Sejarah Musik tradisional Jawa Sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua(The Javanese Music traditional Befor WWII)

WELCOME COLLECTORS FROM ALL OVER THE WORLD

                          SELAMAT DATANG KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN ASIAN

                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

_____________________________________________________________________

SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR

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 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

                           MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

                 DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                                                         

    BUNGA IDOLA PENEMU : BUNGA KERAJAAN MING SERUNAI( CHRYSANTHENUM)

  

                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

                     SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

                     Please Enter

                    

              DMRC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Music Record Cybermuseum)

 

SHOWCASE :

The Java Traditional  Music record History(Sejarah rekaman Musik Traditional Jawa)Frame One :

Before WW II(Sebelum Perang Dunia Kedua)1.Early 20th Century

2.Between WWI -WWII

1)Still Reasearch

2)Gamelan Salendro,Wayang Wong Saritomo,produced by His Master Voice Inc

.(1) Romo Dokto Ka 1,soloist Ardjo-woengoe

(2)Romo Gandron Ka 1,soloist Patah Martodarmo

 

(3) Amber Anon Ka 1 soloist  Ardjowoengoe .

Wayang wong history

Pandava and Krishna in an act of the wayang wong performance.

Wayang wong also known as Wayang orang (literally human wayang) is a type of Javanese dance theatrical performance with themes taken from episode of Ramayana or Mahabharata.

While wayang gedog usually the theatrical performance that took the themes from the Panji cycles stories from the kingdom of Janggala, in which the players wear masks known as wayang topeng or wayang gedog. The word “gedog” comes from “kedok”, which, like “topeng” means “mask”. The main theme is the story of Raden Panji and Candra. This is a love story about princess Candra Kirana of Kediri and Raden Panji Asmarabangun, the crown prince of Jenggala. Candra Kirana was the incarnation of Dewi Ratih (goddess of love) and Panji was an incarnation of Kamajaya (god of love). Kirana’s story was given the title Smaradahana (“The fire of love”). At the end of the complicated story they finally can marry and bring forth a son, named Raja Putra. Panji Asmarabangun ruled Jenggala under the official names “Sri Kameswara“, “Prabu Suryowiseso“, and “Hino Kertapati“. Originally, wayang wong was performed only as an aristocratic entertainment in four palaces of Yogyakarta and Surakarta. In the course of time, it spread to become a popular and folk form as well.

Wayang wong has fixed patterns of movement and costume:

For male performers:

  • Alus: very slow, elegant and smooth movement. For example, the dance of Arjuna, Puntadewa and all other refined and slimly built Kshatriyas. There are two types of movement, lanyap and luruh.
  • Gagah: a more masculine and powerful dance movement, used commonly for the roles of strongly built kshatriyas, soldiers and generals.
    • Kambeng: a more powerful and athletic dance, used for the roles of Bima, Antareja, and Ghatotkacha.
    • Bapang: gagah and kasar for the warriors of antagonist roles such as Kaurawa.
    • Kalang kinantang: falls somewhere between alus and gagah, danced by tall, slim dancers in the roles of Kresno or Suteja.
  • Kasar: a coarse style, used in portraying evil characters such as Rakshasa, ogres and demons.
  • Gecul: a funny court jester and commoners, portraying ponokawan and cantrik

For female performers: Kshatriya noblemen. Costumes and props distinguish kings, kshatriyas, monks, princesses, The movements known as nggruda or ngenceng encot in the classical high style of dance consist of nine basic movements (joged pokok) and twelve other movements (joged gubahan and joged wirogo) and are used in portraying Bedoyo and Srimpi.

Today, the wayang wong, following the Gagrak style of Surakarta, is danced by women. They follow the alus movements associated with a Kshatriya, resembling Arjuna. Following the Gagkra style from Yogyakarta a male dancer uses these same Alus movements to depict princes and generals. There are about 45 distinct character types.

Gamelan salendro is primarily used for accompanying wayang golek (rod puppet theatre) and dance (both classical dance and the more recent social dance jaipongan). It can also be played on its own, although this is now less common, except on the radio. Such concert music (sometimes called kliningan) used to be popular at wedding receptions. Nowadays one usually finds gamelan degung or jaipongan (a social dance with very dynamic drumming) instead.

In broad terms, gamelan salendro, and music in the salendro tuning played on other instruments, are more popular with the common people. The Sundanese elite prefer gamelan degung or tembang Sunda, which were both formerly associated with the courts of the Regents in Dutch times.

A set of gamelan salendro resembles a small Javanese gamelan

Wayang Orang(wong )sebagai format seni panggung telah ada sejak awal pemecahan Mataram menjadi Kasultanan Yogyakarta, Kasunanan Surakarta, dan sebagian wilayah klan Mangkunegaran. Sejak saat itu, wayang wong berkembang dan dijadikan identitas Kasultanan Yogyakarta dan Mangkunegaran. Namun, pada masa pemerintahan Mangkunegara VI (1896-1916), terjadi krisis ekonomi yang mengakibatkan mandeknya perkembangan kesenian. Wayang wong terkena imbas dan kegiatannya dikurangi. Akibatnya, wayang wong keluar dari lingkungan istana dan tampil di depan publik. Peluang itu disambar oleh juragan keturunan Cina. Babah Gan Kam, seorang juragan batik, mementaskan wayang wong di luar istana dengan mendirikan grup wayang orang keliling pada 1895. Pertunjukan yang digelar di gedung bekas pabrik batik di Singosaren itu menyedot banyak penonton, yang umumnya keturunan Cina kaya. Setelah itu, muncul WO Sedya Wandana pimpinan Lie Sien Kwan, yang berpentas di sebelah timur Istana Mangkunegara. Ada pula kelompok yang dikelola orang Belanda bernama Reunecker. Grup ini kemudian dijual kepada Lie Wat Djien, yang berkongsi dengan badan pemerintah Mangkunegaran, dan pertunjukannya digelar di Gedung Sono Harsono, yang terletak di perempatan Pasar Pon.

Sejarah WO Sriwedari sendiri dimulai ketika Kebon Raja atau Taman Sriwedari diresmikan pada 1901. Kelompok yang pertama kali manggung adalah grup milik Babah Wang Gien, yang bergantian main dengan kelompok milik R.M. Sastratenaya. Baru sekitar tahun 1910, WO Sriwedari terbentuk. Pergelaran wayang orang saat itu selalu dipadati penonton. Mereka duduk beralaskan gedek—tikar dari anyaman bambu—dalam ruang terbuka. Untuk gedek paling depan atau kelas utama dan disebut kelas lose, harga karcisnya 50 sen, kelas I 30 sen, kelas II 20 sen, dan kelas III 15 sen. Tempat duduk paling belakang disebut kelas kambing dengan harga karcis 10 sen. Disebut kelas kambing karena tempat itu memang kandang kambing milik pemain wayang. Sudah menjadi kebiasaan pemain wayang wong keliling saat itu, mereka memelihara kambing di tobong. Siang mereka menggembala dan malam berpentas

the end @ dr Iwan suwandy 2011

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