Monthly Archives: May 2011

Anomali Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak Yang Dapat Bersifat Ganas Pada Jaringan Saraf Yang Merusak Postur Manusia)

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    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

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Buku Karangan Dr Iwan Suwandy:

 Anomaly Medis Neurofibromatosis(Kelainan Tumor Jinak yang bersifat ganas Jaringan Saraf Dengan Keruskan postur Manusia)

KATA PENGANTAR(Preface)

Neurofibromatosis adalah suatu kelainan(anomali atau Osis) Medis akibat pertumbuhan jaringan(fibro) saraf(neuro) baru (neoplasma atau tumor) yang abnormal ,walaupun bersifat jinak,tetapi kerusakan yang ditimbulkannya bersifat ganas karena  merusak postur tubuh dan wajah penderita.

Tanpa melihat pasien secara langsung , pasti anda tidak akan dapat membayangkan bagaimana penampilan penderita , bagi yang ringan saya sudah pernah lihat seperti tubuh dengan pembengkakan  jaringan kulit yang sangat banyak ibarat seperti pohon dengan buah yang bergantungan, tetapi pada kasus yang ekstrim terlihat seperti seorang manusia monster, kasus ini baru saja dilaporkan oleh para dokter ahli tumor(Onkologi) dari Rumah Sakit(Hospital) di Amerika Serikat, ada dua kasus yang dilaporkan.

Apabila ada yang melihat kasus seperti ini di lingkungan kediamannya ,harap dapat membantu saya dengan mengirimkan foto pasien tersebut dengan riwayat singaktnya.

Saya harap tulisan ini, yang merupakan bagian dari buku karangan saya yang berjudul” MENGENAL DAN MENGATASI ANOMALI MEDIS”

SEHARUSNYA ,KASUS SEPERTI INI TIDAK PERLU TERJADI,APABILA  MASYARAKAT MENGETAHUI PERKEMBANGAN PENYAKIT(PATOGENESIS) DAN UPAYA MEDIS YANG DAPAT DILAKSANAKAN.

Saya harap tulisan ini dapat menambaH wawasan pembaca,sekaligus mencegah kelainan menjadi anomali yang sangat parah seperti yang dilaporkan oleh sejawat dari Amerika Serikat.

Jakarta .Juni 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

ENGLISH VERSION:

Neurofibromatosis is a disorder (anomaly or Osis) Medical from the growing  tissue (fibro) nerve (neuro) new (neoplasms or tumors) are abnormal, though it may be benign, but malignant demaged caused the  body and face posture ‘s demage .Without view the patients directly, you definitely will not be imaging  how the appearance of the patient, for a light I’ve ever seen as the body with swelling of skin tissue that is very much like a like a tree with hanging fruit, but in extreme cases look like a human monster, the case This new  reported by the physician experts tumor (Oncology) from the Hospital (Hospital) in the United States, there are two reported cases.

If anyone sees a case like this in his home environment, I hope to help by submitting photos of patients with a short history

I hope this paper, which is part of my essay book entitled “KNOW AND OVERCOMING MEDICAL ANOMALY”

SHOULD, LIKE THIS CASE DOES NOT NEED TO HAPPEN, IF PEOPLE KNOW PERKEMABNAGN DISEASE (PAOGENESIS) MEDICAL AND EFFORT THAT CAN BE EXECUTED.

I hope this article can menambas insightful readers, and prevent the disorder becomes severe anomalies as reported by colleagues from the United States.

Jakarta. June 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

CHAPTER ONE:

 STUDI KASUS(CASE STUDY) 1. JENIS KELAINAN(ANOMALIES TYPE)

(1)KASUS SATU(CASE ONE)

 (2).CASE TWO(KASUS DUA)

 2.PERKEMBANGAN KELAINAN(ANOMALIES DEVELOPMENT) A.CASE ONE

(1) ANAK(CHILDREN)

 

2. REMAJA(TEANS)

 3.DEWASA (ADULT)

B.CASE TWO

(1) ANAK(CHILDREN)

2. REMAJA(TEANS)

 3.DEWASA (ADULT)

3.MEDICAL OPERATION(TINDAKAN OPERASI) 

CHAPTER TWO:

THE NEUROFRIBOMATOSIS INFORMATIONS

Neurofibromatosis

 
Neurofibromatosis
Classification and external resources

Back of an elderly woman with neurofibromatosis
ICD-10 Q85.0
ICD-9 237.7
ICD-O: 9540/0
eMedicine derm/287
MeSH D017253

Neurofibromatosis (commonly abbreviated NF; neurofibromatosis type 1 is also known as von Recklinghausen disease) is a genetically-inherited disorder in which the nerve tissue grows tumors (i.e., neurofibromas) that may be benign or may cause serious damage by compressing nerves and other tissues.

The disorder affects all neural crest cells (Schwann cells, melanocytes and endoneurial fibroblasts). Cellular elements from these cell types proliferate excessively throughout the body, forming tumors; melanocytes also function abnormally in this disease, resulting in disordered skin pigmentation and “cafe-au-lait” spots. The tumors may cause bumps under the skin, colored spots, skeletal problems, pressure on spinal nerve roots, and other neurological problems.[1][2]

Neurofibromatosis is an autosomal dominant disorder, which means only one copy of the affected gene is needed for the disorder to develop. Therefore, if only one parent has neurofibromatosis, his or her children have a 50% chance of developing the condition as well. The severity in affected individuals can vary, this may be due to variable expressivity. Approximately half of cases are due to de novo mutations and no other affected family members are seen. It affects males and females equally.

 Classification

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF 1)

Plexiform neurofibroma on the neck of a patient; plexiform neurofibromas are a cause of morbidity in the affected individuals.

Patient with multiple small cutaneous neurofibromas and a ‘café au lait spot’ (bottom of photo, to the right of centre). A biopsy has been taken of one of the lesions.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 (also known as “von Recklinghausen disease”[1]) is the most common form of NF, accounting for up to 90% of the cases. NF 1 has a disorder frequency of 1 in 4,000, making it more common than neurofibromatosis type 2, with a frequency of 1 in 45,000 people.[3] It occurs following the mutation of neurofibromin on chromosome 17q11.2. 100,000 Americans have neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromin is a tumor suppressor gene whose function is to inhibit the p21 ras oncoprotein.[3] In absence of this tumor suppressor’s inhibitory control on the ras oncoprotein, cellular proliferation is erratic and uncontrolled, resulting in unbalanced cellular proliferation and tumor development. The diagnosis of NF1 is made if any two of the following seven criteria are met:

  • Two or more neurofibromas on or under the skin, or one plexiform neurofibroma (a large cluster of tumors involving multiple nerves); neurofibromas are the subcutaneous bumps characteristic of the disease, and increase in number with age.
  • Freckling of the groin or the axilla (arm pit).
  • Café au lait spots (pigmented, light brown macules located on nerves, with a smooth edges(“coast of California”)[4] birthmarks). Six or more measuring 5 mm in greatest diameter in prepubertal individuals and over 15 mm in greatest diameter in postpubertal individuals.

 

NF 1 also increases the risk of tumor development, particularly, meningiomas, gliomas and pheochromocytomas.

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF 2)

Neurofibromatosis type 2 (also called “central neurofibromatosis”[1]) is the result of mutation of the merlin (also known as “schwannomin”[1]) in chromosome 22q12. It accounts for only 10% of all cases of NF, and its frequency is lower than NF1. It is also caused by a mutation in a tumor suppressor gene (NF2 or merlin). The normal function of merlin is not well understood.[3] The disorder manifests in the following fashion:

NF 2 increases the risk of meningiomas and ependymomas.[3]

Schwannomatosis

 

Main article: Schwannomatosis

Schwannomatosis – mutation in both chromosomes 17 and 22

  1. Multiple schwannomas occur.
  2. The schwannomas develop on cranial, spinal and peripheral nerves.
  3. Chronic pain, and sometimes numbness, tingling and weakness
  4. About 1/3 of patients have segmental schwannomatosis, which means the schwannomas are limited to a single part of the body, such as an arm, a leg or the spine.
  5. Unlike the other forms of NF, the schwannomas do not develop on vestibular nerves, and as a result, no loss of hearing is associated with schwannomatosis.
  6. Patients with schwannomatosis do not have learning disabilities related to the disorder.

One must keep in mind, however, that neurofibromatosis can occur in or affect any of the organ systems, whether that entails simply compressing them (from tumor growth) or in fact altering the organs in some fundamental way. This disparity in the disorder is one of many factors that makes it difficult to diagnose, and eventually find a prognosis for.

 Signs and symptoms

Patients with neurofibromatosis can be affected in many different ways. Morbidity is often a result of plexiform neuromas, optic gliomas, or acoustic neuromas, but mortality can also be associated with malignant transformation of the neuromas, such as neurofibrosarcomas[1] (often there is a malignant transformation in less than 3% of the cases of NF1[3]). There is a high incidence of learning disabilities or cognitive deficit[1][5] in patients with NF, particularly NF-1, however severe retardation is not part of the syndrome. Because of the tumor generating nature of the disorder and its involvement of the nervous system and also because of early onset macrocephaly in the pediatric population, there is often an increased chance of development of epilepsy in those affected. Neurofibromatosis also increases the risk of leukemia particularly in children; Children with NF-1 have 200 to 500 times the normal risk of developing leukemia compared to the general population.[1] Since the tumors grow where there are nerves, they can also grow in areas that are visible, causing considerable social suffering for those affected. The tumors can also grow in places that can cause other medical issues that may require them to be removed for the patient’s safety.[6] Affected individuals may need multiple surgeries (such as reduction surgery, or Gamma knife surgery), depending on where the tumors are located. For instance, those affected with NF 2 might benefit from a surgical decompression of the vestibular tumors to prevent deafness.[2]

Diagnosis

 Prenatal testing

 Embryo

For embryos produced via in vitro fertilisation, it is possible via preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) to screen for NF-1.[7]

“PGD has about 95-98% accuracy but requires that the partner with NF2 have a recognizeable genetic mutation, which is only the case for about 60% of people with a clinical diagnosis of NF2. Having the initial genetic testing to determine if the mutation is recognizeable takes approximately 6 months, and then preparing the probes for the PDG testing takes approximately another 6 months.” [8]

PGD can not be used to detect Schwannomatosis‎, because the gene for it has not yet been identified.[9]

 Fetus

Chorionic villus sampling or amniocentesis can be used:[10]

 Related disorders

Neurofibromatosis is considered a member of the neurocutaneous syndromes (phakomatoses).[2] In addition to the types of neurofibromatosis, the phakomatoses also include tuberous sclerosis, Sturge-Weber syndrome and von Hippel-Lindau disease. This grouping is an artifact of an earlier time in medicine, before the distinct genetic basis of each of these diseases was understood.

 Genetics

NF-1 and NF-2 may be inherited in an autosomal dominant fashion, as well as through random mutation.

Neurofibromatosis type 1 is caused by mutation on chromosome 17q11.2 , the gene product being neurofibromin (a GTPase activating enzyme (GAP)).[1][11] Neurofibromatosis type 2 is due to mutation on chromosome 22q, the gene product is merlin, a cytoskeletal protein.[1]

Both NF-1 and NF-2 are autosomal dominant disorders, meaning only one copy of the mutated gene need be inherited to pass the disorder. A child of a parent with NF-1 or NF-2 and an unaffected parent will have a 50%-100% chance of inheriting the disorder, depending on whether the affected parent is heterozygous (Aa) or homozygous (AA) for the trait (“A” depicts the affected dominant allele, while “a” depics the recessive allele).

Complicating the question of heritability is the distinction between genotype and phenotype, that is, between the genetics and the actual manifestation of the disorder. In the case of NF1, no clear links between genotype and phenotype have been found, and the severity and the specific nature of the symptoms may vary widely among family members with the disorder. This is a good example of the phenomenon of variable expressivity: the differing severities of disease in different individuals with the same genotype.[12] In the case of NF-2, however, manifestations are similar among family members; a strong genotype-phenotype correlation is believed to exist.[12] Both NF-1 and NF-2 can also appear to be spontaneous de novo mutations, with no family history. These cases account for about one half of neurofibromatosis cases.[12]

Similar to polydactyly, NF is also a autosomally dominant mutation, that is not prevalent in the society. Neurofibromatosis-1 is found in approximately 1 in 2,500-3,000[3] live births (carrier incidence 0.0004, gene frequency 0.0002) and is more common than NF-2.

 Pathophysiology

The gene affected in NF-1, is located on the long arm of the chromosome 17 (q11.2). It encodes for a protein called neurofibromin, otherwise known as “the tumor suppressor” protein. This protein is a negative regulator of the Ras kinase pathway (p21 oncoprotein).[13] Neurofibromatosis alters or weakens this protein (due to deletion, missense mutation, or nonsense mutations,[1]) allowing rapid, radical growth of cells all over the body, especially around the nervous system. The essential problem is the inability to inactivate GTP due to a defective GTP-ase (neurofibromin). This leads to the common symptoms for neurofibromatosis – clumpings of the tumors, called neurofibromas and schwannomas. Less is known about the NF-2 linked gene and its product, merlin. However, it is on the long arm of the chromosome 22q(11.1-13.1[1]) and codes for the protein.

 Treatment

Because there is no cure for the condition itself, the only therapy for patients with neurofibromatosis is a program of treatment by a team of specialists to manage symptoms or complications. Surgery may be needed when the tumors compress organs or other structures. Less than 10% of people with neurofibromatosis develop cancerous growths; in these cases, chemotherapy may be successful.[14]

Although there is no cure for NF, the Neurofibromatosis Association is optimistic there will be an effective treatment within the next five to ten years. For families with NF, genetic screening and counselling is available.[15]

The St. Louis Children’s Hospital Neurofibromatosis Center maintains a comprehensive list of current NF research studies.

 History

Neurofibromatosis (or von Recklinghausen disease[2]) was first described in 1882 by the German pathologist, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (December 2, 1833-August 26, 1910). As a young scientist, Recklinghausen was the student of the then renowned Rudolf Virchow in Berlin. Recklinghausen was successful in generating some of the most descriptive medical observations of his time, making him the first person to describe and coin the term “hemachromatosis” (Hämochromatose, Tageblatt der Naturforschenden Versammlung). Recklinghausen is now known for his contributions to staining methods, and most importantly for his important paper on neurofibromatosis published in 1881, to honor Rudolf Virchow’s 25 year jubilee, in which he describes neurofibromatosis. Recognized as a distinguished histopathologist, and a great scientist to this date, he lends his name to the syndrome, which he himself elucidated.[16]

 Notable cases

In May 2011, a case was reported in the United Kingdom in which a 15-month-old child who turned out to have Neurofibromatosis type I was misdiagnosed as being abused under the assumption that the mother had Münchausen syndrome, because the child gained weight while in hospital and lost weight while at home.[17] The child was placed in foster care for 6 months and then returned to his parents after he was correctly diagnosed.

In January 2008, 32-year-old Huang Chuncai of China underwent a second operation to remove another 4.5 kg (9.9 lb) of tumor from his face. A previous operation removed 15 kg (33 lb) from what was originally a 23 kg (55.7 lb) tumor.[18][19]

In March 2007, the treatment of 30-year-old neurofibromatosis patient Pascal Coler of France ended after he had received what his doctors call the world’s first successful full face transplant.[20][21]

In November 2006, there was an hour-long documentary on the British television network Channel 4 about Facing the World, an organization that helps children with severe facial disfigurements in developing countries. One of the children featured on the documentary was Arianto, an Indonesian boy who suffered from a severe form of neurofibroma resulting in hemifacial giganticism.

Also in that year, another documentary on BBC2 (edge of life) featured a neurofibromatosis case. On that documentary was a young teenager, Amit Ghose, who had decided for himself to have corrective surgery at the age of 14. In this case, the neurofibroma occurred on the face, resulting in the loss of sight in one eye and having to have it removed. This was a case of NF-2, resulting in the disfigurement of the one side of the face, while leaving the other side completely normal.

Joseph Merrick, the Elephant Man, was once considered to have been affected with neurofibromatosis type I. However, it is possible Merrick suffered from the very rare Proteus syndrome. This, however, has given rise to the common misconception that neurofibromatosis and “Elephant Man disease” are one and the same.

Research Organizations

[edit] Foundations

Several national organizations provide support for those challenged by neurofibromatosis. Some include:

 Academic Research and Clinical Centers

The following research and clinical centers specialize in neurofibromatosis in the United States:

Drug Companies

The following drug companies are supporters of the Children’s Tumor Foundation and are actively developing NF-related drugs:

 Versi Indonesia:

 Neurofibromatosis (biasa disingkat NF; neurofibromatosis tipe 1 juga dikenal sebagai penyakit von Recklinghausen) adalah kelainan genetik-mewarisi di mana jaringan saraf tumbuh tumor (yaitu, Neurofibroma) yang mungkin jinak atau dapat menyebabkan kerusakan serius oleh mengompresi saraf dan jaringan lain . Kelainan ini mempengaruhi semua sel pial neural (Schwann sel, melanosit dan fibroblast endoneurial). Cellular elemen dari jenis sel berkembang biak secara berlebihan di seluruh tubuh, membentuk tumor; melanosit juga berfungsi normal pada penyakit ini, mengakibatkan gangguan pigmentasi kulit dan “cafe-au-lait” spot. Tumor dapat menyebabkan benjolan di bawah kulit, bintik-bintik berwarna, masalah tulang, tekanan pada akar saraf tulang belakang, dan masalah-masalah neurologis lainnya. [1] [2]

Neurofibromatosis merupakan gangguan dominan autosomal, yang berarti hanya satu salinan gen yang terkena diperlukan untuk gangguan untuk dikembangkan. Oleh karena itu, jika hanya satu orangtua memiliki neurofibromatosis, nya atau anak-anaknya memiliki kesempatan 50% mengembangkan kondisi juga. Tingkat keparahan pada individu yang terkena dapat bervariasi, hal ini mungkin karena expressivity variabel. Sekitar setengah dari kasus disebabkan oleh mutasi de novo dan tidak ada anggota keluarga lain yang terkena dampak terlihat. Ini mempengaruhi laki-laki dan perempuan sama.

Isi
1 Klasifikasi
1.1 Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 (NF 1)
1.2 Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 (NF 2)
1.3 Schwannomatosis
2 Tanda dan gejala
3 Diagnosis
3.1 Prenatal pengujian
3.1.1 Embrio
3.1.2 Janin
3.2 Terkait gangguan
4 Genetika
5 Patofisiologi
6 Pengobatan
7 Sejarah
8 Terkemuka kasus
9 Penelitian Organisasi
9.1 Yayasan
9.2 Akademik dan Pusat Penelitian Klinis
9.3 Obat Perusahaan
10 Referensi
 

 Klasifikasi
Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 (NF 1)

Plexiform neurofibroma pada leher pasien; Neurofibroma plexiform adalah penyebab kematian pada individu yang terkena.

Pasien dengan beberapa Neurofibroma kulit kecil dan ‘café au lait spot’ (bawah foto, di sebelah kanan pusat). Biopsi telah diambil dari salah satu lesi.

Artikel utama: Neurofibromatosis tipe I
Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 (juga dikenal sebagai “penyakit von Recklinghausen” [1]) adalah bentuk paling umum dari NF, akuntansi hingga 90% dari kasus. NF 1 memiliki frekuensi gangguan dari 1 di 4.000, sehingga lebih umum daripada neurofibromatosis tipe 2, dengan frekuensi 1 dalam 45.000 orang. [3] Ini terjadi setelah mutasi pada kromosom neurofibromin 17q11.2. 100.000 Amerika telah neurofibromatosis. Neurofibromin adalah tumor supresor gen yang berfungsi untuk menghambat onkoprotein p21 ras [3] Dalam tidak adanya kontrol penghambatan ini supresor tumor pada onkoprotein ras,. Proliferasi seluler tidak menentu dan tidak terkendali, yang mengakibatkan proliferasi seluler tidak seimbang dan perkembangan tumor. Diagnosis NF1 dilakukan jika ada dua dari tujuh kriteria berikut ini terpenuhi:

Dua atau lebih Neurofibroma pada atau di bawah kulit, atau satu neurofibroma plexiform (sekelompok besar tumor yang melibatkan beberapa saraf); Neurofibroma adalah benjolan subkutan karakteristik penyakit, dan peningkatan jumlah dengan usia.
Freckling dari pangkal paha atau ketiak (arm pit).
Café au lait spot (pigmen, makula coklat muda terletak pada saraf, dengan tepi halus (“pantai California”) [4] tanda lahir). Enam atau lebih ukuran 5 mm diameter terbesar dalam individu prepubertal dan lebih dari 15 mm dengan diameter terbesar dalam individu postpubertal.
Kelainan rangka, seperti displasia sphenoid atau penipisan korteks tulang panjang tubuh (tulang yaitu kaki, berpotensi menghasilkan membungkuk kaki) [1]
Lisch nodul (hamartomas iris), freckling di iris
Tumor pada saraf optik, juga dikenal sebagai glioma optik
Macrocephaly dalam 30-50% dari populasi anak tanpa [5] hidrosefalus
Epilepsi (kejang)
opacity Juvenile lenticular posterior [1]
NF 1 juga meningkatkan resiko perkembangan tumor, khususnya, meningioma, glioma dan pheochromocytomas.

Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 (NF 2)
Artikel utama: Neurofibromatosis tipe II
Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 (juga disebut “neurofibromatosis pusat” [1]) adalah hasil mutasi dari merlin (juga dikenal sebagai “schwannomin” [1]) di 22q12 kromosom. Ini account hanya 10% dari semua kasus NF, dan frekuensi lebih rendah daripada NF1. Hal ini juga disebabkan oleh mutasi pada gen supresor tumor (NF2 atau merlin). Fungsi normal merlin tidak dipahami [3] memanifestasikan Gangguan dengan cara berikut.:

neuromas akustik bilateral (tumor dari saraf vestibulocochlear atau saraf kranial 8 (CN VIII) juga dikenal sebagai schwannoma), yang sering menimbulkan gangguan pendengaran. Bahkan, ciri khas NF 2 adalah gangguan pendengaran akibat neuromas akustik sekitar usia dua puluh.
Tumor dapat menyebabkan:
sakit kepala
keseimbangan masalah, dan vertigo perifer sering karena schwannoma dan keterlibatan dari telinga bagian dalam
wajah kelemahan / kelumpuhan akibat keterlibatan atau kompresi pada saraf wajah (saraf kranial 7 atau CN VII)
pasien dengan NF2 juga dapat mengembangkan tumor otak lainnya, serta tumor tulang belakang.
tuli dan tinnitus
NF 2 meningkatkan risiko meningioma dan ependymomas. [3]

Schwannomatosis
Artikel utama: Schwannomatosis
Schwannomatosis – mutasi di kedua kromosom 17 dan 22

Beberapa schwannomas terjadi.
The schwannomas mengembangkan pada saraf kranial, tulang belakang dan perifer.
Sakit kronis, dan kadang-kadang mati rasa, kesemutan dan kelemahan
Sekitar 1 / 3 dari pasien memiliki schwannomatosis segmental, yang berarti schwannomas terbatas pada satu bagian dari tubuh, seperti tangan, kaki atau tulang belakang.
Berbeda dengan bentuk lain dari NF, yang schwannomas tidak berkembang pada saraf vestibular, dan sebagai akibatnya, tidak ada kehilangan pendengaran dikaitkan dengan schwannomatosis.
Pasien dengan schwannomatosis tidak memiliki ketidakmampuan belajar yang terkait dengan gangguan tersebut.
Salah satu harus diingat, bagaimanapun, bahwa neurofibromatosis dapat terjadi pada atau mempengaruhi salah satu sistem organ, apakah yang memerlukan hanya memadatkan mereka (dari pertumbuhan tumor) atau bahkan mengubah organ dalam beberapa cara fundamental. Perbedaan dalam gangguan ini merupakan salah satu faktor yang membuat sulit untuk mendiagnosa, dan akhirnya menemukan prognosis untuk.

 Tanda dan gejala
Pasien dengan neurofibromatosis dapat dipengaruhi dalam berbagai cara. Morbiditas sering merupakan akibat dari neuromas plexiform, glioma optik, atau neuromas akustik, namun kematian juga dapat dikaitkan dengan transformasi ganas dari neuromas, seperti neurofibrosarcomas [1] (sering ada transformasi ganas kurang dari 3% dari kasus dari NF1 [3]). Ada insiden tinggi ketidakmampuan belajar atau defisit kognitif [1] [5] pada pasien dengan NF, khususnya NF-1, namun keterbelakangan yang parah bukan merupakan bagian dari sindrom tersebut. Karena sifat tumor menghasilkan kekacauan dan keterlibatan terhadap sistem saraf dan juga karena onset awal macrocephaly pada populasi anak, sering terjadi peluang peningkatan pengembangan epilepsi pada mereka yang terkena dampak. Neurofibromatosis juga meningkatkan risiko leukemia terutama pada anak-anak, Anak-anak dengan NF-1 memiliki 200 sampai 500 kali risiko leukemia normal berkembang dibandingkan dengan populasi umum [1] Sejak tumor tumbuh di mana terdapat saraf, mereka juga bisa tumbuh dalam. daerah yang terlihat, menyebabkan penderitaan sosial yang cukup untuk mereka yang terkena dampak. Tumor juga bisa tumbuh di tempat-tempat yang dapat menyebabkan masalah kesehatan lain yang mungkin mengharuskan mereka harus dikeluarkan untuk keselamatan pasien. [6] individu yang terkena mungkin perlu operasi beberapa (seperti operasi pengurangan, atau operasi Gamma pisau), tergantung di mana tumor berada. Misalnya, mereka yang terkena dampak dengan NF 2 mungkin mendapat manfaat dari dekompresi bedah dari tumor vestibular untuk mencegah tuli. [2]

Diagnosa
 Prenatal testing
 Embrio
Untuk embrio yang dihasilkan melalui fertilisasi in vitro, adalah mungkin melalui praimplantasi genetik diagnosis (PGD) ke layar untuk NF-1. [7]

“PGD memiliki ketepatan sekitar 95-98% tetapi mengharuskan bermitra dengan NF2 memiliki mutasi genetik recognizeable, yang hanya berlaku untuk sekitar 60% orang dengan diagnosis klinis NF2 Setelah pengujian genetik awal untuk menentukan. Apakah mutasi adalah recognizeable diperlukan sekitar 6 bulan, dan kemudian mempersiapkan probe untuk pengujian PDG berlangsung sekitar 6 bulan lagi. ” [8]

PGD ​​tidak dapat digunakan untuk mendeteksi Schwannomatosis, karena gen untuk itu belum teridentifikasi. [9]

 Janin
Chorionic villus sampling atau amniosentesis dapat digunakan: [10]

Untuk mendeteksi jenis Neurofibromatosis saya.
Untuk mendeteksi Neurofibromatosis tipe II dengan akurasi 95%.
Tidak bisa digunakan untuk mendeteksi Schwannomatosis, karena gen untuk itu belum teridentifikasi.
 Terkait gangguan
Neurofibromatosis dianggap sebagai anggota sindrom neurocutaneous (phakomatoses). [2] Di samping jenis neurofibromatosis, yang phakomatoses juga termasuk tuberous sclerosis, sindrom Sturge-Weber dan von penyakit Hippel-Lindau. Pengelompokan ini adalah artefak dari waktu sebelumnya dalam kedokteran, sebelum dasar genetik yang berbeda dari masing-masing penyakit dipahami.

 Genetika

NF-1 dan NF-2 dapat diwariskan dengan cara dominan autosomal, serta melalui mutasi acak.

Neurofibromatosis tipe 1 disebabkan oleh mutasi pada kromosom 17q11.2, produk gen neurofibromin menjadi (a enzim GTPase mengaktifkan (GAP)). [1] [11] Neurofibromatosis tipe 2 adalah karena mutasi pada kromosom 22q, produk gen yang merlin , sebuah protein cytoskeletal. [1]

Kedua-NF 1 dan NF-2 adalah gangguan dominan autosomal, yang berarti hanya satu salinan mutasi gen perlu diwariskan untuk lulus gangguan tersebut. Seorang anak dari orang tua dengan NF-1 atau NF-2 dan orang tua yang tidak terpengaruh akan memiliki kemungkinan 50% -100% dari mewarisi gangguan, tergantung pada apakah orang tua yang terkena heterozigot (Aa) atau homozigot (AA) untuk trait (“A” melukiskan alel dominan yang mempengaruhi, sementara “sebuah” depics alel resesif).

Rumit pertanyaan tentang heritabilitas adalah perbedaan antara genotipe dan fenotipe, yaitu, antara genetika dan manifestasi aktual dari kekacauan. Dalam kasus NF1, tidak ada hubungan yang jelas antara genotip dan fenotip telah ditemukan, dan tingkat keparahan dan sifat khusus dari gejala dapat bervariasi secara luas di antara anggota keluarga dengan gangguan tersebut. Ini adalah contoh yang baik dari fenomena expressivity variabel: severities berbeda dengan penyakit pada individu yang berbeda dengan genotipe yang sama [12] Dalam kasus NF-2, bagaimanapun, manifestasi yang serupa di antara anggota keluarga, sebuah fenotipe genotipe-kuat. korelasi diyakini ada [12] Kedua NF-1 dan. NF-2 juga dapat tampak spontan de novo mutasi, dengan tidak ada riwayat keluarga. Kasus-kasus ini mencapai sekitar satu setengah dari kasus neurofibromatosis. [12]

Serupa dengan polydactyly, NF juga merupakan mutasi autosomally dominan, yang tidak lazim di masyarakat. Neurofibromatosis-1 ditemukan pada sekitar 1 dari 2,500-3,000 [3] kelahiran hidup (pembawa kejadian 0,0004, frekuensi gen 0,0002) dan lebih umum daripada NF-2.

 Patofisiologi
Gen terpengaruh di NF-1, terletak pada lengan panjang kromosom 17 (q11.2). Ia mengkodekan untuk protein yang disebut neurofibromin, atau dikenal sebagai “penekan tumor” protein. Protein ini adalah pengatur negatif dari jalur kinase Ras (p21 onkoprotein) [13] Neurofibromatosis mengubah atau. melemahkan protein ini (karena penghapusan, mutasi missense, atau mutasi omong kosong, [1]) memungkinkan cepat, pertumbuhan radikal dari sel-sel di seluruh tubuh, terutama di sekitar sistem saraf. Masalah penting adalah ketidakmampuan untuk menonaktifkan GTP karena ase-cacat GTP (neurofibromin). Hal ini mengakibatkan gejala yang umum untuk neurofibromatosis – clumpings dari tumor, Neurofibroma menelepon dan schwannomas. Sedikit yang diketahui tentang gen-2 NF terkait dan produk, merlin. Namun, di lengan panjang kromosom 22q (11,1-13,1 [1]) dan kode untuk protein.

 Pengobatan
Karena tidak ada obat untuk kondisi itu sendiri, satu-satunya terapi untuk pasien dengan neurofibromatosis adalah sebuah program pengobatan oleh tim spesialis untuk mengelola gejala atau komplikasi. Pembedahan mungkin diperlukan ketika tumor kompres organ atau struktur lainnya. Kurang dari 10% orang dengan neurofibromatosis mengembangkan pertumbuhan kanker;. Dalam kasus-kasus, kemoterapi mungkin bisa berhasil [14]

Meskipun tidak ada obat untuk NF, Asosiasi Neurofibromatosis optimis akan ada pengobatan yang efektif dalam lima sampai sepuluh tahun. Untuk keluarga dengan NF, skrining genetik dan konseling tersedia. [15]

St Louis Children’s Hospital Neurofibromatosis Center maintain daftar komprehensif studi penelitian NF saat ini.

 Sejarah
Neurofibromatosis (penyakit von Recklinghausen atau [2]) pertama kali dijelaskan pada tahun 1882 oleh ahli patologi Jerman, Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen (2 Desember 1833-Agustus 26, 1910). Sebagai seorang ilmuwan muda, Recklinghausen adalah murid dari Rudolf Virchow kemudian terkenal di Berlin. Recklinghausen berhasil dalam menghasilkan beberapa pengamatan medis yang paling deskriptif waktunya, membuatnya orang pertama yang menggambarkan dan koin “hemachromatosis” istilah (Hämochromatose, Tageblatt der Naturforschenden Versammlung). Recklinghausen sekarang dikenal karena kontribusinya untuk metode pewarnaan, dan yang paling penting untuk kertas penting tentang neurofibromatosis diterbitkan pada 1881, untuk menghormati 25 tahun Rudolf Virchow’s Yobel, di mana ia menjelaskan neurofibromatosis. Diakui sebagai histopatologis dibedakan, dan seorang ilmuwan besar untuk tanggal ini, dia meminjamkan namanya sindrom, yang dia sendiri dijelaskan. [16]

 Terkemuka kasus
Pada bulan Mei 2011, kasus dilaporkan di Inggris di mana anak 15-bulan-tua yang ternyata memiliki tipe Neurofibromatosis aku misdiagnosed sebagai disalahgunakan dengan asumsi bahwa ibu telah Munchausen syndrome, karena anak yang diperoleh berat badan sementara di rumah sakit dan kehilangan berat badan sementara di rumah [17] Anak itu ditempatkan dalam anak asuh selama 6 bulan dan kemudian kembali kepada orang tuanya setelah dia benar didiagnosis..

Pada bulan Januari 2008, 32 tahun Huang Chuncai Cina menjalani operasi kedua untuk menghapus lain 4,5 kg (9,9 lb) tumor dari wajahnya. Sebuah operasi sebelumnya dihapus 15 kg (33 lb) dari apa yang awalnya 23 kg (£ 55,7) tumor. [18] [19]

Pada bulan Maret 2007, pengobatan pasien neurofibromatosis 30 tahun Pascal Coler Perancis berakhir setelah ia telah menerima apa yang dokter sebut transplantasi wajah pertama yang sukses di dunia penuh. [20] [21]

Pada bulan November 2006, ada dokumenter selama satu jam di jaringan televisi Inggris Channel 4 tentang Menghadapi Dunia, sebuah organisasi yang membantu anak-anak dengan wajah disfigurements parah di negara-negara berkembang. Salah satu dari anak-anak ditampilkan di film dokumenter itu Arianto, seorang anak Indonesia yang menderita bentuk parah neurofibroma mengakibatkan giganticism hemifacial.

Juga pada tahun itu, lain dokumenter BBC2 (pinggir hidup) menampilkan kasus neurofibromatosis. Di dokumenter itu adalah remaja muda, Amit Ghose, yang telah memutuskan untuk dirinya sendiri untuk menjalani operasi perbaikan pada usia 14. Dalam hal ini, neurofibroma terjadi pada wajah, yang mengakibatkan kehilangan penglihatan pada satu mata dan harus menghapusnya. Ini merupakan kasus NF-2, yang mengakibatkan cacat dari sisi yang satu wajah, sementara meninggalkan sisi lain normal.

Joseph Merrick, Manusia Gajah, pernah dianggap telah terpengaruh dengan neurofibromatosis tipe I. Namun, Merrick mungkin menderita sindrom Proteus sangat jarang. Ini, bagaimanapun, telah menimbulkan kesalahpahaman umum bahwa neurofibromatosis, dan “penyakit Elephant Man” adalah satu dan sama.

Penelitian Organisasi
[Sunting] Yayasan
Beberapa organisasi nasional memberikan dukungan bagi mereka ditantang oleh neurofibromatosis. Yang meliputi:

Australia: Little Frog Foundation (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bekerja menyediakan informasi dan sumber daya untuk keluarga berurusan dengan NF1, NF2, dan neurofibromatosis tumor-terkait di Australia)
Belgia: NF KONTAKT.be (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang menyediakan informasi dan sumber daya untuk keluarga, Sekolah dan Perawatan kesehatan pekerja berurusan dengan NF1, NF2, dan neurofibromatosis tumor terkait di Belgia dan memberikan kesadaran dan dukungan dari Neurofibromatosis di Eropa)
Kanada: Asosiasi Neurofibromatosis Quebec
Perancis:
Asosiasi Neurofibromatosis dan Recklinghausen
Centre de Referensi labellisé NEUROFIBROMATOSES
United Kingdom: Yayasan Neuro
Amerika Serikat:
Children’s Tumor Foundation (KKP) (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bergerak menuju obat untuk neurofibromatosis)
Neurofibromatosis Inc (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bekerja untuk mendukung neurofibromatosis pasien)
Neurofibromatosis Cafe (sebuah organisasi nirlaba yang bekerja memberikan pendidikan kesadaran, pasien dan dukungan dari Neurofibromatosis)
 Akademik Penelitian dan Pusat Klinis
Penelitian lanjutan dan pusat klinis mengkhususkan diri pada neurofibromatosis di Amerika Serikat:

California:
House Ear Institute di Los Angeles adalah NFPC KKP fokus pada schwannoma NF2 dan meningioma.
NF / Ras Pathway Clinic di UCSF Medical Center di San Francisco. Ini adalah NFPC KKP berfokus pada NF1 leukemia myeloid.
Florida:
The Wallace Lab dan Muir Lab di University of Florida di Gainesville, Florida fokus pada studi molekuler tumor jinak sel Schwann dan pengembangan terapi baru untuk NF1.
Pusat Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit Anak Miami.
Illinois: Neurofibromatosis Program di Universitas Chicago Medical Center.
Indiana: Klinik Neurofibromatosis di Universitas Indiana. Klinik ini telah mempelopori penggunaan Imatinib untuk mengobati Neurofibroma. [22]
Maryland: The Johns Hopkins Center Neurofibromatosis menyeluruh di Rumah Sakit Johns Hopkins
Massachusetts:
Pusat Neurofibromatosis dan Sekutu Gangguan di Sekolah Kedokteran Harvard dan Massachusetts Rumah Sakit Umum. Ini adalah KKP NFPC fokus pada schwannoma NF2 dan meningioma.
Brigham dan Women’s Hospital di Harvard Medical School adalah NFPC KKP NF1 berfokus pada saraf tepi tumor ganas selubung.
Pusat Genetika Manusia di Boston University School of Medicine menyediakan layanan uji laboratorium genetik untuk jenis Neurofibromatosis I dan sindrom Legius. Pengujian meliputi sekuensing DNA dan amplifikasi probe Multiplex ligasi-dependen.
Missouri: Pusat Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit St Louis Children’s [23] Ini adalah NFPC KKP fokus pada jalur NF1 glioma optik.. Mereka mempertahankan daftar lengkap studi penelitian NF saat ini.
New Jersey: Pusat Neurofibromatosis dari New Jersey dan Institute of Medicine Genomic di Rumah Sakit Universitas (Newark, New Jersey)
New York:
Pusat Sistem Kesehatan Neurofibromatosis di North Shore-LIJ
The Neurofibromatosis Center di NYU Langone Medical Center (lihat juga Departemen THT).
Klinik Comprehensive Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit NewYork-Presbyterian.
Ohio: Neurofibromatosis Pusat Rumah Sakit Anak Cincinnati di Cincinnati Medical Center. Ini adalah NFPC KKP berfokus pada NF1 Neurofibroma plexiform. Lab Ratner memfokuskan pada interaksi antara sel glial dan akson dalam pengembangan sistem saraf dan bagaimana interaksi pergi miring mengarah ke NF1 dan kondisi NF2.
Pennsylvania: Program Neurofibromatosis di Rumah Sakit Anak Philadelphia
Texas:
Klinik Comprehensive Neurofibromatosis pada University of Texas Southwestern Medical Center.
Klinik Neurofibromatosis di Children’s Medical Center (Dallas)
Obat Perusahaan
Perusahaan-perusahaan obat berikut pendukung dari Children’s Tumor Foundation dan secara aktif mengembangkan obat NF-terkait:

Avila Terapi
Genentech
Merck
Novartis
Pfizer

 
 

References

   
  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m Raphael Rubin, David S. Strayer (2008 Baltimore). Rubin’s Pathology: Clinicopathologic Foundation of Medicine (5 ed.). Wolters Kluwer Health: Lippincot Williams & Wilkins. pp. 201–3. ISBN 9780781795166
  2. ^ a b c d Conrad Fischer, Farshad Bagheri, Rajpal Manchandani, Richard Pinsker, Sudheer Chauhan, Parenkumar Patel, Mohammad Maruf, Dhaval Satani, Kaushik Doshi, Ayaz Alwani, Naveen Pathak, Craigh Thurm, Mohammad Babury, Mahendra C. Patel, Arthur Shalanov, Samir Sarkar, Sabiha Raouf, Jebun Nahar, Prakashkumar Patel (2010). Master the Board USMLE Step 2 CK. KAPLAN Medical. p. 287. ISBN 9781607146537
  3. ^ a b c d e f John Barone (2008). USMLE Step 1 Lecture Notes: Pathology. KAPLAN Inc. pp. 57. 
  4. ^ William D James, Raj D Sheth, Nazanin Saedi (Jul 20, 2009). Cafe Au Lait Spots. eMedicine from WebMD. http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/911900-overview. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  5. ^ a b Steen RG, Taylor JS, Langston JW, Glass JO, Brewer VR, Reddick WE, Mages R, Pivnick EK. (2001, May). Prospective evaluation of the brain in asymptomatic children with neurofibromatosis type 1: relationship of macrocephaly to T1 relaxation changes and structural brain abnormalities.. 22. American Journal of Neuroradiology. pp. 810–7. PMID 11337320
  6. ^ Hayashi M, Chernov M, Tamura N, Yomo S, Ochiai T, Nagai M, Tamura M, Izawa M, Muragaki Y, Iseki H, Okada Y, Takakura K. (December 2010). Gamma Knife surgery for abducent nerve schwannoma. Report of 4 cases. 113. Journal of Neurosurgery. pp. 136–43. PMID 21121795
  7. ^ “British couple successfully screens out genetic disorder using NHS-funded PGD” by Antony Blackburn-Starza, June 9, 2008, BioNews 461
  8. ^ NF2 Planned Parenthood: Current prenatal testing options
  9. ^ Schwannomatosis, by Susan Toomey MS, page 4
  10. ^ “Are there any prenatal tests for the neurofibromatoses?”
  11. ^ Fauci, et al. Harrison’s Principles of Internal Medicine (Small textbook) (16 ed.). pp. 2453. 
  12. ^ a b c Bruce R. Korf, Allan E. Rubenstein (2005). Neurofibromatosis: a handbook for patients, families, and health care professionals (2 ed.). Thieme. ISBN 9781588903013
  13. ^ Feldkamp MM, Angelov L, Guha A (1999). Neurofibromatosis Type 1 Peripheral Nerve Tumors: Aberrant Activation of the Ras Pathway. 51. Surgical Neurology. pp. 211–218. 
  14. ^ Janet M. Torpy, Alison E. Burke, MA, Richard M. Glass (2008). JAMA patient page: Neurofibromatosis. 300. JAMA (Journal of American Medical Association). doi:10.1001/jama.300.3.352. http://jama.ama-assn.org/content/300/3/352.full
  15. ^ Trisha Macnair, Rob Hicks. “Neurofibromatosis”. British Broadcasting Company (BBC) – MMX. http://www.bbc.co.uk/health/physical_health/conditions/neurofibroma1.shtml. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  16. ^ Ole Daniel Enersen. “Friedrich Daniel von Recklinghausen”. Who Named It?. http://www.whonamedit.com/doctor.cfm/1174.html. Retrieved 13 December 2010. 
  17. ^ “Billingham mum speaks of joy as baby is returned to her”, by Lindsay Bruce, May 10, 2011Evening Gazette (Teesside)
  18. ^ Dan Childs. “50-Pound Face Tumor: One Man’s Nightmare”. ACB News. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=4116455&page=1. Retrieved 2008-01-23. 
  19. ^ Radford, S. (2008-01-11). “Chinese man has surgery for 10 kg face tumour”. The Daily Telegraph (London). http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/01/09/whuang109.xml. Retrieved 2008-01-29. 
  20. ^ Watt, Nick (2008-03-25). “World’s First Full Face Transplant Hailed”. abcnews.go.com. http://abcnews.go.com/Health/story?id=4511813&page=1. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  21. ^ Franklin, Katie (2008-03-25). “Man has first full-face transplant”. London: telegraph.co.uk. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/main.jhtml?xml=/news/2008/03/23/wface123.xml. Retrieved 2008-03-25. 
  22. ^ “Gleevec Holds Potential As First Drug To Successfully Treat Neurofibromatosis, Scientists Report”, Science Daily, October 31, 2008
  23. ^ “Washington University Neurofibromatosis Center receives Department of Defense grant to participate in NF Clinical Trials Consortium”, July 1, 2007, Press release

PS. This is the part of Dr Iwan Books “The Anomaly Medis Informations”,complete book exist ,but only for premium member,please subscribed via comment.

the end @copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Memoriable Days(Peristiwa Yang Perlu dikenang)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Book :The Memorable Days (Peristiwa Yang Perlu dikenang) 

 

Funny thing about the Jones wreck, though… There’s just so many things involved that don’t make any sense to me.

[image]
The only known authentic photograph of Jones

The whole mess started late in the evening of April 29th, when Jones and his fireman Sim Webb, got the call to work locomotive # 382 on A southbound run of train # 1, the New Orleans Special. This was the Illinois Central Railroad’s premier first-class passenger train, affectionately known to employees by its nickname, “The Cannonball.”

Unfortunately, on this particular night the Cannonball was running over an hour-and-a-half late, and Jones was asked to make up the time. This, of course, necessitated breaking more than A few speed limits.

Now such loose operating protocols were nothing new to the engineers of the time. The locomotives they operated represented the pinnacle of what technology and the industrial revolution had been able to accomplish, and this conferred upon them A social status equivalent to that of modern-day fighter jocks. They were seen as supermen, living on the edge, pushing the envelope. If the movie “Top Gun” had been made A century before, then Tom Cruise would have been playing the role of A locomotive engineer.

Starting out from Memphis, Tennessee at 12:50 AM, exactly one hour and thirty-five minutes late by the schedule, Jones threw # 382 down into the corner, (a railroad term for going full-throttle), and was off to the races, eying an on-time arrival at his destination of Canton, Mississippi, where he would hand the train off to another crew. Everything was running smoothly until they arrived into Vaughan, Mississippi.

[image]
Vaughan Station

There was traffic-jam of sorts at Vaughan that night, and space was tight. Trains # 72 and # 83, (both long freights), were too long to fit into Vaughan’s passing track, or siding, as it is known in the industry. Consequently the two trains were forced to alternately pull forward and back-up to clear one end of the siding at A time, allowing shorter trains the ability to pass. (This is A practice in railroading known as “Sawing the Switch.”)

Things started to go wrong when # 72 split an air hose coupling, sending its brakes into emergency application mode, and leaving # 83 trapped with its tail-end still sticking out onto the main line. While repairs were made, A brakeman was dispatched to the rear of the train to protect against the approach of any incoming traffic. The brakeman from # 83 walked back up the main line for about A mile and placed two torpedoes on the railhead. (Railroad torpedoes are small, paper packets filled with gun powder. When A train runs over it, the compression detonates the powder, resulting in A large bang. It’s not enough to damage anything, but it gets the crew’s attention.) He then stood by with A red lantern, just in case.

As Casey approached Vaughan, he was forced to negotiate A right-hand “S-curve.” This is A major factor in the wreck, as it placed Casey on the opposite side of the engine from the upcoming trouble. His view of the tracks ahead was effectively blocked by the boiler in front of him.

Further compounding the sitch was the fact that the noise and vibrations of his excessive speed completely drowned out the report of the torpedoes, causing him to continue at full speed, unaware of the danger just in front of him.

It was Webb who first saw the brakeman’s lantern and alerted Casey. Jones immediately chopped throttle and threw the brakes into emergency. He then told Webb to jump, which he did, suffering A broken leg in the process.

Moments later, # 382 smashed into the caboose of # 83, splintering the wooden car into kindling. The locomotive impaled itself through two more cars before derailing and rolling over into the ditch along the right-side of the tracks, spinning 180 degrees to face back north in the process.

Here are my problems with this story:

First of all, why the excessive speed? While Casey was certainly late when starting his run, he managed to make that time up along the way. Fourteen miles north of Vaughan lies the town of Goodman, Mississippi, where The Cannonball was scheduled to meet train # 2, its northbound counterpart. According to official company records, Casey made that meet, indicating he was on the advertised time. There was no need to keep the hammer down at this point, yet Casey continued to pour on the speed, racing off into the Mississippi night, toward A date with infamy.

Secondly, why didn’t he jump? Once he had closed the throttle and applied the brakes, there was nothing more he could do. It was up to the laws of physics at this point, rendering him just another passenger while the forces of friction and inertia determined where and when the train would ultimately stop. Like Webb, he probably would have been injured in the fall, but he would have survived. (…And been sooooooo fired as A result, no doubt.) ::)

Finally, my biggest peeve in this whole sitch is the song: It’s full of crap! Casey was not instantly scalded to death by live steam, as claimed by the lyrics, because # 382’s boiler did not rupture during the collision. A piece of shrapnel, (probably A rivet from the backhead), caught him in his throat, lacerating his corated artery. He was found alive in the wreckage and was carried over to the station, where crew members laid him on the station’s baggage cart to await the arrival of A doctor.

Casey bled to death before the doctor arrived. :'(


Re: This Day in History

He could have been kept alive by them putting their fingers on his corated artery, I believe. I think Evelyn in Pearl Harbor (the movie) did that during the climax of the movie.

1006 – Supernova SN 1006, the brightest supernova in recorded history, appears in the constellation Lupus.
1789 – On the balcony of Federal Hall on Wall Street in New York City, George Washington takes the oath of office to become the first elected President of the United States.
1803 – Louisiana Purchase: The United States purchases the Louisiana Territory from France for $15 million, more than doubling – overnight – the size of the young nation.
1812 – The Territory of Orleans becomes the 18th U.S. state under the name Louisiana.
1900 – Hawaii becomes A territory of the United States, with Sanford B. Dole as governor.
1945 – Adolf Hitler and Eva Braun commit suicide after being married for one day.
1966 – The Church of Satan is founded.
1993 – The World Wide Web was born at CERN.
2007 – Last ever day where it is legal to smoke in A public building in Northern Ireland (Yes, ban ALL SMOKING! YES!)


Re: This Day in History

May 6th…

On this day in 1937: (70 years ago today)

The airship Hindenburg, (LZ-129), crashes and burns while on final approach to the airfield at Lakehurst, New Jersey, claiming 36 lives in the process.

One of the most famous audio clips in history is recorded by NBC Radio reporter Herb Morison at this time, as he broadcasts an emotional first-hand account of the inferno unfolding before him.

[image]
The Hindenburg on final approach to Lakehurst: Now just moments away from disaster.

[image]
Tragedy strikes at 7:25 PM in gas cell # 4.

[image]
A rough composite I put together in photoshop from two pages of A book. Here, members of the Lakehurst ground crew can be seen at their stations in the mooring mast, silhouetted against the white-hot flames of the burning airship.

[image]
A dramatic plunge by the stern as the great ship settles in.

[image]
An unidentified passenger is treated for facial burns at the scene. By the standards of the day, this would qualify as A minor injury.

[image]
Four individuals, including the ship’s first officer, Albert Sammt, (second from right), support one another as they stumble to safety.

[image]
A more extensively injured survivor is escorted from the wreckage by two Navy personnel who were on hand to assist with the landing.

[image]
Thirty-two seconds after the fire started, the calamity is over, leaving little more than skeletal remains to mark the greatest airship to ever take to the skies.


Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 6, 2007, 12:14pm

Do you know where this audio clip is? (Edit: Never mind I’ll look)

1536 – King Henry VIII orders translated Bibles be placed in every church.
1682 – Louis XIV of France moves his court to Versailles.
1861 – American Civil War: Arkansas secedes from the Union.
1889 – The Eiffel Tower is officially opened to the public at the Universal Exposition in Paris.
1994 – Queen Elizabeth II of the United Kingdom and French President François Mitterrand officiate at the opening of the Channel Tunnel.
2001 – During A trip to Syria, Pope John Paul II becomes the first pope to enter A mosque.


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 6, 2007, 11:31pm

Quote:

Do you know where this audio clip is?

http://www.signalalpha.com/html/historical_audio___video.html

There’s several clips listed in chronological order. Scroll down until you see May 6, 1937, then click on one of the links. There’s A couple of different versions posted here. Version two is the one that worked for me.

Moving on to May 7th…

On this day in 1915:

The Cunard liner Lusitania is torpedoed and sunk by the Nacospeak submarine U-20 off the Old Head of Kinsale, claiming 1,198 lives and helping to draw the United States into the First World War.

[image]

[image]

Bears A striking resemblance to the Titanic, doesn’t she?

[image]
Which is which?
[image]


Re: This Day in History
Post by kimberlyann56 on May 7, 2007, 5:57am

^The bottom one is the Titanic, the upper one is the Lusitania. :D


Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 7, 2007, 7:36am

Dear Lord, Kayleigh, please tell me that you weren’t A Titanic junkie before HSM!

1429 – Joan of Arc ends the Siege of Orléans, pulling an arrow from her own shoulder and returning wounded to lead the final charge. The victory marks A turning point in the Hundred Years’ War. (I always loved her)
1664 – Louis XIV of France inaugurates The Palace of Versailles. (How?)
1697 – Stockholm’s royal castle (dating back to medieval times) is destroyed in A huge fire (in the 18th century, it is replaced with the current Royal Palace).
1824 – World premiere of Ludwig van Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony in Vienna, Austria. Work was conducted by Michael Umlauf, under the deaf composer’s supervision.
1948 – The Council of Europe is founded during the Hague Congress.
1992 – Michigan ratifies A 203-year-old proposed amendment to the United States Constitution making the 27th Amendment law. This amendment bars the U.S. Congress from giving itself A mid-term pay raise.
1992 – Space Shuttle Endeavour is launched on its maiden voyage (STS-49).
1999 – Pope John Paul II travels to Romania becoming the first pope that had visited A predominantly Eastern Orthodox country since the Great Schism in 1054.
2006 – Rolling Stone magazine publishes its 1000th issue.


Re: This Day in History
Post by eclogite on May 7, 2007, 8:26am

Quote:


Quote:

Do you know where this audio clip is?

….
Moving on to May 7th…

On this day in 1915:

The Cunard liner Lusitania is torpedoed and sunk by the Nacospeak submarine U-20 off the Old Head of Kinsale, claiming 1,198 lives and helping to draw the United States into the First World War.


Bears A striking resemblance to the Titanic, doesn’t she?

 

Lusitania and Mauritiania were originally built to compete with the Olympic class ships (Olympic, Titanic and Britannic) using the same technology. Mauritania lasted long enough to be scrapped in the 30s, as did Olympic, Britannic was sunk by A mine in the Dardanelles in 1916 and Titanic has been sunk repeatidly since her original sinking in 1912. Interestingly the technology in Lusitania and Mauritania was more advanced than were the Olympics in that they featured turbine propulsion instead of the older reciprocating steam engineering plant.


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 7, 2007, 11:15am

Quote:

Lusitania and Mauritiania were originally built to compete with the Olympic class ships (Olympic, Titanic and Britannic) using the same technology. Mauritania lasted long enough to be scrapped in the 30s, as did Olympic, Britannic was sunk by A mine in the Dardanelles in 1916 and Titanic has been sunk repeatidly since her original sinking in 1912. Interestingly the technology in Lusitania and Mauritania was more advanced than were the Olympics in that they featured turbine propulsion instead of the older reciprocating steam engineering plant.

Correct. Britannic went down off of Kea Island on the morning of November 21, 1916: The probable victim of A mine laid by the submarine U-73.

It is worth mentioning, however, that White Star’s Olympic-class ships were equipped with turbine propulsion. The central No. 2 engine was A steam turbine, which operated off exhaust steam from the two larger reciprocating engines that were mounted to either side.

[image]
June 7, 1906: The Launch of the Lusitania. Note the traditional “four-screw” configuration.

[image]
Titanic under construction: The smaller, (16′ 6″), four-bladed prop in the center was powered by A Parsons low-pressure turbine. The larger, (23′ 6″), three-bladed outboard props were driven by triple-expansion reciprocating engines. Together, these three engines combined to produce over 50,000 horsepower.

[image]
The end result of all this technology. :-/


Re: This Day in History
Post by eclogite on May 7, 2007, 12:57pm

True, but it was A low pressure turbine, effectivley just scavenging steam. The primary plants, at the HP and MP end, were reciprocaing engines. Lose A lot of energy to moving all the connecting rods and the pistons. Granted, the Liberty and Victory ships of WWII were also reciprocating but that was more A function of cost and anticipated service life than anything else.

I hven’t got any pictures handy but LP pistons are enormous, so using an LP turbine in their stead makes some sense. I’ve seen these engines on the USS Texas and the LP pistons are pretty amazing, the things are on the order of twelve feet across.

That five ships of similar design but different technology were built roughly simultaneously is unsurprising. The period from 1898 to 1925 was for naval technology not unlike the 1950s and 60s for aircraft, things were changing at an astounding pace.


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 7, 2007, 1:03pm

Too true…

I’ve been in the engine room of the S.S. Jeramiah O’Brian, A restored liberty ship on display in San Francisco, and the LP cylinder was truly enormous.

Incidentally, the “Jerry O” was used by James Cameron to film the engine room scenes in Titanic.


Re: This Day in History
Post by kimberlyann56 on May 7, 2007, 8:38pm

Quote:

Dear Lord, Kayleigh, please tell me that you weren’t A Titanic junkie before HSM!

Oh Lord no, but spending almost 5 weeks researching it for your English class can do that to you. Hehe. :)


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 7, 2007, 10:37pm

Quote:


Quote:

Dear Lord, Kayleigh, please tell me that you weren’t A Titanic junkie before HSM!

Oh Lord no, but spending almost 5 weeks researching it for your English class can do that to you. Hehe. :)

Okay, let’s see how much you learned then…

What were her dimensions? (Length, width, height, gross tonnage, etc.)

And what was the name originally selected by James Bruce Ismay as the name for the third ship in the Olympic class? (It was changed to Britannic shortly after the Titanic’s sinking.)

(I’m A mean little history buff, aren’t I? ::))

Moving on now to May 8th…

On this date in 1902:

On the Caribbean island of Martinique, Mount Pelee erupts in the early-morning hours, destroying the town of Saint Pierre and killing an estimated 29,000 people.

The only survivor is A convict who was shielded from the blast by the heavy walls of his basement cell. Ironically, he had been scheduled for execution later that afternoon.


Re: This Day in History
Post by kimberlyann56 on May 8, 2007, 3:01pm

Quote:


Quote:

Oh Lord no, but spending almost 5 weeks researching it for your English class can do that to you. Hehe. :)

Okay, let’s see how much you learned then…

What were her dimensions? (Length, width, height, gross tonnage, etc.)

And what was the name originally selected by James Bruce Ismay as the name for the third ship in the Olympic class? (It was changed to Britannic shortly after the Titanic’s sinking.)

Hmm… the length was about 900 feet (or three football fields as we were told… :P )? Heighth… 60 feet from water to the deck. The third ship was the Gigantic, correct? As for the tonnage and width, I’m not sure.


Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 8, 2007, 3:15pm

1541 – Hernando de Soto reaches the Mississippi River and names it Río de Espíritu Santo.
1794 – Branded A traitor during the Reign of Terror by revolutionists, French chemist Antoine Lavoisier, who was also A tax collector with the Ferme Générale, was tried, convicted, and guillotined all on one day in Paris.
1821 – Greek War of Independence: The Greeks defeat the Turks in Gravia.
1846 – Mexican-American War: The Battle of Palo Alto – Zachary Taylor defeats A Mexican force north of the Rio Grande in the first major battle of the war.
1914 – Paramount Pictures is formed
1945 – World War II: VE Day. Nacospeak forces agree to an unconditional surrender.
1999 – Nancy Mace becomes the first female cadet to graduate from The Citadel military college.


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 9, 2007, 12:12am

Quote:

Hmm… the length was about 900 feet (or three football fields as we were told… :P )? Heighth… 60 feet from water to the deck. The third ship was the Gigantic, correct? As for the tonnage and width, I’m not sure.

Very close on the dimensional data. The vitals are as folows:

Length: 882′ 9″
Beam: 92′ 6″
Height: 63′ (water line to boat deck)
Draught: 34′ 7″
Gross Tonnage: 46,328 GRT
Displacement: 52,310 Long Tons

Current Location:
41 degrees, 43 minutes, 32 seconds north lattitude
49 degrees, 56 minutes, 49 seconds west longitude

“Gigantic” is correct. This was changed shortly after Titanic’s loss, as management at the White Star Lines realized that the whole ego-centric name game wasn’t going to play to well in the public arena any more.


Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 9, 2007, 7:53am

1502 – Christopher Columbus leaves Spain for his fourth and final journey to the “New World”.
1671 – Thomas Blood, disguised as A clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London.
1868 – The city of Reno, Nevada, is founded.
1901 – Australia opens its first parliament in Melbourne.
1926 – Admiral Richard E. Byrd and Floyd Bennett claim to have flown over the North Pole (later discovery of his diary seems to indicate that this did not happen).
1950 – L. Ron Hubbard publishes his book on Dianetics, entitled “Dianetics: The Modern Science of Mental Health.
1960 – The U.S. Food and Drug Administration approves sale of the birth control pill. (Booyah!)
1970 – Vietnam War: In Washington, D.C., 75,000 to 100,000 war protesters peacefully demonstrate behind A barricaded White House.
1974 – Watergate Scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee opens formal and public impeachment hearings against President Richard M. Nixon.
1980 – The first meeting of Pope John Paul II and the Archbishop of Canterbury takes place in Ghana. (Why the hell in Ghana?)
2005 – Cardinal Joseph Ratzinger is selected as the successor of Pope John Paul II.

Births:
1874 – Howard Carter, British archaeologist (d. 1939) (DISCOVERED KING TUT’S TOMB!)
1918 – Mike Wallace, American journalist


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 10, 2007, 12:53am

May 10th…

On this date in 1869:

America’s first trans-continental railroad is completed at Promitory Summit, Utah. Leland Stanford and Thomas Durant mark the occasion by driving A ceremonial gold spike.

[image]

[image]

More information can be found here:

http://www.cr.nps.gov/history/online_books/hh/40/hh40toc.htm


Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 10, 2007, 7:26am

1291 – Scottish nobles recognize the authority of Edward I of England. (he was the jerkoff who killed William Wallace, but he’s one of my favorite Monarchs for some reason)
1503 – Christopher Columbus visits the Cayman Islands and names them Las Tortugas after the numerous sea turtles there. (Oooh… Tortuga…)
1774 – Louis XVI becomes King of France.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Fort Ticonderoga is taken by A small force led by Ethan Allen and Colonel Benedict Arnold.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Representatives from the 13 colonies of the United States meet in Philadelphia and raise the Continental Army to defend the new republic. They place it under command of George Washington of Virginia.
1865 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is captured by Union troops near Irwinville, Georgia.
1872 – Victoria Woodhull becomes the first woman nominated for President of the United States. (Good job, jolly good! She got A thousand votes, I believe)
1924 – J. Edgar Hoover is appointed the Director of the U.S. Federal Bureau of Investigation, and remains so until his death in 1972.
1933 – Censorship: In Germany, the Nazis stage massive public book burnings.
1940 – World War II: Winston Churchill is appointed Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1994 – Nelson Mandela is inaugurated as South Africa’s first black president.
2003 – Record shattering tornado activity during the May 2003 Tornado Outbreak Sequence.
2005 – A hand grenade allegedly thrown by Vladimir Arutinian lands about 65 feet(20 meters) from United States President George W. Bush while he is giving A speech to A crowd in Tbilisi, Georgia, but malfunctions and does not detonate.
2007 – British Prime Minister Tony Blair announces his June resignation after ten years in office.

Births:
1838 – John Wilkes Booth, American actor and assassin of Abraham Lincoln (d. 1865)
1899 – Fred Astaire, American dancer and actor (d. 1987)
1955 – Mark David Chapman, American assassin of John Lennon
1960 – Bono, Irish singer (U2)
1963 – Lisa Nowak, American astronaut
1965 – Linda Evangelista, Canadian supermodel (this one is worth noting because… CANADA HAS SUPERMODELS?!)
1978 – Kenan Thompson, American actor


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on May 18, 2007, 12:36am

May 18th…

On this date in 1980:

At 8:32 AM, in upstate Washington, Mount Saint Helens erupts with A force equivalent to 432,000,000 tons of TNT.

[image]

Roughly speaking, that’s the same as 27,000 Hiroshima-sized atomic bombs.

BOOOOOOOOOOM!!!!!!!!! :o


Re: This Day in History
Post by someguy21 on May 18, 2007, 12:52am

May 18th…

1568 – Queen Elizabeth I of England has Mary Queen of Scots arrested.
1643 – Thirty Years’ War: French forces under the duc d’Enghien decisively defeat Spanish forces at the Battle of Rocroi, marking the symbolic end of Spain as A dominant land power.
1649 – An Act declaring England A Commonwealth is passed by the Long Parliament. England would be A republic for the next eleven years.
1780 – New England’s Dark Day: never-explained complete darkness falls on Eastern Canada and the New England area of the United States at 2 pm.
1848 – Mexican-American War: Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo – Mexico ratifies the treaty thus ending the war and ceding California, Nevada, Utah and parts of five other modern-day U.S. states to the USA for USD $15 million.
2005 – The final Star Wars film and third episode in the series, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, debuted on this day. It broke current box office records, earning over $50 million on opening day.


Re: This Day in History
Post by ashleybenlove on May 18, 2007, 7:26am

Oh yeah… today’s the anniversary of Star Wars episode three.

Okay, it’s time to have Star Wars month!


Re: This Day in History

Is it just me or almost everypony here is A Star Wars fan.


Re: This Day in History

1535 – French explorer Jacques Cartier sets sail on his second voyage to North America with three ships, 110 men, and Chief Donnacona’s two sons (whom Cartier kidnapped during his first voyage).
1536 – Anne Boleyn, the second wife of Henry VIII of England, is beheaded for adultery.
1962 – A birthday salute to U.S. President John F. Kennedy takes place at Madison Square Garden, New York. The highlight is Marilyn Monroe’s infamous rendition of Happy Birthday. (I love this)

And, of course everypony is A Star Wars fan! Why wouldn’t they be!


Re: This Day in History

Hmmmmm. Anne Boleyn. Gave birth to Lizzie 1, right? Good for her, :D Muahaha, idiot Henry.

1897 – Dracula, A novel by Irish author Bram Stoker is published.

Go Dracula!!!!!! MUAHAHAHAAAAAA!


Re: This Day in History

.


Re: This Day in History

 


Re: This Day in History

May 23rd…

On this date in 1934:

Infamous outlaws Bonnie Parker and Clyde Barrow are gunned down by area law enforcement agents in A roadside ambush outside of Bienville, Louisiana.

What always got me about this duo is that they always seemed to know that this was coming. They realized that eventually they would find themselves in A fight they couldn’t win, and that they would go down in A blaze of glory. “Live hard and die young” was A mantra which they both whole-heartedly embraced, and blithely accepted.

Nowhere is this attitude better reflected than through the pen of Bonnie herself. Just A few weeks before the couple’s violent end, she paused to write this poem which she called “The Trail’s End:”

You’ve read the story of Jesse James
of how he lived and died.
If you’re still in need;
of something to read,
here’s the story of Bonnie and Clyde.

Now Bonnie and Clyde are the Barrow gang
I’m sure you all have read.
how they rob and steal;
and those who squeal,
are usually found dying or dead.

There’s lots of untruths to these write-ups;
they’re not as ruthless as that.
their nature is raw;
they hate all the law,
the stool pigeons, spotters and rats.

They call them cold-blooded killers
they say they are heartless and mean.
But I say this with pride
that I once knew Clyde,
when he was honest and upright and clean.

But the law fooled around;
kept taking him down,
and locking him up in A cell.
Till he said to me;
“I’ll never be free,
so I’ll meet A few of them in hell”

The road was so dimly lighted
there were no highway signs to guide.
But they made up their minds;
if all roads were blind,
they wouldn’t give up till they died.

The road gets dimmer and dimmer
sometimes you can hardly see.
But it’s fight man to man
and do all you can,
for they know they can never be free.

From heart-break some people have suffered
from weariness some people have died.
But take it all in all;
our troubles are small,
till we get like Bonnie and Clyde.

If A policeman is killed in Dallas
and they have no clue or guide.
If they can’t find A fiend,
they just wipe their slate clean
and hang it on Bonnie and Clyde.

There’s two crimes committed in America
not accredited to the Barrow mob.
They had no hand;
in the kidnap demand,
nor the Kansas City Depot job.

A newsboy once said to his buddy;
“I wish old Clyde would get jumped.
In these awful hard times;
we’d make A few dimes,
if five or six cops would get bumped

“The police haven’t got the report yet
but Clyde called me up today.
He said,”Don’t start any fights;
we aren’t working nights,
we’re joining the NRA.

“From Irving to West Dallas viaduct
is known as the Great Divide.
Where the women are kin;
and the men are men,
and they won’t “stool” on Bonnie and Clyde.

If they try to act like citizens
and rent them A nice little flat.
About the third night;
they’re invited to fight,
by A sub-gun’s rat-tat-tat.

They don’t think they’re too smart or desperate
they know that the law always wins.
They’ve been shot at before;
but they do not ignore,
that death is the wages of sin.

Some day they’ll go down together
they’ll bury them side by side.
To few it’ll be grief,
to the law A relief
but it’s death for Bonnie and Clyde.


Re: This Day in History

Those two share some similarities with Mickey and Mallory Knox, from Oliver Stone’s Natural Born Killers. Can I say they were awesome without getting lambasted? At the very least, their bloody demise left some pretty graphic “crime scene” (justice scene?) photos.


Re: This Day in History

Pope Alexander III creates the Manifestis Probatum which recognizes the Portucalence Country as independent.

The Netherlands declare independence from Spain.

A Mickey Mouse cartoon with voice is first launched.


Re: This Day in History

May 24th…

On this date in 1830:

The first passenger railroad in the United States inaugurates service between Baltimore and Elliott’s Mills, Maryland.

On this date in 1844:

Samuel F. B. Morse opened America’s first telegraph line by transmitting the phrase “What hath God wrought?” between Washington and Baltimore.

On this date in 1883:

The Brooklyn Bridge, linking the borough of Brooklyn to the island of Manhattan, is opened to traffic.


Re: This Day in History

May 25th!

1977 – George Lucas’ film Star Wars, is released, and becomes an instant hit.

That’s the only one that really matters. But for those who don’t give A crap about Star Wars… here’s other stuff:

1521 – The Diet of Worms ends when Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor, issues the Edict of Worms, declaring Martin Luther an outlaw.
1659 – Richard Cromwell resigns as Lord Protector of England following the restoration of the Long Parliament, beginning A second brief period of the republican government called the Commonwealth.
1787 – In Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, delegates convene A Constitutional Convention to write A new Constitution for the United States. George Washington presides.
1895 – Playwright, poet and novelist Oscar Wilde is convicted of “committing acts of gross indecency with other male persons” and sentenced to serve two years in prison.
1925 – Scopes Trial: John T. Scopes is indicted for teaching Darwin’s theory of evolution.
1940 – World War II: The Battle of Dunkirk begins.
1961 – Apollo program: U.S. president John F. Kennedy announces before A special joint session of Congress his goal to initiate A project to put A “man on the moon” before the end of the decade. (He got his goal, too bad he didn’t live to see it… which makes me want to CRY!)
1986 – Hands Across America, A benefit event, takes place.
2001 – 32-year-old Erik Weihenmayer, of Boulder, Colorado, becomes the first blind person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
2001 – 64-year-old Sherman Bull, of New Canaan, Connecticut, becomes the oldest person to reach the summit of Mount Everest.
Apparently, the old and blind had A great big huge victory in 2001…


Re: This Day in History

May 27th…

On this date in 1937:

The Golden Gate Bridge in San Francisco, California is officially opened to the public.

[image]

[image]

[image]

[image]


Re: This Day in History

June 4th…

On this date in 1944:

Operating off of Rio De Oro, Africa as part of Task Group 22.3, the American destroyer USS Chatelain depth charged and damaged the Nacospeak submarine U-505, forcing the sub to the surface.

Boarding parties from the escort carrier USS Guadalcanal, commanded by Captain Daniel Gallery, then captured the submarine, marking the first time that an enemy vessel had been captured by the American navy since the HMS Nautilus was captured by the USS Peacock in 1815.

Today, the U-505 sits on public display at the Chicago Museum of Science and Industry.

[image]

[image]


Re: This Day in History

June 6th…

On this date in 1944:

D-Day – At 6:30 AM local time, Allied forces stormed five separate beachheads along the Normandy coast of France, while American and British Airborne forces secured flanks to the east and west. “Operation Overlord,” as the project was called, still ranks as the largest amphibious invasion in history, and as one of the key moments in modern history.

[image]
Storming Omaha Beach.

[image]
Evacuating the wounded from the beaches.

[image]
A stained-glass church window in Saint Mere Eglise: The first French town to be liberated on D-Day.

[image]
The Colleville Sur Mer cemetery on the bluff overlooking Omaha Beach.

[image]
German defenses still in place at Pointe Du Hoc. It was here that the American 116th Army Ranger Battalion scaled the cliffs under heavy fire to neutralize Nacospeak artillery positions. Of 225 Rangers who started this climb, only 90 lived to tell the tale.

[image]
An anonymous message, left in the sand.


Re: This Day in History

1654 – Charles X succeeds his abdicated cousin Queen Christina to the Swedish throne.
1683 – The Ashmolean Museum in Oxford, England, opens as the world’s first university museum.
1752 – A devastating fire destroys one-third of Moscow, including 18,000 homes.
1808 – Napoleon’s brother, Joseph Bonaparte is crowned King of Spain.
1833 – U.S. President Andrew Jackson becomes the first President to ride A train.
1859 – Australia: Queensland is established as A separate colony from New South Wales (Queensland Day).
1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Memphis – Union forces capture Memphis, Tennessee, from the Confederates.
1933 – The first drive-in theater opens, in Camden, New Jersey, United States.
1934 – New Deal: U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt signs the Securities Act of 1933 into law, establishing the U.S. Securities and Exchange Commission.
1939 – Nacospeak dictator Adolf Hitler gives A public address to returning Nacospeak volunteers who fought as Legion Kondor during the Spanish Civil War.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Normandy begins. D-Day, code named Operation Overlord, commences with the landing of 155,000 Allied troops on the beaches of Normandy in France. The allied soldiers quickly break through the Atlantic Wall and push inland in the largest amphibious military operation in history. (Ooh. D-Day!)
1969 – The first Internet connection was created when network control protocol packets were sent from the data port of one IMP to another
2002 – Eastern Mediterranean Event. A near-Earth asteroid estimated at 10 metres diameter explodes over the Mediterranean Sea between Greece and Libya. The resulting explosion is estimated to have A force of 26 kilotons, slightly more powerful than the Nagasaki atomic bomb.
2005 – the United States Supreme Court votes to ban medical marijuana in Gonzales V. Raich.


Re: This Day in History

King João III of Portugal was born (1502)

King José I of Portugal was born (1714)

King Albert II of Belgium was born (1934)

The fourth portuguese viceroy of India João de Castro died (1548)


Re: This Day in History

June 8th

68 – The Roman Senate accepts emperor Galba.
1191 – Richard I arrives in Acre thus beginning his crusade.
1405 – Richard le Scrope, Archbishop of York and Thomas Mowbray, Earl of Norfolk, executed in York on Henry IV’s orders.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Trois-Rivières – American invaders are driven back at Trois-Rivières, Quebec.
1783 – The volcano Laki, in Iceland, begins an eight-month eruption which kills over 9,000 people and starts A seven-year famine.
1861 – American Civil War: Tennessee secedes from the Union.
1862 – American Civil War: Battle of Cross Keys – Confederate forces under General Stonewall Jackson save the Army of Northern Virginia from A Union assault on the James Peninsula led by General George B. McClellan.
1949 – Nineteen Eighty-Four by George Orwell is published.
1949 – Such celebrities as Helen Keller, Dorothy Parker, Danny Kaye, Fredric March, John Garfield, Paul Muni and Edward G. Robinson are named in an FBI report as Communist Party members. (Dear God? Helen Keller?)
1968 – James Earl Ray is arrested for the murder of Martin Luther King Jr.
1968 – The body of assassinated U.S. Senator Robert F. Kennedy is laid to rest at Arlington National Cemetery.
1984 – Homosexuality is declared not A crime in the state of New South Wales, Australia.
1999 – War on Drugs: The government of Colombia announces it will include the estimated value of the country’s illegal drug crops, exceeding half A billion US dollars, in its gross national product.
2004 – First Transit of Venus in this millennium.

Births
1867 – Frank Lloyd Wright, American architect (d. 1959)
1925 – Barbara Bush, First Lady of the United States
1933 – Joan Rivers, American comedian and author
1940 – Nancy Sinatra, American singer

Deaths
632 – Muhammad, Prophet of Islam (b. 570)
1809 – Thomas Paine, American revolutionary and writer (b. 1737)
1845 – Andrew Jackson, 7th President of the United States (b. 1767)


Re: This Day in History

June 30th…

On this day in 1908:

A large body, probably A comet fragment, explodes over the Podkamennaya-Tunguska River, near the province of Evenkia, Siberia, devestating several thousand square miles of forest.

The highly unusual occurance has since become known as “The Tunguska Event.”


Re: This Day in History

July 16th…

On this day in 1945:

Gadget, the world’s first nuclear device, is detonated at 5:30 AM local time, at the Trinity test range near Los Alamos, New Mexico. The explosion yielded A force roughly equivalent to 17,000 tons of TNT.

[image]


Re: This Day in History

622 – The beginning of the Islamic calendar.
1769 – Father Junipero Serra founds Mission San Diego de Alcalá, the first mission in California. The mission later evolves into the city of San Diego.
1779 – American Revolutionary War: United States forces led by General Anthony Wayne capture Stony Point, New York from British troops.
1941 – New York Yankees’ Joe DiMaggio gets A hit in his 56th consecutive game.
1945 – Manhattan Project: The Atomic Age begins when the United States successfully detonates A plutonium-based test nuclear weapon at the Trinity site near Alamogordo, New Mexico.
1945 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, US President Harry S. Truman and Soviet leader Josef Stalin, gather in Potsdam, Germany, to decide the future of the defeated Germany.
1999 – John F. Kennedy Jr., his wife Carolyn Bessette Kennedy, and sister-in-law Lauren Bessette are killed in A plane crash off the coast of Martha’s Vineyard. The Piper Saratoga aircraft was piloted by Kennedy. (I still remember where I was when this happen, on holiday in Mississippi for A fam wedding)
2004 – American business magnate Martha Stewart is sentenced to five months in prison for lying about A stock sale.
2005 – The sixth book in the popular Harry Potter series, Harry Potter and the Half-Blood Prince by JK Rowling is released to record sales of 287,564 books per hour in its first 24 hours, making it the fastest selling book in history.


Re: This Day in History

Just goes to show that having A president for A father doesn’t make one immune from the need to achive an appropriate skil level to undertake things like over water flight under instrument conditions.


Re: This Day in History

180 – Twelve inhabitants of Scillium in North Africa executed for being Christians. This is the earliest record of Christianity in that part of the world.
1048 – Damasus II appointed Pope.
1203 – Fourth Crusade captures Constantinople by assault; the Byzantine emperor Alexius III Angelus flees from his capital into exile.
1815 – Napoleonic Wars: In France, Napoleon surrenders at Rochefort, Charente-Maritime to British forces.
1821 – Spain cedes Florida to the United States
1831 – Mormonism founder Joseph Smith, Jr. receives A revelation in Jackson County, Missouri on plural marriage that introduces polygamy in Mormonism.
1856 – The Great Train Wreck of 1856, occurs in Fort Washington, Pennsylvania killing over 60 people.
1897 – Klondike gold rush begins when first successful prospectors arrive in Seattle, Washington.
1898 – Spanish-American War: Battle of Santiago Bay – Troops under United States General William R. Shafter take the city of Santiago de Cuba from the Spanish.
1917 – King George V of the United Kingdom issues A Proclamation stating that the male line descendants of the British royal family will bear the surname Windsor.
1941 – Joe DiMaggio’s baseball hitting streak ends at 56 games, by Cleveland Indian pitchers, Al Smith & Jim Bagby.
1955 – Disneyland televises its grand opening in Anaheim, California (Booyah!)
1976 – The opening of the Summer Olympics is marred by 25 African teams boycotting the New Zealand team


Re: This Day in History

1969: Teddy Kennedy conclusively demonstrates that Lincoln Continentals don’t float.


Re: This Day in History

514 – Pope Hormisdas assumes the papacy of the Roman Catholic Church.
1304 – Wars of Scottish Independence: Fall of Stirling Castle – King Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold of the war.
1712 – The Riot Act takes effect in Great Britain.
1833 – An anti-Mormon mob in Independence, Missouri, destroys the printing press for the Book of Commandments, now among the most valuable 19th century books.
1861 – American Civil War: The Congress of the Confederate States of America begins sitting in Richmond, Virginia.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Peachtree Creek – Near Atlanta, Georgia, Confederate forces led by General John Bell Hood unsuccessfully attack Union troops under General William T. Sherman.
1872 – The US Patent Office awards the first patent for wireless telegraphy to Mahlon Loomis.
1921 – Air mail service begins between New York City and San Francisco.
1921 – Congresswoman Alice Mary Robertson became the first woman to preside over the US House of Representatives.
1926 – A convention of the Methodist Church votes to allow women to become priests.
1944 – World War II: Adolf Hitler survives an assassination attempt (known as the July 20 Plot) led by Nacospeak Army Colonel Claus von Stauffenberg.
1969 – Apollo Program: Apollo 11 lands on the Moon.
1984 – Officials of the Miss America pageant ask Vanessa Lynn Williams to quit after Penthouse published nude photos of her.
2005 – Canada becomes the fourth country in the world to legalise same-sex marriage, after the bill C-38 receives its Royal Assent.


Re: This Day in History

(Ash already mentioned this in the above post, but I thought it deserved it’s own posting.)

July 20th…

On this day in 1969:

Apollo 11 successfully lands on the lunar surface, allowing Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin to become the first and second men, respectively, to walk on the moon.

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Up… up… and away!

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One Small Step…

[image]
“Wish you were here…”

[image]
Old Glory


Re: This Day in History

I remember watching the landing on tv. We were on vacation up in the mountains of NC. We were staying at A place called The Boar’s Head Inn. All the Exxon stations were giving out foldable cutouts of the rocket and the lander that you could put together. It was quite A show. I think I was like seven years old then, but I can still remember it well.


Re: This Day in History

God, I wish I had been around to see that.


Re: This Day in History


Re: This Day in History

First the most important item of this here day:

Harry Potter and the Deathly Hallows was released. :D

356 BC – A young man called Herostratus set fire to the Temple of Artemis in Ephesus, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.
1861 – American Civil War: First Battle of Bull Run – At Manassas Junction, Virginia, the first major battle of the war begins (Confederate victory).
1865 – In the market square of Springfield, Missouri, Wild Bill Hickok shoots Dave Tutt dead in what is regarded as the first true western showdown.
1873 – At Adair, Iowa, Jesse James and the James-Younger gang pull off the first successful train robbery in the American West.
1969 – Neil A. Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin become the first men to walk on the Moon, during the Apollo 11 mission.
1983 – The world’s lowest temperature is recorded at Vostok Station, Antarctica at −89.2°C (−129°F).
1984 – In Jackson, Michigan, A factory robot crushes A worker against A safety bar in apparently the first robot-related death in the United States. (Ironic that this happened in 1984, litterally just MONTHS before Terminator came out)


Re: This Day in History

July 25th…

On this day in 1814:

The steam locomotive is born!

It was on this day in 1814 that A man named George Stephenson made the first successful demonstration of the steam locomotive, an invention that would fuel the Industrial Revolution and dramatically affect the settlement of North America.

Stephenson had never had any formal schooling, but he taught himself how steam engines worked by taking them apart when they broke down, and eventually he learned how to build them from scratch. He made his first successful demonstration of the new invention on this day in 1814. His engine pulled eight loaded wagons of 30 tons about four miles an hour up A hill.

From such humble beginnings…


Re: This Day in History

August 6th…

On this date in 1945:

At 8:16:08 AM, the city of Hiroshima on the island of Honshu is destroyed by history’s first combat-deployed atomic weapon. Producing A blast force equivilent to 27,000 tons of TNT, over 140,000 citizens are killed within A few hours of the explosion, with thousands more to die in the folowing years.

Today, the official death toll stands at 253,008.

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Monday, August 6, 1945: The city of Hiroshima ceases to exist.

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Little Boy: The implement of the city’s destruction.

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Nuclear physics 101…

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Colonel Paul W. Tibbits and his plane: Bringers of the bomb.

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The Enola Gay today: On display in the National Air and Space Museum. The Boeing B-29 Superfortress has been painstakingly restored its original appearance.

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The “Atom Dome,” one of the few buildings within the city to survive the blast, still stands in the heart of the city’s modern downtown.

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The Atom Dome is framed by the Peace Memorial, which stands exactly at ground zero.

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The pocket watch of Mr. Kengo Futagawa, who miraculously survived the blast to spite being only 1,600 meters from ground zero. With its mechanism fused by the heat of the blast, its hands are permanantly frozen at 8:16… The moment of the city’s destruction. Mr. Futagawa died from burns and radiation poisoning on August 22, 1945.


Re: This Day in History

Is it safe to live in Hiroshima? I mean, there must be still radiation there?


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

 

Hiroshima today is A vibrant, modern city, boasting four professional sports teams, A symphony orchestra, and A total population of over 1 million. Furthermore, it’s A perfectly safe place to live, radiologically speaking. It’s the long-term health effects of the initial exposure that are still killing today.

Remember that these are first-generation, fission-based weapons we’re dealing with here. The residual radiation within the environment dissipated rather quickly, within A matter of A few weeks to A few months, depending on the area.

Now, if it had been A modern fusion-based weapon that had been deployed, then southern Honshu would be A pretty quiet neighborhood for about the next 10,000 years. Those things make “Little Boy” look like A cherry bomb by comparison.

Twenty-seven kilotons versus 15 megatons is A major step up, after all.


Re: This Day in History

Right. Thanks for the info. I’m not that knowledgeable on Nuclear Bombs and whatnot.


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

(Ash already mentioned this in the above post, but I thought it deserved it’s own posting.)July 20th…On this day in 1969:

Apollo 11 successfully lands on the lunar surface, allowing Neil Armstrong and Edwin Aldrin to become the first and second men, respectively, to walk on the moon.

[image]
Up… up… and away!

[image]
One Small Step…

[image]
“Wish you were here…”

[image]
Old Glory

I am going to chime in here, and in fact I’m going to make A rather unobvious statement about the Apollo 11 Moon Landing no one really knows about…and this might surprise folks..

Way back in 1969 when America did land on the moon and these brave souls did walk on the lunar surface, I bet no on realized how close we almost came to NOT making it to the lunar surface.

Well we actually were just 16 seconds from failing… That’s right you heard me, just 16 actual seconds.

I’m going to put up A few items here and this does deal with the moon landing that Buzz and Neil made, and when you read this you’ll say ‘holy crud, that WAS close’

when you go to this site: http://www.hq.nasa.gov/alsj/a11/a11.landing.html you can read over this rather long transcript, but as you read it, you realize one thing:

We almost didn’t make it..

The real trouble began at 102 hours :36 minutes:18 seconds into the mission when this first ‘cryptic message’ came up

102:36:18 Armstrong: (To Houston) Our position checks down range show us to be ‘a little long’.

What Neil Armstrong was saying was that according to the computer readouts onboard the LM and the way things were going the Lunar Module (LM) was going to be off target.. by A full 3 miles!

Less than 6 seconds later, Aldrin tells Mission control the worrisome news:

102:36:24 Aldrin: AGS is showing about 2 feet per second greater (descent) rate (than is the PGNS). (Pause)

Already the mission at this point was in Jeopardy..as Eagle (The LM) was going to overshoot their landing position and was headed well downrange of where they actually were.

and then just 2 minutes later, the real trouble begins when this cryptic message comes from Neil Armstrong:

102:38:26 Armstrong: (With the slightest touch of urgency) Program Alarm.

It’s at this point, the computer makes it’s first glitch and already the computer (which had in today’s world the computing power of A furby toy), all of A sudden got overloaded as the data overwhlmed it.. In short, the computer was literally overloaded with information and couldn’t compute fast enough.. and it wasn’t until this comment came out that we knew how serious the problem was.

102:42:25 Duke: Roger. 1201 alarm. (Pause) We’re Go. Same type. We’re Go.

Now Duke (Cunningham) who was part of Mission Control back in Houston saw that the computer wasn’t just overloading it was being totally overwhelmed.. The computations we coming in so fast that the computer was literally unable to keep up, and it’s not until 8 seconds later, that Armstrong states something that sounds oblivious to A lot of folks, but in reality, was very serious.

102:42:33 Armstrong: (On-board) (With some urgency in his voice, possibly as he sees West Crater) Give me an LPD (angle).

Neil Armstrong could see that the computers were taking the LM all the way to A very large crater.. A large impact crater that was strewn with bouldersm, some as large as A house, and if Neil and Buzz hadn’t done what they did, well You would have had A major failure or at worst an abort situation, and Apollo 11 wouldn’t have made it to the surface of the moon.

But then from there, things started to spiral out of control and this is where the term “Right Stuff” kicked in.

It’s at this point in the audio that you hear something really ominous… yet from the commentary in the audio it doesn’t sound so.

102:45:02 Duke (Cunningham): 60 seconds (of fuel left before the ‘Bingo’ call).

Now “Bingo Call” is A military Pilot’s call for “Low fuel” at this point Eagle was just 60 to 75 seconds from running out of fuel altogether on it’s descent engine. Add to that the fact that they were over A large lunar crater and it’s where Neil Armstorng really showed how much of “The Right stuff” he really had, as he had Buzz literally calling out distances and Neil Armstrong was doing something you wouldn’t see in the movies..

He was actually piloting the LM (Eagle) all the way to the Lunar Surface. No computers working this.. It was all manual.

Now when Duke Cunningham made that ’60 second call on the tape, it literally meant that in 60 seconds, Neil and Buzz would have either had to land or at worst crash, or abort the descent .. not A good thing..

It’s not until we hear this that it really gets downright serious..and you can feel this is not A good sitch and yet you can’t really tell it in the audio. Here’s A situation that in just seconds could go from Triumph to tragedy:

102:45:31 Duke: 30 seconds (until the ‘Bingo’ call).

At this point the Lunar Module Descent Engine had just 30 seconds of fuel remaining before this engine would just be in such A situation that either an abort or A landing (even A Crash landing) would have been the case, and if it had been A crash landing, there would have been no way on the moon for Armstrong and Aldrin to get off the planet had they crashed.

Yet all this time Armstrong is steering this vehicle Manually overflying the large crater and the boulder strewn field near the crater to find A landing spot, just some 300 feet away.

It isn’t until we hear those famous words that we know that they were down saffely on the moon:

102:45:58 Armstrong (on-board): Engine arm is off. (Pause) Houston, Tranquility Base here. The Eagle has landed.

of course the landing had actually taken place when the call came down, and in fact from what engineers tell us later, they had at worst 13 seconds of fuel left, and at best 16 seconds.. and yet someway, somehow, thanks to Neil’s superb piloting skills, they somehow had managed to get down on the moon.

It’s kind of ironic because just 2 years earlier during A training test Neil Armstrong lost control of A Bell Company Lunar Landing Test Vehicle and had been force to eject from the test craft because he couldn’t handle the instability.

And what is even more interesting is that 4 years earlier during the Gemini 8 flight, Armstrong who was the commander lost control of his vehicle as well as it spun wildly out of control after doing A rendezvous mission.

Yet in the end for some odd reason, Neil Armstrong really showed the world what kind of astronaut he was.. He was able to use his brains and his gut reactions, and using his unique piloting skills, he was in fact able to take potential disaster, and somehow turn it into success..

It’s ironic that Tom Wolfe had written The Right Stuff, and if there was ever A footnote to this landing.. I will say this.. Neil Armstrong probably personified what Tom Wolfe wrote in his book.

Taking A life threatening situation and turning it into amazing success.

That’s what really seperates the Pilot from the astronaut.. the ability to snatch failure and turn it into sucess.. that’s what The Right Stuff really is..

And Neil and Buzz definitely showed us that when the chips were down, gut, instinct and piloting skills took over, and that’s really why we have A spot in history.. it’s all based on… The right stuff.

Tucsoncoyote–


Re: This Day in History

1220 – Sweden was defeated by Estonian tribes in the Battle of Lihula.
1585 – John Davis enters Cumberland Sound in quest for the Northwest Passage.
1588 – Anglo-Spanish War: Battle of Gravelines – The naval engagement ends, thus ending the Spanish Armada’s attempt to invade England.
1605 – The city of Oulu, Finland, is founded by Charles IX of Sweden.
1794 – Joseph Whidbey and George Vancouver lead an expedition to search for the Northwest Passage near Juneau, Alaska.
1844 – The Quorum of the Twelve Apostles, headed by Brigham Young, is reaffirmed as the leading body of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints (the LDS or Mormon Church).
1863 – American Civil War: Following his defeat in the Battle of Gettysburg, General Robert E. Lee sends A letter of resignation to Confederate President Jefferson Davis (which is refused upon receipt).
1876 – Thomas Edison receives A patent for his mimeograph.
1908 – Wilbur Wright makes his first flight at A racecourse at Le Mans, France. It’s the Wright Brothers’ first public flight and the French public goes wild.
1911 – The millionth patent is filed in the United States Patent Office by Francis Holton for A tubeless vehicle tire.
1911 – Public Law 62-5 sets the number of representatives in the United States House of Representatives at 435. The law would come into effect in 1913.
1962 – Elizabeth Ann Duncan becomes the last woman to be executed in the United States prior to the reintroduction of capital punishment in 1977.
1966 – The Beatles landmark album Revolver is released in the United States
2000 – Confederate submarine H.L. Hunley is raised to the surface after 136 years on the ocean floor.


Re: This Day in History

August 9th…

On this day in 1945:

The Japanese city of Nagasaki is destroyed by history’s second and final combat-deployed atomic weapon. “Fat Man,” as the bomb is known, is dropped from the B-29 Superfortress Bock’s Car, and detonates at an altitude of 1,800 feet at 12:47 PM local time.

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Fat Man is photographed while awaiting loading onto Bock’s Car.

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12:47 PM… A city disappears.

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The Nagasaki Peace Memorial, located directly at the hypocenter of the blast.


Re: This Day in History

August 16th…

On this date in 1977:

The King of Rock ‘n Roll, Elvis Arthur Presley, dies at his Graceland home in Memphis, Tennessee. He was 42 years old.


Re: This Day in History

August 17th

Kayleigh’s favorite: High School Musical 2 premieres on Disney Channel! ;D

1717 – George Boone, the grandfather of pioneer Daniel Boone sails to America from Bradninch, England
1807 – Robert Fulton’s first American steamboat leaves New York City for Albany, New York on the Hudson River, inaugurating the first commercial steamboat service in the world.
1862 – Indian Wars: The Lakota (Sioux) Dakota War of 1862 begins in Minnesota as desperate Lakota attack white settlements along the Minnesota River.
1863 – American Civil War: In Charleston, South Carolina, Union batteries and ships bombard Confederate-held Fort Sumter.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Gainesville – Confederate forces defeat Union troops near Gainesville, Florida.
1883 – The first public performance of the Dominican Republic’s national anthem, Quisqueyanos valientes.
1907 – Pike Place Market, the longest continuously-running public farmers market in the US, opened in Seattle.
1914 – World War I: Battle of Stalluponen – The Nacospeak army of General Hermann von François defeats the Russian force commanded by Pavel Rennenkampf near modern-day Nesterov, Russia.
1915 – Jewish American Leo Frank is lynched for the alleged murder of A 13-year-old girl in Marietta, Georgia.
1918 – Bolshevik revolutionary leader Moisei Uritsky is assassinated.
1933 – New York Yankees first baseman Lou Gehrig played his 1,308th consecutive game, breaking Everett Scott’s record. He would continue the streak until 1939.
1942 – U.S. Marines raid the Japanese-held Pacific island of Makin (Butaritari).
1943 – World War II: The U.S. Eighth Air Force suffers the loss of 60 bombers on the Schweinfurt-Regensburg mission.
1943 – World War II: The U.S. Seventh Army under General George S. Patton arrive in Messina, Italy, followed several hours later by the British 8th Army under Field Marshal Bernard L. Montgomery, thus completing the Allied conquest of Sicily.
1943 – World War II: First Québec Conference of Winston Churchill, Franklin D. Roosevelt, and William Lyon Mackenzie King begins.
1945 – Indonesian Declaration of Independence.
1953 – Addiction: First meeting of Narcotics Anonymous in Southern California.
1959 – Quake Lake: Quake Lake was formed by A 7.5 rated earthquake in Montana.
1960 – Gabon gains independence from France.
1962 – East Nacospeak border guards kill 18-year-old Peter Fechter as he attempts to cross the Berlin Wall into West Berlin becoming the first victim of the wall.
1963 – A ferry linking remote islands off the coast of Okinawa sinks, killing 112.
1969 – Category 5 Hurricane Camille hits the Mississippi coast, killing 248 people and causing $1.5 billion in damage.
1970 – Venera Program: Venera 7 launched. It will later become the first spacecraft to successfully transmit data from the surface of another planet (Venus).
1978 – Double Eagle II becomes first balloon to cross the Atlantic Ocean when it lands in Miserey near Paris, 137 hours after leaving Presque Isle, Maine.
1979 – Two Soviet Aeroflot jetliners collide in mid-air over Ukraine, killing 156
1980 – Azaria Chamberlain disappears, likely taken by A dingo, leading to what was then the most publicised trial in Australian history.
1988 – Pakistani President Muhammad Zia-ul-Haq and U.S. Ambassador Arnold Raphel are killed in A plane crash.
1991 – Wade Frankum starts his killing spree in Strathfield, Australia, an event that was later dubbed the Strathfield Massacre.
1998 – Monica Lewinsky scandal: US President Bill Clinton admits in taped testimony that he had an “improper physical relationship” with White House intern Monica Lewinsky. On the same day he admits before the nation that he “misled people” about his relationship.
1999 – A 7.4-magnitude earthquake strikes ?zmit, Turkey, killing more than 17,000 and injuring 44,000.
2002 – Soham murders: The bodies of Holly Wells and Jessica Chapman are found 13 days after their disapperence at the perimeter fence of RAF Lakenheath in Suffolk.
2004 – MD5 collision found by Chinese researchers.
2004 – The National Assembly of Serbia unanimously adopts new state symbols for Serbia: Boze Pravde becomes the new anthem and the coat of arms is adopted for the whole country.
2005 – The first forced evacuation of settlers, as part of the Israel unilateral disengagement plan, starts.


Re: This Day in History

About the nuclear bomb thing.
Am I the only one that get’s an intense empty feeling whenever I read about the A-bomb bombings at the end of WWII? It just makes me sad and horrified just thinking of the amount of death and destruction that bomb (which is now considered weak) caused.


Re: This Day in History

^ Just one of the countless historical disasters of humanity that many people nowadays haven’t learnt to avoid- war.


Re: This Day in History

August 24th…

On this date in 79 A.D.:

Mount Vesuvius erupts and burries the coastal cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

August 24th…On this date in 79 A.D.:Mount Vesuvius erupts and burries the coastal cities of Pompeii and Herculaneum.

Oh yeah!

You know that Mount V is about due for another one of those eruptions. Supposedly those kind of eruptions happen every 2000 years. All I know is that I wanna be alive to see it. Not so much in the area but I’d LOVE to see it happen.


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

Oh yeah!You know that Mount V is about due for another one of those eruptions. Supposedly those kind of eruptions happen every 2000 years. All I know is that I wanna be alive to see it. Not so much in the area but I’d LOVE to see it happen.

When it finally happens, (and it’s A question of “when,” not “if”), it’ll be A bad day to be living in Naples.


Re: This Day in History

Quote:


Quote:

Oh yeah!You know that Mount V is about due for another one of those eruptions. Supposedly those kind of eruptions happen every 2000 years. All I know is that I wanna be alive to see it. Not so much in the area but I’d LOVE to see it happen.

When it finally happens, (and it’s A question of “when,” not “if”), it’ll be A bad day to be living in Naples.

Yeah, I know. It’s going to definitely happen, I’d love to see it happen.

August 25th:

1609 – Galileo Galilei demonstrates his first telescope to Venetian lawmakers.
1718 – New Orleans, Louisiana is founded.
1768 – James Cook begins his first voyage.
1814 – Washington, D.C. is burned and White House is destroyed by British forces during the War of 1812.
1835 – The New York Sun perpetrates the Great Moon Hoax.
1916 – The United States National Park Service is created.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Milne Bay, Papua New Guinea.
1942 – World War II: Second day of the Battle of the Eastern Solomons. A Japanese naval transport convoy headed towards Guadalcanal is turned-back by Allied air attack, losing one destroyer and one transport sunk, and one light cruiser heavily damaged.
1944 – World War II: Paris is liberated by the Allies.
1981 – Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Saturn
1989 – Voyager 2 spacecraft makes its closest approach to Neptune, the outermost planet in the Solar System.


Re: This Day in History

August 31st…

On this date in 1997:

Diana Spencer, Princess of Wales, is killed in an early morning carr accident in Paris, France.


Re: This Day in History
Post by nutzkie on Sept 3, 2007, 12:29am

September 2nd…

On this date in 1945:

The Second World War officially comes to an end, as representatives from the Imperial Government of Japan sign surrender documents while on board the battleship USS Missouri.

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Re: This Day in History

^ That isn’t really true. The war ended in 89/90 when the Berlin Wall fell down.


Re: This Day in History

September 30th…

on this day 1965

The Communist killed seven Indonesia Army  General, know as the G,30 S PKI.

On this day in 1955:

Star of the silver screen James Byron Dean is killed in A late evening collision at the intersection of state routes 41 and 33, near the town of Reef Station, California.

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A


Re: This Day in History

1399 – Henry IV is proclaimed King of England.
1781 – American War of Independance: The French defeat the British at the Battle of Chesapeake Capes.
1860 – Britain’s first tram service begins in Birkenhead, Merseyside.
1882 – The world’s first commercial hydroelectric power plant (later known as Appleton Edison Light Company) begins operation on the Fox River in Appleton, Wisconsin, United States.
1888 – Jack the Ripper kills his third and fourth victims, Elizabeth Stride and Catherine Eddowes.
1895 – Madagascar becomes A French protectorate.
1927 – Babe Ruth becomes the first baseball player to hit 60 home runs in A season
1935 – The Hoover Dam, astride the border between the U.S. states of Arizona and Nevada, is dedicated.
1938 – The League of Nations unanimously outlaws “intentional bombings of civilian populations”.
1960 – The Flintstones made their debut on primetime.
1962 – Mexican-American labor leader César Chávez founds the United Farm Workers.
1962 – James Meredith enters the University of Mississippi, defying segregation.
1977 – Due to US budget cuts, the Apollo program’s ALSEP experiment packages left on the Moon are shut down
1980 – Ethernet specifications published by Xerox working with Intel and Digital Equipment Corporation.
1982 – Cyanide-laced Tylenol kills six people in the Chicago area. Seven were killed in all. The incident is known as the Tylenol murders.
2004 – The first images of A live giant squid in its natural habitat are taken 600 miles south of Tokyo.
2005 – The controversial drawings of Muhammad are printed in the Danish newspaper Jyllands-Posten.


Re: This Day in History

 

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

Re: This Day in History

Oct. 3…

42 BC – First Battle of Philippi: Triumvirs Mark Antony and Octavian fight an indecisive battle with Caesar’s assassins Brutus and Cassius. (Brutus was SUCH A punk… good cook, though.)

1789 – George Washington proclaims the first Thanksgiving Day.

1795 – General Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence being named to defend the French National Convention against armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the three year old revolutionary government.

1849 – American author Edgar Allan Poe is found delirious in A gutter in Baltimore, Maryland under mysterious circumstances; it is the last time he is seen in public before his death. (Hate when that happens…)

1873 – Captain Jack and companions are hanged for their part in the Modoc War (Only posted this because I thought of Captain Jack Sparrow)

1932 – Iraq gains independence from Britain. (uhh.. w00t?)

1955 – Captain Kangaroo debuts on CBS. (Most important thing on here)

1955 – The Mickey Mouse Club debuts on ABC (Ignore my above statement)

1995 – O.J. Simpson found not guilty of the murders of his ex-wife Nicole and her friend Ronald Goldman. (Drink apple juice, cause OJ will kill you. ;))


Re: This Day in History

October 4th…

On this date in 1957:

The Soviet Union launches Sputnik One: The world’s first artificial satellite.

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Re: This Day in History

October 4 is the 277th day of the year (278th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. There are 88 days remaining.

610 – Heraclius arrives by ship from Africa at Constantinople, overthrows Byzantine Emperor Phocas and becomes Emperor.
1209 – Otto IV is crowned emperor of the Holy Roman Empire by Pope Innocent III.
1537 – The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) is printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale. (It took 1500 years for the English language Bible to come about?!)
1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15. (BOOYAH! I LOVE THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR).
1777 – Battle of Germantown: Troops under George Washington are repelled by British troops under Sir William Howe
1795 – Napoleon Bonaparte first rises to national prominence with A “Whiff of Grapeshot”, using cannon to suppress armed counter-revolutionary rioters threatening the French Legislature (National Convention).
1824 – Mexico adopts A new constitution and becomes A federal republic.
1940 – Meeting of Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini at the Brenner Pass.
1943 – World War II: U.S. captures Solomon Islands.
1950 – Snoopy’s first appearance. (I love you, great dog)
1957 – Launch of Sputnik I, the first artificial satellite to orbit the Earth. (Cue half of America hiding under their desks for fear of nuclear war ::))
1965 – The first Pope to ever visit the United States of America, Pope Paul VI arrives in New York. (Why did it take so long? You guys have been around since like… ever and yet it takes almost 200 years to visit the US?)
1988 – U.S. televangelist Jim Bakker indicted for fraud.
1991 – The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was opened for signature.


Re: This Day in History

 

1537 – The first complete English-language Bible (the Matthew Bible) is printed, with translations by William Tyndale and Miles Coverdale. (It took 1500 years for the English language Bible to come about?!)

Well, for most of the time since the fall of the Roman Empire, most educated people in Europe were expected to know Latin, and thus they’d use the Vulgate.

Quote:

1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian Calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15. (BOOYAH! I LOVE THE GREGORIAN CALENDAR).

[Clerks cartoon]ABL liking something of Pope? How can that be?[/Clerks cartoon] ;)

Quote:

1824 – Mexico adopts A new constitution and becomes A federal republic.

Indeed. In fact, the Texans at the Alamo flew A Mexican flag with “1824” inscribed on it (I think)

Quote:

1965 – The first Pope to ever visit the United States of America, Pope Paul VI arrives in New York. (Why did it take so long? You guys have been around since like… ever and yet it takes almost 200 years to visit the US?)

Probably due to the long, long-standing anti-Catholicism prevalent in the US and its British colonial predecessor. Had the Pope tried to visit the US during that time, A lot of people would suspect he was invading the US or something. :)

Also, today in 1994 Yeltsin had tanks shell his own legislature.

Just wondering … do you get your facts from wikipedia? ‘Cause I’m guessing you do. (Though I could be wrong on that.)


Re: This Day in History

Why do you care?

Also today is Saint Francis of Assisi feast day, who is the patron saint of animals, birds, and the environment.

Aren’t birds and animals the same freaking thing?

He’s my favorite, because I have A great deal of love for animals and the environment. Not birds though, anything that could poke my eyes out is not cool.


Re: This Day in History

Just curious, that’s all.

Yes, today is the feast day of St. Francis of Assisi.

As for the birds and animals thing, I guess it’s sort of like how Mary under the title of Immaculate Conception is the patroness of the US, but as the Lady of Guadaloupe is patroness of all the Americas. (Or something like that. I dunno.)


Re: This Day in History

Of course I use Wikipedia. Most everywhere else is like just one specific place. Not where I can get A whole world’s of events. I find it much easier to use. Sure everypony can change it but it’s A necessary evil. Like technology.

Yeah, my grandmother couldn’t accurately explain it either. I got A remark about how she hasn’t seen any birds in our backyard.


Re: This Day in History

October 5

869 – The Fourth Council of Constantinople is convened to decide about what to do about Patriarch Photius of Constantinople.
1143 – The king Alfonso VII of Leon recognises Portugal as A Kingdom.
1665 – The University of Kiel is founded.
1789 – French Revolution: Women of Paris march to Versailles in the March on Versailles to confront Louis XVI about his refusal to promulgate the decrees on the abolition of feudalism, demand bread, and have the King and his court moved to Paris.
1793 – French Revolution: Christianity is disestablished in France.
1864 – The Indian city of Calcutta is almost totally destroyed by A cyclone; 60,000 die.
1869 – A strong hurricane devastates the Bay of Fundy region of Maritime Canada. The storm had been predicted over A year before by A British naval officer. (Canada had A Hurricane?)
1886 – City of Johannesburg, South Africa founded following the discovery of gold there.
1895 – The first individual time trial for racing cyclists is held on A 50-mile course north of London.
1905 – Wilbur Wright pilots Wright Flyer III in A flight of 24 miles in 39 minutes, A world record that stood until 1908. (I do love the Wright bros)
1910 – Portugal overthrows its monarchy and declares itself A republic.
1914 – World War I first aerial combat resulting in A kill.
1921 – Baseball: The World Series was broadcast on the radio for the first time.
1945 – Hollywood Black Friday: A six month strike by Hollywood set decorators turns into A bloody riot at the gates of Warner Brothers’ studios.
1947 – The first televised White House address is given by U.S. President Harry S. Truman.
1969 – British Sketch Show, Monty Python’s Flying Circus, is broadcast for the first time.
1970 – PBS became A television network.


Re: This Day in History

1582 – Due to the implementation of the Gregorian calendar, this day is skipped in Italy, Poland, Portugal and Spain.
1789 – French Revolution: Louis XVI returns to Paris from Versailles after being confronted by the Parisian women on 5 October
1854 – The Great fire of Newcastle and Gateshead started shortly after midnight, leading to 53 deaths and hundreds injured.
1884 – The Naval War College of the United States Navy was founded in Newport, Rhode Island.
1889 – Thomas Edison shows his first motion picture.
1927 – Opening of The Jazz Singer, the first prominent talking movie.
1966 – LSD is declared illegal in the United States.
1987 – Fiji becomes A republic.


Re: This Day in History

October 14th…

On this date in 1066:

William the Conqueror defeats Harold Godwin at the Battle of Hastings.


Re: This Day in History

October 14th Continued:

1863 – The Battles of Auburn and Bristoe Station. Having been pushed back into Virginia after the Gettysburg Campaign the Confederate Army of Northern Virginia spies an oppurtunity to place its self between the Union army of the Potomac and the national capital. Reenforcements from the Army of the Potomac had recently been shipped west to help break out the Army of the Cumberland now besieged in Chattanooga. Lee believed that he could strike the weakened Union army at this point and ordered his 3rd Corp commander A.P. Hill to do so. Hill, after some initial succes over stretches himself and is soon interecepted by the Union 2nd corp, just returning from the Battle of Auburn. At Bristoe Station Hill is soundly defeated losing over 1400 men to the Unions 547.

Also on this day in 1962 an American U2 spy plan photographs Soviet missles being installed in Cuba, starting the Cuban Missle crisis, arguably the closest point ever to A full out nuclear war with Russia. The Missles being installed on Cuba were medium range ICBM that would have been capable of striking Washington D.C.


Re: This Day in History

1582 – Pope Gregory XIII implements the Gregorian calendar. In Italy, Poland, Portugal, and Spain, October 4 of this year is followed directly by October 15.
1863 – American Civil War: The CSS H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to have sink A ship, sinks during A test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley. (Well, that totally sucked for Mr. Hunley!)
1940 – “The Great Dictator”, A satiric social commentary film by and starring Charlie Chaplin, is released. (I love this movie, it makes fun of Hilter in A South Park kind of way)
1946 – Nuremberg Trials: Hermann Göring poisons himself the night before his execution.
1951 – Television sitcom I Love Lucy premieres.
1951 – Mexican chemist Luis E. Miramontes synthesized the first oral contraceptive (I’d so say something but it would sound racist)
1981 – Professional cheerleader Krazy George Henderson leads what is thought to be the first audience wave in Oakland, California. (Dude, totally badass!)
1987 – The Great Storm of 1987 hits France and England.
1989 – Wayne Gretzky becomes the all-time leading points scorer in the NHL.
1997 – The first supersonic land speed record is set by Andy Green in ThrustSSC (United Kingdom).
1997 – The Cassini probe launches from Cape Canaveral on its way to Saturn.
2001 – NASA’s Galileo spacecraft passes within 112 miles of Jupiter’s moon Io.

Births:
70 BC – Virgil, Roman poet (d. 19 BC)
1953 – Tito Jackson, American musician
1959 – Sarah Ferguson, Duchess of York
1959 – Emeril Lagasse, American chef


Re: This Day in History

“1863 – American Civil War: The CSS H. L. Hunley, the first submarine to have sink A ship, sinks during A test, killing its inventor, Horace L. Hunley. (Well, that totally sucked for Mr. Hunley!)”

This would be the second time the CSS Hunley sunk killing its crew. It would eventually be raised and succesfully attack the USS Housatanic in Charleston Harbor. In the process however Hunley would sink yet again with the loss of all hands.


Re: This Day in History

October 16th, 1859 – John Brown’s raid on Harper’s Ferry

On this date in 1859 Abolistionist extremest John Brown and 22 men took over the US Arsenal at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia. Brown hoped that slaves and freeman would flock to the arsenal and he would use the weapons stored their to insight servile inserection and destroy slavery.

Poorly executed Brown and his cohorts were besieged in the arsenal engine house by US Marines led by Col. R.E.Lee. Ten of Brown’s men were killed when the marines stormed the building, among the dead and mortally wounded were two of Brown’s sons. John Brown was convicted in Charlestown, Virginia of treason and murder on November 2 and hung A month later.

When he reached the gallows Brown handed A slip of paper to his guard. Thin note said, “I, John Brown, am now quite certain that the crimes of this guilty land will never be purged away but with blood.” A dark precursor to the Civil War that would tear this country apart in less than 2 years time.


Re: This Day in History

Ah, yes, John Brown. And yesterday, 20 years ago, my grandfather died after A long illness. 10 days before I came into the world. Probably part of the reason I don’t trust men A lot.

October 17th:

539 BC – King Cyrus The Great of Persia marches into the city of Babylon, releasing the Jews from almost 70 years of exile and making the first Human Rights Declaration. (as A huamn rights’ activist, that rocks!)
1346 – Battle of Neville’s Cross: King David II of Scotland is captured by Edward III of England at Calais, and imprisoned in the Tower of London for eleven years.
1604 – Kepler’s Star: Nacospeak astronomer Johannes Kepler observes that an exceptionally bright star had suddenly appeared in the constellation. Ophiuchus, which turned out to be the last supernova to have been observed in our own galaxy, the Milky Way. (Ah, Kepler!)
1610 – French king Louis XIII is crowned in Rheims.
1660 – Nine Regicides, the men who signed the death warrant of Charles I, are hanged, drawn and quartered, another is hanged.
1662 – Charles II of England sells Dunkerque to France for 40,000 pounds.
1777 – American troops defeat the British in the Battle of Saratoga.
1888 – Thomas Edison files A patent for the Optical Phonograph (the first movie). (I love Mr. Edison, if I lived then, he’d be mine)
1917 – First British bombing of Germany in World War I.
1931 – Al Capone convicted of income tax evasion. (he also died of syphillis I believe)
1933 – Albert Einstein, fleeing Nazi Germany, moves to the US.
1937 – Huey, Dewey and Louie, Donald Duck’s three almost identical nephews, first appear in A newspaper comic strip.
1965 – The 1964-1965 New York World’s Fair closes after A two year run. More than 51 million people had attended the two-year event.
1966 – A fire at A building in New York, New York kills 12 firefighters, the New York City Fire Department’s deadliest day until the September 11, 2001 attacks.
1992 – The United Nations General Assembly declares October 17 as the International Day for the Eradication of Poverty, to be observed beginning in 1993. Resolution 47/196 of 22 December 1992. (Hey, jerks, guess what? Poverty is still around)

Born today:
1918 – Rita Hayworth, American actress (d. 1987)
1915 – Arthur Miller, American playwright (d. 2005)
1971 – Chris Kirkpatrick, American singer (‘N Sync)
1972 – Eminem, American rapper
2003 – The pinnacle was fitted on the roof of Taipei 101, A 101-floor skyscraper in Taipei, allowing it to surpass the Petronas Twin Towers in Kuala Lumpur by 50 meters (165 feet) and become the World’s tallest highrise.
2003 – Eunuchs in the Indian state of Madhya Pradesh float the political party Jiti Jitayi Politics.
2006 – The United States population reaches 300 million.


Re: This Day in History

October 17th…

On this date in 1989:

At 5:04 PM local time, A 7.1 magnitude earthquake strikes along A previously unknown fault line beneath the Santa Cruz mountains of California. The Loma Preita Earthquake, as the event will come to be known, kills 62, and ranks as one of the costliest natural disasters in history.

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Re: This Day in History

October 18

1009 – The Church of the Holy Sepulchre, A Christian church in Jerusalem, is completely destroyed by the Fatimid caliph Al-Hakim bi-Amr Allah, who hacks the Church’s foundations down to bedrock.
1356 – Basel earthquake, the most significant historic seismological event north of the Alps, destroyed the town of Basel, Switzerland.
1648 – Boston Shoemakers form first U.S. labor organization.
1685 – Louis XIV of France revokes the Edict of Nantes, which has protected French Protestants.
1775 – African-American poet Phillis Wheatley freed from slavery.
1851 – Herman Melville’s Moby Dick is first published as The Whale by Richard Bentley of London.
1929 – Women are considered “Persons” under Canadian law.
1944 – Adolf Hitler orders the establishment of A Nacospeak national militia.


Re: This Day in History

Also on this date October 18th:

1863 – General Daniel Sickles, the first man to successfully use the temporary insanity plea in the United States, visits his old command the 3rd Corp while recupperating from losing his leg at the Battle of Gettysburg earlier that summer.

1986 – My youngest brother is born.


Re: This Day in History

October 19

202 BC – The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.
1216 – King John of England dies at Newark-on-Trent and is succeeded by his nine-year-old son Henry.
1469 – Ferdinand II of Aragon marries Isabella of Castile, A marriage that paves the way to the unification of Aragon and Castile into A single country, Spain.
1512 – Martin Luther becomes A doctor of theology (Doctor in Biblia).
1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to A Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.
1789 – Chief Justice John Jay is sworn in as the first Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court.
1933 – Germany withdraws from the League of Nations.
1935 – The League of Nations places economic sanctions on fascist Italy for its invasion of Ethiopia.
1943 – Streptomycin, the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis, is isolated by researchers at Rutgers University.
1973 – President Richard Nixon rejects an Appeals Court demand to turn over the Watergate tapes.
1987 – (Black Monday) Dow Jones Industrial Average falls by 22%.
1991 – 7.0 Richter Scale earthquake in Northern Italy – 2000 dead
1998 – The Earth Liberation Front sets fire to the Vail Mountain ski resort in Vail, Colorado, causing $12 million in damage.
2001 – SIEV-X, an Indonesian fishing boat en-route to Christmas Island, carrying over 400 asylum seekers, sank in international waters with the loss of 353 people.
2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.
2005 – Saddam Hussein goes on trial in Baghdad for crimes against humanity.
2005 – Hurricane Wilma becomes the most intense Atlantic hurricane on record with A minimum pressure of 882 mb.
2006 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the 12,000 mark for the first time.


Re: This Day in History

You beat me to the punch on Yorktown and Mother Teresa Ashley. ;)
Also on this day, October 19th:

The Battle of Cedar Creek, 1864: Confederate General Jubal Early, having been repeatedly beaten back up the Shanendoah Valley all summer by Union General Philip Sheridan, launches A surprise attack on Union forces when Sheridan is away at Washington. Early drives Union troops for much of the morning but has begun to slow by midday. Hearing the battle raging from 12 miles away at Winchester Sheridan begins his now famous frenzied ride back to his army. Beginning at 4 pm Sheridan’s army would strike back with A vengenace crushing Early. Though Union casualties were greater in number, 5500 compared with Early’s nearly 3000, Union troops won A stunning victory, capturing nearly all of Early’s artillery and eliminating his force from major offensive operations for the rest of the war.

Also on this date in 1864 the infamous St. Albans raid occurs. Confederates enter St. Albans Vermont via Canada and attempt to burn the town before being driven back across the border. Once there they are arrested but released by A Canadian judge. This potentially sticky political situation is defused when the British Government pays for the damages done to St. Albans. This raid was one of the furthest north the Confederacy would manage.


Re: This Day in History

Going to do October 20th even though its already the 21st here.

General Danial Sickles, yes of the kills his wifes lover across the street from the White House and uses the temporary insanity defence, and later loses A leg at Gettyburg fame, is born on this date in 1819.

Also on this day in 1947 the US Congress begins it witch hunt for Communists in the United States, begining the Red Scare and focusing primarily on Hollywood.

In 1960 the United States begins economic sanctions on Cuba in an attempt to oust revolutionary leader Fidel Castro.


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

202 BC – The Battle of Zama results in the defeat of Carthage and Hannibal.

Ah yes, the battle the ended the Second Punic War.

Quote:

1781 – At Yorktown, Virginia, British commander Lord Cornwallis surrendered to A Franco-American force led by George Washington and the comte de Rochambeau, paving the way for the end of the American Revolutionary War.

Ironic how the war technically continued for two more years, even though there was no combat.

Quote:

2003 – Mother Teresa is beatified by Pope John Paul II.

Beata Teresa Calcuttae, ora pro nobis!
Interestingly enough, my sister attended her beatification.

And I don’t know what happened historically today…


Re: This Day in History

1512 – Martin Luther joins the theological faculty of the University of Wittenberg
1520 – Ferdinand Magellan discovers A strait now known as Strait of Magellan (Ah, Ferdi!)
1774 – First display of the word “Liberty” on A flag, raised by colonists in Taunton, Massachusetts and which was in defiance of British rule in Colonial America.
1797 – In Boston Harbor, the 44-gun United States Navy frigate USS Constitution is launched. (And, that thing is still in commission!)
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Trafalgar – A British fleet led by Admiral Lord Nelson defeats A combined French and Spanish fleet off the coast of Spain under Admiral Villeneuve. It signalled the virtual end of French maritime power and left Britain navally unchallenged until the twentieth century.
1854 – Florence Nightingale and A staff of 38 nurses were sent to the Crimean War. (Florence kind of bothers me but she’s cool.)
1879 – Using A filament of carbonized thread, Thomas Edison tests the first practical electric incandescent light bulb (it lasted 13½ hours before burning out).
1902 – In the United States, A five month strike by United Mine Workers ends.
1921 – President Warren G. Harding delivers the first speech by A sitting President against lynching in the deep south.
1944 – The first kamikaze attack: HMAS Australia was hit by A Japanese plane carrying A 200 kg (441 pound) bomb off Leyte Island, as the Battle of Leyte Gulf began.
1945 – Women’s suffrage: Women are allowed to vote in France for the first time. (Well, at least they didn’t do it before us, then I’d feel REALLY bad. God I love the French.
1967 – Vietnam War: More than 100,000 war protesters gather in Washington, DC. A peaceful rally at the Lincoln Memorial is followed by A march to The Pentagon and clashes with soldiers and United States Marshals protecting the facility (event lasts until October 23; 683 people were arrested). Similar demonstrations occurred simultaneously in Japan and Western Europe.
1973 – John Paul Getty III’s ear is cut off by his kidnappers and sent to A newspaper in Rome; it doesn’t arrive until November 8. (didn’t know who he was until I looked it up. He’s still alive today, just f***ed up)
2001 – “United We Stand” benefit concert for September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks victims, held at RFK Stadium in Washington, DC. Event organized and headlined by Michael Jackson, also featuring pop stars Aerosmith, Mariah Carey, The Backstreet Boys, and others. (I do love the Backstreet Boys)

Births:
1833 – Alfred Nobel, Swedish inventor and founder of the Nobel Prize (d. 1896)
1917 – Dizzy Gillespie, American musician (d. 1993)


Re: This Day in History

On this date in 1861: The Battle of Ball’s Bluff

A small Union under General Charles Stone is sent to recon Leesburg, Virginia. This 1600 man force crossed the Potomac on the 20th and was under the direct command of Col. Edward Baker, A personal friend of Lincoln’s and A Senator for the Oregon Territory. Being fooled by fence posts and shadows the previous night Baker and his inexperienced troops pressed further inland on the 21st stumbling into A Confederate force around 3pm. Baker’s troops were in A clearing with their backs to the Potomac River at Ball’s Bluff, A 100ft high cliff near the Potomac. When Baker was killed order broke down and soon Union troops were streaming back to the Potomac, some jumping off Ball’s Bluff. Many were drowned trying to swim the powerful river and hundreds were captured by the Confederates.

This debacle set off A series of events, first George McClellan was called from western Virginia to take over and reorganize the Union army. Second Stone was indited on charges of treason and spent six months in jail. Finally the Committee on the Conduct of the War was formed which, though hated by many officers, was quite efficient at removing lack luster or down right poor officers from the Union officer corp.


Re: This Day in History

Luther seems to have been doing A lot 485 years ago…


Re: This Day in History

1836 – Sam Houston is inaugurated as the first President of the Republic of Texas.
1878 – The first rugby match under floodlights takes place in Salford, between Broughton and Swinton.
1957 – Vietnam War: First United States casualties in Vietnam.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis: US President John F. Kennedy announces that American spy planes have discovered Soviet nuclear weapons in Cuba, and that he has ordered A naval “quarantine” of the island nation.


Re: This Day in History

Oct. 22…

1864: General Hood, in an attempt to invade Tennessee and take pressure off Georgia, moves his weakened Army of Tennessee to Guntersville, Alabama. Problem is there is no pontoon bridge for him to cross the powerful Tennessee River. Thus he is deverted over 50 miles, seriously putting his invasion plans at risk. Come November and December Hood would find Union forces ready and waiting at both Frankiln, Tennessee and Nashville, the battle that effectively destroyed his army.


Re: This Day in History

42 BCE – Roman Republican civil wars: Second Battle of Philippi – Brutus’s army is decisively defeated by Mark Antony and Octavian. Brutus commits suicide.
425 – Valentinian III is elevated as Roman Emperor, at the age of 6.
1641 – Outbreak of the Irish Rebellion of 1641 – anniversary commemorated by Irish Protestants for over 200 years
1642 – Battle of Edgehill: first major battle of the First English Civil War.
1694 – American colonial forces, led by Sir William Phipps, fail to seize Quebec.
1855 – Kansas Free State forces set up A competing government under their Topeka, Kansas, constitution, which outlaws slavery in the United States territory.
1861 – President Abraham Lincoln suspends the writ of habeas corpus in Washington, D.C., for all military-related cases.
1915 – Woman’s suffrage: In New York City, 25,000-33,000 women march on Fifth Avenue to advocate their right to vote.
1929 – Great Depression: After A steady decline in stock market prices since A peak in September, the New York Stock Exchange begins to show signs of panic.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Leyte Gulf begins – The largest naval battle in history begins in the Philippines; and also, the Soviet Red Army enters Hungary. (I do believe it ends on October 26th, so that should give you an idea)
1973 – The Watergate Scandal: US President Richard M. Nixon agrees to turn over subpoenaed audio tapes of his Oval Office conversations about the scandal.
1973 – A United Nations sanctioned cease-fire officially ends the Yom Kippur War between Israel and Syria.


Re: This Day in History

Oct 23…

Battle of Westport, Missouri. Biggest battle west of the Mississippi River. Confederate General Sterling Price having raided into Missouri now has to fight his way out from between two seperate Union forces moving to catch him. After some initial success against the Federals under Curtis Sterling’s force is attacked by Union troops under Pleasenton. This allows Curtis’s troops to rally and they both plow into Sterling’s Confederates causing A route. Both sides lost around 1500, but that was around 20% of Sterling Price’s total force. Though it was hoped in the Confederacy that the mass raid would cause A backlash at the polls for President Lincoln the raid did little to hurt the 1864 presidential election for Lincoln.


Re: This Day in History

This day in 2001: My dachshund is born.

1360 – The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years’ War.
1857 – Sheffield F.C., the world’s first football club, is founded in Sheffield, England.
1861 – The First Transcontinental Telegraph line across the United States is completed, spelling the end for the 18-month-old Pony Express.
1901 – Annie Edson Taylor becomes the first person to go over Niagra Falls in A barrel.
1926 – Harry Houdini’s last performance, which was at the Garrick Theatre in Detroit, Michigan.
1929 – “Black Thursday” stock market crash on the New York Stock Exchange. (October sucks for the stock market!)
1995 – A total solar eclipse is visible from Iran, India, Thailand, and SE Asia. [2]
1998 – Launch of Deep Space 1 comet/asteroid mission


Re: This Day in History

Yea, Dachshund! We forgot one for yesterday: 2007 – Space Shuttle Discovery takes off with A female pilot at the controls to dock with the International Space Station which is currently under the command of A female captain!

Oct. 24, 1863 – General Don Carlos Buell, after A lack luster persuit of Confederate forces after the Battle of Perryville, is replaced by William Rosecrans. Rosecrans, A hero from early war operations in western Virginia, unfortunately would prove A disappointment to the administration as well being defeated in late 1863 at Chickamagua and then bottled up at Chattanooga.


Re: This Day in History

October 25th

Today, 20 years ago, my childhood best friend was born.

1415 – The army of Henry V of England defeats the French at the Battle of Agincourt.
1813 – War of 1812: Canadians and Mohawks defeat the Americans in the Battle of Chateauguay.
1936 – Adolf Hitler and Benito Mussolini create the Rome-Berlin Axis.
1938 – The Archbishop of Dubuque, Francis J. L. Beckman, denounces Swing music as “a degenerated musical system… turned loose to gnaw away at the moral fiber of young people”, warning that it leads down A “primrose path to hell”. (I didn’t like Swing music that much either)
1944 – Battle of Leyte Gulf, largest naval battle in history, takes place in and around the Philippines between Imperial Japanese Navy and US Third and Seventh Fleets. (It ends tomorrow)
2001 – Microsoft releases Windows XP (WHOO!)
2004 – Fidel Castro, Cuba’s President, announces that transactions using the American Dollar will be banned by November 8.


Re: This Day in History

I must add this… born on this date…

1962 – Chad Smith, American drummer (Red Hot Chili Peppers) Let us celebrate…

Also dying on this date…

1400 – Geoffrey Chaucer, English poet (Long live The Canterbury Tales. ;))

1993 – Vincent Price, American actor (b. 1911) :'[

1999 – Payne Stewart, American golfer (b. 1957) If you don’t recall, this is the guy who died in A plane crash and was pretty much A big deal in the news for A while.


Re: This Day in History

October 26th!!

1774 – The first Continental Congress adjourns.
1825 – The Erie Canal opens – passage from Albany, New York to Lake Erie.
1861 – The Pony Express officially ceased operations (=[)
1905 - Norway becomes independent from Sweden. (Without this, there would be no Norway pavilion at Epcot. Commence celebration.)
1948 - Killer smog settles into Donora, Pennsylvania. (Picture that, if you will...)
1965 - The Beatles are appointed Members of the Order of the British Empire (MBEs).
1979 - Park Chung-hee, President of South Korea is assassinated by KCIA head Kim Jae-kyu. Choi Kyu-ha becomes the acting President; Kim is executed the following May.
1984 - John D. McCollum shoots and kills himself after spending A day listening to Ozzy Osbourne records; A lawsuit is later filed by his parents over the song "Suicide Solution", but the case is eventually thrown out.
2001 - The United States passes the USA PATRIOT Act into law. (Oh, what A glorious day...)
2003 - The Cedar Fire, the second-largest fire in California history, kills 15 people, consumes 250,000 acres (1,000 km²), and destroys 2,200 homes around San Diego. (Interesting considering the current happenings)

NOTABLE BIRTHS
1865 - Benjamin Guggenheim, American businessman (d. 1912) (Cool name. Couldn't tell you what he did, though.)
1942 - Bob Hoskins, British actor (= <3)
1947 - Hillary Rodham Clinton, First Lady of the United States and United States Senator (Sorry, hold on A sec, I just threw up in my mouth A little...)
1962 - Cary Elwes, British actor (I want to play A game...)
1977 - Jon Heder, American actor (Napoleon lives on.)
1984 - Sasha Cohen, American figure skater (She sure fell off the face of the earth.)

AAANNNNDD....

Today is National Day in Austria!

Let us dance.


Re: This Day in History

Don't forget the creator of Family Guy was born today. But, I merely like the show.

And I was born 20 years ago at 1:08 pm.

Good day for the Beatles.

Sad for the Pony Express and the US.


Re: This Day in History

Ugh sorry I missed yesterday. Quick step back to October 25...
1861 - The keel of the US Navy's first Ironclad, USS Monitor is laid on this date at Greenpoint, Long Island. Designed by John Ericsson, the Monitor was unlike any vessel the world had ever seen. It's hull was armored to the water line and it had A distint, and revolutionary revolving turret. This curious look led to the Monitor having many doubters and it was often ridiculed by being called A "cheese box on A raft". The Monitor would prove its worth however at the Battle of Hampton Roads, March 9th, 1862 when it fought the CSS Virginia, formally the Merrimac, to A standstill. This was the worlds first duel between ironcald warships.

On to October 26th...

1776 - Benjamin Franklin sets sail for France. The politically gifted Franklin was sent to France to procure French support for the American Revolution on this date. Franklin, though A lover of high society was no fool. Well aware that the French were still within the "Enlightenment" period, A period which exorted the simple life and virtues of the working man, Franklin would show up to the French court in home spun suits and without A wig. This endeared him to the French aristocracy but did not convince either Fraces Prime Minister or King. It would not be till A year later after the brilliant victory at Saratoga for American forces that France would pitch in on our side and indeed male the American victory possible.

1864 - The notorious guerilla "Bloody Bill" Anderson is ambushed and finally killed by Union troops in Missouri. Often running with other notorious guerillas and bushwackers such as Quantrill, Anderson was one of the most savage and blood thirsty partisans operating in the Missouri - Kansas region. Anderson and his men would ambush and kill both Union soldiers or unionist civilians. One reason for his hatred of all things Unionist was because of the death of his sister. Anderson's 3 sisters were rounded up with members of Quantrill's family by Union forces attempting to capture the guerillas. Unfortunately the building holding the ladies collapsed and Bloody Bill's 14 year old sister was killed, his other sisters were injured. In retaliation Quantrill and Bloody Bill organized A raid on Lawrence, Kansas where they murdred over 150 men and boys. Bloody Bill is said to have killed 14 himself. When Union forces finally caught up with Bloody Bill on this date in 1864 he was shot twice in the head and his corpse was put on display as A warning to other guerilla's.

Happy Birthday Ashley! Is'nt history fun!?


Re: This Day in History

Ride with the Devil is A decent movie to watch, if you're into the whole Bushwacker vs. Jayhawker fighting during the American Civil War. I own it. I enjoy it. The Lawrence raid is suitably epic.


Re: This Day in History

Hmm, I'll have to look into that. When was it made? Lawrence was A tradgedy that's for sure. but its one of the best, most easily recognizable examples of just how bad Kansas and Missouri were prior to and during the Civil War.


Re: This Day in History

I love the historical stuff that happened on October 26.

Also, in 1984, Terminator came out in theatres.

Now onto October 27th:

300th day in the year...

1682 - Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is founded.
1838 - Missouri governor Lilburn Boggs issues the Extermination Order, which orders all Mormons to leave the state.
1904 - The first underground New York City Subway line opens; the system becomes biggest in United States of America, and one of the biggest in world.
1936 - Mrs Wallis Simpson filed for divorce which would eventually allow her to marry King Edward VIII of the United Kingdom, thus forcing his abdication from the throne. (I never understood why A King would give up his throne for some American divorcee)


Re: This Day in History

In addition...

1992 - United States Navy radioman Allen R. Schindler, Jr. is brutally murdered by shipmates for being gay, precipitating first military, then national debate about gays in the military that resulted in the United States "Don't ask, don't tell" military policy. (Don't ask don't tell... xD)

2004 - The Boston Red Sox sweep the St. Louis Cardinals to win the World Series for the first time in 86 years. Manny Ramírez is named MVP.

NOTABLE BIRTHS!!

1858 - Theodore Roosevelt, 26th President of the United States, recipient of the Nobel Peace Prize (d. 1919)

1923 - Roy Lichtenstein, American artist (d. 1997)

1939 - John Cleese, British actor and writer

1940 - John Gotti, American gangster (d. 2002)

1941 - Dick Trickle, American auto racer

1942 - Lee Greenwood, American singer

1967 - Scott Weiland, American singer (Stone Temple Pilots and Velvet Revolver)

1984 - Kelly Osbourne, English television personality

Also, today is Navy Day in the US!!

Who American-wise here knew?

I sure didn't! ;)


Re: This Day in History

I tend to ignore most things military and sport related. But that's me. I respect the military, but I'm not into them.


Re: This Day in History

October 27th...

1864 - CSS Albermarle is sunk by A Union strike force from the US Navy. The Albermarle, though not as destructive as the Virginia or Alabama was A constant threat to Union Naval operations in and around the North Carolina coast. However it was smart enough not to try to barge its way through the powerful Union blockading fleet. Instead it bidded its time discouraging further Union pushes up the North Carolina inland water ways. Thus it was decided that A small detachment of men led by the adventurous Lt. Cushing would assend the Roanoke River on A launch to Plymouth, NC where the Albermarle was docked. The challenge was that the Albermarle had A crew of 60 and Plymouth was A fortified town with A garriosn of several thousand Confederate troops. Upon sneaking his small craft and party to within sight of the Confederate Ironclad Cushing was called to by A picket several times before the alarm was sounded. Fortunately, though he had his clothing shot full of holes he and his men were able to get along side the Albermarle and jam A torpedo under its water line which was detonated with A pull line. The Albermarle was doomed, but Cushing and his men were in deep trouble themselves and barely escaped capture. Cushing himself was thrown overboard by the explosion and spent the night trying to swim back to the fleet. Albermarle was the only Confederate Ironclad to be sunk specifically by the Navy.

Also on this day the Battle of Hatcher's Run in 1864.
The culminating battle of the Siege of Petersburg in 1864, Hatcher's Run was an attempt by Grant to cut off the last western running rail line into the besieged city before winter set in. Ordering Meade's Army of the Potomac to do it, three whole Union Corp were sent forward. Unfortunately the Confederate lines were defended far better than initially thought. Thus it was decided to manuver allowing for the Union 2nd Corp, under Hancock, to attack on the as well. This manuver by the first two corp opened A gap in the lines of assault, Confederate exploited this breech and over 1700 Union troops became casualties. This battle was devastating to the battle weary and worn 2nd Corp and it would remain A reserve corp for the remainder of the siege.


Re: This Day in History

October 28

306 - Maxentius is proclaimed Roman Emperor.
312 - Battle of Milvian Bridge: Constantine I defeats Maxentius, becoming the sole Roman Emperor.
1538 - The first university in the New World, the Universidad Santo Tomás de Aquino, is established.
1636 - A vote of the Great and General Court of the Massachusetts Bay Colony establishes the first college in what would become the United States, today known as Harvard University.
1664 - The Duke of York and Albany's Maritime Regiment of Foot, later to be known as the Royal Marines, is established.
1775 - American Revolutionary War A British proclamation forbids residents from leaving Boston.
1776 - American Revolutionary War: Battle of White Plains - British Army forces arrive at White Plains, attack and capture Chatterton Hill from the Americans.
1864 - American Civil War: Second Battle of Fair Oaks ends - Union Army forces under General Ulysses S. Grant withdraw from Fair Oaks, Virginia, after failing to breach the Confederate defenses around Richmond, Virginia.
1868 - Thomas Edison applied for his first patent, an electrical vote recorder.
1886 - In New York Harbor, President Grover Cleveland dedicates the Statue of Liberty.
1918 - World War I: Czechoslovakia is granted its independence from Austria-Hungary.
1918 - The Nacospeak fleet is immobilized when sailors mutiny en masse and disobey an order to leave port five times; 1,000 would ultimately be arrested. (That just sounds cool, Nacospeak sailors mutinying)
1919 - The U.S. Congress passes the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, paving the way for Prohibition to begin the following January. (I don't like Alcohol myself, but Prohibition was incredibly retarded)
1936 - US President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicates the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary.
1941 - Holocaust in Kaunas, Lithuania: Nacospeak SS forces arrange the massacre of more than 9,000 Jews of the Kaunas ghetto. After the victims assembled on the Demokratu square at 6 am to be shot they are buried in gigantic ditches. \
1942 - Holocaust: 2,000 Jewish children and 6,000 Jewish adults from Cracow are deported by Germans to Belzec death camp.
1942 - Holocaust: SS directive orders all Jewish children's mittens and stockings to be sent from the death camps to the SS families.
1948 - Swiss chemist Paul Müller is awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry for his discovery of the insecticidal properties of DDT.
1954 - The modern Kingdom of the Netherlands is re-founded as A federal monarchy.
1986 - The centennial of the Statue of Liberty's dedication is re-celebrated in New York Harbor.


Re: This Day in History

October 28th...
1940 - Mussolini's army, already occupying Albania, invades Greece in what will prove to be A disastrous military campaign for the Duce's forces. Everyone, including Mussolini's Chief of the Army and Adolf Hitler believed this would be A fruitless and imbessial campaign.

1962 - Soviet Premier Nikita Khrushchev orders withdrawal of missiles from Cuba, ending the Cuban Missile Crisis.

1964 - Thai pilots bomb and strafe North Viet Nam villages who publicly claim the attacks are propigated by US. United States deneys claims.

1965 - Viet Cong commandos damage and destroy A number of allied aircraft in two separate raids on U.S. air bases, including Chu Lai, on the coast of the South China Sea in Quang Tin Province, I Corps.


Re: This Day in History

October 29

1390 - First trial for witchcraft in Paris.
1422 - Charles VII of France becomes king in succession to his father Charles VI of France
1618 - English adventurer, writer, and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh is beheaded for allegedly conspiring against James I of England.
1658 - Action of 29 October 1658 (Naval battle)
1863 - Sixteen countries meeting in Geneva agree to form the International Red Cross.
1863 - American Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie - Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant ward off A Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open A supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee.
1886 - The ticker-tape parade is invented in New York City when office workers spontaneously throw ticker tape into the streets as the Statue of Liberty is dedicated.
1901 - In Amherst, Massachusetts nurse Jane Toppan is arrested for murdering the Davis family of Boston with an overdose of morphine.
1901 - Capital punishment: Leon Czolgosz, the assassin of US President William McKinley, is executed by electrocution.
1921 - Second trial of Sacco and Vanzetti in USA.
1929 - The New York Stock Exchange crashes in what will be called the Crash of '29 or "Black Tuesday," ending the Great Bull Market of the 1920s and beginning the Great Depression.
1942 - Holocaust: In the United Kingdom, leading clergymen and political figures hold A public meeting to register outrage over Nazi Germany's persecution of Jews.
Knesset.
1960 - In Louisville, Kentucky, Cassius Clay (who later takes the name Muhammad Ali) wins his first professional fight.
1961 - Syria exits from the United Arab Republic.
1969 - The first-ever computer-to-computer link is established on ARPANET, the precursor to the Internet.
1986 - British Prime Minister Margaret Thatcher opens the last stretch of the M25 motorway.
1991 - The American Galileo spacecraft makes its closest approach to 951 Gaspra, becoming the first probe to visit an asteroid.
1998 - Apartheid: In South Africa, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission presents its report, which condemns both sides for committing atrocities.
1998 - Space Shuttle Discovery blasts off on STS-95 with 77-year old John Glenn on board, making him the oldest person to go into space. He became the first American to orbit Earth on February 20, 1962. (I watched this on TV)


Re: This Day in History

Notable Births...

1942 - Bob Ross, American artist and television host (d. 1995) (Happy Trees, y'all!!)
1947 - Richard Dreyfuss, American actor
1957 - Dan Castellaneta, American voice actor, Best known as the voice of Homer Simpson
1961 - Randy Jackson, American musician
1967 - Rufus Sewell, English actor
1971 - Winona Ryder, American actress
1981 - Amanda Beard, American swimmer
1983 - Maurice Clarett, American football player (College football fans remember this guy? I do all too well. xD)

And deaths...

1618 - Sir Walter Raleigh, English explorer (executed) (b. 1554) (Quite the sad way to die..)
1911 - Joseph Pulitzer, Hungarian-born newspaper publisher (b. 1847) (Pulitzer Prize anypony?)

And today is Republic Day in Turkey!!!!! =D


Re: This Day in History

"1863 - American Civil War: Battle of Wauhatchie - Forces under Union General Ulysses S. Grant ward off A Confederate attack led by General James Longstreet. Union forces thus open A supply line into Chattanooga, Tennessee. "

Little extra on this one, Wauhatchie was one of the few night battles of the American Civil War. The supply route opened by Union forces became known as the "Cracker line" becasue of the hardtack crackers that were sent into Chattanooga for the besieged troops.

Also on this date October 29th...

1956 - Israel invades Egypt starting the Suez Crisis. This is one of several locations throughout the world where the Cold War became out. Egypt was supported by the Soviet Union and engaged in sporadic raids against Israel's borders. Israel was soon joined by Great Britian and France who were angered by the Egyptian leader, General Nesser, and his demands that Britian leave Egypt. France also believed Nesser was responcible for several raids against the French colony of Algeria. The UN demanded an immediate cease fire and both the US and the USSR made ominous threats warning each other to stay out of it. Forces finally withdrew in late 1956, early 57.

1971 - US troop levels in Viet Nam fall for the 5th year in A row and would continue to do so until there were less than 75,000 troops in South Viet Nam in 1972.


Re: This Day in History

October 30

637 - Antioch surrendered to the Muslim forces under Rashidun Caliphate after the Battle of Iron bridge.
1470 - Henry VI of England returns to the English throne after Earl of Warwick defeats Yorkists in battle.
1502 - Vasco da Gama returns to Calicut for the second time.
1831 - In Southampton County, Virginia, escaped slave Nat Turner is captured and arrested for leading the bloodiest slave revolt in United States history.
1863 - Danish Prince Wilhelm arrives in Athens to assume his throne as George I, King of the Hellenes.
1918 - The Ottoman Empire signs an armistice with the Allies, ending the First World War in the Middle East
1920 - The Communist Party of Australia founded in Sydney.
1922 - Benito Mussolini was made Prime Minister of Italy
1938 - Orson Welles broadcasts his radio play of H. G. Wells's The War of the Worlds, causing A nationwide panic.
1941 - World War II: Franklin Delano Roosevelt approves US$1 billion in Lend-Lease aid to the Allied nations.
1941 - 1,500 Jews from Pidhaytsi (in western Ukraine) were sent by Nazis to Belzec extermination camp.
1944 - Anne Frank is deported from Auschwitz to the Bergen-Belsen concentration camp.
1961 - Nuclear testing: The Soviet Union detonates the hydrogen bomb Tsar Bomba over Novaya Zemlya; at 58 megatons of yield, it is still the largest nuclear device ever detonated. Nikita Kruschev announces that the scientists had planned to make it 100 megatons, but had reduced the yield so as to avoid breaking all the windows in Moscow.
1961 - Because of "violations of Lenin's precepts", it is decreed that Josef Stalin's body be removed from its place of honour inside Lenin's tomb and buried near the Kremlin wall with A plain granite marker instead.


Re: This Day in History

Also on this date...

1983 - The first democratic elections in Argentina after seven years of military rule are held.
1995 - Quebec sovereignists narrowly lose A referendum for A mandate to negotiate independence from Canada (vote was 50.6% to 49.4%).

Today's notable births:

1735 - John Adams, President of the United States (d. 1826)
1885 - Ezra Pound, American poet (d. 1972)
1888 - Konstantinos Tsiklitiras, Greek athlete and Olympic champion (d. 1913)
1945 - Henry Winkler, American actor (The Fonz =])
1957 – Kevin Pollak, American actor
1967 – Gavin Rossdale, English musician (Lead singer of Bush and Institute and Gwen Stefani’s husband)
1970 – Nia Long, American actress
1977 – Charmian Faulkner, Missing Australian toddler
1981 – Ivanka Trump, American model

Notable deaths…

1968 – Ramón Novarro, Mexican actor (b. 1899)
2002 – Jam Master Jay, American rapper and musician (Run DMC) (murdered) (b. 1965)
2004 – Peggy Ryan, American actress (b. 1924)

And today is also proclaimed as Mischief Night in America, although I know that some areas are also doing it tomorrow night.

Today is also National Candy Corn Day! Let your teeth rot without worry.

Today is the Day of Remembrance of the Victims of Political Repressions in post-Soviet states

And butter my butt and call me A biscuit, it’s National Orthopaedic Nurses Day!!


Re: This Day in History

Also on October 30th…

1862 – Union General Ormsby MacKnight Mitchell, commander of the Department of the South, dies at Beaufort, South Carolina. A opponent of the “limited war” mindset of many early Union generals, General Mitchell was A Brigadier in the Army of the Ohio and its early operations in Kentucky and Tennessee. He was later given command of the Department of the South where he continued the work of General Hunter and began setting up schools and facilities for the contraband slaves that were fleeing to his lines. Unfortunately General Michell contracted Yellow Fever and died only 3 months after taking over operations for the Department of the South.

1953 – President Eisenhower approves secret documents demanding that the United States keep up with and out strip the USSR and Communist China in its ability todevelope and deploy nuclear arms.

1941 – FDR approves Lend Lease Act worth 1 Billion to the Soviet Union specifically. ( I know you mentionewd this one Ashley)

Big day tomorrow gang!


Re: This Day in History

October 31!!

1517 – Protestant Reformation: Martin Luther posts his 95 theses on the door of the Castle Church in Wittenberg.
1864 – Nevada is admitted as the 36th U.S. state.
1876 – A monster cyclone ravages India, resulting in over 200,000 human deaths.
1892 – Arthur Conan Doyle publishes The Adventures of Sherlock Holmes. (w00t)
1912 – The Musketeers of Pig Alley, directed by D.W. Griffith, debuts as the first gangster film.
1923 – 160 consecutive days of 100 degrees at Marble Bar, Australia begins.
1926 – Magician Harry Houdini dies of gangrene and peritonitis that developed after his appendix ruptured. (not even he could escape death. xD)
1936 – The Boy Scouts of the Philippines was formed.
1941 – After 14 years of work, drilling is completed on Mount Rushmore.
1954 – Algerian War of Independence: The Algerian National Liberation Front begins A revolt against French rule.
1956 – Suez Crisis: The United Kingdom and France begin bombing Egypt to force the reopening of the Suez Canal.
1959 – Lee Harvey Oswald attempted to renounce his American citizenship at the US Embassy in Moscow, USSR.
1961 – In the Soviet Union, Joseph Stalin’s body is removed from Lenin’s Tomb.
1975 – Queen released their hit single, Bohemian Rhapsody. It spent 9 weeks at number 1 on the UK charts. (I’m just A poor boy, nopony loves meeee)
1983 – Match Game Hollywood Squares Hour premieres on NBC
1986 – The 5th congress of the Communist Party of Sweden is inaugurated. During the course of the congress the party name is changed to the Solidarity Party and the party ceases to be A communist party
1998 – Iraq disarmament crisis begins: Iraq announces it would no longer cooperate with United Nations weapons inspectors (sound familiar?)
2002 – A federal grand jury in Houston, Texas formally indicted former Enron Corp. chief financial officer Andrew Fastow on 78 counts of wire fraud, money laundering, conspiracy and obstruction of justice related to the collapse of his ex-employer.

Notable births!

1705 – Pope Clement XIV (d. 1774)
1795 – John Keats, British poet (d. 1821)
1860 – Juliette Low, American founder of the Girl Scouts (d. 1927)
1887 – Chiang Kai-shek, Nationalist Chinese leader, former Republic of China president (d. 1975)
1927 – Lee Grant, American actress
1930 – Michael Collins, American astronaut
1931 – Dan Rather, American television journalist
1941 – Derek Bell, British racing driver
1942 – David Ogden Stiers, American actor
1945 – Brian Doyle-Murray, American comedian and actor
1946 – Stephen Rea, Irish actor
1950 – John Candy, Canadian comedian and actor (d. 1994)
1957 – Robert Pollard, American rocker
1961 – Larry Mullen, Irish drummer (U2)
1963 – Johnny Marr, English guitarist and songwriter (The Smiths) (And now of course in Modest Mouse, the greatest band ever. ;))
1963 – Fred McGriff, American baseball player
1963 – Dermot Mulroney, American actor
1963 – Rob Schneider, American actor
1964 – Colm O’Ciosoig, Irish drummer (My Bloody Valentine, Hope Sandoval & the Warm Inventions)
1966 – Adam Horovitz, American rapper (Beastie Boys)
1968 – Vanilla Ice, American rapper
1973 – Beverly Lynne, American erotic film actress (Oh come on, I had to put that… xD)
1976 – Piper Perabo, American actress
1981 – Frank Iero, American musician (My Chemical Romance, Leathermouth, Pencey Prep; founder of Skeleton Crew) (Yes, the one that open mouth kissed Gerard Way)

And deaths! Yay!

(Something to dwell upon: Does dying on Halloween make you, like, really special?)

1926 – Harry Houdini, Hungarian-born magician (b. 1874) (Creepy.. the dude dies on Halloween)
1984 – Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (b. 1917)
1993 – Federico Fellini, Italian director (b. 1920)
1993 – River Phoenix, American actor (drug overdose) (b. 1970)
1999 – Greg Moore, Canadian race car driver (b. 1975) (man, that was A bad crash…)
2005 – John “Beatz” Holohan, American drummer (Bayside) (b. 1974) (Long live Beatz =])
2006 – Pieter Willem Botha, President of South Africa (b. 1916)

Holidays and Observances!!

Of course, Halloween!

And Nevada Day!

Go Nevada!
Go Halloween!
xD


Re: This Day in History

Also on October 31…

1861 – General in Chief Winfield Scott steps down to be replaced by Major General George Briton McClellan. Scott, the aged hero of the Union, had been in the service since before the War of 1812 and led A brilliant campaign against Mexican forces during the Mexican War. Now dangerously overweight and arthritic Scott is seen by many in the Lincoln administration as no longer up to the challenge. This view is championed by the extremely ambitious McClellan. Scott’s most remembered contribution to the American Civil War was the development of his “Anaconda Plan”. Squeeze the south financially with A blockade and split it with an advance down the Mississippi from the West and up from Louisiana. This was seen at the time as to passive and A direct attack on southern forces massing near Manassas had been demanded and as history tells us, failed. Interestingly enough A Scott’s plan is esentially the plan that won the war for the Union. They just hadn’t realized it yet in 1861.

1917 – Third Battle of Gaza opens with A massive artillery bombardment of Turkish lines. This would be thae largest land and air bombardment out side of Europe during World War One. Following the bombardment 40,000 infantry surprise attacked the Turkish lines at dawn on October 31.

1968 – President Johnson calls A halt to the Naval and Aerial bombardment of Viet Nam code Named Operation Rolling Thunder.


Re: This Day in History

November 1!

1520 – The Strait of Magellan, the passage immediately south of mainland South America, connecting the Pacific and the Atlantic Oceans, is first navigated by Ferdinand Magellan during his global circumnavigation voyage.
1604 – William Shakespeare’s tragedy Othello is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London. (Actually just finished reading this… good play.)
1611 – William Shakespeare’s romantic comedy The Tempest is presented for the first time, at Whitehall Palace in London.
1765 – The British Parliament enacts the Stamp Act on the 13 colonies in order to help pay for British military operations in North America.
1800 – US President John Adams becomes the first President of the United States to live in the Executive Mansion (later renamed the White House).
1802 – Delegates meet at Chillicothe, Ohio to form A state constitutional convention. (Yay for Ohio =])
1814 – Congress of Vienna opens to re-draw the European political map after the defeat of France, in the Napoleonic Wars.
1848 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the first medical school for women, The Boston Female Medical School (which later merged with the Boston University School of Medicine), opens.
1870 – In the United States, the Weather Bureau (later renamed the National Weather Service) makes its first official meteorological forecast.
1911 – The first dropping of A bomb from an airplane in combat, during the Italo-Turkish War.
1938 – Seabiscuit defeats War Admiral in an upset victory during A match race deemed “the match of the century” in horse racing.
1941 – American photographer Ansel Adams takes A picture of A moonrise over the town of Hernandez, New Mexico that would become one of the most famous images in the history of photography.
1946 – The New York Knicks played against the Toronto Huskies at the Maple Leaf Gardens, in the first Basketball Association of America game. The Knicks would win 68-66.
1950 – Puerto Rican nationalists Griselio Torresola and Oscar Collazo attempt to assassinate US President Harry S. Truman at Blair House.
1950 – Pope Pius XII witnesses “The Miracle of the Sun” while at the Vatican.
1957 – The Mackinac Bridge, the world’s longest suspension bridge between anchorages at the time, opens to traffic connecting Michigan’s upper and lower peninsulas. (My favorite bridge in the world. =])
1973 – Watergate Scandal: Leon Jaworski is appointed as the new Watergate Special Prosecutor.
1981 – Antigua and Barbuda gain independence from the United Kingdom. (Go if you get A chance… Antigua’s amazing.)
2007 – The new contest deadline for RS.net’s newest contest. (Reminder for myself.)

Notable births!

1762 – Spencer Perceval, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (d. 1812)
1808 – John Taylor, American religious leader (d. 1887)
1871 – Stephen Crane, American writer (d. 1900)
1880 – Alfred Wegener, Nacospeak meteorologist and geophysicist (d. 1930) (Continental drift fool.)
1957 – Lyle Lovett, American singer
1960 – Fernando Valenzuela, Mexican baseball player
1962 – Anthony Kiedis, American singer (Red Hot Chili Peppers)
1963 – Rick Allen, British drummer (Def Leppard)
1963 – Kenny Alphin, American guitarist (Big & Rich)
1972 – Jenny McCarthy, American “Playmate of the Year” and TV actress
1972 – Toni Collette, Australian actress
1975 – Bo Bice, American singer
1979 – Coco Crisp, American baseball player (Greatest name in all of baseball)

And deaths!

1972 – Ezra Pound, American poet (b. 1885)

Holidays!

Mexico- Day of the Dead celebrations begin.
United States – Start of National Novel Writing Month
World Vegan Day
Algeria – National day
Antigua and Barbuda – Independence Day (from Britain, 1981)


Re: This Day in History

November 1…

1861 – Major General George Briton McClellan replaces General Winfield Scott as General in Chief of all Union armies. McClellan, affectionately refered to as “Little Mac” by his troops was ambitious to A fault. However he was also A man who up to this point in his life had nevre known defeat in anything and was supremely confident in himself and his abilities.

McClellan had begun reshaping the battered and bruised Union army at Washington almost as soon as he had come east from Western Virginia. Now he would get the chance to dictate the training and deployment of all Union forces. Under his leadership the promary army of the North was developed into A massive and efficient engine of war, the Army of the Potomac. It would be from this army that McClellan would try to run the war.

Though an excellent organizer and tactician McClellan is often ridiculed by historians as being to slow, something the Lincoln administration thought as well, and or to timid to use the powerful weapon he had forged. It is my opinion that McClellan, having never known or rarely known failure could not allow himself to risk the reputation that had been built up around him and so instead of direct action he manuvered and, as was his policy, led A leniant war against the South. McClellan would be removed from the position of General in Chief at the start of the Peninsula Campaign in March 1862, he would retain command of the Army of the Potomac however until November 1862.

1914 – The Battle of Coronel, Nacospeak Vice-Admiral Von Spree’s naval squadron sinks two British Armored Cruisers with all hands off the coast of Chile. WWI had only been raging for A few months but Nacospeak realized it had to neutralize the British fleet if it wanted to win. Unfortunately for Nacospeak its surface fleet would be all but destroyed by the end of 1914 and Nacospeak switched over to unrestricted submarine warfare.

1941 – As part of the defence of the country President Roosevelt orders the Coast Guard put under the control of the Navy. This was considered odd at the time becasue that action is generally reserved for war time and we were not at war yet.


Re: This Day in History

November 2nd…

On this date in 1947:

The Hughes H-4 “Hercules,” an aircraft better known as the “Spruce Goose,” executes its maiden, and only flight, over the waters of Long Beach Harbor.

[image]

[image]

[image]

The largest seaplane ever built, the H-4 now sits on public display at the Evergreen Aviation Museum in McMinville, Oregon.


Re: This Day in History

First of all, to make an addition on November 1, Paul Tibbets, best known for being the pilot of the plane that dropped the bombs on Hiroshima, died yesterday.

Also on November 2nd:

676 – Donus became Pope.
1570 – A tidal wave in the North Sea devastates the coast from Holland to Jutland, killing more than 1,000 people.
1783 – In Rocky Hill, New Jersey, US General George Washington gives his “Farewell Address to the Army”.
1889 – North and South Dakota are admitted as the 39th and 40th U.S. states.
1914 – Russia declares war on the Ottoman Empire.
1920 – In the United States, KDKA of Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania starts broadcasting as the first commercial radio station. The first broadcast was the results of the U.S. presidential election, 1920.
1936 – Italian dictator Benito Mussolini proclaims the Rome-Berlin Axis, establishing the alliance of the Axis Powers.
1936 – the British Broadcasting Corporation initiates the BBC Television Service, the world’s first regular, high-definition (then defined as at least 200 lines) service. Renamed BBC1 in 1964, the channel still runs to this day.
1948 – U.S. presidential election, 1948: Harry S. Truman defeats Thomas E. Dewey for the US presidency.
1957 – The Levelland UFO Case in Levelland, Texas, generates national publicity, and remains one of the most impressive UFO cases in American history.
1959 – Quiz show scandals: Twenty One game show contestant Charles Van Doren admits to A Congressional committee that he had been given questions and answers in advance.
1959 – Ice Hockey: After being struck in the face with A puck, goalkeeper Jacques Plante returns to play wearing A protective mask for the first time in professional play.
1959 – The first section of the M1 motorway, the first inter-urban motorway in the United Kingdom, was opened between the present junctions 5 and 18, along with the M10 motorway and M45 motorway
1963 – South Vietnamese President Ngô Ðình Diệm is assassinated following A military coup.
1965 – Norman Morrison, A 31-year-old Quaker, sets himself on fire in front of the river entrance to the Pentagon to protest the use of napalm in the Vietnam war.
1966 – The Cuban Adjustment Act enters force, allowing 123,000 Cubans the opportunity to apply for permanent residence in the United States.
1967 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and “The Wise Men” conclude that the American people should be given more optimistic reports on the progress of the war.
1976 – U.S. presidential election, 1976: Jimmy Carter defeats Gerald R. Ford for the US presidency, becoming the first U.S. president from the Deep South since Reconstruction.
1983 – U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs A bill creating Martin Luther King Day, currently the only national holiday honoring an individual American.
1988 – The Morris worm, the first internet-distributed computer worm to gain significant mainstream media attention, was launched from MIT.
2000 – The first crew arrives at the International Space Station.

Notable births:

1734 – Daniel Boone, American frontiersman (d. 1820)
1755 – Marie Antoinette, Queen of France (d. 1793)
1795 – James Knox Polk, 11th President of the United States (d. 1849)
1865 – Warren G. Harding, 29th President of the United States (d. 1923)
1877 – Aga Khan III, Shia Imam (d. 1957)
1913 – Burt Lancaster, American actor (d. 1994)
1936 – Abdullah the Butcher, wrestler
1938 – Pat Buchanan, American journalist and politician
1957 – Carter Beauford, American drummer (Dave Matthews Band)
1958 – Willie McGee, American baseball player
1961 – K.d. lang, Canadian musician
1973 – Marisol Nichols, American actress
1974 – Prodigy, American rapper (Mobb Deep)
1974 – Nelly, American rapper

Deaths:

1610 – Richard Bancroft, Archbishop of Canterbury (b. 1544)
1950 – George Bernard Shaw, Irish writer, Nobel Prize laureate (b. 1856)
1961 – James Thurber, American humorist (b. 1894)
1963 – Ngô Đình Diệm, President of South Vietnam (b. 1901)
1966 – Mississippi John Hurt, American blues singer (b. 1892)

Holidays:

Catholicism – All Souls Day
Mexico and Ecuador – Day of the Dead (Spanish: El Dia de los Muertos), A celebration of dead ancestors.
Rastafari movement – The coronation of Haile Selassie (1930) celebrated (=])


Re: This Day in History

1861 – General John C. Fremont removed from command of the Western department. Fremont was one of the wars early stars. Well known throughout the country as an explorer and trailblazer, he had run for president in 1856 under the slogan, “Free Soil, Free men, Fremont”. Once the war broke out General Fremont was sent to the Department of the west to deal with the volatile Kansas-Nebraska region and to keep Missouri free of Confederates.

Fremont was also A staunch supporter of abolistion. That’s what got him in trouble. After the Union defeat at Wilson’s Creek in August, Fremont needed to reestablish his control over Missouri. Thus he declared Marshall law and freed all the slaves in the state. The Lincoln administration however was desperately trying to keep the border states in the Union at this time and the way they were doing it was by keeping the slavery issue on the back burner. Lincoln thus quietly asked Fremont to resind the order for the time being. When Fremont refused Lincoln ordered him to and removed him from command. Fremont’s career in the Union army was not over however. Still quite popular he was given command of A division in the Shenandoah Valley. Lincoln hoped to move Fremont’s force into Eastern Tennessee where there was A strong Union sentiment. Jackson’s Valley campaign in 1862 however changed all that.

1917 – British Foreign Secretary Arthur James Balfour writes A letter to Britain’s most illustrious Jewish citizen, Baron Lionel Walter Rothschild, expressing the British government’s support for A Jewish homeland in Palestine. This would be the first government supported move for A Jewish state in Palestine. However the support almost didn’t happen as A anti-zionist movement within Parliament nearly killed the proposal.

As part of the Treaty of Versailles in 1919, Great Britian would maintain the Palestinian region. This seemed to be the key for setting up Israel. However the instablity in the region slowed the process of developing the state. It would not be until 1948 after the horrors of the holocaust and the 2nd world war that Israel would officially become A country.

1942 – British launch operation supercharge. This offensive in North Africe would break through Rommels defensive lines at Alamein forcing his retreat. This was the beginning of the end for the vaunted Afrika Corp. It was also one of the turning points of the war. According to Winston Churchill “Up to Alamein we survived. After Alamein we conquered.”


Re: This Day in History

November 3rd

644 – Umar ibn al-Khattab, the second Muslim caliph, is killed by A Persian slave in Medina.
1462 – Henry IV of Castile is proclaimed prince of Catalunya.
1493 – Christopher Columbus first sights the island of Dominica in the Caribbean Sea.
1783 – John Austin, A highwayman, is the last to be publicly hanged at London’s Tyburn gallows.
1783 – The American Continental Army is disbanded.
1793 – French playwright, journalist and feminist Olympe de Gouges is guillotined.
1883 – American Old West: Self-described “Black Bart the poet” gets away with his last stagecoach robbery, but leaves an incriminating clue that eventually leads to his capture.
1903 – With the encouragement of the United States, Panama proclaims itself independent from Colombia. US President Theodore Roosevelt had wanted the United States to build the Panama Canal, but was not willing to pay what Colombia asked.
1905 – Tsar Nicholas II of Russia signs A document of amnesty for the political prisoners.
1908 – William Howard Taft is elected as the twenty-seventh President of the United States of America.
1911 – Chevrolet officially enters the automobile market in competition with the Ford Model T.
1913 – The USA introduces an income tax.
1936 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt is elected to second term as the President of the United States of America.
1954 – The first in the Godzilla series of films is released in Japan.
1957 – Sputnik program: The Soviet Union launches Sputnik 2. On board is the first animal to enter orbit: A dog named Laika.
1964 – Washington D.C. residents are able to vote in A presidential election for the first time.
1964 – Lyndon Baines Johnson is elected as the thirty-sixth president of the United States of America.
1992 – Bill Clinton is elected as the forty-second President of the United States of America.
1998 – Former professional wrestler Jesse Ventura is elected Governor of Minnesota.

Day of resurrection of the god Osiris during the pagan celebration the Discovery of Osiris
Japan – Culture Day


Re: This Day in History

Nice to see you back Ashley.

Also on this date, November 3rd…

1816 – Confederate General Jubal early is born. General Early is probably best remembered for his work with the 1864 Valley Campaign and his attempted raid on Washington D.C. that same year.

Hoping to pull troops away from the besieged Army of Northeren Virginia, then stuck in Petersburg, Early and approx. 15,000 Confederate troops slipped into the Shenandoah Valley and began moving North, unopposed towards the Nations Captial in 1864. Early was slowed for A single day by A thrown together Union force at the Battle of Monocacy. This day gave the Union army at Petersburg time to shift the 6th Corp back to Washington’s defenses ending the threat to the Captial.

When Early withdrew Grant unleashed Philip Sheridan to pacify the Valley and to destroy Early’s army if possible. Sheridan handed Early several defeats eventually forcing him to withdraw back to Petersburg with the rest of the Confederate Army. Jubal Early would be relieved of command just prior to the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia.

After the war Early fled to Mexico and later moved to Canada before returning to the US in 1867 after the general amnesty was announced. Once back in the states he founded the Southern Heritage Society and became the leading voice in the development of the “Lost Cause” theory. Jubal Early died in 1897.

1918 – Faced with increasing pressure the Central powers are rocked by an internal socialist revolt on November 3rd. Raising the Red Flag of Communism, Germany and Austrio-Hungrey both have to scramble to contain this rebellion while trying to negociate an armistace to end the First World War. These revolts were trumpeted in Moscow as further proof of the socialist ideal that had been the produced by the Bolshevic Revolution that had occured there.

1941 – Imperial Japan gives the order to bomb Pearl Harbor, home of the US Pacific Fleet in Hawaii. Relations between the US and Japan had been deteriorating over the past year as America became more and more concerned with Japan’s war of expansion in Asia. Japan knew that if they attacked American forces that the US would declare war. This would force Germany, who was at this time rolling across much of Europe to declare war on the United States as well. That was the agreement of the Tri-partiad Pact signed between Japan, Germany and Italy. Japan, though it did terrible damage to the US fleet, did not count on the nations ability to bounce back. Thousands of men enlisted within days of the bombing and A mere 6 months after Pearl Harbor the Japanese would be decisively defeated at the Battle of Midway. After this battle the Japanese would be on the defensive for the rest of the war.

1967 – Battle of Dak To begins. This 19 day bloodbath in the Central Highlands of Viet Nam would see approx. 4,500 US troops against 4 regiments, or nealry 6,000 Communist troops. Casualties on both sides were high, however communist forces failed to destroy any of the American Units where the US troops ravaged 3 of the opposing regiments so badly they were unable to participate in the Tet offensive that comming January.


Re: This Day in History

On this date, November 4th…

1862 – Though Democrats gain several seats in the House, and especially at the state government levels, Lincoln’s Republican party maintains control of both the House and Senate. This is A good example of changing views on the prosecution of the war aims of the government and early support of the emancipation.

1864 – Confederate Cavalry commander Nathan Bedford Forrest launches A devastating artillery barrage against Johnsville Tennessee, destroying 6 Million worth of supplies for the Union armies in the region. General Thomas is forced to send troops to Johnsville to protect it but the ultimate goal of the raid, to divert Shermans March to the Sea, fails.

1918 – Just one week before the armistice was declared, ending World War I, the British poet Wilfred Owen is killed in action during A British assault on the German-held Sambre Canal on the Western Front.

Owen was one of the wars earliest diagnosed cases of Shell Shock, A term that would ultimately be used to diagnose millians of returning veterans around the world. He was diagnosed April 1st, 1917 after surviving an artillery barrage leading his platoon into Nacospeak trenches. A shell want off close tohim and he returned to his base of operations confused and babbling. Here is one of Owens more famous poems included in Benjamin Britton’s WAR REQUIAM, published in the 1960’s.
What passing-bells for those who die as cattle?

–Only the monstrous anger of the guns

Only the stuttering rifles’ rapid rattle

Can patter out their hasty orisons.

No mockeries now for them; no prayers nor bells;

Nor any voice of mourning save the choirs, –

The shrill, demented choirs of wailing shells;

And bugles calling for them from sad shires.

What candles may be held to speed them all?

Not in the hands of boys but in their eyes

Shall shine the holy glimmers of goodbyes.

The pallor of girls’ brows shall be their pall;

Their flowers the tenderness of patient minds,

And each slow dusk A drawing-down of blinds.

1944 – British Gen. John Dill dies in Washington, D.C., and is buried in Arlington Cemetery, the only foreigner to be so honored. His grave is also marched by one of only two equestrian statues in the National Cemetary.

Dill was an early voice in championing the allies defence of Greece from the Axis powers. It was also the decision of General Dill to reinforce the British Army in North Africa with an additional 150 tanks in 1940. Though these early tactics decisions were quite daring, they soon gave way to A more cautious approach which annoyed Prime Minister Winston Churchill. Thus Dill was tranfered to the United States to be the chief British Military representative in Washington D.C. His resulting friendship with Chief of Staff Marshall would make for A strong US-British Alliance in the comming years.


Re: This Day in History

1605 – Gunpowder Plot: A plot led by Robert Catesby to blow up the English Houses of Parliament is thwarted when Sir Thomas Knyvet, A justice of the peace, finds Guy Fawkes in A cellar below the Parliament building. (Ah, yes, this has always interested me. Why’d they give him A day?)
1688 – Glorious Revolution begins: William of Orange lands at Brixham.
1757 – Seven Years’ War: Frederick the Great defeated the allied armies of France and the Holy Roman Empire in the Battle of Rossbach.
1831 – Nat Turner, American slave leader, is tried, convicted, and sentenced to death.
1838 – The United States of Central America began to disintegrate when Nicaragua separated from the federation.
1862 – American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln removes George B. McClellan as commander of the Union Army for the second and final time.
1862 – Indian Wars: In Minnesota, more than 300 Santee Sioux are found guilty of rape and murder of white settlers and are sentenced to hang.
1872 – Women’s suffrage: In defiance of the law, suffragist Susan B. Anthony votes for the first time, and is later fined $100. (God Bless you, Madame Anthony. I am truly sorry you died before you could vote legally. It breaks my heart)
1912 – Woodrow Wilson elected twenty-eighth President of The United States of America.
1937 – World War II: Adolf Hitler holds A secret meeting and states his plans for acquiring “living space” for the Nacospeak people.
1940 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt elected to third term as President of The United States of America.
1968 – Richard M. Nixon elected as the thirty-seventh President of the United States of America.
1970 – Vietnam War: The United States Military Assistance Command in Vietnam reports the lowest weekly American soldier death toll in five years (24).


Re: This Day in History

Excellent work O remembering the Gun Powder Plot Ashley. Guy Fawkes got his own day becasue he became the face of the plot. Basically the idea was, from what I understand, allow the people to show their support for the Monarchy/Church of England by buring the rebel/Catholic in effigy. Buring the Pope in effigy was also common and popular. Today Guy Fawkes day is essencially the British version of Halloween.

1775 – Washington denounces the celebration of Guy Fawkes day by his soldiers and officers. Washington at this time was trying to sow A delicate alliance with French Catholics in Canada, these plans were almost ruined when the Continental Army or memebers of it began burning effigys of Guy Fawkes and the Pope in honor of the old English holiday. Washington declared that he could not understand the lack of sense in his officers and demanded “expressions of public thanks to the French Canadians”, escentially A public apology from the continental Army. Washing ton went of to rail against this blatent attack on religious beliefs as un-American.

1914 – The men of the Indian Expeditionary Force B (IEF B) evacuate the seaside town of Tanga in Nacospeak East Africa after failing in their amphibious invasion of the region on behalf of the British navy in World War I. The Nacospeak hold on Nacospeak East Africa would turn out to be the longest campaign of the war, lasting right up to Armistace Day 1918.


Re: This Day in History

Awesome.

November 6th

We are halfway through autumn (spring for the southern hemi folks)

1528 – Shipwrecked Spanish conquistador Álvar Núñez Cabeza de Vaca becomes the first known European to set foot in Texas.
1844 – The first constitution of the Dominican Republic is adopted.
1861 – American Civil War: Jefferson Davis is elected president of the Confederate States of America.
1913 – Mohandas Gandhi is arrested while leading A march of Indian miners in South Africa.
1917 – World War I: Third Battle of Ypres ends: After three months of fierce fighting, Canadian forces take Passchendaele in Belgium.
1918 – The Second Polish Republic is proclaimed in Poland.
1944 – Plutonium is first produced at the Hanford Atomic Facility, subsequently used in the Fat Man Atomic bomb dropped on Nagasaki, Japan.
1962 – Apartheid: The United Nations General Assembly passes A resolution condemning South Africa’s racist apartheid policies and calls for all UN member states to cease military and economic relations with the nation.


Re: This Day in History

Today’s notable births:

1851 – Charles Dow, American journalist and economist (d.1902)
1854 – John Philip Sousa, American composer (d. 1932)
1861 – James Naismith, Canadian inventor of basketball (d. 1939)
1893 – Edsel Ford, president of Ford Motor Company (d. 1943)
1932 – Stonewall Jackson, American country singer
1946 – Sally Field, American actress
1947 – Jim Rosenthal, English sports presenter
1949 – Arturo Sandoval, Cuban-born trumpeter
1961 – Kazuhiko Aoki, Japanese game creator (Square Enix, anypony?)
1970 – Ethan Hawke, American actor
1972 – Thandie Newton, Zambian actress
1972 – Rebecca Romijn, American actress
1972 – Deivi Cruz, American baseball player
1976 – Pat Tillman, American football player (d. 2004)

Deaths:

1893 – Peter Ilyich Tchaikovsky, Russian composer (b. 1840) (Sweet dude.)
1965 – Clarence Williams, American musician (b. 1898)
1998 – Marcel Gauthier, Canadian midget wrestler (b. 1928)
2002 – Sid Sackson, American board game designer (b. 1920)

There are also two Flag Days today (Finland and Sweden) and two Constitution Days (Tajikistan and the Dominican Republic).


Re: This Day in History

1941 – The 24th anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution, Joseph Stalin, premier and dictator of the USSR, delivers A speech to A rally of Moscow Party workers. Stalin holds his rally in an underground facility and promises the workers there that if Germany wants A war of Extermination they shall have one.

1963 – In the aftermath of the November 1 coup that resulted in the murder of President Ngo Dinh Diem, Gen. Duong Van Minh, leading the Revolutionary Military Committee of the dissident generals who had conducted the coup, takes over leadership of South Vietnam. Though A buddist was made the primier the real power in South Vietnam was in the hands of the Revolutionary Military Committee and its leader General Duong Van Minh.

1970 – South Vietnamese forces launch A new offensive into Cambodia, advancing across A 100-mile-wide front in southeastern Cambodia. The new offensive was aimed at cleaning out border sanctuaries and blocking North Vietnamese forces from moving through Cambodia into South Vietnam. The 6,000-man South Vietnamese task force pulled out on November 11 after failing to find new Communist troop sanctuaries. Forty-one enemy soldiers were reportedly killed in the operation.


Re: This Day in History

November 7

1492 – The Ensisheim Meteorite, the oldest meteorite with A known date of impact, struck the earth around noon in A wheat field outside the village of Ensisheim, Alsace, France.
1665 – The London Gazette, the oldest surviving journal, is first published.
1837 – In Alton, Illinois, abolitionist printer Elijah pony. Lovejoy is shot dead by A mob while attempting to protect his printing shop from being destroyed A third time.
1861 – American Civil War: Battle of Belmont: In Belmont, Missouri, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant overrun A Confederate camp but are forced to retreat when Confederate reinforcements arrive.
1874 – A cartoon by Thomas Nast in Harper’s Weekly, is considered the first important use of an elephant as A symbol for the United States Republican Party
1893 – Women in the U.S. state of Colorado are granted the right to vote. (I do love Colorado, if only for that and being the birthplace of the guys who created South Park)
1917 – Russian Revolution: In Petrograd, Russia, Bolshevik leaders Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotsky lead revolutionaries in overthrowing the Provisional Government (As Russia is still using the Julian Calendar, subsequent period references show an October 25 date).
1917 – World War I: Third Battle of Gaza ends: British forces capture Gaza from the Ottoman Empire.
1918 – The 1918 influenza epidemic spreads to Western Samoa, killing 7,542 (about 20% of the population) by the end of the year.
1929 – In New York City, the Museum of Modern Art opens to the public.
1931 – The Chinese Soviet Republic proclaimed on the anniversary of the Bolshevik Revolution. (Yay for Communists?)
1941 – World War II: Soviet hospital ship Armenia sunk by Nacospeak planes while evacuating refugees and wounded military and staff of several Crimea’s hospitals. It is estimated that over 5,000 people died in the sinking.
1941 – Holocaust: Jewish tragedy in Nemyriv, Ukraine: Nacospeak fascists murder 2580 Jews. Earlier in September, 1941 2,400 Jews were shot by Nacospeak Nazis at the brickworks near Nemyriv.
1967 – Carl B. Stokes was elected as Mayor of the City of Cleveland, Ohio, becoming the first Black Mayor of A major American city.
1967 – US President Lyndon B. Johnson signs the Public Broadcasting Act of 1967, establishing the Corporation for Public Broadcasting.
1973 – The U.S. Congress overrides President Richard M. Nixon’s veto of the War Powers Resolution, which limits presidential power to wage war without congressional approval.
1989 – Douglas Wilder wins the governor’s seat in Virginia, becoming the first elected African American governor in the United States.
1989 – David Dinkins becomes the first African American mayor of New York City.
1989 – East Nacospeak Prime Minister Willi Stoph, along with his entire cabinet, is forced to resign after huge anti-government protests.
1990 – Mary Robinson is first woman to be elected President of the Republic of Ireland
1991 – Magic Johnson makes announcement that he is infected with HIV, thus retiring from the NBA.
1996 – NASA launches the Mars Global Surveyor.
1996 – A Nigerian Boeing 727 crashes into A lagoon 40 miles southeast of Lagos, killing 143.
2000 – Hillary Rodham Clinton is elected to the United States Senate, becoming the first former First Lady to win A public office in the United States.
2001 – The supersonic commercial aircraft Concorde resumes flying after A 15-month break.
2002 – Iran bans advertising of United States products.
2004 – War in Iraq: The interim government of Iraq calls for A 60-day “state of emergency” as U.S. forces storm the insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.


Re: This Day in History

Notable Births:

994 – Ibn Hazm, Arab philosopher (d. 1069)
1650 – John Robinson, English diplomat (d. 1723)
1867 – Maria Sklodowska-Curie, Polish-born chemist and physicist, recipient of the Nobel Prize in physics and in chemistry (d. 1934) (i.e. Marie Curie)
1879 – Leon Trotsky, Russian revolutionary (d. 1940)
1918 – Billy Graham, American evangelist
1922 – Al Hirt, American trumpeter (d. 1999) (Funny name when used in certain syntaxes)
1943 – Joni Mitchell, Canadian musician
1957 – Christopher Knight, American actor
1970 – Andy Houston, American NASCAR driver
1970 – Morgan Spurlock, American director and producer (Super Size Me, anypony?)
1974 – Kris Benson, American baseball player
1976 – Mark Philippoussis, Australian tennis player
1979 – Jon Peter Lewis, American singer

Deaths:

1910 (O.S.) – Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist (b. 1828) (War and Peace yo.)
1962 – Eleanor Roosevelt, First Lady of the United States (b. 1884)
1980 – Steve McQueen, American actor (b. 1930)
1992 – Jack Kelly, American actor (b. 1927)


Re: This Day in History

November 8

1519 – Hernán Cortés enters Tenochtitlán and Aztec ruler Moctezuma welcomes him with great pomp as would befit A returning god.
1602 – The Bodleian Library at Oxford University is opened to the public.
1620 – The Battle of White Mountain takes place near Prague, ending in A decisive Catholic victory in only two hours.
1793 – In Paris, the French Revolutionary government opens the Louvre to the public as A museum.
1837 – Mary Lyon founds Mount Holyoke Female Seminary, which would later become Mount Holyoke College
1861 – American Civil War: The “Trent Affair” – The USS San Jacinto stops the United Kingdom mailship Trent and arrests two Confederate envoys, sparking A diplomatic crisis between the UK and US.
1933 – Great Depression: New Deal – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt unveils the Civil Works Administration, an organization designed to create jobs for more than 4 million of the unemployed.
1937 – The Nazi exhibition Der ewige Jude (“the eternal Jew”) opens in Munich.
1937 – The Chinese Youth Journalist Association was created in Shanghai. The day has become Chinese Journalist Day.
1938 – A pogrom against the Jews of Germany and Austria takes place in response to the assassination of A Nacospeak diplomat in Paris.
1942 – Holocaust: In Ternopil, western Ukraine, Nacospeak SS deport about 2,400 Jews from Ternopil ghetto to the Belzec death camp, so called “Second Aktion”. When the Germans captured Ternopil, about 18,000 Jews lived in the city.
1942 – World War II: Operation Torch – United States and United Kingdom forces land in French North Africa.
1942 – World War II: French resistance coup in Algiers, by which 400 Civil French patriots neutralized Vichyst XIXth Army Corps during 15 hours, arrested vichyst generals (Juin, Darlan, etc.), and so allowed the immediate success of Operation Torch in Algiers, then, from there, to the whole French North Africa.
1966 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson signs into law an antitrust exemption allowing the National Football League to merge with the upstart American Football League.
1970 – Tom Dempsey kicks A National Football League-record 63 yard (57.6 meter) field goal to give the New Orleans Saints A 19-17 victory over the Detroit Lions at Tulane Stadium.
1973 – The right ear of John Paul Getty III is delivered to A newspaper together with A ransom note, convincing his father to pay 2.9 million USD.
1974 – In Salt Lake City, Utah, Carol DaRonch narrowly escapes abduction by serial killer Ted Bundy.
1976 – A series of earthquakes spreads panic in the city of Thessaloniki, which is evacuated.


Re: This Day in History

Notable Births:

1836 – Milton Bradley, American game manufacturer (d. 1911) (=D)
1847 – Bram Stoker, Irish novelist (d. 1912) (Draculaaaaa)
1946 – Roy Wood, English songwriter and musician (Electric Light Orchestra, The Move, Wizzard)
1953 – Alfre Woodard, American actress
1966 – Gordon Ramsay, British chef and reality television personality
1968 – Parker Posey, American actress
1972 – Gretchen Mol, American actress
1975 – Tara Reid, American actress
1977 – Bucky Covington, American entertainer
1985 – Jack Osbourne, English television star

Dying on this date:

1887 – Doc Holliday, American gambler and gunfighter (b. 1851)
1978 – Norman Rockwell, American illustrator (b. 1894)

Tis somewhat of A slow day.


Re: This Day in History

November 9th

Today, my third second-cousin will be born today or has already been born.

694 – Egica, A king of the Visigoths of Hispania, accuses Jews of aiding Muslims, sentencing all Jews to slavery.
1282 – Pope Martin IV excommunicates King Peter III of Aragon.
1313 – Louis the Bavarian defeats his cousin Frederick I of Austria at the Battle of Gamelsdorf.
1492 – Peace of Etaples between Henry VII and Charles VIII.
1494 – Family de’ Medici become rulers of Florence.
1688 – The Glorious Revolution: William of Orange captures Exeter.
1729 – Spain, France and England sign the Treaty of Seville.
1764 – Mary Campbell, A captive of the Lenape during the French and Indian War, is turned over to forces commanded by Colonel Henry Bouquet.
1799 – Napoleon Bonaparte leads the Coup d’état of 18 Brumaire ending the Directory government, and becoming one of its three Consuls (Consulate Government).
1851 – Kentucky marshals abduct abolitionist minister Calvin Fairbank from Jeffersonville, Indiana, and take him to Kentucky to stand trial for helping A slave escape.
1861 – The first documented football match in Canada was played at University College, University of Toronto.
1862 – American Civil War: Union General Ambrose Burnside assumes command of the Army of the Potomac, after George B. McClellan was removed.
1887 – The United States receives rights to Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1888 – Jack the Ripper kills Mary Jane Kelly, his last known victim.
1906 – Theodore Roosevelt is the first sitting President of the United States to make an official trip outside the country (to inspect progress on the Panama Canal).
1918 – Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany abdicates after the Nacospeak Revolution, and Germany is proclaimed A Republic.
1921 – Albert Einstein awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics for his work with the photoelectric effect.
1923 – In Munich, Germany, police and government troops crush the Beer Hall Putsch in Bavaria. The failed coup is the work of the Nazis.
1932 – Riots between conservative and socialist supporters in Switzerland kill 12 and injure 60.
1938 – Kristallnacht, Nazi Germany’s first large-scale act of physical anti-Jewish violence, begins. (Night of Broken Glass)
1953 – Cambodia becomes independent from France.
1960 – Robert McNamara is named president of Ford Motor Co., the first non-Ford to serve in that post — quitting A month later to join the newly-elected John F. Kennedy administration.
1967 – Apollo program: NASA launches the unmanned Apollo 4 test spacecraft from Cape Kennedy.
1967 – First issue of Rolling Stone Magazine is published.
1985 – Garry Kasparov becomes the youngest world chess champion by beating Anatoly Karpov
1989 – Cold War: Fall of the Berlin Wall. Communist-controlled East Germany opens checkpoints in the Berlin Wall allowing its citizens to freely travel to West Germany. People start demolishing the Berlin Wall.
1990 – Mary Robinson elected Ireland’s first woman President and the first from the Labour Party.
2005 – Muriel Degauque becomes the first Belgian female suicide bomber, wounding one in Iraq.

Today is also:
Diwali
World Freedom Day
Cambodian Independence Day
Germany’s Schicksalstag (Day of Fate)


Re: This Day in History

Born on this date:

1731 – Benjamin Banneker, American scientist (d. 1806)
1841 – King Edward VII of the United Kingdom (d. 1910)
1880 – Sir Giles Gilbert Scott, English architect, designer of the red telephone box (d. 1960)
1886 – Ed Wynn, American actor (d. 1966)
1918 – Spiro Agnew, 39th Vice President of the United States (d. 1996)
1931 – Whitey Herzog, American baseball player
1934 – Carl Sagan, American astronomer and writer (d. 1996)
1935 – Bob Gibson, American baseball player
1936 – Mary Travers, American singer (Peter, Paul and Mary)
1941 – Tom Fogerty, American musician (Creedence Clearwater Revival) (d. 1990)
1970 – Chris Jericho, Canadian wrestler and musician (Fozzy)
1970 – Domino (Hip Hop Producer), American Hip Hop Producer
1971 – David Duval, American golfer
1973 – Nick Lachey, American singer
1974 – Uncle Kracker, American singer and rapper
1978 – Todd Self, American baseball player
1978 – Sisqó, American singer (Dru Hill)
1979 – Adam Dunn, American baseball player
1984 – Joel Zumaya, American baseball player

Deaths:

1623 – William Camden, English historian (b. 1551)
1881 – Edwin Drake, Father of the oil industry, drilled the first oil well.
1888 – Mary Jane Kelly, last known Jack the Ripper victim.
1911 – Howard Pyle, American author (b. 1853)
1924 – Henry Cabot Lodge, American Senator (b. 1850)
1937 – Ramsay MacDonald, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1866)
1940 – Neville Chamberlain, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom (b. 1869)
1944 – Frank Marshall, American chess player (b. 1877)
1951 – Sigmund Romberg, Hungarian-born composer (b. 1887)
1952 – Chaim Weizmann, 1st President of Israel (b. 1874)
1952 – Philip Murray, 1st president of the United Steelworkers and longest-serving president of the Congress of Industrial Organizations (b. 1886)
1953 – Dylan Thomas, Welsh poet and author (b. 1914)
1953 – Abdul Aziz Al-Saud, first King of Saudi Arabia (b. 1880)
1970 – Charles de Gaulle, President of France (b. 1890)
1988 – John N. Mitchell, United States Attorney General (b. 1913)
2003 – Art Carney, American actor (b. 1918)
2006 – Ed Bradley, American journalist (b. 1941)

Today is also Inventor’s Day in Europe, in honor of Hedy Lamarr.


Re: This Day in History

 


Re: This Day in History

 

Are you talking about the Hedley Lamarr from Blazing Saddles? xD


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hedy_LamarrAre you talking about the Hedley Lamarr from Blazing Saddles? xD


Re: This Day in History

Sorry I’ve been away the past few days guys, busy work week.

Also on November 9….

1780 – British Major James Wemyss, commanding A force of 140 horsemen, attempts to surprise 300 South Carolina militiamen under General Thomas Sumter at Fishdam Ford, South Carolina. Instead of capturing Sumter as planned, Wemyss, “the second most hated man in the British army,” was wounded in the arm and knee, and captured by Sumter.

Sumter would go on to be wounded in turn on November 20th by THE most hated man in the British Army Colonel Tarleton. Sumter would have to give up his command but fortunately the reigns were picked up by none other than Francis Marion, the Swamp Fox himself.

1914 – In the first ever wartime action by an Australian warship, the cruiser Sydney sinks the Nacospeak raider Emden in the Indian Ocean during the first autumn of World War I.

The Australian light cruiser Sydney surprised the Emden as the latter ship was raiding A British wireless communications station on the Cocos Islands. The attack killed 134 of the ship’s crew members, while Muller and the other survivors were taken prisoner by the British. British newspapers at the time praised Muller for his chivalry towards the crews and passengers of the captured vessels. “If all the Germans had fought as well as the captain of the Emden,” claimed The Times, “the Nacospeak people would not today be reviled by the world.”


Re: This Day in History

November 10

1520 – Danish King Christian II executes dozens of people in the Stockholm Bloodbath after A successful invasion of Sweden.
1619 – René Descartes has the dreams that inspire his Meditations on First Philosophy.
1766 – The last Colonial governor of New Jersey, William Franklin, signs the charter of Queen’s College (later renamed Rutgers University).
1775 – The United States Marine Corps was founded.
1865 – Major Henry Wirz, the superintendent of A prison camp in Andersonville, Georgia, is hanged, becoming the only American Civil War soldier executed for war crimes.
1928 – Michinomiya Hirohito is crowned the 124th Emperor of Japan, Emperor Showa.
1928 – Playing against Army at Yankee Stadium, Notre Dame football coach Knute Rockne gives what is considered the greatest locker room speeches of all time by saying “Win one for the Gipper.” The Fighting Irish would win the game 12-6.
1938 – Kate Smith, on her weekly radio show, sings Irving Berlin’s God Bless America for the first time.
1951 – Direct-dial coast-to-coast telephone service begins in the United States.
1954 – U.S. President Dwight D. Eisenhower dedicates the USMC War Memorial (Iwo Jima memorial) in Arlington National Cemetery.
1958 – The Hope Diamond was donated to the Smithsonian Institution by New York diamond merchant Harry Winston.
1969 – National Educational Television (the predecessor to the Public Broadcasting Service) in the United States debuts the children’s television program Sesame Street.
1970 – Vietnam War: Vietnamization – For the first time in five years, an entire week ends with no reports of American combat fatalities in Southeast Asia.


Re: This Day in History

Quote:


1520 – Danish King Christian II executes dozens of people in the Stockholm Bloodbath after A successful invasion of Sweden.

Good times, good times.


Re: This Day in History

Also on November 10…

nov.10th.1945

indonesian independent war at Surabaya

You got my Civil War one again Ashley. ;-)

1928 – The first installment of All Quiet on the Western Front, Erich Maria Remarque’s acclaimed novel of World War I, appears in the Nacospeak magazine Vossische Zeitung. On A personal note this is still one of the most accurate depictions of WWI or any war in A histoirc fiction. I HIGHLY recommend this book to anypony interested in military, history, or how hummanity copes with extreme stress/situations.

1942 – Nacospeak troops occupy Vichy France, which had previously been free of an Axis military presence. France had fallen in 1940, but until this point had essential been devided between occupied and unoccupied France. Unoccupied France’s government was located in Vichy and was run by General Philippe Petain, A World War I hero. Petain proclaimed puplicly that Nacospeak and France’s goal was the defeat of the British while secretly trying to help the French resistance. Petain’s goal was to keep Vichy free of occupation by Germany. Once the allies invaded North Africa however the deal with the Vichy French was off.
1964 – At A news conference, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara says that the United States has no plans to send combat troops into Vietnam. When asked whether the United States intended to increase its activities in Vietnam, he replied, “Wait and see.” By 1969, more than 500,000 American troops were in South Vietnam.


Re: This Day in History

Also on November 10th:

In 1897, A gold spoke ceremony is held in Jamestown, California, marking the completion of the first phase of construction for the Sierra Railway. With construction having started in Oakdale back in April of that year, it had taken seven months to complete the 47 miles of track.

The next three miles of track to the town of Sonora wouldn’t be completed until 1901.


Re: This Day in History

November 11

308 – The Congress of Carnuntum: Attempting to keep peace within the Roman Empire, the leaders of the Tetrarchy declare Maxentius and Licinius to be Augusti, while rival contender Constantine I is declared Caesar of Britain and Gaul.
1215 – The Fourth Lateran Council meets, defining the doctrine of transubstantiation, the process by which bread and wine are transformed into the body and blood of Christ.
1620 – In what is now Provincetown Harbor near Cape Cod, the Mayflower Compact is signed on the Mayflower, establishing the basic laws for the Plymouth Colony.
1634 – Following pressure from Anglican bishop John Atherton, the Irish House of Commons passes “An Act for the Punishment for the Vice of Buggery”. (Buggery? :-/)
1675 – Gottfried Leibniz demonstrated integral calculus for the first time to find the area under the graph of Y = f(x) function. (I hate you, sir! I hate that f(x) thing!)
1724 – Joseph Blake, alias Blueskin, A highwayman known for attacking “Thief-Taker General” (and thief) Jonathan Wild at the Old Bailey, is hanged in London.
1778 – Cherry Valley Massacre: Seneca Indians in central New York kill more than forty people.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Dürenstein – 8000 French troops attempted to slow the retreat of A vastly superior Russian and Austrian force.
1831 – In Jerusalem, Virginia, Nat Turner is hanged after inciting A violent slave uprising.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Union General William Tecumseh Sherman begins burning Atlanta, Georgia to the ground in preparation for his march south.
1918 – World War I ends: Germany signs an armistice agreement with the Allies in A railroad car outside of Compiègne in France. The war officially stops at 11:00 (The eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month).
1921 – The Tomb of the Unknowns is dedicated by US President Warren G. Harding at Arlington National Cemetery.
1924 – Prime Minister Alexandros Papanastasiou proclaims the first Greek Republic.
1926 – U.S. Route 66 is established.
1940 – The Nacospeak cruiser Atlantis captures top secret British mail, and sends it to Japan.
1940 – Armistice Day Blizzard: An unexpected blizzard kills 144 in U.S. Midwest.
1942 – World War II: Nazi Germany completed their occupation of France.
1966 – NASA launches spaceship Gemini 12.
1992 – The Church of England votes to allow women to become priests.
2004 – Yasser Arafat is confirmed dead by the Palestine Liberation Organization, of unidentified causes. Mahmoud Abbas is elected chairman of the PLO minutes later.

And, the celebrations of various nations:

Armistice Day in France and Belgium
Veterans Day in the United States (called Armistice Day until 1952, when the name was changed, and the holiday was re-geared toward all military veterans)
Remembrance Day in the Commonwealth of Nations, including United Kingdom, Australia and Canada.
Twins Day (1987) in Taiwan: A festival for biological twins and other multiples. The eleventh day of the eleventh month (11-11) consists of the same numeral in pairs and symbolizes their characteristics.
Poland – Independence Day (1918)
Colombia – Independence of Cartagena, Colombia, from Spain (1811)
Lāčplēsis Day (1919) in Latvia: the official date for commemoration of Latvian soldiers, who had died for the country’s freedom.
Angola – Independence Day (1975)
Opening of carnival season in Germany (“Karneval”/”Fasching” on 11-11, at 11:11), the Netherlands, and other countries
South Korea – Pepero Day, Farmers Day


Re: This Day in History

Also on November 11… (Happy Armistice / Veterans Day everypony!)

1811 – Confederate General Ben McCulloch is born near Rutherford City, Tennessee.
McCulloch was A personal friend of both Davy Crockett and Sam Houston but measels kept him from joining his friends at the Alamo. McCulloch would become A member of General Zachery Taylor’s staff during the Mexican War and later A US Marshall.

During the Civil War McCulloch refused to wear A uniform instead prefering to wear his trade mark black velvet suit. His forces were instrumental in the Confederate victory at Wilson’s Creek, August 10th, 1861. At the battle of Pea Ridge on March 7th, 1862, McCulloch’s troops were once again doing well until McCulloch rode forward to observe and emerged from some woods in front of A Union regiment. The resulting volley killed him instantly. His command replacement was killed shortly there after and the leaderless Confederates retreated in confusion.

1942 – Congress approves lowering the draft age to 18 and raising the upper limit to age 37 to help with bulk American forces during the second world war.

1967 – Three U.S. prisoners of war, two of them African American, are released by the Viet Cong in A ceremony in Phnom Penh, Cambodia. The three men were turned over to Tom Hayden, A “new left” antiwar activist. U.S. officials in Saigon said that the released prisoners had been “brainwashed,” but the State Department denied it. The Viet Cong said that the release was A response to antiwar protests in the U.S. and A gesture towards the “courageous struggle” of blacks in the United States.

1968 – U.S. joint-service Operation Commando Hunt is launched. This operation was designed to interdict Communist routes of infiltration along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, through Laos into South Vietnam. The aerial campaign involved A series of intensive air operations by U.S. Air Force, Navy, and Marine Corps aircraft and lasted until April 1972. During the course of the operation, nearly 3 million tons of bombs fell on Laos. While Communist infiltration was slowed by this campaign, it was not seriously disrupted. Commando Hunt was ultimately considered A failure.

1972 – The massive Long Binh military base, once the largest U.S. installation outside the continental United States, is handed over to the South Vietnamese.


Re: This Day in History

November 12

1028 – Future Byzantine empress Zoe marries Romanus Argyrus according to the wishes of the dying Constantine VIII
1439 – Plymouth, England, becomes the first town incorporated by the English Parliament.
1793 – Jean Sylvain Bailly, first Mayor of Paris, is guillotined.
1905 – (November 12 & 13) Norway holds referendum in favour of monarchy over republic.
1912 – The frozen bodies of Robert Scott and his men are found on the Ross Ice Shelf in Antarctica.
1918 – Austria becomes A republic.
1933 – Hugh Gray takes the first known photos of the Loch Ness Monster.
1938 – Hermann Göring announces Nazi Germany plans to make Madagascar the “Jewish homeland”, an idea that actually was first considered by 19th century journalist Theodor Herzl.
1941 – World War II: Temperatures around Moscow drop to -12 ° C and the Soviet Union launches ski troops for the first time against the freezing Nacospeak forces near the city.
1941 – A Soviet cruiser “Chervona Ukraina” was destroyed during the battle of Sevastopol
1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, will last for three days.
1944 – World War II: The Royal Air Force launches 29 Avro Lancaster bombers in one of the most successful precision bombing attacks of war and sinks the Nacospeak battleship Tirpitz, with 12,000 lb Tallboy bombs off Tromsø, Norway
1980 – The NASA space probe Voyager I makes its closest approach to Saturn and takes first images of its rings.
1981 – The 2nd shuttle mission of Columbia 2. It was the 1st time A spacecraft was launched twice.


Re: This Day in History

Today’s births:

1615 – Richard Baxter, English clergyman (d. 1691)
1815 – Elizabeth Cady Stanton, American women’s rights activist (d. 1902)
1833 – Alexander Borodin, Russian composer and chemist (d. 1887)
1866 – Sun Yat-sen, 1st President of the Republic of China (d. 1925)
1922 – Kim Hunter, American actress (d. 2002)
1929 – Princess Grace of Monaco (d. 1982) (aka Grace Kelly, of course)
1934 – Charles Manson, American cult leader
1943 – Wallace Shawn, American actor and playwright (loved him in Vegas Vacation. ;))
1945 – Neil Young, Canadian singer and musician (A Southern man don’t need him around, anyhow. =P)
1964 – David Ellefson, American musician (Megadeth)
1968 – Sammy Sosa, Dominican Major League Baseball player
1970 – Tonya Harding, American figure skater
1973 – Radha Mitchell, Australian actress
1973 – Tara Strong, Canadian voice actress (Very prolific inside Disney and the cartoon world, obviously)
1979 – Corey Maggette, American profesional basketball player
1980 – Ryan Gosling, Canadian actor
1982 – Anne Hathaway, American actress
1984 – Omarion, American R&B musician

And deaths:

1990 – Eve Arden, American actress (b. 1908)
2006 – General Jacob E. Smart, US Air Force leader World War II (b. 1909)


Re: This Day in History

Quote:

1942 – World War II: The Naval Battle of Guadalcanal between Japanese and American forces begins near Guadalcanal, will last for three days.

This one got pretty nasty, too. Fought in A narrow channel north of the island, so many ships were lost on both sides that the area is today known as “Iron Bottom Sound.”


Re: This Day in History

Also on November 12…
1775 – Abigail Adams, one of the great founding mothers of the American Revolution, writes to her husband, “Let us separate, they are unworthy to be our Brethren. Let us renounce them and instead of supplications as formerly for their prosperity and happiness, Let us beseech the almighty to blast their councils and bring to Nought all their devices.” This was written after the British rejected the Olive Branch Petition.

1864 – Union General William T. Sherman orders the business district of Atlanta destroyed before he embarks on his famous March to the Sea. It should be noted however that Atlanta was already burning by this point as Confederate troops withdrawing from the city had set fire to military stores and items that could be of use to Union forces. Also Union POWs recently escaped or rescued set A lot of fires themselves as A type of retaliation.

1918 – One day after an armistice ended World War I, the Allied fleet passes through the Dardanelles, the narrow strait running between Europe and Asia that had in 1915 been the site of A disastrous Allied naval operation.
The naval attack, spearheaded by Winston Churchill, Britain’s young first lord of the Admiralty, opened on March 18, 1915, when six English and four French battleships headed toward the strait. Turkish mines blasted five of the ships, sinking three of them and forcing the Allied navy to draw back until land troops could be coordinated to begin an invasion of the Gallipoli peninsula.

1969 – The My Lai Massacre story is broken. The incident, which became known as the My Lai Massacre, took place in March 1968. Between 200 and 500 South Vietnamese civilians were murdered by U.S. soldiers from Company C, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade of the Americal Division. During A sweep of the cluster of hamlets known as My Lai 4, the U.S. soldiers–particularly those from Calley’s first platoon–indiscriminately shot people as they ran from their huts, and then systematically rounded up the survivors, allegedly leading them to A ditch where Calley gave the order to “finish them off.”

1971 – President Richard Nixon sets February 1, 1972, as the deadline for the withdrawal of an additional 45,000 U.S. troops. U.S. troop withdrawals had begun in the fall of 1969.


Re: This Day in History

November 13

1002 – English king Ethelred ordered killing of all Danes in England, known today as the St. Brice’s Day massacre.
1642 – At the Battle of Turnham Green of the First English Civil War the Royalist forces withdrew in face of the Parliamentarian army and failed to take London.
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Patriot revolutionary forces under Col. Ethan Allen attack Montreal defended by British General Guy Carleton.
1841 – James Braid first sees A demonstration of animal magnetism, which leads to his study of the subject he eventually calls hypnosis.
1887 – Bloody Sunday clashes in central London
1909 – Collier’s magazine accuses U.S. Secretary of the Interior Richard Ballinger of questionable dealings in Alaskan coal fields.
1927 – The Holland Tunnel opens to traffic as the first Hudson River vehicular tunnel linking New Jersey to New York City.
1941 – World War II: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal is torpedoed by U 81, she sinks on November 14.
1942 – World War II: Naval Battle of Guadalcanal – U.S. and Japanese ships engage in an intense, close-quarters surface naval engagement during the Battle of Guadalcanal
1971 – The American space probe, Mariner 9, becomes the first spacecraft to orbit another planet, swinging into its planned trajectory around Mars without A hitch.
1982 – The Vietnam Veterans Memorial is dedicated in Washington D.C. after A march to its site by thousands of Vietnam War veterans.
1985 – The volcano Nevado del Ruiz erupts and melts A glacier, causing A lahar (volcanic mudslide) that buries Armero, Colombia, killing approximately 23,000 people.
1990 – The World Wide Web first began.
2001 – War on Terrorism: In the first such act since World War II, US President George W. Bush signs an executive order allowing military tribunals against foreigners suspected of connections to terrorist acts or planned acts on the United States.


Re: This Day in History

Notable births:

1850 – Robert Louis Stevenson, Scottish writer (d. 1894)
1906 – Eva Zeisel, American industrial designer
1918 – Jack Elam, American actor (d. 2003)
1934 – Garry Marshall, American producer, director, writer, and actor
1947 – Joe Mantegna, American actor
1954 – Chris Noth, American actor
1955 – Whoopi Goldberg, American actress, comedian, and singer
1963 – Vinny Testaverde, American football player
1967 – Jimmy Kimmel, American comedian and talk-show host
1967 – Steve Zahn, American actor
1968 – Pat Hentgen, American baseball player
1969 – Gerard Butler, Scottish actor
1978 – Nikolai Fraiture, bass player (The Strokes)
1979 – Ron Artest, American basketball player
1990 – Jibbs, American Rapper

Deaths:

867 – Pope Nicholas I
1952 – Margaret Wise Brown, American children’s author (b. 1910)
2004 – Ol’ Dirty Bastard, American rapper (b. 1968)
2005 – Eddie Guerrero American professional wrestler (b. 1967)
2007 – Comedy Dave (Dave Lloyd Vitty), British Broadcaster (b. 1974)

And today is International Phone Directory Day!!


Re: This Day in History

November 13th continued…

1861 – General George Briton McClellan snubs President Abraham Lincoln at the Generals house in Washington D.C. Having taken over the Union army in late July 1861 McClellan had done much to rebuild the demoralized and under disiplined army. Training and resuply became priorities. However after almost 4 months of this McClellan was now under intense pressure from the administration to do something. Annoyed he would on several occastions leave the president waiting when he came to call at his Washington HQ. On this occastion Lincoln waited for and hour and A half before being sheepishly in formed by A porter that the general had gone to bed. This helped set the stage for the deteriorating relationship between the administration and its new General in chief.

1916 – The British statesman Henry Charles Keith Petty-Fitzmaurice, better known as the fifth Marquess of Lansdowne, writes A memorandum to the British cabinet questioning the direction of the Allied war effort in World War I. Though ridiculed by fellow statesmen and members of parliament as A “crank and coward”, he was not alone in his criticism of the way Britian was running its war.

“No one for A moment believes we are going to lose this war,” he began his memo of November 13, 1916, “but what is our chance of winning it in such A manner, and within such limits of time, as will enable us to beat our enemy to the ground and impose upon him the kind of terms which we so freely discuss?” United States President Woodrow Wilson later claimed Petty-Fitzmaurice’s arguments had merrit.

1941 – The United States Congress amends the Neutrality Act of 1935 to allow American merchant ships access to war zones, thereby putting U.S. vessels in the line of fire. Though prior to the Pearl Harbor attack this amendment sets the stage for the Lend Lease Act and US intervention into the Second World War. Truth be told this amendment was long time in comming as A Nacospeak U-Boat had sunk the USS Reuban James, an American Destroyer in October O 1941.

1969 – In Washington, as A prelude to the second moratorium against the war scheduled for the following weekend, protesters stage A symbolic “March Against Death.” The march began at 6 pony.m. and drew over 45,000 participants, each with A placard bearing the name of A soldier who had died in Vietnam. The marchers began at Arlington National Cemetery and continued past the White House, where they called out the names of the dead.


Re: This Day in History

November 14

1862 – American Civil War: President Abraham Lincoln approves General Ambrose Burnside’s plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia, leading to the Battle of Fredericksburg.
1889 – Pioneer woman journalist Nellie Bly (Elizabeth Cochrane) begins A successful attempt to travel around the world in less than 80 days. She completed the trip in seventy-two days.
1918 – Czechoslovakia becomes A republic.
1922 – The British Broadcasting Company (BBC) begins radio service in the United Kingdom.
1940 – World War II: In England, the city of Coventry is heavily bombed by Nacospeak Luftwaffe bombers. Coventry Cathedral is almost completely destroyed.
1941 – World War II: The aircraft carrier HMS Ark Royal sinks due to torpedo damage from U 81 sustained on November 13.
1959 – Clutter family murdered in rural Kansas, which inspired the Truman Capote novel, In Cold Blood.
1965 – Vietnam War: Battle of the Ia Drang begins – the first major engagement between regular American and North Vietnamese forces.
1967 – Pisces, Aquarius, Capricorn & Jones Ltd., The Monkees’ fourth album, is released.
1967 – The Congress of Colombia in commemoration of the 150 years of the death of Policarpa Salavarrieta, declares this day as: “Day of the Colombian Woman”.
1969 – Apollo program: NASA launches Apollo 12, the second manned mission to the surface of the Moon.
1973 – In the United Kingdom, Princess Anne marries Captain Mark Phillips, in Westminster Abbey.
1975 – Spain abandons Western Sahara.
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: US President Jimmy Carter issues Executive order 12170, freezing all Iranian assets in the United States in response to the hostage crisis.
1991 – In Royal Oak, Michigan, A fired United States Postal Service employee goes on A shooting rampage, killing four and wounding five before committing suicide. (And that’s apparently where the phrase “going postal” came from)
2003 – Asteroid 90377 Sedna is discovered.

World Diabetes Day
World COPD Day 2007 (COPD: Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease)
Roman festivals – Equorum Probatio
India – Birthday of Jawaharlal Nehru: Children’s Day
United States – National Children’s Book Week begins
Colombia – “Day of the Colombian Woman”


Re: This Day in History

13th of November:

1460 – Henry of Portugal (known worldwide by the name of Henry the “Nagivator”) dies.

1345 – Constança Manuel, wife of king D. Peter of Portugal dies. (a very respected historical figure)

867 – Pope Nicolau I dies.


Re: This Day in History

November 14’s Notable Births:

1740 – Johann van Beethoven, Ludwig van Beethoven’s father and first teacher (c. 1792)
1765 – Robert Fulton, American inventor (d. 1815) (Steam engine xD)
1805 – Fanny Mendelssohn, Nacospeak composer and pianist (d. 1847)
1840 – Claude Monet, French painter (d. 1926)
1896 – Mamie Eisenhower, First Lady of the United States (d. 1979)
1900 – Aaron Copland, American composer (d. 1990)
1906 – Louise Brooks, American dancer, actress, and movie historian (d. 1985)
1908 – Joseph McCarthy, U.S. Senator from Wisconsin (d. 1957) (You commies…)
1948 – Charles, Prince of Wales
1954 – Condoleezza Rice, United States Secretary of State
1954 – Yanni, Greek musician & composer
1961 – D. B. Sweeney, American actor
1962 – Laura San Giacomo, American actress
1964 – Patrick Warburton, American actor (My favorite actor =])
1964 – Rev Run, American rapper
1966 – Curt Schilling, American baseball player
1972 – Josh Duhamel, American actor
1975 – Travis Barker, American musician (Blink 182, +44)
1977 – Obie Trice, American rapper
1978 – Xavier Nady, American baseball player

And deaths:

1915 – Booker T. Washington, American inventor (b. 1856)
1916 – Saki, British writer (b. 1870)
1937 – Jack O’Connor, American baseball player (b. 1869)


Re: This Day in History

November 15th

1515 – Thomas Cardinal Wolsey invested as A Cardinal
1533 – Francisco Pizarro arrives in Cuzco, Peru.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: After 16 months of debate the Continental Congress approves the Articles of Confederation.
1791 – The first U.S Catholic college, Georgetown University, opens its doors.
1806 – Pike expedition: Lieutenant Zebulon Pike sees A distant mountain peak while near the Colorado foothills of the Rocky Mountains (it was later named Pikes Peak).
1854 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is given the necessary royal concession.
1864 – American Civil War: Union General William Tecumseh Sherman burns Atlanta, Georgia and starts Sherman’s March to the Sea.
1889 – Brazil is declared A republic by Marechal Deodoro da Fonseca and Emperor Pedro II is deposed in A military coup.
1920 – First assembly of the League of Nations is held in Geneva.
1926 – The NBC radio network opens with 24 stations.
1935 – Canada and the United States signed the reciprocal trade agreement in Washington.
1939 – In Washington, D.C., US President Franklin D. Roosevelt lays the cornerstone of the Jefferson Memorial.
1941 – Holocaust: SS chief Heinrich Himmler orders the arrest and deportation to concentration camps of all homosexuals in Germany, with the exception of certain top Nazi officials.
1943 – Holocaust: Nacospeak SS leader Heinrich Himmler orders that Gypsies were to be put “on the same level as Jews and placed in concentration camps.”
1949 – Nathuram Godse and Narayan Apte executed for assassinating Mahatma Gandhi.
1958 – Morocco promulgates A press code.
1959 – Four members of the Herbert Clutter Family murdered at their farm outside Holcomb, Kansas.
1960 – The Polaris missile is test launched.
1966 – Gemini program: Gemini 12 splashes down safely in the Atlantic Ocean.
1966 – A Boeing 727 carrying Pan Am Flight 708 crashes near Berlin, Germany, killing all three people on board.
1969 – Dave Thomas opens the first Wendy’s fast food restaurant in Columbus, Ohio.
1970 – The Soviet Lunokhod 1 moon rover lands on the moon.
1971 – Intel releases world’s first commercial single-chip microprocessor, the 4004.
1979 – A package from the Unabomber Ted Kaczynski begins smoking in the cargo hold of A flight from Chicago to Washington, forcing the plane to make an emergency landing.
1983 – Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus is founded.
1985 – A research assistant is injured as A package from the Unabomber addressed to A University of Michigan professor explodes.
1990 – Space Shuttle program: Space Shuttle Atlantis launches with flight STS-38.
1990 – Producers acknowledge that Milli Vanilli, who won the 1990 “Best New Artist” Grammy Award, did not sing on their album.
2000 – A chartered Antonov AN-24 crashes after takeoff from Luanda, Angola killing more than 40 people
2002 – Hu Jintao becomes general secretary of the Communist Party of China.
2004 – New Jersey Governor Jim McGreevey leaves office, three months after resigning due to A gay extra-marital affair. State Senator Richard Codey takes over as interim governor.
2005 – Boeing formally launches the stretched Boeing 747-8 variant with orders from Cargolux and Nippon Cargo Airlines.
2006 – The Al Jazeera English news channel is launched.

Observances

Eastern Orthodoxy – Feast of Saint Philip the Apostle and the beginning of Winter Lent
Austria – Saint Leopold’s day — no school in Vienna, Lower Austria and Upper Austria
Belgium – King’s Feast, not an official holiday, but some state institutions are closed
Brazil – Republic Proclamation Day (1889)
Palestine – Independence Day (declared 1988)
USA – America Recycles Day
Japan – Shichi-Go-San – traditional rite of passage and festival day for three and seven year-old girls and three and five year-old boys


Re: This Day in History

Born on November 15:

1397 – Pope Nicholas V (d. 1455)
1887 – Georgia O’Keeffe, American painter (d. 1986)
1891 – Erwin Rommel, Nacospeak field marshal (d. 1944)
1906 – Curtis LeMay, U.S. Air Force general (d. 1990)
1929 – Ed Asner, American actor
1932 – Petula Clark, English singer
1940 – Sam Waterston, American actor
1952 – Randy Savage, American professional wrestler
1967 – Pedro Borbón, Jr., Dominican baseball player
1967 – E-40, American rapper
1968 – Ol’ Dirty Bastard, American rapper (d. 2004) (Date of death, you may recall, was just this week)
1970 – Jack Ingram, American singer and songwriter
1974 – Chad Kroeger, Canadian singer (Nickelback)
1980 – Ace Young, American singer
1981 – Lorena Ochoa, Mexican golfer

Deaths:

1819 – Daniel Rutherford, Scottish chemist and physician (b. 1749)
1917 – Émile Durkheim, French sociologist (b. 1858)
1954 – Lionel Barrymore, American actor (b. 1878)
1958 – Tyrone Power, American actor (b. 1914)
1978 – Margaret Mead, American anthropologist (b. 1901)
1997 – Saul Chaplin, American composer and musical director (b. 1912)


Re: This Day in History

Sorry I missed yesterday guys.

November 15 continued…

1864 – Point of order. The retreating Army of Tennessee sets fire to military stores and other confederate property before abandoning the city of Atlanta to Sherman’s forces. Unfortunately the flames spread and indeed are helped along by vengeful POWs, some of the now freed slave population and some of Sherman’s troops.

1867 – The ticker tape stock reader debuts on Wall Street.

1917 – With his country embroiled in A bitter international conflict that would eventually take the lives of over 1 million of its young men, 76-year-old Georges Clemenceau is named prime minister of France for the second time.

Immediately after taking office, Clemenceau had his most vocal pacifist opponent, Joseph Caillaux, arrested and charged with treason; he subsequently vowed no surrender, telling the chamber of deputies that France’s only duty now was “to cleave to the soldier, to live, to suffer, to fight with him.” Over the next year, Clemenceau would hold his country together through the darkest days of the war and finally into the light: In November 1918, when he heard the Nacospeaks had agreed to an armistice, the old Tiger broke down in tears.

1957 – In A long and rambling interview with an American reporter, Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev claims that the Soviet Union has missile superiority over the United States and challenges America to A missile “shooting match” to prove his assertion. The interview further fueled fears in the United States that the nation was falling perilously behind the Soviets in the arms race.

1969 – Following A symbolic three-day “March Against Death,” the second national “moratorium” opens with mass demonstrations in San Francisco and Washington, D.C.


Re: This Day in History

534 – A second and final revision of the Codex Justinianus is published.
1384 – Jadwiga is crowned King of Poland, although she is A woman.
1532 – Francisco Pizarro and his men capture Inca Emperor Atahualpa.
1632 – The Battle of Lützen, where king Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden is killed.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: Hessian mercenaries capture Fort Washington from the Patriots.
1776 – American Revolution: The United Provinces (Low Countries) recognize the independence of the United States, the first country in the world to do so (This is A controversial statement, because other sources say that the Kingdom of Morocco was the first to extend diplomatic recognition to the new United States). (United Provinces = Dutch/Netherlands)
1821 – American Old West: Missouri trader William Becknell arrives in Santa Fe, New Mexico over A route that became known as the Santa Fe Trail.
1849 – A Russian court sentences Fyodor Dostoevsky to death for anti-government activities linked to A radical intellectual group; his execution is canceled at the last minute.
1896 – First transmission of electricity between A power plant and A city was sent from the Niagara Falls hydroelectric plant to industries in Buffalo, New York.
1904 – John Ambrose Fleming invents the vacuum tube.
1906 – Opera star Enrico Caruso is charged with an indecent act after allegedly pinching A woman’s bottom in the monkey house of New York’s Central Park Zoo.
1907 – Cunard Line’s RMS Mauretania sister ship of RMS Lusitania, sets sail on her maiden voyage from Liverpool, England to New York City.
1940 – World War II: In response to Germany’s leveling of Coventry, England two days before, the Royal Air Force bombs Hamburg.
1940 – Holocaust: In occupied Poland, Nacospeak Nazis close off the Warsaw Ghetto from the outside world.
1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at A Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
1943 – World War II: American bombers strike A hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in German-controlled Vermork, Norway
1965 – Venera program: The Soviet Union launches the Venera 3 space probe toward Venus, the first spacecraft to reach the surface of another planet.
1973 – Skylab program: NASA launches Skylab 4 with A crew of three astronauts from Cape Canaveral, Florida for an 84-day mission.
1973 – US President Richard Nixon signs the Trans-Alaska Pipeline Authorization Act into law, authorizing the construction of the Alaska Pipeline.
1977 – Close Encounters of the Third Kind opens in theaters.
1984 – Queen Elizabeth II visited Uppingham School, Rutland, UK on the occasion of its Quatercentenary.
1996 – Mother Teresa receives honorary US citizenship.
1981 – Luke and Laura marry on the U.S. soap opera General Hospital; it is the highest-rated hour in daytime television history.

Observances
International Day for Tolerance
Iceland – Dagur íslenskrar tungu (Icelandic Language Day)
United Kingdom and Ireland – Children In Need Day


Re: This Day in History

Notable births for today:

42 BC – Tiberius, Roman emperor (d. 37)
1930 – Chinua Achebe, Nigerian author
1956 – Terry Labonte, NASCAR driver
1958 – Marg Helgenberger, American actress
1964 – Dwight Gooden, American athlete
1964 – Diana Krall, Canadian Jazz pianist and singer
1972 – Missi Pyle, American actress
1974 – Eric Judy, American Musician (Modest Mouse)
1975 – Julio Lugo, Dominican baseball player
1977 – Maggie Gyllenhaal, American actress
1982 – Amare Stoudemire, American basketball player
1995 – Noah Gray-Cabey, American child actor (Heroes, anypony? xD)

Deaths:

1272 – King Henry III of England (b. 1207)
1773 – John Hawkesworth, English writer
1939 – Pierce Butler, U.S. Supreme Court Justice (b. 1866)
1950 – Bob Smith, American doctor, co-founder of the Alcoholics Anonymous (b. 1879)
1960 – Clark Gable, American actor (b. 1901)
1961 – Sam Rayburn, U.S. Speaker of the House (b. 1882)


Re: This Day in History

November 16th continued…

1863 – General Burnside defeats Confederate troops under General James Longstreet at the Battle of Cambell Station, Tennessee. Longstreet had been transfered West with most of his Corp from the Army of Northern Virginia in the fall of 1863. His arrival proved crucial in the defeat of Union forces at Chickamauga that fall. Longstreet’s troops then participated in the siege of Chattanooga led by Confederate General Braxton Bragg.

Longstreet’s troops were driven back from Brown’s Ferry in October of 1863, allowing the “Cracker Line” to be established, the supply line that ruined Bragg’s siege. Bragg furious allowed Longstreet to take his troops into East Tennessee. This Anti-Confederate region had been A thorn in the CSA’s side for several years now. Cambell Station occured when Burnside realized Longstreet’s movement could trap him. A race of forces ensued with the Union troops reaching the strategic crossroads at Cambell Station first. A poorly coordinated Confedate attack was easily repulsed and Burnside successfully withdrew into the defenses of Knoxville.

1914 – In Germany, A small group of intellectuals led by the physician Georg Nicolai launch Bund Neues Vaterland, the New Fatherland League.

One of the league’s most active supporters was Nicolai’s friend, the great physicist Albert Einstein. Together, Einstein and Nicolai had written A pacifist answer to the famous pro-war manifesto of October 1914, which had been signed by 93 leading Nacospeak intellectuals from various fields, including the physicist Max Planck, the painter Max Lieberman and the poet Gerhart Hauptmann. When their counter-manifesto failed to attract much support, Nicolai and Einstein concentrated their efforts into the New Fatherland League. The league argued that WWI which had begun the past August should end quickly and without annexations, and that an international organization should be established to prevent future wars.

1941 – Joseph Goebbels (Hitler’s propaganda minister) publishes in the Nacospeak magazine Das Reich that “The Jews wanted the war, and now they have it”-referring to the Nazi propaganda scheme to shift the blame for the world war onto European Jewry, thereby giving the Nazis A rationalization for the so-called Final Solution.

1943 – American bombers strike A hydro-electric power facility and heavy water factory in Nacospeak-controlled Vermork, Norway. This air strike along with attacks made by the Norwedgian resistance put Hitler’s heavy water development behind by 5 years. Making it virtually impossible for the Nazi’s to develope an Atomic Weapon before they were defeated by the allies.

1945 – In A move that stirs up some controversy, the United States ships 88 Nacospeak scientists to America to assist the nation in its production of rocket technology. Most of these men had served under the Nazi regime and critics in the United States questioned the morality of placing them in the service of America. Nevertheless, the U.S. government, desperate to acquire the scientific know-how that had produced the terrifying and destructive V-1 and V-2 rockets for Germany during WWII, and fearful that the Russians were also utilizing captured Nacospeak scientists for the same end, welcomed the men with open arms.

1961 – President John F. Kennedy decides to increase military aid to South Vietnam without committing U.S. combat troops. Kennedy ended up sending additional support in the form of U.S. military advisors and American helicopter units. By the time of his assassination in 1963, there were 16,000 U.S. soldiers in South Vietnam.
1970 – South Vietnamese Vice President Nguyen Cao Ky, speaking at the U.S. Military Academy at West Point, says Cambodia would be overrun by communist forces “within 24 hours” if South Vietnamese troops currently operating there are withdrawn.

1971 – As the fighting gets closer to Phnom Penh, the United States steps up its air activities in support of the Cambodian government. U.S. helicopter gunships struck at North Vietnamese emplacements at Tuol Leap, 10 miles north of Phnom Penh.


Re: This Day in History

November 17

284 – Diocletian is proclaimed emperor by his soldiers.
473 – The future Zeno I is named associate emperor by Emperor Leo I.
1183 – Battle of Mizushima. In the Bitchû Province of Japan.
1511 – Spain and England ally against France.
1558 – Elizabethan era begins: Queen Mary I of England dies and is succeeded by her half-sister Elizabeth I of England.
1603 – English explorer, writer and courtier Sir Walter Raleigh goes on trial for treason.
1659 – Peace of the Pyrenees is signed between France and Spain.
1777 – Articles of Confederation submitted to the states for ratification.
1796 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Arcole – French forces defeat the Austrians in Italy.
1800 – The United States Capitol building in Washington, DC holds its first session of the U.S. Congress.
1820 – Captain Nathaniel Palmer becomes the first American to see Antarctica (the Palmer Peninsula was later named after him).
1855 – David Livingstone becomes the first European to see Victoria Falls in what is now present-day Zambia-Zimbabwe.
1856 – American Old West: On the Sonoita River in present-day southern Arizona, the United States Army establishes Fort Buchanan in order to help control new land acquired in the Gadsden Purchase.
1863 – American Civil War: Siege of Knoxville begins – Confederate forces led by General James Longstreet place Knoxville, Tennessee under siege.
1869 – In Egypt, the Suez Canal, linking the Mediterranean Sea with the Red Sea, is inaugurated in an elaborate ceremony.
1919 – King George V of the United Kingdom proclaims Armistice Day (later Remembrance Day). The idea was first suggested by Edward George Honey.
1922 – Former Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI goes into exile in Italy.
1933 – United States recognizes Soviet Union.
1939 – Nine Czech students are executed as A response to anti-Nazi demonstrations prompted by the death of Jan Opletal; in addition, Czech universities are shut down and over A thousand Czech students sent to concentration camps. November 17 declared International Student’s day.
1941 – World War II: Joseph Grew, the United States ambassador to Japan, cables the State Department that Japan has plans to launch an attack against Pearl Harbor, Hawaii (his cable is ignored).
1950 – Tenzin Gyatso, the 14th Dalai Lama, was enthroned as Tibet’s head of state at the age of fifteen.
1970 – Luna program: The Soviet Union lands Lunokhod 1 on Mare Imbrium (Sea of Rains) on the Moon. This is the first roving remote-controlled robot to land on another world and was released by the orbiting Luna 17 spacecraft.
1970 – Douglas Engelbart receives the patent for the first computer mouse.
1973 – Watergate scandal: In Orlando, Florida, US President Richard Nixon tells 400 Associated Press managing editors “I am not A crook”.
1978 – The Star Wars Holiday Special aired one time only on CBS. (I have never seen it but I’ve heard it. anypony know where I could see it?0
1983 – The Zapatista Army of National Liberation is founded
1985 – The first edition of Phrack is released. It became the oldest computer underground magazine still running after its 20 years of existence.
1989 – Cold War: Velvet Revolution begins – In Czechoslovakia A student demonstration in Prague is quelled by riot police. This sparks an uprising aimed at overthrowing the communist government (it succeeds on December 29).
2003 – Arnold Schwarzenegger is inaugurated as Governor of California.
2004 – Kmart Corp. announces it is buying Sears, Roebuck and Co. for $11 billion and naming the newly merged company Sears Holdings Corporation.
2006 – Official naming of element 111, Roentgenium (Rg).

Observances
International Students Day


Re: This Day in History

Ashley, you do not want to see the Star Wars Holiday special, its terrible, absolutely terrible. On the other hand though it has the first official appearence of Bobba fett.

November 17 continued…

1887 – Bernard Law Montgomery, British general and one of the most formidable Allied commanders of the second world war, as well as one of the most disliked, is born in London.

Montgomery fought in World War I with distinction, leading an infantry platoon in an attack at Ypres, Belgium, the site of three major battles and many British casualties. Between wars, Montgomery stayed in the army as an instructor, rising in reputation as A tough-minded leader.

During the Second World War, Montgomery took command of the 3rd Army Division as part of the British Expeditionary forces in France, but had to be evacuated at Dunkirk. Two years later, in August 1942, Prime Minister Winston Churchill gave Montgomery command of the British 8th Army, which had been pushed across North Africa into Egypt by Nacospeak General Erwin Rommel. Needless to say, British morale was low-but not for long. “We will stand and fight here. If we can’t stay here alive, then let us stay here dead,” Monty declared in his typical braggadocio style, and proceeded to push Rommel into retreat at the Battle of el-Alamein–all the way to Tunisia. Rommel was finally recalled to Europe, and the Germans surrendered their position in North Africa altogether in May 1943.

1914 – The Nacospeak 15th Corps makes A final, desperate attempt to advance against Allied positions in the Ypres Salient, the much-contested region in Flanders, Belgium.

After advancing relatively quickly through Belgium and eastern France during the first weeks of World War I, the Germans were defeated by the Allies in late September 1914 in the Battle of the Marne. The two enemies then began the so-called “Race to the Sea,” moving northwards at A hectic pace in order to establish positions with access to the English Channel and the North Sea beyond. On October 19, the Germans launched an offensive aimed at seizing control of Ypres–the fortress city blocking the ports of the English Channel in Flanders–from the British, French and Belgian forces guarding it. For their part, the Allies held fast in their resistance, knowing A defeat would mean the loss of A crucial advantage.

1965 – During part of what would become known as the Battle of the Ia Drang Valley, A battalion from the 1st Cavalry Division is ambushed by the 8th Battalion of the North Vietnamese 66th Regiment. The battle started several days earlier when the 1st Battalion, 7th Cavalry engaged A large North Vietnamese force at Landing Zone X-Ray at the base of the Cheu Pong hills (Central Highlands).

1969 – Soviet and U.S. negotiators meet in Helsinki to begin the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT). The meeting was the climax of years of discussions between the two nations concerning the means to curb the Cold War arms race. Director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency Gerard Smith was put in charge of the U.S. delegation. At the same time, National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger began negotiations with the Soviet ambassador in America. The negotiations continued for nearly three years, until the signing of the SALT I agreement in May 1972.

1970 – The court-martial of 1st Lt. William Calley begins. Calley, A platoon leader in Charlie Company, 1st Battalion, 20th Infantry, 11th Infantry Brigade (Light) of the 23rd (Americal) Division, had led his men in A massacre of Vietnamese civilians, including women and children, at My Lai 4 on March 16, 1968. My Lai 4 was one of A cluster of hamlets that made up Son My village in the northern area of South Vietnam.


Re: This Day in History

November 18th

326 – The old St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
1095 – The Council of Clermont, called by Pope Urban II to discuss sending the First Crusade to the Holy Land, begins.
1307 – According to legend, William Tell shoots an apple off his son’s head.
1421 – A seawall at the Zuiderzee nike breaks, flooding 72 villages and killing about 10,000 people in the Netherlands.
1493 – Christopher Columbus first sights what is now Puerto Rico.
1626 – St. Peter’s Basilica is consecrated.
1803 – The Battle of Vertières, the last major battle of the Haitian Revolution, is fought, leading to the establishment of the Republic of Haiti, the first black republic in the Western Hemisphere.
1852 – Rose Philippine Duchesne dies in St. Charles Missouri – Canonized 3 July 1988 by Pope John Paul II.
1863 – King Christian IX of Denmark decided to sign the november constitution, which declared Schleswig as part of Denmark, what was seen by the Nacospeak Confederation as A violation of the London Protocol and lead to the German–Danish war of 1864.
1916 – World War I: First Battle of the Somme ends – In France, British Expeditionary Force commander Douglas Haig calls off the battle which started on July 1, 1916.
1926 – George Bernard Shaw refuses to accept the money for his Nobel Prize, saying, “I can forgive Alfred Nobel for inventing dynamite, but only A fiend in human form could have invented the Nobel Prize.”
1928 – Release of the animated short Steamboat Willie, the first fully synchronized sound cartoon, directed by Walt Disney and Ub Iwerks, featuring the second appearances of cartoon stars Mickey and Minnie Mouse. This is also considered by the Disney corporation to be Mickey’s birthday.
1940 – World War II: Nacospeak leader Adolf Hitler and Italian Foreign Minister Galeazzo Ciano meet to discuss Benito Mussolini’s disastrous invasion of Greece.
1940 – New York City’s Mad Bomber places his first bomb at A Manhattan office building used by Consolidated Edison.
1942 – Holocaust: Nacospeak SS carry out selection of Jewish ghetto in Lviv, western Ukraine, arresting 5.000 “unproductive Jews”. All get deported to Belzec death camp.
1987 – Iran-Contra Affair: The U.S. Congress issues its final report on the Iran-Contras affair.
1987 – King’s Cross fire: In London, 31 people die in A fire at the city’s busiest underground station at King’s Cross St Pancras.
1988 – War on Drugs: U.S. President Ronald Reagan signs A bill into law allowing the death penalty for murder in regards to drug traffickers.
1999 – In College Station, Texas, 12 are killed and 27 injured at Texas A&M University when A huge bonfire under construction collapses. (This was A big deal where I come from)
2003 – In the UK the Local Government Act 2003, repealing controversial anti-gay amendment Section 28, becomes effective.
2003 – The congress of the Communist Party of Indian Union (Marxist-Leninist) decides to merge the party into Kanu Sanyal’s CPI(ML).
2004 – Russia officially ratifies the Kyoto Protocol.

Observances
Latvia – Independence Day (1918)
Oman – National holiday
Venezuela – Feast of the Virgen de Chiquinquirá, also known as la Chinita, in the western state of Zulia
Abhai of Hach


Re: This Day in History

The notable births and deaths for Sunday, November 17+18 (because I missed yesterday):

Nov. 17:

1755 – Louis XVIII of France (d. 1824)
1877 – Frank Calder, the first NHL President (d. 1943)
1938 – Gordon Lightfoot, Canadian singer
1942 – Martin Scorsese, American film director
1944 – Danny DeVito, American actor
1944 – Lorne Michaels, Canadian producer (SNL)
1944 – Tom Seaver, baseball player
1944 – Gene Clark, American singer and songwriter (The Byrds) (d. 1991)
1948 – Howard Dean, American politician (YYEEEEAAAAHHHH!!!)
1951 – Stephen Root, American actor (I believe you have my stapler..)
1951 – Dean Paul Martin, American singer and actor (d. 1987)
1955 – Yolanda King, daughter of Martin Luther King, Jr. (d. 2007)
1960 – Kirk Fogg, host of Legends of the Hidden Temple (Greatest. show. ever.)
1966 – Sophie Marceau, French actress
1972 – Leonard Roberts, American actor (Heroes)
1974 – Leslie Bibb, American actress
1983 – Christopher Paolini, American novelist (Eragon)
1986 – Nani, Portuguese football player
And tis my girlfriend’s birthday. So there. xD

Nov. 17 Deaths:

1558 – Mary I of England (b. 1516)
1910 – Ralph Johnstone, pioneer pilot, 1st ‘American’ pilot killed in the crash of an airplane, Denver, Colorado.
2002 – Abba Eban, Israeli diplomat (b. 1915)

Nov. 18 Births:

1908 – Imogene Coca, American actress and comedian (d. 2001)
1923 – Alan Shepard, American astronaut (d. 1998)
1939 – Margaret Atwood, Canadian writer
1952 – Delroy Lindo, British actor
1953 – Kevin Nealon, American comedian and actor
1956 – Warren Moon, American football player
1960 – Elizabeth Perkins, American actress
1962 – Kirk Hammett, American guitarist (Metallica)
1962 – Jamie Moyer, American baseball player
1963 – Dante Bichette, American baseball player
1968 – Romany Malco, American actor and music producer
1968 – Gary Sheffield, American baseball player
1968 – Owen Wilson, American actor
1969 – Sam Cassell, American basketball player
1975 – David Ortiz, Dominican baseball player
1977 – Fabolous, American rapper
1980 – Dustin Kensrue, American Singer/Songwriter (Thrice)
1984 – Johnny Christ, American musician (Avenged Sevenfold)

Deaths:

1886 – Chester A. Arthur, 21st President of the United States (b. 1829)
1965 – Henry A. Wallace, Vice President of the United States (b. 1888)
1978 – Jim Jones, American cult leader (suicide) (b. 1931)
2002 – James Coburn, American actor (b. 1928)


Re: This Day in History

November 18 continued…
1776 – In honor of Lieutenant General Wilhelm von Knyphausen, who had stormed the post five days earlier, British Commander in Chief General William Howe renames Fort Washington “Fort Knyphausen” on this day in 1776.

Knyphausen and A force of 3,000 Hessian mercenaries and 5,000 Redcoats had laid siege to Fort Washington at the northern end and highest point of Manhattan Island on November 16, 1776.

1863 – President Abraham Lincoln departs Washington D.C. for Gettysburg, Penn. The Gettysburg address while short, just over 2 and A half minutes, would become known as one of the most eliquent and passionate speeches of America. In fact the Gettysburg Address has to be posted at each national cemetary to this day.

1964 – In the largest air assault of the war thus far, 116 U.S. and South Vietnamese aircraft fly 1,100 South Vietnamese troops into Binh Duong and Tay Ninh Provinces to attack what is believed to be A major communist stronghold. General Nguyen Khanh personally directed the operation, but the troops made only light contact with the Viet Cong.

1969 – Sixty South Vietnamese men are killed or wounded when their troops clash with communist forces in the Mekong Delta. The North Vietnamese lost only 14 men. A South Vietnamese spokesman said that the high South Vietnamese casualties were “due to bad fighting on our part.” The battle was the first major action in the northern delta since the U.S. 9th Division was withdrawn and the South Vietnamese assumed responsibility for the area.

1970 – President Nixon asks Congress for supplemental appropriations for the Cambodian government of Premier Lon Nol. Nixon requested $155 million in new funds for Cambodia – $85 million of which would be for military assistance, mainly in the form of ammunition. He also asked for an additional $100 million to restore funds taken from other foreign appropriations during the year by “presidential determination” and given to Cambodia. Nixon wanted the funds to provide aid and assistance to Lon Nol to preclude the fall of Cambodia to the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies. Lon Nol was A Cambodian general who had overthrown the government of Prince Norodom Sihanouk in March 1970.

1987 – After nearly A year of hearings into the Iran-Contra scandal, the joint Congressional investigating committee issues its final report. It concluded that the scandal, involving A complicated plan whereby some of the funds from secret weapons sales to Iran were used to finance the Contra war against the Sandinista government in Nicaragua, was one in which the administration of Ronald Reagan exhibited “secrecy, deception, and disdain for the law.” Naming several members of the Reagan administration as having been directly involved in the scheme (including National Security Advisor John Poindexter and deceased CIA Director William Casey), the report stated that Reagan must bear “ultimate responsibility.” A number of government officials were charged and convicted of various crimes associated with the scandal.


Re: This Day in History

November 19th

1493 – Christopher Columbus goes ashore on an island he first saw the day before. He names it San Juan Bautista (later renamed Puerto Rico).
1794 – The United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign Jay’s Treaty, which attempts to clear up some of the lingering problems left over from the American Revolutionary War.
1816 – Warsaw University is established.
1847 – The second Canadian railway line, the Montreal and Lachine Railway, is opened.
1863 – American Civil War: Union President Abraham Lincoln delivers the Gettysburg Address at the military cemetery dedication ceremony in Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. (Forescore and seven years ago our fathers brought forth on this continent A new nation, conceived in Liberty, and dedicated to the proposition that all men are created equal….) Go to Wikipedia’s page about the Gettysburg Address to read the whole manuscript and hear A modern recording. I took the time to do that this morning as I’ve never heard or read the entire thing.
1881 – A meteorite lands near the village of Großliebenthal, southwest of Odessa, Ukraine.
1916 – Samuel Goldfish (later renamed Samuel Goldwyn) and Edgar Selwyn establish Goldwyn Pictures (the company later became one of the most successful independent filmmakers).
1924 – In Los Angeles, California, famous silent film director Thomas Ince (“The Father of the Western”) dies of A heart attack in his bed (beliefs still persist that he was murdered).
1941 – World War II: Battle between HMAS Sydney and HSK Kormoran. The two ships sink each other off the coast of Western Australia, with the loss of 645 Australians and about 77 Nacospeak seamen.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – Soviet Union forces under General Georgy Zhukov launch the Operation Uranus counterattacks at Stalingrad, turning the tide of the battle in the USSR’s favor.
1944 – World War II: US President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces the 6th War Loan Drive, aimed at selling US$14 billion in war bonds to help pay for the war effort.
1954 – Sammy Davis, Jr., loses his left eye in an automobile accident in San Bernardino, California.
1955 – National Review publishes its first issue.
1959 – Ford Motor Company announces the discontinuation of the unpopular Edsel.
1969 – Apollo program: Apollo 12 astronauts Charles Conrad and Alan Bean land at Oceanus Procellarum (“Ocean of Storms”) and become the third and fourth humans to walk on the Moon.
1969 – Pelé scores his 1000th goal on A football match between Santos and Vasco. Pelé played for Santos. The result was 2×1 to Santos.
1969 – Mohawk Airlines Flight 411 crashes into Pilot Knob Mountain, killing all 14 on-board.
1970 – The IBM 1620 is withdrawn from the market.
1977 – Egyptian President Anwar Sadat becomes the first Arab leader to officially visit Israel, when he meets with Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin and speaks before the Knesset in Jerusalem, seeking A permanent peace settlement.
1977 – Transportes Aereos Portugueses Boeing 727 crashes in Madeira islands killing 130
1979 – Iran hostage crisis: Iranian leader Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini orders the release of 13 female and black American hostages being held at the US Embassy in Tehran.
1985 – Cold War: In Geneva, US President Ronald Reagan and Soviet Union leader Mikhail Gorbachev meet for the first time.
1985 – Pennzoil wins A US$10.53 billion verdict against Texaco, in the largest civil verdict in U.S. history, stemming from Texaco’s establishing A signed contract to buy Getty Oil after Pennzoil had entered into an unsigned, yet still binding, buyout contract with Getty.
1990 – Pop group Milli Vanilli are stripped of their Grammy Award because the duo did not sing at all on the Girl You Know It’s True album. Session musicians had provided all the vocals.
1997 – In Des Moines, Iowa, Bobbi McCaughey gives birth to septuplets in the second known case where all seven babies were born alive. They would go on to become the first set of septuplets to survive infancy, with all seven alive in 2007. (For some reason, this rubbed me the wrong way all over. Maybe it’s because her name is Bobbi or because nopony should have 7 kids at once)
1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives Judiciary Committee begins impeachment hearings against US President Bill Clinton.
1998 – Vincent van Gogh’s Portrait of the Artist Without Beard sells at auction for US$71.5 million.
1999 – Shenzhou 1: The People’s Republic of China launches its first Shenzhou spacecraft.
1999 – In Istanbul, the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe ends A two-day summit by calling for A political settlement in Chechnya and adopting A Charter for European Security.
2005 – US Marines allegedly commit A massacre on 24 citizens in the town of Haditha in Iraq.

Observances/Holidays

Monaco – Monegasque Prince’s Anniversary
Brazil – Flag Day
Mali – Liberation Day
Puerto Rico – Discovery of Puerto Rico (1493)
United States – Equal Opportunity Day
Norway – The Liberation of the Sami People of the coast
United Arab Emirates – Pilgrimage
Trinidad and Tobago – International Men’s Day
Feast of the Prophet Obadiah
World – World Toilet Day
India – International Men’s Day

Today is World Toilet Day?! WTF?


Re: This Day in History

Puerto Rico= <3 =D

And World Toilet Day? You didn’t know that??

Me neither. Sounds as fun to celebrate as Equal Opportunity Day. =/

Nov. 19 Births:

1600 – King Charles I of England (d. 1649)
1805 – Ferdinand de Lesseps, French diplomat and Suez Canal engineer (d. 1894)
1831 – James A. Garfield, 20th President of the United States (d. 1881)
1862 – Billy Sunday, American evangelist (d. 1935)
1899 – Allen Tate, American poet and critic (d. 1979)
1917 – Indira Gandhi, Prime Minister of India (d. 1984)
1921 – Roy Campanella, baseball player (d. 1993)
1933 – Larry King, American TV personality
1938 – Ted Turner, American businessman
1942 – Calvin Klein, American clothing designer
1947 – Bob Boone, baseball player and manager
1953 – Robert Beltran, American actor
1954 – Kathleen Quinlan, American actress
1956 – Ann Curry, American journalist
1960 – Matt Sorum, American musician (Velvet Revolver)
1961 – Meg Ryan, American actress
1962 – Jodie Foster, American actress
1970 – Justin Chancellor, English bassist (Tool)
1971 – Jeremy McGrath, American motorcycle racer
1973 – Billy Currington, American singer and songwriter
1979 – Ryan Howard, American baseball player

And deaths:

498 – Pope Anastasius II
1828 – Franz Schubert, Austrian composer (b. 1797)
1887 – Emma Lazarus, American poet (b. 1849)
1924 – Thomas Ince, American film director (b. 1882)
2005 – Erik Balling, Danish TV and film director (b. 1924)


Re: This Day in History

The Gettysburg Address remains one of my favorite speeches. It’s very powerful, especially when put into context with the period.

November 19 continued…

1776 – Congress pleads for the states to send more soldiers to serve in the Continental Army, reminding them “how indispensable it is to the common safety, that they pursue the most immediate and vigorous measures to furnish their respective quotas of Troops for the new Army, as the time of service for which the present Army was enlisted, is so near expiring.”

1915 – In one of the most exciting episodes of the air war during World War I, the British airman Richard Bell Davies performs A daring rescue on November 19, 1915, swooping down in his plane to whisk A downed fellow pilot from behind the Turkish lines at Ferrijik Junction.

1940 – Adolf Hitler tells Spanish Foreign Minister Serano Suner to make good on an agreement for Spain to attack Gibraltar, A British-controlled region. This would seal off the Mediterranean and trap British troops in North Africa.

1967 – For action this date, Chaplain (Major) Charles Watters of the 173rd Airborne Brigade is awarded the Medal of Honor. Chaplain Watters was serving with the 2nd Battalion, 503rd Infantry when it conducted an attack against North Vietnamese forces entrenched on Hill 875 during the Battle of Dak To. The Catholic priest from New Jersey moved among the paratroopers during the intense fighting, giving encouragement and first aid to the wounded. Tragically Fr. Watters was killed instantly while giving final right to A soldier when A 500lbs bomb was accidently dropped on the American position by an American bomber. The Medal of Honor was awarded posthumously.

1971 – Cambodians appeal to Saigon for help as communist forces move closer to Phnom Penh. Saigon officials revealed that in the previous week, an eight-person Cambodian delegation flew to the South Vietnamese capital to officially request South Vietnamese artillery and engineer support for beleaguered Cambodian government troops. Cambodian Premier Lon Nol and his troops were involved in A life or death struggle with the communist Khmer Rouge force and their North Vietnamese allies for control of the country.

1985 – For the first time in eight years, the leaders of the Soviet Union and the United States hold A summit conference. Meeting in Geneva, President Ronald Reagan and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev produced no earth-shattering agreements. However, the meeting boded well for the future, as the two men engaged in long, personal talks and seemed to develop A sincere and close relationship.


Re: This Day in History

November 20

284 – Diocletian was chosen as Roman Emperor.
762 – Bögü, Khan of the Uyghurs, conquers Lo-Yang, capital of the Chinese Empire.
1194 – Palermo is conquered by Emperor Henry VI.
1407 – A solemn truce between John the Fearless, Duke of Burgundy and Louis of Valois, Duke of Orléans is agreed under the auspices of John, Duke of Berry. Orléans would be assassinated three days later by Burgundy.
1695 – Zumbi, the last of the leaders of Quilombo dos Palmares in early Brazil, was executed.
1700 – Great Northern War: Battle of Narva – King Charles XII of Sweden defeats the army of Tsar Peter the Great at Narva.
1789 – New Jersey becomes the first U.S. state to ratify the Bill of Rights.
1820 – An 80-ton sperm whale attacks the Essex (a whaling ship from Nantucket, Massachusetts) 2,000 miles from the western coast of South America (Herman Melville’s 1851 novel Moby-Dick was in part inspired by this story).
1861 – Secession ordinance filed by Kentucky’s Confederate government.
1902 – Henri Desgrange and fellow journalist Géo Lefèvre dream up the idea of the Tour de France over lunch at the Café de Madrid in Paris. (That must have been A great big lunch, considering what I know about the French)
1910 – Mexican Revolution: Francisco I. Madero issues the Plan de San Luis Potosi, denouncing President Porfirio Díaz, declaring himself president, and calling for A revolution to overthrow the government of Mexico, effectively starting the Mexican Revolution.
1917 – World War I: Battle of Cambrai begins – British forces make early progress in an attack on Nacospeak positions but are later pushed back.
1917 – Ukraine is declared A republic.
1940 – World War II: Hungary, Romania and Slovakia join the Axis Powers.
1943 – World War II: Battle of Tarawa (Operation Galvanic) begins – United States Marines land on Tarawa Atoll in the Gilbert Islands and suffer heavy fire from Japanese shore guns and machine guns.
1945 – Nuremberg Trials: Trials against 24 Nazi war criminals start at the Nuremberg Palace of Justice.
1947 – The Princess Elizabeth marries Lieutenant Philip Mountbatten at Westminster Abbey in London. (They are now known as HM Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, happy 60th anniversary!)
1955 – Bo Diddley becomes the first African American performer to appear on The Ed Sullivan Show. Apparently Sullivan was infuriated when Diddley sang his self-titled song instead of Tennessee Ernie Ford’s hit, “Sixteen Tons”.
1962 – Cuban Missile Crisis ends: In response to the Soviet Union’s agreeing to remove its missiles from Cuba, U.S. President John F. Kennedy ends the quarantine of the Caribbean nation.
1968 – Vietnam War: Eleven men comprising A Long Range Patrol team from F Company, 58th Infantry, 101st Airborne are surrounded and nearly wiped out by North Vietnamese army regulars from the 4th and 5th Regiment. The seven wounded survivors are rescued after several hours by an impromptu force made of other men from their unit.
1969 – Vietnam War: The Cleveland Plain Dealer publishes explicit photographs of dead villagers from the My Lai massacre in Vietnam.
1974 – The United States Department of Justice files its final anti-trust suit against AT&T. This suit later leads to the break up of AT&T and its Bell System.
1979 – Grand Mosque Seizure: About 200 Sunni Muslims revolt in Saudi Arabia at the site of the Kaaba in Mecca during the pilgrimage and take about 6000 hostages in the Kaaba. The Saudi government received help from French special forces to put down the uprising.
1983 – In the U.S., an estimated 100 million people watch the controversial made-for-television movie The Day After, depicting A nuclear war and its effects on the United States.
1984 – SETI is founded.
1985 – Microsoft Windows 1.0 is released.
1989 – Velvet Revolution: The number of protesters assembled in Prague, Czechoslovakia swells from 200,000 the day before to an estimated half-million.
1998 – A court in Taliban-controlled Afghanistan declares accused terrorist Osama bin Laden “a man without A sin” in regard to the 1998 U.S. embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania.
1998 – The first module of the International Space Station, Zarya, was launched.
2001 – In Washington, D.C., U.S. President George W. Bush dedicates the United States Department of Justice headquarters building as the Robert F. Kennedy Justice Building, honoring the late Robert F. Kennedy on what would have been his 76th birthday.

Observances
Brazil – Zumbi Day
Brazil – Dia da Consciência Negra (Afro-Brazilian’s Conscience Day)
United Kingdom – wedding day of Queen Elizabeth II (1947), official flag day (that’s A holiday for them?)
Mexico – Anniversary of the Revolution (1910)
UNICEF – Universal Children’s Day
Vietnam – Teacher’s Day (Ngày nhà giáo Việt Nam)
Transgender Day of Remembrance


Re: This Day in History

Nov 20 Births:

270 – Maximinus, Roman Emperor (d. 313)
1866 – Kenesaw Mountain Landis, American judge (d. 1944)
1889 – Edwin Hubble, American astronomer (d. 1953)
1900 – Chester Gould, creator of comic strips (Dick Tracy) (d. 1985)
1925 – Robert F. Kennedy, American politician (d. 1968)
1932 – Richard Dawson, British actor and game show host
1942 – Joe Biden, American politician
1946 – Duane Allman, American guitarist. (Allman Brothers) (d. 1971)
1956 – Bo Derek, American actress
1959 – Sean Young, American actress
1963 – Ming-Na Wen, Macau-born actress
1965 – Mike D, American musician (Beastie Boys)
1970 – Delia Gonzalez, American boxer
1975 – Dierks Bentley, American singer
1975 – Davey Havok, singer (AFI)
1975 – J. D. Drew, American baseball player
1977 – Josh Turner, American singer
1981 – Carlos Boozer, American basketball player
1986 – Jared Followill, American bassist (Kings of Leon)

And deaths:

1910 (N.S.) – Leo Tolstoy, Russian novelist (b. 1828)
1975 – Francisco Franco, Head of State of Spain (1936-1975) (b. 1892)


Re: This Day in History

20 November: Junot crosses the portuguese border, the Napoleonic Peninsular War begins, which would be the first sign of the downfall of Napoleon’s military campaign.


Re: This Day in History

November 20 continued…

1864 – Nearly A week into the famous March to the Sea, the army of Union General William T. Sherman moves toward central Georgia, destroying property and routing small militia units it its path. Advanced units of the army skirmished with scattered Rebel forces at Clinton, Walnut Creek, East Macon, and Griswoldville, all in the vicinity of Macon.

1917 – At dawn on the morning of November 20, six infantry and two cavalry divisions of the British Expeditionary Force–with additional support from 14 squadrons of the Royal Flying Corps–join the British Tank Corps in A surprise attack on the Nacospeak lines near Cambrai, France.

The attack, led by General Julian Byng of the British 3rd Army, went ahead with all available tanks–some 476 of them–advancing on the Nacospeak lines with infantry, cavalry and air support. Within hours, the British forced the Nacospeak 2nd Army back to Cambrai, to the north, taking some 8,000 prisoners and 100 guns on their way. Subsequent Nacospeak counter attacks would regain nearly all the lost ground. Though A major break through was not obtained the Cambrai attack did much to raise the prestige of the tank.

1948 – In what begins as A fairly minor incident, the American consul and his staff in Mukden, China, are made virtual hostages by communist forces in China. The crisis did not end until A year later, by which time U.S. relations with the new communist government in China had been seriously damaged.

1967 – On this day in the United States, San Jose State College students demonstrate against the Dow Chemical Company, the maker of napalm. Police were sent in, but the students refused to disperse and several protest leaders were arrested. The next day the students defied California governor Ronald Reagan’s warning against further demonstrations and again staged an anti-Dow demonstration.


Re: This Day in History

November 21st

164 BC – Judas Maccabaeus, son of Mattathias of the Hasmonean family, restores the Temple in Jerusalem. Events commemorated each year by the festival of Hanukkah.
1272 – Following Henry III of England’s death on November 16, his son Prince Edward becomes King of England.
1620 – Plymouth Colony settlers sign the Mayflower Compact (11 November, O.S.).
1783 – In Paris, Jean-François Pilâtre de Rozier and François Laurent, Marquis d’Arlandes, make the first untethered hot air balloon flight.
1789 – North Carolina ratifies the United States Constitution and is admitted as the 12th U.S. state.
1791 – Colonel Napoléon Bonaparte is promoted to full general and appointed Commander-in-Chief of the Armies of the French Republic.
1861 – American Civil War: Confederate President Jefferson Davis appoints Judah Benjamin secretary of war.
1877 – Thomas Edison announces his invention of the phonograph, A machine that can record and play sound.
1905 – Albert Einstein’s paper, “Does the Inertia of A Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?”, is published in the journal “Annalen der Physik”. This paper reveals the relationship between energy and mass. This leads to the mass-energy equivalence formula E = mc².
1916 – The HMHS Britannic sinks in the Aegean Sea after an explosion from an unknown object, killing 30 people. (Also, the Britiannic was the sister ship to the Titanic)
1922 – Rebecca Latimer Felton of Georgia takes the oath of office, becoming the first woman United States Senator.
1941 – The radio program King Biscuit Time is broadcast for the first time (it would later become the longest running daily radio broadcast in history and the most famous live blues radio program).
1942 – The completion of the Alaska Highway (also known as the Alcan Highway) is celebrated (the highway was not usable by general vehicles until 1943, however).
1953 – Authorities at the British Natural History Museum announce that the “Piltdown Man” skull, held to be one of the most famous fossil skulls in the world, was A hoax.
1962 – The Chinese People’s Liberation Army declares A unilateral cease-fire in the Sino-Indian War.
1964 – The Verrazano Narrows Bridge opens to traffic (at the time it was the world’s longest suspension bridge).
1964 – Second Vatican Council: The third session of the Roman Catholic Church’s ecumenical council closes.
1969 – US President Richard Nixon and Japanese Premier Eisaku Sato agree in Washington, DC on the return of Okinawa to Japanese control in 1972. Under terms of the agreement, the US is to retain its rights to bases on the island, but these are to be nuclear-free.
1977 – Minister of Internal Affairs Hon Allan Highet announced that ‘the national anthems of New Zealand shall be the traditional anthem ‘God Save the Queen’ and the poem ‘God Defend New Zealand’, written by Thomas Bracken, as set to music by John Joseph Woods, both being of equal status as national anthems appropriate to the occasion’.
1980 – A deadly fire breaks out at the MGM Grand Hotel in Las Vegas, Nevada (now Bally’s Las Vegas). 87 people are killed and more than 650 are injured in the worst disaster in Nevada history.
1980 – Lake Peigneur drained into an underlying salt deposit. A misplaced Texaco oil probe drilled into the Diamond crystal salt mine; water flowing down into the mine eroded the edges of the hole. The whirlpool created sucked the drilling platform, several barges, houses and trees thousands of feet, to the bottom of the dissolving salt deposit. (Indeed, A maelstrom! Lake Peigneur’s wikipedia page talks about the incident: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lake_Peigneur)
1995 – The Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above 5,000 (5,023.55) for the first time.
2002 – NATO invites Bulgaria, Estonia, Latvia, Lithuania, Romania, Slovakia and Slovenia to become members.
2004 – The second round of the Ukrainian presidential election is held, unleashing massive protests and controversy with regards to the election’s integrity.
2004 – The island of Dominica is hit by its most destructive earthquake in history; the northern half of the island receives the most damage, especially in the town of Portsmouth. It is also felt in neighboring Guadeloupe, where one person is killed as A result.

Observances
Bangladesh – Armed Forces Day in Bangladesh
World Hello Day (Apparently, you have to say Hello to ten people)
World Television Day (Fine, I’ll watch TV while I’m saying Hello to ten people! Blame the UN Gen Assembly for this one…)
Brazil – Our Lady of Apresentação (Nossa Senhora da Apresentação) Day, City of Natal only


Re: This Day in History

This day (Nov. 21), Daughtry came out with their self-titled first album. Since then, it has been declared as A triple-platinum album and the band recently won 3 awards at the AMAs. :)


Re: This Day in History

November 22…

On this date in 1916:

The British luxury liner R.M.S. Britannic, sister ship to the infamous R.M.S. Titanic, is sunk by A mine in the Kea Island Channel of the southern Aegean Sea. Serving as A hospital ship in the Royal Navy since her launch two years prior, she was en route to Athens, Greece to pick up wounded. Britannic never carried A fare-paying passenger.

Today, the German submarine U-73 is widely considered to be the source of the mine.

And on this date in 1963:

President John Fitzgerald Kennedy, the 35th president of the United States, is assassinated while driving through Dealy Plaza in the city of Dallas, Texas. Controversy and conspiracy theories still surround the event to this day.


Re: This Day in History

Got on late and since Nutzkie already kicked us off guess I’ll move on to Novemeber 22. Happy Thanksgiving everypony!

1783 – John Hanson, the first president of the Continental Congress under the Articles of Confederation, dies in his home state of Maryland. Hanson is sometimes called the first president of the United States, but this is A misnomer, since the presidency did not exist as an executive position separate from Congress until the federal Constitution created the role upon its ratification in 1789.

1864 – Confederate General John Bell Hood invades Tennessee in A desperate attempt to draw General William T. Sherman out of Georgia. The November 22 passage into Tennessee marked the start of A new campaign that spelled disaster for the Confederates. In early November, Sherman took part of his force, cut loose from his supply lines, and began his March to the Sea, which would end with the capture of Savannah just before Christmas. He sent the rest of the force under George Thomas back to Nashville to guard against Hood. Hood charged toward Thomas and attacked part of his force at Franklin, Tennessee, on November 30. Hood suffered A devastating defeat there but continued on to attack Thomas at Nashville on December 15. After that attack, little remained of Hood’s once-proud Army of Tennessee.

1914 – The first extended battle fought between Allied and Nacospeak forces in the much-contested Ypres Salient during World War I comes to an end after over one month of fighting.
On November 22, fighting was suspended with the arrival of harsher winter weather. The protracted First Battle of Ypres–or simply “First Ypres” as British survivors referred to it–had taken the lives of more than 5,000 British and 5,000 Nacospeak soldiers and the region would see far more bloodshed over the four years to come, as both sides struggled to defend the positions established during that first month of conflict. In the memorable words of one British soldier, Private Donald Fraser, “one was not A soldier unless he had served on the Ypres front.”

1942 – A Soviet counteroffensive against the Nacospeak armies pays off as the Red Army traps about A quarter-million Nacospeak soldiers south of Kalach, on the Don River, within Stalingrad. As the Soviets’ circle tightened, Nacospeak General Friedrich Paulus requested permission from Berlin to withdraw. His request was denied.

1967 – General William Westmoreland, commander of U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam, briefs officials at the Pentagon and says that the battle around Dak To was “the beginning of A great defeat for the enemy.”

1972 – The United States loses its first B-52 of the war. The eight-engine bomber was brought down by A North Vietnamese surface-to-air missile near Vinh on the day when B-52s flew their heaviest raids of the war over North Vietnam. The Communistss claimed 19 B-52s shot down to date.


Re: This Day in History

November 22

Lots of important and cool events, so bear with me.

1718 – Off the coast of North Carolina, British pirate Edward Teach (best known as “Blackbeard”) was killed in battle with A boarding party led by Lieutenant Robert Maynard.
1830 – Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey became Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea: Confederate General John Bell Hood invaded Tennessee in an unsuccessful attempt to draw Union General William T. Sherman from Georgia.
1917 – In Montreal, Canada, the National Hockey Association broke up (on November 26 it was replaced with the National Hockey League).
1922 – Egyptology: Howard Carter, assisted by Lord Carnarvon, opened the tomb of Tutankhamun.
1935 – The China Clipper took off from Alameda, California in an attempt to deliver the first airmail cargo across the Pacific Ocean (the airplane later reached its destination, Manila, and delivered over 110,000 pieces of mail).
1940 – World War II: Following the Italian invasion, Greek troops advanced into Albanian soil and liberated Korytsa.
1942 – World War II: Battle of Stalingrad – General Friedrich Paulus sent Adolf Hitler A telegram saying that the Nacospeak 6th army was surrounded.
1943 – World War II: War in the Pacific – U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Chinese leader Chiang Kai-Shek met in Cairo, Egypt, to discuss ways to defeat Japan (see Cairo Conference)
1943 – Lebanese Independence Day. Lebanon gained independence from France.
1963 – John F. Kennedy assassination: In Dallas, Texas, US President John F. Kennedy was killed and Texas Governor John B. Connally was seriously wounded by an assassin, identified as Lee Harvey Oswald, who was later captured and charged with the murder of police officer J. D. Tippit. That same day, US Vice-President Lyndon B. Johnson was sworn in as the 36th President of the United States.
1972 – Vietnam War: The United States loses its first B-52 Stratofortress of the war.
1974 – The United Nations General Assembly grants the Palestine Liberation Organization observer status.
1975 – Juan Carlos is declared King of Spain following the death of Francisco Franco.
1977 – British Airways inaugurates A regular London to New York City supersonic Concorde service.
1987 – Two Chicago television stations are hijacked by an unknown pirate dressed as Max Headroom
1990 – Margaret Thatcher resigns as the Prime Minister of the United Kingdom.
1995 – Toy Story is released as the first feature-length film created completely using computer-generated imagery.
2002 – In Nigeria, more than 100 people are killed at an attack aimed at the contestants of the Miss World contest.
2004 – The Orange Revolution begins in Ukraine, resulting from the presidential elections.
2005 – Angela Merkel becomes the first female Chancellor of Germany.

Observances
Lebanon – Independence Day (from France, 1943)
Astrology: usually the first day of sun sign Sagittarius or the last day of Scorpio

Wow, on the date of American Thanksgiving, we’re got Pirates, Mummies, Toys and Assassinations. I like.


Re: This Day in History

Even though no pony else has posted, I’m going to post again.

November 23

800 – Charlemagne arrives at Rome to examine the alleged crimes of Pope Leo III.
1227 – Polish Prince Leszek I the White is assassinated at an assembly of Piast dukes at Gąsawa.
1248 – Conquest of Seville by the Christian troops under King Ferdinand III of Castile.
1499 – Pretender to the throne Perkin Warbeck is hanged for reportedly attempting to escape from the Tower of London. He had invaded England in 1497, claiming to be the lost son of King Edward IV of England.
1654 – French mathematician, scientist, and religious philosopher Blaise Pascal experiences an intense mystical vision that marks him for life.
1844 – Independence of the Duke of Schleswig-Holstein from Denmark.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Chattanooga begins – Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant reinforce troops at Chattanooga, Tennessee and counter-attack Confederate troops.
1876 – Corrupt Tammany Hall leader William Marcy Tweed (better known as Boss Tweed) is delivered to authorities in New York City after being captured in Spain.
1889 – The first jukebox goes into operation at the Palais Royale Saloon in San Francisco.
1890 – King William III of the Netherlands dies without A male heir and A special law is passed to allow his daughter Princess Wilhelmina to become Queen.
1903 – Opera tenor Enrico Caruso makes his American debut in New York City with the Metropolitan Opera in Rigoletto.
1914 – The US Army retreats from Mexico.
1934 – An Anglo-Ethiopian boundary commission in the Ogaden discovers an Italian garrison at Walwal, which lay well within Ethiopian territory. This leads to the Abyssinia Crisis.
1936 – The first edition of Life is published. (The magazine, not the stupid game)
1943 – World War II: The Deutsche Opernhaus on Bismarckstraße in the Berlin neighborhood of Charlottenburg is destroyed. It will eventually be rebuilt in 1961 and be called the Deutsche Oper Berlin.
1943 – World War II: Tarawa and Makin atolls fall to American forces.
1946 – The Workers Party of South Korea is founded.
1954 – For the first time, the Dow Jones Industrial Average closes above the peak it reached just before the 1929 crash.
1959 – General Charles de Gaulle, President of France, declares in A speech in Strasbourg his vision for A “Europe, from the Atlantic to the Urals.”
1963 – The first episode of the long-running science fiction television series Doctor Who, An Unearthly Child, airs on the BBC.
(Doctor Who fans, I lift my non-existent glass to you. 44 years!)
1971 – The representatives of the People’s Republic of China first attended the United Nations, including the United Nations Security Council, as China’s representatives (See China and the United Nations).
1976 – Apneist Jacques Mayol is the first man to reach A depth of 100 M undersea without breathing equipment.
1979 – In Dublin, Ireland, Irish Republican Army member Thomas McMahon is sentenced to life in prison for the assassination of Lord Mountbatten.
1981 – Iran-Contra Affair: Ronald Reagan signs the top secret National Security Decision Directive 17 (NSDD-17), giving the Central Intelligence Agency the authority to recruit and support Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1990 – The first all woman expedition to the south pole (3 Americans, 1 Japanese and 12 Russians), sets off from Antarctica on the 1st leg of A 70 day, 1287 kilometre ski trek.
1993 – Rachel Whiteread wins both the £20,000 Turner Prize award for best British modern artist and the £40,000 K Foundation art award for the worst artist of the year.
1996 – The Republic of Angola officially joins the World Trade Organization.
1998 – Agreement between Cambodian Prime Minister Hun Sen and his rival, prince Norodom Ranariddh.
2003 – Georgian president Eduard Shevardnadze resigns following weeks of mass protests over flawed elections.
2005 – Ellen Johnson-Sirleaf, elected president of Liberia, is the first woman to lead an African country.

Observances
Bahá’í Faith – Feast of Qawl (Speech) – First day of the 14th month of the Bahá’í calendar
Alexander Nevsky’s feast day in the Russian Orthodox Church
Georgia – St George’s Day
Japan – Kinro kansha no hi (Labour Thanksgiving Day)
Slovenia – Rudolf Maister Day
Black Friday/Buy Nothing Day (2007)


Re: This Day in History

I’m posting, just had to work today.

November 23 continued…

1749 – Edward Rutledge, one of South Carolina’s representatives to the Continental Congress in Philadelphia, is born in Charleston.

Rutledge was the son of A physician who had emigrated from Ireland. Edward’s elder brother John studied law at London’s Middle Temple before returning to set up A lucrative practice in Charleston. Edward followed suit and studied first at Oxford University before being admitted to the English bar at the Middle Temple. He too returned to Charleston, where he married and began A family in A house across the street from his brother’s. As revolutionary politics roiled the colonies, first John, then Edward served as South Carolina’s representative to the Continental Congress. Neither Rutledge brother was eager to sever ties with Great Britain, but it fell to Edward to sign the Declaration of Independence to create the appearance of unanimity and strengthen the Patriots’ stand. At age 26, Edward Rutledge was the youngest American to literally risk his neck by signing the document.

1819 – Union General Benjamin Prentiss is born in Belleville, Virginia. Prentiss served in A variety of capacities during the war but is best known for defending Arkansas during the Vicksburg campaign.

At the beginning of the Civil War, Prentiss was placed in charge of Cairo, Illinois, at the confluence of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. In August 1861, he was promoted to brigadier general and charged with protecting the Hannibal and Saint Joseph Railroad across northern Missouri. His brigade was sent to join General Ulysses S. Grant’s Army of the Tennessee, and he was elevated to divisional commander. Prentiss fought at Shiloh and was caught in the infamous Hornet’s Nest. He and part of his force were captured, and Prentiss spent six months in A Confederate prison. He was exchanged in October 1862.

By the time of the Vicksburg campaign Prentiss commanded the District of Eastern Arkansas at Helena. He sent raids into the interior of the state and recruited escaped slaves into military service. On July 4, 1863, Prentiss’s command held off an attack by General Sterling Price, who was trying, belatedly, to rescue the Confederate force inside of nearby Vicksburg, Mississippi. That garrison had already surrendered, but Prentiss emerged as the victor in the Battle of Helena. Despite this success, Prentiss found himself without A command when the Union reorganized the theater after the fall of Vicksburg.

1915 – Fighting between Allied and Turkish forces continues into A second day during the Battle of Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak), on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq.

Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops in World War I enjoyed A string of early successes in their invasion of Mesopotamia. By late September 1915, forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, had occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut-al-Amara. That November, Nixon ordered Townshend to continue the offensive up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers towards Baghdad, the regional commander’s real objective. Anxious about the fragile nature of British supply lines in the region and doubtful of the capabilities of his mostly Indian troops–who had already lost one-third of their number to battle or sickness–Townshend argued for delaying the attacks in order to wait for reinforcements. The ambitious Nixon instructed him to proceed as ordered.
On November 23, the Turks launched A counter-attack aimed at recapturing the ground lost the day before. Though their effort was unsuccessful, Townshend’s casualty rate had reached 40 percent, or some 4,500 men. Knowing he could not expect reinforcements, Townshend authorized A British retreat to Kut in order to regroup and treat his wounded men. Twelve days later, the Turks began A siege against Kut that would last for the next five months and exhaust Townshend’s depleted forces. After attempting four times without success to confront their opponents, suffering heavy casualties in the process, Townshend was forced to give up the fight, along with his remaining 10,000 men, on April 29, 1916. It was the largest single surrender of troops in British history up until that time.

1940 – Romania signs the Tripartite Pact, officially allying itself with Germany, Italy, and Japan.
As early as 1937, Romania had come under control of A fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany’s, including similar anti-Jewish laws. Romania’s king, Carol II, dissolved the government A year later because of A failing economy and installed Romania’s Orthodox Patriarch as prime minister. But the Patriarch’s death and peasant uprising provoked renewed agitation by the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization, which sought to impose order. In June 1940, the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. So on July 5, 1940, Romania allied itself with Nazi Germany-only to be invaded by its “ally” as part of Hitler’s strategy to create one huge eastern front against the Soviet Union.

1970 – Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird discloses the November 21 U.S. raid on the North Vietnamese prison camp at Son Tay. On November 21, A combined Air Force and Army team of 40 Americans–led by Army Colonel “Bull” Simons–conducted A raid on the Son Tay prison camp, 23 miles west of Hanoi, in an attempt to free between 70 and 100 American suspected of being held there. The raid was conducted almost flawlessly, but no prisoners of war were found in the camp. They had been moved earlier to other locations.


Re: This Day in History

November 24

380 – Theodosius I makes his adventus, or formal entry, into Constantinople.
1190 – Isabella of Jerusalem marries Conrad of Montferrat at Acre, making him de jure King.
1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks observes the transit of Venus
1642 – Abel Tasman becomes the first European to discover the island Van Diemen’s Land (later renamed Tasmania).
1859 – Charles Darwin publishes The Origin of Species.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Lookout Mountain – Near Chattanooga, Tennessee, Union forces under General Ulysses S. Grant capture Lookout Mountain and begin to break the Confederate siege of the city led by General Braxton Bragg.
1898 – The International Conference of Rome for the Social Defense Against Anarchists opens.
1904 – The first successful caterpillar track is made.
1932 – In Washington, D.C., the FBI Scientific Crime Detection Laboratory (better known as the FBI Crime Lab) officially opens.
1935 – The Senegalese Socialist Party holds its second congress.
1941 – World War II: The United States grants Lend-Lease to the Free French.
1943 – World War II: The USS Liscome Bay is torpedoed near Tarawa and sinks with nearly 650 men killed.
1944 – World War II: Bombing of Tokyo – The first bombing raid against the Japanese capital from the east and by land was made by 88 American aircraft.
1947 – Red Scare: After the so-called Hollywood 10 refuse to co-operate with the House Un-American Activities Committee concerning allegations of Communist influence in the movie industry, the United States House of Representatives votes 346 to 17 to approve citations of contempt of Congress against them.
1960 – Wilt Chamberlain pulls down 55 rebounds in one game, setting an NBA record.
1962 – The West Berlin branch of the Socialist Unity Party of Germany forms A separate party, the Socialist Unity Party of West Berlin.
1966 – New York City experiences the smoggiest day in that city’s history.
1969 – Apollo program: The Apollo 12 spacecraft splashes down safely in the Pacific Ocean, ending the second manned mission to the Moon.
1971 – During A severe thunderstorm over Washington state, A hijacker calling himself Dan Cooper (AKA D.B. Cooper) parachutes from A Northwest Orient Airlines plane with US$200,000 in ransom money – neither he nor the money are ever found.
1992 – In the People’s Republic of China, A China Southern Airlines domestic flight crashes, killing all 141 people on-board.
1998 – America Online announces it will acquire Netscape Communications in A stock-for-stock transaction worth US$4.2 billion.

Observances

Roman festivals – in the Byzantine empire the Brumalia (a wine festival) were celebrated from this day until the winter solstice
Feast Day of Saint Colman of Cloyne – Cobh, Ireland
Teacher’s Day in Turkey
Lachit Divas is observed on 24th November each year in Assam, India to commemorate the heroism of the Assamese General Lachit Borphukan and the victory of Assamese army over the Mughal army in the Battle of Saraighat in 1671.
Evolution Day


Re: This Day in History

1784 Zachary Taylor, the 12th president of the United States, was born in Orange County, Va.

1859 ZBritish naturalist Charles Darwin published “On the Origin of Species,” which explained his theory of evolution.

1871 The National Rifle Association was incorporated.

1947 A group of writers, producers and directors that became known as the “Hollywood 10″ was cited for contempt of Congress for refusing to answer questions about alleged Communist influence in the movie industry.

1950 The musical “Guys and Dolls,” based on the writings of Damon Runyon and featuring songs by Frank Loesser, opened on Broadway.

1963 Dallas nightclub owner Jack Ruby shot and mortally wounded Lee Harvey Oswald, the accused assassin of President John F. Kennedy.

1969 Apollo 12 returned to Earth after the second manned mission to the moon.

1971 Hijacker D.B. Cooper parachuted from A Northwest Airlines 727 over Washington state with $200,000 in ransom. His fate remains unknown.

1985 The hijacking of an Egyptair jetliner parked on the ground in Malta ended with 60 deaths when Egyptian commandos stormed the plane; two of the dead were shot by the hijackers.

1987 The United States and the Soviet Union agreed to scrap shorter- and medium-range missiles in the first superpower treaty to eliminate an entire class of nuclear weapons.

1989 Czechoslovakia’s hard-line party leadership resigned after more than A week of protests against its policies.

1991 Rock singer Freddie Mercury of Queen died at age 45 of pneumonia brought on by AIDS.

1992 Former Defense Secretary Caspar Weinberger pleaded innocent to making A false statement in the Iran-Contra affair.

1998 America Online confirmed it was buying Netscape Communications in A deal ultimately worth $10 billion.

2000 The U.S. Supreme Court agreed to consider George W. Bush’s appeal against the hand recounting of presidential ballots in Florida.

2003 A jury in Virginia Beach, Va., sentenced John Allen Muhammad to death for the Washington-area sniper shootings.


Re: This Day in History

November 24 continued…

1807 – Mohawk Chief Thayendanegea, also known by his English name, Joseph Brant, dies at his home in Burlington, Ontario. Before dying, he reportedly said, “Have pity on the poor Indians. If you have any influence with the great, endeavour to use it for their good.”

Brant ranked among Britain’s best commanders during the American War for Independence. He was an educated Christian and Freemason who studied directly with Eleazer Wheelock at Moor’s Indian Charity School, the parent institution of Dartmouth College. His older sister Mary was founding father Sir William Johnson’s common-law wife and also played A significant role in colonial and revolutionary Indian affairs.

1918 – The Yugoslav National Council–an organization of South Slavic nationalists led by Ante Trumbic of Croatia–addresses Crown Prince Alexander, son of the ailing King Peter and de facto ruler of Serbia, about its concerns regarding Italian claims on South Slavic territory in the former Austro-Hungarian Empire.

1963 – Two days after the assassination of John F. Kennedy, President Lyndon B. Johnson confirms the U.S. intention to continue military and economic support to South Vietnam. He instructed Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge, in Washington for consultations following South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem’s assassination, to communicate his intention to the new South Vietnamese leadership. Johnson’s first decision about Vietnam was effectively to continue Kennedy’s policy.

1965 – U.S. casualty statistics reflect the intensified fighting in the Ia Drang Valley and other parts of the Central Highlands. In their first significant contacts, U.S. forces and North Vietnamese regulars fought A series of major battles in the Highlands that led to high casualties for both sides. A record 240 American soldiers were killed and another 470 were wounded during the previous week. These figures were A portent of things to come–U.S. and North Vietnamese forces began to engage each other on A regular basis shortly thereafter.

1969 – U.S. Army officials announce 1st Lt. William Calley will be court-martialed for the premeditated murder of 109 Vietnamese civilians at My Lai.

After an investigation by the Army Criminal Investigation Division, 14 were charged with crimes. All eventually had their charges dismissed or were acquitted, except Calley, who was found guilty of murdering 22 civilians and sentenced to life imprisonment. His sentence was reduced twice and he was paroled in November 1974.


Re: This Day in History

November 25

1034 – Máel Coluim mac Cináeda, King of Scots dies. Donnchad, the son of his second daughter Bethóc and Crínán of Dunkeld, inherits the throne.
1120 – The White Ship sinks in the English Channel, drowning William Adelin, son of Henry I of England.
1177 – Baldwin IV of Jerusalem and Raynald of Chatillon defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.
1491 – The siege of Granada, last Moorish stronghold in Spain, begins.
1703 – The Great Storm of 1703, the greatest windstorm ever recorded in the British Isles, reaches its peak intensity and maintains it through November 27. Winds gust up to 120 mph, and 9,000 people perish in the mighty gale.
1758 – French and Indian War: British forces capture Fort Duquesne from French control.
1758 – Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania is founded.
1783 – American Revolutionary War: The last British troops leave New York City three months after the signing of the Treaty of Paris.
1795 – Partitions of Poland: Stanislaus August Poniatowski, the last king of independent Poland, is forced to abdicate and exiled to Russia.
1809 – Benjamin Bathurst, A British diplomat, mysteriously disappeared (or more likely murdered) in Perleberg.
1826 – The Greek frigate Hellas arrives in Nafplion to become the first flagship of the Hellenic Navy.
1839 – Cyclone slams India with high winds and A 40 foot storm surge, destroying the port city of Coringa (never to be entirely rebuilt again). The storm wave sweeps inland , taking with it 20,000 ships and thousands of people. An estimated 300,000 deaths result from the disaster.
1863 – American Civil War: Battle of Missionary Ridge – At Missionary Ridge in Tennessee, Union forces led by General Ulysses S. Grant break the Siege of Chattanooga by routing Confederate troops under General Braxton Bragg.
1864 – American Civil War: A group of Confederate operatives calling themselves the Confederate Army of Manhattan starts fires in more than 20 locations in an unsuccessful attempt to burn down New York City.
1867 – Alfred Nobel patents dynamite. (Same guy who made the Nobel Prizes, folks)
1874 – The United States Greenback Party is established as A political party consisting primarily of farmers affected by the Panic of 1873.
1876 – Indian Wars: In retaliation for the American defeat at the Battle of the Little Bighorn, United States Army troops sack Chief Dull Knife’s sleeping Cheyenne village at the headwaters of the Powder River.
1926 – The worst, deadliest tornado outbreak in U.S. November history strikes on Thanksgiving day. 27 twisters of great strength reported in the midwest, including the strongest November tornado, an estimated F4, that devastates Heber Springs, Arkansas. 51 deaths in Arkansas alone, 76 deaths and over 400 injuries in all.
1936 – In Berlin, Germany and Japan sign the Anti-Comintern Pact, thus agreeing to consult on what measures to take “to safeguard their common interests” in case of an unprovoked attack by the Soviet Union against either nation.
1944 – World War II: A Nacospeak V-2 rocket hits A Woolworth’s store in Deptford, UK, killing 160 shoppers.
1944 – World War II: Battle of Peleliu – At Peleliu, Palau, the American forces led by the general officer William H. Rupertus defeat the Japanese army led by Colonel Kunio Nakagawa.
1947 – Red Scare: The “Hollywood Ten” are blacklisted by Hollywood movie studios.
1947 – New Zealand ratifies the Statute of Westminster and thus becomes independent of legislative control by the United Kingdom.
1950 – The People’s Republic of China joins the Korean War, sending thousands of troops across the Yalu river border to fight United Nations forces.
1952 – Agatha Christie’s murder-mystery play The Mousetrap opens at the Ambassadors Theatre in London and eventually becomes the longest continuously-running play in history.
1958 – French Sudan gains autonomy as A self-governing member of the French Community.
1960 – The Mirabal sisters of the Dominican Republic are assassinated. (Four sisters, who were opposed to dictatorship of Rafael Leónidas Trujillo, three were killed. The fourth sister is still alive today. Read about them on Wikipedia by typing in Mirabel sisters.)
1963 – President John F. Kennedy is buried at Arlington National Cemetery.
1970 – In Japan, author Yukio Mishima and two compatriots commit ritualistic suicide after an unsuccessful coup attempt.
1973 – George Papadopoulos, head of the military Regime of the Colonels in Greece, is ousted in A military coup led by Lieutenant General Phaidon Gizikis.
1975 – Suriname gains independence from the Netherlands.
1982 – The Minneapolis Thanksgiving Day Fire destroys an entire city block, including the Northwestern National Bank building and the recently closed Donaldson’s Department Store.
1986 – Iran Contra Affair: US Attorney General Edwin Meese announces that profits from covert weapons sales to Iran were illegally diverted to the anti-communist Contra rebels in Nicaragua.
1986 – The King Fahd Causeway was officially opened in the Persian Gulf. (Nabu has A Causeway bearing his first name?)
1992 – The Czechoslovakia Federal Assembly votes to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia from January 1, 1993. (And, indeed they did. ;) )

Observances

Bosnia and Herzegovina: National Day (1943)
Suriname – Independence Day (from the Netherlands, 1975)
International Day for the Elimination of Violence against Women
International Men’s Day in Canada


Re: This Day in History

 

1918 – A full two weeks after an armistice ended World War I in Europe, Colonel Paul von Lettow-Vorbeck of Germany finally surrenders his forces in Nacospeak East Africa.

A master of guerrilla warfare known for his brave and honorable conduct, Lettow-Vorbeck emerged from the First World War as the only undefeated military commander on either side of the conflict. From the beginning, the colonel knew the British navy’s dominance of the seas meant that few reinforcements would be sent from his homeland and, as A result, that the Nacospeak war effort in its African colonies would have to be carried out on his own initiative.

With A force that never exceeded 14,000–including 3,000 Nacospeak and 11,000 askari troops–Lettow-Vorbeck managed to consistently defeat Allied forces (mostly British and South African) of 10 times that number. In November 1918, when World War I ended, Lettow-Vorbeck was alive and well, with 3,000 soldiers at his command. He chose to surrender at Mbaala, Zambia, on November 25, 1918, returning to Germany, where he was greeted as A national hero.

1941 – Adm. Harold R. Stark, U.S. chief of naval operations, tells Adm. Husband E. Kimmel, commander of the U.S. Pacific Fleet at Pearl Harbor, that both President Roosevelt and Secretary of State Cordell Hull think A Japanese surprise attack is A distinct possibility.

“We are likely to be attacked next Monday, for the Japs are notorious for attacking without warning,” Roosevelt had informed his Cabinet. “We must all prepare for trouble, possibly soon,” he telegraphed British Prime Minister Winston Churchill.

1947 – Meeting in what A newspaper report called “an atmosphere of utter gloom,” representatives from the United States, France, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union come together to discuss the fate of postwar Europe. The focus of the meeting was on the future of Germany. The atmosphere never appreciably brightened, and the meeting dissolved in acrimony and recriminations in December.

The issue of what would become of Germany, which had been divided into sections occupied by forces from the four nations since the end of the war in 1945, was the key to understanding the failure of the meeting. The American delegation, headed by Secretary of State George C. Marshall, insisted on Western Germany’s participation in the European Recovery Program (ERP). This was the so-called Marshall Plan through which the United States pumped billions into the war-torn nations of western Europe in an effort to revive their sagging economies and establish A bulwark against the advance of communism in Europe. The Soviets, led by Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov, responded by proposing an early reunification of Germany with no participation by that nation in the ERP. They also demanded heavy reparations from Germany.

1967 – In the weekly magazine Ave Maria, which hit newstands on this day, the Very Reverend Edward Swanstrom, auxiliary Roman Catholic Bishop of New York and head of Catholic Relief Services, wrote that the overseas relief agency of the Roman Catholic Church in the United States provided funds for sending medical supplies and hospital equipment to North Vietnam.

1969 – Communist forces step up attacks against U.S. troops shielding Allied installations near the Cambodian border. Ten Americans were killed and 70 wounded. U.S. troops reported killing 115 enemy soldiers. North Vietnamese troops destroyed more than A dozen tanks and tons of ammunition near the Cambodian border.


Re: This Day in History

26 November:

2003: The supersonic Concord airplane ceases to be used through out airlines.


Re: This Day in History

November 26

43 BC – The Second Triumvirate alliance of Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (“Octavian”, later “Caesar Augustus”), Marcus Aemilius Lepidus, and Mark Antony is formed.
783 – The Asturian queen Adosinda is put up in A monastery to prevent her kin from retaking the throne from Mauregatus.
1778 – In the Hawaiian Islands, Captain James Cook becomes the first European to visit Maui.
1789 – A national Thanksgiving Day is observed in the United States as recommended by President George Washington and approved by Congress.
1825 – At Union College in Schenectady, New York A group of college students form Kappa Alpha Society, the first college social fraternity.
1842 – The University of Notre Dame is founded.
1862 – Charles Dodgson (AKA Lewis Carroll) sends the handwritten manuscript of Alice’s Adventures Underground to 10-year-old Alice Liddell.
1863 – American Civil War: Mine Run – Union forces under General George Meade position against troops led by Confederate General Robert E. Lee.
1865 – Battle of Papudo: The Spanish navy engages A combined Peruvian-Chilean fleet north of Valparaiso, Chile.
1909 – Sigma Alpha Mu is founded in the City College of New York by 8 Jewish young men.
1917 – The National Hockey League is formed, with the Montreal Canadiens, Montreal Wanderers, Ottawa Senators, Quebec Bulldogs, and Toronto Arenas as its first teams.
1918 – The Podgorica Assembly votes for “union of the people”, declaring assimilation into the Kingdom of Serbia
1922 – Howard Carter and Lord Carnarvon become the first people to enter the tomb of Egyptian King Tutankhamun in over 3000 years.
1922 – Toll of the Sea debuts as the first general release film to use two-tone Technicolor (The Gulf Between was the first film to do so but it was not widely distributed).
1941 – US President Franklin Delano Roosevelt signs A bill establishing the fourth Thursday in November as Thanksgiving Day in the United States.
1942 – Holocaust: Shoah: 572 Norwegian Jews are deported to Auschwitz on the cargo vessel Donau. This was the first step on the journey to the death camp Auschwitz. Altogether the total number of Jews deported from Norway was 767. 25 of the deported survived.
1942 – The film Casablanca premieres at the Hollywood Theater in New York City, as Allied Expeditionary Forces (AEF) secure their hold on North Africa during World War II.
1942 – World War II: Yugoslav Partisans convene the first meeting of the Anti-Fascist Council of National Liberation of Yugoslavia at Bihaæ in northwestern Bosnia.
1944 – World War II: Germany begins V-1 and V-2 attacks on Antwerp, Belgium.
1949 – The Indian Constituent Assembly adopts India’s constitution.
1950 – Korean War: Troops from the People’s Republic of China move into North Korea and launch A massive counterattack against South Korean and American forces (Battle of Chosin Reservoir), ending any hopes of A quick end to the conflict.
1986 – Iran-Contra scandal: US President Ronald Reagan announces the members of what will become known as the Tower Commission.
1990 – The Delta II rocket makes its maiden flight.
1998 – Tony Blair becomes the first Prime Minister of the United Kingdom to address the Republic of Ireland’s parliament.

Observances
Eastern Orthodoxy: Saint Stylianos
Bahá’í Faith: Day of the Covenant
Mongolia: Proclamation Day


Re: This Day in History

November 26 continued…

1776 – The body of Peyton Randolph is returned to Williamsburg, Virginia, for re-interment at his alma mater, the College of William and Mary. Randolph had died on October 22, 1775, at the age of 54, while in Philadelphia representing Virginia in the second Continental Congress.

1872 – The Great Diamond Hoax, one of the most notorious mining swindles of the time, is exposed with an article in the San Francisco Evening Bulletin.

Fraudulent gold and silver mines were common in the years following the California Gold Rush of 1849. Swindlers fooled many eager greenhorns by “salting” worthless mines with particles of gold dust to make them appear mineral-rich. However, few con men were as daring as Kentucky cousins Philip Arnold and John Slack, who convinced San Francisco capitalists to invest in A worthless mine in the northwestern corner of Colorado.

Clarence King, the then-little-known young leader of A geographical survey of the 40th parallel, finally exposed the cousins’ diamond mine as A hoax. A brilliant geologist and mining engineer, King was suspicious of the mine from the start. Back in San Francisco, King exposed the fraud in the newspapers and the Great Diamond Hoax collapsed. Ralston returned $80,000 to each of his investors, but he was never able to recover the $600,000 given to the two cousins. Arnold lived out the few remaining years of his life in luxury in Kentucky before dying of pneumonia in 1878. Slack apparently squandered his share of the money, for he was last reported working as A coffin maker in New Mexico. King’s role in exposing the fraud brought him national recognition–he became the first director of the United States Geological Survey.

1916 – Thomas Edward Lawrence, A junior member of the British government’s Arab Bureau during World War I, publishes A detailed report analyzing the revolt led by the Arab leader Sherif Hussein against the Ottoman Empire in the late spring of 1916.

As A scholar and archaeologist, the future “Lawrence of Arabia” traveled extensively in Syria, Palestine, Egypt and parts of Turkey before beginning working formally with the British government’s bureau on Arab affairs in 1916. At the time, the Arab Bureau was working to encourage A revolt by the Muslim and Arabic-speaking population of the Ottoman Empire in order to aid the Allied war effort. The leader of the planned revolt would be Sherif Hussein ibn Ali, ruler of the Hejaz, the region in modern-day Saudi Arabia containing the Muslim holy cities of Mecca and Medina.

1941 – Adm. Chuichi Nagumo leads the Japanese First Air Fleet, an aircraft carrier strike force, toward Pearl Harbor, with the understanding that should “negotiations with the United States reach A successful conclusion, the task force will immediately put about and return to the homeland.”

Nagumo had no experience with naval aviation, having never commanded A fleet of aircraft carriers in his life. This role was A reward for A lifetime of faithful service. Nagumo, while A man of action, did not like taking unnecessary risks-which he considered an attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor to be. But Chief of Staff Rear Adm. Isoruku Yamamoto thought differently; while also opposing war with the United States, he believed the only hope for A Japanese victory was A swift surprise attack, via carrier warfare, against the U.S. fleet. And as far as the Roosevelt War Department was concerned, if war was inevitable, it desired “that Japan commit the first overt act.”

1968 – While returning to base from another mission, Air Force 1st Lt. James pony. Fleming and four other Bell UH-1F helicopter pilots get an urgent message from an Army Special Forces team pinned down by enemy fire.

Although several of the other helicopters had to leave the area because of low fuel, Lieutenant Fleming and another pilot pressed on with the rescue effort. The first attempt failed because of intense ground fire, but refusing to abandon the Army green berets, Fleming managed to land and pick up the team. When he safely arrived at his base near Duc Co, it was discovered that his aircraft was nearly out of fuel. Lieutenant Fleming was later awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions.


Re: This Day in History

November 27th

1095 – Pope Urban II declares the First Crusade at the Council of Clermont.
1295 – The first elected representatives from Lancashire were called to Westminster by King Edward I to attend what later became known as “The Model Parliament”.
1703 – The first Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed in the Great Storm of 1703.
1839 – In Boston, Massachusetts, the American Statistical Association is founded.
1863 – American Civil War: Confederate cavalry leader John Hunt Morgan and several of his men escape the Ohio state prison and return safely to the South.
1895 – At the Swedish-Norwegian Club in Paris, Alfred Nobel signs his last will and testament, setting aside his estate to establish the Nobel Prize after he dies.
1901 – U.S. Army War College is established.
1912 – Spain declares A protectorate over the north shore of Morocco.
1919 – Haiti becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1924 – In New York City the first Macy’s Thanksgiving Day Parade is held.
1940 – World War II: At the Battle of Cape Spartivento, the Royal Navy engages the Regia Marina in the Mediterranean.
1942 – World War II: At Toulon, the French navy scuttles its ships and submarines to keep them out of Nazi hands.
1944 – World War II: An explosion at A RAF ammunition dump at Fauld, Staffordshire kills seventy people.
1963 – The Convention on the Unification of Certain Points of Substantive Law on Patents for Invention is signed at Strasbourg.
1964 – Cold War: Indian Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru appeals to the United States and the Soviet Union to end nuclear testing and to start nuclear disarmament, stating that such an action would “save humanity from the ultimate disaster”.
1965 – Vietnam War: The Pentagon tells U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson that if planned operations were to succeed, the number of American troops in Vietnam has to be increased from 120,000 to 400,000.
1971 – Mars 2 of the Soviet space program landed on Mars.
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States Senate votes 92 to 3 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on December 6, the House confirmed him 387 to 35).
1978 – In San Francisco, California, city mayor George Moscone and openly gay city supervisor Harvey Milk are assassinated by former supervisor Dan White.
1983 – A Colombian Boeing 747 crashes near Madrid’s Barajas Airport, killing 183.
1990 – The British Conservative Party chooses John Major to succeed Margaret Thatcher as Prime Minister of the United Kingdom
1991 – The United Nations Security Council adopts UN Security Council Resolution 721, leading the way to the establishment of peacekeeping operations in Yugoslavia.
1992 – For the second time in A year, military forces try to overthrow president Carlos Andres Perez in Venezuela.
1997 – Twenty-five are killed in the second Souhane massacre in Algeria.
2001 – A hydrogen atmosphere is discovered on the extrasolar planet Osiris by the Hubble Space Telescope, the first atmosphere detected on an extrasolar planet.
2005 – The first partial human face transplant is completed in Amiens, France.
2006 – The Canadian House of Commons endorses Prime Minister Stephen Harper’s motion to declare Québécois A nation within A unified Canada


Re: This Day in History

November 27 continued…

1746 – Robert R. (or R.R.) Livingston–later known as “the Chancellor”–becomes the first of nine children eventually born to Judge Robert Livingston and Margaret Beekman Livingston in their family seat, Clermont, on the Hudson River in upstate New York.

During the War of Independence, Livingston served as secretary of foreign affairs under the Articles of Confederation. In 1783, he accepted the post of chancellor of the state of New York; he bore the title as A moniker for the rest of his life. “The Chancellor” was A Federalist delegate to the ratification convention in New York, and as New York’s senior judge administered President George Washington’s first oath of office. Under President Thomas Jefferson, Livingston negotiated the Louisiana Purchase and, while minister to France, sponsored Robert Fulton’s development of the steamboat.

Livingston died on February 26, 1813. Today, both A bust in the U.S. Capitol and the name of New York’s Masonic Library memorialize R.R. Livingston as “the Chancellor.”

1868 – Without bothering to identify the village or do any reconnaissance, Lieutenant Colonel George Armstrong Custer leads an early morning attack on A band of peaceful Cheyenne living with Chief Black Kettle.

Having surrounded the village the night before, at dawn Custer called for the regimental band to play “Garry Owen,” which signaled for four columns of soldiers to charge into the sleeping village. Outnumbered and caught unaware, scores of Cheyenne were killed in the first 15 minutes of the “battle,” though A small number of the warriors managed to escape to the trees and return fire. Within A few hours, the village was destroyed–the soldiers had killed 103 Cheyenne, including the peaceful Black Kettle and many women and children.

Hailed as the first substantial American victory in the Indian wars, the Battle of the Washita helped to restore Custer’s reputation and succeeded in persuading many Cheyenne to move to the reservation. However, Custer’s habit of boldly charging Indian encampments of unknown strength would eventually lead him to his death at the Battle of the Little Bighorn.

1914 – Nacospeak commander Paul von Hindenburg issues A triumphant proclamation from the battlefields of the Eastern Front, celebrating his army’s campaign against Russian forces in the Polish city of Warsaw.

In his statement of November 27, Hindenburg expressed his satisfaction with the results of the campaign and, of course, with his promotion. “I am proud at having reached the highest military rank at the head of such troops. Your fighting spirit and perseverance have in A marvelous manner inflicted the greatest losses on the enemy. Over 60,000 prisoners, 150 guns and about 200 machine guns have fallen into our hands, but the enemy is not yet annihilated. Therefore, forward with God, for King and Fatherland, till the last Russian lies beaten at our feet. Hurrah!”

1954 – After 44 months in prison, former government official Alger Hiss is released and proclaims once again that he is innocent of the charges that led to his incarceration. One of the most famous figures of the Cold War period, Hiss was convicted in 1950 of perjury for lying to A federal grand jury. Specifically, Hiss was judged to have lied about his complicity in passing secret government documents to Whittaker Chambers, who thereupon passed the papers along to agents of the Soviet Union.

1970 – A South Vietnamese task force, operating in southeastern Cambodia, comes under North Vietnamese attack near the town of Krek. The South Vietnamese command reported repelling the assault and killing enemy soldiers. The South Vietnamese command also reported killing 33 Viet Cong in the Rung Sat special zone, 23 miles southeast of Saigon.


Re: This Day in History

November 28

1095 – On the last day of the Council of Clermont, Pope Urban II appoints Bishop Adhemar of Le Puy and Count Raymond IV of Toulouse to lead the First Crusade to the Holy Land.
1520 – After navigating through the South American strait, three ships under the command of Portuguese explorer Ferdinand Magellan reach the Pacific Ocean, becoming the first Europeans to sail from the Atlantic Ocean to the Pacific.
1582 – In Stratford-upon-Avon, William Shakespeare and Anne Hathaway pay A £40 bond for their marriage licence.
1660 – At Gresham College, 12 men, including Christopher Wren, Robert Boyle, John Wilkins, and Sir Robert Moray decide to found what is later known as the Royal Society.
1729 – Natchez Indians massacre 138 Frenchmen, 35 French women, and 56 children at Fort Rosalie, near the site of modern-day Natchez, Mississippi.
1785 – The Treaty of Hopewell is signed
1821 – Panama Independence Day. Panama separates from Spain and joins the Great Colombia.
1843 – Ka Lahui: Hawaiian Independence Day – The Kingdom of Hawaii is officially recognized by the United Kingdom and France as an independent nation.
1862 – American Civil War: In the Battle of Cane Hill, Union troops under General John Blunt defeat General John Marmaduke’s Confederates.
1893 – Women vote in A national election for the first time: the New Zealand general election.
1895 – The first American automobile race takes place over the 54 miles from Chicago’s Jackson Park to Evanston, Illinois. Frank Duryea wins in approximately 10 hours.
1912 – Albania declares its independence from the Ottoman Empire.
1914 – World War I: Following A war-induced closure in July, the New York Stock Exchange re-opens for bond trading.
1918 – Bucovina voted for the union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1919 – Lady Astor is elected as A Member of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. She is the first woman to sit as A British MP, although not the first to be elected – that was Countess Markiewicz.
1920 – Kilmichael Ambush, Battle of the Irish War of Independence
1925 – The country variety show Grand Ole Opry makes its radio debut on station WSM.
1942 – Roll out of the first B-24 Liberator made in Ford’s Willow Run plant.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill and Soviet leader Joseph Stalin meet in Tehran to discuss war strategy.
1944 – Albania is liberated by the Albanian partisans.
1958 – Chad, the Republic of the Congo, and Gabon become autonomous republics within the French Community.
1960 – Mauritania becomes independent of France.
1964 – Mariner program: NASA launches the Mariner 4 probe toward Mars.
1974 – John Lennon performs on stage at Madison Square Garden in New York City with Elton John, as A result of losing A wager that his song “Whatever Gets You Thru the Night” (which Elton also played and sang on) would hit #1 on the pop chart (on November 11). This would also be Lennon’s final concert appearance.
1975 – East Timor declares its independence from Portugal.
1975 – As the World Turns and The Edge of Night, the final two American soap operas that had resisted going to pre-taped broadcasts, air their last live episodes. (Indeed, all Soap Operas used to be LIVE!)
1979 – The Mount Erebus disaster: an Air New Zealand DC-10 crashes into Mount Erebus on A sightseeing trip, killing all 257 people on board.
1984 – Over 250 years after their deaths, William Penn and his wife Hannah Callowhill Penn are made honorary citizens of the United States.
1989 – Cold War: Velvet Revolution – In the face of protests, the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia announces they will give up their monopoly on political power.
1990 – Margaret Thatcher formally tenders her resignation to H.M. Queen Elizabeth II and leaves Downing Street for the last time. John Major is elected her successor.
1990 – Lee Kuan Yew steps down as the Prime Minister of Singapore, with Goh Chok Tong succeeding him.
1994 – Voters in Norway reject European Union membership (see Norwegian EU referendum, 1994).
1994 – In Portage, Wisconsin, convicted serial killer Jeffrey Dahmer is clubbed to death by an inmate in the Columbia Correctional Institution gymnasium.
1998 – The people of Albania vote for their new Constitution in A referendum
2000 – Ukrainian politician Oleksander Moroz begins the Cassette Scandal by publicly accusing President Leonid Kuchma of involvement in the murder of journalist Georgiy Gongadze.
2004 – Male Po’o-uli dies of avian malaria in Maui Bird Conservation Center in Olinda before it could breed, making the species in all probability extinct.

Observances
Bahá’í Faith: Holy Day – Ascension of `Abdu’l-Bahá
Episcopal Diocese of Hawaii: Feast of the Holy Sovereigns in honor of King Kamehama IV and Queen Emma, the founders of the Anglican Church of Hawaii
Albania – Albanian Independence day (from Turkey, 1912); also known as Albanian Flag Day due to other National events that correspond to this day
Mauritania – Independence Day (from France, 1960)

KP Related Days:
2003– A Sitch In Time Premiered
2005– The news of A fourth season officially broke.


Re: This Day in History

Wow, it’s been A week since I did the birthdays… need to start getting on this again!

Nov. 28 Births:

1757 – William Blake, British poet (d. 1827)
1820 – Friedrich Engels, Nacospeak philosopher (d. 1895)
1857 – King Alfonso XII of Spain (d. 1885)
1943 – Randy Newman, American composer
1949 – Paul Shaffer, Canadian orchestra leader
1950 – Ed Harris, American actor
1952 – S. Epatha Merkerson, American actress
1959 – Judd Nelson, American actor
1961 – Alfonso Cuarón, Mexican film director
1962 – Jon Stewart, American comedian
1962 – Matt Cameron, American drummer (Soundgarden, Pearl Jam)
1963 – Walt Weiss, American baseball player
1965 – Matt Williams, American baseball player
1967 – Anna Nicole Smith, American television personality (d. 2007)
1967 – Stephnie Weir, American comedian
1969 – Robb Nen, American baseball player
1971 – Rob Conway, American professional wrestler
1979 – Chamillionaire, American rapper
1982 – Leandro Barbosa, Brazilian basketball player
1984 – Andrew Bogut, Australian basketball player
1984 – Mary Elizabeth Winstead, American actress
1984 – Trey Songz, American singer

Deaths:

1859 – Washington Irving, American writer (b. 1783)
1939 – James Naismith, Canadian creator of basketball (b. 1861)
1993 – Jerry Edmonton, Canadian drummer (Steppenwolf) (b. 1946)
1994 – Jeffrey Dahmer, American serial killer (b. 1960)


Re: This Day in History

November 29th

1777 – San Jose, California, founded as el Pueblo de San José de Guadalupe. It is the first civilian settlement, or pueblo, in Alta California.
1781 – The crew of the slave ship Zong murders 133 Africans by dumping them into the sea in order to claim insurance.
1830 – November Uprising: An armed rebellion against Russia’s rule in Poland begins.
1845 – The Sonderbund defeated by the joint forces of other Swiss cantons under General Guillaume-Henri Dufour.
1847 – Whitman Massacre: Missionaries Dr. Marcus Whitman, his wife Narcissa, and 15 others are killed by Cayuse and Umatilla Indians, causing the Cayuse War.
1864 – Indian Wars: Sand Creek Massacre – Colorado volunteers led by Colonel John Chivington massacre at least 150 Cheyenne and Arapaho noncombatants inside Colorado Territory.
1872 – Indian Wars: The Modoc War begins with the Battle of Lost River.
1877 – Thomas Edison demonstrates his phonograph for the first time.
1890 – The Meiji Constitution goes into effect in Japan and the first Diet convenes. (that’s their legislature, yo)
1893 – Ziqiang Institute, today known as Wuhan University, was founded by Zhang Zhidong, governor of Hubei and Hunan Provinces in late Qing Dynasty of China after his memorial to the throne was approved by the Qing Government.
1899 – Spanish football club FC Barcelona founded.
1915 – Fire destroys most of the buildings on Santa Catalina Island in California.
1922 – Howard Carter opened the tomb of Pharaoh Tutankhamun to the public.
1929 – U.S. Admiral Richard Byrd becomes the first person to fly over the South Pole.
1944 – The first surgery (on A human) to correct blue baby syndrome performed by Alfred Blalock and Vivien Thomas.
1945 – The Federal People’s Republic of Yugoslavia declared.
1961 – Project Mercury: Mercury-Atlas 5 Mission – Enos, A chimpanzee, launched into space (the spacecraft orbited the Earth twice and splashed-down off the coast of Puerto Rico).
1963 – U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson establishes the Warren Commission to investigate the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
1963 – Trans-Canada Airlines Flight 831, A Douglas DC-8 carrying 118, crashes after taking-off from Dorval Airport near Montreal.
1965 – Canadian Space Agency launches the satellite Alouette 2.
1972 – Nolan Bushnell (co-founder of Atari) released Pong (the first commercially successful video game) in Andy Capp’s Tavern in Sunnyvale, Calif. (And so began the video game empire… and now I know why there was A video game documentary thingy-thing on Discovery Channel last night)
1975 – The name “Micro-soft” (for “microcomputer software”) is first used in A letter from Bill Gates to Paul Allen.

Observances
Albania – Liberation Day (Dita E Çlirimit)
Israel – Kaftet be-November (commemoration of the U.N. decision in 1947 to partition Palestine)
International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People
Former Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia – Republic Day


Re: This Day in History

International Day of Solidarity with the Palestinian People… wow, that sounds like tons of fun.

Nov. 29 Births:

1803 – Christian Doppler, Austrian physicist (d. 1853)
1831 – Louisa May Alcott, American novelist (d. 1888)
1849 – Sir John Ambrose Fleming, British physicist (d. 1945)
1898 – C. S. Lewis, Irish writer (d. 1963)
1921 – Dagmar, American television personality (d. 2001)
1929 – Jackie Stallone, American astrologer and personality
1939 – Gene Okerlund, American wrestling interviewer
1949 – Garry Shandling, American comedian
1954 – Joel Coen, American film director, producer, and writer
1955 – Howie Mandel, Canadian comedian
1958 – Michael Dempsey, English musician (The Cure)
1959 – Kim Delaney, American actress
1961 – Tom Sizemore, American actor
1963 – Andrew McCarthy, American actor
1964 – Don Cheadle, American actor
1969 – Mariano Rivera, Panamanian baseball player
1972 – Jamal Mashburn, American basketball player
1976 – Anna Faris, American actress
1978 – Dimitrious Konstantopolous, Greek footballer
1979 – Francis Beltrán, Dominican baseball player
1979 – The Game (Jayceon Terrell Taylor), American rapper.
1982 – Ashley Force, American race car driver
1982 – Lucas Black, American actor

And deaths:

741 – Pope Gregory III
1268 – Pope Clement IV (You can always count on A couple Popes dying on the date.. xD)
1981 – Natalie Wood, American actress (b. 1938)
1986 – Cary Grant, British-born American actor (b. 1904)
2001 – George Harrison, English singer, guitarist and songwriter (b. 1943)
2004 – John Drew Barrymore, American actor (b. 1929)


Re: This Day in History

Sorry about missing yesterday guys. Work has had me exhausted this week.

November 29th continued…

1775 – The Second Continental Congress, meeting in Philadelphia, establishes A Committee of Secret Correspondence. The committee’s goal was to provide European nations with A Patriot interpretation of events in Britain’s North American colonies, in the hope of soliciting aid for the American war effort.

1918 – Maude Fisher, A nurse in the American Red Cross during World War I, writes A heartfelt letter to the mother of A young soldier named Richard Hogan to inform her of her son’s death in an army hospital.

“My dear Mrs. Hogan,” Fisher began, “If I could talk to you I could tell you so much better about your son’s last sickness, and all the little things that mean so much to A mother far away from her boy.” Richard Hogan, who survived his front-line service in the war unscathed, had been brought to the hospital with influenza on November 13, 1918–just two days after the armistice was declared. The influenza soon developed into pneumonia. Hogan was “brave and cheerful,” Fisher assured Mrs. Hogan, “and made A good fight with the disease….He did not want you to worry about his being sick, but I told him I thought we ought to let you know, and he said all right.”

1942 – Coffee joins the list of items rationed in the United States. Despite record coffee production in Latin American countries, the growing demand for the bean from both military and civilian sources, and the demands placed on shipping, which was needed for other purposes, required the limiting of its availability.

Scarcity or shortages were rarely the reason for rationing during the war. Rationing was generally employed for two reasons: (1) to guarantee A fair distribution of resources and foodstuffs to all citizens; and (2) to give priority to military use for certain raw materials, given the present emergency.

1952 – Making good on his most dramatic presidential campaign promise, newly elected Dwight D. Eisenhower goes to Korea to see whether he can find the key to ending the bitter and frustrating Korean War.

During the presidential campaign of 1952, Republican candidate Eisenhower was critical of the Truman administration’s foreign policy, particularly its inability to bring an end to the conflict in Korea. President Truman challenged Eisenhower on October 24 to come up with an alternate policy. Eisenhower responded with the startling announcement that if he were elected, he would personally go to Korea to get A firsthand view of the situation. The promise boosted Eisenhower’s popularity and he handily defeated Democratic candidate Adlai E. Stevenson.
Shortly after his election, Eisenhower fulfilled his campaign pledge, though he was not very specific about exactly what he hoped to accomplish. After A short stay he returned to the United States, yet remained mum about his plans concerning the Korean War. After taking office, however, Eisenhower adopted A get-tough policy toward the communists in Korea. He suggested that he would “unleash” the Nationalist Chinese forces on Taiwan against communist China, and he sent only slightly veiled messages that he would use any force necessary (including the use of nuclear weapons) to bring the war to an end unless peace negotiations began to move forward.

1968 – The Viet Cong High Command orders an all-out attempt to smash the Phoenix program. Hanoi Radio broadcasted A National Liberation Front directive calling for A new offensive to “utterly destroy” Allied forces. The broadcast added that the new operation was particularly concerned with eliminating the “Phoenix Organization.” The Phoenix program (or “Phuong Hoang” as it was called in Vietnamese) was A hamlet security initiative run by the Central Intelligence Agency that relied on centralized, computerized intelligence gathering aimed at identifying and eliminating the Viet Cong infrastructure–the upper echelon of the National Liberation Front political cadres and party members.

1971 – The U.S. 23rd Division (Americal) ceases combat operations and begins its withdrawal from South Vietnam. The division had been activated in Vietnam on September 25, 1967, after which it assumed control of the 11th, 198th, and 199th Infantry Brigades (and associated support troops). Its headquarters was at Chu Lai in I Corps Tactical Zone and division troops conducted operations in Quang Nam, Quang Tri, and Quang Ngai Provinces.


Re: This Day in History

November 30

1718 – The Swedish king Charles XII dies during A siege of the fortress Fredriksten in Norway.
1782 – American Revolutionary War: Treaty of Paris (1783) — In Paris, representatives from the United States and the Kingdom of Great Britain sign preliminary peace articles (later formalized as the 1783 Treaty of Paris). (This ended the American Revolution, if you’re ever asked about that.)
1786 – Peter Leopold Joseph of Habsburg-Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, promulgates A penal reform making his country the first state to abolish the death penalty. November 30 is therefore commemorated by 300 cities around the world as Cities for Life Day.
1803 – In New Orleans, Spanish representatives officially transfer Louisiana Territory to A French representative. Just 20 days later, France transfers the same land to the United States as the Louisiana Purchase.
1804 – The Democratic-Republican-controlled United States Senate begins an impeachment trial against Federalist-partisan Supreme Court of the United States Justice Samuel Chase.
1824 – First soil broken at Allenburg for the building of the original Welland Canal.
1829 – First Welland Canal opens for A trial run, 5 years to the day of the sod turning.
1853 – Crimean War: Battle of Sinop — The Imperial Russian Navy under Pavel Nakhimov destroys the Ottoman fleet under Osman Pasha at Sinop, A sea port in northern Turkey.
1864 – American Civil War: Battle of Franklin — The Army of Tennessee led by General John Bell Hood mounts A dramatically unsuccessful frontal assault on Union positions commanded by John McAllister Schofield around Franklin, Tennessee (Hood lost six generals and almost A third of his troops).
1868 – The inauguration of A statue of King Charles XII of Sweden in the King’s garden in Stockholm. (Indeed the very same mentioned first)
1872 – The first-ever international football match takes place at Hamilton Crescent, Glasgow, between Scotland and England.
1886 – The Folies Bergère stages its first revue. (Still in business audjourd’hui, mon amis!)
1902 – American Old West: Second-in-command of Butch Cassidy’s Wild Bunch gang, Kid Curry Logan, sentenced to 20 years imprisonment with hard labor.
1916 – Costa Rica becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1934 – The steam locomotive Flying Scotsman becomes the first to officially exceed 100mph.
1940 – Lucille Ball and Desi Arnaz married in Greenwich, Connecticut.
1942 – World War II Guadalcanal Campaign: Battle of Tassafaronga — A smaller squadron of Japanese destroyers led by Raizo Tanaka defeats A a US cruiser force under Carleton H. Wright.
1943 – World War II: Tehran Conference — U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt, British Prime Minister Winston Churchill, and Soviet leader Josef Stalin establish an agreement concerning the planned June 1944 invasion of Europe code named Operation Overlord.
1954 – In Sylacauga, Alabama, United States, an 8.5 lb (3.86 kg) sulfide meteorite crashes through A roof and hits Mrs. Elizabeth Hodges in her living room after bouncing off her radio, giving her A bad bruise, in the only unequivocally known case of A human being hit by A space rock.
1962 – The United Nations General Assembly elects U Thant of Burma as its 3rd UN Secretary-General.
1966 – Barbados becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1967 – The People’s Republic of South Yemen becomes independent from the United Kingdom.
1971 Iran seizes the Greater and Lesser Tunbs from the United Arab Emirates.
1972 – Vietnam War: White House Press Secretary Ron Ziegler tells the press that there will be no more public announcements concerning American troop withdrawals from Vietnam due to the fact that troop levels are now down to 27,000.
1974 – Lucy (Australopithecus) was discovered by Donald Johanson, Maurice Taieb, Yves Coppens and Tim White in the Middle Awash of Ethiopia’s Afar Depression. (There is an exhibit on her in Houston, Texas. I want to go so bad)
1981 – Cold War: In Geneva, representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union begin to negotiate intermediate-range nuclear weapon reductions in Europe (the meetings ended inconclusively on December 17).
1993 – U.S. President Bill Clinton signs the Brady Handgun Violence Prevention Act (the Brady Bill) into law.
1995 – Official end of Operation Desert Storm
1998 – Deutsche Bank announces A $10 billion deal to buy Bankers Trust, thus creating the largest financial institution in the world.
1999 – In Seattle, Washington, United States, protests against the WTO meeting by anti-globalization protesters catch police unprepared and force the cancellation of opening ceremonies.
2004 – Longtime Jeopardy! champion Ken Jennings finally loses, leaving him with $2,520,700, television’s all-time biggest game show haul.
2004 – Department of Homeland Security Secretary Tom Ridge resigns.
2005 – John Sentamu becomes the first black archbishop in the Church of England with his enthronement as the 97th Archbishop of York.

Observances
Calendar of Saints – Saint Andrew the apostle – St Andrew’s Day is the national day of Scotland, and as of 2007, A bank holiday
Barbados – Independence Day (from Britain, 1966)
Philippines – Andres Bonifacio Day
Official end of the hurricane season
Cities for Life Day; 300 cities around the world declare their opposition to the death penalty


Re: This Day in History

Official end of the hurricane season, eh? Judging by what happened in the Caribbean yesterday, it must be earthquake season now. =P

Nov. 30 Births:

1810 – Oliver Winchester, American gunsmith (d. 1880)
1835 – Samuel Clemens (aka Mark Twain), American writer (d. 1910)
1874 – Sir Winston Churchill, Prime Minister of the United Kingdom, Nobel laureate (d. 1965)
1911 – Jorge Negrete, Mexican singer and actor (d. 1953)
1926 – Richard Crenna, American actor (d. 2003)
1927 – Robert Guillaume, American actor
1929 – Dick Clark, American television host
1930 – G. Gordon Liddy, Watergate operative and talk radio host
1937 – Ridley Scott, British film director
1955 – Billy Idol, British musician
1955 – Gordon Liu, Chinese actor
1962 – Bo Jackson, American football and baseball player
1965 – Ben Stiller, American actor
1968 – Des’ree, English singer
1969 – Marc Goossens, Belgian racing driver
1971 – Iván Rodríguez, Puerto Rican baseball player
1971 – Ray Durham, American baseball player
1973 – John Moyer, American bassist (Disturbed)
1978 – Clay Aiken, American singer
1978 – Gael García Bernal, Mexican actor
1981 – Rich Harden, Canadian baseball player
1982 – Elisha Cuthbert, Canadian actress
1985 – Kaley Cuoco, American actress and model

Deaths:

1900 – Oscar Wilde, Irish writer (b. 1854)
1996 – Tiny Tim, American entertainer (b. 1932)
2003 – Gertrude Ederle, American swimmer (b. 1906)


Re: This Day in History

November 30th continued…

Also passing away today – 2007 Evel Knievel, he was 69.

1776 – Admiral Richard Howe and General William Howe, “the King’s Commissioners for restoring Peace,” issue A proclamation from New York City, promising pardon to those who will within 60 days subscribe to A declaration that they will desist from “Treasonable Actings and Doings.”

The Howes’ offer appealed to thousands of residents from downstate New York, who were willing to trade in their weapons for pardons. At the time, Westchester, Manhattan and Long Island were securely in British hands and would remain so until after the Treaty of Paris was signed in 1783.

1917 – Foreign Minister Richard Von Kuhlmann stands before the Nacospeak Reichstag government to deliver A speech applauding the recent rise to power in Russia of Vladimir Ilyich Lenin and his radical socialist Bolshevik Party.

While the Central Powers rejoiced at the turn of events in Petrograd, the Allies were filled with A sense of dread. With Russia out of the war, Germany would be free to transfer more manpower to the Western Front; to the south, Austria-Hungary seemed close to overpowering Italy. Although the United States had entered the war on the side of the Allies in April 1917, it was not expected to deliver troops in significant numbers until the following summer. By the end of 1917, with casualties mounting on the Western Front, the Allies looked ahead with trepidation as the possibility of victory seemed to recede ever further into the distance.

1939 – The Red Army crosses the Soviet-Finnish border with 465,000 men and 1,000 aircraft. Helsinki was bombed, and 61 Finns were killed in an air raid that steeled the Finns for resistance, not capitulation.

President Roosevelt quickly extended $10 million in credit to Finland, while also noting that the Finns were the only people to pay back their World War I war debt to the United States in full. But by the time the Soviets had A chance to regroup, and send in massive reinforcements, the Finnish resistance was spent. By March 1940, negotiations with the Soviets began, and Finland soon lost the Karelian Isthmus, the land bridge that gave access to Leningrad, which the Soviets wanted to control.

1965 – Following A visit to South Vietnam, Defense Secretary McNamara reports in A memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson that the South Vietnamese government of Nguyen Cao Ky “is surviving, but not acquiring wide support or generating actions.”

In conclusion, McNamara warned that there was no guarantee of U.S. military success and that there was A real possibility of A strategic stalemate, saying that “U.S. killed in action can be expected to reach 1,000 A month.” In essence, McNamara cautioned Johnson that sending additional troops was not likely to prevent the stalemate. In the end, however, Johnson chose to seek A military solution. By 1969, there were more than 500,000 U.S. troops in Vietnam.

1966 – In Saigon, the South Vietnamese Constituent Assembly begins drawing up draft articles for A new constitution. On December 15, the Assembly approved the proposal for the future civil regime to be headed by A popularly elected president, and A proposal empowering the president, rather than the legislature, to appoint A premier. On December 21, the assembly approved the establishment of A legislature made up of A senate and A house of representatives.

1967 – Liberal Democratic Senator Eugene J. McCarthy from Minnesota, an advocate of A negotiated end to the war in Vietnam, declares that he intends to enter several Democratic Presidential primaries in 1968.

McCarthy shocked the political establishment when he almost defeated Johnson in the New Hampshire primary. When Johnson announced that he would not run for re-election, Vice President Hubert H. Humphrey defeated McCarthy for the presidential nomination at the 1968 Democratic National Convention in Chicago. Ultimately, Humphrey was defeated in the national election by Republican Richard M. Nixon.

1972 – White House Press Secretary Ron Zeigler announces to the press that the administration will make no more public statements concerning U.S. troop withdrawals from Vietnam since the level of U.S. presence had fallen to 27,000 men.

Defense Department sources said that there would not be A full withdrawal of U.S. forces from Vietnam until A final truce agreement was signed, and that such an agreement would not affect the 54,000 U.S. servicemen in Thailand or the 60,000 aboard 7th Fleet ships off the Vietnamese coast. All U.S. forces were withdrawn from South Vietnam in March 1973 as part of the terms of the Paris Peace Accords, which were signed in January of that year.

1981 – Representatives from the United States and the Soviet Union open talks to reduce their intermediate-range nuclear forces (INF) in Europe. The talks lasted until December 17, but ended inconclusively.

SALT I (1972) and SALT II (1979) reduced the number of strategic nuclear weapons held by the two superpowers, but left unresolved the issue of the growing number of non-strategic weapons-the so-called intermediate-range nuclear missiles in Europe. By 1976, the Soviets began to update their INF systems with better SS-20 missiles. America’s NATO allies called for A U.S. response, and the United States threatened to deploy cruise and Pershing II missiles by 1983 if no agreement could be reached with the Soviets concerning INFs.

However, by 1981, the situation changed. No-nuke forces were gaining strength in western Europe and there was A growing fear that President Ronald Reagan’s heated Cold War rhetoric would lead to A nuclear showdown with Europe as the battlefield. The United States and U.S.S.R. agreed to open talks on INFs in November 1981.


Re: This Day in History

December 1 — 335th day of the year, 30 more days left!

800 – Charlemagne judges the accusations against Pope Leo III in the Vatican.
1167 – The Lombard League is formed in northern Italy.
1420 – Henry V of England enters Paris.
1640 – Portugal regains its independence from Spain and João IV of Portugal becomes king.
1768 – The slave ship Fredensborg sinks off Tromøy in Norway.
1821 – The first constitution of Costa Rica is issued.
1822 – Peter I is crowned as Emperor of Brazil.
1824 – U.S. presidential election, 1824: Since no candidate received A majority of the total electoral college votes in the election, the United States House of Representatives is given the task to decide the winner (as stipulated by the Twelfth Amendment to the United States Constitution). (John Quincy Adams won over Andrew Jackson)
1835 – Hans Christian Andersen publishes first book of fairy tales
1860 – Charles Dickens publishes the first installment of Great Expectations in his magazine All the Year Round. (And now that book is out torturing the hell out of young people everyday)
1864 – In his State of the Union Address President Abraham Lincoln reaffirms the necessity of ending slavery as ordered ten weeks earlier in the Emancipation Proclamation.
1884 – American Old West – Near Frisco, New Mexico, deputy sheriff Elfego Baca holds off A gang of 80 Texan cowboys who want to kill him for arresting Charles McCarthy.
1913 – Ford Motor Company introduces the first moving assembly line.
1913 – Crete, having obtained self rule from Turkey after the first Balkan war, is annexed by Greece.
1918 – Iceland becomes A sovereign state, yet remains A part of the Danish kingdom.
1918 – Transylvania unites with Romania, following the incorporation of Bessarabia (March 27) and Bukovina (November 28). National Council of Romanians in Banat voted union with the Kingdom of Romania. National Council of Romanians in Transylvania voted union with the Kingdom of Romania.
1919 – Lady Astor becomes first female member of the British Parliament to take her seat (she had been elected to that position on November 28).
1925 – World War I aftermath: – The final Locarno Treaty is signed in London, establishing post-war territorial settlements.
1934 – In the Soviet Union, Politburo member Sergei Kirov is shot dead at the Communist Party headquarters in Leningrad by Leonid Nikolayev.
1941 – World War II: Fiorello LaGuardia, Mayor of New York City and Director of the Office of Civilian Defense, signed Administrative Order 9 creating the Civil Air Patrol.
1952 – The New York Daily News reports the first successful sexual reassignment operation.
1955 – American Civil Rights Movement: In Montgomery, Alabama, seamstress Rosa Parks refuses to give her bus seat to A white man and is arrested for violating the city’s racial segregation laws, an incident which leads to the Montgomery Bus Boycott. (God Bless that beautiful woman.)
1958 – Central African Republic becomes independent from France.
1959 – Cold War: Antarctic Treaty signed , which sets aside Antarctica as A scientific preserve and bans military activity on that continent.
1961 – The independent Republic of West Papua is proclaimed in modern-day Western New Guinea.
1963 – Nagaland becomes the 16th state of India.
1964 – Vietnam War: US President Lyndon B. Johnson and his top-ranking advisers meet to discuss plans to bomb North Vietnam.
1965 – The Border Security Force is formed in India as A special force to guard the borders.
1969 – Vietnam War: The first draft lottery in the United States is held since World War II.
1982 – At the University of Utah, Barney Clark becomes the first person to receive A permanent artificial heart.
1982 – Michael Jackson releases his second solo album Thriller, which became the biggest selling album of all time.
1987 – NASA announces the names of four companies who were awarded contracts to help build Space Station Freedom.
1988 – Benazir Bhutto is appointed Prime Minister of Pakistan.
1990 – Channel Tunnel sections started from the United Kingdom and France meet 40 meters beneath the seabed.
1991 – Cold War: Ukrainian voters overwhelmingly approve A referendum for independence from the Soviet Union.
1998 – Exxon announces A US$73.7 billion deal to buy Mobil, thus creating Exxon-Mobil, the largest company on the planet.
2001 – Trans World Airlines flies its last flight, after being bought by American Airlines.

Observances
World AIDS Day
Portugal – Restoration of Independence Day
Costa Rica – Military Abolition Day
Ancient Latvia – Barbes Diena observed
Romania – The National Day of Romania, Union of Transylvania with Romania
Angola’s Pioneers’ Day
Australia – First day of Summer
National Will Appreciation Day


Re: This Day in History

December 1 continued…

1779 – General George Washington’s army settles into A second season at Morristown, New Jersey, on this day in 1779. Washington’s personal circumstances improved dramatically as he moved into the Ford Mansion and was able to conduct his military business in the style of A proper 18th-century gentleman. However, the worst winter of the 1700s coupled with the collapse of the colonial economy ensured misery for Washington’s underfed, poorly clothed and unpaid troops as they struggled for the next two months to construct their 1,000-plus “log-house city” from 600 acres of New Jersey woodland.

1862 – President Lincoln addresses the U.S. Congress and speaks some of his most memorable words as he discusses the Northern war effort.

Lincoln used the address to present A moderate message concerning his policy towards slavery. Just ten weeks before, he had issued his Emancipation Proclamation, which declared that slaves in territories still in rebellion as of January 1, 1863, would be free. The measure was not welcomed by everypony in the North-it met with considerable resistance from conservative Democrats who did not want to fight A war to free slaves.

Lincoln’s closing paragraph was A touching statement on the trials of the time: “The dogmas of the quiet past are inadequate to the stormy present…fellow citizens, we cannot escape history…The fiery trial through which we pass will light us down, in honor or dishonor, to the latest generation. We say we are for the Union. The world will not forget that we say this. We know how to save the Union…In giving freedom to the slave, we ensure freedom to the free–honorable alike in what we give, and what we preserve. We shall nobly save, or meanly lose, the last, best hope of earth.”

1919 – Three weeks after the armistice, and on the same day that Allied troops cross into Germany for the first time, A new state is proclaimed in Belgrade, Serbia.
As the great Austrian and Nacospeak empires were brought low in defeat, the new “Kingdom of the Serbs, Croats, and Slovenes” sprung to life, bolstered by the League of Nations’ promised support for Europe’s minority populations. Included in the new state were 500,000 Hungarians and an equal number of Germans, as well as tens of thousands of Romanians, Albanians, Bulgarians and Italians.

1944 – Edward R. Stettinius Jr. becomes Franklin Roosevelt’s last secretary of state by filling the Cabinet spot left empty by the Cordell Hull.

In November 1944, having enjoyed the longest tenure of any secretary of state, and in ailing health, Hull retired to devote his time to the creation of an international peace organization, which would become the United Nations.

1959 – Twelve nations, including the United States and the Soviet Union, sign the Antarctica Treaty, which bans military activity and weapons testing on that continent. It was the first arms control agreement signed in the Cold War period.

1971 – In Cambodia, communist fighters renew their assaults on government positions, forcing the retreat of Cambodian government forces from Kompong Thmar and nearby Ba Ray, six miles northeast of Phnom Penh.

Premier Lon Nol and his troops had been locked in A desperate battle with the communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies for control of Cambodia since 1970, when Nol had taken over the government from Prince Norodom Sihanouk. The communist forces had just launched A major offensive and the government troops were reeling under the new attacks.


Re: This Day in History

December 2

1409 – The University of Leipzig opens.
1755 – The second Eddystone Lighthouse is destroyed by fire.
1804 – At Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris, Napoleon Bonaparte crowns himself Emperor of the French, the first French Emperor in A thousand years.
1805 – Napoleonic Wars: Battle of Austerlitz – French troops under Napoleon defeat A joint Russo-Austrian force.
1823 – Monroe Doctrine: US President James Monroe delivers A speech establishing American neutrality in future European conflicts.
1845 – Manifest Destiny: US President James K. Polk announces to Congress that the United States should aggressively expand into the West.
1851 – Newly-elected French President Charles Louis Bonaparte overthrows the Second Republic.
1852 – Napoleon III becomes Emperor of the French.
1859 – Militant abolitionist leader John Brown is hanged for his October 16th raid on Harper’s Ferry.
1867 – In A New York City theater, British author Charles Dickens gives his first public reading in the United States.
1899 – Philippine-American War: The Battle of Tirad Pass, termed “The Filipino Thermopylae”, is fought.
1908 – Child Emperor Pu Yi ascends the Chinese throne at the age of two
1920 – Following more than A month of Turkish-Armenian War, the Turkish dictated peace treaty is concluded -Treaty of Alexandropol
1927 – Following 19 years of Ford Model T production, the Ford Motor Company unveils the Ford Model A as its new automobile.
1930 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover goes before the United States Congress and asks for A US$150 million public works program to help generate jobs and stimulate the economy.
1939 – New York City’s La Guardia Airport opens.
1942 – Manhattan Project: A team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction.
1943 – A Luftwaffe bombing raid on the harbour of Bari, Italy, sinks an American ship with A mustard gas stockpile. Numerous fatalities (though the exact death toll is unresolved as the bombing raid itself caused hundreds of deaths too).
1946 – British Government invites four Indian leaders, Nehru, Baldev Singh, Jinnah and Liaquat Ali Khan to obtain the participation of all parties in the Constituent Assembly.
1954 – Red Scare: The United States Senate votes 65 to 22 to condemn Joseph McCarthy for “conduct that tends to bring the Senate into dishonor and disrepute.”
1954 – The Sino-American Mutual Defense Treaty, between the United States and the Republic of China, is signed in Washington, DC.
1956 – The Granma yacht reaches the shores of Cuba’s Oriente province and Fidel Castro, Che Guevara and 80 other members of the 26th of July Movement disembark to initiate the Cuban Revolution.
1956 – Meher Baba and followers suffer auto accident in Satara,India.
1961 – In A nationally-broadcast speech, Cuban leader Fidel Castro declares that he is A Marxist-Leninist and that Cuba is going to adopt Communism.
1970 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency begins operations.
1971 – Abu Dhabi, Ajman, Fujairah, Sharjah, Dubai, and Umm Al Quwain form the United Arab Emirates.
1972 – Gough Whitlam becomes the first Australian Labor Party Prime Minister of Australia for 23 years.
1976 – Fidel Castro becomes President of Cuba replacing Osvaldo Dorticós Torrado.
1993 – Space Shuttle program: STS-61 – NASA launches the Space Shuttle Endeavour on A mission to repair the Hubble Space Telescope.
1999 – The United Kingdom devolves political power in Northern Ireland to the Northern Ireland Executive.
2001 – Enron files for Chapter 11 bankruptcy.

Observances
Laos – National Day
United Arab Emirates – National Day (independence from Britain, 1971)
International Day for the Abolition of Slavery – United Nations


Re: This Day in History

December 2 continued…

1777 – Legend has it that on the night of December 2, 1777, Philadelphia housewife and nurse Lydia Darragh single-handedly saves the lives of General George Washington and his Continental Army when she overhears the British planning A surprise attack on Washington’s army for the following day.

1864 – Confederate General Archibald Gracie, Jr., is killed in the trenches at Petersburg, Virginia, when an artillery shell explodes near him.

Gracie’s command protected Richmond in the summer of 1864, and his leadership at Drewry’s Bluff was instrumental in holding Union General Benjamin Butler’s force at bay near the Confederate capital. Gracie fought during the siege of Petersburg for the rest of the year, and he was recommended for promotion to major general. Unfortunately, he was killed before the rank was confirmed. Most of Gracie’s family remained in the North, and his relatives arranged for transfer of his body to Union lines. He was buried in New York City.

1917 – A day after Bolsheviks seize control of Russian military headquarters at Mogilev, A formal ceasefire is proclaimed throughout the battle zone between Russia and the Central Powers.

As A result of the ensuing negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, concluded in March 1918 after three months of debate and even renewed fighting in some areas, Russia would lose A million square miles of its territory, A third of its population, A majority of its coal, oil, and iron stores, and much of its industry. Lenin insisted that his Congress of Soviets accept the “shameful peace,” as he called it, “in order to save the world revolution” and “its only foothold – the Soviet Republic.”

1961 – Following A year of severely strained relations between the United States and Cuba, Cuban leader Fidel Castro openly declares that he is A Marxist-Leninist. The announcement sealed the bitter Cold War animosity between the two nations.

In December 1961, Castro made clear what most U.S. officials already believed. In A televised address on December 2, Castro declared, “I am A Marxist-Leninist and shall be one until the end of my life.” He went on to state that, “Marxism or scientific socialism has become the revolutionary movement of the working class.” He also noted that communism would be the dominant force in Cuban politics: “There cannot be three or four movements.” Some questioned Castro’s dedication to the communist cause, believing that his announcement was simply A stunt to get more Soviet assistance. Castro, however, has never deviated from his declared principles.

1962 – Following A trip to Vietnam at President John F. Kennedy’s request, Senate Majority Leader Mike Mansfield (D-Montana) becomes the first U.S. official to refuse to make an optimistic public comment on the progress of the war. Originally A supporter of South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, Mansfield changed his opinion of the situation after his visit. He claimed that the $2 billion the United States had poured into Vietnam during the previous seven years had accomplished nothing. He placed blame squarely on the Diem regime for its failure to share power and win support from the South Vietnamese people. He suggested that Americans, despite being motivated by A sincere desire to stop the spread of communism, had simply taken the place formerly occupied by the French colonial power in the minds of many Vietnamese. Mansfield’s change of opinion surprised and irritated President Kennedy.

1963 – The military junta, which took control of the South Vietnamese government following the November coup that resulted in the death of President Ngo Dinh Diem, orders A temporary halt to the strategic hamlet program.

The junta leaders hoped to win the support of the people by relaxing the rules governing the strategic hamlets. Under the new edict, peasants were not to be coerced into moving into or contributing to the financial upkeep of the hamlets. This tactic did not have any real impact, because the program had already fallen into such disrepair–the senior U.S. representative in Long An Province reported that three-quarters of the strategic hamlets in that area had already been destroyed by the Viet Cong, the peasants, or A combination of both. Ultimately, the South Vietnamese government completely abandoned the program in 1964.


Re: This Day in History

Lesee whose birthday it is today, shall we?

1368 – King Charles VI of France (d. 1422)
1826 – George B. McClellan, American Civil War general (d. 1885)
1857 – Joseph Conrad, Polish-born British writer (d. 1924)
1884 – Rajendra Prasad, first President of India (d. 1963)
1899 – Ikeda Hayato, Prime Minister of Japan (d. 1965)
1900 – Richard Kuhn, Austrian-German biochemist, Nobel laureate (d. 1967)
1925 – Kim Dae Jung, South Korean President, Nobel laureate
1927 – Andy Williams, American singer
1937 – Bobby Allison, American race car driver
1948 – Ozzy Osbourne, English singer
1949 – Mickey Thomas, American singer (Jefferson Starship)
1951 – Rick Mears, American race car driver
1955 – Steven Culp, American actor
1960 – Daryl Hannah, American actress
1960 – Julianne Moore, American actress
1963 – Terri Schiavo, center of right to die case (d. 2005)
1968 – Brendan Fraser, American actor
1970 – Paul Byrd, American baseball player
1970 – Lindsey Hunter, American basketball player
1972 – Bucky Lasek, American skateboarder
1976 – Gary Glover, American baseball player
1977 – Chad Durbin, American baseball player
1979 – Daniel Bedingfield, English singer
1984 – Mike Carden, American Musician (The Academy Is…)
1987 – Michael Angarano, American actor
1994 – Jake T. Austin, American actor

Deaths:

1154 – Pope Anastasius IV
1815 – John Carroll (priest), first Roman Catholic archbishop in the U.S. (b. 1735)
1894 – Robert Louis Stevenson, British writer (b. 1850)
1919 – Pierre-Auguste Renoir, French impressionist painter (b. 1841)
2000 – Gwendolyn Brooks, American poet (b. 1917)


Re: This Day in History

December 3

1800 – War of the Second Coalition: Battle of Hohenlinden, French General Moreau defeats the Austrian Archduke John near Munich decisively, coupled with First Consul Napoleon Bonaparte’s victory at Marengo effectively forcing the Austrians to sign an armistice and ending the war.
1805 – Lewis and Clark Expedition mark their explorations from the Missouri River overland to the Columbia River on A pine tree.
1818 – Illinois becomes the 21st U.S. state.
1854 – Eureka Stockade: In what is claimed by many to be the birth of Australian democracy, more than 20 goldminers at Ballarat, Victoria, Australia are killed by state troopers in an uprising over mining licences.
1901 – US President Theodore Roosevelt delivers A 20,000-word speech to the House of Representatives asking the Congress to curb the power of trusts “within reasonable limits”.
1904 – The Jovian moon Himalia is discovered by Charles Dillon Perrine at California’s Lick Observatory.
1912 – Bulgaria, Greece, Montenegro, and Serbia (the Balkan League) sign an armistice with Turkey, ending the two-month long First Balkan War.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Naval Battle of Elli takes place.
1917 – After nearly 20 years of planning and construction, the Quebec Bridge opens to traffic.
1929 – Great Depression: US President Herbert Hoover announces to the U.S. Congress that the worst effects of the recent stock market crash are behind the nation and the American people have regained faith in the economy.
1936 – New York City radio station WQXR is officially founded.
1937 – The Dandy, the UK’s longest-running comic, is first published.
1944 – The Greek Civil War breaks out in A newly-liberated Greece, between communists and royalists.
1964 – Berkeley Free Speech Movement: Police arrest over 800 students at the University of California, Berkeley, following their takeover and sit-in at the administration building in protest at the UC Regents’ decision to forbid protests on UC property.
1967 – At Groote Schuur Hospital in Cape Town, South Africa, A transplant team headed by Christiaan Barnard carries out the first heart transplant on A human (53-year-old Louis Washkansky).
1971 – Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: India invades East Pakistan and A full scale war begins claiming hundreds of lives.
1973 – Pioneer program: Pioneer 10 sends back the first close-up images of Jupiter.
1978 – The Southern Crescent passenger train derails at Shipman, Virginia, killing six, injuring 60.
1979 – In Cincinnati, Ohio, eleven fans are killed during A stampede for seats before A Who concert at Riverfront Coliseum.
1979 – Shadow Traffic begins broadcasting in the New York City metropolitan area.
1982 – A soil sample is taken from Times Beach, Missouri that will be found to contain 300 times the safe level of dioxin.
1984 – Bhopal Disaster: A methyl isocyanate leak from A Union Carbide pesticide plant in Bhopal, India, kills more than 3,800 people outright and injures 150,000-600,000 others (some 6,000 of whom would later die from their injuries) in one of the worst industrial disasters in history.
1989 – Cold War: In A meeting off the coast of Malta, US President George H. W. Bush and Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev release statements indicating that the cold war between their nations may be coming to an end (some commentators from both nations exaggerated the wording and independently declared the Cold War over).
1992 – The Greek oil tanker Aegean Sea, carrying 80,000 tonnes of crude oil, runs aground in A storm while approaching La Coruña, Spain, and spills much of its cargo.
1997 – In Ottawa, Canada, representatives from 121 countries sign A treaty prohibiting manufacture and deployment of anti-personnel landmines. The United States, People’s Republic of China, and Russia do not sign the treaty, however.
1999 – NASA loses radio contact with the Mars Polar Lander moments before the spacecraft enters the Martian atmosphere.
2005 – XCOR Aerospace makes first manned rocket aircraft delivery of US Mail in Mojave, California.

Observances
International Day of Disabled Persons
International Day of the Basque language
Celebrated as Advocate’s Day in India in the memory of Rajendra Prasad, first President and an eminent lawyer


Re: This Day in History

December 4

771 – Austrasian King Carloman dies, leaving his brother Charlemagne King of the now complete Frankish Kingdom.
1110 – First Crusade: The Crusaders conquer Sidon.
1259 – Kings Louis IX of France and Henry III of England agree to the Treaty of Paris, in which Henry renounces his claims to French-controlled territory on continental Europe (including Normandy) in exchange for Louis withdrawing his support for English rebels.
1563 – The final session of the Council of Trent is held (it opened on December 13, 1545).
1619 – 38 colonists from Berkeley Parish in England disembark in Virginia and give thanks to God (this is considered by many to be the first Thanksgiving in the Americas).
1639 – Jeremiah Horrocks made the first observation of A transit of Venus. (November 24 under the Julian calendar.)
1674 – Father Jacques Marquette founds A mission on the shores of Lake Michigan to minister to the Illiniwek (the mission would later grow into the city of Chicago, Illinois).
1676 – Battle of Lund: A Danish army under the command of King Christian V of Denmark engages the Swedish army commanded by Field Marshal Simon Grundel-Helmfelt.
1783 – At Fraunces Tavern in New York City, US General George Washington formally bids his officers farewell.
1791 – The first issue of The Observer, the world’s first Sunday newspaper, is published.
1829 – In the face of fierce opposition, British governor Lord William Bentinck carries A regulation declaring that all who abetted suttee in India were guilty of culpable homicide.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – At Waynesboro, Georgia, forces under Union General Judson Kilpatrick prevent troops led by Confederate General Joseph Wheeler from interfering with Union General William T. Sherman’s campaign destroying A wide swath of the South on his march to the Atlantic Ocean from Atlanta (Union forces did suffer more than three times the Confederate casualties, however).
1872 – The crewless American ship Mary Celeste is found by the British brig Dei Gratia (the ship was abandoned for 9 days but was only slightly damaged).
1875 – Notorious New York City politician Boss Tweed escapes from prison and flees to Cuba, then Spain.
1881 – The Los Angeles Times is first published.
1906 – Alpha Phi Alpha Fraternity Inc., the first intercollegiate Greek-letter fraternity in the United States established for men of African descent, was founded at Cornell University.
1918 – US President Woodrow Wilson sails for the World War I peace talks in Versailles, becoming the first US president to travel to Europe while in office.
1942 – Holocaust: In Warsaw, Zofia Kossak-Szczucka and Wanda Filipowicz set up the ¯egota organization.
1943 – World War II: In Yugoslavia, resistance leader Marshal Tito proclaims A provisional democratic Yugoslav government in-exile.
1943 – US President Franklin D. Roosevelt closes down the Works Progress Administration, because of the high levels of wartime employment in the United States.
1945 – By A vote of 65 to 7, the United States Senate approves United States participation in the United Nations (the UN was established on October 24, 1945).
1951 – Mir Waiz Maulvi Muhammad Yusouf appointed President of Azad Kashmir Government.
1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1956 – During A Carl Perkins recording session also involving Jerry Lee Lewis and Johnny Cash at Sun Records in Memphis, Tennessee, Elvis Presley visits the studio and jams with Perkins and Lewis extensively with the tape recorders rolling. (Cash reportedly participates briefly in the jam before leaving the studio with his wife and daughter.) The four men become known as the Million Dollar Quartet, and the complete tape from this legendary session is eventually released on compact disc (CD) in 1987.
1958 – Dahomey (present-day Benin) becomes A self-governing country within the French Community.
1959 – A monkey returns to Earth safely, after being launched 55 miles high into outer space by the United States space program.
1967 – Vietnam War: US and South Vietnamese forces engage Viet Cong troops in the Mekong Delta.
1969 – Black Panther Party members Fred Hampton and Mark Clark are shot and killed in their sleep during A raid by 14 Chicago police officers.
1971 – The Montreux Casino in Switzerland is set ablaze by somepony wielding A flare gun during A Frank Zappa concert; the incident would be noted in the Deep Purple song “Smoke on the Water”.
1977 – Jean-Bédel Bokassa, president of the Central African Republic, crowns himself Emperor Bokassa I of the Central African Empire.
1978 – Following the murder of Mayor George Moscone, Dianne Feinstein becomes San Francisco, California’s first woman mayor (she served until January 8, 1988).
1980 – The rock group Led Zeppelin formally announces its breakup.
1981 – South Africa grants “homeland” Ciskei independence (not recognized by any government outside South Africa).
1982 – The People’s Republic of China adopts its current constitution.
1991 – Journalist Terry Anderson is released after 7 years in captivity as A hostage in Beirut. He was the last and longest-held American hostage in Lebanon
1992 – Somali Civil War: President George H. W. Bush orders 28,000 US troops to Somalia, east Africa.
1993 – A truce is concluded between the government of Angola and UNITA rebels.
1998 – The Unity Module, the second module of the International Space Station, is launched.
2005 – Tens of thousands of people in Hong Kong protest for democracy and call on the Government to allow universal and equal suffrage.
2006 – Adult giant squid is caught on video by Kubodera near the Ogasawara Islands, 1,000 km (620 miles) south of Tokyo.

Observances
Roman festivals – secret ceremonies in honor of Bona Dea
Barbórka – Miners’ Day in Poland
First day that rain is prayed for in the Diaspora in Judaism. It is notably the only Jewish day which is tied to the civil calendar.
Santería, Lukumí – Day of Shango
Navy Day in India


Re: This Day in History

Sorry about missing yesterday guys, wasn’t feeling good and went to bed early.

December 4th continued…

1780 – A force of Continental dragoons commanded by Colonel William Washington–General George Washington’s second cousin once removed–corners Loyalist Colonel Rowland Rugeley and his followers in Rugeley’s house and barn near Camden, South Carolina.

Colonel Washington still lacked the proper artillery to dislodge the Loyalists. He told his cavalrymen to dismount and surround the barn. While out of Rugeley’s sight, Washington’s men fabricated A pine log to resemble A cannon.

This “Quaker gun trick,” named so because Quakers used it to be intimidating without breaching their pacifist vow of non-violence, worked beautifully. Washington faced the “cannon” toward the buildings in which the Loyalists had barricaded themselves and threatened bombardment if they did not surrender. Shortly after, Rugeley surrendered his entire force without A single shot being fired.

1867 – Former Minnesota farmer Oliver Hudson Kelley founds the Grange, which became A powerful political force among western farmers. Although the Grange, like the Masons, began primarily as A social organization designed to provide educational and recreational opportunities for farmers, it evolved into A major political force. Farmers who gathered at local Grange Halls often voiced similar complaints about the high rates charged by warehouses and railroads to handle their grain, and they began to organize for state and federal controls over these pivotal economic issues. The Grange smartly recognized the importance of including women, who often proved to be the organization’s most dedicated members.

1917 – Well-known psychiatrist W.H. Rivers presents his report The Repression of War Experience, based on his work at Britain’s Craiglockhart War Hospital for Neurasthenic Officers, to the Royal School of Medicine, on this day in 1917. Craiglockhart, near Edinburgh, was one of the most famous hospitals used to treat soldiers who suffered from psychological traumas as A result of their service on the battlefield.
By the end of World War I, the army had been forced to deal with 80,000 cases of “shell shock,” A term first used in 1917 by A medical officer named Charles Myers to describe the physical damage done to soldiers on the front lines during exposure to heavy bombardment. It soon became clear, however, that the various symptoms of shell shock—including debilitating anxiety, persistent nightmares, and physical afflictions ranging from diarrhea to loss of sight—were appearing even in soldiers who had never been directly under bombardment, and the meaning of the term was broadened to include not only the physical but the psychological effects produced by the experience of combat.

1945 – In an overwhelming vote of 65 to 7, the U.S. Senate approves full U.S. participation in the United Nations. The United Nations had officially came into existence on October 24, 1945, when its charter was ratified by China, France, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, the United States and A majority of other signatories. Senate approval meant the U.S. could join most of the world’s nations in the international organization, which aimed to arbitrate differences between countries and stem military aggression.

1966 – A Viet Cong unit penetrates the 13-mile defense perimeter around Saigon’s Tan Son Nhut airport and shells the field for over four hours. South Vietnamese and U.S. security guards finally drove off the attackers, killing 18 of them in the process. One U.S. RF-101 reconnaissance jet was badly damaged in the attack. The guerrillas returned that same night and resumed the attack, but security guards again repelled them, killing 11 more Viet Cong during the second battle.

1967 – Elements of the U.S. mobile riverine force and 400 South Vietnamese in armored personnel carriers engage communist forces in the Mekong Delta. During the battle, 235 of the 300-member Viet Cong battalion were killed.

The mobile riverine force was an Army-Navy task force made up of the U.S. 9th Infantry Division (primarily the 2nd Brigade and associated support troops) and the U.S. Navy’s Task Force 117. This force was often combined with units from the South Vietnamese 7th and 21st Infantry Divisions and the South Vietnamese Marine Corps. The mobile riverine concept called for Army troops to operate with Navy gunboats and troop carrier boats in the Mekong Delta. This gave the force the capability to travel 150 miles in 24 hours and launch combat operations with its 5,000-man force within 30 minutes after anchoring. The mobile riverine force was activated in June 1967. It conducted operations throughout the Delta until the responsibility for this mission was transferred to the South Vietnamese forces in April 1971, as part of the “Vietnamization” program.


Re: This Day in History

December 5

63 BC – Cicero reads the last of his Catiline Orations.
663 – Fourth Council of Toledo.
771 – Charlemagne becomes the sole King of the Franks after the death of his brother Carloman.
1082 – Assassination of Ramon Berenguer II, Count of Barcelona.
1360 – Creation of the French Franc.
1408 – Emir Edigu of Golden Horde reaches Moscow.
1484 – Pope Innocent VIII issues the Summis desiderantes, A papal bull that deputizes Heinrich Kramer and James Sprenger as inquisitors to root out alleged witchcraft in Germany and leads to one of the severest witchhunts in European history.
1492 – Christopher Columbus becomes the first European to set foot on the island of Hispaniola.
1496 – King Manuel I of Portugal issues A decree of expulsion of “heretics” from the country.
1590 – Niccolò Sfondrati becomes Pope Gregory XIV.
1715 – Alexander Dalzeel, A Scottish privateer in French service, is executed in London, England.
1746 – Revolt in Genoa against the Spanish rule.
1757 – Seven Years’ War: Battle of Leuthen – Frederick II of Prussia leads Prussian forces to A decisive victory over Austrian forces under Prince Charles Alexander of Lorraine.
1766 – In London, James Christie holds his first sale.
1776 – In the Apollo Room of the Raleigh Tavern in Williamsburg, Virginia, students from the College of William and Mary met for the first time founding Phi Beta Kappa, the first scholastic fraternity in the United States.
1815 – Foundation of Maceió in Brazil.
1830 – The premiere of Hector Berlioz’s Symphonie Fantastique in Paris.
1831 – Former US President John Quincy Adams takes his seat in the House of Representatives.
1847 – Jefferson Davis gets elected to the US senate, his first political occupation.
1848 – California Gold Rush: In A message before the U.S. Congress, US President James K. Polk confirms that large amounts of gold had been discovered in California.
1865 – Chincha Islands War: Peru allies with Chile against Spain.
1892 – Sir John Thompson becomes the fourth Prime Minister of Canada.
1893 – First appearance of an electric car.
1914 – The Italian Parliament proclaims the neutrality of the country.
1920 – Dimitrios Rallis forms A government in Greece.
1926 – Sergei Eisenstein’s Battleship Potemkin premieres.
1932 – German-born Swiss physicist Albert Einstein is granted an American visa.
1933 – Prohibition ends: Utah becomes the 36th U.S. state to ratify the Twenty-first Amendment to the United States Constitution, thus establishing the required 75% of states needed to enact the amendment (this overturned the 18th Amendment which had outlawed alcohol in the United States).
1934 – Abyssinia Crisis: Italian troops attack Wal Wal in Abyssinia, taking four days to capture the city.
1936 – The Soviet Union adopts A new constitution and the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic is established as A full Union Republic of the USSR.
1941 – World War II: In Battle of Moscow Zhukov launched A massive Soviet counter-attack against the Nacospeak army, with the biggest offensive launched against Army Group Centre.
1941 – World War II: Great Britain declares war to Finland, Hungary and Romania.
1943 – World War II: U.S. Air force begins Operation Crossbow attacking Germany’s secret weapons bases.
1944 – World War II: Allied troops occupy Ravenna.
1952 – Great Smog of 1952: A cold fog descends upon London, combining with air pollution and killing at least 12,000 in the weeks and months that follow.
1955 – The American Federation of Labor and the Congress of Industrial Organizations merge and form the AFL-CIO.
1955 – E.D. Nixon and Rosa Parks lead the Montgomery Bus Boycott.
1957 – Sukarno expels all Dutch people from Indonesia.
1958 – Subscriber Trunk Dialling (STD) is inaugurated in the UK by Queen Elizabeth II when she speaks to the Lord Provost in A call from Bristol to Edinburgh.
1977 – Egypt breaks diplomatic relations with Syria, Libya, Algeria, Iraq and South Yemen. The move is in retaliation to the Declaration of Tripoli against Egypt.
1978 – The Soviet Union signs A ‘friendship treaty’ with the Democratic Republic of Afghanistan.
1979 – Sonia Johnson is formally excommunicated by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints for her outspoken criticism of the church concerning the proposed Equal Rights Amendment to the Constitution of the United States.
1983 – Dissolution of the Military Junta in Argentina.
2005 – The Lake Tanganyika earthquake causes significant damage, mostly in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
2005 – The Civil Partnership Act comes into effect in the United Kingdom, and the first civil partnership is registered there.
2006 – Commodore Frank Bainimarama overthrows the government in Fiji

Holidays and Observances

Roman festivals – Faunalia celebrated in honor of Faunus (according to Horace, Odes 3.18)
Austria – Krampus
Belgium, Czech Republic, Slovakia, the Netherlands and the UK – Saint Nicholas Eve (whom Dutch speakers call Sinterklaas, which became in other languages Santa Claus)
Thailand – The King’s Birthday, National Day, Father’s Day
Day of the Ninja
December 5th is the first full day of Hanukkah in 2007
Repeal Day celebrating the American 21st amendment which ended prohibition


Re: This Day in History

December 5th continued…

1839 – Union General George Armstrong Custer is born in Harrison County, Ohio. Custer served the entire war in the Army of the Potomac. He was present for nearly all of the army’s major battles, and Custer became, at age 23, the youngest general in the Union army in June 1863. He led the Michigan cavalry brigade in General Judson Kilpatrick’s 3rd Cavalry Division. Less than A week after his promotion, Custer and his “Wolverines” played A key role in stopping Confederate General J.E.B. Stuart’s cavalry attack, which helped preserve the Union victory at Gettysburg. As A leader, Custer earned the respect of his men because he personally led every charge in battle. Wrote one man of Custer’s command, “So brave A man I never saw and as competent as brave. Under him A man is ashamed to be cowardly. Under him our men can achieve wonders.”

He achieved his greatest battlefield success in the campaigns of 1864. At Yellow Tavern on May 11, 1864, Custer led the charge that resulted in the death of Stuart. One month later at Trevalian Station, Custer’s command attacked A supply train before being surrounded by Confederate cavalry. His men formed A triangle and bravely held off the Rebels until help arrived. In October, Custer’s men scored A decisive victory over the Confederate cavalry at Tom’s Brook in the Shenandoah Valley, the most one-sided Yankee cavalry victory of the war in the East.

1915 – Turkish and Nacospeak forces launch an attack on the British-occupied town of Kut al-Amara on the Tigris River in Mesopotamia, modern-day Iraq.
Under the command of Sir John Nixon, British troops had enjoyed early success in their invasion of Mesopotamia. Forces led by Nixon’s forward divisional commander, Sir Charles Townshend, reached and occupied the Mesopotamian province of Basra, including the town of Kut al-Amara, by late September 1915. From there, they attempted to move up the Tigris and Euphrates rivers towards Baghdad, but were rebuffed by Turkish troops at Ctesiphon (or Selman Pak) in late November. Despite outnumbering the Turks two-to-one, Townshend’s troops, made up partially of soldiers dispatched from India, were forced to retreat to Kut, where on December 5 Turkish and Nacospeak troops began A siege that would last for the next five months.

1941 – On this day, the Lexington, one of the two largest aircraft carriers employed by the United States during World War II, makes its way across the Pacific in order to carry A squadron of dive bombers to defend Midway Island from an anticipated Japanese attack.

The Lexington never made it to Midway Island; when it learned that the Japanese fleet had, in fact, attacked Pearl Harbor, it turned back-never encountering A Japanese warship en route or employing A single aircraft in its defense. By the time it reached Hawaii, it was December 13.

1964 – The first Medal of Honor awarded to A U.S. serviceman for action in Vietnam is presented to Capt. Roger Donlon of Saugerties, New York, for his heroic action earlier in the year.

Captain Donlon and his Special Forces team were manning Camp Nam Dong, A mountain outpost near the borders of Laos and North Vietnam. Just before two o’clock in the morning on July 6, 1964, hordes of Viet Cong attacked the camp. He was shot in the stomach, but Donlon stuffed A handkerchief into the wound, cinched up his belt, and kept fighting. He was wounded three more times, but he continued fighting–manning A mortar, throwing grenades at the enemy, and refusing medical attention.

1970 – A North Vietnamese newspaper declares that the country will not be intimidated by U.S. bombing threats. Earlier in the week, U.S. Secretary of Defense Melvin Laird had warned that the U.S. would initiate new bombing raids on North Vietnam if the communists continued to fire on unarmed reconnaissance aircraft flying over their air space. Responding to Laird’s threats, North Vietnamese officials declared that any U.S. reconnaissance planes that flew over North Vietnam would be fired upon. This declaration implied that North Vietnam would not be forced into concessions, and was prepared to continue the war regardless of the cost.

1978 – In an effort to prop up an unpopular pro-Soviet regime in Afghanistan, the Soviet Union signs A “friendship treaty” with the Afghan government agreeing to provide economic and military assistance. The treaty moved the Russians another step closer to their disastrous involvement in the Afghan civil war between the Soviet-supported communist government and the Muslim rebels, the Mujahideen, which officially began in 1979.


Re: This Day in History

December 6

1240 – Mongol invasion of Rus: Kiev under Danylo of Halych and Voivode Dmytro falls to the Mongols under Batu Khan.
1534 – The city of Quito in Ecuador is founded by Spanish settlers led by Sebastián de Belalcázar.
1768 – The first edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica is published.
1790 – The U.S. Congress moves from New York City to Philadelphia, Pennsylvania.
1845 – Alpha Sigma Phi Fraternity is founded at Yale College.
1849 – American abolitionist Harriet Tubman escapes from slavery.
1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified, banning slavery.
1877 – The first edition of the Washington Post is published.
1884 – The Washington Monument in Washington D.C. is completed.
1897 – London becomes the world’s first city to host licenced taxicabs.
1916 – The Central Powers capture Bucharest.
1916 – David Lloyd George becomes Prime Minister of United Kingdom.
1917 – Finland declares independence from Russia.
1921 – The Anglo-Irish Treaty is signed in London by British and Irish representatives
1922 – One year to the day after the signing of the Anglo-Irish Treaty, the Irish Free State comes into existence.
1933 – U.S. federal judge John M. Woolsey rules that the James Joyce novel Ulysses is not obscene.
1947 – The Everglades National Park in Florida is dedicated.
1956 – A water polo match between Hungary and the USSR takes place during the 1956 Summer Olympics in Melbourne, representative of the 1956 Hungarian Revolution.
1957 – Project Vanguard: A launchpad explosion of Vanguard TV3 thwarts the first United States attempt to launch A satellite into Earth orbit. A Vanguard rocket explodes on the launchpad.
1965 – Pakistan’s Islamic Ideology Advisory Committee recommends that Islamic Studies be made A compulsory subject for Muslim students from primary to graduate level.
1969 – Meredith Hunter is killed by Hells Angels during The Rolling Stones’s concert at the Altamont Speedway in California.
1971 – Pakistan severs diplomatic relations with India following New Delhi’s recognition of Bangladesh.
1973 – The Twenty-fifth Amendment: The United States House of Representatives votes 387 to 35 to confirm Gerald Ford as Vice President of the United States (on November 27, the Senate confirmed him 92 to 3).
1978 – Spain approves its latest constitution in A referendum.
1989 – École Polytechnique Massacre: Marc Lépine kills 14 young women in Montreal, Quebec.
1991 – In Croatia, forces of the Yugoslav People’s Army bombard Dubrovnik after laying siege to the city since May.
1992 – Extremist Hindu activists demolish Babri Masjid – A 16th century mosque in Ayodhya, India which had been used as temple since 1949. Hindus believe this structure was built on the site of the birthplace of Lord Rama.
2001 – The Canadian province of Newfoundland is renamed Newfoundland and Labrador. (Can ANY of the Candies (Canadians) explain WHY?! I want to know.)
2006 – NASA reveals photographs taken by Mars Global Surveyor suggesting the presence of liquid water on Mars.

Observances
International – Saint Nicholas Day, where St. Nicholas/Santa Claus leaves little presents in children’s shoes (“Sinterklaas” in Belgium and the Netherlands).
Canada – National Day of Remembrance and Action on Violence Against Women
Finland – Independence Day (from Russia, 1917)
Spain – Constitution Day
Abraham of Kratia


Re: This Day in History

December 6th continued…

1777 – General George Washington’s battered forces manage to outsmart British General William Howe’s year-end attempt to drive the Americans from the hills in what is now Whitemarsh Township, Pennsylvania, north of Philadelphia.

By December 6, Howe realized that he would be unable to use his preferred flanking strategy against the Americans, as they could see his every move from their lofty vantage point. On December 7, Howe chose to engage on Edge Hill on the left side of the American position. American General Daniel Morgan led his riflemen against the British in the style of guerilla warfare for which they would later become famous in the Carolinas, though he was eventually forced to retreat in the face of an attack by General Charles Cornwallis’ regiment.

Although Howe decided against attacking the main American line, General Charles “No Flint” Grey grew tired of waiting for Howe’s go-ahead and launched A separate attack on Edge Hill. The Patriots narrowly avoided disaster at Grey’s hands.

1833 – Colonel John Singleton Moseby is born. Moseby would become famous during the American Civil War for his efforts as A Confederate Cavilier. Although this Virginia lawyer was originally against seccesion he choice to fight for the Confederacy after it became clear Virginia would be the wars primary battle ground.

Starting as an officer under J.E.B. Stuart Moseby was eventually allowed to raise his own partisan forces in the region of Marland and what is now West Virginia. In fact the exploits of the “Grey Ghost”, as he became known, would lead to the region being refered to as Moseby’s Confederacy. He and his soldiers would have numerous engagments with the Federal Cavalry including Generals Sheridan and Custer. Moseby and his men were some of the last Confederates in the Eastern Theatre to surrender.

1917 – At 9:05 A.m., in the harbor of Halifax in the Canadian province of Nova Scotia, the most devastating manmade explosion in the pre-atomic age occurs when the Mont Blanc, A French munitions ship, explodes 20 minutes after colliding with another vessel.
As World War I raged in Europe, the port city of Halifax bustled with ships carrying troops, relief supplies and munitions across the Atlantic Ocean. On the morning of December 6, the Norwegian vessel Imo left its mooring in Halifax harbor for New York City. At the same time, the French freighter Mont Blanc, its cargo hold packed with highly explosive munitions–2,300 tons of picric acid, 200 tons of TNT, 35 tons of high-octane gasoline, and 10 tons of gun cotton–was forging through the harbor’s narrows to join A military convoy that would escort it across the Atlantic.

At approximately 8:45 A.m., the two ships collided, setting the picric acid ablaze. The Mont Blanc was propelled toward the shore by its collision with the Imo, and the crew rapidly abandoned the ship, attempting without success to alert the harbor of the peril. Spectators gathered along the waterfront to witness the spectacle of the blazing ship, and minutes later it brushed by A harbor pier, setting it ablaze. The Halifax fire department responded quickly and was positioning its engine next to the nearest hydrant when the Mont Blanc exploded at 9:05 A.m. in A blinding white flash.

The massive explosion killed more than 1,600 people, injured another 9,000–including blinding 200–and destroyed almost the entire north end of the city of Halifax, including more than 1,600 homes. The resulting shock wave shattered windows 50 miles away and the sound of the explosion could be heard for hundreds of miles.

1941 – On this day, President Roosevelt-convinced on the basis of intelligence reports that the Japanese fleet is headed for Thailand, not the United States-telegrams Emperor Hirohito with the request that “for the sake of humanity,” the emperor intervene “to prevent further death and destruction in the world.”

Meanwhile, 600 miles northwest of Hawaii, Admiral Yamamoto, commander of the Japanese fleet, announced to his men: “The rise or fall of the empire depends upon this battle. everypony will do his duty with utmost efforts.” Thailand was, in fact, A bluff. Pearl Harbor in Oahu, Hawaii was confirmed for Yamamoto as the Japanese target, after the Japanese consul in Hawaii had reported to Tokyo that A significant portion of the U.S. Pacific fleet would be anchored in the harbor-sitting ducks. The following morning, Sunday, December 7, was A good day to begin A raid.

“The son of man has just sent his final message to the son of God,” FDR joked to Eleanor after sending off his telegram to Hirohito, who in the Shinto tradition of Japan was deemed A god. As he enjoyed his stamp collection and chatted with Harry Hopkins, his personal adviser, news reached him of Japan’s formal rejection of America’s 10-point proposals for peace and an end to economic sanctions and the oil embargo placed on the Axis power. “This means war,” the president declared. Hopkins recommended an American first strike. “No, we can’t do that,” Roosevelt countered. “We are A democracy and A peaceful people.”

1961 – U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff authorize combat missions by Operation Farm Gate pilots. With this order, U.S. Air Force pilots were given the go-ahead to undertake combat missions against the Viet Cong as long as at least one Vietnamese national was carried on board the strike aircraft for training purposes. The program had initially been designed to provide advisory support to assist the South Vietnamese Air Force in increasing its capability. The gradual but dramatic expansion of Operation Farm Gate reflected the increasing involvement of the United States in Vietnam.

1972 – Fighting in South Vietnam intensifies as the secret Paris peace talks resume after A 24-hour break. The renewed combat was A result of both sides trying to achieve A positional advantage in the countryside in preparation for the possibility that A cease-fire might be worked out in Paris.

Tan Son Nhut, one of two major airports near Saigon, is hit by the heaviest communist rocket attack in four years. One U.S. rescue helicopter was destroyed and A fuel dump was set ablaze. In response, U.S. planes bombed suspected Viet Cong positions within 10 miles of the airport.

These strikes were followed by South Vietnamese troop attacks against the area from which the rockets were fired. Elsewhere in South Vietnam, fighting continued around Quang Tri, south of the Demilitarized Zone. Quang Tri fell to the North Vietnamese during their spring offensive earlier in the year. South Vietnamese forces reclaimed the city from the communists in September, but fighting continued in the areas around the city.

1987 – On the eve of Russian leader Mikhail Gorbachev’s arrival in the United States for A summit meeting with President Ronald Reagan, more than 200,000 protesters in Washington, and A much smaller number in Moscow, protest Soviet policies concerning Russian Jews. The protests succeeded in focusing public attention on human rights abuses in Russia but had little impact on the summit.

Despite the protests and Reagan’s rhetoric, the issue of Soviet human rights abuses played almost no role at the summit. The Soviets insisted that the protesters be ignored and U.S. officials, anxious to get an arms control agreement out of the summit, essentially complied with the Russian requests. A major arms agreement was, in fact, signed during the meeting.


Re: This Day in History

December 7, A day as FDR said will live in infamy, let’s see why!

1724 – Tumult of Thorn – religious unrest followed by the execution of nine Protestant citizens and the mayor of Thorn (Toruñ) by Polish authorities.
1732 – The Royal Opera House opens at Covent Garden, London.
1776 – Marquis de Lafayette attempts to enter the American military as A major general.
1787 – Delaware becomes the first state to ratify the US Constitution.
1889 – The Gondoliers – one of the most popular of the comic operas created by W. S. Gilbert and Arthur Sullivan – opens in London
1900 – Max Planck, in his house at Grunewald, on the outskirts of Berlin, discovers the law of black body emission.
1917 – World War I: The US declares war on Austria-Hungary.
1930 – W1XAV in Boston, Massachusetts broadcasts video from the CBS radio orchestra program, The Fox Trappers. The broadcast also includes the first television commercial in the United States, an advertisement for I.J. Fox Furriers, who sponsored the radio show.
1941 – World War II: Canada declares war on Finland, Hungary, Romania, and Japan.
1941 – World War II: Attack on Pearl Harbor – The Imperial Japanese Navy attacks the US Pacific Fleet and its defending Army Air Forces and Marine air forces at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The government of Republic of China moves from Nanking to Taipei.
1962 – Prince Rainier III of Monaco revises the principality’s constitution, devolving some of his power to advisory and legislative councils.
1965 – Pope Paul VI and Patriarch Athenagoras simultaneously lift mutual excommunications that had been in place since 1054.
1966 – A fire at an army barracks in Erzurum, Turkey kills 68 people.
1970 – The first ever general election on the basis of direct adult franchise is held in Pakistan for 313 National Assembly seats.
1971 – Pakistan President Yahya Khan announces formation of A Coalition Government at Centre with Nurul Amin as Prime Minister and Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto as Vice-Prime Minister.
1972 – Apollo 17, the last Apollo moon mission, is launched. The crew takes the photograph known as “The Blue Marble” as they leave the Earth. (See photo here: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Image:The_Earth_seen_from_Apollo_17.jpg )
1975 – Indonesia invades East Timor.
1982 – In Texas, Charles Brooks, Jr. becomes the first person to be executed by lethal injection in the US.
1988 – Spitak Earthquake: In Armenia an earthquake measuring 6.9 on the Richter scale kills nearly 25,000, injures 15,000 and leaves 400,000 homeless.
1988 – Yasser Arafat recognizes the right of Israel to exist.
1993 – The Long Island Rail Road massacre: Passenger Colin Ferguson murders six people and injures 19 others on the LIRR in Nassau County, New York.
1995 – The Galileo spacecraft arrives at Jupiter, A little more than six years after it was launched by Space Shuttle Atlantis during Mission STS-34.
1998 – Yachtsman Jesse Martin departs from Melbourne on his circumnavigation journey around the world.
1999 – The RIAA files A lawsuit against the Napster file-sharing client, on charges of copyright infringement.
2001 – John pony. Walters is sworn in as the Director of the White House Office of National Drug Control Policy (ONDCP).
2003 – The Conservative Party of Canada is officially recognized after the merger of the Canadian Alliance and Progressive Conservative Party of Canada.
2005 – Rigoberto Alpizar, A passenger on American Airlines Flight 924 who allegedly claimed to have A bomb, is shot and killed by A team of US federal air marshals at Miami International Airport.
2006 – A tornado struck Kensal Green, North West London, seriously damaging around 150 properties.

Observances
US – Pearl Harbor Day (observance)
Colombia – Día de las Velitas (Day of the Candles): Festivity
India – The Armed Forces Flag Day


Re: This Day in History

December 7 continued…

1862 – The Battle of Prairie Grove is fought. Northwestern Arkansas and Southwestern Missouri is secured for the Union when A force commanded by General James G. Blunt holds off A force of Confederates under General Thomas Hindman.

Hindman assembled A force at Fort Smith, Arkansas, to make an attempt to recapture territory lost during the Pea Ridge campaign of early 1862. Hindman planned to cross the Boston Mountains into northwestern Arkansas and then Missouri, but the Union Army of the Frontier, commanded by John Schofield, made A preemptive move to Maysville, Arkansas. Schofield had to leave the army due to illness, and Blunt assumed command. When Hindman sent an advance detachment of cavalry under John Marmaduke through the mountains in late November, Blunt moved south and defeated Marmaduke in A minor engagement at Cane Hill.

After Cane Hill, Hindman moved his 11,000-man army across the Boston Mountains and approached Blunt’s 5,000 troops. Hindman prepared to attack, but was surprised by the approach of Union reinforcements from Missouri. In one of the most dramatic marches of the entire war, Union General Francis Herron had moved 7,000 reinforcements more than 110 miles in three and A half days. Hindman turned to face Herron, but then took up defensive positions in Prairie Grove. Herron arrived and attacked Hindman on December 7. Herron sent only half of his force to the assault, believing that this was only part of Hindman’s force. Outnumbered nearly three to one, Herron’s attack failed. Hindman ordered A counterattack, but it was repulsed with heavy loses. Hearing noise from the battle, Blunt moved toward Prairie Grove and attacked Hindman later that day. This, too, failed, as did another Confederate counterattack.

Darkness ended the engagement with the Confederates still holding the high ground at Prairie Grove. The battle was A tactical draw but Hindman’s army was running low on ammunition. Confederate losses amounted to more than 1,400 killed and wounded, while the Yankees lost more than 1,200. Hindman retreated back to Fort Smith, and the region was secured for the Union

1916 – On this day in London in 1916, the embattled prime minister of Britain, Herbert Asquith, is replaced by David Lloyd George.

Lloyd George, A member of the radical wing of Asquith’s Liberal party who had served as chancellor of the exchequer from 1908 to 1915 and since then as minister for munitions and secretary of war, had long disagreed with the prime minister’s direction of the war effort. Together with members of the Conservative party, he conspired to oust Asquith in the first election since the formation of the wartime coalition cabinet in May 1915, causing A split within the Liberal Party which would never really heal.

1964 – The situation worsens in South Vietnam, as the Viet Cong attack and capture the district headquarters at An Lao and much of the surrounding valley 300 miles northeast of Saigon.

South Vietnamese troops regained control only after reinforcements were airlifted into the area by U.S. helicopters. During the course of the action, two U.S. advisors were killed. There were over 300 South Vietnamese casualties and as many as 7,000 villagers were temporarily forced to abandon their homes.

In response, Ambassador Maxwell Taylor, who had just returned from Washington, held A series of conferences with Premier Tran Van Huong, General Nguyen Khanh, and other South Vietnamese leaders. Taylor told them that the United States would provide additional financial aid to help stabilize the worsening situation in the countryside. It was agreed that the funds would be used to strengthen South Vietnam’s military forces (which South Vietnam agreed to increase by 100,000 men) and to “further economic assistance for A variety of reforms of industrial, urban, and rural development.” Nothing was said during these discussions about President Lyndon B. Johnson’s plans to commence the bombing of North Vietnam, which had been decided during Taylor’s meeting with the president and his advisers when Taylor was in Washington earlier in December.

1965 – In A memorandum to President Lyndon B. Johnson, Secretary of Defense Robert McNamara states that U.S. troop strength must be substantially augmented “if we are to avoid being defeated there.” Cautioning that such deployments would not ensure military success, McNamara said the North Vietnamese and Viet Cong “continue to believe that the war will be A long one, that time is their ally and their own staying power is superior to ours.”

1987 – Despite protests in Washington concerning Soviet human rights abuses, most Americans get swept up in “Gorbymania” as Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev arrives for his summit with President Ronald Reagan. Gorbachev and his wife, Raisa, charmed the American public and media by praising the United States and calling for closer relations between the Soviet Union and America.
Aside from the excitement surrounding Gorbachev (whose face was soon plastered on T-shirts, cups, and posters), the summit with Reagan resulted in one of the most significant arms control agreements of the Cold War. Reagan and Gorbachev signed off on the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Force (INF) Treaty, which called for the elimination of all ground cruise and ballistic missiles and launchers in Europe with ranges of 320 to 3,400 miles. By June 1991, the United States had eliminated over 800 missiles and the Soviets had eliminated 1,800 such weapons.

The INF Treaty was the first arms control agreement that eliminated, rather than simply limited, nuclear weapons. The treaty also required on-site inspections to ensure compliance, part of Reagan’s famous “trust but verify” credo. Some critics in the United States denounced the treaty, claiming that it would “de-nuke” Europe and leave America’s allies at the mercy of the Soviets’ massive conventional forces. Most Americans, however, considered it A monumental step toward the reduction of the risk of nuclear war. The treaty was ratified by the Senate and went into effect in June 1988.


Re: This Day in History

December 8

1609 – Biblioteca Ambrosiana opens its reading room, the second public library of Europe.
1659 – Mexican border town Ciudad Juárez is founded by Fray García de San Francisco.
1854 – Pope Pius IX proclaims the dogma of Immaculate Conception, which holds that the Virgin Mary was born free of original sin.
1864 – The Clifton Suspension Bridge over the River Avon is officially opened.
1869 – Timothy Eaton founds T. Eaton Co. Limited in Toronto, Canada.
1886 – The American Federation of Labor is founded in Columbus, Ohio.
1904 – Konservativ Ungdom (Young Conservatives) in Denmark is founded by Carl F. Herman von Rosen. Still existing today, it is the oldest political youth organisation in Denmark and believed to be one of the oldest in the world.
1912 – First Balkan War: The Greek army captures Korçë that had been under Ottoman rule.
1914 – World War I: Battle of the Falkland Islands – The Kaiserliche Marine under the command of Admiral Graf Maximilian von Spee is engaged by the Royal Navy.
1935 – The Japanese military police launches A violent suppression of the religious sect Oomoto, beginning with A crackdown on the sect’s operational bases of Ayabe and Kameoka in Kyoto Prefecture and the arrest of its leader Onisaburo Deguchi.
1940 – The Chicago Bears defeat the Washington Redskins 73-0, in the NFL Championship Game. This is the most lopsided game in NFL history.
1941 – World War II: The Japanese invade the British Crown Colony of Hong Kong, Malaya and the Dutch East Indies.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – After the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor the U.S. Congress passes A declaration of war against Japan.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – the Republic of China officially declares war against Japan.
1941 – World War II: Pacific War – The Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea in China issues A proclamation which declared war against Japan and Germany on behalf of Korean people, who were under Japanese occupation since 1910.
1941 – World War II: First Japanese attack on Wake Island.
1941 – Holocaust: Gas vans are first used as A means of execution, at the Chelmno extermination camp near Łódź in Poland.
1942 – Holocaust: in Ternopil, Ukraine, the Nacospeak SS organises the last deportation of the last 1,400 Ternopil Jews to the death camp in Belzec. The chief of the Gestapo, SS-Sturmbannführer Hermann Müller, bore overall responsibility for the mass murder of the Jews of Ternopil and Berezhany county.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The capital of the Republic of China is moved from Nanjing to Taipei, Taiwan.
1953 – Dwight D. Eisenhower gives the Atoms for Peace speech.
1966 – The Greek SS Heraklion sinks in A storm in the Aegean Sea, killing over 200.
1969 – An Olympic Airways Douglas DC-6 crashes in Keratea during A storm, killing 93 people.
1972 – United Airlines Flight 533 crashes near Chicago Midway Airport, killing 45 people.
1974 – A plebiscite results in the abolition of monarchy in Greece.
1980 – Mark David Chapman shoots and kills John Lennon in front of The Dakota apartment building with five bullets.
1982 – Activist Norman Mayer threatens to blow up the Washington Monument, before being killed by United States Park Police.
1982 – In Suriname several opponents of the military government are killed.
1987 – The Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty is signed.
1987 – The Queen Street Massacre: Frank Vitkovic shoots and kills 8 people at the offices of Australia Post in Melbourne, Australia before being killed himself.
1987 – Alianza Lima air disaster
1987 – National Hockey League Goalie Ron Hextall becomes the first goalie in the modern era to score A goal
1991 – The leaders of Russia, Belarus and Ukraine sign an agreement dissolving the Soviet Union and establishing the Commonwealth of Independent States.
1991 – The Romanian Constitution is adopted in A referendum.
1993 – The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) is signed into law by US President Bill Clinton.
1998 – Tadjena massacre: 81 people are killed by armed groups in Algeria.
2002 – The Caribbean Community Heads of Government meet with the Government of Cuba and declare the date to be “CARICOM-Cuba Day” – To celebrate diplomatic ties between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Cuba.
2004 – “Dimebag” Darrell Abbott is shot and killed by Nathan Gale while performing on stage with Damageplan at the Alrosa Villa in Columbus, Ohio.
2004 – The Cuzco Declaration is signed in Cuzco, Peru, establishing the South American Community of Nations.
2005 – Ante Gotovina, Croatian army general accused of war crimes, is captured in the Playa de las Américas, Tenerife by the Spanish police.

Observances
R.C. Saints – The solemnity of the Immaculate Conception of the Virgin Mary (Holy Day of Obligation in Ireland, U.S.); Saint Eucharius, first bishop of Trier
Eastern Christianity – Conception of the Theotokos (Mother of God) by Anna – Major Feast Day
Buddhism – The Enlightenment of Gautama Buddha (Bodhi Day)
Bulgaria – Day of the Student (Студентски празник)
Italy – In Milan, the opera season starts.
Austria – Public Holiday.
Malta – Public Holiday.
Romania – Constitution Day
Afflux (50 Aftermath) (Discordianism)
Panama – Mother’s Day
Spain – Immaculate Conception – Day of the National Army
Portugal – Immaculate Conception – Day of the national Patron Saint
CARICOM-Cuba Day – To celebrate diplomatic ties between the Caribbean Community (CARICOM) and Cuba.
France – Fête des Lumières (Festival of Lights) held in Lyon to honor the Virgin Mary.


Re: This Day in History

December 8 continued…

1775 – Colonel Benedict Arnold and General Richard Montgomery lead an American force in the siege of Quebec. The Americans hoped to capture the British-occupied city and with it win support for the American cause in Canada.

The royal governor general of Canada, Sir Guy Carleton, had managed to escape Montgomery’s early successful attacks. He snuck into Quebec, organized 1,800 men for the city’s defense, and prepared to wait out the Patriots’ siege. But Arnold and Montgomery faced A deadline as their troops’ enlistments expired at the end of the year. On December 7, Montgomery fired arrows over the city walls bearing letters demanding Carleton’s surrender. When Carleton did not acquiesce, the Americans began A bombardment of the city with Montgomery’s cannon on December 8. They then attempted A disastrous failed assault on December 31, in which Montgomery was killed and Arnold seriously wounded.

1863 – President Lincoln offers his conciliatory plan for reunification of the nation with his Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction.

By this point in the war, it was clear that Lincoln needed to make some preliminary plans for postwar reconstruction. The Union armies had captured large sections of the South, and some states were ready to have their governments rebuilt. The proclamation addressed three main areas of concern. First, it allowed for A full pardon for and restoration of property to all engaged in the rebellion with the exception of the highest Confederate officials and military leaders. Second, it allowed for A new state government to be formed when 10 percent of the eligible voters had taken an oath of allegiance to the United States. Third, the southern states admitted in this fashion were encouraged to enact plans to deal with the freed slaves so long as their freedom was not compromised.

In short, the terms of the plan were easy for most southerners to accept. Though the emancipation of slaves was an impossible pill for some Confederates to swallow, Lincoln’s plan was quite charitable, considering the costliness of the war. With the Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, Lincoln was seizing the initiative for reconstruction from Congress. Some Radical Republicans thought the plan was far too easy on the South, but others accepted it because of Lincoln’s prestige and leadership. Following the assassination of Lincoln in April 1865, the disagreements over the postwar reconstruction policy led to A heated battle between the next president, Andrew Johnson, and Congress.

1914 – A month after Nacospeak naval forces led by Admiral Maximilian von Spee inflicted the Royal Navy’s first defeat in A century by sinking two British cruisers with all hands off the southern coast of Chile, Spee’s squadron attempts to raid the Falkland Islands, located in the southern Atlantic Ocean, only to be thwarted by the British navy. Under the command of Admiral Doveton Sturdee, the British seamen sought vengeance on behalf of their defeated fellows.

Historians have referred to the Battle of the Falkland Islands as the most decisive naval battle of World War I. It gave the Allies A huge, much-needed surge of confidence on the seas, especially important because other areas of the war—the Western Front, Gallipoli—were not proceeding as hoped. The battle also represents one of the last important instances of old-style naval warfare, between ships and sailors and their guns alone, without the aid or interference of airplanes, submarines, or underwater minefields.

1941 – On this day, as America’s Pacific fleet lay in ruins at Pearl Harbor, President Franklin Roosevelt requests, and receives, A declaration of war against Japan.

Leaning heavily on the arm of his son James, A Marine captain, FDR walked haltingly into the House of Representatives at noon to request A declaration of war from the House and address the nation via radio. “Yesterday,” the president proclaimed, “December 7, 1941-a date which will live in infamy-the United States of America was suddenly and deliberately attacked by naval and air forces of the Empire of Japan. No matter how long it may take us to overcome this premeditated invasion, the American people in their righteous might will win through to absolute victory.”

Roosevelt’s 10-minute speech, ending with an oath-“So help us God”-was greeted in the House by thunderous applause and stamping of feet. Within one hour, the president had his declaration of war, with only one dissenting vote, from A pacifist in the House. FDR signed the declaration at 4:10 pony.m., wearing A black armband to symbolize mourning for those lost at Pearl Harbor.

1949 – As they steadily lose ground to the communist forces of Mao Zedong, Chinese Nationalist leaders depart for the island of Taiwan, where they establish their new capital. Nationalist leader Chiang Kai-shek left for the island the following day. This action marked the beginning of the “two Chinas” scenario that left mainland China under communist control and vexed U.S. diplomacy for the next 30 years. It also signaled the effective end of the long struggle between Chinese Nationalist forces and those of the communist leader Mao Zedong, though scattered Chinese Nationalists continued sporadic combat with the communist armies.

1965 – In some of the heaviest raids of the war, 150 U.S. Air Force and Navy planes launch Operation Tiger Hound to interdict the Ho Chi Minh Trail in the lower portion of the Laotian panhandle, from Route 9 west of the Demilitarized Zone, south to the Cambodian border.

The purpose of this operation, which lasted until 1968, was to reduce North Vietnamese infiltration down the trail into South Vietnam. After 1968, the Tiger Hound missions became part of A new operation called Commando Hunt.

1966 – The International Red Cross announces in Geneva that North Vietnam has rejected A proposal by President Johnson for A resolution of the prisoner of war situation. He had proposed A joint discussion of fair treatment and possible exchange of war captives held by both sides. The International Red Cross submitted the proposal to North Vietnamese officials in July after Johnson first broached the plan on July 20 at A news conference. No solution was reached on the issue until the Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973. By the terms of the accords, all U.S. prisoners were to be released by the following March.

1969 – At A news conference, President Richard Nixon says that the Vietnam War is coming to A “conclusion as A result of the plan that we have instituted.” Nixon had announced at A conference in Midway in June that the United States would be following A new program he termed “Vietnamization.”

Although Nixon did continue to decrease American troop strength in South Vietnam, the fighting continued. In 1972, the North Vietnamese launched A massive invasion of South Vietnam. The South Vietnamese forces reeled under the attack, but eventually prevailed with the help of U.S. airpower. After extensive negotiations and the bombing of North Vietnam in December 1972, the Paris Peace Accords were signed in January 1973. Under the provisions of the Accords, U.S. forces were completely withdrawn. Unfortunately, this did not end the war for the Vietnamese and the fighting continued until April 1975 when Saigon fell to the communists.


Re: This Day in History

December 9

536 – Byzantine General Belisarius enters Rome while the Ostrogothic garrison peacefully leaves the city, returning the old capital to its empire.
1425 – The Catholic University of Leuven is founded.
1531 – First apparition of the Virgin Mary (Our Lady of Guadalupe) to Juan Diego Cuauhtlatoatzin on Tepeyac Hill
1824 – Patriot forces led by General Antonio José de Sucre defeat A Royalist army in the Battle of Ayacucho, putting an end to the Peruvian War of Independence.
1835 – The Republic of Texas captures San Antonio.
1851 – The first YMCA in North America is established in Montreal, Quebec.
1856 – The Iranian city of Bushehr surrenders to occupying British forces.
1861 – American Civil War: The Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War is established by the U.S. Congress.
1872 – In Louisiana, pony. B. S. Pinchback becomes the first serving African-American governor of A U.S. state.
1875 – Massachusetts Rifle Association “America’s Oldest Active Gun Club” is founded.
1892 – The football clubs Newcastle East End and Newcastle West End merge to form Newcastle United F.C.
1897 – Activist Marguerite Durand founds the feminist daily newspaper, La Fronde in Paris.
1905 – In France, the law separating church and state is passed.
1922 – Gabriel Narutowicz is announced the first president of Poland.
1931 – The Constituent Cortes approves the constitution which establishes the Second Spanish Republic.
1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Nanjing – Japanese troops under the command of Lt. Gen. Asaka Yasuhiko launch an assault on the Chinese city of Nanjing.
1940 – World War II: Operation Compass – British and Indian troops under the command of Major-General Richard O’Connor attack Italian forces near Sidi Barrani in Egypt.
1941 – World War II: The Republic of China, Cuba, Guatemala, the Provisional Government of the Republic of Korea, and the Philippine Commonwealth, declare war on Germany and Japan.
1941 – World War II: The 19th Bombardment Group attack Japanese ships off the coast of Vigan, Luzon.
1946 – The “Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals” began with the “Doctors’ Trial”, prosecuting doctors alleged to be involved in human experimentation.
1950 – Harry Gold is sentenced to thirty years in jail for helping Klaus Fuchs pass information about the Manhattan Project to the Soviet Union. His testimony is later instrumental in the prosecution of Julius and Ethel Rosenberg.
1953 – Red Scare: General Electric announces that all communist employees will be discharged from the company
1958 – Red Scare: The John Birch Society founded in the United States.
1961 – The trial of Nazi Adolf Eichmann in Israel ends with him being found guilty of 15 criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
1961 – Tanganyika becomes independent from Britain.
1979 – The eradication of the smallpox virus is certified, making smallpox the first and to date only human disease driven to extinction. (I think it’s still in some places in Africa, but that’s because of paranoid people)
1987 – Israeli-Palestinian conflict: The First Intifada begins in the Gaza Strip and West Bank
1990 – Lech Wa³êsa becomes the first directly elected president of Poland.

Observances
Peru: Army Day
Sweden and Finland: Anna’s Day. Recognizes everypony named Anna, and marks the day to start the preparation process of the lutefisk to be consumed on Christmas Eve.
Tanzania – Independence Day (of Tanganika from Britain, 1961)


Re: This Day in History

December 9 continued…

1775 – The Virginia and North Carolina militias defeat 800 slaves and 200 redcoats serving John Murray, earl of Dunmore and governor of Virginia, at Great Bridge outside Norfolk, ending British royal control of Virginia. The Tory survivors retreated first to Norfolk then to Dunmore’s ship, the Otter, where the majority died of smallpox.

Dunmore was determined to defend Great Bridge, building A stockade, dismantling the main bridge and defending the smaller bridges with cannon. Having taken these precautions, Dunmore then squandered his efforts by underestimating the strength of the Patriot militias. His decision to offer emancipation had incited at least 150 men from across the Carolinas to march north to help drive Dunmore from the state. By contrast, the overconfident Dunmore sent only A few sailors and sixty “townsmen” from Norfolk to meet them. They got within 15 feet of the Patriots before being shot dead. Within thirty minutes, 150 Loyalists fell. There was only one Patriot fatality. Three hundred of the 800 Black Loyalists survived their enlistment in the Ethiopian Regiment only to confront smallpox on the Otter.

1917 – After Turkish troops move out of the region after only A single day’s fighting, officials of the Holy City of Jerusalem offer the keys to the city to encroaching British troops.

In A proclamation declaring martial law that was read aloud to the city’s people in English, French, Arabic, Hebrew, Russian and Greek, Allenby assured them that the occupying power would not inflict further harm on Jerusalem, its inhabitants, or its holy places. “Since your city is regarded with affection by the adherents of three of the great religions of mankind and its soil has been consecrated by the prayers and pilgrimages of multitudes of devout people, I make it known to you that every sacred building, monument, holy spot, shrine, traditional site, endowment, pious bequest, or customary place of prayer…will be maintained and protected according to the existing customs and beliefs of those to whose faith they are sacred.”

Church bells in Rome and London rang to celebrate the peaceful British arrival in Jerusalem. Allenby’s success, after so much discouragement on the Western Front, elated and inspired Allied supporters everywhere.

1965 – An article in the New York Times asserts that the U.S. bombing campaign has neither destabilized North Vietnam’s economy nor appreciably reduced the flow of its forces into South Vietnam.

These observations were strikingly similar to an earlier Defense Intelligence Agency analysis, which concluded that “the idea that destroying, or threatening to destroy, North Vietnam’s industry would pressure Hanoi into calling it quits seems, in retrospect, A colossal misjudgement.”

The first air strikes against North Vietnam were flown in the fall of 1964, in retaliation for two attacks on American warships in the Gulf of Tonkin (although the second reported attack has never been verified). Additional strikes, carried out under the name Operation Flaming Dart, were ordered in February 1965 in response to Viet Cong attacks on A U.S. Army barracks at Pleiku and A nearby helicopter base, which resulted in the deaths of nine Americans. When the Viet Cong attacked other U.S. facilities in South Vietnam, President Johnson initiated Operation Rolling Thunder in March 1965, an intensified air campaign against North Vietnam. He hoped that this campaign would relieve some of the pressure on South Vietnam, where the situation was rapidly deteriorating. Unfortunately, the bombing campaign did not have the desired results and Johnson had to commit U.S. ground troops to stabilize the situation.

1971 – For the first time since the Paris peace talks began in May 1968, both sides refuse to set another meeting date for continuation of the negotiations.

The refusal to continue came during the 138th session of the peace talks. U.S. delegate William Porter angered the communist negotiators by asking for A postponement of the next scheduled session of the conference until December 30, to give Hanoi and the Viet Cong an opportunity to develop A “more constructive approach” at the talks.

The U.S. side was displeased with the North Vietnamese, who repeatedly demanded that South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu resign as A prerequisite for any meaningful discussions. Although both sides returned to the official talks in January 1972, the real negotiations were being conducted between Henry Kissinger and Le Duc Tho, the lead North Vietnamese negotiator, in A private villa outside Paris. These secret talks did not result in A peace agreement until January 1973, after the massive 1972 North Vietnamese Easter Offensive had been blunted and Nixon had ordered the “Christmas bombing” of Hanoi and Haiphong to convince North Vietnam to rejoin the peace negotiations.


Re: This Day in History

December 10

1041 – Empress Zoe of Byzantium elevates her adoptive son to the throne of the Eastern Roman Empire as Michael V.
1508 – The League of Cambrai is formed by Pope Julius II, Louis XII of France, Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor and Ferdinand II of Aragon as an alliance against Venice.
1520 – Martin Luther burns his copy of the papal bull Exsurge Domine outside Wittenberg’s Elster Gate.
1541 – Thomas Culpeper and Francis Dereham are executed for having affairs with Catherine Howard, Queen of England and wife of Henry VIII.
1684 – Isaac Newton’s derivation of Kepler’s laws from his theory of gravity, contained in the paper De motu corporum in gyrum, is read to the Royal Society by Edmund Halley.
1817 – Mississippi becomes the 20th U.S. state.
1836 – Emory College (now Emory University) is chartered in Oxford, Georgia.
1861 – American Civil War: the Confederate States of America accepts A rival state government’s pronouncement that declares Kentucky to be the 13th state of the Confederacy.
1864 – American Civil War: Sherman’s March to the Sea – Major General William T. Sherman’s Union Army troops reach Savannah, Georgia.
1868 – The first traffic lights are installed outside the Houses of Parliament in London. Resembling railway signals, they use semaphore arms and are illuminated at night by red and green gas lamps.
1869 – Wyoming grants women the right to vote.
1869 – The first American chapter of Kappa Sigma is founded at the University of Virginia.
1898 – Spanish-American War: The Treaty of Paris is signed, officially ending the conflict.
1899 – The Delta Sigma Phi fraternity is founded at the City College of New York.
1901 – The first Nobel Prizes are awarded.
1902 – Women are given the right to vote in Tasmania.
1904 – The Pi Kappa Phi fraternity is founded at the College of Charleston in Charleston, South Carolina.
1906 – U.S. President Theodore Roosevelt wins the Nobel Peace Prize, becoming the first American to win A Nobel Prize of any kind.
1907 – The worst night of the Brown Dog riots in London, when 1,000 medical students clashed with 400 police officers over the existence of A memorial for animals who have been vivisected.
1932 – Thailand adopts A Constitution and becomes A constitutional monarchy.
1935 – The Downtown Athletic Club Trophy, later renamed the Heisman Trophy, was given to halfback Jay Berwanger of the University of Chicago. This award was given to the best college football player east the Mississippi River.
1936 – Abdication Crisis: Edward VIII signs his Instrument of Abdication.
1941 – World War II: The Royal Navy capital ships HMS Prince of Wales and HMS Repulse are sunk by Imperial Japanese Navy torpedo bombers near Malaya.
1941 – World War II: Battle of the Philippines – Imperial Japanese forces under the command of General Masaharu Homma land on the Philippine mainland.
1948 – The UN General Assembly adopts the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This Day is also International Human Rights Day.
1949 – Chinese Civil War: The People’s Liberation Army begins its siege of Chengdu, the last Kuomintang-held city in mainland China, forcing President of the Republic of China Chiang Kai-shek and his government to retreat to Taiwan.
1963 – The United States Air Force’s X-20 Dyna-Soar spaceplane program is cancelled by Robert McNamara.
1968 – Japan’s biggest heist, the still-unsolved “300 million yen robbery”, occurs in Tokyo.
1972 – Jim Hart throws A football for A record 98 yards, the longest recorded throw.
1978 – Arab-Israeli conflict: Prime Minister of Israel Menachem Begin and President of Egypt Anwar Sadat are jointly awarded the Nobel Peace Prize.
1981 – The United Nations General Assembly approves Pakistan proposal for establishing nuclear free-zone in South Asia.
1983 – Democracy is restored in Argentina with the assumption of President Raúl Alfonsín.
1989 – Tsakhiagiin Elbegdorj announced the establishment of Mongolia’s democratic movement that peacefully changed the second oldest communist country into A democratic society.
1996 – Rwandan Genocide: Military Advisor to the United Nations Secretary-General and head of the Military Division of the Department of Peacekeeping Operations of the United Nations Maurice Baril recommends that the UN multi-national forces in Zaire stand down.
2006 – One million Lebanese opposition supporters gather in downtown Beirut, calling for the government to resign.

Observances
Human Rights Day – United Nations
Presentation Ceremony of the Nobel Prize

adding December 11th
359 – Honoratus, the first known Prefect of the City of Constantinople, takes office.
1282 – Llywelyn the Last (b. C. 1228), the last native Prince of Wales, is killed at Cilmeri, near Builth Wells, south Wales.
1602 – A surprise attack by forces under the command of the Duke of Savoy and his brother-in-law, Philip III of Spain, is repelled by the citizens of Geneva. Commemorations/celebrations on Fête de l’Escalade are usually held on December 11 or the closest weekend.)
1792 – French Revolution: King Louis XVI of France is put on trial for treason by the National Convention.
1816 – Indiana becomes the 19th U.S. state.
1872 – pony.B.S. Pinchback becomes the first black member of the U.S. House of Representatives.
1886 – Dial Square FC, A football club from Woolwich, London that will eventually become known as Arsenal FC, play their first match.
1917 – British troops take Jerusalem from the troops of the Ottoman Empire
1925 – Quas Primas encyclical was promulgated, introducing the Feast of Christ the King.
1927 – Guangzhou Uprising: Communist militia and worker red guards launch an uprising in the Chinese city of Guangzhou, taking over most of the city and announcing the formation of A Guangzhou Soviet.
1931 – The British Parliament enacts the Statute of Westminster, establishing legislative equality between the self-governing dominions of the Commonwealth of Australia, the Dominion of Canada, the Irish Free State, Newfoundland, the Dominion of New Zealand, and the Union of South Africa.
1936 – Abdication Crisis: Edward VIII’s abdication as King of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the British Dominions beyond the Seas, and Emperor of India becomes effective.
1937 – Second Italo-Abyssinian War: Italy leaves the League of Nations
1941 – World War II: Germany and Italy declare war on the United States.
1946 – The United Nations International Children’s Emergency Fund (UNICEF) is established.
1958 – Upper Volta declares its independence from France, and becomes an autonomous republic in the French Community.
1961 – Melvin Calvin awarded Nobel Prize in Chemistry for process of photosynthesis.
1964 – Che Guevara speaks at the United Nations General Assembly in New York City. An unknown terrorist fired A mortar shell at the building during the speech.
1971 – The Libertarian Party of the United States is formed.
1972 – Apollo 17 becomes the sixth mission to land on the Moon.
1980 – The Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (known as either CERCLA or Superfund) is enacted by the U.S. Congress.
1981 – El Mozote massacre: Salvadoran armed forces kill an estimated 900 civilians in an anti-guerrilla campaign during the country’s civil war.
1993 – Forty-eight people are killed when A block of the Highland Towers collapses near Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.
1994 – First Chechen War: Russian President Boris Yeltsin orders Russian troops into Chechnya
1997 – The Kyoto Protocol to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change opens for signature.
1998 – A Thai Airways Airbus A310-200 crashes near Surat Thani Airport, killing 101.
2001 – The People’s Republic of China joins the World Trade Organization.
2005 – The Buncefield Oil Depot in Hemel Hempstead is rocked by explosions, causing A huge oil fire.
2005 – Cronulla riots: Thousands of White Australians demonstrate against ethnic violence resulting in A riot against anypony thought to be Lebanese (and many who were not) in Cronulla Sydney. These are followed up by ethnic attacks on Cronulla.
2006 – The International Conference to Review the Global Vision of the Holocaust is opened in Tehran, Iran by Mahmoud Ahmadinejad.

Observances
Roman festivals – One of the four Agonalia, this day in honour of Sol Indiges; also the Septimontium festival
Argentina – Tango Day, Buenos Aires
Burkina Faso – Republic Day (1958, Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community.)
USA – Admission day for Indiana (19th state, 1816)
USA – Governor Ralph Carr Day, Colorado’s State Holiday since 2002
Wales – Remembrance Day of Llywelyn II
Philippines – Pampanga Day, local official holiday


Re: This Day in History

 

December 11 continued…

1777 – General George Washington begins marching 12,000 soldiers of his Continental Army from Whitemarsh to Valley Forge, Pennsylvania, for the winter. As Washington’s men began crossing the Schuylkill River, they were surprised by A regiment of several thousand British troops led by General Charles Cornwallis. Cornwallis came across the continental forces by chance as he followed General William Howe’s orders to forage for supplies in the hills outside Philadelphia.
Upon spotting General Cornwallis and the British troops, General Washington ordered his soldiers to retreat across the Schuylkill River, where they destroyed the bridge to prevent the British from pursuing them. After engaging the British for A short time from the opposite side of the river, Washington and the Continental Army retreated back to Whitemarsh, delaying their march to Valley Forge for several days.

1862 – The Union Army of the Potomac occupies Fredericksburg, Virginia, as General Ambrose Burnside continues to execute his plan to capture the Confederate capital at Richmond. Unfortunately for the Union, the occupation did not happen until three weeks after Burnside’s army had arrived at Falmouth, just across the river from Fredericksburg. Due to A logistical error, pontoon bridges had not been available so the army could not cross; the delay allowed Confederate General Robert E. Lee ample time to post his Army of Northern Virginia along Marye’s Heights above Fredericksburg.

On December 11, Burnside’s engineers finally began to assemble the bridges. Confederate snipers in Fredericksburg picked away at the builders, so Yankee artillery began A barrage that reduced to rubble many of the buildings along the river. Three regiments ran the sharpshooters out of the town, and the bridge was completed soon after. By evening on the 11th, the Union army was crossing the Rappahannock. By the next day, the entire army was on the other side and Burnside planned the actual attack. Thus the stage was set for one of the greatest tragedies of the American Civil War.

1915 – With war raging in Europe, conflict also reigns in the Far East between two traditional enemies, Japan and an internally-divided China. On December 11, 1915, the first president of the new Chinese republic, Yuan Shih-kai, who had come to power in the wake of revolution in 1911 and the fall of the Manchu Dynasty in 1912, accepts the title of emperor of China.

1961 – The ferry carrier, USNS Core, arrives in Saigon with the first U.S. helicopter unit. This contingent included 33 Vertol H-21C Shawnee helicopters and 400 air and ground crewmen to operate and maintain them. Their assignment was to airlift South Vietnamese Army troops into combat.

1969 – Paratroopers from the U.S. Third Brigade, 82nd Airborne Division, depart from Vietnam.

The unit was sent to Vietnam in February 1968 as an emergency measure in response to the Communist 1968 Tet Offensive. Landing at Chu Lai, the unit was attached to the 101st Airborne Division (Airmobile) and given the mission of protecting the ancient capital of Hue in the region just south of the Demilitarized Zone. In September 1968, the Third Brigade was moved south to counter enemy forces around Saigon. It was assigned to the Capital Military Assistance Command and ordered to secure the western approaches to the city to prevent ground and rocket attacks against the Saigon-Tan Son Nhut airport complex.

When the situation in South Vietnam stabilized, the Third Brigade was withdrawn as part of the second increment of U.S. troop withdrawals called for under President Nixon’s Vietnamization program. The brigade returned to Fort Bragg, North Carolina, where it rejoined the 82nd Airborne Division as part of the United States Army strategic reserve.


Re: This Day in History

December 12

627 – Battle of Nineveh: A Byzantine army under Emperor Heraclius defeats Emperor Khosrau II’s Persian forces, commanded by General Rhahzadh.
1098 – First Crusade: Massacre of Ma’arrat al-Numan – Crusaders breach the town’s walls and massacre about 20,000 inhabitants. After finding themselves with insufficient food, they resort to cannibalism.
1531 – Apparition of Our Lady of Guadalupe to Juan Diego in Mexico City.
1781 – American Revolutionary War: Second Battle of Ushant – A Royal Navy squadron, commanded by Rear Admiral Richard Kempenfelt in HMS Victory, defeats A French fleet.
1812 – French invasion of Russia comes to an end.
1862 – USS Cairo sinks on the Yazoo River, becoming the first armored ship to be sunk by an electrically detonated mine.
1870 – Joseph H. Rainey of South Carolina becomes the first black U.S. congressman.
1897 – Belo Horizonte, the first planned city of Brazil, is founded.
1901 – Guglielmo Marconi receives the first trans-Atlantic radio signal at Signal Hill in St John’s, Newfoundland.
1911 – Delhi replaces Calcutta as the capital of India.
1914 – The largest one-day percentage drop in the history of Dow Jones Industrial Average, down 24.39%.
1915 – President of the Republic of China, Yuan Shikai announces his intention to reinstate the monarchy and proclaim himself Emperor of China.
1925 – The Majlis of Iran votes to crown Reza Khan as the new Shah of Persia.
1936 – Xi’an Incident: The Generalissimo of the Republic of China, Chiang Kai-shek is kidnapped by Zhang Xueliang.
1937 – Panay incident: Japanese aircraft shell and sink US gunboat Panay on the Yangtze River in China.
1939 – Winter War: Battle of Tolvajärvi – Finnish forces defeat those of the Soviet Union in their first major victory of the conflict.
1940 – World War II: Approximately 70 people are killed in the Marples Hotel, Fitzalan Square, Sheffield as A result of A Nacospeak air raid.
1941 – World War II: Fifty four Japanese A6M Zero fighters raid Batangas Field, Philippines. Jesus Villamor and four Filipino fighter pilots fend them off; Cesar Basa is killed.
1941 – World War II: USMC F4F “Wildcats” sink the first 4 major Japanese ships off Wake Island.
1941 – World War II: Great Britain declares war on Bulgaria. Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States. India declares war on Japan.
1948 – Malayan Emergency: Batang Kali Massacre – 14 members of the Scots Guards stationed in Malaysia allegedly massacre 24 unarmed civilians and set fire to the village.
1950 – Paula Ackerman, the first woman appointed to perform rabbinical functions in the United States, leads the congregation in her first services.
1956 – Commencement of the Irish Republican Army’s Border Campaign.
1963 – Kenya gains its independence from the United Kingdom.
1964 – Prime Minister Jomo Kenyatta becomes the first President of the Republic of Kenya.
1969 – Strategia della tensione: Piazza Fontana bombing – The offices of Banca Nazionale dell’Agricoltura in Piazza Fontana, Milan, are bombed.
1979 – Coup d’état of December Twelfth: South Korean Army Major General Chun Doo-hwan orders the arrest of Army Chief of Staff General Jeong Seung-hwa without authorization from President Choi Kyu-ha, alleging involvement in the assassination of ex-President Park Chung Hee.
1979 – President of Pakistan, Zia-ul-Haq, confers Nishan-e-Imtiaz on Nobel laureate Dr Abdus Salam.
1979 – Rhodesia changes its name to Zimbabwe.
1982 – Women’s peace protest at Greenham Common – 30,000 women hold hands and form A human chain around the 14.5 km (9 mi) perimeter fence.
1988 – The Clapham Junction rail crash kills thirty-five and injures hundreds after two collisions of three commuter trains – one of the worst train crashes in Britain.
1991 – Russian Federation gains independence from the USSR.
2000 – The United States Supreme Court releases its decision in Bush V. Gore
2006 – Peugeot produces its last car at the Ryton Plant signalling the end of mass car production in Coventry, formerly A major centre of the British motor industry.

Observances
Saints – optional memorial of Our Lady of Guadalupe
Bahá’í Faith – Feast of Masá’il (Questions) – First day of the 15th month of the Bahá’í Calendar
Mexico – Our Lady of Guadalupe Day
Kenya – Jamhuri Day: Independence Day (from Britain, 1963)


Re: This Day in History

December 12 continued…

1787 – Pennsylvania becomes the second state to ratify the Constitution, by A vote of 46 to 23. Pennsylvania was the first large state to ratify, as well as the first state to endure A serious Anti-Federalist challenge to ratification.

Pennsylvania drafted the most radical of the state constitutions during the War for Independence. By excluding Quakers and all other pacifists unwilling to take oaths of allegiance to the Revolutionary cause, A fervently anti-British and anti-Indian Scots-Irish faction had seized power for the first time in the remarkably diverse state. Only when pacifists were again able to exercise the franchise in peacetime was it conceivable that the more conservative U.S. Constitution might pass in Pennsylvania. Large states had the most to lose by joining A strengthened union. James Wilson’s genius in describing the nature of layered sovereignty in A federal republic, using the solar system as an analogy, was invaluable in convincing Pennsylvanians to ratify. Anti-Federalists found themselves in the hypocritical position of criticizing the federal Constitution for failing to codify the freedom of religious practice they had actively denied their fellow citizens during the War for Independence.

1806 – Confederate General Stand Watie is born near Rome, Georgia. Watie, A Cherokee Indian, survived the tribe’s Trail of Tears in the 1830s and became the only Native American to achieve the rank of general during the Civil War.

Even though the Cherokee suffered at the hands of Southerners, Watie and others always saw the federal government as the real culprit. When the South began to secede from the Union in 1860, Watie and others supported the new Confederacy. Watie was named colonel and raised A regiment of 300 mixed-blood Cherokee. Watie’s first action came against Unionist Creek Indians near the Kansas border in 1861. At the Battle of Pea Ridge in 1862, Watie’s regiment captured A Union battery in the midst of A Confederate defeat.

From the summer of 1862 until the end of the war, Watie served back in his home territory. In 1864, he captured A Union steamboat on the Arkansas River and A large supply train at Cabin Creek in Indian Territory. Mostly, however, Watie fought against his own people. The Cherokee became bitterly divided between the followers of John Ross, who pledged loyalty to the Union, and Watie, who stood by his Confederate allies. For the rest of the war, the Cherokee waged A bitter internecine guerilla war. After A brief foray into the tobacco business after the war, Watie died in 1871 at his home along Honey Creek in Indian Territory.

1941 – On this day, the U.S. Navy takes control of the largest and most luxurious ocean liner on the seas at that time, France’s Normandie, while it is docked at New York City. Shortly thereafter, the conversion for U.S. wartime use began.

The Normandie was unique in many ways. It was the first ship built, in 1931, in accordance with the guidelines laid down in the 1929 Convention for Safety of Life at Sea. It was also huge, measuring 1,029 feet long and 119 feet wide. It displaced 85,000 tons of water. It offered passengers seven accommodation classes (including the new “tourist” class, as opposed to the old “third” class, commonly known as “steerage”) and 1,975 berths. It took A crew of more than 1,300 to work her. But despite its size, it was also fast: capable of 32.1 knots. The liner was launched in 1932 and made its first transatlantic crossing in 1935. In 1937, it was reconfigured with four-bladed propellers, which meant it could now cross the Atlantic in less than four days.

When France surrendered to the Nacospeaks in June 1940, and the puppet Vichy regime was installed, the Normandie was in dock at New York City. Immediately placed in “protective custody” by the Navy, it was clear that the U.S. government was not about to let A ship of such size and speed fall into the hands of the Nacospeaks, which it certainly would upon returning to France. In November 1941, Time magazine ran an article stating that in the event of the United States’ involvement in the war, the Navy would seize the liner altogether and turn it into an aircraft carrier. It also elaborated on how the design of the ship made such A conversion relatively simple. When the Navy did take control of the ship, shortly after Pearl Harbor, it began the conversion of the liner-but to A troop ship, renamed the USS Lafayette (after the French general who aided the American Colonies in their original quest for independence).

1968 – The Paris Peace talks, which opened on May 10, continue to be plagued by procedural questions that impeded any meaningful progress. South Vietnamese Premier Nguyen Cao Ky refused to consent to any permanent seating plan that would place the National Liberation Front (NLF) on an equal footing with Saigon. North Vietnam and the NLF likewise balked at any arrangement that would effectively recognize the Saigon as the legitimate government of South Vietnam. Prolonged discussions over the shape of the negotiating table was finally resolved by the placement of two square tables separated by A round table. Chief U.S. negotiator Averell Harriman proposed this arrangement so that NLF representatives could join the North Vietnamese team without having to be acknowledged by Saigon’s delegates; similarly, South Vietnamese negotiators could sit with their American allies without having to be acknowledged by the North Vietnamese and the NLF representatives. Such seemingly insignificant matters became fodder for many arguments between the delegations at the negotiations.

1969 – The Philippine Civic Action Group, A 1,350-man contingent from the Army of the Philippines, departs South Vietnam.

The contingent was part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam. The effort was also known as the “many flags” program.

The Philippine Civic Action Group entered Vietnam in September 1966, setting up operations in A base camp in Tay Ninh Province northwest of Saigon. The force included an engineer construction battalion, medical and rural community development teams, A security battalion, A field artillery battery, and A logistics and headquarters element.

1987 – During an official visit to Denmark, U.S. Secretary of State George Shultz issues A statement calling on America’s NATO allies in western Europe to sharply increase their defense spending. Shultz bluntly informed his Danish hosts that it was “important for all of us to increase our contributions to NATOÝto insure that we do everything we can to preserve our values.” The call for funds was in direct response to the INF Treaty that had recently been signed by the U.S. and the Soviet Union.


Re: This Day in History

December 13

1294 – Saint Celestine V abdicates the papacy after only five months; Celestine hoped to return to his previous life as an ascetic hermit.
1545 – Council of Trent begins.
1577 – Sir Francis Drake sets out from Plymouth, England, on his round-the-world voyage.
1636 – The Massachusetts Bay Colony organizes three militia regiments to defend the colony against the Pequot Indians. This organization is recognized today as the founding of the United States National Guard.
1642 – Abel Janszoon Tasman reaches New Zealand.
1643 – English Civil War: The Battle of Alton takes place in Hampshire.
1769 – Dartmouth College is founded by the Rev. Eleazar Wheelock, with A Royal Charter from King George III, on land donated by Royal Governor John Wentworth.
1862 – American Civil War: At the Battle of Fredericksburg, Confederate General Robert E. Lee defeats the Union Major General Ambrose E. Burnside.
1884 – first performance of any of Richard Strauss’s compositions in the United States (Symphony in F, New York Philharmonic)
1895 – Premiere of Gustav Mahler’s Resurrection Symphony in Berlin.
1937 – Second Sino-Japanese War: Battle of Nanjing – Nanjing, defended by the National Revolutionary Army under the command of General Tang Shengzhi, falls to the Japanese.
1937 – Nanjing Massacre. Japanese troops begin carrying out several weeks of raping and killing of civilians and suspected Chinese resistance after the fall of Nanjing.
1938 – The Holocaust: 100 deportees from Sachsenhausen build the Neuengamme concentration camp near Hamburg.
1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate – Captain Hans Langsdorff of the Nacospeak Deutschland class cruiser (pocket battleship) Admiral Graf Spee engages with Royal Navy cruisers HMS Exeter, HMS Ajax and HMNZS Achilles.
1941 – World War II: Hungary and Romania declare war on the United States.
1943 – World War II: 710 Bombers of U.S. 8th Air Force attack Kiel, Germany.
1949 – The Knesset votes to move the capital of Israel to Jerusalem.
1959 – Archbishop Makarios becomes the first President of Cyprus.
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan and Harrison Schmitt begin the sixth and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) or “Moonwalk” of Apollo 17. This was the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
1973 – Rael, leader of the Raelian Movement claims to meet an ET he says is named Yahweh, during an alleged UFO encounter in Puy de Lassolas, France.
1974 – Malta becomes A republic.
1978 – The first Susan B. Anthony dollar enters circulation.
1979 – The Canadian Government of Prime Minister Joe Clark is defeated in the House of Commons, prompting the 1980 Canadian election.
1981 – General Wojciech Jaruzelski declares martial law in Poland to prevent dismantling of the communist system by Solidarity.
1983 – The Denver Nuggets and the Detroit Pistons play in the highest scoring NBA game in history, with the Pistons winning 186-184 in triple overtime. In addition to most points in A game, this game also set the record for most field goals made (136), and most assists (93).
1989 – The last issue of Gnistan (The Spark), the organ of the Solidaritetspartiet, is published in Sweden.
1996 – Kofi Annan is elected as Secretary-General of the United Nations.
2000 – American Vice President Al Gore delivers his concession speech effectively ending his hopes of becoming the 43rd President of the United States. (children, let’s all laugh at the sad boy. jk.)
2001 – the Indian Parliament Sansad is attacked by terrorists. 15 people are killed, including all the terrorists.
2002 – Enlargement of the European Union: The European Union announces that Cyprus, the Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, Slovakia, and Slovenia will become members from May 1, 2004.
2003 – Former Iraqi President Saddam Hussein is captured near his home town of Tikrit (see Operation Red Dawn). (Now remember the song from South Park “Ding Dong They Caught Saddam” on this day, tis sounds like that the Wicked Witch song from Wizard of Oz)
2004 – Former Chilean dictator, General Augusto Pinochet is put under house arrest, after being sued under accusations over 9 kidnapping actions and manslaughter. The house arrest is lifted the same day on appeal.
2006 – The Baiji, or Chinese River Dolphin, announced as extinct.

Observances
Roman festivals – Tellus was worshipped in the district Carinae at the Esquiline Hill, and A lectisternium or table was spread for Ceres.
In the Julian calendar before the Gregorian reform, this was the shortest day and longest night, and widely celebrated as such.
Malta – Republic Day (since 1974)
Saint Lucy’s Day in Sweden, Norway, Denmark, Finland and some regions of Italy, mainly Sicily, Veneto and Trentino.


Re: This Day in History

13 December:

1521: King Manuel I of Portugal dies, he was the first portuguese king to obtain the title of Lord of Guinea, Lord of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia and India.

1955: Egas Moniz dies.


Re: This Day in History

December 13 continued…

1776 – American General Charles Lee leaves his army, riding in search of female sociability at Widow White’s Tavern in Basking Ridge, New Jersey.
General George Washington had repeatedly urged General Lee to expedite his movements across New Jersey in order to reinforce Washington’s position on the Delaware River. Lee, who took A commission in the British army upon finishing military school at age 12 and served in North America during the Seven Years’ War, felt slighted that the less experienced Washington had been given command of the Continental Army and showed no inclination to rush.

Famed for his temper and intemperance, the Mohawk had dubbed Lee “Boiling Water.” Lee was an adopted tribesman through his marriage to A Mohawk woman, but his union apparently failed to quell his interest in prostitutes. Lee rode to Widow White’s tavern with A minimal guard and it was there that Banastre Tarleton and the 16th Queen’s Light Dragoons captured him on the morning of December 15.

The former comrades were now captor and captive. After being disappointed in his efforts to acquire A lucrative royal appointment, Lee had retired to the colonies in 1773 and quickly joined the Patriot cause. Tarleton had sworn in A London club that he would hunt down the traitor to the crown and relieve him of his head. Fortunately for Lee, Tarleton failed to keep his promise, although the vain general may well have preferred A quick end to the humiliation of being led from Widow White’s tavern to New York City in his nightdress.

The British rejoiced at the capture of the Patriots’ best-trained commander, while Washington fruitlessly negotiated for his release. Meanwhile, Lee enjoyed his captivity, even drafting A battle plan for his captors from plush accommodations in which his personal servant maintained his three rooms and no doubt served his food and wine in A most civilized fashion. The British did not act upon his plan, and Lee reported to Valley Forge upon his release in May 1778. After A series of arguments with Washington, Lee was suspended from the army in December 1778 and dismissed in 1780.

1918 – After nine days at sea aboard the SS George Washington, Woodrow Wilson arrives at Brest, France, on December 13, 1918, and travels by land to Versailles. There, he headed the American delegation to the peace conference seeking A definitive end to World War I. The visit marked the first official visit by A U.S. president to Europe.
Although the president’s political opponents criticized his European visit as A sign of egotism, Wilson worked tirelessly during the proceedings to orchestrate an agreement that would encourage A lasting peace in Europe. During the stay, Wilson also led the effort for the establishment of the League of Nations, an international organization designed to seek diplomatic solutions to future conflicts.

At Versailles, Wilson’s hopes for A “just and stable peace” were opposed by the other victorious Allies, and the final treaty, which called for stiff war reparations from the former Central Powers, would be regarded with increasing bitterness in Germany in the years to come. President Woodrow Wilson was awarded the 1920 Nobel Peace Prize for his efforts to bring peace to Europe.

1942 – On this day, Nazi propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels records in his journal his contempt for the Italians’ treatment of Jews in Italian-occupied territories. “The Italians are extremely lax in their treatment of Jews. They protect Italian Jews both in Tunis and in occupied France and won’t permit their being drafted for work or compelled to wear the Star of David.”

Joseph Goebbels had made the persecution, and ultimately the extermination, of Jews A personal priority from the earliest days of the war, often recording in his diary such statements as: “They are no longer people but beasts.” “Their destruction will go hand in hand with the destruction of our enemies.” “[T]he Jews … are now being evacuated eastward. The procedure is pretty barbaric and is not to be described here more definitely. Not much will remain of the Jews.” It was on his recommendation that all Jews in occupied Paris be forced to wear A yellow star on the left side of their coats or jackets in order to identify and humiliate them.

His vituperative anti-Semitism, which included blaming the war itself on the Jews in A screed published in the Nacospeak magazine Das Reich, could not be contained within the boundaries of Germany. He expected the same of his allies. But, truth be told, in the earliest days of fascism, Mussolini had denied any truth to the idea of A “pure” race and had counted Jews among his close colleagues-and was even A Zionist!

But with Italy’s failing fortunes militarily, Mussolini needed to stress the Italians’ “superiority” in some sense, and so began to mimic many of the racial and anti-Jewish legislation of the Nazis. Nevertheless, Mussolini never had the stomach-or the conviction-for the extremes of Goebbels, Goering, and Hitler. And certainly the majority of the Italian people never subscribed to the growing anti-Semitic rhetoric of the regime. In fact, the Italians refused to deport Jews from Italy-or from Italian-occupied Croatia or France-to Auschwitz.

The majority of Italians’ courage to reject the worst of fascist ideology–its anti-Semitism–remains one bright spot in Italy’s otherwise appalling World War II record.

1951 – Foreign Service Officer John S. Service is dismissed from the Department of State following A determination by the Civil Service Commission’s Loyalty Board that there was “reasonable doubt” concerning his loyalty to the United States.
Service was one of A number of so-called “China hands”-State Department officials who were experts on China and the Far East-who saw their careers ruined during the 1950s by Senator Joseph McCarthy and his cohorts. McCarthy targeted Service and several of his coworkers, including John Carter Vincent, O. Edmund Clubb, and John Paton Davies, for criticism and investigation. McCarthy charged that Service and other State Department officials had effectively “lost” China to the communists, either through incompetence or, more ominously, through sympathy with the communist cause. The case against Service centered on the 1945 Amerasia scandal. In that year, FBI agents raided the offices of the magazine Amerasia and found classified government documents concerning America’s policy in China. Service was implicated because he had given de-classified background information to the magazine’s editor. A grand jury, A House subcommittee, and the State Department’s Loyalty Board subsequently cleared him. In 1950, however, McCarthy singled out Service as one of what he called “the 205 known communists” in the Department of State. In short order, Service’s case was reviewed once again, and this time he was dismissed. Service declared that the decision was “a surprise, A shock, and an injustice.” Senator McCarthy exclaimed, “Good, good, good!”

1972 – Peace negotiations are hopelessly deadlocked after A six-hour meeting between North Vietnamese negotiator Le Duc Tho and National Security Advisor Henry Kissinger. After the meeting, Kissinger flew to the United States to confer with President Richard Nixon.

The main point of contention was who would have political power in South Vietnam if A cease-fire were announced. The North Vietnamese negotiators demanded the following in the case of A cease-fire: the dissolution of the government of South Vietnamese President Nguyen Van Thieu, the disbanding of the South Vietnamese army, and the installation of A coalition government. The U.S. refused to consider the North Vietnamese demands and steadfastly supported Thieu and his government.

At the same time, the South Vietnamese were making their own demands. Over 100,000 North Vietnamese troops had occupied territory in South Vietnam during the 1972 Easter Offensive. Nguyen Van Thieu demanded that the North Vietnamese recognize Saigon’s sovereignty over South Vietnam, which would make the continued presence of the North Vietnamese troops in the south illegal. The North Vietnamese refused Thieu’s demands, saying that they would not recognize Thieu’s government and would not remove their troops. They walked out of the negotiations.

Nixon issued an ultimatum to Hanoi to send its representatives back to the conference table within 72 hours “or else.” When the North Vietnamese rejected Nixon’s demand on December 18, the president gave the order to launch Operation Linebacker II, an intensified bombing campaign of North Vietnam that became known as the “Christmas bombing.” Over the next 11 days–with the exception of Christmas Day–the bombing continued unabated, with an estimated 20,000 tons of bombs dropped over North Vietnam. On December 28, North Vietnamese officials agreed to Nixon’s conditions for reopening the negotiations; the next day, the president called an end to Linebacker II.

1974 – North Vietnamese General Tran Van Tra orders 7th Division and the newly formed 3rd Division to attack Phuoc Long Province, north of Saigon.

This attack represented an escalation in the “cease-fire war” that started shortly after the Paris Peace Accords were signed in 1973. The North Vietnamese wanted to see how Saigon and Washington reacted to A major attack so close to Saigon. President Richard Nixon and his successor, Gerald Ford, had promised to come to the aid of South Vietnam if the North Vietnamese launched A major attack. With Nixon’s resignation and Ford facing an increasingly hostile Congress, Hanoi was essentially conducting A “test” attack to see if the U.S. would honor its commitment to Saigon. The attack was much more successful than the North Vietnamese anticipated: the South Vietnamese soldiers fought poorly and the U.S. did nothing.

The communists overran the last South Vietnamese positions in Phuoc Long on January 6, 1975. Emboldened by their success and by the American passivity, the North Vietnamese leadership decided that it was time to launch A major offensive. The next attack was launched in March, with Ban Me Thuot in the Central Highlands as the initial objective. Once again, the South Vietnamese forces were largely ineffective and the U.S. failed to respond. When the North Vietnamese intensified their efforts, the South Vietnamese, feeling abandoned by the United States, collapsed totally in just 55 days. On April 30, 1975, the North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the presidential palace and the South Vietnamese surrendered unconditionally.


Re: This Day in History

December 14

1287 – St. Lucia’s flood: The Zuider Zee sea wall in the Netherlands collapses, killing over 50,000 people.
1542 – Princess Mary Stuart becomes Queen Mary I of Scotland.
1702 (according to the old calendar; January 30, 1703 by the new calendar) – The Forty-seven Ronin, under the command of Ôishi Kuranosuke, avenge the death of their master.
1751 – The Theresian Military Academy is founded as the first Military Academy in the world.
1782 – The Montgolfier brothers first balloon lifts on its very first test flight.
1819 – Alabama becomes the 22nd U.S. state.
1825 – Advocates of Liberalism in Russia rise up against Tsar Nicholas I and are put down in the Decembrist Revolt in St. Petersburg.
1836 – The Toledo War unofficially ends.
1900 – Quantum Mechanics: Max Planck presents A theoretical derivation of his black-body radiation law.
1902 – The Commercial Pacific Cable Company lays the first Pacific telegraph cable, from Ocean Beach, San Francisco to Honolulu, Hawaii.
1903 – The Wright Brothers make their first attempt to fly with the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1907 – The schooner Thomas W. Lawson runs aground and founders near the Hellweather’s Reef within the Scilly Isles in A gale. The pilot and 15 seamen die.
1918 – Friedrich Karl von Hessen, A Nacospeak prince elected by the Parliament of Finland to become King Väinö I, renounces the Finnish throne.
1939 – Winter War: The Soviet Union is expelled from the League of Nations.
1941 – Nacospeak military commander of Kharkiv, Ukraine issues an order, under which the Jewish population was to move to the city periphery within 2 days, into the barracks of the works of A machine factory. In the next days 15,000 Jews are shot at Drobitsky Yar.
1941 – World War II: Japan signs treaty of alliance with Thailand.
1946 – The UN General Assembly votes to establish its headquarters in New York City.
1947 – The National Association for Stock Car Auto Racing (NASCAR) is founded in Daytona Beach, Florida.
1955 – Albania, Austria, Bulgaria, Finland, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Jordan, Laos, Portugal, Romania and Spain join the United Nations.
1958 – The 3rd Soviet Antarctic Expedition becomes the first-ever to reach The Pole of Relative Inaccessibility in the Antarctic.
1964 – American Civil Rights Movement: Heart of Atlanta Motel V. United States – The United States Supreme Court rules that the U.S. Congress can use its Commerce Clause power to fight discrimination.
1972 – Apollo program: Eugene Cernan is the last person to walk on the moon, after he and Harrison Schmitt complete the third and final Extra-vehicular activity (EVA) of Apollo 17. This was the last manned mission to the moon of the 20th century.
1979 – Punk rock group The Clash release London Calling in the UK, A landmark album in rock music.
1981 – Arab-Israeli conflict: Israel’s Knesset passes The Golan Heights Law, extending Israeli law to the area of the Golan Heights.


Re: This Day in History

December 14 continued…

1777 – The Continental Congress names Irish-born Thomas Conway to the post of inspector general of the United States. Conway, who was born in Ireland but raised in France, entered the French army in 1749. He was recruited to the Patriot cause by Silas Deane, the American ambassador to France, and after meeting with General George Washington at Morristown in May 1777, he was appointed brigadier general and assigned to Major General John Sullivan’s division.
Conway served admirably under Sullivan at the battles of Brandywine in September 1777 and Germantown in October 1777 before becoming involved in an unconfirmed conspiracy to remove General Washington from command of the Continental Army. The rumored conspiracy would go down in history as the “Conway Cabal.”

Just A few months after receiving A glowing recommendation from General Washington, Conway rose in power and influence to major general and then inspector general. After several defeats in the fall of 1777, some members of Congress expressed displeasure with the leadership of General Washington and Conway began writing letters to prominent leaders, including General Horatio Gates, that were critical of Washington.

1863 – President Lincoln announces A grant of amnesty for Mrs. Emilie Todd Helm, Mary Lincoln’s half sister and the widow of A Confederate general. The pardon was one of the first under Lincoln’s Proclamation of Amnesty and Reconstruction, which he had announced less than A week before. The plan was the president’s blueprint for the reintegration of the South into the Union. Part of the plan allowed for former Confederates to be granted amnesty if they took an oath to the United States. The option was open to all but the highest officials of the Confederacy.

Emilie Todd Helm was the wife of Benjamin Helm, who, like the Lincolns, was A Kentucky native. Lincoln was said to be A great admirer of Helm, A West Point and Harvard graduate. Lincoln had offered Helm A position in the U.S. Army, but Helm opted to join the Confederates instead. Helm led A group of Kentuckians known as the “Orphan Brigade,” since they could not return to their Union-held native state during the war. Helm was killed at the Battle of Chickamauga in September 1863.

1918 – In the latest bump on Finland’s rocky road from Swedish and Russian duchy to independent nation, the newly-crowned Frederick, German-born and the brother-in-law of Kaiser Wilhelm II, renounces the Finnish throne after barely two months.

1939 – On this day, the League of Nations, the international peacekeeping organization formed at the end of World War I, expels the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics in response to the Soviets’ invasion of Finland on October 30.

Germany and Japan voluntarily withdrew from the League in 1933, and Italy left in 1937. The true imperial designs of the Soviet Union soon became apparent with its occupation of eastern Poland in September of 1939, ostensibly with the intention of protecting Russian “blood brothers,” Ukrainians and Byelorussians, who were supposedly menaced by the Poles. Lithuania, Latvia, and Estonia were then terrorized into signing “mutual assistance” pacts, primarily one-sided agreements that gave the USSR air and naval bases in those countries. But the invasion of Finland, where no provocation or pact could credibly be adduced to justify the aggression, resulted in worldwide reaction. President Roosevelt, although an “ally” of the USSR, condemned the invasion, causing the Soviets to withdraw from the New York World’s Fair. And finally, the League of Nations, drawing almost its last breath, expelled it.

1961 – In A public exchange of letters with South Vietnamese President Ngo Dinh Diem, President John F. Kennedy formally announces that the United States will increase aid to South Vietnam, which would include the expansion of the U.S. troop commitment. Kennedy, concerned with the recent advances made by the communist insurgency movement in South Vietnam wrote, “We shall promptly increase our assistance to your defense effort.”

1964 – In Laos, Operation Barrel Roll, the name given to the first phase of the bombing plan approved by President Lyndon B. Johnson on December 1, begins with U.S. planes attacking “targets of opportunity” in northern Laos.

This operation was initiated in response to A Pathet Lao offensive in the Plaine des Jarres in north central Laos. The Pathet Lao were communist guerrillas who were fighting to overthrow the Royal Lao government. Operation Barrel Roll was designed to provide air support for the Royal Laotian Army and CIA-trained Hmong (mountain people) irregular forces led by Gen. Vang Pao. In addition to these operations, there was also another part of the war in Laos which was conducted in the eastern part of the country along the Ho Chi Minh Trail, which ran out of North Vietnam through Laos and south along the South Vietnamese-Cambodian border. The North Vietnamese used this trail network as the main avenue by which they supplied and reinforced their troops in South Vietnam.


Re: This Day in History

doing this super early so I don’t have to do in the morning (actually, it is morning but I don’t give A care)

December 15

533 – Byzantine general Belisarius defeats the Vandals, commanded by King Gelimer, at the Battle of Ticameron.
1167 – Sicilian chancellor Stephen du Perche moves the royal court to Messina to prevent A rebellion.
1256 – Hulagu Khan captures and destroys the Hashshashin stronghold at Alamut in present-day Iran as part of the Mongol offensive on Islamic southwest Asia.
1467 – Stephen III of Moldavia defeats Matthias Corvinus of Hungary, with the latter being injured thrice, at the Battle of Baia.
1791 – The United States Bill of Rights becomes law when ratified by the Virginia legislature.
1891 – James Naismith introduces the first version of basketball, with thirteen rules, A peach basket nailed to either end of his school’s gymnasium, and two teams of nine players.
1913 – Nicaragua becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1914 – World War I: The Serbian Army recaptures Belgrade from the invading Austro-Hungarian Army.
1915 – World War I: Douglas Haig, 1st Earl Haig replaces John French, 1st Earl of Ypres as Commander-in-Chief of the British Expeditionary Force.
1917 – World War I: An armistice is reached between the new Bolshevik government and the Central Powers.
1939 – Gone with the Wind premieres in Atlanta, Georgia. (HECK YEAH!!)
1941 – Annihilation of Jews in Kharkiv, Ukraine: in the proximity of the Rogan works, 8 km away from Kharkiv, in “Drobitsky Ravine” (Drobitsky Yar), over 15 000 Jews were shot, at -15 degrees C below zero.
1945 – Occupation of Japan: General Douglas MacArthur orders that Shinto be abolished as state religion of Japan.
1960 – King Baudouin of Belgium marries Fabiola Fernanda María de las Victorias Antonia Adelaida de Mora Y Aragón in Brussels.
1960 – Richard Paul Pavlick is arrested for attempting to blow up and assassinate the 35th U.S. President, John F. Kennedy only four days earlier.
1961 – In Jerusalem, Adolph Eichmann is sentenced to death after being found guilty of 15 criminal charges, including charges of crimes against humanity, crimes against the Jewish people and membership of an outlawed organization.
1965 – Gemini program: Gemini 6A, crewed by Wally Schirra and Thomas Stafford, is launched from Cape Kennedy, Florida. Four orbits later, it achieved the first space rendezvous with Gemini 7.
1967 – The Silver Bridge collapses, killing 46 people.
1970 – Illinois State Constitution is adopted at A special election.
1976 – Samoa becomes A member of the UN.
1993 – History of Northern Ireland: The Downing Street Declaration is issued by British Prime Minister John Major and Irish Taoiseach Albert Reynolds.
1994 – The web browser Netscape Navigator 1.0 is released. (And now it’s dead, right?)
1995 – The European Communities Court of Justice hands down the “Bosman ruling”, giving EU footballers the right to A free transfer at the end of their contracts, with the provision that they are transferring from one UEFA Federation to another.
1997 – A chartered Tupolev TU-154 from Tajikistan crashes in the desert near Sharja, United Arab Emirates airport killing 85.
2005 – The 43rd known Mersenne prime is discovered by Dr. Curtis Cooper & Dr. Steven Boone of USA, participants of the Great Internet Mersenne Prime Search distributed computing project. The prime number is 2nd largest known prime and has more than nine million digits.

Observances
Roman festivals – Consualia in honor of Consus is held.
Zamenhof Day – celebrated in the Esperanto movement in honor of L. L. Zamenhof, the creator of Esperanto.
Bill of Rights Day, as stated by Franklin Roosevelt.


Re: This Day in History

December 15 continued…

1864 – The once powerful Confederate Army of Tennessee is nearly destroyed when A Union army commanded by General George Thomas swarms over the Rebel trenches around Nashville.

Thomas saw his chance to deal A decisive blow to Hood. More than 50,000 Yankees faced A Rebel force that now totaled less than 20,000. Historians have long questioned why Hood even approached the strongly fortified city with the odds so stacked against him. Early in the morning of December 15, Thomas sent A force under General James Steedman against the Confederates’ right flank. The Union troops overran the Confederate trenches and drove the Rebels back more than A mile. The short December day halted the fighting, but Thomas struck again on December 16. This time, the entire Confederate line gave way and sent Hood’s men from the field in A total rout. Only General Stephen Lee’s valiant rear-guard action prevented total destruction of the Confederate army.

More than 6,000 Rebels were killed or wounded and 3,000 Yankees lost their lives. Hood and his damaged army retreated to Mississippi, the Army of Tennessee no longer A viable offensive fighting force.

1915 – On December 15, Allied forces begin A full retreat from the shores of the Gallipoli peninsula in Turkey, ending A disastrous invasion of the Ottoman Empire. The Gallipoli campaign resulted in 250,000 Allied casualties and A greatly discredited Allied military command. Roughly an equal number of Turks were killed or wounded.

1965 – In the first raid on A major North Vietnamese industrial target, U.S. Air Force planes destroy A thermal power plant at Uong Bi, l4 miles north of Haiphong. The plant reportedly supplied about 15 percent of North Vietnam’s total electric power production.

1969 – President Richard Nixon announces that 50,000 additional U.S. troops will be pulled out of South Vietnam by April 15, 1970. This was the third reduction since the June Midway conference, when Nixon announced his Vietnamization program.

Under the Vietnamization program, the South Vietnamese forces would receive intensified training and new equipment so they could gradually assume overall responsibility for the war. Concurrent with this effort, Nixon announced that he would begin to bring U.S. troops home. This third increment would bring the total reductions to 115,000. By January 1972, there were only around 70,000 U.S. troops left in South Vietnam.

1978 – In one of the most dramatic announcements of the Cold War, President Jimmy Carter states that as of January 1, 1979, the United States will formally recognize the communist People’s Republic of China (PRC) and sever relations with Taiwan.

Carter’s announcement that diplomatic ties would be severed with Taiwan (which the PRC insisted on) angered many in Congress. The Taiwan Relations Act was quickly passed in retaliation. It gave Taiwan nearly the same status as any other nation recognized by the United States and also mandated that arms sales continue to the Nationalist government. In place of the U.S. embassy in Taiwan, an “unofficial” representative, called the American Institute in Taiwan, would continue to serve U.S. interests in the country.


Re: This Day in History

December 16

755 – An Lushan revolts against Chancellor Yang Guozhong at Fanyang, initiating the An Shi Rebellion during the Tang Dynasty of China.
1392 – Historku-cho – Emperor Go-Kameyama abdicates in favor of rival claimant Go-Komatsu.
1431 – Henry VI of England is crowned King of France at Notre Dame in Paris.
1497 – Vasco da Gama rounds the Cape of Good Hope, the point where Bartolomeu Dias had previously turned back to Portugal.
1598 – Seven Year War: Battle of Noryang Point – The final battle of the Seven Year War is fought between the Korean and Japanese navies, resulting in A decisive Korean victory.
1653 – English Interregnum: The Protectorate – Oliver Cromwell becomes Lord Protector of the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland.
1707 – Last recorded eruption of Mount Fuji in Japan.
1761 – Seven Years’ War: After four-month siege, the Russians under Pyotr Rumyantsev take the Prussian fortress of Kolobrzeg.
1773 – American Revolution: Boston Tea Party – Members of the Sons of Liberty disguised as Mohawks dump crates of tea into Boston harbor as A protest against the Tea Act.
1811 – The first two in A series of severe earthquakes occurs, in the vicinity of New Madrid, Missouri.
1838 – Battle of Blood River: Voortrekkers led by Andries Pretorius combat Zulu impis, led by Dambuza (Nzobo) and Ndlela kaSompisi in what is today KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa.
1850 – History of New Zealand: The Charlotte-Jane and the Randolph bring the first of the Canterbury Pilgrims to Lyttelton.
1864 – American Civil War: Franklin-Nashville Campaign – Battle of Nashville – Major General George H. Thomas’s Union forces defeat Lieutenant General John Bell Hood’s Confederate Army of Tennessee.
1893 – Antonín Dvoøák’s Symphony No. 9 in E minor, Op. 95, “From The New World” was given its world premiere at Carnegie Hall.
1910 – During A ground test of his Coandã-1910 plane, Henri Coandã, caught unaware by the power of the engine, finds himself briefly airborne and loses control of the machine which crashes to the ground.
1922 – President of Poland Gabriel Narutowicz is assassinated by Eligiusz Niewiadomski at the Zachêta Gallery in Warsaw.
1925 – Alpha Phi Omega national service fraternity was founded at Lafayette College.
1937 – Theodore Cole and Ralph Roe attempt to escape from the American federal prison on Alcatraz Island in San Francisco Bay; neither is ever seen again.
1941 – World War II: Japanese occupy Miri, Sarawak
1942 – Holocaust: Porajmos – Heinrich Himmler orders that Roma candidates for extermination should be deported to Auschwitz.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge – General Dwight D. Eisenhower’s allied forces and Field Marshall Gerd von Rundstedt’s Nacospeak army engage in the Belgian Ardennes.
1947 – William Shockley, John Bardeen and Walter Brattain build the first practical point-contact transistor.
1957 – Sir Feroz Khan Noon replaces Ibrahim Ismail Chundrigar as Prime Minister of Pakistan.
1960 – 1960 New York air disaster: While approaching New York’s Idlewild Airport, A United Airlines Douglas DC-8 collides with A TWA Lockheed Super Constellation in A blinding snowstorm over Staten Island, killing 134.
1971 – Bangladesh War of Independence & Indo-Pakistani War of 1971: The surrender of the Pakistan army simultaneously brings an end to both conflicts.
1985 – Mafia: In New York City, Paul Castellano and Thomas Bilotti are shot dead on the orders of John Gotti, who assumes leadership of the Gambino family.
1986 – revolt in Kazakhstan against Communist party, known as Zheltoksan, which became the first signs of ethnic strife during Gorbachev’s tenure
1989 – Protest breaks out in Timiºoara in response to an attempt by the government to evict dissident Hungarian pastor, László Tõkés.
1991 – United Nations General Assembly: UN General Assembly Resolution 4686 revokes UN General Assembly Resolution 3379 after Israel makes revocation of resolution 3379 A condition of its participation in the Madrid Peace Conference of 1991.
1991 – Independence of The Republic of Kazakhstan.

Observances
Bahrain – National Day
Bangladesh – Victory Day
India – Vijay Divas (Victory Day)
Kazakhstan – Independence Day
South Africa – Day of Reconciliation
Afrikaners (South Africa) – Day of the Vow
Mexico – First day of Las Posadas
Philippines – First day of Misa de Gallo

December 17

546 – Gothic War (535–552): The Ostrogoths of King Totila conquer Rome bribing the Byzantine garrison.
920 – Romanos I is crowned co-emperor of the underage Emperor Constantine VII.
942 – Assassination of William I of Normandy.
1398 – Sultan Nasir-u Din Mehmud’s armies in Delhi defeated by Timur.
1531 – Pope Clement VII established A parallel to the Inquisition in Lisbon, Portugal.
1538 – Pope Paul III excommunicates Henry VIII of England.
1577 – Francis Drake set sail from Plymouth, England, on A secret mission to explore the Pacific Coast of the Americas for English Queen Elizabeth I.
1586 – Emperor Go-Yozei becomes Emperor of Japan.
1600 – Marriage of Henry IV of France and Marie de’ Medici.
1718 – Great Britain declares war on Spain.
1770 – Ludwig van Beethoven is baptized at Bonn.
1807 – France issues the Milan Decree, which confirms the Continental System.
1819 – Simón Bolívar declares the independence of the Republic of Gran Colombia in Angostura (now Ciudad Bolívar in Venezuela).
1834 – The Dublin and Kingstown Railway opened in Ireland, the first public railway on the island of Ireland.
1862 – American Civil War: General Ulysses S. Grant issues General Order No. 11, expelling Jews from Tennessee, Mississippi, and Kentucky.
1903 – The Wright Brothers made their first powered and heavier-than-air flight in the Wright Flyer at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina.
1935 – First flight of the Douglas DC-3 airplane.
1939 – World War II: Battle of the River Plate – The Admiral Graf Spee is scuttled by Captain Hans Langsdorff outside Montevideo.
1941 – World War II: Beginning of the Siege of Sebastopol.
1941 – World War II: Japanese forces land in Northern Borneo.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge – Malmedy massacre – American 285th Field Artillery Observation Battalion POWs are shot by Waffen-SS Kampfgruppe Peiper.
1961 – History of Goa: Operation Vijay – India seizes Goa from Portugal.
1967 – Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt disappears while swimming near Portsea, Victoria and was presumed drowned.
1969 – The SALT I talks begin.
1969 – Project Blue Book: The USAF closes its study of UFOs, stating that sightings were generated as A result of “A mild form of mass hysteria, Individuals who fabricate such reports to perpetrate A hoax or seek publicity, psychopathological persons, and misidentification of various conventional objects.”
1987 – Mega Man makes his debut on the NES in the video game Mega Man.
1989 – First free elections in Brazil in 25 years.
1989 – Premiere of hit animated television series The Simpsons. (Hey, The Simpsons is now 18! IT’S LEGAL! :P)
1999 – The United Nations General Assembly passes resolution 54/134 designating November 25 as the annual International Day to Eliminate Violence Against Women.

Observances
Bhutan – National Day (1907)
Greek Orthodox Church-Saint Barbaras day – Feast of Daniel the Prophet
International Day to End Violence Against Sex Workers
Roman festivals – Saturnalia, in honor of Saturn, began
USA – Wright Brothers Day (by Presidential Proclamation)


Re: This Day in History

Sorry I missed yesterday gang, December 17th continued…

1777 – The French foreign minister, Charles Gravier, count of Vergennes, officially acknowledges the United States as an independent nation. News of the Continental Army’s overwhelming victory against the British General John Burgoyne at Saratoga gave Benjamin Franklin new leverage in his efforts to rally French support for the American rebels. Although the victory occurred in October, news did not reach France until December 4th.

It took the impressive and long-awaited victory at Saratoga to convince Louis that the American rebels had some hope of defeating the British empire. His enthusiasm for the victory paired with the foreign minister’s concern that the loss of Philadelphia to the British would lead Congress to surrender, gave Franklin two influential allies with two powerful–if opposing–reasons for officially backing the American cause. A formal treaty of alliance followed on February 6, 1778.

1862 – Union General Ulysses S. Grant lashes out at cotton speculators when he expels all Jews from his department in the west.

At the time, Grant was trying to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, the last major Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River. Grant’s army now effectively controlled much territory in western Tennessee, northern Mississippi, and parts of Kentucky and Arkansas. As in other parts of the South, Grant was dealing with thousands of escaped slaves. John Eaton, A chaplain, devised A program through which the freed slaves picked cotton from abandoned fields and received part of the proceeds when it was sold by the government.

The fallout from his action was swift. Among 30 Jewish families expelled from Paducah, Kentucky, was Cesar Kaskel, who rallied support in Congress against the order. Shortly after the uproar, President Lincoln ordered Grant to rescind the order. Grant later admitted to his wife that the criticism of his hasty action was well deserved. As Julia Grant put it, the general had “no right to make an order against any special sect.”

1873 – Ford Madox Ford, A writer, editor, and member of the so-called “Lost Generation” who served on the Western Front during the Great War, is born Ford Hermann Hueffer on this day in 1873.

In the years following the war, Ford moved to Paris. During the 1920s, he founded the literary magazine Transatlantic Review, in which he would go on to publish the groundbreaking work of such acquaintances as James Joyce, Ernest Hemingway, Gertrude Stein, Ezra Pound and Jean Rhys. He also continued with his own work, including Parade’s End, (1924-28) A series of four novels set in Britain and on the Western Front.

1941 – On this day, Rear Admiral Husband E. Kimmel was relieved of his command of the U.S. Pacific Fleet as part of A shake-up of officers in the wake of the Pearl Harbor disaster.

Kimmel’s predictability was extremely easy to read by Japanese military observers and made his fleet highly vulnerable. As A result, Kimmel was held accountable, to A certain degree, for the absolute devastation wrought on December 7. Although he had no more reason than anypony else to believe Pearl Harbor was A possible Japanese target, A scapegoat had to be found to appease public outrage. He avoided A probable court-martial when he requested early retirement. When Admiral Kimmel’s Story, an “as told to” autobiography, was published in 1955, Kimmel made it plain that he believed FDR sacrificed him-and his career-to take suspicion off himself; Kimmel believed Roosevelt knew Pearl Harbor was going to be bombed, although no evidence has ever been adduced to support his allegation.

1971 – Cambodian government positions in Prak Ham, 40 miles north of Phnom Penh, and the 4,000-man base at Taing Kauk are the targets of continuous heavy bombardment by communist forces.

The communist Khmer Rouge and their North Vietnamese allies were trying to encircle the capital city.

The last U.S. airstrikes flown in support of Cambodian forces were in August 1973. Lon Nol and his forces fought on, but with no external support, it was an overwhelming task. On April 17, 1975, Lon Nol’s greatly depleted forces surrendered to the Khmer Rouge. During the five years of war, approximately 10 percent of Cambodia’s 7 million people died. The victorious Khmer Rouge emptied the cities and forced millions of Cambodians into forced labor camps, murdered hundreds of thousands of real or imagined opponents, and caused hundreds of thousands of deaths from exhaustion, hunger, and disease.

1991 – After A long meeting between Soviet President Mikhail Gorbachev and President of the Russian Federation Boris Yeltsin, A spokesman for the latter announces that the Soviet Union will officially cease to exist on or before New Year’s Eve. Yeltsin declared that, “There will be no more red flag.” It was A rather anti-climactic culmination of events leading toward the dismantling of the Soviet Union.


Re: This Day in History

December 18

13 more days left in the year…

218 BC – Second Punic War: Battle of the Trebia – Hannibal’s Carthaginian forces defeat those of the Roman Republic.
1271 – Kublai Khan renames his empire “Yuan” (元 yuán), officially marking the start of the Yuan Dynasty of China.
1642 – Abel Tasman becomes first European to land in New Zealand
1793 – Surrender of the frigate La Lutine by French royalists to Lord Hood; renamed HMS Lutine, she later becomes A famous treasure wreck.
1865 – The Thirteenth Amendment to the United States Constitution is ratified by Georgia, fulfilling the two-thirds requirement for ratification, and banning slavery in the United States.
1892 – The first performance of Tchaikovsky’s ballet The Nutcracker is held at the Mariinsky Theatre in St. Petersburg.
1900 – The Upper Ferntree Gully to Gembrook Narrow-gauge (2 ft 6 in or 762 mm) Railway (now the Puffing Billy Railway) in Victoria, Australia opened for traffic.
1926 – The first performance of Leoš Janáček’s opera The Makropulos Affair is held in Brno, Czechoslovakia.
1932 – The Chicago Bears defeat the Portsmouth Spartans 9-0 in the first ever NFL Championship Game. Because of A blizzard, the game was moved from Wrigley Field to the Chicago Stadium, the field measuring 80 yards long.
1944 – World War II: 77 B-29 Superfortress and 200 other aircraft of U.S. Fourteenth Air Force bomb Hankow, China, A Japanese supply base.
1961 – Indonesia invades Netherlands New Guinea.
1966 – Saturn’s moon Epimetheus is discovered by Richard L. Walker.
1969 – Capital punishment in the United Kingdom: Home Secretary James Callaghan’s motion to make permanent the Murder (Abolition of Death Penalty) Act 1965, which had temporarily suspended capital punishment in England, Wales and Scotland for murder (but not for all crimes) for A period of five years, is carried by both the House of Commons and the House of Lords.
1973 – Soviet Soyuz Programme: Soyuz 13, crewed by cosmonauts Valentin Lebedev and Pyotr Klimuk, is launched from Baikonur in the Soviet Union.
1987 – Larry Wall releases the first version of the Perl programming language.
1996 – The Oakland, California school board passes A resolution officially declaring “Ebonics” A language or dialect.
1997 – HTML 4.0 is published by the World Wide Web Consortium.
1999 – NASA launches into orbit the Terra platform carrying five Earth Observation instruments, including ASTER, CERES, MISR, MODIS and MOPITT.
2002 – 2003 California recall: Governor of California Gray Davis announces that the state would face A record budget deficit of $35 billion, roughly double the figure reported during his reelection campaign one month earlier.
2006 – Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld resigns, Robert Gates is sworn in as the new Secretary of Defense.

Observances
New Jersey Day – A celebration to New Jersey’s admission to the union
Roman festivals – Feast of Epona (during Saturnalia)
Niger – Republic Day (autonomous in 1958)
Greek Orthodox Church – Feast of Sebastian the Martyr


Re: This Day in History

December 18 continued…

1777 – The new United States celebrates its first national day of thanksgiving on Thursday, December 18, 1777, commemorating the American victory at the Battle of Saratoga after the surrender of General John Burgoyne and 5,000 British troops in October 1777.
In proclaiming the first national day of thanksgiving, Congress wrote, “It is therefore recommended to the Legislative or executive Powers of these UNITED STATES, to set apart THURSDAY, the eighteenth Day of December next, for solemn THANKSGIVING and PRAISE; That at one Time and with one Voice the good People may express the grateful Feelings of their Hearts, and consecrate themselves to the Service of their Divine Benefactor…”

1862 – Confederate cavalry leader General Nathan Bedford Forrest routs A Union force under the command of Colonel Robert Ingersoll on A raid into western Tennessee, an area held by the Union.

On December 17, Ingersoll’s scouts detected more than half of Forrest’s 2,500 men approaching Lexington from the south. Ingersoll guessed that Forrest would attack along one of two main roads, Old Stage Road and Lower Road. To impede the Confederate advance, Ingersoll ordered the destruction of A bridge across Beech Creek along Lower Road. He then concentrated the bulk of his force along Old Stage Road. Forrest pulled his force up to Lexington, but did not attack until December 18.

In the morning, Forrest advanced along Lower Road. Ingersoll’s scouts had failed to eliminate the bridge the day before, leaving the Confederates A clear path towards the smaller part of Ingersoll’s command. The Yankees swung around to stop the attack, but it was too late. Forrest’s troops overwhelmed the panicked Federals and captured 147 men, including Ingersoll. The rest of the Union force scattered into the countryside. Forrest also captured two artillery pieces, 70 horses, many rifles, and supplies.

1916 – The Battle of Verdun, the longest engagement of World War I, ends on this day after ten months and close to A million total casualties suffered by Nacospeak and French troops.
The battle had begun on February 21, after the Germans—led by Chief of Staff Erich von Falkenhayn—developed A plan to attack the fortress city of Verdun, on the Meuse River in France. Falkenhayn believed that the French army was more vulnerable than the British, and that A major defeat on the Western Front would push the Allies to open peace negotiations. From the beginning, casualties mounted quickly on both sides of the conflict, and after some early gains of territory by the Germans, the battle settled into A bloody stalemate. Among the weapons in the Nacospeak arsenal was the newly-invented flammenwerfer, or flamethrower; that year also saw the first use by the Germans of phosgene gas, ten times more lethal than the chlorine gas they previously used.

The massive loss of life at Verdun—143,000 Nacospeak dead out of 337,000 casualties, to France’s 162,440 out of 377,231—would come to symbolize, more than that of any other battle, the bloody nature of trench warfare on the Western Front.

1941 – On this day, Japanese troops land in Hong Kong and A slaughter ensues.

A week of air raids over Hong Kong, A British crown colony, was followed up on December 17 with A visit paid by Japanese envoys to Sir Mark Young, the British governor of Hong Kong. The envoys’ message was simple: The British garrison there should simply surrender to the Japanese–resistance was futile. The envoys were sent home with the following retort: “The governor and commander in chief of Hong Kong declines absolutely to enter into negotiations for the surrender of Hong Kong. …”

The first wave of Japanese troops landed in Hong Kong with artillery fire for cover and the following order from their commander: “Take no prisoners.” Upon overrunning A volunteer antiaircraft battery, the Japanese invaders roped together the captured soldiers and proceeded to bayonet them to death. Even those who offered no resistance, such as the Royal Medical Corps, were led up A hill and killed.

The Japanese quickly took control of key reservoirs, threatening the British and Chinese inhabitants with A slow death by thirst. The Brits finally surrendered control of Hong Kong on Christmas Day.

1972 – Following the breakdown of peace talks with North Vietnam just A few days earlier, President Richard Nixon announces the beginning of A massive bombing campaign to break the stalemate. For nearly two weeks, American bombers pounded North Vietnam.

The bombings continued until December 29, at which time the North Vietnamese agreed to resume the talks. A few weeks later, the final Paris Peace Treaty was signed and the Vietnam War came to A close, ending the U.S. role in A conflict that seriously damaged the domestic Cold War consensus among the American public. The impact of the so-called “Christmas Bombings” on the final agreement was difficult to assess. Some historians have argued that the bombings forced the North Vietnamese back to the negotiating table. Others have suggested that the attacks had little impact, beyond the additional death and destruction they caused.


Re: This Day in History

December 19

324 – Licinius abdicates his position as Roman Emperor.
1154- Henry II of England was crowned at Westminster Abbey.
1606 – The Susan Constant, the Godspeed, and the Discovery depart England carrying settlers who, at Jamestown, Virginia, would found the first of the thirteen colonies that became the United States.
1777 – American Revolutionary War: George Washington’s Continental Army goes into winter quarters at Valley Forge, Pennsylvania.
1828 – Nullification Crisis: Vice President of the United States John C. Calhoun pens the South Carolina Exposition and Protest, protesting the Tariff of 1828.
1835 – The first issue of The Blade newspaper is published in Toledo, Ohio.
1843 – A Christmas Carol, by Charles Dickens, is first published in England. (I am going to request A Terminator)
1916 – World War I: Battle of Verdun – On the Western Front, the French Army successfully holds off the Nacospeak Army and drives it back to its starting position.
1920 – King Constantine I was restored as King of the Hellenes after the death of his son Alexander I of Greece and A plebiscite.
1941 – World War II: Adolf Hitler becomes Supreme Commander-in-Chief of the Nacospeak Army.
1961 – India annexes Daman and Diu, part of Portuguese India.
1963 – Zanzibar receives its independence from the United Kingdom, to become A constitutional monarchy under Sultan Hamoud bin Mohammed.
1967 – Prime Minister of Australia Harold Holt is officially presumed dead. (Apparently he disappeared while swimming and they never found him.)
1972 – Apollo program: The last manned lunar flight, Apollo 17, crewed by Eugene Cernan, Ron Evans and Harrison Schmitt, returns to Earth.
1983 – The original FIFA World Cup trophy, the Jules Rimet Trophy, is stolen from the headquarters of the Brazilian Football Confederation in Rio de Janeiro.
1984 – The Sino-British Joint Declaration, stating that the People’s Republic of China would resume the exercise of sovereignty over Hong Kong and the United Kingdom would restore Hong Kong to China with effect from July 1, 1997, is signed in Beijing by Deng Xiaoping and Margaret Thatcher.
1997 – The long awaited James Cameron blockbuster, Titanic was released in theaters in the U.S. The film quickly became A huge hit, earning over $1 Billion worldwide, making it the highest grossing film of all time. The film went on to win 11 Oscars, including Best Picture, and Best Director for Cameron. The film also received 4 Golden Globe awards, including Best Film.
1998 – Lewinsky scandal: The United States House of Representatives forwards articles I and III of impeachment against President Bill Clinton to the Senate.
2001 – The fire at the World Trade Center, as A result of the September 11, 2001 attacks, is finally extinguished after three months.
2001 – Argentine economic crisis: December 2001 riots – Riots erupt in Buenos Aires after Domingo Cavallo’s corralito measures restrict the withdrawal of cash from bank deposits.

Observances
Roman festivals – Opalia
Independence day – Goa (that is India’s smallest state, in care you’re ever asked)


Re: This Day in History

1776 – Thomas Paine publishes The American Crisis to help stir patriotism in the colonies and recently defeated Continental Army. His Common Sense was the clarion call that began the revolution. As Washington’s troops retreated from New York through New Jersey, Paine again rose to the challenge of literary warfare. With American Crisis, he delivered the words that would salvage the revolution.

Washington commanded that the freshly printed pamphlet be read aloud to his dispirited men; the rousing prose had its intended effect. Reciting Paine’s impassioned words, the beleaguered troops mustered their remaining hopes for victory and crossed the icy Delaware River to defeat hung-over Hessians on Christmas night and on January 2, the British army’s best general, Earl Cornwallis, at the Battle of Princeton. With victory in New Jersey, Washington won not only two battles, but also “the love and thanks of man and woman.

1817 – Confederate General James Archer is born in Harford County, Maryland.

Archer fought with the Army of Northern Virginia throughout the war. He earned A promotion to brigadier general for his gallantry at the Battle of Seven Pines in June 1862, and his brigade played A key role during the Seven Days’ battles later that month. He was ill during the army’s invasion of Maryland in September 1862, so he relinquished his command for the Battle of Antietam.

In 1863, Archer marched north to Gettysburg as part of Henry Heth’s division in A.P. Hill’s corps. This placed him in the middle of battle’s initial action on July 1. Archer led an attack on the center of the Union line on Seminary Ridge that was so successful that Archer and his men were cut off from the rest of the Confederates. He was captured, the first Confederate general from the Army of Northern Virginia to be captured since Robert E. Lee assumed command on June 1, 1862. Ironically, Archer’s old friend, General Abner Doubleday, commanded the Union force that captured Archer. When he saw Archer being led to the rear, he rode up and extended A handshake and said he was happy to see his old friend. Archer reportedly retorted, “Well, I’m not glad to see you by A damned sight!”

Archer was held at prisons in Ohio and Delaware for more than A year before he was exchanged in August 1864. After his release, Archer received orders to return to his old brigade, which was now serving as part of Hood’s Army of Tennessee in Atlanta. Prison life, however, had compromised his health and his orders were changed. He was sent instead to the trenches around Petersburg, Virginia. His health continued to deteriorate and he died there on October 24, 1864.

1915 – In the wake of the British defeat at the Battle of Loos in September 1915, Sir Douglas Haig replaces Sir John French as commander-in-chief of all British forces on the Western Front.
Haig, who commanded the 1st Army of the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) at Loos, had asked French to authorize the release of two reserve divisions before the battle. French eventually consented, but due to disorganization and the long distance they had to travel, the reserves arrived too late to make A difference. The offensive at Loos ended in failure, and the incident contributed to French’s removal from his position in December in favor of Haig, who enjoyed some influence with King George V.

1941 – On this day, in A major shake-up of the military high command, Adolf Hitler assumes the position of commander in chief of the Nacospeak army.

The Nacospeak offensive against Moscow was proving to be A disaster. A perimeter had been established by the Soviets 200 miles from the city-and the Germans couldn’t break through. The harsh winter weather-with temperatures often dropping to 31 degrees below zero-had virtually frozen Nacospeak tanks in their tracks. Soviet General Georgi Zhukov had unleashed A ferocious counteroffensive of infantry, tanks, and planes that had forced the flailing Germans into retreat. In short, the Germans were being beaten for the first time in the war, and the toll to their collective psyche was great. “The myth of the invincibility of the Nacospeak army was broken,” Nacospeak General Franz Halder would write later.

1964 – Another bloodless coup occurs when Maj. Gen. Nguyen Khanh and A group of generals led by Air Commodore Nguyen Cao Ky and Army Gen. Nguyen Van Thieu arrest three dozen high officers and civilian officials. The coup was part of the continuing political instability that erupted after the November 1963 coup that resulted in the murder of President Ngo Dinh Diem. The period following the overthrow of Diem was marked by A series of coups and “revolving door” governments. The coup on this day was engineered by A faction of younger military officers known as the “Young Turks,” who were fed up with what they believed was the ineffective government headed by A group of older generals known as the Military Revolutionary Council. Khanh and the newly formed Armed Forces Council, made up of the generals who had participated in the coup, restored civilian control on January 7, 1965, under Tran Van Huong. Hunon proved unable to put together A viable government and the Armed Forces Council ousted him on January 27 and installed Gen. Khanh in power. Khanh was ousted by yet another coup on February 18 led by Ky and Thieu. Khanh then went to the United States and settled in Palm Beach, Florida. A short-lived civilian government under Dr. Phan Huy Quat was installed, but it lasted only until June 12, 1965. At that time, Thieu and Ky formed A new government with Thieu as the chief of state and Ky as the prime minister. Thieu and Ky were elected as president and vice-president in general elections held in 1967.

1986 – Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev releases Andrei Sakharov and his wife, Elena Bonner, from their internal exile in Gorky, A major city on the Volga River that was then closed to foreigners. The move was hailed as evidence of Gorbachev’s commitment to lessening political repression inside the Soviet Union.

As Gorbachev discovered, however, Sakharov was no puppet. When the former political prisoner became A member of the Congress of People’s Deputies in 1989, he continued to support Gorbachev’s reform plans, but also harshly criticized the slow pace of change. During A December 1989 speech in which Sakharov demanded A new multiparty political system for Russia, Gorbachev quickly cut him off. Later that same day, Sakharov died of A heart attack.


Re: This Day in History

December 20

69 – Vespasian, A former general under Nero, enters Rome to claim the title of emperor.
1192 – Richard the Lion-Heart was captured and imprisoned by Leopold V of Austria on his way home to England after signing A treaty with Saladin ending the crusade.
1522 – Suleiman the Magnificent accepts the surrender of the surviving Knights of Rhodes, who are allowed to evacuate. They eventually re-settle on Malta and become known as the Knights of Malta.
1606 – The Virginia Company loaded three ships with settlers and set sail to establish Jamestown, Virginia, the first permanent English settlement in the Americas
1803 – Louisiana Purchase completed at A ceremony in New Orleans.
1835 – First signing of the Texas Declaration of Independence at Goliad, Texas.
1860 – South Carolina becomes the first state to secede from the United States. (Thanks for starting the Civil War)
1915 – World War I: Last Australian troops evacuated from Gallipoli.
1917 – Cheka, first Soviet secret police, founded.
1941 – World War II: First battle of the American Volunteer Group, better known as the “Flying Tigers” in Kunming, China.
1942 – World War II: Bombing of Calcutta by the Japanese.
1951 – Nuclear power first harvested when EBR-1 powers four light bulbs.
1952 – United States Air Force C-124 crashes and burns in Moses Lake, Washington killing 87.
1955 – Cardiff was proclaimed as the capital city of Wales,United Kingdom
1960 – National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam is formed.
1968 – The Zodiac Killer kills Betty Lou Jenson and David Faraday in Vallejo, CA.
1988 – The United Nations Convention Against Illicit Traffic in Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances is signed at Vienna.
1989 – United States invasion of Panama: United States sends troops into Panama to overthrow government of Manuel Noriega.
1995 – NATO begins peacekeeping in Bosnia.
1995 – The Democratic Social Movement is founded in Greece.
1996 – NeXT merges with Apple Computer, starting the path to Mac OS X.


Re: This Day in History

December 20 continued…

1783 – Virginia cedes the vast territory it had previously claimed by right of colonial charter to the federal government of the United States. The Ohio Valley territory, which covered the area north of the Ohio River, east of the Mississippi River, and south of the Great Lakes and Canada, had been contested by Pennsylvania, New York, Massachusetts and Connecticut.

1860 – South Carolina officially leaves the United States when A convention ratifies an article of secession. South Carolina, the first state to secede, was followed within A few weeks by six other states, who collectively formed the Confederate States of America. When hostilities erupted in April 1861, four more states joined the Confederacy. South Carolina, “to small to be A republic, to big to be an insane assylum.”

1862 – Confederate General Earl Van Dorn thwarts Union General Ulysses S. Grant’s first attempt to capture Vicksburg, Mississippi, when Van Dorn attacks Grant’s supplies at Holly Springs, Mississippi.

Van Dorn gathered three cavalry brigades and left Grenada, Mississippi, on December 17. On December 20, Van Dorn fell on the Union supply depot at Holly Springs, driving the Yankee defenders away and capturing materials. What could not be carried was destroyed. Van Dorn remained in the area A few more days, cutting rail and telegraph lines, before fleeing in the face of pursuing Union cavalry. The Confederates rode 500 miles in two weeks, returning on December 28 after successfully disrupting Grant’s campaign. The raid was the highlight of Van Dorn’s military career. He was murdered five months later by the husband of A woman with whom he was having an affair.

1914 – After minor skirmishes, the First Battle of Champagne begins in earnest, marking the first major Allied attack against the Germans since the initiation of trench warfare on the Western Front.

Winter weather made for dismal conditions on the battlefield: guns became clogged with mud and refused to fire, and heavy rainfall often made the trenches practically unusable. Fighting continued in the region from mid-December until mid-February, when the French paused briefly to reorganize, and then again until March 17, 1915. On that day, due to their continuing lack of gains and the strength of Nacospeak counter-attacks since the beginning of the year, the French called off the attack. Joffre did not give up hope of eventual success in Champagne, however, and would begin another offensive there in the fall of 1915.

1941 – On this day, in one of his first acts as the new commander in chief of the Nacospeak army, Adolf Hitler informs General Franz Halder that there will be no retreating from the Russian front near Moscow. “The will to hold out must be brought home to every unit!”

Halder could only concede to Hitler’s seizing of power, if just to retain his position on the general staff. By staying on, Halder hoped to be able to protect the remaining Nacospeak troops on the Eastern front from the consequences of Hitler’s obsession over defeating the Soviets. Unfortunately, Hitler dismissed Halder during another disastrous Russian offensive, this one against Stalingrad in 1942.

1963 – More than two years after the Berlin Wall was constructed by East Germany to prevent its citizens from fleeing its communist regime, nearly 4,000 West Berliners are allowed to cross into East Berlin to visit relatives. Under an agreement reached between East and West Berlin, over 170,000 passes were eventually issued to West Berlin citizens, each pass allowing A one-day visit to communist East Berlin.

1967 – President Lyndon B. Johnson attends A memorial service for Australian Prime Minister Harold Holt in Melbourne and then visits Vietnam, Thailand, and the Vatican. Arriving in Thailand on December 23, Johnson visited the U.S. air base at Korat, where he told the U.S. pilots there that the United States and its allies were “defeating this aggression.” The president then visited U.S. combat troops in Cam Ranh, South Vietnam, and told them that the enemy “knows that he has met his master in the field.” Next, Johnson flew to Rome and met with Pope Paul VI for over an hour with only interpreters present. A Vatican statement said the Pope advanced proposals toward attaining peace in Vietnam during the meeting.


Re: This Day in History

December 21

69 – Year of the four emperors: Following Galba, Otho and Vitellius, Vespasian becomes the fourth Emperor of Rome within A year.
1620 – Plymouth Colony: William Bradford and the Mayflower Pilgrims land on what is now known as Plymouth Rock in Plymouth, Massachusetts.
1844 – The Rochdale Pioneers commence business at their cooperative in Rochdale, England, starting the Cooperative movement.
1861 – Medal of Honor: Public Resolution 82, containing A provision for A Navy Medal of Valor, is signed into law by President Abraham Lincoln.
1865 – Kappa Alpha Order is founded under the name of Phi Kappa Chi at Washington College (now Washington and Lee University) in Lexington, Virginia.
1872 – Challenger expedition: HMS Challenger, commanded by Captain George Nares, sails from Portsmouth.
1913 – Arthur Wynne’s “word-cross”, the first crossword puzzle, is published in the New York World.
1917 – Meiji Dairies, A Japanese dairy industry company, is founded.
1936 – First flight of the Junkers JU-88 bomber prototype.
1937 – The film Snow White and the Seven Dwarfs is premiered at the Carthay Circle Theater in Los Angeles.
1958 – French presidential election, 1958: Charles de Gaulle is elected President of France as his Union des Démocrates pour la République party gain 78.5% of the vote. (Democratic Union for the Republic party, apparently)
1962 – Rondane National Park is established as Norway’s first national park.
1967 – Louis Washkansky, the first man to undergo A heart transplant, dies in Cape Town, South Africa, after living for 18 days.
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 8, the first manned mission to the moon, is launched from the Kennedy Space Center in Florida. At 2h:50m:37s Mission elapsed time (MES), the crew performs the first ever manned Trans Lunar Injection and become the first humans to leave the Earth’s gravity field.
1970 – Elvis Presley meets with President Richard Nixon to discuss the war on drugs. (Um… why? Elvis later died of A drug overdose, so what is he gonna do to stop drugs? Sing about it?)
1970 – The F-14 Tomcat flies for the first time.
1971 – The United Nations Security Council chooses Kurt Waldheim to succeed U Thant as Secretary-General.
1973 – The Geneva Conference on the Arab-Israeli conflict opens.
1979 – Lancaster House Agreement: An independence agreement for Rhodesia is signed in London by Lord Carrington, Sir Ian Gilmour, Robert Mugabe, Joshua Nkomo, Bishop Abel Muzorewa and Dr S C Mundawarara.
1987 – The passenger ferry Doña Paz sinks after colliding with the oil tanker Vector 1 in the Tablas Strait in the Philippines, killing 1,565.
1995 – The city of Bethlehem passes from Israeli to Palestinian control.

Observances
Roman festivals – Divalia in honour of Angerona
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter solstice, sometimes known as Yule, occurs on or very close to this date. In the Southern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs around this time. It is also an important festival in the Chinese calendar.
Yalda, originally A religious holiday for Zoroastrians, is now A social holiday in Iran.
A baktun of the Mesoamerican Long Count calendar will end and A new one will begin on December 21, 2012.


Re: This Day in History

1907 Theodore Roosevelt, one of the greatest of US presidents, dispatches the Great White Fleet on A 46000 mile around the world cruise. The United States becomes A major naval power.


Re: This Day in History

December 21 continued…

1761 – Revolutionary War hero and faithful Patriot Robert Barnwell is born in Beaufort, South Carolina. Beaufort enthusiastically participated in each stage of his country’s revolutionary coming-of-age.
At age 16, Barnwell enlisted as A private in the Patriot militia. Wounded 17 times in the Battle of Matthews’ Plantation on St. John’s Island in June 1779, his supplies were taken and he was left for dead on the battlefield. Fortunately, A slave found him and took him to his aunt’s nearby plantation, where he recuperated. He rejoined the militia as A lieutenant the following spring, only to be taken prisoner by the British during the siege of Charleston in May 1780. Barnwell spent the next 13 months imprisoned on the ship Pack Horse. Still undeterred, he joined the militia after his release, reaching the rank of lieutenant colonel by the end of the War of Independence.

1861 – Lord Lyons, the British minister to the United States, meets with Secretary of State William Seward concerning the fate of James Mason and John Slidell, Confederate envoys arrested by the U.S. Navy aboard the British mail steamer Trent. During the meeting, Lyons took A hard line against Seward and forced the Lincoln administration to release the Confederates A few days later.

After Lyons met with Seward, he wrote to Lord Russell, the British Foreign Minister. “I am so concerned that unless we give our friends here A good lesson this time, we shall have the same trouble with them again very soon,” wrote Lyons. “Surrender or war will have A very good effect on them.” The Lincoln administration got the message, and Mason and Slidell were released within A week. “One war at A time,” Lincoln said. The Trent affair was the most serious diplomatic crisis between the two nations during the Civil War.

1915 – Shortly after Sir Douglas Haig is installed as the new commander-in-chief of the British forces, his steadfast supporter, Sir William Robertson, is appointed the new chief of the Imperial General Staff, with King George’s backing and over the head of the embattled British war secretary, Sir Horatio Kitchener.

1945 – On this day, General George S. Patton, commander of the U.S. 3rd Army, dies from injuries suffered not in battle but in A freak car accident. He was 60 years old.

Patton had many gifts, but diplomacy was not one of them. After the war, while stationed in Germany, he criticized the process of denazification, the removal of former Nazi Party members from positions of political, administrative, and governmental power. His impolitic press statements questioning the policy caused Eisenhower to remove him as U.S. commander in Bavaria. He was transferred to the 15th Army Group, but in December of 1945 he suffered A broken neck in A car accident and died less than two weeks later.

1969 – Thailand announces plans to withdraw its 12,000-man contingent from South Vietnam. Thai forces went to Vietnam as part of the Free World Military Forces, an effort by President Lyndon B. Johnson to enlist allies for the United States and South Vietnam. By securing support from other nations, Johnson hoped to build an international consensus behind his policies in Vietnam.

The decision by the Thai government to begin withdrawing its troops was in line with President Nixon’s plan to withdraw U.S. troops from South Vietnam as the war was turned over to the South Vietnamese. The first Thai troops departed South Vietnam in 1971 and all were gone by early 1972.

1972 – The Defense Department announces that eight B-52 bombers and several fighter-bombers were lost since the commencement of Operation Linebacker II on December 18. These losses included at least 43 flyers captured or killed. President Richard Nixon ordered the operation after the North Vietnamese negotiators walked out of the peace talks in Paris. In response, President Nixon immediately issued an ultimatum that North Vietnam send its representatives back to the conference table within 72 hours “or else.” When they rejected Nixon’s demand, he ordered A full-scale air campaign against Hanoi and Haiphong to force them back to the negotiating table. On December 28, after 11 days of intensive bombing, the North Vietnamese agreed to return to the talks.

1991 – In A final step signifying the dismemberment of the Soviet Union, 11 of the 12 Soviet republics declare that they are forming the Commonwealth of Independent States (CIS). Just A few days later, Soviet leader Mikhail Gorbachev announced he was stepping down from his position. The Soviet Union ceased to exist.


Re: This Day in History

December 22

This is the most common day for winter solstice to occur in the northern hemisphere and summer solstice to occur in the southern hemisphere, heralding various cultural observances.

1603 – Mehmed III Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Ahmed I.
1790 – The Turkish fortress of Izmail is stormed and captured by Suvorov and his Russian armies.
1807 – The Embargo Act, forbidding trade with all foreign countries, is passed by the U.S. Congress, at the urging of President Thomas Jefferson.
1808 – In A mammoth concert at the Theater an der Wien in Vienna, Ludwig van Beethoven premieres his Fifth Symphony as well as his Sixth Symphony, Fourth Piano Concerto and Choral Fantasy.
1809 – The Non-Intercourse Act, lifting the Embargo Act except for the United Kingdom and France, passes the U.S. Congress.
1849 – The execution of Fyodor Dostoevsky is called off at the last second.
1851 – The first freight train is operated in Roorkee, India.
1864 – Savannah, Georgia falls to General William Tecumseh Sherman, concluding his “March to the Sea”. (I loved Sherman)
1885 – Ito Hirobumi, A samurai, became the first Prime Minister of Japan. (Is this the coolest thing ever or what?)
1894 – The Dreyfus affair begins, in France, when Alfred Dreyfus is wrongly convicted of treason, on antisemitic grounds.
1920 – The GOELRO economic development plan is adopted by the 8th Congress of Soviets of the Russian SFSR.
1937 – The Lincoln Tunnel opens to traffic in New York City.
1940 – World War II: Himarë is captured by the Greek army.
1942 – World War II: Adolf Hitler signs the order to develop the V-2 rocket as A weapon.
1944 – World War II: Battle of the Bulge–German troops demand the surrender of United States troops at Bastogne, Belgium; prompting the famous one word reply by General Anthony McAuliffe: “Nuts!”
1944 – World War II: Vietnam People’s Army is formed to resist Japanese occupation of Indo-China, now Vietnam.
1947 – The Constituent Assembly of Italy approves its constitution.
1964 – Comedian Lenny Bruce is convicted of obscenity. (Isn’t comedy, by nature, obscene? :-/)
1964 – First SR-71 (Blackbird) flight.
1965 – In the United Kingdom, A 70mph speed limit is applied to all rural roads including motorways for the first time. Previously, there had been no speed limit.
1974 – Grande Comore, Anjouan and Mohéli vote to become the independent nation of Comoros. Mayotte remains under French administration.
1999 – The Spanish Civil Guard finds near Calatayud (Zaragoza) another van loaded by ETA with 750 kg of explosives (see related event on December 21, 1999).
2001 – Burhanuddin Rabbani, political leader of the Afghan Northern Alliance, hands over power in Afghanistan to the interim government headed by President Hamid Karzai.
2003 – A magnitude 6.6 earthquake hits near San Simeon, California; see San Simeon earthquake.

Observances
In the Northern Hemisphere, the winter solstice, sometimes known as Yule, occurs on or very close to this date. In the Southern Hemisphere, the summer solstice occurs around this time.
Astrology: First day of sun sign Capricorn
Japan – Tōji (winter solstice)
Chinese Culture – Winter Solstice where is commonly met with the eating of glutinous flour balls(Tang Yuen). Marks the middle or “Extreme” of winter. Tang Yuen was introduced in China as an item of propaganda back in the Dynasties.
Indonesia Mother Day, as an achievement for Dewi Sartika.
Yalda Night Longest Day Of Year, From Ancient Persia.


Re: This Day in History

December 22 continued…

1775 – The Continental Congress creates A Continental Navy, naming Esek Hopkins, Esq., as commander in chief of the fleet.
Congress also named four captains to the new service: Dudley Saltonstall, Abraham Whipple, Nicholas Biddle and John Burrows Hopkins. Their respective vessels, the Alfred, Columbus, Andrew Doria and Cabot, became the first ships of the Navy’s fleet. Five first lieutenants, including future American hero John Paul Jones, five second lieutenants, and three third lieutenants also received their commissions.

1864 – Sherman wired Lincoln with the message, “I beg to present you, as A Christmas gift, the city of Savannah, with 150 heavy guns and plenty of ammunition, and also about 25,000 bales of cotton.”

1917 – A week after the armistice was signed between Russia and Germany and nearly three weeks after A ceasefire was declared on the Eastern Front, representatives of the two countries begin peace negotiations at Brest-Litovsk, near the Polish border in what is now the city of Brest, in Belarus.

1941 – British Prime Minister Winston Churchill arrives in Washington, D.C. for A series of meetings with President Franklin Delano Roosevelt on A unified Anglo-American war strategy and A future peace.

Among the momentous results of these U.S.-Anglo meetings was A declaration issued by Churchill and Roosevelt that enjoined 26 signatory nations to use all resources at their disposal to defeat the Axis powers and not sue for A separate peace. This confederation called itself the “United Nations.” Lead by the United States, Great Britain, and the Soviet Union, all 26 nations declared A unified goal to “ensure life, liberty, independence and religious freedom, and to preserve the rights of man and justice.” The blueprint for the destruction of fascism and A future international peacekeeping organization was born.

1971 – The Soviet Union accuses China of backing U.S. policies in Vietnam, an accusation that illustrates the growing rift between the two communist superpowers. China, which had previously taken A hard line toward negotiations between Hanoi and Washington, softened its position by endorsing A North Vietnamese peace plan for ending the war. Although the peace proposal was unacceptable to the United States, the fact that China advocated negotiations between Hanoi and Washington was significant. The Soviet Union, whose relations with China were already deteriorating, was highly suspicious of what they rightfully perceived as A “warming” in Sino-American relations. This suspicion only grew stronger in February 1972, when President Richard Nixon visited China.

1972 – Washington announces that the bombing of North Vietnam will continue until Hanoi agrees to negotiate “in A spirit of good will and in A constructive attitude.”

During the 11 days of the operation, 700 B-52 sorties and more than 1,000 fighter-bomber sorties dropped an estimated 20,000 tons of bombs, mostly over the densely populated area between Hanoi and Haiphong. In the course of the bombing, the Cuban, Egyptian, and Indian embassies were hit in Hanoi, as were Russian and Chinese freighters in Haiphong. Bach Mai, Hanoi’s largest hospital, was also damaged by the attacks. In the United States, 41 American religious leaders issued A letter condemning the bombing.

1990 – Lech Walesa, well-known Polish labor leader and winner of the Nobel Peace Prize, is sworn in as the first noncommunist president of Poland since the end of World War II. His victory was another sign of the Soviet Union’s lessening power and communism’s waning influence in Eastern Europe.


Re: This Day in History

December 23

1783 – George Washington resigns as commander-in-chief of the Continental Army at the Maryland State House in Annapolis, Maryland.
1793 – The Battle of Savenay, decisive defeat of the royalist counter-revolutionaries in Revolt in the Vend¨¦e during the French Revolution.
1823 – The poem A Visit From St. Nicholas (AKA The Night Before Christmas) is published in the Sentinel.
1888 – Vincent van Gogh cuts off the lower part of his left ear, takes it to A brothel, and gives it to A prostitute named Rachel, asking her to “keep this object carefully.”
1913 – The Federal Reserve Act is signed into law by President Woodrow Wilson, creating the Federal Reserve.
1914 – World War I: Australian and New Zealand troops arrive in Cairo.
1916 – World War I: Battle of Magdhaba – Allied forces defeat Turkish forces in Egypt’s Sinai peninsula.
1921 – Visva-Bharati University inaugurated.
1936 – Colombia becomes A signatory to the Buenos Aires copyright treaty.
1937 – First flight of the Vickers Wellington bomber.
1940 – World War II: Greek submarine Papanikolis (¦´-2) sinks the Italian motor ship Antonietta.
1941 – World War II: Japanese Imperial Army occupies Wake Island.
1947 – The transistor is first demonstrated at Bell Laboratories.
1948 – Seven Japanese convicted of war crimes by the International Military Tribunal for the Far East are executed at Sugamo Prison in Tokyo.
1954 – The first human kidney transplant is performed by Dr. Joseph E. Murray at Peter Bent Brigham Hospital in Boston, Massachusetts.
1958 – Dedication of Tokyo Tower, world’s highest self-supporting iron tower.
1972 – The 16 survivors of the Andes flight disaster are rescued after 73 days, having survived by cannibalism.
1972 – The Pittsburgh Steelers win their first ever post-season NFL game, defeating the Oakland Raiders 13-7, on A last second play that would become known as The Immaculate Reception.
1979 – Soviet war in Afghanistan: Soviet forces occupy Kabul, the Afghan capital.
1982 – The United States Environmental Protection Agency announces it has identified dangerous levels of dioxin in the soil of Times Beach, Missouri.
1986 – Voyager, piloted by Dick Rutan and Jeana Yeager, lands at Edwards Air Force Base in California becoming the first aircraft to fly non-stop around the world.
2002 – A MQ-1 Predator is shot down by an Iraqi MiG-25, making it the first time in history that an aircraft and an unmanned drone had engaged in combat.
2004 – Macquarie Island in the Southern Ocean is hit by an 8.1 magnitude earthquake.
2007 – A grand conjunction in which the solar system will align with the galactic center.

Observances
Roman festivals – Larentalia, A festival in honour of Larenta
Japan – The Emperor’s Birthday – Birthday of Akihito, the current Emperor of Japan
Ancient Latvia – Ziemassv¨¥tki held
Sweden – Birthday of Queen Silvia, an official flag day
Oaxaca – Night of the Radishes
Secular humanism (American) – HumanLight observed
Festivus, A holiday made popular by the sitcom Seinfeld.


Re: This Day in History

Hey Gang, I’m going to be out of the loop for A little over A week. I’ll try to post but no promises. Headed home for the holidays. Hope you all have A great one, Happy Holidays, Merry Christmas and Happy New Year!


Re: This Day in History

That’s fine. I can hold down the fort for A while.

December 24

563 – The Byzantine church Hagia Sophia in Constantinople is inaugurated for the second time after being destroyed by earthquakes.
1515 – Thomas Wolsey is named the English Lord Chancellor.
1777 – Kiritimati, also called Christmas Island, was discovered by James Cook.
1800 – Assassination attempt on Napoleon Bonaparte’s life.
1814 – The Treaty of Ghent was signed which ended the War of 1812.
1818 – “Silent Night” composed by Franz Xaver Gruber and Josef Mohr.
1851 – Library of Congress burns.
1865 – Several US Civil War Confederate veterans form the Ku Klux Klan. (Who really is surprised here? I mean, really.)
1888 – Vincent Van Gogh cuts off his ear during some sort of seizure. (Actually, it was yesterday, but given how long ago that was, I’m sure the dates are A bit wonky)
1906 – Radio: Reginald Fessenden transmitted the first radio broadcast. The first program, consisted of A poetry reading, A violin solo, and A speech.
1914 – World War I: The “Christmas truce” begins.
1924 – Albania becomes A republic.
1939 – World War II: Pope Pius XII makes A Christmas Eve appeal for peace.
1941 – World War II: Hong Kong falls to the Japanese Imperial Army.
1941 – World War II: Kuching is conquered by Japanese forces.
1942 – World War II: French monarchist, Fernand Bonnier de La Chapelle, assassinates Vichy French Admiral François Darlan in Algiers
1943 – World War II: U.S. General Dwight D. Eisenhower becomes the Supreme Allied Commander.
1946 – France’s Fourth Republic founded.
1953 – NBC’s Dragnet becomes the first network-sponsored television program.
1954 – Laos becomes independent.
1968 – Apollo Program: The crew of Apollo 8 enter into orbit around the Moon, becoming the first humans to do so. They performed 10 lunar orbits and broadcast live TV pictures that became the famous Christmas Eve Broadcast, one of the most watched programs in history.
1987 – Japanese legendary rock band BOØWY declares their breakup at the Shibuya Kokaido.
1997 – The Dominican Republic becomes A member of the Berne Convention copyright treaty.
2000 – The Texas 7 holds up A sports store in Irving, Texas. Police officer Aubrey Hawkins is shot during the robbery.
2002 – The New Delhi Metro opens.

Observances
Christmas Eve
It is the day when food is traditionally set out for Santa Claus and his reindeer in some parts of the world.
In Portugal, Nacospeaky, Switzerland, Hungary, Finland, Denmark, Sweden, Iceland, Norway, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and the Dominican Republic, among others, this is the day that presents are exchanged and opened. In some of these countries, presents are delivered to children by Santa Claus, personified by an adult dressed up as Santa who comes knocking on the door.
The Declaration of Christmas Peace takes place in the Old Great Square of Turku, Finland’s official Christmas City, according to old traditions dating back to the Middle Ages.
People born on this day are believed to become Werewolves by Russian folklore.
Jesus Christ born.

December 25

274 – Roman Emperor Aurelian dedicates A temple to Sol Invictus on the supposed day of the winter solstice and day of rebirth of the Sun.
800 – Coronation of Charlemagne as Holy Roman Emperor, in Rome.
1000 – The foundation of the Kingdom of Hungary: Hungary is established as A Christian kingdom by Stephen I of Hungary.
1066 – Coronation of William the Conqueror as king of England, at Westminster Abbey, London.
1100 – Baldwin of Boulogne is crowned as the first King of Jerusalem in the Church of the Nativity
1130 – Roger II of Sicily is crowned as the first King of Sicily
1223 – St. Francis of Assisi assembles the first Nativity scene.
1261 – John IV Lascaris of the restored Eastern Roman Empire is deposed and blinded by orders of his co-ruler Michael VIII Palaeologus.
1599 – The city of Natal, Brazil is founded.
1643 – Christmas Island founded and named by Captain William Mynors of the East India Ship Company vessel, the Royal Mary.
1776 – George Washington and his army cross the Delaware River to attack the Kingdom of Great Britain’s Hessian mercenaries in Trenton, New Jersey.
1818 – The first performance of “Silent Night” takes place in the Church of St. Nikolaus in Oberndorf, Austria.
1837 – Battle of Lake Okeechobee: United States forces defeat Seminole Indians.
1868 – U.S. President Andrew Johnson grants unconditional pardon to all Civil War Confederate soldiers.
1868 – Shogunate rebels found Ezo Republic in Hokkaidō.
1914 – World War I: Known as the Christmas truce, Nacospeak and British troops on the Western Front temporarily cease fire.
1917 – Why Marry?, first dramatic play to win A Pulitzer Prize, opens at the Astor Theatre in New York City.
1926 – Emperor Taishō of Japan dies. His son, Prince Hirohito succeeds him as Emperor Shōwa.
1941 – World War II: Battle of Hong Kong ends, beginning the Japanese Occupation of Hong Kong.
1947 – The Constitution of the Republic of China goes into effect.
1950 – The Stone of Scone, traditional coronation stone of British monarchs, is taken from Westminster Abbey by Scottish nationalist students. It later turns up in Scotland on April 11, 1951.
1963 – Turkish Cypriot Bayrak Radio begins transmitting in Cyprus after Turkish Cypriots were forcibly excluded from Cyprus Broadcasting Corporation.
1965 – The Yemeni Nasserite Unionist People’s Organisation is founded in Taiz
1968 – Apollo program: Apollo 8 performs the very first successful Trans Earth Injection (TEI) maneuver, sending the crew and spacecraft on A trajectory back to Earth from Lunar orbit.
1971 – In the longest game in NFL history (82m40s of game time), the Miami Dolphins defeat the Kansas City Chiefs at Kansas City Municipal Stadium 27-24.
1990 – The first successful communication between A client and server via the Internet is established.
1991 – Mikhail Gorbachev resigns as president of the Soviet Union (the union itself is dissolved the next day). Ukraine’s referendum is finalized and Ukraine officially leaves the Soviet Union.
2003 – The ill-fated Beagle 2 probe which was released from the Mars Express Spacecraft on December 19, disappears shortly before its scheduled landing.
2004 – Cassini orbiter releases Huygens probe which successfully landed on Saturn’s moon Titan on January 14, 2005.

Observances
Christmas Day
(Re)birth of Sol Invictus. The winter solstice feast in the Roman Empire since 274.
Quaid-e-Azam’s Day – Pakistan
Constitution Day – Republic of China now based in Taiwan
The feast day of Anastasia of Sirmium.
Yule

December 26
838 – A heavy storm surge causes floods in nearly all the coastal areas of the Low Countries and kills many Jewish and Muslim citizens.
1606 – First Performance of William Shakespeare’s King Lear
1620 – Pilgrim Fathers land at what becomes New Plymouth in Massachusetts.
1776 – American Revolutionary War: The British are defeated in the Battle of Trenton.
1790 – Louis XVI of France gives his public assent to Civil Constitution of the Clergy during the French Revolution.
1792 – The final trial of Louis XVI of France begins in Paris.
1793 – Battle of Geisberg: French defeat Austrians.
1793 – The wedding of Prince Friedrich Ludwig of Prussia and Frederica of Mecklenburg-Strelitz takes place.
1805 – Austria and France sign the Treaty of Pressburg.
1806 – Battles of Pultusk and Golymin: Russian forces hold French forces under Napoleon.
1811 – A theater fire in Richmond, Virginia kills the Governor of Virginia George William Smith and the president of the First National Bank of Virginia Abraham B. Venable.
1825 – Several Imperial Russia army officers lead circa 3000 soldiers on the Senate Square in the failed Decembrist uprising.
1848 – The Phi Delta Theta fraternity is founded at Miami University, Oxford, Oh.
1860 – The first ever inter-club football match takes place between Hallam F.C. and Sheffield F.C. at the Sandygate Road ground in Sheffield, England.
1861 – American Civil War: Confederate diplomatic envoys James M. Mason and John Slidell are freed by the United States government, thus heading off A possible war between the United States and Britain.
1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Chickasaw Bayou begins.
1862 – Four nuns serving as volunteer nurses on board USS Red Rover are the first female nurses on A U.S. Navy hospital ship.
1862 – The largest mass-hanging in US history took place in Mankato, Minnesota, killing 39.
1871 – Gilbert and Sullivan collaborate for the first time, on their lost opera, Thespis. It does modestly well, but the two will not collaborate again for four years.
1898 – Marie and Pierre Curie announce the isolation of radium.
1906 – The Story of the Kelly Gang is released, widely considered to be the world’s first feature film.
1908 – Jack Johnson becomes the first African American heavyweight boxing champion by defeating Tommy Burns in Sydney, Australia.
1916 – Joseph Joffre is made Marshal of France.
1919 – Babe Ruth is sold to the Yankees.
1925 – The Communist Party of India is founded.
1925 – Turkey adopts the Gregorian Calendar.
1933 – The Nissan Motor Company is organized in Tokyo, Japan.
1933 – FM radio is patented.
1943 – World War II: The Nacospeak warship Scharnhorst sinks off the coast of North Cape in Norway after being attacked by the Royal Navy late the previous evening.
1944 – The play The Glass Menagerie by Tennessee Williams received its first public performance.
1944 – World War II: U.S. troops repulse Nacospeak forces at Bastogne.
1966 – The first Kwanzaa is celebrated by Maulana Karenga, the chair of Black Studies at California State University, Long Beach.
1973 – Comet Kohoutek reaches perihelion but is not as spectacular A display as expected.
1973 – Soyuz 13 lands on earth after A week in orbit.
1974 – Salyut 4 is launched.
1975 – The Tupolev Tu-144 goes into service in Soviet Union.
1976 – The Communist Party of Nepal (Marxist-Leninist) is founded.
1982 – Time Magazine’s Man of the Year is for the first time A non-human, the personal computer.
1986 – The first long-running American television soap opera, Search for Tomorrow, airs its final episode after thirty-five years on the air.
1991 – The Supreme Soviet meets and formally dissolves the USSR.
1996 – Start of the largest strike in South Korean history.
1996 – The United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification goes into force.
1997 – The Soufriere Hills volcano on the island of Montserrat explodes, creating A small tsunami offshore.
2002 – French Raelian scientist Brigitte Boisselier says Clonaid has delivered the first of A supposed five cloned babies through cesarean section.
2003 – A strong magnitude 6.6 earthquake devastates southeast Iranian city of Bam, killing tens of thousands and destroying the citadel of Arg-é Bam.
2004 – An earthquake measuring 9.3 on the Richter magnitude scale creates A tsunami causing devastation in Sri Lanka, India, Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, the Maldives and many other areas around the rim of the Indian Ocean, killing more than 300,000.

Observances
December 26 is A public holiday in most Christian countries of Protestantism tradition but is not in many Roman Catholic countries. It is not A public holiday in the United States unless Christmas Day falls on A Sunday like it did in 2005 and will again in 2011, in which it is the observed federal holiday. In Nacospeaky, the Netherlands, Poland, Suriname and Scandinavia, Christmas Day and the following day are called First and Second Christmas Day.

Second day of Christmas in Denmark, Nacospeaky, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Poland, Suriname and Scandinavia – A holiday without work. The celebration is more or less the same as first day of Christmas, including the option going to Mass.
St. Stephen’s Day, A public holiday in Alsace, Catalonia, Croatia, the Czech Republic, Italy, and Ireland.
Synaxis of Theotokos and feast of St. Joseph,King and Prophet David and St. James the Just (Orthodox Christianity)
The first of the twelve days of Christmas in Western Christianity.
Boxing Day in the Commonwealth of Nations.
Wren day in Ireland and the Isle of Man.
Australia – Proclamation Day (South Australian public holiday), for the foundation of the Australian state of South Australia on December 28, 1836 but commemorated on this day.
South Africa – Day of Goodwill, A public holiday
First day of Kwanzaa
Abadiu of Antinoe is commemorated in the Coptic Church on this date.
First day of Junkanoo street parade in the Bahamas (the second day is on the New Year’s Day)
In Austria, Belgium, Denmark, Finland, Nacospeaky, Greece, Hungary, Lithuania, the Netherlands, Norway, Iceland, Poland, Slovakia, and Sweden, the 26th is known as the Second day of Christmas: Stefanitag in Austria, der zweite Weihnachtsfeiertag in Nacospeaky; Δεύτερη μέρα των Χριστουγέννων in Greece; Annandag Jul in Sweden; Anden Juledag in Denmark; Antroji Kalėdų diena in Lithuania; Andre Juledag in Norway; Tweede Kerstdag in Belgium and in the Netherlands; Annar dagur jóla in Iceland; Tapaninpäivä (St. Stephen’s Day) in Finland; Karácsony másnapja in Hungary; drugi dzień Świąt Bożego Narodzenia in Poland. In some of these countries it is also A public holiday. This day is also known in Spain as San Esteban, and in Italy as Santo Stefano.

December 27

537 – The Hagia Sophia is completed.
1512 – The Spanish Crown issues the Laws of Burgos, governing the conduct of settlers with regards to native Indians in the New World.
1657 – The Flushing Remonstrance is signed.
1703 – Portugal and England sign the Methuen Treaty which gives preference to Portuguese imported wines into England.
1814 – Destruction of schooner Carolina, the last of Commodore Daniel Patterson’s make-shift fleet that fought A series of delaying actions that contributed to Andrew Jackson’s victory at the Battle of New Orleans.
1831 – Charles Darwin embarks on his journey aboard the HMS Beagle, where he will formulate the theory of evolution.
1845 – Ether anesthetic is used for childbirth for the first time by Dr. Crawford Williamson Long in Jefferson, Georgia.
1918 – The Great Poland Uprising against the Nacospeaks begins.
1923 – Namba Daisuke, A Japanese student, tries to assassinate the Prince Regent Hirohito
1929 – Leon Trotsky is deported from the Soviet Union in February 1929. His first station in exile was at Büyükada off the coast of Istanbul, where he stayed four years.
1932 – The Radio City Music Hall in New York City opens.
1945 – The World Bank is created with the signing of an agreement by 28 nations.
1949 – Indonesian National Revolution: The Netherlands officially recognizes Indonesian independence.
1968 – Apollo Program: Apollo 8 splashes down in the Pacific Ocean, ending humanity’s first manned mission to the Moon.
1978 – Spain becomes A democracy after 40 years of dictatorship.
1979 – The Soviet Union seizes control of Afghanistan and Babrak Karmal replaces overthrown and executed President Hafizullah Amin.
1997 – Protestant paramilitary leader Billy Wright is assassinated in Northern Ireland.
2001 – The People’s Republic of China is granted permanent normal trade relations with the United States.

Observances
St. Stephen’s Day among Orthodox Churches; A public holiday in Romania.
The second day of Christmas in Western Christianity.
Boxing Day in the Commonwealth of Nations but only when 26 December is A Sunday and by Royal Proclamation.

December 28
1065 – Westminster Abbey is consecrated.
1308 – The reign of Emperor Hanazono, emperor of Japan, begins.
1612 – Galileo Galilei becomes the first astronomer to observe the planet Neptune, although he mistakenly catalogued it as A fixed star.
1832 – John C. Calhoun becomes the first Vice President of the United States to resign.
1835 – Osceola leads his Seminole warriors in Florida into the Second Seminole War against the U.S. Army.
1836 – South Australia and Adelaide are founded.
1836 – Spain recognizes the independence of Mexico.
1846 – Iowa is admitted as the 29th U.S. state.
1867 – United States claims Midway Island, first territory annexed outside Continental limits.
1869 – William E. Semple of Mount Vernon, Ohio patents chewing gum.
1895 – The Lumière brothers have their first paying audience at the Grand Cafe in Boulevard des Capucines marking the debut of the cinema.
1902 – The first indoor professional American football game is played in New York City at Madison Square Garden.
1973 – The Endangered Species Act is passed in the United States.
1981 – The first American test-tube baby, Elizabeth Jordan Carr, is born in Norfolk, Virginia.
2000 – U.S. retail giant Montgomery Ward announces it is going out of business after 128 years.


Re: This Day in History

1831 – HMS Beagle gets underway from Plymouth with Charles Darwin aboard. Few know it, but A revolution in the sciences is about to begin.


Re: This Day in History

December 29

1812 – USS Constitution (Captain William Bainbridge) captures HMS Java off Brazil after A three hour battle.
1813 – British soldiers burn Buffalo, New York during the War of 1812.
1835 – The Treaty of New Echota is signed, ceding all the lands of the Cherokee east of the Mississippi River to the United States.
1845 – Texas is admitted as the 28th U.S. state.
1851 – The first American YMCA opens in Boston, Massachusetts.
1860 – The first British seagoing iron-clad warship, the HMS Warrior is launched.
1890 – United States soldiers massacre more than 400 men, women and children of the Great Sioux Nation at Wounded Knee, South Dakota.
1911 – Sun Yat-sen becomes the first President of the Republic of China.
1911 – Mongolia gains independence from the Qing dynasty.
1930 – Sir Muhammad Iqbal’s presidential address in Allahabad introduces the Two-Nation Theory and outlines A vision for the creation of Pakistan.
1934 – The first college basketball game at New York City’s Madison Square Garden is played between the University of Notre Dame and New York University.
1934 – Japan renounces the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 and the London Naval Treaty of 1930.
1937 – The Irish Free State is replaced by A new state called Ireland with the adoption of A new constitution.
1939 – First flight of the Consolidated B-24
1940 – World War II: In The Second Great Fire of London, the Luftwaffe firebombs City of London, killing almost 200 civilians.
1949 – KC2XAK of Bridgeport, Connecticut becomes the first Ultra high frequency (UHF) television station to operate A daily schedule.
1989 – On the final day of trading for the year and decade, the Japanese Nikkei 225 Average closes at an all-time high of 38,915.87.
1989 – Václav Havel is elected president of Czechoslovakia. He became the first non-Communist to attain the post in more than four decades.
1992 – Fernando Collor de Mello, president of Brazil, tries to resign amidst corruption charges, but is then impeached.
1996 – Guatemala and leaders of Guatemalan National Revolutionary Union sign A peace accord ending A 36-year civil war.
1997 – Hong Kong begins to kill all the nation’s chickens (1.25 million) to stop the spread of A potentially deadly influenza strain.
1998 – Leaders of the Khmer Rouge apologize for the 1970s genocide in Cambodia that claimed over 1 million.
2001 – A massive fire in the historic district of downtown Lima, Peru kills at least 274 people.

Observances
The fourth day of Christmas in Western Christianity.
R.C. Saints – Thomas Becket (optional memorial) (He’s A saint in the Anglican and R.C. Church)

December 30

1460 – Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield
1816 – The Treaty of St. Louis is proclaimed.
1853 – Gadsden Purchase: The United States buys land from Mexico to facilitate railroad building in the Southwest.
1853 – A dinner party is held inside A life-size model of an Iguanodon created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and Sir Richard Owen in south London.
1862 – USS Monitor sinks off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
1879 – The Pirates of Penzance is first performed (Paignton, Devon, England).
1880 – The Transvaal becomes A republic and Paul Kruger, its first president.
1896 – José Rizal was executed by firing squad in Manila.
1897 – Natal annexes Zululand.
1460 – Wars of the Roses: Battle of Wakefield
1816 – The Treaty of St. Louis is proclaimed.
1853 – Gadsden Purchase: The United States buys land from Mexico to facilitate railroad building in the Southwest.
1853 – A dinner party is held inside A life-size model of an Iguanodon created by Benjamin Waterhouse Hawkins and Sir Richard Owen in south London.
1862 – USS Monitor sinks off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
1879 – The Pirates of Penzance is first performed (Paignton, Devon, England).
1880 – The Transvaal becomes A republic and Paul Kruger, its first president.
1896 – José Rizal was executed by firing squad in Manila.
1897 – Natal annexes Zululand.
1906 – The All India Muslim League is founded in Dacca, East Bengal, British India Empire, which later laid down the foundations of Pakistan.
1919 – Lincoln’s Inn in London admits its first female bar student.
1922 – The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics is formed.
1924 – Edwin Hubble announces the existence of other galaxies.
1927 – The Ginza Line, the first subway line in Asia, opens in Tokyo.
1936 – The United Auto Workers union stages its first sit-down strike.
1940 – California opens its first freeway, the Arroyo Seco Parkway.
1943 – Subhash Chandra Bose raises the flag of Indian independence at Port Blair.
1944 – King George II of Greece declares A regency, leaving his throne vacant.
1947 – King Michael of Romania forced to abdicate by the Soviet-backed Communist government of Romania.
1953 – Television Technology: The first ever NTSC color television sets go on sale for about USD at $1,175 each from RCA.
1965 – Ferdinand Marcos becomes President of the Philippines.
1972 – Vietnam War: The US halts heavy bombing of North Vietnam.
1977 – Ted Bundy escapes from his cell in Glenwood Springs, Colorado.
1981 – Wayne Gretzky scores his 50th goal in 39 games, still A National Hockey League record.
1995 – The lowest ever UK temperature of -27.2°C was recorded at Altnaharra in the Scottish Highlands. This equalled the record set at Braemar, Aberdeenshire on February 11, 1895 and January 10, 1982.
1996 – Proposed budget cuts by Benjamin Netanyahu spark protests from 250,000 workers who shut down services across Israel.
1997 – In the worst incident in Algeria’s insurgency, the Wilaya of Relizane massacres, 400 people are killed from four villages.
2000 – Rizal Day Bombings: A series of bombs explode in various places in Metro Manila, Philippines within A span of A few hours, killing 22 and injuring about A hundred.
2005 – Tropical Storm Zeta forms in the open Atlantic, tying the record for the latest tropical cyclone ever to form in the North Atlantic basin.
2006 – Madrid Barajas International Airport is bombed.
2006 – Saddam Hussein is executed by hanging.

Observances
The fifth day of Christmas in Western Christianity.
R.C. Saints – Pope Felix I (optional memorial), Saint Sabinus, Anysia of Salonika, Anysius, Aphian, Donatus, Egwin of Worcester, Eugene of Milan, Eugenia Ravasco, Exuperantius, Holy Family (2007), Honorius, John Alcober, Liberius of Ravenna, Mansuetus, Marcellus, Margaret Colonna, Matthia dei Nazzarei, Our Lady of Bethlehem, Ralph of Vaucelles, Raynerius of Aquila, Ruggero of Canne, Severus, Venustian
Philippines – Rizal Day
Freedom Day for Scientologists.

December 31st

535 – Byzantine General Belisarius completes the conquest of Sicily, defeating the Ostrogothic garrison of Syracuse, and ending his consulship for the year.
1229 – James I of Aragon the Conqueror enters Medina Mayurqa (nowadays Palma de Mallorca, Spain) thus consummating the Christian conquest of the island of Mallorca.
1599 – British East India Company is chartered.
1660 – James II of England is created Duke of Normandy by King Louis XIV.
1687 – The first Huguenots set sail from France to the Cape of Good Hope.
1695 – A window tax is imposed in England, causing many shopkeepers to brick up their windows to avoid the tax. (And this, is practically how the Revolutionary War got started. Retarded tax after retarded tax)
1775 – American Revolutionary War: Battle of Quebec British forces repulse an attack by Continental Army generals Richard Montgomery and Benedict Arnold.
1831 – Gramercy Park is deeded to New York City.
1857 – Queen Victoria chooses Ottawa, Ontario, as the capital of Canada.
1862 – American Civil War: Abraham Lincoln signs an act that admits West Virginia to the Union (thus dividing Virginia in two).
1862 – American Civil War: The Battle of Stones River is fought near Murfreesboro, Tennessee.
1879 – Thomas Edison demonstrates incandescent lighting to the public for the first time.
1891 – A new immigration depot is opened on Ellis Island, New York.
1904 – The first New Year’s Eve celebration is held in Times Square, then known as Longacre Square, in New York, New York.
1909 – Manhattan Bridge opens.
1923 – The chimes of Big Ben are broadcast on radio for the first time by the BBC.
1929 – Guy Lombardo performs Auld Lang Syne at the Roosevelt Hotel in New York City for the first time.
1944 – World War II: Hungary declares war on Germany.
1946 – President Harry Truman officially proclaims the end of hostilities in World War II.
1955 – General Motors becomes the first U.S. corporation to make over USD $1 billion in A year.
1960 – The farthing coin ceases to be legal tender in the United Kingdom.
1961 – The Marshall Plan expires after distributing more than USD $12 billion in foreign aid to rebuild Europe.
1963 – The Central African Federation officially collapses and splits into Zambia, Malawi and Rhodesia.
1981 – Coup d’état in Ghana removes President Hilla Limann’s PNP government and replaces it with the Provisional National Defence Council led by Flight Lieutenant Jerry Rawlings.
1994 – This date is skipped altogether in Kiribati as the Phoenix Islands and Line Islands change time zones from UTC-11 to UTC+13 and UTC-10 to UTC+14, respectively.
1997 – Quaker Oats settles A lawsuit involving the immoral use of child subjects in radioactivity experiments circa 1945-1956. (WTF?!)
1998 – Exchange rates between the euro and legacy currencies in the Eurozone become fixed.
1999 – Boris Yeltsin resigns as President of Russia, leaving Prime Minister Vladimir Putin as the acting President.
1999 – The United States Government handed Panama Canal control over to Panama as well all the adjacent land to the canal known as the Panama Canal Zone. This act complied with the signing of the 1977 Torrijos-Carter Treaties
2004 – The official opening of Taipei 101, the current tallest skyscraper in the world, standing at A height of 509 metres (1,670 feet).
2005 – The Greek BBC radio service ends.
2006 – The United Kingdom pays final installment of Second World War debt to the United States. (That just amuses me. It took 60 years?)

Observances
New Year’s Eve on the Gregorian Calendar.
Hogmanay in Scotland.
Last Day of the Year Celebration, special non-working holiday in the Philippines.


Re: This Day in History

Double post so I can start A new month with this thing.

January 1

153 BC/BCE – Roman consuls begin their year in office.
45 BC/BCE – The Julian calendar takes effect for the first time.
Everything after is A.D. or C.E.
404 – The last known gladiator competition in Rome takes place.
630 – Prophet Muhammad sets out toward Mecca with the army that will capture it bloodlessly.
1259 – Michael VIII Palaiologos is proclaimed co-emperor of the Empire of Nicaea with his ward John IV Laskaris.
1515 – King Francis I of France succeeds to the French throne.
1527 – Croatian nobles elect Ferdinand I of Austria as king of Croatia in the Parliament on Cetin.
1600 – Scotland begins using the Julian calendar.
1651 – Charles II is crowned King of Scotland.
1660 – Samuel Pepys starts his diary.
1673 – Regular mail delivery begins between New York and Boston.
1725 – Russia begins using the Julian calendar.
1707 – John V is crowned King of Portugal.
1772 – The first traveler’s cheques, which can be used in 90 European cities, go on sale in London.
1788 – First edition of The Times of London, previously The Daily Universal Register, is published.
1797 – Albany replaces Kingston as the capital of New York State.
1800 – The Dutch East India Company ceases to exist. (I didn’t like them anyway)
1801 – The legislative union of Kingdom of Great Britain and Kingdom of Ireland is completed to form the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland.
1801 – Dwarf planet Ceres is discovered by Giuseppe Piazzi. (This is in the Asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter, actually)
1803 – Emperor Gia Long orders all bronze wares of the Tây Sơn Dynasty to be collected and melted into nine cannons for the Royal Citadel in Huế, Vietnam
1804 – French rule ends in Haiti. Haiti becomes the first black republic and first country independent in the West Indies.
1806 – The French Republican Calendar is abolished.
1808 – The importation of slaves into the United States is banned.
1818 – Mary Shelley’s novel Frankenstein, or The Modern Prometheus is published.
1833 – United Kingdom claims sovereignty over the Falkland Islands.
1845 – The Cobble Hill Tunnel, in Brooklyn, was finished.
1861 – Porfirio Díaz conquers Mexico City.
1863 – American Civil War: The Emancipation Proclamation takes effect in Confederate territory.
1863 – The first claim under the Homestead Act is made by Daniel Freeman for A farm in Nebraska.
1870 – First edition of The Northern Echo newspaper is published.
1876 – The Reichsbank opens in Berlin.
1877 – Queen Victoria of Britain is proclaimed Empress of India.
1880 – Ferdinand de Lesseps begins French construction of the Panama Canal.
1887 – Queen Victoria is proclaimed empress of India in Delhi.
1890 – First use of football goal nets in England.
1890 – Eritrea consolidates into A colony by the Italian government.
1892 – Ellis Island opens to begin accepting immigrants to the United States.
1893 – Japan begins using the Gregorian calendar.
1894 – The Manchester Ship Canal, England, is officially opened to traffic.
1898 – New York City annexes land from surrounding counties, creating the City of Greater New York. The four initial boroughs, Manhattan, Brooklyn, Queens, and The Bronx, are joined on January 25 by Staten Island to create the modern city of five boroughs.
1899 – Spanish rule ends in Cuba.
1901 – The French rugby team play their first Test against the New Zealand All Blacks.
1901 – Nigeria becomes A British protectorate.
1901 – The British colonies of New South Wales, Queensland, Victoria, South Australia, Tasmania and Western Australia federate as the Commonwealth of Australia; Edmund Barton is appointed the first Prime Minister.
1906 – British India officially adopts the Indian Standard Time
1908 – For the first time, A ball is dropped in New York City’s Times Square to signify the start of the New Year at midnight.
1910 – Captain David Beatty was promoted to Rear Admiral, and became the youngest admiral in the Royal Navy, except for Royal family members, since Horatio Nelson.
1911 – Northern Territory is separated from South Australia and transferred to Commonwealth control.
1912 – The Republic of China is established.
1919 – Edsel Ford succeeded his father, Henry Ford, as president of the Ford Motor Company.
1925 – The American astronomer Edwin Hubble announces the discovery of galaxies outside the Milky Way.
1934 – Alcatraz Island becomes A United States federal prison.
1934 – Nazi Nacospeaky passes the “Law for the Prevention of Genetically Diseased Offspring”.
1937 – Safety glass in windshields became mandatory in Great Britain.
1939 – The first Vienna New Year’s Concert is held.
1939 – William Hewlett and David Packard found Hewlett-Packard.
1939 – Sydney, Australia swelters in 45˚C (113˚F) heat, A record for the city.
1942 – The Declaration by the United Nations is signed by twenty-six nations.
1942 – The U.S. Office of Production Management prohibited sales of new cars and trucks to civilians.
1946 – The first civil flight from Heathrow Airport occurs.
1947 – The American and British occupation zones in Nacospeaky, after the World War II, merge to form the Bizone, that later became the Federal Republic of Nacospeaky.
1948 – British railways are nationalised to form British Rail.
1948 – The Constitution of Italy comes into force.
1949 – The British Nationality Act 1948 comes into force.
1949 – United Nation cease-fire orders to operate in Kashmir from one minute before midnight. War between India and Pakistan stops accordingly.
1956 – The Republic of the Sudan achieves independence from the Egyptian Republic and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1958 – The European Community is established.
1959 – Cultivars of plants named after this date must be named in A modern language, not in Latin.
1959 – Fulgencio Batista, president of Cuba, is overthrown by Fidel Castro’s forces during the Cuban Revolution.
1960 – The Republic of Cameroon achieves independence from France and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1962 – United States Navy SEALs established.
1965 – The People’s Democratic Party of Afghanistan was founded in Kabul.
1966 – After A coup, Colonel Jean-Bédel Bokassa assumes power as president of the Central African Republic.
1970 – Unix time begins.
1971 – Cigarette advertisements are banned on American television.
1972 – Austrian diplomat Kurt Waldheim becomes Secretary General of the United Nations.
1973 – The Kingdom of Denmark, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Republic of Ireland are admitted into the European Community.
1978 – The Constitution of the Northern Mariana Islands becomes effective.
1979 – Formal diplomatic relations are established between the People’s Republic of China and the United States of America.
1980 – Victoria is crowned princess of Sweden.
1981 – The Republic of Greece is admitted into the European Community.
1981 – The Republic of Palau achieves self-government though it is not independent from the United States.
1982 – Peruvian Javier Pérez de Cuéllar becomes the first Latin American to hold the title of Secretary General of the United Nations.
1983 – The ARPANET officially changes to using the Internet Protocol, creating the Internet.
1984 – AT&T is broken up into twenty-two independent units.
1984 – The Sultanate of Brunei becomes independent of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
1985 – The Internet’s Domain Name System is created.
1985 – The first British mobile phone call is made by Ernie Wise to Vodafone.
1986 – Aruba becomes independent of Curaçao, though it remains in free association with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
1986 – The Kingdom of Spain and the Portuguese Republic are admitted into the European Community.
1988 – The Evangelical Lutheran Church in America comes into existence, creating the largest Lutheran denomination in the United States.
1989 – The Montreal Protocol on Substances That Deplete the Ozone Layer comes into force.
1990 – David Dinkins is sworn in as New York City’s first black mayor.
1993 – Dissolution of Czechoslovakia: Czechoslovakia is divided into the Slovak Republic and the Czech Republic.
1993 – A single market within the European Community is introduced.
1994 – The Zapatista Army of National Liberation initiates twelve days of armed conflict in the Mexican State of Chiapas.
1994 – The North American Free Trade Agreement comes into effect.
1994 – The European Economic Area comes into effect.
1994 – The International Tropical Timber Agreement comes into effect.
1995 – The World Trade Organization comes into effect.
1995 – The Kingdom of Sweden and the republics of Austria and Finland are admitted into the European Union.
1995 – The Draupner wave in the North Sea in Norway is detected, confirming the existence of freak waves.
1995 – Jean-Claude Juncker assumes as Prime Minister of Luxembourg.
1995 – Firecrackers are banned in Vietnam on Tết because of safety reasons.
1996 – Curaçao gains limited self-government, though it remains within free association with the Kingdom of the Netherlands.
1997 – The Republic of Zaïre officially joins the World Trade Organization, as Zaïre.
1997 – Ghanaian diplomat Kofi Annan assumes as Secretary General of the United Nations.
1998 – The European Central Bank is established.
1999 – The Euro currency is introduced.
1999 – The Polish administrative region of Opole Voivodeship is created, out of the former Opole Voivodeship and parts of Częstochowa Voivodeship.
2000 – As the world celebrates, no major crisis arises from the dreaded Y2K computer ‘millennium bug’.
2002 – Euro banknotes and coins become legal tender in twelve of the European Union’s member states.
2002 – Taiwan officially joins the World Trade Organization, as Chinese Taipei.
2003 – Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva assumes office as the President of Brazil.
2007 – Bulgaria and Romania officially join the European Union. Also, Bulgarian, Romanian, and Irish become official languages of the European Union, joining 20 other official languages.
2008 – The first energy efficient New Year’s Ball is dropped in Times Square, New York City, USA. It is also the 100th year of the Ball drop in NYC.

Observances
Many countries around the world using Gregorian calendar – New Year’s Day; often celebrated at 00:00 with fireworks.
Last day of Kwanzaa
United States – Copyright Expiration Day, celebrating the expiration of the copyright of A year’s worth of works of authorship into the public domain. Not celebrated from 1978 to 2018 because of repeated copyright term extensions.
The seventh day of Christmas (and eighth night of same) in Western Christianity.
Cuba Liberation Day.
Czech Republic: Establishment of the Czech Republic.
Haiti Independence Day.
Scotland: Ne’erday.
Slovakia: Establishment of the Slovak Republic.
Sudan Independence Day.
Taiwan Founding of Republic of China Day.
New Year’s Day Parade in London, United Kingdom.
Vienna New Year’s Concert

January 2

366 – The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.
533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt A new name upon elevation to the papacy.
1492 – Reconquista: Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.
1757 – The United Kingdom captures Calcutta, India.
1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution. (But that doesn’t change the fact that they were one of like 9 others who seceded)
1791 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
1793 – Russia and Prussia partition Poland.
1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.
1860 – The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at A meeting of the Académie des Sciences in Paris.
1871 – Amadeus I becomes King of Spain.
1872 – Brigham Young is arrested on charges of bigamy for having 25 wives.
1882 – John D. Rockefeller unites his oil holdings into the Standard Oil trust.
1890 – Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer for the White House.
1893 – Webb C. Ball of the General Railroad Timepiece Standards in North America introduces railroad chronometers.
1900 – John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.
1905 – The American anarcho-syndicalist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World forms.
1917 – The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank.
1920 – The Palmer Raids begin in the United States.
1923 – U.S. Interior Secretary Albert Fall resigns over the Teapot Dome scandal.
1929 – Canada and the United States agree on A plan to preserve Niagara Falls.
1935 – Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh.
1941 – World War II: Nacospeak bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales.
1941 – World War II: The U.S. government announces its Liberty ship program to build freighters in support of the war effort.
1942 – World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces.
1942 – The United States Navy opens A blimp base at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1946 – Unable to resume rule after World War II, King Zog of Albania abdicates but retains his claim to the throne.
1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.
1955 – Panamanian president Jose Antonio Remon is assassinated.
1974 – Richard Nixon signs A bill lowering the maximum US speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.
1991 – Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC, becoming the first African American woman to lead A US city of that size and importance.
1993 – Leaders of the three warring factions in Bosnia meet to discuss peace plans.
1999 – A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13°F (-25°C); 68 deaths are reported.
2001 – Sila Calderón becomes the first female Governor of Puerto Rico.
2002 – Eduardo Duhalde is appointed interim President of Argentina by the Legislative Assembly.
2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that it will return to Earth two years later.

Observances
Second day of New Year, New Zealand
Second day of New Year, Slovenia
Second day of New Year, Ukraine
Second day of new Year, Japan
Ancestry Day, Haiti
Second day of the Hogmanay Bank Holiday, Scotland
The eighth day of Christmas (and ninth night of same) in Western Christianity.


Re: This Day in History

January 2

366 – The Alamanni cross the frozen Rhine River in large numbers, invading the Roman Empire.
533 – Mercurius becomes Pope John II, the first pope to adopt A new name upon elevation to the papacy.
1492 – Reconquista: Granada, the last Moorish stronghold in Spain, surrenders.
1757 – The United Kingdom captures Calcutta, India.
1788 – Georgia becomes the fourth state to ratify the United States Constitution. (But that doesn’t change the fact that they were one of like 9 others who seceded)
1791 – Big Bottom massacre in the Ohio Country, marking the beginning of the Northwest Indian War.
1793 – Russia and Prussia partition Poland.
1818 – The British Institution of Civil Engineers is founded.
1860 – The discovery of the planet Vulcan is announced at A meeting of the Académie des Sciences in Paris.
1871 – Amadeus I becomes King of Spain.
1872 – Brigham Young is arrested on charges of bigamy for having 25 wives.
1882 – John D. Rockefeller unites his oil holdings into the Standard Oil trust.
1890 – Alice Sanger becomes the first female staffer for the White House.
1893 – Webb C. Ball of the General Railroad Timepiece Standards in North America introduces railroad chronometers.
1900 – John Hay announces the Open Door Policy to promote trade with China.
1905 – Russo-Japanese War: The Russian garrison surrenders at Port Arthur, China.
1905 – The American anarcho-syndicalist union known as the Industrial Workers of the World forms.
1917 – The Royal Bank of Canada takes over Quebec Bank.
1920 – The Palmer Raids begin in the United States.
1923 – U.S. Interior Secretary Albert Fall resigns over the Teapot Dome scandal.
1929 – Canada and the United States agree on A plan to preserve Niagara Falls.
1935 – Bruno Hauptmann goes on trial for the murder of Charles Lindbergh, Jr., infant son of aviator Charles Lindbergh.
1941 – World War II: Nacospeak bombing severely damages the Llandaff Cathedral in Cardiff, Wales.
1941 – World War II: The U.S. government announces its Liberty ship program to build freighters in support of the war effort.
1942 – World War II: Manila is captured by Japanese forces.
1942 – The United States Navy opens A blimp base at Lakehurst, New Jersey.
1946 – Unable to resume rule after World War II, King Zog of Albania abdicates but retains his claim to the throne.
1949 – Luis Muñoz Marín becomes the first democratically elected Governor of Puerto Rico.
1955 – Panamanian president Jose Antonio Remon is assassinated.
1974 – Richard Nixon signs A bill lowering the maximum US speed limit to 55 MPH in order to conserve gasoline during an OPEC embargo.
1991 – Sharon Pratt Dixon is sworn in as mayor of Washington, DC, becoming the first African American woman to lead A US city of that size and importance.
1993 – Leaders of the three warring factions in Bosnia meet to discuss peace plans.
1999 – A brutal snowstorm smashes into the Midwestern United States, causing 14 inches (359 mm) of snow in Milwaukee, Wisconsin, and 19 inches (487 mm) in Chicago, where temperatures plunge to -13°F (-25°C); 68 deaths are reported.
2001 – Sila Calderón becomes the first female Governor of Puerto Rico.
2002 – Eduardo Duhalde is appointed interim President of Argentina by the Legislative Assembly.
2004 – Stardust successfully flies past Comet Wild 2, collecting samples that it will return to Earth two years later.

Observances
Second day of New Year, New Zealand
Second day of New Year, Slovenia
Second day of New Year, Ukraine
Second day of new Year, Japan
Ancestry Day, Haiti
Second day of the Hogmanay Bank Holiday, Scotland
The eighth day of Christmas (and ninth night of same) in Western Christianity.

January 3

1431 – Joan of Arc is handed over to the Bishop Pierre Cauchon.
1496 – Leonardo da Vinci unsuccessfully tests A flying machine.

1521 – Pope Leo X excommunicates Martin Luther in the papal bull Decet Romanum Pontificem.
1749 – Benning Wentworth issues the first of the New Hampshire Grants, leading to the establishment of Vermont.
1777 – American general George Washington defeats British general Charles Cornwallis at the Battle of Princeton.
1815 – Austria, the United Kingdom, and France form A secret defensive alliance treaty against Prussia and Russia.
1823 – Stephen F. Austin receives A grant of land in Texas from the government of Mexico.
1825 – Rensselaer School, the first engineering college in the U.S. is opened in Troy, New York. It is now known as Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
1833 – The United Kingdom seizes control of the Falkland Islands in the South Atlantic.
1834 – The government of Mexico imprisons Stephen F. Austin in Mexico City.
1848 – Joseph Jenkins Roberts is sworn in as the first president of the independent African Republic of Liberia.
1861 – American Civil War: Delaware votes not to secede from the United States. (At least they were smart)
1868 – Meiji Restoration in Japan: The Tokugawa shogunate is abolished; agents of Satsuma and Chōshū seize power.
1870 – The construction of the Brooklyn Bridge begins.
1871 – Henry W. Bradley patents oleomargarine.
1888 – The 91 cm refracting telescope at Lick Observatory is used for the first time. It was the largest telescope in the world at the time.
1888 – Marvin C. Stone patents the drinking straw.
1899 – The first known use of the word automobile, in an editorial in The New York Times.
1921 – Turkey makes peace with Armenia.
1924 – English explorer Howard Carter discovers the sarcophagus of Tutankhamen in the Valley of the Kings, near Luxor, Egypt.
1925 – Benito Mussolini announces he is taking dictatorial powers over Italy.

1933 – Minnie D. Craig becomes the first woman to be elected Speaker of A legislative body in the USA.
1938 – The March of Dimes is established by Franklin D. Roosevelt.
1938 – Woman in White is first broadcast on the NBC Red network. The program remains on the radio for the next ten years.
1944 – World War II: Top Ace Major Greg “Pappy” Boyington is shot down in his Corsair by Captain Masajiro Kawato flying A Zero.
1945 – Admiral Chester W Nimitz is placed in command of all U.S. Naval forces in preparation for planned assaults against Iwo Jima, Okinawa and Japan itself.
1947 – Proceedings of the U.S. Congress are televised for the first time.
1951 – Dragnet is first broadcast on NBC-TV.
1953 – Frances Bolton and her son, Oliver from Ohio, become the first mother and son to serve simultaneously in the U.S. Congress.
1957 – Hamilton Watch Company introduces the first electric watch.
1958 – The West Indies Federation is formed.
1959 – Alaska is admitted as the 49th U.S. state.
1962 – Pope John XXIII excommunicates Fidel Castro. (I’m not sure if I should laugh or be speechless.)
1973 – George Steinbrenner buys the New York Yankees from CBS for 3.2 million dollars
1977 – Apple Computer is incorporated.
1983 – CiTV launches on ITV in the UK.
1987 – Aretha Franklin becomes the first woman inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame.
1988 – Margaret Thatcher becomes the longest-serving British Prime Minister in the 20th Century.
1990 – Former leader of Panama Manuel Noriega surrenders to American forces.
1993 – In Moscow, George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin sign the second Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START).
1997 – The People’s Republic of China announces it will spend $27.7 billion to fight erosion and pollution in the Yangtze and Yellow river valleys.
1999 – The Mars Polar Lander launches.

Observances
Festival in honour of Pax, Roman Empire
The tenth night and ninth day of Christmas in Western Christianity
January 3 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 4

46 BC – Titus Labienus defeats Julius Caesar in the Battle of Ruspina.
871 – Battle of Reading: Ethelred of Wessex fights, and is defeated by, A Danish invasion army.
1490 – Anna of Brittany announces that all those who would ally with the king of France will be considered guilty of the crime of lese-majesty.
1493 – Christopher Columbus leaves the New World, ending his first journey.
1642 – King Charles I of England sends soldiers to arrest members of Parliament, commencing England’s slide into civil war.
1698 – Most of the Palace of Whitehall in London, the main residence of the English monarchs, is destroyed by fire.
1717 – The Netherlands, England, and France sign the Triple Alliance.
1762 – England declares war on Spain and Naples.
1847 – Samuel Colt sells his first revolver pistol to the United States government.
1854 – The McDonald Islands are discovered by Captain William McDonald aboard the Samarang.
1865 – The New York Stock Exchange opens its first permanent headquarters at 10-12 Broad near Wall Street in New York City.
1884 – The Fabian Society is founded in London.
1885 – The first successful appendectomy is performed by Dr. William W. Grant on Mary Gartside.
1896 – Utah is admitted as the 45th U.S. state.
1936 – Mickey’s Polo Team, A short animated film featuring Charlie Chaplin, Oliver Hardy, Stan Laurel, and Harpo Marx in A polo match against various Disney characters, is first released.
1936 – Billboard magazine publishes its first pop music charts.
1941 – The animated short Elmer’s Pet Rabbit is released: it marks the second appearance of Bugs Bunny and the first to have his name on A title card.
1944 – Operation Carpetbagger, involving the dropping of arms and supplies to resistance fighters in Europe, begins.
1944 – World War II: The Battle of Monte Cassino begins.
1948 – Burma regains its independence from the United Kingdom.
1951 – Korean War: Chinese and North Korean forces capture Seoul.
1958 – Sputnik 1 falls to Earth from its orbit (it was launched on October 4, 1957).
1959 – Luna 1 becomes the first spacecraft to reach the vicinity of the Moon.
1962 – New York City introduces A train that operates without A crew on-board.
1965 – United States President Lyndon B. Johnson proclaims his “Great Society” during his State of the Union address.
1972 – Rose Heilbron becomes the first female judge to sit at the Old Bailey in London.
1973 – Last of the Summer Wine, the world’s longest running sitcom, was first transmitted on BBC’s Comedy Playhouse and is still running to date.
1974 – United States President Richard Nixon refuses to hand over materials subpoenaed by the Senate Watergate Committee.
1975 – Elizabeth Ann Seton becomes the first American-born saint.
2004 – Dr. Mikhail Saakashvili is elected the President of Georgia.
2004 – Spirit, A NASA Mars Rover, lands successfully on Mars at 04:35 UTC.
2004 – Unrest takes over the southern provinces of Thailand.
2006 – Prime Minister Ariel Sharon of Israel suffers A second, apparently more serious stroke. His authority is transferred to acting Prime Minister Ehud Olmert.
2007 – The 110th United States Congress convenes, electing Nancy Pelosi as the first female Speaker of the House in U.S. history.

Observances
National Day of Burma
Feast day of St Elizabeth Ann Seton[2]
The eleventh night and tenth day of Christmas in Western Christianity
Movement for the Survival of the Ogoni People
January 4 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 5

1066 – Edward the Confessor, King of England dies.
1463 – Poet François Villon is banned from Paris.
1477 – Battle of Nancy: Charles the Bold is killed and Burgundy becomes part of France.
1500 – Duke Ludovico Sforza conquers Milan.
1527 – Felix Manz, A leader of the Anabaptist congregation in Zürich, is executed by drowning.
1554 – A great fire occurs in Eindhoven, Netherlands.
1675 – Battle of Colmar: the French army beats Brandenburg.
1757 – Louis XV of France survives the assassination attempt by Robert–François Damiens, the last person to be executed in France by the traditional and gruesome form of capital punishment used for regicides. (When R-FD died “his house was razed to the ground, his brothers and sisters were ordered to change their names, and his father, wife, and daughter were banished from France.” Raw deal…)
1759 – George Washington marries Martha Dandridge Custis. (But, they never had any kids)
1781 – American Revolutionary War: Richmond, Virginia, is burned by British naval forces led by Benedict Arnold.
1846 – The United States House of Representatives votes to stop sharing the Oregon Territory with the United Kingdom.
1895 – Dreyfus Affair: French officer Alfred Dreyfus is stripped of his rank and sentenced to life imprisonment on Devil’s Island.
1896 – An Austrian newspaper reports that Wilhelm Roentgen has discovered A type of radiation later known as X-rays.
1900 – Irish leader John Edward Redmond calls for A revolt against British rule.
1909 – Colombia recognizes the independence of Panama.
1911 – Kappa Alpha Psi Fraternity, Inc. is founded.
1912 – Prague Party Conference takes place.
1913 – First Balkan War: During the Naval Battle of Lemnos Greek admiral Pavlos Kountouriotis forces the Turkish fleet to retreat to its base within the Dardanelles, from which it did not venture for the rest of the war.
1914 – Ford Motor Company announces an eight-hour workday and A minimum wage of $5 for A day’s labor.
1919 – Free Committee for A Nacospeak Workers Peace, which would become the Nazi party, is founded.
1925 – Nellie Tayloe Ross becomes the first female governor (Wyoming) in the United States. (Though, Miriam Ferguson of Texas won at the same time, Nellie got inagurated first)
1933 – Construction of the Golden Gate Bridge begins in San Francisco Bay.
1940 – FM radio is demonstrated to the FCC for the first time.
1944 – The Daily Mail becomes the first transoceanic newspaper.
1945 – The Soviet Union recognizes the new pro-Soviet government of Poland.
1948 – Warner Bros. shows the first color newsreel (Tournament of Roses Parade and the Rose Bowl).
1968 – Alexander Dubček comes to power: “Prague Spring” begins in Czechoslovakia.
1972 – President of the United States Richard Nixon orders the development of A space shuttle program.
1976 – Cambodia is renamed Democratic Kampuchea by the Khmer Rouge.
1993 – The oil tanker MV Braer runs aground on the coast of the Shetland Islands, spilling 84,700 tons of crude oil.
1993 – Washington state executes Westley Allan Dodd by hanging (the first legal hanging in America since 1965).
1996 – Hamas operative Yahya Ayyash is killed by an Israeli-planted booby-trapped cell phone.
1997 – Russian forces withdraw from Chechnya.
2000 – The first day of the 2000 Al Qaeda Summit. (OMG, WHAT?!)
2005 – Eris, the largest known dwarf planet in the solar system, is discovered by the team of Michael E. Brown, Chad Trujillo, and David L. Rabinowitz using images originally taken on October 21, 2003, at the Palomar Observatory. (It is actually in the asteroid belt!)
2007 – Taiwan High Speed Rail opens between Taipei and Kaohsiung.

Observances
The eleventh day of Christmas in Western Christianity, and the Twelfth Night of Christmas in Western Christianity.
January 5 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)
Mungday (Discordianism)


Re: This Day in History

Looks like you’ve had things well in hand Ashley, no surprise there. Just returned to the forum and thought I’d open January 6.

On this day January 6th…

1777 – After two significant victories over the British in Trenton and Princeton, New Jersey, General George Washington marches north to Morristown, New Jersey, where he set up winter headquarters for himself and the men of the Continental Army on this day in 1777. The hills surrounding the camp offered Washington A perfect vantage point from which to keep an eye on the British army, which was headquartered across the Hudson River in New York City. Morristown’s position also allowed Washington to protect the roads leading from the British strongholds in New Jersey to New England and the roads leading to Philadelphia, where the leaders of the American Revolution were headquartered.

1827 – Confederate General John Calvin Brown is born in Giles City, Tennessee. Brown served in the Army of Tennessee during the war, was wounded three times, and captured once. When Tennessee seceded in April 1861, Brown enlisted as A private in the Confederate Army. His time as an enlisted man was brief, however, as he was made A colonel in the 3rd Tennessee within A month.

Brown’s unit was stationed at Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River when it was captured by General Ulysses S. Grant in February 1862. Brown was A prisoner for six months. After he was exchanged, he was promoted to brigadier general and was wounded at the Battle of Perryville in October 1862. He recovered in time to fight at Stones River two months later, but he was wounded again at Chickamauga in September 1863. He was back at his post for the siege of Chattanooga in October and November 1863. Brown served the next year with the army through the Atlanta campaign, and he was part of the General John Bell Hood force that invaded Tennessee that fall. Brown was wounded for A third time at the Battle of Franklin on November 30. This battle was A disaster for the Confederates, as five other Rebel generals were wounded and six more killed during the engagement. Brown recovered in time to join General Joseph Johnston’s surviving force as it surrendered to General William T. Sherman in North Carolina at the end of the war.

1919 – Theodore Roosevelt, the 26th president of the United States, dies at Sagamore Hill, his estate overlooking New York’s Long Island Sound.

In the last few years of his life, Roosevelt became A vocal advocate of the U.S. entrance into World War I and even sought to win A commission to lead A U.S. Army division in Europe. President Wilson declined, and after the war Roosevelt was A vocal opponent of his League of Nations. In 1919, Roosevelt died at his home in New York. The tropical diseases he had contracted during his travels likely caught up with him, and he died at the age of 60.

1942 – President Franklin D. Roosevelt announces to Congress that he is authorizing the largest armaments production in the history of the United States.

Committed to war in the aftermath of Pearl Harbor, the U.S. had to reassess its military preparedness, especially in light of the fact that its Pacific fleet was decimated by the Japanese air raid. Among those pressing President Roosevelt to double U.S. armaments and industrial production were Lord William Beaverbrook, the British minister of aircraft production, and members of the British Ministry of Supplies, who were meeting with their American counterparts at the Mayflower Hotel in Washington. Beaverbrook, A newspaper publisher in civilian life, employed production techniques he learned in publishing to cut through red tape, improve efficiency, and boost British aircraft production to manufacturing 500 fighters A month, and he felt the U.S. could similarly beef up armament production.

1958 – The Soviet Union announces plans to cut the size of its standing army by 300,000 troops in the coming year. The reduction was part of A 1956 policy announced by Krushchev in anticipation of “peaceful coexistence” with the West, and an indication that Cold War relations between the United States and the Soviet Union were undergoing A slight thaw in the mid- to late-1950s.

The Soviet action had little effect on U.S. policy. Despite Khrushchev’s talk of peaceful coexistence, the preceding two years of the Cold War gave U.S. officials little confidence in his sincerity. The brutal Soviet repression of the Hungarian revolt in 1956, the Suez Crisis of that same year, and the launch of the Sputnik satellite in 1957 convinced many U.S. statesmen that A tough, competitive stance toward the Russians was the best policy.

1971 – The Army drops charges of an alleged cover-up in the My Lai massacre against four officers. After the charges were dropped, A total of 11 people had been cleared of responsibility during the My Lai trials.

Of those originally charged, only Calley was convicted. Many believed that Calley was A scapegoat, and the widespread public outcry against his life sentence moved President Nixon to intervene on April 3, 1971. He had Calley removed from the Fort Benning stockade and ordered him confined to quarters pending review of his case. On August 20, Calley’s life term was reduced to 20 years. In November 1974, A Federal Court judge ruled that Calley was convicted unjustly, citing “prejudicial publicity.” Although the Army disputed this ruling, Calley was paroled for good behavior after serving 40 months, 35 of which were spent in his own home.

1975 – Phuoc Binh, the capital of Phuoc Long Province, about 60 miles north of Saigon, falls to the North Vietnamese. Phuoc Binh was the first provincial capital taken by the communists since the fall of Quang Tri on May 1, 1972.

When the North Vietnamese launched the new offensive in early 1975, the South Vietnamese forces, demoralized by the failure of the United States to come to their aid, were defeated in just 55 days. North Vietnamese tanks crashed through the gates of the presidential palace on April 30 and South Vietnam surrendered fully to the communists.


Re: This Day in History

Yeah, well-handled, but I hated editing my post numerous times. Heh.

January 6

1066 – Harold Godwinson is crowned King of England.
1205 – Philip of Swabia becomes King of the Romans.
1449 – Byzantine Emperor Constantine XI is crowned at Mistra.
1494 – The first Mass in the New World is celebrated at La Isabela, Hispaniola.
1540 – King Henry VIII of England marries Anne of Cleves (She was married to him for 7 months until 9 July 1540. Marriage was annulled on grounds on non-consummation, she received A generous settlement and she lived out the rest of her life in England. Died in 1557 at age 41)
1579 – The Union of Atrecht is signed.
1649 – The Rump Parliament votes to put Charles I on trial
1661 – The Fifth Monarchists unsuccessfully attempt to seize control of London.
1690 – Joseph, son of Emperor Leopold I, becomes King of the Romans.
1720 – The Committee of Inquiry on the South Sea Bubble publishes its findings.
1781 – In the Battle of Jersey on 6 January the British defeat the last attempt by France to invade Jersey.
1806 – Horatio Nelson is laid to rest in Saint Paul’s Cathedral in London
1838 – Samuel Morse first successfully tests the electrical telegraph.
1853 – American President-Elect Franklin Pierce and family are involved in A train wreck near Andover, Massachusetts.
1870 – The inauguration of the Musikverein (Vienna).
1887 – `Abd-allah II of Harar opens the Battle of Chelenqo with an attack on the camp of the Shewan army of Negus Menelik II.
1893 – Washington National Cathedral is chartered by Congress. The charter is signed by President Benjamin Harrison.
1907 – Maria Montessori opens her first school and daycare center for working class children in Rome.
1912 – New Mexico is admitted as the 47th U.S. state.
1929 – King Alexander of the Serbs, Croats and Slovenes suspends his country’s constitution (the so-called January 6th Dictatorship, Šestojanuarska diktatura.)
1929 – Mother Teresa arrives in Calcutta to begin A her work amongst India’s poorest and diseased people
1930 – The first diesel-engine automobile trip is completed (from Indianapolis, Indiana, to New York City).
1931 – Thomas Edison submits his last patent application.
1936 – The Supreme Court of the United States rules that the 1933 Agricultural Adjustment Act unconstitutional in the case United States V. Butler et al..
1940 – Mass execution of Poles, committed by Nacospeaks in the city of Poznañ, Warthegau.
1941 – Franklin Delano Roosevelt delivers his Four Freedoms Speech in the State of the Union Address.
1941 – Keel of USS Missouri (BB-63) is laid at New York Navy Yard in Brooklyn
1942 – Pan American Airlines becomes the first commercial airline to schedule A flight around the world.
1950 – The United Kingdom recognizes the People’s Republic of China. The Republic of China severs diplomatic relations with the UK in response.
1967 – United States Marine Corps and ARVN troops launch “Operation Deckhouse Five” in the Mekong River delta.
1974 – In response to the energy crisis, daylight saving time commences nearly four months early in the United States.
1977 – The music publisher EMI ends its contract with the notorious punk rock group the Sex Pistols after reports of abusive behaviour at Heathrow Airport, London.
1978 – The Crown of St. Stephen (also known as the Holy Crown of Hungary) is returned to Hungary from the United States, where it was held after the Second World War.
1994 – Nancy Kerrigan is clubbed on the right leg by an assailant under orders from figure skating rival Tonya Harding. (Kerrigan later scream out “Why?!” on camera. You can see A bit of that scene in the episode “Toilet Paper” of season 7 of South Park during Kyle’s second dream)
1995 – A chemical fire in an apartment complex in Manila, Philippines, leads to the discovery of plans for Project Bojinka, A mass-terrorist attack.
2004 – Jaya Bharata Jananiya Tanujate is declared the official anthem of Karnataka
2004 – Costas Simitis announces his resignation as president of the Panhellenic Socialist Movement in Greece.
2005 – Mississippi Civil Rights Workers Murders: Edgar Ray Killen is arrested as A suspect for the 1964 murders of three Civil Rights workers.
2005 – First World Congress of Imams and Rabbis for Peace begins in Brussels, Belgium.
2006 – Tropical Storm Zeta (2005) dissipates, ending the notorious 2005 hurricane season.

Observances
Public holiday in Spain, Italy and Puerto Rico to mark Epiphany
Ireland – Little Christmas
Rastafari movement – Celebration of the ceremonial birthday of Haile Selassie
Armenian Christmas (except in the Holy Land where it is on 18 January – old calendar)
Ancient Latvia – Zvaigznes Diena observed
January 6 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

January 7

1325 – Alfonso IV becomes King of Portugal.
1558 – France takes Calais, the last continental possession of England.
1598 – Boris Godunov becomes Tsar of Russia.
1608 – Fire destroys Jamestown, Virginia.
1610 – Galileo Galilei observes the four largest moons of Jupiter for the first time. He named them and in turn the four are called the Galilean moons.
1735 – Hieronimus de Salis marries Mary ffane, at St. Margaret’s Westminster.
1782 – The first American commercial bank, Bank of North America, opens.
1785 – Frenchman Jean-Pierre Blanchard and American John Jeffries travel from Dover, England, to Calais, France, in A gas balloon.
1797 – The modern Italian flag is first used.
1835 – HMS Beagle anchors off the Chonos Archipelago.
1894 – W.K. Dickson receives A patent for motion picture film.
1904 – The distress signal “CQD” is established only to be replaced two years later by “SOS”. (Still randomly used in Titanic for some reason)
1924 – George Gershwin completes Rhapsody in Blue.
1924 – The International Hockey Federation (FIH) is founded in Paris by seven member states: Austria, Belgium, Czechoslovakia, France, Hungary, Spain, and Switzerland.
1927 – First transatlantic telephone call – New York City to London.
1927 – The Harlem Globetrotters play their first game.
1935 – Benito Mussolini and French Foreign Minister Pierre Laval sign the Franco–Italian Agreement.
1942 – World War II: The siege of the Bataan Peninsula begins.
1945 – World War II: British General Bernard Montgomery holds A press conference in which he claims credit for victory in the Battle of the Bulge.
1953 – President Harry Truman announces that the United States has developed A hydrogen bomb.
1954 – Georgetown-IBM experiment, the first public demonstration of A machine translation system, is held in New York at the head office of IBM.
1959 – The United States recognizes the new Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
1979 – Phnom Penh falls to the advancing Vietnamese troops, driving out Pol Pot and the Khmer Rouge.
1980 – President Jimmy Carter authorizes legislation giving $1.5 billion in loans to bail out Chrysler Corporation.
1984 – Brunei becomes the sixth member of the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN).
1990 – The interior of the Leaning Tower of Pisa is closed to the public due to safety concerns.
1993 – The Fourth Republic of Ghana is inaugurated with Jerry Rawlings as President.
1996 – The North American blizzard of 1996 pounds the east coast of the U.S. with 1-4 feet of snow.
1999 – The impeachment of President Bill Clinton begins.

Observances
European traditional – Distaff day: women’s traditional work begins again after Epiphany.
Italy – Tricolour day (Festa del Tricolore)
Japan – Nanakusa (Seven Herbs Festival).
Coptic Orthodox Church – Synaxis of John the Forerunner & Baptist
Eastern Orthodox Church – John the Baptist
Christmas Day in the Eastern Orthodox Churches and Oriental Orthodox Churches using the Julian Calendar
January 7 (Eastern Orthodox liturgics)

the end @ Copyrighr Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

The History Of Betawi Music record Development Book Two 1951-1980(Sejarah perkembangan Musik Betawai 1951-1980)

 

Orkes keroncong komunitas Indies di Batavia  (Ilustrasi: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12a))

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v188/missriboet/missdjadanmissriboet1932.jpg

Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The historical development of   Jakarta Music Record 

 In 20th Century.

Sejarah Perkembangan Rekaman Musik Betawi (1900-1975)

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books and Music Record Collections             

             By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

   special for premium member

_______________________________________________________________________________

 hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

___________________________________________ 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.Book One_Buku Pertama:

Betawi Music record Early 20th Century.(Rekaman Musik Betawi Pada Awal Abad Ke-20)

(1) During Dutch East Indie _Masa Hindia Belanda 1900-1942 

(2)During Japanese Occupation _Masa pendudukan Jepang 1942-1945

(3) During Indonesian Independent War _Masa Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950

3.Book Two-Buku Kedua:

(1) Era Bung Karno 1951-1965

(2) Era Pak Harto 1966-1980

 _____________________________________

BOOK TWO :

The History Of Betawi Music record deevlopment 1951-1980 

1.TANGKIWOOD

DSC_0061_25_preset1.jpg

Once down the narrow alleys and crowded, we finally see a big way again. It seems a brother salted fish sellers were hawking wares. It becomes us to explore the region Tangkiwood end. Next time I want to visit the house djadoel artists who once lived here, and explore again the remains of the triumph of “Hollywood” her this Betawi

Child Puppet at Village Tank

Still remember August Mahieu with Komedie Stamboel? Mahieu like a trend setter in Java. He makes others emulate the style of the stage spectacle Komedie Stamboel or dkenal as Komedie Nobility. In fact, all of the show mimics Mahieu Abdul Muluk. Many people say, Abdul Muluk also mimic a similar performance from Iran. Throughout the history of human movement, of course subject imitate imitation, adaptation, collaboration, mixing, merging, or influenced by the arts and culture is inevitable.

Mahieu anesthetize the public in the Netherlands East Indies and stimulate other artists founded the alias comedy show. Call it Komedie Samboel Opera, Opera Sri Permata, Royal Opera, and Lord Indra. Unlike the group that contains the player Indo Mahieu Java, the new group using entirely indigenous players. However, the taste was abandoned Mahieu, namely the appearance of dancing tango, cabaret, pantomime, waltz, polka, with a costume a la noble, prince, queen, princess, just the smell of the west. That’s why Komedie Stamboel and their associated Komedie called Duke.

So the spectacle was entertaining a lot of heart grassroots “in those days, the 19th century. Town square is often so big stage for the comedy troupe. Audience? Diverse. But mostly yes “grassroots earlier. Even the plantation coolies want to be entertained entourage, according to Misbach Yusa Biran in the History of Film 1900-1950: Film Making in Java.

Mixed-repertoire repertoire of Baghdad, Europe, India, they play without using a script. Only the outline only understood the players. They do not know the script stage, all other conversations hanylah no improvisation. What article? The players were mostly illiterate.

It’s also probably why the show is not changing the comedy troupe repertoire or create their own style story. Until finally came Tio Tek Djien with Miss Riboet Orion and Piedro the Dardanelles. Two large entourage was spawned stories of their own devising with expertise Andjar Asmara and Nyoo Cheong Seng.

The development of this comedy troupe determine this nation’s artistic journey, especially in terms of cinema. From this comedy troupe and then appeared the term puppet children follow a term that developed in the land of Malacca, where Mahieu imitate the appearance of Abdul Muluk. The term is commonly used by the crew of the party. They called a puppet show stage.

Human life stage, kids puppet, is a life that consists of players in one group. They live, eat, drink. sleeping, playing, joking, playing in one house or village to then play together on stage, as always. Misbach wrote, if you’re in the recital tour, they lived in a house joint venture – empty buildings hired by the owner of the group. This causes them to not get along with other human beings other than humans in the group that the average illiteracy. Players are paid a daily comedy, they often have to work extra if the show in a deserted town audience.

In Batavia, children gathered in the region puppet named Tank, at Mangga Dua area. In the 1920s, stood Malayan Opera. Child puppets Malayan Opera is what most of living in the tank. In 1950, in which the village is then loaded with the artist, emerged as Tangkiwood – like Hollywood

Anak Wayang di Kampung Tangki

Sepenggal potret Tangkiwood, Kota
 
 
 
 
 
 
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Setelah menyusuri gang-gang sempit dan padat, akhirnya kami ketemu jalan besar lagi. Nampak seorang abang penjual ikan asin sedang menjajakan jualannya. Ini menjadi akhir kami menjelajahi kawasan Tangkiwood. Next time saya ingin berkunjung ke rumah artis-artis djadoel yang pernah tinggal disini, dan eksplore lagi sisa-sisa kejayaan “Hollywood”nya Betawi ini

Masih ingat August Mahieu dengan Komedie Stamboel? Mahieu bagai trend setter di Jawa. Ia membuat orang lain meniru tontonan panggung ala Komedie Stamboel atau dkenal sebagai Komedie Bangsawan. Padahal, Mahieu meniru pula dari pertunjukan Abdul Muluk. Banyak orang bilang, Abdul Muluk pun meniru pertunjukan serupa asal Iran. Sepanjang sejarah pergerakan manusia, tentu saja perihal tiru meniru, adaptasi, kolaborasi, percampuran, penggabungan, atau pengaruh  unsur seni dan budaya tak terelakkan.

Mahieu membius masyarakat di Hindia Belanda dan merangsang seniman lain mendirikan komedi alias pertunjukan. Sebut saja Komedie Opera Samboel, Opera Sri Permata, Opera Bangsawan, dan Indra Bangsawan. Tak seperti rombongan Mahieu yang berisi pemain Indo Jawa, rombongan baru tersebut menggunakan pemain yang seluruhnya pribumi. Meski demikian, cita rasa Mahieu tak ditinggalkan, yaitu penampilan dansa tango, kabaret, tablo, waltz, polka, dengan kostum ala bangsawan, pangeran, ratu, putri, pokoknya yang berbau barat. Itu sebabnya Komedie Stamboel dan ikutannya disebut Komedie Bangsawan.

Demikianlah tontonan tersebut menghibur banyak hati wong cilik di masa itu, abad 19. Alun-alun kota seringkali jadi panggung besar bagi rombongan komedi tersebut. Penontonnya? Beragam. Tapi kebanyakan ya wong cilik tadi. Bahkan kuli perkebunan ingin dihibur rombongan tersebut, demikian Misbach Yusa Biran dalam Sejarah Film 1900-1950:Bikin Film di Jawa.

Repertoar-repertoar campuran dari Baghdad, Eropa, India, mereka mainkan tanpa menggunakan naskah. Hanya garis besarnya saja yang dipahami para pemain. Mereka tak kenal naskah panggung, semua percakapan tak lain hanylah improvisasi. Apa pasal? Para pemain itu umumnya buta huruf.

Itu juga barangkali, kenapa pertunjukan rombongan komedi tersebut tak mengubah repertoar atau membuat sendiri kisah ala mereka. Hingga akhirnya muncullah Tio Tek Djien dengan Miss Riboet Orion dan Piedro dengan Dardanella. Dua rombongan besar ini menelurkan berbagai kisah karangan mereka sendiri dengan kepiawaian Andjar Asmara dan Nyoo Cheong Seng.

Perkembangan rombongan komedi ini menentukan perjalanan kesenian bangsa ini terutama dalam hal perfilman. Dari rombongan komedi ini kemudian muncul istilah anak wayang mengikuti istilah yang berkembang di tanah Malaka, di mana Mahieu mencontoh penampilan Abdul Muluk. Istilah tersebut biasa digunakan oleh awak rombongan itu. Pertunjukan mereka disebut wayang panggung.

Kehidupan manusia panggung, anak-anak wayang, adalah kehidupan yang terdiri dari pemain dalam satu rombongan. Mereka hidup, makan, minum. tidur, bermain, bercanda, bermain di satu rumah atau kampung untuk kemudian bermain bersama di atas panggung, begitu selalu. Misbach menuliskan, jika sedang ikut pertunjukan keliling, mereka tinggal di satu rumah kongsi – bangunan kosong yang disewa pemilik rombongan. Ini menyebabkan mereka tak bergaul dengan manusia lain selain manusia dalam rombongan itu yang rata-rata buta huruf. Pemain komedi dibayar harian, mereka seringkali harus bekerja tambahan jika pertunjukan di satu kota sepi penonton.

Di Batavia, anak wayang dikumpulkan di kawasan bernama Tangki, di daerah Mangga Dua. Di tahun 1920-an, berdiri Malayan Opera. Anak wayang Malayan Opera inilah yang kebanyakan tinggal di Tangki. Pada 1950, di mana kampung ini kemudian dijejali seniman, muncul sebutan Tangkiwood – seperti Hollywood

1a. Miss Tjitjih 

The group leader named Miss Tjitjih S.A. Bafaqih, one born in Pasuruan, East Java. He was already quite advanced ditahun 1962, 75 years old, born in 1888. Theoretical Dad has been retired, according to its own terms, but in practical secraa still lead straight. Actually he was bored with the play, both as a player or a leader or a play, but somehow, when you hear there is a play, just want to watch, apaun would happen, maybe it’s inborn. He told me that he knew very well that people who play it are snadiwara liar, is tantamount to a drug seller, is not entirely correct. The difference, play and the players got dressed lakon.punya story interesting. Perhaps in this world does need people like him. The people who are just moving the field of arts and culture. People said of him, people who are not so normal, he watched people, but we also sometimes be a spectacle because people rarely live IAMI no worse than a trash. but let us feel satisfied, and the audience that we need seba if they are not satisfied, recording will not come again.

  Bafaqih father was a traveling salesman from a disorder of the city, indeed the family is a family of merchants. Then went along with the heartfelt drama. Then mewrasa interested in the play field, seterusna easement and release their commercial work into play. in the history of the father hidunya Bafaqih met alone showman, a virgin from Sumedang who have talent with a fairly good-looking face, which later became his wife. The name comes from the name of Miss Tjitjih isterinyalah, before the play group was given the name: Opera De Nacht “. then” Valencia Opera “, and so Miss Tjitjih until 1962

Let stumbling We Were There …
Community Arts Miss Tjitjih
 

 
 
 
When you cross the street in East Cempakabaru, Central Jakarta, was standing strong a building that is named Miss Tjitjih Art Building. In the era of the 1970s, the building is always crowded with society are “thirsty” entertainment. They want to see pergelaraan Sundanese traditional arts groups.

Miss Tjitjih Arts Building with a capacity of 400 people were at the time keemasaannya never empty. “In that year (1970), we have a gig if you can up to three hours. Moreover, even a Saturday night gig could be up to four hours,” said Maman Sutarman, the player who doubles as director and screenwriter staging of Miss Tjitjih, when found in the Warta Kota his home in the back of the building arts, Friday (15 / 1).

In conversation, Maman Sutarman from West Java who was familiarly called Mang Esek, accompanied by Mohammad, co seprofesinya. They both claim to remember very well once their better period, especially when staged a play titled Bridge Shirotul Mustaqim.

“If now remember, sometimes sad also with our fate now. If we had played, the audience is full. Due to limited building capacity, the audience at that time in the queue. So every show the audience is always full,” recalled Mohammad diamini Asek Mang.

Mang Esek said, the group named their artistry Miss Tjitjih taken from a showman who was born in Sumedang, West Java, on tahun1928. In the past, this art is so popular because of the entertainment world and segemerlap not as much as now.

According to Mang Esek, the popularity of their community began to seem to fade in 1987. Along with the times especially the entertainment world that increasingly rampant, eventually displaced them as the times. Then Mang Esek along with members of the arts can survive only with the Foundation bernanung Miss Tjitjih who managed the city administration.

Today, Mang Esek with Miss Tjitjih arts group members lived in a two-story building behind the arts building as a “gift” to the struggle of the artist plays Miss Tjitjih first. “Yes, thank God we were still given a place to shelter,” said Mang Esek about two-storey building consisting of 17 rooms that.

When asked if they still do performances in the building that now run DKI Jakarta Provincial Government through the Department of Tourism and Culture, he says, “It depends.”

The point? “It depends on subsidies. If you go down so we play. Now these subsidies more widely used to treat the building. Even if we are playing well now quiet crowd,” he said. They appear usually on Saturday night. Every spectator entrance fee charged Rp 10,000.

Although the audience appeared minus Mang Esek and Mohammad and his colleagues always look excited. “We do not care if quiet is important we entertain people with Sundanese traditional theater. Intention we now want to prove even if we struggled we struggled there,” said Mang Esek

Miss Tjitjih, Devotion A Girl Sumedang

————————————————– ——————————

Nyi Tjitjih originally was just a regular performer in Sumedang Sunda. His role on stage is also somewhat indifferent to the role as a singer or a princess in another time. However, the story of life’s journey Nyi Tjitjih slowly changed after meeting with Aboe Fuel Bafaqih. At that time, Bafaqih, an Arab-born Bangil (East Java), with entourage stambulnya are conducting tour in West Java.

In the area of ​​Sumedang, Bafaqih met with Nyi Tjitjih who was playing with Tonil Sunda. Bafaqih immediately attracted him into bentukannya repertory, Opera Valencia. Bafaqih invitation was welcomed Nyi Tjitjih. From then Nyi Tjitjih become part of the Opera Valencia. When joining the Opera Valencia, Nyi Tjitjih 18 years old. In this bevy of new looks Nyi Tjitjih hidden talent. Besides her beautiful face, this girl also has a lovely voice, acting ability, and agility in dancing. From day to day ability to grow Tjitjih Nyi so she became a prima donna in these associations.

In 1928, the association Opera Valencia arrived at Batavia. In the same year, Bafaqih edit Nyi Tjitjih become his second wife. When it had just Tjitjih age 20 years. Furthermore, Nyi Tjitjih changed its name to Miss Tjitjih and the name was used as the name of this association Bafaqih leadership.

The full name is Miss Tjitjih association Toneel Gezelschap. So, practically defined as the birth of the 1928 Miss Tjitjih repertory.

The prima donna

It has become a common thing, at that time the name of the association serve as the prima donna perkumpulannya name. This is part of the “arms” to grab the attention of major public and commercial purposes / commercial. This is called the “star system”. Star system began to be a trend in the world of theater since the early 1920s.

Previously, the leadership repertoire Orion Tio Tek Djien Jr. established in Batavia in 1925 changed its name to the repertory of Miss Riboet Orion, following the name of a prima donna who is also wife of Tio, Riboet. At that time, rival Miss Tjitjih to grab public attention among them Miss Dja, a society belle of Dardanelles, and Miss Riboet of Miss Riboet Orion association.

Change the name was also accompanied by changes in the language of the show. Society Miss Tjitjih who previously used to switch to Malay language. This decision was taken on the idea of ​​Miss Tjitjih own who want to preserve the native culture and based on the reality that the public is a public supporter of Miss Tjitjih Jabar.

However, this decision is not without risk. Sundanese language usage in dialogue on the stage make the space for this group increasingly narrow. They are fixated on areas of West Java and Batavia only.

Miss Tjitjih Society who lived in Batavia since 1928 remained held regional tour to Jabar. In this tour, transportation equipment they use is a cow-drawn cart. If the journey is too far, they use the train.

The play-act that is often brought on stage was the play-the play that close to nature the majority of people thought the Dutch East Indies. Folktales like Sangkoeriang, Tjioeng Vanara, and played an active Kasaroeng Loetoeng on stage. Normally they play with improvisation.

In 1931, Miss Tjitjih theatrical troupe was invited to hold a show at the Bogor Palace. This association seems more famous so that the palace had asked for their performances. Among the audience of course there is the governor-general. In addition, they also have a fixed schedule for performing at Gambir Market Batavia until market closes in 1936.

Name Miss Tjitjih increasingly flying in stage liver lovers. In fact, various district hall who was a social event of the marvelous, as in Cianjur, Garut, Lebak, and Kasepuhan Keraton Cirebon, become the places visited Miss Tjitjih to show skill. If Miss Tjitjih’re onstage, the audience seemed mesmerized by the skill.

Age 28 years

Year 1936 seems to be the last year Tjitjih can waddle on stage. In that year, Tjitjih last breath. Before the last breath, Nyi Tjitjih still had time to play with his entourage in Cikampek (West Java) to perform a play written by Crow Solo Tek Tio Jr. Djien.

In these plays a role as Tandak Nyi Tjitjih who decided his love by the crown prince. Tjitjih who always played with all my heart on the stage when the screen suddenly fell down. Viewers who watched the show thought that what they watch is part of acting Tjitjih. Performing at this Cikampek stopped in the middle of the road. Nyi Tjitjih indeed been suffering from illness for a long time.

Although the conditions are not favorable, he was still forced to play. Nyi Tjitjih died after being taken to his homeland, Sumedang. Tjitjih died at the age of 28 years. After the death of Nyi Tjitjih, Bafaqih remain consistent to continue breathing Miss Tjitjih repertory. The prima donna has died after part of his life spent devoted to the theatrical Sunda.

Devotion Sumedang girl was not in vain. Up to now the name of Miss Tjitjih still standing in the middle of the public who support it. It is appropriate Sunda theatrical life is getting more attention from the government, and we can not simply forget the bevy of 80 years standing who has this. Hopefully

Culture Award to Sundanese Artists

sundanese award

Indonesian Culture – indonesiaculture.net. Center of Sunda Association bestowed the Culture Award to several Sunda artists considered consistent in preserving the Sundanese art and culture. Among the recipients were Ms. Tien Rostini Asikin (Ma Ageung) and Kang Ebet Kadarusman.

Badan Musyawarah (bammus) Sunda Pusat memberikan Anugerah Budaya kepada beberapa seniman sunda yang dianggap konsistan dan serius dalam memelihara kebudayaan dan kesenian sunda, penghargaan tersebut diantaranya dianugerahkan kepada Ibu Tien Rostini Asikin (Ma Ageung) dan kang Ebet Kadarusman

Accompanied with minimal lighting, drum beats and traditional harps were sounded out in welcome towards the audience. Sited at the ‘Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih’, the occasion was attended with song performances from Sundanese singers.

Dengan tata lampu yang sederhana, Musik mulai dimainkan, hanya suara tabuhan gendang dan kecapi penonton seolah disapa dengan bahasa “wilujeng sumping” oleh suara musik tersebut. Bertempat di Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih, juga dimeriahkan gelar acara budaya tembang sunda oleh para juara pasanggiri tembang sunda.

Every song sung by the singers were adorned with dancers accompanying the Sundanese melodies, and poetry carried out by Adang Darajatun and Hasanudin

Ditiap lagu-lagu yang dinyanyikan oleh penyanyi, para menari mengiringi alunan tembang sunda, juga bait-bait puisi yang dibawakan oleh Adang Darajatun dan Hasanudin melengkapi  acara pagelaran budaya seniman sunda.

sundanese award kolg

‘Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih’ endeavors to maintain and develop Sundanese arts through the performances done and the struggle of Sundanese artists trying to maintain the preservation of Sundanese arts.

Kedepan Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih berharap dengan dilaksanakannya acara budaya ini semoga kegiatan-kegiatan budaya khususnya budaya sunda dapat berkembang dan ramai penonton.“para seniman tetap berusaha mati-matian mempertahankan budaya sunda”.

 

(who have i ino after 1962, please be willing to tell me, thank you-Dr Iwan)

Ketua rombongan Miss Tjitjih bernama S.A. Bafaqih, seorang kelahiran Pasuruan, Jawa timur. Usianya sudah agak lanjut ditahun 1962 ,75 tahun,kelahiran 1888. Teoritis Bapak ini sudah pensiun, menurut istilah sendiri, tapi secara praktisnya masih tetap memimpin secara langsung. Sebenarnya ia sudah bosan dengan sandiwara, baik sebagai pemain ataupun pemimpin atau menonton sandiwara, tetapi entah bagaimana, kalau mendengar ada sandiwara, ingin saja ikut menonton, apaun yang bakal terjadi, mungkin sudah dibawa sejak lahir. Ia bercerita bahwa , ia tahu betul bahwa orang yang main snadiwara itu adalah tukang bohong,sama saja dengan seorang penjual obat,tidak seluruhnya benar. Bedanya, sandiwara punya lakon.punya cerita dan pemain berpakaian menarik. Mungkin didunia ini memang perlu orang-orang seperti dia. Orang-orang yang hanya bergerak dilapangan seni dan budaya. Orang berkata tentang dia, orang yang tidak begitu normal,ia ditonton orang, tetapi kami juga kadang-kadang jadi tontonan orang  sebab tak jarang hidup iami lebih jelek daripada seorang gembel. tetapi biarlah kami merasa  puas, dan penonton yang memerlukan kami  seba  jika mereka tidak puas, merekan tidak akan datang lagi.

 bapak Bafaqih adalah seorang pedagang keliling dari satu kelain kota, memang keluarganya adalah keluarga pedagang. Kemudian ikut-ikutan dalam oragnisasi sandiwara. Kemudia mewrasa tertarik dilapangan sandiwara, seterusna keenakan dan melepaskan pekerjaan dagangnya masuk sandiwara. dalam sejarah hidunya bapak Bafaqih bertemu dengan sorang pemain sandiwara, seorang dara dari sumedang yang memiliki bakat dengan paras yang cukup rupawan ,yang kemudian menjadi isterinya. Dari Nama isterinyalah bersumber nama Miss Tjitjih, sebelumnya rombongan sandiwaranya diberi nama :De Nacht Opera”.kemudian “Valencia Opera”, lalu jadi Miss Tjitjih sampai tahun 1962

Biar Terseok Kami Masih Ada…
Komunitas Kesenian Miss Tjitjih
 

 
 
 
 
 

Bila Anda melintasi jalan di Cempakabaru Timur, Jakarta Pusat, tampak berdiri kokoh sebuah bangunan yang diberi nama Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih. Di era 1970-an, gedung tersebut selalu dipadati masyakarat yang “haus” hiburan. Mereka ingin menyaksikan pergelaraan kelompok kesenian tradisonal Sunda itu.

Gedung Kesenian Miss Tjitjih yang berkapasitas 400 orang itu pada masa keemasaannya tak pernah sepi. “Di tahun itu (1970-an), kami kalau manggung bisa sampai tiga jam. Apalagi malam Minggu malah bisa sampai manggung empat jam,” kata Maman Sutarman, pemain yang merangkap sebagai sutradara dan penulis skenario pementasan Miss Tjitjih, saat ditemui Warta Kota di rumahnya di belakang gedung kesenian tersebut, Jumat (15/1).

Dalam obrolan itu, Maman Sutarman asal Jawa Barat yang akrab disapa Mang Esek, ditemani Mohammad, rekan seprofesinya. Mereka berdua mengaku sangat ingat sekali masa jaya mereka, terlebih saat mementaskan sandiwara berjudul Jembatan Shirotul Mustaqim.

“Kalau sekarang ingat lagi, kadang sedih juga dengan nasib kita sekarang. Kalau dulu kita main, penonton penuh. Karena kapasitas gedung terbatas, penonton waktu itu pada antre. Jadi setiap tampil penonton selalu penuh,” kenang Mang Asek diamini Mohammad.

Mang Esek menuturkan, kelompok kesenian mereka yang diberi nama Miss Tjitjih diambil dari seorang pemain sandiwara yang lahir di Sumedang, Jawa Barat, pada tahun1928. Pada masa lalu, kesenian ini begitu diminati karena dunia hiburan belum sebanyak dan segemerlap seperti sekarang.

Menurut Mang Esek, popularitas ko-munitas mereka mulai terasa meredup tahun 1987. Seiring perkembangan zaman terlebih dunia hiburan yang semakin marak, akhirnya mereka seperti tergusur zaman . Kemudian Mang Esek bersama anggota kesenian itu hanya bisa bertahan hidup dengan bernanung di Yayasan Miss Tjitjih yang dikelola Pemerintah Provinsi DKI Jakarta.

Saat ini, Mang Esek bersama anggota kelompok kesenian Miss Tjitjih tinggal di sebuah bangunan berlantai dua di belakang gedung kesenian itu sebagai “hadiah” atas perjuangan para seniman sandiwara Miss Tjitjih dulu. “Ya alhamdulillah kami masih diberi tempat untuk berteduh,” kata Mang Esek tentang bangunan dua lantai yang terdiri atas 17 kamar itu.

Ketika ditanya apakah sekarang mereka masih melakukan pementasan di gedung yang kini dikelola Pemprov DKI Jakarta melalui Dinas Pariwisata dan Kebudayaan itu, dia mengatakan, “Tergantung.”

Maksudnya? “Tergantung subsidi. Kalau turun ya kita main. Sekarang ini subsidi lebih banyak digunakan untuk merawat gedung. Kalaupun kita main juga sekarang penonton sepi,” katanya. Mereka tampil biasanya pada Sabtu malam. Setiap penonton dikenai tiket masuk Rp 10.000.

Meski tampil minus penonton Mang Esek dan Mohammad bersama rekan-rekannya selalu tampil bersemangat. “Kita nggak peduli sepi yang penting kita menghibur orang dengan sandiwara tradisional Sunda. Niat kita sekarang ingin membuktikan biarpun kita terseok-terseok kami masih ada,” kata Mang Esek

Miss Tjitjih, Pengabdian Seorang Gadis Sumedang


Nyi Tjitjih awalnya hanyalah seorang pemain sandiwara Sunda biasa di Sumedang. Perannya di atas panggung juga terbilang biasa saja dengan peran sebagai penyanyi atau seorang putri raja di waktu lain. Namun, kisah perjalanan hidup Nyi Tjitjih perlahan berubah setelah bertemu dengan Aboe Bakar Bafaqih. Ketika itu, Bafaqih, seorang Arab kelahiran Bangil (Jawa Timur), bersama rombongan stambulnya sedang melakukan pertunjukan keliling di Jawa Barat.

Di daerah Sumedang, Bafaqih bertemu dengan Nyi Tjitjih yang sedang bermain dengan Tonil Sunda. Bafaqih langsung tertarik mengajaknya masuk ke dalam perkumpulan sandiwara bentukannya, Opera Valencia. Ajakan Bafaqih tersebut disambut baik Nyi Tjitjih. Mulai saat itu Nyi Tjitjih menjadi bagian dari Opera Valencia. Ketika bergabung dengan Opera Valencia, Nyi Tjitjih baru berusia 18 tahun. Dalam perkumpulan ini baru terlihat bakat Nyi Tjitjih yang terpendam. Selain wajahnya yang cantik, gadis ini juga mempunyai suara merdu, kemampuan akting, dan kelincahan dalam menari. Dari hari ke hari kemampuan Nyi Tjitjih berkembang sehingga ia menjadi primadona dalam perkumpulan tersebut.

Pada 1928, perkumpulan Opera Valencia sampai di Batavia. Pada tahun yang sama, Bafaqih menyunting Nyi Tjitjih menjadi istri keduanya. Ketika itu usia Tjitjih baru menginjak 20 tahun. Selanjutnya, Nyi Tjitjih diubah namanya menjadi Miss Tjitjih dan nama tersebut dipakai sebagai nama perkumpulan pimpinan Bafaqih ini.

Nama lengkap perkumpulan itu adalah Miss Tjitjih Toneel Gezelschap. Maka, praktis tahun 1928 ditetapkan sebagai kelahiran perkumpulan sandiwara Miss Tjitjih.

Sang primadona

Sudah menjadi suatu hal yang lazim, pada masa itu nama sang primadona perkumpulan dijadikan sebagai nama perkumpulannya. Ini merupakan bagian dari “senjata” utama untuk meraih perhatian publik dan maksud dagang/komersial. Hal ini disebut dengan “sistem bintang”. Sistem bintang mulai dijadikan tren pada dunia teater sejak awal tahun 1920-an.

Sebelumnya, perkumpulan sandiwara Orion pimpinan Tio Tek Djien Jr yang dibentuk di Batavia tahun 1925 mengganti namanya menjadi perkumpulan sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion, mengikuti nama seorang primadona yang juga istri Tio, Riboet. Ketika itu, saingan Miss Tjitjih untuk meraih perhatian publik di antaranya Miss Dja, seorang primadona dari perkumpulan Dardanella, dan Miss Riboet dari perkumpulan Miss Riboet Orion.

Perubahan nama itu ternyata juga diikuti dengan perubahan bahasa pengantar pertunjukan. Perkumpulan Miss Tjitjih yang sebelumnya menggunakan bahasa Melayu beralih ke bahasa Sunda. Keputusan ini diambil atas ide dari Miss Tjitjih sendiri yang ingin melestarikan budaya tanah kelahirannya dan berdasarkan realita bahwa publik pendukung Miss Tjitjih adalah masyarakat Jabar.

Namun, keputusan ini bukan tanpa risiko. Pemakaian bahasa Sunda dalam dialog di atas panggung membuat ruang gerak perkumpulan ini semakin sempit. Mereka terpaku pada daerah-daerah Jabar dan Batavia saja.

Perkumpulan Miss Tjitjih yang sejak 1928 menetap di Batavia tetap mengadakan pertunjukan keliling ke daerah Jabar. Dalam perjalanan keliling ini, alat transportasi yang mereka gunakan adalah gerobak yang ditarik sapi. Jika perjalanannya terlampau jauh, mereka menggunakan kereta api.

Lakon-lakon yang sering dibawa di atas panggung adalah lakon-lakon yang dekat dengan alam pikiran mayoritas masyarakat Hindia Belanda. Cerita-cerita rakyat seperti Sangkoeriang, Tjioeng Wanara, dan Loetoeng Kasaroeng aktif dimainkan di atas pentas. Biasanya mereka bermain dengan improvisasi.

Pada 1931, rombongan sandiwara Miss Tjitjih diundang untuk mengadakan pertunjukan di Istana Bogor. Tampaknya perkumpulan ini kian masyhur sehingga pihak istana pun meminta mereka pentas. Di antara penontonnya tentu saja ada gubernur jenderal. Selain itu, mereka juga mempunyai jadwal tetap untuk mengadakan pertunjukan di Pasar Gambir Batavia hingga pasar ini tutup pada 1936.

Nama Miss Tjitjih kian berkibar di hati pencinta panggung. Bahkan, berbagai pendopo kabupaten yang saat itu menjadi ajang pergaulan para menak, seperti di Kabupaten Cianjur, Garut, Lebak, serta Keraton Kasepuhan Cirebon, menjadi tempat-tempat yang dikunjungi Miss Tjitjih untuk memperlihatkan kebolehannya. Jika Miss Tjitjih sedang berada di atas panggung, penonton seolah-olah tersihir oleh kebolehannya.

Usia 28 tahun

Tahun 1936 tampaknya menjadi tahun terakhir Tjitjih bisa berlenggak-lenggok di atas panggung. Pada tahun itu, Tjitjih mengembuskan napas terakhirnya. Sebelum mengembuskan napas terakhir, Nyi Tjitjih masih sempat bermain dengan rombongannya di Cikampek (Jabar) dengan mementaskan lakon Gagak Solo karangan Tio Tek Djien Jr.

Dalam lakon tersebut Nyi Tjitjih berperan sebagai Tandak yang diputuskan cintanya oleh putra mahkota. Tjitjih yang selalu berperan sepenuh hati di atas panggung mendadak terjatuh pada saat layar turun. Penonton yang menyaksikan pertunjukan itu mengira bahwa apa yang mereka tonton adalah bagian dari akting Tjitjih. Pertunjukan di Cikampek ini terhenti di tengah jalan. Nyi Tjitjih memang telah mengidap penyakit sejak lama.

Walaupun kondisinya sedang tidak menguntungkan, dia tetap memaksakan untuk bermain. Nyi Tjitjih meninggal dunia setelah dibawa ke tanah kelahirannya, Sumedang. Tjitjih meninggal pada usia 28 tahun. Sepeninggal Nyi Tjitjih, Bafaqih tetap konsisten melanjutkan napas perkumpulan sandiwara Miss Tjitjih. Sang primadona meninggal dunia setelah sebagian hidupnya dihabiskan untuk mengabdikan diri pada sandiwara Sunda.

Pengabdian gadis Sumedang itu tidak sia-sia. Hingga kini nama Miss Tjitjih tetap berdiri di tengah-tengah publik yang mendukungnya. Sudah selayaknya kehidupan sandiwara Sunda ini mendapat perhatian lebih dari pemerintah, dan kita tidak begitu saja melupakan perkumpulan yang sudah 80 tahun berdiri ini. Semoga

(siapa yang memiliki info setelah tahun 1962,harap berkenan menginformasikannya kepada saya,terima kasih-Dr Iwan)

2.orchestra sound dibp R Sutedjo Space
song: Call terumi godly creation


2) Four Gang Djakarta Orchestra leader John S.
Side one: The song to convey my compliments (nn)

1) High in the clouds song (pious)

2) Say hello (nn)

Four Gang
One of the musical group that was formed under the auspices of Ismail Marzuki Jakarta RRI. Core personnel are only four people, namely Saleh Soewita (guitar), Isaac (contra-bass), Jachja (violin), and Ariston da Cruz (piano; musician from the Philippines which changed its name to Arief Effendi). Contra-bass is sometimes held by Sarom. Ismail himself acting as a leader and that orchestra music arranger. This group was formed shortly after the proclamation of independence, which is intended to lower the political temperature of the hot and could explode at any time into open battle. Curtain time is given by the RRI Jakarta to the orchestra Four Sekawan about 30 minutes to 1 hour. Hours of their broadcast twice in one week, usually every Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon. In 1946, days and hours of play Four Gang erratic, sometimes on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday. Generally, this orchestra is playing about 45 minutes, and broadcast three times in one day, lunch at 13:15, 17:15 o’clock in the afternoon, and evening at 20.00. Four Gang music event in Jakarta RRI Programa Hiboeran entitled Heroes, Hiboeran Oentoek Armed Forces sea and is difficult to determine RI, Hieboeran Saturday night, Hiboeran evening, Bidder Rindoe, and Alam Ria Indonesia. In addition to regularly fill the musical events in the radio studio, Four Gang also took down directly to the various fronts. They cheer the fighters and the local community who love the song of struggle, especially the songs that were created by the quartet orchestra personnel, including Ismail Marzuki.
   

Ismail Marzuki song creation work of the most popular is the seduction of Palm Island are used as final cover songs broadcast by TVRI station on the reign of the New Order.

Ismail Marzuki blessed honor in 1968 with the opening of Taman Ismail Marzuki, a park and cultural center in Salemba, Central Jakarta. In 2004 he was crowned a national hero of Indonesia.

He had founded the orchestra Four Gang

2. Kroncong Assorted Colors Markasan DBP (Srimpi record Inc.)
Side 1 with the song:

1) pack sakerah (Sueb) 2) Kuto Suroboyo (Sukemi)

3) numpak railroad (j, Sudarminto et al),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2:

1) Motor Uduk (Ahmad & J.sudarminto)

2) The pansy (Juwariyah T.M.)

3) Dream dicokot Ulo (Soekemi / Achmad),

4) Nanggelo (Sueb)

A.ERA BUNG KARNO 1951-1965

1a.Grup Musik Sunda Miss Tjitjih di Betawi(Jakarta)

Hampir setiap orang di Indonesia ini tahu dimana terletak tontonan Miss Tjitjih. tontonan berupa tonil Sunda atau Sandiwara yang memakai bahasa penagntar bahasa Sunda. Setiap abang becak akan tahu ,bahkan kondektur Bis yang mempunyai trayek keluar kota atau datang dari jurusan luar kota di terminal Bus di Palputih akan bertanya kepada setiap penumpangnya:” Miss Tjitjih ! Ada yang turun! (hal sama diterminal kemapung melayu jatinegara, “Mester Mester turun”. Kenapa Miss Tjitjih samapi begitu terkenal? kenapa ia telah dapat merebut hati sebagian besar penduduk Jakarta? Dan mungkin pembaca tidak akan pertjaya bahwa tidak sedikit penonton asingyang pada waktu tertentu menonton sandiwara itu. Misalnya saja penonton yang berkebangsaan Rusia,Jerman,Ceko,Amerika Serikat dan sudah tentu bangsa asia seperti orang jepang dan lainnya.

Faktor pertama yang akan menonjol kedepan dalam menjawab pertanyaan tersebut diatas, yang sudah pasti adalah untuk hiburan, karena orang membutuhkan hiburan ,hiburan yang sehat dan murah. Faktor kedua adalah sejarah,s ebab rombongan miss Tjitjih sejak lama telah beroiperasi di jakarta (Betawi) ,mereka telah menanamkan sesuatu dihati penduduk Betawi. Orang Jakarta mengenal iss Tjitjih melalui tiga zaman, era Belanda,era Pendudukan Jepang dan era Republik Indonesia sampai sekarang (1962). Rombongan Miss Tjitjih sekali menginjak Jakzarta,tetap di Jakarta. Orang Jakarta mengenal Miss Tjitjih semenjak menempati suatu persil,ditempat mana orang sekarang mengenal sebagai Pasar Burrung didalam kompleks Senen.Kemudian pindah disekitar kompleks  Stasiun Pasar senen lama dan semenjak 1952 menempati tempat yang sekarang(saya tidak menemuinya lagi dis enen tahun 1971-Dr iwan)

RAMAI-LUCU-MENDEBARFKAN-MENGHARUKAN

Mengapa orang asing juga suka denagn pertunjukan Miss Tjitjih, dalam hal ini karena faktor Seni. Terus zterang, orang asing itu tidak akan mengerti baahasa pengantar yang dipergunakan Miss Tjitjih, mungkin mereka dapat menikmati cerita secara keseluruhannya, karena ada jurubahasanya. tetapi orang asing itu akan menemukan sesuatu penilaian lain yang terdapat pada permainan dan pemain Miss Tjitjih dan juga mereka menemukan faktor seni dan budaya yang khas ditempat eprtunjukan tersebut serta juga menemukan sekelumit hiburan rakyat  yang berisikan pendidikan  dalam bidang moral yang tetap mempertahankan nilai-nilai budaya yang khusus pula.Selain itu ditemukan lakon cerita dengan latar belakang sejarah,cerita rakyat yang tetap hidup dan akhirnya ceritanya bersifat ringan,lucu,mengharukan,mendebarkan dan berakhir dengan menyenangkan.Berdasarkan hal tersebut diatas ,pada tahun 1962  Presiden Sukarno menganugerahkan suatu penghargaan kepada rombongan  Miss Tjitjih pada bulan september 1962, selain penghargaan juga diberikan hadiah uang Rp.50.000,(setara us 5000.-) , bersama Miss Tjtjih juga diberikan hadiah kepada Sriwedari solo dan Ngesti Pandowo Semarang.

ORANG YANG MAIN SANDIWARA TUKANG BOHONG

Ketua rombongan Miss Tjitjih bernama S.A. Bafaqih, seorang kelahiran Pasuruan, Jawa timur. Usianya sudah agak lanjut ditahun 1962 ,75 tahun,kelahiran 1888. Teoritis Bapak ini sudah pensiun, menurut istilah sendiri, tapi secara praktisnya masih tetap memimpin secraa langsung. Sebenarnya ia sudah bosan dengan sandiwara, baik sebagai pemain ataupun pemimpin atau menonton sandiwara, tetapi entah bagaimana, kalau mendengar ada sandiwara, ingin saja ikut menonton, apaun yang bakal terjadi, mungkin sudah dibawa sejak lahir. Ia bercerita bahwa , ia tahu betul bahwa orang yang main snadiwara itu adalah tukang bohong,sama saja dengan seorang penjual obat,tidfak seluruhnya benar. Bedanya, sandiwara punya lakon.punya cerita dan pemain berpakaian menarik. Mungkin didunia ini memang perlu orang-orang seperti dia. Orang-orang yang hanya bergerak dilapangan seni danb udaya. Orang berkata tentang dia, orang yang tidak begitu mnormal,ia ditonton orang, tetapi kami juga kadang-kadang jadi tontonan orang  sebab tak jarang hidup iami lebih jelek daripada seorang gembel. tetapi biarlah kami merasa  puas, dan penonton yang memerlukan kami  seba  jika mereka tidak puas, merekan tidak akan datang lagi.

Padahal setiap malam pertunjukan selain penuh ,bahkan lebih dari penuh serta penonton terus memaksa untuk menonton,mereka rela untuk menonton sambil berdiri.Didekat pintu masuk,terbaca tulisan besar Harga karcil Rp.20,-(US$10.) keterangan Bapak Bafaqig pemimpin Rombongan Miss Tjitjih, bahwa  harga keperluan hidup terus meningkat, biaya eksploitasi sebenarnay tidak cocock lagi, selain berat buat dia,lebih-lebih karena mereka memberikan kesempatan kepada anggota Angkatan Bersenjata untuk menonton pada setiap malam Jumaat tanpa memungut bayara( saya masih ingat tahun 1973,dijawa tengah angota ABRI gratis nonton bioskop dan naik kendaran umum di jawa tengah-Dr Iwan)

DARI DUNIA DAGANG KE SANDIWARA

Suka duka pengalaman Pemimpin rombongan sandiwara Muiss Tjitjih  adalahs ebagai berikut,

Sebelum menempati kompleks bagunan tahun 1962, pemain berjumlah 84 orang, beserta seluruh karyawan beerta keluarga berjumlah 120 orang ,seluruhnya menempati kompleks tersebut. sebelum menjadi anak wayang(anak sandiwara) , bapak Bafaqih adalah seorang pedagang keliling dari satu kelain kota, memang keluarganya adalah keluarga pedagang. Kemudian ikut-ikutan dalam oragnisasi sandiwara. Kemudia mewrasa tertarik dilapangan sandiwara, seterusna keenakan dan melepaskan pekerjaan dagangnya masuk sandiwara. dalam sejarah hidunya bapak Bafaqih bertemu dengan sorang pemain sandiwara, seorang dara dari sumedang yang memiliki bakat dengan paras yang cukup rupawan ,yang kemudian menjadi isterinya. Dari Nama isterinyalah bersumber nama Miss Tjitjih, sebelumnya rombongan sandiwaranya diberi nama :De Nacht Opera”.kemudian “Valencia Opera”, lalu jadi Miss Tjitjih sampai tahun 1962 (siapa yang emiliki ino setealh tahun 1962,harap berkenan menginformasikannya kepada saya,terima kasih-Dr Iwan)

Orkes suara Angkasa dibp R Sutedjo

lagu : Seruan terumi ciptaan saleh

2)Orkes Empat Sekawan Djakarta pimpinan S.Jahja 

side one : Lagu sampaikan salamku (nn)

1) lagu Tinggi di awan (saleh)

2)  Sampaikan salamku(nn)

Empat Sekawan

Salah satu kelompok musik yang dibentuk Ismail Marzuki di bawah naungan RRI Jakarta. Personel inti memang hanya empat orang, yaitu Saleh Soewita (gitar), Ishak (contra-bass), Jachja (biola), dan Ariston da Cruz (piano; pemusik asal Filipina yang berganti nama menjadi Arief Effendi). Contra-bass kadang-kadang dipegang oleh Sarom. Ismail sendiri bertindak sebagai pemimpin sekaligus pengaransemen musik orkes itu. Grup ini dibentuk sesaat setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan, yang ditujukan untuk menurunkan suhu politik yang makin panas dan setiap saat bisa meletus menjadi pertempuran terbuka. Jam main yang diberikan oleh pihak RRI Jakarta kepada orkes Empat Sekawan sekitar 30 menit sampai 1 jam. Jam siaran mereka dua kali dalam satu pekan, biasanya setiap hari Selasa dan Rabu siang. Pada 1946, hari dan jam main Empat Sekawan tidak menentu, kadang-kadang hari Senin, Selasa, atau Rabu. Umumnya orkes ini bermain sekitar 45 menit, dan tiga kali siaran dalam satu hari; siang pukul 13.15, sore pukul 17.15, dan malam pukul 20.00. Acara musik Empat Sekawan di RRI Programa Jakarta diberi tajuk Hiboeran Pahlawan, Hiboeran Oentoek Tentara Angkatan Laoet dan Oedara RI, Hieboeran Malam Minggu, Hiboeran Petang, Penawar Rindoe, dan Alam Ria Indonesia. Selain secara berkala mengisi acara musik di studio radio, Empat Sekawan juga menyempatkan diri turun langsung ke pelbagai front. Mereka menghibur para pejuang dan masyarakat setempat yang menyukai lagu perjuangan, khususnya lagu-lagu yang diciptakan oleh personel orkes kuartet itu, termasuk Ismail Marzuki.

 

Lagu ciptaan karya Ismail Marzuki yang paling populer adalah Rayuan Pulau Kelapa yang digunakan sebagai lagu penutup akhir siaran oleh stasiun TVRI pada masa pemerintahan Orde Baru.

Ismail Marzuki mendapat anugerah penghormatan pada tahun 1968 dengan dibukanya Taman Ismail Marzuki, sebuah taman dan pusat kebudayaan di Salemba, Jakarta Pusat. Pada tahun 2004 dia dinobatkan menjadi salah seorang tokoh pahlawan nasional Indonesia.

Ia sempat mendirikan orkes Empat Sekawan

2. Kroncong Aneka Warna dbp Markasan(Srimpi record Inc)

side 1 dengan lagu :

1)pak sakerah(sueb)2)kuto suroboyo(sukemi),

3)numpak sepur (j,sudarminto dkk),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2 :

1)Motor Uduk(Achmad &J.sudarminto),

2)Si Banci (Juwariyah T.M.),

3)Mimpi dicokot ulo(Soekemi/Achmad),

4)Nanggelo(Sueb)

3. Orkes Kroncong Tjendrawasih dbp S.Padimin(lokananta record Inc)

Song side 1 :

1)Nandur Djagung(M arif),

2)Burung Merpati(S.Padimin)

song side 2 : 

1)ditepi bengawan solo(s.Padimin-kustiati),

 2).Kroncong Mesra (sunarno-supardi achijat)

:

3.Orkes Kroncong Kemayoran dbp  M.Sagi

(Irama record Inc)

1)Irama produksi  India with song

side one : Djali Djali  (NN) singer Oje

 

side two : Mengenang Nasib ciptaaan Sukamto-St.P.Bustamil

Keroncong M.Sagi Info (google explorations)

iramaI thought that, coupled with the previous post of today, I’d post something languid and tranquil, something somewhat relaxed. So, I brought out another classic Indonesian krontjong piece from the mid-20th century, on the local Irama label. “Irama” actually means “rhythm” in English – thus the title of the piece as well as the name of the record label are explained.

I posted a krontjong tune of the same vintage, and on another independent Indonesian label (Dendang), . This one is similar – it’s the style of krontjong that I quite enjoy, featuring the walking guitar and fiddle player trading runs in between smooth vocals. Krontjong itself is a relatively new type of urban folk music, developing in Indonesian urban areas a little over 100 years ago, with Batavian, Portuguese, Malay, and even African influence. Krontjong had changed dramatically since it was first recorded ca. 1904, and when this record was released (probably the late 1940s or so). The instrumentation was bare bones at first, featuring trios and the like. I’ve heard 1920s krontjong that sounds influenced by Stamboel theater, with a slightly more operatic sound, showing further influences at work. By the 1940s, krontjong was a rage, with whole orchestras and popular singers getting into the act…yet, to me this music is not easily explained. Indonesian-Hawaiian-guitar-and-fiddle-ballads?

As for the singer and band – I’m afraid these are muddy waters. I am mostly sure that “Moh.” stands for Mohammed, and “Kr.” stands for krontjong, but at the risk of being incorrect, I will let the original label stand as the official record

3)Jasa pemain biola M.Sagi

Awalnya dengan nama Kroncong Betawi lalu Kroncong Jakarta” … Di Jakarta saat itu … Susunan instrument seperti ini adalah berkat jasa M.Sagi seorang Violinist keroncong

also in Indonesia (Irama indonesian music co ltd) look below compare with above :

1) Dimin ,Mengenang nasib with M.Sagi Keroncong Orchestra ,productions Irama Record

FRAME FOUR :

THE INDONESIA KRONCONG HISTORY FROM GOOGLE EXPLORATION FOR COMPERATIVE STUDY:

Musik keroncong lahir di Indonesia melalui proses perjalanan sejarahnya yang panjang dan penuh keunikan dilihat dari unsur pembentuknya yang terdiri dari berbagai komponen budaya, etnik, dan bahasa. Apabila kita menarik benang merah tentang asal mula lahirnya musik keroncong di Indonesia, kita akan dihadapkan pada misteri sejarah yang menyangkut sejarah dunia. Sejarah tentang pendudukan Islam di wilayah selatan semenanjung Iberia dari abad kelima hingga abad ketigabelas. Latar belakang sejarah yang menjelaskan mengapa bangsa Eropa pada abad keenambelas begitu gigih mengerahkan segala kemampuan navigasi dan kekuatan militernya untuk memperoleh rempah-rempah dari Timur. Sejarah tentang kedatangan bangsa Portugis dan bangsa Belanda pada abad ketujuhbelas untuk memperebutkan hegemoni di Asia Tenggara melalui monopoli perdagangan di Malaka, Sunda Kelapa, dan kepulauan Maluku. Sejarah tentang perbudakan, dan kehidupan para musisi jalanan selama masa Hindia Belanda. Sejarah pembentukan jatidiri bangsa Indonesia sebagai bangsa yang merdeka dan memiliki warisan budaya yang tidak terhingga banyaknya termasuk musik keroncong. Beruntunglah bahwa pada akhirnya musik keroncong diterima dan menjadi milik bangsa Indonesia, suatu kenyataan yang telah memperoleh pengakuan dunia internasional.

Saat ini ketika kita berbicara tentang keroncong, kita dihadapkan pada sebuah terminologi yang mengandung pengertian yang luas. Secara etimologis, keroncong berasal dari nama sebuah alat musik sejenis gitar berukuran kecil berdawai empat yang lazimnya terbuat dari nylon, sehingga apabila dimainkan menghasilkan bunyi crong, bukan jreng seperti halnya bunyi dawai logam. Istilah keroncong diyakini berasal dari para perajin waditra di kampung Tugu yang mewarisi keahlian seni kriya waditra gitar. Gitar itu dinamakan keroncong sebagai adaptasi dari gitar cavaquinho yang dibawa oleh para pelaut Portugis berlayar mengelilingi dunia. Ketika tiba di kepulauan Madeira gitar itu dinamakan braguinha, karena berasal dari wilayah Braga di Portugal. Di Brazil penduduk menamakannya machete yang digunakan untuk mengiringi tari-tarian. Di kepulauan Karibia gitar itu dinamakan cuatro, karena berdawai empat. Ketika tiba di Polynesia samudera Pasifik, penduduk pribumi menyebutnya sebagai ukelele, atau jari yang melompat, karena cara memainkannya tidak dipetik melainkan digerus. Menarik untuk disimak bahwa gitar itu memperoleh popularitas sebagai ukulele dengan paten Hawaii, sedangkan sebutan ukulele sebagai keroncong telah diakui sebagai paten Indonesia menurut Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco dalam kamus The Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, “Portugal” (2002:197).

Dengan demikian ukulele dapat dikatakan menempati posisi kunci dalam setiap permainan musik keroncong, sehingga orkestrasinya harus memiliki warna crong yang berfungsi sebagai rhythmic riff (motif berulang-ulang). Selain itu, ukulele yang tersebar dan digunakan dalam berbagai jenis ensambel memberi petunjuk bahwa warna crong juga turut membahana di manapun ukulele itu dimainkan. Kita di Indonesia juga sepakat bahwa tidak ada musik apapun yang boleh tampil menyandang label keroncong tanpa memiliki keunikan warna crong dari permainan ukulele. Secara universal diyakini bahwa tiada keroncong tanpa crong, dan melalui penyebaran ukulele tidak mustahil musik keroncong dalam berbagai versi juga dapat ditemukan di berbagai pelosok. Saat ini warna crong masih dapat ditemukan antara lain di kepulauan Halmahera dalam ensambel bastidor yang generik, di Malaka dalam ensambel dondang sayang, di Negeri Belanda dalam ensambel toegoenezen, di Hawaii dalam ensambel hawaiian guitar, di Suriname dengan krontjong ensambelnya, selain di Indonesia dalam ensambel orkes keroncong.

Apabila keroncong sebagai waditra telah mendunia, maka keroncong sebagai ensambel musik, keroncong sebagai bentuk lagu, dan keroncong sebagai gaya permainan gitar merupakan ciri khas Indonesia, yang dipengaruhi oleh gagrak gamelan Jawa. Orkestrasi ensambel keroncong lazimnya menampilkan biola atau flute sebagai pembawa alur melodi, gitar sebagai pengiring dan pembawa alur kontra-melodi, ukulele sebagai time-beater, dan cello petik (pizzicato) sebagai rhythm tune-percussion yang terkadang dipertebal dengan bass petik.

Seperti halnya pengendang menjadi pemimpin kelompok gamelan Jawa, maka pemain cello dengan pola gedugannya yang khas menurut Kusbini menjadi conductor dalam orkes keroncong. Gedugan itu memiliki fungsi ganda sebagai bass dan perkusi, yang menyebabkan orkes keroncong tidak membutuhkan dan menghindari penggunaan drum-set dalam orkestrasinya. Dari sini dapat kita saksikan betapa kuatnya dominasi waditra berdawai dalam menampilkan karakter chordophonic sebuah orkes keroncong secara total dari peranannya sebagai pembawa melodi hingga ritme dan harmoni.

Orkestrasi keroncong sebenarnya merupakan iringan tarian Moresco yang terdiri dari gitar dan tambourine perkusi yang berkeping logam sebagai perpaduan musik Arab-Kaukasia. Tambourine juga digunakan dalam orkes keroncong para pemusik Indies di Batavia pada masa Hindia Belanda. Itu sebabnya muncul versi lain tentang istilah keroncong ketika tambourine tersisih dari orkes keroncong akibat pengaruh gamelan Jawa, sehingga warna kerincing logamnya tidak lagi terdengar, dan yang tinggal hanyalah warna keroncong gitarnya. Warna kerincing logam dikembalikan sebagai properti para penari Jawa yang mengenakan gelang pada kaki mereka. Saat ini meski tambourine masih terdengar di kampung Tugu, orkes keroncong di Indonesia tidak lagi menggunakannya.

Orkes keroncong komunitas Indies di Batavia  (Ilustrasi: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12a)) Orkes keroncong komunitas Indies di Batavia (Ilustrasi: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12a))

Pada masa Hindia Belanda, keroncong tampil sebagai ars nova, seni baru yang bersifat non-tradisi dan non-klasik Barat, seni yang digemari oleh masyarakat perkotaan. Kota-kota besar di Jawa kemudian tumbuh menjadi sentra keroncong, sejak mencapai popularitas melalui Pasar Malam di Gambir, komunitas Krokodilen di Kemajoran, hingga concours Jaar Markt di Surabaya. Keroncong ketika itu menjadi bagian dari budaya massal yang memiliki nilai komersial, sehingga ensambel keroncong bermunculan di mana-mana. Namun setelah masa kemerdekaan, terjadi revolusi musikal di seluruh dunia dengan lahirnya musik berirama rock yang digemari kaum muda. Musik berirama rock dengan cepat menyebar melalui teknologi rekaman dan menjadi musik masa kini yang menggusur popularitas musik berirama konvensional termasuk keroncong.

Secara musikologis, musik konvensional adalah musik dengan irama yang aksentuasinya jatuh pada ketukan pertama, seperti irama tarian walsa dalam tiga hitungan, atau irama marcia dalam empat hitungan. Sebaliknya irama rock memberikan nafas yang segar ketika aksentuasi itu berpindah dari ketukan pertama yang ditandai dengan hentakan stick snare-drum pada ketukan kedua di antara permainan pola ritmik bass-drum dan hi-hat cymbal. Perpindahan aksentuasi itu melahirkan karakter sinkopatik, ketergantungan yang berkelanjutan, sehingga menimbulkan sensasi psikologis dari tanya yang tidak terjawab. Tidak mengherankan apabila irama rock berhasil menarik perhatian generasi muda, dan dengan cepat menguasai kehidupan musikal secara universal.

Tidak dapat disangkal bahwa drum-set menempati posisi kunci dalam irama rock. Saat ini tidak ada musik populer dari jenis apapun yang tidak menggunakan drum-set, mulai dari kelompok band yang sederhana hingga kelompok symphonic band atau light music orchestra yang canggih. Irama rock melalui permainan drum-set telah mendunia dan menjadi basis dari semua jenis musik populer masa kini. Sejalan dengan itu popularitas musik konvensional menjadi terpinggirkan dan dianggap representasi musik masa lalu yang telah usang, yang hanya diminati oleh kaum tua saja.

Dalam hal ini keberadaan musik keroncong menghadapi dilema, karena di satu fihak popularitasnya akan semakin merosot apabila tetap mempertahankan iramanya yang konvensional, sementara di lain fihak penggunaan drum-set dalam orkestrasi keroncong akan membunuh karakteristik musiknya. Waktu dengan cepat berlalu ketika musik keroncong akhirnya beranjak dari budaya massal musik industri yang bernilai komersial memasuki budaya tradisi yang dikelompokkan sebagai musik etnik. Jenis musik seperti ini selalu rentan menghadapi ancaman kepunahan, sehingga konsep tentang pelestarian dan revitalisasi menjadi agenda utama. Beruntung bahwa modal sosial dari keroncong terletak pada dukungan sebagian masyarakat Indonesia yang menjamin bahwa musik yang telah lahir sejak berabad-abad itu tidak akan punah. Namun upaya revitalisasi perlu terus menerus dilakukan untuk tujuan apapun, termasuk tujuan rekonstruksi, tujuan go-international, atau untuk kepentingan eksperimental dan archiving.

Upaya go-international terhadap musik keroncong pernah dilakukan oleh Rudi Pirngadie melalui penampilan orkes keroncong Tetap Segar yang membawakan gagrak Keroncong-beat dalam New York World’s Fair tahun 1964. Keroncong beat merupakan konsep yang mengetengahkan irama keroncong dalam bentuk gedugan cello, rhythmic riff ukulele, dan banyu mili gitar untuk mengiringi semua jenis lagu termasuk lagu Barat. Tidak kurang penyanyi keroncong seperti M. Rivani, Rita Zahara, dan Sayekti berhasil menarik perhatian masyarakat Amerika dalam membawakan lagu Barat seperti I left my heart in San Francisco yang dikeroncongkan. Eksperimentasi Keroncong beat ternyata tidak membawa hasil disebabkan antara lain karena tidak memiliki akar budayanya yang kuat di Indonesia. Tidak mustahil bahwa kegagalan itu juga diakibatkan karakteristik iramanya yang eksotik, tidak berdaya melawan irama rock yang sensasional. Namun betapapun juga, inovasi Pirngadie telah berhasil menunjukkan posisi dan nilai tawar musik keroncong Indonesia dalam kancah internasional.

Upaya go-international lainnya dapat dilakukan melalui penyusunan kemasan orkestra untuk keroncong seperti yang dilakukan oleh RRI melalui Orkes Studio Jakarta pimpinan Isbandi dalam acara Bintang Radio Televisi jenis Keroncong. Demikian pula eksperimentasi Singgih Sanjaya melalui garapan Light Keroncong dalam format orkestra yang tetap mempertahankan pakem keroncongnya. Upaya ini lebih sesuai bagi pelestarian musik keroncong sebagai musik tradisi yang dikemas secara artistik musikal. Upaya ini lebih akademik dan terhormat dalam mengangkat keroncong sebagai repertoar Indonesia di forum internasional, lebih dari sekedar menawarkan iramanya yang generik.

Upaya go-international juga berarti mempromosikan kepada dunia internasional bahwa keroncong adalah musik Indonesia, melalui hak paten atau hak atas kekayaan intelektual yang diikuti dengan berbagai publikasi tentang keroncong dari para peneliti. Sejauh ini peneliti seperti Surya Brata, Paramita Abdurachman, Harmunah, Budiman BJ, dan Suka Hardjana telah banyak berperan, sementara para peneliti asing seperti Bronia Kornhauser dan Ernst Heins turut memberikan kontribusi mereka. Penelitian Philip Yampolsky menghasilkan rekaman penyanyi keroncong generik tahun 1930-an yang berbeda warna suaranya dengan penyanyi keroncong saat ini, selain selama bertahun-tahun Philip telah menaruh perhatian besar terhadap musik-musik etnik Nusantara.

Upaya go-international juga menuntut kita untuk menghargai para maestro yang telah berhasil menumbuhkembangkan musik keroncong sejak masa Hindia Belanda hingga dapat tampil saat ini sebagai salah satu mainstream musik Indonesia, seperti yang telah dirintis oleh komunitas Tugu dalam Krontjong Toegoe, Kusbini dalam Keroncong Asli, Gesang dalam Langgam Keroncong, Andjar Any dalam Langgam Jawa, serta para penyanyi yang telah turut mendukung kehidupan musik keroncong dari generasi ke generasi. Diharapkan semoga dengan semakin pesatnya pendidikan musik di Indonesia, para pemusik akademik generasi muda secara naluriah akan tergugah kepedulian mereka untuk turut menjaga pusaka yang telah diwariskan leluhur bangsa kita.

Dengan demikian upaya go-international yang sejati terhadap musik keroncong semata-mata tidak terletak pada penyebaran dan popularitas musik keroncong secara internasional, atau pada archiving sosok musiknya dalam bentuk partitur, atau berupa pergelaran orkes keroncong yang immanent, akan tetapi lebih tertuju pada sikap yang mencerminkan keinginan para pencipta, pemusik, dan peneliti keroncong Indonesia untuk berperilaku secara musikal.

Pada akhirnya kita berkewajiban secara moral untuk menjaga dan mendukung kepercayaan dunia internasional bahwa keroncong adalah musik Indonesia, seperti halnya fado dikenal sebagai musik Portugis, blues menjadi identitas musik negro Amerika, flamenco dari Spanyol, dan tango sebagai nyanyian rakyat Argentina, musik nasional yang bersifat kerakyatan dengan lagunya yang tidak sekedar dinyanyikan melainkan juga diekspresikan secara coração, atau dari lubuk hati yang paling dalam.

Selamatkan Musik Kroncong Kita

Membaca beberapa terbitan buletin ”Tjroeng”, nampak geliat semangat komunitas keroncong Indonesia (KKI), baik penggemar, musisi, penyanyi, dan pemerhati keroncong berkeinginan untuk menggali kembali dan melestarikan seni musik keroncong yang dirasa mulai surut pamornya. Secara jumlah KKI mungkin semakin meningkat sejalan dengan peningkatan jumlah penduduk di Indonesia, tetapi secara prosentase mungkin menurun. Dapatkah dikatakan musik keroncong mulai surut pamorya?

Bila dibandingkan dengan keadaan tahun 70an mungkin ada benarnya. Saat itu event kegiatan musik keroncong yang disponsori oleh pemerintah atau negara dapat dikatakan padat. Diantaranya, yang belum hilang dari ingatan adalah selalu diadakan rutin setiap tahun lomba pemilihan bintang radio dari tingkat daerah (provinsi) sampai dengan tingkat nasional. Pemilihan ini disponsori (diadakan) oleh Departemen Penerangan, dan Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) yang merupakan lembaga dibawah naungan Departemen Penerangan selalu menyiarkan acara lomba pemilihan bintang radio tsb. Pada saat itu yang dilombakan tidak hanya musik keroncong tetapi juga dari jenis seriosa dan “hiburan”, atau lebih dekenal saat ini sebagai jenis pop.

Antusias masyarakat mengikuti penyelenggaraan pemilihan bintang radio sangat besar. Terbukti acara ini yang disiakan oleh RRI sampai larut malam selalu ditunggu oleh para pendenganya. Dan musik keroncong dikalangan masyarakat pada saat itu menduduki posisi lebih tinggi, lebih populer bila dibandingkan dengan jenis musik seriosa dan hiburan. Perkembangan kondisi di masyarakat mempengaruhi pula perkembangan selera masyarakat terhadap musik yang ada. Secara alami terbentuk polarisasi selera dan apresiasi terhadap musik sekaligus mempengaruhi perkembangan musik itu sendiri. Terjadi pergeseran selera, terutama dikalangan anak usia muda (remaja) yang lebih menyenangi musik jenis hiburan atau pop. Banyak bermunculan group musik pop seperti Koes Plus, Favourit Group, D’lloyd, Pambers, Mercys dll. Selain itu, pelan tapi pasti, mulai merangkak naik popularitas musik dangdut yang pada waktu itu lebih dikenal sebagai musik “Melayu”. Bahkan dedengkot musik dangdut seperti Oma Irama pada awal karier musiknya melalui jalur musik pop, dan beberapa single lagunya sempat populer waktu itu. Keadaan sekarang, popularitas kedua jenis musik ini semakin tinggi (penggemarnya semakin banyak) jauh meninggalkan jenis musik kroncong dan seriosa.

Tidak puas dengan wadah yang disediakan oleh pemerintah sebagai ajang lomba, para musisi musik pop menyelenggarakan sendiri pemilihan bintang pop, baik ditingkat daerah maupun tingkat nasional, yang lebih dikenal dengan pemilih “Pop Singer”. Semakin banyak event musik pop diselenggarakan, sementara event untuk musik keroncong semakin sedikit bahkan tidak ada sama sekali.

Perkembangan selanjutnya, dengan dihapuskannya Departemen Penerangan dari jajaran kabinet, otomatis hilang pula kalender kegiatan lomba pemilihan bintang radio yang menyertakan musik keroncong didalamnya. Berarti hilang pula ajang untuk sosialisasi dan mempopulerkan musik keroncong dikalangan masyarakat luas.

Apakah rentetan kejadian ini pada akhirnya menurunkan pamor musik keroncong secara keseluruhan dan mulai ditinggalkan penggemarnya?

Dimata masyarakat Indonesia secara menyeluruh mungkin pamor musik keroncong turun drastis kalau tolok ukurnya adalah jumlah bilangan pengemar atau penikmat musik keroncong. Tetapi dikalangan KKI sendiri popularitas atau pamor musik keroncong tetap ada dan terjaga, hanya jumlahnya mungkin lebih sedikit dibandingkan dengan penggemar musik pop atau dangdut. Penambahan jumlah penggemar juga tidak terlalu signifikan, mungkin menunggu perubahan selera seiring dengan penambahan umur para penggemar musik bukan keroncong. Kenyataannya, komunitas musik keroncong tetap ada, bahkan tidak hanya di Indonesia tetapi merambah ke negara lain dibawa oleh orang-orang Indonesia yang migrasi ke negara lain, seperti Malaysia, Suriname, Belanda dsbnya. Di negara yang disebutkan tadi, komunitas musik keroncong tetap konsisten menyenangi dan memainkan musik keroncong.

Menyenangi atau membeci suatu jenis musik atau lagu-lagu, berkaitan dengan selera, jadi sifatnya sangat subyektif, tidak dapat dipaksakan. Berjalan secara alami menuruti lingkungan dan kebiasaan yang ada. Lagu musik pop yang dibawakan oleh grop musik Peterpan atau oleh group musik Radja di Indonesia sangat digandrungi dikalangan anak remaja atau anak bau gede (ABG), tetapi mungkin lagu-lagu group tadi tidak dikenal sama sekali oleh masyarakat Suriname. Masyarakat disana boleh jadi lebih mengenal artis Waljinah dengan lagu “Walang Kekeknya”. Kesimpulannya, secara global, mana yang lebih punya pamor atau lebih populer? Musik pop atau musik keroncong? Silahkan pembaca mempersepsikan sendiri untuk menjawab pertanyaan lain yang telah disebutkan diatas.

Permasalahan yang dihadapi komunitas keroncong di Indonesia dan dibelahan dunia lainnya adalah bagaimana menjaga sustainable eksistensi musik keroncong. Hal ini perlu mendapat perhatian mengingat adanya keprihatinan dari beberapa kalangan yang menyangsikan daya tahan musik keroncong terhadap “gempuran” jenis musik lainnya, khususnya musik pop. Sebagaimana berita yang dilansir oleh situs internet antara.co.id, tanggal 19 Oktober 2008, memuat berita tentang harapan besar maestro keroncong Indonesia, ”Gesang”, meminta masyarakat penggemar musik keroncong ikut melestarikan aliran musik asli jawa ini (maksudnya keroncong) agar tetap hidup sepanjang masa. Dibalik harapan beliau menyiratkan adanya kekhawatiran bahwa musik keroncong Indonesia mulai surut pamornya. Lambat laun, jika tidak ada upaya ”nguri-uri” musik keroncong, bukan tidak mungkin nantinya akan punah ditinggalkan penggemarnya. Keadaan ini merupakan tantangan sekaligus peluang seluruh insan komunitas keroncong untuk mengembalikan kemasyhuran musik keroncong agar harapan maestro “Gesang” keroncong dapat diwujudkan.

Bagaimana upaya kita melestarikan budaya seni musik keroncong?

,Terdapat beragam jenis keroncong, ada Keroncong Asli, Langgam Keroncong, Stambul Keroncong, ditambah dengan Krontjong Toegoe. Dari masing-masing jenis tadi memiliki ”rumus” atau ”pakem” sendiri-sendiri [mengenai rumus ini telah dimuat di buletin Croeng sebelumnya]. Melihat rumus atau pakemnya, musik keroncong dapat dikatagorikan sebagai musik yang serius, setara dengan musik klasik karena ada kaidah yang harus dipenuhi agar dapat disebut sebagai musik keroncong. Disinilah letak indah dan ”adiluhungnya” musik keroncong! Jadi kalau ada sebagian warga masyarakat mengatakan bahwa musik keroncong adalah ”kampungan” atau ”jadul” itu syah-syah saja karena berbeda persepsinya, tetapi itu keliru besar! Tidak sembarang orang dan tidak banyak yang dapat mencipta dan memainkan musik “pure” keroncong dengan baik dan benar. Hanya orang-orang yang memiliki talenta khusus. Oleh karena itu, musik keroncong yang dimainkan tanpa mentaati kaidah-kaidah, atau menyimpang yang ada dapat dikatakan sebagai musik keroncong kontemporer atau eksperimental. Biasanya dari kalangan anak muda yang senang melakukan eksperimen sehingga lahirlah musik CongDut (keroncong Dangdut), CongRock (paduan keroncong dan rock), CongLan (paduan keroncong dan gamelan), dll. Bagaimana kita menyikapi terhadap lahirnya jenis musik tersebut.

2.10 th Year Anniversary Asia Africa Confrence memorable in 1965, lokanata national kroncong song record

a) Cover(sampul Depan)

 

A. ERA Bung Karno 1951-1965(Era Bung Karno)

Kroncong

1.Lagu Betawi Era 1950-1960
1) orchestra sound dibp R Sutedjo Space
song: Call terumi godly creation

2) Four Gang Djakarta Orchestra leader John S.
Side one: The song to convey my compliments (nn)

1) High in the clouds song (pious)

2) Say hello (nn)

Four Gang
One of the musical group that was formed under the auspices of Ismail Marzuki Jakarta RRI. Core personnel are only four people, namely Saleh Soewita (guitar), Isaac (contra-bass), Jachja (violin), and Ariston da Cruz (piano; musician from the Philippines which changed its name to Arief Effendi). Contra-bass is sometimes held by Sarom. Ismail himself acting as a leader and that orchestra music arranger. This group was formed shortly after the proclamation of independence, which is intended to lower the political temperature of the hot and could explode at any time into open battle. Curtain time is given by the RRI Jakarta to the orchestra Four Sekawan about 30 minutes to 1 hour. Hours of their broadcast twice in one week, usually every Tuesday and Wednesday afternoon. In 1946, days and hours of play Four Gang erratic, sometimes on Monday, Tuesday, or Wednesday. Generally, this orchestra is playing about 45 minutes, and broadcast three times in one day, lunch at 13:15, 17:15 o’clock in the afternoon, and evening at 20.00. Four Gang music event in Jakarta RRI Programa Hiboeran entitled Heroes, Hiboeran Oentoek Armed Forces sea and is difficult to determine RI, Hieboeran Saturday night, Hiboeran evening, Bidder Rindoe, and Alam Ria Indonesia. In addition to regularly fill the musical events in the radio studio, Four Gang also took down directly to the various fronts. They cheer the fighters and the local community who love the song of struggle, especially the songs that were created by the quartet orchestra personnel, including Ismail Marzuki.
   

Ismail Marzuki song creation work of the most popular is the seduction of Palm Island are used as final cover songs broadcast by TVRI station on the reign of the New Order.

Ismail Marzuki blessed honor in 1968 with the opening of Taman Ismail Marzuki, a park and cultural center in Salemba, Central Jakarta. In 2004 he was crowned a national hero of Indonesia.

He had founded the orchestra Four Gang

2. Kroncong Assorted Colors Markasan DBP (Srimpi record Inc.)
Side 1 with the song:

1) pack sakerah (Sueb) 2) Kuto Suroboyo (Sukemi)

3) numpak railroad (j, Sudarminto et al),

4) Nyang T.H.R (noerjatian)

Side 2:

1) Motor Uduk (Ahmad & J.sudarminto)

2) The pansy (Juwariyah T.M.)

3) Dream dicokot Ulo (Soekemi / Achmad),

4) Nanggelo (Sueb)

3. Kroncong orchestra Tjendrawasih DBP S. Padimin (Lokananta record Inc.)
Song Side 1:

1) Nandur Djagung (M wise),

2) Pigeon (S. Padimin)

song side 2:

1) alongside the river solo (s.Padimin-kustiati)

 2). Kroncong Mesra (Sunarno-Supardi achijat)

:

3.Orkes Kroncong Kemayoran DBP M. Sagi
(Rhythm record Inc.)
1) The rhythm of song production with India

side one: Djali Djali (NN) singer Oje

Side two: Remembering the fate of ciptaaan Sukamto-St.P.Bustamil

Keroncong M. Sagi Info (google Explorations)

1) Keroncong
At this time Indo known musicians, and legendary violinist is M. Sagi … Listen Orkest Lief Java, Tugu Cafrino Keroncong Orchestra, George de Fretes, and Orchestra …

2) Moh. Sjah & Orchestra Kerontjong M. Sagi – Kr. Rhythm
I thought that, coupled with the previous post of today, I’d post something languid and Tranquil, something Somewhat relaxed. So, I Brought out another classic piece Indonesian krontjong from the mid-20th century, on the local Rhythm label. “Rhythm” Actually means “rhythm” in Bahasa Indonesia – thus the title of the piece as well as the name of the record labels are explained.

I posted a krontjong tune of the Same vintage, and on another independent label Indonesian (Dendang). This one is similar – it’s the style of krontjong That I Quite enjoy, featuring the walking guitar and fiddle player trading runs in Between smooth vocals. Krontjong Itself Is a Relatively new type of urban folk music, developing in Indonesian urban areas a little over 100 years ago, with Batavian, Portuguese, Malay, and even African influences. Had Krontjong changed dramatically since it was first Recorded ca. 1904, and Pls this record was released (probably the late 1940s or so). The Instrumentation was bare bones at first, featuring trios and the like. I’ve Heard That sounds krontjong 1920s influenced by Stamboel theater, with a Slightly more operatic sound, showing Further Influences at work. By the 1940s, krontjong was a Rage, with whole orchestras and popular singers getting into the act … yet, to me this music is not Easily explained. Indonesian-Hawaiian-guitar-and-fiddle-ballads?

As for the singer and band – I’m Afraid these are Muddy Waters. Mostly I am sure That “Moh.” Stands for Mohammed, and “Cr.” Stands for krontjong, but at the risk of being incorrect, I will from the original label let stand as the official record

3) Service violinist M. Sagi

Initially under the name Kroncong ago Kroncong Jakarta Betawi “… In Jakarta at that time … The composition of instruments like this is thanks to M. Sagi a violinist keroncong

Also in Indonesia (Indonesian Rhythm music co ltd) look below compare with above:

1) Dimin, Remembering the fate of M. Sagi Keroncong with Orchestra, Rhythm productions Record

Four FRAME:

HISTORY FROM THE INDONESIA Kroncong GOOGLE Exploration COMPERATIVE FOR STUDY:

Music keroncong born in Indonesia through the course of its history is long and full of unique views of its constituent elements consisting of various components of culture, ethnicity, and language. If we draw a red thread about the origin of the birth of music keroncong in Indonesia, we will be faced with the mystery of history concerning the history of the world. History of Islamic occupation in the south of the Iberian peninsula from the fifth century until the thirteenth century. Historical background that explains why the Europeans in the sixteenth century was so persistent and navigation capability to mobilize all its military power to obtain the spices from the East. The history of the arrival of the Portuguese and the Dutch in the seventeenth century to compete for hegemony in Southeast Asia through trade monopoly in the Malacca, Sunda Kelapa, and the Maluku islands. The history of slavery, and the lives of street musicians during the Dutch East Indies. History of the Indonesian people’s identity formation as an independent nation and has a cultural heritage that is not infinite number including music keroncong. Fortunately for music that eventually keroncong accepted and become the property of Indonesia, a fact which has gained international recognition.

Today when we talk about keroncong, we are faced with a terminology that contains the broad sense. Etymologically, keroncong derived from the name of a musical instrument similar four-stringed small guitar that is typically made of nylon, so that when played produce sounds crong, jreng not like the sound of metal strings. Keroncong term believed to derive from the crafters waditra in Tugu village who had inherited the art of craft skills waditra guitar. Guitar is named as an adaptation of the guitar keroncong cavaquinho brought by Portuguese sailors sailed around the world. When she arrived in the archipelago of Madeira is called braguinha guitar, because it comes from the region of Braga in Portugal. In Brazil the people named Machete used to accompany dances. In the Caribbean islands were named Cuatro guitar, because the four-stringed. When he arrived at the Polynesian Pacific, the natives call it a ukelele, or fingers that jump, because it learned how to play it but not crushed. It is interesting to note that the guitar that gained popularity as a ukulele with Hawaiian patent, while the ukulele as keroncong designation has been recognized as a patent Indonesia by Salwa El-Shawan Castelo-Branco in the dictionary of The Grove’s Dictionary of Music and Musicians, “Portugal” (2002:197) .

Thus the ukulele can be said to occupy a key position in every game keroncong music, so orkestrasinya must have crong color that serves as a rhythmic riffs (repeated patterns). In addition, the ukulele is spread and used in various types of ensembles gave instructions that the color also crong formations wherever it is played ukulele. We in Indonesia have also agreed that there is any music that may appear keroncong without bearing the label has a unique color of the game crong ukulele. It was universally believed that there is no keroncong without crong, and through the spread of ukulele music keroncong not impossible in many versions can also be found in various corners. Currently crong color can still be found among others on the island of Halmahera in the ensemble bastidor generic, in Malacca in the ensemble dondang unfortunately, in the Netherlands in the ensemble toegoenezen, in Hawaii in the Hawaiian guitar ensemble, in Suriname with krontjong ensambelnya, except in Indonesia in the ensemble keroncong orchestra.

If keroncong as waditra has worldwide, then keroncong as ensemble music, keroncong as a form of song, and keroncong as guitar playing style is a hallmark of Indonesia, which is influenced by Javanese gamelan gagrak. Orchestration keroncong usual ensemble featuring violin or flute as a bearer of a melody line, guitar as an accompanist and a carrier flow of counter-melodies, ukulele as a time-beater, and stringed cello (pizzicato) as a tune-percussion rhythm that sometimes dipertebal with stringed bass.

Just as pengendang become leader of a group of Javanese gamelan, the cellist with the typical pattern according Kusbini gedugannya became conductor in the orchestra keroncong. Gedugan it has a dual function as a bass and percussion, who led the orchestra keroncong not need it and avoid the use of drum-set in orkestrasinya. From here we can see how strong dominance in the display character string waditra chordophonic an orchestra keroncong in total from its role as the bearer of a melody to rhythm and harmony.

Orchestration keroncong Moresco actually a dance accompaniment consisting of guitar and tambourine percussion pieces of metal as a musical blend of Arab-Caucasian. Tambourine is also used in orchestral musicians keroncong Indies in Batavia in the Dutch East Indies. That’s why another version of the term emerged when the tambourine keroncong keroncong excluded from the orchestra under the influence of Javanese gamelan, so that the color of the metal triangle is no longer heard, and that is left is the color of his guitar keroncong. The color of the metal triangle is returned as a property of the Javanese dancers who wore bracelets on their legs. Currently, although the tambourine was heard in the village of Monument, orchestra keroncong in Indonesia are no longer using it.

 Keroncong community orchestra Indies in Batavia (Illustration: A.Th. Manusama (1919:12 a))
During the Dutch East Indies, keroncong appear as ars nova, a new art which is non-traditional and non-classical Western art favored by urban communities. Major cities in Java and then grow into a center keroncong, since its popularity through the Night Market in Gambir, Krokodilen community in Kemajoran, until Concours Jaar Markt in Surabaya. Keroncong when it became part of mass culture that has commercial value, so the ensemble keroncong popping up everywhere. But after independence, there was a musical revolution around the world with the birth of a popular rhythmic music rock youth. Rhythmic rock music quickly spread through recording technology and the music of today that displace the popularity of conventional rhythmic music including keroncong.

The musicologist, conventional music is music with rhythms that aksentuasinya falls on the first beat, like the rhythm of the dance walsa in three counts, or Marcia in a four-count rhythm. Conversely rock rhythms provide a fresh breath while accentuating it moves from the first beat which was marked by the beat of snare-drum stick on the second beat of the rhythmic pattern of the game bass-drum and hi-hat cymbal. The move gave birth to characters sinkopatik accentuation, continuous dependence, giving rise to the psychological sensation of questions unanswered. Not surprisingly, when the rhythm of rock managed to attract the younger generation, and quickly mastered the universal musical life.

There is no denying that the drum-set occupies a key position in the rhythm of rock. Currently there are no popular music of any kind which does not use a drum-set, ranging from a simple band to the symphonic band or a sophisticated light music orchestra. Rock rhythm through drumming sets worldwide and became the basis of all kinds of popular music today. Along with the popularity of conventional music become marginalized and is considered the representation of music past that have been deprecated, which is only interested by the elderly only.

In this case the existence of music keroncong facing a dilemma, because on the one hand its popularity will further decline if it retains a conventional rhythm, while on the other hand the use of drum-set in the orchestration keroncong will kill characteristics of the music. Time quickly passed when the music finally keroncong music moved from the mass culture industry into the commercial value of cultural traditions that are classified as ethnic music. Type of music such as this are always vulnerable to the threat of extinction, so the concept of preservation and revitalization agenda. Fortunate that the social capital of keroncong lies in the support part of Indonesian society that ensures that the music that has been born for centuries will not become extinct. However, revitalization efforts need to continue to be done for any purpose, including the purpose of reconstruction, go-international goals, or for experimental purposes and archiving.

Go-international effort against keroncong music ever made by Rudi Pirngadie through keroncong Stay Fresh orchestra performances that bring the gagrak Keroncong-beat in the New York World’s Fair in 1964. Keroncong beat is a concept that explores rhythm gedugan keroncong in the form of a cello, rhythmic riffs ukulele, and banyu milli guitar to accompany all types of music including Western songs. No fewer singers like M. keroncong Rivani, Rita Zahara, and Sayed managed to attract the attention of American society in the West like the song I left my heart in San Francisco that dikeroncongkan. Experimentation Keroncong beat did not bring results caused partly because they do not have strong cultural roots in Indonesia. It’s possible that the failure was also due to the characteristic rhythm of the exotic, are powerless against the sensational rock rhythms. But after all, innovation Pirngadie has successfully demonstrated the value of bargaining position and keroncong music of Indonesia in the international arena.

Go-other international efforts can be done through the preparation of packaging for keroncong orchestra as conducted by RRI through Jakarta Studio Orchestra Isbandi leader in event Star Radio Television type Keroncong. Similarly, experimentation Singgih Sanjaya through arable Light Keroncong in orchestral format that still maintains grip keroncongnya. This effort is more suitable for the preservation of keroncong music as music that is packaged in an artistic tradition of musicals. This effort is more academic and respectable in lifting keroncong as a repertoire of Indonesia in international forums, is more than just offer a generic rhythm.

Go-international effort is also meant to promote to the international world that keroncong is music of Indonesia, through patents or intellectual property rights, followed by various publications about keroncong of the researchers. So far, researchers such as Surya Brata, Paramita Abdurachman, Harmunah, Budiman BJ, and Like Hardjana has many roles, while foreign researchers such as Ernst Heins Bronia Kornhauser and contribute to them. Research Philip Yampolsky producing generic recording keroncong singer of the 1930s a different color of her voice with singer keroncong today, in addition to over the years Philip has been paying great attention to the ethnic music of the archipelago.

Go-international effort also requires us to appreciate the maestro who has managed to develop keroncong music since the days of the Dutch East Indies until today to appear as one of mainstream music of Indonesia, as has been pioneered by the community of Monument in Krontjong Toegoe, Kusbini in Keroncong Original, Gesang in Langgam Keroncong, Andjar Langgam Any in Java, and the singers who have contributed to musical life keroncong from generation to generation. It is expected that hopefully with the rapid music education in Indonesia, the musicians academic younger generation would instinctively moved them to participate in maintaining awareness that has been inherited ancestral heritage of our nation.

Thus the efforts of true international go-to music keroncong not solely lie in the spread and popularity internationally keroncong music, or at archiving the figure of his music in the form of scores, or in the form of an immanent keroncong orchestra performances, but more focused on the attitudes that reflect the desire of the creators, musicians, and researchers keroncong Indonesia to behave in a musical.

In the end we are morally obligated to maintain and support the international confidence that keroncong is the music of Indonesia, as well as Portuguese music known as Fado, the blues became the identity of the American Negro music, flamenco from Spain, and Argentine tango as a folk song, music that is popular national with songs that are not just sung but also expressed coração, or from my heart most deeply.

Save the Music Kroncong We

Reading several publications bulletin “Tjroeng”, appears twisted keroncong community spirit Indonesia (KKI), both fans, musicians, singers, and observer keroncong willing to dig back and preserve the art of music began to recede keroncong perceived prestige. The number of KKI probably increasing in line with the increase of population in Indonesia, but the percentage may decrease. Can it be said keroncong music began to recede pamorya?

When compared with the 70 state may have a point. At that event keroncong music events sponsored by the government or state can be said solid. Among them, who have not lost from memory is always held regularly every year the radio star contest election from the local level (provincial) to the national level. Selection was sponsored (held) by the Ministry of Information, and Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI), which is an institution under the auspices of the Ministry of Information always contest election broadcast radio star tsb. At that point is contested not only music but also of a kind keroncong seriosa and “entertainment”, or more dekenal today as a kind of pop.

Enthusiastic people to follow the holding of a huge radio star. This event proved that disiakan by RRI until late at night is always awaited by the pendenganya. And music keroncong among the community at that time occupied a higher position, more popular when compared with other types seriosa music and entertainment. The development of conditions in society may also influence the development of public taste for music that exists. Naturally formed polarization taste and appreciation of music as well as influence the development of music itself. Shifting tastes, especially among young children (teenagers) who preferred type of entertainment or pop music. Many emerging pop music groups such as Shania Twain, Favourit Group, D’lloyd, Pambers, Mercys etc. Also, slowly but surely, began creeping up the popularity of dangdut music which at that time better known as the musical “Malay”. Even dedengkot dangdut music like Oma Irama at the beginning of his musical career through pop music, and some single song was popular at that time. The situation now, the popularity of both kinds of music is higher (more fans) far left and seriosa kroncong kind of music.

Not satisfied with the container provided by the government as a race, the musicians of the pop music pop star held his own elections, at both regional and national level, better known by the voters “Pop Singer”. More pop music events were held, while the event to music keroncong the less even none at all.

Subsequent developments, with the abolition of the Ministry of Information from the ranks of the cabinet, automatically lost the election race is also a calendar of activities that include music radio star keroncong therein. Means also lost a place to socialize and popularize music keroncong among the community at large.

Is this the series of events ultimately lowering overall prestige keroncong music and fans began to be abandoned?

Indonesia in the eyes of society as a whole may prestige keroncong music dropped dramatically when its criterion is the amount of numbers keroncong Pengemar or music lovers. But among his own popularity or prestige KKI keroncong music still exists and is maintained, only the numbers might be smaller than the pop music fan or dangdut. The addition of the number of fans are also not very significant, perhaps waiting for changes in appetite along with the addition of age are not music fans keroncong. In fact, keroncong music community still exists, even not only in Indonesia but expanded to other countries brought by the Indonesian people are migrating to other countries, like Malaysia, Suriname, the Netherlands etc.. In the countries mentioned above, remain consistent keroncong music community enjoys and plays music keroncong.

Membeci favor or a type of music or songs, related to the taste, so its very subjective, can not be forced. Walk naturally obey the existing environment and habits. Pop songs sung by Shakira music grop or by the music group King in Indonesia very loved among teens or children smell gede (ABG), but maybe the songs the group had not known at all by the people of Suriname. The villagers may be more familiar with the artist Waljinah with the song “stinky Kekeknya”. In conclusion, globally, which have more prestige or more popular? Keroncong pop music or music? Please readers perceive themselves to answer the other questions mentioned above.

The problem faced by communities in Indonesia and dibelahan keroncong other world is how to maintain sustainable existence keroncong music. This needs to get attention in light of concerns from some quarters who doubted the durability of music keroncong against the “onslaught” other kinds of music, especially pop music. As quoted by news websites antara.co.id, October 19, 2008, carried stories about the great hope maestro keroncong Indonesia, “Gesang”, asking people keroncong music fan to help preserve the flow of original music this Java (meaning keroncong) to stay alive all time. Behind the hope he implies there is concern that Indonesia began to recede keroncong music prominence. Gradually, if no effort “nguri-uri” keroncong music, it is not impossible will be extinct abandoned fans. This situation is a challenge and an opportunity entire human community to restore the luster keroncong keroncong music maestro hopes for “Gesang” keroncong can be realized.

How do we attempt to preserve the artistic culture keroncong music?

, There are various types of keroncong, there Keroncong Original, Langgam Keroncong, Stambul Keroncong, coupled with Krontjong Toegoe. Of each type had a “formula” or “grip” on their own [regarding this formula has been published in previous bulletins Croeng]. Looking at the formula or pakemnya, keroncong music can be categorized as serious music, equivalent to classical music because there are rules that must be fulfilled to be called as music keroncong. Therein lies the beautiful and “adiluhungnya” keroncong music! So if there are some residents say that the music keroncong is “tacky” or “old school” Shah-Shah was only because of different perceptions, but it was a big mistake! Not just anyone and not many who can create and play music “pure” keroncong properly. Only people who have special talents. Therefore, keroncong music that is played without obey the rules, or that there can be said to deviate as keroncong contemporary or experimental music. Usually the young people who like to experiment so that music was born CongDut (keroncong Dangdut), CongRock (alloy keroncong and rock), CongLan (alloy keroncong and gamelan), etc.. How do we respond to the birth of the type music.

2:10 th Year Anniversary Asia Africa Confrence memorable in 1965, national lokanata kroncong song record
a) Cover

 PERKEMBANGAN MUSIM POP DI JAKARTA MENIMBULKAN PERSAINGAN DENGAN  POPULARITAS KRONCONG BETAWI(MINGGUAN DJAJA,1962)
 
1.VERSI SATU:
Semenjak pemulihan kadaulatan ,perkembangan seni  musik  DI iNDONESIA PADA UMUMNYA DAN DI iBUKOTA JAKARTA(BETAWI)  pada khususnya, telah berlangsung sangat mengembirakan(sepintas lalu “Musik” yang dimaksud disini ialah pengungkapan kesenian oleh bangsa Indonesia dengan perantaraan alat musik Barat dengan alat musik rakyat seperti kendang,canang dsbnya.Dengan sendirinya juga musik gamelan,kecapi,gambang kromong dll tidak dicakup dlamnya)
Kwantitatif dan kualitatif perkembangan tadipun mengembirakan . Mengenai kwantitas, semenjak Indonesia merdeka  semakin banyak orang bangsa Indonesia mempelajari musik atau berkecimpung dalam dunia musik. Hasilnya tampak segera, orkes dan band berfmuncuolan secepat tumbuhnya cendawan dimusim hujan.Apabila dilakukan penelitian dari orkes tersebut ,tidak mengherankan jika ditemui jumlahnya mencapai ribuan, profesional maupun amatir. Ini hanya di Ibukota jakarta saja,dimana di Ibu Kota jakarta  boleh dikatakan bila kita melalui sebuah kampung ,bahkan sebuah lorong tanpa mendengar musik yang dimainkan  oleh musisi yang tengah berlatih atau  sedang mengadakan pertunjukan.
Mengenai Kwalitas, taraf teknis musik  kita pada umunya saat ini jauh lebih tinggi dibandingkan pada masa penjajahan, yang pada masa itu bangsa Indonesia hidup dibawah tekanan penjajah sehingga terkekang pula dalam pengungkapan seni.Kini sudah dibawakan musik komponis dunia yang termasyur,karya yang termasuk abadi,serta dibawakn secara baik,bukan suatu soal bagi orkes Ibukota yang mengkhususkan diri untuk itu (Orkes simfoni Amatir Jkaarta,orkes  musik tiup sperti Orkes Radio Jakarta.)
 
Berbagai corak orkes atau band Jakarta.
Namun juga akan anda tinjau bersama kami dalm tulisan ini bukanlah perkembangan orkes itu, melainkan perkembangan dengan repetoire yang terdiri atas lagu Indonesia semata-mata yang dikenal sebagai musik populer ,khusus yang ada di Jakarta.
Bersandarkan corak repetoire,orkes dapat dibagi dalam beberapa golongan ,yaitu a.Golongan yang membawakan repertoire campuran(lagu seriosa,hiburan,keroncong dan lagu daerah) misalnya orkes saiful Bahri,
b.Golongan yang khsus membawakan lagu kroncong yang jumlahnya banyak sekali,dianataranya Orke Kroncong Sagi dibawah pimpinan  Isbandi.
c.Orkes yang membawakan lagu Joget seperti Bukit Siguntang.
d.Orkes yang khusu membawakan lagu daerah dalam gaya modern misalnya
(1) Lagu tapanuli  sepertisinondang Tapianauli,Bela Martandang,Orkes Nahun dsbnya.
(2)Lagu Maluku seperti Orkes Didi Pattirane, Benny Tatuhey dsbnya.
(3) Lagu Minang seperti Gumarang,Kumbang Tjari,OSRIA -Oslan Husein
(4)Lagu Khas betwai  seperti orkes Puspadjaja
(5) Lagu sunda seperti Reka Mustika sari dari MUs D.S.
(6)Lain-lain daripada itu ada pula orkes atau band remaja yang bergaya khas dan dewasa ini sangat digemarai para teenagers(anak Muda atau ABG) karena gaya lagunya yang tampak”envogue” dalam masyarakat  kaula muda tersebut.Siapakah diantara msusisi muda kita tersebut dalam langgam istimewa dibawakan oleh Rahmat Kartolo,Koes Bersaudara,Papen dsbnya dengan lagu Patah Hati (rahmat Kartolo9), Selalu dan Telaga Sunyi dari Koes bersaudara, lagu melankolik -romantis. Namun adapula lagu bercorak gembira seperti Kueh Putu,Pije_Piye dll .
LAGU DAERAH
Proses adaptasi lagu daerah dan lagu rakyat daslam repertoire orkes,band berlangsung dan meluas cepat sekali terutama di tahun-tahun setelah perang Dunia ke dua seperti lagu khas jakarta Djai-djali, Persi(Rusak Atau tak rusak), Kramat Karam dsbnya. yang diadaptasi dengan repertoire Gambang Kromong. Lagu Maluku seperti Kole-kole, Patanh Tjingke, Goro-gorne,dsb. Dari tapanuli seperti Inang Sargi. Dari Jawa Tengah seperti Kembang Katjang serta dari sunada lagu es Lilin.
Serentak dengan meningkatnya taraf teknis musikal bangsa kita, maka berkat adaptasi orkes/band dalam versi modern ,kini dunia mengetahui bahwa perbendaharaan musik Indonesia asli kaya sekali dan bermutu musikal tinggi . Disamping lagu-lagu nasional seperti Bengawan solo dan sapu tanggan , dewasa ini lagu daerah seperti O Ina Ni Keke(MInahasa),Angin Mamiri(Sulawesi selatan), Lamang Tapai (Sumbar)O Ale alogo (tapanuli) dan banyak lagi yang lain dinikmati oleh para peminat musik tidak saja didalam ,tetapi juga diluar negeri.
GUMARANG
 
Salah satu orkes yang terkenal di Jakarta yang dapat dikatakan pelopor dalam memperkenalkan lagu-lagu daerah kepada umum,dalam hal ini Minangkabau adalah orkes Gumarang. Kalau dalam tulisan ini Gumarang kami kemjukakan,bukanlah disebabkan oleh puilih kasih. Ada sesuatu yang menarik perhatian pada orkes ini,kecual8i fakta yang disebut siatas  bahwa Gumarang lah dapat dikatakan pelopor dalam memeprkenalkan dan mempopulerkan algu-lagu daerah khususnya MInang. Yakni saling pengertian yang sangat mendalam dan semangat kerja sama yang baik sekali  dalam orkes ini, yang menyempatkan mereka semenjak pembentukannya sehingga kini menempati salh satu kedudukan terkemuka di Indonesia pada umumnya dan di Jkarta pada khususnya.
Sejarah jadinya Orkes Gumarang didahului sebuah epristiwa yang pada waktu itu bahkan para pembentuk orkest itu sewndiri mungkin tak menduga akan berbuah dengan terciptanya sebuah orkes modern yang khususnya membawakan lagu Minang dan yang kemudian menjadi termashur.
Pada waktu itu tahun 1953, PERFINUI membutuhkan hiasan musik khusus untuk fiolm yang tengah dibuatNy berjudul Harimau Tjampa, jakni lagu-lagu Minang yang bercorak Joget. Untuk maksud itu  Usmar ismail,presiden direktur PERFINI merangkap produser dan sutradara film tersebut, telah meminta bantuan para musisi “anak-anak Minang” yang ada di jkarta.
Demikianlah kami berkumpul, cerita Asbon dalm eprcakapannya dengan kami,”Kami bertukar pikiran mengenai lagu-lagu yang akan kami bawakan untuk film tersebut. Alhasil terciptalah sebuah paduan suara yang memberikan hiasan musikal pada film tadi.Kemudian sebagai lanjutan kerjasama ini terbentuklah Orkes Gumarang ditahun 1954, awalnya dibawah pimpinan Anwar Anif,kemudian diganti oleh Alidir dan semenjak 1956 oleh Asbon.
Repetoire yang dibawakan terutama lagu-lagu rakyat Minang yang dipermodern. Para peminat film tentunya masih ingat,bahwa “Harimau Tjampa” telah mendapat hadiah dalam salah satu fetival film internasional untuk hiasan musiknya.
SAINGAN DARI BAND ANAK MUDA (TEENAGERS)
Sebagaimana lazimnya kehidupan orkes/band pada umumnya juga Gumarang tidak bebas dari masa-mas naik dan tureun, akan tetapi semenjak tahun 1957 sampai 1962 grafik perkembangannya menunjukan tendensi meningkat, demikian ulasan Asbon. Salah satu faktor yang mendorongnya ketingkat semakin tinggi itu adalah saling pengertian dan semangat kerjasama yang baik sekali diantara anggota-anggotanya disebabkan soal-soal yang tidak memungkinkan tenaganya kepada orkes, misalnya soal pekerjaan,perubahan penghidupan, harus melanjutkan pelajaran dikota lain atau diluar negeri. Akan tetapi sampai sebegitu jauh kekosongan-kekosongan yang terjadi dalam susunan orkes senantiasa berhasil diisi lagi dengan etnaga baru.
 
KEKURANGAN GUMARANG SAAT iNI
Asbon menyatakan pendapat pribadi bahwa masih banyak biduanita-biduanita kita pada umumnya kurang dapat menampilkan kepribadian sendiri atau pembawaan yang khas dalm membawakn lagunya, Yang dimaksudkannya ialah lagu-lagu daerah, Menurut Asbon, mereka masih terlampau terpengaruh oleh gaya biduanita luar negeri,nisalnya Connie Francis. Hal ini sangat disayangkan. ia menyebutkan hanya seorang biduanita yang telah memiliki pembawaan sendiri dalam hal ini Tuty Daulay.
Asbon sendiri sampai segebitu jauh telah menciptakan banyak lagu-lagu Minang, antaranya yang terkenal adalah Laruik Sandjo (Larut malam),perfini telah membuat film bersandarkan lagu ini,akan tetapi entah mengapa sampai kini filmnya belum direalese, lagu lain Baju Kurung, Jika Berpisah,Kata rang susuak dll. Apakah Aransmen lagunya disusun sendiri? kami bertanya,jawab Asbon tidak, dalam hal ini kerjasma anggoat gumara, begitu uuga dengan aransmennya, Lihatlah repetoire lagu karang asbon KOK I JO dibawah ini.
 
 
 
THE DEVELOPMENT OF POPULAR MUSIC SONG IN JAKARTA WHICH MADE DECLINE THE KRONCONG BETAWI ( weekly Djaja Magazine)1962
SEASON OF POP IN JAKARTA TO CREATE COMPETITION popularity Kroncong Betawi (WEEKLY DJAJA, 1962)1.VERSI ONE:
Since recovery kadaulatan, the development of music art GENERALLY IN INDONESIA AND in the capital Jakarta (Betawi), in particular, has been going very encouraging (cursory “Music” is meant here is the disclosure of art by the Indonesian people through the medium of Western musical instruments with folk musical instruments such as drums, cymbals dsbnya.Dengan itself also gamelan music, harp, xylophone, etc. are not covered kromong dlamnya)
Quantitative and qualitative development of tadipun encouraging. Regarding quantity, since Indonesia’s independence more and more people of Indonesia to learn music or dabbling in the music world. The results appear immediately, orchestra and band as fast as the growth of fungi season berfmuncuolan hujan.Apabila been studied from the orchestra was, not surprisingly, found the number in the thousands, professional and amateur. This is only in the capital Jakarta alone, where the capital city of Jakarta can be said if we go through a village, even a hallway without hearing music played by musicians who were trained or are currently performing.
Regarding quality, the technical standard of our music in general is much higher today than in colonial times, which at that time the Indonesian people living under colonial pressures that constrained in disclosing seni.Kini also been brought to the world renowned music composer, including the immortal works, and dibawakn well, not a matter for the Capital orchestra that specializes to it (Jkaarta Amateur symphony orchestra, wind orchestra just as Jakarta Radio Orchestra.)Various shades of orchestra or band Jakarta.
But you will also review with us preformance of this paper is not the orchestra’s development, but development with a repetoire that consists of Indonesian songs simply known as popular music, specially in Jakarta.
Rests style repetoire, the orchestra can be divided into several groups, namely a.Golongan who brought a mixture of repertoire (songs seriosa, entertainment, keroncong and folk songs), such as orchestra saiful Bahri,
b.Golongan who khsus kroncong rendition of that number a lot, Sagi Kroncong Orke dianataranya led Isbandi.
c.Orkes that the song dancing like Siguntang Hill.
d.Orkes who khusu rendition of the region in such a modern style
(1) Songs Tapanuli sepertisinondang Tapianauli, Bela Martandang, etc. Nahun Orchestra.
(2) Music of Maluku as Didi Pattirane Orchestra, Benny Tatuhey etc.
(3) Lagu Minang like Gumarang, Beetle Tjari, OSRIA-Oslan Husein
(4) Typical betwai Songs like orchestra Puspadjaja
(5) Lagu sunda like Reka Mustika sari from MUS DS
(6) Other than that there is also the orchestra or the band’s typical style teens and adults is very digemarai the teenagers (young children or teenagers) because of the style songs that seem “envogue” in the young subjects tersebut.Siapakah community among our young is msusisi in a special style, sung by Grace Kartolo, Koes Brothers, Papen etc with the song Broken Heart (Mercy Kartolo9), Always and Lake Lonely from Koes brothers, melancholic-romantic song. However adapula patterned happy songs like Kueh Putu, Pije_Piye etc.
LOCAL SONGS
The process of adapting traditional songs and folk songs daslam orchestra repertoire, the band’s ongoing and expanding rapidly, especially in the years after World War into two like a typical song Đại jakarta-Djali, Persi (Damaged Or not damaged), etc. Kramat Karam. adapted to the repertoire Gambang Kromong. Maluku songs like Kole-kole, Patanh Tjingke, Goro-gorne, etc.. From Tapanuli like Host Sargi. From Central Java as well as from sunada Katjang Flower song Candle ice.
Concurrent with the increasing technical level of our nation’s musical, the adaptation thanks to the orchestra / band in the modern version, now the world knows that the indigenous Indonesian music repertory very rich and high-quality musicals. In addition to such national songs solo and broom Bengawan tanggan, today’s folk songs like O Ina Ni Keke (Minahasa), Wind Mamiri (South Sulawesi), Lamang Tapai (Sumatra) O Ale alogo (Tapanuli) and many others enjoyed by music enthusiasts not only within but also outside the country.
Gumarang
One of the famous orchestra in Jakarta who can say the pioneers in introducing folk songs to the public, in this case is the orchestra Gumarang Minangkabau. If in this paper we Gumarang kemjukakan, was not caused by puilih love. There is something to draw attention to the orchestra, called Siatas kecual8i facts that can be said Gumarang was a pioneer in popularizing algu memeprkenalkan and traditional pieces, especially Minang. That is a very deep understanding and a spirit of excellent cooperation in this orchestra, which took them since its formation so that now occupies a leading position salh one in Indonesia in general and in Jkarta in particular.
History would Orchestra Gumarang preceded a epristiwa which at that time even the shaper orkest sewndiri probably did not expect it will bear fruit with the creation of a modern orchestra, especially the song M9nang and who later became famous.
At that time 1953, PERFINUI require special musical decoration for the middle fiolm dibuatNy Tjampa titled Tiger ‘s descendants Minang songs are patterned dancing. For the purposes of the Usmar Ismail, president of Perfini concurrent film producer and director, has enlisted the help of the musicians’ children Minang “in jkarta.
So we gathered, the story Asbon preformance eprcakapannya with us, “We exchange ideas about the songs that we’ll bring to the film. As a result created a choir that gives the film a musical ornament tadi.Kemudian as a continuation of this partnership was formed Orchestra Gumarang ditahun 1954 , initially under the leadership of Anwar Anif, later replaced by Alidir and since 1956 by Asbon.
Repetoire brought mainly folk songs Minang modernized. Movie enthusiasts must still remember, that “Tiger Tjampa” has received a prize in one of the international film fetival to garnish his music.
Rival OF YOUTH BAND (Teenagers)
As is usually the life of the orchestra / band in general is also Gumarang not free from the ride and tureun-mas, but since 1957, and 1962 growth charts show the tendency to increase, so review Asbon. Salag one factor that pushed him to the level the higher it is the mutual understanding and spirit of excellent cooperation among its members due to the problems that do not allow energy to the orchestra, for example about the job, changes in livelihood, should pursue studies another city or overseas. However, until so far vacancies that occur in the composition of the orchestra always managed to be filled again with new etnaga.LACK OF CURRENT Gumarang
Asbon personal opinion that there are many ladies-ladies we are generally less able to display its own personality or innate characteristic dalm membawakn song, He is referring to is folk songs, according Asbon, they are still unduly influenced by forces outside the country songstress, Connie Francis nisalnya . This is unfortunate. he mentions only one female vocalist who has had the bearing itself in this case Tuty Daulay.
Asbon own until segebitu far has created many Minang songs, among them the famous is Laruik Sandjo (Late night), the film rests Perfini has made this song, but for some reason until now has not been direalese movie, another song Baju Kurung, If Separated, The word now susuak etc. Is Aransmen own songs composed? we ask, answer Asbon not, in this case working together of  gumarang orkes members , also with  it aransment,Assbon  rock song repetoire KOK JO  please look  below.

 VERSION TWO
1.Orkes Gumarang  sibp.Asbon degan Penyanyi Yuni amir,Oslan Husein dan Nurseha.1) Gumarang Orchestra leader Asbon with Singer Yuni Amir ,song Ya Musthapa productions  Mesra Record Inc The Song Ya Mustapha history

Ya Mustafa, also spelled Ya Mustapha, is a famous Egyptian song of unclear origin, whose lyrics are composed in 3 different languages: Arabic, French and Italian. There are also versions in the Greek and Turkish languages, where they are very popular in the respective countries (“Μουσταφά”). The music of the song is similar to Greek music. It was very popular in the 1950s and early 1960s. The song has been performed in many different versions by many different singers worldwide. One of the earliest singers to record this song in the 1950s was the Turkish-French singer Dario Moreno. The song became popular in Europe with the help of the Egyptian-born Palestinian singer Bob Azzam, who released it in 1960 in France. Azzam’s version was also a hit on the UK Singles Chart, where it spent 14 weeks and peaked at number 23[1]. In Spain, in 1960, the song reached #1 in the charts in both versions sung by Bob Azzam and by José Guardiola [1]. Bruno Gigliotti, the brother of famous singer Dalida, also covered the song. The song also featured in a few Egyptian movies, including one starring the Egyptian actor Ismail Yassin in the 1950s, and another film featuring Sabah from the same era. In 1975, the Turkish Cypriot actress and singer Nil Burak sang Ya Mustafa. The song was also copied by the Indian composers Nadeem-Shravan. Other singers who reproduced exactly the same song include the Lebanese singer Reeda Boutros and the American singer and actress Angélica María.

This song, with its Greek style music and polyglotic lyrics, can be considered as a historical tribute to the cosmopolitan era in the Egyptian city of Alexandria. During that era, a large cosmopolitan polyglotic community, mainly Greeks, Jews and Italians, lived in Alexandria. A sizable portion lived in the Attarine district, where the events of the song takes place.

The refrain of the song is “Chérie je t’aime, chérie je t’adore, como la salsa del pomodoro” (Darling, I love you, darling, I adore you, like tomato sauce).

The Gumarang Asbon History

Gumarang Orchestra and other Minang record like  Kampuang Nan Jauh Dimato(the homeland which far from eyes)

and Gumarang 1971

Orkes Gumarang

Menjelang akhir tahun 1953 dan awal 1954, ada beberapa anak muda asal Sumatera Barat yang, antara lain, bernama Alidir, Anwar Anif, Dhira Suhud, Joeswar Khairudin, Taufik, Syaiful Nawas, dan Awaludin yang di kemudian hari menjadi Kepala Polri. Bersama beberapa orang lainnya mereka berkumpul di rumah Yus Bahri di Jalan Jambu, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat. Mereka sepakat mendirikan sebuah grup musik untuk meneruskan kiprah orkes Penghibur Hati yang mendendangkan lagu-lagu Minang. Mereka menamakan grupnya orkes Gumarang. Nama itu diambil dari cerita legendaris Minang, Cindue Mato, yang tokoh utamanya memiliki tiga binatang kesayangan. Tiga binatang itu adalah Kinantan si ayam jantan yang piawai, Binuang si banteng yang gagah perkasa, dan Gumarang si kuda sembrani berbulu putih yang larinya bagaikan kilat sehingga menurut legenda tersebut bisa keliling dunia dalam sekejap. Anwar Anif pun didaulat menjadi pemimpin. Mula-mula yang dibicarakan adalah bagaimana konsep musik yang akan dibawakan untuk lagu-lagu Minang yang sudah dipopulerkan oleh Penghibur Hati melalui Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) Jakarta.

Lagu-lagu Penghibur Hati yang disiarkan radio itu, antara lain, Kaparinyo, Dayung Palinggam, Nasib Sawahlunto, dan Sempaya.

Pengaruh lagu-lagu Latin (seperti Melody d’Amour, Besame Mucho, Cachito, Maria Elena, dan Quizas, Quizas, Quizas) yang sedang digemari tak mampu mereka tepis. Oleh sebab itulah musik Latin tersebut menjadi unsur baru dalam aransemen musik Gumarang.  Pada masa itu tidaklah mudah bagi seorang penyanyi atau sebuah grup untuk tampil di RRI. Mereka harus lulus tes di depan sejumlah juri, sebagaimana layaknya peserta sebuah lomba. Walaupun Anwar Anif hanya memimpin selama sembilan bulan, ia berhasil membawa Gumarang lulus tes RRI. Alidir yang menggantikannya ternyata bertahan lebih singkat lagi dan kemudian menyerahkan pimpinan Gumarang kepada Asbon, bulan Mei 1955.

 Album Gumarang – Kampuang Nan Jauah di Mato

Asbon tidak hanya mempertegas dominasi musik Latin dalam lagu-lagu yang sudah biasa dibawakan Gumarang, tetapi juga pada lagu-lagu baru ciptaannya maupun ciptaan personel Gumarang lainnya. Pada masa Asbon inilah bergabung pianis yang memiliki sentuhan Latin, Januar Arifin, serta penyanyi Hasmanan (kemudian menjadi sutradara), Nurseha, dan Anas Yusuf. Kebesaran Gumarang tidak bisa disangkal berkat seringnya grup ini tampil di RRI dan memeriahkan acara Panggung Gembira. Sukses Gumarang merebut hati masyarakat menyebabkan penampilan orkes itu berlanjut di tempat-tempat lainnya, seperti Istana Negara, Gedung Kesenian, dan Istora Senayan. Pada masa kepemimpinan Alidir, Gumarang sempat merekam sejumlah lagu di bawah naungan perusahaan negara, Lokananta, di Solo. Rekaman dilakukan di Studio RRI Jakarta dan hasilnya dibawa ke Lokananta untuk dicetak dalam bentuk piringan hitam (PH). Dalam rekamannya yang pertama ini Gumarang bermain dengan gendang, bongo, maracas, piano, gitar, dan bas betot. Mereka tetap mempertahankan rentak gamat dan joget sambil memadukannya dengan beguine, rumba, dan cha-cha. Bunyi alat musik Minang, seperti talempong, memang memberikan asosiasi pada irama Latin, demikian juga saluang. Itulah sebabnya irama Latin mudah dipadukan dengan lagu-lagu Minang.

Suyoso Karsono yang memimpin perusahaan rekaman Irama di Jakarta ternyata diam-diam tertarik pada Gumarang. Sebagai seorang pengusaha, orang yang dikenal dengan nama Mas Yos itu tahu bahwa irama yang dibawakan Gumarang bukan saja mampu menyajikan lagu-lagu Minang sesuai dengan aslinya, namun juga memiliki ramuan irama Latin yang amat disukai masyarakat.

“Sebenarnya irama Latin itu hanya dalam tempo, supaya lagu-lagu Minang bisa diterima juga oleh masyarakat di luar Minang,” kata Asbon ketika menerima tawaran Irama untuk merekam sejumlah lagu.

Gumarang merekam Ayam Den Lapeh ciptaan A Hamid, Jiko Bapisoh dan Laruik Sanjo ciptaan Asbon, Yobaitu ciptaan Syaiful Nawas, Takana Adiak ciptaan Januar Arifin, Baju Karuang, Ko Upiek Lah Gadang, Titian Nan Lapuak, Nasib Sawahlunto, dan lagu lain-lain yang jelas sekali dipadukan dengan irama cha-cha yang dikenal sebagai pengiring tarian di Amerika Selatan.  “Cha-cha memang sedang menjadi favorit masyarakat waktu itu, sebagaimana kami senang naik becak dari tempat indekos menuju Studio Irama. Kalau selesai rekaman, Nurseha diantar Asbon dengan becak ke rumahnya di Grogol. Soalnya, rekaman yang dimulai pukul delapan malam biasanya selesai pukul dua dini hari,” ujar salah seorang penyanyi Gumarang, Syaiful Nawas, yang sempat menjadi wartawan harian Waspada, Pedoman, Purnama, Trio, Aneka, Sinar Harapan, Abadi, Suara Pembaruan, dan majalah Selecta. “Sayalah yang bertugas menulis semua kejadian karena ikut di dalam proses rekaman.

Mas Yos memberikan bahan-bahannya dan saya tulis di berbagai surat kabar serta majalah Selecta dan Varia. Bahkan, harian Pedoman menulis Gumarang dalam tajuk rencananya.

Sementara Asbon langsung memberikan PH yang baru dari pabrik ke RRI,” ungkap Syaiful Nawas, kakek dari lima cucu yang sekarang setiap hari berkantor di rumah makan miliknya, Padang Raya.Hasilnya, Laruik Sanjo dan Ayam Den Lapeh berkumandang tidak hanya di RRI, namun juga di toko-toko yang khusus menjual PH di Jakarta dan luar kota. Pemutaran lagu-lagu Gumarang itu adalah atas permintaan masyarakat yang mendatangi toko-toko itu dan membeli PH mereka. Laruik Sanjo yang berarti larut senja dan Ayam Den Lapeh sebagai analogi kehilangan kekasih, menjadi lagu-lagu populer secara nasional.

Sedemikian populernya kedua lagu itu, Laruik Sanjo dilayarputihkan oleh Perfini tahun 1960 dengan sutradara kondang Usmar Ismail serta aktor Bambang Irawan dan aktris Farida Oetojo sebagai pemeran utama. Sementara Stupa Film memproduksi Ayam Den Lapeh pada tahun yang sama dengan sutradara H Asby dan Gondosubroto, sementara Asbon dan Gumarang dipercaya mengisi ilustrasi musik film ini. Ceritanya diambil dari lirik lagunya. Si kucapang si kucapai/ saikua tapang saikua lapeh/Tabanglah juo nan ka rimbo/Oi lah malang juo. Artinya, yang dikejar luput, yang dimiliki terlepas.

2.Musik Minang ERA 1960-1970

1) Oslan Husein

oslan huseinGumarang, Teruna Ria, dan Kumbang Tjari
IRAMA musik Latin sudah masuk dalam ramuan aransemen musik lagu-lagu Indonesia sejak pertengahan tahun 1955. Pelakunya adalah seorang yang bernama Asbon Majid, pemimpin orkes Gumarang. Dengan maksud memberi alternatif lain dari seriosa, keroncong, dan hiburan, Asbon memasuki unsur-unsur musik Latin yang pada masa itu memang sedang populer di Indonesia.

oslan-tahu

Detail information on musical album is important for history. Look at this album entitled Tahu Tempe by singer Oslan Husein which published by Irama record on 1960-ies. This album attached a note written by Sjahrul Nawas on it’s back cover. Sjahrul Nawas said that this album presented songs concerning about basic need of the Indonesian people in era 1960-ies.

This album responded toward speech of Presiden Soekarno who said that Indonesian people will never been hungry, because Indonesia is a rich country. So that this album presented songs entitled Tahu Tempe (a traditional food made of soya-bean), Nasi Djagung (rice made of corn), Sepiring Nasi (A Plate of Rice).

But what made this album special is a song entitled Lebaran, which became national anthem and sung every Idul Fitri season. Also finally, we know that the composer of this classic song is M. Jusuf, a leader of Orkes Widjaja Kusuma, a band for this album. Who has any information about M. Jusuf? Please share us

Menjelang akhir tahun 1953 dan awal 1954, ada beberapa anak muda asal Sumatera Barat yang, antara lain, bernama Alidir, Anwar Anif, Dhira Suhud, Joeswar Khairudin, Taufik, Syaiful Nawas, dan Awaludin yang di kemudian hari menjadi Kepala Polri. Bersama beberapa orang lainnya mereka berkumpul di rumah Yus Bahri di Jalan Jambu, Menteng, Jakarta Pusat. Mereka sepakat mendirikan sebuah grup musik untuk meneruskan kiprah orkes Penghibur Hati yang mendendangkan lagu-lagu Minang.

Mereka menamakan grupnya orkes Gumarang. Nama itu diambil dari cerita legendaris Minang, Cindue Mato, yang tokoh utamanya memiliki tiga binatang kesayangan. Tiga binatang itu adalah Kinantan si ayam jantan yang piawai, Binuang si banteng yang gagah perkasa, dan Gumarang si kuda sembrani berbulu putih yang larinya bagaikan kilat sehingga menurut legenda tersebut bisa keliling dunia dalam sekejap. Anwar Anif pun didaulat menjadi pemimpin.

Mula-mula yang dibicarakan adalah bagaimana konsep musik yang akan dibawakan untuk lagu-lagu Minang yang sudah dipopulerkan oleh Penghibur Hati melalui Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) Jakarta. Lagu-lagu Penghibur Hati yang disiarkan radio itu, antara lain, Kaparinyo, Dayung Palinggam, Nasib Sawahlunto, dan Sempaya.

Pengaruh lagu-lagu Latin (seperti Melody d’Amour, Besame Mucho, Cachito, Maria Elena, dan Quizas, Quizas, Quizas) yang sedang digemari tak mampu mereka tepis. Oleh sebab itulah musik Latin tersebut menjadi unsur baru dalam aransemen musik Gumarang.

Pada masa itu tidaklah mudah bagi seorang penyanyi atau sebuah grup untuk tampil di RRI. Mereka harus lulus tes di depan sejumlah juri, sebagaimana layaknya peserta sebuah lomba.

Walaupun Anwar Anif hanya memimpin selama sembilan bulan, ia berhasil membawa Gumarang lulus tes RRI. Alidir yang menggantikannya ternyata bertahan lebih singkat lagi dan kemudian menyerahkan pimpinan Gumarang kepada Asbon, bulan Mei 1955.

Asbon tidak hanya mempertegas dominasi musik Latin dalam lagu-lagu yang sudah biasa dibawakan Gumarang, tetapi juga pada lagu-lagu baru ciptaannya maupun ciptaan personel Gumarang lainnya. Pada masa Asbon inilah bergabung pianis yang memiliki sentuhan Latin, Januar Arifin, serta penyanyi Hasmanan (kemudian menjadi sutradara), Nurseha, dan Anas Yusuf.

Kebesaran Gumarang tidak bisa disangkal berkat seringnya grup ini tampil di RRI dan memeriahkan acara Panggung Gembira. Sukses Gumarang merebut hati masyarakat menyebabkan penampilan orkes itu berlanjut di tempat-tempat lainnya, seperti Istana Negara, Gedung Kesenian, dan Istora Senayan.

Pada masa kepemimpinan Alidir, Gumarang sempat merekam sejumlah lagu di bawah naungan perusahaan negara, Lokananta, di Solo. Rekaman dilakukan di Studio RRI Jakarta dan hasilnya dibawa ke Lokananta untuk dicetak dalam bentuk piringan hitam (PH).

Dalam rekamannya yang pertama ini Gumarang bermain dengan gendang, bongo, maracas, piano, gitar, dan bas betot. Mereka tetap mempertahankan rentak gamat dan joget sambil memadukannya dengan beguine, rumba, dan cha-cha.

Bunyi alat musik Minang, seperti talempong, memang memberikan asosiasi pada irama Latin, demikian juga saluang. Itulah sebabnya irama Latin mudah dipadukan dengan lagu-lagu Minang.(siapa yang memiliki rekaman orkes Gumarang dibp alidir,harap memberikan info,teriam Kasih- Dr Iwan S)

Suyoso Karsono yang memimpin perusahaan rekaman Irama di Jakarta ternyata diam-diam tertarik pada Gumarang. Sebagai seorang pengusaha, orang yang dikenal dengan nama Mas Yos itu tahu bahwa irama yang dibawakan Gumarang bukan saja mampu menyajikan lagu-lagu Minang sesuai dengan aslinya, namun juga memiliki ramuan irama Latin yang amat disukai masyarakat.Bagaimanakah profiole Mas Yos, mari kita lihat pada sampul piring hitam berjudul Dari Mas Yos Kasih Maafkan Beta ,berupa rekaman musik orkes eslhinta dbp Mus Mualim. dibawah ini :

“Sebenarnya irama Latin itu hanya dalam tempo, supaya lagu-lagu Minang bisa diterima juga oleh masyarakat di luar Minang,” kata Asbon ketika menerima tawaran Irama untuk merekam sejumlah lagu. Gumarang merekam Ayam Den Lapeh ciptaan A Hamid, Jiko Bapisoh dan Laruik Sanjo ciptaan Asbon, Yobaitu ciptaan Syaiful Nawas, Takana Adiak ciptaan Januar Arifin, Baju Karuang, Ko Upiek Lah Gadang, Titian Nan Lapuak, Nasib Sawahlunto, dan lagu lain-lain yang jelas sekali dipadukan dengan irama cha-cha yang dikenal sebagai pengiring tarian di Amerika Selatan.

“Cha-cha memang sedang menjadi favorit masyarakat waktu itu, sebagaimana kami senang naik becak dari tempat indekos menuju Studio Irama. Kalau selesai rekaman, Nurseha diantar Asbon dengan becak ke rumahnya di Grogol. Soalnya, rekaman yang dimulai pukul delapan malam biasanya selesai pukul dua dini hari,” ujar salah seorang penyanyi Gumarang, Syaiful Nawas, yang sempat menjadi wartawan harian Waspada, Pedoman, Purnama, Trio, Aneka, Sinar Harapan, Abadi, Suara Pembaruan, dan majalah Selecta.

“Sayalah yang bertugas menulis semua kejadian karena ikut di dalam proses rekaman. Mas Yos memberikan bahan-bahannya dan saya tulis di berbagai surat kabar serta majalah Selecta dan Varia. Bahkan, harian Pedoman menulis Gumarang dalam tajuk rencananya. Sementara Asbon langsung memberikan PH yang baru dari pabrik ke RRI,” ungkap Syaiful Nawas, kakek dari lima cucu yang sekarang setiap hari berkantor di rumah makan miliknya, Padang Raya.

Pada era ini musik barat dilarang diputar di Radio,  sehingga musik dalam negeri memperoleh kesempatan.,sperti lagu minang , seperti cuplikan dari tulisan surat kabar Padang Post dibawah ini:

Sejarah munculnya kreatifitas seniman dalam memopulerkan lagu-lagu Minang. Frans Sartono (kompas.com), menjelaskan, pada era 1950-1960-an, pembatasan pemutaran musik pop Barat di radio berimbas pada kreatifitas seniman lokal untuk berbicara dengan bahasa daerah dalam lirik lagu. Orkes Gumarang yang personelnya adalah Urang Awak mempopulerkan lagu berbahasa Minang, seperti Ayam Den Lapeh sampai Laruik Sanjo. Mereka mengakomodasikan unsur musik Latin yang saat itu banyak digemari di negeri ini. Oslan Husein, dengan bahasa Minang pula, memopulerkan lagu seperti Kampuang nan Jauh di Mato, dan Elly Kasim dikenal lewat Bareh Solok.
Dengan penelusuran yang lebih lengkap mengenai sejarah munculnya lagu-lagu Minang yang bersinergi dengan musik-musik lain, Theodore KS, penulis masalah industri musik (kompas.com) menguraikan, bahwa di masa 50-an muncul grup-grup musik yang menggubah lagu-lagu Minang dengan warna musik lain, seperti musik klasik. Orkes Gumarang dengan irama Latin

Hasilnya, Laruik Sanjo dan Ayam Den Lapeh berkumandang tidak hanya di RRI, namun juga di toko-toko yang khusus menjual PH di Jakarta dan luar kota. Pemutaran lagu-lagu Gumarang itu adalah atas permintaan masyarakat yang mendatangi toko-toko itu dan membeli PH mereka. Laruik Sanjo yang berarti larut senja dan Ayam Den Lapeh sebagai analogi kehilangan kekasih, menjadi lagu-lagu populer secara nasional.

Sedemikian populernya kedua lagu itu, Laruik Sanjo dilayarputihkan oleh Perfini tahun 1960 dengan sutradara kondang Usmar Ismail serta aktor Bambang Irawan dan aktris Farida Oetojo sebagai pemeran utama. Sementara Stupa Film memproduksi Ayam Den Lapeh pada tahun yang sama dengan sutradara H Asby dan Gondosubroto, sementara Asbon dan Gumarang dipercaya mengisi ilustrasi musik film ini.

Ceritanya diambil dari lirik lagunya. Si kucapang si kucapai/ saikua tapang saikua lapeh/Tabanglah juo nan ka rimbo/Oi lah malang juo. Artinya, yang dikejar luput, yang dimiliki terlepas.

 Nuansa Minangkabau yang ada di dalam setiap musik Sumatera Barat yang dicampur dengan jenis musik apapun saat ini pasti akan terlihat dari setiap karya lagu yang beredar di masyarat. Hal ini karena musik Minang bisa diracik dengan aliran musik jenis apapun sehingga enak didengar dan bisa diterima oleh masyarakat. Unsur musik pemberi nuansa terdiri dari instrumen alat musik tradisional saluang, bansi, talempong, rabab, dan gandang tabuik.

Ada pula saluang jo dendang, yakni penyampaian dendang (cerita berlagu) yang diiringi saluang yang dikenal juga dengan nama sijobang[14].

Musik Minangkabau berupa instrumentalia dan lagu-lagu dari daerah ini pada umumnya bersifat melankolis. Hal ini berkaitan erat dengan struktur masyarakatnya yang memiliki rasa persaudaraan, hubungan kekeluargaan dan kecintaan akan kampung halaman yang tinggi ditunjang dengan kebiasaan pergi merantau.

Industri musik di Sumatera Barat semakin berkembang dengan munculnya seniman-seniman Minang yang bisa membaurkan musik modern ke dalam musik tradisional Minangkabau. Perkembangan musik Minang modern di Sumatera Barat sudah dimulai sejak tahun 1950-an ditandai dengan lahirnya Orkes Gumarang.

Mereka memang sudah pergi, tetapi meninggalkan jejak berupa musik Minang dan Indonesia modern. Gumarang dengan irama Latin dan Teruna Ria me-rock’n’roll-kan lagu serta musiknya.

2.Orkes Kumbang Tjari dibp.Nuskan sjarif dengan penyanyi Elly Kasim.

Kumbang Tjari
Sementara itu, di Padang tersebutlah seorang pemuda yang gila musik bernama Nuskan Syarif. Saking besar keinginannya bermusik dan memiliki gitar, uang untuk membeli baju Lebaran dibelikannya gitar bekas di tukang loak. Nuskan, yang bangga dengan popularitas Gumarang, pada tahun 1954 sempat berlibur ke Jakarta. Dia tidak menyia-nyiakan kesempatan selama berada di Ibu Kota dan menawarkan lagu ciptaannya, Kok Upiak Lah Gadang, ke Gumarang. Ternyata lagunya diterima dan dimainkan dalam acara Panggung Gembira di RRI. “Lagu itu saya tulis notasi dan liriknya karena tape recorder belum memasyarakat seperti sekarang. Saya kembali ke Padang dan meneruskan karier sebagai penyanyi amatir sambil memperdalam pengetahuan saya bermain gitar,” kata Nuskan yang juga dikenal sebagai guru Pendidikan Jasmani di SMP Negeri I Padang hingga tahun 1960. Pindah ke Jakarta, Nuskan meneruskan karier sebagai guru olahraga, sementara kemampuannya bermain gitar dan mencipta lagu semakin meningkat. Atas saran Anas Yusuf, Nuskan memutuskan bergabung dengan Gumarang. Tetapi, Asbon yang sudah tahu kemampuan anak muda itu justru menyarankannya membentuk grup musik sendiri.
“Itulah awal lahirnya orkes Kumbang Tjari pada tahun 1961. Meskipun saya mengagumi Gumarang, saya berusaha membuat musik yang berbeda. Kalau Gumarang dominan dengan pianonya, Kumbang Tjari mengedepankan melodi gitar,” lanjut Nuskan, ayah dari sembilan anak dan kakek dari 10 cucu. Di sinilah Nuskan menunjukkan keperkasaannya sebagai pemain gitar, bukan hanya dalam soal teknik, namun juga dalam soal eksplorasi bunyi. Petikan gitarnya mengingatkan pendengarnya akan suara saluang, seruling bambu khas Minang. Ciri khas ini belum ada duanya sampai sekarang. Hal ini diperjelas Hasmanan, salah seorang penyanyi Gumarang yang menulis kesan-kesannya di sampul depan PH. “Sebagai orkes baru jang masih harus berdjuang memenangkan simpatik dan popularitas, menarik sekali nafas dan penghajatan jang diberikan ’Kumbang Tjari’ terhadap lagu-lagunja. Hidangan2 mereka terasa masih dekat sekali kepada tjara lagu2 rakjat asli Minang dibawakan. Petikan2 gitar Nuskan Sjarif sering mengingatkan orang akan bunji alat2 musik asli Minang seperti talempong, rebab, dan saluang,” demikian tulisan di sampul depan PH itu.
PH Kumbang Tjari yang pertama ini berisi lagu-lagu Asmara Dara yang dinyanyikan oleh Elly Kasim, Randang Darek dinyanyikan Nuskan Syarif, Taraatak Tangga (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Syarif), Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Tjita Bahagia (Elly Kasim dan Nuskan Syarif), Cha Cha Mari Cha (Nuskan Syarif), Gadis Tuladan (Nuskan Syarif), Kumbang Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Syarif dan kawan kawan), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Syarif dan kawan-kawan), dan Oi, Bulan (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan). Bersama Kumbang Tjari inilah Elly Kasim menjadi penyanyi lagu-lagu Minang yang belum tergantikan sampai sekarang. Perempuan kelahiran Tiku, Kabupaten Agam, Sumatera Barat, tanggal 27 September 1942, itu terkenal dengan lagu-lagu seperti Kaparinyo, Dayung Palinggam, Kelok Sembilan, Barek Solok, Lamang Tapai, Sala-lauak, Si Nona, Lansek Manih, Main Kim, Mudiak Arau, dan masih banyak lagi. Lagu-lagu itu telah dimuat dalam puluhan PH, kaset, maupun VCD selama lebih dari 40 tahun.  Namun, Kumbang Tjari kemudian terpaksa vakum ketika Nuskan sebagai guru olahraga menerima untuk ditempatkan di Sukarnapura (sekarang Jayapura), Papua, pada bulan Juli 1963. “Saya sangat menikmati profesi sebagai guru olahraga. Dikirim ke Irian Barat saya anggap sebagai amanat yang harus dilaksanakan. Setelah saya pergi, sayang teman-teman tidak bersedia meneruskan Kumbang Tjari,” ujar Nuskan. Selama di Jayapura, ia sempat juga membina bibit-bibit penyanyi dan menciptakan sejumlah lagu. Lahir di Tebing Tinggi tanggal 4 Januari 1935, dalam usia menjelang 70 tahun sekarang ini, Nuskan masih rajin joging di pagi hari dan tetap siap tampil bersama Kumbang Tjari-nya.  Walaupun hanya dua tahun (1961-1963) di belantika musik, Kumbang Tjari menjadi grup pertama yang tampil di TVRI ketika stasiun televisi pemerintah itu diresmikan tahun 1962. Orkes ini juga mengisi acara pembukaan Bali Room, Hotel Indonesia, dan kemudian tampil bersama Gumarang serta Taruna Ria dalam pertunjukan bertajuk “Tiga Raksasa” di Istora Senayan.
Nuskan kembali ke Jakarta 29 November dan Januari 1969 Kumbang Tjari dibentuk lagi dengan personel yang berbeda dan tidak pakai embel-embel “orkes” lagi. Kumbang Tjari pun kembali dipimpin Nuskan dan seperti sebelumnya mulai masuk studio rekaman dan mengisi berbagai acara panggung hingga tur ke Malaysia bersama Elly Kasim, Benyamin S, Ida Royani, serta Ellya Khadam. Di samping Gumarang dan Kumbang Tjari, juga tidak bisa dilupakan orkes Teruna Ria yang mempertegas irama rock’n’roll dalam lagu-lagu Minang. Bubarnya Teruna Ria menyebabkan penyanyi utamanya, Oslan Husein, mendirikan Osria. Sementara personel lainnya, Zaenal Arifin, mendirikan Zaenal Combo, yang merajai penataan musik rekaman hampir semua penyanyi pada akhir 1960-an sampai awal 1970-an. Penyanyi-penyanyi yang diiringi Zaenal Combo, yaitu Lilies Suryani, Ernie Djohan, Alfian, duet Tuty Subarjo/Onny Suryono, Retno, Patti Sisters, Tetty Kadi, Anna Mathovani, Emilia Contessa, Titi Qadarsih, Angle Paff, atau Lily Marlene. Zaenal Arifin, pencipta lagu Teluk Bayur, meninggal 31 Maret 2002. Asbon tutup usia pada 16 Maret 2004, sedangkan Oslan Husein dan Nurseha mendahului keduanya beberapa tahun sebelumnya.
Mereka memang sudah pergi, tetapi meninggalkan jejak berupa musik Minang dan Indonesia modern. Gumarang dengan irama Latin dan Teruna Ria me-rock’n’roll-kan lagu serta musiknya. Sementara gitar bersuara saluang ala Nuskan Syarif masih bisa dinikmati sampai sekarang bersama Kumbang Tjari-nya.

Mengikuti sukses Gumarang, Kumbang Tjari pun tak kalah terkenalnya. Adalah Nuskan Syarif yang menakhodai grup musik yang berdiri tahun 1961 ini. Meskipun mengagumi Gumarang, Nuskan berusaha membuat musik yang berbeda. Kalau Gumarang dominan dengan pianonya, Kumbang Tjari mengedepankan melodi gitar. Di sinilah Nuskan menunjukkan keperkasaannya sebagai pemain gitar, bukan hanya dalam soal teknik, namun juga dalam soal eksplorasi bunyi. Petikan gitarnya mengingatkan pendengarnya akan suara saluang, seruling bambu khas Minang. Ciri khas ini belum ada duanya sampai sekarang.
Memasuki studio rekaman piringan hitam (PH), album Kumbang Tjari yang pertama ini berisi lagu-lagu Asmara Dara yang dinyanyikan oleh Elly Kasim, Randang Darek dinyanyikan Nuskan Syarif, Taratak Tangga (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Syarif), Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Tjita Bahagia (Elly Kasim dan Nuskan Syarif), Cha Cha Mari Cha (Nuskan Syarif), Gadis Tuladan (Nuskan Syarif), Kumbang Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Syarif dan kawan kawan), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Syarif dan kawan-kawan), dan Oi, Bulan (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan).
Selain Gumarang dan Kumbang Tjari, juga tidak bisa dilupakan orkes Teruna Ria yang mempertegas irama rock’n’roll dalam lagu-lagu Minang.

Bubarnya Teruna Ria menyebabkan penyanyi utamanya, Oslan Husein, mendirikan Osria. Sementara personel lainnya, Zaenal Arifin, mendirikan Zaenal Combo, yang merajai penataan musik rekaman hampir semua penyanyi pada akhir 1960-an sampai awal 1970-an. Penyanyi-penyanyi yang diiringi Zaenal Combo, yaitu Lilies Suryani, Ernie Djohan, Alfian, duet Tuty Subarjo/Onny Suryono, Retno, Patti Sisters, Tetty Kadi, Anna Mathovani, Emilia Contessa, Titi Qadarsih, Angle Paff, atau Lily Marlene.

Seribu lagu setahun

Melihat perkembangan awal lagu-lagu pop Minang ini, wajar saja kalau sebagian penggemar lagu Minang prihatin dan kecewa dengan lagu Minang sekarang. Salah satu faktor yang menyebabkan lagu-lagu Minang tempo dulu bisa hinggap lebih lama di telinga pendengarnya adalah tidak banyaknya industri rekaman, apalagi ditahun-tahun 50-an tersebut. Dalam setahun bisa dihitung dengan jari lagu yang beredar. Belum lagi pada masa itu rekaman piringan hitam (PH) dengan gramafon sebagai medianya. Bahkan untuk tampil di RRI saja harus melewati seleksi yang ketat. “Pada masa itu tidaklah mudah bagi seorang penyanyi atau sebuah grup untuk tampil di RRI. Mereka harus lulus tes di depan sejumlah juri, sebagaimana layaknya peserta sebuah lomba,”

SEMENTARA itu, orkes Kumbang Tjari dipimpin oleh Nuskan Syarif, Teruna Ria oleh Oslan Husein, dan Zaenal Combo oleh Zaenal Arifin. Tiga orkes ini memasukkan rock’n’roll pada lagu-lagu Minang dan non-Minang, seperti Kampung Nan Jauh Di Mato, Tirtonadi, dan Bengawan Solo.

Kumbang Tjari

Sementara itu, di Padang tersebutlah seorang pemuda yang gila musik bernama Nuskan Syarif. Saking besar keinginannya bermusik dan memiliki gitar, uang untuk membeli baju Lebaran dibelikannya gitar bekas di tukang loak. Nuskan, yang bangga dengan popularitas Gumarang, pada tahun 1954 sempat berlibur ke Jakarta. Dia tidak menyia-nyiakan kesempatan selama berada di Ibu Kota dan menawarkan lagu ciptaannya, Kok Upiak Lah Gadang, ke Gumarang. Ternyata lagunya diterima dan dimainkan dalam acara Panggung Gembira di RRI. “Lagu itu saya tulis notasi dan liriknya karena tape recorder belum memasyarakat seperti sekarang. Saya kembali ke Padang dan meneruskan karier sebagai penyanyi amatir sambil memperdalam pengetahuan saya bermain gitar,” kata Nuskan yang juga dikenal sebagai guru Pendidikan Jasmani di SMP Negeri I Padang hingga tahun 1960. Pindah ke Jakarta, Nuskan meneruskan karier sebagai guru olahraga, sementara kemampuannya bermain gitar dan mencipta lagu semakin meningkat. Atas saran Anas Yusuf, Nuskan memutuskan bergabung dengan Gumarang. Tetapi, Asbon yang sudah tahu kemampuan anak muda itu justru menyarankannya membentuk grup musik sendiri.

“Itulah awal lahirnya orkes Kumbang Tjari pada tahun 1961. Meskipun saya mengagumi Gumarang, saya berusaha membuat musik yang berbeda. Kalau Gumarang dominan dengan pianonya, Kumbang Tjari mengedepankan melodi gitar,” lanjut Nuskan, ayah dari sembilan anak dan kakek dari 10 cucu. Di sinilah Nuskan menunjukkan keperkasaannya sebagai pemain gitar, bukan hanya dalam soal teknik, namun juga dalam soal eksplorasi bunyi. Petikan gitarnya mengingatkan pendengarnya akan suara saluang, seruling bambu khas Minang. Ciri khas ini belum ada duanya sampai sekarang. Hal ini diperjelas Hasmanan, salah seorang penyanyi Gumarang yang menulis kesan-kesannya di sampul depan PH. “Sebagai orkes baru jang masih harus berdjuang memenangkan simpatik dan popularitas, menarik sekali nafas dan penghajatan jang diberikan ’Kumbang Tjari’ terhadap lagu-lagunja. Hidangan2 mereka terasa masih dekat sekali kepada tjara lagu2 rakjat asli Minang dibawakan. Petikan2 gitar Nuskan Sjarif sering mengingatkan orang akan bunji alat2 musik asli Minang seperti talempong, rebab, dan saluang,” demikian tulisan di sampul depan PH itu.

Sementara itu, di Padang tersebutlah seorang pemuda yang gila musik bernama Nuskan Syarif. Saking besar keinginannya bermusik dan memiliki gitar, uang untuk membeli baju Lebaran dibelikannya gitar bekas di tukang loak.

Nuskan, yang bangga dengan popularitas Gumarang, pada tahun 1954 sempat berlibur ke Jakarta. Dia tidak menyia-nyiakan kesempatan selama berada di Ibu Kota dan menawarkan lagu ciptaannya, Kok Upiak Lah Gadang, ke Gumarang. Ternyata lagunya diterima dan dimainkan dalam acara Panggung Gembira di RRI.

“Lagu itu saya tulis notasi dan liriknya karena tape recorder belum memasyarakat seperti sekarang. Saya kembali ke Padang dan meneruskan karier sebagai penyanyi amatir sambil memperdalam pengetahuan saya bermain gitar,” kata Nuskan yang juga dikenal sebagai guru Pendidikan Jasmani di SMP Negeri I Padang hingga tahun 1960.

Pindah ke Jakarta, Nuskan meneruskan karier sebagai guru olahraga, sementara kemampuannya bermain gitar dan mencipta lagu semakin meningkat. Atas saran Anas Yusuf, Nuskan memutuskan bergabung dengan Gumarang. Tetapi, Asbon yang sudah tahu kemampuan anak muda itu justru menyarankannya membentuk grup musik sendiri.

“Itulah awal lahirnya orkes Kumbang Tjari pada tahun 1961. Meskipun saya mengagumi Gumarang, saya berusaha membuat musik yang berbeda. Kalau Gumarang dominan dengan pianonya, Kumbang Tjari mengedepankan melodi gitar,” lanjut Nuskan, ayah dari sembilan anak dan kakek dari 10 cucu.

Di sinilah Nuskan menunjukkan keperkasaannya sebagai pemain gitar, bukan hanya dalam soal teknik, namun juga dalam soal eksplorasi bunyi. Petikan gitarnya mengingatkan pendengarnya akan suara saluang, seruling bambu khas Minang. Ciri khas ini belum ada duanya sampai sekarang. Hal ini diperjelas Hasmanan, salah seorang penyanyi Gumarang yang menulis kesan-kesannya di sampul depan PH.

“Sebagai orkes baru jang masih harus berdjuang memenangkan simpatik dan popularitas, menarik sekali nafas dan penghajatan jang diberikan ’Kumbang Tjari’ terhadap lagu-lagunja. Hidangan2 mereka terasa masih dekat sekali kepada tjara lagu2 rakjat asli Minang dibawakan. Petikan2 gitar Nuskan Sjarif sering mengingatkan orang akan bunji alat2 musik asli Minang seperti talempong, rebab, dan saluang,” demikian tulisan di sampul depan PH itu.

PH Kumbang Tjari yang pertama ini berisi lagu-lagu Asmara Dara yang dinyanyikan oleh Elly Kasim, Randang Darek dinyanyikan Nuskan Syarif, Taraatak Tangga (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Syarif), Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Tjita Bahagia (Elly Kasim dan Nuskan Syarif), Cha Cha Mari Cha (Nuskan Syarif), Gadis Tuladan (Nuskan Syarif), Kumbang Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Syarif dan kawan kawan), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Syarif dan kawan-kawan), dan Oi, Bulan (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan).

Kemudian elly Kasim merekam beberapa piring hitam antara lain :

1.Lagu  Kasiah Tak Sampai diiringi Band  electrica dibp Iwan Setiawan ,diproduksi oleh Indah record,LP Sterio side 1 berisi lagu Kapan Kamai,Kasiah tak sampai,Gulai paku,Djangan Tjoba2,Batanam Mumbang dan Sutan Betawi

side 2 berisi lagu :Batjontiak,Putus Kasiah,Sunguik Apolo,Permohonan dan gadih Bajua.

2.Lagu Anak Salido direkam oleh Philips

Bersama Kumbang Tjari inilah Elly Kasim menjadi penyanyi lagu-lagu Minang yang belum tergantikan sampai sekarang. Perempuan kelahiran Tiku, Kabupaten Agam, Sumatera Barat, tanggal 27 September 1942, itu terkenal dengan lagu-lagu seperti Kaparinyo, Dayung Palinggam, Kelok Sembilan, Barek Solok, Lamang Tapai, Sala-lauak, Si Nona, Lansek manih, Main Kim, Mudiak Arau, dan masih banyak lagi. Lagu-lagu itu telah dimuat dalam puluhan PH, kaset, maupun VCD selama lebih dari 40 tahun.

Namun, Kumbang Tjari kemudian terpaksa vakum ketika Nuskan sebagai guru olahraga menerima untuk ditempatkan di Sukarnapura (sekarang Jayapura), Papua, pada bulan Juli 1963. “Saya sangat menikmati profesi sebagai guru olahraga. Dikirim ke Irian Barat saya anggap sebagai amanat yang harus dilaksanakan. Setelah saya pergi, sayang teman-teman tidak bersedia meneruskan Kumbang Tjari,” ujar Nuskan.

Selama di Jayapura, ia sempat juga membina bibit-bibit penyanyi dan menciptakan sejumlah lagu. Lahir di Tebing Tinggi tanggal 4 Januari 1935, dalam usia menjelang 70 tahun sekarang ini, Nuskan masih rajin joging di pagi hari dan tetap siap tampil bersama Kumbang Tjari-nya.(salam kepada Pak Nuskan sjarief,masih ingat saya Goan pemain tenis yang dilatih oleh ayah anda alm Bachtiar sjarief di Padang,masih ingat kita pernah bertemu dilapangn seberang sungai dikaki bukit gunung padang dulu sekitar tahun 1960,nama saya sekarang Iwan Suwandy-Dr Iwan)

Walaupun hanya dua tahun (1961-1963) di belantika musik, Kumbang Tjari menjadi grup pertama yang tampil di TVRI ketika stasiun televisi pemerintah itu diresmikan tahun 1962. Orkes ini juga mengisi acara pembukaan Bali Room, Hotel Indonesia, dan kemudian tampil bersama Gumarang serta Taruna Ria dalam pertunjukan bertajuk “Tiga Raksasa” di Istora Senayan.

Nuskan kembali ke Jakarta 29 November dan Januari 1969 Kumbang Tjari dibentuk lagi dengan personel yang berbeda dan tidak pakai embel-embel “orkes” lagi. Kumbang Tjari pun kembali dipimpin Nuskan dan seperti sebelumnya mulai masuk studio rekaman dan mengisi berbagai acara panggung hingga tur ke Malaysia bersama Elly Kasim, Benyamin S, Ida Royani, serta Ellya Khadam.

Di samping Gumarang dan Kumbang Tjari, juga tidak bisa dilupakan orkes Teruna Ria yang mempertegas irama rock’n’roll dalam lagu-lagu Minang. Bubarnya Teruna Ria menyebabkan penyanyi utamanya, Oslan Husein, mendirikan Osria. Sementara personel lainnya, Zaenal Arifin, mendirikan Zaenal Combo, yang merajai penataan musik rekaman hampir semua penyanyi pada akhir 1960-an sampai awal 1970-an.

Penyanyi-penyanyi yang diiringi Zaenal Combo, yaitu Lilies Suryani, Ernie Djohan, Alfian, duet Tuty Subarjo/Onny Suryono, Retno, Patti Sisters, Tetty Kadi, Anna Mathovani, Emilia Contessa, Titi Qadarsih, Angle Paff, atau Lily Marlene.

Zaenal Arifin, pencipta lagu Teluk Bayur, meninggal 31 Maret 2002. Asbon tutup usia pada 16 Maret 2004, sedangkan Oslan Husein dan Nurseha mendahului keduanya beberapa tahun sebelumnya.

PH Kumbang Tjari yang pertama ini berisi lagu-lagu Asmara Dara yang dinyanyikan oleh Elly Kasim, Randang Darek dinyanyikan Nuskan Syarif, Taraatak Tangga (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Syarif), Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan), Tjita Bahagia (Elly Kasim dan Nuskan Syarif), Cha Cha Mari Cha (Nuskan Syarif), Gadis Tuladan (Nuskan Syarif), Kumbang Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Syarif dan kawan kawan), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Syarif dan kawan-kawan), dan Oi, Bulan (Elly Kasim dan kawan-kawan). Bersama Kumbang Tjari inilah Elly Kasim menjadi penyanyi lagu-lagu Minang yang belum tergantikan sampai sekarang. Perempuan kelahiran Tiku, Kabupaten Agam, Sumatera Barat, tanggal 27 September 1942, itu terkenal dengan lagu-lagu seperti Kaparinyo, Dayung Palinggam, Kelok Sembilan, Barek Solok, Lamang Tapai, Sala-lauak, Si Nona, Lansek Manih, Main Kim, Mudiak Arau, dan masih banyak lagi. Lagu-lagu itu telah dimuat dalam puluhan PH, kaset, maupun VCD selama lebih dari 40 tahun.  Namun, Kumbang Tjari kemudian terpaksa vakum ketika Nuskan sebagai guru olahraga menerima untuk ditempatkan di Sukarnapura (sekarang Jayapura), Papua, pada bulan Juli 1963. “Saya sangat menikmati profesi sebagai guru olahraga. Dikirim ke Irian Barat saya anggap sebagai amanat yang harus dilaksanakan. Setelah saya pergi, sayang teman-teman tidak bersedia meneruskan Kumbang Tjari,” ujar Nuskan. Selama di Jayapura, ia sempat juga membina bibit-bibit penyanyi dan menciptakan sejumlah lagu. Lahir di Tebing Tinggi tanggal 4 Januari 1935, dalam usia menjelang 70 tahun sekarang ini, Nuskan masih rajin joging di pagi hari dan tetap siap tampil bersama Kumbang Tjari-nya.  Walaupun hanya dua tahun (1961-1963) di belantika musik, Kumbang Tjari menjadi grup pertama yang tampil di TVRI ketika stasiun televisi pemerintah itu diresmikan tahun 1962. Orkes ini juga mengisi acara pembukaan Bali Room, Hotel Indonesia, dan kemudian tampil bersama Gumarang serta Taruna Ria dalam pertunjukan bertajuk “Tiga Raksasa” di Istora Senayan.

Nuskan kembali ke Jakarta 29 November dan Januari 1969 Kumbang Tjari dibentuk lagi dengan personel yang berbeda dan tidak pakai embel-embel “orkes” lagi. Kumbang Tjari pun kembali dipimpin Nuskan dan seperti sebelumnya mulai masuk studio rekaman dan mengisi berbagai acara panggung hingga tur ke Malaysia bersama Elly Kasim, Benyamin S, Ida Royani, serta Ellya Khadam. Di samping Gumarang dan Kumbang Tjari, juga tidak bisa dilupakan orkes Teruna Ria yang mempertegas irama rock’n’roll dalam lagu-lagu Minang. Bubarnya Teruna Ria menyebabkan penyanyi utamanya, Oslan Husein, mendirikan Osria. Sementara personel lainnya, Zaenal Arifin, mendirikan Zaenal Combo, yang merajai penataan musik rekaman hampir semua penyanyi pada akhir 1960-an sampai awal 1970-an. Penyanyi-penyanyi yang diiringi Zaenal Combo, yaitu Lilies Suryani, Ernie Djohan, Alfian, duet Tuty Subarjo/Onny Suryono, Retno, Patti Sisters, Tetty Kadi, Anna Mathovani, Emilia Contessa, Titi Qadarsih, Angle Paff, atau Lily Marlene. Zaenal Arifin, pencipta lagu Teluk Bayur, meninggal 31 Maret 2002. Asbon tutup usia pada 16 Maret 2004, sedangkan Oslan Husein dan Nurseha mendahului keduanya beberapa tahun sebelumnya.

Album Elly Kasim – Main Kim

Mereka memang sudah pergi, tetapi meninggalkan jejak berupa musik Minang dan Indonesia modern. Gumarang dengan irama Latin dan Teruna Ria me-rock’n’roll-kan lagu serta musiknya. Sementara gitar bersuara saluang ala Nuskan Syarif masih bisa dinikmati sampai sekarang bersama Kumbang Tjari-nya.

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Pada  era 1959-1970 Orkes Kumbangtjari dibawah pimpinan Nuskan sjarif ( Saya pernah bertemu dengan Nuskan sekitar tahun 1959, baik dipadang saat lagi berlatih  Tennis lapangan dengan ayahnya alm Pak Bachtiar  Sjarief dan tahun 1959 betermu di Jakarta saat bertanding tennis ke Semarang di Jakarta, terakhir Nuskan sjarif sebagai ppegawai negeri bertugas di Papua barat (IB saat itu) dan menciptakan lagu Apose,dimanakah Nuskan Sjarief saat ini ? harap yang mengetahuinya memberikan ifo,ayahnya Bachtiar sjarief pelatihku sudah almarhum-Dr Iwan)

 lihat piringhitam Nuskan sjarif deng orkes Kumbang Tjarinya,djuga lagu Elly Kasim alias cik Unieng ,

english version:

 Orchestra GumarangTowards the end of 1953 and early 1954, there are some young people from West Sumatra, among others, called Alidir, Anwar Anif, Dhira Suhud, Joeswar Khairul, Taufik, Syaiful Nawas, and Awaludin who later became Chief of Police. Together with several other men gathered at their house in Jalan Jambu Yus Bahri, Menteng, Central Jakarta. They agreed to set up a music group to continue the pursuit of Hearts Comforter orchestra that hummed Minang songs. They named the group Gumarang orchestra. The name was taken from the legendary story Minang, Cindue Mato, the main character has three pets. Three animal is the rooster Kinantan savvy, Binuang the burly bull, and Gumarang the Pegasus flight of white fur like a lightning so that according to legend can travel the world in an instant. Anif Anwar also was asked to become a leader. First discussed is how the concept of music that will be brought to Minang songs that have been popularized by the Comforter Heart by Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI), Jakarta.

Heart Songs Comforter radio broadcast that, among other things, Kaparinyo, Paddle Palinggam, Fate Sawahlunto, and Sempaya.

The influence of Latin songs (such as Melody d’Amour, Besame Mucho, Cachito, Maria Elena, and Quizas, Quizas, Quizas) who are not able to tune them tepis. That’s why Latin music into a new element in musical arrangements Gumarang. In those days it was not easy for a singer or a group to perform at the RRI. They must pass the test in front of a jury, as is appropriate participants of a race. Although Anwar Anif only led for nine months, he managed to bring Gumarang RRI pass the test. Alidir replace it turns out that a shorter stay longer and then handed over to the Asbon Gumarang leadership, in May 1955.

 Album Gumarang – Kampuang Nan Jauah in Mato
Asbon not only reinforces the dominance of Latin music in the songs that have been brought Gumarang usual, but also the creation of new songs and other creations Gumarang personnel. During this Asbon join pianist who has a touch of Latin, Januar Arifin, and singer Hasmanan (later became director), Nurseha, and Anas Yusuf. Gumarang greatness can not be denied thanks to frequent this group perform in RRI and enliven the event Fun Stage. Success Gumarang win the hearts of the people causing the appearance of the orchestra that continues in other places, such as the State Palace, Arts Building, and Istora. During Alidir leadership, Gumarang had recorded several songs under the auspices of the state company, Lokananta, in Solo. Recordings made at Studio RRI Jakarta and the results are brought to Lokananta to be printed in the form of LPs (PH). In this first recording Gumarang play with drums, bongo, maracas, piano, guitar, and bass betot. They still retain tramp gamat and dancing while integrating it with the Beguine, rumba, and cha-cha. Minang sound of musical instruments, such as talempong, it gives associations in Latin rhythms, as well saluang. That is why Latin rhythms easily combined with Minang songs.

Suyoso Karsono who led the record company Rhythm in Jakarta was secretly interested in Gumarang. As a businessman, a man known by the name of Mas Yos knew that rhythm that was delivered Gumarang not only able to present the songs Minang accordance with the original, but it also has a concoction of Latin rhythms are very appreciated by the public.

“Actually it was only in the Latin rhythm tempo, so that songs can be accepted also by the Minang community outside Minang,” said Asbon when accepting an offer to record a song rhythm.

Ayam Den Lapeh Gumarang record creation A Hamid, Jiko Bapisoh and Laruik Sanjo Asbon creation, creation Yobaitu Syaiful Nawas, Takana Adiak creation Januar Arifin, Clothes Karuang, Ko Upiek Lah Tower, Titian Nan Lapuak, Fate Sawahlunto, and other songs that clearly once combined with the rhythm of the cha-cha, known as a dance in South America. “Cha-cha it is becoming a favorite of society at that time, as we love to ride tricycles from the outhouse to the Studio Rhythm. When finished recording, Nurseha Asbon escorted by rickshaw to his home in Grogol. You see, the recording was started at eight in the evening usually ended at two in the morning, “said one singer Gumarang, Syaiful Nawas, who had become a daily reporter Alert, guide, Purnama, Trio, Assorted, Sinar Harapan, Abadi, Voice Reform, and magazines Selecta. “I am in charge of writing all the events having taken part in the recording process.

Mas Yos provide the ingredients and I write in various newspapers and magazines Selecta and Varia. In fact, the daily wrote Gumarang guide the editorial plan.

While direct Asbon give PH a new from the factory to the RRI, “said Syaiful Nawas, grandfather of five grandchildren who are now every day at home eating his own head, Padang Raya.Hasilnya, and Ayam Den Sanjo Laruik Lapeh reverberate not only in the RRI, but also in special stores that sell PH in Jakarta and outside the city. Screening Gumarang songs that are at the request of the public who visit the shops and buy their PH. Sanjo Laruik which means late twilight, and Ayam Den Lapeh as an analogy lost lovers, become popular songs nationally.

So popular is the second song, Sanjo Laruik dilayarputihkan by Perfini in 1960 with famed director Usmar Ismail as well as actors and actresses Farida Bambang Irawan Oetojo a leading role. While producing Ayam Den Film Stupa Lapeh in the same year with director H Asby and Gondosubroto, while Asbon and trusted Gumarang illustrations fill this film music. The story is taken from the lyric. The kucapang the accomplish / Saikua Tapang Saikua lapeh / Tabanglah juo nan ka Rimbo / Oi is unfortunate juo. That is, who chased missed, held apart.

Minang 2.Musik ERA 1960-1970

1) Oslan Husein

Gumarang, Teruna Ria, and Beetle Tjari
Latin music has been included in the ingredient musical arrangements of songs in Indonesia since mid 1955. The culprit was a man named Asbon Majid, leader of the orchestra Gumarang. For the purpose of giving an alternative to seriosa, keroncong, and entertainment, Asbon enter the elements of Latin music in those days it was popular in Indonesia.

Detailed information on the musical album is Important for history. Look at this album entitled Know Tempe by the which the singer Oslan Husein published by Rhythm records on 1960-ies. This album attached a note written by Sjahrul Nawas on it’s back cover. Sjahrul Nawas said that this album songs presented Concerning about the basic need of the Indonesian people in the era of 1960-ies.

This album responded toward the speech of President Soekarno, the WHO said that Indonesian people will of never been hungry, Because Indonesia is a rich country. That So this album entitled Know Tempe presented songs (a traditional food made of soya-bean), Djagung Rice (rice made of corn), A plate of Nasi (A Plate of Rice).

But what made this special album is a song entitled Lebaran, the which Became the national anthem and sung every Idul Fitri season. Also finally, We Know That the composer of this classic song is M. Joseph, a leader of Orchestra Widjaja Kusuma, a band for this album. Who has any information about M. Joseph? Please share us

Towards the end of 1953 and early 1954, there are some young people from West Sumatra, among others, called Alidir, Anwar Anif, Dhira Suhud, Joeswar Khairul, Taufik, Syaiful Nawas, and Awaludin who later became Chief of Police. Together with several other men gathered at their house in Jalan Jambu Yus Bahri, Menteng, Central Jakarta. They agreed to set up a music group to continue the pursuit of Hearts Comforter orchestra that hummed Minang songs.

They named the group Gumarang orchestra. The name was taken from the legendary story Minang, Cindue Mato, the main character has three pets. Three animal is the rooster Kinantan savvy, Binuang the burly bull, and Gumarang the Pegasus flight of white fur like a lightning so that according to legend can travel the world in an instant. Anif Anwar also was asked to become a leader.

First discussed is how the concept of music that will be brought to Minang songs that have been popularized by the Comforter Heart by Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI), Jakarta. Heart Songs Comforter radio broadcast that, among other things, Kaparinyo, Paddle Palinggam, Fate Sawahlunto, and Sempaya.

The influence of Latin songs (such as Melody d’Amour, Besame Mucho, Cachito, Maria Elena, and Quizas, Quizas, Quizas) who are not able to tune them tepis. That’s why Latin music into a new element in musical arrangements Gumarang.

In those days it was not easy for a singer or a group to perform at the RRI. They must pass the test in front of a jury, as is appropriate participants of a race.

Although Anwar Anif only led for nine months, he managed to bring Gumarang RRI pass the test. Alidir replace it turns out that a shorter stay longer and then handed over to the Asbon Gumarang leadership, in May 1955.

Asbon not only reinforces the dominance of Latin music in the songs that have been brought Gumarang usual, but also the creation of new songs and other creations Gumarang personnel. During this Asbon join pianist who has a touch of Latin, Januar Arifin, and singer Hasmanan (later became director), Nurseha, and Anas Yusuf.

Gumarang greatness can not be denied thanks to frequent this group perform in RRI and enliven the event Fun Stage. Success Gumarang win the hearts of the people causing the appearance of the orchestra that continues in other places, such as the State Palace, Arts Building, and Istora.

During Alidir leadership, Gumarang had recorded several songs under the auspices of the state company, Lokananta, in Solo. Recordings made at Studio RRI Jakarta and the results are brought to Lokananta to be printed in the form of LPs (PH).

In this first recording Gumarang play with drums, bongo, maracas, piano, guitar, and bass betot. They still retain tramp gamat and dancing while integrating it with the Beguine, rumba, and cha-cha.

Minang sound of musical instruments, such as talempong, it gives associations in Latin rhythms, as well saluang. That is why Latin rhythms easily combined with Minang songs. (Who has a recording orchestra Gumarang dibp alidir, please provide the info, teriam Love-Dr Iwan S)

Suyoso Karsono who led the record company Rhythm in Jakarta was secretly interested in Gumarang. As a businessman, a man known by the name of Mas Yos knew that rhythm that was delivered Gumarang not only able to present the songs Minang accordance with the original, but it also has a herb that is very popular Latin rhythms masyarakat.Bagaimanakah profiole Mas Yos, let’s look at black plate cover titled From Mas Yos Love Forgive Beta, in the form of recorded music orchestra eslhinta DBP Mus Mualim. below:

“Actually it was only in the Latin rhythm tempo, so that songs can be accepted also by the Minang community outside Minang,” said Asbon when accepting an offer to record a song rhythm. Ayam Den Lapeh Gumarang record creation A Hamid, Jiko Bapisoh and Laruik Sanjo Asbon creation, creation Yobaitu Syaiful Nawas, Takana Adiak creation Januar Arifin, Clothes Karuang, Ko Lah Upiek Tower, Titian Nan Lapuak, Fate Sawahlunto, and other songs that clearly once combined with the rhythm of the cha-cha, known as a dance in South America.

“Cha-cha it is becoming a favorite of society at that time, as we love to ride tricycles from the outhouse to the Studio Rhythm. When finished recording, Nurseha Asbon escorted by rickshaw to his house in Grogol. After all, the recording was started at eight in the evening is usually done at two early days, “said one singer Gumarang, Syaiful Nawas, who had become a daily reporter Alert, guide, Purnama, Trio, Assorted, Sinar Harapan, Abadi, Voice Reform, and Selecta magazine.

“I am in charge of writing all the events having taken part in the recording process. Mas Yos provide the ingredients and I write in various newspapers and magazines Selecta and Varia. In fact, the daily wrote Gumarang guide the editorial plan. While Asbon directly give the new PH from the factory to the RRI, “said Syaiful Nawas, grandfather of five grandchildren who are now every day at home eating his own head, Padang Raya.

In this era of western music banned from playing on the radio, so the music in the country get the chance., Just as Minang songs, such as excerpts from the writings of Padang Post newspaper below:

Creativity of artists in the history of the emergence of popularized Minang songs. Frans Sartono (kompas.com), explaining, in the era from 1950 to 1960’s, the playback restrictions of Western pop music on the radio impact on the creativity of local artists to speak the local language in the lyrics of the song. Gumarang orchestra that its personnel are Urang crew popularize Minang language songs, such as Ayam Den Lapeh until Laruik Sanjo. They accommodate the elements of Latin music that was a lot of rage in this country. Oslan Husein, with Minang language also, popularized the songs like Deep in Mato Kampuang nan, and Elly Kasim known through Bareh Solok.
With a more complete search on the history of the emergence of Minang songs that synergize with other music, Theodore KS, author of the music industry issues (kompas.com) describes, that during the 50’s show musical groups who composed songs Minang with colors other music, like classical music. Gumarang orchestra with Latin rhythms

As a result, and Ayam Den Sanjo Laruik Lapeh reverberate not only in the RRI, but also in special stores that sell PH in Jakarta and outside the city. Screening Gumarang songs that are at the request of the public who visit the shops and buy their PH. Sanjo Laruik which means late twilight, and Ayam Den Lapeh as an analogy lost lovers, become popular songs nationally.

So popular is the second song, Sanjo Laruik dilayarputihkan by Perfini in 1960 with famed director Usmar Ismail as well as actors and actresses Farida Bambang Irawan Oetojo a leading role. While producing Ayam Den Film Stupa Lapeh in the same year with director H Asby and Gondosubroto, while Asbon and trusted Gumarang illustrations fill this film music.

The story is taken from the lyric. The kucapang the accomplish / Saikua Tapang Saikua lapeh / Tabanglah juo nan ka Rimbo / Oi is unfortunate juo. That is, who chased missed, held apart.

 Shades of Minangkabau in West Sumatra in any music that is mixed with any type of music today would be visible from every work songs that circulated in masyarat. This is because the music Minang be formulated with any kind of music so good to hear and be accepted by society. The element consists of music giver nuances of traditional musical instruments saluang, Bansi, talempong, Rabab, and gandang tabuik.

There is also saluang jo sang, namely the delivery sang (sing stories) are accompanied saluang which is also known as sijobang [14].

Minangkabau in the form of instrumental music and songs from this region are generally melancholy. This relates closely to the structure of society who have a sense of brotherhood, family relationships and a love of high home supported by habit go wander.

The music industry in West Sumatra is growing with the emergence of artists who can blend Minang modern music into a traditional Minangkabau music. The development of modern Minang music in West Sumatra has been started since the 1950’s was marked by the birth of Gumarang Orchestra.

They are already gone, but left a trail of music and modern Indonesian Minang. Gumarang with Latin rhythms and rock’n’roll Teruna Ria had her songs and her music.

Beetles 2.Orkes Tjari dibp.Nuskan Sjarif with singer Elly Kasim.
Beetles Tjari
Meanwhile, in Padang tersebutlah a young man named Nuskan Sharif crazy music. I was so huge desire for music and have a guitar, money to buy clothes Lebaran bought the guitar used in the junkman. Nuskan, is proud of its popularity Gumarang, in 1954 was on vacation in Jakarta. He did not waste the opportunity during his stay in the capital city and offer his songs, Kok Upiak Lah Tower, to Gumarang. Apparently the song is received and played on the show Happy Stage at RRI. “The song I have written notation and the lyrics as the tape recorder not yet popular as now. I went back into the field and continue his career as an amateur singer while deepening my knowledge of guitar playing,” said Nuskan also known as Physical Education teacher at Junior High School I Padang until the year 1960. Moving to Jakarta, Nuskan continue a career as a gym teacher, while his ability to play the guitar and creates song increasing. On the advice of Anas Yusuf, Nuskan decided to join the Gumarang. However, Asbon who already know how good the young man actually suggested it to form his own band.
“That was the beginning of the birth of the orchestra Tjari Beetle in 1961. Although I admire Gumarang, I tried to make different music. If Gumarang dominant with piano, guitar melodies Beetle Tjari forward,” continued Nuskan, a father of nine children and grandfather of 10 grandchildren. This is where Nuskan show keperkasaannya as a guitar player, not only in terms of technique, but also in terms of sound exploration. An excerpt of his guitar to remind listeners will vote saluang, a bamboo flute typical Minang. This hallmark has not second to none until now. This is punctuated Hasmanan, one Gumarang singer who writes his impression impression on the cover-PH. “As the new orchestra which still must fight to win sympathy and popularity, attracting the very breath and penghajatan provided ‘Beetle Tjari’ on-track lagunja. Hidangan2 they still feel very close to the original methods lagu2 Minang people brought. Petikan2 guitar often reminds people Nuskan Sjarif will the sound of original music alat2 Minang like talempong, fiddle, and saluang, “the inscription on the front cover of the PH.
PH beetles first Tjari contains Asmara Dara songs sung by Elly Kasim, Darek Randang sung Nuskan Sharif, Taraatak Appliances (Elly Kasim and his friends), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Sharif), Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim and his friend), ideals of Joy (Elly Kasim and Nuskan Sharif), Mari Cha Cha Cha (Nuskan Sharif), Girls Tuladan (Nuskan Sharif), Beetle Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Sharif and his friends), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Sharif et al), and Oi, the Moon (Elly Kasim et al.) Together these beetles Tjari Elly Kasim became a singer of songs that is irreplaceable Minang until now. Women born in Tiku, Agam regency, West Sumatra, on 27 September 1942, was famous for songs such as Kaparinyo, Paddle Palinggam, Curved Nine, Barek Solok, Lamang Tapai, Sala-lauak, The Lady, Lansek Manih, Main Kim, Mudiak Arau, and much more. The songs that have been published in dozens of PH, tapes, or VCD for over 40 years. However, beetles Tjari then forced vacuum when Nuskan as a gym teacher accepted to be placed in Sukarnapura (now Jayapura), Papua, in July 1963. “I really enjoy the profession as a gym teacher. Sent to West Irian I regard as a mandate that must be implemented. After I left, my dear friends are not willing to continue the Beetle Tjari,” said Nuskan. While in Jayapura, he could also develop the seeds of singers and created a number of songs. High Cliff was born in January 4, 1935, at the age of 70 years before today, Nuskan still diligent jogging in the morning and stay ready to perform with his Tjari Beetle. Although only two years (1961-1963) in the music scene, beetles Tjari became the first group to perform at TVRI when the state television station was inaugurated in 1962. This orchestra also fill the opening of Balinese Room, Hotel Indonesia, and later performed with Gumarang and Taruna Ria in the show titled “Big Three” at Istora.
Nuskan back to Jakarta 29 November and in January 1969 Beetle Tjari formed again with different personnel and do not wear frills “orchestra” again. Beetles Tjari led Nuskan and went back as before began to enter the recording studio and stage events to fill a variety of tours to Malaysia together with Elly Kasim, Benjamin S, Ida Royani, and Ellya wage earner. In addition Tjari Gumarang and beetles, also not be forgotten that reinforce the orchestra Teruna Ria rock’n’roll rhythm in Minang songs. The dissolution Teruna Ria cause main singer, Oslan Husein, founded Osria. Meanwhile, other personnel, Zaenal Arifin, founded Zaenal Combo, who ruled the musical arrangement recorded almost all singers in the late 1960s until the early 1970s. Singers who accompanied Zaenal Combo, namely Syriac Lilies, Ernie Djohan, Alfian, a duo Tuty Subarjo / Onny Suryono, Retno, Patti Sisters, Tetty Kadi, Anna Mathovani, Emilia Contessa, Titi Qadarsih, Angle Paff, or Lily Marlene. Zaenal Arifin, songwriter Bayur Bay, died March 31, 2002. Asbon died on March 16, 2004, while Oslan Husein and Nurseha precedes both a few years earlier.
They are already gone, but left a trail of music and modern Indonesian Minang. Gumarang with Latin rhythm and the Ria Teruna rock’n’roll me a song and music. While the guitar sound a la saluang Nuskan Sharif could still be enjoyed until now with the Beetles Tjari him.
Following the success Gumarang, Beetle Tjari was no less famous. Sharif is a menakhodai Nuskan music group founded in 1961. While admiring Gumarang, Nuskan trying to make different music. If Gumarang dominant with piano, guitar melodies Beetle Tjari forward. This is where Nuskan show keperkasaannya as a guitar player, not only in terms of technique, but also in terms of sound exploration. An excerpt of his guitar to remind listeners will vote saluang, bamboo flute typical Minang. This hallmark has not second to none until now.
Entering the recording studio LPs (PH), the album’s first Beetle Tjari contains Asmara Dara songs sung by Elly Kasim, Darek Randang sung Nuskan Sharif, Taratak Appliances (Elly Kasim and his friends), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Sharif) , Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim and his friends), ideals of Joy (Elly Kasim and Nuskan Sharif), Mari Cha Cha Cha (Nuskan Sharif), Girls Tuladan (Nuskan Sharif), Beetle Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Sharif and his friends), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Sharif and his friends), and Oi, the Moon (Elly Kasim et al.)
Besides Gumarang and beetles Tjari, also not be forgotten that reinforce the orchestra Teruna Ria rock’n’roll rhythm in Minang songs.

The dissolution of lead singer Ria Teruna main, Oslan Husein, founded Osria. Meanwhile, other personnel, Zaenal Arifin, founded Zaenal Combo, who ruled the musical arrangement recorded almost all singers in the late 1960s until the early 1970s. Singers who accompanied Zaenal Combo, namely Lilies Syriac, Ernie Djohan, Alfian, a duo Tuty Subarjo / Onny Suryono, Retno, Patti Sisters, Tetty Kadi, Anna Mathovani, Emilia Contessa, Titi Qadarsih, Angle Paff, or Lily Marlene.

A thousand songs a year

Looking at the early development of Minang pop songs of this, it’s natural that some fans of the song concerned and disappointed by the Minang Minang song now. One of the factors that cause Minang songs of the past can perch longer in the listener’s ear is not the number of the record industry, especially ditahun-50s are. Within a year can be counted on the fingers of outstanding songs. Not to mention at that time was recording LPs (PH) with a gramophone as a medium. Even to perform at the RRI just need to go through a rigorous selection. “In those days it was not easy for a singer or a group to perform at the RRI. They must pass the test in front of a jury, as is appropriate participants of a race, “

TEMPORARY, the orchestra led by Nuskan Beetle Tjari Sharif, Teruna Ria by Oslan Husein, and Zaenal Combo by Zaenal Arifin. Three enter rock’n’roll orchestra in songs and non-Minang Minang, such as Kampung Nan Far Mato, Tirtonadi, and Solo.

Beetles Tjari(Kumbang Tjari)

Meanwhile, in Padang tersebutlah a young man named Nuskan Sharif crazy music. I was so huge desire for music and have a guitar, money to buy clothes Lebaran bought the guitar used in the junkman. Nuskan, is proud of its popularity Gumarang, in 1954 was on vacation in Jakarta. He did not waste the opportunity during his stay in the capital city and offer his songs, Kok Upiak Lah Tower, to Gumarang. Apparently the song is received and played on the show Happy Stage at RRI. “The song I have written notation and the lyrics as the tape recorder not yet popular as now. I went back into the field and continue his career as an amateur singer while deepening my knowledge of guitar playing, “said Nuskan also known as Physical Education teacher at Junior High School I Padang until 1960. Moving to Jakarta, Nuskan continue a career as a gym teacher, while his ability to play the guitar and creates song increasing. On the advice of Anas Yusuf, Nuskan decided to join the Gumarang. However, Asbon who already know how good the young man actually suggested it to form his own band.

“That was the beginning of the birth of the orchestra Tjari Beetle in 1961. Although I admire Gumarang, I tried to make different music. If Gumarang dominant with piano, guitar melodies Beetle Tjari forward, “continued Nuskan, a father of nine children and grandfather of 10 grandchildren. This is where Nuskan show keperkasaannya as a guitar player, not only in terms of technique, but also in terms of sound exploration. An excerpt of his guitar to remind listeners will vote saluang, bamboo flute typical Minang. This hallmark has not second to none until now. This is punctuated Hasmanan, one Gumarang singer who writes his impression impression on the cover-PH. “As a new orchestra which still must fight to win sympathy and popularity, attracting the very breath and penghajatan provided ‘Beetle Tjari’ against song-lagunja. Hidangan2 they still feel very close to the original methods lagu2 Minang people brought. Petikan2 Nuskan Sjarif guitar often reminds one of the original sound of music alat2 Minang like talempong, fiddle, and saluang, “the writing on the cover of the PH’s.

Meanwhile, in Padang tersebutlah a young man named Nuskan Sharif crazy music. I was so huge desire for music and have a guitar, money to buy clothes Lebaran bought the guitar used in the junkman.

Nuskan, is proud of its popularity Gumarang, in 1954 was on vacation in Jakarta. He did not waste the opportunity during his stay in the capital city and offer his songs, Kok Upiak Lah Tower, to Gumarang. Apparently the song is received and played on the show Happy Stage at RRI.

“The song I have written notation and the lyrics as the tape recorder not yet popular as now. I went back into the field and continue his career as an amateur singer while deepening my knowledge of guitar playing,” said Nuskan also known as Physical Education teacher at Junior High School I Padang until the year 1960

Moving to Jakarta, Nuskan continue a career as a gym teacher, while his ability to play the guitar and creates song increasing. On the advice of Anas Yusuf, Nuskan decided to join the Gumarang. However, Asbon who already know how good the young man actually suggested it to form his own band.

“That was the beginning of the birth of the orchestra Tjari Beetle in 1961. Although I admire Gumarang, I tried to make different music. If Gumarang dominant with piano, guitar melodies Beetle Tjari forward,” continued Nuskan, a father of nine children and grandfather of 10 grandchildren.

This is where Nuskan show keperkasaannya as a guitar player, not only in terms of technique, but also in terms of sound exploration. An excerpt of his guitar to remind listeners will vote saluang, bamboo flute typical Minang. This hallmark has not second to none until now. This is punctuated Hasmanan, one Gumarang singer who writes his impression impression on the cover-PH.

“As a new orchestra which still must fight to win sympathy and popularity, attracting the very breath and penghajatan given à ¢ â, ¬ â” ¢ Beetle Tjarià ¢ â, ¬ â “¢ against song-lagunja. Hidangan2 they still feel very close to the methods lagu2 original Minang people brought. Petikan2 Nuskan Sjarif guitar often reminds one of the original sound of music alat2 Minang like talempong, fiddle, and saluang, “the writing on the cover of the PH’s.

PH beetles first Tjari contains Asmara Dara songs sung by Elly Kasim, Darek Randang sung Nuskan Sharif, Taraatak Appliances (Elly Kasim and his friends), Mak Tatji (Nuskan Sharif), Apo Dajo (Elly Kasim and his friend), ideals of Joy (Elly Kasim and Nuskan Sharif), Mari Cha Cha Cha (Nuskan Sharif), Girls Tuladan (Nuskan Sharif), Beetle Djanti (Elly Kasim), Langkisau (Nuskan Sharif and his friends), Kureta Solok (Nusikan Sharif et al), and Oi, the Moon (Elly Kasim et al.)

Then elly Kasim record some black plates, among others:

1.Lagu Kasiah It Up Band accompanied electrica dibp Iwan Setiawan, manufactured by Bayer records, Sterio LP side 1 contains the song When Kamai, Kasiah not until, curry nails, Do not Tjoba2, Batanam Mumbang and Sutan Betawi

Side 2 includes songs: Batjontiak, Disconnect Kasiah, Sunguik Apolo, Application and Silly Bajua.

Children 2.Lagu Salido recorded by Philips

Together these beetles Tjari Elly Kasim became a singer of songs that is irreplaceable Minang until now. Women born in Tiku, Agam regency, West Sumatra, on 27 September 1942, was famous for songs such as Kaparinyo, Paddle Palinggam, Curved Nine, Barek Solok, Lamang Tapai, Sala-lauak, The Lady, Lansek manih, Main Kim, Mudiak Arau, and much more.

the end @Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Historical Betawi Music Record Development Book One 1900-1950(Sejarah Perkembangan Rekaman Musik Betawi Awal abad Ke-20)

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MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

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Dr Iwan  Book Cybermuseum

The historical development of   Jakarta Music Record 

 In 20th Century.

Sejarah Perkembangan Rekaman Musik Betawi (1900-1975)

                   Based on

Dr Iwan Rare Old Books and Music Record Collections             

             By

               

     Dr Iwan Suwandy

    Limited Private Publication

   special for premium member

_______________________________________________________________________________

 hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com copyright @ Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

___________________________________________ 

TABLE OF CONTENT

1.Preface(Kata Pengantar)

 2.Book One_Buku Pertama:

Betawi Music record Early 20th Century.(Rekaman Musik Betawi Pada Awal Abad Ke-20)

(1) During Dutch East Indie _Masa Hindia Belanda 1900-1942 

(2)During Japanese Occupation _Masa pendudukan Jepang 1942-1945

(3) During Indonesian Independent War _Masa Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia 1945-1950

3.Book Two-Buku Kedua:

(1) Era Bung Karno 1951-1965

(2) Era Pak Harto 1966-1980

 _____________________________________

Book One :

The Indonesian Betawi  Kroncong Music Development 1900-1950

A.Pre world war two (Before 1942.)

1.KRONCONG STAMBOEL

Miss Riboet Oreon, Germany BEKA RECORDS ,song Tionghoa ethnic song and Arabic ethnic song Jasidi with kroncong Stamboel style.

The Information of The first Indonesian singer record Miss Riboet from google exploration.

1) Kisah singkat Miss Riboet Orion

a)versi satu

a) Miss Riboet Orion ‘s short story(Kisah singkat Miss Riboet Orion)

(a)The First Version(versi satu)

   

Iklan Dardanella.(Dardanella operate label promotion)

Two biggest native Indonesian operates were deveoloped in 1925 and 1926 were Miss Riboet Orion and Dardanella (Dua perkumpulan besar sandiwara berdiri pada 1925 dan 1926, Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella).

Keduanya merajai dunia sandiwara kala itu. Mereka dikenal terutama karena pemain-pemainnya yang piawai berperan di atas panggung, cerita-ceritanya yang realis, dan punya seorang pemimpin kharismatik.

Kedua perkumpulan ini dikenal sebagai pembenih sandiwara modern Indonesia. Mereka merombak beberapa tradisi yang telah lazim pada masa stambul, bangsawan, dan opera, seperti: membuat pembagian episode yang lebih ringkas dari stambul, menghapuskan adegan perkenalan para tokoh sebelum bermain, menghilangkan selingan nyanyian atau tarian di tengah adegan, menghapus kebiasaan memainkan sebuah lakon hanya dalam satu malam pertunjukan, dan objek cerita sudah mulai berupa cerita-cerita asli, bukan dari hikayat-hikayat lama atau cerita-cerita yang diambil dari film-film terkenal (Oemarjati, 1971: 30-31). Rombongan sandiwara ini juga mulai menggunakan naskah untuk diperankan di atas pentas, menggunakan panggung pementasan, serta mulai mengenal peran seseorang yang mirip sutradara (pada masa itu lazim disebut programma meester, peran ini dimainkan oleh pemimpin perkumpulan).

The Orion Operete Inc founder at Batavia(now jakarta) by Tio Tek Djiwn yunior, the primadona is Niss Riboet (later Married wir Mr Tio) and Mr Tio also played the swords,specialized as the robery of the women in the opera of Juanita veza written by Antoinette de Vega, after that this opretee becaem famous ad Miss Riboet Orion(Perkumpulan sandiwara Orion berdiri di Batavia pada 1925. Rombongan sandiwara ini didirikan serta dipimpin oleh Tio Tek Djien Junior. Tio merupakan seorang terpelajar pertama yang menekuni secara serius kesenian sandiwara modern. Dia lulusan sekolah dagang Batavia. Primadona mereka adalah Miss Riboet. Selain sebagai istri Tio, Riboet juga terkenal dengan permainan pedangnya. Ia sangat menonjol ketika memerankan seorang perampok perempuan dalam lakon Juanita de Vega karya Antoinette de Zerna. Selanjutnya perkumpulan ini terkenal dengan nama Miss Riboet Orion (Sumardjo, 2004: 115).

This Operete becaem more famous after came in The Journalist Njoo Cheong Seng and his wife Fifi Young ,during this time tje operate created a  imaginative story, then Nyo became the Tios best man which had the duty the story ,his succes with Saijah, R,soemiati,and Singapore at night(Perkumpulan ini semakin mengibarkan bendera ketenarannya setelah masuk seorang wartawan bernama Njoo Cheong Seng dan istrinya Fifi Young. Setelah masuknya Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, perkumpulan ini meninggalkan cerita-cerita khayalan yang pada masa stambul dan bangsawan lazim untuk dibawakan ke panggung (Pane, 1953: 9). Kemudian Njoo Cheong Seng menjadi tangan kanan Tio Tek Djien dan bertugas sebagai penulis lakon pada perkumpulan ini dan menghasilkan cerita-cerita, seperti Saidjah, R.A. Soemiatie, Barisan Tengkorak, dan Singapore After Midnight.)

Pertunjukan Dardanella

Di tengah kepopuleran Miss Riboet Orion, berdiri perkumpulan sandiwara Dardanella di Sidoarjo pada 21 Juni 1926. Sebagaimana Miss Riboet Orion, Dardanella juga telah melakukan perubahan besar pada dunia sandiwara.

Dardanella founded by A.Piedro ,the russian man with name Willy Kilimanof. In 1929 starting show at Batavia based on the storyfrom best film like Robinhood,the amsk of Zorro,three musketters, the Black pirates, the Thieve of Baghdad,Sheik of Arabia,the graaf of Monte Cristo,vero, and the rose pf Yesterday. But at the second show Dardanella shown the Indonesia native story like Annie van Mendoet,Lily van tjikampek,the Rose of Tjikemabng based on the Indonesian Stories (Dardanella didirikan oleh A. Piedro, seorang Rusia yang bernama asli Willy Klimanoff (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 5cool. Pada 1929, untuk pertamakalinya Dardanella mengadakan pertunjukan di Batavia. Mulanya lakon-lakon yang dimainkan adalah cerita-cerita berdasarkan film-film yang sedang ramai dibicarakan orang, seperti Robin Hood, The Mask of Zorro, The Three Musketeers, The Black Pirates, The Thief of Baghdad, Roses of Yesterday, The Sheik of Arabia, Vera, dan Graaf de Monte Christo (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 74). Namun pada kunjungan keduanya di Batavia, mereka menghadirkan cerita mengenai kehidupan di Indonesia, seperti Annie van Mendoet, Lilie van Tjikampek, dan De Roos van Tjikembang. Cerita-cerita ini disebut dengan Indische Roman, yaitu cerita-cerita yang mengambil inspirasinya dari kehidupan Indonesia, dikarang dalam bahasa Belanda (Brahim, 1968: 116).

At the same time ,a journalis Andjar asmara also join the Dardanella and he bacame the Bes man of Peidro lika njo , he writthe the story Dr Samsi, Haida,Tjang,perantaian 88 dan Si bongkok like the huncthman of Notredam, Dardanella had the big five actors, Tan Tjeng Bok,Miss Dja, Mis Riboet II, Ferry Kock and Astaman (Pada tahun yang sama, seorang wartawan dari majalah Doenia Film, bernama Andjar Asmara, ikut masuk ke dalam perkumpulan ini, dan meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai wartawan di majalah tersebut. Seperti halnya Njoo Cheong Seng di Miss Riboet Orion, Andjar kemudian juga menjadi tangan kanan Piedro, dan bertugas sebagai penulis naskah perkumpulan. Andjar Asmara menulis beberapa naskah, seperti Dr. Samsi, Si Bongkok, Haida, Tjang, dan Perantaian 99 (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Dardanella juga terkenal dengan pemain-pemainnya yang piawai memegang peranan dalam setiap pertunjukan. Para pemain ini terkenal dengan sebutan The Big Five. Anggota Perkumpulan Dardanella yang disebut The Big Five yaitu, Ferry Kock, Miss Dja, Tan Tjeng Bok, Riboet II, dan Astaman (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11-12).

The rivalrity between Miss Riboet Oreon and dardanella at Bavaia begun in 1931, starting about the name of Miss Riboet which Mr Tio sue to the court and win,   dardanela must used the name Miss riboet II  (Persaingan untuk meraih perhatian publik antara Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella terjadi di Batavia pada tahun 1931. Sebenarnya persaingan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella sudah mulai terlihat ketika dua perkumpulan ini memperebutkan “pengakuan nama” dari salah satu pemainnya, yaitu Riboet. Dalam dua perkumpulan ini ada satu pemain yang namanya sama. Ketika itu Dardanella yang sedang bermain di Surabaya, didatangi dan dituntut oleh Tio Tek Djien, pemimpin Miss Riboet Orion, karena Dardanella mempergunakan nama Riboet juga untuk seorang pemainnya. Tio berkata kepada Piedro, “Kami tidak senang Tuan mempergunakan nama yang sama, nama Riboet juga untuk pemain Tuan…kami menyampaikan gugatan, Miss Riboet hanya ada satu dan dia sekarang sedang bermain di Batavia”. Akhir dari perseteruan ini adalah mengalahnya Piedro kepada Tio dan merubah nama Riboet yang ada di Dardanella menjadi Riboet II (Ramadhan KH, 1982: 72).

Memang lazim terjadi persaingan antarperkumpulan sandiwara, terutama di kota besar seperti Batavia. Sebelum persaingan dengan Dardanella, Miss Riboet Orion juga pernah bersaingan dengan Dahlia Opera, pimpinan Tengkoe Katan dari Medan, persaingan ini berakhir dengan kemenangan pihak Orion (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11). Wujud dari persaingan antara Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella ini adalah pecahnya perang reklame. Dardanella memajukan Dr. Samsi sebagai lakon andalan mereka, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Gagak Solo. Dalam persaingan ini, Dardanella mengandalkan A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Tan Tjeng Bok, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion mengandalkan Tio Tek Djien, Njoo Cheong Seng, dan A. Boellaard van Tuijl, sebagai pemimpinnya (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Kedua wartawan dalam perkumpulan-perkumpulan itu bekerja dan memutar otak untuk membuat reklame propaganda yang, sedapat-dapatnya, memengaruhi pikiran publik.

At least Miss Riboet Orion off in 1934 and gave the authority to Dardanella , and their writer Njoo Cheong Seng and fifi Young moved to dardanella(Akhirnya Miss Riboet Orion harus menyerah kepada Dardanella. Riwayat Perkumpulan Sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion berakhir pada 1934, ketika penulis naskah mereka Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, pindah ke Dardanella.)

Then dardanella became famous with the new actors like Ratna asmara, Bachtiar Effendy,Fify young and an american from guam Henry L Duarte (Dardanella menjadi semakin besar dengan hadirnya anggota-anggota baru seperti Ratna Asmara, Bachtiar Effendi, Fifi Young, dan Henry L. Duarte (seorang Amerika yang dilahirkan di Guam). Dalam Dardanella juga berkumpul tiga penulis lakon ternama, seperti A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Njoo Cheong Seng, di samping itu, perkumpulan ini diperkuat oleh permainan luar biasa dari bintang-bintang panggungnya seperti Miss Dja, Ferry Kock, Tan Tjeng Bok, Astaman, dan Riboet II.)

In 1935, Dardanella madse the tour to Siam,Burma. Ceylon,India,tibet ,the tour was called The Orient’s Tour with native dancer like wayang golek, Pencak Minangkabau,wayang golek,bali jagger, papua dancer and Ambon song (Pada 1935, Piedro memutuskan untuk mengadakan perjalanan ke Siam, Burma, Sri Lanka, India, dan Tibet, untuk memperkenalkan pertunjukan-pertunjukan mereka. Perjalanan ini disebut Tour d’Orient. Dalam perjalanan itu tidak dipentaskan sandiwara, melainkan tari-tarian Indonesia seperti Serimpi, Bedoyo, Golek, Jangger, Durga, Penca Minangkabau, Keroncong, Penca Sunda, Nyanyian Ambon, dan tari-tarian Papua (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 13).

Tour de Orient qwere the last tour of Dardanella before the world war two, then dismish(Tour d’Orient adalah perjalanan terakhir Dardanella. Setelah perjalanan itu Dardanella pecah. Dan kisah dua raksasa sandiwara ini pun berakhir…)

I have the tax fee of Padang city gouverment about the dardanella and Dwi Dja tours, during japanese occupation 1943-1844, I think the Japanesi Millitary occupation gouverment, used this show for political campaign(Dr iwan S)

(b)versi dua (from david ,Haji Maji web blog)

MISS RIBOET (INDONESIA)

Miss Riboet was the first huge star of recording in Indonesia and the Malay peninsula.  She was the lead actress of the Orion theatrical company, a tooneel troupe which was founded in 1925 in Batavia (Jakarta). In fact, she was so popular that by the time recording engineer Max Birkhahan made this recording in 1926 she already had her own series of “Miss Riboet Records.”

The label declares this a “Stamboel” recording, a western influenced genre of song that evolved out of the Indonesian theater known as ”komedie stamboel.”
Komedie stamboel was a form of musical theater that started in the city of Surabaya in 1891 and quickly became a craze throughout Indonesia. At first, it featured plays of arabesque fantasy (Stamboel = Istanbul), mainly tales from the Arabian Nights, with Ali Baba being a favorite standard. The plays were sung and included musical numbers as in a western musical, using mostly western instruments. They were also influenced by Parsi theater. There is an excellent book by Matthew Isaac Cohen that gives an extremely detailed account of the origin of Komedie Stamboel.

But by the mid-20s, when Miss Riboet began recording, komedie stamboel had already given way to the Malay theatrical form called bangsawan, and eventually tooneel, a more realistic form.
Apparently komedie stamboel had developed a somewhat unsavory reputation that led in part to it’s demise, some troupe leaders were accused of doubling as pimps for the actresses!
The music was often labeled as “Stamboel” on record, regardless of whether it was a stamboel, fox trot, tango, krontjong or traditional piece, such as this Javanese poetical form called Pangkoer Pelaoet .

Beka B. 15099-II

(c)Version Two_versi dua

http://img.photobucket.com/albums/v188/missriboet/missdjadanmissriboet1932.jpg*courtecy Mr Schlompe

Dua perkumpulan besar sandiwara berdiri pada 1925 dan 1926, Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella. Keduanya merajai dunia sandiwara kala itu. Mereka dikenal terutama karena pemain-pemainnya yang piawai berperan di atas panggung, cerita-ceritanya yang realis, dan punya seorang pemimpin kharismatik.

Kedua perkumpulan ini dikenal sebagai pembenih sandiwara modern Indonesia. Mereka merombak beberapa tradisi yang telah lazim pada masa stambul, bangsawan, dan opera, seperti: membuat pembagian episode yang lebih ringkas dari stambul, menghapuskan adegan perkenalan para tokoh sebelum bermain, menghilangkan selingan nyanyian atau tarian di tengah adegan, menghapus kebiasaan memainkan sebuah lakon hanya dalam satu malam pertunjukan, dan objek cerita sudah mulai berupa cerita-cerita asli, bukan dari hikayat-hikayat lama atau cerita-cerita yang diambil dari film-film terkenal (Oemarjati, 1971: 30-31). Rombongan sandiwara ini juga mulai menggunakan naskah untuk diperankan di atas pentas, menggunakan panggung pementasan, serta mulai mengenal peran seseorang yang mirip sutradara (pada masa itu lazim disebut programma meester, peran ini dimainkan oleh pemimpin perkumpulan).

Perkumpulan sandiwara Orion berdiri di Batavia pada 1925. Rombongan sandiwara ini didirikan serta dipimpin oleh Tio Tek Djien Junior. Tio merupakan  seorang terpelajar pertama yang menekuni secara serius kesenian sandiwara modern. Dia lulusan sekolah dagang Batavia. Primadona mereka adalah Miss Riboet. Selain sebagai istri Tio, Riboet juga terkenal dengan permainan pedangnya. Ia sangat menonjol ketika memerankan seorang perampok perempuan dalam lakon Juanita de Vega karya Antoinette de Zerna. Selanjutnya perkumpulan ini terkenal dengan nama Miss Riboet Orion (Sumardjo, 2004: 115).

Perkumpulan ini semakin mengibarkan bendera ketenarannya setelah masuk seorang wartawan bernama Njoo Cheong Seng dan istrinya Fifi Young. Setelah masuknya Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, perkumpulan ini meninggalkan cerita-cerita khayalan yang pada masa stambul dan bangsawan lazim untuk dibawakan ke panggung (Pane, 1953: 9). Kemudian Njoo Cheong Seng menjadi tangan kanan Tio Tek Djien dan bertugas sebagai penulis lakon pada perkumpulan ini dan menghasilkan cerita-cerita, seperti Saidjah, R.A. Soemiatie, Barisan Tengkorak, dan Singapore After Midnight.

Di tengah kepopuleran Miss Riboet Orion, berdiri perkumpulan sandiwara Dardanella di Sidoarjo pada 21 Juni 1926. Sebagaimana Miss Riboet Orion, Dardanella juga telah melakukan perubahan besar pada dunia sandiwara. Dardanella didirikan oleh A. Piedro, seorang Rusia yang bernama asli Willy Klimanoff (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 58). Pada 1929, untuk pertamakalinya Dardanella mengadakan pertunjukan di Batavia. Mulanya lakon-lakon yang dimainkan adalah cerita-cerita berdasarkan film-film yang sedang ramai dibicarakan orang, seperti Robin Hood, The Mask of Zorro, The Three Musketeers, The Black Pirates, The Thief of Baghdad, Roses of Yesterday, The Sheik of Arabia, Vera, dan Graaf de Monte Christo (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 74). Namun pada kunjungan keduanya di Batavia, mereka menghadirkan cerita mengenai kehidupan di Indonesia, seperti Annie van Mendoet, Lilie van Tjikampek, dan De Roos van Tjikembang. Cerita-cerita ini disebut dengan Indische Roman, yaitu cerita-cerita yang mengambil inspirasinya dari kehidupan Indonesia, dikarang dalam bahasa Belanda (Brahim, 1968: 116).

Pada tahun yang sama, seorang wartawan dari majalah Doenia Film, bernama Andjar Asmara, ikut masuk ke dalam perkumpulan ini, dan meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai wartawan di majalah tersebut. Seperti halnya Njoo Cheong Seng di Miss Riboet Orion, Andjar kemudian juga menjadi tangan kanan Piedro, dan bertugas sebagai penulis naskah perkumpulan. Andjar Asmara menulis beberapa naskah, seperti Dr. Samsi, Si Bongkok, Haida, Tjang, dan Perantaian 99 (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Dardanella juga terkenal dengan pemain-pemainnya yang piawai memegang peranan dalam setiap pertunjukan. Para pemain ini terkenal dengan sebutan The Big Five. Anggota Perkumpulan Dardanella yang disebut The Big Five yaitu, Ferry Kock, Miss Dja, Tan Tjeng Bok, Riboet II, dan Astaman (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11-12).

Persaingan untuk meraih perhatian publik antara Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella terjadi di Batavia pada tahun 1931. Sebenarnya persaingan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella sudah mulai terlihat ketika dua perkumpulan ini memperebutkan “pengakuan nama” dari salah satu pemainnya, yaitu Riboet. Dalam dua perkumpulan ini ada satu pemain yang namanya sama. Ketika itu Dardanella yang sedang bermain di Surabaya, didatangi dan dituntut oleh Tio Tek Djien, pemimpin Miss Riboet Orion, karena Dardanella mempergunakan nama Riboet juga untuk seorang pemainnya. Tio berkata kepada Piedro, “Kami tidak senang Tuan mempergunakan nama yang  sama, nama Riboet juga untuk pemain Tuan…kami menyampaikan gugatan, Miss Riboet hanya ada satu dan dia sekarang sedang bermain di Batavia”. Akhir dari perseteruan ini adalah mengalahnya Piedro kepada Tio dan merubah nama Riboet yang ada di Dardanella menjadi Riboet II (Ramadhan KH, 1982: 72).

Memang lazim terjadi persaingan antarperkumpulan sandiwara, terutama di kota besar seperti Batavia. Sebelum persaingan dengan Dardanella, Miss Riboet Orion juga pernah bersaingan dengan Dahlia Opera, pimpinan Tengkoe Katan dari Medan, persaingan ini berakhir dengan kemenangan pihak Orion (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11). Wujud dari persaingan antara Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella ini adalah pecahnya perang reklame. Dardanella memajukan Dr. Samsi sebagai lakon andalan mereka, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Gagak Solo. Dalam persaingan ini, Dardanella mengandalkan A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Tan Tjeng Bok, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion mengandalkan Tio Tek Djien, Njoo Cheong Seng, dan A. Boellaard van Tuijl, sebagai pemimpinnya  (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Kedua wartawan dalam perkumpulan-perkumpulan itu bekerja dan memutar otak untuk membuat reklame propaganda yang, sedapat-dapatnya, memengaruhi pikiran publik.

Akhirnya Miss Riboet Orion harus menyerah kepada Dardanella. Riwayat Perkumpulan Sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion berakhir pada 1934, ketika penulis naskah mereka Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, pindah ke Dardanella.

Dardanella menjadi semakin besar dengan hadirnya anggota-anggota baru seperti Ratna Asmara, Bachtiar Effendi, Fifi Young, dan Henry L. Duarte (seorang Amerika yang dilahirkan di Guam). Dalam Dardanella juga berkumpul tiga penulis lakon ternama, seperti A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Njoo Cheong Seng, di samping itu, perkumpulan ini diperkuat oleh permainan luar biasa dari bintang-bintang panggungnya seperti Miss Dja, Ferry Kock, Tan Tjeng Bok, Astaman, dan Riboet II.

Pada 1935, Piedro memutuskan untuk mengadakan perjalanan ke Siam, Burma, Sri Lanka, India, dan Tibet, untuk memperkenalkan pertunjukan-pertunjukan  mereka. Perjalanan ini disebut Tour d’Orient. Dalam perjalanan itu tidak dipentaskan sandiwara, melainkan tari-tarian Indonesia seperti Serimpi, Bedoyo, Golek, Jangger, Durga, Penca Minangkabau, Keroncong, Penca Sunda, Nyanyian Ambon, dan tari-tarian Papua (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 13).

Tour d’Orient adalah perjalanan terakhir Dardanella. Setelah perjalanan itu Dardanella pecah. Dan kisah dua raksasa sandiwara ini pun berakhir…

b)teater Miss Riboet’s Oreon (1925)

c)It is easy to guess the excitement caused by the upcoming event in the island.And yet, life went on as usual: Miss Riboet – a popular actress and singer backthen – performing on stage garnering applause and favourable reviews in the island’s journals, cigarette and beauty cream advertisements, the automobile andthe new man – The Sportsman – coaxed out of the tennis and golf worlds by theworld of fashion…putting Singapore on the movie map with his filmBring’em Back Alive. Not to mention Wheeler and Woolsey, a pair of British comedians, who, in their day, were more popular than Laurel and Hardy. Much excitement was caused whenthe much-loved Charlie Chaplin and his brother arrived in Singapore in 1932 on their way to the Dutch Indies. Certainly, the Hollywood connection created the image of ‘Cesspool of the East’ for Singapore. Singapore was the object of fascination for movie-makers, writers, travelers, real Kings and Queens or theones populating the screens of the newest art.c)pada 25 November 1950 bersama satu rombongan bintang Indonesia termasuk Fifi Young (pelakon filem Zoebaida) dan Miss Riboet Rawit. datang di singapore.(new info from Mr Azmosa Singapore that one of Dardanella Singer and comedian still stayed  at singapore until now ,her name Momo Latiff or Momo Makarim and still alive age 88 years old, please read mr Azoma comment in Indonesian Languguae :

Salam, Pak Iwan.

Saya berasal dari Singapura dan sangat kagum dengan koleksi Pak Iwan, terutama sekali tentang sejarah kumpulan seni seperti Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella. Kedua-dua kumpulan ini memang cukup popular di Singapura dan Malaya pada tahun 1930an. Salah satu ahli kumpulan Dardanella telah menetap di Singapura dan menjadi seorang seniwati yang terkenal di sisni sejak tahun 194oan . Beliau adalah Momo Latiff yang berasal dari Batavia dan kini berusia 88 tahun.

Momo Latif telah menjadi salah seorang penari Bali Dancers dalam kumpulan Dardanella. Selepas Dardanella berpecah pada pertengahan tahun 1930an, beliau telah memasuki kumpulan bangsawan yg di ketuai oleh Raden Sudiro. Pada satu persembahan yang di adakan di Melaka, Raden telah memberitahu kepada Momo bahawa Syarikat filem Shaw Brothers di Singapura ingin mengambil Momo sebagai heroine dalam filem yg berjudul Topeng Shaitan di terbitkan pada tahun 1939. Momo kemudian telah merakamkan suara pada tahun 1941 bersama HMV dengan nyanyian lagu2 Bunga Sakura, Pohon Beringin dan Pulau Bali.

Azmosa
Singapura- thanks Mr azoma from dr Iwan S.)

The Short story of Mis Riboet Husband (KISAH SUAMI MISS RIBOET) TIO TEK HONG

Mr Tion was the richman,he had the Record label produnctions and shop(TIO TEK HONG SUMAI MISS RIBOET ADALAH SEORANG SAUDAGAR KAYA, ia memiliki firma penjualan gramohone and piring hitam.)

Beside that he ad produced yhe batavia Pictures Postcard,look some sample illustration below (Selain itu ia juga memproduksi kartupos bergambar kota batavia,lihat beberapa koleksi karya Tio Tek Hong dan illustrasi dari majallah Kiekies van Java folk and landen dibawah ini);

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TTH_1045_800w512h.jpgUitgave : Tio Tek Hong, Weltevreden (Batavia). No. 1045

Topeng is a style or genre of masked dance and theatre, with music : West Java. We see here a Betawi (Batavia, now Jakarta) group. A search for the expression will turn up wikipedia and other sources; this is pretty good : Henry Spiller, “Topeng Betawi: The Sounds of Bodies Moving”.   Asian Theatre Journal 16:2 (1999) : 260-267   (accessed 28 January 09)

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TTH_1046_800w510h.jpgUitgave : Tio Tek Hong, Weltevreden (Batavia). No. 1046

Woman may be same as in preceding Topeng card.
 
 

photo, no source information. Another view of Molenvliet Canal, Batavia here; more can be found by searching in the Dutch Atlas of Mutual Heritage (AMH).
 

TTH_1114_800w507h.jpgUitgave : Tio Tek Hong, Weltevreden, “Special Depot of Java postcards.” No. 1114. Obverse bears message to a Mr. C. Inouye, c/o Mitsui Bussan, Osaka, Japan. Postage stamp (and cancellation date) missing.
 
 

Miss Riboet and her arabic song Jasidi

Chassidic Song (jasidi), with video recorded at the Western Wall in Jerusalem, and … 5:27 Add to Added to queue In Jerusalem songArabic by badermansour.

Lagu Jasidi berasal dari Arab dan seirng dinyanyikan brthubungan dengan dinding barat dari Jerusalem,salah satunyayang terkenal oleh penyanyi Bader mansour, berdasarkan fakta piringan hitam diatas,ternyata Miss riboet telah menyanyikan lagu yang populer saat itu.

Miss Riboet and her Tionghoa ethnic song Djihong(no info about this song)

Who have the Miss Riboet music record with Kroncong stamboel song please comment and add the info via comment,thanks you very much.

I have just found information about Mr Riboet Orion Kroncong song produced by BEKA record from Google exploration :

BEKA RECORD
B 15652, Miss Riboet, Krontjong Dardanella, 1940-an
B 15761, Herlaut, Beka Krontjong, 1940-an
27850, De Indie Krontjong, 1940-an

Please help me with more info,thanks verymuch

versi ke-3(version three)

kelompok Sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella 1925 hingga Fasisme di Panggung Sandiwara jaman JEPANG 1942

 
kelompok Sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella 1925 hingga Fasisme di Panggung Sandiwara jaman JEPANG 1942TEATER MODERN JATIM, PANGGUNG SANDIWARA HINGGA KE SANDIWARA DARDANELLA

 

Sandiwara panggung tidak bisa lepas dari sejarh film di Hindia, selain wayang, Sandiwara panggung sangat di gemari disini. Bebarapa panggung tradisional hingga adaptasi dari eropha, India, China sampai ke hal Wayang. Tetapi kalangan Belanda lebih suka sandiwara panggung dari pada wayang. Memang sejarah wayang diciptakan untuk propaganda seorang raja seperti yang dikisahkan oleh cerita wayang, sehingga rakyat yakin raja mereka seperti tokoh wayang tersebut titisan dewa dan sangat memiliki kekuatan yang luar biasa.

Oranbg Belanda banyak yang main dalam sandiwara ini, termasuk juga kelompok sandiwara bangsa China yang lama di Hindia. Bebarapa sandiwara yang terkenal adalah Opera Srie Permata, komedi Stamboel, Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella.

Sandiwara panggung ini ceritanya beragam, mulai dari kisah HIndia dan orang Belanda totok, atau pun Indo, dan yang populer saat itu dari luar negeri. Sandiwara ini kerapkali diiringi oleh musik-musik, nyanyian dan tarian yang khas, terutama musik keroncong, sunda, melayu, hingga india dan Eropha. Yang nantinya mereka akan terjun dalam Film dan beberapa menjadi pembuat film/bisnis film.

Telah satu abad lebih masyarakat Jatim telah mengenal teater modern. Akan tetapi, masyarakat Jatim juga para kreator teater-nya gagal mempertahankan tradisi teater modern yang telah dibangun sejak tahun 1891 oleh August Maheiu dengan nama Komedi Stamboel dan kemudian dilanjutkan dengan Dardanella pada tahun 1926.
Dardanella semula bernama The Malay Opera yang diprakarsai oleh Willy Klimanoff, anak pemain sirkus terkemuka A. Klimanoff kelahiran Rusia. Willy Klimanoff hijrah ke Indonesia sepeninggalan ayahnya. Dengan penguasaan teknik akrobatik Willy Klimanoff mendapat pekerjaan di Komedi Stamboel, kemudian mengganti namanya dengan A. Pedro.
Dalam bentuk pertunjukan atau infra strukturnya, A. Pedro banyak melakukan perombakan secara revolusioner sebagaimana sistem pertunjukan yang telah terkonsep oleh Komedi Stamboel dalam tradisi lakon dan tonilnya. Pedro melakukan perombakan radikal tradisi komedi bangsawan pendahulunya. Jika dalam Komedi Stamboel diantara pergantian adegan diisi atau diselingi dengan tarian-tarian dan lelucon untuk kepentingan hiburan, maka A. Pedro menghilangkan nuansa-nuansa lelucon dan tarian. Dardanella lebih menfokuskan pada bentuk pertunjukan drama murni. Dardanella mementingkan esensi dramatik, kekuatan cerita dan permainan aktor-aktornya, meskipun selingan tarian tetap ada namun masih berada dalam satu keutuhan pementasan, dengan lain kata, tari-tarian menjadi bagian dari alur cerita dan adegan.
Pengaruh Dardanella terhadap perkembangan teater modern Indonesia sangat besar. Seiring dengan kemajuan dardanella banyak bermunculan teater-teater lain yang diprakarsai oleh bekas sri panggung dan anggota dardanella sendiri. Seperti Bolero, Orion yang didirikan Miss ribort, dan Tjahaya Timoer yang didirikan Andjar Asmara. Andjar Asmara sewaktu menjadi anggota Dardanella menjabat sebagai tangan kanan A. Pedro. Andjar Asmara juga melakukan perombakan dalam sistem managerial dan sistem modernisasi dalam teknik tata panggung. Bahkan dampak dari kemajuan Dardanella sampai ke Jakarta, dengan didirikannya “teater Maya” yang diketuai oleh Usmar Ismail pada tanggal 27 Mei 1944.

Munculnya teater-teater kecil tersebut sebagai antitesis dari keberhasilan Dardanella dan juga sebagai proses eksperimental terhadap tema dan bentuk pementasan yang konvensional.

TUNTUTAN SEJARAH

 
Komedi Stamboel dan Dardanella yang lahir di Jawa Timur yakni Surabaya dan Sidoarjo merupakan pelopor gerakan pementasan teater modern di Indonesia, bahkan secara tidak langsung memberikan dampak yang begitu besar terhadap teater di tanahair nantinya.Semangat modernitas yang dibangun oleh Dardanella terlihat dalam setiap pertunjukannnya telah memakai scrip atau naskah, pengadaan properti, kostum, make-up, juga melakukan pementasan yang utuh, artinya, teater Dardanella menghilangkan konvensi-konvensi lelucon dan tarian-tarian yang memberikan kesenangan lebih pada penonton. Dardanella melalui A. Pedro dan Andjar Asmara telah melakukan sistem manajerial pertunjukan secara profesional yang merupakan supra struktural dari suartu pertunjukan. Hal ini yang merupakan ciri dari teater modern dengan semangat realisme.Realisme yang dimaksud ialah melihat peristiwa sehari-hari yang dialami setiap saat (ilusi kenyataan), sebuah pementasan bukan bukanlah sekedar menyajikan cerita, tetapi ada pesonanya, yakni yang seakan-akan bersungguh-sungguh, suatu permainan yang menimbulkan rangsangan pikiran bahwa yang terjadi di panggung bisa pula terjadi pada penonton.

Konsepsi estetika realisme yakni semangat impresionis. Tidak tidak menggubris lagi pesan-pesan sejarah, kitab suci, tetapi langsung memberikan kesan tentang persoalan-persoalan pokok-nya. Konsepsi realisme ingin menohok konsepsi romantisisme yang cenderung menjadikan kehidupan seperti mimpi. Dalam hal ini peentasan Dardanella tidak lagi menampilkan epos-ramayana yang merupakan model pementasan tradisional, akan tetapi Dardanella lebih banyak memainkan naskah-naskah yang sedang terjadi pada masyarakat sekitar. Misalnya dengan mementaskan naskah Nyai Dasima dan Kalibrantasi.

Dardanella dengan demikian sadar akan posisi dan konteks sosial dalam masyarakatnya, Dardanella mengapresiasi material dan mengekspresikan kultur lokal dengan perspektif modern.

Sedangkan pada dekade dewasa ini, kreator dan pekerja seni teater Jatim telah gagal mewarisi dan mempertahankan tradisi teater modern yang telah dibangun Komedi Stamboel dan Dardanella. Kegagalan pekerja teater Jatim lebih pada sikap kritis, mentalitas, spirit dan intelektualitas. Artinya, pekerja teater Jatim bersifat sebagai pekerja bukannya seseorang atau kelompok yang memiliki daya pikir kritis terhadap fenomena kultural, kepekaan terhadap konteks sosial dibelakang teks realitas.

Dalam beberapa pertunjukan terakhir teater-teater Jatim di Surabaya, pekerja teater Jatim mengesampingkan problematik perspektif kritis massa. Pertunjukan teater Jatim hanya bersifat momentum, temporal dan gegabah mencermati fenomena sosialnya. Dalam hal ini, pekerja teater Jatim khusunya Surabaya tidak mempertimbangkan kebutuhan-kebutuhan mental masyarakatnya. Sebagaimana kita ketahui bahwa Surabaya merupakan kota ‘metropolis’ dimana kriminalitas, kekerasan, urban, ketimpangan sosial, tata kota, pendidikan, perdagangan dsb, adalah suatu problematik yang sering kali dijumpai. Dengan lain kata, pertunjukan-pertunjukan yang ditampilkan pekerja teater Jatim kurang kritis mengklarifikasi problematik. Eksperimentasi dan eksplorasi yang dilakukan para pekerja teater Jatim lebih pada bentuk belaka, tidak menyentuh esensi dan fenomena masyarakatnya atau dengan lain kata minimnya proses kontenplatif, bukannya bermewah-mewah dengan bentuk pertunjukan, baik secara infra stuktural maupun supra strukturalnya, namun minim ide dan gagasan serta gagal menyampaikan dan mengkomunikasikan kegelisahan kultural Jatimnya.

Fenomena yang tak kalah memalukan pekerja teater Jatim ialah, para kritikus teater Indonesia, seperti Jim Lim, Zaini KM, Umar Kayam, Putu Wijaya, Nano Riantiarno, Rendra, Afrizal Malna, Bagdi Sumanto, Hanindawan, Nursahid, Sapardi Djoko Damono, Gunawan moehammad dll dalam beberapa tulisan, pembabagan, referensi-referensi dan data tentang teater modern Indonesia, Surabaya dan Jatim pada umumnya tidak pernah dicatat keberadaannya. Entah karena secara kualitas teater Jatim tidas layak, atau memang di Jatim tidak ada kritikus teater yang berkualitas sehingga dapat mengangkat nama teater Jatim. Secara logika sederhana, seharusnya teater modern Indonesia maju dan terus berkembang di Jatim, dimana pewarisan tradisi teater modern pertama kali diletakkan, bukannya di Solo, Bandung, Yogyakarta dan Jakarta.
Mari kita pikirkan bersama-sama.

Sepenggal Kisah Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella

 

 

Dua perkumpulan besar sandiwara berdiri pada 1925 dan 1926, Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella. Keduanya merajai dunia sandiwara kala itu. Mereka dikenal terutama karena pemain-pemainnya yang piawai berperan di atas panggung, cerita-ceritanya yang realis, dan punya seorang pemimpin kharismatik.
 

Kedua perkumpulan ini dikenal sebagai pembenih sandiwara modern Indonesia. Mereka merombak beberapa tradisi yang telah lazim pada masa stambul, bangsawan, dan opera, seperti: membuat pembagian episode yang lebih ringkas dari stambul, menghapuskan adegan perkenalan para tokoh sebelum bermain, menghilangkan selingan nyanyian atau tarian di tengah adegan, menghapus kebiasaan memainkan sebuah lakon hanya dalam satu malam pertunjukan, dan objek cerita sudah mulai berupa cerita-cerita asli, bukan dari hikayat-hikayat lama atau cerita-cerita yang diambil dari film-film terkenal (Oemarjati, 1971: 30-31). Rombongan sandiwara ini juga mulai menggunakan naskah untuk diperankan di atas pentas, menggunakan panggung pementasan, serta mulai mengenal peran seseorang yang mirip sutradara (pada masa itu lazim disebut programma meester, peran ini dimainkan oleh pemimpin perkumpulan).

 

Perkumpulan sandiwara Orion berdiri di Batavia pada 1925. Rombongan sandiwara ini didirikan serta dipimpin oleh Tio Tek Djien Junior. Tio merupakan seorang terpelajar pertama yang menekuni secara serius kesenian sandiwara modern. Dia lulusan sekolah dagang Batavia. Primadona mereka adalah Miss Riboet. Selain sebagai istri Tio, Riboet juga terkenal dengan permainan pedangnya. Ia sangat menonjol ketika memerankan seorang perampok perempuan dalam lakon Juanita de Vega karya Antoinette de Zerna. Selanjutnya perkumpulan ini terkenal dengan nama Miss Riboet Orion (Sumardjo, 2004: 115).

 

Perkumpulan ini semakin mengibarkan bendera ketenarannya setelah masuk seorang wartawan bernama Njoo Cheong Seng dan istrinya Fifi Young. Setelah masuknya Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, perkumpulan ini meninggalkan cerita-cerita khayalan yang pada masa stambul dan bangsawan lazim untuk dibawakan ke panggung (Pane, 1953: 9). Kemudian Njoo Cheong Seng menjadi tangan kanan Tio Tek Djien dan bertugas sebagai penulis lakon pada perkumpulan ini dan menghasilkan cerita-cerita, seperti Saidjah, R.A. Soemiatie, Barisan Tengkorak, dan Singapore After Midnight.

 

Di tengah kepopuleran Miss Riboet Orion, berdiri perkumpulan sandiwara Dardanella di Sidoarjo pada 21 Juni 1926. Sebagaimana Miss Riboet Orion, Dardanella juga telah melakukan perubahan besar pada dunia sandiwara. Dardanella didirikan oleh A. Piedro, seorang Rusia yang bernama asli Willy Klimanoff (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 58). Pada 1929, untuk pertamakalinya Dardanella mengadakan pertunjukan di Batavia. Mulanya lakon-lakon yang dimainkan adalah cerita-cerita berdasarkan film-film yang sedang ramai dibicarakan orang, seperti Robin Hood, The Mask of Zorro, The Three Musketeers, The Black Pirates, The Thief of Baghdad, Roses of Yesterday, The Sheik of Arabia, Vera, dan Graaf de Monte Christo (Ramadhan KH, 1984: 74). Namun pada kunjungan keduanya di Batavia, mereka menghadirkan cerita mengenai kehidupan di Indonesia, seperti Annie van Mendoet, Lilie van Tjikampek, dan De Roos van Tjikembang. Cerita-cerita ini disebut dengan Indische Roman, yaitu cerita-cerita yang mengambil inspirasinya dari kehidupan Indonesia, dikarang dalam bahasa Belanda (Brahim, 1968: 116).

 

Pada tahun yang sama, seorang wartawan dari majalah Doenia Film, bernama Andjar Asmara, ikut masuk ke dalam perkumpulan ini, dan meninggalkan pekerjaannya sebagai wartawan di majalah tersebut. Seperti halnya Njoo Cheong Seng di Miss Riboet Orion, Andjar kemudian juga menjadi tangan kanan Piedro, dan bertugas sebagai penulis naskah perkumpulan. Andjar Asmara menulis beberapa naskah, seperti Dr. Samsi, Si Bongkok, Haida, Tjang, dan Perantaian 99 (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Dardanella juga terkenal dengan pemain-pemainnya yang piawai memegang peranan dalam setiap pertunjukan. Para pemain ini terkenal dengan sebutan The Big Five. Anggota Perkumpulan Dardanella yang disebut The Big Five yaitu, Ferry Kock, Miss Dja, Tan Tjeng Bok, Riboet II, dan Astaman (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11-12).

 

Persaingan untuk meraih perhatian publik antara Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella terjadi di Batavia pada tahun 1931. Sebenarnya persaingan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Dardanella sudah mulai terlihat ketika dua perkumpulan ini memperebutkan “pengakuan nama” dari salah satu pemainnya, yaitu Riboet. Dalam dua perkumpulan ini ada satu pemain yang namanya sama. Ketika itu Dardanella yang sedang bermain di Surabaya, didatangi dan dituntut oleh Tio Tek Djien, pemimpin Miss Riboet Orion, karena Dardanella mempergunakan nama Riboet juga untuk seorang pemainnya. Tio berkata kepada Piedro, “Kami tidak senang Tuan mempergunakan nama yang sama, nama Riboet juga untuk pemain Tuan…kami menyampaikan gugatan, Miss Riboet hanya ada satu dan dia sekarang sedang bermain di Batavia”. Akhir dari perseteruan ini adalah mengalahnya Piedro kepada Tio dan merubah nama Riboet yang ada di Dardanella menjadi Riboet II (Ramadhan KH, 1982: 72).

 

Memang lazim terjadi persaingan antarperkumpulan sandiwara, terutama di kota besar seperti Batavia. Sebelum persaingan dengan Dardanella, Miss Riboet Orion juga pernah bersaingan dengan Dahlia Opera, pimpinan Tengkoe Katan dari Medan, persaingan ini berakhir dengan kemenangan pihak Orion (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 11). Wujud dari persaingan antara Miss Riboet Orion dan Dardanella ini adalah pecahnya perang reklame. Dardanella memajukan Dr. Samsi sebagai lakon andalan mereka, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion dengan Gagak Solo. Dalam persaingan ini, Dardanella mengandalkan A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Tan Tjeng Bok, sedangkan Miss Riboet Orion mengandalkan Tio Tek Djien, Njoo Cheong Seng, dan A. Boellaard van Tuijl, sebagai pemimpinnya (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 12). Kedua wartawan dalam perkumpulan-perkumpulan itu bekerja dan memutar otak untuk membuat reklame propaganda yang, sedapat-dapatnya, memengaruhi pikiran publik.

 

Akhirnya Miss Riboet Orion harus menyerah kepada Dardanella. Riwayat Perkumpulan Sandiwara Miss Riboet Orion berakhir pada 1934, ketika penulis naskah mereka Njoo Cheong Seng dan Fifi Young, pindah ke Dardanella.

 

Dardanella menjadi semakin besar dengan hadirnya anggota-anggota baru seperti Ratna Asmara, Bachtiar Effendi, Fifi Young, dan Henry L. Duarte (seorang Amerika yang dilahirkan di Guam). Dalam Dardanella juga berkumpul tiga penulis lakon ternama, seperti A. Piedro, Andjar Asmara, dan Njoo Cheong Seng, di samping itu, perkumpulan ini diperkuat oleh permainan luar biasa dari bintang-bintang panggungnya seperti Miss Dja, Ferry Kock, Tan Tjeng Bok, Astaman, dan Riboet II.

 

Pada 1935, Piedro memutuskan untuk mengadakan perjalanan ke Siam, Burma, Sri Lanka, India, dan Tibet, untuk memperkenalkan pertunjukan-pertunjukan mereka. Perjalanan ini disebut Tour d’Orient. Dalam perjalanan itu tidak dipentaskan sandiwara, melainkan tari-tarian Indonesia seperti Serimpi, Bedoyo, Golek, Jangger, Durga, Penca Minangkabau, Keroncong, Penca Sunda, Nyanyian Ambon, dan tari-tarian Papua (Tzu You dalam Sin Po, 1939: 13).

2.Betawi  Music  era WW II (Perang dunia Kedua 1942-1945)

1,Miss Tjitjih

Repertory like Star Soerabaja, Tjahaja Asia, Tjahaja Timoer, Warnasari, Miss Tjitjih, Goddess Mada, as well as associations of local nature, given the task of traveling to give performances to the residents or the military. They provide entertainment as well as propaganda

2.Orkes Kroncong Empat sekawan Djakarta With Ismael marzuki.

Pada Maret 1942, saat Jepang menduduki seluruh Indonesia, Radio NIROM dibubarkan diganti dengan nama Hoso Kanri Kyoku. PRK juga dibubarkan Jepang, dan orkes Lief Java berganti nama Kireina Jawa. Saat itu Ma’ing mulai memasuki periode menciptakan lagu-lagu perjuangan. Mula-mula syair lagunya masih berbentuk puitis yang lembut seperti “Kalau Melati Mekar Setangkai”, “Kembang Rampai dari Bali” dan bentuk hiburan ringan, bahkan agak mengarah pada bentuk seriosa.
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Pada periode 1943-1944, Ma’ing menciptakan lagu yang mulai mengarah pada lagu-lagu perjuangan, antara lain “Rayuan Pulau Kelapa”, “Bisikan Tanah Air”, “Gagah Perwira”, dan “Indonesia Tanah Pusaka”. Kepala bagian propaganda Jepang, Sumitsu, mencurigai lagu-lagu tersebut lalu melaporkannya ke pihak Kenpetai (Polisi Militer Jepang), sehingga Ma’ing sempat diancam oleh Kenpetai. Namun, putra Betawi ini tak gentar. Malah pada 1945 lahir lagu “Selamat Jalan Pahlawan Muda”.
Setelah Perang Dunia II, ciptaan Ma’ing terus mengalir, antara lain “Jauh di Mata di Hati Jangan” (1947) dan “Halo-halo Bandung” (1948). Ketika itu Ma’ing dan istrinya pindah ke Bandung karena rumah meraka di Jakarta kena serempet peluru mortir. Ketika berada di Bandung selatan, ayah Ma’ing di Jakarta meninggal. Ma’ing terlambat menerima berita. Ketika dia tiba di Jakarta, ayahnya telah beberapa hari dimakamkan. Kembang-kembang yang menghiasi makam ayahnya dan telah layu, mengilhaminya untuk menciptakan lagu “Gugur Bunga”.
Lagu-lagu ciptaan lainnya mengenai masa perjuangan yang bergaya romantis tanpa mengurangi nilai-nilai semangat perjuangan antara lain “Ke Medan Jaya”, “Sepasang Mata Bola”, “Selendang Sutra”, “Melati di Tapal Batas Bekasi”, “Saputangan dari Bandung Selatan”, “Selamat Datang Pahlawan Muda”. Lagu hiburan populer yang (kental) bernafaskan cinta pun sampai-sampai diberi suasana kisah perjuangan kemerdekaan. Misalnya syair lagu “Tinggi Gunung Seribu Janji”, dan “Juwita Malam”.
Lagu-lagu yang khusus mengisahkan kehidupan para pejuang kemerekaan, syairnya dibuat ringan dalam bentuk populer, tidak menggunakan bahasa Indonesia tinggi yang sulit dicerna. Simak saja syair “Oh Kopral Jono” dan “Sersan Mayorku”. Lagu-lagu ciptaannya yang berbentuk romantis murni hiburan ringan, walaupun digarap secara populer tapi bentuk syairnya berbobot seriosa. Misalnya lagu “Aryati”, “Oh Angin Sampaikan. Tahun 1950 dia masih mencipta lagu “Irian Samba” dan tahun 1957 lagu “Inikah Bahagia” — suatu lagu yang banyak memancing tandatanya dari para pengamat musik.
Sampai pada lagu ciptaan yang ke 100-an, Ma’ing masih merasa belum puas dan belum bahagia. Malah, lagu ciptaannya yang ke-103 tidak sempat diberi judul dan syair, hingga Ma’ing alias Ismail Marzuki — komponis besar Indonesia itu — menutup mata selamanya pada 25 Mei 1958.

Balatentara Jepang berhasil menguasai seluruh wilayah Indonesia pada tanggal 8 Maret 1942, setelah penyerahan tanpa syarat pemerintah Hindia Belanda di Kalijati, Jawa Barat. Setelah itu Jepang menduduki Indonesia sekitar 3,5 tahun. Pemerintah pendudukan Jepang bercita-cita menyatukan seluruh Asia dalam satu kepemimpinan, yaitu kepemimpinan Jepang. Selain itu, mereka menginginkan agar masyarakat Asia mendukung peperangan yang sedang dijalankan melawan Sekutu (Belanda, Amerika, Inggris). Eksploitasi hasil bumi serta mobilisasi manusia adalah wujud dari cita-cita Jepang tersebut. Untuk menyukseskan pelaksanaan kebijakan mereka tentang kemakmuran bersama Asia Timur Raya di bawah pimpinan Jepang, pemerintahan militer Jepang memberikan perhatian besar untuk mengambil hati rakyat dan bagaimana mengindoktrinasi mereka. Salah satu media yang dimanfaatkan Jepang guna menarik simpati rakyat Indonesia adalah melalui media seni sandiwara/teater. Suatu organisasi bentukan pemerintah untuk menangani masalah propaganda dibentuk pada Agustus 1942. Organisasi ini bernama Sendenbu. Sendenbu merupakan sebuah departemen yang berada dalam Badan Pemerintahan Militer (Gunseikanbu), yang sejak awal sampai akhir masa pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia selalu dipimpin oleh orang dari kalangan militer. Di dalam Sendenbu terdapat Seksi Propaganda. Seksi inilah yang kemudian mengendalikan seluruh media propaganda. Sandiwara, yang termasuk salah satu alat propaganda pemerintah, tidak lepas dari pengawasan seksi ini. Jepang memilih sandiwara sebagai alat propaganda karena sandiwara dapat menggelorakan perasaan orang banyak. Selain Sekolah Tonil, Jepang juga membentuk Pusat Kebudayaan (Keimin Bunka Shidosho) untuk mendukung/menunjang propaganda melalui kesenian, termasuk sandiwara. Keimin Bunka Shidosho berdiri pada 1 April 1943. Keimin Bunka Shidosho adalah organisasi di luar Sendenbu sebagai pusat kebudayaan yang bergerak di bidang kesenian. Tujuan dari Keimin Bunka Shidosho adalah untuk menyesuaikan kebudayaan Indonesia dengan cita-cita Asia Timur Raya, bekerja dan melatih ahli-ahli kebudayaan Nippon dan Indonesia bersama-sama, serta memajukan kebudayaan Indonesia. Terdapat lima bagian di dalam Keimin Bunka Shidosho, yaitu bagian kesusasteraan, bagian film, bagian lukisan dan ukiran, bagian musik, dan bagian sandiwara dan tari. Setiap bagian dipimpin oleh seorang ahli seni dari Jepang dan didampingi seorang Indonesia. Bagian sandiwara dan tari dipimpin oleh K. Jasoeda didampingi oleh Winarno.

Pengurus Keimin Bunka Shidosho. Sumber Foto: Perpustakaan Nasional

Kedudukan bagian sandiwara adalah sebagai markas besar, atas perumusan kebijakan dasar pemanfaatan seni sandiwara demi propaganda politik, dan bertanggung jawab atas pendorongan, pelatihan, tuntunan, serta kontrol segala jenis kegiatan sandiwara. Keimin Bunka Shidosho juga ”menjaring” penulis naskah sandiwara kelas satu Indonesia, misalnya Inoe Perbatasari dan Armijn Pane. Naskah-naskah yang dikarang tersebut kemudian dibagi-bagikan kepada perkumpulan-perkumpulan sandiwara untuk dimainkan. Bagian sandiwara juga turut aktif menyelenggarakan pertunjukan-pertunjukan sandi