Monthly Archives: January 2011

PAMERAN KERAMIK BELANDA(DUTCH PORCELAIN EXHIBTION)

 

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

SHOWCASE :

Pameran Keramik Belanda(The Dutch Porcelain Exhibtion)

 Frame One:

The  Societe Ceramique(Maastrict )1851 -1958

The Entrepreneurs Winand Nicolaas Clermont and Charles Cheinaye in 1851 founded a pottery in maastricht neighborhood Wijk.In 1859 the company was take over  by the Belgian engineer Gaulumme Lambert and trasformed into a limited liability company that became generally known as Societe Ceramique.look the mark  Made in Holland society cermique Maastricht  Potiche

and the more rare societe de cermique made in Holland Morphee fruit stremp cup three foot and fish plate  with design Poppy(opium) Flower(who ever seen this type porcelain please show and comment-Dr Iwan)

(I have two type of white without picture ‘s biger fish plate, round and oval,oval more rare, and also very common white small eating plate which many used to made the fake with add the fake picture ,many falscificated the boerenbont design with multi colour

, I hope the collectors becarfeful-Dr Iwan)

In 1899, Society Ceramique flourished and became the main competitor Petrus Regout and the name became the Sphinx. Around 1900 the product of Society Ceramique view as The sphinx in price as well as quality, look the mark of the sphinx Petrus Regout Maastricht Made In Holland  of Dutch Royal Ship KPM propaganda tea cup below:

In 1863-1913,The Director Victor Juanez and between 1902-1915 P.J.Langersdorff, and Edgar Mitchel between 1915-1954.

Many Maastrict ceramic export to Indonesia like Boerenbont style ,timor style  and other asia countries like  china like Canton. the trader value of this ceramic still low except the very fine large plate ,vase and Stemp Cup.

No study about this export maastricth ceramic , may be this is the first Indonesian study which done by Dr Iwan s, I hope the collectors and reseacher help me with more info. Several ceramic which found in Indonesia :

1.a. Human Figur

1b.Commemorative

1c.Timor figur

1c.Canton pattern

2.Boerentbon

A boerenbont plate.

Boerenbont is a traditional pattern used on pottery from the Netherlands. Translated from Dutch, “Boer” means farmer and “bont” refers to a mixture of colors. The distinctive floral pattern is hand-painted with simple brush strokes of red, yellow, green, and blue. Currently manufactured by Royal Boch in Belgium, the pattern originated as a local craft made by farmer’s wives in the 19th century [1]. According to the Royal Boch website, a variety of patterns have followed the path of Dutch merchants all over the world, from Sumatra to Zanzibar via Goa. [2] It remains a popular pattern today

3.AREAL PICTURES

1)Panama

 2)cambridge

2)Oriental

4.Boeren Military plate Set Found In Indonesia

Frame Two:The Gauda Pottery

A vase in the “Chryso” pattern, circa 1925, manufactured by Kunstaardewerkfabriek Regina of Gouda, Holland.

Gouda is a style of Dutch pottery named after the city of Gouda. Gouda pottery gained worldwide prominence in the early 20th century and remains highly desirable to collectors today.

Gouda pottery is diverse and visually distinctive in appearance, typically illustrated with colourful and highly decorated Art Nouveau or Art Deco designs.

GOUDA-DESIGN

 

 

The designs and colours of Gouda pottery are simply stunning as can be seen from these examples. They are a very small part of our collection.We live in the County of Yorkshire here in the UK and warmly welcome Gouda collectors from wherever you live in the world.

 

 

Factories include – Regina, Schoonhoven, Ivora, Zenith, Ed. Antheunis, Rozenburg, Nieuw Rozenburg, Flora, Purmerend, Brantjes, St.Lukas, Ram, Rembrandt, Goedewaagen, Gelria, GeWi, Arnhem, Huisenga, Kennermerland, Mobach, Rijn, Talos, Zaalberg, PBD, Haga, ADCO, Kohler, Tiko, De Jong, De Ysel, De Distel, De Rozeboom, De Kroon, De Zwing, De Porceleyne Fles – with many more of the great Dutch pottery factories – past and present.

Information is provided simply for you by two dedicated collectors for the love of collectors and enthusiasts to enjoy.

     a small vase inherited in the 1920’s and 1930’s. Imagine the Art Nouveau and Art Deco pottery that must have been on display. No decor name on the base marks but we know it is ‘Linote’ – one of the classic PZH designs. Date is 1929.  

Plateelfabriek Schoonhoven – Schoonhoven Keramiek

Schoonhoven pottery is very much “the Gouda style” in shape, design and some wonderful, vivid colours.

Started in 1920 by Tijs Visser, Tijs Volker and Kornelis Prins from the unfortunate demise (liquidation) of Plateelbakkerij De Rozenboom (1919-1920) in The Hague, Schoonhoven picked up the pieces and began production.

   

 

One of the most frequently found designs is ‘Corel’. Others include ‘Aida’ (we know someone who is an avid collector of this particular pattern), ‘Luna’, ‘Pelta’, ‘Jeno’, ‘Johnny(ij)’, ‘Dison’, ‘Largo’, ‘Roer’ and many more. A black and white design can also be found called ‘Fariet’ (see Pictures 50 and 55 on the Collectors Galleries) and a similar but coloured ‘Kleuren Fariet’ (Colours or Coloured Fariet) or more commonly sen on marks as ‘KL Fariet’ which we have in our collection. See butter pats below.

   

Still producing today in the same factory which is now known as Schoonhoven Keramiek. They have a highly dedicated workforce. The production work is done by a team of 22 employees. Over the past decades they expanded collaboration with outside artists and designers. They now produce a standard art collection that currently consists of more than 50 items and is growing every year.

    

 

VASE – SCHOONHOVEN – c.1925 

“COREL” 

11.0cm H by 12.0cm D 

“Corel” has the typical Schoonhoven use of aqua, blue, lilac and yellow.It is a striking design, wonderful shape and the colours are bold. This piece, from our collection, is displayed on a table lit by an art deco lamp and is accompanied by two PZH pieces – “Emmy” and “Dimar”. They complement one another superbly with their gorgeous colours.

   

 

Small jug - Schoonhoven - c.1929 

“Jeno” 

11.5cm H by 8.5cm D 

Wonderful design and colours in the “Jeno” pattern. The aquamarine blue can be found on many Schoonhoven pieces. Decorator unknown.

 

 

Butter pats – Schoonhoven – c.1929 

All 6.0cm in diameter and mould number 300 

“Pelta”“Johnny” (Johnnij) 

“KL (Kleuren)-Fariet”“Aida” – decorator possibly J. Edeling 

 
 
 
 
 


 

Rembrandt Pottery

Here you can see two completely different examples of PZH Rembrandt pottery from our collection. The original Rembrandt factory (Potterij Rembrandt in Nijmegen) started in around 1906. PZH took over the factory in about 1925/1926 (as they did with several potteries), the moulds, name and markings of Rembrandt were kept.

          

 

Here you can see the marks. The coaster has the design reference HO 6, the spill vase/cigarette holder has HO 114. There were no design/pattern names as in PZH just the reference ‘HO’ and then a number. The PZH Rembrandt logo was a two handled jug with the capital letter R between the handles. You can see a close up of the logo above. Very easy to recognise. Sometimes a round sticker was applied with ‘Rembrandt Gouda’ – the picture of course being that of the painter Rembrandt. The painter – initials ‘R.J.’ on the spill vase is unknown.

   

 

Spill vase or cigarette holder 

Rembrandt – Design HO 114 – 1926 

8.5cm H x 8.5cm D 

Superb art deco design with ultramarine and aqua blue. Markings beautifully hand written. 

   

 

Coaster 

Rembrandt – Design HO 6 – 1926 

11.5cm D x 2.0cm D 

In perfect condition, the coaster with mustard yellow in fill and the typical Gouda painted dots. 

   

 

Commorative wall plate – 1912 

Rembrandt Factory Nijmegen 

20.3cm Diameter 

A very rare and visually stunning commemorative item produced for the total solar eclipse of 17 April 1912. Painted at the Nijmegen factory. An example of this is in the Museum Het Valkhof in Nijmegen.The wording means – “the day becomes night”.See two astronomical and space related De Porceleyne Fles plates  

Regina Pottery

Clay pipe manufacturing was how most pottery factories began. Regina (Kunstaardewerkfabriek Regina) was no exception, starting in the same year as PZH – 1898, by Van der Want and Barras. Look on the base of Regina pottery and you will see the initials WB. It was a typical family business. The Regina name derives from Queen Wilhelmina.

Here below the site of the Regina factory in Gouda. The factory was demolished and apartments were built. You can see they kept the original Regina WB crown crest over the doorway.

Pictures by Kim.

   

 

Regina started to produce their decorative and ornamental pottery towards the end of WW1 in 1917. This was due in part to compete with PZH and also the public were demanding more decorative pottery. At first Regina continued with the high glaze ware they had originally manufactured and then (as most did) moved on to the matte finish of which PZH were the undoubted masters. Everyone wanted to be as successful as PZH. Poor results from the factory, the bad economy and his ill health all made Otto van der Want decide to close the factory in 1979. The name was then sold to Artihove and until 1993 some Regina pieces were produced. Very little is still known or left about Regina. More photos can be seen on the Regina Gallery page. For some of the information on this page, we are indebted to our dear friends Joop and Ria Nobel for their vast expertise on Regina pottery and also to the many Regina collectors for their pictures. You can read an exclusive article on Regina by Joop here.

Base marks are typically as the ones shown here and those shown below.The name Regina, mould number, crown logo (or not, see “Avia” below), WB (see explanation above), pattern name (here on the left “Lydia”), Gouda Holland or Gouda or Holland and the decorator’s mark.The base mark of the piece on the right is dated from sometime in the 1950’s. It has a high model number of 949 which indicates the later date. The “M” after the number stands for Melk (Milk). It would seem that in the early years of Regina production, it was forbidden for an artist to put his or her name on a piece. This a very matte finished small jug as one can see from the photo here.

Popular pattern names often seen include – Avia, Imanta, Lydia, Majoli, Orchis, Osiris and Rosario.

    ‘Avia’ on a match holder – c.1920

 

Some other pattern names are – Angola, Arina (see below), Cordoba, Delos, Fleveo, Florida (see below), Gambir, Molda (see below), Myria, Olga, Presto, Robur, Ruimte (the Dutch word Ruimte means ‘Space’ – see below), Sevilla, Tibon (see below), Torino, Valencia and many others!

Here below are some Regina marks you may come across. The details about the meaning of these marks will be shown soon.

Please note – some are from the Artihove Regina B.V. factory so they are after the Gouda Regina factory closed.

 

 

 

 

 

This mark (right) on the ‘Chryso’ shows an item exported to the Canadian retailer Ryrie Birks Ltd. All the Gouda plateel factories exported. Liberty’s of London perhaps the most famous retailer.   

 

  ‘Lydia’ on a small test as descibed above. These items were produced until 1979.

 

We often see these items described a cups. They are in fact small scale facsimiles of an original test. This was a Dutch earthenware vessel, often glazed, for holding hot coals. This was then placed inside a ventilated wooden container. They were used for keeping food (or whatever one wished, including your feet!) warm. Here is a picture of an original test on display in De Sint Janskerk (St. John’s Church) in Gouda. It is about 25.0cm square. See the ‘Lydia’ test below and from the painting by Vermeer.

Photograph taken by Kim.

In Vermeer’s ‘The ‘Milkmaid’ you can see a test in the lower right side of the painting.    

Bergen – La Céramique Montoise.

In this particular example below we see a piece dated around 1925 to 1935 from the Bergen factory. Bergen, also known as the Belgium Pottery Company or Bergen and Flamand (La Céramique Montoise) had a factory based in Mons, Belgium. It was formed by René Dubois in about 1919/1920 until circa 1950. Below is an example from our collection together with the base markings. The top number (846) is the mould number and is also impressed into the body. The mark (on most pieces) of Bergen is derived from the town itself. Can you see what looks like a hill or mountain? “Berg” (en) means mountain or hill – also as in “ice(berg)” – mountain or hill of ice. In this particular example, one can see it has all the hallmarks of Gouda. Some Bergen designs are very “Art Deco” in looks and are excellent and collectable.

     

 

    Above and here some other Bergen marks you may come across.    
  This sticker with the logo “Bergen Plateel” is not from the René Dubois Bergen plateel factory but from a small factory in the Netherlands. 
 
Japanese. In the Gouda style.
This Japanese copy  from Sydney, Australia. It is interesting to note that this is one of many examples of we have been sent from Australia and New Zealand. From acquaintances in Australia, it seems Japanese copies are plentiful. A typical copy of a small Gouda two handled vase. The base is unmarked. The vase is approx. 9.0cm high. One can see these on auction sites sadly described as original PZH. See more Japanese copies below.     

 

 

More on Japanese copies.

.

“Over the past five years or so, many collectors have been buying Japanese Gouda copies. They are in my view, very fine quality. While they are around, they are not as easy to find as Gouda. I have in my collection, about 50 pieces of all shapes and colours. Teapots, bowls, lamps, wall pockets, toothpick holders and of course, mostly vases. The extent of variation is amazing, and even on pieces with the same form, the colouring is different. I have been attempting to find out more about these. Where were they made? Who were the artists?

Some are unmarked, some marked ‘Made in Japan’. The odd one is marked ‘Elite Art Pottery’, ‘ELJCO’ (see below, probably Czechoslovakian) and ‘Hongan’. “Elite Art Pottery” is often seen as “rare Gouda” – no!

Some examples  amazing collection of Gouda copies. 

     

 

   

 

     

 

Above – two more examples of Japanese copies. On the left – sent by Adam. On the right – sent by Shari from Los Angeles. 

Here a beautiful Japanese copy of the Flora ‘Rumba’ decor. We have many items of Flora in our collection and ‘Rumba’ is a favourite decor. Below a ‘Flora ‘Rumba’ from our collection. One can also see 1950’s items from West Germany with the nearly identical decor. We have some in our West German ceramics collection.    

 

  For comparison, here is the Flora ‘Rumba’ decor from our collection.

 

English pottery – James (Jas) Plant, Hanley, Staffordshire.

    A PZH ‘Damascus’/’Matapan’ decor look-alike by the English potter James Plant. From our collection. Date circa 1920.Various dates and backstamps date items from circa 1914 to 1938. Most James Plant patterns are very similar. They were known as “Plant Ware”. See more information below.

 

     A PZH ‘Damascus’/’Matapan’ decor.

 

The original factory of R. H. and S. L. Plant Ltd. Tuscan China Works, Longton, Staffordshire, England, probably dates back to the mid 18th century. The business was formed into a limited company in 1915. Many members of the Plant family were involved in potteries. Factories had various names. For example, in the Tuscan Works, the partner proprietors were R. H. Plant and his brother. Running under the aegis of the Plant family, with S. L. Plant and his son (F. S. Plant) directing the sales department, while the two brothers H. J. and A. E. Plant were in charge of the production side. A James Plant factory was actually taken over by Grimwades. James Plant Senior died in 1931 and James Plant Junior took over. As you can see a very family involved business. The Gouda style, matte glaze decors were probably by a designer called Thorley. They were produced at the Brook Street Factory in Hanley, Stoke-on-Trent.

  Left – an original PZH vase from the Museum Catharina Gasthuis in Gouda. It is in the ‘Matapan’ design. If anyone doubted that James Plant did Gouda copies then just look closer again at the large picture above – you can see the striking resemblance of the pattern!One can see many examples of this ware at antique fairs here in the UK (we once saw four) and they are far from rare!Photograph by Kim Lindley.

 

Modica.

This company was founded in 1969 by the brothers Frans and Peter Eikenboom, the sons of P.A. Eikenboom the founder of Plateelbakkerij Flora. They imitated the patterns and styles from 1930’s and later designs of other factories – mainly PZH and Regina. The company closed in 1990.

Here is a typical Modica backstamp, as you can see, one could easily be fooled into thinking this was from PZH.

See the lookalike copy of the “little house” (Lazarus gate) mark and the “Zuid-Holland”.

The “F” and “P” are the first letters of the brothers names – Frans and Peter .

  

Other Modica marks.

Images courtesy of Henk Veentjer and collectors.

    

 

BIHL Pottery Czechoslovakia.

Jan from the Netherlands is an expert in and collector of BIHL pottery which is sadly often confused for Gouda. One has only to look on eBay to see this. Look at David’s collection above and you may see some BIHL examples.

Jan tells us – “BIHL was a Czechoslovakian pottery company from Ledvice (or in German Ladowitz). There is not much known about this former company. I’m at this moment preparing a catalogue of known BIHL pottery. Some of these pieces are labeled with ELJECO / Holland. I am quite sure that the pottery was produced in Czechoslovakia then these pieces were exported to Holland, given a local back stamp (ELJECO / Holland) and sold on the Dutch market!”

Here are some really wonderful pictures from Jan’s collection.

    

 

    

 

 

 

   

 

    Here an example from “Eljeco” probably by BIHL. Sent in by Joe Altare.

 

This Eljeco kan, in a very nice decor, was sent in by Magda from The Netherlands.    

 

 Below – more Czechoslovakian pottery. Thanks to Jasper & Alison from Melbourne, Australia.

 

   

 

 

Metawa.

A very interesting “lookalike” here originally from the collection of Hotze & Elly. Thanks to the generosity of Hotze & Elly, this piece and others are now in our collection. This was made by the factory “Metawa” or N. V. Metawa, Tiel, Holland. The name deriving from “metal ware”. Founded 1923, it closed in 1982 but was for a short time revived. It finally closed in 1985. As you may have guessed – this is made of tin not pottery! Decor ‘Guus’ on model 1529.

      Left – another ‘Metawa’ mark. Decor ‘Rita’.

 

 

The C. W. Moody ‘Gouda Ceramics’ book with price guide.

Nice little guide from the 1970’s. Many signed (as this is) by Moody. With pictures but most of the information on marks is hopelessly wrong.

   

 

Made in Holland by Marie-Rose Bogaers, English edition.

Not easy to find in the English edition.

 From Back Cover    

 

Soon some snippets from these booklets.The Liberty Style.A Collector’s Guide to European and American Art Pottery.Kunstaardewerkfabiek Regina by Hilde Cammel.Dutch Modernism. ‘The Schiller-David Collection’.Antiques & Collectables – Gouda.  

 

Postcards

Interesting card of ‘Greetings from Gouda’ sent in 1943 during the German occupation of Holland. Shows a clock and candlestick garniture set with a bowl from Plateelbakkerij Zuid-Holland. A coiled clay pipe from P. Goedewaagen & Zoon (Son) forms a cartouche with ‘Vergezicht op Gouda’ (Vista or view of Gouda). Other items show the produce of Holland. Notice the small ‘test’ at bottom centre right – see here. From our postcards collection.

   

 

Frame Three : The Delftware

1.The Rare Delfware collections

Het Kometen Jaar” – “The Comet Year”

 

 

De Porceleyne Fles – date code AE 1909 

Artist – Jacobus Frölich Snr. – work period 1889 to 1929 

24.8cm 

This is a rare piece and was only the 3rd commemorative plate that Fles actually issued (though a few one-offs were made in the 1870’s – 90’s). The Royal Delft factory does not know how many were actually made. This was told to us personally on a recent visit (October 2003). Our piece is in superb condition. Only the merest hint of crazing. Looks like the day it left the factory.

About this plate and comets.

The depiction of Comet Halley itself is the stylized one with the words in capitals – “HALLEY”. in the centre. You can also see above this depictions of the constellations Aquarius and Gemini. These would probably have been the two constellations that Comet Halley passed through as it was seen in the night sky. It was seen from about February to July 1910.

You can see to the upper left of the plate another smaller depiction of a comet with the designation “1910A”. The “A” indicates that this comet was the first to be seen in the sky in January of 1910. The second comet would be “1910B or “1910b” and so on. This part of the plate may actually refer to another comet which was so bright that it was seen during the day. This comet has been called – “The Great Comet of 1910″ or “The Daylight Comet of 1910″ or “Winter Comet 1910″. It was brighter than Comet Halley

The Plateelbakkerij Schoonhoven factory is the subject of this postcard which shows a painter of Delft blue. Thanks to the digital skills our friend Ron Tasman we can now see what it would have really looked like when the photo was taken – in glorious colour – thanks Ron!

   

 

 2.The Delfware historic collections

Delftware in Pushkin Art Museum, Russia

Delftware depicting Chinese scenes, 18th century. Musee Ernest Cognacq

Delft vases, 1725-1760. Musée des Arts Décoratifs, Paris

An imari-styled vase, manufactured in De Griekse A, (ca. 1700-1720) Museum Geelvinck-Hinlopen Huis

Delftware, or Delft pottery, denotes blue and white pottery made in and around Delft in the Netherlands and the tin-glazed pottery made in the Netherlands from the 16th century.

Delftware in the latter sense is a type of pottery in which a white glaze is applied, usually decorated with metal oxides. Delftware includes pottery objects of all descriptions such as plates, ornaments and tiles.

Contents

 

 History

The earliest tin-glazed pottery in the Netherlands was made in Antwerp by Guido da Savino in 1512. The manufacture of painted pottery may have spread from the south to the northern Netherlands in the 1560s. It was made in Middelburg and Haarlem in the 1570s and in Amsterdam in the 1580s.[1] Much of the finer work was produced in Delft, but simple everyday tin-glazed pottery was made in places such as Gouda, Rotterdam, Amsterdam and Dordrecht.[2]

The main period of tin-glaze pottery in the Netherlands was 1640-1740. From about 1640 Delft potters began using personal monograms and distinctive factory marks. The Guild of St Luke, to which painters in all media had to belong, admitted ten master potters in the thirty years between 1610 and 1640 and twenty in the nine years 1651 to 1660. In 1654 a gunpowder explosion in Delft destroyed many breweries and as the brewing industry was in decline they became available to pottery makers looking for larger premises; some retained the old brewery names, making them famous throughout northern Europe, e.g. The Double Tankard, The Young Moors’ Head and The Three Bells.[3]

The use of marl, a type of clay rich in calcium compounds, allowed the Dutch potters to refine their technique and to make finer items. The usual clay body of Delftware was a blend of three natural clays, one local, one from Tournai and one from the Rhineland.[4]

From about 1615, the potters began to coat their pots completely in white tin glaze instead of covering only the painting surface and coating the rest with clear ceramic glaze. They then began to cover the tin-glaze with clear glaze, which gave depth to the fired surface and smoothness to cobalt blues, ultimately creating a good resemblance to porcelain.[5]

During the Dutch Golden Age, the Dutch East India Company had a lively trade with the East and imported millions of pieces of Chinese porcelain in the early 17th century.[6] The Chinese workmanship and attention to detail impressed many. Only the richest could afford the early imports. Although Dutch potters did not immediately imitate Chinese porcelain, they began to after the death of the Wanli Emperor in 1620, when the supply to Europe was interrupted.[5] Delftware inspired by Chinese originals persisted from about 1630 to the mid-18th century alongside European patterns.

By about 1700 several factories were using enamel colours and gilding over tin-glaze, requiring a third kiln firing at a lower temperature.

Delftware plate, faience, Famille rose, 1760-1780.

Delftware ranged from simple household items – plain white earthenware with little or no decoration – to fancy artwork. Most of the Delft factories made sets of jars, the kast-stel set. Pictorial plates were made in abundance, illustrated with religious motifs, native Dutch scenes with windmills and fishing boats, hunting scenes, landscapes and seascapes. Sets of plates were made with the words and music of songs; dessert was served on them and when the plates were clear the company started singing.[7] The Delft potters also made tiles in vast numbers (estimated at eight hundred million[8]) over a period of two hundred years; many Dutch houses still have tiles that were fixed in the 17th and 18th centuries.

Delftware became popular and was widely exported in Europe and even reached China and Japan. Chinese and Japanese potters made porcelain versions of Delftware for export to Europe.

Some regard Delftware from about 1750 onwards as artistically inferior. Caiger-Smith says that most of the later wares “were painted with clever, ephemeral decoration. Little trace of feeling or originality remained to be lamented when at the end of the eighteenth century the Delftware potteries began to go out of business.”[9] By this time Delftware potters had lost their market to British porcelain and the new white earthenware. One or two remain: the Tichelaar factory in Makkum, Friesland, founded in 1594 and De Koninklijke Porceleyne Fles (“The Royal Porcelain Bottle”) founded in 1653.

Today, Delfts Blauw (Delft Blue) is the brand name hand painted on the bottom of ceramic pieces identifying them as authentic and collectible. Although most Delft Blue borrows from the tin-glaze tradition, it is nearly all decorated in underglaze blue on a white clay body and very little uses tin glaze, a more expensive product. Delft Blue pottery formed the basis of one of British Airways’ ethnic tailfins. The design, Delftblue Daybreak, was applied to 17 aircraft.

Delftware panel

Royal Delft

Royal Delft
1
Being the last remaining Delftware manufacturer surviving since the 17th century, Royal Delft is the oldest factory of its kind that still produces entirely hand painted Delft earthenware according to centuries-old tradition.

A guided tour takes you through our museum and factory and you will learn more about our impressive history and the authentic production process. In the museum you can find antique items from the Royal Delft ‘s private collection give a glimpse of Delft pottery history. In the showroom the complete classic and modern collection of Royal Delft is displayed and only here factory seconds are available with attractive discounts. Visitors can also experience the craftsmanship themselves by joining a painting workshop in which they will paint their own Delftware tile. Suitable for groups as well as individuals.

Still missing something? We are happy to inform you that all programs can be customized to your wishes and needs. All staff is English speaking and US$ cash and all major credit cards are accepted.
Admission prices: Adults € 6,50, children up to 12 years: free entrance, groups: on request. A

visit to Royal Delft can easily be combined with a visit to Delft, Rotterdam and/or The Hague.

Royal Delft in Amsterdam
Let us remind you that Royal Delft also has a subsidiary showroom in Amsterdam, in case your trip in Holland does not bring you all the way to Delft. Here you can also see an important selection of our Royal Delft products. Discover the beauty of Dutch craftsmanship and old Amsterdam within two hours when you combine a visit to Royal Delft with a free tour through Gassan Diamonds and join a canal cruise on a Canal Bus with a hop-on-hop-off service.
Address: Nieuwe Uilenburgerstraat 175-179, Amsterdam
(on the premises of Gassan Diamonds)

Royal Delft
Rotterdamseweg 196
2628 AR Delft

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

PAMERAN KERAMIK INGGRIS(BRITISH PORCELAIN EXHIBITION)

 

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

_____________________________________________________________________

 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

SHOWCASE :

 PAMERAN KERAMIK ANTIK INGGRIS (British Early porcelain Exhibition)

FRAME SATU :

Royal Worcester Porcelain

1.Royal Wocester Porcelain

1) Jug

2) Blue Mug and plate 

3)Figurine

 

 

2.Royal Wocester Porcelain History

 

Tea canister, about 1768, Worcester porcelain factory V&A Museum no. 1448&A-1853.

Royal Worcester manufactures bone china and in particular porcelain.

Contents

 

 Early history

Dr John Wall, a physician, and William Davis, an apothecary, developed a unique method for producing porcelain and, in 1751, persuaded a group of 15 businessmen to invest in a new factory at Warmstry House, Worcester, England, on the banks of the River Severn. Dr Wall secured the sum of £4500 from the partners to establish the factory, known then as “The Worcester Tonquin Manufactory” – the original partnership deeds are still housed in the Museum of Worcester Porcelain

The Flight and Barr partnerships

In 1783, the factory was purchased by Thomas Flight – the former London sales agent for the concern – for £3,000. He let his two sons run the concern, with John Flight taking the lead role till his father’s death in 1792. In 1788 George III, following a visit to the company, granted it a royal warrant, and it became known as the “Royal Porcelain Works”.[3] Knowledge of this period is largely a result of the excellent diary that John Flight kept from 1785–1791. This is discussed in detail in Appendix III of Flight & Barr Worcester Porcelain by Henry Sandon.

During this period, the factory was in poor repair. Production was limited to low-end patterns of mostly Blue and White porcelains after Chinese porcelain designs of the period. It was also pressured by competition from inexpensive Chinese export porcelains, and from Thomas Turner’s Caughley (pronounced “Calf-ley”) Factory.

Female side of Aesthetic teapot designed by R. W. Binns and modeled by James Hadley, 1881.

Martin Barr joined the firm as a partner in 1792; porcelains of this period are often identified by an incised capital “B” and, later, by more elaborate printed and impressed marks.

Thomas Flight died in 1800, leaving the factory in the hands of his son Joseph Flight and Martin Barr. Barr’s sons Martin Barr Jr. and George Barr were being prepared at that time to run the factory.

In addition to the warrant granted by George III, Royal Warrants were also issued by the Prince of Wales

, in 1807,and the Princess of Wales, in 1808

 The factory is still in service to the crown, by appointment to Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II.

Modern history

At its height, the firm employed nearly a thousand people, but after the 2006 merger with Spode,[4] and heavy competition from overseas, the production was switched to factories in Stoke and abroad. 100 staff were made redundant in 2003 and another 100 went in 2005. Fifteen porcelain painters left the Severn Street factory on Friday 29 September 2006, together with 100 other workers.[5] The last trading date for Royal Worcester was June 14 2009.

The company went into administration on 6 November 2008.[4]

On 23 April 2009, Portmeirion Pottery purchased the rival Royal Worcester and Spode brands, together with some of the stock, after their parent company had been placed into administration the previous November. The purchase does not include Royal Worcester and Spode’s manufacturing facilities.[6] The Worcester site closed on June 14 2009 after the staff thanked all the customers for their loyalty over the 258 years of trade.[7]

Worcester Porcelain Museum

The factory’s former site includes a visitor centre and the independent Worcester Porcelain Museum (formerly known as the Dyson Perrins Museum) owned by the Dyson Perrins Museum Trust.[8] The Museum houses the world’s largest collection of Worcester porcelain. The collections date back to 1751 and the Victorian gallery, the ceramic collections, archives and records of factory production, form the primary resource for the study of Worcester porcelain and its history.

Frame Dua : Another British Porcelain History

1a.Chelsea

The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. The entrepreneurial director was Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith by trade, but few documents survive to aid a picture of the manufactory’s history. Early tablewares, being produced in profusion by 1750, depend on Meissen porcelain models and on silver prototypes, such as salt cellars in the form of realistic shells.

Chelsea was known for its figures. From about 1760 its inspiration was drawn more from Sèvres porcelain than Meissen.

In 1769 the manufactory was purchased by William Duesbury, owner of the Derby porcelain factory, and the wares are indistinguishable during the “Chelsea-Derby period” that lasted until 1784, when the Chelsea factory was demolished and its moulds, patterns and many of its workmen and artists transferred to Derby.

The factory history can be divided into four main periods, named for the identifying marks under the wares:

Chelsea cleopatra vase in British Museum

Chelsea factory, London, England, around AD 1760

The Death of Cleopatra and the Death of Harmonia

Chelsea was the first factory in England to make porcelain, probably around 1744. It is likely that the factory was founded by the partnership of Charles Gouyn (died 1785) and Nicholas Sprimont (around 1716-71) and funded by Sir Everard Fawkener (1694-1758), secretary to the duke of Cumberland. Sprimont was a Huguenot silversmith of Flemish extraction and was the owner of the factory from 1756 to 1769. Chelsea wares are usually classified into periods named after the factory marks then in use: these examples were made during the ‘Gold Anchor’ period (1758-70).

The vases are made of soft-paste porcelain and are painted and gilded. The scroll handles and finials epitomize the exuberance of the Rococo style in England. The scroll work, dark blue ground colour and extensive use of gilding are inspired by such French examples as those made at the Sèvres factory.

The Death of Cleopatra is based on an engraving by Johann Georg Wille (1715-1808) after Gaspar Netscher (1639-84), the Death of Harmonia after a painting by Jean-Baptiste-Marie Pierre (1713-89) exhibited in the Paris Salon of 1751. Harmonia was the child of Mars, Mark Antony’s patron god, and Venus, who was Cleopatra’s patron goddess through Isis and Aphrodite.

These vases were the first pieces of porcelain to enter The British Museum. Presented in 1763, only a few years after their manufacture, they are the first contemporary manufactured items to enter the collections.

Contents

 

Triangle period (around 1743-1749)

These early products bore an incised triangle mark. Most of the wares were white and were strongly influenced by silver design. The most notable products of this era were white saltcellars in the shape of crayfish. Perhaps the most famous pieces are the Goat and Bee jugs in 1747 that were also based on a silver model. Copies of these were made at Coalport in the 19th century.

 Raised anchor period (1749-1752)

In this period, the paste and glaze were modified to produce a clear, white, slightly opaque surface on which to paint. The influence of Meissen, Germany is evident in the classical figures among Italianate ruins and harbour scenes and adaptations from Francis Barlow’s edition of Aesop’s Fables. In 1751, copies were made of two Meissen services. Chelsea also made figures, birds and animals inspired by Meissen originals. Flowers and landscapes were copied from Vincennes.

Red anchor period (1752-1756)

Kakiemon (Japanese pottery), subjects were popular from the late 1740s until around 1758, inspired by the original Japanese and then by Meissen and Chantilly. Some English-inspired tableware decorated with botanically accurate plants, copied from the eighth edition of Philip Miller‘s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1752) were also produced in this period.

 Gold anchor period (1756-1769)

The influence of Sèvres was very strong and French taste was in the ascendancy. The gold anchor period saw rich coloured grounds, lavish gilding and the nervous energy of the Rococo style. In the 1750s and 1760s, Chelsea was also famous for its toys, which included bonbonnières, scent bottles, étuis, thimbles and small seals, many with inscriptions in French. In 1769 the failing factory was purchased by William Duesbury of Derby who ran it until 1784; during this time the Chelsea wares are indistinguishable from Duesbury’s Derby wares and the period is usually termed “Chelsea-Derby”.

Gallery

A Lady – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1755

A Shepherdess – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

A Street Vendor – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

1b Bow

The Bow Porcelain Company was set up in East London to emulate Chinese porcelain and it did it so well that the factory was built according to an East India Company chinese prototype and was called New Canton.

Wedgwood, meissen, worcester are all famous names in the world of ceramics, but 250 years ago it was Bow porcelain that attracted worldwide attention, thanks to a young Irish painter who settled in the East End of London.

Thomas Frye was born in Dublin in 1710 and, won acclaim in his native Ireland as a painter before coming to London in 1734.

Bow porcelain - thomas fryeHis first success was as a portrait artist when he was commissioned to paint the Prince of Wales, for the Saddlers’ Company, but this was just one among his many other talents which included, miniature painting, mezzotint engraving and enamel work.

Frye was also a keen inventor and his love of art and invention came together when he devised a method for producing soft paste porcelain. Porcelain was extremely popular at the time but there were two big problems; firstly it was very fragile and second; most items were imported from abroad and were very expensive.

As a result of Frye’s experiments with china clay he discovered a method of making porcelain using bone ash. This not only produced a porcelain of brilliant whiteness and luminescence but one of extraordinary durability.

In 1744 patents for the manufacture of ware superior to china or porcelain were taken out by Edward Heylyn, a merchant and glassblower and Thomas Frye a painter and engraver.

They called their factory New Canton, a direct reference aligning their products with the quality and beauty of the Chinese porcelain with which they hoped to compete.

Frye’s final formula contained calcined bone ash and was perfected in 1749

Frye had attracted the interest of the rich and powerful Peers family.

Bow porcelain blue and white sauceboatThe Peers family owned huge tracts of land across Bromley, Bow and Stratford. They were also directors of the all-powerful East India Company; the mainstay of Britain’s overseas trade at the time, and whose great ships unloaded their imported wares on the Isle of Dogs, near the mouth of Bow Creek.

In 1749, with the backing of the Peers family, the bow china factory was set up near Bow Bridge. The Bow Porcelain Manufactory of New Canton was ready to start work with Frye running the operation.

The Court Book of 1744 shows that Edward Heylen acquired a property on the London side of the River Lea, at Bow. On 7 July 1749, and an insurance policy was taken out for a new works. The factory is mentioned in the 1748 edition of Defoe’sA Tour of Great Britain” although the original site is uncertain and could have been in Bow proper.

The third member of the team was Alderman George Arnold, a haberdasher.

Bow porcelain teapotBy 1750, Thomas Frye and Edward Heylen were in partnership with John Wetherby and John Crowther, who owned a wholesale pottery business at St Katherine by the Tower.

Frye’s work was down to earth from the start and he concentrated on more ordinary wares for common use. This didn’t please the purists and one, so called, expert described Bow porcelain as “a peasant art which appeals to an unacademic sense of beauty rather than taste.”

The factory was called New Canton and architecturally modelled on the Cantonese warehouses of the East India company.

Bow porcelain                allegorical figureAbout 1758, the factorys high point, three hundred workers were employed, ninety of whom were painters, all under one roof.

It was the first purpose built porcelain factory in England and it brought a complete change in the eating habits of the poor who had previously used wooden dishes and earthenware. As well as the more ordinary ware there were also finer works and figurines

Business was good and very soon the demand was so great that another factory was opened, this time on the Stratford side of the River Lea.

An account of the company’s returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750-1, increased steadily from year to year, and had reached £11,229 in 1755. The total amount of sales in 1754 realised £18,115. The company ran a retail shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St. Katharine’s near the Tower, though the West End shop that was opened in 1757 in the Terrace in St. James’s Street closed the following year.

The bow porcelain company succeeded in satisfying the heavy demand for wares in the Chinese manner, until after 1756 when demand decreased as items decorated with transfer prints or painted in the European style became more popular.

Factory marks were very rarely used but you can find mock oriental marks on some chinoiserie style blue and white pieces.

Bow porcelain              musician figureIn 1760 an anchor and dagger mark was used which may be an outside decorators mark

Despite his success Frye was still toiling long hours in the factory furnaces as well as designing new lines and eventually the long hours and gruelling work took their toll.

George Arnold died in 1751, Edward Heylyn became bankrupt in 1757 and Thomas Frye retired in 1759; although the bow porcelain factory continued until 1776. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year. Three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. Though Crowther continued in business in a small way.

Thomas Frye died in 1762, at the age of 52, and is buried in Hornsey Churchyard.

In 1776 what remained of the Bow factory was sold for a small sum to William Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby.

His work went on, but without his driving force and energy, quality slipped. There was another 13 years of production at Bow, but towards the end products were underfired and lacked their earlier translucence and in 1776 the works closed

 

Figure following a Meissen model, about 1754, Bow Porcelain Factory (V&A Museum no. C.144-1931

The Bow porcelain factory (active ca 1747-1764, closed 1776) was an emulative rival of the Chelsea porcelain factory in the manufacture of early soft-paste porcelain in Great Britain. The factory was located near Bow in what is now the London Borough of Newham and the local council owns a significant collection, which is held in the care of the borough’s Heritage and Arts Service.

Contents

 

 History

Designs imitated imported Chinese and Japanese porcelains and the wares being produced at Chelsea, at the other end of London. Meissen figures were copied, both directly, and indirectly through Chelsea. Quality was notoriously uneven;[1] the warm, creamy body of Bow porcelains is glassy and the glaze tends towards ivory.

Early patents applied for by Thomas Frye and his silent partner Edward Heylyn[2] in December 1744 (enrolled 1745) and a totally different patent of 1 November 1748 (enrolled March 1749), both apparently intended broadly to cover the uses of kaolin,[3] do not seem to have resulted in any actual manufacture before about 1749, though Frye’s published epitaph claimed that he was ‘the inventor and first manufacturer of porcelain in England.’ “Heylyn and Frye do not appear to have had a factory of their own, but probably carried on their experiments at a factory already existing at Bow, having first secured the services of a well-skilled workman whose name has not been preserved, and who may have been the real inventor of English porcelain,” a writer noted in 1911.[4]

The earliest Bow porcelains are of soft-paste incorporating bone ash, forming a phosphatic body that was a precursor of bone china.[5] By 1750 Frye was serving as manager of the factory, under new owners John Crowther and Weatherby. In 1753 they were advertising in Birmingham for painters and a modeller. Sources for the early history of the Bow manufactory were collected by Lady Charlotte Guest in memoranda, diaries, and notebooks, including a diary of John Bowcocke, who was employed in the works as a commercial manager and traveller. The works, designated ‘New Canton,’[6] were sited on the Essex side of the River Lea, close to Bow Bridge.

About 1758, the manufactory’s high point, three hundred person were employed, ninety of whom were painters, all under one roof. “An account of the business returns for a period of five years shows that the cash receipts, which were £6,573 in 1750-1, increased steadily from year to year, and had reached £11,229 in 1755. The total amount of sales in 1754 realized £18,115.”[7] The firm had a retail shop in Cornhill and a warehouse at St. Katharine’s near the Tower, though the West End shop that was opened in 1757 in the Terrace in St. James’s Street closed the following year. The part-owner Weatherby died in 1762 and his partner Crowther was listed as bankrupt the following year. Three sales dispersed his effects in March and May 1764. Though Crowther continued in business in a small way, in 1776 what remained of the Bow factory was sold for a small sum to William Duesbury, and all the moulds and implements were transferred to Derby: see Chelsea porcelain factory.

The chaser and enamellist George Michael Moser, a key figure in the English Rococo and a founder of the Royal Academy, modelled for Bow, the sculptor Joseph Nollekens was told years later;[8] the sculptor John Bacon also modelled for Bow in his youth. The large white figure of the Farnese Flora, a high point in the Bow production, was taken, it has been suggested, from a terracotta by Michael Rysbrack.

A pair of Bow figures of Kitty Clive and Henry Woodward as “the Fine Lady” and ‘the Fine Gentleman” in David Garrick‘s mythological burlesque Lethe, 1750-52 “are probably the earliest full-length portrait figures in English porcelain”;[9] some were enamelled by William Duesbury[10] Some Bow figures were imitated from Chelsea models. Bow porcelain adopted the newly-invented technique of transfer-printing from Battersea enamels in the 1750s.

Gallery

A Lady Falconer – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1755

A Pair of Musicians – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1760

Flora – Bow Porcelain Factory – circa 1762

1c.Plymouth and Bristol

Europe, about 1770 V&A Museum no. 3088-1901

Plymouth porcelain was a hard paste porcelain made in the English county of Devon in the 18th century [1].

The porcelain factories at Plymouth and Bristol are noteworthy because they were amongst the earliest English manufacturers of porcelain. William Cookworthy, a Quaker Pharmacist of Plymouth, was greatly interested in attempting to discover in Cornwall and Devon minerals similar to those which were described by Père François Xavier d’Entrecolles, a Jesuit missionary who worked in China during the early eighteenth century, as forming the basis of Chinese porcelain. Père d’Entrecolles provided an account in two letters, the first written in 1712 and the second written in 1722, of porcelain manufacture at the town of Jingdezhen that included a detailed description of the two principal materials used to make porcelain, china clay and Chinese pottery stone. After many years of travel and research William Cookworthy determined that Cornish china clay and Cornish stone could be made to serve as equivalents to the Chinese materials and in 1768 he founded a works at Plymouth for the production of a porcelain similar to the Chinese from these native materials.

The factory was removed to Bristol in 1770 and was shortly afterwards transferred to Richard Champion, a Bristol merchant, who had already been dabbling in the fashionable pursuit of porcelain making. Champion’s Bristol factory lasted from 1773 to 1781, when the business had to be sold to a number of Staffordshire potters owing to the serious losses it had entailed. The Bristol porcelain, like that of Plymouth, was a hard-paste porcelain. It is harder and whiter than some other English porcelains, and its cold, harsh, glittering glaze marks it off at once from the wares of Bow, Chelsea, Worcester or Derby

1d.Lowenstoft

  

Coordinates: 52°29′N 1°45′E / 52.48°N 1.75°E / 52.48; 1.75

England

Lowestoft
Townhalllow.jpg
Lowestoft Town Hall
Lowestoft is located in Suffolk
Lowestoft

 Lowestoft shown within Suffolk

Population 72,978 
OS grid reference TM548933
District Waveney
Shire county Suffolk
Region East
Country
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LOWESTOFT
Postcode district NR32, NR33
Dialling code 01502
Police Suffolk
Fire Suffolk
Ambulance East of England
EU Parliament East of England
UK Parliament Waveney
List of places: UK • England • Suffolk

Lowestoft (pronounced /ˈloʊstɒft/, /ˈloʊstəf/, or /ˈloʊ.əstəft/) is a town in the county of Suffolk, England, lying between The Broads. Lowestoft Harbour heads towards North Sea. Lowestoft is the most easterly town in the United Kingdom, because it is home to Ness Point, the most easterly point of the United Kingdom and of the British Isles. Lowestoft is part of the Waveney constituency.

Contents

 

History

The settlement’s name is derived from the Viking personal name Hlothver, and toft,[1] a Viking word for ‘homestead’. The town’s name has been spelled variously: Lothnwistoft, Lestoffe, Laistoe, Loystoft and Laystoft. In the Domesday Book, it was spelled Lothu Wistoft[1] and described as a small agricultural village of 20 families, or about 100 people.

In the Middle Ages, Lowestoft developed a fishing industry, a trade that continued to be its main identity until the 20th century.

In the 1665, the first battle of the Second Dutch War was the Battle of Lowestoft 40 miles (64 km) off the coast of the town[citation needed].

In the 19th century, the arrival of Sir Samuel Morton Peto brought about a change in Lowestoft’s fortunes. Railway contractor Peto was contracted by the Lowestoft Railway & Harbour Company to build a railway line between Lowestoft and Reedham. After that Peto started the development of South Lowestoft, however he never developed the harbour at Lowestoft which was purchased according to Peto by the Norfolk Railway from the Exechequer Loan Commissioners in 1845. For details see the 1845 Norfolk Railway (Lowestoft Harbour Improvement Bill) and the April 1858 minutes of a Parliamentary Select Committee on Harbours of Refuge where Peto gave full details of the ownership and development of the harbour.

The major development of Lowestoft Harbour including the building of the docks was carried out from 1848 by the Eastern Counties Railway, and continued from 1862 by the Great Eastern Railway with Peto having no input to this work. Upon completion, the improvements gave a boost to trade with the continent. Peto helped to establish Lowestoft as a flourishing seaside holiday resort by connecting several other parishes, still keeping their names, which now are a part of Lowestoft. However, some of the buildings associated with Peto have been demolished.

In World War I, Lowestoft was bombarded by the German Navy on 24 April 1916.

During the World War II, the town was used as a navigation point by German bombers[citation needed]. As a result it became the most heavily bombed town per head of population in the UK.[citation needed] Old mines and bombs are still dredged up and have been hazardous to shipping.

Lowestoft's Yacht Basin in 1929

Lowestoft’s Yacht Basin in 1929.

Lowestoft has been subject to periodic flooding; the most notable was in January 1953 when a North Sea swell driven by low pressure and a high tide swept away many of the older sea defences and deluged most of the southern town.

Until the mid-1960s, fishing was perceived as Lowestoft’s main industry, although from the 1930s the percentage of those employed directly and in trades associated with fishing was actually only around 10% of the working population[citation needed]. Fleets comprised drifters and trawlers, with the drifters primarily targeting herring while the trawlers caught cod, plaice, skate and haddock. By the mid 1960s, the catches were greatly diminishing, particularly the herring. Consequently the drifter fleet disappeared and many of the trawlers were adapted to work as service ships for the new North Sea oil rigs. The Centre for Environment, Fisheries and Aquaculture Science (CEFAS), a large fisheries research centre, which is a part of Defra is still located in Lowestoft.

The Eastern Coach Works was another big employer and in the 1960s it was a regular occurrence to see a bare bus chassis being driven through the town to the coach works by a goggled driver. Installing the bus’s superstructure, body work and seats was the job of Eastern Coach Works. Both double decker and single decker buses were built there and sent all over the country.

Brooke Marine and Richards shipbuilding companies, who together employed over a thousand men, went out of business in 1990. In order to carry on the skills and traditions of the threatened shipbuilding trade, the International Boatbuilding Training College [1] was formed in 1975 and has been largely successful at producing graduates who carry on the legacy of Lowestoft shipwrights.

From the late 1960s to the late 1990s, the oil and gas industry provided significant employment (if often seasonal and erratic) in the Lowestoft area. For many years the Shell Southern Operations base on the north shore of Lowestoft Harbour was one of the town’s largest employers. A decision to close the Shell base was finally made in 2003.[2]

 Lowestoft porcelain

During the second half of the 18th century a factory in Crown Street produced soft-paste porcelain ware. Items still exist, and there are collections at the museum in Nicholas Everett Park, Oulton Broad, and at the Castle Museum, Norwich. The factory produced experimental wares in 1756 and first advertised their porcelain in 1760.

Lowestoft collectors divide the factory’s products into three distinct periods, Early Lowestoft circa 1756 to 1761, Middle-Period circa 1761 to 1768 and Late-Period circa 1768 to the closure of the factory in 1799.

During the early period wares decorated with Chinese-inspired scenes (Chinoiserie) in underglaze blue were produced. This type of decoration continued throughout the life of the factory but scenes were gradually simplified. Overglaze colours were used from about 1765.

Much of the small factory building remains, home for many years to a manufacturer of artists’ brushes.

Lowestoft Museum

      

In 1756 Hewlin Luson Esq. found clay on his Gunton estate which, after it was analysed in London, was reported to be akin to Delft ware. However, his early attempts to produce porcelain ware were unsuccessful and, about one year later, a partnership which did not include Luson was formed to establish a company.

By January 1760 the company was ready to advertise its wares in the Ipswich Journal and records show that the porcelain produced at Lowestoft was highly successful, being advertised as far afield as London and Cambridge. It is also possible that some ware was exported to Holland.

During the life of the factory, a range of items were made, from birth tablets to spittoons. Although the vast majority of the ware falls within the category of everyday household items, things such as eye-baths, inkwells and cutlery handles can also be found among catalogue entries. As well as the distinctive blue and white hand-painted ware, the factory produced pieces with enamel decoration and transfer printing, though these were to come during the middle and later periods, and probably contributed to the decline in hand-painting.

We know that Thomas Walker, one of the latter partners, wrote a will stating that the factory was to “continue for sixteen years from October 1785 and then cease”. The termination of the business was therefore planned and Production gradually ceased, until finally the factory closed down somewhere between October 1801 and early 1802.

Lowestoft Porcelain has been highly collectable since 1760(Ladies Day).

The Southwold Tankard

It is known that Walker and Co., manufacturers of porcelain in the Georgian period, produced ware for all types of customers in the local region. There are surviving examples of pieces with inscriptions to people and of local town names. Some of these pieces have interesting stories surrounding them, such as the Black Boy Tankard and its connections with the town of Beccles. During our research into the original ware we came across the only known piece to be made that had links to Southwold, Suffolk. The Southwold Tankard was discovered at the Bristol Museum. After contacting the museum they agreed to send us photos of the piece and in the meantime we began our research.

The original Tankard is made from soft paste porcelain and has been decorated not by hand as many pieces were, but with a transfer print, which has been seen on other pieces besides the tankard. The only hand decoration on the piece is an inscription, which reads “Willm Mewse, Southwould. 1771″in the center of the tankard (note the curious spelling of Southwold, we do not know why this is). As this piece was the only known piece to be linked with Southwold we were very keen to learn more about William Mewse and how he came into possession of his tankard.

Customs collection in the 1700’s was an entirely different affair to that of today. Gaining employment in the Customs Service was very much subject to patronage, which was the accepted system for such opportunities. We do not know exactly how William Mewse came into the job but it is safe to say he would have had a solid background, and have been literate and numerate. It is probably that he was a beneficiary of some preference and must have had some social standing to have been vouchsafed by his two Bondsmen. Bondsmen acted as sponsors, and for William Mewse two men took a great risk with £500 of their money to be used as security in the event that William was less than trustworthy. John Glasfpoole, a farmer from Blundeston and Simon Bendy, an Attorney from Great Yarmouth obviously had great faith in him.

William Mewse’s first job was as a Riding Surveyor. Riding Surveyors were first introduced in 1698 after the Wool Act was passed and they were accompanied by, and in charge of, Riding Officers. These mounted and armed men were stationed around the coast to prevent wool from leaving the shores. They also helped the Waterguard with any inbound contraband. As a Riding Surveyor it was his duty to inspect the Officers between Great Yarmouth and Aldborough. Based at Cromer, his Warrant is dated 7 December 1757, around the time the first porcelain factory was coming into being.

William remained at Cromer until 10th October 1768 when he moved to the Great Yarmouth Collection, where he remained for 2 years until he was warranted Collector at Southwold in 1770. The role of Collector was more senior than that of Riding Surveyor. It would have entailed actual collection and remitting dues for all dutiable goods. He would have been mounted and armed still, but now responsible for a small staff at the Southwold station.

The work of Customs (and Excise) officers was sometimes very dangerous. Whilst they worked singly or in twos and threes, smugglers often operated in gangs of a dozen or more persons, usually armed with flintlocks, cutlasses and knives. Sailing vessels used by smugglers were also often armed with small cannons, and skirmishes on land and at sea were quite regular. Many smugglers commissioned the building of fast skiffs with very shallow draughts. These were designed to carry a few barrels of spirit and be rowed from offshore across flats and into marshland where Customs cutters could not venture. In some cases local inhabitants often aided smugglers, many having vested interests in obtaining illegal imports. Wool, brandy, rum, wines, textiles and tobacco were the most commonplace contraband.

William Mewse stayed at the Southwold Collection until his death in 1788, he was buried at the Southwold church as was his wife, Sarah Mewse, who died from Smallpox in 1770. Whilst in Southwold they had a daughter also named Sarah but unfortunately she died very young at under a year old.

We have been unsuccessful in finding out why William had the Tankard, there seems to be no supporting evidence to suggest that it was a gift for a special occasion, or any evidence that it was a gift at all. It would seem likely that William purchased the Tankard for personal reasons. It is almost certain that on his travels whilst inspecting the Riding Officers he would have passed through Lowestoft many times and would have seen the beginning and growth of Walker and Co.

 

Lowestoft Museum collects, preserves and displays objects relating to the history of the area and its people, and promotes awareness and interest in our rich heritage. 

The Museum is probably best known for its important collection of 18th-century Lowestoft Porcelain but there are many other treasures to see, including displays of locally found fossils and artefacts relating to early man (Pakefield Man dating back 700,000 years); local archaeological displays of objects from Roman and Anglo-Saxon sites; exhibits relating to HMS Lowestoft and HMS Mantis and Lowestoft as a fishing port; change and development of local industries; well-known characters connected with Lowestoft such as Benjamin Britten and George Borrow; a Victorian room setting with domestic items of the period and a cobbler’s shop; a Doctor’s surgery and an office before the  age of computers; a  display of old Toys; items relating to WW1 and WW2…….and many more interesting things.

The Museum is  housed inside Broad House, a grade ll listed building dating from 1685, which is situated within the grounds of Nicholas Everitt Park, Oulton Broad, NR33 9JR.

It is staffed entirely by Volunteers and is open every afternoon from 1pm-4pm until the end of October.

We have loan items available for schools and can open for groups at other times by special arrangement

1d.Wedgwood

Josiah Wedgwood and Sons
Wedgwood logo.png
Type Private (subsidiary of Waterford Wedgwood plc)
Founded 1759
Founder(s) Josiah Wedgwood
Headquarters Stoke-on-Trent, England
Key people Moira Gavin (CEO)
Employees 1,800
Parent Waterford Wedgwood
Website www.wedgwood.com

Typical wedgwood blue plate with white decor

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood

Kutani Crane by Wedgwood (back)

Wedgwood, strictly Josiah Wedgwood and Sons, is a British pottery firm, founded on May 1, 1759[1] by Josiah Wedgwood, which in 1987 merged with Waterford Crystal, creating Waterford Wedgwood, the Ireland-based luxury brands group. The company still exists as a subsidiary within the group, with its own board of directors and management team. Wedgwood is also used as a general term to describe the company’s main products.

In January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood was placed into administration.[2] Three months later in March KPS Capital Partners announced it would invest €100m and move jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profit.[3]

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The family and company history

Josiah Wedgwood worked with an established potter, Thomas Whieldon, until 1759, when relatives leased him the Ivy House in Burslem to allow him to start his own pottery business. The launch of the business was helped by his marriage to a remote cousin, Sarah (also Wedgwood), and her sizeable dowry.

In 1765, Wedgwood created a new earthenware form which impressed the then English Queen, who gave permission to call it “Queen’s Ware”; this new form sold extremely well across Europe. Then, in 1766, Wedgwood bought Etruria, a large Staffordshire estate, as both home and factory site. Wedgwood developed a number of further industrial innovations for his company, notably a way of measuring kiln temperatures accurately and new ware types Black Basalt and Jasper Ware (the first colour was the Poland Blue and for its innovation Josiah Wedgwood experimented with more than 3,000 samples). In recognition of the importance of his pyrometer, Josiah Wedgwood was elected a member of the Royal Society in 1783. Today, the Wedgwood Prestige collection sells replicas of some of the original designs, as well as modern neo-classical style jasper ware.

The main themes on the company’s jasper ware have all been taken from ancient mythologies: Roman, Greek or Egyptian. The initial decision to have antique designs was probably that as Britain entered an age of great industrialization, the demand for luxurious goods subsequently exploded. Meanwhile, the archeological fever caught the imagination of many artists. Nothing could have been more suitable to satisfy this huge business demand than to produce replicas of artefacts.[citation needed]

Wedgwood had increasing success with hard paste porcelain attempting to imitate the whiteness of tea-ware imported from China, which was extremely popular with high society. The high transportation costs and the vigorous long journey from the Far East meant that the supply of china could not keep up with the increasingly high demand. Towards the end of the eighteenth century other Staffordshire manufacturers introduced bone china as an alternative to translucent and delicate Chinese porcelain.[4] In 1812 Wedgwood produced their own bone china.[5] Though not a commercial success at first,[4] Wedgwood’s English Fine Bone China eventually became an important part of an extremely profitable business.

Josiah Wedgwood was also a patriarch of the Darwin–Wedgwood family. Many of his descendants were closely involved in the management of the company down to the time of the merger with the Waterford Company:

  • John Wedgwood (1766–1844), eldest son of Josiah I, partner in the firm from 1790 to 1793 and again from 1800 to 1812.
  • Josiah Wedgwood II (1769–1843), second son of Josiah I, succeeded his father as proprietor in 1795 and introduced the production by the Wedgwood company of bone china. In 1815, during Josiah II’s time as proprietor, the great English Romantic poet William Blake (1757–1827) spent some time engraving for Wedgwood’s china catalogues.[6]
  • Josiah Wedgwood III (1795–1880), son of Josiah II, he was a partner in the firm from 1825 until he retired in 1842.
  • Francis Wedgwood (1800-1880), son of Josiah II, he was a partner in the firm from 1827 and sole proprietor following his father’s death until joined by his own sons. Financial difficulties caused him to offer for sale soon after taking over the firm’s factory at Etruria and the family home Etruria Hall, but in the event and fortunately for the company only the hall was sold. He continued as senior partner until his retirement to Barlaston Hall in 1876.
  • Godfrey Wedgwood (1833–1905), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner in the firm from 1859 to 1891. He and his brothers were responsible for the reintroduction of bone china c.1876 and the employment of the artists Thomas Allen and Emile Lessore.
  • Clement Wedgwood (1840–1889), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner.
  • Laurence Wedgwood (1844–1913), son of Francis Wedgwood, partner.
  • Major Cecil Wedgwood DSO (1863–1916), son of Godfrey Wedgwood, partner from 1884, first Mayor of the federated County Borough of Stoke-on-Trent (1910–1911). He was chairman and managing director of Wedgwood until his death in battle in 1916.
  • Kennard Laurence Wedgwood (1873–1949), son of Laurence Wedgwood, partner. In 1906 he went to the United States and set up the firm’s New York office, which became Josiah Wedgwood and Sons USA, an incorporated subsidiary, in 1919.
  • Francis Hamilton Wedgwood (1867–1930), eldest son of Clement Wedgwood, chairman and managing director from 1916 until his sudden death in 1930.
  • Josiah Wedgwood V (1899–1968) grandson of Clement Wedgwood and son of Josiah Wedgwood, 1st Baron Wedgwood, the Managing Director of the firm from 1930 until 1968 and credited with turning the company’s fortunes around. He was responsible for the enlightened decision to move production to a modern purpose built factory in a rural setting at Barlaston. It was designed by Keith Murray in 1936 and built between 1938 and 1940. He was succeeded as managing director by Arthur Bryan (later Sir Arthur) who was the first non-member of the Wedgwood family to run the firm.

Enoch Wedgwood (1813-1879), a distant cousin of the first Josiah, was also a potter and founded his own firm, Wedgwood & Co, in 1860. It was taken over by Josiah Wedgwood & Sons in 1980.

 The company from 1986

In 1986, Waterford Glass Group plc purchased Wedgwood plc for 360 million USD, with Wedgwood delivering a 38.7 million USD profit in 1998 (when Waterford itself lost 28.9 million USD), following which the group was renamed Waterford Wedgwood.

From early 1987 to early 1989, the CEO was Patrick Byrne, previously of Ford, who then became CEO of the whole group. During his time, he sold off non-core businesses, and reduced the range of Wedgwood patterns from over 400 to around 240.

In the late 1990s, the CEO was Brian Patterson. From 1 January 2001, the Deputy CEO was Tony O’Reilly, Junior, who was appointed CEO in November of the same year and resigned in September 2005, and had seen then succeeded by the then president of Wedgwood USA, Moira Gavin.

In 2001 Wedgwood launched its collaboration with designer Jasper Conran which started with an iconic white fine bone china collection and has expanded to include seven patterns.

The company today incorporates Coalport, Mason’s and Johnson Brothers wares, and its parent company, Waterford Wedgwood also owns crystal brands such as Waterford, Stuart and Edinburgh, as well as Royal Doulton. Wedgwood continues to be headquartered on a 200 acres (0.81 km2) site in Barlaston.

On 5 January 2009, following years of financial problems at group level, and after a share placement failed during the global financial crisis of 2008, Wedgwood was placed into administration[2] on a “going concern” basis, with 1800 employees remaining.

On 27 February 2009, Waterford Wedgwood’s receiver Deloitte announced that the New York-based private equity firm KPS Capital Partners had purchased “certain Irish and UK assets of Waterford Wedgwood and the assets of several of its Irish and UK subsidiaries” in a transaction expected to completed in March.[7]

In March KPS Capital Partners announced that it had acquired group assets in a range of countries, including the UK, USA and Indonesia, would invest €100m, and move a number of jobs to Asia to cut costs and return the firm to profitability.[3]

Wedgwood Museums and the Museum Trust

Wedgwood’s founder wrote as early as 1774 that he wished he had preserved samples of all the company’s works, and began to do so. The first formal museum was opened in May 1906, with a curator named Isaac Cooke, at the main (Etruria) works. The museum was stored for the duration of World War II, and relaunched in a gallery at the new Barlaston factory in 1952. A new purpose-built Visitor Centre and Museum was built in 1975, and remodelled in 1985, with pieces displayed near items from the old factory works, in cabinets of similar period. A video theatre was added, and a new gift shop, as well as an expanded demonstration area where visitors could watch pottery being made. A further renovation, costing 4.5 million pounds, was carried out in 2000, including access to the main factory itself, following which the Visitor Centre complex won multiple awards.

Adjacent to the museum and visitor centre are a restaurant and tea room, serving on Wedgwood ware. The museum, managed by a dedicated trust, closed in 2000 and in 2008 reopened in a new multi-million pound building. The new “state of the art” museum was opened on the 24th of October 2008.

In June 2009, Wedgwood Museum won a UK Art Fund Prize for Museums and Art Galleries, for its displays of Wedgwood pottery, skills, designs and artefacts.[8]

The Minton Archive is a separate part of the collection. It comprises papers and drawings from 1793–1968) of the designs, manufacture and production of the pottery company, Minton and of the artistic and industrial archives of Royal Doulton. The liquidation of Wedgwood places this collection under threat of break-up and sale

Introduction

  • View of the Museum

For a unique experience and a very warm welcome, the stunning new Wedgwood Museum is the place to visit – whether you just like looking at beautiful objects or have a specialist interest. We are the home of one of the most interesting ceramic collections in the world. Our galleries tell the story of Josiah Wedgwood, his family, and the company he founded two-and-a-half centuries ago.

We are open:
Monday to Friday 9.00am to 5.00pm
Saturday and Sunday 10.00am to 5.00pm
The Wedgwood Museum is open every day – except 24 December 2010 to 2 January 2011 inclusive.

If you want to spend the day at Wedgwood you can combine your visit with a trip to the Wedgwood Visitor Centre and view production on special factory tours when available.

You can buy your individual or family tickets in person at the Wedgwood Museum or Wedgwood Visitor Centre. No pre-booking is needed

Plate, Bagshot pattern – 1999

Plate, Bagshot pattern, © Wedgwood Museum
    Plate, Bagshot pattern
    © Wedgwood Museum

This plate is an example of a design created for HRH Prince Edward on the occasion of his marriage to Miss Sophie Rees-Jones in 1999. It is decorated with Bagshot pattern which is a variation of the Osborne design. The adaptation includes thistle, red and white roses in place of stylised flowers of original design.

This plate is an example of a design created for HRH Prince Edward on the occasion of his marriage to Miss Sophie Rees-Jones in 1999. It is decorated with Bagshot pattern which is a variation of the Osborne design. The adaptation includes thistle, red and white roses in place of stylised flowers of original design.

  • Type of object: Dessert ware/plate
  • Mark: W with silhouette Portland vase WEDGWOOD ® BONE CHINA MADE IN ENGLAND BAGSHOT CREATED ESPECIALLY FOR HRH THE EARL AND COUNTESS OF WESSEX TO CELEBRATE THEIR MARRIAGE ON 19 JUNE 1999 © WEDGWOOD 1999 (printed in black)
  • Year first produced: 1999
  • Body: Bone china
  • Glaze: Clear glaze
  • Material: Ceramic
  • Decoration: Lithographed
  • Accession number: 10530
  • Dimensions: 228 mm (diameter)
  • Other Collection

    Wedgwood locality

    Wedgwood railway station was opened in the 1950s to serve the Wedgwood complex in Staffordshire, England.

    2a.Royal CrownDerby

    Pair of vases, 1772-1774, Derby Porcelain Factory (V&A Museum no. 485-1875)

    The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company is a porcelain manufacturer, based in Derby, England. The company, particularly known for its high-quality bone china, has produced tableware and ornamental items since approximately 1750.

    Contents

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     History

     William Duesbury I and II

    In 1745 André Planché, a Huguenot immigrant from Saxony, settled in Derby, where between 1747 and 1755 he made soft-paste porcelain vases and figurines. At the beginning of 1756 he formed a business partnership with William Duesbury (1725 — 1786), a porcelain painter formerly at Chelsea porcelain factory and Longton Hall, and the banker John Heath.[1] This was the foundation of the Derby company, although production at the works at Cockpit Hill, just outside the town, had begun before then, as evidenced by a creamware jug dated 1750, also in the possession of the Victoria and Albert Museum. Planché disappeared from the scene almost at once, and the business was developed by Duesbury and Heath, and later Duesbury alone. A talented entrepreneur, Duesbury developed a new paste which contained glass frit, soaprock and calcined bone. This enabled the factory to begin producing high-quality tableware. He quickly established Derby as a leading manufacturer of dinner services and figurines by employing the best talents available for modelling and painting. Figure painting was done by Richard Askew, particularly skilled at painting cupids, and James Banford. Zachariah Boreman and John Brewer painted landscapes, still-lifes, and pastorals. Intricate floral patterns were designed and painted by William Billingsley.

    In 1770, Duesbury further increased the already high reputation of Derby by his acquisition of the famous Chelsea porcelain factory in London. He operated it on its original site until 1784 (the products of this period are known as “Chelsea-Derby“), when he demolished the buildings and transferred the assets, including the stock, patterns and moulds, and many of the workmen, to Derby. Again, in 1776, he acquired the remainder of the formerly prestigious Bow porcelain factory, of which he also transferred the portable elements to Derby.

    In 1773, Duesbury’s hard work was rewarded by King George III, who after visiting the Derby works granted him permission to incorporate the royal crown into the Derby backstamp, after which the company was known as Crown Derby.

    In 1786, William Duesbury died, leaving the company to his son, William Duesbury II, also a talented director, who besides keeping the reputation of the company at its height, developed a number of new glazes and body types.

    Michael Kean

    William Duesbury II did not live to fulfil his promise: he died in 1797 at the age of 34 and the company was taken over by his business partner, an Irishman named Michael Kean, who later married Duesbury’s widow. He seems not to have enjoyed good relations with the highly skilled workforce, and many eminent artists left. Others however produced good work under his management, including Moses Webster, a flower painter who replaced Billingsley, Richard Dodson (who specialised in birds), George Robertson (land- and seascapes) and Cuthbert Lawton (hunting scenes). The best-known artist of this time was William Pegg, a Quaker, famed for his striking and idiosyncratic flower painting. He started in 1797 but his religious beliefs led him to the conclusion that painting was sinful and he left in 1800. He returned in 1813, but left again in 1820.

    Despite much good work, the Kean period was disruptive and the company suffered financially.

    William Duesbury III, born in 1790, son of William Duesbury II, took over the factory when he came of age in 1791, and Kean having sold his interest to his father-in-law, William Duesbury’s grandfather, named Sheffield, the concern continued under the name of Duesbury & Sheffield.

     Robert Bloor

    Crown Derby Imari plate, 19th century

    In 1815, the factory was leased to the firm’s salesman and clerk, Robert Bloor, and the Duesburys played no further part in it. Bloor borrowed heavily to be able to make the payments demanded but proved himself to be a highly able businessman in his ways of recouping losses and putting the business back on a sound financial footing. He also possessed a thorough appreciation of the aesthetic side of the business, and under him the company produced works that were richly coloured and elegantly styled, including brightly coloured Japanese Imari patterns, generally featuring intricate geometric patterns layered with various floral designs. These designs proved extremely and lastingly popular, and Derby continued to thrive.

    In 1845, however, Bloor died, and after three years under Thomas Clarke, the Cockpit Works were sold and the factory closed in 1848.

    King Street

    A group of former employees set up a factory in King Street in Derby, and continued to use the moulds, patterns and trademarks of the former business, although not the name, so keeping alive the Derby traditions of fine craftsmanship. No mechanical processes were used, and no two pieces produced were exactly the same. Among the items preserved was the original potter’s wheel of the Duesburys, still owned by the present Royal Derby Company.

    Osmaston Road

    In 1877, an impressive new factory was built by new owners of the Crown Derby name in Osmaston Road, Derby, thus beginning the modern period of Derby porcelain. Crown Derby’s patterns became immensely popular during the late Victorian era, as their romantic and lavish designs exactly met the popular taste of the period.

     Royal Crown Derby

    In 1890, Queen Victoria appointed Crown Derby to be “Manufacturers of porcelain to Her Majesty” and by Royal Warrant granted them the title “The Royal Crown Derby Porcelain Company”.

    In 1935 Royal Crown Derby acquired the King Street factory, thus reuniting the two strands of the business.

    Allied Potteries

    In 1964, the company was acquired by S. Pearson and Son and became part of the Allied English Potteries Group, later to be joined by Royal Doulton.

    Royal Crown Derby (II)

    In 2000, Hugh Gibson, a former director of Royal Doulton and a member of the Pearson family, led a buy-out, making Royal Crown Derby once again an independent and privately-owned concern, which at present (2006) employs about 300 people at the Osmaston Road works.

    Present product lines include paperweights, introduced in 1981 and immensely popular. Royal Crown Derby also continue to produce patterns in the Imari style, distinguished for its rich colours and intricate gilding, including the dinnerware ranges Old Imari, Traditional Imari, Red Aves, Blue Mikado, and Olde Avesbury.

    Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre

    The Royal Crown Derby Visitor Centre in Derby features a museum of porcelain items, and offers tours of the factory, a gift shop and a restaurant

    2.Chelsea Porcelein

    Dogs, about 1749, Chelsea Porcelain factory (V&A Museum no. C.246A-1976

    The Chelsea porcelain manufactory (established around 1743-45) is the first important porcelain manufactory in England;[1] its earliest soft-paste porcelain, aimed at the aristocratic market—cream jugs in the form of two seated goats—are dated 1745. The entrepreneurial director was Nicholas Sprimont, a silversmith by trade, but few documents survive to aid a picture of the manufactory’s history. Early tablewares, being produced in profusion by 1750, depend on Meissen porcelain models and on silver prototypes, such as salt cellars in the form of realistic shells.

    Chelsea was known for its figures. From about 1760 its inspiration was drawn more from Sèvres porcelain than Meissen.

    In 1769 the manufactory was purchased by William Duesbury, owner of the Derby porcelain factory, and the wares are indistinguishable during the “Chelsea-Derby period” that lasted until 1784, when the Chelsea factory was demolished and its moulds, patterns and many of its workmen and artists transferred to Derby.

    The factory history can be divided into four main periods, named for the identifying marks under the wares:

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    [edit] Triangle period (around 1743-1749)

    These early products bore an incised triangle mark. Most of the wares were white and were strongly influenced by silver design. The most notable products of this era were white saltcellars in the shape of crayfish. Perhaps the most famous pieces are the Goat and Bee jugs in 1747 that were also based on a silver model. Copies of these were made at Coalport in the 19th century.

    [edit] Raised anchor period (1749-1752)

    In this period, the paste and glaze were modified to produce a clear, white, slightly opaque surface on which to paint. The influence of Meissen, Germany is evident in the classical figures among Italianate ruins and harbour scenes and adaptations from Francis Barlow’s edition of Aesop’s Fables. In 1751, copies were made of two Meissen services. Chelsea also made figures, birds and animals inspired by Meissen originals. Flowers and landscapes were copied from Vincennes.

    [edit] Red anchor period (1752-1756)

    Kakiemon (Japanese pottery), subjects were popular from the late 1740s until around 1758, inspired by the original Japanese and then by Meissen and Chantilly. Some English-inspired tableware decorated with botanically accurate plants, copied from the eighth edition of Philip Miller‘s The Gardener’s Dictionary (1752) were also produced in this period.

    [edit] Gold anchor period (1756-1769)

    The influence of Sèvres was very strong and French taste was in the ascendancy. The gold anchor period saw rich coloured grounds, lavish gilding and the nervous energy of the Rococo style. In the 1750s and 1760s, Chelsea was also famous for its toys, which included bonbonnières, scent bottles, étuis, thimbles and small seals, many with inscriptions in French. In 1769 the failing factory was purchased by William Duesbury of Derby who ran it until 1784; during this time the Chelsea wares are indistinguishable from Duesbury’s Derby wares and the period is usually termed “Chelsea-Derby”.

    [edit] Gallery

    A Lady – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1755

    A Shepherdess – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

    A Street Vendor – Chelsea Porcelain Factory – c1760

    Frame tiga :

    A.British Unidentified Mark found in Indonesia

    B.British Earliest Porcelein mark

    I. Marks On Spode porcelein

    II. Marks on Royal Wocaster Porcelein

    III.Marks on Derby Porcelain 1795-1825

    There is something reassuring about factories like Worcester and Derby which have marked much of their production since the middle of the 18th century. The marking of porcelain makes scholarship and collecting much more agreeable. However, I would like to tell a cautionary tale of hand painted Derby marks featuring the crown over a ‘D’ format used from around 1780 until 1825. Having several examples at hand allowed me to test the conventional wisdom that pieces from the period in question could be dated by virtue of the care with which the crowned ‘D’ Derby mark was painted. Both Godden* and Twitchett** subscribe to the theory that the care in which the marks are painted deteriorates over time. 
    Royal Crown Derby

    Fig 1. This modern Royal Crown Derby mark {from 1978} is descended from the hand painted marks of the early 19th century.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    To understand the assumptions underlying this theory, requires a brief review of the factory’s history. The fame of the early factory justly rests on what are called the ‘dry edged’ figures associated with Andrew Planché who established the porcelain works in Derby around 1748***. Archaeological research has revealed moulds for dry edged figures in which the initials AP are carved; evidence suggesting Planché’s rôle extended to sculptor and model maker. There are no marks upon the pieces of this period.One of the surprises of reading Hilary Young’s recent account, English Porcelain, 1745-95****, is the position enjoyed by the Derby porcelain factory. Young constructs a ‘league ladder’ of 18th century porcelain makers based on their contemporaries’ assessments which puts Derby atop the list of English manufacturers. Part of this success can be attributed to William Duesbury, who ran the factory from 1756 to 1786. The phrase ‘ran the factory’ does not adequately describe Duesbury’s transformation of Planché’s workshop into a nationally important producer. It was his taste and awareness of the market which allowed Derby it’s standing in Young’s ladder. Also worthy of note, is an assertion by Derby’s London agent in 1777 that ‘Duesbury had the Royal Appointment from 1775’†; which may explain the crown in their mark.The factory was next run by Duesbury’s son, William Duesbury II. His role was crucial in combining sound business with beautiful porcelain, making Derby one of the pre-eminent factories in Europe.In 1796 William Duesbury II took Michael Kean into partnership and upon Duesbury’s death, in 1797, Kean married his widow. Kean ran the factory until 1811 when he sold it to Robert Bloor. Bloor had been a clerk to Duesbury and Kean so knew the business well. It was during the Bloor period that painters like the famous William ‘Quaker’ Pegg were engaged in creating pieces of the highest quality. It is here our interest ends, because it was Robert Bloor who introduced the printed circular mark around 1825 (see figure 2).
    Royal Crown Derby 1825

    Fig 2. The mark c.1825 adopted by Robert Bloor for the factory on a very typical Derby coffee can of the late 1820s. The plain loop handle has been repaired with wire staples.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    Our earliest example (figure 3) is a fluted coffee can with delicate sprigged decoration in blue, green and puce enamel and gilding. With its plain loop handle and sixteen vertical facets, it is of identical shape to the example illustrated in plate 147 of Michael Berthoud’s Compendium of British Cups††. The painter or gilder’s number 129 appears under the crowned ‘D’ mark. The cup is decorated with stylised cornflowers, which would almost certainly be described as ‘Chantilly sprig’ today. The paste is beautifully white and lustrous without any sign of the crazing which was to become a regular feature of later Derby porcelain. The gilding has worn significantly on all protruding surfaces. 
    Royal Crown Derby 1795

    Fig. 3 A Coffee can c.1795 bearing a puce mark of either William Duesbury II or Duesbury and Kean. The matching saucer is identically marked and numbered but the mark is much larger because of the greater space on the base of the saucer.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    Early Duesbury II marks were painted in blue or puce and this practice continued until 1806†††. The lack of care taken with the mark depicted in figure 3 is noticeable. The ‘D’ looks more like a lower case ‘b’ and the crown is skewed. 
    Royal Crown Derby 1810 - 1815

    Fig. 4 A Derby saucer with a very faint mark in the Bute shape with pale blue border. The matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup all bear the same mark.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    In figure 4, we see a very faint mark on a Bute shaped saucer with pale blue border and bands of gilding and gilt foliage. The first thing we notice about this mark is the iron (ferric oxide) orange colour usually associated with production after 1806††††. The style of the matching saucer, coffee can and tea cup support this, appearing to be c.1810-15 (although shapes may continue in production for years). The inclusion of the balls dotted around the top of the crown suggest this is an early orange mark. The balls upon the crown have become perfunctory and the three dots are difficult to distinguish. This hardly agrees with conventional wisdom that the earlier marks are ‘carefully drawn until c.1820’‡. All of the marks on the surviving pieces of the set, including bun dishes, trios and slops bowls exhibit the same mark. The eccentricities of the mark suggest all were painted by the same hand in fact the painter or gilder’s number ‘2’ appears in orange, near the rim on each piece. As the practice of placing the painter or gilder’s numbers near the rim started around 1810‡‡, there is support for the early dating of this piece.In the next three examples, however, we see the need for a system that dates the marks more accurately. These three plates are all the same shape and figures 5 and 6 are of identical size. All fall within the period when Robert Bloor was the head of the works; in these cases roughly around 1820.In figure 5, we see a dessert dish decorated in a style I associate with late Georgian Derby, which includes bands of gilding, gilt foliage, brightly enamelled roses, daisies and bright green foliage. The roses are especially charming and echo the ‘Prentice Plate’ painted by William Billingsley, c. 1790, which he painted to teach apprentices how to paint these distinctive roses‡‡‡. On the reverse we can see characteristic crazing and a crowned ‘D’ mark painted with some skill and great speed as well as a small painter or gilder’s number‡‡‡‡ (27) near the rim. The balls from the crown have disappeared, the cross has lost its shape, but the three dots either side of the crossed strokes are clearly distinguishable.
    Royal Crown Derby 1820

    Fig. 5 A Derby dessert dish c. 1820, with a border of gilded foliage, half hearted daisies and skilfully executed roses.
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     
     

     

    The dating of the next plate (figure 6) is a little more difficult. It appears to be a descendant of the almost geometrical swirling border patterns of around 1800 but incorporates bolder, more varied colours and intricate foliage. In this set, the painter or gilder’s numbers are much higher (one is 68 the other is 74). Each plate also has another number under the central mark (11 in the case of 68, 22 and 39 in the case of 74). It is fascinating to have six plates by at least five different artists and note the slight variations in shapes and spacial arrangements. In this case the marks appear to be painted by the artist whose number appears closet to the mark; probably at the same time. This suggests the rim marks may be gilder’s marks. These plates present a problem, too. There are two examples (figure 6a) of a mark painted by ’39’ which have the balls on the crown rather like the marks in figure 3. The crossed lines and balls below the crown are different, as are ‘D’s. This makes the mark look like a very early mark… which I don’t think it can be.
    Royal Crown Derby plate 1820

    Fig. 6 One of six Derby dessert plates, c. 1820.
     


    Fig. 6a The mark which appears on two of the Dessert plates of the same pattern as figure 6. It appears on intital inspection to be like the mark in figure 3.
     
    The third example (figure 7), like that in figure 5, has a characteristic Derby decoration including ‘Billingsley’ roses. The other stylised flowers represent cornflowers and honeysuckle. It has a small painter or gilder’s number (23) on the base, close to the foot rim. In spite of characteristic crazing, this plate still has a shiny, attractive glaze. The mark has taken on quite impressionistic qualities; it has only a passing similarity to a crown and ‘D’. 


    Fig. 7 A Derby plate with cornflowers, roses and honeysuckle in a band around the rim with gilded bands. The mark is almost ‘impressionist’ it is executed with so little care.
     
    While it is tempting to assume that the plates in figures 5, 6 and 7 can be safely dated by the years when the patterns on them were most fashionable, difficulties present themselves. Patterns remained in the books for much longer periods than the ten years with which we are dealing. All these patterns could have been produced simultaneously. The care with which the marks are painted, however, appears to support a chronology of figure 5 first, followed by 6 and then 7. Holding the plates and inspecting them closely, this appears to be perfectly reasonable. Remember, however, the plates in the dessert set of six (figure. 6) have widely varying marks: two bear marks that look earlier than figure 5. 
    A Bloor Derby

    Fig. 8 A Bloor Derby coffee can and its mark.
    Another reason why I would doubt dating based soley on the painted mark, is the example of the coffee can in figure 8. It features a Japanese inspired pattern based on cobalt blue, iron (ferric oxide) orange and gilding. Its earlier date may be reflected in the more restricted colour palette than the later example (figure 2) but both retain an oriental feel. The square handle, which is obviously a derived from the square handle referred to as ‘French handle’, would have been the height of fashion in 1810. The mark however, which is the second most imprecise observed here, would suggest the mid 1820s with conventional mark dating. Although this coffee can has a repaired square handle, the same pattern appears in Twichett’s Derby Porcelain*, with a Grecian handle and is dated between 1810-20. The ‘H’ beneath the mark remains a mystery to me, but may be related to the painter number, II, beneath the mark in figure 6.In Conclusion, I am fairly sure that there is no simple chronological progression from well painted to badly painted marks. The presence of painter or gilder’s numbers suggest there was no reason for each painter to personalise their version of the Derby mark but there is clear evidence that they did. The fact is, we still need to take into account all the factors involved in dating a piece of ceramic (the weight and translucency of the body, the lustre or crazing of the glaze, style, decoration, abrasions and marks) when assessing the age of Derby china of the Duesbury & Kean and Bloor periods. While we can add the care with which the mark is painted to the list of these factors, we can not rely on it as the sole dating technique.
     

    THE END @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011 

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL I PENGANTAR(DEI ARMY EXHIBTION INTRO)

    WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL

    *

    *allied forces pamphlet used by KNIL for administation 1946-1950 because the scarce of the paper  that time

    The Dutch East Indie Army KNIL  Collections Exhibition

    *

    *the last KNIL salary oder(SK gaji KNIL terakhir) tahun 9 feb.1950 ,beberapa bulan sebelum dibubarkan juli 1950 dan di lebur kedalam TNI RIS.dan NRI.

    Frame one:

     Kata Pengantar(Introductions)

    1.DALAM RANGKA MEMPERINGATI 160 TAHUN BERDIRINYA KESATUAN TENTARA KERAJAAN HINDIA BELANDA KNIL DI INDONESIA, Driwnacybermuseum MENGADAKAN PAMERAN KOLEKSI POSTAL HISTORY,POSTACARD,DOKUMEN DAN ILLUSTRASI DARI TENTARA KNIL. SEMOGA KELUARGA BESAR KNIL YANG ADA DIINDONESIA DAN NEGERI BELANDA AKAN MERASA GEMBIRA MENYAKSIKAN PAMERAN INI.

    IN ORDER THE 160 YEARS OF KNIL IN DUTCH EAST INDIE ANNIVERSARY ,Driwancybermuseum Blog MAKE THE SPECIAL KNIL POSTAL HISTORY,PICTURES AND DOCUMENT COLLECTIONS EXHIBITON AND I HOPE ALL THE KNIL FAMILY FROM INDENSEIA AND NETHERLAND WILL ENJOY TO LOOK AT THIS AMIZING EXHIBTION AND SEND THE COMMENT WITH THEIR GRANDPA KNIL PICTURES AND DOCUMENT WITH POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS TOO ME VIA COMMENT FOR  MADE THIS EXHIBITION MORE COMPLETE INFO.

    2.SETELAH TIGA PULUH TAHUN MENGUMPULKAN KOLESKI TERAKIT KNIL,DAN  DENGAN MENINGKATNYA TEKNOLOGI EKSPLORASI INTERNET TERUTAMA GOOGLE , SAYA TELAH MENGHIMPUN BANYAK INFO TENTANG KNIL YANG SELAMA INI HANYA DITAMPILKAN TERSEBAR DALAM JUMLAH KECIL.BERBERAPA KOLEKSI YANG MENARIK BERUPA :

    AFTER 30 YEARS COLLCTING KNIL RELATED COLLECTIONS AND THE ADVANCED OF INTERNET EXPLORATIONS LIKE GOOGLE, I HAD BUILDED TEH AMIZING COLLECTIONS LIKE :

    A. BOOK

    B.POSTAL HISTORY

    C.VINTAGE PICTURE POSTCARD

    D.VINTAGE BOOK ILLUSTRATIONS

    E.DOCUMENTS

    3, THIS EXHIBITION STILL NOT COMPLETE DAN MANY UNCORRECT INFO BECAUSE VERY DIFFICULT TO FING THE COLLECTIONS TO DAY, THAT IS WHY I NEED MOE CORECTIONS AND SUGGESTION ALSO MORE COLLECTIONS TO MAKE MORE BEST EXHIBITION.

    PAMERAN INI TIDAK LEGKAP DAN MASIH BANYAK KEKURANGAN NYA OLEH KARENA ITU SAYA MNGHARAPKAN KOMENTAR PERBAIKAN,SARAN DAN KOLEKSI LEBIH BANYAK,

    4, TERIMA KASIH ATASEGALA BANTUAN DARI TEMAN-TEMAN SEHINGGA PAMERAN INI DAPAT TERLAKSANA.

    5. Pameran ini dibagi dalam tiga bagian, pertama Pengantar(Intdroduction), Kedua Pameran Peralatan Perang KNIL (Vehicle) dan Ketiga The KNIL HIstoric Collections (KOleksi Sejarah).

     Hal ini karena bila di tampilkan seluruhnya sekaligus komputer akan berjalan sangat perlahan dan lama menunggu illustrasi tampil (If we show in one add your computer will run slowly and the illustration will need more time)

    TKANS VERY MUCH TO ALL OF MY FRIEND WHICH MADE THIS EXHIBITION CAN BE DONE

    GREATING FROM THE BKLOG FOUNDER

    Dr Iwan Suwandy

    the end  @ copyright 2o11

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL(DEI ARMY) II

    WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL

    Frame Three :

    The KNIL vehicle pictures(courtecy Tropen Museum )

     

    nuyt  (no login)


    Braats from low angle

    A 6 wheeler truck on Ambon, 1937

    Despatchriders


    Searchlighttrucks


    Mobilisation in 1936. The motorised part of the 10th battalion

    Unknown vehicle in Bandung

    Vickers tractors


    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jun 24, 2006 10:23 PM
    This message has been edited by nuyt on May 25, 2006 7:42 PM

     

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    Some guns

     

    May 25 2006, 7:44 PM 
    There’s a lot there now, take a look for yourselves!
    A Boehler 47mm AT

    A Bofors 40mm AA

     

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    Trucks in Australia

     

    May 25 2006, 7:48 PM 
    AS used by the Dutch. The whole story of the West-Indies troops in Australia is now online at niod.nl. Excellent!







     

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    Re: Trucks in Australia

     

    November 24 2006, 7:40 PM 
    It shows the following vehicles.

    picture 1
    a Caterpillar tractor
    picture 2
    a Farmall tractor?
    picture 3
    a Ford G8T truck
    picture 4
    a International K5 truck
    picture 5
    a GMC CC303 truck
    picture 6
    a International K5 truck
    picture 7
    a Ford G8T truck

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    document.write("Rogier Peeters");
    // ]]>Rogier Peeters

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    Moderators

    Re: New KNIL vehicle pictures

     

    June 2 2006, 2:19 PM 
    Very nice pictures indeed!

    Some more from the niod:
    aircraft refuelling truck in Australia.
    notice the emblem (RAAF flag (?) and Dutch flag) on the door.
    A listening device.

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    listening devices!

     

    June 28 2006, 6:47 PM 

    and in Englisch:
    http://www.museumwaalsdorp.nl/en/airacous.html

    enjoy!
    Nuyt

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jun 28, 2006 6:50 PM

     

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    and what about radio-bicycles!

     

    June 28 2006, 6:54 PM 

    read here on Dutch radios and German radars:
    http://www.museumwaalsdorp.nl/en/radiocommen.html

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jun 28, 2006 6:56 PM

     

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    document.write("Susan Cross");
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    (no login)

    Dutch Radar

     

    June 28 2006, 11:40 PM 
    Dear Nuyt

    Thank you very much for the link; the picture of the model “eluister” was especially interesting.

    Norman Friedman’s book “Naval Radar” has a short description of the development of Weiler’s radar equipment; apparently the idea was to couple it with a searchlight for AA fire control. The wavelength was 0.7m and the range against an aircraft would have been 15 km (8 nautical miles). I once estimated the power to be about half a kilowatt.

    Two sets were taken to England by Weiler and his assistants in 1940, named Type 289 by the Royal Navy and installed on the destroyer “Isaac Sweers” for 40mm fire control. Weiler went on to do a lot more radar development work for the RN during the war.

    Susan

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    NEI Listening/Radar Units

     

    January 26 2007, 6:19 AM 
    The website says that six of the listening units actually made it to the NEI. Is there any info on how and/or where they were employed? I’m gonna go out on a limb here and “assume” that they were employed near AA batteries.

    I also find Susan’s post about Dutch radar specialists relocating to Britain quite interesting since I had no idea that radar was under development in Holland. It’s no secret that British radar sets were active on Java during the Japanese invasion; however, from everything that I’ve seen, the British didn’t let the Dutch near them (or give them any info). Clearly the British didn’t trust the Dutch with this new technology, which I find interesting since it appears that a Dutchman played a substantial (key?) role in helping Britain further its radar systems.

    Tom

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    listening devices

     

    January 30 2007, 8:51 PM 
    Hi Tom!
    Yes, there are some pics and film pieces showing the listening devices on Java in 1941. On one of the KNIL films you can see a “kijkerapparaat” that moves around by itself (triggered by sound?) as if moved by an “invisible hand”.

        

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jan 30, 2007 9:28 PM

     

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    Tom Womack
    (Login tommywo)

    Footage of Listening Apparatus

     

    February 2 2007, 11:55 PM 
    Hi Nuyt…

    I don’t suppose that you have a URL or link for any of the photos or video of the devices that you mentioned in your earlier post?

    Thanks,
    Tom

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    updates grouped together

     

    June 24 2006, 10:29 PM 
    I am regrouping KNIL vehicle pictures on this thread to make it the Overvalwagens! update thread.

    A new picture of a Surinam CTLS tank:
    http://www.network54.com/Forum/330333/thread/1146393215/1957+Marmon-Herrington+tanks+picture

    Fiat tractor and Maple Leafs:
    http://www.network54.com/Forum/330333/thread/1144344297/The+Dutch+East+Indies+Army+on+the+400+years+Dutch-Aussie+relations+site

    Some vehicles in Indonesian servie:
    http://www.network54.com/Forum/330333/thread/1108420471/Indonesian+tanks+and+armored+cars

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    new swampbuggy picture

     

    June 24 2006, 10:40 PM 
    From Zaloga, US tank Destroyers of WW2, 1985:

    Picture is from 1941, Fort Meade. Note the high number and variety of 4×4 vehicles in the back!

    More on these tankdestroyers in Surinam:
    http://www.overvalwagen.com/tankjagers.html

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jun 24, 2006 10:49 PM

     

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    some new info

     

    January 26 2008, 2:44 PM 
    1. info provided by Hans Heesakkers on trisonline reveals that one of the Ford Swampbuggies was operational with the Dutch forces in Surinam untill the late fifties, albeit without the gun and used as towing/recovery vehicle in the city barracks.

    2. I have found a spent 37mm M1 anti-tank cartridge in Suriname. It is likely that this cartridge was used by the 37mm M1 on the Ford Swampbuggy.

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    document.write("Robert Mellichamp");
    // ]]>Robert Mellichamp

    (Login saintlo990)

    37 mm shell case

     

    October 2 2010, 12:44 AM 
    If the case is from the M3 Antitank gun it should have 37mm M16 stamped on it. The Erie Forge & Ordnance Company AT gun used the standard U.S. M16 case, but stamped with their name on it.

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
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    (no login)

    Those elusive armoured jeeps again!

     

    June 29 2006, 6:42 PM 
    From De Vaandeldrager 77. In service with the Dutch forces during the Indonesian Independence War:

    For more on the Dutch armoured Jeeps in the Indies see here:”
    http://www.overvalwagen.com/mysteryvehicles.htm

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jun 29, 2006 7:01 PM

     

      Respond to this message   
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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Again those d$%#@d armoured jeeps!

     

    May 15 2007, 12:18 PM 
    1948, repairing railway lines:

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Nuyt");
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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Marmon-Herringtons

     

    July 23 2006, 11:34 AM 
    From a 1944 Marmon-Herrington brochure, for sale on e-bay (I failed to buy it):
    A M-H tractor on trial on Java – this must be the contest described on Overvalwagens! tractor pages.

    TBS tractors in production 1941:

    Machine gun truck:

    As LLDMG5-4:

    The brochure states the company produced its biggest fleet of 4×4 trucks for the Dutch:

    First of a “large number” of searchlight and sound locating trucks, 6×6:

    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

      Respond to this message   
    Nuyt
    (no login)

    surviving tank pictures

     

    August 1 2006, 6:02 PM 
    Sent to me by Barry Marriott form Australia, found on another forum:
    http://www.com-central.net/index.php?name=Forums&file=viewtopic&t=4489

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("louis");
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    (no login)

    picture of Marmon Herringtons tank

     

    November 24 2006, 7:26 PM 
    A picture of a Marmon-Herrington tank in the West Indies.


    source picture NIMH

    And a picture of a South Afrika armouredcar MK.III some time known (incorrectly) as Marmon-Herringtons. Here captured back in Dutch service, with in the back a LVT of the Dutch Mariniers.


    source picture NIMH

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    (no login)

    Thanks

     

    November 26 2006, 11:33 AM 
    Any overvalwagen pictures found?
    Cheers,
    Nuyt

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Better quality pic

     

    May 15 2007, 2:16 PM 
    of the tanks awaiting demolition at the LPB Bandoeng

     

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    (no login)

    KNIL Vickers Utility Tractor

     

    October 14 2006, 10:25 PM 
    Posted on the MLU-forum by Hanno Spoelstra, from the Tankmuseum:

      Respond to this message   
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    (no login)

    KNIL Aviation trucks, 1936

     

    October 14 2006, 10:30 PM 
    This picture is from a brandnew publication called: Militair vervoer verbeeld, Transport bij de Krijgsmacht 1900-2006 by NIMH

    It shows the vehicle “trein” of a KNIL-ML (MIlitary Aviation) unit at Andir AFB near Bandoeng in 1936. The trucks look like having long wheelbases, probably 4×2, with true KNIL-cabs without doors, a bit similar to the GMC trucks in service at the time…Enjoy!

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
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    (no login)

    ID-ing

     

    October 15 2006, 12:26 PM 
    I now see the two lines of trucks are not similar. The line closest to the camera seems to have convertible cabs and have a chrome front on the engine hood. The second line has the standard KNIL cab.
    Chevrolets or GMCs?

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Re: ID-ing

     

    October 16 2006, 1:19 PM 
    Hi Nuyt:
    I believe the front line are GMCs and the rear line are Chevrolets. The GMCs may be a couple of years older, the Chevvies look like about 1938 vintage.
    Bill

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Re: ID-ing

     

    October 16 2006, 1:21 PM 
    Sorry, do not know how to edit posts here. Should have typed 1935 for the Chevs and the GMC could be in that range, 1933/4 maybe.
    Bill

     

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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Chevy PD

     

    October 16 2006, 9:14 PM 
    Thanks Bill, so the Chevy should be the 1934 1 1/2 ton 157 inch wheelbase Master Utility PD (in case of dual rear wheels – which seems logical). Chassis-cowl delivered, locally bodied.

    What about the convertible look on the GMCs – is there a possibility they are Australian sourced? And what about the staffcar?

      Respond to this message   
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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Vickers light tank

     

    October 18 2006, 11:01 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    rare shot

     

    October 19 2006, 6:10 PM 
    becaouse this is one of the first two tanks ordered and fitted with the twin .30 Brownings. See here:
    http://www.overvalwagen.com/vickerstanks.html

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Joules Hams");
    // ]]>Joules Hams

    (no login)

    Vickers Carden Loyd Commercial Tank 1936

     

    September 5 2010, 6:20 PM 
    At the moment I am buliding a model kit of the tank pictured, and purchased by the Dutch East Indies. What puzzles me is where was the twin Browning mg turrets built and who supplied them too?
    Also how different were the twin mg turrets to the single Vickers mounting?

    So has anybody got some relevant information, plans and or photos on the above text, as I have recently spoken to David Fletcher from Bovinton Tank Museum. He told me that the plans he has got does not include the twin mg turrets.

    Hope someone can help?

    Many thanks,
    Joules.

      Respond to this message   
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    (no login)

    Great picture of the Krupp-Wilton-Fijenoord armoured car

     

    November 1 2006, 8:47 PM 
    Sent to me by Frits Bakker:

    “I got this small picture from the daughterof KNIL Kolonel der Cavalerie, M. Thomson. Inspecteur der Cavalerie, 1934 -1936, Bandoeng. Picture of the first armored car for the recently formed Gemotoriseerde cavalerie. Do’nt ask me name and made of this vehicle.”

    Well, it’s a very rare shot of the Wilton-Fijenoord on Krupp chassis, see here: http://www.overvalwagen.com/armoured3.html

    The building seems to be the Departement van Oorlog (NEI War Dept) building at Bandoeng, to the left is a Krupp 75mm L35 fieldgun.

    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

    And thanks Frits!


      Respond to this message   
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    (no login)

    More pics

     

    May 18 2007, 10:44 PM 
    of the trials



     

      Respond to this message   
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    (no login)

    trying

     

    May 18 2007, 10:49 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
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    (no login)

    trying again

     

    May 18 2007, 10:52 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    some more pics

     

    November 26 2006, 6:40 PM 
    from Checkpoint veteran’s magazine:
    South African Recc cars:


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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Vickers Utility Tractor at Bronbeek

     

    December 21 2006, 6:54 PM 
    No comments, see http://www.overvalwagen.com





    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

     

      Respond to this message   
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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Some unidentified trucks

     

    December 29 2006, 4:26 PM 
    civilian, Soerabaja, 1941:


    And a South African recce car in TNI service:

    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

      Respond to this message   
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    (no login)

    Re: Some unidentified trucks

     

    December 31 2006, 9:17 AM 
    The truck on the first (The right one) and on the second picture is a International truck. The one on the left on the first picture is probbly a Studebaker.

     

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    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Dutch Marines’ vehicles on Curacao, 1930s

     

    January 7 2007, 2:47 PM 
    From Mariniersmuseum Rotterdam, some need proper ID:
    1929:

    1930:

    1931, an Essex staffcar

    1932: Practising with the .50 as AA, the trucks might be the same Internationals as on other pics?

    1938: AA exercises with International truck?

    No info:

    Some AA mount being towed:

    Aruba 1939: mobilisation, a Ford?

    Aruba 1939-40:

    Aruba, 1938-40:

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Mariner’s vehicle ID

     

    January 9 2007, 2:12 PM 
    Hi Nuyt:
    Thanks for the latest batch of photos.
    I make them as follows:
    IHC, IHC, Essex, IHC?, IHC?, IHC?,39/40 Ford, 35/36 Ford, Hudson
    Bill

     

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    reminder

     

    January 14 2007, 5:06 PM 
    Just a reminder that I evenutally add these pcs to Overvalwagens.
    They are most likely ex-KNIL, ex-Japanese South African Recce cars
    http://www.network54.com/Forum/330333/thread/1133122529/

     

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    Fire carts and a truck

     

    January 30 2007, 9:09 PM 
    In late 1941 the Batavia Factory donated 7 fire carts to the LBD (Air Protoction Service). Here you can see 4 of these at the Batavia Fired Dept. What is that truck inside, looking really old?

     

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    Re: Fire carts and a truck

     

    February 1 2007, 12:59 PM 
    The Fire carts where built by Maxim in the United States, The truck in the back is a Mack AC “Bulldog” fire engine from 1918. It as well was built in the United States.

     

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    One more Batavia Stadswacht Overvalwwagen

     

    February 27 2007, 3:10 PM 
    From a Japanese site

     

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    Marmon-Herrington tank in Surinam

     

    April 7 2007, 11:47 PM 

     

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    New batch of Jakarta rail Braat

     

    May 5 2007, 5:59 PM 
    Many, many thanks Marc Koelich!








    See also Overvalwagen.com for the first series (outside vehicle). Marc informs us that the Braat was moved after the recent floodings in jakarta affected the museum.

    Again, many thanks to our special correspondent in Jakarta!
    Nuyt

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    nuyt
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    Braat still exists!

     

    May 15 2007, 2:49 PM 

     

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    document.write("Aripin L. Sunardi");
    // ]]>Aripin L. Sunardi

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    I think …….

     

    July 17 2007, 12:41 PM 
    the museum is just accross the office where I work !

    Regards,
    Aripin
    from Jakarta, Indonesia
    **********************************

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    South African recce cars on parade

     

    May 5 2007, 7:29 PM 
    In Padang, Sumatra, 1948!!!!!!

    From Het Geheugen van Nederland

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    nuyt
    (no login)

    Some prewar Fords and Chevrolets

     

    May 18 2007, 3:55 PM 
    From the Westerhof site:





    Note the typical preWW2 KNIL cab!

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    nuyt
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    Marmon-Herrington tractor wreck?

     

    May 18 2007, 4:10 PM 
    From the Westerhof site

     

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    Marines 6 wheel armoured car

     

    May 18 2007, 5:56 PM 
    Found by Louis. I guess I was looking for this picture since I read some entries in Icks and Crow’s Encyclopedia of armoured cars, page 111:

    Based on jeep?:
    – Pantser-jeep trailing axle and wheels added to support additional weight of fully armoured box hull sloping downward slightly to the rear, faceted bonnet with slotted louvres, US jeep chassis. In the pre-1945 section!

    or this one:
    – 1945, 6×6 car resembling the Canadian GM APC 4-wheeler, used by Dutch Marines


      Respond to this message   

    Hans Heesakkers
    (Login toxandria)

    Pantserjeep

     

    May 22 2007, 7:57 PM 
    In 1949 (around March) some Marines of the “Motortransport Compagnie” decided to built an amored jeep. It was built in their workshop at “Babat” (on Java).
    They used scrap, an old jeep, some parts of an GMC, steel U profiles found in an abandonned sugarfactory and the armor of on old Japanese afv.
    The leader of the project was the nco Willem Ouweneel. July 1949 the car was finished, the cars weight was approx 3 ton. After some succesfull tests it was droven to the HQ of the amfibic bataljon at Modjokerto and handed over to captain Jacobs who took the vehicle into his transportsection.
    The vehicle was underpowered (equiped with only a jeep engine)for offroad duty but preformed very well in rural area. With four .30 guns it was used for citypatrol. On the picture officer Meerdink and driver Den Boer.

    p.s both rear axles were driven!!

    greetings hans

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    Thanks Hans

     

    May 22 2007, 9:01 PM 
    very interesting!
    Groet,
    Nuyt

     

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    nuyt
    (no login)

    New Railroad Braat overvalwagen picture

     

    July 11 2007, 7:18 PM 

    Bert Kossen sent me this picture of a Braat overvalwagen (second series) converted for railroad use (see: http://www.overvalwagen.com/overval2.html)

    The picture was found in a photograph album of a former Dutch trooper
    (8 RVA), serving with the 7 December Divisie on Western Java, approx 1948.

    So far all pictures showing rail Braats btw come from Western Java.

    Thanks Bert Kossen!

    Kind regards,
    Nuyt

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Aug 20, 2007 7:06 PM
    This message has been edited by nuyt on Jul 11, 2007 7:33 PM

     

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    Alvis-Straussler AC3D

     

    August 8 2007, 2:56 PM 
    The book British AFVs 1940-46 volume 3 has an interesting chapter on this armoured car in service with KNIL. In addition to my page on this vehicle (http://www.overvalwagen.com/armoured3.html) I can add some Alvis Ltd. pics from the mentioned book:




    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

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    nuyt
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    Braat on Ambon, 1950

     

    August 20 2007, 6:18 PM 
    captured by the TNI from the RMS

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Aug 20, 2007 6:19 PM

     

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    SA recce car in TNI service

     

    August 20 2007, 6:21 PM 
    Java 1947, both pics from the KIT site

     

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    Vickers amphibious tank

     

    August 20 2007, 6:55 PM 

     

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    gunport and 4×4?

     

    August 20 2007, 7:08 PM 
    Note the gunport appears to be much smaller than on the first series Braats.

    Also note the front (CMP-) truck bumper: has this vehicle been converted to 4×4 by putting it on a newer chassis?

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Overvalwagens, Vickers MkVIb, Boforses and a Boehler

     

    August 23 2007, 8:33 PM 
    From a wartime Indoensian magazine called Jawa Baroe:

    A former KNIL 12cm coastal gun:

    A former KNIL Bofors 8cm mobile AA gun

    Fixed

    A Boehler placed on a Japanese auxiliary craft (Proving the shields were there already)

    A Vickers tank as a monument outside Villa Isola

    ex-Stadswacht overvalwagens

    Enjoy,
    Nuyt

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    nuyt
    (no login)

    Curacao armoured car

     

    August 24 2007, 12:12 AM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    search with “voertuig”

     

    August 24 2007, 11:17 AM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Braat pictural history book

     

    August 24 2007, 11:32 AM 
    729 MALAY ARCHIPELAGO — MACHINEFABRIEK BRAAT SOERABAIA/DJOCJA/TEGAL — COLLECTION of 483 b/w photographs of engineering and manufacturing processes of all kinds of (iron) industrial machines/tools on different locations in the former Dutch East Indies (Java). Dated between 1917 and 1953. Stored in 3 oblong albums (2 w. cloth “publ. binds.”), 3 ring binders and 1 portfol.
    EUR 1.100 EUR 1.800
    ¶ Very fine collection, accurately recording the wide range of Braat’s industrial activities in Surabaya, Sukabumi, Djokjakarta and Tegal. The collection comprises of pictures of a tea factory (‘Kertamanah’), 6 beautiful pictures of the bridge at Tji Somang, various pictures of water power stations, of station buildings and bridges, etc., etc. Most photographs however show what ‘Braat’ was capable to produce: cog wheels, roadrollers, railroad waggons, etc.

    Does anybody know who bought this book?
    http://www.b-n.nl/php/auction.php?AuctionNumber=315&GroupNumber=17

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    ebay Marmon-Herrington tractor ad

     

    August 30 2007, 11:21 PM 

     

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    more in da West

     

    September 1 2007, 12:28 AM 
    A marine with militia on one of the islands:

    Parade in Paramaribo with M-H tanks and NF&O 37mm anti-tank guns:

    Forgot where I found these….

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    nuyt
    (no login)

    new NIOD pics

     

    September 16 2007, 6:50 PM 
    Chevrolet 4×4 in Australia with RNF (Royal Netherlands Forces) markings:

    A nice Bofors 75mm mountain gun pic:

    Braat overvalwagens at Bandoeng:

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    more

     

    September 16 2007, 11:31 PM 
    Vrouwen Automobiel Corps vehicles:

     

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    LBD ambulance trailer

     

    September 17 2007, 11:10 PM 

     

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    nuyt
    (no login)

    Ebay

     

    September 22 2007, 5:49 PM 
    two Ford trucks, Batavia, IIW:


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    Theo Steuten
    (Login mpas190663)

    eBay-pictures

     

    October 6 2007, 11:02 AM 
    I think that these pictures are taken in the year 1946 – 1947 or later.

    The second picture shows a sign at the entrance 18th Coy AAT 2059.
    The 18th Coy AAT was formed after World War II in The Netherlands and arrived in the Netherlands East Indies at the end of 1946, beginning of 1947. This unit was a socalled “Calmeyer”-unit made up of volunteers and conscripts. Colonel Calmeyer was the man who on behalf of the General Staff of the Dutch Army had to determine how many units and which units of the Koninklijke Landmacht (KL) had to be sent out to the Netherlands-East-Indies in order to restore peace.
    18 AAT was one of those companies and was a general transport company.
    (Book “Logistiek onder de tropenzon”, Bataafsche Leeuw 2003).
    Hence, 18 AAT was a KL-unit and not a KNIL-unit.

    The number 2059 is the unit code number. For example 2 AAT had the number 2041, 4 AAT had the number 2043 and 7 AAT had the number 2046. Counting upwards I think that the unit code number for 18 AAT could have been 2059.

    I also want to apologize for the fact that I placed this same message as a separate thread. Unfortunately something went wrong the first time and I didn’t succeed in placing this message at the correct location.

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    nuyt
    (no login)

    Thanks

     

    October 6 2007, 12:25 PM 
    Thanks Theo!
    No need to apolize, I would have transferred your message here….

    Groeten,
    Nuyt

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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Colour film showing Batavia Stadswacht overvalwagens

     

    November 30 2007, 10:43 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    vehicle ID

     

    December 15 2007, 7:23 PM 
    Jasper from Rotterdam took this shot from the film and requests ID of the vehicle with the high top on mp.net. Any IDs?

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Re: vehicle ID

     

    December 15 2007, 10:14 PM 
    Pretty fuzzy shot, but I will bet a bottle of good beer it is a 1939/1940 Chev. Somewhere I have a better photo and will send it to Eric if I find it.
    Bill

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    this?

     

    December 22 2007, 1:18 AM 
    Same unit: probably the Chevrolet light truck with the high canvas covered body in the back…blurry pic indeed!

        

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Dec 22, 2007 1:18 AM

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Re: this?

     

    December 22 2007, 1:13 PM 
    I believe you have the answer, Nuyt.
    I thought I also had a photo of the same style truck with a metal body, possibly as an ambulance but I cannot seem to find it.
    Bill

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
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    M-H tank

     

    December 23 2007, 2:49 PM 
    found on a Russian site!
    A M-H tank in Surinam?

     

      Respond to this message   

    Toxandrie
    (Login toxandria)

    Re: M-H tank

     

    December 23 2007, 4:39 PM 
    Yes this is the Dutch Four man tank MTLS 1GI4 in Suriname. Location; exercise on savanne near Zanderij at the end of 1944. Picture is pressumably taken by lt. Brederode or lt Van Ardenne.

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Marmon-Herringtons in Surinam

     

    January 24 2008, 11:43 AM 
    From Tris-contacten:

    From the brandnew “Soldaat in Suriname” book, dealing with the history of the TRIS:

    Also scored some pics and footage of Johnson rifles and footage of a National Forge AT gun…

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    ecuador

     

    February 1 2008, 5:19 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    // <![CDATA[
    var n54_em;
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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Close up of gun

     

    February 4 2008, 12:20 AM 
    Beeldbank

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Some vehicles postwar on Aruba

     

    February 7 2008, 7:27 PM 
    Provided by our friend Hans Heesakkers, thanks Hans!
    Aruba, late 1940s, that first truck maybe one of those elusive Ford/Marmon-Herrington trucks:



    Hans, the Vickers carrier and the Ford COE have already been posted to Overvalwagens!

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Re: Some vehicles postwar on Aruba

     

    February 8 2008, 11:20 PM 
    The Ford COE is actually a Chevrolet and very rare at that.
    Wonder how it got to Aruba as I understood it was only available in Europe.
    Bill

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Interesting radio

     

    February 24 2008, 1:46 PM 
    From The Dutch Luger by Martens and De Vries, who can say something about this radio?

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("David Reasoner");
    // ]]>David Reasoner

    (Login David_Reasoner)

    Telephone switchboard?

     

    February 25 2008, 12:25 AM 
    Are we certain it is indeed a radio? It looks more like a switchboard or exchange for field telephones.

    David

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Vickers tanks in Greece

     

    March 14 2008, 4:17 PM 
    First picture with German markings!

    From AXH forums

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    And another picture

     

    May 12 2008, 11:41 PM 
    of a “Kleiner Hollaendischer Beute Tank”, courtesy AXH Forums.
    So the Germans took over the Dutchmen tanks captured in Greece and continued to use them as Dutchmen!

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Tricar

     

    March 22 2008, 6:56 PM 
    the model tested by KNIL, courtesy Ars Mechanica book on FN

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    More info: FN and KNIL

     

    August 16 2008, 11:50 AM 
    I received the following onfop from Georges Mazy:

    1) Trials of FN vehicles were conducted at Houthaelen on 01/12/38. Vehicles
    presented were :
    Tricar T3
    motorcycle M12 1000cc side-car
    truck 4×4 63P-B

    2) one Tricar 5 seats plus 3 chassis were supplied to KNIL on 16/11/39.

    Regards

    Georges E. Mazy

    Merci!

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Better Beeldbank

     

    May 14 2008, 10:51 AM 
    http://www.beeldbankwo2.nl/zoek.jsp
    You can enlarge the pics now!




     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Maple Leaf enlarged

     

    May 14 2008, 7:05 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Re: Maple Leaf enlarged

     

    May 15 2008, 9:37 AM 
    Warford on Ambon?

    10th battalion, 1936

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Braats enlarged

     

    May 15 2008, 9:44 AM 



     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Nuyt");
    // ]]>Nuyt

    (no login)

    Unknown Braat pic

     

    June 7 2008, 1:25 AM 
    From Cegesoma

    Bonus

    From Ebay

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Vickers Utility tractor

     

    January 9 2009, 3:38 PM 
    surviving in 1946-49
    [linked image]
    Maybe its the one that ended up on Curacao?
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (no login)

    Dodge trucks with KNIL?

     

    January 9 2009, 3:55 PM 
    This picture from 1946-49 shows Dodge trucks that could have been a pre-1942 delivery to KNIL. The numberplkate is pre-war. Any ides?
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
    // ]]>nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Surinam guntruck

     

    August 8 2009, 9:46 AM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    New AC3D armoured car pics

     

    August 14 2009, 8:00 PM 
    Sent to me by Georges Mazy of Belgium. Merci, m’sieur Mazy!
    [linked image]
    [linked image]
    [linked image]
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Eduard Sorokin");
    // ]]>Eduard Sorokin

    (Login EduardSorokin)

    AC-3D dimensions

     

    September 29 2010, 9:14 PM 
    Dear colleagues !

    Who can help me with exact dimensions of AC-3D armored cars:
    – length
    – width
    – height
    – wheelbase
    – wheels track
    – tyre size ?

      Respond to this message   

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    document.write("de kruijff Tom");
    // ]]>de kruijff Tom

    (Login tomdekruijff)

    Re: AC-3D dimensions

     

    November 1 2010, 10:16 PM 
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   

    // <![CDATA[
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    document.write("de kruijff Tom");
    // ]]>de kruijff Tom

    (Login tomdekruijff)

    Re: AC-3D dimensions

     

    November 1 2010, 10:20 PM 
    This is the only drawing(i have) with some measurements on it that i have .
    The are in cm,hope it is of some help.

    [linked image]

    cheers, Tom

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Eduard Sorokin");
    // ]]>Eduard Sorokin

    (Login EduardSorokin)

    AC-3D dimensions

     

    November 10 2010, 6:54 PM 
    Dear Tom !

    Thank You very much for this good drawing and dimensions !
    You have very much helped me. This data is very difficult to find, and Your help is invaluable.

    Thank You once again !

    Best regards,
    Eduard.

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    and a modeller’s hard work!

     

    August 15 2009, 11:48 AM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    Leonid
    (no login)

    Re: and a modeller’s hard work!

     

    August 20 2009, 6:36 AM 
    Really nice and informative(!) pictures, these ones and the others, thanks!

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    ID these tanker trucks

     

    October 7 2009, 7:14 PM 
    [linked image]

    Soerabaja, late 1940s

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Truck ID

     

    October 7 2009, 11:14 PM 
    Hi Nuyt:

    1941 Chevrolet with the main headlamps moved.
    1936 Chevrolet, interesting 6 wheeler!
    US GMC 2 1/2 tonner

    Bill

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Hi

     

    October 8 2009, 12:57 AM 
    Bi Bill, thanks I thought the second truck was Japanese at first. The first one has the KNIL cab without doors. Would it be ordered as tanker before the war in 1941 or in 1946ish?

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bill Murray
    (no login)

    Vehicle ID 2

     

    October 8 2009, 1:28 AM 
    Hallo Nuyt:

    Regarding the second truck, the Chevrolet, I also thought it might have been Japanese but they did not use the dual tyre configuration as far as I know on their 6X4 vehicles.
    Looking at catalogue photos of that year Chevrolet, it fits very well.

    Bill

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Veldpolitie motorcycles

     

    November 20 2009, 4:20 PM 
    Can anybody ID them?
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
    // ]]>nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Bohler with limber and tractor

     

    April 26 2010, 9:32 PM 
    from Ebay, see the Pacific War forum
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   
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    // ]]>nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
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    smashing Batavia Stadswacht Overvalwagen picture

     

    April 26 2010, 9:48 PM 

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Braats in Malacca – Japanese publication

     

    May 2 2010, 10:10 PM 
    Check out this picture on
    http://z12.invisionfree.com/ScaleModelsMalaysia/index.php?showtopic=5004
    It shows two knocked out Braat Overvalwagens. The original publication says its in Malacca. Could that be true bearing in mind that possibly 6 were made in Singapore? (See:http://www.network54.com/Forum/330333/message/1262000311/Breaking+news-+overvalwagens+copied+in+Singapore!)
    [linked image]

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
    // ]]>nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Aaaargh, film with missing Surinam vehicles!

     

    September 18 2010, 12:11 PM 
    http://www.oorloginblik.nl
    check the film Oefeningen in de West, the one about Surinam.
    See M-H tanks, M-H 4×4 trucks, the famous Ford Swampbuggy with 37mm gun etc!
    Who can grab a few shots?

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
    // ]]>nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Batavia

     

    September 18 2010, 12:13 PM 
    There is also a good film about the parade in Batavia on Aug 31st 1941, with nice shots of the Ford-M-H staff car and the Howitzer battalion and much more!

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    try embed

     

    September 19 2010, 3:39 PM 

        

    This message has been edited by nuyt on Sep 19, 2010 3:43 PM
    This message has been edited by nuyt on Sep 19, 2010 3:40 PM

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("Bill Murray");
    // ]]>Bill Murray

    (no login)

    Help

     

    September 20 2010, 10:53 PM 
    Nuyt:
    Can you provide a few direct links to good films??
    I cannot read Dutch and that site is a bitch to maneuver around.
    Bill

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    bitch site

     

    September 20 2010, 11:36 PM 

    Cant do any better than this as yet

     

      Respond to this message   
    Hanno Spoelstra
    (no login)

    link and search

     

    September 22 2010, 3:55 PM 
    Enter “Suriname” or “Militaire oefeningen in west-indie” in the search box athttp://www.oorloginblik.nl

    Great stuff, will make some freeze frames later!

    Hanno

      Respond to this message   
    Hanno Spoelstra
    (no login)

    screenshots

     

    October 13 2010, 11:18 PM 
    Here are some, enjoy!

    http://www.surfacezero.com/g503/showgallery.php?cat=2548

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Many thanks Hanno!

     

    October 17 2010, 10:21 PM 
    n/t

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    M-H tanks

     

    November 7 2010, 11:13 PM 
    John O Reilly wrote me:
    “Hi,
    Not all were scraped by the US Army.Some made it to Newfoundland.Here is a link to a CTLS-4TAC that was stationed here .There are about 87 pics of one.
    John”
    http://s1046.photobucket.com/albums/b466/john_f_oreilly/Marmon%20Herrington%20T-16%20light%20tank/

     

      Respond to this message   
    Bessar
    (no login)

    Re: M-H tanks

     

    November 9 2010, 5:03 AM 
    One of these ended up in a bog, and there were noises in the 70’s and 80’s about trying to salvage it.

     

      Respond to this message   
    nuyt
    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    yes

     

    November 9 2010, 6:31 PM 
    This one is now inside and being restored by 36 Service Battlion,Canadian Forces.John

     

      Respond to this message   
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    document.write("nuyt");
    // ]]>nuyt

    (Premier Login nuyt)
    Forum Owner

    Some assorted pics

     

    January 1 2011, 6:55 PM 

    from kit.nl
    A Krupp or Bofors 75mm gun
    [linked image]
    Postal trucks
    [linked image]
    The Curacao Oil company armoured car
    [linked image]
    [linked image]
    light truck incident
    [linked image]

      Respond to this message   
    vadim
    (no login)

    Re: Some assorted pics

     

    January 3 2011, 5:26 PM 
    Hi,
    Larger picture from the geheugenvannederland.nl
    curacaobus.jpg
    “Converted armoured bus of the Curaçao Petroleum Industry Company (CPIM), shortly after the attack on Waterfort by the Venezuelan revolutionaries.”
    Regards

     

      Respond to this message   
    Current Topic – New KNIL vehicle pictures- Overvalwagens! update thread
       Return to Forum  

    //

    The Vickers light amphibious tank was used by Dutch forces in the East Indies.

    KNIL troops marching through Melbourne, Victoria on 14 June 1943

    the end@ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL III(Dutch East Indie Army Exhibition)

    WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI TENTARA KNIL III Dengan Bahasa Pengantar Inggris.

    *

    *allied forces pamphlet used by KNIL for administation 1946-1950 because the scarce of the paper  that time

    The Dutch East Indie Army KNIL  Collections Exhibition Three

    *

    *the last KNIL salary oder(SK gaji KNIL terakhir) tahun 9 feb.1950 ,beberapa bulan sebelum dibubarkan juli 1950 dan di lebur kedalam TNI RIS.dan NRI.

    The KNIL Historic Collections

    I.INTRODUCTION

    The Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger; KNIL) was the military force maintained by the Netherlands in its colony of the Netherlands East Indies (also known as the Dutch East Indies, and now modern Indonesia). The KNIL’s air arm was the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army Air Force. Elements of the Royal Netherlands Navy were also stationed in the Netherlands East Indies.

    Contents

     

    II. The Historic Collections 1830-1942

    Artillery of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1896.

    Cavalry of the Royal Dutch East India Army in 1906 during the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906).

    The KNIL was formed by royal decree on 10 March 1830. It was not part of the Royal Netherlands Army, but a separate military arm specifically formed for service in the Netherlands East Indies. Its establishment coincided with the Dutch drive to expand colonial rule from the 17th century area of control to the far larger territories comprising the Dutch East Indies seventy years later, which remain the present boundaries of Indonesia.[1]

    The KNIL was involved in many campaigns against indigenous groups in the Netherlands East Indies including the Padri War (1821–1845), the Java War (1825–1830), crushing the Puputan (the final resistance of Bali inhabitants to colonial rule) of 1849, and the prolonged Aceh War (1873–1904),

    The List Of KNIL EXPEDITIONS In 19TH Century and the Vintage Pictures Collections

    1 THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1824-1832

    2.1834-1856

    THE  KNIL EXPEDITION POSTER

    THE KNIL LOMBOK EXPEDITION POSTER

    3.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1856-1861

    4.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1862-1879

    5.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1877-1887

    6. THE KNIL EXPEDITION ACEH WAR COLLECTIONS 1898-1901

    7.THE KNIL EXPEDITION 1893-1927

     THE KNIL PICTURES COLLECTIONS 1927-1939

    1. THE KNIL GUARD AT ACEH

    THE KNIL MILITARY COLLECTIONS PRE DAI INPPON INVASION 1941-1942

    1.THE MILITARY SENCORED KUTARAJA ACEH AND MEDAN 1941

    Recruiting

    Decorated indigenous KNIL soldiers, 1927.

    Until the Aceh War

    , the KNIL recruited Dutch volunteers, European mercenaries of other nationalities (especially Germans, Belgians and Swiss)[3], native (South Moluccan, Timorese, Javanese and Manadonese)[3] and even the Ashanti, an African tribe from the present Ghana for service in the East Indies.[9]. The ratio of foreign and indigenous troops to those of Dutch origin was reported to be 60% to 40%. After the Aceh War, the KNIL consisted of Dutch regulars recruited in the Netherlands itself, Indonesians, Indos (Eurasians), and Dutch colonists living in the East Indies doing their military service.look at the fragment of KNIL Recruitment 1909 below

    It was against the law to send Dutch conscripts from the Netherlands to the Netherlands East Indies but Dutch volunteers continued to enlist for colonial service. In 1890 a Colonial Reserve (Koloniale Reserve) was established in the Netherlands itself to recruit and train these volunteers and to re-integrate them into Dutch society upon the conclusion of their overseas service.please look another KNIL recruitment promotion book ill below

    After 1904 the Netherlands East Indies were considered “pacified”, with no large-scale armed opposition to Dutch rule until World War II, and the KNIL served a mainly defensive role protecting the Dutch East Indies from the possibility of foreign invasion.

    In 1894, Lombok and Karangasem were annexed in response to reports of the local Balinese aristocracy oppressing the native Sasak people.[3] Bali was finally taken under full control with the Dutch intervention in Bali (1906) and the final Dutch intervention in Bali (1908).

    In 1941 one of the Inland KNIL was sent to Netherland for join the Roya Dutch Military academy at Breda, look the cadet send a letter to his wife at Malang City  indonesia below:

    III . World War II

    The KNIL was the main defense against the Japanese invading the Netherlands East Indies during World War II. Dutch forces had been severely weakened by the defeat and occupation of the Netherlands itself, by Nazi Germany, in 1940. Nevertheless, at the start of the Pacific War, in December 1941, Dutch forces in Indonesia numbered around 85,000 troops, a combination of European and indigenous regular soldiers, locally organised militia, territorial guard units and civilian volunteers. The KNIL air force, Militaire Luchtvaart KNIL (Royal Netherlands East Indies Air Force (ML-KNIL)) numbered 389 planes of all types, but was largely outclassed by superior Japanese planes. The Royal Netherlands Navy Air Service, or MLD, also had significant forces in the NEI.[4] The Dutch East Indies campaign of 1941-42 saw the Dutch and associated allied (especially ABDA) forces quickly defeated.

    THE WORLD WAR II

    A,PRE DAI NIPPON INVATION

    THE KNIL MILITARY COLLECTIONS PRE DAI INPPON INVATION 1941-1942

    1.THE MILITARY SENCORED KUTARAJA ACEH AND MEDAN 1941

    B.DAI NIPPON INVASION

    On the eve of the Japanese invasion in December 1941, Dutch regular troops in the East Indies comprised about 1,000 officers and 34,000 men, of whom 28,000 were indigenous. The largest contingent of these indigenous troops had always consisted of Javanese and Sundanese soldiers.[10][11]

    During the Japanese occupation, most of the Dutch and Ambonese personnel were interned in POW camps,some sedn to Burma Camp to buildt railways like the bridge on the river Kwai.look the book illustratioin below.

    Some of the KNIL after loosed at Palembang went to Java to defense against Dai nippon invasion look the book illustrations below:

    After The Unsucceeded  first Capitulation meeting in March 17th 1942 beetwen Ex Gouvernor General Tjarda and Brigjen KNIL Ter Porten at night

    in March 18Th 1942 midday at least the KNIL chief Brigjen Te Porten surender at Kalijati military airport

    Some KNIL moved to Australia via West Papua ,Merauke city were fled to Royal Dutch East Indie Camp in Australia via Brisbane to their  camp named Casino Camp.look the rare documents below

    1. The KNIL ID issued by the Merauke KNIl command

    2. The KNIL Royal DEI Australia Command Registration ID

    3.The KNIL  Casino Camp Australia PASS AND  ID CARD

    (who have the picture of this casibo camp please add to this show thanksfrom Dr Iwan S.)

    III.DURING NICA AND INDONESIAN INDEPENDENT WAR 1945-1950

    Following World War II,the KNIL landing back to Indonesia with the british allied  armed forces  and the earliest postal history on the active military service with special postmark handstamped were used on the Dai Nippon military picture postcard to Netherland in December,24th,1945(The collectors who have  more aerlier date please show us):

    THE KNIL POSTAL HSITORY 1946-1948

    MEESTER CORNELIEUS(JATINEGARA) JAN 21TH 1948

    FIELD POTSTAL CARD FROM MEESTER CORMNELIS 29 .2.48 TO BATAVIA CENTRUM

     the reconstituted KNIL was used in two large military campaigns in 1947 and 1948 to re-establish Dutch control of Indonesia.

     In the course of this “police action” accusations of war crimes were levelled against the KNIL and its Ambonese auxiliaries.

    THE KNIL DOCUMEN WITH OFFICIAL STAMPED 1947-1948

    Dutch efforts to re-establish their colony failed and Netherlands recognition of Indonesian sovereignty came on 27 December 1949.[5]On 26 January 1950, elements of the KNIL were involved in an abortive coup in Bandung planned by Raymond Westerling and Sultan Hamid II. The coup failed and only accelerated the dissolution of the federal Republic of the United States of Indonesia.[6]

    The KNIL was disbanded by 26 July, 1950 with its indigenous personnel being given the option of demobilizing or joining the Indonesian military.[7] However, efforts to integrate former KNIL units were impeded by mutual distrust between the predominantly Ambonese KNIL troops and the Javanese-dominated Republican military; leading to clashes at Makassar in April and the attempted secession of an independent Republic of South Maluku (RMS) in July.[6] These revolts were suppressed by November 1950 and approximately 12,500 Ambonese KNIL personnel and their families opted for temporary resettlement in the Netherlands.[8] Following this, the KNIL ceased to exist but its traditions are maintained by the Regiment Van Heutsz of the modern Royal Netherlands Army.

    During the Indonesian National Revolution, the KNIL’s officers were still largely Dutch and Eurasians although most of its troops were recruited from predominantly Christian eastern Indonesia, particularly the South Moluccas, Timor and Manado. Although there were smaller numbers of Javanese, Sundanese, Sumatran and other Muslim troops in Dutch service, these received comparatively lower rates of pay than their Christian counterparts, leading to resentment and distrust. The KNIL were closed in july 20th,1950 and look at the order of the KNIL from article illustrations below:

    The Dutch sought to take advantage of these ethnic tensions by claiming that the Ambonese would lose their special privileges and pensions under a Javanese-dominated government.[6]As noted above, these factors contributed to clashes between demobilized KNIL units and the Republic of Indonesia’s military throughout 1950.[6]

    Mitsubishi Ki-46 aircraft captured by KNIL forces at Menado, Celebes, 3 October 1945

    The Vickers light amphibious tank was used by Dutch forces in the East Indies.

    KNIL troops marching through Melbourne, Victoria on 14 June 1943

    the end@ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

    The Tibet Collections Exhibition

    WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    The Tibet  Collections Exhibition

    Frame One :

    The Tibet Collections

    1.Postal History

    1)Chinese Imperial Qing rule

    2)British Rule (1904-1911)

     3)Tibet Independent(1912-1950)

    tibet stamp 1934

     

    The first adhesive stamps issued for use in Tibet were typewritten overprints on Indian postage stamps [1] through the 1903 period, during which the Tibetan Frontier Commission, led by Sir Francis Younghusband, arrived in Khamba Jong on July 7, 1903. [2] Soon after, as no progress was made in diplomatically settling issues of the Tibetan border with Sikkim, this became a miltary expedition. One result of the treaty signed September 7, 1904 was the establishment of Indian Postal Agencies at Gartok, in Western Tibet, and Gyantse, Pharijong and Yatung, along the Indian trade route to Lhasa [2]. Tibet began issuing postage stamps at the beginning of the 20th century. The first stamps were issued in Lhasa in 1912. Other series of stamps were issued in 1914, 1933, and through the end of the 1950s.

    Tibetan stamps had a figure of a snowlion, the national emblem of Tibet. The stamps were marked in Tibetan characters meaning “Tibet Government” and in English by “Tibet[3].

    Collectors and philatelists encounter many fakes and forgeries of both Tibetan stamps and cancellations. Genuine postally used material also has been produced for collectors

    4)Chinese PRC Rule(1954 until now)

    Chinese forces occupied Tibet in 1909, when the Dalai Lama fled into Sikkim and India. However, there were Chinese communities in Tibet well before this, as shown by a registered letter from Wen Tsung-yao at Lhasa, January 9, 1909. Thereafter, Chinese stamps and special Chinese date stamps were used at Chabdo, Gyantse, Lhasa, Pharijong, Shigatse and Yatung. Postal communications of this period are scarce and eagerly sought after by both Chinese and Tibetan specialists ,

    2.Numismatic

    3.The History Of Tibet Lama

    a.Dalai Lama

    Learn Dalai Lama Lineage, Tibet History, Reincarnations of the Dalai Lamas in Dharamsala, Dharamshala !!

    The 14th Dalai Lama of Tibet

    Dalai Lama..The Nobel Peace Laureate..HH, the XIVth Dalai Lama of Tibet


    Dalai Lama..Reincarnation Living Buddhas

    The Dalai Lama..The Living Vedic Reincarnation, 2009 !

    Being born as Hindus, we experienced ‘faith’, ‘hope’ and ‘devotion’, as children. In search of our spiritual knowledge and practise, we grew up with the power of several religions and cultures around us. Among our friends, relatives, social gathering and schoolmates, we were guided by a common faith of ‘Sharing Gods and Legends.

    The concept of ‘re-incarnation’, dates back from the day Man was born. With Mankind, developed the Power of the Soul, which was separate from the ‘physical world’. While we, in our mortality, cease to exist..the Soul, continues in the form of our ‘Karmas’ in our previous birth. It is our ‘karma’ alone, that redefines our lives and the rewards and punishments.

    In todays life, humans cease to exists as humans. The mantra, to Peace is a powerful tool, which can be practised, in our day to day living and should always, start from our ‘Homes’. A perfect harmony of Body, Mind and Soul is a ‘perfect’ way of living a life of Love and Compassion !!

    The Dalai Lama of Tibet…the Reincarnations

    The Dalai Lama is regarded by Tibetans as one of a succession of (so far) 14 incarnations of the Buddha of compassion, Chenrezig (“the Seeing-Eye” Lord), who long has been considered to be the patron deity of Tibet. Here is a brief biography of the Thirteen Dalai Lamas who have come before Tenzin Gyatso..

    First Dalai Lama The First Dalai Lama : Gedun Drub (1391- 1474)

    He was one of the three great disciples (and perhaps the nephew) of Tsongkapa, the founder of the Gaden monastery near Lhasa. Tsongkapa was the founder of the Gelugpa Sect (Yellow Hat) order of Buddhism that stressed discipline and austerity, imposed celibacy, and prohibited alcohol consumption. He developed it further and the Gelugpas trace their spiritual lineage to the great teacher of Indian Buddhism, the saint ‘Atisha’, who visited Tibet from 1042 to 1054. Gedun Drub was an abbot of Gaden Monastery, and founded the TashiLhumpo monastery near Xigatse, west of Lhasa, a move that further solidified the Gelugpa. He also promoted the system of reincarnated lamas, which assured the smooth transition of spiritual leaders from one generation to the next.
    Second Dalai Lama

    The Second Dalai Lama: Gedun Gyatso (1475-1542)

    He was proclaimed the reincarnation of Gedun Drub as a young boy. Legend has it that soon after he learned to speak, he told his parents his name was Pema Dorje, the birth name of the first Dalai Lama. When he was four, he reportedly told his parents he wished to live in the TashiLhumpo Monastery to be with his monks. He was a renowned scholar and composer of mystical poetry, who traveled widely to extend Gelugpa influence, and became abbot of the largest Gelugpa, Drepung Monastery, which from this time on was closely associated with the Dalai Lamas.
    Third Dalai Lama

    Third Dalai Lama: Sonam Gyatso (1543-1588)

    He was the first to take the title Dalai Lama. The name comes from a meeting between Sonam Gyatso and the Mongol chieftain Altan Khan, whom Sonam Gyatso visited on his extensive travels. As the two exchanged complimentary titles Sonam Gyatso called Altan Khan “King of the Turning Wheel and Wisdom.” Altan Khan referred to Sonam Gyatso as “All-Knowing Vajra-Holder, the Dalai Lama” (Dalai is Mongolian for “ocean.” Lama is Tibetan for “guru” or “teacher. ” The title is often translated “Ocean of Wisdom”). Sonam Gyatso’s predecessors were named the first and second Dalai Lama posthumously. Sonam Gyatso is credited with spreading Gelugpa influence into eastern Tibet.
    Fourth Dalai Lama

    The Fourth Dalai Lama: Yonten Gyatso (1589-1616)

    He was the great grandson of Altan Khan of Mongolia (who coined the title “Dalai Lama”). The only non-Tibetan Dalai Lama, he was first recognized as the reincarnation of Sonam Gyatso.This period was marked by constant strife in Tibet.

    Fifth Dalai Lama

    The Fifth Dalai Lama: Lobsang Gyatso (1617-1682)

    He is one of only two Dalai Lamas to have the word “Great” added to his title. He forged an alliance with the powerful Mongol military leader ‘Gushri Khan’ to unify Tibet under the Gelugpa order. Lobsang Gyatso enjoyed a passionate following among the Mongols. He instituted rules for monastic organization, studies, rituals, and monks’ behavior that remain in effect today, and began construction of the great Potala palace in Lhasa, which is one of the wonders of the world. He also wrote histories, poetry, and work based on visionary experiences. Lozang Gyatso visited the emperor of the Chinese Qing Dynasty, after which the relationship between emperors and Dalai Lamas was generally regarded as one between patron and priest. Lozang Gyatso died in 1682.
    Sixth Dalai Lama

    The Sixth Dalai Lama: Tsangyang Gyatso (1683-1706)

    Because of the delay in announcing the Fifth Dalai Lama’s death, Tsangyang Gyatso was well into his teens before he was recognized as the Sixth Dalai Lama. He is considered to be the most unconventional Dalai Lama. He dressed as a layperson, drank wine, enjoyed the company of women and composed love songs that are still popular in Tibet. He died while leaving the country.
    Seventh Dalai Lama

    The Seventh Dalai Lama: Kelsang Gyatso (1708-1757)

    The seventh Dalai Lama was installed in 1720, as the Seventh Dalai Lama Kelsang Gyatso. A scholar and poet, he preferred to let ministers attend to the affairs of Tibet. It was during his reign that an ordinance formulated by the Chinese government gave the Dalai Lama rule over Tibet.

    Eighth Dalai Lama

    The Eighth Dalai Lama: Jhamphel Gyatso (1758-1804)

    During Jhamphel Gyatso’s reign, Tibet fought wars with the Gurkhas of Nepal, and received a delegation from England, which was interested in Tibet because of its strategic location in relation to British India, China, and Czarist Russia.

    Ninth Dalai Lama

    The Ninth Dalai Lama: Lungtok Gyatso (1806-1815)

    During Lungtok Gyatso’s brief reign, significant shifts of power began to occur in the region. The British continued to show an interest, but could make no inroads. Lungtok Gyatso died at age 11 in the Potala Palace. The subsequent three Dalai Lamas also died young.

    Tenth Dalai Lama

    The 10th Dalai Lama: Tsultrim Gyatso (1816-1837)

    Like his predecessor, Tsultrim Gyatso died suddenly in Potala Palace before assuming temporal power. During his brief life, Tibet continued to isolate itself, while keeping a suspicious eye on its borders.

    Eleventh Dalai Lama

    The 11th Dalai Lama: Khendrup Gyatso (1838-1856)

    He was the third in a series of Dalai Lamas who died at an early age. During Khendrup Gyatso’s life, China’s influence in Tibet weakened further because of the Opium War and the Taiping Rebellion. Tibet’s struggles continued with Nepal and Ladakh to the west.

    Twelveth Dalai Lama

    The 12th Dalai Lama: Trinley Gyatso (1856-1875)

    His reign was a time of severe unrest among Tibet’s neighbours. The weaker Qing dynasty was unable to provide military support because of its own battles. At the same time, the British intensified pressure on the Tibetan borders, from their colonial bastion in India.

    Thirteenth Dalai Lama

    The 13th Dalai Lama: Thupten Gyatso (1876-1933)

    He is the he second of the “Great” Dalai Lamas (after the Fifth), so designated because he held Tibet intact through tumultuous times. He fled to India. The Dalai Lama appealed to the British to help prevent China from turning Tibet into a Chinese state, but Britain remained neutral.

    Thupten Gyatso instituted modernizations in Tibet, such as a postal system, paper currency, roads, and he built the country’s first power station. He is credited with revitalizing the institution of the Dalai Lama through his forceful character and political insight, and with trying to end Tibet’s centuries of isolation. Still, many of his reforms and initiatives met with crippling resistance from the conservative monastic establishment.

    3b.Pancen Lama and Tashi Lupo Monastry

     The Monastery

    Principals of the Monastery

    1. To maintain peace and harmony

    The Monastery endeavours to maintain peace and harmony both within individuals and with the world at large, and to protect the environment, taking into consideration the feelings of others, and following the example of His Holiness the Dalai Lama and His Holiness the Panchen Lama.

    2. To be good human beings 

     Tashi Lhunpo Monastery endeavours to provide a healthy environment for the monks to develop into strong human beings with compassion, a sense of sacrifice, honesty and a deep respect for all beings.

      

     3. To promote a sense of responsibility and service  

    Each monk in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery is encouraged to develop as a responsible and caring member of the monastic community itself and the world at large, acknowledging that the earth is home and all people members of one family.



     

    Tibet2007_tashilhunposmallTashi Lhunpo Monastery in Tibet

     

    Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, the principal monastery of the U-Tsang Province in Tibet, is one of the Great Six centres of the Gelugpa tradition. Tashi Lhunpo was founded by His Holiness the 1st Dalai Lama, Gyalwa Gedun Drup in 1447, and became the largest, most vibrant monastery in Tibet.

     

    The monastery grew in importance in the 16th Century, when Tashi Lhunpo’s Abbot, Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen (1570-1662) was recognised by the Fifth Dalai Lama as an incarnation of Amitabha, the spiritual teacher of Chenrezig and the patron saint of Tibet, and was given the title ‘Panchen Lama’. ‘Panchen’ is the shortened form of Pandita Chenpo, meaning Great Scholar. The Panchen Lamas became – together with the Dalai Lamas – the most important religious leaders in Tibet. In the same way as the Dalai Lamas, three previous Abbots of Tashi Lhunpo were retrospectively given the title Panchen Lama, making Lobsang Chokyi Gyaltsen the fourth in the line.

     

    The relationship between the Dalai Lamas and the Panchen Lamas is unique. Each Lama in their lifetime is not only involved in the search for the other’s reincarnation, but also assumes the role, first as the disciple and later in life as the master, of the other.

    Under the 4th Panchen Lama, Tashi Lhunpo became an integrated society where monks from Tibet, Bhutan, India, Nepal and China lived in harmony, providing a community where monks received education as well as the warmth and love of a family. Over the years the monastery flourished as a centre of learning, and played a vital role in the preservation of Mahayana Buddhist Philosophy.

    Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in India

     

    By 1959, 5,000 monks were resident in the Monastery in Shigatse, Tibet, with a further 2,000 monks outside Tibet itself. Following the Chinese invasion of Tibet, and the destruction caused by the Cultural Revolution, only 400-500 monks remain in the monastery. 300 monks made the journey to India following His Holiness the Dalai Lama into exile, and in 1972, under His guidance, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery was established in Bylakuppe, Karnataka State, in South India.Here the 250 monks continue to follow the same tradition and principles in exile as in their monastery in Tibet.

     

    During the 1960s, many senior Lamas and monks left Tibet because of the difficulties they faced in practising Buddhism under the Chinese occupation. Many of them helped to re-establish monasteries in India, Bhutan and Nepal. The 10th Panchen Lama was not able to leave Tibet, and as a result many of the senior lamas from Tashi Lhunpo Monastery remained inside Tibet. Without the guidance of senior lamas, Tashi Lhunpo Monastery has been at a disadvantage, and remains one of the poorest of the re-established monasteries.

     
     

    The Panchen Lamas

    10thPanchenLamaThe 10th Panchen Lama
    Choekyi Gyaltsen 1938-1989

     

    Choekyi Gyaltsen, the 10th Panchen Lama was born in Amdo, Eastern Tibet, in 1938. He was recognised as the Panchen’s reincarnation by Alak Lakho Rinpoche, and in 1951 was confirmed by the 14th Dalai Lama as the 10th Panchen Rinpoche. He met the Dalai Lama in Lhasa in 1952, and then took up his seat in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Shigatse.

      

    Whilst maintaining good relations with the Chinese, the Panchen Lama was skilful in promoting the welfare of the Tibetan people. Realising that the Communist Chinese were developing a strategy which would destroy Tibetan culture, denying their stated fundamental policies of no racial discrimination and the freedom to practice religion, he submitted a 70,000 character petition demanding that the Chinese Government investigate the policy.

     

    The Chinese Government accused the Panchen Lama of being anti-Chinese and of counter-revolutionary activities. In 1964, at a public meeting in Lhasa, he was removed from all public positions of authority. He was openly criticised and humiliated, and later taken to China. In 1966, he was subjected to a series of ‘struggle sessions’ in the National Institute of Minorities in Beijing, and was imprisoned for nine years and eight months, being released in 1975.

      

    In 1979, the Panchen Lama was appointed Deputy Chairman of the National Peoples Politics Consultative Committee and Deputy Chairman of the National Peoples Congress. He travelled widely in the Tibetan regions of Amdo and Kham. His message urged Tibetans to maintain good relations with the Chinese. He also strongly advised them to keep alive the spirit to, “Be a Tibetan” and “Be for the Tibetan cause”. In 1985, in the Monlam Festival after the Tibetan New Year in Lhasa, the Panchen Lama said, “His Holiness the Dalai Lama and I are spiritual friends. There are no differences between His Holiness the Dalai Lama and me. Some people are trying to create discord between us. This will not succeed.”

     

    At Tashi Lhunpo Monastery, the Panchen Lama built a memorial Stupa which he consecrated and inaugurated to replace the silver Stupas of past Panchen Lamas, destroyed during the Cultural Revolution. Shortly after this ceremony, on 28th January 1989, the Panchen Lama passed away in Tashi Lhunpo Monastery.

      

    From his earliest years, the 10th Panchen Lama was brought up under the supervision of the Communist Chinese, and had little opportunity to follow the traditional education of his predecessors. However, he developed within him a strong faith in the Buddhist doctrine, and an allegiance to the Tibetan cause. Since his death, he has been remembered as one of the most misunderstood Lamas in Tibet’s history, and one of the most courageous critics of Mao’s regime.

     

    11th_PanchenLama2The 11th Panchen Lama
    Gedun Choekyi Nyima 1989 – to Date

     

     

     

    When the Tibetan Administration learned of His Holiness the 10th Panchen Lama’s death, the search for his reincarnation began immediately. Thirty names of possible candidates were received from both within and outside Tibet. In March 1991, it was confirmed that the Panchen Lama’s reincarnation had been born in Tibet.

    The 14th Dalai Lama in exile in India repeatedly contacted the Chinese authorities asking to be allowed to play a part in the search for the reincarnation.  He wrote to Jiang Zemin in 1995, “I have a responsibility to honour and uphold the unique historical relationship between the Dalai lama and the Panchen Lama.  For example, in my own case, I am personally greatly indebted to the 9th Panchen Lama, who took a special interest and responsibility in the search for the reincarnation of the 13th Dalai Lama.”  All his requests were refused.

    By December 1994 the signs were clear that it was time to finalise the recognition process and in January 1995 it was revealed that Gedhun Choekyi Nyima, son of Konchok Phuntsok and Dechen Choedon of Lhari District in Nagchu, north of Lhasa, was the most likely candidate. On 14th May 1995, His Holiness the Dalai Lama officially proclaimed the six year old Gedun Choekyi Nyima as the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama, the second highest spiritual leader of Tibet, giving him the name of Tenzin Gedun Yeshe Thrinlay Phuntsok Pal Sangpo.

     

    Within days of the announcement, the six year old boy and his parents disappeared from their home, reportedly taken into Chinese police custody. It was not until 28th May 1996 that the Chinese authorities admitted that they were indeed holding the young boy and his parents, saying that “He has been put under the protection of the Government at the request of his parents.” According to Mr Wu Jianmin, the PRCs Permanent Representative to the United Nations in Geneva, “The boy was at risk of being kidnapped by separatists and his security had been threatened.” Since then he has been held in conditions of complete secrecy, unable to receive religious instruction in Tashi Lhunpo monastery.

     Back to top 

      

    The Chinese Choice

      

     

    Denouncing His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s proclamation of the reincarnation of the Panchen Lama as illegitimate, on 29th November 1995 the Chinese authorities held a ceremony during which they drew lots from a golden urn to select their own Panchen Lama. Six year old Gyaltsen Norbu was selected, and subsequently enthroned on 8th December 1995.

    Shortly after His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s announcement, Chinese military forces arrested a number of monks, including Chadrel Rinpoche, Abbot of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery in Tibet. Chadrel Rinpoche had been appointed head of China’s search committee for the reincarnation of the 10th Panchen Lama in August 1989. However, he had angered the Chinese authorities by rejecting their plan to select their own Panchen Lama, and by supporting His Holiness the Dalai Lama’s candidate.

    Sentenced to six years imprisonment and three years deprivation of political rights for “plotting to split the motherland” and “leaking state secrets”, Chadrel Rinpoche is being held in the top secret Chuandong No 3 prison in Eastern Sichuan.

     

    Other monks who have protested against the Chinese authorities’ actions have also been imprisoned, (more than 80 people in all) and the administration of Tashi Lhunpo Monastery is now controlled by the Shigatse Religious Department, who appoint the management committee with approval of the Chinese authorities in Shigatse. A nine-member “work team” is resident in the monastery. They hold education sessions twice a week, during which the monks are ordered to oppose the Dalai Lama and His chosen reincarnation.

     

      

    The whereabouts of Gedun Choekyi Nyima and his family remain unknown. 

      

    4a.Pictures

    1)The Vintage Postcard

    2)Modern Pictures

    4.Travelling around

    1) Tibet City Tours

    a)5 day Tour To Lhasa,Gyantse & Shigatse

    Highlights
    Religious relics, holy lakes, Mt.Ervest and its area…….
    Itinerary
    Day 1: Lhasa Arrive in Lhasa. Met at airport & transfer to 3* hotel. Free in the afternoon.
    tibet tours
    Day 2: Lhasa Full day visits including Potala Palace & Sera Monastery.
    Day 3: Lhasa- Gyantse-Shigatse Drive to Shigatse via Yamdrok lake & Gyantse. Enjoy the beautiful view of the lake . The visit Gyantse Dzong & Pelkhor Monastery .
    Day 4: Shigatse- Lhasa The visit to Tashilunpo is really something you will never forget! Then drive to Lhasa in the afternoon. After arrival, pay a visit to Jorkhang Temple & Barkor Street, which will be the happy end of the trip to Tibet.
    Day 5: Leave Leave for your next destination .
    Quotation
    • 1pax=1030USD p/p, 1180USD p/p(Land Cruiser)
    • 2pax=685USD p/p, 750USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 3pax=635USD p/p, 675USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 4pax=558 USD p/p, 595USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 5pax=555USD p/p, 585USD p/p (Land Cruiser)
    • 6pax=520USD p/p, 545USD p/p(Lux Van)
    •  

    b)CT-08 Tibet City Tour (4D3N)

    Day 01  Arrive in Tibet. Meet the local guide and transfer to the hotel. Free time in the afternoon to get to be used to local climate.          (L/D) Overnight in Lhasa

    Day 02  After breakfast visit Potala Palace, Tibet’ s best-known landmark.. In the afternoon visit Jokhang Temple, home of the most precious of the Buddha images in the region. Brought from Chang’ an (what is now Xi’ an ) by the Tang Princess Wen Cheng when she married Tibetan King Songsten Gampo, the Sakyamuni Buddha is truly magnificent. Then walk through the colorful bazaar on Barkhor Street known as the Pilgrims’ ay prior to visiting a carpet factory where you can marvel at the skill of the carpet weavers and admire the Buddhist designs.
    (B/L/D) Overnight in Lhasa
    Day 03  Lhasa is famous for its monasteries and this morning you will visit both the Drepung Monastery and Sera Monastery. Drepung was once the largest and wealthiest and a Yellow Hat monastery where the Dalai Lamas were trained. Sera was a strong rival for importance and had three Tantric Colleges, famous for their Bon tradition of teaching.
    (B/L/D) Overnight in Lhasa
    Day 04  After breakfast take flight  from Lhasa to Chengdu, then take flight for leaving.  (B)

     
    Quotation
    ( USD p/p ) 
    Peak Season ( Apr. -Nov. ) Slack Season ( Dec. – Mar. )  
      Budget Standard Luxury Budget Standard Luxury Note
    2-5 pax   507   559  628    485   532   605   
    6-9 pax  376  425  499    352    401   475  
    Single Room Supplement  186  226  352   168  205  329  
    10 pax up  275 344 396     253    320    372   
    Single Room Supplement  156  199  268   142  176  245  
                   
    INCLUDED IN THE TOUR PRICE
    * 3* hotel ( budget ), 4* hotel ( standard ) or 5* hotel ( luxury ) , twin-bed room with private 
      shower and WC
    * English speaking local guide
    * Daily meals ( exclude the special flavor food )
    * Admission charges where applicable as shown in the tour description
    * Tranportation in the program
    * Service charges for baggage handling between hotel and airport
    * Domestic travel insurance
    NOT INCLUDED IN THE TOUR PRICE
    * International flights and tax
    * Personal consumption
    * Visa fee
    * Tips for guide, driver and porter

    2)Luxury Tourist Train of Qinghai-Tibet Railway is to Start in September

    Updated: August 20, 2008 | Clicks: 4078

    Recently, the Corporation of Qinghai-Tibet Railway revealed that the luxury tourist train will be put into services in this September. The luxury tourist train was designed according to the standard of five-star hotels, including 3 carriages of kitchen and dinning, 1 carriage of dynamo van, the left 12 carriages are Pullmans.

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau tour became the hot travel route of Western China as the opening of Qinghai-Tibet Railway since July, 1st, 2006. It activated Qinghai-Tibet Plateau tourism.

    Qinghai-Tibet Train
    The train was running in the Qinghai-Tibet Railway

    Qinghai-Tibet Plateau,Train
    Qinghai-Tibet Railway is a bright sight on Qinghai-Tibet Plateau

    Related News:

    Tibet Sees Increasing Tourists after Post-riot Drop-off

    Tibet Reopened to Foreign Tourists on June 25

    Frame Two : The Tibet Historic Collections

    Tibetian warrior in chainmail enforced by mirror plate

    Tibetan history, as it has been recorded, is particularly focused on the history of Buddhism in Tibet. This is partly due to the pivotal role this religion has played in the development of Tibetan, Mongol, and Manchu cultures, and partly because almost all native historians of the country were Buddhist monks.

    //

    Tibet

    Main article: Tibet

    Tibet was situated between the ancient civilizations of China and India, separated from the former by the extensive mountain ranges to the east of the Tibetan Plateau and from the latter by the towering Himalayas. Tibet is nicknamed “the roof of the world” or “the land of snows”.

    The Tibetan language and its dialects are classified as members of the Tibeto-Burman language family.

    Prehistory

    Humans inhabited the Tibetan Plateau at least twenty one thousand years ago.[1] This population was largely replaced around 3,000 BP by Neolithic immigrants from northern China. However there is a “partial genetic continuity between the Paleolithic inhabitants and the contemporary Tibetan populations”.[1] Some archaeological data suggests humans may have passed through Tibet at the time India was first inhabited, half a million years ago.[2]

    The earliest Tibetan historical texts identify the Zhang Zhung culture as a people who migrated from the Amdo region into what is now the region of Guge in western Tibet.[3] Zhang Zhung is considered to be the original home of the Bön religion.[4] By the 1st century BCE, a neighboring kingdom arose in the Yarlung valley, and the Yarlung king, Drigum Tsenpo, attempted to remove the influence of the Zhang Zhung by expelling the Zhang’s Bön priests from Yarlung.[5] He was assassinated and Zhang Zhung continued its dominance of the region until it was annexed by Songtsen Gampo in the 7th century.

     Archaeological record

    Megalithic monuments dot the Tibetan Plateau and may have been used in ancestor worship. It is unknown whether these monuments were built by ancient Tibetans.[4] Prehistoric Iron Age hill forts and burial complexes have recently been found on the Tibetan plateau but the remote high altitude location makes archaeological research difficult.

     Mythological origins

    The dates attributed to the first Tibetan king, Nyatri Tsenpo (Wylie: Gnya’-khri-btsan-po), vary. Some Tibetan texts give 126 BCE, others 414 BCE.[6] Nyatri Tsenpo is said to have descended from a one-footed creature called the Theurang, having webbed fingers and a tongue so large it could cover his face. Due to his terrifying appearance he was feared in his native Puwo and exiled by the Bön to Tibet. There he was greeted as a fearsome being, and he became king.[3]

    The Tibetan kings were said to remain connected to the heavens via a dmu cord (dmu thag) so that rather than dying, they ascended directly to heaven, when their sons achieved their majority.[7] According to various accounts, king Drigum Tsenpo (Dri-gum-brtsan-po) either challenged his clan heads to a fight,[8] or provoked his groom Longam (Lo-ngam) into a duel. During the fight the king’s dmu cord was cut, and he was killed. Thereafter Drigum Tsenpo and subsequent kings left corpses and the Bön conducted funerary rites.[5][9][10]

    In a later myth, first attested in the Maṇi bka’ ‘bum, the Tibetan people are the progeny of the union of the monkey Pha Trelgen Changchup Sempa and rock ogress Ma Drag Sinmo. But the monkey is in fact a manifestation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteśvara (Tib. Spyan-ras-gzigs) and the ogress in fact the goddess Tara (Tib. ‘Grol-ma).[11]

    Early history

    Tibet first enters history in the Geography of Ptolemy under the name βαται, a Greek transcription of the indigenous name Bod. From the 7th century CE Chinese historians referred to Tibet with a phonetic transcription Tǔfān (吐蕃), though 4 distinct characters were used. The first externally confirmed contact with the Tibetan kingdom in recorded Tibetan history occurred when King Namri Löntsän (Gnam-ri-slon-rtsan) sent an ambassador to China in the early 7th century.[12]

    Tibetan Empire

    Main article: Tibetan Empire

    The Tibetan Empire at its greatest extent, c. 800.

    The power that became the Tibetan state originated when a group convinced Stag-bu snya-gzigs [Tagbu Nyazig] to rebel against Dgu-gri Zing-po-rje [Gudri Zingpoje], who was in turn a vassal of the Zhang-zhung empire under the Lig myi dynasty. The group prevailed against Zing-po-rje. At this point Namri Songtsen (Namri Löntsän) was the leader of a clan which prevailed over all his neighboring clans, one by one, and he gained control of all the area around what is now Lhasa by 630, when he was assassinated. This new-born regional state would later become known as the Tibetan Empire. The government of Namri Songtsen sent two embassies to China in 608 and 609, marking the appearance of Tibet on the international scene.[13]

    Traditional Tibetan history preserves a lengthy list of rulers, whose exploits become subject to external verification in the Chinese histories by the 7th century. From the 7th to the 11th century a series of emperors ruled Tibet – see List of emperors of Tibet. Throughout the centuries from the time of the emperor Songtsän Gampo the power of the empire gradually increased over a diverse terrain so that by the reign of the emperor Ralpacan, in the opening years of the 9th century, its influence extended as far south as Bengal and as far north as Mongolia.

    The varied terrain of the empire and the difficulty of transportation, coupled with the new ideas that came into the empire as a result of its expansion, helped to create stresses and power blocs that were often in competition with the ruler at the center of the empire. Thus, for example, adherents of the Bön religion and the supporters of the ancient noble families gradually came to find themselves in competition with the recently-introduced Buddhism.

    Tibet divided (842-1247)

    Upon the death of Langdarma, the last emperor of a unified Tibetan empire, there was a controversy over whether he would be succeeded by his alleged heir Yumtän (Wylie: Yum brtan), or by another son (or nephew) Ösung (Wylie: ‘Od-srung) (either 843-905 or 847-885). A civil war ensued, which effectively ended centralized Tibetan administration until the Sa-skya period. Ösung’s allies managed to keep control of Lhasa, and Yumtän was forced to go to Yalung, where he established a separate line of kings.[14] In 910 the tombs of the emperors were defiled.

    The son of Ösung was Pälkhortsän (Wylie: Dpal ‘khor brtsan) (either 893-923 or 865-895). The latter apparently maintained control over much of central Tibet for a time, and sired two sons, Trashi Tsentsän (Wylie: Bkra shis brtsen brtsan) and Thrikhyiding (Wylie: Khri khyi lding), also called Kyide Nyigön [Wylie: Skyid lde nyi ma mgon] in some sources. Thrikhyiding emigrated to the western Tibetan region of upper Ngari (Wylie: Stod Mnga ris) and married a woman of high central Tibetan nobility, with whom he founded a local dynasty.[15]

    After the breakup of the Tibetan empire in 842, Nyima-Gon, a representative of the ancient Tibetan royal house, founded the first Ladakh dynasty. Nyima-Gon’s kingdom had its centre well to the east of present-day Ladakh. Kyide Nyigön’s eldest son became ruler of the Mar-yul (Ladakh) region, and his two younger sons ruled western Tibet, founding the Kingdom of Guge and Pu-hrang. At a later period the king of Guge’s eldest son, Kor-re, also called Jangchub Yeshe Ö (Byang Chub Ye shes’ Od), became a Buddhist monk. He sent young scholars to Kashmir for training and was responsible for inviting Atiśa to Tibet in 1040, thus ushering in the Chidar (Phyi dar) phase of Buddhism in Tibet. The younger son, Srong-nge, administered day to day governmental affairs; it was his sons who carried on the royal line.[16]

    Central rule was largely nonexistent over the Tibetan region from 842 to 1247, yet Buddhism had survived surreptitiously in the region of Kham. During the reign of Langdarma three monks had escaped from the troubled region of Lhasa to the region of Mt. Dantig in Amdo. Their disciple Muzu Saelbar (Mu-zu gSal-‘bar), later known as the scholar Gongpa Rabsal (Dgongs-pa rab-gsal) (832-915), was responsible for the renewal of Buddhism in northeastern Tibet, and is counted as the progenitor of the Nyingma (Rnying ma pa) school of Tibetan Buddhism. Meanwhile, according to tradition, one of Ösung’s descendants, who had an estate near Samye, sent ten young men to be trained by Gongpa Rabsal. Among the ten was Lume Sherab Tshulthrim (Klu-mes Shes-rab Tshul-khrims) (950-1015). Once trained, these young men were ordained to go back into the central Tibetan regions of U and Tsang. The young scholars were able to link up with Atiśa shortly after 1042 and advance the spread and organization of Buddhism in Lho-kha. In that region, the faith eventually coalesced again, with the foundation of the Sakya Monastery in 1073.[17] Over the next two centuries, the Sakya monastery grew to a position of prominence in Tibetan life and culture. The Tsurphu Monastery, home of the Karmapa school of Buddhism, was founded in 1155.

     The Mongols and the Sakya school (1236-1354)

    The first documented contact between the Tibetans and the Mongols occurred when Genghis Khan met Tsangpa Dunkhurwa (Gtsang pa Dung khur ba) and six of his disciples, probably in the Tangut empire, in 1215.[18]

    After the death of Genghis Khan in 1227, the Tibetans stopped sending tribute to the Mongol Empire. As a result, in 1240, the grandson of Genghis Khan and second son of Ögedei Khan, Prince Godan (or Köden), invaded Tibet. Prince Godan asked his commanders to search for an outstanding Buddhist lama and, as Sakya Pandita, the leader of the Sakya school of Tibetan Buddhism, was considered the most religious, Godan sent him gifts and a letter of “invitation” to come to his capital and formally surrender Tibet to the Mongols. Sakya Pandita arrived in Kokonor in 1246. Prince Godan received various initiation rites and the Sakya sect of Tibetan Buddhism became the religion of the ruling line of Mongol khans. In return, after a third Mongol invasion in 1247 led to the submission of almost all Tibetan states, Sakya Pandita was appointed Viceroy of Tibet by the Mongol court in 1249, marking one of the occasions on which the Chinese base their claim to the rule of Tibet.

    On the other hand, because the Song Dynasty of China in South China had not yet been conquered by the Mongols, Tibetan historians argue that China and Tibet remained two separate units within the Mongol Empire.[2] It may therefore be more accurate to describe this process as first North China, and then Tibet being incorporated into the Mongol Empire, which was later inherited by the Yuan Dynasty founded by Kublai Khan in 1271. Kublai Khan left both the Chinese and Tibetan legal and administrative systems intact.[19] Though most government institutions established by Kublai Khan in his court resembled the ones in earlier Chinese dynasties,[20] Tibet never adopted the imperial examinations or Neo-Confucian policies.

    In 1253, Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (1235–1280) succeeded Sakya Pandita at the Mongol court. Phagpa became a religious teacher to Kublai Khan. Kublai Khan appointed Chögyal Phagpa as his Imperial Preceptor in 1260, the year when he became emperor of Mongolia. Phagpa was the first “to initiate the political theology of the relationship between state and religion in the Tibeto-Mongolian Buddhist world”.[21][22] With the support of Kublai Khan, Phagpa established himself and his sect as the preeminent political power in Tibet. Through their influence with the Mongol rulers, Tibetan lamas gained considerable influence in various Mongol clans, not only with Kublai, but, for example, also with the Il-Khanids.

    In 1265 Chögyal Phagpa returned to Tibet and for the first time made an attempt to impose Sakya hegemony with the appointment of Shakya Bzang-po (a long time servant and ally of the Sakyas) as the Dpon-chen (‘great administrator’) over Tibet in 1267. A census was conducted in 1268 and Tibet was divided into thirteen myriarchies.

    The Sakya hegemony over Tibet continued into the middle of the 14th century, although it was challenged by a revolt of the Drikung Kagyu sect with the assistance of Duwa Khan of the Chagatai Khanate in 1285. The revolt was suppressed in 1290 when the Sa-skyas and eastern Mongols burned Drikung Monastery and killed 10,000 people.[23]

    Between 1346 and 1354, towards the end of the Yuan dynasty, the House of Pagmodru would topple the Sakya. Tibet would be ruled by a succession of Sakya lamas until 1358, when central Tibet came under control of the Kagyu sect. “By the 1370s the lines between the schools of Buddhism were clear.”[24]

    The following 80 years or so were a period of relative stability. They also saw the birth of the Gelugpa school (also known as Yellow Hats) by the disciples of Tsongkhapa Lobsang Dragpa, and the founding of the Ganden, Drepung, and Sera monasteries near Lhasa. After the 1430s, the country entered another period of internal power struggles.[25]

     Rise of the Phagmodru (1354-1434)

    The Phagmodru (Phag mo gru) myriarchy centered at Neudong (Sne’u gdong) was granted as an appanage to Hülegü in 1251. The area had already been associated with the Lang (Rlang) family, and with the waning of Ilkhanate influence it was ruled by this family, within the Mongol-Sakya framework headed by the Mongol appointed Pönchen (Dpon chen) at Sakya. The areas under Lang administration were continually encroached upon during the late thirteenth and early 14th centuries. Jangchub Gyaltsän (Byang chub rgyal mtshan, 1302–1364) saw these encroachments as illegal and sought the restoration of Phagmodru lands after his appointment as the Myriarch in 1322. After prolonged legal struggles, the struggle became violent when Phagmodru was attacked by its neighbours in 1346. Jangchub Gyaltsän was arrested and released in 1347. When he later refused to appear for trial, his domains were attacked by the Pönchen in 1348. Janchung Gyaltsän was able to defend Phagmodru, and continued to have military successes, until by 1351 he was the strongest political figure in the country. Military hostilities ended in 1354 with Jangchub Gyaltsän as the unquestioned victor. He continued to rule central Tibet until his death in 1364, although he left all Mongol institutions in place as hollow formalities. Power remained in the hands of the Phagmodru family until 1434.[26]

     Beginnings of the Dalai Lama lineage

      Tibetan Buddhism

    Guru Rinpoche - Padmasambhava statue.jpg
    History
    Timeline · Related-topics
    Schools
    Nyingma · Kagyu · Sakya · Gelug · Bön
    Key concepts
    Three marks of existence · Skandha · Cosmology · Saṃsāra · Rebirth · Bodhisattva · Dharma · Dependent origination · Karma
    Major figures
    Gautama Buddha · Padmasambhava · Je Tsongkhapa · Dalai Lama · Panchen Lama · Lama · Karmapa Lama · Rinpoche · Geshe · Terton · Tulku
    Practices and attainment
    Buddhahood · Avalokiteśvara · Four stages of enlightenment · Tantric yoga · Paramitas · Meditation · Laity
    Major monasteries
    Changzhug · Drepung · Dzogchen · Ganden · Jokhang · Kumbum  · Labrang · Mindroling · Namgyal · Narthang · Nechung · Pabonka · Palcho · Ralung · Ramoche · Sakya · Sanga · Sera · Shalu · Tashilhunpo · Tsurphu · Yerpa
    Major festivals
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    Altan Khan, the king of the Tümed Mongols, first invited Sonam Gyatso, the head of the Gelugpa school of Tibetan Buddhism (and to be known later as the third Dalai Lama), to Mongolia in 1569. He invited him to Mongolia again in 1578, and this time he accepted the invitation. They met at the site of Altan Khan’s new capital, Koko Khotan (Hohhot), and the Dalai Lama gave teachings to a huge crowd there.

    Sonam Gyatso publicly announced that he was a reincarnation of the Tibetan Sakya monk Drogön Chögyal Phagpa (1235–1280) who converted Kublai Khan, while Altan Khan was a reincarnation of Kublai Khan (1215–1294), the famous ruler of the Mongols and Emperor of China, and that they had come together again to cooperate in propagating the Buddhist religion.[27] While this did not immediately lead to a massive conversion of Mongols to Buddhism (this would only happen in the 1630s), it did lead to the widespread use of Buddhist ideology for the legitimation of power among the Mongol nobility. Last but not least, the Yonten Gyatso, the fourth Dalai Lama,was a grandson of Altan Khan.[2 Rise of the Gelugpa schools

    Yonten Gyatso (1589–1616), the fourth Dalai Lama and a non-Tibetan, was the grandson of Altan Khan. He died in 1617 in his mid-twenties. Some people say he was poisoned but there is no real evidence one way or the other.[29]

    Lobsang Gyatso (Wylie transliteration: Blo-bzang Rgya-mtsho), the Great Fifth Dalai Lama, (1617–1682) was the first Dalai Lama to wield effective political power over central Tibet.

    The fifth Dalai Lama is known for unifying the Tibetan heartland under the control of the Gelug school of Tibetan Buddhism, after defeating the rival Kagyu and Jonang sects and the secular ruler, the Tsangpa prince, in a prolonged civil war. His efforts were successful in part because of aid from Gushi Khan, a powerful Oirat military leader. The Jonang monasteries were either closed or forcibly converted, and that school remained in hiding until the latter part of the 20th century. With the Gushi Khan as a largely uninvolved overlord, the 5th Dalai Lama and his intimates established a civil administration which is referred to by historians as the Lhasa state. The core leadership of this government was also referred to as the Ganden Podrang by metonymy from the name of the Dalai Lama’s residence at Drepung, much as the president of the United States and his closest advisors can be referred to as “the White House”.

    In 1652 the fifth Dalai Lama visited the Manchu emperor, Shunzhi. He was not required to kowtow like other visitors, but still had to kneel before the Emperor; and he received a seal.

    The fifth Dalai lama initiated the construction of the Potala Palace in Lhasa, and moved the centre of government there from Drepung.

    The Potala Palace in Lhasa

    The death of the fifth Dalai Lama in 1680 was kept hidden for fifteen years by his assistant, confidant, Desi Sangay Gyatso (De-srid Sangs-rgyas Rgya-‘mtsho). The Dalai Lamas remained Tibet’s titular heads of state until 1959.

    During the rule of the Great Fifth, two Jesuit missionaries, the German Johannes Gruber and Belgian Albert Dorville, stayed in Lhasa for two months, October and November, 1661 on their way from Peking to Portuguese Goa, in India.[30] They described the Dalai Lama as a “powerful and compassionate leader” and “a devilish God-the-father who puts to death such as refuse to adore him.” Another Jesuit, Ippolito Desideri, stayed five years in Lhasa (1716–1721) and was the first missionary to master the language. He even produced a few Christian books in Tibetan. Capuchin fathers took over the mission until all missionaries were expelled in 1745.

    In the late 17th century, Tibet entered into a dispute with Bhutan, which was supported by Ladakh. This resulted in an invasion of Ladakh by Tibet. Kashmir helped to restore Ladakhi rule, on the condition that a mosque be built in Leh and that the Ladakhi king convert to Islam. The Treaty of Temisgam in 1684 settled the dispute between Tibet and Ladakh, but its independence was severely restricted.

    Khoshut, Zunghar Khanate, and Manchu

    Güshi Khan of the Khoshut in 1641 overthrew the prince of Tsang and made the Fifth Dalai Lama the highest spiritual and political authority in Tibet.[31] The time of the Fifth Dalai Lama was also a period of rich cultural development.

    The 5th Dalai Lama conducted foreign policy independently of the Qing, on the basis of his spiritual authority amongst the Mongolians. He acted as a mediator between Mongol tribes, and between the Mongols and the Qing Emperor Kangxi. The Dalai Lama would assign territories to Mongol tribes, and these decisions were routinely confirmed by Kangxi. In 1674, Kangxi asked the Dalai Lama to send Mongolian troops to help suppress a rebellion in Yunnan. The Dalai Lama agreed to do so, but also advised Kangxi to resolve the conflict in Yunnan by allotting fiefs instead of military action. This was apparently a turning point for Kangxi, who began to take action to deal with the Mongols directly, rather than through the Dalai Lama.[32]

    The 5th Dalai Lama died in 1682. His regent, Desi Sangye Gyatso, concealed the death and continued to act in his name. In 1688, Galdan Boshugtu Khan of the Khoshut defeated the Khalkha Mongols and went on to battle Qing forces. This contributed to the loss of Tibet’s role as mediator between the Mongols and Kangxi. Several Khalkha tribes formally submitted directly to Kangxi. Galdan retreated to Dzungaria. When Sangye Gyatso complained to Kangxi that he could not control the Mongols of Kokonor in 1693, Kangxi annexed Kokonor, giving it the name it bears today, Qinghai. He also annexed Tachienlu in eastern Kham at this time. When Kangxi finally destroyed Galdan in 1696, a Qing ruse involving the name of the Dalai Lama was involved; Galdan blamed the Dalai Lama (still not aware of his death fourteen years earlier) for his ruin.[33]

    About this time, some Dzungars informed Kangxi that the 5th Dalai Lama had long since died. He sent envoys to Lhasa to inquire. This prompted Sangye Gyatso to make Tsangyang Gyatso, the 6th Dalai Lama, public. He was enthroned in 1697.[34] Tsangyang Gyatso enjoyed a lifestyle that included drinking, the company of women, and writing love songs.[35] In 1702, he refused to take the vows of a Buddhist monk. The regent, under pressure from Kangxi and Lhazang Khan of the Khoshut, resigned in 1703.[34] In 1705, Lhazang Khan used the sixth Dalai Lama’s escapades as excuse to take control of Lhasa. The regent Sanggye Gyatso, who had allied himself with the Zunghar Khanate, was murdered, and the Dalai Lama was sent to Beijing. He died on the way, near Kokonor, ostensibly from illness but leaving lingering suspicions of foul play. Lhazang Khan appointed a new Dalai Lama who, however, was not accepted by the Gelugpa school. Kelzang Gyatso was discovered near Kokonor and became a rival candidate. Three Gelug abbots of the Lhasa area[36] appealed to the Zunghar Khanate, which invaded Tibet in 1717, deposed Lhazang Khan’s pretender to the position of Dalai Lama, and killed Lhazang Khan and his entire family.[37] The Zunghars proceeded to loot, rape and kill throughout Lhasa and its environs. They also viciously destroyed a small force which the Qing Emperor Kangxi had sent to clear traditional trade routes.[38]

    In response, an expedition sent by Kangxi, together with Tibetan forces under Polhanas (also spelled Polhaney) of Tsang and Kanchenas (also spelled Gangchenney), the governor of Western Tibet[39][40], expelled the Zunghars from Tibet in 1720. They brought Kelzang Gyatso with them from Kumbum to Lhasa and he was installed as the seventh Dalai Lama.[41][42] A Chinese protectorate over Tibet (described by Stein as “sufficiently mild and flexible to be accepted by the Tibetan government”) was established at this time, with a garrison at Lhasa, and Kham was annexed to Sichuan.[37] In 1721, the Qing established a government in Lhasa consisting of a council (the Kashag) of three Tibetan ministers, headed by Kanchenas. A Khalkha prince was made amban, or official representative in Tibet of the Qing. Another Khalkha directed the military. The Dalai Lama’s role at this time was purely symbolic, but still highly influential because of the Mongols’ religious beliefs.[43]

    The Qing came as patrons of the Khoshut, liberators of Tibet from the Zunghar, and suppoters of Kelzang Gyatso, but when they replaced the Khoshut as rulers of Kokonor and Tibet, they earned the resentment of the Khoshut and also the Tibetans of Kokonor. Lobsang Danjin, a grandson of Gushi Khan, led a rebellion in 1723. 200,000 Tibetans and Mongols attacked Xining. Central Tibet did not support the rebellion. In fact, Polhanas blocked the rebels’ retreat from Qing retaliation. The rebellion was brutally suppressed.[44]

    Kangxi was succeeded by the Yongzheng Emperor in 1722. In 1725, amidst a series of Qing transitions reducing Qing forces in Tibet and consolidating control of Amdo and Kham, Kanchenas received the title of Prime Minister. Yongzheng ordered the conversion of all Nyingma to Gelug. This persecution created a rift between Polhanas, who had been a Nyingma monk, and Kanchenas. Both of these officials, who represented Qing interests, were opposed by the Lhasa nobility, who had been allied with the Zunghars and were anti-Qing. They killed Kanchenas and took control of Lhasa in 1727, and Polhanas fled to his native Ngari. Polhanas gathered an army and retook Lhasa in July 1728 against opposition from the Lhasa nobility and their allies. Qing troops arrived in Lhasa in September, and punished the anti-Qing faction by executing entire families, including women and children. The Dalai Lama was sent to Litang Monastery[45] in Kham. The Panchen Lama was brought to Lhasa and was given temporal authority over Tsang and Ngari, creating a territorial division between the two high lamas that was to be a long lasting feature of Chinese policy toward Tibet. Two ambans were established in Lhasa, with increased numbers of Qing troops. Over the 1730s, Qing troops were again reduced, and Polhanas gained more power and authority. The Dalai Lama returned to Lhasa in 1735, temporal power remained with Polhanas. The Qing found Polhanas to be a loyal agent and an effective ruler over a stable Tibet, so he remained dominant until his death in 1747.[46]

    The Qing had made the region of Amdo and Kham into the province of Qinghai in 1724,[37] and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[47] The Qing government sent a resident commissioner (amban) to Lhasa. A stone monument regarding the boundary between Tibet and China, agreed upon by Lhasa and Beijing in 1726, was placed atop a mountain near Bathang, and survived at least into the 19th century.[48] This boundary, which was used until 1910, ran between the headwaters of the Mekong and Yangtse rivers. Territory east of the boundary was governed by Tibetan chiefs who were answerable to China.[49]

    Tibetan factions rebelled in 1750 and killed the ambans. Then, a Manchu Qing army entered and defeated the rebels and installed an administration headed by the Dalai Lama. The number of soldiers in Tibet was kept at about 2,000. The defensive duties were partly helped out by a local force which was reorganized by the resident commissioner, and the Tibetan government continued to manage day-to-day affairs as before. In 1751, the Qing Emperor Qianlong established the Dalai Lama as both the spiritual leader and political leader of Tibet above a ministry (Kashag) with four Kalöns in it.[50] He also drew on Buddhism to bolster support among the Tibetans. Six thangkas remain portraying the emperor as Manjuśrī and Tibetan records of the time refer to him by that name.[51][37] Later the Qianlong emperor was disappointed with the results of his 1751 decree and the performance of the ambans. “Tibetan local affairs were left to the willful actions of the Dalai Lama and the shapes [Kashag members],” he said. “The Commissioners were not only unable to take charge, they were also kept uninformed. This reduced the post of the Residential Commissioner in Tibet to name only.”[47] He decided to strengthen the powers of the ambans after the Gurkha invasions.

    Between this time and the beginning of the 19th century, Qing authority over Tibet weakened to the point of being minuscule, or merely symbolic.[52][53][54] In 1727, the government of China began posting two high commissioners, namely ambans, to Lhasa. Chinese historians argue that the ambans’ presence was an expression of Chinese sovereignty, while those favouring Tibetan independence claims tend to equate the ambans with ambassadors. The relationship between Tibet and (Qing) China was that of patron and priest and was not based on the subordination of one to the other, according to the Thirteenth Dalai Lama.[55] (The thirteenth Dalai Lama was deposed in 1904, reinstated in 1908 and deposed again in 1910 by the Qing Dynasty government, but these pronouncements were not taken seriously in Lhasa.)[56]

    In 1788, Gurkha forces sent by Bahadur Shah, the Regent of Nepal, invaded Tibet, occupying a number of frontier districts. The young Panchen Lama fled to Lhasa and the Qing Emperor Qianlong sent troops to Lhasa, upon which the Nepalese withdrew agreeing to pay a large annual sum.

    In 1791 the Nepalese Gurkhas invaded Tibet a second time, seizing Shigatse and destroying the great Tashilhunpo Monastery. The Panchen Lama was forced to flee to Lhasa once again. The Qianlong Emperor then sent an army of 17,000 men to Tibet. In 1793, with the assistance of Tibetan troops, they managed to drive the Nepalese troops to within about 30 km of Kathmandu before the Gurkhas conceded defeat and returned all the treasure they had plundered.[57]

    18th and 19th centuries

    The Golden Urn

    The 1791 Nepalese invasion and the following defeat by the Qing increased the latter’s control over Tibet. From that moment, all important matters were to be submitted to the ambans.[58]

    In 1792, the emperor issued a 29-point decree which appeared to tighten Qing control over Tibet. It strengthened the powers of the ambans. The ambans were elevated above the Kashag and the Dalai Lama in responsibility for Tibetan political affairs. The Dalai and Panchen Lamas were no longer allowed to petition the Chinese Emperor directly but could only do so through the ambans. The ambans took control of Tibetan frontier defense and foreign affairs. Tibetan authorities’ foreign correspondence, even with the Mongols of Kokonor (present-day Qinghai), had to be approved by the ambans. The ambans were put in command of the Qing garrison and the Tibetan army (whose strength was set at 3000 men). Trade was also restricted and travel could be undertaken only with documents issued by the ambans. The ambans were to review all judicial decisions. The Tibetan currency, which had been the source of trouble with Nepal, was also taken under Beijing’s supervision.[59] However, according to Warren Smith, these directives were either never fully implemented, or quickly discarded, as the Qing were more interested in a symbolic gesture of authority than actual sovereignty; the relationship between Qing and Tibet remained one of two states.[60] On the other hand, other sources such as The Cambridge History of China state that Tibet and Xinjiang had become territories of the Qing dynasty by 1760,[61] and Haw also writes that after the conquest of Tibet in 1720, the control of Tibet by the Qing was further strengthened in 1750 and 1790s.[62]

    It also outlined a new method to select both the Dalai and Panchen Lama by means of a lottery administered by the ambans in Lhasa. In this lottery the names of the competing candidates were written on folded slips of paper which were placed in a golden urn.[63] The emperor wanted to play this part in choosing reincarnations because the Gelugpa School of the Dalai Lamas was the official religion of his court.[64] There is general agreement that the ninth and thirteenth Dalai Lamas (and the fourteenth, but after the fall of the Qing Dynasty) were not chosen by the golden urn method but rather selected by the appropriate Tibetan officials using the previous incarnation’s entourage, or labrang,[65] with the selection being approved after the fact by the emperor.[66] In such cases the emperor would also issue an order waiving the use of the urn. The tenth Dalai Lama was actually selected by traditional Tibetan methods, but in response to the amban’s insistence, the regent publicly announced that the urn had been used.[67] The eleventh was selected by the golden urn method.[66] The twelfth Dalai Lama was selected by the Tibetan method but was confirmed by means of the lottery.[68][69]

    Nepal was a tributary state to China from 1788 to 1908.[70][71] In a treaty signed in 1856, Tibet and Nepal agreed to “regard the Chinese Emperor as heretofore with respect.”[72] Michael van Walt van Praag, legal advisor to the 14th Dalai Lama,[73] claims that 1856 treaty provided for a Nepalese mission, namely Vakil, in Lhasa which later allowed Nepal to claim a diplomatic relationship with Tibet in its application for United Nations membership in 1949.[74] However, the status of Nepalese mission as diplomatic is disputed[75] and the Nepalese Vakils stayed in Tibet until the 1960s when Tibet had been part of PRC for a decade.[76][77]

    European influences in Tibet

    The first Europeans to arrive in Tibet were Portuguese missionaries who first arrived in 1624 led by António de Andrade. They were welcomed by the Tibetans who allowed them to build a church. The 18th century brought more Jesuits and Capuchins from Europe. They gradually met opposition from Tibetan lamas who finally expelled them from Tibet in 1745.

    However, at the time not all Europeans were banned from the country — in 1774 a Scottish nobleman, George Bogle, came to Shigatse to investigate trade for the British East India Company, introducing the first potatoes into Tibet.[78]

    By the early 19th century the situation of foreigners in Tibet grew more precarious. The British Empire was encroaching from northern India into the Himalayas and Afghanistan and the Russian Empire of the tsars was expanding south into Central Asia. Each power became suspicious of intent in Tibet. In 1840, Sándor Kőrösi Csoma arrived in Tibet, hoping that he would be able to trace the origin of the Magyar ethnic group. By the 1850s Tibet had banned all foreigners from Tibet and shut its borders to all outsiders.

    In 1865 Great Britain began secretly mapping Tibet. Trained Indian surveyor-spies disguised as pilgrims or traders counted their strides on their travels across Tibet and took readings at night. Nain Singh, the most famous, measured the longitude, latitude and altitude of Lhasa and traced the Yarlung Tsangpo River.

    British invasions of Tibet (1904-1911)

    The authorities in British India renewed their interest in Tibet in the late 19th century, and a number of Indians entered the country, first as explorers and then as traders. Treaties regarding Tibet were concluded between Britain and China in 1886,[79] 1890,[80] and 1893,[81] but the Tibetan government refused to recognize their legitimacy[82] and continued to bar British envoys from its territory. During “The Great Game“, a period of rivalry between Russia and Britain, the British desired a representative in Lhasa to monitor and offset Russian influence.

    At the beginning of the 20th century the British and Russian Empires were competing for supremacy in Central Asia. To forestall the Russians, in 1904, a British expedition led by Colonel Francis Younghusband was sent to Lhasa to force a trading agreement and to prevent Tibetans from establishing a relationship with the Russians. In response, the Chinese foreign ministry asserted that China was sovereign over Tibet, the first clear statement of such a claim.[83]

    A treaty was imposed which required Tibet to open its border with British India, to allow British and Indian traders to travel freely, not to impose customs duties on trade with India, a demand from the British that Lhasa had to pay 2.5 million rupees as indemnity and not to enter into relations with any foreign power without British approval.[84]

    The Anglo-Tibetan treaty was followed by a Sino-British treaty in 1906 by which the “Government of Great Britain engages not to annex Tibetan territory or to interfere in the administration of Tibet. The Government of China also undertakes not to permit any other foreign State to interfere with the territory or internal administration of Tibet.”[85] Moreover, Beijing agreed to pay London 2.5 million rupees which Lhasa was forced to agree upon in the Anglo-Tibetan treaty of 1904.[86] In 1907, Britain and Russia agreed that in “conformity with the admitted principle of the suzerainty of China over Thibet”[87] both nations “engage not to enter into negotiations with Tibet except through the intermediary of the Chinese Government.”[87]

    Qing control reasserted

    The Qing put Amdo under their rule in 1724, and incorporated eastern Kham into neighbouring Chinese provinces in 1728.[88][89][90] The Qing government ruled these areas indirectly through the Tibetan noblemen.

    Tibetans claimed that Tibetan control of the Batang region of Kham in eastern Tibet appears to have continued uncontested from the time of an agreement made in 1726[48] until soon after the British invasion, which alarmed the Qing rulers in China.[clarification needed] They sent an imperial official to the region to begin reasserting Qing control, but the locals revolted and killed him.

    The Qing government in Beijing then appointed Zhao Erfeng, the Governor of Xining, “Army Commander of Tibet” to reintegrate Tibet into China. He was sent in 1905 (though other sources say this occurred in 1908)[91] on a punitive expedition. His troops destroyed a number of monasteries in Kham and Amdo, and a process of sinification of the region was begun.[92][93]

    The Dalai Lama’s title’s was restored in November 1908. He was about to return to Lhasa from Amdo in the summer of 1909 when the Chinese decided to send military forces to Lhasa to control him. The Dalai Lama once again fled, this time to India, and was once again deposed by the Chinese.[94] The situation was soon to change, however, as, after the fall of the Qing dynasty in October 1911, Zhao’s soldiers mutinied and beheaded him.[95][96]

    In 1909 the Swedish explorer Sven Hedin returned from a three-year long expedition to Tibet, having mapped and described a large part of inner Tibet. During his travels, he visited the 9th Panchen Lama. For some of the time, Hedin had to camouflage himself as a Tibetan shepherd (because he was European).[97] In an interview following a meeting with the Russian czar he described the situation as follows:

    “Currently, Tibet is in the cramp-like hands of China´s government. The Chinese realize that if they leave Tibet for the Europeans, it will end its isolation in the East. That is why the Chinese prevent those who wish to enter Tibet. The Dalai Lama is currently also in the hands of the Chinese Government”…”Mongols are fanatics. They adore the Dalai Lama and obey him blindly. If he tomorrow orders them go to war against the Chinese, if he urges them to a bloody revolution, they will all like one man follow him as their ruler. China’s government, which fears the Mongols, hooks on to the Dalai Lama.”…”There is calm in Tibet. No ferment of any kind is perceptible” (translated from Swedish).[97]

    1912-1951: de facto independence

    The Dalai Lama returned to Tibet from India in July 1912 (after the fall of the Qing dynasty), and expelled the amban and all Chinese troops.[98] In 1913, the Dalai Lama issued a proclamation that stated that the relationship between the Chinese emperor and Tibet “had been that of patron and priest and had not been based on the subordination of one to the other.”[55] “We are a small, religious, and independent nation,” the proclamation continued.[55] For the next thirty-six years, Tibet enjoyed de facto independence while China endured its Warlord era, civil war, and World War II. Some Chinese sources argue that Tibet was still part of China throughout this period.[99] Tibet continued in 1913-1949 to have very limited contacts with the rest of the world and Lhasa was for foreigners the prohibited city. Very few governments did anything resembling a normal diplomatic recognition of Tibet. The Chinese governments continued, from time to time, to assert their right to suzerainty in Tibet.[100] In 1932, the National Revolutionary Army, composed of Muslim and Han soldiers, led by Ma Bufang and Liu Wenhui defeated the Tibetan army in the Sino-Tibetan War when the 13th Dalai Lama tried to seize territory in Qinghai and Xikang. It was also reported that the central government of China encouraged the attack, hoping to solve the “Tibet situation”, because the Japanese had just seized Manchuria. They warned the Tibetans not to dare cross the Jinsha river again.[101] A truce was signed, ending the fighting.[102][103] The Dalai Lama had cabled the British in India for help when his armies were defeated, and started demoting his Generals who had surrendered[104]

    Rule of the Chinese Communist government

    The Chinese government claims for this time period are a matter of some controversy. For instance they claim to have “liberated the Tibetan serfs” but many Tibetans were nomads or owned their own land rent free, and for those who were under obligations, there is controversy about whether their status is similar to the European serf and how onerous the obligations were.

    Also the system based on recognition of “reincarnated Lamas” meant that any children from any family might become recognised as the religious and political leaders of the next generation. This unusual system of government has no analogy in the European system. There are other differences as well. See Examples of Fuedal Systems – Tibet.

    Also starvation was common in China at the time, but was not common in Tibet. There are widely varying accounts of the effect of the takeover on welfare of Tibetans. See Serfdom in Tibet Controversy – Slavery, and Tibetan welfare after the Chinese takeover

    Tibetologist Robert Barnett writes: “From a human rights point of view, the question of whether Tibet was feudal in the past is irrelevant. A more immediate question is why the PRC does not allow open discussion of whether Tibet was feudal or oppressive. Writers and researchers in Tibet face serious repercussions if they do not concur with official positions on issues such as social conditions in Tibet prior to its “liberation,” and in such a restrictive climate, the regime’s claims on this issue have little credibility.” For details of this controversy, see Competing versions of Tibetan History

    This section therefore describes the Chinese Government’s version of the history of Tibet (mainly). It should be treated with some caution until whatever time a more open discussion of the issue is permitted within China. Whether it is true or not, it motivated and continues to motivate decisions of the Chinese government and so this version of the history is of interest for that reason. Perhaps two or more versions of the history are really needed, as it seems unlikely that a single unified history can presented any time soon, and the actions of the Chinese government are best understood if you know the Chinese version of the history of Tibet which motivate them.

    In 1949, seeing that the Communists were gaining control of China, the Kashag expelled all Chinese connected with the Chinese government, over the protests of both the Kuomingtang and the Communists.[105] The Chinese Communist government led by Mao Zedong which came to power in October lost little time in asserting a new Chinese presence in Tibet. In October 1950, the People’s Liberation Army entered the Tibetan area of Chamdo, defeating sporadic resistance from the Tibetan army. In 1951, Tibetan representatives participated in negotiations in Beijing with the Chinese government. This resulted in a Seventeen Point Agreement which formalised China’s sovereignty over Tibet.[106]

    From the beginning, it was obvious that incorporating Tibet into Communist China would bring two opposite social systems face-to-face.[107] In Tibet, however, the Chinese Communists opted not to place social reform as an immediate priority. To the contrary, from 1951 to 1959, traditional Tibetan society with its lords and manorial estates continued to function unchanged.[107] Despite the presence of twenty thousand PLA troops in Central Tibet, the Dalai Lama’s government was permitted to maintain important symbols from its de facto independence period.[107]

    However the Chinese quickly abolished slavery and the Tibetan serfdom system of unpaid labor. They eliminated the many crushing taxes, started work projects, and greatly reduced unemployment and beggary. They established secular schools, thereby breaking the educational monopoly of the monasteries. And they constructed running water and electrical systems in Lhasa.[108]

    The Tibetan region of Eastern Kham, previously Xikang province, was incorporated in the province of Sichuan. Western Kham was put under the Chamdo Military Committee. In these areas, land reform was implemented. This involved communist agitators designating “landlords” — sometimes arbitrarily chosen — for public humiliation in thamzing (Wylie: ‘thab-‘dzing; Lhasa dialect IPA: [[tʰʌ́msiŋ]]) or “Struggle Sessions,” torture, maiming, and even death.[109][110][111]

    By 1956 there was unrest in eastern Kham and Amdo, where land reform had been implemented in full. These rebellions eventually spread into western Kham and Ü-Tsang.

    In 1956-57, armed Tibetan bands ambushed convoys of the Chinese Peoples Liberation Army. The uprising received extensive assistance from the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA), including military training, support camps in Nepal, and numerous airlifts.[112] Meanwhile in the United States, the American Society for a Free Asia, a CIA-financed front, energetically publicized the cause of Tibetan resistance, with the Dalai Lama’s eldest brother, Thubtan Norbu, playing an active role in that organization. The Dalai Lama’s second-eldest brother, Gyalo Thondup, established an intelligence operation with the CIA as early as 1951. He later upgraded it into a CIA-trained guerrilla unit whose recruits parachuted back into Tibet.[113]

    Many Tibetan commandos and agents whom the CIA dropped into the country were chiefs of aristocratic clans or the sons of chiefs. Ninety percent of them were never heard from again, according to a report from the CIA itself, meaning they were most likely captured and killed.[114] “Many lamas and lay members of the elite and much of the Tibetan army joined the uprising, but in the main the populace did not, assuring its failure,” writes Hugh Deane.[115] In their book on Tibet, Ginsburg and Mathos reach a similar conclusion: “As far as can be ascertained, the great bulk of the common people of Lhasa and of the adjoining countryside failed to join in the fighting against the Chinese both when it first began and as it progressed.”[116] Eventually the resistance crumbled.

    In 1998, the Dalai Lama’s organization itself issued a statement admitting that it had received millions of dollars from the CIA during the 1960s to send armed squads of exiles into Tibet to undermine the Maoist revolution.[117]

    In 1959, China’s military crackdown on rebels in Kham and Amdo led to the “Lhasa Uprising.” Full-scale resistance spread throughout Tibet. Fearing capture of the Dalai Lama, unarmed Tibetans surrounded his residence, and the Dalai Lama fled[118] to India.[119]

    In 1965, the area that had been under the control of the Dalai Lama’s government from the 1910s to 1959 (Ü-Tsang and western Kham) was renamed the Tibet Autonomous Region or TAR. Autonomy provided that the head of government would be an ethnic Tibetan; however, actual power in the TAR is held by the First Secretary of the Tibet Autonomous Regional Committee of the Chinese Communist Party, who has never been a Tibetan.[120] The role of ethnic Tibetans in the higher levels of the TAR Communist Party remains very limited.[121]

    The destruction of most of Tibet’s more than 6,000 monasteries occurred between 1959 and 1961.[122] During the mid-1960s, the monastic estates were broken up and secular education introduced. During the Cultural Revolution, Red Guards[123] inflicted a campaign of organized vandalism against cultural sites in the entire PRC, including Tibet’s Buddhist heritage.[124] According to at least one Chinese source, only a handful of the religiously or culturally most important monasteries remained without major damage,[125] and thousands of Buddhist monks and nuns were killed, tortured or imprisoned.[126][not in citation given]

    In 1989, the Panchen Lama died of a massive heart attack at the age of 50.[127]

    “Police Attention: No distributing any unhealthy thoughts or objects.” Nyalam, Tibet, 1993.

    The PRC continues to portray its rule over Tibet as an unalloyed improvement, but foreign governments continue to make protests about aspects of PRC rule in Tibet as groups such as Human Rights Watch report alleged human rights violations. Most governments, however, recognize the PRC’s sovereignty over Tibet today, and none have recognized the Government of Tibet in Exile in India.

    Widespread protests against Chinese rule flared up again in 2008. The Chinese government reacted strongly, imposing curfews and strictly limiting access to Tibetan areas. The international response was likewise immediate and robust, with a number of leaders condemning the crackdown and large protests (including some in support of China’s actions) in many major cities.

    Tibetans in Exile

    Following the Lhasa uprising and the Dalai Lama‘s flight from Tibet in 1959, the government of India accepted the Tibetan refugees. India designated land for the refugees in the mountainous region of Dharamsala, India, where the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan government-in-exile are now based.

    The plight of the Tibetan refugees garnered international attention when the Dalai Lama, spiritual and religious leader of the Tibetan government in exile, won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1989. The Dalai Lama was awarded the Nobel Prize on the basis of his unswerving commitment to peaceful protest against the Chinese occupation of Tibet. He is highly regarded as a result and has since been received by government leaders throughout the world. Among the most recent ceremonies and awards, he was given the Congressional Gold Medal by President Bush in 2007, and in 2006 he was one of only five people to ever receive an honorary Canadian citizenship (see Honorary Canadian citizenship). The PRC consistently protests each official contact with the exiled Tibetan leader.

    The community of Tibetans in exile established in Dharamsala and Karnataka, South India, has expanded since 1959. Tibetans have duplicated Tibetan monasteries in India and these now house tens of thousands of monks. They have also created Tibetan schools and hospitals, and founded the Library of Tibetan Works and Archives — all aimed at continuing Tibetan tradition and culture. Tibetan festivals such as Lama dances, celebration of Losar (the Tibetan New Year), and the Monlam Prayer Festival, continue in exile.

    In 2006, Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama declared that “Tibet wants autonomy, not independence.”[128] However, the Chinese distrust him, believing that he has not really given up the quest for Tibetan independence.[129]

    Talks between representatives of the Dalai Lama and the Chinese government began again in May, 2008 with little result.[130]

    the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

    PAMERAN KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO DI Driwancybermuseum JANUARI 2011

    WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

                                                                 WELCOME TO

                                                        HALL OF  FAME

                  !!!!!forbidden to tag,pgoto or repro@copyright Dr Iwan S 2011 !!!!!!!!!!!!!!

                                                               SHOWCASE

                               FAMOUS LEADER COLLECTIONS :”BUNG KARNO”

                             

            The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”

    SHOWCASE ONE: VINTAGE BUNG KARNO BOOKS COLLECTIONS

    1. CIKINI AFFAIR BOOK 1958

    2. BUNG KARNO VISIT USA

     

    3 BUNG KARNO BAPAK MARHEINIS

    4.MENCAPAI INDONESIA MERDEKA

    5.BUNG KARNO

    6.BUNG KARNO SANG ARSITEK

    7.BUNG KARNO COVER TIME

    8.cover Life

    SHOWCASE TWO: VINTAGE BUNG KARNO PICTURES

    I. BEFORE WORLD WAR II(SBLM PD KE II)

    II.DURING WW II(PERANG DUNIA KE DUA)

    III. POST WW II(SESUDAH PERANG DUNIA KE II)

    1. PERANG KENERDEKAAN (INDEPENDENT WAR)

    2. SESUDAH PERANG KEMERDEKAAN(POST INDEPENDENT WAR)

    SHOWCASE THREE: RARE VINTAGE BUNG KARNO PHILLATELIC AND NUMISMATIC COLLECTIONSCOLLECTIONS

    1.PHILLATELIC

    2.NUMISMATIC

    SHOWCASE FOUR : THE PICTURE OF BUNG KARNO CERAMIC  ARTWORK COLLECTIONS

    SHOWCASE FIVE :THE PICTURE OF BUNG KARNO PAINTERS ARTWORK COLLECTIONS

    SHOWCASE SIX:THE BUNG KARNO  KRIS AND OTHER AMULET COLLECTIONS

                  

    Pameran Koleksi Bung KarnoPosted on November 27, 2010 by driwancybermuseum

     

    Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

    tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                               WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase ameran Koleksi Bung Karno

    Frame satu : Pengantar

    pADA BLOG SEBELUMNYA HHTP://WWW.IWANSUWANDY.WORDPRESS TELAH DITAMPILKAN KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO DENGAN JUDUL CYBERMUSEUM BUNG KARNO,DAN SAAT INI AKAN DITAMPILAN BEBERAPA TAMBAHAN KOLESKI BUNG KARNO. SEMOGA PARA PENCINTA BUNG KARNO AKAN DAPT MENEGNANG BELIAU,PROKLAMATOR DAN PRESIDEN ri PERTAMA YANG KITA CINTAI DAN BNAGGAKAN BERSAMA

    JAKARTA,NOVEMBER 2010

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY

    Frame dua :Koleksi Foto Bung Karno

    1)Bung Karno Dengan Pimpinan Negara Sahabat

    A.Mao Tse Tung

    B.Presiden Ho chi Minh Vietnam

    C.Presiden Tiongkok Lie Siau Chi

    d.Presiden Kennedy

    e.Presiden Fidel Castro

    2)Bung karno dalam acara kenegaraan

    (1) KONPERENSI ASIA AFRIKA BANDUNG 1955

    3)Bung Karno dengan Keluarga

    3)Bung Karno dengan Rakyat Indonesia

    4)Foto Profile dan Jenis lain Dari Bung Karno 

    Frame tiga :Koleksi Buku Antik Bung Karno

                              

                             

            The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”

    SHOWCASE  THREE: VINTAGE BUNG KARNO BOOKS COLLECTIONS

    1. CIKINI AFFAIR BOOK 1958

    2. BUNG KARNO VISIT USA

     

    3.BUKU KUNJUNGAN PRESIDEN TIONGKOK KE INDONESIA

    4.Buku Kunjungan bung Karno Ke Tiongkok

    4.BUNG KARNO DAN  SENI

    5.WAWANCARA IMAJINER  DENGAN BUNG KARNO

    SHOWCASE FOUR : THE PICTURE OF BUNG KARNO CERAMIC  ARTWORK

    COLLECTIONS

    SHOWCASE FIVE :THE PICTURE OF BUNG KARNO PAINTERS ARTWORK COLLECTIONS

    SHOWCASE SIX:THE BUNG KARNO  KRIS AND OTHER AMULET COLLECTIONS

                  

    SHOWCASE  KETUJUH (SEVEN): KOLEKSI YANG SUDAH DITAMPILKAN DALAM WEB BLOG hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

    KATA PENGANTAR

    Saya memberanikan diri membangun sebuah museum dunia maya atau cybermusuem KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO   khusus untuk seluruh rakyat Indonesia dan pecinta Bung Karno dimanapun ia berada , dengan penuh kesadaran atas keterbatasan saya yang hanya seorang pensiunan dokter, petualang dan kolektor benda unik serta informasi terkait lainnya yang tentunya bukan pakar dan ahli dibidang museum dunia maya , tetapi berandalkan  tekad  yang bulat dan pengalaman sebagai kolektor senior yang banyak membaca literatur terkait bidangnya menyusun tulisan dan illustrasi ini berdasarkan koleksi yang sudah dihimpun hampir lima puluh tahun dengan maksud dan tujuan agar informasi tentang koleksi Bung karno pribadi dan koleksi unik terkait Bung Karno dapat di ketahui oleh rakyat Indonesia terutama  generasi penerus  secara gratis, oleh karena itu saya perlu dukungan moriel ( semangat)  dan matriel (dana operasional untuk consultan profesional) , maka besar harapan saya seluruh kolektor Indonesia untuk mendukung proposal musuem dunia maya  ini liwat  komentar, dan dukungan sponsor dari pencinta Bung Karno seperti yaysan BK, Metro Tv , Penerbit PT Gramedia dan sebagainya.karena informasi yang ada saat saya eksplorasi dengan google di Internet masih sangat terbatas.

    Saya sadar cybermuseum  ini dibuat dengan pengantar  bahasa Indonesia karena sesuai arahan proklamator dan presiden Republik Indonesia pertama yang lebih senang di sebut sebagai Bung Karno agar kita harus berdikari dan bangga dengan bangsa kita sendiri yang termasuk bangsa besar yang jumlah penduduknya nomor tiga didunia setelah Tiongkok dan India. Pecinta Bung Karno dari  bangsa asing sepantasnya mengenal bahasa Indonesia agar dapat meresapi tulisan ini karena banyak istilah yang sangat sulit untuk diterjemahkan kebahasa asing seperti Inggris, Jerman, spanyol atau Belanda, untuk itu penulis memohon maaf yang sebasar-besarnya,juga atas kekeliruan dan kekurangan yang masih ada dalam tulisan ini, masukan sangat diperlukan agar tulisan elektronik ini dpat disempurnakan pada edisi mendatang.lihatlah poster Bung Karno yang sangat kharismatik INGAT!!*001

                                                        *001

    Tidak lupa penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada seluruh teman-teman yang tidak dapat dituliskan namanya satu persatu ,terutama Pak  Herry Hutabarat, Pak Sofyan lampung,almarhum guru saya Frater Servaas dan almarhum Prof.Suparlan yang telah memberikan masukan ide untuk mengumpulkan koleksi serta informasi yang unik dan langka bagi generasi penerus.terimakasih juga kepada Pak Ali Baswedan yang telah menyokong terbitnya buku elektronik ini dan berkean memberikan tambahan informasi untuk Bab khusus tambahan KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO

    _________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    KOMENTAR ALI BASWEDAN DALAM BLOG iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

    Gagasan e-book tentang Bung Karno harus dilanjutkan. Sebab upaya Bapak itu bagian dari mencerdaskan bangsa. Selain itu, memperkaya khasanah tentang Bung Karno. Apa yang salah?
    Kalau boleh saya urun rembuk, tentang BAB KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO, perlu ditambahkan KOLEKSI BENDA PUSAKA tokoh Proklamator itu. Ini bukan persoalan mistik. Benda-benda pusaka itu bagian dari sejarah panjang bangsa kita. Misalnya, Bung Karno pernah menerima pusaka Kanjeng Kiai Lepet dari PB X, berupa pedang yang dibuat pada masa pemerintahan PB IV. Benda-benda pusaka yang dimiliki Bung Karno pernah dimuat secara detail di Majalah KERIS, no: 1, tahun I, 15 feb – 16 Maret 2007. Dengan ikhlas saya bersedia memberikan copy majalah itu (berupa PDF) kalau berkenan.

    Ali Baswedan

    __________________________________________________________________________________________________________________

     dukungan komentar diatas memberikan info bahwa pedang pusaka yang selalyu dibawa Bung Karno dibuat pada masa Pakubuwono IV, cerita lengkap akan di tampilkan setelah Pak Baswedan mengirmkan copy majalalah tersebut. saya memiliki foto pedang pusaka tersebut *003 dan *004

    *003 *004.

    Saya sangat gembira atas sokongan para kolektor Indonesia lainnya, lihat facebook saya iwansuwandy untuk tambahan informasi baru dan sokongan anda semua* 005

    =========================================================================

    *5 CUPLIKAN DARI FACE BOOK

    video dari Yayasan Bung Karno tetang pertemuan Bung Karno dengan Nehru India dan Nasser Mesir, saya sedang meminta sponsorship dan izin memanfaatkan buku terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno lama era Guntur sukarno

    Pas kebetulan lagi bongkar-bongkar file di PC, ketemu slide show ini. Daripada dibuang lebih baik ditaruh di FB. Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.
    Length:4:04
     
    Wednesday at 5:55pm · · · · Share
    Iwan Suwandy
    terima kasi atas dukungannya,semoga yayasan Bung Karno bekenan menjadi sponsor proposak buku elektronik B ung Karno saya,dan mengizinkan koleksi yayasan BK di tampilkan dalam e-book tersbtu. ayo kolektor In donsia pencintai B ung kirimkan dukungan anda dalm komentra ini terima kasih.
    4 hours ago · ·
    Iwan Suwandy

    Iwan Suwandy thanks for support me to writte e-book of Bung Karno Collection in Indonesia language Koleksi Bung Karno, I need million support .

     

    bung karno poster collection during PEMILU,MORE INFO CLICK MY INTERENET BLOG iwansuwand.wordpress.com
     
    Wednesday at 5:44pm · · · · Share
    Fikri Alamoudi
    WHAT A GREAT JOB,, Mr.Dr.IWAN,,.. I LIKE HIS CHARACTER, SINCE I WAS A CHILD,,..
     Foto Bung Karno dan Mao dikirim oleh teman saya
    =====================================================================================

     agar saya segera dapat mengirimkan surat resmi kepada Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno untuk memeperoleh izi memanfaatkan informasi mereka dalam MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO  ini, dan apabila ada sponsor mungkin saya akan mengubah dari Premium E-BOOK  menjadi Free CYBER MUSEUM , silahkan kirim komentar sokongan terhadap gagasan  ini liwat blog internet dan facebook saya dengan nama yang sama iwansuwandy. 

    _____________________________________________________________________________________________________________

    SETELAH MENKOMPILASI SELURUH INFORMASI KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO YANG ADA, TERNYATA JUMLAHNYA SANGAT BANYAK, SEHINGGA PERLU DIBUAT SUATU BLOG TERSENDIRI DENGAN NAMA BUNGKARNO-IWAN.WORDPRESS.COM, JUDULNYA AKAN DITETAPKAN OLEH TIM DAN Dr IWAN S, TENTUNYA BILA ADA SPONSOR UNTUK BIAYA OPERASIONAL,PARA SPONSOR HARAP MENGHUBUNGI SAYA LIWAT COMMENT DAN EDITOR BLOG INI AKAN MENGHUBUNGI PARA SPONSOR UNTUK KEPERLUAN ADMINISTRATIF LEBIH LANJUT,BERITA LIHAT RUBRIK TERSENDIRI TENTANG DUKUNGAN DAN SPONSOR KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO.  APABILA TIDAK ADA SPONSOR TERPAKSA INFORMASI DAN ILLUSTRASI DIBATASI SEBAGAI BAGIAN DARI PROPOSAL INI.hARAP PARA TEMAN-TEMAN KOLEKTOR MAKLUM ATAS KETERBATASAN SAYA YANG BEKERJA SEORANG DIRI DAN KURANG PROFESIONAL.

    Selanjutnya bacalah Catatan saya tentang pribadi Bung Karno dan Koleksi pribadi Bung Karno sebagai  Pengantar buku elektronik  yang saat ini telah saya tingkatkan jadi MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA CYBERMUSEUM KOLSI BUNG KARNO  karena sangat banyak dukungan dan klik.dari pecinta Bung Karno.

    Para teman-teman yang ingin melihat kolesi pribadi Dr Iwan yang terkait Bung Karno, silahkan melihat di msueum dunia Maya Dr Iwan , klik hhtp//www.Driwancbermuseum.wordpress.com. terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

    Jakarta  ,Juli 2010

    Dr IWAN S

    PS Apabila sudah banyak komentar dukungan dan ada sponsor yang lambangnya  akan di catumkan dalam proposal ini, maka secara bertahap daftar koleksi dan illustrasi akan diinstall dalam proposal buku elektr0nik ini,oleh karena itu kirimkan segera dukungan dan sponsor anda liwat komentar di Blog ini dan Facebook saya. terima kasih atas dukungan dan sponsorshipnya.

    _____________________________________________________________________________

     CATATAN Dr IWAN S TENTANG KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO

    1. Kesan-Kesan Dr  IWAN S TENTANG BUNG KARNO

     saya dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di Tanah Minangkabau sumatera Tengah dulunya sekarang Sumatera barat, sehingga tokoh proklamator yang lebih dikenal adalah Bung Hatta,lihat foto kunjungan Bung Hatta ke Padang  tahun 1977 dismabut gubernur SUMBAR Haroen Zein dan Walikotanya Achiroel Yahya *005a foto ini karya Indra Sanusi dan sudah diberikan izin pengunaannya.

    *005a

      . Bung Karno pertama kali saya lihat tahun 1955 saat berkampanye dilapangan Tugu didepan SMA Don Bosco, saat ini  didepan Pengadilan negeri Padang yang sekarang sudah dibangun Museum Kota Padang, beliau berada diatas panggung tenda terpal persis saat itu saya sekolah di SD Andreas yang lokasinya disamping SMA Don Bosco ,kelas lima SD, kami beramai-ramai murid SD melihat Bung Karno pidoto,  beliau sangat pandai mempengaruhi semangat pendengar dengan jel jel Merdeka nya,sekali Merdeka Tetap merdeka tetapi apa yang dikatan beliau pupus dari ingatan saya.Saya telah banyak membaca literatur terkait beliau,sehingga saya mengerti bagaimana besarnya cinta Bung karno terhadap seni,sehingga beliau sering bertemu dengan seniman seperti seniman pelukis seperti Affandi, Basuki Abdullah,Dezentje,Le Man Fong,Henk Ngantung,Hendra Gunawan dan Sudjono, malah Henk Ngantung dipercayai menjadi Gubernur DKI tahun 1964*005aa

    *005aa henk dan lukisannya pasar Jakarta.

    , sayang beberapa dari pelukis tersebut ikut lembaga kesenian PKI(LEKRA)  sehingga hidup mereka sangat sengsara pada masa orde baru( Saya juga mengumpulkan koleksi masa Pak Harto,nanti kan saya tulis buku elektronik pada saat yang tepat).profil para pelukis senior tersebut umumnya saya kenal setelah melihat beberapa foto Bung Karno dengan mereka di istana Merdeka saat menyusun koleksi istana tersebut, juga difoto rumah Bung Karno pertama di jalan Pegangsaan didalam rumah tahun 1945 saat wawancara dengan wartawan terlihat lukisan Basuki Abdullah pantai Ternate berdasar lukisan cair air Bung Karno didinding dan disampingnya dipajang lukisan Fatmawati yang juga dilukis Basuki Abdullah yang sudah ada sejak masa revolusi kemerdekaan *002

                             *002

    Saya masih menyimpan tulisan Bung Karno tahun 1942 saat tentara Dai nippon baru membebaskan beliau dari Bengkulu ke Sumatera Barat dalam bentuk kliping,tidak jelas dari majalah mana, selain itu juga teman saya memberikan sebuah cetakan surat pribadi Bung Karno kepada para prajurit yang bertugas diperbatasan saat Konfrontasi Malaysia saat Hari raya Lebaran yang menurut informasi surat itu berada dalam bingkisan dari Bung Karno kepada prajurit tersbut,sungguh besar perhatian beliu kepada para para prajurit pejuang, pada saat masa perang kemerdekaan pernah ditenirt almanak dengan gambar bungakarno tahun 1946 dengan berbagai promosi perjuangan yang saat itu sangat riskan untuk memilikinya karena dapat ditangkap Belanda ,sungguh istimewa saya memiliki koleksi almanak perjuangan tersebut, juga kartupos peringatan satu tahun medreda 17 agustus 1946 *002asayang tidak memakai gambar profile Bung Karno tetapi merupakan temuan saya yang sangat spektakuler,begitu juga dengan berbagai koleksi lain yang dapat dilihat dan dibaca pada bab berikutnya.

    *002a

    Pada saat Sumatera Barat bergolak terhadap pemrintahan Pusat tahun 1957, istilah versi dari PRRI yang dipimhan Ahmad Husein dan Sjaruddin Prawira Negara (koleksi pribadi saya tentang  PRRI akan diteritkan pada masa mendatang) dan versi Pusat disebut pembrontak, Bung Karno pamornya sangat menurun dimata Rakyat Sumatera Barat, sehingga banyak arsip beliau dimusnahkan, tetapi sebagian telah saya selamatkan dan tersimpan rapi saat ini, apalagi ketika terjadinya peristiwa G30PKI 1965, masih terbayang saat Pak Harto Mengambil alih kekuasan dan saat beliau dilantik *002b dengan pidato yang sangat sederhana yang berbeda dengan pidato Bung Karno yang lebih kharismatik.

    Saya melihat Bung Karno kedua kalinya dan terakhir pada saat beliau berpidato dalam upacara pembukaan Pekan Olah Raga  Nasional(PON) di Bandung tahun 1961, saya peserta PON cabang Tennis Lapangan, beliau sangat kharismatik, saya masih ingat sebelum mulai berpidato, Bung Karno meminta peserta dan penonton agar diam, beliau berkata Saya minta supaya Diam sebelum saya mengucapkan kata pembukaan, kemudian beliu menghardik dengan suara mengeleganr sebanyak lima kali DIAM!!! DIAM!!!DIAM!!! DAIM!!!DIAM!!! saya sungguh terpeosna akhirnya semuanya diam, tapi saya lupa apa yang beliau katakan, karena itu saya berusaha memiliki koleksi buku pidato Bung Karno,dan yang paling langka adalah terbitan tahun 1954 tentan Pindato-pidato Bung Karno dari 17 agustus 1945 sampai 17 agust 1954, banyak dari pidato tersebut tidak pernah diterbitkan,mungkin atas alasan politik, juga kata sambutan Bung Karno pada saat peringatan enam bulan Merdeka dalam Buku khusus terbiitan Harian Merdeka dengan judul Merdeka dengan illustrasi sampul depan KEPALAN BERWARNA MERAH DENGAN TULISAN MERDEKA*002c

     buku ini  sangat historik dan langka. Tahun 2009 saya kembali menemukan buku langka  yang berhubungan dengan pidato Bung Karno saat har Kemerdekaan RI dari proklamasi 1945 sampai 1954 oleh Kementerian Penerangan RI bagian dokumentasi dengan judul  8  x 17 Agustus, karena dalam Bunku Bung Karno Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jilid kedua tidak dicantumkan pidato Bung Karno saat proklamsi kemerdekaan tujuh belas Agustus 1945, apa sebabnya slah dikomentari didalam hati pembaca  sendiri karena dapat menimb ulkan polemik dan diskusi yang tidak akan selesai, ini adalah fakta sejarah , yah diendapkan saja dalam memori anda, silahkan baca bersama dengan bab buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid kedua .  

    Saya hanya menyampaikan kesan yang sebenarnya berada dalam pikiran saya, tentanh hal lain sebaiknya saya tanpa komentar karena berbagai alasan, tetapi yang pasi bilau adalah proklamator,bapak bangsa  yang sangat kharismatik,energik, dan memiliki koleksi Bung Karno merupakan suatu Kebanggaan tersendiri,saya usulkan Yayasan Bung Karno mendirikan suatu museum yang megah untuk peringatan bagi Bung Karno dan saya bersedia menyumbangkan seluruh koleksi saya kepada museum tersebut ,tentunya harus berisi lengka[p baik sisi terang maupun gelap dari Beliau,kita menyadari mana ada manusia yang sempurna,tetapi yang jelas beliau telah memerdekakan Bangsa Indonesian yang sama-sama kita cintai.

    2.KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO

    Koleksi Pribadi Bung Karno tentunya masih berada pada Yayasan Bung Karno yang tahun 1979 dengan ketua putra pertama Bung Karno ,Guntur Sukarno, lihat illustrasi  Kata Pengantar Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno PADA BUKU BUNG KARNO & SENI  edisi pertama,terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno,Jakarta 1979,semoga yaysan tersebut tidak keberatan ditampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini.sebelumnya terimakasih Bung Guntur.(apabila sesudah satu bulan info ini ditayangkan tidak ada tegoran,maka illustrasi akan ditampilkan). Apabila ada izin,mungkin sebagian foto yang di close up dengan ukuran  lebih kuang 30% aslinya akan ditampilkan juga. Apabila tidak diizinkan terpaksa anggota melihatnya langsung pada buku aslinya atau dapat melihat diperpustakaan club.

     Dalam buku aslinya  berisi Prawacana Penyusun Soedarmadji J.H. Damais dan para penulis Sitor Situmorang,Wiyoso Yudoseputro dan sudarmadji.Samburtan Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Guntur Sukarno,Sambutan Ketua Dewan Kesenian Jakarta Ajip Rosidi,Kata sambutan wakil PresideRepublik Indonesia Adam Malik,Kata Sambutan Menteri Kesejahteraan Rakyat Republik Indonesia Surono , Kata sambutan Kepala  daerak Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Tjokropranolo, Bung Karno Dan Seniman olh Sitor Situmorang, Bung Karno Dengan seni Oleh Wiyoso Yudoseputro, Bung Karno  Dengan Seni Rupa Oleh Sudarmaji, Daftar Benda Benda Pameran, Kepustakaan Pilihan , Ucapan terima Kasih.

    Dalam era ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Bapak Guruh Sukarno Putra, ada sebuah video koleksi foto Bung karno yang sangat penting dilestarikan, beberapa foto tersebut ada dalam koleksi saya pribadi seperti foto kunjungan Bung Karno ke Amerika serikat.*002d bung Karno dan Guntur di Dyasney land naik kereta.

    *002d

    Saya sangat berharap agar koleksi yayasan Bung Karno ini dapat dizinkan untuk di tampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini dan mungkin nantinya berkemband menjadi suatu blog tersendiri dengan nama museum duniamaya koleksi Bung Karno dan juga dalam bahasa inggris CYBER MUSEUM BUNG KARNO’S COLLECTIONS , saya telah meng add video koleksi foto Bung Karno era Bapak Guruh , karena tidak dicantumkan hak cipta ,mohon maaf jika yayasan BK tidak berkenan, maka video tersebut dengan segera saya hapus, sebagai bahan pertimbangan Bung Karno tidak hanya milik yayasan Bung Karno dan keluarga Besar tetapi milik seluruh bangsa Indonesia dan dunia jadi termasuk barang pusaka dunia atau World Heritage jadi tidak dapat dijadikan Hak Cipta seseorang atau kelompok, saya saran UNESCO juga berkenan menjadi sponsor dalam melestarikan warisan Budaya Bangsa dunia ini.

    3. KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO

    1)Koleksi benda-benda Pusaka milik Bung karno, berdsarakan majalah lama milik teman saya bapak Ali Baswedan yang disumbangkan secara gratis untuk dimuat dalam buku elektronik KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO*TP-001.(sampai saat ini belum dikirimkan via e-mail dr Iwan s)

    2) Photo Keris pusaka Bung Karno: a)*ill KP-002 pada masa perang Kemerdekaan Ri 1945-1950 ternyata berbentuk Keris.(dimana benda ini berada sekarang?)

     *KP002

     dan b)* ill TP-003 beberapa foto Tongkat pusaka Bung Karno pada masa Orde Lama 1951-1965, apabila diperhatikan dengan saksama ternyata ada dua jenis

     

    Dimanakah benda pusaka keris dan kedua jenis tongkat pusaka Bung KARNO tersebut diatas? perlu diteliti lebih lanjut yang merupakan PR Yayasan Bung Karno atau para pakar sejarah Indonesia  dan ini merupakan informasi pertama di dunia maya berdasarkan fot0 asli BUNG KASRNO yang diclose up , bagaimana manakjubkan bukan !!!!!

    4.. KOLEKSI PRIBADI Dr IWAN S TERKAIT  BUNG KARNO

    Secara kronologis akan saya informasikan perkembangan koleksi pribadi saya terkait bung Karno, tulisan ini akan saya tampilan secara bertahap disertai ilkustrasi, satu persatu menunggu komentar baik dari yaysan Bung Karno,keluarga besar mantan Presiden RI Ibu Megawati Sukarno Putri dan keluarga besar Bung Karno,serta para kolektor pencinta Bung Karno, harap setiap inifo dibaca dan dilihat dengan saksama,bila tidak berkenan harap kirim komentar via comment dan bila disetujui akan saya hapus dari tayangan, saya sadar berbicara teng Bapak bangsa  dan Proklamator itu sangat peka, makanya saya sang hati-hati, mohon komentar dan koreksi apakah buku elektronok ini perlu diteruskan atau dihentikan,saya sangat menunggu komentar, bila tidak segera saya hilangkan dari tayangan,bila ya mari sokong saya dengan komentar anda.terima kasih.Saya belum pernah lihat tayangan pribadi seperti ini di dalam maupun luar negeri. ok segara kirim komentar.

    BAB SATU : KOLEKSI PRIBADI MILIK  BUNG KARNO(YAYASAN BUNG KARNO DAN KELUARGA BESAR BUNG KARNO dalam buku BUNG KARNO DAN SENI  TERBITAN PERTAMA YAYASAN BUNGKARNO KETUA GNTUR SUKARNO TAHUN 1979 (  dengan izin dari pemilik-masih menunggu perseutjuan, e-mail sudah dikirimkan belum ada jawaban sampai saat ini)

    I. KOLEKSI SENILUKIS,PATUNG DAN KERAMIK

    II.KOLEKSI SENI BATIK,UKIR DAN WAYANG

    III. KOLEKSI  SENI BANGUNAN,MONUMEN DAN TATA KOTA

    BAB DUA    KOLEKSI PRIBADI Dr IWAN S  TERKAIT DENGAN BUNG KARNO

    I.KOLEKSI  BUKU DAN DOKUMEN BUNG KARNO (KOLEKSI PRIBADI Dr IWAN S)

    1 MASA SEBELUM PERANG DUNIA KEDUA

    1).BUKU KARANGAN BUNG KARNO DIBAWAH BENDERA REVOLUSI  JILID I TAHUN 1961 , YANG BEBERAPA ILLUSTRASI DAPT DILIHAT DIBAWAH INI

    *BR1-001 KULIT DEPAN

    *BR1-001

    *BR1-002 gambar asli dalam buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jidid satu halaman depan,bila diperhatikan close upnya dengan saksama ternyata Bung Karno memiliki tahi lalat diaats bibir kiri,pantas jago sebagai orator.foto ini dibuat saatBung Karno   lulus sekolah HBS.

    *BR1-002

    2. MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG 1942-1945

    1)KLIPING TULISAN BUNG KARNO SAAT DIBEBASKAN TENTARA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG DARI BENGKULU KE SUAMTERA BARAT

    2) MAJALLAH PANDJI POESTAKA, nO. 19 , TERBITAN  KOKOEMIN TOSJOKJOKOE (PENERBITAN NASIONAL)  BALAI POESTAKA JAKARTA,15 AGOESTOES 2602(1942) TAHOEN XX HAL 652-653.

    hal 652  JUDUL RUBRIK PERAJAAN MIRADJ isinya antara lain :

     ” Malam minggoe jl mesdjid  Kwitang penoeh dengan oemat Islam yang ingin toeroet merajakan  hari Mi’radj Nabi Besar kita Moehammad s.a.w.  dari kalangan oelama  ada terdengar chotbah  yang berharga malam itu.  Poen Ir  Sukarno ada djoega hadir  pada malam itoe  dan toroet memberikan pemandangan.”

    hal 653  berisi berita : “Komite perajaan itoe (Mi’rajd )  serta Pergerakan Tiga A tjabang Djakarta. Foto  Oemat berdoejoen-doejoen membandjiri Keboen Binatang  terlihat didepan rombongan Bung Karno * 005

    dan foto Ir soekarno lagi berchotbah dengan penoeh semangat dalam perajaan Mi’radj di Keboen Binatang*006

     *005                                                                                         

      *006

    (Kebun binatang yang dimaksud adalah kebun binatang yang didirikan oleh pelukis Raden Saleh dibelakang Rumah Pribadinya-saat ini jadi rumah sakit Cikini dan kebun binatang berada   dijalan Cikini Raya Jakarta Pusat, saat ini sudah dipindahkan keluar kota Pasar Minggu dan di tempat tersebut didirikan Taman Ismael Marzuki.-Dr Iwan )

    3) FOTO ANGGOTA CHUO  SANGI IN  BADAN PERTIMBANGAN CIPTAAN PEMERINTAHAN PENDUDUKAN JEPANG , ADA DUA KOLEKSI PERTAMA DARI MASA PENDUDUKAN JEPANG   *DN001 DAN DARI BUKU KARANGAN IBU FATMAWATI Bung karno  diurutan sudak kanan bawah dna diatas foto ayahnay presiden Abdul Rahman Wahid, Wahid Hasyim.*DN002

    *DN001

    *DN002

    4)FOTO BUNG KARNO DENGAN JENDRAL TOYO DI JEPANG *DN OO3 (Kejujuran Saudara Tua,majalah Tempo,13 Desember   1986,hal 20)

    *DN003

    5) INFORMASI PERTEMUAN BUNG KARNO DENGAN MAHASISWA SOEJATMIKO,SOEDARPO DAN SOEBADIO DIRUMAH BELIAU  PADA TAHUN 1943TANPA ILLUSTRASI *DN004( Soedjatmiko,Pilihan Dan peluang revolusi Indonesia setelah 45 tahun .Beberapa refleksi pribadi,Sejarah Pemikiran,Rekonstruki ,Persepsi no 1. MSI & GRamedia Pustaka Umum Jakarta 1991)

    6) foto Bung Karno Ikut latihan Militer Tentara Pendudukan Jepang dalam majallah bahasa Belanda  ( Mr Mas slamet,Japamsche Intrigues,Buijten $Schipperhijn,Amsterdam,26 januari 1946,ex perpustakaan Biara Padua Tjitjurug,saat ini koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN S):

    (1) foto illustrasi buku halaman  9, Bung Karno belajar hormat senjata kepada prajurit Dai Nippon *DN005

    *DN005

    (2) Foto illustrasi buku halaman 10, BungKarno belajar menembaksenapan karaben kepada tenetara Dai Nippon*DN006

    *DN006

    7) foto klipping karangan Bung Karno Judul Djawa Senotai! *o12 dan  foto lain dalam buku fatmawati anatara lain Foto Bung Karno berpidato  di Gang Kenari Djakarta *DN008 , Foto Bung Karno dan pemimpin pemerinatahan pendudukan Jepang Gunseikan *DN009, Bung Karno dan romusha *DN0010, Foto Bung Karno dan Ibu Fatmawati ketika lagu Indonesia Raya dinyanyikan dalam sebuah pertunjukan sandiwara “Fadjar Telah Menjinsing” dalam rangka memperinagti berdirinya Perserikatan Oesaha Sandiweara Jawa*DN 011,Foto Bung Karno Menyambut adanya Janji kemerdekaan dikemudian hari bersama pemuda-pemudi Djakarta *DN012, foto surat kabar Asia Raya  mengenai Indonesia Merdeka ,Kemerdekaan kemoedian didjanjikan Dai Nippon Taikoku*DN013, dan Foto Ibu Fatmawati menjahit bendera pusaka Merah Putih *DN014 ,Foto Bung Karno memimpin kerja bakti bersama para Romusha didaerah banten *DN015   ( buku  Bunga  rampai ?Karangan Ibu Fatmawati,kulit buku sudah hilang sehingga  info tak lengkap)

    8)Dokumen asli Anggota Tjoeoe Sangi -In 2603(1943)*DN TSI001 dan oo2

     *DNTSI

    (1) lembar pertama  foto Bung Karno sebagai Ketua *DN 016 dibagian tengah

    *DN016

     dan 20 foto anggota di pingir dokumen *020  dan Dr Boentara *DN017 serta  dua puluh  anggota (nomor 21 -40) *DN018, serta tokoh terkenal BUng Hatta sebagai anggota no tiga puluh * DN019, Oto Iskandar Dinata no  tiga delapan*020, Profesor Hoesaein Djajadiningrat no anggota tiga *021 dan Wachid Hasyim (ayah alm Gus Dur) anggota nomor enam belas *022

    (2) lembaran kedua foto dua orang wakil Ketua KOesoemo Oetojo *DN023

    (3) VIDEO EIGAKU KAISHA, SIDANG TJUA SIANGI-IN KE IV. *DN 024 SAMPAI DN 034

    3. MASA PERANG KEMERDEKAAN 1945-1950

                                                 

     1) Pidato Presiden Soekarno Dalam mengumumkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia Pada Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 (8X17 Agustus,bag.dokumentasi,Kementrian Penerangan RI,Jakarta,Stensilan Asli,1954), bukuDBR jilid dua tidak dicantumkan.Sesuai dengan ejaan aslinya :  Saudara-saudara sekalian! Saja telah minta saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menjaksikan satu peristiwa maha-penting dalam sedjarah kita. Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa Indonesia telah berdjoang,untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita.Bahkan telah beratus-ratus tahun! Gelombangnja aksi kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naiknja dan ada turunnja,tetapi djiwa jita tetap menudju kearah tjita-tjita. Djuga didalam djaman Djepang,usaha kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan-nasional tidak berhenti-berhenti. Di dalam djaman Djepang ini,tampaknja sadja kita menjandarkan diri kepada mereka.Tetapi pada hakekatnja , tetap kita menjusun tenaga kita sendiri,tetap kita pertjaja kepada kekuatan sendiri. Sekarang tibalah saatnj kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dan nasib tanah air kita didalam tangan kita sendiri.Hanja bangsa jang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri,akan dapat berdiri dengan kuatnja. Maka kami,tadi malam telah mengadakan musjawarat dengan pemuka-pemuka rakjat Indonesia, dari seluruh Indonesia. Permusjawaratan itu seia-sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnja untuk menjatakan kemerdekaan kita. Saudara-saudara! Dengan ini kami menjatakan kebulatan tekad itu.Dengarkanlah proklamasi kami : PROKLAMASI. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan KEMERDEKAAN INDONESIA.  Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain, diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja. Djakarta ,17 Agustus 05 ,Atas nama bangsa Indonesia SOEKARNO-HATTA. Demikianlah,saudara-saudara! Kita sekarang telah merdeka! Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi jang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita! Mulai saat ini kita menjusun Negara kita! Negara Merdeka, Negara Republik Indonesia- merdeka kekal dan abadi.Insja Allah,Tuhan memberkati kemerdekaan kita itu!

    ( Pidato ini diketik tanpa spasi   sesuai kalimat aslinya, agar tidak ditambah atau dikurangi dari aslinya-Dr Iwan S)

    2) KOLEKSI NOMOR PERINGATAN ENAM BULAN MERDEKA TERBITAN HARIAN MERDEKA 17.2.1946

    3) KOLEKDI MAJALAH NOMOR KHUSUS PERINGATAN SETAHOEN REPOEBLIK INDONESIA 17.8 .1946ITERNITKAN BADAN PENERBIT NASIONAL.

    *ILLUSTRASI KULIT DEPAN GAMBAR  GUNUNG KARANG DENGAN OBAK BEWARNA MERAH PUTIH DENGAN  MOTTO MERDEKA SAMPAI AKHIR ZAMAN.

    ISI YANG TERKAIT BUNG KARNO

    (1) REPRO SURAT KABAR SOEARA ASIA TENTANG PROKLAMSI INDONESIA MERDEKA De ngan  narasi :  MAKA  TERSIARLAH PROKLAMASI INDONESIA MERDEKA -dalam soesana tekanan militer Djepang- diseloeroeh Tanah Air, bahkan diseloeroeh doenia melaloei lima  boeawana dan empat samoedra.

    (2)tulisan PRESIDENT KITA ,DILENGKAPI DENGAN  ILLUSTRASI FOTO presiden soekarno

    (3) tulisan hal -11 judul ” MENOEDJOE KE PARLEMEN SEMPOERNA,’  dengan illustrasi  foto bung karno dengan kabninet soekarno sebelah kiri dan  kabinet Sjahrir sebelah kanan(baca tulisan prof soedjatmiko  tentsang kolaburator Jepang dibaba masa pendudukan Jepang sbelum ini-pen) dengan narasi dibawah foto : PADA TABNGGAL 23 NOVEMBER 1945  KABINET SOEKARNO(KIRI)  MENYERAHKAN KEKUASAAN  KEPADA (KANAN) KABINET SJAHRIR ,  bung karno berada ditengah.

    (4) hal 64 illustrasi foto Buung Karno,Bung Hatta dan Jendral Sudirman men injau Kapal perang Angkstsn Laut NRI, narasi :” ANGKATAN LAOET REPUBLIK INDONESIA MENDJAMIN KESELAMATAN NEGARA,NOEASA DAN BANGSA”

    4)KOLEKSI MINGGOAN UMUM  ”SOEARA MOEDA’  NOMOR 63/64 27.8.1946

    JUDUL. KENANGAN 1 TAHOEN MERDEKA

    *ill.Bung Karno dan Pangeran Diponegoro

                                                 POEDJA

    P.DIPONEGORO DAN BOENG KARNO , KEODA2NJA PAHLAWAN KEMERDEKAAN. BEDANJA HANJA, JG SEORANG TELAH MENGHADAP TOEHAN,JG. SEORANG MASIH BERDJIWA. KEPADA  JG TELAH PERGI KAMI DO’AKAN MENDAPAT TEMPAT BAIK DIHADLIRAT TOEHAN DAN JG MASIH HIDOEP SEMOGA  SENATIASA DILINDOENGINJA DLM PERDJOEANGAN MEMIMPIN REVOLUSI INI.KITA PERTJAJA BAHWA PERDJOEANGAN KITA AKAN BERHATSIL SEBAGAI HARAPAN KITA : TETAP MERDEKA.

    5) 28 JULI 1947

    PADA HARI INI DITERBITKAN UANG REVOLUSI nri :  GAMBAR BUNG KARNO  NOMINAL SERATUS RUPIAH, TANDA PEMBAJARAN JANG SAH,NOMOR SERI  SDA 1 DITANDA TANGANI MEN

    4. MASA ORDE LAMA 1951-1965

    1)BUKU KUNJUNGAN PRESIDEN TIONGKOK LIE SHOU CHI KE INDONESIA DENGAN FOTO KULIT DEPAN BUNG KARNO DAN PRESIDEN TIONGKOK TERSEBUT DIATAS MOBIL BUNG KARNO RI 1

    3.BUKU TERBITAN KEMENTERIAN PENERANGAN TAHUN 1958 BERJUDUL  Beberapa fikiran dan pandangan UA PEDJUANG NASIONAL INDONESIA-YUGOSLAVIA Josip Broz-Tito  -Dr I r Hadji Soekarno, Pertjetakan Negara-Djakrta-443/B-1958. Buyku ini dengan gambar kulit depan kedua pejuang Nasional tersebut.

    4.Buku terbitan Kedutaan Amerika Serikat Jakarta ,judul Foto=foto  dan Reportase tentang Perjalanan  PRESIDEN SOEKARNO DI AMERIKA SERIKAT, FOTO KULIST DEPAN  Bung Karno yang memegang tongkat pusakanya dan Guntur Sukarno didepan patung Abrahan Lincoln di tugu Lincoln Memorial ,Washington .D.C.  dan gambar halaman belakang di Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington ,sebuah panggung didirikan untuk menyambut kedatangan Presiden Soekarno setinggi kira-kira 10 meter,didampinggi oleh bendera-bendera Indonesia dan Amerika setinggi 10 meter. Dia ats panggung ini kepada Presiden Soekarno diserahkan Kunci Kota , ialah sebagai pernyataan selamat datang.

    Buku brosur ini siterbitkan untuk memringati kunjungan Presiden Soekarno ke Amerika Serikat yang telah menimbulkan pengartian yang lebih baik dari tanggal 16 Mei – 3 Juni 1956.

    Buku brosur  ini sangat menarik karena dilengkapi dengan  gambar peta perjalanan bung Karno, dan  illustrasi foto hitam putih dan berwarna sebanyak delan puluh satu gambar ilustrasi buku , dan pada kulit belakang bagian dlam tertulis ucapan bung karno dengan foto Bung Karnoi melambaikan tanggan :

    ‘…. DAN SEKARANG, TUAN RUMAH BANGSA AMERIKA, KAWAN2 SAJA DI AMERIKA , SAJA AKAN MENGUTJAPKAN SELAMAT TINGGAL KEPADA SUADARA2. PERHUBUNGAN KITA SEKARANG TELAH MENDJADI LEBIH ERAT DAN MARILAH KITA BERTEKAD AGAR PERBUHUNGAN ITU TETAP ERAT’ (dalam ejaan lama ,asli seperti dalam buku tersebut).

    II. PRANGKO BUNG KARNO

    1. MASA PERANG KEMEDEKAAN(1945-1949)

    2  MASA RIS(1949-1950)

    3. MASA ORDE LAMA (1951-1965)

    III. MATA UANG BUNG KARNO

    IV. KARYA SENI TERKAIT BUNG KARNO

    V.KOLESI BUNG KARNO JENIS LAINNYA

    1.INFO KELUARGA BUNG KARNO MUTHAKIR

     1) Pernikahan Kartika Soekarno

    Seegers-Kartika

    “Mas… tulis dong tentang Karina Soekarno…,” begitu permintaan seseorang yang termasuk golongan orang-orang yang rajin berkunjung ke blog ini…. Yang terlintas di benak saya adalah serentet peristiwa terkait Kartika Sari Soekarno atau yang akrab disapa Karina. Dialah buah cinta Bung Karno dan Ratna Sari Dewi, wanita cantik asal Jepang, yang bernama asli Naoko Nemoto.

    Ada sekelebat peristiwa ketika Karina kecil dituntun-tuntun di antara kerumuman pelayat jenazah Bung Karno di Wisma Yaso tahun 1971. Ada pula lintasan peristiwa manakala Karina diajak ibundanya berziarah ke makam ayahandanya di Blitar, beberapa tahun kemudian. Dan… tentu saja yang masih lekat adalah peristiwa pernikahan Karina dengan seorang bankir Belanda.

    Pernikahan Karina dengan Frits Frederik Seegers berlangsung 2 Desember 2005 di hotel Continental, Amsterdam, Belanda. Frits adalah President Citibank wilayah Eropa. Saat itu, saya masih mengelola Tabloid Cita-Cita dan mendapat sumbangan materi foto-foto eksklusif dari Guruh Soekarnoputra di Yayasan Bung Karno.

    Seegers-Kartika3

    Megawati sebagai saksi

    Dalam pernikahan itu, Megawati Soekarnoputri, kakak Karina dari ibu Fatmawati, bertindak selaku saksi. Tampak Mega tengah menandatangani dokumen pernikahan adiknya. Megawati sendiri hadir bersama putrinya, Puan Maharani, dan adik bungsunya, Guruh Soekarnoputra.

    mempelai-guruh-cindy-mega

    Pasca upacara pernikahan, Frits Frederik Seegers dan Karina bergambar bersama Guruh Soekarnoputra, Cindy Adams, dan Megawati Soekarnoputri.

    guruh-cindy-mega-ratna sari dewi

    guruh-mega-puan-kartika

    Guruh - Kartika

    Dalam resepsi itu, hadir sejumlah orang dekat mempelai, tak terkecuali hadirnya Cindy Adams, penulis biografi Bung Karno. Tak ayal, momentum pernikahan Karina – Seegers menjadi ajang kangen-kangenan di antara kerabat yang sehari-hari terpisah bentang jarak ribuan mil.

    tari bali di resepsi

    Di hotel Continental pula, pada malamnya langsung digelar resepsi. Selain gala dinner yang eksklusif, Karina juga mendatangkan para penari Bali untuk menghibur para tamu.

    Usai menikah, pasangan pengantin baru langsung kembali ke London, Inggris, dan menetap di sana. Karina kembali ke rutinitasnya sebagai aktivis sosial dengan bendera Kartika Soekarno Foundation, sementara suaminya, kembali ke Citibank. (roso daras)

    THE END.

    __________________________________________________________________________

    tarian betawi tempo dulu

    MORE INFORMATION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBERS.

    tarian betawi tempo dulu

    PS. KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO AKAN DIUPDATE SETIAP DITEMUI KOLEKSI BARU

    @corpyright Dr Iwan s 2011

    The Zanzibar Collections Exhibition

     WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

     *ill 001

                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    The Zanzibar  Collections Exhibition

    Frame One :

    The Zanzibar Collections(Dr Iwan PrivateCollections)

    1.Postal History

    Sun and crown, 1890

    Britain had interests in this area as early as 1824. Missionaries are known to have settled in the area in 1844. The Imperial British East Africa Company obtained a concession in 1887 to administer this area, from Sultan Bargash of the Sultanate of Zanzibar. The company started to experience financial difficulies in 1891. The situation was made more difficult in 1892 when Britain declared the Sultanate of Zanzibar part of the Congo Free Trade Zone and thus depriving the company of import duties.[1] On 1 July 1895 the British government took over the administration of this area when the company was facing bankruptcy.

    Contents

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    Pre-stamp era

    The early missionaries in British East Africa sent letters by runner to forwarding agents in Zanzibar. Letters are known from as early as 1848. From 1875 mail was sent via the Indian post office which had been opened in Zanzibar.

    Zanzibar under EIC east India Company rules and india stamp used in this country (India Used abroad)

    Imperial British East Africa Company administration

    The Imperial British East Africa Company set up post offices at Mombasa and Lamu in May 1890.[2] The first stamps issued, on 23 May 1890, were surcharges on British postage stamps with values of ½, 1 and 4 annas and ‘BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY’.

    During an acute shortage of stamps in August and September 1890 stamps of India were used and are known postmarked ‘MOMBASA’ or ‘LAMU’. It is alleged that an agent of stamp dealer Whitfield King bought up all the stocks in the post offices.[3]

    The British East Africa Company issued stamps, on 14 October 1890, using a symbolic sun and crown design and inscribed ‘IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY’, all valued in annas and rupees.

    Shortages, of some values, between 1891 and 1895 resulted in a variety of surcharges being produced.[2]

    British administration

    On 9 July 1895 stamps of Imperial British East Africa Company were overprinted reading ‘BRITISH / EAST / AFRICA’ and overprints of ‘British / East / Africa’ on stamps of India were also issued.[2] The protectorate joined the Universal Postal Union at this time.

    In 1896 a series of stamps depicting Queen Victoria was issued, inscribed ‘BRITISH EAST AFRICA’, these ran short in 1897 and stamps of Zanzibar were overprinted as the stamps of India had been previously. A number of additional post offices were opened along the Uganda Railway, which was started in 1896 at Mombasa and reached Kisumu on Lake Victoria in 1902.

    In 1901 the postal administration was merged with that of Uganda, and in 1904 stamps issued for the combined East Africa and Uganda Protectorates came into use.[2]

    1895 overprint on Indian stamp

    2½ annas, 1896

    Zanzibar overprint, 1897

    Postal stationery

    Imperial British East Africa Company Administration
    All postal stationery items were inscribed ‘IMPERIAL BRITISH EAST AFRICA COMPANY’. Two different sizes of registration envelopes were issued in 1891; produced by Bradbury, Wilkinson & Co. Three different sizes of pre paid 2½ annas envelopes were issued in 1893. Two postcards were made available in 1893; ½ anna and 1 anna.[4][5]

    British administration

    British East Africa 1 anna newspaper wrapper postmarked LAMU 26 Feb 1897, used locally

    In 1895 one of the sizes of Imperial British East Africa Company envelopes was overprinted ‘BRITISH EAST AFRICA’. In 1896 Two different envelopes were produced by overprinting envelopes from India with ‘British East Africa'; 2½ annas on 4½ annas envelope and 2 annas 6 pies. Also in 1896 2½ annas envelopes were printed by De la Rue and inscribed ‘BRITISH EAST AFRICA PROTECTORATE’.[4][5]

    In 1895 Imperial British East Africa Company registration envelopes was overprinted ‘BRITISH EAST AFRICA’. These were followed by 2 annas registration envelopes, in two different sizes, from India being overprinted ‘British East Africa’. Finally, two sizes of registration envelopes, printed by De la Rue, were made available

    EIC est India compay Rules Used India stamp

    .[4][5]

    Four different newspaper wrappers were issued during 1896. Two were produced by overprinting Indian ½ anna and 1 anna wrappers with ‘British East Africa’ and two, ½ anna and 1 anna, were printed by De la Rue.[4][5]

    A total of eight different postcards were produced with a face value of ½ anna or 1 anna. Two were by overprinting Imperial British East Africa Company postcards, two were by overprinting Indian postcards and the remaining ones were printed by De la Rue.[4][5]

    KINGDOM ZANZIBAR POSTAL HISTORY

    2.Numismatic

     3.Pictures

    4.Travelling Around Zanzibar Island

    For a small island in the southern waters of the Indian Ocean, Zanzibar has a long and unexpected history. Believed to have been settled first by the Bantu people, some three to four thousand years ago, Zanzibar has a history of hosting foreigners from Egypt, Greece, Persia, Arabia, India, China and Europe resulting in a architectural feast of Arabic-style houses with Indian-influenced ornate balconies and latticework.

    Combine Zanzibar’s exciting history of mixed influences, vibrant oriental style bazaars, pristine beaches and tropical forests and this ‘spice island’ is an enticing, alluring destination.

    By mid 19th century, a reported 25,000 slaves were bought and sold each year in Zanzibar. In Stone town we visit the notorious site of world’s last open slave market and the Anglican Christ Church cathedral built in 1874, which stands exactly on the site of the former slave market with the high altar marking the location of the old whipping post.

    Without a guide, you’ll never find nutmeg sitting on the forest floor or think to peel the bark off of a cinnamon tree but these are some of the fun things we do on our spice tour. We go from plant to plant trying to find the spice within before sampling the fruits of the forest like cinnamon tea and freshly picked pineapple and lychees.

    Ever dreamed of swimming with a pod of dolphins? We spend a day in the beautiful Menal Bay where you can watch the resident bottlenose and humpback dolphins play in the wake of our boat. If you’re game, you can enter the water and enjoy these highly social mammals in their natural habitat.

    Other activities include a trip to the beautiful beaches and giant tortoises of Prison Island, a full day scuba dive in Nungwe or a fishing trip in a traditional dhow.

    Zanzibar
    8 day Destination Zanzibar price (excl. airfares) starts from AUD $2995
    A great time to visit Zanzibar is during the Sauti za Busara, a Swahili music and dance festival in February.
    A great time to visit Zanzibar is during the Sauti za Busara, a Swahili music and dance festival in February.

     

    5.The Australian Royal Navy In Zanzibar Historic collections(Google Exploration)

    Recently I was in a country bookshop and looking through a shoebox of old postcards. I started going through it, examining the reverse sides of the cards looking for any stamps of interest. Most stamps had been removed, but I suddenly came across one from Zanzibar! This stopped me in my tracks, not only did it have the Zanzibar stamp dated 1915, but also a Bombay transit cancellation and addressed to a woman in North Williamstown in Victoria, Australia.

    zanzibar-postcard-front

    zanzibar-postcard-back

    I couldn’t wait to get it home and do some research. My initial reaction was that it was perhaps a merchant or even a missionary heading to Africa (visions of The African Queen). It was the date that fascinated me. After a night of research I realised that there was an Australian naval vessel “coaling” in Zanzibar at the time and it was, indeed, heading to German East Africa!

    I resolved to find out more about the ship. It was the HMAS Pioneer.

    Here is a brief history of the vessel:

    HMS Pioneer was commissioned by the Royal Navy on 10 July 1900. She was a Pelorus Class Light Cruiser with a displacement of 2200 tons and a complement of 225.

    Following a period in home waters, Pioneer proceeded on 15 November 1900 to the Mediterranean Station where she relieved the cruiser HMS Fearless. She served for four years in Mediterranean waters, returning to Chatham on 20 December 1904 where she was placed in Reserve.

    She recommissioned on 5 September 1905 for service on the Australia Station as one of the ‘Drill Ships’ provided for under the Naval Agreement (1903) concluded between the Australian Commonwealth and the Imperial Government. Pioneer relieved HMS Mildura, her sister ships HMS Psyche and HMS Pyramus at the same time replacing HM Ships Katoomba and Phoebe.

    The Australian Squadron commanded by Sir Arthur D. Fanshawe KCB, then comprised HMS Powerful (Flagship – 14,200 tons), the second class cruisers HMS Cambrian (4,360 tons) and HMS Encounter (5,880 tons) and two other Pelorus class cruisers, HMS Pegasus and HMS Prometheus.

    Pioneer continued in service as a unit of the Royal Navy on the Australia Station until 29 November 1912 when she paid off at Sydney for transfer to the Royal Australian Navy as a gift from the Admiralty. The Commonwealth Naval Board assumed control of her on 1 March 1913 and on the same day she commissioned in the Royal Australian Navy as HMAS Pioneer with a nucleus crew, as tender to HMAS Penguin.

    In July 1913 refitting began at Garden Island, work which was not completed until the close of the year. On 1 January 1914 she commissioned as an independent command for service as a seagoing training ship for the Naval Reserve, operating under the orders of the Director of Naval Reserves. The months preceding the outbreak of World War I were spent in eastern and southern Australian waters, cruising from her base at Sydney to Melbourne, Adelaide and Hobart.

    When war with Germany was declared on 4 August 1914, Pioneer was at Port Phillip Bay, Melbourne. The following day she sailed for Fremantle to operate on patrol on the Western Australian coast. Operations began on 16 August, and on that day, some eight miles west of Rottnest Island, Pioneer captured the German steamer Neumunster (4,424 tons) and took her into Fremantle. On 26 August she captured a second ship, the 4,994 ton Norddeutscher-Lloyd vessel Thuringen, also off Rottnest Island. Neumunster was taken over by the Commonwealth Government as a prize of war and renamed Cooee. Thuringen was renamed Moora and handed over to the Indian Government for service as a troopship.

    On 4 September Pioneer proceeded from Fremantle on patrol to Darwin, calling Port at Hedland and Broome en route.

    On 1 November 1914 Pioneer sailed as part of the escort to the First Australian Convoy comprising 38 transports but, just as she was taking up position between the Australian and New Zealand divisions, her engines broke down and the Flagship, HMS Minotaur, ordered her to return to Fremantle. Thus she probably missed encountering the German cruiser Emden instead of HMAS Sydney as she was under orders to diverge from the convoy route to inspect the Cocos Islands.

    On 24 December 1914 the Admiralty requested the aid of Pioneer as a blockading ship on the German East African coast, where the German cruiser Königsberg had taken shelter up one of the mouths of the Rufigi River a few miles south of Zanzibar.

    german-east-africa-map

    Sailing from Fremantle on 9 January 1915, Pioneer proceeded to the Cocos Islands, where as she coaled from her attendant collier her crew inspected the wreck of the Emden, destroyed by Sydney on 9 November 1914. After leaving the Cocos Islands, she proceeded to Diego Garcia in the Chagos Archipelago and then to Zanzibar which was reached on 6 February.

    The Königsberg at this period was sheltering up the Rufigi River beyond the range of effective fire from the sea but it was thought that she might attempt to break out. Thus the British forces at sea had a double duty; firstly the maintenance of a blockade to prevent supplies reaching German forces ashore in East Africa; and secondly the neutralisation of a dangerous warship which had already destroyed Pioneer’s sister ship Pegasus.

    The force assembled for this task comprised Pioneer, the light cruisers HMS Weymouth and HMS Hyacinth, HMS Pyramus (another of Pioneer’s sister ships), the armed merchant cruiser Kinfauns Castle, four armed whalers, an armed steamer and an armed tug. Formal blockade was proclaimed on 1 March 1915 and five days later Vice Admiral King-Hall arrived in the old battleship HMS Goliath to take charge.

    The East African coastline was for the purposes of operations, divided into three sections and Pioneer was allotted in charge of the northern most area from north of Tanga past the island of Zanzibar to a point just south of Dar-es-Salaam, with the armed steamer Duplex and the whaler Pickle.

    With several attempts to drive Königsberg from her lair having failed, it was decided to tow to the scene two monitors, HMS Severn and HMS Mersey, and taking advantage of their shallow draught, take them upstream within range of the enemy. The attack began on 6 July 1915 and while Hyacinth and Pioneer bombarded the area of the main (Simba Uranga) mouth of the river, the monitors steamed up the northern (Kikunya) arm, anchored and began firing alternate salvoes. Surgeon Lieutenant G.A. Melville-Anderson in Pioneer describing the scene recorded:

    “We approached very cautiously, and when we were about 5,000 yards from the river entrance, we dropped anchor and allowed the tide to swing us broadside on. Hence all our starboard guns bore on the entrance. Very soon we were firing salvoes and then each gun rapidly independently. Our shells were bursting everywhere, throwing up great clouds of sand and earth.

    coaling-crew-hmas-Pioneer-1915

    Coaling party from crew of HMAS Pioneer on deck 1915.

    In the meantime they were steaming up the river under heavy fire from the banks, but they went on and soon were within range of the Königsberg. They then began to fire, the range being about five miles. Aeroplanes assisted the monitors in locating the position but were not very successful. The Königsberg fired salvoes of five guns with good accuracy but soon she dropped to four then to three and two and finally one. During the last hour-and-a-half of the engagement she ceased fire altogether.”

    The monitors, however, failed to destroy the German cruiser and in her turn she hit Mersey’s foremost gun, killing six men. At 3:30 pm and after firing 600 6-inch shells, both were withdrawn.

    The operation was repeated on 12 July. This time Königsberg straddled the Severn as she prepared to drop anchor, but Severn quickly got the range and hit the German several times, setting her on fire and forcing the enemy to complete demolition after removal of the guns.

    It is interesting to note there was a dire shortage of every day items, including brass ingots, in German East Africa during the siege, so the besieged Germans melted down a 4.1 inch brass gun taken from the Königsberg. Some of this brass was used to produce much-needed coinage. (An example of 20 heller coin is shown.)

    Following the destruction of Königsberg, Pioneer spent a period patrolling off the river mouth and later spent some time in the southern section of the blockade area. By the end of July she had been under way every day for more than six months, except for nine days spent in harbour.

    On 31 August 1915 she withdrew and proceeded to Simonstown for refit. Six weeks were spent in dock and on 22 October she proceeded to return to the patrol area, calling at Lorenzo Marquez, Beira, Mozambique, Port Amelia and Ibo en route.

    Patrolling was resumed in the southern section in November. The task involved routine patrolling with no enemy opposition and in the main it was uneventful, monotonous work. Two incidents occurring before the close of 1915 are nevertheless worth mentioning. Surgeon Lieutenant Melville-Anderson wrote in his diary records that at 8:30 am on 20 November Pioneer landed fifty men on Mafia Island, off the East African coast, to witness the shooting of two Arabs.

    Melville-Anderson wrote: ‘These Arabs, had assisted some Germans to cross from the mainland under cover of night to obtain military information. They gave them shelter and native clothing, thus enabling them to get about the island undetected. But, they were discovered and the two Arabs, after being court-martialled, were sentenced to be shot. The sentence was carried out in the Market Place to impress the natives and we were drawn up in the Square. The Arabs were each bound to two upright poles, blind-folded and handcuffed and the firing party of Askaris (native troops) fired a volley. Another medical officer and myself examined them and considered life extinct in one, but not the other so it was decided to fire another volley.’

    The second incident occurred on 20 December 1915. On that day, Pioneer anchored in Nazi Bay and sent a cutter away to obtain provisions. A hundred yards from the beach the cutter suddenly came under rapid fire from the shore. Two men were wounded before the boat could be brought about to pull back to the ship under the protection of 4-inch fire.
    On Christmas Day 1915, Pioneer anchored in the Lindi River off the Lindi township. Lieutenant Melville-Anderson commented ‘As the day progressed, the Germans on shore signalled Christmas greetings and we reciprocated and added, “Send boat for presents”. They signalled back “Thank you, will try” – but for some unexplained reason no boat came from the shore. The day was a merry one and in the dogwatches we proceeded to sea for Mombasa.’

    Frame Two:

    The Zanzibar Historic Collections

    History of Tanzania
    Coat of Arms of Tanzania
     


    Timeline
    History of Zanzibar
    Colonial period
    Scramble for Africa
    Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty
    Maji Maji Rebellion
    East African Campaign
    British East Africa
    Modern history
    Zanzibar Revolution
    Ujamaa

    People have lived in Zanzibar for 20,000 years; history proper starts when the islands became a base for traders voyaging between Arabia, India, and Africa. Unguja offered a protected and defensible harbour, so although the archipelago had few products of value, Arabs settled at what became Zanzibar City (Stone Town) as a convenient point from which to trade with East African coastal towns. They established garrisons on the islands and built the first mosque in the Southern hemisphere.

    During the Age of Exploration, the Portuguese Empire was the first European power to gain control of Zanzibar, and kept it for nearly 200 years. In 1698 Zanzibar fell under the control of the Sultanate of Oman, which developed an economy of trade and cash crops, with a ruling Arab elite. Plantations were developed to grow spices, hence the moniker of the Spice Islands (a name also used of Dutch colony the Moluccas, now part of Indonesia). Another major trade good was ivory, the tusks of elephants killed in mainland Africa. The third pillar of the economy was slaves, giving Zanzibar an important place in the Arab slave trade, the Indian Ocean equivalent of the better-known Triangular Trade. The Sultan of Zanzibar controlled a substantial portion of the East African coast, known as Zanj, and extensive inland trading routes.

    Sometimes gradually, sometimes by fits and starts, control came into the hands of the British Empire; part of the political impetus for this was the movement for the abolition of the slave trade. In 1890 Zanzibar became a British protectorate. The death of one sultan and the succession of another of whom the British did not approve led to the Anglo-Zanzibar War, also known as The Shortest War in History.

    The islands gained independence from Britain in December 1963 as a constitutional monarchy. A month later, the bloody Zanzibar Revolution, in which several thousand Arabs and Indians were killed and thousands more expelled and expropriated, led to the Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. That April, the republic merged with the mainland Tanganyika, or more accurately, was subsumed into Tanzania, of which Zanzibar remains a semi-autonomous region. Zanzibar was most recently in the international news with a January 2001 massacre, following contested elections.

    The History of Zanzibar

    Zanzibar has lured traders, adventurers, plunderers and explorers to its shores for centuries. The Assyrians, Sumerians, Egyptians, Phoenicians, Indians, Chinese, Persians, Portuguese, Omani Arabs, Dutch and English have all been here at one time or another. Some, particularly the Shirazi Persians and Omani Arabs, stayed to settle and rule. With this influence, Zanzibar has become predominantly Islamic (97%) – the remaining 3% is made up of Christians, Hindus and Sikhs.

    The earliest visitors to Zanzibar were Arab traders who are said to have arrived in the 8th century. The earliest building that remains on Zanzibar is the mosque at Kizimkazi which dates from 1107, and is a present-day tourist attraction.

    For centuries the Arabs sailed with the Monsoon winds from Oman to trade primarily in ivory, slaves and spices. The two main islands, Unguja (normally known as Zanzibar Island ) and Pemba, provided an ideal base for the Omani Arabs, being relatively small, and therefore fairly easy to defend. From here it was possible for them to control 1,000 miles of the mainland coast from present day Mozambique to Somalia. Indeed, in 1832, Sultan Seyyid Said, of the Busaid Dynasty that had emerged in Oman, moved his Sultanate from Muscat, which was perhaps more difficult to protect, to Zanzibar where he and his descendants ruled for over 130 years. Most of the wealth lay in the hands of the Arab community, who were the main landowners, and generally did not intermarry with the Africans.

    This was not true of the Shirazi Persians who came from the Middle East to settle on the East African coast. The story goes that in AD 975, Abi Ben Sultan Hasan of Shiraz in Persia (now Iran) had a terrible nightmare in which a rat devoured the foundations of his house. He took this as an omen that his community was to be devastated. Others in the Shiraz Court ridiculed the notion, but Sultan Hasan, his family and some followers obviously took it very seriously because they decided to migrate. They set out in seven dhows into the Indian Ocean but were caught in a huge storm and separated. Thus, landfalls were made at seven different places along the East African coast, one of which was Zanzibar, and settlements began.

    Widespread intermarriage between Shirazis and Africans gave rise to a coastal community with distinctive features, and a language derived in part from Arabic, which became known as Swahili. The name Swahili comes from the Arab word sawahil which means ‘coast’. The Zanzibar descendants of this group were not greatly involved in the lucrative slave, spice and ivory trades. Instead, they immersed themselves mainly in agriculture and fishing. Those Shirazis that did not intermarry retained their identity as a separate group.

    Two smaller communities were also established. Indian traders arrived in connection with the spice and ivory trade, and quickly settled as shopkeepers, traders, skilled artisans, and professionals. The British became involved in missionary and trading activities in East Africa, and attempting to suppress the slave trade centred in Zanzibar .

    The Slave Trade

    In 1822, the Omani Arabs signed the Moresby treaty which amongst other things, made it illegal for them to sell slaves to Christian powers. So that this agreement could be monitored, the United States and Great Britain established diplomatic relations with Zanzibar, and sent Consuls to the islands. However, the slaving restrictions were largely ignored, and the trade continued to kill and imprison countless Africans.

    Caravans started out from Bagamoyo on the mainland coast, travelling as much as 1,000 miles on foot as far as Lake Tanganyika, buying slaves from local rulers on the way, or, more cheaply, simply capturing them. The slaves were chained together and used to carried ivory back to Bagamoyo. The name Bagamoyo means ‘lay down your heart;’ because it was here that slaves would abandon hope of freedom. Slaves who survived the long trek from the interior were crammed into dhows bound for Zanzibar, and paraded for sale like cattle in the Slave Market.

    All of the main racial groups were involved in the slave trade in some way or other. Europeans used slaves in their plantations in the Indian Ocean islands, Arabs were the main traders, and African rulers sold prisoners taken in battle. Being sold into slavery was not a prisoner’s worst fate – if a prolonged conflict led to a glut, the Doe tribe north of Bagamoyo had the rather gruesome habit of eating ‘excess supplies’.

    Sultan Barghash was forced in 1873, under the threat of a British naval bombardment, to sign an edict which made the sea-borne slave trade illegal, and the slave market in Zanzibar was closed, with the Cathedral Church of Christ erected on the site. But the trade continued, particularly on the mainland.

    Slaving was illegal, but it existed openly until Britain took over the mainland following their defeat of the Germans in the First World War. Many former slaves found that their conditions had hardly changed – they were now simply employed as labourers at very low wage rates in the spice plantations

    A Jahazi or ancient DhowThe spices of ZanzibarSlaves carry ivory to marketThe cathedral in Stone TownA statue representing the slave holding cells at auctionsSlave women at the marketBeit el-Ajaib, the House of Wonders, with Zanzibar harbour in the foreground

    Beit el-Ajaib, the House of Wonders, as it stands today

    Khalifa Bin Harab (with tennis racquet), became Sultan in 1911

    The flag of the United Republic of Tanzania

    The Spice Trade

    Cloves were introduced here in 1818, and flourished in the tropical climate and fertile soil of the western areas of both Zanzibar and Pemba . By the middle of the century, the Zanzibar archipelago was the world’s largest producer of cloves, and the largest slave trading centre on the East African coast. Slaves were used for the cultivation and harvesting of cloves, and the Sultan occupied so many plots that by his death in 1856, he had 45 plantations. Plots were also acquired by his children, and many concubines and eunuchs from the royal harem. Over time, several other spices such as cinnamon, cumin, ginger, pepper and cardamom were introduced. Their rich fragrance became synonymous with Zanzibar , which became known as the ‘Spice Islands’.

    Slaves, spices and ivory provided the basis of considerable prosperity, and Zanzibar became the most important entrepôt in the Western Indian Ocean. All other East African coastal centres were subject to it and almost all trade passed through it.

    The Explorers

    Zanzibar was the starting point for the great European adventurers who tried to map the interior. Most followed the long-established caravan routes before reaching territory unknown even to the traders. The dangers were significant for these first Europeans in East Africa ‘s interior – for them, a strange and unexplored land.

    In 1844, John Krapf, a German missionary arrived in Zanzibar . He was later joined by John Rebbman who became the first European to see Mount Kilimanjaro. Burton and Speke set off from Britain in 1857 to solve the mystery of the source of the Nile, and they also made Zanzibar their base. Other explorers followed – Dr David Livingstone was provided with a house in 1866 from where he planned and kitted out his final expedition. Stanley also used it in 1871 before setting out on one of history’s famous searches, culminating in Stanley’s legendary phrase “Doctor Livingstone, I presume?” The great Doctor died two years later, and his body was carried back to Zanzibar, before sailing on to its final resting place in Westminster Abbey. Livingstone’s House in Zanzibar is a well known present-day feature of Stone Town, and his medicine chest and correspondence can be seen in the National Museum.

    Wealth of the Sultans

    Zanzibar continued to prosper with the expansion of the trade in cloves and other spices. The fine buildings which make Zanzibar Stone Town such an amazing place were constructed to a high standard by rich Arabs, British administrators and prosperous Indian businessmen.

    The wealth and excess of successive Sultans was considerable. Islamic law allowed them to have up to four wives, and their wealth meant they were able to exercise this privilege, raising many children. Sultan Barghash was particularly extravagant, and adopted a more elaborate style of living than previous Sultans, with the construction of several new palaces. In 1883, he built Beit el-Ajaib, the House of Wonders, which still stands today, and was the largest building in Zanzibar , the first to have electric lights and an electric lift. Until 1911, the Sultan of the day maintained a harem of around 100 concubines, all with attendant eunuchs. He slept with 5 concubines a night, in strict rotation and many concubines had children, who were supported by the Sultan’s riches.

    Such practices changed with the succession of Khalifa Bin Harab, as Sultan in 1911. The harem and concubines were discontinued and political reforms were introduced with increasingly democratic representation until the Sultan was a constitutional monarch without major legislative or executive powers.

    By the 1920’s, Zanzibar had been established as a British protectorate for some time – the cities bustled with economic activity, and the bazaars were lined with craftsmen who produced carved doors and brass-studded chests, gold and silver jewellery, pottery and embroidery.

    Independance & the Union with Tanganyika

    Following elections and Independence in 1963, the broad-based and predominantly African ‘Afro-Shirazi Party’ (ASP) had the majority of the popular vote, but despite this, power was held by a coalition of two parties supported by the British.

    At this time, there was a growing movement for independence from colonialism and its ties throughout East Africa , with independence for Tanganyika in 1961, Uganda in 1962 and Kenya in 1963.

    Following the Zanzibar revolution of 1964, the ASP’s Abeid Karume became Prime Minister. Later that year, Karume and Tanganyika’s Julius Nyerere signed an Act of Union between Zanzibar and Tanganyika to form the United Republic of Tanzania – the blue triangle in the flag represents Zanzibar ‘s part of the Union. In 1977, the mainland party and ASP merged to form Chama Cha Mapinduzi (CCM) which remains in power today. Zanzibar is semi-autonomous, with its own President and House of Representatives.

    Contents

     

    Prehistory

    Zanzibar has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. A cave containing traces of microlithic tools revealed 20,000 years of human occupation of Zanzibar (Sinclair et al. 2006). These tools are common to Later Stone Age hunter-gatherer communities. Archaeological discoveries of a limestone cave used radiocarbon techniques to prove more recent occupation, from around 2800 BCE to around the year 0 (Chami 2006). Traces of the communities include objects such as glass beads from around the Indian Ocean. It is a suggestion of early trans-oceanic trade networks, although some writers have expressed pessimism about this possibility.

    No cave sites on Zanzibar have revealed pottery fragments used by early and later farming and iron-working communities who lived on the islands (Zanzibar, Mafia) during the first millennium CE. On Zanzibar, the evidence for the later farming and iron-working communities dating from the mid-first millennium CE is much stronger and indicates the beginning of urbanism there when settlements were built with mud-timber structures (Juma 2004). This is somewhat earlier than the existing evidence for towns in other parts of the East African coast, given as the 9th century CE. The first permanent residents of Zanzibar seem to have been the ancestors of the Hadimu and Tumbatu, who began arriving from the East African mainland around 1000 CE. They had belonged to various mainland ethnic groups, and on Zanzibar they lived in small villages and failed to coalesce to form larger political units. Because they lacked central organization, they were easily subjugated by outsiders.

    Early Iranian & Arab rule

    Ancient pottery demonstrates existing trade routes with Zanzibar as far back as the ancient Sumer and Assyria. [1] An ancient pendant discovered near Eshunna dated ca. 2500-2400 BCE. has been traced to copal imported from the Zanzibar region. [2]

    Traders from Arabia (mostly Yemen), the Persian Gulf region of Iran (especially Shiraz), and west India probably visited Zanzibar as early as the 1st century CE. They used the monsoon winds to sail across the Indian Ocean and landed at the sheltered harbor located on the site of present-day Zanzibar Town. Although the islands had few resources of interest to the traders, they offered a good location from which to make contact and trade with the towns of the East African coast. A phase of urban development associated with the introduction of stone material to the construction industry of the East African coast began from the 10th century CE.

    Traders began to settle in small numbers on Zanzibar in the late 11th or 12th century, intermarrying with the indigenous Africans. Eventually a hereditary ruler (known as the Mwenyi Mkuu or Jumbe), emerged among the Hadimu, and a similar ruler, called the Sheha, was set up among the Tumbatu. Neither had much power, but they helped solidify the ethnic identity of their respective peoples.

    The Yemenis built the earliest mosque in the southern hemisphere in Kizimkazi, the southernmost village in Unguja. A kufic inscription on its mihrab bears the date AH 500, i.e. 1107 CE.

    Portuguese rule

    Vasco da Gama‘s visit in 1499 marks the beginning of European influence, and the Portuguese established control over the island four years later. In August 1505, it became part of the Portuguese Empire when Captain John (João) Homere, part of Francisco de Almeida‘s fleet, captured the island. It was to remain a possession of Portugal for almost two centuries.

    Later Arab rule

    In 1698, Zanzibar became part of the overseas holdings of Oman, falling under the control of the Sultan of Oman. The Portuguese were expelled and a lucrative trade in slaves and ivory thrived, along with an expanding plantation economy centring on cloves. The Arabs established garrisons at Zanzibar, Pemba, and Kilwa. The height of Arab rule came during the reign of Seyyid Said (more fully, Sayyid Said bin Sultan al-Busaid), who in 1840 moved his capital from Muscat in Oman to Stone Town. He established a ruling Arab elite and encouraged the development of clove plantations, using the island’s slave labour. Zanzibar’s commerce fell increasingly into the hands of traders from the Indian subcontinent, whom Said encouraged to settle on the island. After his death in 1856, his sons struggled over the succession. On April 6, 1861, Zanzibar and Oman were divided into two separate principalities. Sayyid Majid bin Said Al-Busaid (1834/5–1870), his sixth son, became the Sultan of Zanzibar, while the third son, Sayyid Thuwaini bin Said al-Said, became the Sultan of Oman.

    The Sultan of Zanzibar controlled a substantial portion of the east African coast, known as Zanj, and trading routes extending much further across the continent, as far as Kindu on the Congo River. In November 1886, a German-British border commission established the Zanj as a ten-nautical mile (19 km) wide strip along most of the coast of East Africa, stretching from Cape Delgado (now in Mozambique) to Kipini (now in Kenya), including Mombasa and Dar es Salaam, all offshore islands, and several towns in what is now Somalia. However, from 1887 to 1892, all of these mainland possessions were lost to the colonial powers of the United Kingdom, Germany, and Italy, although some were not formally sold or ceded until the 20th century (Mogadishu to Italy in 1905 and Mombasa to Britain in 1963).

    Zanzibar was famous worldwide for its spices and its slaves. It was East Africa’s main slave-trading port, and in the 19th century as many as 50,000 slaves were passing through the slave markets of Zanzibar each year.[3] (David Livingstone estimated that 80,000 Africans died each year before ever reaching the island.) Tippu Tip was the most notorious slaver, under several sultans, and also a trader, plantation owner and governor. Zanzibar’s spices attracted ships from as far away as the United States, which established a consulate in 1837. The United Kingdom‘s early interest in Zanzibar was motivated by both commerce and the determination to end the slave trade.[4] In 1822, the British signed the first of a series of treaties with Sultan Said to curb this trade, but not until 1876 was the sale of slaves finally prohibited.

    Zanzibar had the distinction of having the first steam locomotive in East Africa, when Sultan Bargash bin Said ordered a tiny 0-4-0 tank engine to haul his regal carriage from town to his summer palace at Chukwani.

     British influence and rule

    The British Empire gradually took over; the relationship was formalised by the 1890 Heligoland-Zanzibar Treaty, in which Germany pledged, among other things, not to interfere with British interests in Zanzibar. This treaty made Zanzibar and Pemba a British protectorate (not colony), and the Caprivi Strip (in what is now Namibia) a German protectorate. British rule through a sultan (vizier) remained largely unchanged.

    The death of Hamad bin Thuwaini on 25 August 1896 saw the Khalid bin Bargash, eldest son of the second sultan, Barghash ibn Sa’id, take over the palace and declare himself the new ruler. This was contrary to the wishes of the British government, which favoured Hamoud bin Mohammed. This led to a showdown, later called the Anglo-Zanzibar War, on the morning of 27 August, when ships of the Royal Navy destroyed the Beit al Hukum Palace, having given Khalid a one-hour ultimatum to leave. He refused, and at 9 am the ships opened fire. Khalid’s troops returned fire and he fled to the German consulate. A cease fire was declared 45 minutes after the action had begun, giving the bombardment the title of The Shortest War in History. Hamoud was declared the new ruler and peace was restored once more. Acquiescing to British demands, he brought an end in 1897 to Zanzibar’s role as a centre for the centuries-old eastern slave trade by banning slavery and freeing the slaves, compensating their owners. Hamoud’s son and heir apparent, Ali, was educated in Britain.

    From 1913 until independence in 1963, the British appointed their own residents (essentially governors).

     Independence and revolution

    On 10 December 1963, Zanzibar received its independence from the United Kingdom as a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan. This state of affairs was short-lived, as the Sultan and the democratically elected government were overthrown on 12 January 1964 in the Zanzibar Revolution led by John Okello, a Ugandan citizen. Sheikh Abeid Amani Karume was named President of the newly created People’s Republic of Zanzibar and Pemba. Several thousand Arabs (5,000-12,000 Zanzibaris of Arabic descent) and Indians were killed, thousands more detained or expelled, their property either confiscated or destroyed. The film Africa Addio documents the revolution, including a massacre of Arabs. (Ethnic difference, and the expulsion of those who had anywhere else to go, were repeated themes in East Africa, the most prominent example being the Expulsion of Indians in Uganda in 1972 by Idi Amin.)

    The revolutionary government nationalized the local operations of the two foreign banks in Zanzibar, Standard Bank and National and Grindlays Bank. These nationalized operations may have provided the foundation for the newly-created Peoples Bank of Zanzibar. Jetha Lila, the one locally-owned bank in Zanzibar, or for that matter in all of East Africa, closed. It was owned by Indians and though the revolutionary government of Zanzibar urged it to continue functioning, the loss of its customer base as Indians left the island made it impossible to continue.

    Union with Tanganyika

    On 26 April 1964, the mainland colony of Tanganyika united with Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; this lengthy name was compressed into a portmanteau, the United Republic of Tanzania, on 29 October 1964. After unification, local affairs were controlled by President Abeid Amani Karume, while foreign affairs were handled by the United Republic in Dar es Salaam. Zanzibar remains a semi-autonomous region of Tanzania.

    From this point onwards, see History of Tanzania.

     Lists of rulers

     Sultans of Zanzibar

     
    1. Majid bin Said (1856–1870)
    2. Barghash bin Said (1870–1888)
    3. Khalifah bin Said (1888–1890)
    4. Ali bin Said (1890–1893)
    5. Hamad bin Thuwaini (1893–1896)
    6. Khalid bin Barghash (1896)
    7. Hamud bin Muhammed (1896–1902)
    8. Ali bin Hamud (1902–1911) (abdicated)

    1. Khalifa bin Harub (1911–1960)
    2. Abdullah bin Khalifa (1960–1963)
    3. Jamshid bin Abdullah (1963–1964)

    the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

    The KUT Kenya Uganda Tanganyika(Tanzania) Collections Exhibition

    Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

    tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                               WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

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                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

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                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    The KUT Kenya Uganda Tanganyika  Collections Exhibition

    Frame One :

    The KUT Collections(Dr Iwan PrivateCollections)

    1.Postal History

    1)British East africa

    2)KUT british rule

    (1) kenya

    a) from mombasa city

    b) From Nairobi

    (2) Uganda

    (3) Tanganyika

    3.Independent

    (1) Kenya

    (2) Uganda

    (3) Tanganyika (now Tanzania)

    2.Numismatic

    3.Pictures

    1)Kenya

    2)Uganda

    3)Tanganyika(Tanzania)

    4.Travelling Around

    Frame Two:

    The KUT Historic Collections

    I.Postal History

    1.British East Africa

    Postage stamps and postal history of East Africa and Uganda Protectorates

    East Africa and Uganda Protectorates was the name used by the combined postal service of the protectorates of British East Africa and Uganda between 1 April 1903 and 22 July 1920.

    On 23 July 1920 British East Africa became a Crown Colony of Kenya, with the exception of a coastal strip which remained a protectorate

    .[1] Stamps were then inscribed “KENYA AND UGANDA”

    The administration issued postage stamps with the profile of King Edward VII and inscribed “EAST AFRICA AND UGANDA PROTECTORATES” in 1903. The same basic design was used throughout the period, with new watermark and colours in 1904 and 1907, respectively, and the substitution of King George V in 1912. The 6c stamp was surcharged 4c in 1919.

    While the lower-denomination stamps are common, stamps of up to 500 rupees were sold, primarily for use as revenue stamps. Postal usages of the higher values are scarce and valuable.

    East Africa and Uganda Protectorates 1912 five rupees stamp

    East Africa and Uganda Protectorates 1912 ten rupees stamp

    Postal stationery

    East Africa and Uganda one anna wrapper used 23 September 1901, postmarked “MALINDI E.A.PROTECTORATE”, addressed to Germany

    The postal administration of East Africa and Uganda issued post paid envelopes, registration envelopes, wrappers, postcards and a telegram sheet. The designs of the imprints on registrations envelopes, newspaper wrappers and postcards were similar to that used on the stamps.[2][3]

    A total of four post paid envelopes were issued, the stamp imprint on all was oval with the head of king. A one anna envelope was issued in 1904, a six cent envelope was issued in 1907 and finally a 6 cent and a 10 cent envelope was issued with the head of King George in 1912.[2][3]

    Including different sizes, a total of eleven registration envelopes have been identified as having been issued; three during the reign of Edward VII and eight during the reign of George V.[2][3]

    Three different wrappers with the Edward VII design were produced and two with George V.[2][3]

    A total of 12 postcards are known to have been issued; eight during the reign of Edward VII and four during the reign of George V.[2][3]

    One unusual item of postal stationery item, issued in 1903, was a telegram sheet with a one rupee stamp imprint. The design of the stamp was hexagonal with the head of Edward VII in a circle in the centre.[2][3]

    2.KUT British rule

    Postage stamps and postal history of Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika

    George V, 1935.

    George VI with lion, 1938.

    Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika (KUT) is the name on British postage stamps made for use in the royal colonies of Kenya, Uganda, and Tanganyika. The stamps were circulated between 1935 and 1963 by the joint postal service of the three colonies, the East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration.[1] Even after independence, the new separate nations continued to use the KUT stamps, and they remained valid for postage until 1977.[2]

    Philatelists usually classify the 1921-1927 postal issues of “Kenya and Uganda” and “East Africa and Uganda Protectorates” under the KUT rubric, but the first issues spelling out all the names of the colonies came in 1935, in the form of common design commemoratives for the Silver Jubilee of King George V as well as a definitive series featuring a profile of the king and local scenes. The definitives included a dramatic departure from the usual engraved stamps of the period; the 10c and £1 stamp were typographed and had a silhouette of a lion, with color combinations of black/yellow and black/red, respectively.

    The same designs were reissued in 1938 with a profile of George VI. Wartime exigencies forced the use of surcharges on four South African stamps in 1941 and 1942, but after the war the usual common types (Peace Issue, Silver Wedding Issue, etc.) resumed. A definitive series, with new designs, was issued in 1954 for Queen Elizabeth, and in 1958 a pair of commemoratives marked the 100th anniversary of the discovery of the Great Lakes of Africa by Burton and Speke.

    A new definitive series in 1960 used simpler and more symbolic designs, and was followed in 1963 by three sets of commemoratives. At this point postal service was taken over by the East African Common Services Organization, which issued commemoratives for the 1964 Summer Olympics inscribed “Uganda, Kenya, Tanganyika, Zanzibar”, even though they were never actually used in Zanzibar. After Tanganyika merged with Zanzibar to form Tanzania, subsequent stamps were inscribed “Uganda, Kenya, Tanzania”

    , with the three names being listed in randomly varying orders.[3]

    These stamps were issued in parallel with stamps from each of the newly-independent nations. The Common Services Organization continued to issue various commemoratives, at the rate of about 10-12 per year, until early in 1976.

    3.Postage stamps and postal history of Tanganyika

    1922 G.E.A. overprinted 10- orange stamp of Tanganyika

    10-cent giraffe, 1925

    30-cent George V, 1927

    This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of the Tanganyika under British mandate.

    Contents

     

     First stamps

    The first postage stamps of Tanganyika were stamps of the East Africa and Uganda Protectorates overprintedG.E.A.” (for German East Africa), used in 1921 and 1922. These are superficially identical to the last occupation issues of German East Africa, but the presence of the “Crown and Script CA” watermark shows they were issued after the civil administration took over from the military, and are thus properly considered the first issues of Tanganyika.

    Resource Page for Tanzania Stamps and Tanzania Postal History

    GERMAN POSTAL AGENCY IN LAMU
    A German postal agency was established in Lamu on 27 February 1885. German stamps were used by the agency and these can only be identified by the postmark.

    GERMAN EAST AFRICA
    The colony of German East Africa was established on 4 October 1890. The area of colony included mainland Tanganyika, Burundi and Rwanda. From 4 October 1890 till 30 June 1893 only German stamps were used in the colony. On 1 July 1893 stamps were issued for the colony.

    On the outbreak of World War I, the Germans began making raids into British East Africa, Uganda, Congo, Nyasaland, Northern Rhodesia and Mozambique. An attempted British landing at Tanga between 2 and 5 November 1914 was repulsed by the Germans. German East Africa stamps continued to be used in the area controlled by the Germans until they finally surrendered on 26 November 1918.

    The colony was broken up by the Treaty of Versailles. The north-western area was given to Belgium as Ruanda-Urundi. The Kionga Triangle, an small area south of the Rovuma River, was given to Portugal to become part of Mozambique. The remainder went to Britain, which named it Tanganyika.

    Mafia Island 1915 stampMAFIA ISLAND
    Mafia Island was captured by the British in January 1915. At first letters were allowed to be sent unstamped but on 14 January 1915 stamps were made available by handstamping German East Africa stamps “G.R. MAFIA”  in two lines. More stamps were made available in May 1915 by overprinting German East Africa stamps “G. R. POST 6 CENTS MAFIA” in four lines. In September 1915 German East Africa fiscal stamps were handstamped with “O.H.B.M.S. Mafia” in a circle. In addition to these, stamps of the Indian Expeditionary Forces (India overprinted I.E.F.) were additionally overprinted “G. R. POST MAFIA” (September 1915)  or “G. R. Post MAFIA” (October 1916) in three lines.

    German East Africa 20R stamp

    BRITISH OCCUPATION OF GERMAN EAST AFRICA
    The offensive by the Allied force started in March 1916 from British East Africa, mainly by Indian troops. On 20 May 1916 the Nyasaland-Rhodesian Field Force began their offensive from Nyasaland. In the areas occupied by the Allied troops the civilian population were able to send mail through the Indian Army postal service using Indian stamps overprinted “I.E.F.”. 

    Some post office reverted to civilian control on 1 June 1917. Initially stamps of East Africa and Uganda were made available; then from October 1917 East Africa and Uganda stamps overprinted “G.E.A.” were made available. In 1921 stamps of Kenya and Uganda were overprinted “G.E.A.”. The last field post office to come under civlian control was on 15 March 1919.

    Sometime during 1914-18 the British produced Parodies of the German East Africa yacht issue overprinted “G.E.A BRITISH OCCUPATION”.

    In 1922 the colony became the British Mandated Territory of Tanganyika.

    NYASALAND RHODESIAN FIELD FORCE
    The Nyasaland Rhodesian Field Force, under the command of Brigadier General Edward Northey, began their offensive in East Africa on 20 May 1916. Northey’s force crossed into German East Africa on 25 May 1916. On May 30 they had occupied Neu Langenburg. On June 6 they captured Neu Utengulc. Alt Langenburg was occupied on June 13. Ubena was captured on June 30.

    The troops could send normal letters without stamps via the field post office. If there was any additional postage required it required payment. At first unoverprinted Nyasaland stamps were used. Later at the request of Brigadier General Northey, to the Governor of Nyasaland, Nyasaland stamps were overprinted “N.F.” Northey had requested the overprint to be “N.F.F.” and the telegraph operator omitted one “F.” when sending the request to the Governor. Correspondence written by Northey clearly shows that he was an enthusiastic stamp collector. There is no evidence that these stamps were really needed. However the overprinting was sanctioned by the Governor of Nyasaland and the stamps were used for posting letters.

    These stamps were only available for use by troops of the Nyasaland Rhodesian Field Forces. Sale of these stamps in large quantities, for dealing purposes, was forbidden. The stamps were available only from Field Post Offices of the Nyasaland Rhodesian Field Force. Most of these offices were in German East Africa. The Nyasaland Rhodesian Field Force also had FPOs in Nyasaland and in Portuguese East Africa. The stamps were not available at any civilian post office or for civilian use.

    MANDATED TERRITORY OF TANGANYIKA
    In 1922 the former German colony became the British Mandated Territory of Tanganyika. Separate issues of stamps were in use till 1 January 1933. From this day Tanganyika joined the East African Postal Administration and used stamps inscribed “Kenya Uganda and Tanganyika”.

    REPUBLIC OF TANGANYIKA
    On 9 December 1961 Tanganyika became an indepentant republic and commenced to issue its own stamps.


    INDIAN POST OFFICE IN ZANZIBAR
    An Indian post office was opened in Zanzibar in November 1868 and closed on 1 April 1869

    Stamps of India were used in Zanzibar from 1 October 1875 to 10 November 1895

    FRENCH POST OFFICE IN ZANZIBAR
    A French post office was opened in Zanzibar in January 1889. French stamps were used initially. In 1894 specific stamps were issued for use from this post office. French stamps are also know used during 1903 and 1904. The office was closed on 31 July 1904.

    GERMAN POSTAL AGENCY IN ZANZIBAR
    German stamps were used by a German postal agency which was open between 27 August 1890 and 31 July 1891.

    PROTECTORATE OF ZANZIBAR
    In 1895 Zanzibar became a British Protectorate.

    INDEPENDENT ZANZIBAR
    Zanzibar received its independence and became a constitutional monarchy under the Sultan, Sayyid Jamshid bin Abdullah, on 10 December 1963.

    REPUBLIC OF ZANZIBAR
    The Sultan and the democratically elected government were overthrown in the Zanzibar Revolution on 12 January 1964. When the post offices opened on 14 January 1964 the stamps on sale had the portrait of the Sultan obliterated by a manuscript cross. On 17 January 1964 stamps were issued which had been handstamped “JAMHURI 1964″

    All Zanzibar stamps were withdrawn from post office from 1 January 1968 and were replaced by Tanzania stamps. Zanzibar stamps remained valid for use in Zanzibar for a short time.


    UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANGANYIKA AND ZANZIBAR
    The United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar was formed on 26 April 1964

    UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANZANIA
    On 29 October 1964 the republic was renamed as Tanzania

     1965 FDC with stamp showing the skull of Zinjanthropus and the excavations in Olduvai Gorge addressed to Mr & Mrs Leakey

    Later issues

    In 1922, the government issued a series of 19 stamps inscribed “TANGANYIKA“, featuring the head of a giraffe, denominated in cents, shillings and pounds (100 cents to a shilling, 20 shillings to a pound), with several colour changes in 1925.

    This was followed in 1927 by a second series of 16 values in a more conventional design with a profile of King George V and inscribed “MANDATED TERRITORY OF TANGANYIKA“.

    In 1927, Tanganyika entered the Customs Union of Kenya and Uganda, as well as the East African Postal Union. Between 1935 and 1961, stamps of the combined postal administration (East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration) known as “Kenya, Uganda, Tanganyika” were in use.

    Independence

    Shortly after independence in 1961, the new state of Tanganyika issued a series of commemorative stamps inscribed “TANGANYIKA“.

    This was followed by a final commemorative issue on December 9, 1962, with four stamps inscribed “JAMHURI YA TANGANYIKA” to commemorate the foundation of the republic.

    Tanganyika ceased to exist as a nation in 1964, when it was loosely united with Zanzibar, to form the nation of Tanzania. Stamps of the combined postal administration remained valid until well after the formation of Tanzania

    KUT Independent

    1) Kenya

    A modern stamp of Kenya.

    This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Kenya.

     First stamps

    The first stamps of independent Kenya were issued on 12 December 1963. Before that the territory used the stamps of Kenya and Uganda and Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika

    2) Uganda

    A 1965 stamp of Uganda.

    This is a survey of the postage stamps and postal history of Uganda.

    Uganda is a landlocked country in East Africa. It is bordered on the east by Kenya, on the north by Sudan, on the west by the Democratic Republic of the Congo, on the southwest by Rwanda, and on the south by Tanzania. The southern part of the country includes a substantial portion of Lake Victoria, which is also bordered by Kenya and Tanzania.

     First stamps

    The first stamps of independent Uganda were issued on 9 October 1962. Before that the territory used the stamps of Kenya and Uganda and Kenya, Uganda and Tanganyika

    3)TANGANYIKA (TANZANIA)

    Tanzania 1965 cover

    Postage stamps and postal history of Tanzania(before Tanganyika)

    10-cent flag, 1965.

    1-shilling stamp of 1965, used at Shinyanga probably in 1968. Note that the postmark still gives “Tanganyika” as country name.

    5-shilling stamp of 1980 depicting lion and cubs, used in 1985.

    The story of the postage stamps and postal history of Tanzania begins with German East Africa, which was occupied by British forces during World War I. After the war, the territory was named Tanganyika and issued stamps under that name until after a union with Zanzibar in 1964.

    Contents

    //

    First stamps

    The first issue of Tanzania proper was a set of four commemorative stamps marking the union, issued 7 July 1964. Inscribed “UNITED REPUBLIC OF TANGANYIKA & ZANZIBAR”, two values depict a map of the coast from Tanga to Dar-es-Salaam along with Zanzibar and Pemba, while other two show hands holding a torch and spear.

    Later issues

    The first definitive series was issued 9 December 1965, and consisted of a set of 14 values ranging from 5 cents to 20 shillings, depicting a variety of scenes, symbols, and wildlife.

    The stamps of Tanzania were also valid in Kenya and Uganda (until 1976), and so Tanzania did not typically issue its own commemoratives. A definitives series issued 9 December 1967 featured various fish, and series of 15 stamps from 3 December 1973 depicted butterflies. Four of these values were surcharged 17 November 1975.

    In 1976 and 1977, Tanzania issued eight commemorative sets that shared design with the stamps of Kenya, and after that it issued its own designs.

    Recent stamps

    Stamp-issuing policy was relatively restrained in the 1980s, with about 7-8 special issues each year, typically of four stamps each, and a definitive series of mammals in 1980, but by the end of the decade the postal administration had begun putting out large numbers of issues aimed solely at stamp collectors, with averages of over 100 types annually. Tanzania is a client of the Inter-Governmental Philatelic Corporation

    IIKenya Uganda Tanganyika Historic

    1.Kenya

    Kenyan prehistory

    Recent finds near Lake Turkana indicate that hominids like Australopithecus anamensis lived in the area which is now Kenya from around 4.1 million years ago.[1] More recently, discoveries in the Tugen Hills dated to approximately 6 million years ago precipitated the naming of a new species, the Orrorin tugenensis.

    Early Kenyan civilizations

    Cushitic language-speaking people from northern Africa moved into the area that is now Kenya beginning around 2000 BCE.[2] Arab traders began frequenting the Kenya coast around the 1st century CE (Common Era). Kenya’s proximity to the Arabian Peninsula invited trade and later colonization. Between the first and the fifth centuries CE, Greek merchants from Egypt had some stake in the trade.[3] About 500 CE, traders from the Persian Gulf, southern India and Indonesia made contact with East Africa.[4] Trade led to establishment of commercial posts.[5] Eventually, these commercial posts became Arab and Persian city-states along the coast. By the 8th century these city-states tended to have rulers that had accepted Islam.[6] Muslim traders had little incentive to go beyond the coast into the interior of Africa. The goods they sought—gold from the mines of Rhodesia, ivory, slaves, tortoise shell and rhinoceros horn—could more conveniently be gathered by local people in the interior and sold to the traders at the coasts during seasonal markets.[7] During the first millennium CE, Nilotic and Bantu peoples moved into the region, and the latter now comprise three-quarters of Kenya’s population. Swahili, a Bantu language with many Arabic loan words, developed as a lingua franca for trade between the different peoples.[8] A Swahili culture developed in the towns, notably Pate, Malindi, and Mombasa.

    The Portuguese arrived in 1498, with a powerful navy. The goal was not settlement but the establishment of naval bases that would give Portugal control of the Indian Ocean. After decades of small-scale conflict the Portuguese were defeated in Kenya by Arabs from Oman. Under Seyyid Said, the Omani sultan who moved his capital to Zanzibar in the early 19th century, the Arabs created long-distance trade routes into the interior. The dry reaches of the north were lightly inhabited by seminomadic pastoralists. In the south, pastoralists and cultivators bartered goods and competed for land as long-distance caravan routes linked them to the Kenya coast on the east and the kingdoms of Uganda on the west. Arab, Shirazi, and coastal African cultures produced an Islamic Swahili people trading in a variety of up-country commodities, including slaves.[9]

    Colonial history

    The Portuguese were the first Europeans to explore the region of current-day Kenya, Vasco da Gama having visited Mombasa in 1498. Gama’s voyage was successful in reaching India and this permitted the Portuguese to trade with the Far East directly by sea, thus challenging older trading networks of mixed land and sea routes, such as the Spice trade routes that utilized the Persian Gulf, Red Sea and caravans to reach the eastern Mediterranean. The Republic of Venice had gained control over much of the trade routes between Europe and Asia. After traditional land routes to India had been closed by the Ottoman Turks, Portugal hoped to use the sea route pioneered by Gama to break the once Venetian trading monopoly. Portuguese rule in East Africa focused mainly on a coastal strip centred in Mombasa. The Portuguese presence in East Africa officially began after 1505, when flagships under the command of Don Francisco de Almeida conquered Kilwa, an island located in what is now southern Tanzania.[10]

    The Portuguese presence in East Africa served the purpose of control trade within the Indian Ocean and secure the sea routes linking Europe to Asia. Portuguese naval vessels were very disruptive to the commerce of Portugal’s enemies within the western Indian Ocean and were able to demand high tariffs on items transported through the sea given their strategic control of ports and shipping lanes. The construction of Fort Jesus in Mombasa in 1593 was meant to solidify Portuguese hegemony in the region, but their influence was clipped by the English, Dutch and Omani Arab incursions into the region during the 17th century. The Omani Arabs posed the most direct challenge to Portuguese influence in East Africa and besieged Portuguese fortresses, openly attacked naval vessels and expelled the remaining Portuguese from the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts by 1730. By this time the Portuguese Empire had already lost its interest on the spice trade sea route because of the decreasing profitability of that business. Portuguese-ruled territories, ports and settlements remained active to the south, in Mozambique, until 1975.

    Omani Arab colonization of the Kenyan and Tanzanian coasts brought the once independent city-states under closer foreign scrutiny and domination than was experienced during the Portuguese period. Like their predecessors, the Omani Arabs were primarily able only to control the coastal areas, not the interior. However, the creation of clove plantations, intensification of the slave trade and relocation of the Omani capital to Zanzibar in 1839 by Seyyid Said had the effect of consolidating the Omani power in the region. Arab governance of all the major ports along the East African coast continued until British interests aimed particularly at ending the slave trade and creation of a wage-labour system began to put pressure on Omani rule. By the late nineteenth century, the slave trade on the open seas had been completely outlawed by the British and the Omani Arabs had little ability to resist the Royal Navy’s ability to enforce the directive. The Omani presence continued in Zanzibar and Pemba until the 1964 revolution, but the official Omani Arab presence in Kenya was checked by German and British seizure of key ports and creation of crucial trade alliances with influential local leaders in the 1880s. Nevertheless, the Omani Arab legacy in East Africa is currently found through their numerous descendants found along the coast that can directly trace ancestry to Oman and are typically the wealthiest and most politically influential members of the Kenyan coastal community.[11]

     1850-1920

    The first Christian mission was founded on August 25, 1846, by Dr. Johann Ludwig Krapf, a German sponsored by the Church Missionary Society of England.[12] He established a station among the Mijikenda on the coast. He later translated the Bible into Swahili.[11]

    By 1850 European explorers had begun mapping the interior.[13] Three developments encouraged European interest in East Africa in the fist half of the nineteenth century.[14] First, was the emergence of the island of Zanzibar, located off the east coast of Africa.[15] Zanzibar became a base from which trade and exploration of the African mainland could be mounted.[16] By 1840, to protect the interests of the various nationals doing business in Zanzibar, consul offices had been opened by the British, French, Germans and Americans. In 1859, the tonnage of foreign shipping calling at Zanzibar had reached 19,000 tons.[17] By 1879, the tonnage of this shipping had reached 89,000 tons. The second development spurring European interest in Africa was the growing European demand for products of Africa including ivory and cloves. Thirdly, British interest in East Africa was first stimulated by their desire to abolish the slave trade.[18] Later in the century, British interest in East Africa would be stimulated by German competition, and in 1887 the Imperial British East Africa Company, a private concern, leased from Seyyid Said his mainland holdings, a 10-mile (16-km)-wide strip of land along the coast. In 1895 the British government took over and claimed the interior as far west as Lake Naivasha; it set up the East Africa Protectorate. The border was extended to Uganda in 1902, and in 1920 the enlarged protectorate, except for the original coastal strip, which remained a protectorate, became a crown colony. With the beginning of colonial rule in 1895, the Rift Valley and the surrounding Highlands became the enclave of white immigrants engaged in large-scale coffee farming dependent on mostly Kikuyu labor. This area’s fertile land has always made it the site of migration and conflict. There were no significant mineral resources—none of the gold or diamonds that attracted so many to South Africa.

    Imperial Germany set up a protectorate over the Sultan of Zanzibar’s coastal possessions in 1885, followed by the arrival of Sir William Mackinnon‘s British East Africa Company (BEAC) in 1888, after the company had received a royal charter and concessionary rights to the Kenya coast from the Sultan of Zanzibar for a 50-year period. Incipient imperial rivalry was forestalled when Germany handed its coastal holdings to Britain in 1890, in exchange for German control over the coast of Tanganyika. The colonial takeover met occasionally with some strong local resistance: Waiyaki Wa Hinga, a Kikuyu chief who ruled Dagoretti who had signed a treaty with Frederick Lugard of the BEAC, having been subject to considerable harassment, burnt down Lugard’s fort in 1890. Waiyaki was abducted two years later by the British and killed.[11]

    Following severe financial difficulties of the British East Africa Company, the British government on July 1, 1895 established direct rule through the East African Protectorate, subsequently opening (1902) the fertile highlands to white settlers.

    1911 map

    Railways

    A key to the development of Kenya’s interior was the construction, started in 1895, of a railway from Mombasa to Kisumu, on Lake Victoria, completed in 1901. This was to be the first piece of the Uganda Railway. The British government had decided, primarily for strategic reasons, to build a railway linking Mombasa with the British protectorate of Uganda. A major feat of engineering, the “Uganda railway” (that is the railway inside Kenya leading to Uganda) was completed in 1903 and was a decisive event in modernizing the area. As governor of Kenya, Sir Percy Girouard was instrumental in initiating railway extension policy that led to construction of the Nairobi-Thika and Konza-Magadi railways.[19]

    Some 32,000 workers were imported from British India to do the manual labour. Many stayed, as did most of the Indian traders and small businessmen who saw opportunity in the opening up of the interior of Kenya. Rapid economic development was seen as necessary to make the railway pay, and since the African population was accustomed to subsistence rather than export agriculture, the government decided to encourage European settlement in the fertile highlands, which had small African populations. The railway opened up the interior, not only to the European farmers, missionaries, and administrators, but also to systematic government programs to attack slavery, witchcraft, disease, and famine. The Africans saw witchcraft as a powerful influence on their lives and frequently took violent action against suspected witches. To control this aggression, the British colonial administration passed laws, beginning in 1909, which made the practice of witchcraft illegal. These laws gave the local population a legal, nonviolent way to stem the activities of witches.[20]

    By the time the railway was built, military resistance by the African population to the original British takeover had petered out. However new grievances were being generated by the process of European settlement. Governor Percy Girouard is associated with the debacle of the Second Maasai Agreement of 1911, which led to their forceful removal from the fertile Laikipia plateau to semi-arid Ngong. To make way for the Europeans (largely Britons and whites from South Africans), the Masai were restricted to the southern Loieta plains in 1913. The Kikuyu claimed some of the land reserved for Europeans and continued to feel that they had been deprived of their inheritance.

    In the initial stage of colonial rule, the administration relied on traditional communicators, usually chiefs. When colonial rule was established and efficiency was sought, partly because of settler pressure, newly educated younger men were associated with old chiefs in local Native Councils.[21]

    In building the railway the British had to confront strong local opposition, especially from Koitalel Arap Samoei, a diviner and Nandi leader who prophesied that a black snake would tear through Nandi land spitting fire, which was seen later as the railway line. For ten years he fought against the builders of the railway line and train. The settlers were partly allowed in 1907 a voice in government through the Legislative Council, a European organization to which some were appointed and others elected. But since most of the powers remained in the hands of the Governor, the settlers started lobbying to transform Kenya in a Crown Colony, which meant more powers for the settlers. They obtained this goal in 1920, making the Council more representative of European settlers; but Africans were excluded from direct political participation until 1944, when the first of them was admitted in the Council.[21]

     1914-1939

    Kenya became a military base for the British in the First World War (1914–1918), as efforts to subdue the German colony to the south were frustrated. At the outbreak of war in August 1914, the governors of British East Africa (as the Protectorate was generally known) and German East Africa agreed a truce in an attempt to keep the young colonies out of direct hostilities. However Lt Col Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck took command of the German military forces, determined to tie down as many British resources as possible. Completely cut off from Germany, von Lettow conducted an effective guerilla warfare campaign, living off the land, capturing British supplies, and remaining undefeated. He eventually surrendered in Zambia eleven days after the Armistice was signed in 1918. To chase von Lettow the British deployed Indian Army troops from India and then needed large numbers of porters to overcome the formidable logistics of transporting supplies far into the interior by foot. The Carrier Corps was formed and ultimately mobilised over 400,000 Africans, contributing to their long-term politicisation.[21]

    Before the war African political focus was diffuse, but after the war an immediate hardship caused by new taxes and reduced wages and new settlers threatening African land led to new movements. The experiences gained by Africans in the war coupled with the creation of the white-settler-dominated Kenya Crown Colony, gave rise to considerable political activity in the 1920s which culminated in Archdeacon Owen’s “Piny Owacho” (Voice of the People) movement and the “Young Kikuyu Association” (renamed the “East African Association”) started in 1921 by Harry Thuku (1895–1970), which gave a sense of nationalism to many Kikuyu and advocated civil disobedience. From the 1920s, the Kikuyu Central Association (KCA) focused on unifying the Kikuyu into one geographic polity, but its project was undermined by controversies over ritual tribute, land allocation, the ban on female circumcision, and support for Thuku.

    Most political activity between the wars was local, and this succeeded most among the Luo of Kenya, where progressive young leaders became senior chiefs. By the later 1930s government began to intrude on ordinary Africans through marketing controls, stricter educational supervision, and land changes. Traditional chiefs became irrelevant and younger men became communicators by training in the missionary churches and civil service. Pressure on ordinary Kenyans by governments in a hurry to modernize in the 1930s to 1950s enabled the mass political parties to acquire support for “centrally” focused movements, but even these often relied on local communicators.[22]

    During the early part of the 20th century, the interior central highlands were settled by British and other European farmers, who became wealthy farming coffee and tea.[23] By the 1930s, approximately 30,000 white settlers lived in the area and gained a political voice because of their contribution to the market economy. The area was already home to over a million members of the Kikuyu tribe, most of whom had no land claims in European terms, and lived as itinerant farmers. To protect their interests, the settlers banned the growing of coffee, introduced a hut tax, and the landless were granted less and less land in exchange for their labour. A massive exodus to the cities ensued as their ability to provide a living from the land dwindled.[21]

     Representation

    Kenya became a locus of resettlement of young, upper-class British officers after the war, giving a strong aristocratic tone to the white settlers. If they had ₤1000 in assets they could get a free 1,000 acres (4 km2); the goal of the government was to speed up modernization and economic growth. They set up coffee plantations, which required expensive machinery, a stable labour force, and four years to start growing crops. The veterans did escape democracy and taxation in Britain, but they failed in their efforts to gain control of the colony. The upper-class bias in migration policy meant that whites would always be a small minority. Many of them left after independence.[24]

    Power remained concentrated in the governor’s hands; weak legislative and executive councils made up of official appointees were created in 1906. The European settlers were allowed to elect representatives to the Legislative Council in 1920, when the colony was established. The white settlers, 30,000 strong, sought “responsible government,” in which they would have a voice. They opposed similar demands by the far more numerous Indian community. The European settlers gained representation for themselves and minimized representation on the Legislative Council for Indians and Arabs. The government appointed a European to represent African interests on the Council. In the “Devonshire declaration” of 1923 the Colonial Office declared that the interests of the Africans (comprising over 95% of the population) must be paramount—achieving that goal took four decades.

    Second World War

    In the Second World War (1939–45) Kenya became an important British military base for successful campaigns against Italy in the Italian Somaliland and Ethiopia. The war brought money and an opportunity for military service for 98,000 men, called “askaris”. The war stimulated African nationalism. After the war, African ex-servicemen sought to maintain the socioeconomic gains they had accrued through service in the King’s African Rifles (KAR). Looking for middle-class employment and social privileges, they challenged existing relationships within the colonial state. For the most part, veterans did not participate in national politics, believing that their aspirations could best be achieved within the confines of colonial society. The social and economic connotations of KAR service, combined with the massive wartime expansion of Kenyan defense forces, created a new class of modernized Africans with distinctive characteristics and interests. These socioeconomic perceptions proved powerful after the war.[25]

     Rural trends

    British officials sought to modernise Kikuyu farming in the Murang’a District 1920-45. Relying on concepts of trusteeship and scientific management, they imposed a number of changes in crop production and agrarian techniques, claiming to promote conservation and “betterment” of farming in the colonial tribal reserves. While criticized as backward by British officials and white settlers, African farming proved resilient, and Kikuyu farmers engaged in widespread resistance to the colonial state’s agrarian reforms.[26]

    Modernisation was accelerated by the Second World War. Among the Luo the larger agricultural production unit was the patriarch’s extended family, mainly divided into a special assignment team led by the patriarch, and the teams of his wives, who, together with their children, worked their own lots on a regular basis. This stage of development was no longer strictly traditional, but still largely self-sufficient with little contact with the broader market. Pressures of overpopulation and the prospects of cash crops, already in evidence by 1945, made this subsistence economic system increasingly obsolete and accelerated a movement to commercial agriculture and emigration to cities. The Limitation of Action Act in 1968 sought to modernize traditional land ownership and use; the act has produced unintended consequences, with new conflicts raised over land ownership and social status.[27]

     Political mobilisation

    As a reaction to their exclusion from political representation, the Kikuyu people, the most subject to pressure by the settlers, founded in 1921 Kenya’s first African political protest movement, the Young Kikuyu Association, led by Harry Thuku. In 1944 Thuku founded and was first chairman of the multi-tribal Kenya African Study Union (KASU), which in 1946 became the Kenya African Union (KAU). It was an African nationalist organization that demanded access to white-owned land. KAU acted as a constituency association for the first black member of Kenya’s legislative council, Eliud Mathu, who had been nominated in 1944 by the governor after consulting élite African opinion. The KAU soon became dominated by the Kikuyu, the African group most affected by the European presence and the most politically active. In 1947 Jomo Kenyatta, former president of the moderate Kikuyu Central Association, became president of the more aggressive KAU to demand a greater political voice for Africans.

    In response to the rising pressures the British Colonial Office broadened the membership of the Legislative Council and increased its role. By 1952 a multiracial pattern of quotas allowed for 14 European, 1 Arab, and 6 Asian elected members, together with an additional 6 African and 1 Arab member chosen by the governor. The council of ministers became the principal instrument of government in 1954.

    Mau-Mau Rising

    A key watershed came from 1952 to 1956, during the “Mau Mau Uprising“, an armed local movement directed principally against the colonial government and the European settlers. It was the largest and most successful such movement in British Africa, but it was not emulated by the other colonies. The protest was supported almost exclusively by the Kikuyu, despite issues of land rights and anti-European, anti-Western appeals designed to attract other groups. The Mau Mau movement was also a bitter internal struggle among the Kikuyu. Harry Thuku said in 1952, “To-day we, the Kikuyu, stand ashamed and looked upon as hopeless people in the eyes of other races and before the Government. Why? Because of the crimes perpetrated by Mau Mau and because the Kikuyu have made themselves Mau Mau.” The British killed over 4000, and the Mau Mau many more, as the assassinations and killings on all sides reflecting the ferocity of the movement and the ruthlessness with which the British suppressed it.[28] Kenyatta denied he was a leader of the Mau Mau but was convicted at trial and was sent to prison in 1953, gaining his freedom in 1961. To support its military campaign of counter-insurgency the colonial government embarked on agrarian reforms that stripped white settlers of many of their former protections; for example, Africans were for the first time allowed to grow coffee, the major cash crop. Thuku was one of the first Kikuyu to win a coffee license, and in 1959 he became the first African board member of the Kenya Planters Coffee Union.

    Constitutional debates

    After the suppression of the Mau Mau rising, the British provided for the election of the six African members to the Legislative Council under a weighted franchise based on education. The new colonial constitution of 1958 increased African representation, but African nationalists began to demand a democratic franchise on the principle of “one man, one vote.” However, Europeans and Asians, because of their minority position, feared the effects of universal suffrage.

    At a conference held in 1960 in London, agreement was reached between the African members and the English settlers of the New Kenya Group, led by Michael Blundell. However many whites rejected the New Kenya Group and condemned the London agreement, because it moved away from racial quotas and toward independence. Following the agreement a new African party, the Kenya African National Union (KANU), with the slogan “Uhuru,” or “Freedom,” was formed under the leadership of Kikuyu leader James S. Gichuru and labor leader Tom Mboya. Mboya was a major figure from 1951 until his death in 1969. He was praised as nonethnic or antitribal, and attacked as an instrument of Western capitalism. Mboya as General Secretary of the Kenya Federation of Labor and a leader in the Kenya African National Union before and after independence skillfully managed the tribal factor in Kenyan economic and political life to succeed as a Luo in a predominantly Kikuyu movement.[29] A split in KANU produced the breakaway rival party, the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU), led by R. Ngala and M. Muliro. In the elections of February 1961, KANU won 19 of the 33 African seats while KADU won 11 (twenty seats were reserved by quota for Europeans, Asians, and Arabs). Kenyatta was finally released in August and became president of KANU in October.

    In 1959, nationalist leader Tom Mboya began a program, funded by Americans, of sending talented youth to the United States for higher education. There was no university in Kenya at the time, but colonial officials opposed the program anyway. The next year Senator John F. Kennedy helped fund the program, which trained some 70% of the top leaders of the new nation, including the first African woman to win the Nobel Peace Prize, environmentalist Wangari Maathai.[30]

    Lancaster House Conference held in 1963 for Kenya’s Independence.

    Independence

    In 1962 a KANU-KADU coalition government, including both Kenyatta and Ngala, was formed. The 1962 constitution established a bicameral legislature consisting of a 117-member House of Representatives and a 41-member Senate. The country was divided into 7 semi-autonomous regions, each with its own regional assembly. The quota principle of reserved seats for non-Africans was abandoned, and open elections were held in May 1963. KADU gained control of the assemblies in the Rift Valley, Coast, and Western regions. KANU won majorities in the Senate and House of Representatives, and in the assemblies in the Central, Eastern, and Nyanza regions.[31] Kenya now achieved internal self-government with Jomo Kenyatta as its first prime minister. The British and KANU agreed, over KADU protests, to constitutional changes in October 1963 strengthening the central government. Kenya became independent on Dec. 12, 1963 (1963 Constitution of Kenya). In 1964 Kenya became a republic, and constitutional changes further centralized the government.[32]

    The British government bought out the white settlers and they mostly left Kenya. The Indian minority dominated retail business in the cities and most towns, but was deeply distrusted by the Africans. As a result 120,000 of the 176,000 Indians kept their old British passports rather than become citizens of an independent Kenya; large numbers left Kenya, most of them headed to Britain.[32]

     Kenyatta regime: 1963-1978

    Once in power Kenyatta swerved from radical nationalism to conservative bourgeois politics. The plantations formerly owned by white settlers were broken up and given to farmers, with the Kikuyu the favoured recipients, along with their allies the Embu and the Meru. By 1978 most of the country’s wealth and power was in the hands of the organisation which grouped these three tribes: the Gikuyu-Embu-Meru Association (GEMA), together comprising 30% of the population. At the same time the Kikuyu, with Kenyatta’s support, spread beyond their traditional territorial homelands and repossessed lands “stolen by the whites” – even when these had previously belonged to other groups. The other groups, a 70% majority, were outraged, setting up long-term ethnic animosities.[33]

    The minority party, the Kenya African Democratic Union (KADU), representing a coalition of small tribes that had feared dominance by larger ones, dissolved itself voluntarily in 1964 and former members joined KANU. KANU was the only party 1964-1966 when a faction broke away as the Kenya People’s Union (KPU). It was led by Jaramogi Oginga Odinga, a former vice president and Luo elder. KPU advocated a more “scientific” route to socialism—criticizing the slow progress in land redistribution and employment opportunities—as well as a realignment of foreign policy in favour of the Soviet Union. In June 1969 Tom Mboya, a Luo member of the government considered a potential successor to Kenyatta, was assassinated. Hostility between Kikuyu and Luo was heightened, and after riots broke out in Luo country KPU was banned. The government used a variety of political and economic measures to harass the KPU and its prospective and actual members. KPU branches were unable to register, KPU meetings were prevented, and civil servants and politicians suffered severe economic and political consequences for joining the KPU. Kenya thereby became a one-party state under KANU.[34]

    Ignoring his suppression of the opposition and continued factionalism within KANU the imposition of one-party rule allowed Mzee (“Old Man”) Kenyatta, who had led the country since independence, claimed he achieved “political stability.” Underlying social tensions were evident, however. Kenya’s very rapid population growth rate and considerable rural to urban migration were in large part responsible for high unemployment and disorder in the cities. There also was much resentment by blacks at the privileged economic position in the country of Asians and Europeans.

    At Kenyatta’s death (August 22, 1978), Vice President Daniel arap Moi became interim President. On October 14, Moi became President formally after he was elected head of KANU and designated its sole nominee. In June 1982, the National Assembly amended the constitution, making Kenya officially a one-party state. On August 1 members of the Kenyan Air Force launched an attempted coup, which was quickly suppressed by Loyalist forces led by the Army, the General Service Unit (GSU) — paramilitary wing of the police — and later the regular police, but not without civilian casualties.[35]

     Foreign policies

    Independent Kenya, although officially non-aligned, adopted a pro-Western stance.[36] Kenya worked unsuccessfully for East African union; the proposal to unite Kenya, Tanzania, and Uganda did not win approval. However, the three nations did form a loose East African Community (EAC) in 1967, that maintained the customs union and some common services that they had shared under British rule. The EAC collapsed in 1977 and it was officially dissolved in 1984. Kenya’s relations with Somalia deteriorated over the problem of Somalis in the North Eastern Province who tried to secede and were supported by Somalia. In 1968, however, Kenya and Somalia agreed to restore normal relations, and the Somali rebellion effectively ended.[35]

     Moi regime, 1978-2002

    Kenyatta died in 1978 and was succeeded by Daniel Arap Moi (b. 1924) who ruled as President 1978-2002. Moi, a member of the Kalenjin ethnic group, quickly consolidated his position and governed in an authoritarian and corrupt manner. By 1986, Moi had concentrated all the power – and most of its attendant economic benefits – into the hands of his Kalenjin tribe and of a handful of allies from minority groups.[35]

    In mid-1982 lower-level air force personnel backed by university students attempted a coup to oust Moi. It failed and was followed by looting of Asian-owned stores by Nairobi’s poor blacks and by attacks on Asian population. Robert Ouko, the senior Luo in Moi’s cabinet, was appointed to expose corruption at high levels but was murdered a few months later. Moi’s closest associate was implicated in Ouko’s murder; Moi dismissed him but not before his remaining Luo support had evaporated. Germany recalled its ambassador to protest the “increasing brutality” of the regime, and foreign donors pressed Moi to allow other parties, which was done in December 1991 through a constitutional amendment.[35]

    Multi-party politics

    After local and foreign pressure, in December 1991, parliament repealed the one-party section of the constitution. The Forum for the Restoration of Democracy (FORD) emerged as the leading opposition to KANU, and dozens of leading KANU figures switched parties. But FORD, led by Oginga Odinga (1911–1994), a Luo, and Kenneth Matiba, a Kikuyu, split into two ethnically based factions. In the first open presidential elections in a quarter century, in December 1992, Moi won with 37% of the vote, Matiba received 26%, Mwai Kibaki (of the mostly Kikuyu Democratic Party) 19%, and Odinga 18%. In the Assembly, KANU won 97 of the 188 seats at stake. Moi’s government in 1993 agreed to economic reforms long urged by the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund, which restored enough aid for Kenya to service its $7.5 billion foreign debt.[35]

    Obstructing the press both before and after the 1992 elections, Moi continually maintained that multiparty politics would only promote tribal conflict. His own regime depended upon exploitation of inter-group hatreds. Under Moi, the apparatus of clientage and control was underpinned by the system of powerful provincial commissioners, each with a bureaucratic hierarchy based on chiefs (and their police) that was more powerful than the elected members of parliament. Elected local councils lost most of their power, and the provincial bosses were answerable only to the central government, which in turn was dominated by the president. The emergence of mass opposition in 1990-91 and demands for constitutional reform were met by rallies against pluralism. The regime leaned on the support of the Kalenjin and incited the Maasai against the Kiyuku. Government politicians denounced the Kiyuku as traitors, obstructed their registration as voters, and threatened them with dispossession. In 1993 and after, mass evictions of Kiyuku took place, often with the direct involvement of army, police, and game rangers. Armed clashes and many casualties, including deaths, resulted.[37]

    Further liberalisation in November 1997 allowed the expansion of political parties from 11 to 26. President Moi won re-election as President in the December 1997 elections, and his KANU Party narrowly retained its parliamentary majority.

    Moi ruled using a strategic mixture of ethnic favoritism, state repression, and marginalization of opposition forces. He utilized detention and torture, looted public finances, and appropriated land and other property. Moi sponsored irregular army units that attacked the Luo, Luhya, and Kikuyu communities, and he disclaimed responsibility by assigning the violence to ethnic clashes arising from a land dispute.[38] Beginning in 1998, Moi engaged in a carefully calculated strategy to manage the presidential succession in his and his party’s favor. Faced with the challenge of a new, multiethnic political coalition, Moi shifted the axis of the 2002 electoral contest from ethnicity to the politics of generational conflict. The strategy backfired, ripping his party wide open and resulting in its humiliating defeat of his candidate, Kenyatta’s son, in the December 2002 general elections.[39]

     21st century

    Constitutionally barred from running in the December 2002 presidential elections, Moi unsuccessfully promoted Uhuru Kenyatta, the son of Kenya’s first President, as his successor. A rainbow coalition of opposition parties routed the ruling KANU party, and its leader, Moi’s former vice-president Mwai Kibaki, was elected President by a large majority.

    On 27 December 2002 by 62% the voters overwhelmingly elected members of the National Rainbow Coalition (NaRC) to parliament and NaRC candidate Mwai Kibaki (1931- ) to the presidency. Voters rejected the Kenya African National Union’s (KANU) presidential candidate, Uhuru Kenyatta, the handpicked candidate of outgoing president Moi. International and local observers reported the 2002 elections to be generally more fair and less violent than those of both 1992 and 1997. His strong showing allowed Kibaki to choose a strong cabinet, to seek international support, and to balance power within the NaRC.

    Kenya witnessed a spectacular economic recovery, helped by a favourable international environment. The annual rate of growth improved from -1.6% in 2002 to 2.6% by 2004, 3.4% in 2005, and 5.5% in 2007. However, social inequalities also increased; the economic benefits went disproportionately to the already well-off (especially to the Kikuyu); corruption reached new depths, matching some of the excesses of the Moi years. Social conditions deteriorated for ordinary Kenyans, who faced a growing wave of routine crime in urban areas; pitched battles between ethnic groups fighting for land; and a feud between the police and the Mungiki sect, which left over 120 people dead in May–November 2007 alone.[33]

    Once regarded as the world’s “most optimistic,” Kibaki’s regime quickly lost much of its power because it became too closely linked with the discredited Moi forces. The continuity between Kibaki and Moi set the stage for the self-destruction of Kibaki’s National Rainbow Coalition, which was dominated by Kikuyus. The western Luo and Kalenjin groups, demanding greater autonomy, backed Raila Amolo Odinga (1945- ) and his Orange Democratic Movement (ODM).[40]

    In the December 2007 elections, Odinga, the candidate of the ODM, attacked the failures of the Kibaki regime. The ODM charged the Kikuyu have grabbed everything and all the other tribes have lost; that Kibaki had betrayed his promises for change; that crime and violence were out of control, and that economic growth was not bringing any benefits to the ordinary citizen. In the December 2007 elections the ODM won a landslide for Parliament, but the counting of votes for president was rigged by the government which proclaimed Kibaki had been re-elected.

    “Majimboism” was a philosophy that emerged in the 1950s, meaning federalism or regionalism in Swahili, and it was intended to protect local rights, especially regarding land ownership. Today “majimboism” is code for certain areas of the country to be reserved for specific ethnic groups, fueling the kind of ethnic cleansing that has swept the country since the election. Majimboism has always had a strong following in the Rift Valley, the epicenter of the recent violence, where many locals have long believed that their land was stolen by outsiders. The December 2007 election was in part a referendum on majimboism. It pitted today’s majimboists, represented by Odinga, who campaigned for regionalism, against Kibaki, who stood for the status quo of a highly centralized government that has delivered considerable economic growth but has repeatedly displayed the problems of too much power concentrated in too few hands — corruption, aloofness, favoritism and its flip side, marginalization. In the town of Londiani in the Rift Valley, Kikuyu traders settled decades ago. In February, 2008, hundreds of Kalenjin raiders poured down from the nearby scruffy hills and burned a Kikuyu school. Three hundred thousand members of the Kikuyu community were displaced from Rift Valley province.[41] Kikuyus quickly took revenge, organizing into gangs armed with iron bars and table legs and hunting down Luos and Kalenjins in Kikuyu-dominated areas like Nakuru. “We are achieving our own perverse version of majimboism,” wrote one of Kenya’s leading columnists, Macharia Gaitho.[42]

    On April 17, 2008, Raila Odinga, from Orange Democratic Movement, a candidate of Kenyan presidential election, 2007 was sworn as Prime Minister of Kenya, after more than forty years of the abolition of office

    Social change

    Fertility decline

    Between 1980 and 2000 total fertility in Kenya fell by about 40%, from some eight births per woman to around five. During the same period, fertility in Uganda declined by less than 10%. The difference was due primarily to greater contraceptive use in Kenya, though in Uganda there was also a reduction in pathological sterility. The Demographic and Health Surveys carried out every five years show that women in Kenya wanted fewer children than those in Uganda and that in Uganda there was also a greater unmet need for contraception. These differences may be attributed, in part at least, to the divergent paths of economic development followed by the two countries since independence and to the Kenya government’s active promotion of family planning, which the Uganda government did not promote until 1995.[43]

     Luo

    The Luo population of the southwest had enjoyed an advantageous position during the late colonial and early independence periods of the 1950s, 1960s, and early 1970s, particularly in terms of the prominence of its modern elite compared to those of other groups. However the Luo lost prominence due to the success of Kikuyu and related groups (Embu and Meru) in gaining and exercising political power during the Jomo Kenyatta era (1963–1978). While measurements of poverty and health by the early 2000s showed the Luo disadvantaged relative to other Kenyans, the growing presence of non-Luo in the professions reflected a dilution of Luo professionals due to the arrival of others rather than an absolute decline in the Luo numbers.[44]

    2.Uganda

    History of Uganda

    History of Uganda
    Flag of the Uganda Protectorate from 1914 to 1962 Flag of Uganda

     

    Chronology
    Early history (before 1894)
    British rule (1894–1962)
    Early independence (1962–71)
    Under Idi Amin (1971–79)
    Recent history (1979–present)
    Special themes
    Expulsion of Asians (1972)
    History of Buganda
    Military history of Uganda
    Uganda–Tanzania War (1978–79)
    Ugandan Bush War (1981–86)
    LRA insurgency (1987–present)

     

    Uganda before 1900

    The earliest human inhabitants in a contemporary Uganda were hunter-gathers. Remnants of these people are today to be found among the pygmies in western Uganda. Between approximately 2500 to 1500 years ago, Bantu speaking populations from central and western Africa migrated and occupied most of the southern parts of the country. This culture was part of the Urewe, or early eastern Bantu cultural complex. The migrants brought with them agriculture, ironworking skills and new ideas of social and political organization, that by the fifteenth or sixteenth century resulted in the development of centralized kingdoms, including the kingdoms of Buganda, Bunyoro-Kitara and Ankole.

    Nilotic people, including Luo and Ateker entered the area from the north probably beginning about AD 1000. They were cattle herders and subsistence farmers who settled mainly the northern and eastern parts of the country. Some Luo invaded the area of Bunyoro and assimilated with the Bantu there, establishing the Babiito dynasty of the current Omukama (ruler) of Bunyoro-Kitara in the mid second millennium AD. Luo migration proceeded until the 16th century, with some Luo settling amid Bantu people in Eastern Uganda, and proceeding to the western shores of Lake Victoria in Kenya and Tanzania. The Ateker (Karimojong and Teso peoples) settled in the north-eastern and eastern parts of the country, and some fused with the Luo in the area north of lake Kyoga.

    When Arab traders and slavers moved inland from their enclaves along the Indian Ocean coast of East Africa and reached the interior of Uganda in the 1830s, they found several kingdoms with well-developed political institutions. These traders and slavers were followed in the 1860s by British explorers and abolitionists searching for the source of the Nile River and to end slavery. Protestant missionaries entered the country in 1877, followed by Catholic missionaries in 1879.

     Colonial Uganda

    In 1888, control of the emerging British “sphere of interest” in East Africa was assigned by royal charter to William Mackinnon‘s Imperial British East Africa Company, an arrangement strengthened in 1890 by an Anglo-German agreement confirming British dominance over Kenya and Uganda. The high cost of occupying the territory caused the company to withdraw in 1893, and its administrative functions were taken over by a British commissioner. In 1894, the Kingdom of Uganda was placed under a formal British protectorate.

    Early independent Uganda

    Britain granted independence to Uganda in 1962, and the first elections were held on 1 March 1961. Benedicto Kiwanuka of the Democratic Party became the first Chief Minister. Uganda became a republic the following year, maintaining its Commonwealth membership.

    In succeeding years, supporters of a centralized state vied with those in favor of a loose federation and a strong role for tribally-based local kingdoms. Political maneuvering climaxed in February 1966, when Prime Minister Milton Obote suspended the constitution and assumed all government powers, removing the positions of president and vice president. In September 1967, a new constitution proclaimed Uganda a republic, gave the president even greater powers, and abolished the traditional kingdoms.

    Uganda under Amin

    On 25 January 1971, Obote’s government was ousted in a military coup led by armed forces commander Idi Amin Dada. Amin declared himself ‘president,’ dissolved the parliament, and amended the constitution to give himself absolute power.

    Idi Amin’s eight-year rule produced economic decline, social disintegration, and massive human rights violations. The Acholi and Langi ethnic groups were particular objects of Amin’s political persecution because they had supported Obote and made up a large part of the army. In 1978, the International Commission of Jurists estimated that more than 100,000 Ugandans had been murdered during Amin’s reign of terror; some authorities place the figure as high as 300,000—a statistic cited at the end of the 2006 movie The Last King of Scotland, which chronicled part of Amin’s dictatorship.

    A border altercation involving Ugandan exiles who had a camp close to the Ugandan border of Mutukula resulted into an attack by the Uganda army into Tanzania. In October 1978, Tanzanian armed forces repulsed an incursion of Amin’s troops into Tanzanian territory. The Tanzanian army, backed by Ugandan exiles waged a war of liberation against Amin’s troops and the Libyan soldiers sent to help him. On 11 April 1979, Kampala was captured, and Amin fled with his remaining forces.

     Uganda since 1979

    Main article: Uganda since 1979

    After Amin’s removal, the Uganda National Liberation Front formed an interim government with Yusuf Lule as president and Jeremiah Lucas Opira as the Secretary General of the UNLF. This government adopted a ministerial system of administration and created a quasi-parliamentary organ known as the National Consultative Commission (NCC). The NCC and the Lule cabinet reflected widely differing political views. In June 1979, following a dispute over the extent of presidential powers, the NCC replaced Lule with Godfrey Binaisa. In a continuing dispute over the powers of the interim presidency, Binaisa was removed in May 1980. Thereafter, Uganda was ruled by a military commission chaired by Paulo Muwanga. The December 1980 elections returned the UPC to power under the leadership of President Milton Obote, with Muwanga serving as vice president. Under Obote, the security forces had one of the world’s worst human rights records. In their efforts to stamp out an insurgency led by Yoweri Museveni‘s National Resistance Army (NRA), they laid waste to a substantial section of the country, especially in the Luwero area north of Kampala.

    Obote ruled until 27 July 1985, when an army brigade, composed mostly of ethnic Acholi troops and commanded by Lt. Gen. Bazilio Olara-Okello, took Kampala and proclaimed a military government. Obote fled to exile in Zambia. The new regime, headed by former defense force commander Gen. Tito Okello (no relation to Lt. Gen. Olara-Okello), opened negotiations with Museveni’s insurgent forces and pledged to improve respect for human rights, end tribal rivalry, and conduct free and fair elections. In the meantime, massive human rights violations continued as the Okello government carried out a brutal counterinsurgency in an attempt to destroy the NRA’s support.

    Acholiland in the north.

    Negotiations between the Okello government and the NRA were conducted in Nairobi in the fall of 1985, with Kenyan President Daniel arap Moi seeking a cease-fire and a coalition government in Uganda. Although agreeing in late 1985 to a cease-fire, the NRA continued fighting, and seized Kampala and the country in late January 1986, forcing Okello’s forces to flee north into Sudan. Museveni’s forces organized a government with Museveni as president.

    Since assuming power, the government dominated by the political grouping created by Museveni and his followers, the National Resistance Movement (NRM or the “Movement”), has largely put an end to the human rights abuses of earlier governments, initiated substantial political liberalization and general press freedom, and instituted broad economic reforms after consultation with the International Monetary Fund (IMF), World Bank, and donor governments.

    In northern areas such as Acholiland, there has been armed resistance against the government since 1986. Acholi based rebel groups include the Uganda People’s Democratic Army and the Holy Spirit Movement. Currently, the only remaining rebel group is the Lord’s Resistance Army headed by Joseph Kony, which has carried out widespread abduction of children to serve as soldiers or sex slaves.

    In 1996, Uganda was a key supporter of the overthrow of Zairean President Mobutu Sese Seko in the First Congo War in favor of rebel leader Laurent-Désiré Kabila. Between 1998 and 2003, the Ugandan army was involved in the Second Congo War in the renamed Democratic Republic of the Congo and the government continues to support rebel groups such as the Movement for the Liberation of Congo and some factions of the Rally for Congolese Democracy.

    In August 2005, Parliament voted to change the constitution to lift presidential term limits, allowing Museveni to run for a third term if he wishes to do so. In a referendum in July, 2005, 92.5% supported restoring multiparty politics, thereby scrapping the no-party or “movement” system. Kizza Besigye, Museveni’s political rival, returned from exile in October 2005, and was a presidential candidate for the 2006 elections. In the same month, Milton Obote died in South Africa. Museveni won the February 2006 presidential election.

    In 2009, the Anti-Homosexuality Bill was proposed and under consideration.[1] It was proposed on 13 October 2009 by Member of Parliament David Bahati and would, if enacted, broaden the criminalization of homosexuality in Uganda, including introducing the death penalty for people who have previous convictions, who are HIV-positive, or who engage in sexual acts with those under 18,[2] introducing extradition for those engaging in same-sex sexual relations outside Uganda, and penalising individuals, companies, media organizations, or NGOs who support LGBT rights.

     3.Tanganyika

    Tanganyika(now Tanzania)

    Republic of Tanganyika
    1961–1964
    Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika
    Anthem
    Mungu ibariki Afrika
    Capital Dar es Salaam
    Language(s) Swahili
    English
    Government Republic
    President
     – 1961-1964 Julius Nyerere
    History  
     – Independence 9 December 1961
     – Unification with Zanzibar 26 April 1964

    Flag of Deutsch-Ostafrika (1885-1919)

    Flag of Tanganyika (1919-1961)

    Flag of the Republic of Tanganyika 1961–64

    The nation Tanzania consists of the mainland part, formerly called Tanganyika, and the islands of Zanzibar. Note that since 1996, the capital has been at Dodoma.

    Tanganyika was an East African territory lying between the Indian Ocean and the largest of the African great lakes: Lake Victoria, Lake Malawi and Lake Tanganyika. From 9 December 1961 to 26 April 1964 it was also an independent state. Once part of the colony of German East Africa (German: Deutsch-Ostafrika), it comprised today’s Rwanda, Burundi, and Tanzania with the exclusion of Zanzibar. After World War I the parts that are today’s Rwanda and Burundi became a League of Nations mandate governed by Belgium. The major part, however, came under British military rule and was transferred to Britain under the 1919 Treaty of Versailles. This was confirmed by a League of Nations Mandate in 1922, later becoming a United Nations Trust Territory. Britain changed the name to the Tanganyika Territory.

    On 9 December 1961 Tanganyika became independent as a Commonwealth Realm, and on 9 December 1962 it became the Republic of Tanganyika within the Commonwealth of Nations. In 1964, it joined with the islands of Zanzibar to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, later in the year changed to the United Republic of Tanzania.

    Although Tanganyika still exists within Tanzania, the name is no longer used formally for the territory. These days the name Tanganyika is used almost exclusively to refer to the lake.

     
         
     
    Table of Contents
    1 History
    2 See also
    3 References
    4 External links
     
         

    //

    History

    The name ‘Tanganyika’ is derived from the Swahili words tanga meaning ‘sail’ and nyika meaning an ‘uninhabited plain’ or ‘wilderness’. At its simplest it might therefore be understood as a description of the lake — ‘sail in the wilderness’.[1]

    As European explorers and colonialists penetrated the African interior from Zanzibar in the second half of the 19th century, to Europeans Tanganyika came to mean, informally, the country around the lake, chiefly on the eastern side. In 1885 Germany declared that it intended to establish a protectorate, named German East Africa in the area, under the leadership of Carl Peters. When the Sultan of Zanzibar objected, German warships threatened to bombard his palace. Britain and Germany then agreed to divide the mainland into spheres of influence, and the Sultan was forced to acquiesce. After charges of brutality in the repression of the Maji Maji Rebellion of 1905, and reform under the leadership of Bernhard Dernburg in 1907, the colony became a model of colonial efficiency and commanded extraordinary loyalty among the indigenous peoples during the First World War. The German educational programme for native Africans, including elementary, secondary and vocational schools, was particularly notable, with standards unmatched elsewhere in tropical Africa[2][3].

    After the defeat of Germany in 1918 in World War I, under the Treaty of Versailles German East Africa was divided among the victorious powers, with the largest segment being transferred to British control (except Rwanda and Burundi which went to Belgium, and the small Kionga Triangle which went to Portuguese Mozambique). A new name was needed, and Tanganyika was adopted by the British for all of its part of the territory of German East Africa.

    In 1927, Tanganyika entered the Customs Union of Kenya and Uganda, as well as the East African Postal Union, later the East African Posts and Telecommunications Administration. Cooperation expanded with those countries in a number of ways, leading to the establishment of the East African High Commission (1948–1961) and the East African Common Services Organisation (1961–1967), forerunners of the East African Community. The country held its first elections in 1958 and 1959. The following year it was granted internal self-government and fresh elections were held. Both elections were won by the Tanganyika African National Union, which led the country to independence in December 1961. The following year a presidential election was held, with TANU leader Julius Nyerere emerging victorious.

    Tanganyika ceased to exist as a nation in 1964, when it was loosely united with Zanzibar, to form the nation of Tanzania.[4]

    the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

    The Microfilming Of Mail During World War II Exhibition

    Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

    tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                               WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                              SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                    AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                              DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

    _____________________________________________________________________

    SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

    _____________________________________________________________________

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                          *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                    THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                               MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                     DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                            PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                         THE FOUNDER

                                                Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                             

        BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

      

                             WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                         SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

    Showcase :

    The Microfilming Of Mail During WW II  Collections Exhibition

    Frame One:

    Introductions

    1.The microfilming of Mail introduced in the France,Prussian war ,and also in another countries like British  & USA, was revived in Worl War II.

    2.History of microfiolming mail

    Microfilm first saw military use during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris, the only way for the provincial government in Tours to communicate with Paris was by pigeon post. As the pigeons could not carry paper dispatches, the Tours government turned to microfilm. Using a microphotography unit evacuated from Paris before the siege, clerks in Tours photographed paper dispatches and compressed them to microfilm, which were carried by homing pigeons into Paris and projected by magic lantern while clerks copied the dispatches onto paper.[9]

    Additionally, the US Victory Mail(V-Mail)

    , and the British “Airgraph” system it was based on

    , were used for delivering mail between those at home and troops serving overseas during World War II. The systems worked by photographing large amounts of censored mail reduced to thumb-nail size onto reels of microfilm, which weighed much less than the originals would have. The film reels were shipped by priority air freight to and from the home fronts, sent to their prescribed destinations for enlarging at receiving stations near the recipients, and printed out on lightweight photo paper. These facsimiles of the letter-sheets were reproduced about one-quarter the original size and the miniature mails were then delivered to the addressee. Use of these microfilm systems saved significant volumes of cargo capacity needed for vital war supplies. An additional benefit was that the small, light weight reels of microfilm were almost always transported by air, and as such were much quicker than any surface mail services.

    3. The Photostat made from the microfilm

    and the spesific window enveloped(Airgraph) envelope in which the message was formarded to the adress ,it was sent from IBOD government or military field  headquater to the field commander,soldier or to their family.

    4. Type of Microfilming Mail

    Microfilm Models: Precursors of V-Mail

    V-Mail microfilm technology was a product of years of discovery and experimentation. Soon after the advent of photography in the mid 1830s, John Benjamin (J.B.) Dancer pioneered the first microphotographs by mounting images on microscope slides. The process, refined through the years with the advancement of technology and microphotography, was capable of shrinking regular documents down to a smaller size which allowed for easy transportation and cataloging. Tiny microfilmed messages were lightweight, and were processed quickly. Because of these characteristics, microphotography became a good candidate for a partnership with wartime mail as early as the 1870s.

    The French Pigeon Post

    In July 1870 the longtime border disputes between France and its rival Prussia erupted into the Franco-Prussian War. In September of 1871 the conflict escalated and the Prussian army’s siege of the capital effectively cut off the mail between Paris and its surrounding cities. Under these strained conditions, members of the pigeon fanciers’ society L’Esperance (“Hope”) volunteered carrier pigeons to deliver the mail. Initially, government and postal officials were skeptical of the small birds. Nevertheless, as the siege dragged on, it was apparent that a way to get the mail through the blockade was through the air.

    The tiny avian messengers did not fly into Paris directly but rather were carried to the city limits by hot air balloon. Balloons seen over Paris were vulnerable to Prussian gunfire and it was safer to launch the balloons with their winged passengers outside of the city boundaries.

    Several stations were set up throughout the surrounding French countryside to house the birds and their handlers. These sites also served as relay stations to help the balloons maintain communication with each other. Once a balloon was within safe range of the city, the handler would release the pigeon and the balloon would fly back to safety.

    The birds had the difficult task of maneuvering around the perils of the war-torn city. The winged messengers carried the microphotographed letters inside small, quill containers. The successfully delivered microfilm was enlarged for transcription and reading.

    The British Airgraph Service

    In January 1941 Great Britain partnered with the Eastman Kodak Company to launch the Airgraph service. The Airgraph was created to provide a faster mail service to British forces in the Middle East and Africa. Before the Airgraph was inaugurated, ordinary letters had to be transported by ship. For a letter to travel from Cairo, Egypt to the United Kingdom took an estimated time of 24 to 30 days. The Airgraph reduced that traveling time in half because the microfilmed letters could travel by air instead of by sea. Approximately 4,500 negatives of microfilmed letters weighed just one pound, which left more room for shipping ammunition, blood plasma, and clothing.

    Although V-Mail was modeled after Airgraph service with U.S. adaptations to the British format. The size of the Airgraph letter sheet stationery was expanded from 8 x 11 inches to 8 1/2” x 11” and the photographic-print facsimile was also enlarged from 4” x 5” to 4 1/2” x 5 1/2”. Even though these changes were seemingly small, these few extra inches gave the writer more space and helped make the tiny letters easier to read. See the 3rd and 4th images for examples of an Airgraph and a V-mail blank, respectively.

    V-Mail forms also had a different address section which made for a speedier delivery. Airgraphs provided a panel for the recipient’s address and the sender was instructed to include his contact information just above the body of his letter. V-Mail stationery had two distinct boxes that separated the sender’s information from the receiver’s. This change not only cut back on misaddressed mail but also made letters easier to trace back to the original sender

    5.If the collectors had the same collections please show us to made this exhibition more complete,thanks very much for show us your unusual aeroragraph microfilm of mail collections.

    5. During WWII ,in 1943 starting difficult to sent airmails, and the airmail sent by ship with postmark NO AIRMAILS and we could look some pictures of the war situation in 1943 ,many areas were under Germany Hitler occupations, all mail were sencored with Nazi censored stamped, please look some of my collections from this time ,from Germany Occupations Franch area, British Prisoner of War in Germany Camp,and also other POW camps letters. and at least only microfilming mails exist until 1944 when the Allied Armed Forces starting to liberating Euro Area from Germany Hitler Occupations,

    6.May be some one can told us how to sent the microfiolming mails, I have heard from  senior collectors that the microfilm sent by pigeon bird(burung merpati),please comment from senior collectors .

    Jakarta 2011

    the blog founder

    Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Frame Two:

    No Airmail During WW II in 1943 (Dr Iwan Private Collections)

     Frame Three:

    The Microfilming Of Mail (AIRGRAPH)During WWII In 1943(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

    Frame Four:

    The microform (Microfilming Mail) Historic collections

    Digital scanning of microfilm (see Digital conversion below).

    Microforms are any form, either films or paper, containing microreproductions[1] of documents for transmission, storage, reading, and printing. Microform images are commonly reduced about 25 times from the original document size. For special purposes, greater optical reductions may be used.

    All microform images may be provided as positives or negatives, more often the latter.

    Three formats are common: microfilm (reels), aperture cards and microfiche (flat sheets). Microcards, a format no longer produced, were similar to microfiche, but printed on cardboard rather than photographic film.

    Contents

    //

    History

    Using the daguerreotype process, John Benjamin Dancer was one of the first to produce micro-photographs, in 1839. He achieved a reduction ratio of 160:1. Dancer perfected his reduction procedures with Frederick Scott Archer’s wet collodion process, developed in 1850–51, but he dismissed his decades-long work on micro-photographs as a personal hobby, and did not document his procedures. The idea that microphotography could be no more than a novelty was an opinion shared by the 1858 Dictionary of Photography, which called the process “somewhat trifling and childish.”[2]

    Microphotography was first suggested as a document preservation method in 1851 by James Glaisher, an astronomer, and in 1853 by John Herschel. Both men attended the 1851 Great Exhibition in London, where the exhibit on photography greatly influenced Glaisher. He called it “the most remarkable discovery of modern times,” and argued in his official report for using microphotography to preserve documents.[3]

    The developments in microphotography continued through the next decades, but it was not until the turn of the century that its potential for practical usage was seized by a wider audience. In 1896, Canadian engineer Reginald A. Fessenden suggested microforms were a compact solution to engineers’ unwieldy but frequently consulted materials. He proposed that up to 150,000,000 words could be made to fit in a square inch, and that a one foot cube could contain 1.5 million volumes.[4]

    In 1906, Paul Otlet and Robert Goldschmidt proposed the livre microphotographique as a way to alleviate the cost and space limitations imposed by the codex format.[5] Otlet’s overarching goal was to create a World Center Library of Juridical, Social and Cultural Documentation, and he saw microfiche as way to offer a stable and durable format that was inexpensive, easy to use, easy to reproduce, and extremely compact. In 1925, the team spoke of a massive library where each volume existed as master negatives and positives, and where items were printed on demand for interested patrons.[6]

    In the decade of the 1920s microfilm began to be used in a commercial setting. New York City banker George McCarthy was issued a patent in 1925 for his “Checkograph” machine, designed to make micrographic copies of cancelled checks for permanent storage by financial institutions. In 1928, the Eastman Kodak Company bought McCarthy’s invention and began marketing check microfilming devices under its “Recordak” division.[7]

    Between 1927 and 1935, the Library of Congress microfilmed more than three million pages of books and manuscripts in the British Library;[8] in 1929 the Social Science Research Council and the American Council of Learned Societies joined to create a Joint Committee on Materials Research, which looked closely at microform’s potential to serve small print runs of academic or technical materials; in 1933, Charles C. Peters developed a method to microformat dissertations; in 1934 the United States National Agriculture Library implemented the first microform print-on-demand service, which was quickly followed by a similar commercial concern, Science Service.[4]

    In 1935, Kodak’s Recordak division began filming and publishing The New York Times on reels of 35 millimeter microfilm, ushering in the era of newspaper preservation on film.[7] This method of information storage received the sanction of the American Library Association at it annual meeting in 1936, when it officially endorsed microforms.

    Harvard University Library was the first major institution to realize the potential of microfilm to preserved broadsheets printed on high-acid newsprint and it launched its “Foreign Newspaper Project” to preserve such ephemeral publications in 1938.[7] Roll microfilm proved far more satisfactory as a storage medium than earlier methods of film information storage, such as the Photoscope, the Film-O-Graph, the Fiske-O-Scope, and filmslides.

    The year 1938 also saw another major event in the history of microfilm when University Microfilms International (UMI) was established by Eugene Power.[7] For the next half century, UMI would dominate the field, filming and distributing microfilm editions of current and past publications and academic dissertations. After another short-lived name change, UMI was made a part of ProQuest Information and Learning in 2001.

     Uses

    Systems that mount microfilm images in punched cards have been widely used for archival storage of engineering information.

    For example, when airlines demand archival engineering drawings to support purchased equipment (in case the vendor goes out of business, for example), they normally specified punch-card-mounted microfilm with an industry-standard indexing system punched into the card. This permits automated reproduction, as well as permitting mechanical card-sorting equipment to sort and select microfilm drawings.

    Aperture card mounted microfilm is roughly 3% of the size and space of conventional paper or vellum engineering drawings. Some military contracts around 1980 began to specify digital storage of engineering and maintenance data because the expenses were even lower than microfilm, but these programs are now finding it difficult to purchase new readers for the old formats.

    Microfilm first saw military use during the Franco-Prussian War of 1870–71. During the Siege of Paris, the only way for the provincial government in Tours to communicate with Paris was by pigeon post. As the pigeons could not carry paper dispatches, the Tours government turned to microfilm. Using a microphotography unit evacuated from Paris before the siege, clerks in Tours photographed paper dispatches and compressed them to microfilm, which were carried by homing pigeons into Paris and projected by magic lantern while clerks copied the dispatches onto paper.[9]

    Additionally, the US Victory Mail, and the British “Airgraph” system it was based on, were used for delivering mail between those at home and troops serving overseas during World War II. The systems worked by photographing large amounts of censored mail reduced to thumb-nail size onto reels of microfilm, which weighed much less than the originals would have. The film reels were shipped by priority air freight to and from the home fronts, sent to their prescribed destinations for enlarging at receiving stations near the recipients, and printed out on lightweight photo paper. These facsimiles of the letter-sheets were reproduced about one-quarter the original size and the miniature mails were then delivered to the addressee. Use of these microfilm systems saved significant volumes of cargo capacity needed for vital war supplies. An additional benefit was that the small, light weight reels of microfilm were almost always transported by air, and as such were much quicker than any surface mail services.Please look the collections I have found uring google explorations below:

    World War II – Prisoners of War – Stalag Luft I 

    A collection of stories, photos, art and information on Stalag Luft I

     

    //

         

    V-MailOctober 24, 1944Dearest Son,        As no mail seems to be coming through to us from you (your last letter we received two weeks ago), I’m sure you must be having some trouble so I’m going to try V-Mail.  Martha hasn’t heard from Emory in over ten days but today a V-Mail letter to Lola came in – as slow as this type letter is, it must be better than airmail, until this condition gets better what ever the condition, I don’t know.        Daddy has written you every day for 4 straight weeks now.  I write once a week, as I told you in my last letter, I can’t think of a thing to write because he writes it all.  Every thing I hear I tell him so he can have something to say.  He is proud of his record of letters to you.  Be sure to brag on him, etc.        Lewis Mitchell is here and looks great in his uniform.  I heard some one go in the other door and whistle your whistle – boy my heart did flip-flops.  I rushed over and there stood “Brer”.  No one’s here for him to play around with so it’s going to be pretty lonesome.        Jeannie and Mr. White haven’t heard from Hugh in over a month.  I feel so sorry for them.  They have asked the Red Cross to get in touch with him and find out what’s the matter.        Sister and Ben may come home to live.  Will write more later.

                                            Love,

                                                    Mother

    P.S.  Am praying for your safe return each night.

    Here’s Brer Mitchell:

    Hello Dick,

    Hold everything down until my gang and I get over there.  Best of luck too.  

     Brer

     
    Scan of the V-mail letter

    What is V- Mail?
    During the latter years of World War II,  V-Mail became a popular way to correspond with a loved one serving overseas. V-mail consisted of miniaturized messages reproduced by microphotography from 16mm film. The system of microfilming letters was based on the use of special V-mail letter-sheets, which were a combination of letter and envelope. The letter-sheets were constructed and gummed so as to fold into a uniform and distinctively marked envelope.  The user wrote the message in the limited space provided, added the name and address of the recipient, folded the form, affixed postage, if necessary, and mailed the letter. The V-mail correspondence was then reduced to thumb-nail size on microfilm.  The rolls of film were flown across the world and then developed at destinations closest to the recipient’s position.  Finally, individual facsimiles of the V-mail letter-sheets, which were about one-quarter the original size, were then mailed and delivered to the addressee.The development of the V-Mail system reduced the time it took a soldier to receive a letter by a month – from six weeks by boat to twelve days or less by air.  However, the main advantage of V-Mail was its compact nature. Reduction in the size and weight of the letters translated into more space for crucial military supplies on cargo planes.  One roll of film weighing about 7 ounces could hold over 1,500 letters.  Putting that another way, two pounds of microfilm replaced 100 pounds of letters!  Over a billion letters (556,513,795 pieces of V-mail were sent from the U.S. to military post offices and over 510 million pieces were received from military personnel abroad) were sent via V-mail between 1942 and 1945.  Think of it as the earliest form of e-mail. Americans on the home-front were encouraged by the government and private businesses to use V-Mail. Letters from home were compared to “a five minute furlough,” and advertisements that instructed how, when, and what to write in a V-Mail reached a peak in 1944. Letters were to be cheerful, short, and frequent. V-Mail made it possible for servicemen halfway across the world to hear news from home on a weekly basis.

    A package of V-Mail letters
     
     
    Outside of the letter
     

    Inside of the letter
     
       
     
    Instructions for sending V-Mail
     
     

    Example of V-mail letter on sending side

    Example of V-mail letter on receiving side

    Libraries began using microfilm in the mid-20th century as a preservation strategy for deteriorating newspaper collections. Books and newspapers that were deemed in danger of decay could be preserved on film and thus access and use could be increased. Microfilming was also a space-saving measure. In his 1945 book, “The Scholar and the Future of the Research Library,” Fremont Rider calculated that research libraries were doubling in space every sixteen years. His suggested solution was microfilming, specifically with his invention, the microcard. Once items were put onto film, they could be removed from circulation and additional shelf space would be made available for rapidly expanding collections. The microcard was superseded by microfiche. By the 1960s, microfilming had become standard policy.

    Visa and National City use microfilm to store bank statements, and produce microfilm, from digital records, that is placed into storage.

     Advantages

    The medium has numerous advantages:

    • It enables libraries to greatly expand access to collections without putting rare, fragile, or valuable items at risk of theft or damage.
    • It is compact, with far smaller storage costs than paper documents. Normally 98 document size pages fit on one fiche, reducing to about 0.25% original material. When compared to filing paper, microforms can reduce space storage requirements by up to 95%.[10]
    • It is cheaper to distribute than paper copy. Most microfiche services get a bulk discount on reproduction rights, and have lower reproduction and carriage costs than a comparable amount of printed paper.
    • It is a stable archival form when properly processed and stored. Preservation standard microfilms use the silver halide process, creating silver images in hard gelatin emulsion on a polyester base. With appropriate storage conditions, this film has a life expectancy of 500 years.[11] Unfortunately, in tropical climates with high humidity, fungus eats the gelatin used to bind the silver halide. Thus, diazo-based systems with lower archival lives (20 years) which have polyester or epoxy surfaces are used.
    • Since it is analog (an actual image of the original data), it is easy to view. Unlike digital media, the format requires no software to decode the data stored thereon. It is instantly comprehensible to persons literate in the language; the only equipment that is needed is a simple magnifying glass. This eliminates the problem of software obsolescence.
    • It is virtually impossible to mutilate. Users cannot tear pages from or deface microforms.
    • It has low intrinsic value and does not attract thieves. Few heavily-used microform collections suffer any losses due to theft.
    • Prints from microfilm are accepted in legal proceedings as substitutes for original documents.

    Disadvantages

    • The principal disadvantage of microforms is that the image is (usually) too small to read with the naked eye. Libraries must use either special readers that project full-size images on a ground-glass or frosted acrylic screen or a modern Viewer/Scanner which converts the image from analog to digital -see section below on Digital Conversion.
    • Reader machines used to view microfilm are often difficult to use, requiring users to carefully wind and rewind until they have arrived at the point where the data they are looking for is stored.
    • Photographic illustrations reproduce poorly in microform format, with loss of clarity and halftones. However the latest electronic digital viewer/scanners have the ability to scan in gray shade which greatly increases the quality of photographs, but they still can not duplicate the nuances of true gray shade photographs -due to the inherent bi-tonal nature of microfilm.
    • Reader-printers are not always available, limiting the user’s ability to make copies for their own purposes. Conventional photocopy machines cannot be used.[12]
    • Color microform is extremely expensive, thus discouraging most libraries supplying color films. Color photographic dyes also tend to degrade over the long term. This results in the loss of information, as color materials are usually photographed using black and white film.[12]
    • When stored in the highest-density drawers, it is easy to misfile a fiche, which is thereafter unavailable. As a result, some libraries store microfiche in a restricted area and retrieve it on demand. Some fiche services use lower-density drawers with labeled pockets for each card.
    • Like all analog media formats, microfiche is lacking in features enjoyed by users of digital media. Analog copies degrade with each generation, while digital copies have much higher copying fidelity. Digital data can also be indexed and searched easily.
    • Reading microfilms on a machine for some time may cause headache and/or eyestrain.

     Readers and printers

    Desktop readers are boxes with a translucent screen at the front on to which is projected an image from a microform. They have suitable fittings for whatever microform is in use. They may offer a choice of magnifications. They usually have motors to advance and rewind film. When coding blips are recorded on the film a reader is used that can read the blips to find any required image.

    Portable readers are plastic devices that fold for carrying; when open they project an image from microfiche on to a reflective screen. For example, with M. de Saint Rat, Atherton Seidell developed a simple, inexpensive ($2.00 in 1950), monocular microfilm viewing device, known as the “Seidell viewer,” that was sold during the 1940s and 1950s.[13]

    A microfilm printer contains a xerographic copying process, like a photocopier. The image to be printed is projected with synchronised movement on to the drum. These devices offer either small image preview for the operator or full size image preview, when it is called a reader printer. Microform printers can accept positive or negative films and positive or negative images on paper. New machines allow the user to scan a microform image and save it as a digital file -see the section below on Digital conversion.

    Media

    Microfilm roll

    Aperture card with hollerith info

    A duped jacket fiche

    Flat film 
    105 x 148 mm flat film is used for micro images of very large engineering drawings. These may carry a title photographed or written along one edge. Typical reduction is about 20, representing a drawing that is 2.00 x 2.80 metres, that is 79 x 110 in. These films are stored as microfiche.
    Microfilm 
    16 mm or 35 mm film to motion picture standard is used, usually unperforated. Roll microfilm is stored on open reels or put into cassettes. The standard lengths for using roll film is 30.48 m (100 ft)for 35mm rolls, and 100 ft, 130 ft and 215 feet for 16mm rolls. One roll of 35 mm film may carry 600 images of large engineering drawings or 800 images of broadsheet newspaper pages. 16 mm film may carry 2,400 images of letter sized images as a single stream of micro images along the film set so that lines of text are parallel to the sides of the film or 10,000 small documents, perhaps cheques or betting slips, with both sides of the originals set side by side on the film.
    Aperture cards 
    Aperture cards are Hollerith cards into which a hole has been cut. A 35 mm microfilm chip is mounted in the hole inside of a clear plastic sleeve, or secured over the aperture by an adhesive tape. They are used for engineering drawings, for all engineering disciplines. There are libraries of these containing over 3 million cards. Aperture cards may be stored in drawers or in freestanding rotary units.
    Microfiche 
    A microfiche is a flat film 105 x 148 mm in size, that is ISO A6. It carries a matrix of micro images. All microfiche are read with text parallel to the long side of the fiche. Frames may be landscape or portrait. Along the top of the fiche a title may be recorded for visual identification. The most commonly used format is a portrait image of about 10 x 14 mm. Office size papers or magazine pages require a reduction of 24 or 25. Microfiche are stored in open top envelopes which are put in drawers or boxes as file cards, or fitted into pockets in purpose made books.
    Ultrafiche 
    (also ‘ultramicrofiche’) is an exceptionally compact version of a microfiche or microfilm, storing analog data at much higher densities. Ultrafiche can be created directly from computers using appropriate peripherals. They are typically used for storing data gathered from extremely data-intensive operations such as remote sensing.

     Image creation

    To create microform media, a planetary camera is mounted with the vertical axis above a copy that is stationary during exposure. High volume output is possible with a rotary camera which moves the copy smoothly through the camera to expose film which moves with the reduced image. Alternatively, it may be produced by computers, i.e. COM (computer output microfilm).

    Film

    Normally microfilming uses high resolution panchromatic monochrome stock. Positive color film giving good reproduction and high resolution can also be used. Roll film is provided 16, 35 and 105 mm wide in lengths of 30 metres (100 ft) and longer, and is usually unperforated. Roll film is developed, fixed and washed by continuous processors.

    Sheet film is supplied in ISO A6 size. This is either processed by hand or using a dental X-ray processor. Camera film is supplied ready mounted in aperture cards. Aperture cards are developed, fixed and washed immediately after exposure by equipment fitted to the camera.

    Early cut sheet microforms and microfilms (to the 1930s) were printed on nitrate film, which poses high risks to their holding institutions, as nitrate film is explosive and flammable. From the late 1930s to the 1980s, microfilms were usually printed on a cellulose acetate base, which is prone to tears, vinegar syndrome, and redox blemishes. Vinegar syndrome is the result of chemical decay and produces “buckling and shrinking, embrittlement, and bubbling”.[14] Redox blemishes are yellow, orange or red spots 15–150 micrometres in diameter created by oxidative attacks on the film, and are largely due to poor storage conditions.[15]

     Cameras

    Flat film

    The simplest microfilm camera that is still in use is a rail mounted structure at the top of which is a bellows camera for 105 x 148 mm film. A frame or copy board holds the original drawing vertical. The camera has a horizontal axis which passes through the centre of the copy. The structure may be moved horizontally on rails.

    In a darkroom a single film may be inserted into a dark slide or the camera may be fitted with a roll film holder which after an exposure advances the film into a box and cuts the frame off the roll for processing as a single film.

    Roll film

    For engineering drawings a freestanding open steel structure is often provided. A camera may be moved vertically on a track. Drawings are placed on a large table for filming, with centres under the lens. Fixed lights illuminate the copy. These cameras are often over 3 metres (10 feet) high. These cameras accept roll film stock of 35 or 16 mm.

    For office documents a similar design may be used but bench standing. This is a smaller version of the camera described above. These are provided either with the choice of 16 or 35 mm film or accepting 16 mm film only. Non adjustable versions of the office camera are provided. These have a rigid frame or an enveloping box that holds a camera at a fixed position over a copy board. If this is to work at more than one reduction ratio there are a choice of lenses.

    Some cameras expose a pattern of light, referred to as blips, to digitally identify each adjacent frame. This pattern is copied whenever the film is copied for searching.

    Flow roll film cameras

    A camera is built into a box. In some versions this is for bench top use, other versions are portable. The operator maintains a stack of material to be filmed in a tray, the camera automatically takes one document after another for advancement through the machine. The camera lens sees the documents as they pass a slot. Film behind the lens advances exactly with the image.

    Special purpose flow cameras film both sides of documents, putting both images side by side on 16 mm film. These cameras are used to record cheques and betting slips.

    Microfiche camera

    All microfiche cameras are planetary with a step and repeat mechanism to advance the film after each exposure. The simpler versions use a dark slide loaded by the operator in a dark room; after exposure the film is individually processed, which may be by hand or using a dental X-ray processor. Cameras for high output are loaded with a roll of 105 mm film. The exposed film is developed as a roll; this is sometimes cut to individual fiche after processing or kept in roll form for duplication.

    Computer Output Microfilm
    Computer Output Microfilm card

    Equipment is available that accepts a data stream from a mainframe computer. This exposes film to produce images as if the stream had been sent to a line printer and the listing had been microfilmed. Because of the source one run may represent many thousands of pages.

    Within the equipment character images are made by a light source; this is the negative of text on paper. COM is sometimes processed normally. Other applications require that image appears as a conventional negative; the film is then reversal processed. This outputs either 16 mm film or fiche pages on a 105 mm roll.

    Because listing characters are a simple design, a reduction ratio of 50 gives good quality and puts about 300 pages on a microfiche. A microfilm plotter, sometimes called an aperture card plotter, accepts a stream that might be sent to a computer pen plotter. It produces corresponding frames of microfilm. These produce microfilm as 35 or 16 mm film or aperture cards.

    Duplication

    All regular microfilm copying involves contact exposure under pressure. Then the film is processed to provide a permanent image. Hand copying of a single fiche or aperture card involves exposure over a light box and then individually processing the film. Roll films are contact exposed via motor, either round a glass cylinder or through a vacuum, under a controlled light source. Processing may be in the same machine or separately.

    Silver halide film is a slow version of camera film with a robust top coat. It is suitable for prints or for use as an intermediate from which further prints may be produced. The result is a negative copy. Preservation standards require a master negative, a duplicate negative, and a service copy (positive). Master negatives are kept in deep storage, and duplicate negatives are used to create service copies, which are the copies available to researchers. This multi-generational structure ensures the preservation of the master negative.

    Diazo-sensitised film for dye coupling in ammonia gives blue or black dye positive copies. The black image film can be used for further copying.

    Vesicular film is sensitised with a diazo dye, which after exposure is developed by heat. Where light has come to the film remains clear, in the areas under the dark image the diazo compound is destroyed quickly, releasing millions of minute bubbles of nitrogen into the film. This produces an image that diffuses light. It produces a good black appearance in a reader, but it cannot be used for further copying.

    Modern microfilming standards require that a master set of films be produced and set aside for safe storage, used only to make service copies. When service copies get lost or damaged, another set can be produced from the masters, thus reducing the image degradation that results from making copies of copies.

     Format conversion

    These conversions may be applied to camera output or to release copies. Single microfiche are cut from rolls of 105 mm film. A bench top device is available that enables an operator to cut exposed frames of roll film and fit these into ready made aperture cards.

    Transparent jackets are made A5 size each with 6 pockets into which strips of 16 mm film may be inserted (or fewer pockets for 35 mm strips), so creating microfiche jackets or jacketed microfiche. Equipment allows an operator to insert strips from a roll of film. This is particularly useful as frames may be added to a fiche at any time. The pockets are made using a thin film so that duplicates may be made from the assembled fiche.

     Digital conversion

    Another type of conversion is microform to digital. This is done using an optical scanner that projects the film onto a CCD array and captures it in a raw digital format. Until recently, since the different types of microform are dissimilar in shape and size, the scanners were usually able to handle only one type of microform at a time. There are some scanners that have the possibility of swapping modules for the different microform types and the latest viewer/scanner can accept any microform (roll, fiche, opaque cards, fiche,and/or aperture cards). Software (normally on the scanner itself, but more recently in an attached PC) is then used to convert the raw capture into a standard image format for archival.

    The physical condition of microfilm greatly impacts the quality of the digitized copy. Microfilm with a cellulose acetate base (popular through the 1970s) is frequently subject to vinegar syndrome, redox blemishes, and tears, and even preservation standard silver halide film on a polyester base can be subject to silvering and degradation of the emulsion—all issues which affect the quality of the scanned image.

    Digitizing microfilm can be inexpensive when automated scanners are employed. The Utah Digital Newspapers Program has found that, with automated equipment, scanning can be performed at $0.15 per page.[16] Recent additions to the digital scanner field have brought the cost of scanning down substantially so that when large projects are scanned (millions of pages) the price per scan can be pennies.

    Modern microform scanners utilize 8 bit gray shade scanning arrays and are thus able to provide quite high quality scans in a wealth of different digital formats (CCITT Group IV which is compressed black & white -bitonal, JPG or JPEG which is gray or color compression, bitmaps which are not compressed, or a number of other (some proprietary) formats such as PDF, LZW, GIF, etc.). These modern scanners are also able to scan at “Archival” resolution up to 600 dpi.

    For the resulting files to be useful, they must be organized in some way. This can be accomplished in a variety of different ways, dependent on the source media and the desired usage. In this regard, aperture cards with Hollerith information are probably the easiest since image data can be extracted from the card itself if the scanner supports it. Some types of microfilm will contain a counter next to the images, these can be referenced to an already existing database. Other microfilm reels will have a ‘blip’ system: small marks next to the images of varying lengths used to indicate document hierarchy (longest: root, long: branch, short: leaf). If the scanner is able to capture and process these then the image files can be arranged in the same manner. Optical character recognition (OCR) is also frequently employed to provide automated full-text searchable files. Common issues that affect the accuracy of OCR applied to scanned images of microfilm include unusual fonts, faded printing, shaded backgrounds, fragmented letters, skewed text, curved lines and bleed through on the originals.[16] For film types with no distinguishing marks, or when OCR is impossible (handwriting, layout issues, degraded text), the data must be entered in manually; a very time consuming process.

    the end @ copyright dr iwan suwandy 2010