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The International Leader Reactions
Osama Recent Information
As we approach the 9th anniversary of September 11 the big question is Osama bin Laden dead or alive has to be asked. His voice was detected regularly until December 14, 2001 by intelligence operatives monitoring radio transmissions in Tora Bora, according to the Pentagon. The Pakistan Observer reported that he died a peaceful death due to an untreated lung complication, citing a Taliban leader who allegedly attended the funeral of the Al Qaeda leader!
In Bad Health
Bin Laden was often reported to be in poor health. Some accounts claim that he is (was) suffering from Hepatitis C and could only have expected to live for two more years. According to Le Figaro, in 2000 he ordered a mobile dialysis machine to be delivered to his base at Kandahar in Afghanistan.
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation’s counter-terrorism chief, Dale Watson, says he thinks Osama bin Laden is “probably” dead. Even Israeli intelligence says he’s dead. So what’s the hold up?! Make the call…
• The big tidbit is probably the marriage of a 51-year-old English grandmother to the 27-year-old son of Osama bin Laden in wake of a holiday romance. Here’s The Times version of the story, and a photo of the couple:
Now if you’ve been paying attention you’ve learned that Osama bin Laden was on the US payroll pre 9/11 to help fight the Russians in Afganistan …and you heard the theory that they set him up as a pansy to take the fall for the attacks …and that the bin Laden family and the Bush family were pretty tight, which perhaps got him a free pass back to Saudi Arabia as a ‘favour’ to the family…which is all a possibility, but come on!
So why not just come out and say he’s dead? What good is a War on Terror without terror personified into a single easy to despise form? Imagine World War 2 without Hitler…not as menacing, eh?
Bad for Business
Without Osama bin Laden alive and as a continuing threat, the so-called “Military Industrial Complex” would find sales heading into a deep valley. Keeping Osama bin Laden alive in the minds of westerners with the help of mainstream media, is good for business on many levels.
You Decide: Dead or Alive?
So is he dead or alive? I think the answer is obvious. If you need any more convincing here is his death announcement in the Egyptian news paper al-Wafd, Wednesday, December 26, 2001.
If you don’t read Arabic here’s the English translation:
al-Wafd, Wednesday, December 26, 2001
News of Bin Laden’s Death and Funeral 10 days ago
Islamabad - A prominent official in the Afghan Taleban movement announced yesterday the death of Osama bin Laden, the chief of al-Qa’da organization, stating that binLaden suffered serious complications in the lungs and died a natural and quiet death. The official, who asked to remain anonymous, stated to The Observer of Pakistan that he had himself attended the funeral of bin Laden and saw his face prior to burial in Tora Bora 10 days ago. He mentioned that 30 of al-Qa’da fighters attended the burial as well as members of his family and some friends from the Taleban. In the farewell ceremony to his final rest guns were fired in the air. The official stated that it is difficult to pinpoint the burial location of bin Laden because according to the Wahhabi tradition no mark is left by the grave. He stressed that it is unlikely that the American forces would ever uncover any traces of bin Laden.
This entry was posted on Thursday, September 9th, 2010 at 1:27 pm and is filed under Conspiracy, mystery, People, Politics, Religion. You can follow any responses to this entry through the RSS 2.0 feed. You can leave a response, or trackback from your own site.
The next time the CIA comes up with another Osama bin Laden videotape, you might want to compare their images of the alleged al-Qaeda leader to the photograph I’ve provided here. If he looks any healthier than that, then you’re probably looking at an imposter.
Yeah, Osama has definitely seen better days. But give the guy a break, huh? You wouldn’t look much better if you’d been dead for nine years.
Oh, by the way, in case you’ve just joined us? Osama bin Laden is dead.
He died in the Tora Bora Mountains of Afghanistan on December 13, 2001. He was buried in an unmarked grave within 24 hours of his death. Case closed.
But don’t just take my word for it. Top terror experts, intelligence analysts, academics, government officials, and even major political figures around the globe tend to agree that, “All the evidence suggests Elvis Presley is more alive today than Osama Bin Laden.”
I know this is old news to most of you, but I think it’s important to reiterate this fact. Why? Because Christmas season is upon us, and you know what that means: Terrorism!
That’s right! “Tis the season to be frightened,” and what 21st century Christmas would be complete without a holiday greeting from the man often credited with masterminding the attacks behind 9/11?
But wait—it’s already Christmas Eve (at least it was at the time of this writing)—and although our government has been hyping the threat al-Qaeda poses to the American people, one central figure has been conspicuously absent from their conspiracy theories.
Could it be that our government has finally given up on trying to convince the American people that Osama bin Laden is still alive and kicking? There sure is plenty to suggest that their efforts have thus far failed to inspire the kind of fear they need to justify these unpopular wars abroad, and the even more unpopular war on the civil liberties of American citizens here at home.
A CNN poll conducted in September of this year reveals that 67% of Americans believe it is unlikely the U.S. will ever capture or kill Osama bin Laden. That’s a dramatic increase since 2001, when only 20% believed that it would be unlikely that the government would catch him. One thing this poll does not address is why the American people believe it is unlikely that the U.S. will capture or kill Osama bin Laden. But you and I know the answer to that question, right? Right—because he’s dead!
By the time this poll was conducted, the American people had already grown tired of the ad nauseam attempts by our government to breathe life into this long dead villain. Each new audio and videotape pufporting to be that of Osama bin Laden failed to stand up to scrutiny. One of the more prominent critics of these tapes is former U.S. foreign intelligence officer Angelo M. Codevilla, who is now a professor of international relations at Boston University. In March of 2009, Codevilla wrote a damning critique of the countless recordings in an article for American Spectator Magazine.
According to Codevilla, Some videos show him [bin Laden]with a Semitic aquiline nose, while others show him with a shorter, broader one.
He also determined that none of the audio recordings match up either. Not only has voice recognition software found them to be not authentic, but even the secular language used by the “fake Osama” is inconsistent with the real bin Laden’s strict Islamic Wahhabism.
Codevilla also points out some of the finer discrepancies found in the videos. Like the fact that Bin Laden is left-handed, but uses his right hand to write with. He’s also seen wearing gold rings that are decidedly un-Wahabbi.
But these criticisms did not dissuade ‘the powers that be’ from releasing even more fake recordings. However, they were obviously persuaded to play it safe by exclusively sticking to an audio format.
They managed to keep him alive for a while longer, but then totally ‘jumped the shark,’ on January 29, 2010. That was the day that Osama bin Laden (the fake one, of course) scolded the U.S. for its failure to address climate change. It was a laugh riot, and quite possibly what drove that final nail into OBL’s coffin once and for all.
We didn’t hear much from Osama bin Laden after that. Then, less than a month after the CNN poll was conducted, three more audiotapes were released during the month of October. But these recordings generated about as much excitement as an Ashton Kutcher film.
So, do you think that our betters have finally decided to retire OBL’s jersey? That would seem to be the case.
Yesterday, in an op-ed piece for the Washington Times, former White House aide Robert Weiner and national security analyst James Lewis floated the idea that Osama bin Laden is most likely dead.
“Is bin Laden dead or alive? Nobody seems to know for sure, or, if anybody does, he isn’t saying. The White House’s Afghanistan-Pakistan review this month didn’t even mention him despite an ongoing, decade-long manhunt.”
But then they put a peculiar spin on their piece by suggesting that it is al-Qaeda that is trying to conceal bin Laden’s earthly departure.
“Al Qaeda wants America and the world to believe bin Laden is still alive. His image is a specter of the horrors of Sept. 11, helping build public support for everything from troop surges a globe away to warrantless wiretaps at home.
But the image of bin Laden is getting moldy, and there’s little reason for his ghost to scare anyone anymore. If al Qaeda wants America to believe bin Laden is alive, it should put up or shut up.”
This is not something you would expect to find in the Washington Times, which is a fanatical supporter of the‘war on terror’and a mouthpiece for whatever propaganda is coming out of the Pentagon. But there you have it.
We may very well find our government putting closure to this whole Osama bin Laden affair in the very near future. I expect them to come up with a body. Maybe they’ll dig him up out of the hills of Afghanistan, or claim that he was recently blown to bits following a bloody fire fight in Yemen. Whatever happens, you can sure that our government will declare, “Mission Accomplished” and finally have something to show for all those billions of dollars and hundreds of thousands of lives it cost to get him.
But don’t think that will put an exclamation point to this entire saga. No siree. They’re just getting started, and they have a whole new bin Laden waiting in the wings.
Up till now, bin Laden has been our government’s real life version of Emmanuel Goldstein. In case you don’t know who that is, I recommend you read George Orwell’s 1984.
In the novel, Goldstein was the Ministry of Truth’s poster child for terrorism. Like bin Laden, he was elusive and seemed to be everywhere. But the only place he actually showed up was on the nation’s telescreens. Each day, at 11:00am, images of Goldstein would be flashed before the eyes of Oceania’s citizenry, as part of a daily ritual known as “Two Minutes Hate.” It was a constant reminder to the people that the threat of terrorism was real and ever-present, and ensured that public support for the government’s ongoing wars was continuous.
With bin Laden gone, they’ll need a whole new Goldstein to take his place.
Anwar Al-awaki is that guy. He’s another CIA creation that is being bumped up from the minor leagues. Al-awaki has a very impressive resume who has been linked to the 9/11 plotters, the Ft. Hood shooter, and both the Christmas Day and Times Square bombers. He’s a big hit with the western intelligence crowd, and even dined with top-level Pentagon officials just months after 9/11.
And, just like bin Laden, he’ll be just like the American Express Card: He’s “everywhere you want to be!”
Remember when there was much chatter about a strike on Iran last summer? Osama bin Laden and his pet falcon just happened to be there, living it up in a guarded compound north of Tehran.
Or how about when the Pentagon was ‘testing the waters’ to expand the Afghan war into Pakistan last October? Well, bin Laden was there too, “living comfortably” in a cozy little hideaway somewhere north of the Kurrum Valley.
And let’s not forget how the U.S. has been salivating to break Yemen wide open. Well, wouldn’t you know it? Last month, Osama bin Laden was believed to be shopping for new digs—somwhere near Hadramout—so he could be close to the rest of his al-Queda buddies, and finally have a chance to settle down, and start a brand new family with his latest child bride.
Now that’s what I call one active senior citizen.
But I think you’ll agree that Osama bin Laden is nearing the end of his run. At some point in time, you’ve got to switch out actors to breathe new life into the franchise.
I liked Roger Moore as James Bond, but everyone agreed that this 57-year-old had to go after “From a View to a Kill.” You can only suspend so much disbelief when you see a guy— who can now get half price at Denny’s—knocking down multiple assailants and bedding women young enough to be his granddaughter.
Same thing with Osama. He’s too old and becoming increasingly irrelevant. It’s time our government introduces a new villain to the franchise before they lose their audience altogether.
So expect someone new to emerge from the smokey clouds of the next false flag. He’ll be young, tanned and ready to kick some infidel ass. He might even make a grand entrance like Pierce Brosnan did in the trailer to Golden Eye:
Osama Family Informations
Wafah Dufour (corbis.com)
Nephew Osama Posing Almost Naked
Osama did not stop calling for jihad against Western countries. Not all the children agree.
Funding Al-Qaeda Osama Post
Obama Will Meet Navy SEAL Team Elite
Wife Osama No Exit Home 5 Years
Meet Obama Osama Brutality Victim Families
Umar Patek U.S. Pandu to Osama?
VIVAnews – Who does not know Osama Bin Laden – terrorist fugitives most wanted and most hated. He became the mastermind of terror attacks 11 September 2001 that killed thousands of people.
Before he died at the hands of the elite U.S. Navy SEAL Sunday, May 1, 2011, Osama did not stop calling for jihad against Western countries. However, not all family members follow the advice fugitive whose head valued U.S. $ 50 million dollars this. Some members of the Bin Laden clan actually embrace the western way of life.
Look at one of 23 sons of Osama bin Laden, Omar Osama bin Laden (29). Rather than follow in the footsteps of his father, he actually claimed to be ‘ambassador of peace’ between the Islamic world and the West. He even married a British woman who was nearly twice that of age.
“I try and and said to my father, looking for other ways to reach your goal. Bomb, a weapon, its impact is not good for anyone.”
According to some information on Omar Bin Laden at the camp of Jihad in Sudan and Afghanistan, along with the fighters who had tested chemical weapons on a number of puppies.
In an interview with Rolling Stone magazine in 2010, Omar claimed to want to work at the United Nations, met President Barack Obama, and Clinton, Hillary Clinton. In the interview, he even compared himself to Hollywood actor, Mel Gibson.
Not only that nyeleneh Omar, Osama’s nephew, Wafah Dufour went even further. Graduated from Columbia University School of Law is determined to pose nearly naked on the cover of GQ men’s magazine in 2005. Her body was covered only by camel fur.
Like Omar, he dreamed of a Hollywood star, singer or movie star. “Although relatives, I had nothing to do with him (Osama). But, because he, the Western world hates me, on the contrary, because I chose to apply Western values, the people of Saudi Arabia hates me,” said Wafah Dufour.
Even Osama’s mother had refused his son’s way of thinking. “I have no ties with Al Qaeda organization,” he told the Saudi Newspaper. “I’m just worried about my child and preaching about it.”
Meanwhile, the Telegraph had reported, as a mother, like any Osama, still he loves. “I prayed, God showed the right path, away from the wrong thoughts. My mother who suffer most.”
Meanwhile, children Osama others, following his father’s steps. Osama third child, Saad, reportedly active in Al Qaeda, although not a key figure. July 2009, Saad reportedly killed in U.S. attack in Pakistan.
Meanwhile, Osama’s youngest son, Hamza Bin Laden was reported a number of media in Pakistan as the leader of a team sent to kill Benazir Bhutto who was killed December 2007.
Hamza A poem written in 2008 to commemorate the July 7, 2005 bombings in London that killed 52 people.
In the poem he calls himself the nickname of ‘Crown Prince of Terror’, called for the destruction of the United States, Britain, France and Denmark – who became the target of terror because of caricatures of the Prophet Muhammad.
VIVAnews – Siapa tak kenal Osama Bin Laden — buron teroris paling dicari dan paling dibenci. Ia menjadi dalang serangan teror 11 September 2001 yang menewaskan ribuan orang.
Sebelum tewas di tangan pasukan elit US Navy SEAL Minggu 1 Mei 2011, Osama tak berhenti menyerukan jihad melawan negara-negara Barat. Namun, tak semua anggota keluarganya menuruti anjuran buron yang kepalanya dihargai US$50 juta dollar ini. Sejumlah anggota klan Bin Laden justru merangkul cara hidup barat.
Lihat saja satu dari 23 putra Osama, Omar Osama bin Laden (29). Alih-alih mengikuti jejak ayahnya, ia justru mengaku ingin menjadi ‘duta perdamaian’ antara dunia Islam dan Barat. Ia bahkan menikahi seorang perempuan Inggris yang usianya hampir dua kali lipat dari umurnya.
“Saya mencoba dan dan berkata pada ayah saya, cari cara lain untuk mencapai tujuanmu. Bom, senjata, tidak baik dampaknya bagi siapapun.”
Menurut sejumlah informasi Omar Bin Laden besar di kamp Jihad di Sudan dan Afghanistan, bersama para pejuang yang menguji senjata kimia pada sejumlah anak anjing.
Dalam wawancara dengan majalah Rolling Stone pada 2010, Omar mengaku ingin bekerja di PBB, bertemu Presiden Barack Obama, dan Menlu AS, Hillary Clinton. Dalam wawancara itu, ia bahkan membandingkan dirinya dengan aktor Hollywood, Mel Gibson.
Tak hanya Omar yang nyeleneh, keponakan Osama, Wafah Dufour bahkan melangkah lebih jauh. Lulusan Fakultas hukum Columbia University ini nekat berpose nyaris telanjang di sampul majalah pria GQ pada tahun 2005. Badannya hanya ditutupi bulu onta.
Seperti halnya Omar, dia bermimpi jadi bintang Hollywood, penyanyi atau bintang film. “Meski kerabat, aku tak ada hubungannya dengan dia (Osama). Tapi, karena dia, dunia Barat membenciku, sebaliknya, karena aku memilih menerapkan nilai-nilai Barat, orang-orang Arab Saudi membenciku,” kata Wafah Dufour.
Bahkan ibu kandung Osama pun menolak jalan pikiran putranya itu. “Saya tak ada hubungan dengan organisasi Al Qaeda,” kata dia kepada Saudi Newspaper. “Aku hanya khawatir pada anak saya dan pemberitaan tentangnya.”
Sementara Telegraph pernah memberitakan, sebagai ibu, seperti apapun Osama, tetap ia cintai. “Aku berdoa, Allah menunjukkan jalan yang benar, menjauh dari pikiran yang salah. Saya ibunya yang paling menderita.”
Sementara, anak-anak Osama yang lain, mengikuti langkah ayahnya. Anak ketiga Osama, Saad, dikabarkan aktif di Al Qaeda, meski bukan tokoh kunci. Juli 2009 lalu, Saad dikabarkan tewas dalam serangan AS di Pakistan.
Sementara, putra bungsu Osama, Hamza Bin Laden dilaporkan sejumlah media di Pakistan sebagai pemimpin tim yang dikirim untuk membunuh Benazir Bhutto yang tewas Desember 2007 lalu.
Sebuah puisi ditulis Hamza pada tahun 2008 untuk memperingati 7 Juli 2005 pemboman di London yang menewaskan 52 orang.
Dalam puisi itu ia menyebut diri sendiri dengan julukan ‘Putra Mahkota Teror’, menyerukan penghancuran Amerika Serikat, Inggris, Perancis dan Denmark — yang jadi target teror karena karikatur Nabi Muhammad.
Frame Five :
The biography Of Osama Bin Laden
Osama bin Laden
|This article is about a person who has recently died. Some information, such as that pertaining to the circumstances of the person’s death and surrounding events, may change as more facts become known.|
|Osama bin Laden
أسامة بن لادن
|March 10, 1957(1957-03-10) – c. May 1, 2011(2011-05-01) (aged 54)|
|Place of birth||Riyadh, Saudi Arabia|
|Place of death||Abbottabad, Pakistan|
|Battles/wars||Soviet war in Afghanistan
War on Terror:
Osama bin Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden (Arabic: أسامة بن محمد بن عوض بن لادن, ʾUsāmah bin Muḥammad bin ʿAwaḍ bin Lādin; March 10, 1957 – c. May 1, 2011) was a member of the wealthy Saudi bin Laden family and the founder of the jihadist terrorist organization al-Qaeda, responsible for the September 11 attacks on the United States and numerous other mass-casualty attacks against civilian and military targets. As a result of his dealings in and advocacy of violent extremist jihad, Osama bin Laden lost his Saudi citizenship and was disowned by his billionaire family.
Since 2001, Osama bin Laden and his organization had been major targets of the U.S. War on Terror. Bin Laden and fellow al-Qaeda leaders were believed to be hiding near the border of Afghanistan and Pakistan‘s Federally Administered Tribal Areas.
On May 1, 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama announced on national television that bin Laden had been killed in Abbottabad, Pakistan by American military forces and by the American Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and that his body was in U.S. custody.
Variations of Osama bin Laden’s name
There is no universally accepted standard in the West for transliterating Arabic words and names into English, so bin Laden’s name is spelled in many different ways. The version translation most often used by English-language mass media is Osama bin Laden. Most American government agencies, including the FBI and CIA, use either “Usama bin Laden” or “Usama bin Ladin“, both of which are often abbreviated to UBL. Less common renderings include “Ussamah Bin Ladin” and “Oussama Ben Laden” (French-language mass media). The last two words of the name can also be found as “Binladen” or (as used by his family in the West) “Binladin“. The spelling with “o” and “e” comes from a Persian-influenced pronunciation used in Afghanistan where he lived for a long time.
Strictly speaking, Arabic linguistic conventions dictate that he be referred to as “Osama” or “Osama bin Laden”, not “bin Laden”, as “Bin Laden” is not used as a surname in the Western manner, but simply as part of his name, which in its long form means “Osama, son of Mohammed, son of ‘Awad, son of Laden”. Still, “bin Laden” has become nearly universal in Western references to him.
Childhood, education and personal life
Osama bin Laden was born in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. In a 1998 interview, he gave his birth date as March 10, 1957. His father Mohammed bin Awad bin Laden was a wealthy businessman with close ties to the Saudi royal family. Osama bin Laden was born the only son of Mohammed bin Laden’s tenth wife, Hamida al-Attas. Osama’s parents divorced soon after he was born; Osama’s mother then married Mohammed al-Attas. The couple had four children, and Osama lived in the new household with three half-brothers and one half-sister.
Bin Laden was raised as a devout Wahhabi Muslim. From 1968 to 1976 he attended the “élite” secular Al-Thager Model School. Bin Laden studied economics and business administration at King Abdulaziz University. Some reports suggest bin Laden earned a degree in civil engineering in 1979, or a degree in public administration in 1981. Other sources describe him as having left university during his third year, never completing a college degree, though “hard working.” At university, bin Laden’s main interest was religion, where he was involved in both “interpreting the Quran and jihad” and charitable work. He also wrote poetry.
In 1974, at the age of 17, bin Laden married his first wife Najwa Ghanem at Latakia. According to CNN national security correspondent David Ensore, as of 2002 bin Laden had married four women and fathered roughly 25 or 26 children. Other sources report that he has fathered anywhere from 12 to 24 children.
His father, Mohammed bin Laden, was killed in 1967 in an airplane crash in Saudi Arabia when his American pilot misjudged a landing. His eldest half-brother and head of the bin Laden family, Salem bin Laden, was killed in 1988 when he accidentally flew a plane into powerlines near San Antonio, Texas, USA.
Beliefs and ideology
Bin Laden believed that the restoration of Sharia law will set things right in the Muslim world, and that all other ideologies—”pan-Arabism, socialism, communism, democracy“—must be opposed. These beliefs, along with violent expansive jihad, have sometimes been called Qutbism (the ideology of Sayyid Qutb). He believed Afghanistan under the rule of Mullah Omar‘s Taliban was “the only Islamic country” in the Muslim world. Bin Laden consistently dwelt on the need for violent jihad to right what he believes are injustices against Muslims perpetrated by the United States and sometimes by other non-Muslim states, the need to eliminate the state of Israel, and the necessity of forcing the US to withdraw from the Middle East. He also called on Americans to “reject the immoral acts of fornication (and) homosexuality, intoxicants, gambling, and usury,” in an October 2002 letter.
Probably the most infamous part of Bin Laden’s ideology was that civilians, including women and children, are legitimate targets of jihad. Bin Laden was antisemitic, and delivered warnings against alleged Jewish conspiracies: “These Jews are masters of usury and leaders in treachery. They will leave you nothing, either in this world or the next.” Shia Muslims have been listed along with “Heretics,… America and Israel,” as the four principal “enemies of Islam” at ideology classes of bin Laden’s Al-Qaeda organization.
In keeping with Wahhabi beliefs, bin Laden opposed music on religious grounds, and his attitude towards technology was mixed. He was interested in “earth-moving machinery and genetic engineering of plants” on the one hand, but rejected “chilled water” on the other.
His viewpoints and methods of achieving them had led to him being designated as a “terrorist” by scholars, journalists from The New York Times, the BBC, and Qatari news station Al Jazeera, analysts such as Peter Bergen, Michael Scheuer, Marc Sageman, and Bruce Hoffman and he was indicted on terrorism charges by law enforcement agencies in Madrid, New York City, and Tripoli.
Mujahideen in Afghanistan
By 1984, with Azzam, bin Laden established Maktab al-Khadamat, which funneled money, arms and Muslim fighters from around the Arabic world into the Afghan war. Through al-Khadamat, bin Laden’s inherited family fortune paid for air tickets and accommodation, dealt with paperwork with Pakistani authorities and provided other such services for the jihad fighters. Osama established a camp in Afghanistan, and with other volunteers fought the Soviets.
It was during his time in Peshawar that he began wearing camouflage-print jackets and carrying a captured Soviet assault rifle, which urban legends claimed he had obtained by killing a Russian soldier with his bare hands.
Formation and structuring of Al-Qaeda
By 1988, bin Laden had split from Maktab al-Khidamat. While Azzam acted as support for Afghan fighters, bin Laden wanted a more military role. One of the main points leading to the split and the creation of al-Qaeda was Azzam’s insistence that Arab fighters be integrated among the Afghan fighting groups instead of forming a separate fighting force. Notes of a meeting of bin Laden and others on August 20, 1988, indicate al-Qaeda was a formal group by that time: “basically an organized Islamic faction, its goal is to lift the word of God, to make His religion victorious.” A list of requirements for membership itemized the following: listening ability, good manners, obedience, and making a pledge (bayat) to follow one’s superiors.
According to Wright, the group’s real name wasn’t used in public pronouncements because “its existence was still a closely held secret.” His research suggests that al-Qaeda was formed at an August 11, 1988, meeting between “several senior leaders” of Egyptian Islamic Jihad, Abdullah Azzam, and bin Laden, where it was agreed to join bin Laden’s money with the expertise of the Islamic Jihad organization and take up the jihadist cause elsewhere after the Soviets withdrew from Afghanistan. Following the Soviet Union’s withdrawal from Afghanistan in February 1989, Osama bin Laden returned to Saudi Arabia in 1990 as a hero of jihad, who along with his Arab legion, “had brought down the mighty superpower” of the Soviet Union. The Iraqi invasion of Kuwait on August 2, 1990 had put the kingdom and its ruling House of Saud at risk. The world’s most valuable oil fields were within easy striking distance of Iraqi forces in Kuwait, and Saddam’s call to pan-Arab/Islamism could potentially rally internal dissent. bin Laden met with King Fahd, and Sultan, Minister of Defense of Saudi Arabia, telling them not to depend on non-Muslim troops, and offered to help defend Saudi Arabia with his mujahideen fighters. Bin Laden’s offer was rebuffed, and after the American offer to help repel Iraq from Kuwait was accepted, involving deploying U.S. troops in Saudi territory, he publicly denounced Saudi Arabia’s dependence on the U.S. military, as he believed the presence of foreign troops in the “land of the two mosques” (Mecca and Medina) profaned sacred soil. Bin Laden’s criticism of the Saudi monarchy led that government to attempt to silence him.
Shortly after Saudi Arabia permitted U.S. troops on Saudi soil, bin Laden turned his attention to attacks on the west. On November 8, 1990, the FBI raided the New Jersey home of El Sayyid Nosair, an associate of al Qaeda operative Ali Mohamed, discovering a great deal of evidence of terrorist plots, including plans to blow up New York City skyscrapers, marking the earliest uncovering of al Qaeda plans for such activities outside of Muslim countries. Nosair was eventually convicted in connection to the 1993 World Trade Center bombing, and for the murder of Rabbi Meir Kahane on November 5, 1990.
Bin Laden continued to speak publicly against the Saudi government for harboring American troops, for which the Saudis banished him. He went to live in exile in Sudan, in 1992, in a deal brokered by Ali Mohamed.
Sudan and return to Afghanistan
In Sudan, bin Laden established a new base for mujahideen operations, in Khartoum.
Bin Laden continued his verbal assault on King Fahd of Saudi Arabia, and in response, on March 5, 1994, Fahd sent an emissary to Sudan demanding bin Laden’s passport. His family was persuaded to cut off his monthly stipend, the equivalent of $7 million a year. By now bin Laden was strongly associated with Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ), which made up the core of al-Qaeda. In 1995 the EIJ attempted to assassinate Egyptian President Hosni Mubarak. The attempt failed, and the EIJ was expelled from Sudan.
Sudan also began efforts to expel bin Laden. The 9/11 Commission Report states:
“In late 1995, when Bin Laden was still in Sudan, the State Department and the Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) learned that Sudanese officials were discussing with the Saudi government the possibility of expelling Bin Laden. CIA paramilitary officer Billy Waugh tracked down Bin Ladin in the Sudan and prepared an operation to apprehend him, but was denied authorization. US Ambassador Timothy Carney encouraged the Sudanese to pursue this course. The Saudis, however, did not want Bin Laden, giving as their reason their revocation of his citizenship. Sudan’s minister of defense, Fatih Erwa, has claimed that Sudan offered to hand Bin Laden over to the United States. The Commission has found no credible evidence that this was so. Ambassador Carney had instructions only to push the Sudanese to expel Bin Laden. Ambassador Carney had no legal basis to ask for more from the Sudanese since, at the time, there was no indictment outstanding.”
The 9/11 Commission Report further states:
“In February 1996, Sudanese officials began approaching officials from the United States and other governments, asking what actions of theirs might ease foreign pressure. In secret meetings with Saudi officials, Sudan offered to expel Bin Laden to Saudi Arabia and asked the Saudis to pardon him. US officials became aware of these secret discussions, certainly by March. Saudi officials apparently wanted Bin Laden expelled from Sudan. They had already revoked his citizenship, however, and would not tolerate his presence in their country. Also Bin Laden may have no longer felt safe in Sudan, where he had already escaped at least one assassination attempt that he believed to have been the work of the Egyptian or Saudi regimes, or both.”
In May 1996, under increasing pressure on Sudan, from Saudi Arabia, Egypt, and the United States, bin Laden returned to Jalalabad, Afghanistan aboard a chartered flight, and there forged a close relationship with Mullah Mohammed Omar. When Bin Laden left Sudan, he and his organization were significantly weakened, despite his ambitions and organizational skills. In Afghanistan, bin Laden and Al-Qaeda raised money from “donors from the days of the Soviet jihad”, and from the Pakistani Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) to establish more training camps for Mujahideen fighters .
Early attacks and aid for attacks
It was after this bombing that al-Qaeda was reported to have developed its justification for the killing of innocent people. According to a fatwa issued by Mamdouh Mahmud Salim, the killing of someone standing near the enemy is justified because any innocent bystander will find their proper reward in death, going to Jannah (Paradise) if they were good Muslims and to Jahannam (hell) if they were bad or non-believers. The fatwa was issued to al-Qaeda members but not the general public.
In the 1990s bin Laden’s al-Qaeda assisted jihadis financially and sometimes militarily in Algeria, Egypt and Afghanistan. In 1992 or 1993 bin Laden sent an emissary, Qari el-Said, with $40,000 to Algeria to aid the Islamists and urge war rather than negotiation with the government. Their advice was heeded but the war that followed killed 150,000–200,000 Algerians and ended with Islamist surrender to the government.
Another effort by bin Laden was the funding of the Luxor massacre of November 17, 1997, which killed 62 civilians, but so revolted the Egyptian public that it turned against Islamist terror. In mid-1997, the Northern Alliance threatened to overrun Jalalabad, causing Bin Laden to abandon his Nazim Jihad compound and move his operations to Tarnak Farms in the south.
A later effort that did succeed was an attack on the city of Mazar-e-Sharif in Afghanistan. Bin Laden helped cement his alliance with his hosts the Taliban by sending several hundred of his Afghan Arab fighters along to help the Taliban kill between five and six thousand Hazaras overrunning the city.
In 1998, Osama bin Laden and Ayman al-Zawahiri co-signed a fatwa in the name of the World Islamic Front for Jihad Against Jews and Crusaders which declared the killing of North Americans and their allies an “individual duty for every Muslim” to “liberate the al-Aqsa Mosque (in Jerusalem) and the holy mosque (in Mecca) from their grip”. At the public announcement of the fatwa bin Laden announced that North Americans are “very easy targets.” He told the attending journalists, “You will see the results of this in a very short time.”
In December 1998, the Director of Central Intelligence Counterterrorist Center reported to the president that al-Qaeda was preparing for attacks in the USA, including the training of personnel to hijack aircraft.
At the end of 2000, Richard Clarke revealed that Islamic militants headed by bin Laden had planned a triple attack on January 3, 2000 which would have included bombings in Jordan of the Radisson SAS Hotel in Amman and tourists at Mount Nebo and a site on the Jordan River, the sinking of the destroyer USS The Sullivans in Yemen, as well as an attack on a target within the United States. The plan was foiled by the arrest of the Jordanian terrorist cell, the sinking of the explosive-filled skiff intended to target the destroyer, and the arrest of Ahmed Ressam.
A former U.S. State Department official in October 2001 described Bosnia and Herzegovina as a safe haven for terrorists, after it was revealed that militant elements of the former Sarajevo government were protecting extremists, some with ties to Osama bin Laden. In 1997, Rzeczpospolita, one of the largest Polish daily newspapers, reported that intelligence services of the Nordic-Polish SFOR Brigade suspected that a center for training terrorists from Islamic countries was located in the Bocina Donja village near Maglaj in Bosnia and Herzegovina. In 1992, hundreds of volunteers joined an “all-mujahedeen unit” called El Moujahed in an abandoned hillside factory, a compound with a hospital and prayer hall. According to Middle East intelligence reports, bin Laden financed small convoys of recruits from the Arab world through his businesses in Sudan. Among them was Karim Said Atmani who was identified by authorities as the document forger for a group of Algerians accused of plotting the bombings in the USA. He is a former roommate of Ahmed Ressam, the man arrested at the Canadian-U.S. border in mid-December 1999 with a car full of nitroglycerin and bomb-making materials. He was convicted of colluding with Osama bin Laden by a French court.
A Bosnian government search of passport and residency records, conducted at the urging of the United States, revealed other former mujahideen who are linked to the same Algerian group or to other groups of suspected terrorists who have lived in this area 60 miles (97 km) north of Sarajevo, the capital, in the past few years. Khalil al-Deek, was arrested in Jordan in late December 1999 on suspicion of involvement in a plot to blow up tourist sites; a second man with Bosnian citizenship, Hamid Aich, lived in Canada at the same time as Atmani and worked for a charity associated with Osama Bin Laden. In its June 26, 1997 Report on the bombing of the Al Khobar building in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, The New York Times noted that those arrested confessed to serving with Bosnian Muslims forces. Further, the captured men also admitted to ties with Osama bin Laden.
In 1999 it was revealed that Osama bin Laden and his Tunisian assistant Mehrez Aodouni were granted citizenship and Bosnian passports in 1993 by the Government in Sarajevo. This information was denied by the Bosnian government following the 9/11 attacks, but it was later found that Aodouni was arrested in Turkey and that at that time he possessed the Bosnian passport. Following this revelation, a new explanation was given that bin Laden “did not personally collect his Bosnian passport” and that officials at the Bosnian embassy in Vienna, which issued the passport, could not have known who bin Laden was at the time. The Bosnian daily Oslobođenje published in 2001 that three men, believed to be linked to Osama Bin Laden, were arrested in Sarajevo in July 2001. The three, one of whom was identified as Imad El Misri, were Egyptian nationals. The paper said that two of the suspects were holding Bosnian passports.
In 1998 it was reported that bin Laden was operating his Al Qaeda network out of Albania. The Charleston Gazette quoted Fatos Klosi, the head of the Albanian intelligence service, as saying a network run by Saudi exile Osama bin Laden sent units to fight in the Serbian province of Kosovo. Confirmation of these activities came from Claude Kader, a French national who said he was a member of bin Laden’s Albanian network.
By 1998 four members of Egyptian Islamic Jihad (EIJ) were arrested in Albania, and extradited to Egypt at the urging of the CIA. It is believed that the 1998 bombing of US embassies in Africa occurred as retaliation for these arrests.
September 11 attacks
“Allah knows it did not cross our minds to attack the towers but after the situation became unbearable and we witnessed the injustice and tyranny of the American-Israeli alliance against our people in Palestine and Lebanon, I thought about it. And the events that affected me directly were that of 1982 and the events that followed – when America allowed the Israelis to invade Lebanon, helped by the U.S. Sixth Fleet. As I watched the destroyed towers in Lebanon, it occurred to me punish the unjust the same way (and) to destroy towers in America so it could taste some of what we are tasting and to stop killing our children and women.”
– Osama bin Laden, 2004
After reports of repeated initial denials, in 2004 Osama bin Laden claimed responsibility for the September 11, 2001 attacks on the United States. The attacks involved the hijacking of four commercial passenger aircraft, the subsequent destruction of those planes and the World Trade Center in New York City, New York, severe damage to The Pentagon in Arlington, Virginia, and the deaths of 2,974 people and the nineteen hijackers. In response to the attacks, the United States launched a War on Terror to depose the Taliban regime in Afghanistan and capture al-Qaeda operatives, and several countries strengthened their anti-terrorism legislation to preclude future attacks. The CIA’s Special Activities Division was given the lead in tracking down and killing or capturing bin Laden.
The Federal Bureau of Investigation has stated that classified evidence linking Al-Qaeda and bin Laden to the attacks of September 11 is clear and irrefutable. The UK Government reached a similar conclusion regarding Al Qaeda and Osama bin Laden’s culpability for the September 11, 2001, attacks although the government report notes that the evidence presented is insufficient for a prosecutable case. Bin Laden initially denied involvement in the attacks. On September 16, 2001, bin Laden read a statement later broadcast by Qatar‘s Al Jazeera satellite channel denying responsibility for the attack.
In a videotape recovered by US forces in November 2001 in Jalalabad, bin Laden was seen discussing the attack with Khaled al-Harbi in a way that indicates foreknowledge. The tape was broadcast on various news networks on December 13, 2001. The merits of this translation have been disputed. Arabist Dr. Abdel El M. Husseini stated: “This translation is very problematic. At the most important places where it is held to prove the guilt of bin Laden, it is not identical with the Arabic.”
In the 2004 Osama bin Laden video, bin Laden abandoned his denials without retracting past statements. In it he stated he had personally directed the nineteen hijackers. In the 18-minute tape, played on Al-Jazeera, four days before the American presidential election, bin Laden accused U.S. President George W. Bush of negligence on the hijacking of the planes on September 11.
In two other tapes aired by Al Jazeera in 2006, Osama bin Laden announces,
I am the one in charge of the nineteen brothers … I was responsible for entrusting the nineteen brothers … with the raids [5 minute audiotape broadcast May 23, 2006],
On March 16, 1998, Libya issued the first official Interpol arrest warrant against Bin Laden and three other people for killing two German citizens in Libya on March 10, 1994, one of which is thought to have been a German counter-intelligence officer. Bin Laden was still wanted by the Libyan government. Osama bin Laden was first indicted by the United States on June 8, 1998, when a grand jury indicted Osama bin Laden on charges of killing five Americans and two Indians in the November 14, 1995 truck bombing of a US-operated Saudi National Guard training center in Riyadh.
Bin Laden was charged with “conspiracy to attack defense utilities of the United States” and prosecutors further charged that bin Laden is the head of the terrorist organization called al Qaeda, and that he was a major financial backer of Islamic fighters worldwide. Bin Laden denied involvement but praised the attack. On November 4, 1998, Osama bin Laden was indicted by a Federal Grand Jury in the United States District Court for the Southern District of New York, on charges of Murder of US Nationals Outside the United States, Conspiracy to Murder US Nationals Outside the United States, and Attacks on a Federal Facility Resulting in Death for his alleged role in the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Kenya and Tanzania. The evidence against bin Laden included courtroom testimony by former Al Qaeda members and satellite phone records, from a phone purchased for him by al-Qaeda procurement agent Ziyad Khaleel in the U.S.
Bin Laden became the 456th person listed on the FBI Ten Most Wanted Fugitives list, when he was added to the list on June 7, 1999, following his indictment along with others for capital crimes in the 1998 embassy attacks. Attempts at assassination and requests for the extradition of bin Laden from the Taliban of Afghanistan were met with failure prior to the bombing of Afghanistan in October 2001. In 1999, US President Bill Clinton convinced the United Nations to impose sanctions against Afghanistan in an attempt to force the Taliban to extradite him.
Years later, on October 10, 2001, bin Laden appeared as well on the initial list of the top 22 FBI Most Wanted Terrorists, which was released to the public by the President of the United States George W. Bush, in direct response to the attacks of 9/11, but which was again based on the indictment for the 1998 embassy attack. Bin Laden was among a group of thirteen fugitive terrorists wanted on that latter list for questioning about the 1998 embassy bombings. Bin Laden remains the only fugitive ever to be listed on both FBI fugitive lists.
Despite the multiple indictments listed above and multiple requests, the Taliban refused to extradite Osama Bin Laden. It wasn’t until after the bombing of Afghanistan began in October 2001 that the Taliban finally did offer to turn over Osama bin Laden to a third-party country for trial, in return for the US ending the bombing and providing evidence that Osama bin Laden was involved in the 9/11 attacks. This offer was rejected by George W Bush stating that this was no longer negotiable with Bush responding that “There’s no need to discuss innocence or guilt. We know he’s guilty.”
Attempted capture by the United States
Capturing Osama bin Laden had been an objective of the United States government since the presidency of Bill Clinton. Shortly after the September 11 attacks it was revealed that President Clinton had signed a directive authorizing the CIA (and specifically their elite Special Activities Division) to apprehend bin Laden and bring him to the United States to stand trial after the 1998 United States embassy bombings in Africa; if taking bin Laden alive was deemed impossible, then deadly force was authorized. On August 20, 1998, 66 cruise missiles launched by United States Navy ships in the Arabian Sea struck bin Laden’s training camps near Khost in Afghanistan, narrowly missing him by a few hours. In 1999 the CIA, together with Pakistani military intelligence, had prepared a team of approximately 60 Pakistani commandos to infiltrate Afghanistan to capture or kill bin Laden, but the plan was aborted by the 1999 Pakistani coup d’état; in 2000, foreign operatives working on behalf of the CIA had fired a rocket-propelled grenade at a convoy of vehicles in which bin Laden was traveling through the mountains of Afghanistan, hitting one of the vehicles but not the one in which bin Laden was riding.
According to The Washington Post, the US government concluded that Osama bin Laden was present during the Battle of Tora Bora, Afghanistan in late 2001, and according to civilian and military officials with first-hand knowledge, failure by the US to commit enough US ground troops to hunt him led to his escape and was the gravest failure by the US in the war against al Qaeda. Intelligence officials have assembled what they believe to be decisive evidence, from contemporary and subsequent interrogations and intercepted communications, that bin Laden began the battle of Tora Bora inside the cave complex along Afghanistan’s mountainous eastern border.
US and Afghanistan forces raided the mountain caves in Tora Bora between 14–16 August 2007. The military was drawn to the area after receiving intelligence of a pre-Ramadan meeting held by al Qaeda members. After killing dozens of al Qaeda and Taliban members, they did not find either Osama bin Laden or Ayman al-Zawahiri.
Immediately after the 9/11 attacks, US government officials named bin Laden and the Al-Qaeda organization as the prime suspects and offered a reward of $25 million for information leading to his capture or death. On July 13, 2007, this figure was doubled to $50 million.
U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates said in December 2009 that officials had had no reliable information on Bin Laden’s whereabouts for “years”. One week later, General Stanley McChrystal, the top U.S. commander in Afghanistan said in December 2009 that al-Qaeda will not be defeated unless its leader, Osama Bin Laden, is captured or killed. Testifying to the U.S. Congress, he said Bin Laden had become an “iconic figure, whose survival emboldens al-Qaeda as a franchising organization across the world”, and that Obama’s deployment of 30,000 extra troops to Afghanistan meant that success would be possible. “I don’t think that we can finally defeat al-Qaeda until he’s captured or killed”, McChrystal said of Bin Laden. “Killing or capturing Bin Laden would not spell the end of al-Qaeda, but the movement could not be eradicated while he remained at large.”
Salafist Muslims have criticized bin Laden for adherence to Qutbism, takfir and Khaarijite deviance. Critics are said to include Muhammad Ibn Haadee al-Madkhalee, Abd-al-Aziz ibn Abd-Allah ibn Baaz, Shaykh Saalih al-Fawzaan and Muqbil bin Haadi al-Waadi’ee. In August 2010, Fidel Castro claimed that bin Laden was a spy employed by the United States.
Activities and whereabouts after the September 11 attacks
Shortly after the attacks of September 11, 2001, President George W. Bush stated that now hoped to “kill or capture” Bin Laden. Subsequently, Bin Laden retreated further from public contact to avoid capture. Since that time, numerous speculative press reports had been issued concerning various hearsay stories about his whereabouts, and also about alleged evidence of his death. Meanwhile, al-Qaeda had continued to release time-sensitive and professionally-verified videos demonstrating Bin Laden’s continued survival as recently as August 2007. Most recently, U.S. Army General Stanley A. McChrystal had emphasized the continued importance of the capture or killing of bin Laden, thus clearly indicating that the US high command continued to believe that Bin Laden was probably still alive. Some of the conflicting reports regarding both his his continued whereabouts and previous mistaken claims about his death have included the following:
Many claims as to the location of Osama bin Laden were made in the wake of 9/11, although none were ever definitively proven and some placed Osama in different locations during overlapping time periods. After military offensives in Afghanistan in the wake of 9/11 failed to uncover his whereabouts, Pakistan was regularly identified as his suspected hiding place.
A December 11, 2005, letter from Atiyah Abd al-Rahman to Abu Musab al-Zarqawi indicates that bin Laden and the al-Qaeda leadership were based in the Waziristan region of Pakistan at the time. In the letter, translated by the United States military’s Combating Terrorism Center at West Point, “Atiyah” instructs Zarqawi to “send messengers from your end to Waziristan so that they meet with the brothers of the leadership … I am now on a visit to them and I am writing you this letter as I am with them…” Al-Rahman also indicates that bin Laden and al-Qaeda are “weak” and “have many of their own problems.” The letter has been deemed authentic by military and counterterrorism officials, according to The Washington Post.
In March 2009, the New York Daily News reported that the hunt for bin Laden had centered in the Chitral District of Pakistan, including the Kalam Valley. According to the report, author Rohan Gunaratna states that captured Al Qaeda leaders have confirmed that Chitral is where bin Laden is hiding.
In the first week of December 2009, a Taliban detainee in Pakistan said he had information that Bin Laden was in Afghanistan in 2009. The detainee said that in January or February (of 2009) he met a trusted contact who had seen Bin Laden about 15 to 20 days earlier in Afghanistan. However, on December 6, 2009. U.S. Secretary of Defense Robert Gates stated that the U.S. had had no reliable information on the whereabouts of Bin Laden in years. Pakistan’s Prime Minister Gillani rejected claims that Osama bin Laden was hiding in Pakistan.
On January 15, 2010, the FBI published digitally aged pictures of Osama bin Laden showing what he may look like after a decade of aging. Spanish newspaper El Mundo subsequently revealed that the FBI had used a photo of Spanish politician Gaspar Llamazares from Google Images to create the image. The FBI admitted to using the photo and removed it from its website. Llamazares has responded by stating that he was “stupefied by the FBI’s decision to use his photograph to compose its latest image of al Qaeda leader Osama bin Laden” and that he is considering taking legal action if the FBI does not provide an explanation. An internal investigation has been launched by the FBI to find out if this was done intentionally.
On February 2, 2010, an anonymous official of the Saudi Foreign Ministry declared that the kingdom had no intention of getting involved in peacemaking in Afghanistan unless the Taliban would sever ties with extremists and expel Osama bin Laden. This condition was announced as the Afghan president Karzai arrived in the kingdom for an official visit, for a discussion of a possible Saudi role in his plan to reintegrate Taliban militants.
On June 7, 2010, the Kuwaiti Al Siyassa reported that Bin Laden was hiding in the mountainous town of Savzevar, in north eastern Iran. The Australian newspaper online published the claim on June 9.
On October 18, 2010, an unnamed NATO official suggested that bin Laden was “alive and well and living comfortably” in Pakistan, protected by elements of the country’s intelligence services. A senior Pakistani official denied the allegations and said the accusations were designed to put pressure on the Pakistani government ahead of talks aimed at strengthening ties between Pakistan and the United States.
|This section documents a current event. Information may change rapidly as the event progresses.|
|Wikinews has related news: Osama bin Laden dead, report US officials|
On May 1, 2011, U.S. President Barack Obama announced that Osama bin Laden was killed earlier that day by “a small team of Americans” acting under Obama’s direct orders, in a covert operation in Abbottabad, Pakistan, 32 miles (51 km) north of Islamabad, affirming earlier confirmation by US officials to the media. According to US officials a team of 20-25 US Navy SEALs under the command of the Joint Special Operations Command and working with the CIA stormed bin Laden’s compound in two helicopters. Bin Laden and those with him were killed during a firefight. The site is just a few kilometers from the Pakistan Military Academy in Kakul. DNA from bin Laden’s body, compared with DNA samples on record from his dead sister, confirmed bin Laden’s identity. The body was recovered by the US military and is in its custody. CNN reported at 8.10 GMT that his body will be buried at sea with Islamic traditions.
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- ^ Encyclopedia of World Biography Supplement, Vol. 22. Gale Group, 2002. (link requires username/password)
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- ^ Dale C. Eikmeier (Spring 2007). “Qutbism: An Ideology of Islamic-Fascism”. Parameters. pp. 85–98. http://www.carlisle.army.mil/usawc/Parameters/07spring/eikmeier.htm. Retrieved 2010-05-26.
- ^ Messages, (2005), p. 143. from an interview published in Al-Quds Al-Arabi in London November 12, 2001 (originally published in Pakistani daily, Ausaf, Nov. 7.
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- ^ October 6, 2002. Appeared in Al-Qala’a website and then the London Observer 2002-11-24.
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- ^ Messages, (2005), p. 190. from 53-minute audiotape that “was circulated on various websites.” dated February 14, 2003. “Among a Band of Knights.”
- ^ from interview with Ali Soufan – a Lebanese Sunni FBI agent – by Wright, Wright, Looming Tower (2006), p. 303.
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- ^ The Osama bin Laden I Know: An Oral History of al Qaeda’s Leader, Peter Bergen Free Press 2006-08-08.
- ^ Through Our Enemies’ Eyes: Osama bin Laden, Radical Islam, and the Future of America Michael Scheuer Potomac Books Inc. 2006-01-15.
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- ^ Lawrence Wright estimates his “share of the Saudi Binladin Group” circa fall 1989 as “amounted to 27 million Saudi riyals – a little more than [US]$ 7 million.” Wright, (2006), p. 145.)
- ^ Katz, Samuel M. “Relentless Pursuit: The DSS and the manhunt for the al-Qaeda terrorists”, 2002.
- ^ The Osama bin Laden I Know by Peter L. Bergen, pp. 74–88. ISBN 0-7432-7892-5.
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THE END @ COPYRIGHRT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011