karno dengan Lie Tjoen Liem yang semula hanya sebatas hubungan bisnis ringan yang saling menguntungkan, tetapi kemudian berlanjut seperti sahabat dekat. Menurut penuturan Bu Lidia alias Lie Khioek Sien, salah satu anak perempuannya Lie Tjoen Liem, bahwa Bung Karno sering juga datang ke tokonya yang sekaligus rumahnya – kadang juga makan di rumahnya. Bahkan Bung Karno pernah ngebon sebuah arloji seharga f 6 di toko papanya. Sayang, surat tanda bonnya dibawa oleh adiknya yang bernama Lie Kim Nam – dan sekarang adiknya sudah meninggal dunia.
Lie Tjoen Liem, asal Tiongkok yang semula merantau ke Bantam dan berusaha di bidang leveransir beras, makanan, bahan bangunan, serta obat-obatan. Kemudian setelah ke Bengkulu, membuka Toko yang diberi nama Sin Tjie Hoo – nama papanya asli orang Tiongkok (Cina totok), tetapi orang kemudian lebih mengenal toko itu dengan nama pemiliknya, yaitu Liem – maka menjadi Toko Liem yang menjual berbagai macam makanan dan minuman, serta barang-barang besi bangunan “ Provi’sien en Dranken, Ijzerwaren. ”
M.Ali Hanafiah sendiri dalam catatannya juga menceritakan, bahwa Bung Karno dan M.Ali Hanafiah sebelum melakukan perjalanan keliling kota, mampir dulu ke Toko Liem – kemudian Bung Karno mengambil makanan dua batang chocolate Van Houten atau Kwatta yang kemudian dibagi berdua. Bung Karno mengambil begitu saja tanpa membayar – rupanya ada hubungan bisnis kecil-kecilan, yaitu Bung Karno dengan menggunakan nama samaran sering menulis artikel pada lembar iklan tokonya (M. Ali Hanafiah, 2003:38).
Orang Tionghoa yang satunya lagi yang berhubungan dengan Bung Karno adalah Liem Bwe Seng, pemilik rumah di jalan Anggut Atas yang disewa oleh Bung Karno sebagai tempat tinggal selama di Bengkulu (1938-1942). Sayang tidak banyak keterangan seberapa jauh hubungan Bung Karno dengan pemilik rumah yang telah terjalin selama empat tahun.
Memang, kebanyakan yang membuka usaha bisnis berbagai macam perdagangan baik di bidang percetakan (drukkerij), makanan dan minuman, barang-barang bangunan (besi, seng, paku, semen, cat, dan lain-lain), dan lain-lain adalah orang-orang Tionghoa, termasuk pemilik Toko En yang bergerak dibidang jasa photograf. Sudah barang tentu Bung Karno sering berhubungan dengan mereka yang banyak menyediakan berbagai barang yang diperlukan dalam pertunjukan Monte Carlo.

Pemimpin Monte Carlo
Tak diketahui secara pasti kapan tepatnya, Bung Karno menjadi pemimpin Monte Carlo. Tetapi, paling tidak pada bulan ketika Bung Karno sudah mulai menulis naskah Dr. Sjaitan. Pada naskah Dr. Sjaitan tercantum kolofonnya, yaitu tanggal 24 Desember 1938. Artinya, Bung Karno terlibat secara aktif dalam sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo – bisa jadi sudah menjadi pucuk pimpinannya.
Pendek kata, Bung Karno sudah mempunyai pengaruh yang besar dikalangan para seniman, khususnya kelompok musik orkestra Monte Carlo yang rata-rata para anggotanya masih golongan muda-muda.
Bung Karno merasa perlu mendekati para anak muda yang tergabung dalam kelompok musik orkestra Monte Carlo itu. Bung Karno ingin memberikan pelajaran – gemblengan – semangat kepada para pemuda untuk menumbuhkan serta membangkitkan kecintaannya kepada tanah air, semangat patriotik, sebagaimana semangat dan kobaran jiwa nasionalisme Bung Karno yang tak pernah padam. Meski segala gerak-gerik – sepak terjang Bung Karno tak pernah lepas dari pengawasan Politieke Inlichtingen Dienst (PID) – semacam polisi intel yang diberi tugas oleh pemerintah Belanda untuk mengawasi apa saja kegiatan Bung Karno di Bengkulu.
Setelah menjadi pimpinan Monte Carlo, Bung Karno segera melakukan formulasi baru dalam seni pertunjukannya. Monte Carlo yang semula hanya bergerak di bidang seni pertunjukan musik orkestra saja, oleh Bung Karno kemudian difusikan – dilebur dalam bentuk sebuah seni pertunjukan sandiwara toneel.
Tetapi belakangan, Bung Karno juga merekruit para anak muda – pelajar yang mempunyai minat di bidang olah raga. Oleh karenanya, Bung Karno kemudian membentuk kelompok Monte Carlo yang bergerak di bidang olah raga seperti Badminton (bulu tangkis) , dan sepak bola – yang juga sedang ngetrend – populair seiring dengan pertumbuhan budaya masyarakat perkotaan Bengkulu pada waktu itu.
Dalam bidang olah raga sepak bola, mereka mempunyai kelompok tersendiri yang diberi nama “ Elftal Monte Carlo” ( kesebelasan Monte Carlo). Bung Karno sendiri sekali-kali pernah juga bermain bulu tangkis. Bahkan pernah mengajari Fatmawati bermain bulu tangkis (Cindy Adams, 1966:188).
Bagi Bung Karno yang sudah mempunyai modal pengalaman mendirikan grup sandiwara toneel Kelimutu ketika di Endeh (1934-1938) tentunya tidak terlalu sulit untuk memimpin sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo ini. Apalagi, di Bengkulu sudah ada fasilitas gedung pertunjukan seperti Royal Cinema. Disamping modal pengalaman dalam hal sandiwara, Bung Karno juga mempunyai banyak referensi kepustakaan tentang berbagai macam cabang ilmu pengetahuan – sehingga wawasan pengetahuan umumnya amat luar biasa. Pengalamannya melukis, menulis naskah, membuat tipuan suara-suara angin, guntur, hujan, hingga tipuan membangkitkan mayat hidup, ketika di Endeh menjadi modal dasar yang kuat untuk menggarap pertunjukan Monte Carlo.
Pada umumnya, perkumpulan sejenis sandiwara ini, seorang pimpinan seringkali merangkap berbagai peran sekaligus – baik sebagai penulis naskah, sutradara, produser, hingga manajer pemasarannya. Demikian, peran Bung Karno dalam perkumpulan sandiwara Kelimutu yang tidak sekedar penulis naskah, mencari dan memilih pemain, membuat layar gambar – lukis, tetapi juga berperan sebagai sutradara, manajer pemasaran, dan sekaligus produsernya. Kecuali pada naskah “Tahoen 1945”, Bung Karno menawarkan peran sutradara kepada seorang warga Filipina yang bernama Nathan yang dikenalnya di Endeh (Lambert Giebels, 2001:200).
Sebagai pemimpin Monte Carlo, Bung Karno juga tidak sekedar berperan sebagai menulis naskah saja, tetapi juga sutradara, manajer pemasaran, dan sekaligus produsernya. Dan disamping itu juga masih melakukan berbagai macam pekerjaan seperti mencari – memilih para aktor – pelaku, membuat – setting panggung, merancang – melukis layar, dan lain-lain.
Barangkali ini salah satu hal yang membedakan antara ciri khas kelompok sandiwara jenis toneel – dengan kelompok teater modern. Pada kelompok teater modern, ada spesifikasi – peran khusus ditangani oleh masing-masing orang. Sementara, pada kelompok jenis sandiwara toneel, seorang pimpinan – produser, biasa merangkap sebagai penulis skrip, sutradara, serta menjadi manajer pemasaran dan keuangan.
Tetapi ada hal menarik tentang perbedaan yang cukup menonjol ketika Bung Karno memimpin sandiwara Kelimutu dengan ketika memimpin sandiwara Monte Carlo, terutama dalam penerapan naskah. Ketika di Endeh, Bung Karno menulis naskah-naskahnya hanya garis besarnya saja, kemudian disampaikan kepada kelompok pemain, lalu menetapkan siapa memegang peran apa – dan selanjutnya mereka disuruh menghafalkan dengan terus mengulang apa yang dikatakan oleh Bung Karno, serta menirukan contoh yang diberikannya (Lambert Giebels, 2001:200). Tetapi, ketika di Bengkulu, Bung Karno menyiapkan naskah secara lengkap seperti yang kita lihat pada teks naskah Rainbow, Chungking Djakarta, dan Koetkoetbi.
Meskipun Bung Karno dalam Monte Carlo menulis naskah secara lengkap, tetapi dalam pelaksanaannya tak jauh berbeda dengan ketika memimpin Kelimutu. Bung Karno tetap mendiktekan naskahnya kepada para pemain yang sudah dipilihnya dan disuruh menghafal terus menerus serta menirukan perkataan serta gerakan yang diberikannya.
Tampaknya, gaya sandiwara Monte Carlo pimpinan Bung Karno ini agak berbeda dengan gaya kelompok sandiwara komersial seperti Miss Riboet, Oreon, Dardanella, Komedi Bangsawan, Komedi Stamboel, dan sejenisnya, seperti yang digambarkan oleh Bakdi Soemanto sebagai kelompok yang mempertahankan jagad pikir kebudayaan oral. – karena cara bermain lebih loose, dan bebas dari segala patokan (Bakdi, 2001:266). Termasuk juga jenis sandiwara Ludrug gaya stamboel Jawi – sebagai kelanjutan dari bentuk Ludrug Besutan sebagaimana catatan Ki Soemadji A, yang pernah melacak sejarah kesenian Ludrug asal Jawa Timur (J.J. Ras, 1985: 311-318).
Juga ada perbedaan dalam hal gaya monolog. Dalam penulisan naskah karya Bung Karno, tidak terdapat monolog yang memberi peluang – ruang gerak pada pemain – aktor untuk berkominikasi – menyapa dengan audien – penontonnya seperti yang dilakukan gaya monolog dalam Ludrug, maupun Lenong Betawi. Gaya monolog dalam naskah – lakon Lenong Betawi diucapkan pada permulaan adegan dengan tujuan memperkenalkan tokoh yang akan diperankan berikut situasi lingkungannya (Ninuk Kleden-Probonegoro, 1996:42).
Demikian juga dalam hal tema – lakon yang dipentaskan. Dalam Monte Carlo, Bung Karno mencoba menggabungkan – memasukkan unsur – konsep drama – teater modern dengan tetap menggunakan setting layar berdasarkan latar belakang tempat dan peristiwa kejadiannya. Berbeda dengan kosep drama- teater modern yang menggunakan setting tak sekedar latar belakang, tetapi juga unsur yang membangun perkembangan sruktur dramatik lakon dari awal hingga akhir (Bakdi, 2001:268). Sementara, pada kelompoknya Miss Riboet yang bertahan hingga lima belas tahunan – dan Dardanella yang mampu bertahan hingga dua dekade, lebih mengedepankan gaya dalam bentuk nyanyian – lagu-lagu sindiran – sinis – dan penuh simbolik ( Mohamad Nazri Ahmad, 2000:33).
Bung Karno dalam menggarap setting toneel – panggung, disamping menggunakan – menyiapkan berbagai macam layar gambar dan properti lainnya sesuai dengan latar belakang tempat dan peristiwa, juga menambahkan trik-trik – dengan teknik yang menyerupai peristiwa kejadiannya. Seperti teknik menggunakan lembaran zink (seng) – blik (kaleng), pasir, kerikil –batu-batuan, bubuk – zat peledak, dan lain-lain untuk menirukan suara gemuruh angin, hujan, petir, halilintar dan lain-lain. Bung Karno juga menggunakan peralatan electric dengan kabel-kabel stroom.
Dalam hal penulisan naskah, Bung Karno rupanya tidak mau sembarangan – asal-asalan saja. Bung Karno berusaha mempelajari berbagai macam cabang ilmu pengetahuan, termasuk ilmu sejarah, dan sastra – bahasa. Wawasan pengetahuan – referensi Bung Karno yang sangat luas itu juga menjadi bagian dari yang tak terpisahkan dalam mengimplementasikan proses gagasan-gagasan – ide-ide kreatifnya.
Tanpa referensi, serta wawasan pengetahuan yang luas mungkin sulit bagi seorang Bung Karno dalam menciptakan ide-ide kreatif. Bagaimana Bung Karno mampu mengadaptasi – menginterpretasi film Franskenstein yang amat populer pada saat itu menjadi naskah Dr. Sjaitan – dan Koetkoetbi tanpa dukungan faktor empiris yang luas.
Demikian juga dengan naskah Rainbow (Poetri Kentjana Boelan). Tanpa wawasan pengetahuan sejarah, khususnya sejarah Bengkulu, sulitlah bagi Bung Karno mampu menuangkan cerita epik yang berbau historis dalam naskah tersebut. Mungkin saja, Bung Karno juga membaca Tambo Bangkahoeloe ketika akan menulis naskah Rainbow. Disamping itu, Bung Karno amat cerdas menggiring alur cerita berbau roman sejarah yang penuh semangat patriotik – meskipun dalam cerita tokoh sentral yang romantis berakhir dengan tragis – “romantis membawa tragis” . Tetapi, bisa jadi, naskah Rainbow ini merupakan salah satu dari sekian naskah karya Bung Karno yang dapat dikategorisasikan kedalam karya sastra sejarah – atau tepatnya roman sejarah.
Dalam hal penyutradaraan, secara teoretis, seorang sutradara harus memiliki modal pengalaman, pengetahuan, berbakat pemimpin atau guru, kemampuan meyakinkan para aktor, serta pengetahuan psikologi. Demikian menurut catatan Kalam Hamidi, yang juga seorang aktor, penulis naskah, dan sekaligus sutradara drama dan teater (Kalam Hamidi, 2003: 40). Apa yang menjadi catatan tersebut, itu sudah dilakukan oleh seorang Bung Karno ketika menjadi sutradara dalam pementasan sandiwara Monte Carlo.
Sebagai sutradara, Bung Karno yang punya waktu luang banyak tentu saja akan melakukan pekerjaannya dengan serius. Dengan kata lain, Bung Karno jelas memberikan latihan – gemblengan terhadap para pemainnya. Dan tentu saja, sebelumnya Bung Karno telah melakukan seleksi para pemainnya untuk menentukan peran yang dengan tokohnya. Selanjutnya Bung Karno menyiapkan jadwal dan tempat latihannya, gladi resik, hingga persiapan pementasannya.
Bung Karno membutuhkan waktu latihan dua hingga tiga mingguan untuk melatih para pemainnya. Waktu latihan biasanya pada sore hari dan kadang malam hari. Tempat yang paling sering digunakan Bung Karno untuk melatih serta menggembleng para pemainnya adalah di rumah Manaf Sofiano, Kampoeng Djawa. Tetapi kadang-kadang Bung Karno menggunakan tempat latihan di rumah Demang Karim yang terletak di Berkas. Sedang untuk persiapan lakon Si Ketjil, Bung Karno melatihnya di rumahnya sendiri.
Bung Karno juga sangat teliti dalam urusan yang kecil-kecil, termasuk memeriksa kenyamanan dan keamanan lantai panggung yang akan digunakan oleh para pemain – seperti memeriksa kalau ada paku-paku yang membahayakan. Demikian cerita dari Pak Rustam Effendi meneruskan cerita dari ayahnya, Bachtiar Karim.
Kesuksesan pertunjukan Monte Carlo ternyata tidak hanya berimbas pada kesejahteran bagi para pemainnya saja, tetapi juga berimbas pada yang lainnya. Karena sebagian dari hasil pertunjukannya ternyata diamalkan untuk kepentingan sosial.
Sebagai pemimpin sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo yang sudah berpengalaman, Bung Karno menyadari, bahwa musik memegang peranan yang sangat penting. Tanpa illustrasi musik, pertunjukan seni jenis apapun takkan pernah berhasil – sukses. Oleh karenanya, dalam hal penataan musik, Bung Karno mempercayakan penuh kepada Manaf Sofiano yang memang piawai dalam memainkan alat musik piano maupun saxofon. Bahkan Manaf Sofiano dipercaya oleh Bung Karno sebagai bendaharanya.
Disamping itu, rupanya, Manaf Sofiano tidak hanya memegang jabatan sebagai bendahara dan penata musik saja, tetapi juga diberi peran utama oleh Bung Karno. Bahkan diantara para pemain Monte Carlo yang dianggap terbaik oleh Bung Karno adalah Manaf Sofiano. Dan Bung Karno dengan jujur telah memujinya sebagai seorang primadonna dalam pertunjukan Monte Carlo (Cindy Adams, 1966:206).
Kepiawaian Bung Karno sebagai produser – pimpinan sandiwara Monte Carlo boleh dibilang cukup mengagumkan – dan tentu saja membutuhkan pekerjaan yang rumit. Mulai dari merancang – menulis naskah – mencari pemain – menyeleksi pemain – membagi peran – merancang tonil – menyiapkan kain – melukis layar – menyiapkan properti – menyiapkan spanduk – penyebaran pamlet – percetakan – menyiapkan promosi dengan kendaraan keliling – menyiapkan tempat pentas – menyiapkan dana produksi – menyiapkan tiket – karcis – mengundang penonton – membuat jadual latihan – gladi resik hingga jadual pementasan, dan lain-lain – semua berada dibawah tanggungjawab dan pengawasan Bung Karno.
Di Bengkulu, Inggit juga melakukan pekerjaan yang sam ketika di Endeh, yaitu sebagai penata rias. Bung Karno memilih Hanafi dan M. Zahari Thanie, serta Sjoufi, untuk memeran tokoh-tokoh perempuan dalam lakon-lakon pertunjukannya. Belakangan nama Hanafi ditambah dua huruf setelah bergabung dan menjadi orang dekat Bung Karno, sehingga namanya menjadi A.M. Hanafi – A.M adalah kepanjangan dari Anak Marhen. Bahkan setelah Bung Karno menjadi Presiden RI, A.M. Hanafi pun mendapat posisi yang tinggi, yaitu diangkat sebagai Duta Besar untuk Kuba. Resminya, A.M. Hanafi dilantik sebagai duta besar berkuasa penuh R.I untuk Republik Kuba di Havana pada tanggal 19 Desember 1963 (A.M. Hanafi, 1996: 22).
Sebagai sutradara, Bung Karno yang punya waktu luang banyak tentu saja akan melakukan pekerjaannya dengan serius. Dengan kata lain, Bung Karno jelas memberikan latihan – gemblengan terhadap para pemainnya. Dan tentu saja, sebelumnya Bung Karno telah melakukan seleksi para pemainnya untuk menentukan peran yang dengan tokohnya. Selanjutnya Bung Karno menyiapkan jadwal dan tempat latihannya, gladi resik, hingga persiapan pementasannya. Menurut narasumber, Bung Karno membutuhkan waktu latihan dua hingga tiga mingguan. Waktu latihan biasanya pada sore hari dan kadang malam hari.
Jauh hari sebelum pertunjukan, Bung Karno sudah menyebarkan pamflet yang promosinya sangat memikat para pembacanya. Isi pamfletnya selain mengundang rasa penasaran, juga memberikan informasi menarik serta menyertakan harga karcis – tiket tanda masuk.
Kemudian pada sore hari menjelang pertunjukannya, Bung Karno mengadakan programa keliling, yaitu mengarak para pemain yang akan tampil nanti malam – berkeliling kota Bengkulu dengan menyewa mobil.
Disamping, menyewa mobil untuk mengarak para pemain, Bung Karno juga menyewa gedung tempat pertunjukannya, yaitu gedung bioskop Royal Cinema dengan cara mengangsur (menyicil).
Sebagai seorang pemimpin yang memiliki proyeksi – pandangan jauh kedepan, Bung Karno juga amat menyadari arti pentingnya sebuah dokumen – arsip sebagai saksi bisu yang suatu saat akan bisa berbicara banyak tentang masa lampaunya. Oleh karenanya, Bung Karno menyimpan berbagai dokumen – arsip, terutama yang berkaitan dengan sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo. Beberapa dokumen berupa gambar – photo yang tersisa sebagian masih dapat dilihat di Museum – Rumah Kediaman Bung Karno yang terletak di Anggut Atas Kota Bengkulu.
Pada acara pertunjukan, Bung Karno tidak menempatkan diri dibelakang layar, seperti halnya yang biasa dilakukan oleh para sutradara pada pertunjukan sandiwara Kethoprak maupun Ludrug. Sebaliknya, Bung Karno justru duduk di kursi barisan depan sejajar dengan para pembesar Belanda, elite pribumi, pengusaha – saudagar – orang-orang Tionghoa yang biasanya mengambil karcis loge de luxe (tempat duduk VIP).

1b)Bung Karno Dengan Pimpinan Negara Sahabat

A.Mao Tse Tung

B.Presiden Ho chi Minh Vietnam

C.Presiden Tiongkok Lie Siau Chi

d.Presiden Kennedy

e.Presiden Fidel Castro

2)Bung karno dalam acara kenegaraan

(1) KONPERENSI ASIA AFRIKA BANDUNG 1955

3)Bung Karno dengan Keluarga

3)Bung Karno dengan Rakyat Indonesia

4)Foto Profile dan Jenis lain Dari Bung Karno 

Frame tiga :Koleksi Buku Antik Bung Karno

                          

                         

        The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”

SHOWCASE  THREE: VINTAGE BUNG KARNO BOOKS COLLECTIONS

1. CIKINI AFFAIR BOOK 1958

2. BUNG KARNO VISIT USA

 

3.BUKU KUNJUNGAN PRESIDEN TIONGKOK KE INDONESIA

4.Buku Kunjungan bung Karno Ke Tiongkok

4.BUNG KARNO DAN  SENI

5.WAWANCARA IMAJINER  DENGAN BUNG KARNO

SHOWCASE FOUR : THE PICTURE OF BUNG KARNO CERAMIC  ARTWORK

COLLECTIONS

SHOWCASE FIVE :THE PICTURE OF BUNG KARNO PAINTERS ARTWORK COLLECTIONS

SHOWCASE SIX:THE BUNG KARNO  KRIS AND OTHER AMULET COLLECTIONS

              

SHOWCASE  KETUJUH (SEVEN): KOLEKSI YANG SUDAH DITAMPILKAN DALAM WEB BLOG hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

KATA PENGANTAR

Saya memberanikan diri membangun sebuah museum dunia maya atau cybermusuem KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO   khusus untuk seluruh rakyat Indonesia dan pecinta Bung Karno dimanapun ia berada , dengan penuh kesadaran atas keterbatasan saya yang hanya seorang pensiunan dokter, petualang dan kolektor benda unik serta informasi terkait lainnya yang tentunya bukan pakar dan ahli dibidang museum dunia maya , tetapi berandalkan  tekad  yang bulat dan pengalaman sebagai kolektor senior yang banyak membaca literatur terkait bidangnya menyusun tulisan dan illustrasi ini berdasarkan koleksi yang sudah dihimpun hampir lima puluh tahun dengan maksud dan tujuan agar informasi tentang koleksi Bung karno pribadi dan koleksi unik terkait Bung Karno dapat di ketahui oleh rakyat Indonesia terutama  generasi penerus  secara gratis, oleh karena itu saya perlu dukungan moriel ( semangat)  dan matriel (dana operasional untuk consultan profesional) , maka besar harapan saya seluruh kolektor Indonesia untuk mendukung proposal musuem dunia maya  ini liwat  komentar, dan dukungan sponsor dari pencinta Bung Karno seperti yaysan BK, Metro Tv , Penerbit PT Gramedia dan sebagainya.karena informasi yang ada saat saya eksplorasi dengan google di Internet masih sangat terbatas.

Saya sadar cybermuseum  ini dibuat dengan pengantar  bahasa Indonesia karena sesuai arahan proklamator dan presiden Republik Indonesia pertama yang lebih senang di sebut sebagai Bung Karno agar kita harus berdikari dan bangga dengan bangsa kita sendiri yang termasuk bangsa besar yang jumlah penduduknya nomor tiga didunia setelah Tiongkok dan India. Pecinta Bung Karno dari  bangsa asing sepantasnya mengenal bahasa Indonesia agar dapat meresapi tulisan ini karena banyak istilah yang sangat sulit untuk diterjemahkan kebahasa asing seperti Inggris, Jerman, spanyol atau Belanda, untuk itu penulis memohon maaf yang sebasar-besarnya,juga atas kekeliruan dan kekurangan yang masih ada dalam tulisan ini, masukan sangat diperlukan agar tulisan elektronik ini dpat disempurnakan pada edisi mendatang.lihatlah poster Bung Karno yang sangat kharismatik INGAT!!*001

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Tidak lupa penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada seluruh teman-teman yang tidak dapat dituliskan namanya satu persatu ,terutama Pak  Herry Hutabarat, Pak Sofyan lampung,almarhum guru saya Frater Servaas dan almarhum Prof.Suparlan yang telah memberikan masukan ide untuk mengumpulkan koleksi serta informasi yang unik dan langka bagi generasi penerus.terimakasih juga kepada Pak Ali Baswedan yang telah menyokong terbitnya buku elektronik ini dan berkean memberikan tambahan informasi untuk Bab khusus tambahan KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO

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KOMENTAR ALI BASWEDAN DALAM BLOG iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

Gagasan e-book tentang Bung Karno harus dilanjutkan. Sebab upaya Bapak itu bagian dari mencerdaskan bangsa. Selain itu, memperkaya khasanah tentang Bung Karno. Apa yang salah?
Kalau boleh saya urun rembuk, tentang BAB KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO, perlu ditambahkan KOLEKSI BENDA PUSAKA tokoh Proklamator itu. Ini bukan persoalan mistik. Benda-benda pusaka itu bagian dari sejarah panjang bangsa kita. Misalnya, Bung Karno pernah menerima pusaka Kanjeng Kiai Lepet dari PB X, berupa pedang yang dibuat pada masa pemerintahan PB IV. Benda-benda pusaka yang dimiliki Bung Karno pernah dimuat secara detail di Majalah KERIS, no: 1, tahun I, 15 feb – 16 Maret 2007. Dengan ikhlas saya bersedia memberikan copy majalah itu (berupa PDF) kalau berkenan.

Ali Baswedan

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 dukungan komentar diatas memberikan info bahwa pedang pusaka yang selalyu dibawa Bung Karno dibuat pada masa Pakubuwono IV, cerita lengkap akan di tampilkan setelah Pak Baswedan mengirmkan copy majalalah tersebut. saya memiliki foto pedang pusaka tersebut *003 dan *004

*003 *004.

Saya sangat gembira atas sokongan para kolektor Indonesia lainnya, lihat facebook saya iwansuwandy untuk tambahan informasi baru dan sokongan anda semua* 005

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*5 CUPLIKAN DARI FACE BOOK

video dari Yayasan Bung Karno tetang pertemuan Bung Karno dengan Nehru India dan Nasser Mesir, saya sedang meminta sponsorship dan izin memanfaatkan buku terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno lama era Guntur sukarno

Pas kebetulan lagi bongkar-bongkar file di PC, ketemu slide show ini. Daripada dibuang lebih baik ditaruh di FB. Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.
Length:4:04
 
Wednesday at 5:55pm · · · · Share
Iwan Suwandy
terima kasi atas dukungannya,semoga yayasan Bung Karno bekenan menjadi sponsor proposak buku elektronik B ung Karno saya,dan mengizinkan koleksi yayasan BK di tampilkan dalam e-book tersbtu. ayo kolektor In donsia pencintai B ung kirimkan dukungan anda dalm komentra ini terima kasih.
4 hours ago · ·
Iwan Suwandy

Iwan Suwandy thanks for support me to writte e-book of Bung Karno Collection in Indonesia language Koleksi Bung Karno, I need million support .

 

bung karno poster collection during PEMILU,MORE INFO CLICK MY INTERENET BLOG iwansuwand.wordpress.com
 
Wednesday at 5:44pm · · · · Share
Fikri Alamoudi
WHAT A GREAT JOB,, Mr.Dr.IWAN,,.. I LIKE HIS CHARACTER, SINCE I WAS A CHILD,,..
 Foto Bung Karno dan Mao dikirim oleh teman saya
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 agar saya segera dapat mengirimkan surat resmi kepada Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno untuk memeperoleh izi memanfaatkan informasi mereka dalam MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO  ini, dan apabila ada sponsor mungkin saya akan mengubah dari Premium E-BOOK  menjadi Free CYBER MUSEUM , silahkan kirim komentar sokongan terhadap gagasan  ini liwat blog internet dan facebook saya dengan nama yang sama iwansuwandy. 

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SETELAH MENKOMPILASI SELURUH INFORMASI KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO YANG ADA, TERNYATA JUMLAHNYA SANGAT BANYAK, SEHINGGA PERLU DIBUAT SUATU BLOG TERSENDIRI DENGAN NAMA BUNGKARNO-IWAN.WORDPRESS.COM, JUDULNYA AKAN DITETAPKAN OLEH TIM DAN Dr IWAN S, TENTUNYA BILA ADA SPONSOR UNTUK BIAYA OPERASIONAL,PARA SPONSOR HARAP MENGHUBUNGI SAYA LIWAT COMMENT DAN EDITOR BLOG INI AKAN MENGHUBUNGI PARA SPONSOR UNTUK KEPERLUAN ADMINISTRATIF LEBIH LANJUT,BERITA LIHAT RUBRIK TERSENDIRI TENTANG DUKUNGAN DAN SPONSOR KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO.  APABILA TIDAK ADA SPONSOR TERPAKSA INFORMASI DAN ILLUSTRASI DIBATASI SEBAGAI BAGIAN DARI PROPOSAL INI.hARAP PARA TEMAN-TEMAN KOLEKTOR MAKLUM ATAS KETERBATASAN SAYA YANG BEKERJA SEORANG DIRI DAN KURANG PROFESIONAL.

Selanjutnya bacalah Catatan saya tentang pribadi Bung Karno dan Koleksi pribadi Bung Karno sebagai  Pengantar buku elektronik  yang saat ini telah saya tingkatkan jadi MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA CYBERMUSEUM KOLSI BUNG KARNO  karena sangat banyak dukungan dan klik.dari pecinta Bung Karno.

Para teman-teman yang ingin melihat kolesi pribadi Dr Iwan yang terkait Bung Karno, silahkan melihat di msueum dunia Maya Dr Iwan , klik hhtp//www.Driwancbermuseum.wordpress.com. terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

Jakarta  ,Juli 2010

Dr IWAN S

PS Apabila sudah banyak komentar dukungan dan ada sponsor yang lambangnya  akan di catumkan dalam proposal ini, maka secara bertahap daftar koleksi dan illustrasi akan diinstall dalam proposal buku elektr0nik ini,oleh karena itu kirimkan segera dukungan dan sponsor anda liwat komentar di Blog ini dan Facebook saya. terima kasih atas dukungan dan sponsorshipnya.

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 CATATAN Dr IWAN S TENTANG KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO

1. Kesan-Kesan Dr  IWAN S TENTANG BUNG KARNO

 saya dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di Tanah Minangkabau sumatera Tengah dulunya sekarang Sumatera barat, sehingga tokoh proklamator yang lebih dikenal adalah Bung Hatta,lihat foto kunjungan Bung Hatta ke Padang  tahun 1977 dismabut gubernur SUMBAR Haroen Zein dan Walikotanya Achiroel Yahya *005a foto ini karya Indra Sanusi dan sudah diberikan izin pengunaannya.

*005a

  . Bung Karno pertama kali saya lihat tahun 1955 saat berkampanye dilapangan Tugu didepan SMA Don Bosco, saat ini  didepan Pengadilan negeri Padang yang sekarang sudah dibangun Museum Kota Padang, beliau berada diatas panggung tenda terpal persis saat itu saya sekolah di SD Andreas yang lokasinya disamping SMA Don Bosco ,kelas lima SD, kami beramai-ramai murid SD melihat Bung Karno pidoto,  beliau sangat pandai mempengaruhi semangat pendengar dengan jel jel Merdeka nya,sekali Merdeka Tetap merdeka tetapi apa yang dikatan beliau pupus dari ingatan saya.Saya telah banyak membaca literatur terkait beliau,sehingga saya mengerti bagaimana besarnya cinta Bung karno terhadap seni,sehingga beliau sering bertemu dengan seniman seperti seniman pelukis seperti Affandi, Basuki Abdullah,Dezentje,Le Man Fong,Henk Ngantung,Hendra Gunawan dan Sudjono, malah Henk Ngantung dipercayai menjadi Gubernur DKI tahun 1964*005aa

*005aa henk dan lukisannya pasar Jakarta.

, sayang beberapa dari pelukis tersebut ikut lembaga kesenian PKI(LEKRA)  sehingga hidup mereka sangat sengsara pada masa orde baru( Saya juga mengumpulkan koleksi masa Pak Harto,nanti kan saya tulis buku elektronik pada saat yang tepat).profil para pelukis senior tersebut umumnya saya kenal setelah melihat beberapa foto Bung Karno dengan mereka di istana Merdeka saat menyusun koleksi istana tersebut, juga difoto rumah Bung Karno pertama di jalan Pegangsaan didalam rumah tahun 1945 saat wawancara dengan wartawan terlihat lukisan Basuki Abdullah pantai Ternate berdasar lukisan cair air Bung Karno didinding dan disampingnya dipajang lukisan Fatmawati yang juga dilukis Basuki Abdullah yang sudah ada sejak masa revolusi kemerdekaan *002

                         *002

Saya masih menyimpan tulisan Bung Karno tahun 1942 saat tentara Dai nippon baru membebaskan beliau dari Bengkulu ke Sumatera Barat dalam bentuk kliping,tidak jelas dari majalah mana, selain itu juga teman saya memberikan sebuah cetakan surat pribadi Bung Karno kepada para prajurit yang bertugas diperbatasan saat Konfrontasi Malaysia saat Hari raya Lebaran yang menurut informasi surat itu berada dalam bingkisan dari Bung Karno kepada prajurit tersbut,sungguh besar perhatian beliu kepada para para prajurit pejuang, pada saat masa perang kemerdekaan pernah ditenirt almanak dengan gambar bungakarno tahun 1946 dengan berbagai promosi perjuangan yang saat itu sangat riskan untuk memilikinya karena dapat ditangkap Belanda ,sungguh istimewa saya memiliki koleksi almanak perjuangan tersebut, juga kartupos peringatan satu tahun medreda 17 agustus 1946 *002asayang tidak memakai gambar profile Bung Karno tetapi merupakan temuan saya yang sangat spektakuler,begitu juga dengan berbagai koleksi lain yang dapat dilihat dan dibaca pada bab berikutnya.

*002a

Pada saat Sumatera Barat bergolak terhadap pemrintahan Pusat tahun 1957, istilah versi dari PRRI yang dipimhan Ahmad Husein dan Sjaruddin Prawira Negara (koleksi pribadi saya tentang  PRRI akan diteritkan pada masa mendatang) dan versi Pusat disebut pembrontak, Bung Karno pamornya sangat menurun dimata Rakyat Sumatera Barat, sehingga banyak arsip beliau dimusnahkan, tetapi sebagian telah saya selamatkan dan tersimpan rapi saat ini, apalagi ketika terjadinya peristiwa G30PKI 1965, masih terbayang saat Pak Harto Mengambil alih kekuasan dan saat beliau dilantik *002b dengan pidato yang sangat sederhana yang berbeda dengan pidato Bung Karno yang lebih kharismatik.

Saya melihat Bung Karno kedua kalinya dan terakhir pada saat beliau berpidato dalam upacara pembukaan Pekan Olah Raga  Nasional(PON) di Bandung tahun 1961, saya peserta PON cabang Tennis Lapangan, beliau sangat kharismatik, saya masih ingat sebelum mulai berpidato, Bung Karno meminta peserta dan penonton agar diam, beliau berkata Saya minta supaya Diam sebelum saya mengucapkan kata pembukaan, kemudian beliu menghardik dengan suara mengeleganr sebanyak lima kali DIAM!!! DIAM!!!DIAM!!! DAIM!!!DIAM!!! saya sungguh terpeosna akhirnya semuanya diam, tapi saya lupa apa yang beliau katakan, karena itu saya berusaha memiliki koleksi buku pidato Bung Karno,dan yang paling langka adalah terbitan tahun 1954 tentan Pindato-pidato Bung Karno dari 17 agustus 1945 sampai 17 agust 1954, banyak dari pidato tersebut tidak pernah diterbitkan,mungkin atas alasan politik, juga kata sambutan Bung Karno pada saat peringatan enam bulan Merdeka dalam Buku khusus terbiitan Harian Merdeka dengan judul Merdeka dengan illustrasi sampul depan KEPALAN BERWARNA MERAH DENGAN TULISAN MERDEKA*002c

 buku ini  sangat historik dan langka. Tahun 2009 saya kembali menemukan buku langka  yang berhubungan dengan pidato Bung Karno saat har Kemerdekaan RI dari proklamasi 1945 sampai 1954 oleh Kementerian Penerangan RI bagian dokumentasi dengan judul  8  x 17 Agustus, karena dalam Bunku Bung Karno Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jilid kedua tidak dicantumkan pidato Bung Karno saat proklamsi kemerdekaan tujuh belas Agustus 1945, apa sebabnya slah dikomentari didalam hati pembaca  sendiri karena dapat menimb ulkan polemik dan diskusi yang tidak akan selesai, ini adalah fakta sejarah , yah diendapkan saja dalam memori anda, silahkan baca bersama dengan bab buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid kedua .  

Saya hanya menyampaikan kesan yang sebenarnya berada dalam pikiran saya, tentanh hal lain sebaiknya saya tanpa komentar karena berbagai alasan, tetapi yang pasi bilau adalah proklamator,bapak bangsa  yang sangat kharismatik,energik, dan memiliki koleksi Bung Karno merupakan suatu Kebanggaan tersendiri,saya usulkan Yayasan Bung Karno mendirikan suatu museum yang megah untuk peringatan bagi Bung Karno dan saya bersedia menyumbangkan seluruh koleksi saya kepada museum tersebut ,tentunya harus berisi lengka[p baik sisi terang maupun gelap dari Beliau,kita menyadari mana ada manusia yang sempurna,tetapi yang jelas beliau telah memerdekakan Bangsa Indonesian yang sama-sama kita cintai.

2.KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO

Koleksi Pribadi Bung Karno tentunya masih berada pada Yayasan Bung Karno yang tahun 1979 dengan ketua putra pertama Bung Karno ,Guntur Sukarno, lihat illustrasi  Kata Pengantar Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno PADA BUKU BUNG KARNO & SENI  edisi pertama,terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno,Jakarta 1979,semoga yaysan tersebut tidak keberatan ditampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini.sebelumnya terimakasih Bung Guntur.(apabila sesudah satu bulan info ini ditayangkan tidak ada tegoran,maka illustrasi akan ditampilkan). Apabila ada izin,mungkin sebagian foto yang di close up dengan ukuran  lebih kuang 30% aslinya akan ditampilkan juga. Apabila tidak diizinkan terpaksa anggota melihatnya langsung pada buku aslinya atau dapat melihat diperpustakaan club.

 Dalam buku aslinya  berisi Prawacana Penyusun Soedarmadji J.H. Damais dan para penulis Sitor Situmorang,Wiyoso Yudoseputro dan sudarmadji.Samburtan Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Guntur Sukarno,Sambutan Ketua Dewan Kesenian Jakarta Ajip Rosidi,Kata sambutan wakil PresideRepublik Indonesia Adam Malik,Kata Sambutan Menteri Kesejahteraan Rakyat Republik Indonesia Surono , Kata sambutan Kepala  daerak Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Tjokropranolo, Bung Karno Dan Seniman olh Sitor Situmorang, Bung Karno Dengan seni Oleh Wiyoso Yudoseputro, Bung Karno  Dengan Seni Rupa Oleh Sudarmaji, Daftar Benda Benda Pameran, Kepustakaan Pilihan , Ucapan terima Kasih.

Dalam era ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Bapak Guruh Sukarno Putra, ada sebuah video koleksi foto Bung karno yang sangat penting dilestarikan, beberapa foto tersebut ada dalam koleksi saya pribadi seperti foto kunjungan Bung Karno ke Amerika serikat.*002d bung Karno dan Guntur di Dyasney land naik kereta.

*002d

Saya sangat berharap agar koleksi yayasan Bung Karno ini dapat dizinkan untuk di tampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini dan mungkin nantinya berkemband menjadi suatu blog tersendiri dengan nama museum duniamaya koleksi Bung Karno dan juga dalam bahasa inggris CYBER MUSEUM BUNG KARNO’S COLLECTIONS , saya telah meng add video koleksi foto Bung Karno era Bapak Guruh , karena tidak dicantumkan hak cipta ,mohon maaf jika yayasan BK tidak berkenan, maka video tersebut dengan segera saya hapus, sebagai bahan pertimbangan Bung Karno tidak hanya milik yayasan Bung Karno dan keluarga Besar tetapi milik seluruh bangsa Indonesia dan dunia jadi termasuk barang pusaka dunia atau World Heritage jadi tidak dapat dijadikan Hak Cipta seseorang atau kelompok, saya saran UNESCO juga berkenan menjadi sponsor dalam melestarikan warisan Budaya Bangsa dunia ini.

3. KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO

1)Koleksi benda-benda Pusaka milik Bung karno, berdsarakan majalah lama milik teman saya bapak Ali Baswedan yang disumbangkan secara gratis untuk dimuat dalam buku elektronik KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO*TP-001.(sampai saat ini belum dikirimkan via e-mail dr Iwan s)

2) Photo Keris pusaka Bung Karno: a)*ill KP-002 pada masa perang Kemerdekaan Ri 1945-1950 ternyata berbentuk Keris.(dimana benda ini berada sekarang?)

 *KP002

 dan b)* ill TP-003 beberapa foto Tongkat pusaka Bung Karno pada masa Orde Lama 1951-1965, apabila diperhatikan dengan saksama ternyata ada dua jenis

 

Dimanakah benda pusaka keris dan kedua jenis tongkat pusaka Bung KARNO tersebut diatas? perlu diteliti lebih lanjut yang merupakan PR Yayasan Bung Karno atau para pakar sejarah Indonesia  dan ini merupakan informasi pertama di dunia maya berdasarkan fot0 asli BUNG KASRNO yang diclose up , bagaimana manakjubkan bukan !!!!!

4.. KOLEKSI PRIBADI Dr IWAN S TERKAIT  BUNG KARNO

Secara kronologis akan saya informasikan perkembangan koleksi pribadi saya terkait bung Karno, tulisan ini akan saya tampilan secara bertahap disertai ilkustrasi, satu persatu menunggu komentar baik dari yaysan Bung Karno,keluarga besar mantan Presiden RI Ibu Megawati Sukarno Putri dan keluarga besar Bung Karno,serta para kolektor pencinta Bung Karno, harap setiap inifo dibaca dan dilihat dengan saksama,bila tidak berkenan harap kirim komentar via comment dan bila disetujui akan saya hapus dari tayangan, saya sadar berbicara teng Bapak bangsa  dan Proklamator itu sangat peka, makanya saya sang hati-hati, mohon komentar dan koreksi apakah buku elektronok ini perlu diteruskan atau dihentikan,saya sangat menunggu komentar, bila tidak segera saya hilangkan dari tayangan,bila ya mari sokong saya dengan komentar anda.terima kasih.Saya belum pernah lihat tayangan pribadi seperti ini di dalam maupun luar negeri. ok segara kirim komentar.

BAB SATU : KOLEKSI PRIBADI MILIK  BUNG KARNO(YAYASAN BUNG KARNO DAN KELUARGA BESAR BUNG KARNO dalam buku BUNG KARNO DAN SENI  TERBITAN PERTAMA YAYASAN BUNGKARNO KETUA GNTUR SUKARNO TAHUN 1979 (  dengan izin dari pemilik-masih menunggu perseutjuan, e-mail sudah dikirimkan belum ada jawaban sampai saat ini)

I. KOLEKSI SENILUKIS,PATUNG DAN KERAMIK

II.KOLEKSI SENI BATIK,UKIR DAN WAYANG

III. KOLEKSI  SENI BANGUNAN,MONUMEN DAN TATA KOTA

BAB DUA    KOLEKSI PRIBADI Dr IWAN S  TERKAIT DENGAN BUNG KARNO

I.KOLEKSI  BUKU DAN DOKUMEN BUNG KARNO (KOLEKSI PRIBADI Dr IWAN S)

1 MASA SEBELUM PERANG DUNIA KEDUA

1).BUKU KARANGAN BUNG KARNO DIBAWAH BENDERA REVOLUSI  JILID I TAHUN 1961 , YANG BEBERAPA ILLUSTRASI DAPT DILIHAT DIBAWAH INI

*BR1-001 KULIT DEPAN

*BR1-001

*BR1-002 gambar asli dalam buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jidid satu halaman depan,bila diperhatikan close upnya dengan saksama ternyata Bung Karno memiliki tahi lalat diaats bibir kiri,pantas jago sebagai orator.foto ini dibuat saatBung Karno   lulus sekolah HBS.

*BR1-002

2. MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG 1942-1945

1)KLIPING TULISAN BUNG KARNO SAAT DIBEBASKAN TENTARA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG DARI BENGKULU KE SUAMTERA BARAT

2) MAJALLAH PANDJI POESTAKA, nO. 19 , TERBITAN  KOKOEMIN TOSJOKJOKOE (PENERBITAN NASIONAL)  BALAI POESTAKA JAKARTA,15 AGOESTOES 2602(1942) TAHOEN XX HAL 652-653.

hal 652  JUDUL RUBRIK PERAJAAN MIRADJ isinya antara lain :

 ” Malam minggoe jl mesdjid  Kwitang penoeh dengan oemat Islam yang ingin toeroet merajakan  hari Mi’radj Nabi Besar kita Moehammad s.a.w.  dari kalangan oelama  ada terdengar chotbah  yang berharga malam itu.  Poen Ir  Sukarno ada djoega hadir  pada malam itoe  dan toroet memberikan pemandangan.”

hal 653  berisi berita : “Komite perajaan itoe (Mi’rajd )  serta Pergerakan Tiga A tjabang Djakarta. Foto  Oemat berdoejoen-doejoen membandjiri Keboen Binatang  terlihat didepan rombongan Bung Karno * 005

dan foto Ir soekarno lagi berchotbah dengan penoeh semangat dalam perajaan Mi’radj di Keboen Binatang*006

 *005                                                                                         

  *006

(Kebun binatang yang dimaksud adalah kebun binatang yang didirikan oleh pelukis Raden Saleh dibelakang Rumah Pribadinya-saat ini jadi rumah sakit Cikini dan kebun binatang berada   dijalan Cikini Raya Jakarta Pusat, saat ini sudah dipindahkan keluar kota Pasar Minggu dan di tempat tersebut didirikan Taman Ismael Marzuki.-Dr Iwan )

3) FOTO ANGGOTA CHUO  SANGI IN  BADAN PERTIMBANGAN CIPTAAN PEMERINTAHAN PENDUDUKAN JEPANG , ADA DUA KOLEKSI PERTAMA DARI MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG   *DN001 DAN DARI BUKU KARANGAN IBU FATMAWATI Bung karno  diurutan sudak kanan bawah dna diatas foto ayahnay presiden Abdul Rahman Wahid, Wahid Hasyim.*DN002

*DN001

*DN002

4)FOTO BUNG KARNO DENGAN JENDRAL TOYO DI JEPANG *DN OO3 (Kejujuran Saudara Tua,majalah Tempo,13 Desember   1986,hal 20)

*DN003

5) INFORMASI PERTEMUAN BUNG KARNO DENGAN MAHASISWA SOEJATMIKO,SOEDARPO DAN SOEBADIO DIRUMAH BELIAU  PADA TAHUN 1943TANPA ILLUSTRASI *DN004( Soedjatmiko,Pilihan Dan peluang revolusi Indonesia setelah 45 tahun .Beberapa refleksi pribadi,Sejarah Pemikiran,Rekonstruki ,Persepsi no 1. MSI & GRamedia Pustaka Umum Jakarta 1991)

6) foto Bung Karno Ikut latihan Militer Tentara Pendudukan Jepang dalam majallah bahasa Belanda  ( Mr Mas slamet,Japamsche Intrigues,Buijten $Schipperhijn,Amsterdam,26 januari 1946,ex perpustakaan Biara Padua Tjitjurug,saat ini koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN S):

(1) foto illustrasi buku halaman  9, Bung Karno belajar hormat senjata kepada prajurit Dai Nippon *DN005

*DN005

(2) Foto illustrasi buku halaman 10, BungKarno belajar menembaksenapan karaben kepada tenetara Dai Nippon*DN006

*DN006

7) foto klipping karangan Bung Karno Judul Djawa Senotai! *o12 dan  foto lain dalam buku fatmawati anatara lain Foto Bung Karno berpidato  di Gang Kenari Djakarta *DN008 , Foto Bung Karno dan pemimpin pemerinatahan pendudukan Jepang Gunseikan *DN009, Bung Karno dan romusha *DN0010, Foto Bung Karno dan Ibu Fatmawati ketika lagu Indonesia Raya dinyanyikan dalam sebuah pertunjukan sandiwara “Fadjar Telah Menjinsing” dalam rangka memperinagti berdirinya Perserikatan Oesaha Sandiweara Jawa*DN 011,Foto Bung Karno Menyambut adanya Janji kemerdekaan dikemudian hari bersama pemuda-pemudi Djakarta *DN012, foto surat kabar Asia Raya  mengenai Indonesia Merdeka ,Kemerdekaan kemoedian didjanjikan Dai Nippon Taikoku*DN013, dan Foto Ibu Fatmawati menjahit bendera pusaka Merah Putih *DN014 ,Foto Bung Karno memimpin kerja bakti bersama para Romusha didaerah banten *DN015   ( buku  Bunga  rampai ?Karangan Ibu Fatmawati,kulit buku sudah hilang sehingga  info tak lengkap)

8)Dokumen asli Anggota Tjoeoe Sangi -In 2603(1943)*DN TSI001 dan oo2

 *DNTSI

(1) lembar pertama  foto Bung Karno sebagai Ketua *DN 016 dibagian tengah

*DN016

 dan 20 foto anggota di pingir dokumen *020  dan Dr Boentara *DN017 serta  dua puluh  anggota (nomor 21 -40) *DN018, serta tokoh terkenal BUng Hatta sebagai anggota no tiga puluh * DN019, Oto Iskandar Dinata no  tiga delapan*020, Profesor Hoesaein Djajadiningrat no anggota tiga *021 dan Wachid Hasyim (ayah alm Gus Dur) anggota nomor enam belas *022

(2) lembaran kedua foto dua orang wakil Ketua KOesoemo Oetojo *DN023

(3) VIDEO EIGAKU KAISHA, SIDANG TJUA SIANGI-IN KE IV. *DN 024 SAMPAI DN 034

3. MASA PERANG KEMERDEKAAN 1945-1950

                                             

 1) Pidato Presiden Soekarno Dalam mengumumkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia Pada Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 (8X17 Agustus,bag.dokumentasi,Kementrian Penerangan RI,Jakarta,Stensilan Asli,1954), bukuDBR jilid dua tidak dicantumkan.Sesuai dengan ejaan aslinya :  Saudara-saudara sekalian! Saja telah minta saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menjaksikan satu peristiwa maha-penting dalam sedjarah kita. Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa Indonesia telah berdjoang,untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita.Bahkan telah beratus-ratus tahun! Gelombangnja aksi kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naiknja dan ada turunnja,tetapi djiwa jita tetap menudju kearah tjita-tjita. Djuga didalam djaman Djepang,usaha kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan-nasional tidak berhenti-berhenti. Di dalam djaman Djepang ini,tampaknja sadja kita menjandarkan diri kepada mereka.Tetapi pada hakekatnja , tetap kita menjusun tenaga kita sendiri,tetap kita pertjaja kepada kekuatan sendiri. Sekarang tibalah saatnj kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dan nasib tanah air kita didalam tangan kita sendiri.Hanja bangsa jang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri,akan dapat berdiri dengan kuatnja. Maka kami,tadi malam telah mengadakan musjawarat dengan pemuka-pemuka rakjat Indonesia, dari seluruh Indonesia. Permusjawaratan itu seia-sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnja untuk menjatakan kemerdekaan kita. Saudara-saudara! Dengan ini kami menjatakan kebulatan tekad itu.Dengarkanlah proklamasi kami : PROKLAMASI. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan KEMERDEKAAN INDONESIA.  Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain, diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja. Djakarta ,17 Agustus 05 ,Atas nama bangsa Indonesia SOEKARNO-HATTA. Demikianlah,saudara-saudara! Kita sekarang telah merdeka! Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi jang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita! Mulai saat ini kita menjusun Negara kita! Negara Merdeka, Negara Republik Indonesia- merdeka kekal dan abadi.Insja Allah,Tuhan memberkati kemerdekaan kita itu!

( Pidato ini diketik tanpa spasi   sesuai kalimat aslinya, agar tidak ditambah atau dikurangi dari aslinya-Dr Iwan S)

2) KOLEKSI NOMOR PERINGATAN ENAM BULAN MERDEKA TERBITAN HARIAN MERDEKA 17.2.1946

3) KOLEKDI MAJALAH NOMOR KHUSUS PERINGATAN SETAHOEN REPOEBLIK INDONESIA 17.8 .1946ITERNITKAN BADAN PENERBIT NASIONAL.

*ILLUSTRASI KULIT DEPAN GAMBAR  GUNUNG KARANG DENGAN OBAK BEWARNA MERAH PUTIH DENGAN  MOTTO MERDEKA SAMPAI AKHIR ZAMAN.

ISI YANG TERKAIT BUNG KARNO

(1) REPRO SURAT KABAR SOEARA ASIA TENTANG PROKLAMSI INDONESIA MERDEKA De ngan  narasi :  MAKA  TERSIARLAH PROKLAMASI INDONESIA MERDEKA -dalam soesana tekanan militer Djepang- diseloeroeh Tanah Air, bahkan diseloeroeh doenia melaloei lima  boeawana dan empat samoedra.

(2)tulisan PRESIDENT KITA ,DILENGKAPI DENGAN  ILLUSTRASI FOTO presiden soekarno

(3) tulisan hal -11 judul ” MENOEDJOE KE PARLEMEN SEMPOERNA,’  dengan illustrasi  foto bung karno dengan kabninet soekarno sebelah kiri dan  kabinet Sjahrir sebelah kanan(baca tulisan prof soedjatmiko  tentsang kolaburator Jepang dibaba masa pendudukan Jepang sbelum ini-pen) dengan narasi dibawah foto : PADA TABNGGAL 23 NOVEMBER 1945  KABINET SOEKARNO(KIRI)  MENYERAHKAN KEKUASAAN  KEPADA (KANAN) KABINET SJAHRIR ,  bung karno berada ditengah.

(4) hal 64 illustrasi foto Buung Karno,Bung Hatta dan Jendral Sudirman men injau Kapal perang Angkstsn Laut NRI, narasi :” ANGKATAN LAOET REPUBLIK INDONESIA MENDJAMIN KESELAMATAN NEGARA,NOEASA DAN BANGSA”

4)KOLEKSI MINGGOAN UMUM  “SOEARA MOEDA’  NOMOR 63/64 27.8.1946

JUDUL. KENANGAN 1 TAHOEN MERDEKA

*ill.Bung Karno dan Pangeran Diponegoro

                                             POEDJA

P.DIPONEGORO DAN BOENG KARNO , KEODA2NJA PAHLAWAN KEMERDEKAAN. BEDANJA HANJA, JG SEORANG TELAH MENGHADAP TOEHAN,JG. SEORANG MASIH BERDJIWA. KEPADA  JG TELAH PERGI KAMI DO’AKAN MENDAPAT TEMPAT BAIK DIHADLIRAT TOEHAN DAN JG MASIH HIDOEP SEMOGA  SENATIASA DILINDOENGINJA DLM PERDJOEANGAN MEMIMPIN REVOLUSI INI.KITA PERTJAJA BAHWA PERDJOEANGAN KITA AKAN BERHATSIL SEBAGAI HARAPAN KITA : TETAP MERDEKA.

5) 28 JULI 1947

PADA HARI INI DITERBITKAN UANG REVOLUSI nri :  GAMBAR BUNG KARNO  NOMINAL SERATUS RUPIAH, TANDA PEMBAJARAN JANG SAH,NOMOR SERI  SDA 1 DITANDA TANGANI MEN

4. MASA ORDE LAMA 1951-1965

1)BUKU KUNJUNGAN PRESIDEN TIONGKOK LIE SHOU CHI KE INDONESIA DENGAN FOTO KULIT DEPAN BUNG KARNO DAN PRESIDEN TIONGKOK TERSEBUT DIATAS MOBIL BUNG KARNO RI 1

3.BUKU TERBITAN KEMENTERIAN PENERANGAN TAHUN 1958 BERJUDUL  Beberapa fikiran dan pandangan :DUA PEDJUANG NASIONAL INDONESIA-YUGOSLAVIA Josip Broz-Tito  -Dr I r Hadji Soekarno, Pertjetakan Negara-Djakrta-443/B-1958. Buyku ini dengan gambar kulit depan kedua pejuang Nasional tersebut.

4.Buku terbitan Kedutaan Amerika Serikat Jakarta ,judul Foto=foto  dan Reportase tentang Perjalanan  PRESIDEN SOEKARNO DI AMERIKA SERIKAT, FOTO KULIST DEPAN  Bung Karno yang memegang tongkat pusakanya dan Guntur Sukarno didepan patung Abrahan Lincoln di tugu Lincoln Memorial ,Washington .D.C.  dan gambar halaman belakang di Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington ,sebuah panggung didirikan untuk menyambut kedatangan Presiden Soekarno setinggi kira-kira 10 meter,didampinggi oleh bendera-bendera Indonesia dan Amerika setinggi 10 meter. Dia ats panggung ini kepada Presiden Soekarno diserahkan Kunci Kota , ialah sebagai pernyataan selamat datang.

Buku brosur ini siterbitkan untuk memringati kunjungan Presiden Soekarno ke Amerika Serikat yang telah menimbulkan pengartian yang lebih baik dari tanggal 16 Mei – 3 Juni 1956.

Buku brosur  ini sangat menarik karena dilengkapi dengan  gambar peta perjalanan bung Karno, dan  illustrasi foto hitam putih dan berwarna sebanyak delan puluh satu gambar ilustrasi buku , dan pada kulit belakang bagian dlam tertulis ucapan bung karno dengan foto Bung Karnoi melambaikan tanggan :

‘…. DAN SEKARANG, TUAN RUMAH BANGSA AMERIKA, KAWAN2 SAJA DI AMERIKA , SAJA AKAN MENGUTJAPKAN SELAMAT TINGGAL KEPADA SUADARA2. PERHUBUNGAN KITA SEKARANG TELAH MENDJADI LEBIH ERAT DAN MARILAH KITA BERTEKAD AGAR PERBUHUNGAN ITU TETAP ERAT’ (dalam ejaan lama ,asli seperti dalam buku tersebut).

II. PRANGKO BUNG KARNO

1. MASA PERANG KEMEDEKAAN(1945-1949)

2  MASA RIS(1949-1950)

3. MASA ORDE LAMA (1951-1965)

III. MATA UANG BUNG KARNO

IV. KARYA SENI TERKAIT BUNG KARNO

V.KOLESI BUNG KARNO JENIS LAINNYA

1.INFO KELUARGA BUNG KARNO MUTHAKIR

 1) Pernikahan Kartika Soekarno

Seegers-Kartika

“Mas… tulis dong tentang Karina Soekarno…,” begitu permintaan seseorang yang termasuk golongan orang-orang yang rajin berkunjung ke blog ini…. Yang terlintas di benak saya adalah serentet peristiwa terkait Kartika Sari Soekarno atau yang akrab disapa Karina. Dialah buah cinta Bung Karno dan Ratna Sari Dewi, wanita cantik asal Jepang, yang bernama asli Naoko Nemoto.

Ada sekelebat peristiwa ketika Karina kecil dituntun-tuntun di antara kerumuman pelayat jenazah Bung Karno di Wisma Yaso tahun 1971. Ada pula lintasan peristiwa manakala Karina diajak ibundanya berziarah ke makam ayahandanya di Blitar, beberapa tahun kemudian. Dan… tentu saja yang masih lekat adalah peristiwa pernikahan Karina dengan seorang bankir Belanda.

Pernikahan Karina dengan Frits Frederik Seegers berlangsung 2 Desember 2005 di hotel Continental, Amsterdam, Belanda. Frits adalah President Citibank wilayah Eropa. Saat itu, saya masih mengelola Tabloid Cita-Cita dan mendapat sumbangan materi foto-foto eksklusif dari Guruh Soekarnoputra di Yayasan Bung Karno.

Seegers-Kartika3

Megawati sebagai saksi

Dalam pernikahan itu, Megawati Soekarnoputri, kakak Karina dari ibu Fatmawati, bertindak selaku saksi. Tampak Mega tengah menandatangani dokumen pernikahan adiknya. Megawati sendiri hadir bersama putrinya, Puan Maharani, dan adik bungsunya, Guruh Soekarnoputra.

mempelai-guruh-cindy-mega

Pasca upacara pernikahan, Frits Frederik Seegers dan Karina bergambar bersama Guruh Soekarnoputra, Cindy Adams, dan Megawati Soekarnoputri.

guruh-cindy-mega-ratna sari dewi

guruh-mega-puan-kartika

Guruh - Kartika

Dalam resepsi itu, hadir sejumlah orang dekat mempelai, tak terkecuali hadirnya Cindy Adams, penulis biografi Bung Karno. Tak ayal, momentum pernikahan Karina – Seegers menjadi ajang kangen-kangenan di antara kerabat yang sehari-hari terpisah bentang jarak ribuan mil.

tari bali di resepsi

Di hotel Continental pula, pada malamnya langsung digelar resepsi. Selain gala dinner yang eksklusif, Karina juga mendatangkan para penari Bali untuk menghibur para tamu.

Usai menikah, pasangan pengantin baru langsung kembali ke London, Inggris, dan menetap di sana. Karina kembali ke rutinitasnya sebagai aktivis sosial dengan bendera Kartika Soekarno Foundation, sementara suaminya, kembali ke Citibank. (roso daras)

THE END.

__________________________________________________________________________

tarian betawi tempo dulu

MORE INFORMATION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBERS.

PS. THE CD-rom of Bung Karno Museum are availabele ,buy via comment.

@corpyright Dr Iwan s 2010.

Pameran Keramik Langka Kerajaan Tiongkok produksi De Hua

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

 Pameran Keramik Langka Produksi De Hua

Frame satu : Pengantar

Pabrik keramik De Hua lokasinya di propinsi Fukien,dekat kota Changzhou(Tjiangtjioe) tanah kelahiran Kakek saya.

Tahun 2008 saya sempat mengunjungi kota tersebut dan melihat temple Kai Yuan yang sangat indah dan menyaksikan tanah kelahiran suku hokian termasuk wilayah kelahiran kakek saya,  lihat di webblok saya

 ,silahkan klik hhtp://www.uniquecollections.wordpress.com)sayang karena keterbatasan waktu saya  tidak berhasil menemukan lokasi pabrik tersebut.apakah mungkin berada diprovinsi lain,harap yang pernah ke pabrik De Hua berkenan memberikan info.

Artifact keramik De Hua yang bewarna putih dengan atau tanpa dekorasi ditemukan di Indonesia,keramik ini tergolong langka .

Silahkan melihat koleksi pribadi saya dibawah ini.

Salam dari penemu Cybermuseum blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 

Frame dua : De Hua Biru Putih

Frame tiga :

De Hua Putih “Blanc de Chine”

1.DE HUA SUNG DINASTY

2.DEHUA MING DYNASTY

LIHATLAH SEBUAH MANGKUK DE HUA PUTIH DENGAN RELIEF DELAPAN DEWA, BARU DITEMUKAN SATU MANGKUK DENGAN EMPAT DEWA,SEDANGKAN PASANGANNYA DENGAN EMPAT DEWA LAGI BELUM KETEMU. kOLEKSI PRIBADI DR IWAN INI SANGAT LANGKA HANYA SATU SAJA YANG BARU KETEMU DIDUNIA(ONLY ONE EXIST IN THE WORLD) , LIHATLAH ILLUSTRASI YANG DIAMBIL DARI BEBERAPA ARAH,MULAI DARI PANTATNYA,DAN SETIAP DEWA SATU ILLUSTRASI,HARAP YANG MEMILIKI MANGKUK DELAPAN DEWA INI UNTUK MELAPORKAN PENEMUANNYA (WHO HAVE THE SAME  EIGHT IMMORTAL CUP PLEASE TELL ME INCLUDING ALL THE MUSEUM ALL OVER THE WORLD,THANKS)

2.DEHUA QING DINASTY

 

Statue of Guan Yin, Ming Dynasty (Shanghai Museum)

Blanc de Chine (French for “Chinese white”) is the traditional European term for a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province, otherwise known as Dehua porcelain or similar terms. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. It was also exported to Japan in large quantities.

Dehua porcelain, Wade-Giles romanization Te-hua, Chinese porcelain made at Dehua in Fujian province. Although the kiln began production some time during the Song period (960–1279), most examples of the porcelain are attributed to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The characteristic product of Dehua was the white porcelain known to the French as blanc de chine, which had the appearance of blancmange, or milk jelly. Figures of Buddhist deities, vases, and stoves with molded reliefs of plum blossom were common forms. Dehua ware was exported in large quantities to Southeast Asia and, starting in the 18th century, to Europe, where it .

The first Dehua Kiln, whose white porcelain became a representative genre of the Chinese porcelain industry, was a famous kiln that specialized in white porcelain making. Its sites spread about within the scope of today’s Dehua County, in East China’s Fujian Province.

Dehua County in central Fujian Province is known as one of the Three Porcelain Capitals in China, together with Jingdezhen in East China’s Jiangxi Province and Liling in Central China’s Hunan Province.

Dehua porcelain dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Solid and smooth, Dehua porcelain is resistant to both heat and cold. One type of “Jianbai” porcelain in particular has a sparkle and luster even more stunning than white jade, and its ivory-white color and superb workmanship make it a favorite of art lovers.

The body of its white porcelain was low in iron but high in potassium, while the color of the glazed surface was of a bright, smooth luster, as milky as frozen fat. It was thus often called “lard white” or “ivory white.” Dehua white porcelain used to be one of the major export varieties in various dynasties. In the West it was called the “Chinese white porcelain” or “Marco Polo porcelain.”

The most common objects of Dehua porcelain were a burner, cup, bottle, plate, tin, Zun (a kind of wine vessel), and Ding (an ancient cooking vessel), which were often decorated with appliqués (kinds of ornament) and stamps; the porcelain figurine was also remarkably exquisite. In fact, the masterpiece of Dehua porcelain was the white porcelain figure of Buddha.

Among Dehua porcelains, white Buddha figures, the most famous, represented the highest firing technique of Dehua kilns at that time. With a refined design and an elegant touch, the white porcelain of Dehua kilns became a representative genre of Chinese porcelain industry in that period and was reputed as the Bright Pearl of Porcelain in the World.

Although by the Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368), Dehua porcelains were already being exported to other countries and regions, it was during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) that Dehua porcelain gradually developed its own techniques and styles and enjoyed great development.

In modern times, quite a few Dehua porcelains of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) have won gold prizes in expositions held both at home and abroad, such as Shanghai (East China), Taiwan Province, Japan, and Britain; in addition, Dehua porcelain is one of the main products of the national porcelain export, being exported to more than 80 countries and regions.

Keramik Yang ditemukan dari Kapal Karam Termasuk dari De Hua

Ceramics

The number of ceramic pieces of each type recovered from the Desaru ship is listed at the end of this section.

 
Type number & description
Lion-dog dish
1: Lion dog dish
Large porcelain dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue and copper red, and depicts a lion dog playing with a brocade ball. Four bands of stylised Tibetan characters decorate the cavetto. The lion dog, or dog of fu, is the Buddhist guardian lion; it looks like a Pekinese dog with a brushy tail. It is often shown playing with a ball and ribbons. It appears in the Ming dynasty but also used in Qing dynasty. The base is unglazed.
Size: 27-29 cm diameter.
Flower dish
2 & 2.1: Flower dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemum blossoms amidst scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship, associated with a life of ease and retirement. The flower can be used as a tonic or cosmetic. It appears in decorations from the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) onwards.
2 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
2.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
Longevity dish
3 & 3.1: Longevity dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue. It shows the Chinese character shou (for long life) at the centre with bands of a stylised Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable) on the cavetto. The longevity mark promises a long happy life, full of good luck and happy circumstances.
3 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
3.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
Small flower dish, face & base 4: Small flower dish
Small dish with rounded sides and a well-made low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemums altering with various scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
Character dish 5: Character dish
Small dish with rounded sides and low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features the Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable), and three tiers of a stylised version of the same character on the cavetto. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
Flower plate 7: Flower plate
Small well-made dish with flat rim, decorated in cobalt blue oxides, with a stylised chrysanthemum flower surrounded by a flower spray in the medallion. The plate is probably made in the Jingdezhen area. The base, which is low and well-mended, is glazed, and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 18-21 cm diameter.
Flower saucer 8: Flower saucer
Similar design as the above flower plate: exterior decorated in cobalt blue with a lingzhi fungus motif connected by a scroll of fungus. The base is glazed and shows the mark of its manufacturer.
Size: 9-11 cm diameter.
Flower bowl 9: Flower bowl
Bowl with everted mouth rim, decorated with cobalt blue oxide, showing a lingzhi fungus motif at the centre bottom, a fungus scroll at the mouth rim, and lotus scroll above a band of lotus panels on the exterior. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s name.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
lotus-shape flower bowl 10: Lotus-shape flower bowl
Blue and white decorated bowl with straight mouth rim. The decoration, a lotus flower and scrolls, is drawn only in outline, not filled with the traditional wash. The foot-ring is well-mended, glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in the glazed base.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
celadon white bowl 11: Celadon-white bowl
Chinese bowl from the Jingdezhen area with a translucent glaze on the interior and celadon glaze on the exterior. The foot-ring and manufacturer’s mark are similar to those of the bowls listed above.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
qing bowl 12: Qing bowl
Chinese bowl from Guangdong province. The underglaze blackish-blue decoration includes floral motifs equally spaced round the exterior. The interior has an unglazed stacking ring.
Size: 13-15cm diameter.
spoon
13: Spoon
More than 50,000 spoons were found on the ship. There were three main designs and qualities. The ‘nice’ spoon was perfectly moulded and finished, and decorated with a finely drawn floral motif. Another design included the Chinese symbols for yin and yang. Most spoons however were decorated with a simple floral scroll. The base is usually rather rough and has a low unglazed foot-ring.
Size: 10-11 cm long.
covered bowl
14: Covered bowl
Chinese blue and white covered bowl from Jingdezhen. This example is decorated with four double-happiness characters, alternating with geometric motifs, equally spaced around the exterior of the body. Other covered bowls of the same size and form have similar exterior decoration featuring various flower motifs. The base is very low and glazed but does not show any mark of the manufacturer. The foot-ring is thin and free from glaze and grits.
Size: 10-12 cm high.
yixing teapot
15, 15.1 & 15.2: Yixing teapot
Chinese Yixing teapots from Jiangsu province. Various potters’ marks and seals appear on the base. These pots are handmade and beaten into the desired shape, usually by famous potters specializing in teapot making.
15 – Small: 4-6 cm high.
15.1 – Medium: 8-10 cm high.
15.2 – Large: 10-12 cm high.
teapot with cover
16: Teapot with cover
Chinese blue and white teapot with recessed lid, probably made at one of the Jingdezhen kilns. The clay is white, glaze is clear and transparent, and the foot-ring is low but well mended. Decorations around the body are made within a centralized band of medallions, separated by two bands of stylized lappets. The missing handle was probably made of double brass wires, fitting into the double bracket. The base is glazed but shows no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 16-18 cm high.
black-glazed basin
17: Black-glazed basin
‘Flowerpot’ from southern China, thrown on a wheel. A number of carved, horizontal lines high on the body terminate at the rounded mouth rim. Black-glazed, with no other decoration. These pots were fired on spur discs; many show spur marks from rectangular discs.
Size: 12-14cm high.
black-glazed covered box
18: Black-glazed covered box
Yixing covered boxes: in sets of four, of different sizes, fitting one inside the other. Originally green-glazed, many of the boxes had turned black due to oxidation. These pots are light due to their porous clay and thin walls. They are handmade in traditional Yixing manner. The box and lid form imitate ‘Jun’ ware dating from the Song dynasty.
Size: 9-22cm high.
brown-glazed basin
19: Brown-glazed basin
Brown-glazed garden pot from southern China, made of coarse clay thrown on a wheel in diminishing sizes (sets of three). The exterior is decorated with various stamped motifs. A light brownish glaze ends well above the foot-ring. The mouth rim and foot-ring are cut flat.
Size: 7, 10 and 11 cm high.
brown-glazed bowls
20: Brown-glazed bowls
Garden pots made from Yixing clay. These pots, like all other Yixing wares, are assembled from a round handmade base and rectangular side pieces, assembled into a desired shape and then beaten into the final form. These pots are extremely light in weight. The joint between the side and bottom piece can often be seen.
Size: 11- 24 cm diameter.
brown-glazed jar
21: Brown-glazed jar
Brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 18-20 cm high.
brown-glazed storage jar
22: Brown-glazed storage jar
Larger brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 49-51cm high.
brown-glazed urn
23: Brown-glazed urn
Smaller brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. These jars were stored below deck, filling the cargo space between larger jars. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines. The glaze ends above the base.
Size: 15-17 cm high.
brown-glazed kendi
24: Brown-glazed kendi
Unusual type of kendi, apparently of the same rough clay as the storage jars and probably made in southern China. The kendis are likely to have been used for wine or other relatively valuable drinks, rather than water. These kendis belong to the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) and ring-handled spouted jar (33).
Size: 24 cm high.
guan covered jar
25: ‘Guan’ covered jar
This type of jar is often referred to as a Kamcheng and was made at Jingdezhen. The lid handle is moulded in the form of a Buddhist lion (lion dog or ‘dog of fu’), and the cobalt blue decoration includes sweet pea blossoms on a ground of sweet pea foliage. Pairs of small handles are set below the shoulder. The form of the Kamcheng is derived from the ‘Guan’ shaped jar of the Yuan dynasty.
Size: 20-25 cm high.
enamel-decorated covered bowl
26: Enamel-decorated covered bowl
Thin-walled white porcelain bowl, made at Jingdezhen, and often used for serving wine. The lid is ‘reversible’ and can be used to serve smaller dishes. The bowl has an overglaze enamel motif, depicting anything from bamboo to dragons. A few of these bowls show calligraphic characters often quoting famous Chinese poems.
Size: 8.5cm high.
water pot
27: Water pot
Yixing chamber pot or water pot assembled from handmade pieces of clay. The colour of the clay, as with other Yixing wares, varies greatly. Water pots seen elsewhere are mostly green-glazed, while many pots on the Desaru ship were black-glazed. The green-glazed pots are often oxidized, appearing black.
Size: 13.5 cm high.
spouted jar
28: Spouted jar
Brown-glazed spouted jar made at Yixing, assembled from individual pieces of clay, and used to store and serve wine. Four lug handles are distributed evenly around the flattened shoulder. These jars are most commonly black-glazed, and have no decoration of any kind.
Size: 14cm high.
tall basin
29: Tall basin
Yixing jar, unusual for the carved vertical striations on the exterior. These basins were found with lids, stored in separate areas. As with other Yixing wares, the basins are assembled from individual pieces of clay. Originally covered with green and black glaze, some of the green-glazed basins appear black due to oxidation.
Size: 22cm high.
wine cup
30: Wine cup
Wine or tea cup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are straight with a rounded mouth rim. Geometric motifs are painted in cobalt oxide. The base is glazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4 -5 cm high.
tea bowl
31: Tea bowl
Teacup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are everted and end with a slightly rounded attachment to the foot-ring. The bowls are plain or show light cobalt blue decorations. The base is unglazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4-5 cm high.
brown-glazed spouted jar
32: Brown-glazed spouted jar
These urns of rather rough clay are probably made in southern China and belong to the same group as the brown-glazed kendis (24) and ring-handled spouted jar (33). The spout resembles the traditional Arabic style, but is crudely attached to the body. The glaze ends well above the base.
Size: 25 cm high.
ring-handled spouted jar
33: Ring-handled spouted jar
One of these jars was found. It probably comes from southern China, and is of the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) but with a refinement: an additional pad below the handles, attached high on the shoulder. The glaze terminates in the middle of the body. The jar is likely to have been used to hold and serve water.
Size: 25 cm high.
shanghai jar
34: Shanghai jar
The ‘Shanghai jars’, actually made at Suzhou, are of coarse clay, similar to that used in the brown-glazed kendis and urns. The exterior is glazed in yellow-brown slip over hand-formed and carved motifs which include flowers, birds, bamboo and dragons. A key fret normally decorated the shoulder. Jars of this type were once used to store preserved eggs.
Size: 75 cm high.
green-glazed storage jar
35: Green-glazed storage jar
These storage jars are of a clay apparently identical to that of the Shanghai jars, so are probably from Suzhou. They were originally green-glazed, and have no decoration.
Size: 75 cm high.
large beaker
36: Large beaker
These beakers are made from coarse clay with frequent grits of stones. They probably come from southern China, and are rather heavy for wheel-thrown pots. They have no decoration, but the mouth rim is well mended.
Size: 47 cm diameter.
gunpowder urn
37: Gunpowder urn
Globular, black-glazed stoneware jar with short neck and four small lug handles placed high on the shoulder. Two were found; they are thought to have contained gunpowder.
Size: 35 cm high.
spring dish
38: Spring dish
These dishes, made at Jingdezhen, are decorated with blue cobalt oxide and red copper oxides below a clear glaze. The design features birds and prunus blossoms against a backdrop of a lake and what may be a pavilion in the foreground.
Size: 24.5 cm diameter.
mineral water bottle
39: Mineral water bottle
Light-brown stoneware bottle. On the shoulder is a stamped medallion showing a lion rampant encircled by the letters ‘SELTERS’. This may be the name of the German manufacturer. Under this is a horizontal inscription ‘HERZUGTHUM NASSAU’. The bottle is dated to c.1800(1).
Size: 29 cm high.

 

//

 Dehua porcelain

The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over one-hundred and eighty kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present. The two principal kiln sites were those of Qudougong 屈斗宫 and Wanpinglun 碗坪仑. The Wanpinglun site is the older of the two and manufactured pressed wares and others. The kilns of Dehua also produced other ceramic wares, including some with under glaze blue decoration.

Tripod Early 17th Century, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

From the Ming period porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as “ivory white” and “milk white.” The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory color. This color makes it instantly recognizable and quite different from the porcelain from the Imperial kilns of Jingdezhen, which contains more iron and has to be fired in reduction (i.e., an atmosphere with carbon dioxide) if it is not to appear an unpleasant straw color.[1]

The unfired porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. Donnelly lists the following types of product: figures, boxes, vases and jars, cups and bowls, fishes, lamps, cup-stands, censers and flowerpots, animals, brush holders, wine and teapots, Buddhist and Taoist figures, secular figures and puppets. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e.g. Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan and Ta-mo figures. Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy, was particularly revered in Fujian and there exist innumerable figures of her. Donnelly says, “There is no doubt that figures constitute the great glory of blanc de Chine.” Some have been produced with little modification from the late 16th or early 17th century.[2] Crisply modeled figures with a smooth white glaze were popular as were joss-stick holders, brush pots, Dogs of Fo, libation cups and boxes.

The devotional objects produced at Dehua (incense burners, candlesticks, flower vases and statuettes of saints) “conformed to the official stipulations of the early Ming period, not only in their whiteness but also in imitating the shape of archaic ritual objects”.[3] They were probably used in the domestic shrines that every Chinese home possessed. However, one Confucian polemicist, Wen Zhenheng (1585–1645), specifically forbade the use of Dehua wares for religious purposes, presumably for their lack of antiquity: “Among the censers the use of which should be specifically forbidden are those recently made in the kilns of Fujian (Dehua).”[3]

The numerous Dehua porcelain factories today make figures and tableware in modern styles. During the Cultural Revolution “Dehua artisans applied their very best skills to produce immaculate statuettes of the Great Leader and the heroes of the revolution. Portraits of the stars of the new proletarian opera in their most famous roles were produced on a truly massive scale.”[3] Mao figures later fell out of favor but have been revived for foreign collectors.

Precise dating of blanc de Chine of the Ming and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties is often difficult because the conservatism of the Dehua potters led them to produce similar pieces for decades or even for centuries. There are blanc de Chine figures being made in Dehua today (e.g. the popular Guanyin and Maitreya figures) little different from those made in the Ming dynasty.

Notable artists in blanc de Chine, such as the late Ming period He Chaozong, signed their creations with their seals. Wares include crisply modeled figures, cups, bowls and joss stick-holders.

Dehua

Dehua is a town near Quanzhou in Fujian.

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 In Japan

Maria Kannon, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

Tripod Box Cover Edo Period, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

Many of the best examples of blanc de Chine are found in Japan where they are used in family altars (butsudan) and other funerary and religious uses. In Japan the white variety was termed hakugorai or “Korean white”, a term often found in tea ceremony circles. The British Museum in London has a large number of blanc de Chine pieces, having received as a gift in 1980 the entire collection of P.J.Donnelly.[4]

Dehua white porcelain in Japan was traditionally known among Japanese as hakugorai or “Korean White Ware.” Although Korai was a term for an ancient Korean kingdom, the term also functioned as a ubiquitous term for various products from the Korean peninsula.

This is not to suggest that historically Japanese were entirely oblivious to the existence of the Fujian province kilns and their porcelain, now known as Dehua or Blanc de Chine ware. The Dehua kilns are located in Fujian province opposite the island of Taiwan. Coastal Fujian province was traditionally a trade center for the Chinese economy with its many ports and urban centers. Fujian white ware was meant for all of maritime Asia.

However a large quantity of these ceramics was intended for a Japanese market before drastic trade restrictions by the mid 17th century. Items were largely Buddhist images and ritual utensils utilized for family altar use. Associations with funerals and the dead have perhaps led to a certain disinterest in this ware among present day Japanese, despite an intense interest in other aspects of Chinese ceramic culture and history.

Many examples of great beauty of this ware have made their way to collections in the west from Japan. Among the countless Buddhist images meant for the Japanese market are those that with strongly stylized robes that show an influence from the Kano School of painting that dominated Tokugawa Japan. It seems a certainty that Dehua white ware was made with Japanese tastes in mind.

Perhaps also likely is Japanese taste in the very plain white incense tripods and associated objects for Japanese religious and ritual observance. Of interest also are the Buddhist Goddesses of Mercy with child figures that close resembled Christian figurines. Such figurines were known as Maria Kannon or “Blessed Virgin Goddesses of Mercy” and were part of the “hidden Christian” culture of Tokugawa Japan which had strictly banned the religion.

White porcelain Buddhist statuary was extensively produced in Japan at the Hirado kilns and elsewhere. The two wares can be easily distinquished. Japanese figures are usually closed on the base and a small hole for ventilation can be seen. Hirado Ware also displays a slightly orange tinge on unglazed areas.

References

  • Ayers, J and Kerr, R., (2000), Blanc de Chine Porcelain from Dehua, Art Media Resources Ltd.
  • Moujian, S., (1986) An Encyclopedia of Chinese Art, p. 292.
  • Shanghai Art Museum, Fujian Ceramics and Porcelain, Chinese Ceramics, vol. 27, Kyoto, 1983.
  • Kato Tokoku, Genshoku toki daijiten (A Dictionary of Ceramics in Color), Tokyo, 1972, p. 777.

Notes

  1. ^ Wood, N., Chinese Glazes: Their Chemistry, Origins and Re-creation, A & C Black, London, and University of Pennsylvania Press, USA, 2007
  2. ^ Donnelly, P.J., Blanc de Chine, Faber and Faber, London, 1969
  3. ^ a b c Ayers, J. and Bingling, Y., Blanc de Chine: Divine Images in Porcelain, China Institute, New York, 2002
  4. ^ Harrison-Hall, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, British Museum, London, 2001

 

Porcelain
 
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Chinese porcelain · Chinese export porcelain · Chinese influences on Islamic pottery

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Ming plate 15th century Jingdezhen kilns Jiangxi
Meissen hard porcelain vase 1735
 
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The Austria Collections Exhibition

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The Austria Historic Collections Exhibition

Prehistory

During the Neolithic, the territory of modern-day Austria was home to the Linear pottery culture, one of the first agrarian cultures in Europe.

Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy of a man frozen in Austrian Alps, is dated around 3300 BC.

 Celts and Romans

Wiki letter w.svg This section requires expansion.

Early Middle Ages

During the Migration Period, the Slavic tribe of the Carantanians migrated into the Alps in the wake of the expansion of their Avar overlords during the 7th century, mixed with the Celto-Romanic population, and established the realm of Carantania, which covered much of eastern and central Austrian territory. In the meantime, the Germanic tribe of the Bavarians had developed in the 5th and 6th century in the west of the country and in Bavaria, while what is today Vorarlberg had been settled by the Alemans. Those groups mixed with the Rhaeto-Romanic population and pushed it up into the mountains.

Carantania, under pressure of the Avars, lost its independence to Bavaria in 745 and became a margraviate. During the following centuries, Bavarian settlers went down the Danube and up the Alps, a process through which Austria was to become the mostly German-speaking country it is today.

The Bavarians themselves came under the overlordship of the Carolingian Franks and subsequently a Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. Duke Tassilo III, who wanted to maintain Bavarian independence, was defeated and displaced by Charlemagne in 789

An Eastern March (marchia orientalis) was established in Charlemagne’s time, but it was overrun by the Hungarians in 909.

Babenberg Austria

Ostarrîchi from Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

After the defeat of the Hungarians by Emperor Otto the Great in the Battle of Lechfeld (955), new Marches were established in what is today Austria. The one known as the marchia orientalis was to become the core territory of Austria and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976 after the revolt of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria.

The Marches were overseen by a comes or dux as appointed by the Warlord. The most normal translation of these offices is count or duke, but these titles conveyed very different meanings in the Early Middle Ages, and the Latin terminology is preferable to any modern translation. In lumbardi-speaking countries, the title was eventually regularized to Margrave (German: Markgraf). (i.e. “Count of the Mark”).

The first record showing the name Austria is 996 were it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. The term Ostmark is not historically ascertained and appears to be a translation of marchia orientalis that came up only much later.

The following centuries were characterized first by the settlement of the country, when forests were cleared and towns and monasteries were founded. In 1156 the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria through the Georgenberg Pact. At that time, the Babenberg Dukes came to be one of the most influential ruling families in the region, peaking in the reign of Leopold VI (1198–1230).

However, with the slaughter of his son Frederick II in 1246, the line went extinct, which resulted in the interregnum, a period of several decades during which the status of the country was disputed. Otakar II Přemysl of Bohemia effectively controlled the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat in the battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen at the hand of Rudolf of Habsburg in 1278.

 The Habsburg Monarchy (13th century–1918)

Beginnings (1278–1526)

Following the extinction of the Babenbergs in the 13th century, Austria came briefly under the rule of the Czech King Otakar II. Contesting the election of Rudolf I of Habsburg as Emperor, Otakar was defeated and killed by the German King, who took Austria and gave it to his sons in 1278. Austria was ruled by the Habsburgs for the next 640 years. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria, which remained a small Duchy along the Danube, and Styria, which they had acquired from Ottokar alongside with Austria. Carinthia and Carniola came under Habsburg rule in 1335, Tyrol in 1363. These provinces, together, became known as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands, although they were sometimes all lumped together simply as Austria.

The history of the following two centuries had many ups and downs. Following the notable, but short rule of Rudolf IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III split the realms in the Treaty of Neuberg in 1379. Albert retained Austria proper, while Leopold took the remaining territories. In 1402, there was another split in the Leopoldian line, when Ernest the Iron took Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia and Carniola) and Frederick IV became ruler of Tyrol and Further Austria. The territories were only reunified by Ernest’s son Frederick V (Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor), when the Albertinian line (1457) and the Elder Tyrolean line (1490) had become extinct.

In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, from then on, every emperor was a Habsburg, with only one exception. The Habsburgs began also to accumulate lands far from the Hereditary Lands. In 1477, the Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Low Countries for the family. His son Philip the Fair married the heiress of Castile and Aragon, and thus acquired Spain and its Italian, African, and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs’ hereditary territories, however, were soon separated from this enormous empire when, in 1520, Emperor Charles V left them to the rule of his brother, Ferdinand.

Austria and The Reformation (1526–1618)

In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, in which Ferdinand’s brother-in-law Louis II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was killed, Ferdinand expanded his territories, bringing Bohemia and that part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans under his rule. Habsburg expansion into Hungary, however, led to frequent conflicts with the Turks, particularly the so-called Long War of 1593 to 1606.

Austria and the other Habsburg hereditary provinces (and Hungary and Bohemia, as well) were much affected by the Reformation. Although the Habsburg rulers themselves remained Catholic, the provinces themselves largely converted to Lutheranism, which Ferdinand I and his successors, Maximilian II, Rudolf II, and Mathias largely tolerated.

In the late 16th century, however, the Counter-Reformation and the Society of Jesus began to make its influence felt, and the Jesuit-educated Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, who ruled over Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola before becoming Holy Roman Emperor, was energetic in suppressing heresy in the provinces which he ruled.

Austria and The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)

When, in 1619, he was elected Emperor to succeed his cousin Mathias, the ultra-pious and intransigent Ferdinand II, as he became known, embarked on an energetic attempt to re-Catholicize not only the Hereditary Provinces, but Bohemia and Habsburg Hungary as well as most of Protestant Europe within the Holy Roman Empire. Outside his lands, his reputation for strong headed uncompromising intolerance had triggered the Thirty Years’ War in May of 1618 in the polarizing first phase, known as the Revolt in Bohemia. After several initial reverses, he became accommodating but as the Catholics turned things around and began to enjoy a long string of successes at arms he set forth the Edict of Restitution in 1629 vastly complicating the politics of settlement negotiations and prolonging the rest of the war; encouraged by the mid-war successes, he became even more forceful leading to infamies by his armies such as the Sack of Magdeburg.

His forced conversions or evictions carried out in the midst of the Thirty Years’ War, which with the later general success of the Protestants therefore had greatly negative consequences for Habsburg control of the Holy Roman Empire itself, while these campaigns within the Habsburg hereditary lands were largely successful in religiously purifying his demesnes, leaving the Austrian Emperors thereafter with much greater control within their hereditary power base— although Hungary was never successfully re-Catholicized—but one much reduced in population and economic might while less vigorous and weakened as a nation-state.

In terms of human costs, the Thirty Years’ wars many economic, social, and population dislocations caused by the hardline methods adopted by Ferdinand’s strict counter-reformation measures and almost continual employment of mercenary field armies contributed significantly to the loss of life and tragic depopulation of all the German states, during a war which some estimates put the civilian loss of life as high as fifty-percent overall. Studies mostly cite the causes of death due to starvation or as caused (ultimately by the lack-of-food induced) weakening of resistance to endemic diseases which repeatedly reached epidemic proportions amongst the general Central European population—the German states were the battle ground and staging areas for the largest mercenary armies theretofore, and the armies “foraged” amongst the many provinces stealing the food of those people forced onto the roads as refugees, or still on the lands, regardless of their faith and allegiances. Both townsmen and farmers were repeatedly ravaged and victimized by the armies on both sides leaving little for the populations already stressed by the refugees from the war or fleeing the Catholic counter-reformation repressions under Ferdinand’s governance.

Austria’s Rise to Power (1657–1714)

The long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) saw the culmination of the Austrian conflict with the Turks. Following the successful defense of Vienna in 1683 led by King of Poland John III Sobieski, a series of campaigns resulted in the return of all of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699. At the same time, Austria was becoming more involved in competition with France in Western Europe, with Austria fighting the French in the Third Dutch War (1672–1679), the War of the League of Augsburg (1688–1697) and finally the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), in which the French and Austrians (along with their British, Dutch and Catalonian allies) fought over the inheritance of the vast territories of the Spanish Habsburgs. Although the French secured control of Spain and its colonies for a grandson of Louis XIV, the Austrians also ended up making significant gains in Western Europe, including the former Spanish Netherlands (now called the Austrian Netherlands, including most of modern Belgium), the Duchy of Milan in Northern Italy, and Naples and Sardinia in Southern Italy. (The latter was traded for Sicily in 1720).

Charles VI and Maria Theresa (1711–1780)

Maria Theresa of Austria as a young woman in 1727

The later part of the reign of Emperor Charles VI (1711–1740) saw Austria relinquish many of these fairly impressive gains, largely due to Charles’s apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for other powers’ worthless recognitions of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. The most notable instance of this was in the War of the Polish Succession whose settlement saw Austria cede Naples and Sicily to the Spanish Infant Don Carlos in exchange for the tiny Duchy of Parma and Spain and France’s adherence to the Pragmatic Sanction. The latter years of Charles’s reign (1736–1739) also saw an unsuccessful war against the Turks, which resulted in the Austrian loss of Belgrade and other border territories.

And, as many had anticipated, when Charles died in 1740, all those assurances from the other powers proved of little worth to Maria Theresa. The peace was initially broken by King Frederick II of Prussia, who invaded Silesia. Soon other powers began to exploit Austria’s weakness. The Elector of Bavaria claimed the inheritance to the hereditary lands and Bohemia, and was supported by the King of France, who desired the Austrian Netherlands. The Spanish and Sardinians hoped to gain territory in Italy, and the Saxons hoped to gain territory to connect Saxony with the Elector’s Polish Kingdom. Austria’s allies—Britain, Holland, and Russia, were all wary of getting involved in the conflict. Thus began the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), one of the more confusing and less eventful wars of European history, which ultimately saw Austria holding its own, despite the permanent loss of most of Silesia to the Prussians. In 1745, following the reign of the Bavarian Elector as Emperor Charles VII, Maria Theresa’s husband Francis of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was elected Emperor, restoring control of that position to the Habsburgs (or, rather, to the new composite house of Habsburg-Lorraine).

For the eight years following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the War of the Austrian Succession, Maria Theresa plotted revenge on the Prussians. The British and Dutch allies who had proved so reluctant to help her in her time of need were dropped in favour of the French in the so-called Reversal of Alliances of 1756. That same year, war once again erupted on the continent as Frederick, fearing encirclement, launched a pre-emptive invasion of Saxony. The Seven Years’ War, too, was indecisive, and saw Prussia holding onto Silesia, despite Russia, France, and Austria all combining against him, and with only Hanover as a significant ally on land.

The end of the war saw Austria, exhausted, continuing the alliance with France (cemented in 1770 with the marriage of Maria Theresa’s daughter Archduchess Maria Antonietta to the Dauphin), but also facing a dangerous situation in Central Europe, faced with the alliance of Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 caused a serious crisis in east-central Europe, with Prussia and Austria demanding compensation for Russia’s gains in the Balkans, ultimately leading to the First Partition of Poland in 1772, in which Maria Theresa took Galicia from Austria’s traditional ally.

Over the next several years, Austro-Russian relations began to improve. When the War of Bavarian Succession erupted between Austria and Prussia in 1777 following the extinction of the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, Russia refused to support its ally, and the war was ended, after almost no bloodshed, on May 13, 1779 when Russian and French mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiated an end to the war. In the agreement Austria receive the Innviertel from Bavaria.

The Reigns of Joseph II and Leopold II (1780–1792)

[Joseph II (right) with his brother and successor Leopold II (left)

On Maria Theresa’s death in 1780, she was succeeded by her son Joseph II, already Holy Roman Emperor since Francis I’s death in 1765. Joseph was a reformer, and is often considered the foremost example of an eighteenth century enlightened despot. Joseph attempted to bring under control the Roman Catholic Church and the various provincial nobilities of his lands, which led to widespread resistance, especially in Hungary and the Austrian Netherlands, which were used to their traditional liberties.

Joseph’s foreign policy was equally ambitious, and equally unsuccessful. He pursued a policy of alliance with Catherine the Great’s Russia, which led to a war with the Ottoman Empire in 1787. Austria’s performance in the war was distinctly unimpressive, and the expense involved led to further resistance. By the time of Joseph’s death in 1790, all his plans seemed ruined, with both Hungary and the Netherlands in open revolt and the war in the Balkans dragging on and seeming impossible to finish, given Russia’s commitment to continuing the war.

Joseph’s death proved a boon for Austria, as he was succeeded by his more sensible brother, Leopold II, previously the reforming Grand Duke of Tuscany. Leopold knew when to cut his losses, and soon cut deals with the revolting Netherlanders and Hungarians. He also managed to secure a peace with Turkey in 1791, and negotiated an alliance with Prussia, which had been allying with Poland to press for war on behalf of the Ottomans against Austria and Russia.

Leopold’s reign also saw the acceleration of the French Revolution. Although Leopold was sympathetic to the revolutionaries, he was also the brother of the French queen. Furthermore, disputes involving the status of the rights of various imperial princes in Alsace, where the revolutionary French government was attempting to remove rights guaranteed by various peace treaties, involved Leopold as Emperor in conflicts with the French. The Declaration of Pillnitz, made in late 1791 jointly with the Prussian King Frederick William II and the Elector of Saxony, in which it was declared that the other princes of Europe took an interest in what was going on in France, was intended to be a statement in support of Louis XVI that would prevent the need from taking any kind of action. However, it instead inflamed the sentiments of the revolutionaries against the Emperor. Although Leopold did his best to avoid war with the French, he died in March of 1792. The French declared war on his inexperienced son Francis II a month later.

 The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon (1792–1814)

Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 21–22, 1809)

The war with France, which lasted until 1797, proved unsuccessful for Austria. After some brief successes against the utterly disorganized French armies in early 1792, the tide turned, and the French overran the Austrian Netherlands in the last months of 1792. While the Austrians were so occupied, their erstwhile Prussian allies stabbed them in the back with the Second Partition of Poland, from which Austria was entirely excluded. This led to the dismissal of Francis’s chief minister, Philipp von Cobenzl, and his replacement with Franz Maria Thugut.

At around the same time, the increasing radicalization of the French Revolution, as well as the French occupation of the Low Countries, brought Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Spain into the war, which became known as the War of the First Coalition. Once again, there were initial successes against the disorganized armies of the French Republic, and the Netherlands were recovered. But in 1794 the tide turned once more, and Austrian forces were driven out of the Netherlands again—this time for good. Meanwhile, the Polish Crisis again became critical, resulting in a Third Partition (1795), in which Austria managed to secure important gains. The war in the west continued to go badly, as most of the coalition made peace, leaving Austria with only Britain and Piedmont-Sardinia as allies. In 1796, the French Directory planned a two-pronged campaign in Germany to force the Austrians to make peace, with a secondary thrust planned into Italy. Although Austrian forces under Archduke Charles, the Emperor’s brother, were successful in driving the French back in Germany, the French Army of Italy, under the command of the young Corsican General Napoleon Bonaparte, was brilliantly successful, forcing Piedmont out of the war, driving the Austrians out of Lombardy and besieging Mantua. Following the capture of Mantua in early 1797, Bonaparte advanced north through the Alps against Vienna, while new French armies moved again into Germany. Austria sued for peace. By the terms of the Treaty of Campo Formio of 1797, Austria renounced its claims to the Netherlands and Lombardy, in exchange for which it partitioned the territories of the Republic of Venice with the French. The Austrians also provisionally recognized the French annexation of the Left Bank of the Rhine, and agreed in principle that the German princes of the region should be compensated with ecclesiastical lands on the other side of the Rhine.

The peace did not last for long. Soon, differences emerged between the Austrians and French over the reorganization of Germany, and Austria joined Russia, Britain, and Naples in the War of the Second Coalition in 1799. Although Austro-Russian forces were initially successful in driving the French from Italy, the tide soon turned—the Russians withdrew from the war after a defeat at Zürich (1799) which they blamed on Austrian recklessness, and the Austrians were defeated by Bonaparte, now First Consul at Marengo, which forced them to withdraw from Italy, and then in Germany at Hohenlinden. These defeats forced Thugut’s resignation, and Austria, now led by Ludwig Cobenzl, to make peace at Lunéville in early 1801. The terms were surprisingly mild—the terms of Campo Formio were largely reinstated, but now the way was clear for a reorganization of the Empire on French lines. By the Imperial Deputation Report of 1803, the Holy Roman Empire was entirely reorganized, with nearly all of the ecclesiastical territories and free cities, traditionally the parts of the Empire most friendly to the House of Austria, eliminated.

Map of Europe in 1811 after several French victories

With Bonaparte’s assumption of the title of Emperor of the French in 1804, Francis, seeing the writing on the wall for the old Empire, took the new title of Emperor of Austria as Francis I, in addition to his title of Holy Roman Emperor. Soon, Napoleon’s continuing machinations in Italy, including the annexation of Genoa and Parma, led once again to war in 1805—the War of the Third Coalition, in which Austria, Britain, Russia, and Sweden took on Napoleon. The Austrian forces began the war by invading Bavaria, a key French ally in Germany, but were soon outmaneuvered and forced to surrender by Napoleon at Ulm, before the main Austro-Russian force was defeated at Austerlitz on December 2. By the Treaty of Pressburg, Austria was forced to give up large amounts of territory—Dalmatia to France, Venetia to Napoleon’s Kingdom of Italy, the Tyrol to Bavaria, and Austria’s various Swabian territories to Baden and Württemberg, although Salzburg, formerly held by Francis’s younger brother, the previous Grand Duke of Tuscany, was annexed by Austria as compensation.

The defeat meant the end of the old Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon’s satellite states in southern and Western Germany seceded from the Empire in the summer of 1806, forming the Confederation of the Rhine, and a few days later Francis proclaimed the Empire dissolved, and renounced the old imperial crown.

Over the next three years Austria, now led by Philipp Stadion, attempted to maintain peace with France, but the overthrow of the Spanish Bourbons in 1808 was deeply disturbing to the Habsburgs, who rather desperately went to war once again in 1809, this time with no continental allies. Stadion’s attempts to generate popular uprisings in Germany were unsuccessful, and the Russians honored their alliance with France, so Austria was once again defeated, although at greater cost than Napoleon, who suffered his first battlefield defeat in this war, at Aspern-Essling, had expected. The terms of the Treaty of Schönbrunn were quite harsh. Austria lost Salzburg to Bavaria, some of its Polish lands to Russia, and its remaining territory on the Adriatic (including much of Carinthia and Styria) to Napoleon’s Illyrian Provinces.

Klemens von Metternich, the new Austrian foreign minister, aimed to pursue a pro-French policy. The Emperor’s daughter, Marie Louise, was married to Napoleon, and Austria contributed an army to Napoleon’s invasion of Russia in 1812. With Napoleon’s disastrous defeat in Russia at the end of the year, and Prussia’s defection to the Russian side at the beginning of 1813, Metternich began slowly to shift his policy. Initially he aimed to mediate a peace between France and its continental enemies, but when it became apparent that Napoleon was not interested in compromise, Austria joined the allies and declared war on France in August 1813. The Austrian intervention was decisive. Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig in October, and forced to withdraw into France itself. As 1814 began, the Allied forces invaded France. Initially, Metternich remained unsure as to whether he wanted Napoleon to remain on the throne, a Marie Louise regency for Napoleon’s young son, or a Bourbon restoration, but he was eventually brought around by British Foreign Secretary Lord Castlereagh to the last position. Napoleon abdicated on April 3, 1814, and Louis XVIII was restored, soon negotiating a peace treaty with the victorious allies at Paris in June.

The Nineteenth Century (1815–1918)

Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war in Russia, 1915

Under the control of Metternich, the Austrian Empire entered a period of censorship and a police state in the period between 1815 and 1848 (Biedermaier or Vormärz period). However, both liberalism and nationalism were on the rise, which resulted in the Revolutions of 1848. Metternich and the mentally handicapped Emperor Ferdinand I were forced to resign to be replaced by the emperor’s young nephew Franz Joseph. Separatist tendencies (especially in Lombardy and Hungary) were suppressed by military force. A constitution was enacted in March 1848, but it had little practical impact. However, one of the concessions to revolutionaries with a lasting impact was the freeing of peasants in Austria. This facilitated industrialization, as many flocked to the newly industrializing cities of the Austrian domain (in the industrial centers of Bohemia, Lower Austria, Vienna, and Upper Styria). Social upheaval led to increased strife in ethnically mixed cities, leading to mass nationalist movements.

In 1859, the defeats at Solférino and Magenta against the combined forces of France and Sardinia led to the loss of Lombardy and Tuscany to the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was striving to create a unified national Italian state.

The defeat at Königgrätz in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 resulted in Austria’s exclusion from Germany; the German Confederation was dissolved. The monarchy’s weak external position forced Franz Joseph to concede internal reforms. To appease Hungarian nationalism, Franz Joseph made a deal with Hungarian nobles, which led to the creation of Austria-Hungary through the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The western half of the realm (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) now became two realms with different interior policy, but with a common ruler and a common foreign and military policy.

Austrian 100 Years of Universal Male Suffrage coin, depicting a historic photo of the Parliament in 1907, right after the elections.

The Austrian half of the dual monarchy began to move towards constitutionalism. A constitutional system with a parliament, the Reichsrat, was created, and a bill of rights was enacted in 1867. Suffrage to the Reichstag’s lower house was gradually expanded until 1907, when equal suffrage for all male citizens was introduced. However, the effectiveness of parliamentarism was hampered by conflicts between parties representing different ethnic groups, and meetings of the parliament ceased altogether during World War I.

The decades until 1914 generally saw a lot of construction, expansion of cities and railway lines, and development of industry. During this period, now known as Gründerzeit, Austria became an industrialized country, even though the Alpine regions remained characterized by agriculture.

In 1878, Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had been cut off from the rest of the Ottoman Empire by the creation of new states in the Balkans. The territory was annexed in 1908 and put under joint rule by the governments of both Austria and Hungary.

Map showing Austrian German–inhabited areas (in rose) in western Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1911

Nationalist strife increased during the decades until 1914. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the presumed heir of Franz Joseph as Emperor, in Sarajevo by a Serb nationalist group triggered World War I. The defeat of the Central Powers in 1918 resulted in the disintegration of Austria-Hungary. Emperor Karl of Austria, who had ruled since 1916, went into exile.

 German Austria and the First Republic (1918–1934)

Following the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, in the Aftermath of World War I the Empire was broken up based loosely on national grounds. Austria, with its modern borders, was created out of the main German speaking areas. On 12 November 1918, Austria became a republic called German Austria. The newly formed Austrian parliament asked for union with Germany. Article 2 of its provisional constitution stated: Deutschösterreich ist ein Bestandteil der Deutschen Republik (German Austria is part of the German Republic). Plebiscites in the countries of Tyrol and Salzburg 1919–21 yielded majorities of 98 and 99% in favour of a unification with Germany. It was feared that small Austria was not economically viable. In the end France and Italy prevented the merger, and demanded the construction of an independent Austria that had to remain autonomous for at least 20 years. The Treaty of Saint Germain included a provision that prohibited political or economic union with Germany and forced the country to change its name from the “Republic of German Austria” to the “Republic of Austria,” i.e. the First Republic. The German-speaking bordering areas of Bohemia and Moravia (later called the “Sudetenland“) were allocated to the newly founded Czechoslovakia. Many Austrians and Germans regarded this as hypocrisy since U.S. president Woodrow Wilson had proclaimed in his famous “Fourteen Points” the “right of self-determination” for all nations. In the democratic German Weimar constitution the aim of unification was codified in article 61: „Deutschösterreich erhält nach seinem Anschluß an das Deutsche Reich das Recht der Teilnahme am Reichsrat mit der seiner Bevölkerung entsprechenden Stimmenzahl. Bis dahin haben die Vertreter Deutschösterreichs beratende Stimme.“ (German Austria has the right to participate in the Reichsrat (Germany) (the constitutional representation of the federal German states) with a consulting role according to its number of inhabitants until the unification with Germany.”).

Territorial claims of Austria 1918/19

Although Austria-Hungary had been one of the Central Powers, the allied victors were much more lenient with a defeated Austria than either Germany or Hungary. Representatives of the new Republic of Austria convinced them that it was unfair to penalize Austria for the actions of a now dissolved Empire, especially as other areas of the Empire were now perceived to be on the “victorious” side, simply because they had renounced the Empire at the end of the war. Austria never did have to pay reparations because allied commissions determined that the country could not afford to pay. It was also the only defeated country to acquire additional territory as part of border adjustments: the Burgenland, a small land tract to the east that despite its German-speaking majority had belonged to Hungary. The area had been discussed as the site of a Czech Corridor to Yugoslavia.

On 20 October 1920, a plebiscite in the Austrian state of Carinthia was held in which the population chose to remain a part of Austria, rejecting the territorial claims of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to the state. The German-speaking parts of western Hungary, now christened Burgenland, joined Austria as a new state in 1921, with the exception of the city of Sopron, whose population decided in a referendum (which is sometimes considered by Austrians to have been rigged) to remain with Hungary. However, the Treaty of Saint Germain also meant that Austria lost significant German-speaking territories, in particular the southern part of Tyrol (now the province of Bolzano-Bozen), to Italy and the German-speaking areas within Bohemia and Moravia to Czechoslovakia.

Between 1918 and 1920, there was a coalition government including both left and right-wing parties, which enacted progressive socio-economic and labour legislation. In 1920, the modern Constitution of Austria was enacted. The interwar years were socio-economically difficult for Austria, partly because the newly created borders tore apart what had been a common economic area.

High inflation led to a change of currency from the old Krone (here marked as German-Austrian) to the new Schilling in 1925

Austrian politics were characterized by intense and sometimes violent conflict between left and right from 1920 onwards. The Social Democratic Party of Austria, which pursued a fairly left-wing course known as Austromarxism at that time, could count on a secure majority in “Red Vienna“, while right-wing parties controlled all other states. Since 1920, Austria was ruled by the Christian Socialist Party, which had close ties to the Roman Catholic Church. It was headed by a Catholic priest named Ignaz Seipel (1876–1932), who served twice as Chancellor (1922–1924 and 1926–1929). While in power, Seipel was working for an alliance between wealthy industrialists and the Roman Catholic Church.

Both left-wing and right-wing paramilitary forces were created during the 20s, namely the Heimwehr in 1921–1923 and the Republican Schutzbund in 1923. A clash between those groups in Schattendorf, Burgenland, on 30 January 1927 led to the death of a man and a child. Right-wing veterans were indicted at a court in Vienna, but acquitted in a jury trial. This led to massive protests and fire at the Justizpalast in Vienna. In the July Revolt of 1927, 89 protesters were killed by the Austrian police forces.

Political conflict escalated until the early 1930s. Engelbert Dollfuß of the Christian Social Party became Chancellor in 1932.

[edit] Austrofascism (1934–1938)

Under the Christian Social Party, the Austrian government was moving towards centralization of power in the Fascist model.

David Low’s cartoon shows Micky Mouse (Dollfuss) seeking protection from a cat representing Hitler in the clutches of a cat representing Mussolini.

In March 1933 the Dollfuss cabinet took advantage of a formal error during a vote on a bill in parliament. As the vote was very narrow, all of the three presidents of the National Council stepped down because they were not allowed to vote themselves while in office. This was an unforeseen event but it could have been resolved according to the rules of procedure. However, the cabinet declared that the parliament had ceased to function and forcibly prevented the National Council from reassembling. The executive then took over legislative power by using an emergency provision which had been enacted during World War I. Even after this putsch, the socialist party hesitated and tried to resolve the crisis in a peaceful way.

On 12 February 1934 the new Austrofascist regime provoked the Austrian Civil War by ordering search warrants for the headquarters of the socialist party. At that time the socialist party structures were already weakened and the uprising of its supporters was quickly defeated. Subsequently the socialist party and all its ancillary organisations were banned.

On 1 May 1934, the Dollfuss cabinet approved a new constitution that abolished freedom of the press, established one party system (known as “The Patriotic Front”) and created a total state monopoly on employer-employee relations. This system remained in force until Austria became part of the Third Reich in 1938. The Patriotic Front government frustrated the ambitions of pro-Hitlerite sympathizers in Austria who wished both political influence and unification with Germany, leading to the assassination of Dollfuss on 25 July 1934. His successor Schuschnigg maintained the ban on pro-Hitlerite activities in Austria, but was forced to resign on 11 March 1938 following a demand by Hitler for power-sharing with pro-German circles. Following Schuschnigg’s resignation, German troops occupied Austria with no resistance.

[edit] Part of Nazi Germany (1938–1945)

Main articles: Anschluss and Nazi Germany

Although the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of St. Germain had explicitly forbidden the unification of Austria and Germany, the native Austrian Hitler was striving to annex Austria during the late 1930s, which was fiercely resisted by the Austrian Schuschnigg dictatorship. When the conflict was escalating in early 1938, Chancellor Schuschnigg announced a plebiscite on the issue on March 9, which was to take place on 13 March. On 12 March, German troops entered Austria, who met celebrating crowds, in order to install Nazi puppet Arthur Seyss-Inquart as Chancellor. With a Nazi administration already in place and the country integrated into the Third Reich as so-called Ostmark, a referendum on 10 April approved of the annexation with a majority of 99.73%. This referendum is, however, believed by many observers and historians to have been rigged.

As a result, Austria ceased to exist as an independent country. This annexation was enforced by military invasion but large parts of the Austrian population were in favour of the Nazi regime, many Austrians would participate in its crimes. There was a Jewish population of about 200,000 then living in Vienna, which had contributed considerably to science and culture and very many of these people, with socialist and Catholic Austrian politicians were deported to concentration camps, murdered or forced into exile.

Just before the end of the war, on 28 March 1945, American troops set foot on Austrian soil and the Soviet Union’s Red Army crossed the eastern border two days later, taking Vienna on 13 April. American and British forces occupied the western and southern regions, preventing Soviet forces from completely overrunning and controlling the country.

[edit] The Second Republic (since 1945)

[edit] Allied occupation

Occupation zones in Austria

Main article: Allied-administered Austria

In April 1945 Karl Renner, an Austrian elder statesman, declared Austria separate from Germany and set up a government which included socialists, conservatives and communists. A significant number of these were returning from exile or Nazi detention, having thus played no role in the Nazi government. This contributed to the Allies treating Austria more as a liberated, rather than defeated, country, and the government was recognized by the Allies later that year. The country was occupied by the Allies from 9 May 1945 and under the Allied Commission for Austria established by an agreement on 4 July 1945, it was divided into Zones occupied respectively by American, British, French and Soviet Army personnel, with Vienna being also divided similarly into four sectors—with an International Zone at its heart.

Though under occupation, this Austrian government was officially permitted to conduct foreign relations with the approval of the Four Occupying Powers under the agreement of 28 June 1946. As part of this trend, Austria was one of the founding members of the Danube Commission formed on 18 August 1948. Austria would benefit from the Marshall Plan but economic recovery was very slow—as a result of the State’s 10 year political overseeing by the Allied Powers.[citation needed]

Unlike the First Republic, which had been characterized by sometimes violent conflict between the different political groups, the Second Republic became a stable democracy. The two largest leading parties, the Christian-conservative Austrian People’s Party (ÖVP) and the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) remained in a coalition led by the ÖVP until 1966. The Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ), who had hardly any support in the Austrian electorate[citation needed], remained in the coalition until 1950 and in parliament until 1959. For much of the Second Republic, the only opposition party was the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which included pan-German and liberal political currents. It was founded in 1955 as a successor organisation to the short-lived Federation of Independents (VdU).

[edit] Independence and political development during the Second Republic

The two major parties strove towards ending allied occupation and restoring a fully independent Austria. The Austrian State Treaty was signed on 15 May 1955. Upon the termination of allied occupation, Austria was proclaimed a neutral country, and “everlasting” neutrality was incorporated into the Constitution on 26 October 1955.

The political system of the Second Republic came to be characterized by the system of Proporz, meaning that posts of some political importance were split evenly between members of the SPÖ and ÖVP. Interest group representations with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, businesspeople, farmers etc.) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so that hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus. The Proporz and consensus systems largely held even during the years between 1966 and 1983, when there were non-coalition governments.

The ÖVP-SPÖ coalition ended in 1966, when the ÖVP gained a majority in parliament. However, it lost it in 1970, when SPÖ leader Bruno Kreisky formed a minority government tolerated by the FPÖ. In the elections of 1971, 1975 and 1979 he obtained an absolute majority. The 70s were then seen as a time of liberal reforms in social policy. Today, the economic policies of the Kreisky era are often criticized, as the accumulation of a large national debt began, and non-profitable nationalized industries were strongly subsidized.

Following severe losses in the 1983 elections, the SPÖ entered into a coalition with the FPÖ under the leadership of Fred Sinowatz. In Spring 1986, Kurt Waldheim was elected president amid considerable national and international protest because of his possible involvement with the Nazis and war crimes during World War II. Fred Sinowatz resigned, and Franz Vranitzky became chancellor.

In September 1986, in a confrontation between the German-national and liberal wings, Jörg Haider became leader of the FPÖ. Chancellor Vranitzky rescinded the coalition pact between FPÖ and SPÖ, and after new elections, entered into a coalition with the ÖVP, which was then lead by Alois Mock. Jörg Haider’s populism and criticism of the Proporz system allowed him to gradually expand his party’s support in elections, rising from 4% in 1983 to 27% in 1999. The Green Party managed to establish itself in parliament from 1986 onwards.

[edit] Recent years

The SPÖ–ÖVP coalition persisted until 1999. Austria joined the European Union in 1995 (Video of the signing in 1994), and Austria was set on the track towards joining the Eurozone, when it was established in 1999.

In 1993, the Liberal Forum was founded by dissidents from the FPÖ. It managed to remain in parliament until 1999. Viktor Klima succeeded Vranitzky as chancellor in 1997.

In 1999, the ÖVP fell back to third place behind the FPÖ in the elections. Even though ÖVP chairman and Vice Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel had announced that his party would go into opposition in that case, he entered into a coalition with the FPÖ – with himself as chancellor – in early 2000 under considerable national and international protest. Jörg Haider resigned as FPÖ chairman, but retained his post as governor of Carinthia but kept substantial influence within the FPÖ.

In 2002, disputes within the FPÖ resulting from losses in state elections caused the resignation of several FPÖ government members and a collapse of the government. Wolfgang Schüssel’s ÖVP emerged as the winner of the subsequent election, ending up in first place for the first time since 1966. The FPÖ lost more than half of its voters, but reentered the coalition with the ÖVP. Despite the new coalition, the voter support for the FPÖ continued to dwindle in all most all local and state elections. Disputes between “nationalist” and “liberals” wings of the party resulted in a split, with the founding of a new liberal party called the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ) and led by Jörg Haider. Since all FPÖ government members and most FPÖ members of parliament decided to join the new party, the Schüssel coalition remained in office (now in the constellation ÖVP–BZÖ, with the remaining FPÖ in opposition) until the next elections. On 1 October 2006 the SPÖ won a head on head elections and negotiated a grand coalition with the ÖVP. This coalition started its term on 11 January 2007 with Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor of Austria. For the first time, the Green Party of Austria became the third largest party in a nation-wide election, overtaking the FPÖ by a narrow margin of only a few hundred votes.

The grand coalition headed by Alfred Gusenbauer collapsed in the early summer of 2008 over disagreements about the country’s EU policy. The early elections held on September 28 resulted in extensive losses for the two ruling parties and corresponding gains for Heinz-Christian Strache‘s FPÖ and Jörg Haider‘s BZÖ (the Green Party was relegated to the 5th position). Nevertheless, SPÖ and ÖVP renewed their coalition under the leadership of the new SPÖ party chairman Werner Faymann. In 2008 Jörg Haider died in a car accident and was succeeded as BZÖ party chairman by Herbert Scheibner and as governor of Carinthia by Gerhard Dörfler

the end @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010.

The Germany(Deutschland) Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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Showcase :The Germany (Deutschland) Historic Collections Exhibition

Pre-history

The earliest hominid fossils found in what is now Germany are Homo heidelbergensis (500,000 years old) and the Steinheim Skull (300,000 years old). The Neanderthals, named for Neander Valley, flourished around 100,000 years ago. The region was glaciated from 30,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago. The Nebra sky disk, dated 1600 BC, is one of the oldest known astronomical instruments found anywhere. Northern Germany experienced the Nordic Bronze Age from 1700BC to 450BC and thereafter the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Differences between artifacts from northern Germany and those from southern Germany suggest the beginning of differentiation between the Germanic and Celtic peoples. In the 1st century BC, the Germanic tribes began expanding south, east, and west.[1]

Early history (56 BC to 260 AD)

Main article: Germanic peoples
Germanic tribes in 50 AD (not including most of Scandinavia)
Early Old High German runic inscription on the Pforzen buckle

Germany entered recorded history in June 56 BC, when Roman commander Julius Caesar crossed the Rhine. His army built a huge wooden bridge in only ten days. He retreated back to Gaul upon learning that the Suevi tribe was gathering to oppose him. The English word “Germany” is derived from the Latin Germania, a word first recorded in Caesar’s writings.[2]

Under Augustus, the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to invade Germania (to the Romans, an area running roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains), and it was in this period that the Germanic tribes became familiar with Roman tactics of warfare while maintaining their tribal identity. In AD 9, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius in the clades Variana (“Battle of the Teutoburg Forest”). Arminius later suffered a defeat at the hands of the Roman general Germanicus at the Battle of the Weser River or Idistaviso in AD 16, but the Roman victory was not followed up after the Roman Emperor Tiberius recalled Germanicus to Rome in AD 17. Tiberius wished that the Roman frontier with Germania be maintained along the Rhine. Modern Germany, as far as the Rhine and the Danube, thus remained outside the Roman Empire. By AD 100, the time of TacitusGermania, Germanic tribes settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisians, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke through the Limes and the Danube frontier into Roman-controlled lands.[3]

Germania

Six great German tribes, the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards and the Franks took part in the fragmentation and the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The vandals were two tribes, Hasdingi and the Silingi. Several other tribes were also involved, the Alans and the Suebi in particular, but the Alans were an Iranian people steppe, not Germans. The six major tribes found major kingdoms. All of them disappeared with one exception, the Franks, which gave its name to Western Europe in languages such as Arabic. The diagram shows the fate of kingdoms, two of the Franks, two from Romania, and overthrown by Islam. The parts of Italy from the Lombards by the Romans who obtained naturally fell to the Franks (if then ceded to the pope) and North Africa, the Romans called up from the Vandals, then went to Islam. The Frankish kingdom is divided into the elements of the medieval history of Europe. Although Burgundy and Lorraine, now, as such, Switzerland and Monaco are gone modern pieces of the former and the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are modern pieces of the latter.

Besides the German tribes, and was captured and damaged the Western Roman Empire, there were the tribes that stayed back in Germany proper. These were the Saxons, Alemanni, and the Thuringian Rugier. If the Rugier were Odoacer in 487, destroyed formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and finally the Saxons of 804th When Germany finally separated as the East Franks, took over the old tribal identities as a new stem duchies.

The Stem Duchies & Marches

The Stem Duchies (tribal duchies) in Germany was mainly the areas of the old German tribes of the region. These strains were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alemanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringians, and the Rugians. In the 5th Century the Burgundians moved into Roman territory and would have been in 443 and 458 in the area, then Lower Burgundy. The area they had occupied in Germany, along with the Saxons, was occupied by the Franks. The Rugians which Odoacer destroyed in 487 formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and then the Saxons, in a lengthy campaign of Charles himself, from 804. When Germany finally separated as the East Francia, took over the tribal areas of new identities as the subdivisions of the Empire, joining Lorraine (right Francia Media). For the ruler of this ancient Roman title dux (“the leader”) was adopted. It was originally a Roman frontier military commander used. In German, however, the corresponding title, Herzog, more like a translation of a Greek, , stratêlatês, “army” (stratos) “leader” (elaunein, “to lead”). Thus, the Old High German title of herizoho, from heri, “army,” and ziohan, “to lead.” This looks very much like a similar title, voivode, maybe a translation into Slavic languages.

 The Franks

The Merovingian kings of the Germanic Franks conquered northern Gaul in 486 AD. In the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered several other Germanic tribes and kingdoms and placed them under the control of autonomous dukes of mixed Frankish and native blood. Frankish Colonists were encouraged to move to the newly conquered territories. While the local Germanic tribes were allowed to preserve their laws, they were pressured into changing their religion.

Frankish Empire

Main article: Frankish Empire

Frankish Empire: Realm of Pippin III in 758 (blue), expansion under Charlemagne until 814 (red), marches and dependencies (yellow)

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Franks created an empire under the Merovingian kings and subjugated the other Germanic tribes. Swabia became a duchy under the Frankish Empire in 496, following the Battle of Tolbiac. Already king Chlothar I ruled the greater part of what is now Germany and made expeditions into Saxony while the Southeast of modern Germany was still under influence of the Ostrogoths. In 531 Saxons and Franks destroyed the Kingdom of Thuringia. Saxons inhabit the area down to the Unstrut river. During the partition of the Frankish empire their German territories were a part of Austrasia. In 718 the Franconian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel made war against Saxony, because of its help for the Neustrians. The Franconian Carloman started in 743 a new war against Saxony, because the Saxons gave aid to Duke Odilo of Bavaria. In 751 Pippin III, mayor of the palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church. The Frankish kings now set up as protectors of the Pope, Charlemagne launched a decades-long military campaign against their heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The Saxons (by the Saxon Wars (772-804)) and Avars were eventually overwhelmed and forcibly converted, and their lands were annexed by the Carolingian Empire.

 Middle Ages

Main article: Holy Roman Empire
The prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. (left to right: Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia)
Holy Roman Empire, 10th century
Marienburg (Malbork) castle of the Teutonic Knights
Holy Roman Empire, 14th century

In 768 the Frankish king died, leaving his kingdom to his two sons—Charles and Carloman.[4] When Carloman suddenly died in 771, Charles seized his brother’s lands and made them part of his own kingdom. During the next two years, Charles consolidated his control over his kingdom and became more commonly known as “Charles the Great” or “Charlemagne.” From 771 until his death in 814, Charlemagne extended the Carolingian empire into northern Italy and the territories of all west Germanic peoples, including the Saxons and the Bajuwari (Bavarians). In 800, Charlemagne’s authority was confirmed by his coronation as emperor in Rome. The Frankish empire was divided into counties, and its frontiers were protected by border marches. Imperial strongholds (Kaiserpfalzen) became economic and cultural centres (Aachen being the most famous[5]).

Between 843 and 880, after fighting between Charlemagne’s grandchildren, the Carolingian empire was partitioned into several parts in the Treaty of Verdun (843), the Treaty of Meerssen (870) and the Treaty of Ribemont[6] The German region developed out of the East Frankish kingdom, East Francia. From 919 to 936 the Germanic peoples (Franks, Saxons, Swabians and Bavarians) were united under Duke Henry of Saxony, who took the title of king. For the first time, the term Kingdom (Empire) of the Germans (“Regnum Teutonicorum”) was applied to a Frankish kingdom, even though Teutonicorum at its founding originally meant something closer to “Realm of the Germanic peoples” or “Germanic Realm” than realm of the Germans.[7]

Otto the Great

In 936 , Otto I the Great was crowned at Aachen. He strengthened the royal authority by re-asserting the old Carolingian rights over ecclesiastical appointments.[8] Otto wrested from the nobles the powers of appointment of the bishops and abbots, who controlled large land holdings. Additionally, Otto revived the old Carolingian program of appointing missionaries in the border lands. Otto continued to support the celibacy rule for the higher clergy. Thus, the ecclesiastical appointments never became hereditary. By granting land to the abbotts and bishops he appointed, Otto actually made these bishops into “princes of the Empire” (Reichsfürsten).[9] In this way, Otto was able to establish a national church. In 951 Otto the Great married the widowed Queen Adelheid, thereby winning the Lombard crown. Outside threats to the kingdom were contained with the decisive defeat of the Magyars of Hungary near Augsburg at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955. The Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder rivers were also subjugated. Otto marched on Rome and drove John XII from the papal throne and for years controlled the election of the pope, setting a firm precedent for imperial control of the papacy for years to come. In 962, Otto I was crowned emperor in Rome, taking the succession of Charlemagne, and this also helped establish a strong Frankish influence over the Papacy.

During the reign of Conrad II’s son, Henry III (1039 to 1056 ), the Holy Roman Empire supported the Cluniac reform of the Church – the Peace of God, the prohibition of simony (the purchase of clerical offices) and the celibacy of priests. Imperial authority over the Pope reached its peak. In the Investiture Controversy which began between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII over appointments to ecclesiastical offices, the emperor was compelled to submit to the Pope at Canossa in 1077, after having been excommunicated. In 1122 a temporary reconciliation was reached between Henry V and the Pope with the Concordat of Worms. The consequences of the investiture dispute were a weakening of the Ottonian church (Reichskirche), and a strengthening of the Imperial secular princes.[10]

The time between 1096 and 1291 was the age of the crusades. Knightly religious orders were established, including the Templars, the Knights of St John and the Teutonic Order[11] .

Towns

From 1100, new towns were founded around imperial strongholds, castles, bishops’ palaces and monasteries. The towns began to establish municipal rights and liberties (see German town law), while the rural population remained in a state of serfdom. In particular, several cities became Imperial Free Cities, which did not depend on princes or bishops, but were immediately subject to the Emperor. The towns were ruled by patricians (merchants carrying on long-distance trade). The craftsmen formed guilds, governed by strict rules, which sought to obtain control of the towns. Trade with the East and North intensified, as the major trading towns came together in the Hanseatic League, under the leadership of Lübeck.[12]

Wars and expansion

The German colonisation and the chartering of new towns and villages began into largely Slav-inhabited territories east of the Elbe, such as Bohemia, Silesia, Pomerania, and Livonia (see also Ostsiedlung).[13]

Henry V, great-grandson of Conrad II became Holy Roman Emperor in 1106 upon the death of his father, Henry IV. Henry V’s reign was born into a civil war which had continued from his fathers’ reign.[14] Hoping to gain complete control over the church inside the Empire, Henry V appointed Adalbert of Saarbruken as archbishop of Mainz in 1111 However, like Becket in England some fifty years later, once appointed as archbishop, Adalbert began to take his position seriously and began to assert the powers of the Church against secular authorities, that is, the Emperor. This precipitated the “Crisis of 1111″. Henry, Duke of Bavaria, known as Henry the Proud, became heir to the duchy of Saxony, making him the most powerful lord in the kingdom, as well as the logical successor of Lothair as the Holy Roman Emperor. However in 1137 the magnates turned back to the Hohenstaufen family for a candidate, Conrad III. Conrad III tried to Henry the Proud of his two duchies, leading to war in southern Germany as the Empire divided into two factions. The first faction called themselves the “Welfs” after Henry the Proud’s family name which was the ruling dynasty in Bavaria. The other faction was known as the “Waiblings.” In this early period, the Welfs generally represented ecclesiastical independence under the papacy plus “particularism” (a strengthening of the local duchies against the central imperial authority). The Waiblings on the other hand stood for control of the Church by a strong central Imperial government.[15]

Between 1152 and 1190, during the reign of Frederick I (Barbarossa), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, an accommodation was reached with the rival Guelph party by the grant of the duchy of Bavaria to Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. Austria became a separate duchy by virtue of the Privilegium Minus in 1156.[16] Barbarossa tried to reassert his control over Italy. In 1177 a final reconciliation was reached between the emperor and the Pope in Venice.

In 1180 Henry the Lion was outlawed and Bavaria was given to Otto of Wittelsbach (founder of the Wittelsbach dynasty which was to rule Bavaria until 1918), while Saxony was divided.

From 1184 to 1186 the Hohenstaufen empire under Barbarossa reached its peak in the Reichsfest (imperial celebrations) held at Mainz and the marriage of his son Henry in Milan to the Norman princess Constance of Sicily. The power of the feudal lords was undermined by the appointment of “ministerials” (unfree servants of the Emperor) as officials. Chivalry and the court life flowered, leading to a development of German culture and literature (see Wolfram von Eschenbach).

Between 1212 and 1250 Frederick II established a modern, professionally administered state in Sicily. He resumed the conquest of Italy, leading to further conflict with the Papacy. In the Empire, extensive sovereign powers were granted to ecclesiastical and secular princes, leading to the rise of independent territorial states. The struggle with the Pope sapped the Empire’s strength, as Frederick II was excommunicated three times. After his death, the Hohenstaufen dynasty fell, followed by an interregnum during which there was no Emperor.

Beginning in 1226 under the auspices of Emperor Frederick II, the Teutonic Knights began their conquest of Prussia after being invited to Chelmno Land by the Polish Duke Konrad I of Masovia. The native Baltic Prussians were conquered and Christianized by the Knights with much warfare, and numerous German towns were established along the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. From 1300, however, the Empire started to lose territory on all its frontiers.

The failure of negotiations between Emperor Louis IV with the papacy led in 1338 to the declaration at Rhense by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.

Between 1346 and 1378 Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, sought to restore the imperial authority.

Around the middle of the 14th century, the Black Death ravaged Germany and Europe. From the Dance of Death by Michael Wolgemut (1491)

Around 1350 Germany and almost the whole of Europe were ravaged by the Black Death. Jews were persecuted on religious and economic grounds; many fled to Poland.

The Golden Bull of 1356 stipulated that in future the emperor was to be chosen by four secular electors (the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg) and three spiritual electors (the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne).

After the disasters of the 14th century, early-modern European society gradually came into being as a result of economic, religious and political changes. A money economy arose which provoked social discontent among knights and peasants. Gradually, a proto-capitalistic system evolved out of feudalism. The Fugger family gained prominence through commercial and financial activities and became financiers to both ecclesiastical and secular rulers.

The knightly classes found their monopoly on arms and military skill undermined by the introduction of mercenary armies and foot soldiers. Predatory activity by “robber knights” became common. From 1438 the Habsburgs, who controlled most of the southeast of the Empire (more or less modern-day Austria and Slovenia, and Bohemia and Moravia after the death of King Louis II in 1526), maintained a constant grip on the position of the Holy Roman Emperor until 1806 (with the exception of the years between 1742 and 1745). This situation, however, gave rise to increased disunity among the Holy Roman Empires territorial rulers and prevented sections of the country from coming together and forming nations in the manner of France and England.

During his reign from 1493 to 1519, Maximilian I tried to reform the Empire: an Imperial supreme court (Reichskammergericht) was established, imperial taxes were levied, the power of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag) was increased. The reforms were, however, frustrated by the continued territorial fragmentation of the Empire.

 Early modern Germany

Lutheranism
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Reformation and Thirty Years War

Around the beginning of the 16th century there was much discontent in the Holy Roman Empire caused by abuses such as indulgences in the Catholic Church and a general desire for reform.

In 1515 the Frisian peasants rebellion took place. Led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama, thousands of Frisians (a Germanic race) fought against the suppression of their lands by Charles V. The hostilities ended in 1523 when the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated.

In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther‘s 95 Theses; he had posted them in the town square, and gave copies of them to German nobles, but it is debated whether he nailed them to the church door in Wittenberg as is commonly said. The list detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. One often cited example, though perhaps not Luther’s chief concern, is a condemnation of the selling of indulgences; another prominent point within the 95 Theses is Luther’s disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope.

Statue of Pier Gerlofs Donia, self acclaimed “King of all Frisians”. Famous rebel and freedom fighter of legendary strength and size.

In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly, helped by the Emperor Charles V‘s wars with France and the Turks. Hiding in the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed the others and evolved into what is now the modern German.

“The Holy Roman Empire, 1512.

In 1524 the German Peasants’ War broke out in Swabia, Franconia and Thuringia against ruling princes and lords, following the preachings of Reformist priests. But the revolts, which were assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer (in Franconia), and by the theologian Thomas Münzer (in Thuringia), were soon repressed by the territorial princes. It is estimated that as many as 100,000 German peasants were massacred during the revolt,[17] usually after the battles had ended.[18] With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Reichstag of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran “Augsburg Confession” at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order, founded by the Spaniard Ignatius of Loyola. Central and northeastern Germany were by this time almost wholly Protestant, whereas western and southern Germany remained predominantly Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers.

The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).

In 1556 Charles V abdicated. The Habsburg Empire was divided, as Spain was separated from the Imperial possessions.

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed.

From 1618 to 1648 the Thirty Years’ War ravaged in the Holy Roman Empire. The causes were the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, the efforts by the various states within the Empire to increase their power and the Emperor’s attempt to achieve the religious and political unity of the Empire. The immediate occasion for the war was the uprising of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against the emperor (Defenestration of Prague), but the conflict was widened into a European War by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark (1625–29), Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1630–48) and France under Cardinal Richelieu, the regent of the young Louis XIV (1635–48). Germany became the main theatre of war and the scene of the final conflict between France and the Habsburgs for predominance in Europe. The war resulted in large areas of Germany being laid waste, a loss of approximately a third of its population, and in a general impoverishment.

The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, signed in Münster and Osnabrück: Imperial territory was lost to France and Sweden and the Netherlands left the Holy Roman Empire after being de facto seceded for 80 years already. The imperial power declined further as the states’ rights were increased.

End of the Holy Roman Empire

The German Empire in 1705, map “L’Empire d’Allemagne” from Nicolas de Fer
After the Peace of Hubertsburg in 1763, Prussia became a European great power. The rivalry between Prussia and Austria for the leadership of Germany began

From 1640, Brandenburg-Prussia had started to rise under the Great Elector, Frederick William. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 strengthened it even further, through the acquisition of East Pomerania. A system of rule based on absolutism was established.

In 1701 Elector Frederick of Brandenburg was crowned “King in Prussia“. From 1713 to 1740, King Frederick William I, also known as the “Soldier King”, established a highly centralised state.

Meanwhile Louis XIV of France had conquered parts of Alsace and Lorraine (1678–1681), and had invaded and devastated the Palatinate (1688–1697) in the War of Palatinian Succession. Louis XIV benefited from the Empire’s problems with the Turks, which were menacing Austria. Louis XIV ultimately had to relinquish the Palatinate.

In 1683 the Ottoman Turks were defeated outside Vienna by a Polish relief army led by King Jan Sobieski of Poland while the city itself was defended by Imperial and Austrian troops under the command of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, accompanied by Prince Eugene of Savoy and elector Maximilian Emanuel of Bavaria, the “liberator of Belgrade”. Hungary was reconquered, and later became a new destination for German settlers. Austria, under the Habsburgs, developed into a great power.

In the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748) Maria Theresa fought successfully for recognition of her succession to the throne. But in the Silesian Wars and in the Seven Years’ War she had to cede Silesia to Frederick II, the Great, of Prussia. After the Peace of Hubertsburg in 1763 between Austria, Prussia and Saxony, Prussia became a European great power. This gave the start to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria for the leadership of Germany.

From 1763, against resistance from the nobility and citizenry, an “enlightened absolutism” was established in Prussia and Austria, according to which the ruler was to be “the first servant of the state”. The economy developed and legal reforms were undertaken, including the abolition of torture and the improvement in the status of Jews; the emancipation of the peasants slowly began. Education began to be enforced under threat of compulsion.

In 1772-1795 Prussia took part in the partitions of Poland, occupying western territories of Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth, which led to centuries of Polish resistance against German rule and persecution.

The French Revolution began in 1789. In 1792, Prussia and Austria were the first countries to declare war on France. By 1795, the French had overrun the Austrian Netherlands and the left bank of the Rhine and Prussia had dropped out of the war. Austria continued to fight until 1797 when it was defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy and signed the Treaty of Campo Formio, whereby it gave up Milan and recognised the loss of the Austrian Netherlands and the left bank of the Rhine, but gained Venice.

In 1799, hostilities with France resumed in the War of the Second Coalition. The conflict terminated with the Peace of Luneville in 1801. In 1803, under the “Reichsdeputationshauptschluss” (a resolution of a committee of the Imperial Diet meeting in Regensburg), Napoleon abolished almost all the ecclesiastical and the smaller secular states and most of the imperial free cities. New medium-sized states were established in southwestern Germany. In turn, Prussia gained territory in northwestern Germany.

In 1805, the War of the Third Coalition began. The main Austrian army under general Karl Mack was trapped at Ulm by Napoleon and forced to capitulate. The French then occupied Vienna, and routed a combined Austrian and Russian army at Austerlitz in December 1805. Afterwards, Austria ceded Venice and the Tirol to France and recognised the independence of Bavaria.

French provinces, kingdoms and dependencies in Germany during the Napoleonic Wars

The Holy Roman Empire was formally dissolved on 6 August 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) resigned. Francis II’s family continued to be called Austrian emperors until 1918. In 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established under Napoleon’s protection, which comprised all the minor states of Germany.

Prussia now felt threatened by the large concentration of French troops in Germany and demanded their withdrawal. When France refused, Prussia declared war. The result was a disaster. The Prussian armies were routed at Auerstedt and Jena. The French occupied Berlin and crossed east into Poland. When the Treaty of Tilsit terminated the war, Prussia had lost 40% of its territory, including its recently acquired section of Poland, and had to reduce its army to 45,000 men. There was no popular uprising against the French invasion, and the Prussian populace in fact showed complete apathy.

From 1808 to 1812 Prussia was reconstructed, and a series of reforms were enacted by Freiherr vom Stein and Freiherr von Hardenberg, including the regulation of municipal government, the liberation of the peasants and the emancipation of the Jews. These reforms were designed to encourage the spirit of nationalism in the people and give them something worth fighting for. A reform of the army was undertaken by the Prussian generals Gerhard von Scharnhorst and August von Gneisenau. The army was brought out of the 18th century. Mercenary troops were discarded, and discipline made more humane. Soldiers were encouraged to fight for their country and not merely because a commanding officer told them to.

In 1813 the Wars of Liberation began, following the destruction of Napoleon’s army in Russia (1812). After the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, Germany was liberated from French rule. The Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved.

In 1815 Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo by the Britain‘s Duke of Wellington and by Prussia’s Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. Prussia was considerably expanded after the war, gaining a large part of western Germany, including much of the Rhineland. In the east, it absorbed most of Saxony and also got back some of the Polish territory that had been lost in 1806, although the central part of Poland was left under Russian control.

 German Confederation

Restoration and Revolution

Frankfurt 1848

Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the Revolution of 1848 in the German states

After the fall of Napoleon, European monarchs and statesmen convened in Vienna in 1814 for the reorganisation of European affairs, under the leadership of the Austrian Prince Metternich. The political principles agreed upon at this Congress of Vienna included the restoration, legitimacy and solidarity of rulers for the repression of revolutionary and nationalist ideas.

On the territory of the former “Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”, the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was founded, a loose union of 39 states (35 ruling princes and 4 free cities) under Austrian leadership, with a Federal Diet (Bundestag) meeting in Frankfurt am Main. While this was a great improvement over the 300+ political entities that comprised the old Holy Roman Empire, it was still not satisfactory to many nationalists, and within a few decades, the advent of industrialisation made the German Confederation unworkable. Moreover, not everyone was satisfied with Austria’s leading role in the Confederation. Some argued that it made sense as Austria had been the most powerful German state for more than 400 years, but others said that it was too much of a polyglot nation to be acceptable for such a role, and that Prussia was the natural leader of Germany.

In 1817, inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas of a united Germany, student organisations gathered for the “Wartburg festival” at Wartburg Castle, at Eisenach in Thuringia, on the occasion of which reactionary books were burnt.

In 1819 the student Karl Ludwig Sand murdered the writer August von Kotzebue, who had scoffed at liberal student organisations. Prince Metternich used the killing as an occasion to call a conference in Karlsbad, which Prussia, Austria and eight other states attended, and which issued the Karlsbad Decrees: censorship was introduced, and universities were put under supervision. The decrees also gave the start to the so-called “persecution of the demagogues”, which was directed against individuals who were accused of spreading revolutionary and nationalist ideas. Among the persecuted were the poet Ernst Moritz Arndt, the publisher Johann Joseph Görres and the “Father of Gymnastics” Ludwig Jahn.

In 1834 the Zollverein was established, a customs union between Prussia and most other German states, but excluding Austria. As industrialisation developed, the need for a unified German state with a uniform currency, legal system, and government became more and more obvious.

Growing discontent with the political and social order imposed by the Congress of Vienna led to the outbreak, in 1848, of the March Revolution in the German states. In May the German National Assembly (the Frankfurt Parliament) met in St. Paul’s Church in Frankfurt to draw up a national German constitution.

But the 1848 revolution turned out to be unsuccessful: King Frederick William IV of Prussia refused the imperial crown, the Frankfurt parliament was dissolved, the ruling princes repressed the risings by military force and the German Confederation was re-established by 1850.

The 1850s were a period of extreme political reaction. Dissent was vigorously suppressed, and many Germans emigrated to America following the collapse of the 1848 uprisings. Frederick William IV became extremely depressed and melancholy during this period, and was surrounded by men who advocated clericalism and absolute divine monarchy. The Prussian people once again lost interest in politics. In 1857, the king had a stroke and remained incapacitated until his death in 1861. His brother William succeeded him. Although conservative, he was far more pragmatic and rejected the superstitions and mysticism of Frederick.

William I’s most significant accomplishment as king was the nomination of Otto von Bismarck as chancellor in 1862. The combination of Bismarck, Defense Minister Albrecht von Roon, and Field Marshal Helmut von Moltke set the stage for the unification of Germany.

In 1863-64, disputes between Prussia and Denmark grew over Schleswig, which – unlike Holstein – was not part of the German Confederation, and which Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate into the Danish kingdom. The dispute led to the Second War of Schleswig, which lasted from February–October 1864. Prussia, joined by Austria, defeated Denmark easily and occupied Jutland. The Danes were forced to cede both the duchy of Schleswig and the duchy of Holstein to Austria and Prussia. In the aftermath, the management of the two duchies caused growing tensions between Austria and Prussia. The former wanted the duchies to become an independent entity within the German Confederation, while the latter wanted to annex them. The Seven Weeks War broke out in June 1866. There was widespread opposition to the war in Prussia, as few believed that Austria could be defeated. On 3 July, the two armies clashed at Sadowa-Koniggratz in Bohemia in an enormous battle involving half a million men. The Prussian breech-loading needle guns carried the day over the Austrians with their slow muzzle-loading rifles, who lost a quarter of their army in the battle. Austria ceded Venice to Italy, but did not lose any other territory and had to only pay a modest war indemnity. The defeat came as a great shock to the rest of Europe, especially France, who’s leader Napoleon III had hoped the two countries would exhaust themselves in a long war, after which France would step in and help itself to pieces of German territory. Now the French faced an increasingly strong Prussia.

 North German Federation

Main article: North German Federation

In 1866, the German Confederation was dissolved. In its place the North German Federation (German Norddeutscher Bund) was established, under the leadership of Prussia. Austria was excluded from it. The Austrian hegemony in Germany that had begun in the 15th century finally came to an end.

The North German Federation was a transitional organisation that existed from 1867 to 1871, between the dissolution of the German Confederation and the founding of the German Empire. The unification of the German states into a single economic, political and administrative unit excluded the Austrian territories and the Habsburgs.

 Railways

Political disunity of three dozen states and a pervasive conservatism made it difficult to build railways in the 1830s. However, by the 1840s, trunk lines did link the major cities; each German state was responsible for the lines within its own borders. Economist Friedrich List summed up the advantages to be derived from the development of the railway system in 1841:

1/ as a means of national defence, it facilitates the concentration, distribution and direction of the army.2/ It is a means to the improvement of the culture of the nation…. It brings talent, knowledge and skill of every kind readily to market.3/ It secures the community against dearth and famine, and against excessive fluctuation in the prices of the necessaries of life.

4/ It promotes the spirit of the nation, as it has a tendency to destroy the Philistine spirit arising from isolation and provincial prejudice and vanity. It binds nations by ligaments, and promotes an interchange of food and of commodities, thus making it feel to be a unit. The iron rails become a nerve system, which, on the one hand, strengthens public opinion, and, on the other hand, strengthens the power of the state for police and governmental purposes.[19]

Lacking a technological base at first, the Germans imported their engineering and hardware from Britain, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways. In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by 1850, Germany was self sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry. Observers found that even as late as 1890, their engineering was inferior to Britain’s. However, German unification in 1870 stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth. Unlike the situation in France, the goal was support of industrialisation, and so heavy lines crisscrossed the Ruhr and other industrial districts, and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. By 1880, Germany had 9,400 locomotives pulling 43,000 passengers and 30,000 tons of freight, and forged ahead of France[20]

German Empire

Main article: German Empire

After Germany was united by Bismarck into the Second German Reich, Bismarck determined German politics until 1890. Bismarck tried to foster alliances in Europe, on one hand to contain France, and on the other hand to consolidate Germany’s influence in Europe. On the domestic front Bismarck tried to stem the rise of socialism by anti-socialist laws, combined with an introduction of health care and social security. At the same time Bismarck tried to reduce the political influence of the emancipated Catholic minority in the Kulturkampf, literally “culture struggle”. The Catholics only grew stronger, forming the Center (Zentrum) Party. Germany grew rapidly in industrial and economic power, matching Britain by 1900. Its highly professional army was the best in the world, but the navy could never catch up with Britain’s Royal Navy.

In 1888, the young and ambitious Kaiser Wilhelm II became emperor. He could not abide advice, least of all from the most experienced politician and diplomat in Europe, so he fired Bismarck. The Kaiser opposed Bismarck’s careful foreign policy and wanted Germany to pursue colonialist policies, as Britain and France had been doing for decades, as well as build a navy that could match the British. The Kaiser promoted active colonization of Africa and Asia for those areas that were not already colonies of other European powers; his record was notoriously brutal and set the stage for genocide. The Kaiser took a mostly unilateral approach in Europe with as main ally the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and an arms race with Britain, which eventually led to the situation in which the assassination of the Austrian-Hungarian crown price could spark off World War I.

Age of Bismarck

On 18 January 1871, the German Empire is proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles. Bismarck appears in white.

The German Empire of 1871. By excluding Austria, Bismarck chose a “little German” solution.

Disputes between France and Prussia increased. In 1868, the Spanish queen Isabella II was expelled by a revolution, leaving that country’s throne vacant. When Prussia tried to put a Hohenzollern candidate, Prince Leopold, on the Spanish throne, the French angrily protested. In July 1870, France declared war on Prussia (the Franco-Prussian War). The debacle was swift. A succession of German victories in northeastern France followed, and one French army was besieged at Metz. After a few weeks, the main army was finally forced to capitulate in the fortress of Sedan. French Emperor Napoleon III was taken prisoner and a republic hastily proclaimed in Paris. The new government, realising that a victorious Germany would demand territorial acquisitions, resolved to fight on. They began to muster new armies, and the Germans settled down to a grim siege of Paris. The starving city surrendered in January 1871, and the Prussian army staged a victory parade in it. France was forced to pay indemnities of 5 billion francs and cede Alsace-Lorraine. It was a bitter peace that would leave the French thirsting for revenge.

During the Siege of Paris, the German princes assembled in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles and proclaimed the Prussian King Wilhelm I as the “German Emperor” on 18 January 1871. The German Empire was thus founded, with 25 states, three of which were Hanseatic free cities, and Bismarck, again, served as Chancellor. It was dubbed the “Little German” solution, since Austria was not included. The new empire was characterised by a great enthusiasm and vigor. There was a rash of heroic artwork in imitation of Greek and Roman styles, and the nation possessed a vigorous, growing industrial economy, while it had always been rather poor in the past. The change from the slower, more tranquil order of the old Germany was very sudden, and many, especially the nobility, resented being displaced by the new rich. And yet, the nobles clung stubbornly to power, and they, not the bourgeois, continued to be the model that everyone wanted to imitate. In imperial Germany, possessing a collection of medals or wearing a uniform was valued more than the size of one’s bank account, and Berlin never became a great cultural center as London, Paris, or Vienna were. The empire was distinctly authoritarian in tone, as the 1871 constitution gave the emperor exclusive power to appoint or dismiss the chancellor. He also was supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces and final arbiter of foreign policy. But freedom of speech, association, and religion were nonetheless guaranteed by the constitution.

Otto von Bismarck

Bismarck’s domestic policies as Chancellor of Germany were characterised by his fight against perceived enemies of the Protestant Prussian state. In the so-called Kulturkampf (1872–1878), he tried to limit the influence of the Roman Catholic Church and of its political arm, the Catholic Centre Party, through various measures—like the introduction of civil marriage—but without much success. The Kulturkampf antagonised many Protestants as well as Catholics, and was eventually abandoned. Millions of non-Germans subjects in the German Empire, like the Polish, Danish and French minorities, were discriminated against [1][2] and a policy of Germanisation was implemented.

The other perceived threat was the rise of the Socialist Workers’ Party (later known as the Social Democratic Party of Germany), whose declared aim was the establishment of a new socialist order through the transformation of existing political and social conditions. From 1878, Bismarck tried to repress the social democratic movement by outlawing the party’s organisation, its assemblies and most of its newspapers. Through the introduction of a social insurance system, on the other hand, he hoped to win the support of the working classes for the Empire.

Bismarck’s post-1871 foreign policy was conservative and basically aimed at security and preventing the dreaded scenario of a Franco-Russian alliance, which would trap Germany between the two in a war.

The Three Emperor’s League (Dreikaisersbund) was signed in 1872 by Russia, Austria and Germany. It stated that republicanism and socialism were common enemies and that the three powers would discuss any matters concerning foreign policy. Bismarck needed good relations with Russia in order to keep France isolated. In 1877-1878, Russia fought a victorious war with the Ottoman Empire and attempted to impose the Treaty of San Stefano on it. This upset the British in particular, as they were long concerned with preserving the Ottoman Empire and preventing a Russian takeover of the Bosporous Straits. Germany hosted the Congress of Berlin, whereby a more moderate peace settlement was agreed to. Afterwards, Russia turned its attention eastward to Asia and remained largely inactive in European politics for the next 25 years. Germany had no direct interest in the Balkans however, which was largely an Austrian and Russian sphere of influence, although King Carol of Romania was a German prince.

In 1879, Bismarck formed a Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary, with the aim of mutual military assistance in the case of an attack from Russia, which was not satisfied with the agreement reached at the Congress of Berlin.

The establishment of the Dual Alliance led Russia to take a more conciliatory stance, and in 1887, the so-called Reinsurance Treaty was signed between Germany and Russia: in it, the two powers agreed on mutual military support in the case that France attacked Germany, or in case of an Austrian attack on Russia.

In 1882, Italy joined the Dual Alliance to form a Triple Alliance. Italy wanted to defend its interests in North Africa against France’s colonial policy. In return for German and Austrian support, Italy committed itself to assisting Germany in the case of a French military attack.

For a long time, Bismarck had refused to give in to Crown Prince Wilhelm II’s aspirations of making Germany a world power through the acquisition of German colonies (“a place in the sun”, originally a statement of Bernhard von Bülow). Bismarck wanted to avoid tensions between the European great powers that would threaten the security of Germany at all cost. But when, between 1880 and 1885, the foreign situation proved auspicious, Bismarck gave way, and a number of colonies were established overseas: in Africa, these were Togo, the Cameroons, German South-West Africa and German East Africa; in Oceania, they were German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the Marshall Islands. In fact, it was Bismarck himself who helped initiate the Berlin Conference of 1885. He did it “establish international guidelines for the acquisition of African territory,” (see Colonisation of Africa). This conference was an impetus for the “Scramble for Africa” and “New Imperialism“.

In 1888, the old emperor William I died at the age of 90. His son Frederick III, the hope of German liberals, succeeded him, but was already stricken with throat cancer and died three months later. Frederick’s son William II then became emperor at the age of 29. He was the antithesis of old, conservative Germans like Bismarck, addicted to the new imperialism that was taking place in Asia and Africa. He sought to make Germany a great world power with a navy to rival Britain’s. Bismarck hoped to marginalise him just as he had marginalised his grandfather, but William II was on to Bismarck’s tricks, and desired to be his own master. Having a left arm withered by childhood polio, he was painfully insecure and desired above all to be loved by the people. Bismarck’s schemes to dominate the emperor and hold onto his own power failed, and he was forced to resign in March 1890. He died in 1898, spending his last years writing his memoirs and attacking William II (despite the latter’s attempts at reconciliation).

 Wilhelminian Era

Alliances and colonies

A postage stamp from the Carolines, dating back to the time when the islands were ruled by the German Empire. The new Weltpolitik of Kaiser Wilhelm II led to frictions with other imperialist powers.

When Bismarck resigned, Wilhelm II had declared that he would continue the foreign policy of the old chancellor. But soon, a new course was taken, with the aim of increasing Germany’s influence in the world (Weltpolitik). The Reinsurance Treaty with Russia was not renewed. Instead, France formed an alliance with Russia, against the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. The Triple Alliance itself was undermined by differences between Austria and Italy.

From 1898, German colonial expansion in East Asia (Jiaozhou Bay, the Marianas, the Caroline Islands, Samoa) led to frictions with the United Kingdom, Russia, Japan and the United States. The construction of the Baghdad Railway, financed by German banks and heavy industry, and aimed at connecting the North Sea with the Persian Gulf via the Bosporus, also collided with British and Russian geopolitical and economic interests.

To protect Germany’s overseas trade and colonies, Admiral von Tirpitz started a programme of warship construction in 1898. In 1890, Germany had purchased the island of Heligoland in the North Sea from Britain in exchange for the African island of Zanzibar and proceeded to construct a great naval base there. This posed a direct threat to British hegemony on the seas, with the result that negotiations for an alliance between Germany and Britain broke down. Germany was increasingly isolated. Otto von Bismarck’s son Herbert, a member of the Reichstag since 1893, was one of the loudest anti-British voices in Germany until his death in 1904.

In 1905, Germany nearly came to blows with Britain and France when the latter attempted to establish a protectorate over Morocco. The Germans were upset at having not been informed about French intentions, and declared their support for Moroccan independence. William II made a highly provocative speech regarding this. The following year, a conference was held in which all of the European powers except Austria-Hungary (by now little more than a German satellite) sided with France. A compromise was agreed to where the French relinquished some, but not all, control over Morocco.

1911 saw another dispute over Morocco erupt when France tried to suppress a revolt there. Germany, still smarting from the previous quarrel, agreed to a settlement whereby the French ceded some territory in central Africa in exchange for Germany renouncing any right to intervene in Moroccan affairs. This confirmed French control over Morocco, which became a full protectorate of that country in 1912.

World War I and revolution

Imperialist power politics and the determined pursuit of national interests ultimately led to the outbreak in 1914 of the First World War, sparked by the assassination, on 28 June 1914, of the Austrian heir-apparent Franz Ferdinand and his wife at Sarajevo, in the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina by a Serbian nationalist. The theorised underlying causes have included the opposing policies of the European states, the armaments race, German-British rivalry, the difficulties of the Austro-Hungarian multinational state, Russia’s Balkan policy and overhasty mobilisations and ultimatums (the underlying belief being that the war would be short). Germany fought on the side of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire against Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan and several other smaller states. Fighting also spread to the Near East and the German colonies.

In the west, Germany fought a war of attrition with bloody battles. After a quick march through Belgium, German troops were halted on the Marne, north of Paris. The frontlines in France changed little until the end of the war. In the east there were decisive victories against the Russian army, the trapping and defeat of large parts of the Russian contingent at the Battle of Tannenberg, followed by huge Austrian and German successes led to a breakdown of Russian forces and an imposed peace on the newly created USSR under Lenin. Churchill ordered a naval blockade in the North Sea which lasted until 1919, crippling Germany’s supplies of raw materials and foodstuffs. The entry of the United States into the war in 1917 following Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare marked a decisive turning-point against Germany.

The end of October 1918, in Kiel, in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of 1918–19. Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising. On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which so-called workers’ and soldiers’ councils were established.

Kaiser Wilhelm II and all German ruling princes abdicated. On 9 November 1918, the Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed a Republic. On 11 November, the Compiègne armistice ending the war was signed. In accordance with the Social Democratic government by early 1919 the revolution was violently put down with the aid of the nascent Reichswehr and the Freikorps.

 Weimar Republic

Main article: Weimar Republic

States of Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic, with Prussia in blue

On 28 June 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was signed. Germany was to cede Alsace-Lorraine, Eupen-Malmédy, North Schleswig, and the Memel area. All German colonies were to be handed over to the British and French. Poland was restored and most of the provinces of Posen and West Prussia, and some areas of Upper Silesia were reincorporated into the reformed country after plebiscites and independence uprisings. The left and right banks of the Rhine were to be permanently demilitarised. The industrially important Saarland was to be governed by the League of Nations for 15 years and its coalfields administered by France. At the end of that time a plebiscite was to determine the Saar’s future status. To ensure execution of the treaty’s terms, Allied troops would occupy the left (German) bank of the Rhine for a period of 5–15 years. The German army was to be limited to 100,000 officers and men; the general staff was to be dissolved; vast quantities of war material were to be handed over and the manufacture of munitions rigidly curtailed. The navy was to be similarly reduced, and no military aircraft were allowed. Germany and its allies were to accept the sole responsibility of the war, in accordance with the War Guilt Clause, and were to pay financial reparations for all loss and damage suffered by the Allies.

The humiliating peace terms provoked bitter indignation throughout Germany, and seriously weakened the new democratic regime.

On 11 August 1919 the Weimar constitution came into effect, with Friedrich Ebert as first President.

The two biggest enemies of the new democratic order, however, had already been constituted. In December 1918, the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was founded, followed in January 1919 by the establishment of the German Workers’ Party, later known as the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP). Both parties would make reckless use of the freedoms guaranteed by the new constitution in their fight against the Weimar Republic.

In the first months of 1920, the Reichswehr was to be reduced to 100,000 men, in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles. This included the dissolution of many Freikorps – units made up of volunteers. Some of them made difficulties.[clarification needed] The discontent was exploited by the extreme right-wing politician Wolfgang Kapp. He let the rebelling Freikorps march on Berlin and proclaimed himself Reich Chancellor (Kapp Putsch). After only four days the coup d’état collapsed, due to lack of support by the civil servants and the officers. Other cities were shaken by strikes and rebellions, which were bloodily suppressed.

Faced with animosity from Britain and France and the retreat of American power from Europe, in 1922 Germany was the first state to establish diplomatic relations with the new Soviet Union. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded the Soviet Union de jure recognition, and the two signatories mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims.

When Germany defaulted on its reparation payments, French and Belgian troops occupied the heavily industrialised Ruhr district (January 1923). The German government encouraged the population of the Ruhr to passive resistance: shops would not sell goods to the foreign soldiers, coal-mines would not dig for the foreign troops, trams in which members of the occupation army had taken seat would be left abandoned in the middle of the street. The passive resistance proved effective, insofar as the occupation became a loss-making deal for the French government. But the Ruhr fight also led to hyperinflation, and many who lost all their fortune would become bitter enemies of the Weimar Republic, and voters of the anti-democratic right. See 1920s German inflation.

In September 1923, the deteriorating economic conditions led Chancellor Gustav Stresemann to call an end to the passive resistance in the Ruhr. In November, his government introduced a new currency, the Rentenmark (later: Reichsmark), together with other measures to stop the hyperinflation. In the following six years the economic situation improved. In 1928, Germany’s industrial production even regained the pre-war levels of 1913.

On the evening of 8 November 1923, six hundred armed SA men surrounded a beer hall in Munich, where the heads of the Bavarian state and the local Reichswehr had gathered for a rally. The storm troopers were led by Adolf Hitler. Born in 1889 in Austria, a former volunteer in the German army during WWI, now a member of a new party called NSDAP, he was largely unknown until then. Hitler tried to force those present to join him and to march on to Berlin to seize power (Beer Hall Putsch). Hitler was later arrested and condemned to five years in prison, but was released at the end of 1924 after less than one year of detention.

The national elections of 1924 led to a swing to the right (Ruck nach rechts). Field Marshal Hindenburg, a supporter of the monarchy, was elected President in 1925.

In October 1925 the Treaty of Locarno was signed between Germany, France, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Italy, which recognised Germany’s borders with France and Belgium. Moreover, Britain, Italy and Belgium undertook to assist France in the case that German troops marched into the demilitarised Rheinland. The Treaty of Locarno paved the way for Germany’s admission to the League of Nations in 1926.

The stock market crash of 1929 on Wall Street marked the beginning of the Great Depression. The effects of the ensuing world economic crisis were also felt in Germany, where the economic situation rapidly deteriorated. In July 1931, the Darmstätter und Nationalbank – one of the biggest German banks – failed, and, in early 1932, the number of unemployed rose to more than 6,000,000.

In addition to the flagging economy came political problems, due to the inability by the political parties represented in the Reichstag to build a governing majority. In March 1930, President Hindenburg appointed Heinrich Brüning Chancellor. To push through his package of austerity measures against a majority of Social Democrats, Communists and the NSDAP, Brüning made use of emergency decrees, and even dissolved Parliament. In March and April 1932, Hindenburg was re-elected in the German presidential election of 1932.

Of the many splinter parties the NSDAP was the largest in the national elections of 1932. The Prussian government had been ousted by a coup (Preussenschlag) in 1932. On 31 July 1932 the NSDAP had received 37.3% of the votes, and in the election on 6 November 1932 it received less, but still the largest share, 33.1, making it the biggest party in the Reichstag. The Communist KPD came third, with 15%. Together, the anti-democratic parties of right and left were now able to hold the majority of seats in Parliament. The NSDAP was particularly successful among young voters, who were unable to find a place in vocational training, with little hope for a future job; among the petite bourgeoisie (lower middle class) which had lost its assets in the hyperinflation of 1923; among the rural population; and among the army of unemployed.

On 30 January 1933, pressured by former Chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservatives, President Hindenburg finally appointed Hitler Chancellor.

Weimar Republic Results of Elections 1919-1933, Electiontions 1932, 1933

Graff Zepellin Postal History

Id/Pic Title/Description Price
Extremely rare flown, dropped, and returned Zeppelin ‘finder’ card. The Graf and hsis crew are pictured and identified on the front, and the reverse of the Deutsche Luftschiffsfahrts-A-G card has form for the finder of the dropped card to fill out. This one was found by Carl Riel of Renchen in the state of Baden. With Oos circular date cancel.
US$1399
(ca EUR1047)
Private Real Photo RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin flying over the center of old-town Wien / Vienna, framed by the spire of the Stefansdom / St Stephen’s Cathedral and the crowd below. With on-board / Bordpost cancel.
US$139
(ca EUR104.03)
Real Photo RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin and its Friedrichshafen hangar inset into a world map, with a Zeppelin stamp image off to the left. With on-board / Bordpost cancel.
US$119
(ca EUR89.06)
Real Photo RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin landed in a field next to some palm trees. Brazil franking with cachet and multiple way/arrival cancels.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Real Photo RPPC taken from the Zeppelin itself, then flown back on the Zeppelin to Germany. Bent corner. Brazil franking with cachet and multiple way/arrival cancels.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Real Photo RPPC of the Zeppelin over its hangar, flown on the 1930 Hollandfahrt.
US$109
(ca EUR81.57)
Flown card franked with 3L Zeppelin stamp and cachet of the 1933 Italienfahrt
US$169
(ca EUR126.48)
Graf Zeppelin II (LZ130) flown Leipzigfahrt 1939, one of the last Zeppelin flights before the LZ130 was trashed at the start of WWII. Franked with a pair of Graf Zeppelin 25pf stamps.
US$119
(ca EUR89.06)
PPC of Dessau flown from Berlin to Dessau, with colorful Hindenburg and Ebert franking.
US$89
(ca EUR66.61)
Group of four German Empire WWI-era postcards from a patriotic / soldier series, all used as feldpost from Kaiserlich Deutsche Feldpost Nr 101, Feld-Luftschiffer-Abteilung Nr.10, 5th Landwehr Division. Nice grouping in good condition
US$99
(ca EUR74.09)
Scarce Schweizer Kurzfahrt Bordpost / On Board Mail in 1934; one day short flight Friedrichshafen to Switzerland (you could almost throw a rock that far). On nice Delag card of Buehl.
US$259
(ca EUR193.83)
Graf Zeppelin flown mail Leipzig-Basel, CV EUR225. Slightly rough around the edges as per scan. Large counterstamp reverse from Luwdwig Bernstein Cigarren-Tabak (Cigars and Tobacco)
US$199
(ca EUR148.93)
Group of five German Empire WWI-era postcards from a patriotic / soldier series, all used as feldpost from Kaiserlich Deutsche Feldpost Nr 101, Feld-Luftschiffer-Abteilung Nr.10, 5th Landwehr Division. Nice grouping in good condition
US$219
(ca EUR163.9)
Card flown on the Graf Zeppelin’s Kurzfahrt in die Schweiz / short flight to Switzerland on Aug 4, 1932. On a very scarce (as flown) RPPC of the Zeppelin’s pilot room. Only 186 cards/covers on board — this might be the only such. Yeah baby!
US$449
(ca EUR336.03)
Graf Zeppelin Bordpost / On Board Mail card — great picture of the Graf’s underside — for the interrupted America flight of 1929. Single franking of Michel 423Y (CVEUR120).
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
DELAG postcard of the airship over Bergedorf; sent Bordpost / on board mail from the short flight from Freidrichshafen-Frankfurt.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Graf Zeppelin card for the interrupted America flight of 1929. Single franking of Michel 383.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
Flown card from the airship sent Bordpost / On Board mail on the return flight to Lorch. Franked with the 1937 Hitler souvenir sheet (Mi Block 7) and Hindenburg stamps. Has the old style Bordpost cancel — both the return flight and the old-style cancel carry a premium, but are uncatalogued in combination.

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Brazil 1930 Graf Zeppelin Round Flight C …
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US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Flown cover with all markings, including Berlin-Friedrichshafen. The first flight is EUR500 in Sieger, much more than the later flights.
US$399
(ca EUR298.61)
Registered cover from Morocco Agencies (British) to Rio de Janeiro, sent to Freidrichshafen and then on the Graf Zeppelin to Rio. With multiple way cancels including Registered British PO Tangiers. Sieger CV650
US$599
(ca EUR448.29)
Hungarian franking on Graf Zeppelin mail from Budapest to Freidrichshafen and further forwarding to Bloetberget, Sweden. On preprinted Zeppelin cachet card.
US$159
(ca EUR118.99)
Real Photo RPPC showing the Graf Zeppelin in flight, used on the Balkanfahrt / Balkans Flight, with Bukarest / Bucharest and Prague arrival cancels.
US$249
(ca EUR186.35)
Real Photo RPPC showing the Graf Zeppelin in flight, used on the Hollandfahrt / Holland Flight, with Amsterdamarrival cachet / cancel.
US$229
(ca EUR171.38)
German card sent on the Graf Zeppelin from Friedrichshafen to Copenhagen, Denmark, collected at the collectors station in Denmark and handstamped ‘Ekstra Bladet’ and ‘Mit Luftschiff ” Graf Zeppelin” zu befoerdern’. On RPPC of mansion in Copenhagen and sent onto Cleveland, Ohio.
US$179
(ca EUR133.96)
Graf Zeppelin Bordpost / On Board Mail on the return flight from Meiningen to Friedrichshafen with further forwarding on to Lucerne, Switzerland. The passenger, apparently an ardent Nazi, has added a swastika to the hull and added the message ‘Heartfelt Greetings and a Hitler Salute from the Zeppelin’.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
Feldpost card sent from the Schuette-Lanz 7 (SL7) crewmember stationed with the airship in Koenigsberg, Preussen / Prussia. Hand-written note mentioning the SL7, and with sender as J.H. (Auemin?), as crew of the airship. Schuette-Lanz airship feldposts are much rarer than their more recognizable Zeppelin counterparts.
US$399
(ca EUR298.61)
Real Photo RPPC of the Graf ready to depart, used as a Bordpost / on board mail on the 3rd Swiss flight of the Graf Zeppelin in 1929.
US$299
(ca EUR223.77)
Scarce pioneer Zeppelin airship Schwaben post with 3 copies of the 30pf green dove (MiIII) card with Flugpost am Rhein und Main Darmstadt cancels. Michel CV EUR400, Sieger CV EUR335.
US$289
(ca EUR216.28)
Graf Zeppelin Pendelfahrt / shuttle flight between Recife and Bathurst in British Gambia. From crew member, with Via Zeppelin etiquette overprinted An Bord Luftschiff Graf Zeppelin. Rare usage on RPPC showing the tethered airship discharging water.
US$399
(ca EUR298.61)
Hindenburg Zeppelin Rundfahrt nach Nuernberg / Round-trip to Nuremberg for the 1935 Reichsparteitag / Party Day Rally, on RPPC of the airship over Freirchshafen. Franked with two Paul von Hindenburg stamps (nicely centered Hindenburg cancel on them) and a block of four 1936 Party Day stamps.
US$249
(ca EUR186.35)
Graf Zeppelin II (LZ130) flown Leipzigfahrt 1939, one of the last Zeppelin flights before the LZ130 was trashed at the start of WWII. Franked with a pair of Graf Zeppelin 25pf stamps.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Rare Hindenburg Zeppelin flown from El Salvador. The date was mistakenly stamped as 1935 and then corrected by hand, a Sieger listed error variety. Besides a creased lower right corner the card is in excellent condition. Sieger CV EUR937.
US$789
(ca EUR590.48)
Graf Zeppelin Suedwestdeutschlandfahrt / Southwest Germany flight, dropped over Mannheim in 1929 on RPPC card with photo of the airship over its hangar.
US$249
(ca EUR186.35)
Graf Zeppelin Ruckfahrt Leipzig/ Leipzig return flight, and sent to Bern in 1930 on RPPC card with photo of the airship.
US$229
(ca EUR171.38)
Graf Zeppelin Deutschlandfahrt / Germany flight, dropped over Dueseldorf in 1929 on RPPC card with photo of the airship.
US$219
(ca EUR163.9)
Graf Zeppelin flown cover with Liechtenstein 2Franc Zeppelin stamp. Sieger cv EUR425.
US$349
(ca EUR261.19)
Graf Zeppelin Kurzfahrt in der Schweiz / Short Flight to Switzerland in 1933 on RPPC card with photo of the airship. Bordpost / on board cancel.
US$299
(ca EUR223.77)
Graf Zeppelin Oesterreichfahrt / Austria flight in 1929, Sieger 25Ic, as unfranked, because the 3pf Ebert stamp was unusable on the Austria drop and uncanceled, so was via Austria post sent after being retrieved, and thus carries the Austrian 10g postage due. A scarce RPPC card with nice photo of the airship over Friedrichshafen, Bodensee, Germany.
US$279
(ca EUR208.8)
Graf Zeppelin Ostsee fahrt / Baltic Sea flight in 1930 on RPPC card with attractive photo of the airship by moonlight.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
Kraft durch Freude (KdF) Wagen 5 Reichsmarke Sparmarke (Savings Stamp) strip of eight with left margin and KdF logo.
US$329
(ca EUR246.22)
Mixed frank Swiss/German Zeppelin — very rare, swiss treaties catalog EUR2400 in Sieger, but while the Sender is swiss, the postcard is Swiss, and the dual franking is Swiss, a Swiss cancel is lacking.
US$499
(ca EUR373.45)
Graf Zeppelin portrait card flown Bordpost / On Board Mail with the Graf on the Schlesienfahrt / Silesia trip and dropped over Beuthen. Rare; Sieger 43c, only 63 of these were carried – unknown how many were Bordposts. Some ink in the margin, else excellent condition; a really lovely card.
US$349
(ca EUR261.19)
Graf Zeppelin Mail flown on the 1929 Orientfahrt. Er Ramle arrival cancel. On a great RPPC of the Graf in flight.
US$199
(ca EUR148.93)
Graf Zeppelin Mail flown on the 1929 Orientfahrt; sent from Wien / Vienna and franked with Austrian airmails, including the key 3 Schilling.
US$279
(ca EUR208.8)
Graf Zeppelin Mail flown Ganzsachen / postal Entire Card from Danzig. Used on the 1929 Orientfahrt; sent from Danzig via airmail to Freidrichshafen and from there to Constantinople via the Graf Zeppelin. With Stamboul arrival machine receivers. Only 101 such cards carried.
US$349
(ca EUR261.19)
With US Pan America cachet applied, on cacheted postcard (cachet is almost hidden under the US handstamp). Sieger CV EUR450.
US$399
(ca EUR298.61)
With US Pan America cachet applied as well as the German Sonderbestaetigungstempel / special handstamp. Sieger CV450
US$399
(ca EUR298.61)
Buenos Aires to Lakehurst / New York with complete set of the Argentinian blue overprinted Zeppelin stamps. On ‘first flight’ slogan cacheted cover, with Lakehurst Zeppelin receiver reverse.
US$649
(ca EUR485.71)
Danzig franked and canceled cover sent to Helsingfors Finnland on the 1930 Ostsee / Baltic flight.
US$159
(ca EUR118.99)
Finnland franked and canceled card sent to Lorch on the return leg of the 1930 Ostsee / Baltic flight.
US$299
(ca EUR223.77)
British airmail card sent to Britain and then connected to the Graf Zeppelin in Freidrichshafen, with the cachet from the Anschlussflug. Sent to Pernambuco and on to Buenes Aires, Argentina. Sieger CV EUR500.
US$449
(ca EUR336.03)
Preprinted card for used from Cairo to Freidrichshafen, but used in Alexandria and franked with the 50Mm ‘1951’ instead of ‘1931’ Plattenfehler / plate flaw, CV EUR375.
US$349
(ca EUR261.19)
Lovely RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin being towed from its hangar. Flown on the airship’s flight through the Balkans and dropped over Bucharest / Bukarest / Bucuresti. Top condition.
US$249
(ca EUR186.35)
German WWI occupied Belgien / Belgium postal card flown on the Graf Zeppelin’s 1929 Orientfahrt to Egypt; not postally valid, of course, (the 1M Eagle airmail pays the rate) but a very interesting usage nonetheless.
US$159
(ca EUR118.99)
German PPC of Prague / Praha National Theater flown on the Graf Zeppelin’s 1929 Orientfahrt to Egypt. Corner wear, else very nice.
US$139
(ca EUR104.03)
German PC flown on the Graf Zeppelin’s 1929 Orientfahrt to Egypt. With arrival cancel in Schaffhausen.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
An original WWI KuK Air Force reconnaissance photo of the train station (Bahnhof) in the Ukrainian city of Denysow bei Tarnopol. Taken by Fliegerkompagnie 9 — see the observer’s notes reverse. Great piece of history.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Rare Nuernberg-Friedrichshafen leg bordpost franked with 1RM Zeppelin, CV EUR600 (ca US$876 Dec 1, 2007), and used on a Zeppelin Real Photo postcard.
US$649
(ca EUR485.71)
Superb Hindenburg dual flown card carrying a Bordpost cancel from May 5 for the flight from Loewental to Frankfurt, and then kept aboard for the North America trip, with the cachet for the flight from Frankfurt to the US and back. Has a New York GPO Receiver to document the arrival.
US$599
(ca EUR448.29)
Used on two catapult legs, with mixed German – US franking. From the first catapult flight of the SS Europa to the US. Haberer Liebhaberpreis / LP
US$349
(ca EUR261.19)
This is an invitation to the birthday party for Kaiser Wilhelm II, held aboard the SMS Wittelsbach.
US$199
(ca EUR148.93)
Flown card for Debreczen drop
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Flown card on roundtrip to Budapest then forwarded on to Debreczen.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Original railroad route maps (two on one page) from 1847. Map image is the size given. Chipped edges (where bound) and heavier white paper. From the first edition of Appleton’s Railway Companion 1848. Guaranteed to be an original antique map ca150 years old.
US$29
(ca EUR21.7)
Real Photo Birthday(!) postcard of the Scharnhorst used as a feldpost by a member of that ship, which is very unusual. The whole point of the feldpost number was to obscure the unit of the sender (as well as making routing easier).
US$119
(ca EUR89.06)
Feldpost cover from the German Panzerschiff / warship Kreuzer Nuernberg ( Nuremberg ) towards the end of WWII, in March of 1944, not long before the Normandy invasion. Comes with long hand-written contents.
US$99
(ca EUR74.09)
US$139
(ca EUR104.03)
Cover from the Kommando of Panzerschiff “”Admiral Scheer””, which was in Spain supporting the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, to Kiel. This card is from the ship’s service in the 12. Spanienverband.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
Cover from the Kommando of Panzerschiff “”Admiral Scheer””, which was in Malaga, Spain supporting the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, to Kiel. This card is from the ship’s service in the 3. Spanienverband.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
Two real photo cards from the Scharnhorst, one in Aden in 1938 (stamp has fallen off) and the other as a feldpost at the start of WWII. The two Real Photo picture postcards feature a braodside saluting the ‘Fuehrer’ and the other shows native caravan with their camels in Aden.
US$99
(ca EUR74.09)
Feldpost from MSP29, the Admiral Scheer, supporting the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War. This cover is from the ship’s service in the 11. Spanienverband. On RPPC with Zeppelin over ocean.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Great color propaganda item from the 10. Centro Automobilistico, Napoli. Mint condition.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
Wonderful color propaganda item from the 13. Centro Automobilistico. Descriptive text also describes wards for Valor the unit won in WWI and the Ethiopian War. Mint condition.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
German airmail informational brochure, with a map of the flight routes for the summer of 1929 and the postal rates for the period. Most significant for German postal history collectors of the period. A little worn around the edghes as per scan.
US$129
(ca EUR96.54)
German airmail/air freight informational brochure, with a map of the flight routes, costs, and schedules for same. The map is an interesting schematic intersection of air routes and schedules. The grid schedule gives the shipping rates. Most significant for German postal history collectors of the period. Rates are good through April 15, 1928. Slightly worn around the edges, a quad-fold brochure which has additionally been folded once down the center. Nice color graphic on front and in overall very good condition for going on 80 years old.
US$149
(ca EUR111.51)
Promotional card for the German railway system during the Third Reich. This freakishly smiling guy was apparently standing by to give you free advice on you travel plans.
US$109
(ca EUR81.57)
Rare flown registered treaty cover of the Graf Zeppelin’s 2nd SAF in 1933. With Paris, Marseille, and Frankfurt way marks as well as Pernambuco receiver reverse.
US$699
(ca EUR523.13)
Graf Zeppelin flown cover from Friedrichshafen to Rio de Janeiro on Servio Aereo Condor airmail postal stationary. Light fold down center.
US$99
(ca EUR74.09)
US$99
(ca EUR74.09)
On Real Photo PC of Lindau.
US$249
(ca EUR186.35)
Round trip cover Friedrichshafen-Friedrichshafen with Chicagofahrt special cancel and Mit Luftschiff Graf Zeppelin Befoerdert Friedrichshafen zeppelin receiver reverse. Very attractive and clean card with single franking of the 4mk Chicago Zeppelin. Michel CV EUR800.
US$399
(ca EUR298.61)
Rare destination for Zeppelin Polar Flight cover, also used as bordpost. Sent to Colorado Springs, CO and forwarded to Eldora, CO
US$599
(ca EUR448.29)
// //

Third Reich

Main articles: Nazi Germany, The Holocaust, and Military history of Germany during World War II

 Nazi revolution or “Seizure of Power”

In order to secure a majority for his NSDAP in the Reichstag, Hitler called for new elections. On the evening of 27 February 1933, a fire was set in the Reichstag building. Hitler swiftly blamed an alleged Communist uprising, and convinced President Hindenburg to sign the Reichstag Fire Decree. This decree, which would remain in force until 1945, repealed important political and human rights of the Weimar constitution. Communist agitation was banned, but at this time not the Communist Party itself.

Eleven thousand Communists and Socialists were arrested and brought into concentration camps, where they were at the mercy of the Gestapo, the newly established secret police force (9,000 were found guilty and most executed). Communist Reichstag deputies were taken into protective custody (despite their constitutional privileges).

Despite the terror and unprecedented propaganda, the last free General Elections of 5 March 1933, while resulting in 43.9% failed to bring the majority for the NSDAP that Hitler had hoped for. Together with the German National People’s Party (DNVP), however, he was able to form a slim majority government. With accommodations to the Catholic Centre Party, Hitler succeeded in convincing a required two-thirds of a rigged Parliament to pass the Enabling act of 1933 which gave his government full legislative power. Only the Social Democrats voted against the Act. The Enabling Act formed the basis for the dictatorship, dissolution of the Länder; the trade unions and all political parties other than the National Socialist (Nazi) Party were suppressed. A centralised totalitarian state was established, no longer based on the liberal Weimar constitution. Germany left the League of Nations. The coalition parliament was rigged on this fateful 23 March 1933 by defining the absence of arrested and murdered deputies as voluntary and therefore cause for their exclusion as wilful absentees. Subsequently in July the Centre Party was voluntarily dissolved in a quid pro quo with the Holy See under the anti-communist Pope Pius XI for the Reichskonkordat; and by these manoeuvres Hitler achieved movement of these Catholic voters into the Nazi party, and a long-awaited international diplomatic acceptance of his regime. It is interesting to note however that according to Professor Dick Geary the Nazis gained a larger share of their vote in Protestant than in Catholic areas of Germany in elections held between 1928 to November 1932[21] The Communist Party was proscribed in April 1933 . On the weekend of 30 June 1934, he gave order to the SS to seize Röhm and his lieutenants, and to execute them without trial (known as the Night of the Long Knives). Upon Hindenburg’s death on 2 August 1934, Hitler’s cabinet passed a law proclaiming the presidency vacant and transferred the role and powers of the head of state to Hitler as Führer und Reichskanzler (leader and chancellor).

However, many leaders of the Nazi SA were disappointed. The Chief of Staff of the SA, Ernst Röhm, was pressing for the SA to be incorporated into the Wehrmacht under his supreme command. Hitler felt threatened by these plans.

The SS became an independent organisation under the command of the Reichsführer SS Heinrich Himmler. He would become the supervisor of the Gestapo and of the concentration camps, soon also of the ordinary police. Hitler also established the Waffen-SS as a separate troop.

The regime showed particular hostility towards the Jews. In September 1935, the Reichstag passed the so-called Nuremberg race laws directed against Jewish citizens. Jews lost their German citizenship, and were banned from marrying non-Jewish Germans. About 500,000 individuals were affected by the new rules.

Hitler re-established the German air force and reintroduced universal military service. The open rearmament was in flagrant breach of the Treaty of Versailles, but neither the United Kingdom, France or Italy went beyond issuing notes of protest.

In 1936 German troops marched into the demilitarised Rhineland. In this case, the Treaty of Locarno would have obliged the United Kingdom to intervene in favour of France. But despite protests by the French government, Britain chose to do nothing about it. The coup strengthened Hitler’s standing in Germany. His reputation was going to increase further with the 1936 Summer Olympics, which were held in the same year in Berlin and in Garmisch-Partenkirchen, and which proved another great propaganda success for the regime.

Expansion and defeat

After establishing the “Rome-Berlin axis” with Mussolini, and signing the Anti-Comintern Pact with Japan – which was joined by Italy a year later in 1937 – Hitler felt able to take the offensive in foreign policy. On 12 March 1938, German troops marched into Austria, where an attempted Nazi coup had been unsuccessful in 1934. When Hitler entered Vienna, he was greeted by loud cheers. Four weeks later, 99% of Austrians voted in favour of the annexation (Anschluss) of their country to the German Reich. Hitler thereby fulfilled the old idea of an all encompassing German Reich with the inclusion of Austria – the “greater Germany” solution that Bismarck had shunned when, in 1871, he united the German-speaking lands under Prussian leadership. Although the annexation denounced the Treaty of Saint-Germain, which expressedly forbade the unification of Austria with Germany, the western powers once again merely protested.

After Austria, Hitler turned to Czechoslovakia, where the 3.5 million-strong Sudeten German minority was demanding equal rights and self-government. At the Munich Conference of September 1938, Hitler, the Italian leader Benito Mussolini, British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain and French Prime Minister Édouard Daladier agreed upon the cession of Sudeten territory to the German Reich by Czechoslovakia. Hitler thereupon declared that all of German Reich’s territorial claims had been fulfilled. However, hardly six months after the Munich Agreement, in March 1939, Hitler used the smoldering quarrel between Slovaks and Czechs as a pretext for taking over the rest of Czechoslovakia as the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia. In the same month, he secured the return of Memel from Lithuania to Germany. British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain was forced to acknowledge that his policy of appeasement towards Hitler had failed.

In six years, the Nazi regime prepared the country for World War II. The Nazi leadership attempted to remove or subjugate the Jewish population of Nazi Germany and later in the occupied countries through forced deportation and, ultimately, genocide now known as the Holocaust. A similar policy applied to the various ethnic and national groups considered subhuman such as Poles , Roma or Russians. These groups were seen as threats to the purity of Germany’s Aryan race. There were also many groups, such as homosexuals, the mentally handicapped and those who were physically challenged from birth, which were singled out as being detrimental to Aryan purity. After annexing the Sudetenland border country of Czechoslovakia (October 1938), and taking over the rest of the Czech lands as a protectorate (March 1939), the German Reich and the Soviet Union invaded Poland on first September 1939 predominantly as part of the Wehrmacht operation codenamed Fall Weiss. The invasion of Poland began World War II.

Territorial losses of modern Germany 1919-1945.

By 1941, the Germans had the upper hand, but the tide turned in December 1941 when the invasion of the Soviet Union stalled in front of Moscow and the United States joined the war. Because of the invasion (see Operation Barbarossa), the Soviets joined the Allies. The tide turned further after the Battle of Stalingrad. By late 1944, the United States and Great Britain were closing in on Germany in the West, while the Soviets were closing from the East. In May 1945, Nazi Germany collapsed when Berlin was taken by the Red Army in May, 1945, after a fight to the death in the city streets. Hitler committed suicide.

By September 1945, the German Reich (which lasted only 13 years) and its Axis partners (Italy and Japan) had been defeated, chiefly by the forces of the Soviet Union, the United States, and the United Kingdom. Much of Europe lay in ruins, over sixty million people had been killed (most of them civilians), including approximately six million Jews and five million non-Jews in what became known as the Holocaust. World War II resulted in the destruction of Germany’s political and economic infrastructure and led directly to its partition, considerable loss of territory (especially in the east), and historical legacy of guilt and shame.

Germany since 1945

Main article: History of Germany since 1945

Territory and border changes of Germany and Poland during the 20th century

Post-war state

Main articles: Partitions of Germany, Potsdam Agreement, and Expulsion of Germans

Germans frequently refer to 1945 as the Stunde Null (zero hour) to describe the near-total collapse of their country. At the Potsdam Conference, Germany was divided into four military occupation zones by the Allies. Also in Potsdam, the allies agreed that the provinces east of the Oder and Neisse rivers (the Oder-Neisse line) were transferred to Poland and Russia (Kaliningrad oblast). The agreement also set forth the abolition of Prussia and the expulsion of Germans living in those territories, and formalised the German exodus from Eastern Europe. In the process of the expulsions, millions died, and many suffered from exhaustion and dehydration.

In the immediate post-war years the German population lived on near starvation levels,[22] and the Allied economic policy was one of de-industrialisation[23] (Morgenthau Plan) in order to preclude any future German war-making capability. U.S. policy began to change at the end of 1946[24] (Restatement of Policy on Germany), and by mid 1947, after lobbying by the Joint Chiefs of Staff, and Generals Clay and Marshall, the Truman administration finally realised that economic recovery in Europe could not go forward without the reconstruction of the German industrial base on which it had previously been dependent.[25] In July, Truman rescinded on “national security grounds”[25] the punitive JCS 1067, which had directed the U.S. forces of occupation in Germany to “take no steps looking toward the economic rehabilitation of Germany.” It was replaced by JCS 1779, which instead stressed that “[a]n orderly, prosperous Europe requires the economic contributions of a stable and productive Germany.”[26]

 Division into East and West Germany

Further information: Inner German border and Berlin Wall

The three western occupation zones (U.S., UK and French zone) would later form the Federal Republic of Germany (commonly known as West Germany), while the Soviet zone became the German Democratic Republic (commonly known as East Germany), both founded in 1949. West Germany was established as a federal democratic republic while East Germany became a communist state under the influence of the Soviet Union.

West Germany eventually came to enjoy prolonged economic growth beginning in the early 1950s (Wirtschaftswunder). The recovery occurred largely because of the previously forbidden currency reform of June 1948 and to a minor degree by U.S. assistance through Marshall Plan loans.[27][28] West Germany joined NATO in 1955 and was a founding member of the European Economic Community in 1958 .

East Germany was an Eastern bloc state under political and military control of the USSR through her occupation forces and the Warsaw Treaty. While claiming to be a democracy, the political power was solely executed by leading members (Politburo) of the communist-controlled SED (Socialist Unity Party of Germany). Their power was ensured by the Stasi, a secret service of immense size, and a variety of SED-suborganizations controlling every aspect of society. In turn, the basic needs of the population were satisfied at low costs by the state. A Soviet-style command economy was set up, later the GDR became the most advanced Comecon state. While East German propaganda was based on the benefits of the GDR’s social programs and the alleged constant threat of a West German invasion, many of her citizens looked to the West for political freedoms and economic prosperity.[29] The Berlin Wall, built in 1961 to stop East Germans from escaping to West Germany, became a symbol of the Cold War.

 Reunification

Main article: German Reunification

Demolition of Berlin Wall, January 1990

Relations between the two post-war German states remained icy until the West German Chancellor Willy Brandt launched a highly controversial rapprochement with the East European communist states (Ostpolitik) in the 1970s, culminating in the Warschauer Kniefall on 7 December 1970. Although anxious to relieve serious hardships for divided families and to reduce friction, West Germany under Brandt’s Ostpolitik was intent on holding to its concept of “two German states in one German nation.” Relations improved, however, and in September 1973, East Germany and West Germany were admitted to the United Nations.

During the summer of 1989, rapid changes known as peaceful revolution or Die Wende took place in East Germany, which ultimately led to German reunification. Growing numbers of East Germans emigrated to West Germany, many via Hungary after Hungary’s reformist government opened its borders. Thousands of East Germans also tried to reach the West by staging sit-ins at West German diplomatic facilities in other East European capitals, most notably in Prague. The exodus generated demands within East Germany for political change, and mass demonstrations in several cities continued to grow.

Faced with civil unrest, East German leader Erich Honecker was forced to resign in October, and on 9 November, East German authorities unexpectedly allowed East German citizens to enter West Berlin and West Germany. Hundreds of thousands of people took advantage of the opportunity; new crossing points were opened in the Berlin Wall and along the border with West Germany. This led to the acceleration of the process of reforms in East Germany that ended with the German reunification that came into force on 3 October 1990.

 Recent history (1990 to present)

Further information: politics of Germany and New states of Germany

German chancellor Angela Merkel (with José Barroso in front of the Brandenburg Gate in 2007) was pivotal in drafting and promoting the Treaty of Lisbon to reform the EU.

After 16 years of the Christian liberal coalition of Helmut Kohl, the Social Democrats together with the Greens won the elections of 1998. SPD leader Gerhard Schröder positioned himself as a centrist “Third Way” candidate in the mold of Britain’s Tony Blair and America’s Bill Clinton. In 2003, Schröder announced massive labor market reforms, called Agenda 2010, that among other measures include a shakeup of the system of German job offices, commonly known by the name of the chairman of the commission which conceived them as Hartz. From 2005 to 2009, Germany was ruled by a grand coalition led by Angela Merkel as chancellor. Since the 2009 elections, Merkel has headed a centre-right government of the Christian Social Union and the Free Democratic Party.

Together with France and other EU states, the new Germany has played the leading role in the European Union. Germany (especially under Chancellor Helmut Kohl) was one of the main supporters of the wish of many East European countries to join the EU. Germany is at the forefront of European states seeking to exploit the momentum of monetary union to advance the creation of a more unified and capable European political, defence and security apparatus. The German chancellor Schröder expressed an interest in a permanent seat for Germany in the UN Security Council, identifying France, Russia and Japan as countries that explicitly backed Germany’s bid.

The German Bundeswehr since 1990 has participated in a number of peacekeeping and disaster relief operations abroad. Since 2002, German troops formed part of the International Security Assistance Force in the war in Afghanistan, resulting in the first German casualties in combat missions since World War II.

Sonderweg debate

Main article: Sonderweg

A major historiographical debate about the German history concerns the Sonderweg, the alleged “special path” that separated German history from the normal course of historical development, and whether or not Nazi Germany was the inevitable result of the Sonderweg. Proponents of the Sonderweg theory such as Fritz Fischer point to such events of the Revolution of 1848, the authoritarian of the Second Empire and the continuation of the Imperial elite into the Weimar and Nazi periods. Opponents such as Gerhard Ritter of the Sonderweg theory argue that proponents of the theory are guilty of seeking selective examples, and there was much contingency and chance in German history. In addition, there was much debate within the supporters of the Sonderweg concept as for the reasons for the Sonderweg, and whether or not the Sonderweg ended in 1945.

Terminology related to Germany

Stamp in occupied Germany, 1946: the neutral expression Deutsche Post instead of Deutsche Reichspost, but still the old currency RM (Reichsmark).

The terminology for Germany, the German states and Germans is complicated due to the complicated history of Germany. This can cause confusions, in German, English as well in other languages. While the notion of Germans and Germany is older, only since 1871 there is a nation state called Germany. Later political quarrels and the partition of Germany (1945-1990) made it difficult to use the proper term.

Pre-modern Germany

Further information: Germania and Theodiscus

Roman authors registered a number of tribes they called Germani; it is not certain what this word means or where it comes from. Originally it may not even have something to do with ethnics, and these Germanic tribes did not call themselves Germani. Later these tribes where identified by linguists as belonging to a group of languages, the Germanic languages which include modern languages like German, English and Dutch.

Germani (for the people) and Germania (for the area where they lived) became the common Latin words for Germans and Germany.

Germans call themselves Deutsche living in Deutschland. Deutsch is an adjective (Proto-Germanic *theudisk-) derived from Old High German thiota, diota (Proto-Germanic *theudō) meaning “people”, “nation”, “folk”. The word *theudō was distantly related to Celtic *teutā, whence the Celtic tribal name Teuton, later anachronistically applied to the Germans.

In the Late Medieval and Early Modern period, Germany and Germans were kown as Almany and Almains in English, via Old French alemaigne, alemans derived from the name of the Alamanni and Alemannia. These English terms were obsolete by the 18th century.

 Germany until 1871

The Holy Roman Empire in 1789

A modern German nation state exists only since 1871 (see Unification of Germany), before that Germany referred to a geographical entity.

In the Middle Ages, the territory of modern Germany belonged to the realm of the Holy Roman Empire, the Roman Empire restored by the Christian king of Francony, Charlemagne. This feudal state became a union of relatively independent rulers who developed their own territories; modernisation took place on the level of these territories like Austria, Prussia and Bremen, not on the level of the Empire.

This Empire was called in German Heiliges Römisches Reich, since the late Middle Ages with the addition Deutscher Nation (of German nation), showing that in the meanwhile the former idea of a universal realm has given place to a concentration on the German territories. The last Emperor lay off the crown in 1806 under pressure of Napoléon.

In the 19th and 20th century historiography, this Empire has been often referred to as Deutsches Reich, creating a link to the later nation state of 1871. Besides the official Heiliges Römisches Reich Deutscher Nation, common expressions are Altes Reich (the old Reich) and Römisch-Deutsches Kaiserreich (Roman-German Empire of the Emperor).

 Reich and Bund

Further information: Reich

In German constitutional history, the expressions Reich (reign, realm, empire) and Bund (federation, confederation) are quite exchangeable. Sometimes they even existed in the same constitution, like when in the German Empire (1871–1919) the parliament had the name Reichstag, the council of the representatives of the German states Bundesrath. When in 1871 the North German Confederation was transformed into the German Empire, the preamble said that the participating monarchs are creating einen ewigen Bund (an eternal confederation).

Due to the history of Germany, the principle of federalism is strong. Only the state of Hitler (1933–1945) and the state of the communists (East Germany, 1949–1990) were centralist states. This makes the words Reich and Bund used more frequently than in other countries, because politicians and citizens had and have to differentiate between an imperial or federal level on the one hand and the subnational territorial level on the other. For example, a modern day German minister is called in German Bundesminister, in contrary to a Landesminister in e.g. Rhineland-Palatinate or Lower Saxony.

Because of the Hitler regime, partially also because of the Imperial Germany until 1919, many Germans – especially on the left – have negative feelings about the word Reich. However, it remains a common word such as in Römisches Reich (Roman Empire), Königreich (Kingdom) or Tierreich (animal kingdom).

Also Bund is a general word used for contexts other than politics. Many associations in Germany are federations or have a federalised structure and differentiate between a Bundesebene (federal / national level) and a Landesebene (level of the regional states), similar to the political bodies. An example is the German Football Association Deutscher Fußballbund. (Its Bundestrainer, the national coach, does not refer to the Federal Republic, but to the Fußballbund itself.)

In other German speaking countries, the words Reich (Austria before 1918) and Bund (Austria since 1918, Switzerland) are used too. An organ called Bundesrat exists in all three of them, in Switzerland it is the government and in Germany and Austria the house of regional representatives.

Name of the state National Diet House of regional representatives
Heiliges Deutsches Reich Deutscher Nation (-1806) (did not exist) (Immerwährender) Reichstag
Deutscher Bund (1815-1848/1866) (did not exist) Bundestag (officially Bundesversammlung)
Deutsches Reich (Paulskirchenverfassung, 1849) Reichstag (Volkshaus) Reichstag (Staatenhaus)
Norddeutscher Bund (1866/1867-1871) Reichstag Bundesrat
Deutsches Reich (1871–1919) Reichstag Bundesrat
Deutsches Reich (1919–1933/1945) Reichstag Reichsrat
Bundesrepublik Deutschland (1949-) Bundestag Bundesrat

19th century until 1871

German Confederation, 1815-1866

The French emperor Napoleon made the Emperor of Austria step down as Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire. Some of the German countries were collected in the Confederation of the Rhine, which remained a military alliance under the “protection” of Napoleon rather than transforming into a confederation. In 1815, after the fall of Napoleon, the German states created a German Confederation with the Emperor of Austria as president. Some member states like Prussia and Austria had only a part of their territories inside the Confederation. Within the Confederation and in other territories belonging to member states lived some people who did not have German as their native tongue, for example Poles and Czechs. On the other hand, some German speaking populations lived outside the confederation.

When Hoffmann von Fallersleben in 1841 wrote the song Das Lied der Deutschen, he dreamt of a unified Germany (Deutschland über Alles) instead of the single states. Germany was still merely a geographical term.

In 1866/1867 Prussia and her allies left the confederation, made the confederation dissolute and created a state called North German Confederation. The remaining South German countries joined the new confederation in 1870, with the exception of Austria and Liechtenstein.[30] Since then exists a state that is called the German nation state or simply Germany, although huge German speaking populations remained outside Germany.

German nation state 1871-1945

Germany (Deutsches Reich) 1871-1918.

Germany (Deutsches Reich) 1919-1937.

The official name of the German state became Deutsches Reich, linking itself to the former Reich before 1806. This expression was commonly used in official papers and also on maps, while in other contexts Deutschland was more frequently used.

The creation of a German nation state had as a consequence that some Germans lived inside of it and were called Reichsdeutsche, and others lived outside and were called Volksdeutsche (ethnical Germans). The latter expression referred mainly to the German speaking minorities in Eastern Europe. Germans living abroad (for example in America) were and are called Auslandsdeutsche.

After the forced abdication of the Emperor in 1918, Germany became the Weimar Republic, named after the city where the National Assembly gathered. The official name of the state remained the same. It became necessary to find a proper term for the Germany between 1871 and 1919: Kaiserliches Deutschland (Imperial Germany) or Deutsches Kaiserreich. English speaking people feel an unease to use the title German Empire for a republic, that made them call the republic German Reich.

Nazi Germany

German stamp of 1941

When Hitler was elected into power in 1933, the name of the state was still the same. For a couple of years Hitler used the expression Drittes Reich (Third Reich), which was introduced by conservative antidemocratic writers in the last years of the republic. In fact this was only a propaganda term and did not constitute a new state. Another propaganda term was Tausendjähriges Reich (Reich of thousand years). Later Hitler renounced the term Drittes Reich (officially in June 1939), but it already had become popular among supporters and opponents and is still used in historiography (sometimes in quotation marks).[31] It led later to the name Zweites Reich (Second Empire) for Germany of 1871-1919.

The reign of Hitler is most commonly called in English Nazi Germany.

There are cases in which an uncertainty comes up whether to use German or Nazi. In the discussions a major role have arguments dealing with the question of the position of national socialism in Germany of the era 1933-1945. Talking about World War II, some find it unappropriate to say that the Germans decided to invade Yugoslavia or Germany murdered the Jews of Poland, as Germany was no democracy. The use of Nazi, such as in Nazi troops, can be confusing or incorrect considering that the German army itself was not national socialist, and that there were indeed troops of the party, especially the Waffen-SS. A wording considered by others as improper can cause the accusation of being apologetic.

 Greater Germany and “Großdeutsches Reich”

Nazi Germany in 1944

In the 19th century the German politicians, for example in the Frankfurt Parliament of 1848/49, argued about the question what should become of Austria. In the Austrian Empire then lived not only German speaking people, but also Czechs (even on the territory considered part of the German Confederation), Hungarians and others. Including Austria (at least the German speaking parts) was called the Greater German Solution, a Germany without Austria the Smaller German Solution.

After 1871, the notion Germany did no longer include automatically Austria. In 1919 the Weimar Constitution postulated the inclusion of Deutsch-Österreich (the German speaking parts of Austria), but the Western Allies objected to this. This was granted only in 1938 to Hitler (Anschluss). The national socialist propaganda stated the realisation of Großdeutschland, and in 1943 the German Reich was renamed officially Großdeutsches Reich. However, these expressions never became common and popular.

In national socialist propaganda Austria has been called also Ostmark. After the Anschluss the previous parts of Germany were called Altreich (old Reich).

 Germany divided 1945-1990

Occupied Germany in 1947, with western (green, blue and yellow) and eastern (red) occupation zones.

After the defeat in World War II, Germany was occupied by the troops of Britain, France, the United States and Soviet Union.

Berlin was a case of its own, as it was situated on the territory of the Soviet zone but divided into four sectors. The western sectors were later called West Berlin, the other one East Berlin. The communists tended to consider the Soviet sector of Berlin as a part of GDR; West Berlin was according to them an independent political unit.

The name Deutsches Reich was still in use for a couple of years; when in 1947 the Social Democrats gathered in Nuremberg, they called their rally Reichsparteitag. In many contexts people still called their country Germany, even after two German states were founded in 1949, for example when someone emigrated from Germany to Canada or a bicycle race went through Germany, Poland and Czechoslovakia.

Federal Republic of Germany

The Federal Republic of Germany, Bundesrepublik Deutschland, established in 1949, saw itself as the same state founded in 1867/1871, only under a new name and with a new constitution. The expression Reich gave place to Bund, for example the Reichskanzler became the Bundeskanzler, reichsdeutsch became bundesdeutsch, Reichsbürger (citizen of the Reich) became Bundesbürger.

Germany as a whole was called Gesamtdeutschland, referring to Germany in the international borders of 1937 (before Hitler started to annex other countries). This could cause confusions internationally (all German, pan germanique, a chauvinist concept), and in 1969 the Federal Ministry for All German Affairs was renamed into Federal Ministry for Intra-German Relations.

The Federal Republic in blue, GDR in red and West Berlin in yellow, 1949-1990

Until for about 1970, the other German state – communist German Democratic Republic – was called Sowjetische Besatzungszone (SBZ, Soviet Zone of Occupation), Sowjetzone, Ostzone, Mitteldeutschland or Pankow (the GDR government was in Berlin-Pankow).

The term Westdeutschland was relatively unusual, because it could mean not only the Federal Republic, but also specific regions in the West of the Federal Republic of Germany.

 German Democratic Republic

The communists, protected by Soviet Union, established in 1949 a Deutsche Demokratische Republik (DDR, German Democratic Republic, GDR). This state was not considered to be a successor of the Reich, but, nevertheless, to represent all good Germans. Rulers and inhabitants of GDR called their state simply DDR or unsere Republik (our republic).

Until for about 1970, the GDR still supported the idea a German nation and the need of reunification. The Federal Republic was often called Westdeutschland or BRD. After 1970 the GDR called itself a socialist state of German nation.

Reunified Germany since 1990

In 1990 the re-established regional states of GDR joined the Federal Republic, and Germany was reunified. Keeping the official name of the Federal Republic of Germany, i.e. “Bundesrepublik Deutschland”, the country was now being referred to more often simply as “Germany”. “Westdeutschland” and “Ostdeutschland” are used more frequently to denote the western and the eastern part of the German territory:

  • Westdeutschland is also called “alte Bundesrepublik”, or “alte Bundesländer” (old regional states)
  • Ostdeutschland is also called “neue Bundesländer” (new regional states) or “ehemalige DDR” (former GDR)

Although the formal reunification was officially completed on 3 October 1990, the “inner reunification” of the formerly divided country is still an ongoing process to this very day.

the end@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

The Guerensey and Bailiwick Collection Exhibition

WELCOME TO Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM Showcase : The Guerensey and Bailiwick Historic collections Exhibtion

Bailiwick of Guernsey
Bailliage de Guernesey
Flag Coat of arms
AnthemGod Save the Queen” (official)
Sarnia Cherie” (official for occasions when distinguishing anthem required)
Location of  Guernsey  (Dark Green)
Location of  Guernsey  (Dark Green)
Capital Saint Peter Port (Saint Pierre Port)
49°27′N 2°33′W / 49.45°N 2.55°W / 49.45; -2.55
Official language(s) English (predominant)
French (legislative)
Recognised regional languages Guernésiais, Sercquiais (Auregnais is now extinct)[1]
Ethnic groups  predominantly north European
Government British Crown Dependency
 –  Head of state Elizabeth II, Duke of Normandy

 –  Lt. Governor Sir Fabian Malbon
 –  Bailiff Sir Geoffrey Rowland
 –  Chief Minister Deputy Lyndon Trott
British Crown Dependency
 –  Separation from mainland Normandy… 1204 
 –  Liberation
from Nazi Germany
9 May 1945 
Area
 –  Total 78 km2 (223rd)
30.1 sq mi 
 –  Water (%) 0
Population
 –  July 2007 estimate 65,573 (197th)
 –  Density 836.3/km2 (12th1)
2,166/sq mi
GDP (PPP) 2003 estimate
 –  Total $2.59 billion (176th)
 –  Per capita $40,000 (9th2)
HDI (n/a) n/a (n/a) (n/a)
Currency Pound sterling3 (GBP)
Time zone GMT
 –  Summer (DST)  (UTC+1)
Drives on the left
ISO 3166 code GG
Internet TLD .gg
Calling code +44 spec.
+44-1481
     (landline)
+44-7781
     (Cable and Wireless Guernsey Ltd)
+44-7839
     (Guernsey Airtel Limited and Cable and Wireless Guernsey Ltd)
+44-7911
     (Wave Telecom and 24 Seven Communications Ltd)
1 Rank based on population density of the Channel Islands including Jersey.
2 2003 estimate.
3 The States of Guernsey issue their own sterling coins and banknotes (see Guernsey pound).

The Bailiwick of Guernsey (pronounced /ˈɡɜrnzi/ GURN-zee; French: Bailliage de Guernesey, IPA: [bajaʒ də ɡɛʁnəzɛ]) is a British Crown Dependency in the English Channel off the coast of Normandy. The Bailiwick should be distinguished from the island of Guernsey. As well as the island of Guernsey itself, the Bailiwick includes also the islands of Herm, Jethou, Burhou, Lihou, as well as two other separate jurisdictions, the island of Alderney and the island of Sark, the latter of which also claims jurisdiction over the island of Brecqhou; all three jurisdictions within the Bailiwick contain also other smaller islets. The island of Guernsey itself is divided into 10 parishes. Although the defence of all these islands is the responsibility of the United Kingdom,[2] the Bailiwick of Guernsey is not part of the U.K. but rather a collection of separate possessions of the Crown (the islands of Guernsey, Sark, Alderney and Jethou each forming a separate possession), comparable to the Isle of Man. The Bailiwick of Guernsey is also not part of the European Union. Together with the Bailiwick of Jersey, the Bailiwick of Guernsey is included in the grouping known as the Channel Islands. The Bailiwick of Guernsey belongs to the Common Travel Area.

Contents

History

Rising sea levels transformed Guernsey first into the tip of a peninsula jutting out into the emergent English Channel, then, around 6000 BC, into an island when it and other promontories were cut off from continental Europe.[3]

At this time, Neolithic farmers settled the coasts and created the dolmens and menhirs that dot the islands. The island of Guernsey contains three sculpted menhirs of great archaeological interest; the dolmen known as L’Autel du Dehus also contains a dolmen deity known as Le Gardien du Tombeau.[4]

During their migration to Brittany, the Britons occupied the Lenur Islands (former name of the Channel Islands[5] including Sarnia or Lisia (Guernsey) and Angia (Jersey). It was formerly thought that the island’s original name was Sarnia, but recent research indicates that may have been the Latin name for Sark; although Sarnia remains the island’s traditional designation. Coming from the Kingdom of Gwent, Saint Sampson (abbot of Dol, in Brittany) is credited with the introduction of Christianity to Guernsey.[citation needed]

In 933 the islands, formerly under the control of the kingdom, then Duchy of Brittany were annexed by the Duchy of Normandy. The island of Guernsey and the other Channel Islands represent the last remnants of the medieval Duchy of Normandy.[citation needed]

In the islands, Elizabeth II’s traditional title as head of state is Duke of Normandy.[6]

During the Middle Ages the island was repeatedly attacked by French pirates and naval forces, especially during the Hundred Years War when the island was occupied by the French on several occasions, the first being in 1339.[7]

In 1372 the island was invaded by Aragonese mercenaries under the command of Owain Lawgoch (remembered as Yvon de Galles), who was in the pay of the French king. Lawgoch and his dark-haired mercenaries were later absorbed into Guernsey legend as an invasion by fairies from across the sea.[8]

Castle Cornet seen at night over the boat harbour of St Peter Port

During the English Civil War, Guernsey sided with Parliament, while Jersey remained Royalist.[citation needed] Guernsey’s decision was mainly related to the higher proportion of Calvinists and other Reformed churches, as well as Charles I‘s refusal to take up the case of some Guernsey seamen who had been captured by the Barbary corsairs.[citation needed] The allegiance was not total, however; there were a few Royalist uprisings in the southwest of the island, while Castle Cornet was occupied by the Governor, Sir Peter Osborne, and Royalist troops. Castle Cornet, which had been built to protect Guernsey, was turned on by the town of St. Peter Port, who constantly bombarded it. It was the last Royalist stronghold to capitulate, in 1651.[9]

During the wars with France and Spain during the 17th and 18th centuries, Guernsey shipowners and sea captains exploited their proximity to mainland Europe, applying for Letters of Marque and turning their merchantmen into privateers.

By the beginning of the 18th century Guernsey’s residents were starting to settle in North America.[10] The 19th century saw a dramatic increase in prosperity of the island, due to its success in the global maritime trade, and the rise of the stone industry. One notable Guernseyman, William Le Lacheur, established the Costa Rican coffee trade with Europe.[11]

During World War I approximately 3,000 island men served in the British Expeditionary Force. Of these, about 1,000 served in the Royal Guernsey Light Infantry regiment which was formed from the Royal Guernsey Militia in 1916.[12]

The Bailiwick of Guernsey was occupied by German troops in World War II. Before the occupation, many Guernsey children were evacuated to England to live with relatives or strangers during the war. Some children were never re-united with their families.[13]

Guernsey island, seen from 33,000 feet above.

During the occupation, some people from Guernsey were deported by the Germans to camps in the southwest of Germany, notably to Biberach an der Riß and interned in the Lindele Camp (“Lager Lindele”). There was also a concentration camp built in Alderney where forced labourers, predominantly from Eastern Europe, were kept. It was the only concentration camp built on British soil and is commemorated on memorials under the Alderney’s name in French: ‘Aurigny’. Some 2,200 U.K. born islanders were also deported to prison camps in Germany, notably Biberach an der Riß. Also deported was Ambrose (later Sir Ambrose) Sherwill, who, as the President of the States Controlling Committee, was de facto head of the civilian population. Sir Ambrose, who was Guernsey-born, had served in the British Army during the First World War and later became Bailiff of Guernsey.

Certain laws were passed at the insistence of the occupying forces ; for example, a reward was offered to informants who reported anyone for painting “V-for Victory” signs on walls and buildings, a practice that had become popular among islanders who wished to express their loyalty to Britain.[citation needed]

Three islanders of Jewish descent were deported to Auschwitz, never to return.[14]

Guernsey was very heavily fortified during World War II by 4x Russian 305mm guns made in 1911[15] out of all proportion to its strategic value. There are German defences visible all round the coast and additions were made to Castle Cornet and a windmill. Hitler became obsessed with the idea that the Allies would try to regain the islands at any price, and over 20% of the material that went into the Atlantic Wall was committed to the Channel Islands. 47,000 sq m of concrete were used on gun bases.[15] Most of the German fortifications remain intact; although the majority of them are on private property, several are open to the public.[16][17]

 

v • d • e

History of Europe

Prehistoric Europe

Classical Antiquity

Middle Ages

Early Modern Europe

Modern Europe

See also

 
 
Classical Greece · Roman Republic · Hellenistic period · Roman Empire · Late Antiquity · Early Christianity · Crisis of the 3rd century · Fall of the Roman Empire
 
 
 
 

 Politics

Main article: Politics of Guernsey

The deliberative assembly of the States of Guernsey (French: les États de Guernesey) is called the States of Deliberation (French: Les États de Délibération) and consists of 45 People’s Deputies, elected from multi- or single-member districts every four years. There are also two representatives from Alderney, a semi-autonomous dependency of the Bailiwick, but Sark sends no representative. The Bailiff or Deputy Bailiff preside in the assembly. There are also two non-voting members: H.M. Procureur (Attorney General) and H.M. Comptroller (Solicitor General), both appointed by the Crown and collectively known as the Law Officers of the Crown.

A Projet de Loi is the equivalent of a U.K. Bill or a French projet de loi, and a Law is the equivalent of a U.K. Act of Parliament or a French loi. A draft Law passed by the States can have no legal effect until formally approved by Her Majesty in Council and promulgated by means of an Order-in-Council. Laws are given the Royal Sanction at regular meetings of the Privy Council in London, after which they are returned to the Islands for formal registration at the Royal Court.

The States also make delegated legislation known as ‘Ordinances (Ordonnances)’ and ‘Orders (Ordres)’ which do not require Royal Assent. Commencement orders are usually in the form of Ordinances.

The Lieutenant Governor is the representative of “the Crown in right of the république of the Bailiwick of Guernsey”.[18] The official residence of the Lieutenant Governor is Government House. Since 18 October 2005 the incumbent has been Vice-Admiral Sir Fabian Malbon, born in Southsea, Portsmouth, in 1946 and a serving naval officer 1965-2002. His last naval posting before retirement from the Royal Navy was deputy commander-in-chief of fleet.[19]

Each parish is administered by a Douzaine. Douzeniers are elected for a six year mandate, two Douzeniers being elected by parishioners at a parish meeting in November each year. The senior Douzenier is known as the Doyen (Dean). Two elected Constables (French: Connétables) carry out the decisions of the Douzaine, serving for between one and three years. The longest serving Constable is known as the Senior Constable and his or her colleague as the Junior Constable.

The legal system is Guernsey customary derived from Norman French customary law, heavily influenced and overlaid by English common law, justice being administered through a combination of the Magistrates’ Court and the Royal Court. Members of Guerney’s legal profession are known as Advocates (French: Avocats), there being no distinction between solicitors and barristers as in England and Wales: Guernsey Advocates fulfil both roles. The Royal Court of Guernsey (French: la Cour Royale de Guernesey) is made up of the Bailiff (French: le Bailli), who presides and determines issues of law, and between twelve and sixteen Jurats (French: Jurés-Justiciers de la Cour Royale), who determine issues of fact and are elected to office by an electoral college known as the States of Election (French: les États d’Élection). Appeals lie from the Royal Court to the Guernsey Court of Appeal and thereafter to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council.[20]

Several European countries have consulate presence in the island. The French Consulate is based at Victor Hugo‘s former residence at Hauteville House. The German Honorary Consulate is based at local design and advertising agency Betley Whitehorne.

While Guernsey has complete autonomy over internal affairs and certain external matters, the topic of complete independence from the British Crown has been discussed widely and frequently, with ideas ranging from Guernsey obtaining independence as a Dominion to the bailiwicks of Guernsey and Jersey uniting and forming an independent Federal State within the Commonwealth, whereby both islands retain their independence with regards to domestic affairs but internationally, the islands would be regarded as one state.[citation needed]

Geography

The Bailiwick of Guernsey

Guernsey coastal rocks

At 49°28′N 2°35′W / 49.467°N 2.583°W / 49.467; -2.583, Alderney, Guernsey, Herm, Sark, and some other smaller islands have a total area of 30 square miles (78 km2) and a coastline of about 30 miles (48 km). By itself, the island of Guernsey has a total area of 25 square miles (65 km2). Guernsey is situated 30 miles (48 km) west of France’s Normandy coast and 75 miles (121 km) south of Weymouth, England and lies in the Gulf of St Malo. Lihou, a tidal island, is attached to Guernsey by a causeway at low tide. The terrain is mostly level with low hills in southwest.[citation needed]

Elevation varies across the bailiwick from sea level to 375 ft (114 m) at Le Moulin on Sark. The highest point in mainland Guernsey is Hautnez (363 ft/111 m), in Alderney at Le Rond But (306 ft/93 m), in Jethou (248 ft/76 m) and Herm (322 ft/98 m). Natural resources include cropland.[citation needed]

Guernsey contains two main geographical regions, the Haut Pas, a high southern plateau, and the Bas Pas, a low-lying and sandy northern region. In general terms, the Haut Pas is the more rural of the two, and the Bas Pas is more residential and industrialised.

There is a large, deepwater harbour at St Peter Port. The Casquets, a group of islets, are notable for the lighthouse facility constructed there.

Climate

The climate is temperate with mild winters and cool sunnier summers. The hottest months are August and September, when temperatures are generally around 20 °C (68 °F). On average, the coldest month is February with an average weekly mean air temperature of 6 °C (42.8 °F). Average weekly mean air temperature reaches 16 °C (60.8 °F) in August. Snow rarely falls and is unlikely to settle, but is most likely to fall in February. The temperature rarely drops below freezing, although strong wind-chill from Arctic winds can sometimes make it feel like it. The rainiest months are December (average 108 mm/4.3 in, November (average 98 mm/3.86 in) and January (average 89 mm/3.50 in). July is on average the sunniest month with 250 hours recorded sunshine; December the least with 50 hours recorded sunshine.[21] 50% of the days are overcast.

[hide]Climate data for Guernsey
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Average high °C (°F) 9
(48)
8
(46)
10
(50)
12
(54)
15
(59)
17
(63)
20
(68)
20
(68)
18
(64)
15
(59)
12
(54)
10
(50)
13.8
(56.8)
Average low °C (°F) 5
(41)
4
(39)
5
(41)
6
(43)
9
(48)
11
(52)
13
(55)
14
(57)
13
(55)
11
(52)
8
(46)
6
(43)
8.8
(47.8)
Precipitation mm (inches) 92
(3.62)
75
(2.95)
67
(2.64)
49
(1.93)
48
(1.89)
44
(1.73)
37
(1.46)
45
(1.77)
63
(2.48)
81
(3.19)
98
(3.86)
100
(3.94)
799
(31.46)
Sunshine hours 59 82 134 193 232 240 258 226 164 121 70 52 1,831
Source: Climate Data for Guernsey [22]

 Parishes

The island of Guernsey is divided into ten parishes. The smaller islands of Alderney and Sark are not parishes of Guernsey, except in ecclesiastical terms (like Guernsey, their parishes fall under the Bishopric of Winchester and their respective parish churches are Saint Anne and Saint Peter).

↓ Parish↓ Population (2001)↓ Area (vergees)↓ Area (km²)↓ Area (sq mi)↓
1. Castel &00000000000089750000008,975 &00000000000062240000006,224 10.200 3.938
2. Forest &00000000000015490000001,549 &00000000000025080000002,508 4.110 1.587
3. St Andrew &00000000000024090000002,409 &00000000000027520000002,752 4.510 1.741
4. St Martin &00000000000062670000006,267 &00000000000044790000004,479 7.340 2.834
5. St Peter Port &000000000001648800000016,488 &00000000000040740000004,074 6.677 2.578
6. St Pierre du Bois &00000000000021880000002,188 &00000000000038180000003,818 6.257 2.416
7. St Sampson &00000000000085920000008,592 &00000000000036870000003,687 6.042 2.333
8. St Saviour &00000000000026960000002,696 &00000000000038920000003,892 6.378 2.463
9. Torteval &0000000000000973000000973 &00000000000019010000001,901 3.115 1.203
10. Vale &00000000000095730000009,573 &00000000000054620000005,462 8.951 3.456

The parishes of Guernsey.

Economy

Sure telephone boxes on Guernsey

Unlike many countries, Guernsey has not delegated money-creation to the central bank and has instead issued interest-free money from 1822 to 1836, stimulating the growth of economy after Napoleon’s wars without creating public debt and without increasing taxes. There is evidence that introducing fiat money (either via a central bank or without one) “stimulates the growth of the economy”[citation needed] in the long term. Also gold and silver coin remained money in Guernsey in the period 1822 to 1836 – and indeed long after.

Financial services, such as banking, fund management, and insurance, account for about 32% of total income.[23] Tourism, manufacturing, and horticulture, mainly tomatoes and cut flowers, especially freesias, have been declining. Light tax and death duties make Guernsey a popular offshore finance centre for Private equity funds. However, while Guernsey is not a member of the European Union, the EU is forcing Guernsey to comply more and more with its rules . As with other offshore centres, Guernsey is also coming under pressure from bigger nations to change its way of doing business. Guernsey is changing the way its tax system works in order to remain OECD and EU compliant. From 1 January 2008 it has operated a Zero-Ten corporate tax system where most companies pay 0% corporate tax and a limited number of banking activities are be taxed at 10%. As a result it is confronting what it terms a financial “black hole” of forty-five million pounds or more according to some estimates which it aims to fill through economic growth and indirect taxation. Guernsey now has the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code GG and the official ISO 3166-1 alpha-3 code GGY; market data vendors, such as Reuters, will report products related to Guernsey using the alpha-3 code.Guernsey also has a thriving non-finance industry. It is home to Specsavers Optical Group, which manages the largest optical chain in the UK and Ireland and also operates in Scandinavia, the Netherlands, Australia, New Zealand and Spain. Healthspan also has its headquarters in Guernsey.[24]

Guernsey issues its own sterling coinage and banknotes. UK coinage and (English, Scottish and Northern Irish faced) banknotes also circulate freely and interchangeably.[25] Public services, such as electricity, water, and postal services have been commercialised by the States and are now operated by companies wholly owned by the States of Guernsey. Guernsey Telecoms which provided telecommunications was sold by the States to Cable & Wireless. Newtel was the first alternative telecommunications company on the island and now provides a wide range of residential and business telecommunication services as well as high specification data centres. Wave Telecom, (owned by Jersey Telecom) also provides some telecommunications excluding local loop services. Gas is supplied by an independent private company. Both the Guernsey Post postal boxes (since 1969) and the telephone boxes (since 2002) are painted blue, but otherwise are identical to their British counterparts, the red pillar box and red telephone box. In 2009 the telephone boxes at the bus station were painted yellow just like they used to be when Guernsey Telecoms were state-owned.

Transport

Ports and harbours exist at St Peter Port and St Sampson’s. There are two paved airports in the Bailiwick (Guernsey Airport and Alderney Airport), and 3 miles (5 km) of railways in Alderney. The States of Guernsey wholly own their own airline Aurigny Air Services. The decision to purchase the airline was made to protect important airlinks to and from the island and the sale was completed on 15 May 2003.

The Guernsey Railway, which was virtually an electric tramway, and which began working on 20 February 1892, was abandoned on 9 June 1934. It replaced an earlier transport system which was worked by steam, and was named the Guernsey Steam Tramway. The latter began service on 6 June 1879 with six locomotives. This leaves Alderney as the only Channel Island with a working railway.[26]

 Demographics

The population is 65,726, as of 2008.[23] The median age for males is 41 years and for females is 43 years. The population growth rate is 0.228% with 8.57 births/1,000 population, 10.09 deaths/1,000 population, and 3.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population. The life expectancy is 77.64 years for males and 83.76 years for females. 1.4 children are born per woman. Ethnic groups consist of British and Norman descent, Portuguese, Latvian and South African.

For immigration and nationality purposes it is UK law, and not Guernsey law, which applies (technically the Immigration Act 1971, extended to Guernsey by Order-in-Council). Guernsey may not apply different immigration controls to the UK and EEA nationals free movement rights to enter the territory of the British Islands and remain apply also in Guernsey, although there are de facto restrictions on occupation of housing by everyone.

The housing market is split between local market properties and a small number of open market properties. Anyone may live in an open market property, but local market properties can only be lived in by those who qualify – either through being born in Guernsey (to local parents), by obtaining a housing licence, or by virtue of sharing a property with someone who does qualify.

Housing licences are for fixed periods, and are usually only valid for as long as the individual remains employed by a specified Guernsey employer.

These restrictions apply equally regardless of whether the property is owned or rented, and only applies to occupation of the property. Thus a person whose housing licence expires may continue to own a Guernsey property, but will no longer be able to live in it.

There are a number of routes to qualifying as a “local” for housing purposes. Generally it is sufficient to be born to at least one Guernsey parent, and to live in the island for ten years in a twenty year period. Once “local” status has been achieved it remains in place for life. Even a lengthy period of residence outside Guernsey does not invalidate “local” housing status.

Although Guernsey’s inhabitants are full British citizens, an endorsement restricting the right of establishment in other European Union states is placed in the passport of British citizens connected solely with the Channel Islands and Isle of Man. Those who have a parent or grandparent born in the United Kingdom itself (England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland), or who have lived in the United Kingdom for 5 years, are not subject to this restriction.

[show]

v • d • e

Demographics of Europe

 
Sovereign
states

Albania · Andorra · Armenia1 · Austria · Azerbaijan1 · Belarus · Belgium · Bosnia and Herzegovina · Bulgaria · Croatia · Cyprus1 · Czech Republic · Denmark · Estonia · Finland · France · Georgia1 · Germany · Greece · Hungary · Iceland · Ireland · Italy · Kazakhstan2 · Latvia · Liechtenstein · Lithuania · Luxembourg · Macedonia · Malta · Moldova · Monaco · Montenegro · Netherlands · Norway · Poland · Portugal · Romania · Russia2 · San Marino · Serbia · Slovakia · Slovenia · Spain · Sweden · Switzerland · Turkey2 · Ukraine · United Kingdom (England • Northern Ireland • Scotland • Wales· Vatican City

 
States with limited
recognition

Abkhazia1 · Kosovo · Nagorno-Karabakh Republic1 · Northern Cyprus1 · South Ossetia1 · Transnistria

 
Other entities
European Union
 
Dependencies,
other territories

Adjara · Akrotiri and Dhekelia1 · Åland · Azores · Faroe Islands · Gagauzia · Gibraltar · Guernsey · Jan Mayen · Jersey · Madeira · Isle of Man · Nakhchivan1 · Svalbard · Vojvodina

 
1 Partially or entirely in Asia, depending on the border definitions. 2 Transcontinental country.

 Emergency services

 Education

Guernsey adopts mainly England’s National Curriculum, including the use of the GCSE and A Level system, in terms of content and structure of teaching. Children are allocated a primary school on a basis of catchment area, or are allowed to attend either of two Catholic primary schools. In terms of admissions however the island continues to use the 11 plus exam to decide on whether a child should receive education at the Grammar School, or receive state funded places at the independent schools Elizabeth College for boys, and The Ladies College for girls or Blanchelande Girls College for Roman Catholics. Parents have the choice to send children to independent schools as fee payers. For children who are not selected for the Grammar School or colleges, they attend the secondary schools of La Mare de Carteret School, Les Beaucamps School, or St Sampson’s High.

The Education Department is part way through a programme of re-building its secondary schools. The Department has completed the building of La Rondin special needs school, the Sixth Form Centre at the Grammar School and the first phase of the new College of FE – a performing arts centre. The construction of St. Sampsons High was completed summer 2008 and admitted its first students in September 2008.

In the past, students could leave school at the end of the term in which they turned 14, if they so wished: a letter was required to be sent to the Education department to confirm this. However, this option was undertaken by relatively few students, the majority choosing to complete their GCSEs and then either begin employment or continue their education. From 2008 onwards, the school leaving age was raised to the last Friday in June in the year a pupil turns 16, in line with England, Wales and Northern Ireland. This means students will be between 15 and 10 months and 16 and 10 months before being able to leave.

In 2001 along with redevelopment of secondary schools the then Education Council tried unsuccessfully to abolish this system.[What system? clarification needed] Nevertheless there is now a redevelopment of state schools across the island, however most of the plan is subjected to securing state funding.

Post GCSE students have a choice of transferring to the state run The Grammar School and Sixth Form Centre, or to the independent colleges for academic AS/A Levels. They also have the option to study vocational subjects at the island’s Guernsey College of Further Education.

There are no universities on the island. Students who attend university in the United Kingdom receive state support towards both maintenance and tuition fees. Recently however, the States of Guernsey Education Department has proposed the introduction of student loans for middle and upper income earners due to the black hole deficit in state spending in 2008.[citation needed] This has been met with much opposition by local politicians, families and students who argue that it will deter future students from going and returning from university, due to very high housing and living costs in Guernsey. The department argues that it had no choice but to introduce them. The decision was first deferred to 2009, however upon the election of new deputies in the 2008 April elections, the decision is now deferred until 2011.[citation needed]

 Culture

Main article: Culture of Guernsey

Children on the Beach of Guernsey, 1883, by Pierre-Auguste Renoir

English is the language in general use by the majority of the population, while Guernesiais, the Norman language of the island, is spoken fluently by only about 2% of the population (according to 2001 census). However, 14% of the population claim some understanding of the language. Sercquais is spoken by a few people on the island of Sark and Auregnais was spoken on the island of Alderney until it became extinct in the early twentieth century. Until the early twentieth century French was the only official language of the Bailiwick, and all deeds for the sale and purchase of real estate in Guernsey were written in French until 1971 . Family and place names reflect this linguistic heritage. Georges Métivier, considered by some to be the island’s national poet, wrote in Guernesiais. The loss of the island’s language and the Anglicisation of its culture, which began in the nineteenth century and proceeded inexorably for a century, accelerated sharply when the majority of the island’s school children were evacuated to the U.K. for five years during the German occupation of 1940-1945.

Georges Métivier, considered by some to be the island’s national poet.

Victor Hugo wrote some of his best-known works while in exile in Guernsey, including Les Misérables. His home in St. Peter Port, Hauteville House, is now a museum administered by the city of Paris. In 1866, he published a novel set in the island, Travailleurs de la Mer (Toilers of the Sea), which he dedicated to the island of Guernsey.

The best-known novel by a Guernseyman is The Book of Ebenezer Le Page, by GB Edwards which, in addition to being a critically acclaimed work of literature, also contains a wealth of insights into life in Guernsey during the twentieth century.[30] A more recent novel by Guernseyman Peter Lihou[31] called Rachel’s Shoe describes the period when Guernsey was under German occupation during the Second World War.[32]

Henry Watson Fowler moved to Guernsey in 1903 where he and his brother Francis George Fowler composed The King’s English and the Concise Oxford Dictionary, and much of Modern English Usage.

The national animals of the island of Guernsey are the donkey and the Guernsey cow. The traditional explanation for the donkey (âne in French and Guernésiais) is the steepness of St Peter Port streets that necessitated beasts of burden for transport (in contrast to the flat terrain of the rival capital of St. Helier in Jersey), although it is also used in reference to Guernsey inhabitants’ stubbornness.

The Guernsey cow is a more internationally famous icon of the island. As well as being prized for its rich creamy milk, which is claimed by some to hold health benefits over milk from other breeds [1], Guernsey cattle are increasingly being raised for their beef, which has a distinctive flavour and rich yellow fat. Although the number of individual islanders raising these cattle for private supply has diminished significantly since the 1960s, Guernsey steers can still be occasionally seen grazing on L’Ancresse common.

There is also a breed of goat known as the Golden Guernsey, which is distinguished by its golden-coloured coat. At the end of World War II, the Golden Guernsey was almost extinct, due to interbreeding with other varieties on the island. The resurrection of this breed is largely credited to the work of a single woman, Miriam Milbourne. Although no longer considered in a ‘critical’ status, the breed remains on the “Watch List” of the Rare Breeds Survival Trust.[33]

Guernsey people are traditionally nicknamed donkeys or ânes, especially by Jersey people (who in turn are nicknamed crapauds – toads). Inhabitants of each of the parishes of Guernsey also have traditional nicknames, although these have generally dropped out of use among the English-speaking population. The traditional nicknames are:[34]

Parish↓ Guernésiais↓ English Translation↓
St Peter Port Cllichards (spitters)
St Sampson’s Rôines (frogs)
Vale Hann’taons (cockchafers)
Castel Ânes-pur-sàng (pure-blooded-donkeys)
St Saviour’s Fouormillaons (ants)
St Pierre du Bois Etcherbaots (beetles)
Forest Bourdons (bumblebees)
St Martin’s Cravants (ray fish)
St Andrew’s Les croinchaons (the siftings)
Torteval Ânes à pids d’ch’fa (donkeys with horses’ hooves)

The Guernsey Lily Nerine sarniensis (Sarnia is the traditional name of the island of Guernsey in Latin) is also used as a symbol of the island.

A local delicacy is the ormer (Haliotis tuberculata), a variety of abalone harvested from the beach at low spring tides, although strict laws control their harvesting.[35]

Of the many traditional Guernsey recipes, the most renowned is a stew called Guernsey Bean Jar. It is a centuries-old stew that is still popular with Islanders, particularly at the annual ‘Viaer Marchi‘ festival, where it served as one of the main events.

Guernsey Gâche is a special bread made with raisins, sultanas and mixed peel.

In July 2006 smoking in enclosed public places was banned, a law put in place to protect workers’ right to a healthy working environment.

 Sport

Main article: Sport in Guernsey

The island’s traditional colour (e.g. for sporting events) is green.

Guernsey participates in the biennial Island Games, which it hosted in 1987 and 2003. Guernsey participates in its own right in the Commonwealth Games.

In sporting events in which Guernsey does not have international representation, when the British Home Nations are competing separately, islanders that do have high athletic skill may choose to compete for any of the Home Nations – there are, however, restrictions on subsequent transfers to represent another Home Nation. The football player Matt Le Tissier for example, could have played for the Scotland national football team but ended up playing for England.

The Guernsey Football Association runs Guernsey football. The top tier of Guernsey football is the Sure Mobile Priaulx league where there are 7 teams (Belgrave Wanderers, Northerners, Sylvans, St Martin’s, Rovers, Rangers and Vale Recreation). The champions in 2006-07 were Northerners. The second tier is the Jackson league which is a mixture of top league players, lower players and youth players. The third tier is the Railway League, featuring three extra teams, Alderney, Guernsey Police and Port City.

The Corbet Football Field donated by Jurat Wilfred Corbet OBE in 1932 has fostered the sport greatly over the years. Although more recently the island has upgraded to a larger, better quality stadium, in Foote’s Lane.[36]

Approximately 200 people play table tennis on a regular basis across four senior and two junior leagues. The GTTA centre, located next to the Hougue du Pommier, is equipped with 12 match tables, 6 training tables, a bar and a small café area. Guernsey sends teams to represent the island in UK and world tournaments.

The Guernsey Gaels was founded in 1996 and competes in the European gaelic football leagues, the island hosts its own tournament each year with teams from all over Europe visiting the island.

Guernsey also has one of the oldest softball associations in the world. The Guernsey Softball Association was formally established in 1936, it is now one of the oldest and longest running softball associations to be found. Affiliated to the International Softball Federation (ISF) the GSA has both fast and slow pitch leagues with over 300 members. [2]

Guernsey was declared an affiliate member by the International Cricket Council (ICC) in 2005 [37] and an associate member in 2008.

Guernsey also enjoys motor sports. In season, races take place on the sands on Vazon beach on the west coast. Le Val des Terres, a steeply winding road rising south from St Peter Port to Fort George, is often the focus of both local and international hill-climb races. In addition, the 2005, 2006, and 2007 World Touring Car Champion Andy Priaulx is a Guernseyman.

The racecourse on L’Ancresse Common was re-established in 2004, and races are held on most May day Bank Holidays, with competitors from Guernsey as well as Jersey, France and the UK participating.

Sea Angling around Guernsey and the other islands in the Bailiwick from shore or boat is a popular pastime for both locals and visitors with the Bailiwick boasting 12 UK records. Guernsey (Fishing) [38]

2009 Formula One World Champion Jenson Button resides on the island.

 Notable Guernsey people

Sir Isaac Brock

Photo  Gallery

The Little Chapel, Les Vauxbelets, Guernsey

Little chapel interior

Fountain Bordage signs St Peter Port Guernsey

Guernésiais BBC sticker

Festival of the Sea (in Guernésiais)

QE2 Marina, St. Peter Port

Relief map of Guernsey from SRTM data

the end@copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

Pameran Koleksi Keramik Kerajaan Tiongkok Produksi Jing De Zhen kuno

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showcase :

Pameran Keramik Langka Kerajaan Tiongkok  Produksi  Jing De Zhen

Frame Pertama : 

Dr Iwan’s  Jing De Zhen private Collections Found In Indonesia

I.Yuan Dinasty

1.The Red Inglaze

2.The Qinh-pai glaze

3. The White Sufu

4.The Tobi Seji

5a The Mohamedan Blue

5 Celadon

II.Ming Dinasty.

1.Spiritual Animal

1) Dragon

2a) rare unusual decoration Fish flying to the gate of heaven and incarnationatuio to Dragon

2b)Chillin

3)horse

4) Ming kui_xing,the god of literatur

compare with NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 Kuixing

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯头), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle. 

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

2. Lucky Fengsui long life  Animal

3. Lucky Fengsui Flower Chrysanthenum  and lotus  etc

4.Lucky Shou loglife and happ1ness calligraphy

5. The Eight Type of Buddhis  Emblem

6.Monochrome blue king

7.Polichrome santsai

8. insect

III.Transisi Ming-Qing

 

IV.Qing Dinasty

1) The early Qing (Kang Hsi)

2) The Lates Qing

Frame Kedua:

Sejarah Kiln Jing de Zhen (google explorations)

Keramik Jingdezhen

Mangkuk glasir Qingbai (“Blueish-green)yang diukiran (carved) disain  bunga peony , Jingdezhen, Song Selatan , 1127-1279.

Keramik Jingdezhen  (Chinese: 景德镇陶瓷) , terutama  porcelain, diproduksi di  Jingdezhen, China. Jingdezhen dijakini sudah memproduksi keramik sejak abad ke enam sebelum Masehi (is believed to have produced pottery as early as the sixth century CE).

Daftar Isi (Contents)

Jingdezhen bluish-white ware

Vase Fonthill merupakan poselein Jin de zhen paling dini  yang ditemukan di Eropa tahun 1338,(tipe seperti ini belum pernah ditemui di Indonesia-Dr Iwan) 

Jingdezhen ware became particularly important from the Song period with the production of Qingbai (青白, “Blueish-white”) ware(keramik Jin de Zhen menjadi sangat terkenal sejak memproduksi keramik jenis Qingbai). The Jingdezhen Qingbai was a transparent and jade-like type of porcelain, with a blueish-white glaze. Decoration was made by delicate carving or incising.(Keramik Qingbai memiliki warna yang transparant seperti batu giok-jade -kumala -warna putih kebiruan dengan dekorasi jenis  sayatan-incised atau diukir)[1]

The earliest piece of Chinese porcelain documented to have reached Europe, was a Qingbai porcelain bottle from Jingdezhen, which arrived in Europe in the middle of the 14th century: the Fonthill vase.(jenis keramik yang paling awal dikirim ke Eropa adalah jenis Botol Qingbai dari Jing de Zhen, yang tiba di Euro pada pertengahan abad ke -14: vase Fonthill)

Later, Jingdezhen produced Shufu ware, named after the two character inscription on some pieces. Shufu may mean the pieces were ordered for the Shumiyuan (Ministry of Defense). The Shufu pieces have a thick, somewhat opaque, glaze, almost white in color, with a faint blue-green tint,look Dr Iwan private collection below (Kemudian ,Jing de Zhen memproduksi keramik yang dinamakan Shufu. Shufu berarti keramik yang dipesan untuk Shumiyuan-menteri Pertahanan. Keramik Shufu tebal ,opak-padat,glasir bewarna putih dengan tinta bewarna  biru-kehijauan , lihat koleksi Dr iwan dibawah ini)

.[1]

Qingbai glazed lamp, Jingdezhen ware, 1271-1368.

Shufu stem bowl, Jingdezhen, 1271-1368.

Jingdezhen blue-and-white porcelain

Early blue and white porcelain, manufactured circa 1335, Jingdezhen.(tipe seperti ini juga terdapat dimuseum Tukrki Tokapi Sayai,banyak yang di tiru saat juga ada tirusn tersebut di Indonesia,saya menemukan artifact fragment kemdi bawang ini yang asli di Kalimantan Barat,silahkan perhatikan illustrasi dibawah ini untuk memahami bentuk yang orisinil untuk dijadikan alat pembanding dengan koleksi anda atau koleksi lain yang palsu-Dr Iwan)

Yuan Jing De Zhen Porcelain development of china

27 六

Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen of china pottery

Yuan less than a hundred years in our history, but the development of porcelain pottery in the history of our country still has a very important position, can not be ignored. Porcelain in the Yuan Dynasty in its considerable weight handicrafts, fifteen years from the Yuanshizhu Emperor Yuan (1278) set up in Jingdezhen, “Fuliang porcelain Bureau” can be seen, this is my first time at the local establishment of the ruling class Porcelain management agencies, Jingdezhen Porcelain for the Ming and Qing government opened the first of its kind, also known as the largest one stroke after Jingdezhen ceramics producing future. Famous Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen kilns have Hutian, Zhu Shan, Lok Ma Bridge, the Goddess of Mercy Court, had family get, and mainly produce blue white porcelain, copper red vitreous enamel, egg albumin cobalt blue vitreous enamel and porcelain. Also fired in the blue and underglaze red porcelain, ceramic history of China opened a new bright page. This is also in the Yuan Dynasty Jingdezhen greatest contribution, is also a milestone in the history of Chinese ceramic creation. In porcelain technology, the more the invention of the dual formula approach kaolin mined system plus tires, burn and create conditions for the large objects. Department of Jingdezhen blue and white Yuan Dynasty was founded in, it is blank on the porcelain painted with cobalt decoration, and then the transparent glazes, 1200 ℃ in order to restore the flame around a firing temperature of porcelain, also known as “underglaze blue,” ” Glaze in Green “,” white glaze blue flowers. ” Yuan blue and white porcelain of Jingdezhen porcelain stone plus with the dual method of kaolin system tire. Taizhi delicate white, due to high levels of obviousness deformation of aluminum oxide. Glaze slightly flashing blue, Guangrun translucent, bright and clear, with a rich ruby blue Xiangying harmony. Decorated with pine, bamboo, plum, flowers, birds, birds and animals, the main character profile. Objects are mostly large, with bottles, cans, plates, bowls and so on. Jingdezhen blue and white great achievements in the Yuan Dynasty, Jingdezhen blue and white porcelain features:

1, as more special with a glaze to glaze coloring stability, rich and gaudy green quiet;

2, as the underglaze blue and white color, ornamentation Wing do not brown off, beautiful and durable;

3, decorated mostly white blue flower, like a fresh purer traditional Chinese ink painting, timeless elegance.

And Red is an important element of the invention of the mid-Jingdezhen.

Contemporary blue and white porcelain manufacturing processes and substantially the same. It is made of copper oxide colorant, the tire on the painting decoration, the cover applied transparent glaze, reducing flame atmosphere at high temperature firing. Because of the red pattern in underglaze, it said and Red.

 And Red on the kiln atmosphere, demanding, difficult to burn than blue, so production is very low, Yuan underglaze red porcelain excavated and handed down the extremely rare. Underglaze red and blue in decorative patterns and glazes are slightly different, more sculptural simplicity underglaze red, theme quite small, glaze with darker levels, the decorative lines often bloom.

随机文章

From the mid-14th century, Jindezhen began to mass-produced underglaze blue porcelain.[1] During the Ming period, official kilns for Imperial productions were established in Jingdezhen.[1]

Dish with underglaze blue design of interlaced flowers, Jingdezhen ware, Xuande Reign 1426-1435, Ming, Shanghai Museum

Dish with underglazed blue design of 2 lions playing a ball, Jingdezhen ware, mid 15th century, Shanghai Museum

Foliated dish with underglaze blue design of melons, bamboo and grapes, Jingdezhen ware, Yuan, 1271-1368, Shanghai Museum

Qing period

With the Qing period, designs became more varied, combined folk and Imperial styles, and Jingdezhen ware became famous around the world.[1] Export were hampered after the French jesuit François Xavier d’Entrecolles visited Jingdezhen and wrote to Europe about its manufacturing secret between 1712 and 1720. From that point, European countries would start to rival Chinese porcelain productions, initially by imitating Chinese styles, and later by developing their own original artistic patterns.

Cowpea-red glazed seal-box, Jingdezhen ware, Kangxi reign 1662-1722, Shanghai Museum

Dish with underglazed blue and overglazed red design of clouds and dragons, Jingdezhen ware, Yongzheng reign 1723-1735, Qing, Shanghai Museum

Main article: Jingdezhen ware

Early Kangxi 17th Century, Jingdezhen Ware, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan,koleksi pribadi Dr iwan yang ditemukan di Indonesia mutunya agak kurang dari koleksi Nantoyoso diatas Qing awal Kang hsi ,mungkin produksi dinasti Qing akhir lihatlah dibawah ini

Ming plate with grape design, 15th century, Jingdezhen kilns, Jiangxi. British Museum.

Porcelain workshop in Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen’s porcelain has been famous not only in China but in time it became known internationally for being “as thin as paper, as white as jade, as bright as a mirror, and as sound as a bell”. The late Guo Moruo, a senior official who was also a famous historian and scholar of PRC wrote a poem that says (in translation): “China is well known in the world for its porcelain, and Jingdezhen is the most well-known centre, with the highest quality porcelain in China”.[2]

Most Jingdezhen porcelain is valued by collectors of antique porcelain throughout the world. According to media reports, a blue and white porcelain jar produced in Jingdezhen during the Yuan Dynasty was auctioned for the equivalent of RMB 230,000,000 yuan in London, UK in July 12, 2005. This was the highest price achieved by a piece of porcelain in the history of all porcelain auctions of the world. The reason for the high price is experts believe that the blue and white Yuan Dynasty porcelain has a dominant position in the history of Chinese ceramics. It represents the pinnacle of the development of Chinese blue and white porcelain.[7][8]

During the Cultural Revolution, Jingdezhen produced a large number of porcelain Mao badges and statues of a seated Mao Zedong.

Jingdezhen soft paste porcelain flower holder, “Famille Rose”, 1736-1796, Qianlong period.

Jingdezhen blue and white plate, mid-14th century.

 Rail

The WanGan Railway (Wan:Anhui Province; Gan:Jiangxi Province) connects Jingdezhen to many key cities in China such as Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Hefei, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Nanchang, Kunming and Guiyang, etc. In addition, the Jiu-Jing-Qu Railway (Jiujiang- Jingdezhen – Quzhou) is under construction. In the near future, the two railwaylines will intersect in Jingdezhen, which will make the city the most important railway transportation hub in Jiangxi Province and East China. The Jingdezhen Railway Station is located in the city center and is under the control of the Nanchang Bureau of Railways.

 Air

The Airlines Routes of Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen Airport is located at Luojian Village, northwest of Jingdezhen city, and about 8 km from the city’s downtown.

CAAC statistics show that in 2008 Jingdezhen Airport served 189,256 passengers. This ranks the airport 81st amongst all Chinese airports. Annual cargo and mail traffic was 119.8 tons; annual landings were 2424. By these measures the airport ranked 111 and 91 in China.[11]

There are flights from Jingdezhen to Beijing(CA), Shanghai(ZH), and Guangzhou (ZH), Shenzhen(ZH). There are no international flights. Jingdezhen Airport is the second largest airport in Jiangxi Province. The largest is at Nanchang.

Local transit

There was only one bus line in Jingdezhen before the 1980s, which was from Huang-ni-tou to Nan-men-tou with a total line distance of 7 kilometers. In that time , the city had no taxi service and the buses were channel-type bus, it could carry more than one hundred passengers at most at the same time. This kinds of buses were renewed when they were operated to the end of 1990s.

Currently,Jingdezhen public buses and taxis are the two main means of transportation within the city. Nearly more than 20 public bus lines crisscross the city and its countryside. Taxis in Jingdezhen are plentiful; fares start at ¥5 for the first 2 kilometers.

.[2]

Residents of rural Jingdezhen

 Attractions

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Historical Exhibition Area

  • Hutian Ancient Kiln Site

  • Porcelain Street

  • China Porcelain Garden

  • Lotus Pond
  • sanbao village created by world famous ceramic artist Jackson Li

Frame Ketiga:

Informasi Tentang Pabrik Keramik Terkenal di Tiongkok Jing De Zhen (berdasarkan Artikel “The World’s Ancient Porcelain Center” Lentz.Frank.S.National geography,Nov 1920 )

1.Illustrasi Pabrik tahun 1927

*ill

*ill Para artis sedang melukis dekorasi porselein disalah satu pabrik keramik terbesar di tiongkok,Jing De zhen. Terlihat ribuan keramik sedang menunggu untuk dilukis decorasi biru dibawah glasir, dan setelah selesia dekorasi , glasir di diaplikasikan melalui beberapa cara  dengan “Dipping”, Dengan di hembus liwat sebuah tabung (tube), atau dengan “sprinkling”. Kemudian keramik tersebut siap untuk dikilatkan (furnance),trenyata saat itu tidak di goaok (brushing) atau di siram(pouring) seperti tempo dulu (penulis melihat pabrik secara langsung tahun 1927)

2.Lokasi

*ill

*ill pabrik keramik Jing de Zhen  masih dilestarikan sampai saat ini

Pabrik Jing De zhen (juga disebut King-te-chen,King-te chin atau Chang-nan-chen) berada diprovinsi Kiangsi, dan merupakan pusat keramik bangsa Tiongkok ,saat in9i merupakan tanah air industri porseselein dunia. (This is the famous porcelain and pottery center of the nation – indeed, it is the original home of the porcelain industry of the world.)

3. Metode Produksi

Walaupun metode produksi masik primitif, kota ini dapat dikasifikasi sebagai pusat industri kendatipun demikian jarang dikunjungi , sehingga  penulis sangat tertariki untuk melihat lokasi yang kuno dan melihat dengan mata sendiri proses pembuatan keramik dari awal sampai selesai.

4. Bagaimana Caranya Mencapai Pabrik Jing Te Zhen 

Setelah menemulakan lokasi  Shanghai di peta tiongkok, kita harus menelusuri sungai  Yangtze ke   Kiukiang dengan rumah kapal Tiongkok , sebelah selatan dimana terletak danau  Po Yang Lake. Untuk mencapai  Jingdezhen dari  Kiukiang dengan kereta api ke  Nanchang. Perjalanan ini membutuhkan waktu satu hari walaupun jaraknya hanya  90 miles. Tidak terlihat disana pusat industri, tetapi ada toko porcelain yang menakjubkan yang disupply oleh perusahan kota keramik.

.5. Kota Jing De Zhen

.

 

pemandangan Jingdezhen dengan cerobong asap dari Kiln,berbeda dari tempat lain di Tiongkok yang biasanya terlihat Menara dan temple.Bukit-bukit yang indah mengelilingi kota. Dipingir sungai terdapat pohon pinus dan camphor (barus), sedangkan pohon bambu tumbuh dengan subur.

Produksi keramik sudah dimulai pada dinasti  Han tahun 220 AD, saat itu merupakan  produksi keramik pertama di tiongkok ,mungkin gerabah sudah diproduksi beberapa abad sebelumya.

Sangat banyak keramik yang pecah atau rusak ditumpuk sepanjang tepi sungai di   Jingdezhen.dan disana terlihat   78 cerobong asap kuning yang besar .Kota dengan penduduk 300.000 , tetapi tidak ada surat kabar.Jingdezhen belum ada listrik dan telefon (is devoid of electric lights and telephones.)dan  beberapa  rickshaws saat ini sudah ada disana. 

Dipingir sunga terlihat sisa pecahan keramik dan keramik yang gagal produksi ditumpuk(padsa penelitian terakhir masih ditemukan pecahan artifact keramik dari dinasti Sung,dan Ming berada dibawah lapisan tanah disekitar pabrik keramik lama-Dr Iwan S lihat illustrasi dibawah ini)

.Di sekitar kota ini ditemui lusinan bahan baku keramik Clay yang sangat bagus terutama didistrik dekat danau Pao Yang .sehingga kota ini menjadi pusat produksi pabrik keramik.Tempat bahan keramik tersebut adalah Nan K’an, Yu Kan, Tung Kengn dan C’hi Men. At Ch’i Men, diperbatasan provinsi  Anhwei Province, disana seluruh gunung terdapat ” fine white clay.”yang dikenal sebagai kaolin atau the “bone” clay .

6. Cara Roda Pembuat Keramik dioperasikan

Seluruh bahan keramik “clay” dibawa dengan kapal datar  ke  Jingdezhen dalam bentuk bata kecil yang lunak bewarna putih . Ribuan pekerja Tiongkok terikat dengan pekerjaaan ini.

Setelah clay dibersihkan,dipisahkan dan dimurnikan (refined), kemudian disatukan sesuai dengan kebutuhan  dalam bervariasi secara  proposional , biasanya dengan mengunakan kaki oleh anak-anak sampai siap untuk dibuat keramik.

 

Clay yang lunak dan basah ditaruh di atas knob diatas roda putar pembuat keramik.

 Bentuk dari roda putar pembuat keramik sesuai penjelasan dalam buku sebagai berikut:

1.The potter’s wheel, which was invented by the Chinese, is a huge circular machine, about four feet in diameter, made of heavy timbers to lend it momentum. It rests on a perpendicular axis in a slight depression or pit, into which water and debris rapidly drain.

2.The potter is perched above the wheel, with one foot on either side, in order to allow sufficient space for the movement of his hands. After revolving the wheel swiftly with a short pole, he deftly and with mechanical precision fashions a plate, bowl or vase. After years of practice, he can estimate to within a hair’s breadth the proper size.

3.The piece is then removed and placed on a long tray in front of the potter, where it awaits the next artisan. Handles and other decorations, made in molds, are added, and then the whole is scraped smooth and allowed to dry until it is ready for the next process – the under-glaze decoration.

4.Several basic colors, like blue and red, can be painted on under the glaze. The glaze is next applied in various ways – by dipping, by blowing on with a tube, or by sprinkling.

 After the mark has been added the piece is ready for the furnace.

7.Straw and wood scarce; coal not suited for kilns

Porcelain placed in the kiln to be fired has to be protected in strong, cylindrical clay vessels, called saggers. These trays can be used from three to six times before they are ready for the scrap heap on the river bank. Every piece of porcelain, as it is set into the sagger, is placed on a small, round, clay chip, sprinkled with straw ashes. This prevents fusing together of the two pieces.

The fuel for the furnaces at Jingdezhen is of two kinds – straw and wood. Coal has been tried, but it was found that its fumes discolored the porcelain, and accordingly its use was discontinued. Straw is used to burn only the coarser ware.

The fuel problem is a very acute one and it is only with greatest difficulty that wood can be secured at all. The neighboring hills have long ago been deforested, and firewood must be transported to Jingdezhen in river boats, often from sources 200 or 300 miles distant. Boats piled high with straw, projecting over the sides almost to the capsizing point, are common sights all along the river. Wood-boats, too, are seen everywhere.

The kilns are large, egg-shaped ovens of brownish brick, fifty feet long and twelve feet high at the highest point. Because of the intense heat, both the kilns and chimneys must be rebuilt annually.

Every piece of porcelain is placed in the furnace with great precision and arranged according to the temperature which is necessary for its complete firing. Only certain pieces can be placed at the top of the kiln.

The furnace when full is entirely bricked up, and the whole contents are kept at a temperature of 1,600 to 2,000 degrees centigrade, usually for a night and a day, after which the kiln is allowed to cool off, and in due time the porcelain is removed. It has been found that one kiln is large enough to keep nine or ten factories in operation.

This completes the process if no decorations other than the under-glaze paintings are desired, but if more elaborate colorings are used, further burnings in a smaller kiln take place. In applying other ornamental designs the artist often spends weeks, or even months, in completing a single piece, as was the case with a beautiful vase portraying the five relationships, which we had the pleasure of inspecting in the leading factory in the city.

8.Porcelain is classified according to shape

We found porcelain to be classified, according to shape, as follows: “yuan c’hi” or round ware, which includes cups, bowls, saucers and plates; “tso c’hi” or irregular rounds, including teapots, vases, and small, flat ink and paint boxes; “tiao hsiang”, or irregulars, such as images, statues, representations of trees and other objects.

An interesting feature of the manufacturing process is that the factories are also classified according to the shape of the piece they produce – that is, Mr. Wang makes only round ware, or he may even confine himself to the manufacture of bowls, while Mr. Li’s factory is devoted entirely to the production of teapots.

Clustered around the Fukien Guild Hall, in the eastern part of the city, for example, we found about twenty Fukienese families devoting their entire time to the making of images and statues, such as the God of War, Goddess of Mercy, the Three Stars – Happiness, Longevity and Posterity – and the Gods of Harmony. Among the collection we also noticed some obscene pieces.

There is only one plant in Jingdezhen which produces all varieties of porcelain and pottery – the Kiangsi Porcelain Company. It was organized several years ago by a number of prominent stockholders on a modern basis. No foreigners are connected with it in any capacity. We hear a good deal these days about the inability of Chinese to run their own business firms, but the success of this company, which received the grand prize for the best exhibition of porcelain at the Panama Pacific International Exposition in 1915, seems to indicate that they have some business capacity.

Boats loaded with soft, white clay bricks for the porcelain factories

Thousands of boats are engaged in hauling wood for the porcelain furnaces

Kneading clay by foot-power after it has been thoroughly cleansed and sifted

This milk-like liquid is the porcelain glaze ready to be blown or brushed upon the potters’ product

9.The imperial pottery’s long and noble history

Among the four hundred male employees of this concern are one hundred formerly engaged by the Imperial Pottery. In fact, with the downfall of the Qing Dynasty in 1911, the Kiangsi Porcelain Company took over practically the entire plant of the famous old factory.

The Imperial Pottery had a long and noble history. It was established in the Sung Dynasty, which lasted from 960 to 1279 AD. The emperor Chiu Tsung, who founded the dynasty, established the manufactory at Jingdezhen, and down through the centuries each succeeding emperor gave it his support and encouragement. It is reported that it was a part of the Yuan Shih K’ai’s imperial plans to reopen the pottery on his ascendancy to the throne. This is but one of the would-be emperor’s dreams that was cut short by his sudden death.

Although the empire no longer exists, porcelain is still used in large quantities by officials in Peking. It was my pleasure on several occasions to meet at feasts President Hsu His Chang’s representative, who had been in Jingdezhen for several months purchasing special wares to be used as gifts in the capital. We visited the factory which filled his orders and saw there dozens of vases, in every stage of development, later to be presented to foreign ambassadors and Mongol princes.

Mixing porcelain clays
Some clays are brittle, some are tough. This is the method of mixing used in all the factories.

The potter at his wheel
After placing the ball of soft clay on the knob of the rapidly revolving wheel, he deftly forms a cup, vase or bowl with mechanical precision.

One method of applying glaze
Here the operator is blowing the glaze through a bamboo tube as the vase is slowly revolved by his toe.

Where the teapot multiplies
In the center of the porcelain industry the product is classified according to shape, as follows: “Yuan c’hi”, “tso c’hi” and “tiao hsiang” – round ware (cups, bowls, saucers, and plates), irregular rounds (teapots, vases, etc.), and irregulars (statues, trees, etc.). The factories are likewise classified according to the shape of the ware they manufacture.

A potter and his unfinished ware
Almost large enough to have served as the jars in which Ali Baba’s Forty Thieves concealed themselves! Those jars of Arabian Names might have been made in Jingdezhen, for China’s ancient porcelain center was manufacturing such wares as early as 220 A.D.[No, not really, production here started in Five Dynasties and Ali Babas jars would more likely have been Pegu or Martaban jars, and not from Jingdezhen at all. / JE]

Cheap porcelain piled high along porcelain street.

The way in which porcelain is moved from place to place.

No unemployment in the porcelain city

There is no unemployment in Jingdezhen. Work is plentiful, but industrial conditions are bad. Long hours, poor food, no rest days and unsanitary living conditions cause a great deal of dissatisfaction among the laborers.

The best decorative artists receive three dollars a day (Mexican)
The unskilled wielders of the brush can earn as little as fifteen cents a day, however, the men are paid not by the hour but according to the quality of their work and the number of pieces finished.

Workers are organized, first according to the parts of the country from which they come – Jingdezhen, from Anhwei and all other provinces. They are further formed into guilds, according to the kind of work upon which they are engaged. Strikes are infrequent, but there is seldom resort to violence. The Chamber of Commerce is a regular mediator.

Many women are engaged in various forms of porcelain production, such as painting, engraving, and lettering. The apprentice system prevails throughout the industry, as in every trade in China. It was interesting to note the artistic ability of a number of small boys engaged in paint birds, flowers, fish and bats, the last being an omen of good fortune.

Wages range from ten cents to one dollar per day, Mexican, for potters and molders. This includes food and room. The artist’s wage ranges from twelve cents to three dollars per day, varying not according to the number of hours but, but according to he number and quality of the pieces produced. But no artisan must work too long. If a man is found doing too much and working beyond the time limit, he is set upon by his fellow workers and severely beaten.

We learned from the revenue collector that about $5,000,000 worth of porcelain and pottery is shipped out of Jingdezhen every year. Every piece has to be hauled down the river in small boats to Raochow, whence it is reshipped in large junks to Shanghai and other cities. Most of this is for domestic use, the Chinese not yet having learned the value of stimulating international trade.

“Ling Lung”, or rice pattern dishes require much time and skill

Perhaps the most popular design of porcelain with foreigners is the “ling lung” or rice pattern found in dishes, cups and bowls. The Chinese have learned the art of producing foreign-style dinner sets in this pattern and are finding a ready market for them.

Making the famous rice-pattern ware
Patient skill and no small amount of time are required in making this pattern, which is known in Jingdezhen as “Ling lung” [devils' work]. It is made not by pressing kernels of the grain into the wet clay, but by cutting the apertures with a sharp knife, after which the holes are filled by repeatedly dipping into the glazing fluid.

Patient skill and no small amount of time are required for the making of rice pattern. The wet clay is first formed into a crude cup or plate on the potter’s wheel. After the piece has dried for several hours or for a day, it is carefully scraped with a special kind of knife which conforms to the curvature of the vessel. The next step is to cut in the kernel-shaped holes. This is done by a skilled workman, who uses a small, flexible steel lancet.

I had always thought that the rice pattern was made by pressing kernels of rice into the damp clay. It was not until I saw the actual process that this erroneous impression was corrected. After these small apertures have been completed the vessel is ready for the under-glaze painting. Decorating finished, the next step is to apply the glazing fluid. This is a thin, milky substance of high-grade porcelain. Sometimes the bowl is dipped, but the cold, raw liquid is usually put on with a soft wool brush.

The operation is repeated about thirty times, with an interval for drying, until all the holes are filled. Five or six coatings only can be applied in one day. The piece is then fired in the usual manner, and comes out of the furnace with the filled holes standing out in beautiful translucent designs.

The firm exporting the largest quantity of porcelain from Jingdezhen is a Chinese company in New York City.

Packing porcelain in rice straw to be shipped to America
The firm exporting the largest quantity of porcelain and pottery from Jingdezhen is a New York concern. Each piece is carefully packed by hand in rice straw before being packed in large boxes.

Each piece is carefully packed by hand in rice straw before it is packed in large boxes. These foreign boxes are made in Jingdezhen and after being marked both in Chinese and English, are shipped directly to New York.

Jingdezhen has a big future

The outstanding impression which a Westerner carries away from this teeming industrial city is the primitiveness of the methods in use. In not a single shop or factory does on find modern machines. Not even the simplest mechanical devices for operating a series of wheels by means of belts are to be found. Every pieces of porcelain is turned out by hand- or by foot.

Yet it is astonishing how much these patient workmen produce with their obsolete methods and crude devices. New ideas penetrate interior China slowly, but with the opening of the Nanking-Nanchang Railway, which has been planned and surveyed, Jingdezhen will assume as position of commercial influence that will astonish the world. The enormous clay deposits, together with the quantity of cheap labor, touched by the magic hand of a twentieth century artist engineer, will push this old and interesting city into a position that will far outshine her ancient glory.

FRAME EMPAT : JING DE ZHEN SAAT INI

1. INFO

1.Jalur Darat ke Jing de Zhen

  • Jalan Raya negara Tiongkok  G206 dari  Yantai, Shandong ke  Shantou, Guangdong.

2. Jalur Kereta Api

Jalan Kereta api  WanGan Railway (Wan:Anhui Province; Gan:Jiangxi Province) menghubungkan Jingdezhen ke banyak kota di Tiongkok seperti  Shanghai, Nanjing, Jinan, Qingdao, Hefei, Guangzhou, Fuzhou, Xiamen, Nanchang, Kunming dan Guiyang, etc. sebagai tambahan , jalan kereta api t Jiu-Jing-Qu Railway (Jiujiang- Jingdezhen – Quzhou) dalam pembangunan . Pada waktu tak lama lagi , dua jalur kereta api yang meliwati  Jingdezhen, tang membuat kota ini merupakan jalur kereta api yang paling penting di provinsi Jiangxi dan Timur Tiongkok . Stasiun Kereta api  Jingdezhen Railway lokasi di tengah kota  dan dibawah pengawasan   Nanchang Bureau of Railways.

 JALUR UDARA

Peta Rute Pesawat udara ke Jingdezhen

Jingdezhen Airport is located at Luojian Village, northwest of Jingdezhen city, and about 8 km from the city’s downtown.

CAAC statistics show that in 2008 Jingdezhen Airport served 189,256 passengers. This ranks the airport 81st amongst all Chinese airports. Annual cargo and mail traffic was 119.8 tons; annual landings were 2424. By these measures the airport ranked 111 and 91 in China.[11]

There are flights from Jingdezhen to Beijing(CA), Shanghai(ZH), and Guangzhou (ZH), Shenzhen(ZH). There are no international flights. Jingdezhen Airport is the second largest airport in Jiangxi Province. The largest is at Nanchang.

Transit Lokal

There was only one bus line in Jingdezhen before the 1980s, which was from Huang-ni-tou to Nan-men-tou with a total line distance of 7 kilometers. In that time , the city had no taxi service and the buses were channel-type bus, it could carry more than one hundred passengers at most at the same time. This kinds of buses were renewed when they were operated to the end of 1990s.

Currently,Jingdezhen public buses and taxis are the two main means of transportation within the city. Nearly more than 20 public bus lines crisscross the city and its countryside. Taxis in Jingdezhen are plentiful; fares start at ¥5 for the first 2 kilometers.

.[2]

Penduduk asli  Jingdezhen

 Attractions

  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Museum
  • Jingdezhen Ceramic Historical Exhibition Area
  • Hutian Ancient Kiln Site
  • Porcelain Street
  • China Porcelain Garden
  • Lotus Pond
  • sanbao village created by world famous ceramic artist Jackson Li

2.PRODUK BARU JING DE ZHEN

3.PABRIK KERAMIK DAN TOKO KERAMIK JING DE ZHEN

selesai@ hak cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

The French Collections Exhibition

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Showcase :

The France Historic Collections Exhibition

History of France
Flag of France prior to 1789 and between 1814 and 1830 Flag of France
This article is part of a series


Ancient history
Prehistory of France
Celtic Gaul
Roman Gaul (50 BC–486 AD)
The Franks
Merovingians (481 AD–751 AD)
Middle Ages
Carolingians (751–987)
Direct Capetians (987–1328)
Valois (1328–1498)
Early Modern France
Valois-Orléans (1498–1515)
Valois-Angoulême (1515–1589)
House of Bourbon (1589–1792)
French Revolution (1789)
19th century
First Republic (1792–1804)
National Convention (1792–1795)
Directory (1795–1799)
Consulate (1799–1804)
First Empire (1804–1814)
Restoration (1814–1830)
July Revolution (1830)
July Monarchy (1830–1848)
1848 Revolution
Second Republic (1848–1852)
Second Empire (1852–1870)
Third Republic (1870–1940)
Paris Commune (1871)
20th century
French State (1940–1944)
Provisional Government
(1944–1946)
Fourth Republic (1946–1958)
Fifth Republic (1958–present)

France Portal

v • d • e

The history of France goes back to the arrival of the earliest human being in what is now France. Members of the genus Homo entered the area hundreds of thousands of years ago, while the first modern homo sapiens, the Cro-Magnons, arrived around 40,000 years ago. A number of important archaeological sites have been discovered in the country, testifying to continuous habitation by modern humans from the Upper Palaeolithic.

According to John T. Koch and others, France in the Late Bronze Age was part of a maritime trading-networked culture called the Atlantic Bronze Age that also included Ireland, Britain, Spain and Portugal where Celtic languages developed.[1][2][3][4][5][6][7]

The first historical records appear in the Iron Age, when what is now France made up the bulk of the region known as Gaul to the ancient Greeks and Romans. Greek and Roman writers noted the presence of three main ethno-linguistic groups in the area, the Gauls, the Aquitani, and the Belgae. The Gauls, the largest and best attested group, were a Celtic people speaking what is known as the Gaulish language. Over the course of the first millennium BC the Greeks, Romans, and Carthaginians established colonies on the Mediterranean coast and the offshore islands. The Roman Republic annexed southern Gaul as the province of Gallia Narbonensis in the late 2nd century BC, and Roman forces under Julius Caesar conquered the rest of Gaul in the Gallic Wars of 58–51 BC. Afterward a Gallo-Roman culture emerged and Gaul was increasingly integrated into the Roman Empire.

In the later stages of the Roman Empire, Gaul was subject to barbarian raids and migration, most importantly by the Germanic Franks. The Frankish king Clovis I united most of Gaul under his rule in the late 5th century, setting the stage for Frankish dominance in the region for hundreds of years. Frankish power reached its fullest extent under Charlemagne. The medieval Kingdom of France emerged out of the western part of Charlemagne’s Carolingian Empire, known as West Francia, and achieved increasing prominence under the rule of the House of Capet, founded by Hugh Capet in 987. A succession crisis following the death of the last Capetian monarch in 1337 led to the series of conflicts known as the Hundred Years War between the House of Valois and the House of Plantagenet. The wars ended with a Valois victory in 1453, solidifying the power of the Ancien Régime as a highly centralized absolute monarchy. During the next centuries, France experienced the Renaissance and the Protestant Reformation, as well as recurring religious conflicts and wars with other powers. In the late 18th century the monarchy and associated institutions were overthrown in the French Revolution, which forever changed French and world history. The country was governed for a period as a Republic, until the French Empire was declared by Napoleon Bonaparte. Following Napoleon’s defeat in the Napoleonic Wars France went through several further regime changes, being ruled as a monarchy, then briefly as a republic, and then as a Second Empire, until a more lasting Third French Republic was established in 1870.

France was one of the Triple Entente powers in World War I, fighting alongside the United Kingdom, Russia, and their allies against the Central Powers. It was one of the Allied Powers in World War II, but was conquered by Nazi Germany within two months. The Third Republic was dismantled, and most of the country was controlled directly by the Axis Powers, while the south was controlled by the collaborationist Vichy government. Following liberation, a Fourth Republic was established; this was succeeded by the French Fifth Republic in 1958, the country’s current government. After the war decolonization saw most of the French colonial empire become independent, while other parts were incorporated into the French state as overseas departments and collectivities. Since World War II France has been a leading member in the United Nations, the European Union and NATO, and remains a strong economic, cultural, military and political influence in the 21st century.

 Prehistory

Cave painting in Lascaux.

Main article: Prehistory of France

The Neanderthals, a member of the homo genus, began to occupy Europe from about 200,000 BC, but seem to have died out by about 30,000 years ago, presumably out-competed by the modern humans during a period of cold weather. The earliest modern humans — Homo sapiensentered Europe (including France) around 50,000 years ago (the Upper Palaeolithic). The cave paintings of Lascaux and Gargas (Gargas in the Hautes-Pyrénées) as well as the Carnac stones are remains of the local prehistoric activity.

Gaul

Main article: Gaul

Massalia (modern Marseille) silver coin with Greek legend, a testimony to Greeks in pre-Roman Gaul, 5th-1st century BCE.

Covering large parts of modern day France, Belgium, northwest Germany and northern Italy, Gaul was inhabited by many Celtic and Belgae tribes whom the Romans referred to as Gauls and who spoke the Gaulish language roughly between the Seine and the Garonne (Gallia Celtica). On the lower Garonne the people spoke Aquitanian, an archaic language related to Basque whereas a Belgian language was spoken north of the Seine. The Celts founded cities such as Lutetia Parisiorum (Paris) and Burdigala (Bordeaux) while the Aquitanians founded Tolosa (Toulouse).

Long before any Roman settlements, Greek navigators settled in what would become Provence. The Phoceans founded important cities such as Massalia (Marseille) and Nikaia (Nice), bringing them in to conflict with the neighboring Celts and Ligurians. The Phoceans were great navigators such as Pytheas who was born in Marseille. The Celts themselves often fought with Aquitanians and Germans, and a Gaulish war band led by Brennus invaded Rome circa 393 or 388 BC following the Battle of the Allia. However, the tribal society of the Gauls did not change fast enough for the centralized Roman state, who would learn to counter them. The Gaulish tribal confederacies were then defeated by the Romans in battles such as Sentinum and Telamon. In the 3rd century B.C., the Belgae conquered the surrounding territories of the Somme in northern Gaul after a battle supposedly against the Armoricani near Ribemont-sur-Ancre and Gournay-sur-Aronde, where sanctuaries were found.

When Carthaginian commander Hannibal Barca fought the Romans, he recruited several Gaulish mercenaries which fought on his side at Cannae. It was this Gaulish participation that caused Provence to be annexed in 122 BC by the Roman Republic.[citation needed] Later, the Consul of Gaul—Julius Caesar—conquered all of Gaul. Despite Gaulish opposition led by Vercingetorix, the Overking of the Warriors, the Gauls succumbed to the Roman onslaught. The Gauls had some success at first at Gergovia, but were ultimately defeated at Alesia. The Romans founded cities such as Lugdunum (Lyon) and Narbonensis (Narbonne).

 Roman Gaul

Main article: Roman Gaul

Vercingetorix surrenders to Julius Caesar after Alesia. Painting by Lionel-Noël Royer, 1899.

Gaul was divided into several different provinces. The Romans displaced populations to prevent local identities from becoming a threat to Roman control. Thus, many Celts were displaced in Aquitania or were enslaved and moved out of Gaul. There was a strong cultural evolution in Gaul under the Roman Empire, the most obvious one being the replacement of the Gaulish language by Vulgar Latin. It has been argued the similarities between the Gaulish and Latin languages favoured the transition. Gaul remained under Roman control for centuries and Celtic culture was then gradually replaced by Gallo-Roman culture.

The Gauls became better integrated with the Empire with the passage of time. For instance, Marcus Antonius Primus, an important general of the Roman Empire, and Emperor Claudius were both born in Gaul, as were general Gnaeus Julius Agricola and emperor Caracalla. Antoninus Pius also came from a Gaulish family. In the decade following Valerian‘s capture by the Persians in 260, Postumus established a short-lived Gallic Empire, which included the Iberian Peninsula and Britannia, in addition to Gaul itself. Germanic tribes, the Franks and the Alamanni, entered Gaul at this time. The Gallic Empire ended with Emperor Aurelian‘s victory at Châlons in 274.

Gaul soldiers.

A migration of Celts appeared in the 4th century in Armorica. They were led by the legendary king Conan Meriadoc and came from Britain. They spoke the now extinct British language, which evolved into the Breton, Cornish, and Welsh languages.

In 418 the Aquitanian province was given to the Goths in exchange for their support against the Vandals. Those same Goths had previously sacked Rome in 410 and established a capital in Toulouse. The Roman Empire had difficulty responding to all the barbarian raids, and Flavius Aëtius had to use these tribes against each other in order to maintain some Roman control. He first used the Huns against the Burgundians, and these mercenaries destroyed Worms, killed king Gunther, and pushed the Burgundians westward. The Burgundians were resettled by Aëtius near Lugdunum in 443. The Huns, united by Attila became a greater threat, and Aëtius used the Visigoths against the Huns. The conflict climaxed in 451 at the Battle of Châlons, in which the Romans and Goths defeated Attila.

The Roman Empire was on the verge of collapsing. Aquitania was definitely abandoned to the Visigoths, who would soon conquer a significant part of southern Gaul as well as most of the Iberian Peninsula. The Burgundians claimed their own kingdom, and northern Gaul was practically abandoned to the Franks. Aside from the Germanic peoples, the Vascones entered Wasconia from the Pyrenees and the Bretons formed three kingdoms in Armorica: Domnonia, Cornouaille and Broërec.

Frankish kingdoms (486–987)

Main article: Frankish Empire

Battle of Tours. This battle is often considered of macro-importance in European and Islamic history.

In 486, Clovis I, leader of the Salian Franks, defeated Syagrius at Soissons and subsequently united most of northern and central Gaul under his rule. Clovis then recorded a succession of victories against other Germanic tribes such as the Alamanni at Tolbiac. In 496, pagan Clovis adopted Catholicism. This gave him greater legitimacy and power over his Christian subjects and granted him clerical support against the Arian Visigoths. He defeated Alaric II at Vouillé in 507 and annexed Aquitaine, and thus Toulouse, into his Frankish kingdom. The Goths retired to Toledo in what would become Spain. Clovis made Paris his capital and established the Merovingian Dynasty but his kingdom would not survive his death. The Franks treated land purely as a private possession and divided it among their heirs, so four kingdoms emerged: Paris, Orléans, Soissons, and Rheims. When the majordome of Austrasia, Pepin of Herstal, defeated his Neustrian counterpart at Tertry, the Merovingian dynasty eventually lost effective power to their successor mayors of the palace (majordomes). Eventually, one family of mayors, the House of Herstal, was to become the Carolingian dynasty.

By this time Muslim invaders had conquered Hispania and were threatening the Frankish kingdoms. Duke Odo the Great defeated a major invading force at Toulouse in 721 but failed to repel a raiding party in 732. The mayor of the palace, Charles Martel, defeated that raiding party at the Battle of Tours (actually the battle between Tours and Poitiers) and earned respect and power within the Frankish Kingdom. The assumption of the crown in 751 by Pippin the Short (son of Charles Martel) established the Carolingian dynasty as the Kings of the Franks.

The coronation of Charlemagne

Carolingian power reached its fullest extent under Pippin’s son, Charlemagne. In 771, Charlemagne reunited the Frankish domains after a further period of division, subsequently conquering the Lombards under Desiderius in what is now northern Italy (774), incorporating Bavaria (788) into his realm, defeating the Avars of the Danubian plain (796), advancing the frontier with Islamic Spain as far south as Barcelona (801), and subjugating Lower Saxony (804) after a prolonged campaign.

In recognition of his successes and his political support for the Papacy, Charlemagne was crowned Emperor of the Romans, or Roman Emperor in the West, by Pope Leo III in 800. Charlemagne’s son Louis I (emperor 814–840) kept the empire united; however, this Carolingian Empire would not survive Louis I’s death. Two of his sons — Charles the Bald and Louis the German — swore allegiance to each other against their brother — Lothair I — in the Oaths of Strasbourg, and the empire was divided among Louis’s three sons (Treaty of Verdun, 843). After a last brief reunification (884–887), the imperial title ceased to be held in the western realm, which was to form the basis of the future French kingdom. The eastern realm, which would become Germany, elected the Saxon dynasty of Henry the Fowler.

Under the Carolingians, the kingdom was ravaged by Viking raiders. In this struggle some important figures such as Count Odo of Paris and his brother King Robert rose to fame and became kings. This emerging dynasty, whose members were called the Robertines, were the predecessors of the Capetian Dynasty. Led by Rollo, some Vikings had settled in Normandy and were granted the land, first as counts and then as dukes, by King Charles the Simple, in order to protect the land from other raiders. The people that emerged from the interactions between the new Viking aristocracy and the already mixed Franks and Gallo-Romans became known as the Normans. See also:

 State building into the Kingdom of France (987–1453)

Main article: Kingdom of France

France was a very decentralised state during the Middle Ages. The authority of the king was more religious than administrative. The 11th century in France marked the apogee of princely power at the expense of the king when states like Normandy, Flanders or Languedoc enjoyed a local authority comparable to kingdoms in all but name. The Capetians, as they were descended from the Robertines, were formerly powerful princes themselves who had successfully unseated the weak and unfortunate Carolingian kings. The Carolingian Kings had nothing more than a royal title when the Capetian Kings added their principality to that title. The Capetians, in a way, held a dual status of King and Prince; as king they held the Crown of Charlemagne and as Count of Paris they held their personal fiefdom, best known as Île-de-France. The fact that the Capetians both held lands as Prince as well as in the title of King gave them a complicated status. Thus they were involved in the struggle for power within France as princes but they also had a religious authority over the Church of France as King. However, and despite the fact that the Capetian kings often treated other princes more as enemies and allies than as subordinates, their royal title was often recognised yet not often respected. The royal authority was so weak in some remote places that bandits were the effective power.

Some of the king’s vassals would grow so powerful that they would become some of the strongest rulers of western Europe. The Normans, the Plantagenets, the Lusignans, the Hautevilles, the Ramnulfids, and the House of Toulouse successfully carved lands outside of France for themselves. The most important of these conquests for French history was the Norman Conquest of England, following the Battle of Hastings, by William the Conqueror because it linked England to France through Normandy. Although the Normans were now both vassals of the French kings and their equals as Kings of England, their zone of political activity remained centered in France.[8] These Norman nobles then commissioned the weaving of the Bayeux Tapestry. An important part of the French aristocracy also involved itself in the crusades, and French knights founded and ruled the Crusader states. An example of the legacy left in the Middle East by these nobles is the Krak des Chevaliers‘ enlargement by the Counts of Tripoli and Toulouse.

The Early Capetians (987–1165)

A view of the remains of the Abbey of Cluny

The Abby of Cluny was the centre of monastic life revival in the Middle Ages and marked an important step in the cultural rebirth following the Dark Ages.

Hugh Capet was elected by an assembly summoned in Reims on 1 June 987. Capet was previously “Duke of the Franks” and then became “King of the Franks” (Rex Francorum). He was recorded to be recognised king by the Gauls, Bretons, Danes, Aquitanians, Goths, Spanish and Gascons.[9] The Danes here are certainly the Normans (of Normandy), and the Spanish entry probably refers to the Carolingian Spanish marches. Hugh Capet’s reign was marked by the loss of the Spanish marches as they grew more and more independent. Count Borell of Barcelona called for Hugh’s help against Islamic raids, but even if Hugh intended to help Borell, he was otherwise occupied in fighting Charles of Lorraine. The loss of other Spanish principalities then followed. Hugh Capet, the first Capetian king, is not a well documented figure, his greatest achievement being certainly to survive as king and defeating the Carolingian claimant, thus allowing him to establish what would become one of Europe’s most powerful house of kings.

Hugh’s son — Robert the Pious — was crowned King of the Franks before Capet’s demise. Hugh Capet decided so in order to have his succession secured. Robert II, as King of the Franks, met Emperor Henry II in 1023 on the borderline. They agreed to end all claims over each other’s realm, setting a new stage of Capetian and Ottonian relationships. The reign of Robert II was quite important because it involved the Peace and Truce of God and the Cluniac Reforms. Although a king weak in power, Robert II’s efforts were considerable. His surviving charters imply he was heavily relying on the church to rule France, much like his father did. Although he lived with a mistress —Bertha of Burgundy— and was excommunicated because of this, he was regarded as a model of piety for monks (hence his nickname, Robert the Pious). He crowned his son —Hugh Magnus— King of the Franks to secure his succession, however Hugh Magnus rebelled against his father and died fighting him. The next King of the Franks —Henry I— was crowned after Robert’s death, which is quite exceptional for a French king of the times. Henry I was one of the weakest kings of the Franks, and his reign saw the rise of some very powerful nobles such as William the Conqueror. However his biggest source of concerns was his brother —Robert I of Burgundy— who was pushed by his mother to the conflict. Robert of Burgundy was made Duke of Burgundy by King Henry I and had to be satisfied with that title. From Henry I onward the Dukes of Burgundy were relatives of the King of the Franks until the end of the Duchy proper. King Philip I, named by his Kievan mother with a typically Eastern European name, was no more fortunate than his predecessor.

Godefroy de Bouillon, a French knight, leader of the First Crusade and founder of the Kingdom of Jerusalem.

It is from Louis VI onward that royal authority became more accepted. Louis VI was more a soldier and warmongering king than a scholar. The way the king raised money from his vassals made him quite unpopular, he was described as greedy and ambitious and that is corroborated by records of the time. His regular attacks on his vassals, although damaging the royal image, reinforced the royal power. From 1127 onward the royal adviser was a skilled politician — Abbot Suger. The abbot was the son of a minor family of knights, but his political advice was extremely valuable to the king. Louis VI successfully defeated, both military and politically, many of the robber barons. Louis VI frequently summoned his vassals to the court, and those who did not show up often had their land possessions confiscated and military campaigns mounted against them. This drastic policy clearly imposed some royal authority on Paris and its surrounding areas. When Louis VI died in 1137, much progress had been made towards strengthening Capetian authority.

Thanks to Abbot Suger’s political advice, King Louis VII enjoyed greater moral authority over France than his predecessors. Even more powerful vassals such as Henry Plantagenet paid homage to the French king.[10] Abbot Suger arranged the marriage between Louis VII and Eleanor of Aquitaine in Bordeaux which made Louis VII Duke of Aquitaine and gave him considerable power. However, the couple disagreed over the burning of more than a thousand people in Vitry during the conflict against the Count of Champagne. King Louis VII was deeply horrified by the event and sought penitence by going to the holy land. He later involved the Kingdom of France in the Second Crusade but his relationship with Eleanor did not improve. The marriage was ultimately annulled by the pope under the pretext of consanguinity and Eleanor soon married the Duke of Normandy —Henry Fitzempress— who would become King of England as Henry II two years later. Louis VII was once a very powerful monarch and was now facing a much stronger vassal, who was his equal as King of England and his strongest prince as Duke of Normandy and Aquitaine. Abbot Sugar’s vision of construction became known as the Gothic Architecture during the later Renaissance. This style became standard for most European cathedrals built in the late middle-age.

The late Capetians (1165–1328)

The late direct Capetian kings were considerably more powerful and influential than the earliest ones. While Philip I could hardly control his Parisian barons, Philip IV could dictate popes and emperors. The late Capetians, although they often ruled for a shorter time than their earlier peers, were often much more influential. This period also saw the rise of a complex system of international alliances and conflicts opposing, through dynasties, Kings of France and England and Holy Roman Emperor.

Philip II Augustus

The reign of Philip II Augustus marked an important step in the history of French monarchy. His reign saw the French royal domain and influence greatly expanded. He had set the context for the rise of power to much more powerful monarchs like Saint Louis and Philip the Fair.

Philip II victorious at Bouvines thus annexing Normandy and Anjou into his royal domains. This battle involved a complex set of alliances from three important states, the Kingdoms of France and England and the Holy Roman Empire.

Philip II spent an important part of his reign fighting the so-called Angevin Empire, which was probably the greatest threat to the King of France since the rise of the Capetian dynasty. During the first part of his reign Philip II tried using Henry II of England’s son against him. He allied himself with the Duke of Aquitaine and son of Henry II —Richard Lionheart— and together they launched a decisive attack on Henry’s castle and home of Chinon and removed him from power. Richard replaced his father as King of England afterward. The two kings then went crusading during the [Third Crusade] however their alliance and friendship broke down during the crusade. The two men were once again at odds and fought each other in France and Richard was on the verge of totally defeating Philip II. Adding to their battles in France the Kings of France and England were trying to install their respective allies at the head of the Holy Roman Empire. If Philip II Augustus supported Philip of Swabia, member of the House of Hohenstaufen, Richard Lionheart supported Otto IV, member of the House of Welf. Otto IV had the upper hand and became the Holy Roman Emperor at the expense of Philip of Swabia. The crown of France was saved by Richard’s demise after a wound he received fighting his own vassals in Limousin. John Lackland, Richard’s successor, refused to come to the French court for a trial against the Lusignans and as Louis VI often did to his rebellious vassals, Philip II confiscated John’s possessions in France. John’s defeat was swift and his attempts to reconquer his French possession at the Battle of Bouvines resulted in complete failure. His allies, most notably Emperor Otto IV, were all defeated or captured and even as King of England he had no means to reconquer Normandy and Anjou. Not only had Philip II annexed Normandy and Anjou, he had captured the Counts of Boulogne and Flanders. Otto IV was overthrown by Frederick II, allied of Philip II of France and member of the House of Hohenstaufen. The King of France however stopped before conquering Aquitaine and Gascony who remained loyal to the Plantagenet King. In addition to defeating John of England, Philip Augustus founded the Sorbonne and made Paris a city for scholars. Prince Louis (the future Louis VIII) was involved in the subsequent English civil war as French and English (or rather Anglo-Norman) aristocracies were once one and were now split between allegiances. While the French kings were struggling against the Plantagenets, the Church called for the Albigensian Crusade. Southern France was then largely absorbed in the royal domains.

Saint Louis

Saint Louis. He saw France’s cultural expansion in the Western Christian world.

It can be said that France became a truly centralised kingdom under Louis IX, who initiated several administrative reforms. Saint Louis has often been portrayed as a one dimensional character, a flawless representant of the faith and an administrator caring for the governed ones. However, his reign was far from perfect for everyone; he made unsuccessful crusades and his expanding administrations raised oppositions; he also burned Jewish books at the Pope’s urging.[11] His judgments were not often practical, although they seemed fair by the standards of the time. It appears Louis had a strong sense of justice and always wanted to judge people himself before applying any sentence. This was said about Louis and French clergy asking for excommunications of Louis’ vassals:[12]

For it would be against God and contrary to right and justice if he compelled any man to seek absolution when the clergy were doing him wrong.

Louis IX was only twelve years old when he became King of France, his mother —Blanche of Castile— was the effective power although the King was indeed Louis IX. Blanche’s authority was strongly opposed by the French barons yet she could maintain her position as regent (although she did not formally use the title) until Louis was old enough to rule by himself. In 1229 the King had to struggle with a long lasting strike at the University of Paris, the Quartier Latin was strongly hit by these strikes. War was still going on in the County of Toulouse, the royal army was occupied fighting resistance in Languedoc and the kingdom was therefore vulnerable. Count Raymond VII of Toulouse finally signed the Treaty of Paris in 1229, in which he retained much of his lands to life, but his daughter, married to Count Alfonso of Poitou, produced him no heir and so the County of Toulouse went to the King of France. King Henry III of England had not yet recognized the Capetian overlordship over Aquitaine and still hoped to recover Normandy and Anjou and reform the Angevin Empire. He landed in 1230 at Saint-Malo with a massive force. Henry III’s allies in Brittany and Normandy fell down because they did not dare fight their king who led the counterstrike himself. This evolved into the Saintonge War, Henry III was defeated and had to recognise Louis IX’s overlordship although the King of France did not seize Aquitaine from Henry III. Louis IX was now the most important landowner of France, adding to his royal title. There were some opposition to his rule in Normandy, yet it proved remarkably easy to rule, especially compared to the County of Toulouse which had been brutally conquered. The Conseil du Roi, which would evolve into the Parlement, was founded in these times.

Saint Louis also supported new forms of art such as Gothic architecture; his Sainte-Chapelle became a very famous gothic building, and he is also credited for the Morgan Bible. After his conflict with King Henry III of England Louis established a cordial relation with the Plantagenet King. An amusing anecdote is about Henry III’s attending the French Parlement, as Duke of Aquitaine, the King of England was always late because he liked to stop each time he met a priest to hear the mass, so Louis made sure no priest was on the way of Henry III. Henry III and Louis IX then started a long contest in who was the most faithful up to the point none ever arrived anymore on time to the Parlement which was then allowed to debate in their absence.[13]

The Kingdom was involved in two crusades under Saint Louis: the Seventh Crusade and the Eighth Crusade. Both proved to be complete failures for the French King. He died in the Eighth Crusade and Philip III became king. Philip III took part in another crusading disaster: the Aragonese Crusade, which cost him his life.

More administrative reforms were made by Philip the Fair. This king was responsible for the end of the Templars, signed the Auld Alliance, and established the Parlement of Paris. Philip IV was so powerful that he could name popes and emperors, unlike the early Capetians. The papacy was moved to Avignon and all the contemporary popes were French such as Philip IV’s puppet: Bertrand de Goth.

Capetian Dynasty

The early Valois Kings and the Hundred Years’ War (1328–1453)

The tensions between the Houses of Anjou and Capet climaxed during the so-called Hundred Years’ War (actually several distinct wars) when the English descendants of the former claimed the throne of France from the Valois. This was also the time of the Black Death, as well as several civil wars. The French population suffered much from these wars. In 1420 By the Treaty of Troyes Henry V was made heir to Charles VI. Henry V failed to outlive Charles so it was Henry VI of England and France who concildated the Dual-Monarchy of England and France. It has been argued that the difficult conditions the French population suffered during the Hundred Years’ War awakened French nationalism, a nationalism represented by Joan of Arc. Although this is debatable, the Hundred Years’ War is remembered more as a Franco-English war than as a succession of feudal struggles. During this war, France evolved politically and militarily. Although a Franco-Scottish army was successful at Baugé, the humiliating defeats of Poitiers and Agincourt forced the French nobility to realise they could not stand just as armoured knights without an organised army. Charles VII established the first French standing army, the Compagnies d’ordonnance, and defeated the English once at Patay and again, using cannons, at Formigny. The Battle of Castillon was regarded as the last engagement of this “war”, yet Calais and the Channel Islands remained ruled by the English crown.

French Kings:

English interlude (between Charles VI and VII)

Early Modern France (1453–1789)

Main article: Early Modern France

Charles the Bold, the last Capetian Duke of Burgundy, died at the Battle of Nancy. His death marked the division of his lands between the Kings of France and Castile.

The Duke of Burgundy had assembled a large territory including his native duchy and the Burgundian Netherlands. King Louis XI faced Charles the Bold during Burgundian Wars and the French King was allied with the Old Swiss Confederacy. The Duke of Burgundy was defeated at Morat, Battle of Grandson, Héricourt and ultimately defeated at Nancy in 1477. The Duchy of Burgundy was annexed by France but the part of Burgundy that formed Franche-Comté was given to Philip I of Castile in 1493.

From 1487 to 1491, France attacked and defeated Brittany, an independent duchy. In 1532, Brittany was incorporated into the Kingdom of France.

France engaged in the long Italian Wars (1494–1559), which marked the beginning of early modern France. Francis I faced powerful foes, and he was captured at Pavia. The French monarchy then sought for allies and found one in the Ottoman Empire. The Ottoman Admiral Barbarossa captured Nice on 5 August 1543 and handed it down to Francis I. Around this same time, the Protestant Reformation, led in France mainly by John Calvin, was challenging the power of the Catholic Church in France.

During the 16th century, the Spanish and Austrian Habsburgs were the dominant power in Europe. In addition to Spain and Austria, they controlled a number of kingdoms and duchies across Europe. Charles Quint, under the titles of Count of Burgundy, Holy Roman Emperor, and King of Aragon, Castile and Germany, among others, encircled France. The Spanish Tercio was used with great success against French knights. Finally, on 7 January 1558, the Duke of Guise seized Calais from the English.

Language

Although most peasants in France spoke local dialects, an official language emerged in Paris and the French language became the preferred language of Europe’s aristocracy. Holy Roman Emperor Charles V (born in 1500) said this about languages:

I speak Spanish to God, Italian to women, French to men, and German to my horse.[14]

Because of its international status, there was a desire to regulate the French language. Several reforms of the French language worked to uniformise it. The Renaissance writer François Rabelais (b. 1494) helped to shape French as a literary language, Rabelais’ French is characterised by the re-introduction of Greek and Latin words. Jacques Peletier du Mans (born 1517) was one of the scholars who reformed the French language. He improved Nicolas Chuquet‘s long scale system by adding names for intermediate numbers (“milliards” instead of “thousand million”, etc.).

Colonies

During the 16th century, the French kingdom also established colonies and began to claim North American territories. Jacques Cartier was one of the great explorers who ventured deep into American territories during the 16th century. The largest settlement was New France, with the towns of Quebec City and Montreal and long stretches of riverfront.

Religious conflicts

Main articles: French Wars of Religion and Thirty Years War

Henry IV of France, King of France and Navarre, was the first French Bourbon king.

Renewed Catholic reaction headed by the powerful duke of Guise, led to a massacre of Huguenots at Vassy in 1562, starting the first of the French Wars of Religion, during which English, German, and Spanish forces intervened on the side of rival Protestant and Catholic forces. In the most notorious incident, thousands of Huguenots were murdered in the St. Bartholomew’s Day massacre of 1572. The Wars of Religion culminated in the War of the Three Henrys in which Henry III assassinated Henry de Guise, leader of the Spanish-backed Catholic league, and the king was murdered in return. Following this war Henry III of Navarre became king of France as Henry IV and enforced the Edict of Nantes (1598). Religious conflicts resumed under Louis XIII when Cardinal Richelieu forced Protestants to disarm their army and fortresses. This conflict ended in the Siege of La Rochelle (1627–1628), in which Protestants and their English supporters were defeated. The following Peace of Alais confirmed religious freedom yet dismantled the Protestant defences.

The religious conflicts that plagued France also ravaged the Habsburg-led Holy Roman Empire. The Thirty Years War eroded the power of the Catholic Habsburgs. Although Cardinal Richelieu, the powerful chief minister of France, had previously mauled the Protestants, he joined this war on their side in 1636 because it was the raison d’état. Imperial Habsburg forces invaded France, ravaged Champagne, and nearly threatened Paris. Richelieu died in 1642 and was succeeded by Cardinal Mazarin, while Louis XIII died one year later and was succeeded by Louis XIV. France was served by some very efficient commanders such as Louis II de Bourbon (Condé) and Henry de la Tour d’Auvergne (Turenne). The French forces won a decisive victory at Rocroi (1643), and the Spanish army was decimated; the Tercio was broken. The Truce of Ulm (1647) and the Peace of Westphalia (1648) brought an end to the war. But some challenges remained. France was hit by civil unrest known as the Fronde which in turn evolved into the Franco-Spanish War in 1653. Louis II de Bourbon joined the Spanish army this time, but suffered a severe defeat at Dunkirk (1658) by Henry de la Tour d’Auvergne. The terms for the peace inflicted upon the Spanish kingdoms in the Treaty of the Pyrenees (1659) were harsh, as France annexed Northern Catalonia.

Amidst this turmoil, René Descartes sought answers to philosophical questions through the use of logic and reason and formulated what would be called Cartesian Dualism in 1641.

 Louis XIV

Main article: Louis XIV

Louis XIV, the “Sun King”

The Sun King wanted to be remembered as a patron of the arts, like his ancestor Louis IX. He invited Jean-Baptiste Lully to establish the French opera. A tumultuous friendship was established between Lully and Molière. Jules Hardouin Mansart became France’s most important architect of the period. Louis XIV’s long reign saw France involved in many wars that drained its treasury. His reign began during the Thirty Years’ War and during the Franco-Spanish war. His military architect, Vauban, became famous for his pentagonal fortresses, and Jean-Baptiste Colbert supported the royal spending as much as possible. French dominated League of the Rhine fought against the Ottoman Turks at the Battle of Saint Gotthard in 1664. The battle was won by the Christians, chiefly through the brave attack of 6,000 French troops led by La Feuillade and Coligny.[15] France fought the War of Devolution against Spain in 1667. France’s defeat of Spain and invasion of the Spanish Netherlands alarmed England and Sweden. With the