Penguasa Wanita Di dunia 1640-1670

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1640-1670

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  Around 1640 Queen Regnant Pea of Morning (Myanmar-Burma)
Today Morning is a village in the Caching State, in northern or “upper” Burma, inhabited by an ethnic Thai people.

  Ca. 1640-46 Sawbaw Saw Nin Mein of Wuntho (Myanmar-Burma)
She was daughter of the former Prince of the Sharen state, married Thankin Kaw Nyo, Prince of a Karen State, around 1616 and reigned after his death.

  Ca. 1640-ca.60 Moäng Ratu Dona Maria Ximenes da Silva of Sikka (Indonesia)
Succeeded her brother Moäng Ratu Pitang (alias Kapitan) as ruler of the Roman Catholic principality on the island of Flores. She was a daughter of the first Moäng Ratu or King of Sikka, Don Alesu da Silva (or Alexius Ximenes da Silva) who had converted to Christianity after meeting the Portuguese in Malacca. He established the principality around 1580. She was succeeded by her full cousin Moäng Ratu Don Simao (Samaoh), who was the son of her father’s sister Lise.

  1640-44 Regent Queen Isabel de Borbón of Spain
In charge of the government when her husband, Felipe IV was engaged in the Catalan Revolt supported the Duke of Nochera against the Count-Duke of Olivares in favour of an honourable withdrawal. Of her 6 daughters, 5 died in infancy and her son died in 1646 at the age of 16. Therefore her husband was succeeded by his son, Carlos II, by his second wife and niece, Mariana d’Austria, who was regent from 1665. After Carlos’ death in 1700, the son of her daughter, Marie-Therese (1638-84), Queen of France, became King of Spain after a war of Succession. Born as Élisabeth de Bourbon, she was eldest daughter of King Henri IV of France and Queen Marie de’ Medici, and lived (1602-44).

 

 

 

 

1640-46 Sovereign Countess Elisabeth zur Lippe-Alverdissen of Schaumburg with the Administrative Offices of Stadthagen, Bückeburg, Arensburg and Hagenburg (Germany)
Succeeded her son, Count Otto von Holstein-Schaumburg, who died 1640 without issue. In 1643 she transferred her rights to her brother Count Philip zur Lippe-Alverdissen, and ruled with him as co-regent till her death three years later. His descendants assumed the name Schaumburg-Lippe. (d. 1643).

  1640-49 Princess-Abbess Sedonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Herford (Germany)
Also known as Sidonie, she joined the representative of the city in the protests against Brandenburg’s occupation of the City during the 30 Years War, but the troops stayed. She resigned in 1649 and married Duke August Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Beck (1612-27-75), whose second wife was Marie Sibylle von Nassau-Saarbrücken und Ottweiler (1628-99). Sedonia was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Danneberg, and her sister, Katherine Elisabeth, was sovereign of Gandersheim (1625-49). She lived (1611-50). 

  1640-57 Princess-Abbess Maria Johanna von Kollonitsch of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
Her family originally came from Croatia and moved to Austria in the 15th century and were given a Countly title, held high offices in the army or in the church. She was a great promoter of the chapter and it’s art, which is still famous.

  1640-53 Guardian Dowager Countess Juliana Elisabeth zu Salm-Neufviller of Reuss zu Schleiz (Germany)
After the death of her second husband, Heinrich III, she was guardian for their son, Count Heinrich I (1639-92), while some male members of the family were regents. She had first been married to Heinrich IV von Reuss-Obergreiz and had 2 sons and 2 daughters with him. She was born as Wild- und Rheingraf zu Salm, and lived (1602-53).

  1641-75 H.H. Paduka Sri Sultana Ratu Safiat ud-din Taj ul-’Alam Shah Johan Berdaulat Zillu’llahi fi’l-’Alam binti al-Marhum Sri Sultan Iskandar Muda Mahkota Alam Shah, Sultana of Aceh (North Sumatra) (Indonesia)
Her father Sultan Iskandar Muda extended Aceh’s sway to most of the Malayan Peninsula and the coastal regions of the northern half of Sumatra. Internally he was a scourge to the mercantile elite, concentrating power, property and trade in his own hands by a series of tyrannical devices. Her husband was adopted as his heir and succeeded as Sultan Iskandar Thani 1637-41. After his death, some days of dispute among the leading factions in the capital led to her elevation to the throne. Under her rule the state was orderly and prosperous, with a climate favourable to foreign commerce. Four of the principal merchant-aristocrats formed a kind of executive council, which took many decisions, and her authority was partly derived from a careful balancing of the two major factions at the court. Land grants to the Sultan’s loyal war leaders, which had been at the king’s pleasure under the two previous male rulers, became hereditary under Safiyyat ad-Din. She in fact resolved one major dispute by ruling that only grants of land made by her father would be recognised as valid in perpetuity, thus invoking his name to support a policy he would never have approved. Born as Raja Permusairi Putri Sri ‘Alam, her throne name was Safiat ud-din Taj ul-’Alam Shah, which means “Purity of the Faith, Crown of the World”, and she was succeeded by Sultana Nagiat.

  1641-75 Uleebalang Cut Nyak of Keureuto in Aceh (Indonesia)
Also known as Tjut Njak Asiah or Cut Nyak Karti she was one of the several female Heads of Autonomous Regions, equivalent to an European duke. The principality was also known as Keureutau or Keureutu.

  1641-75 Uleebalang Cut Nyak Fatimah of the a settlement in West Aceh (Indonesia)
Acehnese women served as sultanas, Regional rulers – Uleebalang, parliament members, and or Uleeblang (Commanders). Sultan Safiyat expanded the role of the Legislative Council which was comprised of 73 people of whom 16 were women.

  1641-94 Sovereign Duchess Claire-Clémence de Maillé-Brézé of Fronsac (France)
Daughter of the Marshall of France, Urbain de Maillé, marquis of Brézé, and Nicole du Plessis, who was insane and died in 1635. She succeeded her uncle, Cardinal Richelieu, Premier Minister of France the same year she married Louis II de Bourbon-Condé, Duke d’Enghien, Prince de Condé (1621-86), but like her mother, she was mentally instable, a condition inherited by her son, Henri Jules de Bourbon-Condé, who married Anne de Bavière, Duchesse de Guise and Joyeuse. Claire-Clémence lived (1628-94).

  1641-92 Sovereign Princess Marie de Bourbon-Condé of Condé-en-Brie, Countess of Soissons (France)
After the death of her brother, Louis de Bourbon (1604-1641) his inheritance (including Soissons and Condé) was divided between and her niece Marie d’Orléans-Longueville, heiress of her sister Louise (1603-37) and Henri II d’Orléans-Longueville. She was married Tommaso Francesco di Savoia (Thomas-François de Savoie-Carignan) (1596-1656), who held the title by the right of his wife. 2 of her sons and a grandson also held the title from 1646 and her granddaughter, Anna Vittoria di Savoia-Carignano, was titular Countess from 1736. She was daughter of Charles de Bourbon-Condé, comte de Soissons and Anne de Montafié, dame de Lucé, and lived (1606-92).

  Until 1641 Princess-Abbess Agnes Elisabeth von Limburg und Bronckhorst of Elten (Germany)
Daughter of Count Jobst von Limburg und Bronckhorst and Maria von Schauenburg und Holstein-Pinneberg.

  1641-86 Princess-Abbess Isabella Henrietta d’Aspremont-Lynden of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Received papal dispense because she was under 30 when elected amidst protest from her opponent, the Dechaness Anna Louise van Berlo. The chapter had survived the Thirty Years War, but towards the end it was occupied by the unemployed troops of Duke Karl  of Lorraine in 1656. After the death of her brother, Count Ferdinand van Aspremont-Lynden in 1665, she was named guardian for his 16 children together with Prince-Bishop Frans Egon von Furstenberg of Liege, the brother of her sister-in-law, Elisabeth von Fürstenberg-Heiligenberg. The county can be passed down both in the male and in the female line. In 1671 the troops of King Louis XIV of France passed through the territory, making life difficult and several ladies left the chapter. The Dechaness stayed in Liège 1677-79, but after her return the old disputed was revived.  She was daughter of Ernst d’Aspremont and Anna de Gouffier, and lived (1615-86).

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess-General Francisca de Beaumont y Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a sideline of royal family of Navarra, which descended from Don Louis de Navarra, Comte de Beaumont-le-Roger (d. 1372). King Felipe IV confirmed the rights of the scribes of the monastery to act as magistrates (judges) in 1643.

  1641-44 Reigning Abbess Isabelle III de Héricourt of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
Appointed as Abbess by King Felipe IV of Spain, who as Count of Flanders and Artois, was head of the Southern Low Countries, after the canoness had been unable to elect as successor to Marie IV for 6 months.

  1641-60 Reigning Abbess Maria Margarethe Schenk von Castell of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Prioress in 1638. It is not known if she received the costmary homage by the inhabitants of Wald and the other territories in 1641 or not until 1651 because of the continued warfare. She was daughter of Hans Maz Schenk von Castell zu Gattburg and Eva Blarer von Wartensee zu Wartegg.

  1641-51 Joint County Sheriff Leonora Christine Christiansdatter Countess af Slesvig og Holsten of the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
1643-64 Politically Influential
in Denmark 
In 1641 her father, King Christian 4 granted her the tenantcy for life jointly with her husband, Corfitz Ulfeldt. Two years later he was appointed Chancellor of the Realm (Rigskansler), and since there was no Queen, she was de-facto first-Lady at the court. The death of her father in 1648 was followed by a power-struggle, which she and her husband lost. Her half-brother, Frederik 3, was elected king, but she and her husband continued to provoke the reigning couple. In 1651 they left the country and stayed by Queen Christina of Sweden until 1654, and then in Germany. In 1657 her husband sided with the Swedes during the war with Denmark, which Denmark lost. In 1659 her husband was charged with treason against the Swedish king, he was hit by a stroke, and she was in charge of his defence. They escaped to Denmark, where they were held in captivity until they were freed in 1662, after signing a number of humiliating declarations. Later the same year they were permitted to go abroad for treatment of Corfitz Ulfeldt, who had never recovered from the stroke, and during their travels, he made all kinds of plans against his brother-in-law. In 1663 she went to king Charles II to claim an old loan, but he gave her up to the Danes, she was transferred to Copenhagen and was put in prison in Blåtårn at the Royal Castle of Copenhagen, where she spend 22 years, while her husband died already in 1664. She was not freed until the death of her sister-in-law, Queen Sophie-Amalie, in 1685. During her time in Blåtårn, she wrote “Jammersmide” (Memory of Lamenting), one of the first Danish autobiographies by a woman, which was not published until 1869, though. She spent the rest of her life at the castle, Maribo Kloster. She was the mother of 10 children, and lived (1621-98).

  1641-42 Acting County Sheriff Maren Eriksdatter Skram of Mariæ Kirkes Domprovsti (Oslo), Norway
After the death of her husband, Hartvig Huitfeldt til Skjelbred, Maren Skram was the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway, and Mariæ Kirke is the Cathedral of Oslo. Secondly married to Balthasar Gebhard v. Obelitz. Her step-daughter, Margrethe Huitfeldt, who willed her estates to the Gymnasium of Göteborg upon her death in 1683. Marien Skram was the daughter of Erik Skram til Rammegaard og Anne Vind and (d. 1675).

  Around 1642 Ruler Karenga I Pucu of Sanrabone (Indonesia)
Her brother Tumenanga ri Buttana was ruler of the Makkasarese state in South Western-Celebes/Sulawesi until 1647.

  1642-4.. Lieutenant-Governor Madame Colles of Alderney (A Dependency of the English Crown)
During the English Civil War the Parliamentarians held the island, and she took over after the death of William Colles (1639-42). Peter Le Febvre, surier de L’Epine was pretender from November 1643.

  1642 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Jørgensdatter Lunge of the County of Ålholm with the Shire of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Lisbeth Lunge was the third wife of Palle Rosenkrantz and lived (1610-59).

  1642-43 Acting County Sheriff Lisbeth Sophie Breidesdatter Rantzau of the County of Hindsgaul with the Shire of Vend, Denmark
Lisbeth Sophie Rantzau was widow of Hans Johansen Lindenov. She lived (1587-1652).

 

 

1643-51 Regent Dowager Queen Anne d’Austrice of France
1646-54 Governor of Aunis
1647-66 Governor of Bretagne
Had been Governor of Paris 1636-49. She was Infanta of Spain and the eldest daughter of Felipe III of Spain, and married Louis XIII, King of France, in 1615.  After some political manoeuvring she attained full powers as Regent and as such she placed the well being of France before anything else. She ignored the representatives of the Catholic party and made Cardinal Mazarin Prime Minister. Both continued the policies laid out by Richelieu, which decided against a peace treaty with Germany and The Netherlands. At one stage, Anne even went to war against her brother, King Felipe IV of Spain, and in negotiations refused to make any compromises. In 1648 the revolution called “the Fronde” began and would last until 1653. This rebellion started in Paris and was supported by the higher nobility as well as by the common people who had had enough of war and the ever-increasing taxes. The rebels blamed Mazarin and not only demanded his removal but also wanted him expelled from France. In 1661 Mazarin died and Louis XIV took over control of the country. From then on Anna was given only representative roles. In 1666 she died of cancer, after having lived (1601-66). 

  1643-51 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Calenberg (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Duke Georg of Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Calenberg and Celle (1582-1636-41), she was regent for oldest son Duke Christian Ludwig (1624-65), who was Duke of Calenberg (1641-48), Duke of Celle (1648-65) of Harburg (1651-65). Her second son, Georg II Wilhelm was Duke of Calenberg (1648-1703), of Celle (1665-1703), of Dannenberg (1773-1703), her third son, Johann Friedrich of Braunchweig-Lüneburg zu Hannover (1665-79), the fourth Ernst August of Braunschweig-Lüneburg in Hannover (1679-92) and Elector from 1698. His wife, Sophie von Pfalz-Simmen became Heir to the Throne of United Kingdom in 1702. One of Leonora’s daughters, Sofie Amalie, married Frederik III of Denmark. Anna Leonora lived (1601-59).

  1643-76 Hereditary High Sheriff Lady Anne Clifford of Westmoreland (United Kingdom)
Third and only surviving child of George Clifford, 3rd Earl of Cumberland, and his wife Margaret Russell and heiress of the Baronies of Clifford, Westmoreland and Vesci. When she was 15, her father died, and his brother inherited the vast estate, and from that moment her mission in life was to regain her inheritance. She married and had five children, but her husband was obstructive to her claim for the inheritance. Six years later he died, and she married Philip Herbert, Earl of Pembroke, who did support her claim. Eventually she did inherit the estate in 1643 in the middle of the Civil War raging. She was now 60 years old, and spent the next 26 years rebuilding churches and castles. Skip ton, Pen dragon, Appleby, Borough and Brougham Castles were restored to their former glory. As a devout Christian she built and restored churches and almshouses. She lived (1590-1676).

  1643 Acting County Sheriff Ingeborg Hansdatter Arnfeldt of Koldinghus with Anst, Brusk, Elbo, Holmans, Jerlev, Slaus, Nørvang, Tørrild and Malt Herred, Denmark
Ingeborg Arnfeldt til Gundetved was widow Ernst Normand til Selsø.

  Around 1643 Princess-Abbess Henrica Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The first member of the family started her reign in 1618, but it is not known for how long or when Henrica took over the reigns of the state. But in 1643 she built the Monnikenhof in the Chapter. Next abbess is mentioned in 1649.

  1643-53 Abbess Nullius Girolama Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her reign ends 1644.

  1643-62 Reigning Abbess Anne de L’Hôpital of Montvilliers
Daughter of François, Count de L’Hôpital and Rosnay and Charlotte des Essarts, the Maitresse of King Henri. Possibly succeeded by Marguerite de Gonzague. She (d. 1662).

  1643-87 Politically Influential Grand Empress Dowager Xiao Zhuang Wen of China
Widow of Hong Tajii, took part in the affairs of state during the reign of her son, Shunzhi Emperor Thuận Trị (1643-61). And in 1669 she urged her 13 grandson, Kamgxi, who had been on the throne since 1661 to depose his regents, and she continued to be influential. She took charge of his upbringing after the death of his mother. When Oboi was posing a threat to Kang Xi’s rule, she helped the young emperor to get rid of Oboi. Born as Bumbutai, she was a daughter of a prince of Borjigit, the Khorchin Mongols, prince Jaisang, thus was a descendant of Chinggis Khan, known as Hiyoošungga Ambalinggū Genggiyenšu Hūwanghu in Manchu, and lived (1613-87).

  1643-65 Political Advisor Abbess María Fernández Coronel of Agreda in Spain
Also known as Sor Maria de Jesus de Agreda, she was the political advisor of spanish king Felipe IV. Having survived the Spanish Inquisition, she preached Christianity in the American Southwest, mainly in New Mexico, Texas and Arizona. She wrote a book, ‘Mary, Mystical City of God’, in which she also described her own spiritual visions. She lived (1602– 65).

  1644-ca. 57 Queen Regnant Cockacoeske of the Pamunkey in Virginia (USA)
Possibly known as Queen Betty to the Colonists, she is described as diplomat and suzeraine, she shrewdly used her connections with the Virginia colonist to rebuild her tribe’s primacy over the neighbouring tribes. She seems to have directly succeeded her Opechancanough, who might have come to power after having been Prince-Consort to a previous reigning Queen – Cockacoeske’s mother “Cleopatra”, the daughter of King Powhatan. Succeeded by her niece, Queen Anne Totopotomoi.

  1644-53 Princess-Abbess Barbara I Weglin of Baindt (Germany)
Around 1649 the ladies of the chapter resumed the life in the convent after the lootings during the Thirty Year War.

  1644-45 Reigning Abbess-General Ana María de Salinas of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Died within the first year of her three-year election period.

  1644-46 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jacobsdatter Bech of the County of Laholm in Halland (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Anne Bech til Førslev was in charge of the administration after the death of her husband Christian von Bülow til Engelstad. She was daughter of Jacob Bech and Helle Marsvin, and lived (1607-64).

  1644-55 Politically Influential Olimpia Maidalchini in The Vatican
At the age of 20 she married her second husband, Pamphilio Pamphilj. When her brother-in-law a few years later became Pope Innocent X, she exerted a strong influence upon him, and soon becoming the only person whose advice the pope fully relied on. For this reason ambassadors, artists, tradesmen, politicians, and any important person in Rome presented her with rich gifts, to gain her favour and be well introduced to the Pope. When he died, the new pope, Alexander VII, exiled her to San Martino al Cimino – a small village just north of Rome – and asked to give back the gold she had taken away. She refused and died of plague four years later. She lived (1592-1657).

  1645 Regent Dowager Empress Yudokia Lukyamanova Stresneva of Russia
Евдокия Лукьяновна Стрешнёва in Russian, her name is also transcribed as Eudoxia or Evdokia Lukianova Streschneva. Following the death of her husband, Mikhail I Fedorovich Romanov, in February 1645, she acted as regent for son Alexei Mikhailovich until her own death in July. Her situation at the royal court was difficult. It appears that the tsaritsa totally depended on her mother-in-law Marfa Ivanovna, whose firm grip had been felt in their everyday life, and who accompanied her daughter-in-law during all of her visits to monasteries and other places. She also chose tutors for her grandchildren. It also appears that Eudoxia Streshneva had no influence over Mikhail I even after the death of Marfa. She was daughter of Lukian Stepanovich Streshnev and Princess Anna Konstantinovna Volkonskaya, she was mother of 10 children and she lived (1608-45).

  1645-47 Sovereign Lady of the Realm Elisabeth Amalia von Löwenhaupt of Reipoltskirchen, Countess of Falkenstein (Germany)
After the death of her father, Steino, she was joint heiress to the lordship, which became a co-lordship (Erbgemeinschaft or Ganerbschaft) when the male line had died out. She was daughter of the Swedish Count Steno von Löwenhaupt, Graf zu Rasburg and Falkenstein (1586-1645), who was the son of Axel Lewenhaupt af Raseborg and Sidonia von Daun, Gräfin von Falkenstein, and Magdalena von Manderscheid-Schleiden (1574-1639). She was married to Count Philipp Dietrich von Manderscheid-Kail and they united the Manderscheid-lines. She lived (1607-47).

  1645-54 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Sivertsdatter Grubbe of the County of Hven (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Regize Grubbe was widow of Hans Ulrik Gyldenløve til Vindinge (1615-45), son of Karen Andersdatter and Christian 4, who was given the fief Kronborg for life in 1641, and apparently took over as acting fiefholder of Hven from his mother in 1640. She did not have any children, and lved (1618-1689).

  1645-67 Politically Influential Electress Luise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau of Brandenburg (Germany), Heiress of the Counties of Lingen and Moers (The Netherlands)
Involved in politics during the reign of her husband, Kurfürst Friedrich Wilhelm (1620-40-88), and enhanced the relationship between Brandenburg-Prussia and the Netherlands. She initiated commercial and economic reforms and helped revive the state after the devastations of the Thirty Years War. She was also a patron of culture and learning. Her father, Stadholder Frederik Hendrik van Oranje had stipulated in his will that she was to inherit the Counties of Lingen and Moers in the case that her brother, Willem III, should die with out issue. When this happened in 1702, her son, King Friedrich I. von Prussia, too over the regency and in 1707 it was united with Tecklenburg. She lived (1627-1667).

  1645-48 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Navarra of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of a side-line of the former royal house of Navarra.

  1645-80 Princess-Abbess Anna Sophie I von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Quedlinburg (Germany)
Daughter of Pfalzgraf Georg Wilhelm von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld, Pfalzgraf bei Rhein and Gräfin Dorothea von Solms-Sonnenwalde. She lived (1619-80).

  1645-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
Considered the second founder as she started rebuilding the chapter, a small Catholic Territory partly in Germany, partly within the Protestant Netherlands. 1664 she asked the Pope for confirmation and expansion of her ecclesiastical rights, using the example of her colleague in Essen, noting that her predecessors since ancient times had exercised episcopal authority leaving only the right to confirm the election of a new Abbess to the Bishop of Utrecht. The Papal Nuntius in Kölln recommended that the Pope confirmed her quasi-episcopal powers and that she appointed a General Vicar as her temporal substitute. The pope granted her theise rights in 1669 and confirmed them in 1675. In 1669 she founded a fond in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen, and lived lived (1620-74).

  1645-63 Reigning Abbess Catherine de Beauffremez of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
At her election, the Prior, the Chaplaine, the Treasurer, the lady of the refectory, the Matron of the novices, 2 ladies of the sacritsty, 2 canonesses and 6 other ladies, whose occupation is not mentioned, took part. She was daughter of Lord d’Esnes and Haily. The Abbey became part of France 1659.

  1646-62 Regent Dowager Countess Ämilie Antonia von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt (Germany)
1663-70 Reigning Dowager Lady of Könitz
Alternatively known as Amalia Antonia, she acted as regent for son Albrecht Anton (1641-1710), after the death of her husband, Count of the Realm (Reichsgraf) Ludwig Günther. When her son came of age, she took over the administration of Könitz as the last feudal ruler. Her son became the first Prince (Fürst) of the state in 1697. Her two sisters were Princesses-Abbesses; Catharina Elisabeth of Gandersheim (1625-49), and Sedonia of Herford (1640-49). Ämilie Antonia lived (1614-70).

  Ca. 1646-1664 Princess Regnant Nyai Cili of Solor (Indonesia)
Also known as Nyai Pertawi, she reigned after the death of her husband, Kaicil Partana alias Sultan Sili Pertawi. Western travellers called her a pagan Queen. Succeeded by daughter, Nyai Cili Muda.

  Around 1646 Countess Regnant Maria Cristina di Altemps of Altemps (Italy) 
She was daughter of Angelica de’ Medici and Count Gianpetro di Altemps and married Ipollito, Duke Lante delle Rovere.

  1646-before 1654 Captain-Donatary Branca da Gama Freire of Santa Maria in the Azores (Portugal)
Daughter of Luis da Gama Pereira and Violante Freire and married to Vasco da Gama, capitão de Chaul. The captains-donataries were similar to governors and had full control over their domain. They held the office of judge. They could make land grants. They also monopolized the gristmills, public baking ovens, and salt sales. She was mother of 2 sons and 2 daughters, one of whom was Joana de Menzeses, who succeeded to the Captainship in 1665.

  1646-65 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Maria Johanna von Helfenstein of Wernberg in Leuchtenberg (Germnay)
After the death of her husband, Maximilian Adam von Leuchtenberg (1607-46), she reigned the territory as her dowry as their only son had died by birth, and even though the husband of their late daughter, Mechthilde von Leuchtenberg, Duke Albrecht VI. von Bayern held the title of Landgrave until he gave the territory to his brother, Elector Maximilian I (1573-1651). Together with her sisters, Isabella Eleonore (d. 1678) and Franziska Karoline (d. 1641) she inherited a third of the County of Wiesensteig and the Lordships of Gomegnies, Meßkirch, Wildenstein, Wiesensteig and Wellenheim after the death of her father, Count Rudolf III von Helfenstein-Wiesensteig (1607-27).

  1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Anne Jørgensdatter Lunge of the Countyof Kalø with the Shires of Mols, Nørre and Sønderhals and Østerlisbjerg, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jost Høg til Gjorslev (or Just Høeg), Anne Lunge administered the the tenantcy until the accounts had been settled with the King and the a new Lensmand could be appointed. She was daughter of Jørgen Lunge and Sophie Steensdatter Brahe.

  1646-47 Acting County Sheriff Kirstine Hartvigsdatter Lützow of the County of Dronningborg with the Shires of Galten, Gjerlev, Houlberg, Nørrehald, Onsild, Rugsø, Støvring and Sønderlyng, Denmark
Kirstine Lützow’s father, Hartvig von Lützow, was a noble from Mecklenburg who became the Lord Chamberlain of the Court of Danish Queen Sophie von Mecklenburg. After the death of her first husband, Knud  Jakobsen Ulfeldt, she was in charge of the tenantcy. She inherited the estate of Hellerup (Vindinge Herred) from him, who had inherited it from his first wife, Anne Lykke. She was Lady of the Chamber of Danish Hereditary Princess Magdalena Sibylla von Sachen when she married Johan Christoph von Kørbitz (1612-82), who was in the service of Danish Hereditary Prince Christian and after his death Lord Chamberlain of Princess Magdalena Sibylla until she married Duke Friederich Wilhelm von Sachsen-Altenburg in 1652. Upon their marriage he became recognised as a Danish noble. She did not have children, and lived (1615-93)

  1646-88 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome I von Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Essen, Lady of Bresig etc. (Germany)
1640-74 she was also Dechantess of Thorn and Lady of the Chapter (Stiftfrau) in Elten and St. Ursula (Köln). She was able to assert the princely sovereignty against the protestant city, and thereby secured the continued existence of the Damenstift (Ladies Chapter). Since 1661 she used the title “Des heiligen römischen Reiches Fürstin und Äbtissin in Essen, Frau zu Breisig, Huckard und Rellinghausen” (Princess and Abbess of the Holy Roman Realm of Essen, Lady of Breisig etc). Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich von Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. One sister, Maria Sophie, reigned as Fürstäbtissin of Elten another, Anna Katharina of Thorn. A fourth, Sidonia Elisabeth, was Lady of the Chapter in Thorn, Essen and St. Ursula before she married Hartmann Fürst von und zu Liechtenstein in 1640, and became mother of 24 children. Anna Salome lived (1622-88).

  1646-47 Princess-Abbess Anna Catharina zu Salm-Reiffenscheidt of Thorn (The Netherlands)
1660-68 Regent Dowager Countess of Rietberg (Germany)
Resigned in order to marry Count Johann IV von Rietberg, and after his death she was regent for son Friedrich Wilhelm (1650-77) who fell by Straßburg, and was succeeded by his brothers Franz Adolph Wilhelm, (1677-80) and ( 1687-88) and Ferdinand Maximilian (1680-1687), who were both Diachons and Domherrs of the Cathedral Straßburg, and Anna Catharina remained the virtual ruler of the territory. Ferdinand Maximilian was succeeded by his niece, Maria Ernestine Franziska. Anna Catharina’s older sister, Maria Sophie (1620-74) was Abbess in Elten and the other Anna Salome (1622-88) in Elten. They were daughters of Altgraf Ernst Friedrich, (1583-1639) and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen (†1649). Anna Catharina’s daughter, Bernhardine Sophia was Fürstäbtissin of Essen 1691-1726. Anna Katharina lived (1624-91).

  1647-90 Princess-Abbess Anna Salomé von Manderscheid-Blankenheim of Thorn, Lady of Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1689-91 Princess-Abbess Anna-Salome II of Essen, Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
Had to raise taxes in the principality because of the ongoing wars, and worked closely together with her sister, Clara Elisabeth, who was her second-in-command. In 1688 Anna-Salome was elected Fürstäbtissin of Essen. She was daughter of Ernst Friedrich von Manderscheid-Blankenheim and Maria Ursula zu Leiningen. Her sister, Marie Sofie (1620-74), was Abbess in Eltern. Anna Salomé and lived (1622-91).

  1647-58 Regent Dowager Countess Barbara Magdalena von Mansfeld-Hinterort of Mansfeld-Eisleben (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, took over the regency for his oldest son Hoyer Christoph II von Mansfeld-Eisleben, (1636-53) from his marriage to Barbara Maria zu Stolberg in Schwarza (1596-1636). Barbara Magdalena became regent for her own son, Johann Georg III, when he succeeded older half-brother at the age of 13.She was daughter of Count David von Mansfeld zu Schraplau (1573-1628) and his second wife, Juliane Marie Reuss zu Gera (1598-1650). She later married Anton von Werthern, Georg Andreas Schwab von Lichtenberg and Georg Albert von Mansfeld-Vorderort (1642-96/97), and lived (1618-96).

  1647… Sovereign Countess Louise de Béon of Brienne (France)
Succeeded mother, Louise de Luxembourg, who inherited the County in 1608. She held the title jointly with her husband, Henri-Auguste de Loménie, who died 1666.

  1647-51 Executrix and Acting Lord Proprietor Margaret Brent of Maryland (USA)
1648 she appeared before the State Assembly and requested 2 votes as a landowner and as Lord Baltimore’s attorney. Together with two brothers and a sister, she had arrived from England to Maryland 10 years before. She became a substantial landowner and she was named jointly with Governor Leonard Calvert as joint guardian for Mary Kittamaquund, daughter of the chief of the Piscataways. Her continuing unmarried state was unusual in a settlement where the male/female ratio was about six to one. Governor Calvert died during an attack on the settlement and on his deathbed, exhorting her to “Take all and pay all,” he appointed her as his executor, a testimony to his faith in her abilities. The most pressing problem was paying Leonard Calvert’s soldiers, who were on the verge of a mutiny. She averted that disaster by having the assembly transfer to her Calvert’s power of attorney for his brother Lord Baltimore. Because his estate was not sufficient, she sold some of Lord Baltimore’s cattle to pay the soldiers. 1651 she and her family relocated to Virginia by 1651, where she set up a large plantation. She lived (1610-71).

  1647-53 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Hereditary Princess Magdalene Sibylla von Sachsen of Denmark of Lolland-Falster, Royal County Sheriff of the County of Nykøbing with the two Shires of Falster and the County of Ålholm, Denmark
After her husband, Hereditary Prince Christian died, she withdrew to her dowry in the south of Denmark until she married Duke Friedrich Wilhelm II zu Sachsen-Altenburg (d. 1669) in 1652 ans had her first child, Johanna Magdalene, in 1656 and the second, Friedrich Wilhelm II, in 1658. She lived (1617-68).

  1647-86 Hereditary Duchess Elisabeth Marie of Münsterberg-Oels (Ziębice-Oleśnica) (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
1664-72 Regent Dowager Duchess of Württemberg-Oels (Germany)
Also known as Elżbieta Maria Podiebrad, she was the only child of the Slesian Duke Karl Friedrich, she was married Silvius Nimrod von Württemberg (1622-64), and after her father’s death, he was granted the Duchy by emperor Ferdinand III and he founded the line of Württemberg-Oels, the first Slesian line, and after his death, she was regent for two sons, Silvius Friederich (1651-97) and Christian Ulrich (1652-1702), who were declared prematurely of age by the Emperor against her protests. She lived (1625-86).

  1648-51 Regent Dowager Countess Juliane von Hessen of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1651-59 Reigning Dowager Lady of Burg Berum and the Estate of Westerhof bei Osterode am Harz
The widow of Count Ulrich II, she governed in the name of her son, Enno Ludwig, 1st Prince of Ostfriesland. Her reign was marked by the Thirty Years War and plague, but she managed to bring the territory trough the worst ordeals. Her son was declared “of age” before time and she withdrew to her dowry. She lived (1606-59).

  1648-56 Regent Dowager Countess Agnes von Effern of Holzappel
1656
Reigning Lady of Schaumburg, Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, who had gained the position of Imperial Immidiate in 1643 from Emperor Ferdiand III (Freien Reichsunmittelbaren Grafschaft Holzappel), she was able to expand the territory in 1656 by aquireing the Castle and Lordship of Schaumburg bei Balduinstein. After her death, the castle of Schaumburg was inherited by her daughter, Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg. She (d. 1656.). 

  1648-1707 Reigning Lady Elisabeth Charlotte Melander von Holzapfel-Schaumburg of Schaumburg, Countess of Holzappel and Lady of Bibrich, Cramberg, Steinsberg and the County of Holzappel included Esten, Holzappel, Dörnberg, Eppenrod, Geilnau, Giershausen, Horhausen, Isselbach, Kalkofen, Langenscheid, Laurenburg, Ruppenrod and Scheidt (Germany)
Another version of her title is Gräfin von Holzapfel, in Schaumburg, Holzapfel und Laurenburg. After the death of her mother, Agnes von Effert, gennant Hall, who had been in charge of the government since the death of her father, Count Peter Melander von Holzappel, she took over the reigns, with great vigour and intelligence. She allowed Hugenots and Waldenses from France to settle in her territory, abolished the serfdom, gave city and trade-rights to Holzappel and founded the village of Charlottenburg. She married Prince Adolf Nassau-Dillenburg (1629-76), who added Schaumburg to his princely title. After her death, her son-in-law, Lebrecht von Anhalt-Bernburg-Hoym added Schaumburg to his title. He was the widower of her youngest daughter Charlotte von Nassau-Schaumburg (d. 1700), and their son, Victor Amadeus Adolf became Prince of Anhalt-Bernburg-Schaumburg-Hoym, the son of her youngest daughter, and in 1812 his great-granddaughter, Hermine, inherited the Counties of Schaumburg and Holzappel. She was married to Joseph Anton Johann von Habsburg-Lothringen (1776–1847), and died giving birth to twins in 1817. Elisabeth Charlotte lived (1640-1707).

  1648-1652 Regent Dowager Countess Luise Juliane of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenberg and Altenkirchen (Germany)
Her father-in-law, Count Wilhelm zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn died in 1623, and since her husband, the Hereditary Count Ernst (1593-1641), had already died, the Archbishop of Köln occupied the county, but she continued to fight for her rights. In the Peace-treaty of Westphalia in 1648 both her own and her two surviving daughters (Johanette and Ernestine) right to rule the county was confirmed. She continued to act as regent for her two daughters who split the County among them, until she withdrew from Hachenburg Castle to Friedenwald Castle. She was mother of 5 daughters of whom 3 died as infants and a son, who died at the age of 9. She lived (1603-70).

  1648-61 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Ernestine Salentine zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Hachenburg (Germany)
Initially Reichsgräfin Ernestine was co-ruler with sister, Johanette, but they split up the county in 1648, when the Peace of Westphalia confirmed their right to the inheritance and her part became known as Sayn-Hachenburg for short. She was married to count Salentin Ernst von Manderscheid-Blankenheim, Kirchenberg and the Nassau-Weilburg families, and is now one of the titles of the Grand Duke of Luxembourg. She was first succeeded by son, Maximilian zu Manderscheid-Blankenheim (1655-75) and then by her daughter, Magdalena-Christina (1657-1715). She lived (1626-62).

  1648-1701 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Johanette zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn of Sayn-Wittgenstein-Sayn-Altenkirchen (Germany)
Reichsgräfin Johanette’s part of the County is normally known as Sayn-Altenkirchen. She was married to Johannes-Georg I von Sachsen-Eisenach and was succeeded by son Duke Wilhelm Heinrich, who in 1741 was succeeded by his nephew Margrave Carl Wilhelm Friedrich von Brandenburg-Ansbach, the son of her daughter, Eleonore Erdmute Louise (d. 1696). She lived (1632-1701).

  1648-83 Khadija Turhan Hadice Valide Sultan of the Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balkans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
1651-56 Regent Naib-i-Sultanat of the Empire
When her son, Mehmed IV (1648-51-87), became sultan, she would normally have become regent, but instead her mother-in-law, Kösem was appointed to rule the empire, because she was considered too young. Turhan Sultan used the next years gathering support to undermine Kösem. The imperial guards revolted and Kösem decided to have Mehmet overthrown, but the plot was thwarted and Kösem strangled, and Turhan became regent, exercising her power through a series of twelve Grand Viziers over the next five years. She took her responsibilities very seriously and tried to make up for her inexperience by learning everything there was to know about her job. She also took part in the deliberations in the Imperial Diet seated behind a curtain; she authorized all appointments and cooperated closely with the Grand Vizier as “The Guardian and Representative of the Sultan”. She was sister of Yusuf Agha, of Russian origin, and lived (1627-83).

  1648-84 Sovereign Duchess Marguerite de Rohan-Frontenay of Rohan, Duchess de Porhoët-León et Soubize, Princess de León, Countess de Porhoët and Lorges, Marquise de Blain and La Garnache, etc (France)
In 1645 Louis XIV allowed her to keep her status and dignity of Princess if she married Henri Chabot, Seigneur de Sainte-Aulaye, who was created Duke de Rohan in 1648. Their children got the surname Rohan-Chabot. Succeeded first by son and then by daughter, Anne in 1686. Marguerite lived (1617-84).

  1648-72 Reigning Lady Katharina Elisabeth Wechsler von Galler of Riegersburg in der Steiermark (Austria)
Also known as Freifrau von Gallen, Herrin auf der Riegersburg and in the folklorist tradition as “Schlimme Lisl” (Bad Lissy). She inherited the vast possessions of her family after the death of her uncle, Sigismund Wechsler, the last male member of the family. She has made a prenuptial agreement with her first husband, Freiherr Hans Wilhelm von Galler, that she would keep the right to determine over her own possessions, but they engaged in a dispute over the details of the agreement. After his death, she became the undisputed ruler of the territories. In 1660 Colonel Freiherr Detlef von Kapell, but he died in the battle against the Turkish in 1664. This marriage lead to a dispute with her only daughter, Regina Katharina, her son-in-law Freiherr Johann Ernst Graf von Purgstall and the Marshall of the Castle.  In 1666 she married the 25-year-old Hans Rudolf von Stadl, owner of the Castle of Kornberg, but she asked for a divorce 3 years later, but they came to an agreement, where she gave him one of her castles. She renovated the castle and rebuilt the economic foundations of the lands. In 1653 she was given the Patronage of the Pastorate of Regensburg, but the clerics did not recognize this right and they engaged in a long lasting battle, but again she entered into an agreement and gave up her rights in 1661 but was compensated economically. She was succeeded by dauther, and lived (ca. 1607-72).

  1648-57 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth II d’Alençon of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Elisabeth-Marguerite d’Orléans, Mademoiselle d’Alençon was 2 years old when she was elected as sovereign of the chapter, and therefore her parents, Gaston Jean Baptiste de France, Duke d’Anjou, d’Orléans, Chartres, Valois, d’Alençon, comte de Blois, Monthéry et de Limours, baron d’Amboise, Seigneur de Montargi and Marguerite de Lorraine, reigned for her. In 1657 Elisabeth-Marguerite left the Abbey and married Duke Louis Joseph de Guise (1650-71) with whom she had one child François Joseph de Guise (1670-75). The former Princess-Abbess lived (1646-96).

  Around 1648 Princess-Abbess Justina Anna Etlin von Rosenfels of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Ferdinand von Habsburg of Austria-Hungary, Emperor of the Holy Roman Empire gave the “Abbtissin des Stiffts bey St. Georgen auf dem königl. Schloß zu Prag” dispensation from the war-tax because of the disasterous economic situation of the chapter.

  1648-51 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Jerónima de Góngora of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Her ancestors were first mentioned as courtiers of the kings of Pamplona in the 700s and held many high offices through out the centuries.

  1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Anne Hansdatter Ramel of the County of Kristianssand in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden) and of the County of Bøvling with the Shires Skodsborg, Vandfuld, Hind and Ulvborg, Denmark  
Anna Ramel (or Rammel) til Vandås og Maltesholm took over the fief after the death of her husband, Malte Juel til Gjesinggård, County Sheriff of Kristiansstad. She had inherited a number of estates from her family. She (d. 1702).

  1648-49 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Jørgensdatter Lunge Dyre of the County of Koldinghus with the Shires of Anst, Brusk, Elbo, Jerlev, Slaus, Nørvang, Tørrild and Malt, Denmark
Margrethe Lunge was in charge of the fief after the death of her husband, Mogens Bille til Tirsbæk (1617-48). Their only son, Jørgen Lunge Bille, was born and died the same year. 1649 she married Christen Skeel, with whom she had a son the following year. She was daughter of Jørgen Lunge Dyre and Sophie Steensdatter Brahe, and lived (1616-53).

  1648-51 Acting County Sheriff Christence Hansdatter Lindenov of the County of Hindsgavl with Vendsherred, Denmark
After the death of her second husband, Claus Alexandersen Sehested til Højgaard, Christence Lindenov til Tim and Ørslev, held the fief, that he had granted after returning to Denmark after a period as Lord Marshall of the Prince Bishop of Bremen in 1643. She had first been married to Axel Gyldenstjerne til Tim, Ørslevkloster og Strandet. They did not have any children. (d. 1681).

  1649-67 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth Louise Juliane von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Herford (Germany)
She was daughter of Johann II, Pfalzgraf von Zweibrücken and Luise Juliane von Simmeren, and lived (1613-67).

  1649-83 Princess-Abbess Maria Elisabeth von Salis of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a Swiss noble family, which was first recorded in 1202 as Salici zu Como and later held influential positions in the administration of Switzerland and other countries.

  Around 1649 Princess-Abbess and Steward Baroness Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
Apparently the Freiin (Baroness) was elected as the successor of Fürstäbtissin Henrica, who was mentioned in 1643, but of whom not much more is known. The last of the baronial (Freiherrliche) family of Raitz von Frentz to govern the territory was in office until 1669.

  1649 Abbess Nullius Antonia Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed in an alternative chronology of Abbesses of the chapter. Sister of the Abbesses Donata and Mariana – all daughters of the Count and Countess of Conversano, Caterina Acquavia d’Aragona and Giulio Acquavia d’Aragona.

  1649-50 Acting County Sheriff Regitze Knudsdatter Urne of the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Regitze Urne was widow of Jost Frederik von Pappenheim til Søholt. Mother of 4 children, she lived (1608-79).

  1649-71 Overseer of the Crown Lands Elżbieta Słuszczanka of Warka (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1649-ca. 55 Feudal Baroness Giulia Bardi Pignatelli Centelles Spatafora of Calcusa (Italy)
Married to Giulio Pignatelli.

  1649-67 Politically Influential Electress Louise Henriette van Oranje-Nassau in Brandenburg (Germany)
1650-67 In charge of the Administrative Unito of Bötzow (Oranienburg)
Given the Amt of Bötzow for life by her husband, Kurfürst Friederich Wilhelm ,and renamed it Oranienburg in 1652. She was strongly interested in politics and her influence cannot be underestimated. In spite of her bad health, she joined her husband on his journeys, sometimes even in warfare. During the Swedish-Polish war, she advocated a truce with Poland and Habsburgs. She was daughter of Frederik Hendrik van Oranje-Nassau (1584-1647) and Amalia von Solms (1602-72) and heir to the title of Princess of Oranje and the Prince of Preussen still uses this title today. She died one year after the birth of her 6th child. Her husband later married Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg (see 1665). Louise Henriette von Oranien lived (1627-67).

  Around 1650 Queen Mwabwa of Bulozi or Barotseland (Zambia)
Head of the Lozi Tribe, which migrated from Katanga in the Congo and were ruled by a long line of female rulers until their settlement on the Bulozi flood plain. She was theearliest of these rulers and was succeeded by her daughter, Mbuymamwambwa. According to legend they both married Nyambe, the “maker of the world, the forests, the river, the plains, all the animals, birds and fish”. In reality, they, probably both bore children by several different consorts.

  Around 1650 Queen Mbuyambwambwa of Bulozi or Barotseland (Zambia)
Succeeded mother and abdicated in favour of son, Mwanasolundwi Muyunda Mumbo wa Mulonga aka Mboo, who became the first Litunga or king. He appointed a female parallel chief, as his co-ruler, who was in charge of the southern parts of the territory.

  Ca. 1650-80 Queen Regnant Ama Tuan of Sonbai (Besar) (Indonesia)
Head of the kingdom or rather empire in Eastern Timor. Timor was one big empire ruled by the divine Maromak Oan, who was based in the Belu area.

  1650-57 Captain-Donatary Dame Beatriz Mascarenhas of the Islands of Flores and Corvo in the Azores (Portugal)
The Capitana Donataria and 3rd Condessa de Santa Cruz was daughter of Don Martinho Mascarenhas, 2nd conde de Santa Cruz and Joana de Vilhena and married her relative João Mascarenhas (Ca. 1600-68). Las Ilhas das Flores e Corvo are remote part of the Azores. Beatriz was mother of 4 sons and 2 daughters, and lived (Ca. 1610-57).

  1650-63 Lady Landgravine Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt of the Administrative Unit and Fief of the Castle Bingenheim in Hessen (Germany)
When she married Prince Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg (1625-81) in 1650, her father transferred and Administrative Unit and Fief of Schloss Bingenheim to them, and as her husband preferred Bingenheim for Homburg, he was mainly known as the Landgrave zu Bingenheim, since his younger brother, Friederich II succeeded their father, Friederich I as Landgrave of Homburg. Wilhelm Christoph and Sofie Eleonore had 8 sons and 4 daughters, who all died before their father, who married in a second childless marriage Anna Elisabeth von Sachsen-Lauenburg. She lived (1634-63).

  1650-60 Politically Active and Guardian, Dowager Princess Mary Stuart of England of Oranje-Nassau in The Netherlands
Her son Willem III was born 8 days after the death of her husband, Willem II, and she acted as his guardian and worked actively for his reinstatement as Governor-Stadholder of the Netherlands. Willem was married to Mary’s niece, Mary, and they later became king and Queen of England. Mary lived (1630-60).

  1650-60 Joint Guardian Dowager Princess Amalia zu Solms-Braunfels of Oranje-Nassau (The Netherlands)
1660 Guardian
Her husband Frederik Hendrik of Oranje and Nassau was succeeed by their son, Willem II, in 1647, but he died suddenly in 3 years later, and the Estates desided not to appoint a new Stadholder. 8 days after her son’s death, his heir, Willem III was born, and she was appointed joint guardian with her son-in-law the Prince Palantine of Brandenburg on one side and her daughter-in-law, Mary Stuart, on the other by the High Council (Hoge Raad) of Holland and Zeeland, and after Mary’s death in 1660, she became the sole Guardian (Voogd). She was very influential and had an important role in her grandson’s appointment as Stadholder of Holland, Zeeland, Utrecht, Gelderland en Overijssel and Captain-General of the Union in 1672. He later became King of England as the husband of Queen Mary II. Her sister, Ursula von Soms, was Governor of Oranje 1637-48. Amalia lived (1599-1672), and Amalia herself had been Lady of Turnhout since 1648. She lived (1602-75).

  1650-65 Princess-Abbess Maria Sabina zu Solms-Lich of Gandersheim (Germany)
Since her predecessor, Fürstäbtissin Katharina Elisabeth did not reside in the chapter, she had to promise to stay there in order to get elected. Daughter of Count Ernst II zu Solms-Lich and Countess Anna von Mansfeld, she lived (1600-65).

  1650-69 Princess-Abbess Maria-Franziska I von Montfort of Buchau (Germany)
Before she became Canoness she was probably Lady-in-waiting to Archduchess Claudia von Tirol. Soon after her election she began rebuilding the chapter and bring the economic situation back on track. She managed to retrieve the “treasuer of the church”. When she became seriously ill the College of the Counts of Swabia tried to influence the election of her sucessor. Listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1650 and 1669 and she signed a decision of the Imperial Diet (Reichstagsabscheid) in 1664. She used the title of “Reverend and Illustrius Lady, Princess Abbess of the Holy Roman Empire of Buchau, nee Countess of Montfort, and was daughter of Count Hugo von Montfort, Councillor of the Bavarian-Palatinate and Imperial Council and Chamber, and Euphrosina Truchsess von Waldburg-Wolfegg, and lived (Ca. 1622-69).

  1650-51 Acting County Sheriff Jytte Styggesdatter Høeg of the County of Århusgård with the Shires of Hasle, Ning and Vesterlisbjerg, Denmark
Another version of her name was Jutte Høg, and she acted as administrator of the fief after the death of her husband, Niels Krag til Trudsholm. She lived (1589-1659).

  1650 Acting County Sheriff Kirsten Frandsdatter Rantzau af Lunde Sankt Peders Kloster , Denmark
Kirsten Rantzau was widow of Falk Lykke til Skovgård, Bollerup og Gersnæs. She did not have any children.

  1651-57 Regent Dowager Electress Maria Anna von Habsburg of Bavaria (Germany)
1654-65 Reigning Dowager Lady of the City of Friedberg and Administrative Unit and Castle of Höckeringen
Second wife of Kurfürst Maximillian I von Bayern she was very interested in politics and well instructed about developments. She was not bound to the Habsburgs, but rather completely advocated the Bavarian standpoint. Additionally, she conducted lively exchanges of opinion with high officials of the Munich court and took part in meetings of the cabinet. After Maximillian’s death she was regent for their son, Kurfürst Ferdinand Maria (1636-51-79). Generally described as clever, cautious, energetic, stern, frugal, and experienced in matters of financial administration, she was daughter of Emperor Ferdinand II and Maria Anna von Bayern (1574-1616), mother of two sons, and lived (1610-65).

  1651-80 County Sheriff Queen Sophie Amalie zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg of Denmark of the County of Hørsholm, Denmark
1651-58 County Sheriff of Hven
1670-85 Reigning Dowager Lady of Lolland-Falster
with the Castle of Nykøbing
received the tenantcy of Hørsholm as security for loans to her husband, Frederik 3, and she also administered the estates of Ibsholm and Dronninggaard and build Sophie-Amalienborg. She was quite influential during the reign of her husband from 1648 and supported his curbing of the nobility and was a leading force in the defence of Copenhagen from the attacks of the Sweden in 1659. She was mother of among others, Prince Jørgen (George) the husband of Queen Anne of England and Scotland. Sophie Amalie lived (1628-85).

  1651-59 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Szumińska of Małogoszcz (Poland)
Held the office of starościna niegrodowa jointly with her husband.

  1651-53 and 1656-59 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel de Osorio y Leyva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Member of the family of Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.

  1651-61 County Sheriff Anne Predbjørndsatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Hagenskov, Denmark
Anne Gyldenstierne was married to Jørgen Brahe to Hvedholm (1585-1661), she was daughter of Predbjørn Gyldenstjerne (1548-1616) and Mette Hardenberg (1569-1629), mother of a number of children, and lived (1596-1677).

  1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Dorothea Jensdatter Bielke of the County of Bakke Kloster, Norway
After the death of her husband, Daniel Bildt til Morland (1601-51), Dorothea Bielke continued as the official local representative of King Frederik III of Denmark-Norway. She later arried Gabriel Rosenskold. The daughter of Daughter of Chancellor Jens Bielke, she lived (1612-74),

  1651-52 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Hartvigsdatter Huitfeldt of the County of Dragsmark Kloster, Norway
Margrethe Huitfeldt continued the tenantcy, after her husband, Thomas Dyre til Sundsby (1605-51). As she had no children, she gave two of her estates Sundsby and Aaby in Baahus Len to students at Gøteborgs Gymnasium. She lived (1608-83).

  1652-97 Sultan Fatimah of North Zanzibar (Tanzania)
Succeeded Sultan Bakiri, her brother, who had been sultan of the whole island. In 1652 Sultan ibn Seif of Oman drove her off the island, but for the next forty years, the Portuguese continued to maintain the upper hand and she was soon able to return to Zanzibar. In 1697 the Arabs captured Zanzibar and took her prisoner, deporting to her Muscat. After 10 years she was allowed to return, but her island remained under Arab control.

  1652 Regent Dowager Countess Sophie von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken und Birkenfeld of Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (Germany)
She was widow of Kraft VII zu Hohenlohe-Neuenstein (1582-1615-41) and in charge of the government in the name of Count Johann Friedrich I von Hohenlohe in Öhringen etc., the oldest son of her 14 children. She was daughter of Karl I, Pfalzgraf und Herzog von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken-Birkenfeld and Dorothea zu Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle, and lived (1593-1676).

  1652-76 Chiefess Wetamoo of the Wampanoag Tribe (USA)
Daughter of the Sachem Corbitant of Pocasset, which was located in and around present day Rhode Island. When Chief Corbitant died, Wetamoo became the Squaw Sachem. When her brother-in-law died mysteriously, she became convinced that the English had poisoned him. This belief led to a hatred of the whites that dominated her life. During the great war of the northeast against the Pilgrims/Puritans/English, Wetamoo joined forces with the great Wampanoag Sachem, Chief Philip. Since the whites could not understand the concept of tribal living, or the role of the chief, Philip became “King Philip” to them, and the resulting war lives in history as “King Philip’s War”. She was known for her great beauty and for diplomatic skills as well as her skills as a warrior. She was ever the fighter for her people against the unfairness of white rule. She was a powerful and regal Sachem and, at the height of her tenure, she commanded some 300 warriors. The Plymouth colonists hunted Wetamoo and her warriors continually during King Philip’s War, but they always were successful in evading the enemy. However, during one escape down the Fall River, Wetamoo lost her footing and drowned. The Pilgrims promptly cut off her head, and displayed it on a pike in the town of Taunton.

  1652-64 Princess-Abbess Maria Caecilia von Greuth of Schänis (Switzerland)
The bishop leter know that she had to use the Court of the Diocese in court cases. A relative of hers, Agnes III, was Fürstäbtissin of Säckingen 1621-58. Maria Caecilia was daughter of Hugo Theodorich von Greuth, of Klingenau, and Apollonia von Altendorp.

  1652-75 Princess-Abbess Maria Margarethe von Sigertshofen of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Member of a family of Lords of a territory in Schwaben in Germany.

  1652-54 Acting County Sheriff Anna Margrethe von Götzen of the County of Abrahamstrup with Hornsherred, Denmark
After the death of her husband, Jørgen Schult til Finstrup, she was in charge of the County and the Wapentake (County Subdivision). She owned different estates, among others Leiholm, that she sold to her son-in-law, Niels Banner, who was married to her daughter, Anna Cathrine Schult (d. 1675). She (d. 1684).

  1652-57 Acting County Sheriff Karen Gundesdatter Lange of the County of Søbygaard with the Shire of Løve, Denmark
Karen Lange acted after the death of her husband, Kristoffer Gøye til Assendrup (1584-1652), as the tenantcy had been granted them jointly for their lifetimes. She was daughter of Gunde Lange til Søfde and Anne Hansdatter Basse, and (d. 1657).

  1652-…  County Sheriff Elsbet of the County of Kullegaard (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
It is not known how long she was in charge of the fief. She was widow of Thomas Jakobsen.

  1653 Regent Dowager Duchess Anna zu Oldenburg-Delmenhorst of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her husband, Hans Christian, she was regent for her 12 year old son, Christian Adolf of Holsten-Sønderborg in very difficult times, as the territory was marked by the wars between Denmark and Sweden. After her son came of age, she witdrew to her dowry, Gammelgård. She was daughter of Anton II von Oldenburg-Delmenhorst and Sibylle Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Dannenberg. Both her brothers died young and unmarried, one sister, Katharine Elisabeth, was Abbess of Gandersheim and two of her sister’s, Clara and Sidonie, married a relative of her sister, Duke August Philipp of Holstein-Beck. She lived (1605-68).

  1653-96 Sovereign Duchess Marie Françoise de Valois of Angoulême (France)
Succeeded father, Louis Emmanuel, because all her brother died before her, except Antoine Charles, who was illegitimate. Her great-grandfather was illegitimate son of Charles IX. Her husband, Louis de Lorraine, Duke de Joyeuse was joint ruler until his death in 1654 and since she did not have any children, the Duchy was inherited by her step-grandmother Françoise de Nargonne. Marie Françoise lived (1632-96).

  1653-80 De-facto Regent Princess Augusta Sophie von der Pfalz-Sulzbach of Sternstein and Neustadt an der Waldnaab (Germany)
Her father, August von der Pfalz-Sulzbach, died in 1632, and her mother Hedwig sent her to Sweden to live with her great-aunt, Queen Hedwig-Eleonore zu Holstein-Gottrop. Augusta Sophie married Prince Wenzel Eusebus Lobkowitz of Neustadt, who as Chancellor of the Emperor was away most of the time and left the administration of the semi-independent principality to her and in 1673 he officially appointed her regent. A few years after his death in 1677 moved to Nürnberg. Mother of four children, and lived (1624-82).

  1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Ottesdatter Skeel of of the County Stege, Denmark
Margrethe Skeel acted after the death of her husband, Henrik Rammel. She was daughter of Birgitte Lindenov and Otto Skeel. Mother of 2 children, and (d. 1651).

  1653-55 Acting County Sheriff Ide Jørgensdatter Grubbe of the County of Ålholm with the Shires of Fuglse and Musse, Denmark
Ide Grubbe was widow of Frederik Barnewitz til Rugbjerggård and sister of Mette Grubbe. She (d. 1702).

  1653-72 Princess-Abbess Maria-Scholastica Klocker of Baindt (Germany)
As Fürstäbtissin she was a member of the Bench of Prelates of the Swabian Circle Estate (Reichskreisstandschaft), the regional assembly of the Schwäbischer Kreis, and as Imperial Prelate she held a vote in the College of the Prelates of Swabia, whose 22 members (Abbesses and Abbots) had a joint vote in the Council of the Princes of the Imperial Diet, where the representative of the Prelates sat on the Ecclesiastical Bench. The Diet of Regensburg in 1663 prolonged itself indefinitely into permanent session and thereafter was called the Regensburg Diet, or the Everlasting Diet (Immerwährender Reichstag).

  1653-56 Reigning Abbess-General Antonia Jacinta de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Duke Felipe of Navarre de la Cueva y de Salazar and Mariana de Mendoza. Her grandfather was Pedro batard de Navarra, whose sister Isabel was Abbess from 1665. Antonia Jacinta became a nun at Las Huelgas and was later elected abbess. She is said to have received the stigmata and was later declared venerable – during the investigation and process leading to canonization as a saint. She lived (1602-56).

  1653-65 Abbess Nullius Cesaria Indelli of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list of Abbesses her first reign ended 1656 and the second lasted 1660-62.

  1654-68 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth IV d’Oyenbrugge of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles  (Belgium)
Her surname was also spelled d’Oyenbrughe.

  1655-59 Princess-Abbess Johannetta Stephana von der Hees of Keppel (Germany)
According to the Westphalian Peace, which followed the Thirty Years War, the ecclesiastical territories, chapters and convents should revert to the situation prior to 1624. And at that time the convent was protestant but two years later Prince Johann of Nassau reintroduced Catholism, and therefore it was decided that Keppel should be a double-denomination chapter (stift), and the post of Abbess should alternate between Protestants and Catholics. Johanetta therefore succeeded the Protestant Maria von Effern. She resigned from the convent in order to marry, and was succeeded by another protestant.

  1655-92 Reigning Abbess Henriette II de Guise of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
Also known as Henriette de Lorraine, she was niece of Jehanne and during her reign, the Abbey became powerful, because of privilege of exemption, acquired in the 13th century. However this Abbess, too sure of her prerogatives, had disputes and a lawsuit with Bossuet, the bishop of Meaux. The “Eagle of Meaux”, as he was known, interfered violently. Henriette lost the case and resigned. However, Bossuet could be gentle too as his letters to the nuns testify. He wrote to them in 1695: “God loves Jouarre”. Daughter of Claude de Lorraine, Duc de Chevreuse, Prince de Joinville and Marie Aimée de Rohan, Mademoiselle de Montbazon. Her oldest sister was, Anne Marie, Abbess of Pont-aux-Dames, and she lived (1631-93).

  1655-92 Regent Dower Landgravine Eleonora Katharina bei Rhein of Hessen-Eschwege, the Principality of Hersfeld and the Counties of Catzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc (Germany)
Her husband, Friedrich von Hessen-Eschwege, Landgraf zu Hessen, Fürst zu Hersfeld, Graf zu Katzenelnbogen, Dietz, Ziegenhayn, Nidda und Schaumburg etc. (1617-55) fell during the first year of the war between Sweden and Poland, and after his death, she administered the lands given to him by the Swedes. She was born as Pfalzgräfin bei Rhein, and her brother became King Karl X Gustaf of Sweden, after the abdication of Queen Kristina. 

  1655-63 and 1673-75 Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Maria Juliana von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg of Limpurg-Schmiedelfeld and Gaildorf (Germany)
After the death of her her first husband, Schenk Johann Wilhelm Limpurg zu Schmiedelfeld, she was in charge of the affairs of state in the name of her children, Wilhelm Heinrich von Limpurg-Gaildorf (1652-90) and Sophia Eleonora (1655-1722) together with the counts Wolfgang Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Waldenburg and Heinrich Friedrich von Hohenlohe-Neuenstein-Langenburg. 1758 she signed an agreement with Barbara Dorothea von Öttingen-Öttingen after the death of Schenk Wilhelm Ludwig von Limpurg-Gaildorf, and 1663 she married Franz von Limpurg zu Speckfeld, who took over her membership in the Regency Council, until he died 10 years later. She lived (1623-95).

  1655-74 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Palatine Maria Eleonore von Brandenburg of the Wadgasserhof in Kaiserslautern in Pfalz-Lautern (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Palatine Ludwig-Philipp zu Pfalz-Simmern-Kaiserslautern, she took over the government in her dowry. Her 4 oldest sons died as infants, the 5th, Ludwig Heinrich Moritz, survived to succeed his father and also her oldest daughter, Elisabeth Marie Charlotte (1638-64), survived and married Georg III of Liegnitz (1611-64). She lived (1607-75).

  1655-67 Hereditary Vice-Reine Geronima Colonna of Aragona, Princess of the Holy Roman Empire, 5th Duchess of Monteleone, Countess of Borrello (Italy) 
She was daughter of Ettore III, IV Duca di Monteleone (1572–1622), Viceroy of Catalogna and Caterina Caracciolo Countess of S. Angelo dei Lombardi and married to Fabrizio Pignatellli V Marchese di Cerchiara e III Principe di Noja. She lived (1599-1667).

  1655-63 Sovereign Duchess Marie de Rohan-Montbazon of Chevereuse (France)
Marie-Aimée was first married to Charles d’Albert, Duke de Luynes, the favourite of King Louis XIII and the most influential man in France. After his death she married Claude de Lorraine, Duke de Chevereuse (1578-1657) and bought the Duchy from him. In 1625 she pawed the way for a liaison between Queen Anne and the English Duke of Buckingham. The following year she was involved in a plot to kill Cardinal Richelieu together with her lover the Marquis de Chalais. When the plot was discovered Chalais executed and she send in exile in Poitou. She withdrew to Lorraine and won over Duke Charles IV for the anti-French coalition of Buckingham. 1628 she was allowed to return to France but in 1633 she was banned again after her lover Marquis de Châteauneuf betrayed state secrets to Spain, as it was discovered that the Queen corresponded with her Spanish relatives, Marie had to flee to Spain in 1637 and was only able to return after the death of the king and the Cardinal. Her relationship with the Queen did not survive her friendship with Cardinal Mazarin. She was again exiled after her involvement in the plot to kill but returned at the beginning of the Fronde and joined the party of the Prince de Condé. 1652 she was reconciled with the Queen and finally left the political stage. She left the Duchy to her grandson by her fist marriage, Charles Honoré d’Albert de Luynes, and lived (1600-79).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Eggersdatter Abildgaard of the County of Antvorskov, Denmark
Dorthe Abildgård held the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Wentzel Rothkirch til Tjæreborg. She lived (1597-1657).
 

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Clausdatter Daa of the County of Akershus, Norway
Dorthe Daa married the Councillor of State, Gregers Krabbe til Torstedlund, who was appointed Stadholder of Norway and exchanged the tenantcy of Riberhus with Akershus Len in 1651. After his death, she continued to act as the official local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway. She had inherited the Estate of Espe from her father, Claus Daa, in 1641, and lived (1617-75).

  1655-56 Acting County Sheriff Mette Jørgensdatter Grubbe of the County of Skivehus with the Shires of Harre, Hindborg, Nørre and Rødding, Denmark
Mette Grubbe was sister of Ide Grubbe and widow of Ebbe Jakobsen Ulfeldt til Urup, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt. They did not have any children, and she lived (1615-83).

  1656-58 Regent Dowager Maharani Gangadhara Lakshimi of Cochin (India)
After the death of Rama Varma, The Velliama Thampuran (the Senior Female member of the royal family) took over the regency, as there was no successor. The Portuguese then commanded her to adopt five Thampurans from Aroor and Vettath. She resigned in favour of Rama Varma (1658-61) who was killed when Dutch attacked Cochin and the Rani was sent to prison. Gangadharalakshmi was an honorary name and her original name is still unknown.

  1656-70/71 Regent Khunza Humayun Sultana of Ahmadnagar (India)
Today Ahmadnagar is a city in the State of Maharashtra in Western India. 

  1656-62 Regent Dowager Queen Luísa Perez de Guzmão e Gómes de Sandovial of Portugal
Following the death of her husband, João IV, she became regent for son, Afonso VI (1643-56-67-75), who was mentally deficient. In 1658 the Dutch conquered Portugal’s last colony in Sri Lanka, in 1661 Portugal gave up of Bombay and Tangier to England as dowry her daughter, Catherine of Braganza who had married King Charles II of England and the same year English mediation saw The Netherlands acknowledge Portuguese rule of Brazil in return for uncontested control of Sri Lanka. Afonso was deposed by his brother, Pedro II in 1667. She was daughter of the Duke of Medina Sedona and lived (1613-66).

  1656-75 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Princess Eleonore Sofie von Holstein-Sonderburg of Ballenstedt in Anhalt (Germany)
Her son 6th and first surviving son, Viktor Amadeus, was almost 20 when he took as Reigning Prince over from her husband, Christian II von Anhalt-Bernburg (1630-56) and she took charge of her dowry. The 23rd child of Duke Johann of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Plön (1564-1622), by his second wife, Agnes Hedwig von Anhalt, she was mother of a total of 15 children, and lived (1603-75).

  1656-59 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Electress Magdalena Sibylla von Preussen of and Administrative Unit of Colditz, The Estate of Krakau in and Administrative Unit of Grossenhain, and Administrative Unit of Lichtenwalde and the fore works of Frankenberg, Sachsenburg, Neusorge, Zadel and Baselitz in Sachsen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Georg I von Sachsen (1585-1656), she took over her dowry of Colditz – the other possessions she already acquired during their marriage, but she resided in Dresden. She was mother of 10 children and lived (1586-1659).

  1656-77 Reigning Dowager Lady Juliana Sophia von Barby-Mühlingen of the Administrative Office of Pewsum in Ostfriesland (Germany)
Her husband, Enno Ludwig I, Graf and Fürst von Ostfriesland, transferred the Office to her as her dowry. She was daughter of Count Albrecht Friedrich von Barby and Sophia Ursula of Oldenburg in Delmenhorst, and mother of 2 daughters. She lived (1636-77).

  1656-59 County Sheriff Dorothea Christensdatter Sehested of the Counties of Halsnø Kloster and Hardanger, Norway
Also known as Dorthe Sehested, she was given control over the fief for two years following the death of her husband, Lensmand Peder Juel (1623-56, who had been Envoy to the Netherlands and Resident in Sweden until 1655, where he had to keep an open eye at Corfits Ulfeldt who was plotting against the Danish king. His first wife, Margethe Jensdatter Juel had died in 1651 and they married in 1656, and when he died shortly after, she acted as the local representative of the King of Denmark-Norway in the Counties of Halsnøy and Hardanger, and lived (1637-64).

  1656-58 Acting County Sheriff Sidsel Jørgensdatter Friis of the County of Nyborg, Denmark
Sidsel Friis acted as administrator of the fief after her husband, Mogens Kaas til Støvring, had died. Mother of 3 sons.

  Ca. 1657-ca. 1715 Queen Anne Totopotomoi of the Pamunkey Tribe, Virginia (USA)
Succeeded her aunt, Queen Cockacoeske. Her husband, the chief Totopotomoi was killed during the battle in which he supported the English against other Indian warriors. Her appearance at the Colonial Council, in which she scornfully rejected the request to furnish warriors for the Whites on the grounds that her people had been neglected for the past 20 years, in spite of their friendship to the Whites, was a dramatic confrontation between Indian and White. 1677 she signed “on behalfe of herselfe, & the severall Indians under her Subjection” a treaty between the Indians and the Virginia colonisers. It was only after strong promises of better treatment by the colonists that she agreed to provide the needed assistance. Following the end of the Rebellion, King Charles II of United Kingdom, presented her with a silver headband, or coronet, inscribed Queen of Pamunkey. Little more is heard about her following this period, beyond an appearance in 1715, when she visited the colonial authorities to request fair treatment for her people. She lived (ca. 1650-ca. 1725).

  1657 Regent Dowager Marchioness Anna Maria Carafo of Sant Emiliano, Botrugno and Melpignano (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Carlo Castriota Acquaviva d’Aragona, she became administrator of the feudal marchionate for her son Francesco, who was succeeded by his daughter, Beatrice in 1679.

  1657-95 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta Schrattenbachof Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document from 1660, she is named as Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach and in the Topograhy of the Duchy of Steiermark from 1681, the entry about the chapter is called “Das Hoch Adeliche Iungfraw Closter Göss.

  1657-87 Princess-Abbess Ursula Scherlin of Rottenmünster (Germany)
The territory had been virtually abandoned during the Thirty Years War and the convent was severely damaged by the many passing troops that had made camp in the city of Rottweiler, the convent was put on fire, looted etc. Ursula started the rebuilding in 1662 and managed to bring the territory back in working condition.

  1657-60 Princesse-Abbesse Marie-Anne de Lorraine of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz etc. (France)
Elected Abbess at the age of 11, she was daughter of Nicolas François, who resigned as Cardinal in 1634 to become Duke of Lorraine (1634-61), and Claude de Lorraine (1612-1648). She lived (1648-61).

  1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Øllegaard Axelsdatter Gyldenstierne of the County of Mariager, Denmark
Øllegaard Gyldenstjerne til Bidstrup was widow of Christian Friis til Lyngbygård, with whom she had a daughter, Sophie Amalie Friis (1651-98). In 1660 she married a second time, to Cai Lykke, who was forced to flee the country after being convicted for Lèse majesté, and lived (ca. 1630-97).

  1657-58 Acting County Sheriff Edel Jacobsdatter Rosenkrantz of the County of Landskrona in Skåne (At the time part of Denmark, now Sweden)
Edel Rosenkrantz took over the administration of the tenancy after the death of her husband, Knud Ulfeldt til Svendstrup (1609-57), who had been in the service of the Danish army for many years. He had first been married to Vibeke Clausdatter Podebusk til Østergaard, widow of Otte Lindenovs (1608-45), and her first husband was Gabriel Laxmand. She (d. 1684).

  1657 Acting County Sheriff Anna Elisabeth von der Groeben of the Counties of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Lålands Nørre and Sønder, Denmark
In charge after the death of her husband, Flemming Ulfeldt til Oreby. She (d. 1690).

  1658/1661-65 (†) Joint Regent and Guardian Dowager Duchess Maria Catharina von Braunschweig-Danneberg of Mecklenburg-Strelitz (Germany)
When her husband, Adolf-Friederich I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1588-92-1628-58), died, she became regent for her newborn son, Adolf-Friederich II, who became Duke of Strelitz (1658-1708). On 14.02.1661 she and her stepsons got imperial confirmation of the regency (reichshofrätliche Bestätigung). Her oldest stepson was Christian Ludwig I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1623-92) the other Karl von Mecklenburg-Mirow. Her oldest son was Friederich von Mecklenburg-Grabow (1638-58-88). Of her 11 children, her daughters Christine (1639-93) and Marie Elisabeth (1646-1713) were Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim. She lived (1616-65).

  1658-81 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Duchess Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Osterholm in Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (Denmark and Germany)
The castle of Østerholm was built by Duke Hans in 1592 and she took in possession as her dowry after the death of her husband Friedrich of Slesvig-Holsten-Norborg (1581-1624-58), who was succeed by his only child by first his wife, Johann Bogislaw of Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg-Norburg (1629-58-69-79), who was deposed. Among her 5 children was Dorothea Hedwig, who was Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim (1665-78) until she married Count 1678 Gf Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld. She lived (1608-81).

  1658-59 Acting County Sheriff Elisabeth Avgusta Christiansdatter of the County of Kalundborg, Denmark
Frøken (Miss) Elisabeth Augusta was daughter of King Christian 4. of Denmark and Kirstine Munk. According to contemporary sources she gambled a lot and was not a good “housewife”, and therefore she had to sell the estates of Boller and Rosenvold, which she inherited from her mother in 1658 in order to pay off her debts. She administered the fief for the remaining part of the year after the death of her husband, Councillor of the Realm (Rigsråd) Hans Hansen Lindenov, til Fovslet, Allingkloster, Hundslund, Gavnø, Oregaard and Borgeby. Like her sisters, she was sometimes known as Christansdatter and held the title of Countess of Holsten. Her only daughter, Sophie Amalie Lindenov (1649-88), inherited the estates and bought a number of new ones. Her husband, Claus Då til Krængerup, Vedtoftegård og Dåsborg, was murdered in 1678, apparently on her command. 1681 she had Dåsborg named a Free-lordship (Barony) of Lindenborg with her nephew, Christian Gyldenløve, as heir, since her only child had died as an infant. Elisabeth Augusta lived (1623-77).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Anne Iversdatter Vind of the County of Kronborg and the Shires of Holbro and Lynge, Denmark
Anne Vind took over as holder of the fief after the death of her husband, Arent von der Kuhla (1599-1658). She was owner of Løitved, and lived (1622-74).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Karen Hansdatter Arnfeldt of the Counties of Halsted Kloster and Ravnsborg with the Shires of Låland, Nørre and Sønder, Denmark
Karen Arnfeldt was widow of Frederik Urne, and lived (1598-1673).

  1658-59 Acting County Sheriff Helvig Nielsdatter Skinkel of the County of Dalum, Denmark
Helvig Skinkel med Lilje was Widow of Iver Vind til Nørholm. She lived (1602-67).

  1658 Acting County Sheriff Else Friis of Trønsberg Len and St. Olavs Kloster, Norway
She had been granted year of residence and income of the tenantcy (nådsens år) when her husband, Vincents Bildt til Sem Kongsgård, Verne Kloster et cetera, had been granted the fief by the king of Denmark-Norway in 1658, but she got a financial compensation and handed it over to Johan Brockenhuus soon after her husband’s death. She (d. 1677).

  1658-59 Governor Marie Bonnard du Parquet of Martinique (French External Territory)
After the death of her husband, governor Jacques Dyel du Parquet (1635-46 and 1647-58), she took action to secure the island for her sons, Jean-Jacques Dyel d’Esnambuc (8 years old) and Louis Dyel du Parquet (5 years). She called an Island Council and got the support of the church. Father Feuillent then embarked on a journey to Paris to secure the succession by the king. At his departure, she was appointed regent for her son, and on 22 July 1658 she presided over a session of the Conseil de la Martinique, during which Gourselas was confirmed as Acting Governor. In August another Council, presided over by Gourselas, deposed her, and she was imprisoned and interrogated by one of the leaders of the revolt, de Plainville. In September the French king named her brother-in-law Adrien Dyel de Vaudroques, joint governor with her until the majority of the boys. In October she was again recognised as the head of the Island Council after a contra-revolution. Leaving the government to Gourselas, she departed for France, but she died on the way.

  1658-72 Princess-Abbess Francisca von Schauenburg of Säckingen (Germany)
Her reign marked a period of rebuilding after the devastations of the Thirty Year War. She was daughter of Hans Bernhard von Schauenburg, of the Luxembourg Line, and Elisabeth von Schönau, and lived (1588-1672).

  1658-70 Abbess NulliusMarianna Acquavia d’Aragona of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
In the alternative list, she is listed as ruler 165..-56, 1671-72 and 1675. She was daughter of the Count of Countess of Conversano, Giulio Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 2nd Duke di Noci and Caterina Acquaviva d’ Aragona, 6th duchessa di Nardò. Her sister-in-law, Isabella Filomarino, was regent of the County 1655-65.

  1658-76 Sachem and Chiefess Quaiapen of the Narragansett Tribe (USA)
The word sachem, of Algonquian origin, was used among some northeastern tribes to refer to their leaders. In contrast to chiefs, who were chosen for their skill in battle or oratory, sachems held hereditary, civil positions and ruled by consensus. Their responsibilities included the distribution of land, the dispensation of justice, the collection of tribute, the reception of guests, and sometimes the direction of war or the sponsoring of rituals. Among the Narragansetts, sachems held sway over villages, which formed the basic political, territorial unit of the society. Most sachems were men, but many women are known to have been sachems as well. She was the most famous of the female sachems, also known as Magnus or Matantuck. In addition to establishing her own sachemdom after she was widowed in 1658, she was the sister, wife, and mother of several other Narragansett sachems. Rumors among white colonists of her marriage in 1649 to the sachem Mixanno aroused fear of an Indian conspiracy. That fear took on a new form in 1675, when the Massachusetts Bay Colony went to war against the Wampanoag sachem Metacom, whom white called King Philip. I. She was killed in battle.

  1658-76 Politically Influential Electress Henriette Adelheid de Savoie of Bavaria (Germany)
Had a strong influence over her husband Ferdinand Maria (1636-79), which lead to the alliance between Bavaria and France against the Habsburgs. She was mother of 7 children, and lived (1636-76).

  1659-86 Sovereign Duchess Maria-Giovanna-Baptiste de Savoie-Nemours of Aumale
1675-84 Regent Dowager Duchess of Savoy and Piemont (Italy)
1652 her father, Charles-Amédé de Savoie, Duke of Nemours, Aumale and Genevois, was killed in duel with his brother-in-law and her mother, Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendôme secured the income of the Lands of Nemours for her two daughters, Nemours was inherited by another member of the family, Geneve was re-incorporated into Savoy and she inherited Aumale, which she later sold. She was first married to Charles de Lorraine, but the marriage was never consummated and declared void. She became engaged in politics soon after her marriage to Carlo-Emmanuelle II of Savoia, who named her “reggente con il potere assoluto” on his deathbed. As regent she manoeuvred between the super-powers at the time and remained in close contact to her only sister, Queen Isabel Luisa Josefa of Portugal. When his son Victor-Amedeo reached his majority at the age of 14, he asked her to continue as regent. She had several young lovers, but neither they nor their relatives gained long-term political influence. She said no to becoming temporary regent when her son became king of Sicily in 1713, but she was probably played an important role in the government, as her grandson, Vittorio-Amedeo was only 14. She became an important promoter of art and architecture in her later years as a widow. Originally named Marie Jeanne, she lived (1644-1724).

  1659-63 Princess-Abbess Eleonora Theodora Vogtin von Elspe of Keppel (Germany)
She was a Protestant and like her Catholic predecessor, she resigned in order to enter into a marriage.

  1659-60 Possible Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Sachsen of Holstein-Gottorp
1660-84 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Husum in Holstein-Gottorp (Denmark and Germany)
At the time of the death of her husband, Friedrich III of Schleswig-Holstein-Gottorp, her 5th and oldest surviving son, Christian Albrecht of Holstein-Gottorp, was just 18 and she might have been his guardian for the first year. At least she did not move to her dowry, the Schuss vor Husum (The Castle outside Husum) until 1660. She expanded her residence and promoted arts and culture, music and gardening. Mother of a total of 16 children, and lived (1610-84).

  1659-60 Acting County Sheriff Else Olufsdatter Parsberg of Stjernholm Len with Bjerge, Hatting and Nim
Else Parsberg was widow of Laurids Ulfeldt til Egeskov, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt.

  1659-60 Acting County Sheriff Else Olufsdatter Parsberg of the County of Stjernholm with the Shires of Bjerge, Hatting and Nim, Denmark
Else Parsberg was widow of Laurids Ulfeldt til Egeskov, brother of Corfitz Ulfeldt.

  1660-61 and 1668 De Facto Ruler Princess Nestan-Darejan of Imerati (Georgia)
After the death of her second husband, King Aleksandri III (1639-60), she engineered the deposition of her stepson, King Bagrat IV, who reigned 1660-61, 1664-68 and 1679-81, whom she had ordered to be seized and blinded when he refused to marry her. She then married an insignificant nobleman Vakhtang Jujuniashvili, and had him proclaimed as king in 1660. They were deposed and exiled to Akhaltsikhe the following year. In 1668 the Turkish Pasha of Akhaltsikhe restored them but soon they were both killed. She was first married to Duke Zurab Sidamoni of Aragvi. She was daughter of King Taimuraz I, King of Kartli and Kakheti (Also known as Taimurazi Khan) and Princess Khwarashan of Kartli.

  Ca. 1660-17.. Queen Regnant Nana …. of Nsuta (Ghana)
Succeeded her aunt, Queen Nana Yita.

  1660-72, 1697-98 and 1700-13 President of the Guardian Government Dowager Queen of the Realm Hedvig-Eleonora von Holstein-Gottorp of Sweden
1660-1715 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Counties of Gripsholms, Eskilstuna, Strömsholms and Vadstena
1654 she married king Karl X Gustav (1622-54-60), and the following year she gave birth to her only child, the later Karl XI. After her husband’s death, she became Reigning Dowager Queen of the Realm (Riksänkedrottning) with two votes in the guardian-government for her son. Even after her son married Ulrika Eleonora the older of Denmark (1656-93), she kept the position as the leading Lady in the realm. After her son’s death she was again Regent grandson Karl XII. and finally she acted as regent during the Great Northern War. After her retirement she put all her energy in her dowries, and became very rich, build elaborate castles and promoted arts and culture. After her death her fiefs reverted to the Crown, but had a separate administration until 1719. The following year a ban on distributing dowries in the form of Counties and lands was introduced. She lived  (1636-1715).

  1660-71 Politically Influential Duchess Barbara Villiers of Cleveland in England
Became mistress of Charles II at Breda in 1660 and returned with him to England at the Restoration. The king made her husband, Roger Palmer, Earl of Castlemaine. She was the archenemy of the Earl of Clarendon, the lord chancellor, and her glee at his downfall in 1667. She was made Duchess in 1670, but by 1671 had been supplanted in Charles’s affections by Louise de Kéroualle (the future Duchess of Portsmouth). She bore the king several children, and lived (1641–1709).

  1660-1702 Princesse-Abbesse Dorothée-Marie de Salm of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
Elected Coadjutrice with the right of succession as a child, and when Marie-Anne died, she was elected Abbess. 1677 she moved to the chateau of some relatives, Neuviller-sur-Moselle, 3 days of travelling from Remiremont, where she took up the fight for her position against the Administratrice, Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre, The territory was hit by an earthquake in 1688. 1691 she travelled to Paris to plead her case before the king and the ladies of the chapter send Madame de Bourdonné as their envoy. 1693 the king confirmed the seigniorial rights over the town of Remiremont and continued to share the rights of high, middle and low court with the town. Originally named Dorothea Maria zu Salm, she was daughter of Prince Leopold Philipp Karl zu Salm and Countess Maria Anna von Bronckhorst-Batenburg, Heiress of Anholt, who died in Remiremont in 1661, and lived (1651-1702)

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Hélène d’Anglure of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
As Dame Doyenne she was Second-in-Command. She protested against the election of Dorothée de Salm as Abbess, since she was below the required age of 25 at the age of her election, but the Pope dispended for the rule, and she became Acting Princess-Abbess of the Chapter, but remained in dispute with Dorothée after she came of age until her own death. (d. 1666).

  1660-66 Joint Administratrice Bernarde de Cléron de Saffre

of Remiremont, Dame de Saint-Pierre, Metz etc. (France)
1666-77 Administratrice
1666-84-1704-? Doyenne

Held the office of Dame Sonière and acted as administrator together with the Dame Doyenne, Hélène d’Anglure, for the under-age Princess-Abbess Dorothée de Salm. After she was elected as Madame d’Anglure’s successor she continued the power struggle with the Abbess, who named her sister, Christine, as  “Second-in-Command” in 1700 and it was her who acted as Regent for the minor Elisabeth Charlotte Gabrielle Lorraine from 1700 and 11 years onwards, not Bernarde. (d. after 1704)

  1660-81 Reigning Abbess Maria Salome von Bernhausen of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as Oberbursiererin in 1639. In 1680 the main building of the chapter burnt down. She was related to a large number of the canonisses and was daughter of Hans Wilhelm von Bernhausen zu Eppishausen und Moos and Margarethe Blarer von Wartensee. She lived (1593-1681).

  1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Christence Frandsdatter Lykke of the County of København with the Shires of Smørrum, Sokkelund and Ølstykke, Denmark
Christence Lykke was in charge after the death of her husband, Franz Brockenhuus. The English version of København is Copenhagen, the Capital of Denmark. Her second husband was Frederik von Arenstorf. She lived (1636-67).

  1660-61 Acting County Sheriff Dorthe Knudsdatter Urne of the County of Hald, Denmark
Dorthe Urne held the tenantcy after the death of her husband, Ove Brostrupsøn Gjedde, who was in office from 1658. She was daughter of Knud Urne and Margrethe Eilersdatter Grubbe, mother of 4 children, and lived (1600-67).

  1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Cathrine Caisdatter Sehested of the County of Dragsholm, Denmark
Cathrine Sehested acted after the death of her husband, Sivert Knudsen Urne til Raarup. The same year she married Hans von Ahlefelt. She was a close friend of the Danish Queen, and lived (1625-70).

  1661-62 Acting County Sheriff Margrethe Frederiksdatter Reedtz of the County of Århusgård, Denmark
After her husband, Malte Sehested til Ryhave og Boller, had died. She (d. 1697).

  1661-67 Ret Abudok nya Bwoc of Shilluk (Sudan)
The Shilluks have a divine king who symbolizes the whole realm, and they created life-sized representations of their first king, Nyikang. They also made clay pipe bowls, hyena figurines, and masks. The Shilluk are agriculturalists and herdsmen. They raise cattle, sheep, and goats. The men hunt, herd the animals, and milk the livestock. Both sexes take part in the agricultural work. Historically they were unified under one King or Reth chosen from the sons of previous kings. Abudok was the only female ruler of the people.

  1661-1701 Sovereign Duchess Madeleine Charlotte de Clermont-Tonnerre of Piney-Luxembourg, Princesse de Tigny, Countess de Piney and Baroness de Dangu (France)
Her mother, Marguerite Charlotte de Luxembourg, had been Duchess since 1616 and in 1661 she resigned in favour of her son by the first marriage, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg. Later the same year, he resigned in Madeleine’s favour in order to become a deacon (known as L’Abbe de Luxembourg). She was born in her mother’s second marriage with Charles Henri de Clermont-Tonnerre, and when she married Francois-Henri de Montmorency, who became known as the Duc de Piney-Luxembourg. Luxembourg. Madeleine-Charlotte-Bonne-Thérèse de Clermont “called de Luxembourg” lived (1635-1701).

  1661 Claimant to the Duchy of Piney Marie Charlotte de Luxembourg  (France)
Claimed the duchy, upon the resignation of her relative, Henri León d’Albert de Luxembourg, and simultaneously resigned it to her Madeleine and her son-in-law, François-Henri de Montmorency, comte de Luxe (1628-95), whose family used the title of duke of Montmorency-Luxembourg, after a prolonged legal battle, but this peerage was never considered to have been created. 

  1661-63 Sovereign Duchess Marie Catherine de La Rochefoucauld-Randan of Randan (France)
Heiress of the County of Randan and was created Duchess, with a remainder to her daughter, Marie Claire de Bauffremont-Sennecey and her male children with Jean-Baptiste Gaston de Foix de Candale, Comte de Fleix. They both resigned in 1663 in favour of Marie Claire’s son, who was known as duc de Foix. Marie Catherine (d. 1677).

  1661-62 Overseer of the Crown Lands Teofila Rej of Małogoszcz (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  Around 1661 Princess-Abbess Maria Benedicta von Schwarzenbach of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
In an official document, she is named as “Frau Maria Benedicta, Äbtissin des fürstlichen Stiftes Göss, geborener Gräfin von Schwarzenpach.”

  1661-70 Politically Influential Princess Henriette-Anne Stuart of England in France
The wife of Duke Philippe d’Orléans, who was gay, she became involved in a love affair with her brother-in-law King Louis XIV. She played an important political role, and acted as an envoy to the signing of the Treaty of Douvres in 1670 between England and France. She was daughter of King Charles I Stuart of England and Henriette-Marie of France, mother of five children, and lived (1644-70).

  1662-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Laura Martinozzi of Modena e Reggio (Italy)
After the death of her husband, Alfonso IV d’Este, she acted as regent for their son two-year-old son Francesco II. Her daughter Maria Beatrice d’Este became Queen of England. Laura was the nice of Cardinal Mazarin, regent of France, and lived (1639-87).

  1662-67 Regent Dowager Fatima Sultan Saiyia Burhan of Kasimov/ Borjegin-Sibi (Russia)
1677-81 Sultan Regnant
Also known as Sultana Sayyidovna, she was first regent or Saiyia Burhan, before becoming ruler of the Ilkhan Kingdom of Qasim in Central Asia in her own right and had the Khutba (sovereign’s prayer) proclaimed in her name in the mosques, the ultimate sign of legitimate rule. She was a descendant of the Tatars Golden Horde and said to be the last Mongol sovereign. The state was annexed by the Russian 1681 and she died the same year.  

  1662 De-facto Ruler Imperial Princess Raushanara Begum of the Indian Mongul Empire
Seized the power during the illness of her brother, Emperor Aurangzeb (1658-1707). Like her influential sister, Jahanara Begum Sahib, she was unmarried, and lived (1617-71).

  1662-65 and 1677-80Reigning Abbess-General Inés de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)A relative (probably her sister), Magdalena, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1669-72 and 1680-83.

  1663-66 Queen Regnant Barbara of N’dongo and Matamba (Congo and Angola)When her sister, Queen Nijinga, became Queen in 1623, she was appointed as Member of the Council of Government. Before her christening, she had been named Mukambu, Makumba). Her sister had tried to marry her off to her close ally João Guterres, but the Portuguese protested since he was already married. Her reign was marked by civil war and she was killed by forces loyal to the general Njinga Mona. João succeeded 1669-70 but was also killed. She lived (1584-1666).

  1663–67 Queen Regnant Tuan Puteri Saadong binti Raja Loyor of Jembal, Puteri Vijaya Mala, Raja of Jembal (Malaysia)Also known as Puteri Saadong or Mariam, she succeeded her adopted mother, Chek Siti Wan Kembang (1610-63) and her father, Raja Loyor bin Raja Sakti, as Raja of Jembal in 1663. Married to her cousin, Raja Abdullah bin al-Marhum Sultan Samiruddin, Raja of Kelantan-Selatan (Jembal). She was captured by the Siamese and forced to become a concubine of King Narai of Thailand in order to spare her husband’s life. He vowed to wait for her return and never to remarry. However, after several years he gave up and remarried, and when she returned, she is supposed to have killed her with her hair pin, before leaving the Kingdom. According to some legends her mother was Raja Hijau or the Green Queen of Pattani.

  1663-77 Regent Dowager Landgravine Hedwig Sophie von Brandenburg of Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1677-83 Reigning Dowager Lady of Schmalkalden etc.
After the death of her husband, Landgrave Wilhelm VI von Hessen-Kassel (1629-63), she first became regent for their firstborn son, Wilhelm VII (1663-70) and after his death shortly before he was about to come age, she automatically continued as regent for the second son, Karl (1670-1730). She saw herself as the sole Head of Government Affairs (alleinige Leiterin der Regierungsgeschäfte) even though she ruled together with a Regency College, whose meetings she chaired almost daily. During her time in office she also called and chaired 6 Meetings of the Estates  (Landrat). She managed to remain more or less neutral during the disputes between Protestants and Catholics in the aftermath of the Thirty Years War. She did not abdicate the regency until her son was 23, even though decrees, laws and coins were issued in his name from the time he turned 18, but he seems to have been happy with the arrangement and even after she took over the government in her dowry, she remained influential in the Landgravate. Her third surviving son, Philipp, became Landgrave of Hessen-Philippsthal. Mother of another son who died as an infant and three daughters, and lived (1623-83)

  1663-66 Dowager Reigning Duchess Anna Sophie von Mecklenburg-Güstrow of Parchwitz in Slesia (At the time part of Germany, now Poland)
Widow of Ludwig IV. in Liegnitz and daughter of Duke Johann Albert II. zu Mecklenburg-Güstrow. (d. 1666).

  1663-77 Overseer of the Crown Lands Konstancja Kos of Brodnica (Poland)
Through the era of the joint state of Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth until the partitions of Poland in 1795, referred to the crown lands (królewszczyzna) administered by the official known as starosta or starościna (for women), who would receive the office from the king and would keep it for life. It usually provided a significant income for the starosta.

  1663-70 Princess-Abbess Maria Appolonia Schweizer of Heggbach (Germany)
She continued the building activities and at the same time paid back substantial parts of the chapter’s depths. Born in Ulm, she lived (1604-70).

  1663-96 Princess-Abbess Franziska von Freyberg of Gutenzell (Germany)
As a Swabian Fiefholder, she exercised the High Court-right of the Marshalate of Swabia from 1685.

  1663-85 Princess-Abbess Johanna Maria von Holdinghausen of Keppel (Germany)
Joined the Chapter in 1655, and 11 years later she became Catholic.

  1663-72 Reigning Abbess Anne Séverine de Warlzel of Bourbourg, Lady of Oxelaere, Noordpeene, Faumont and Coutiches (France)
The privilege was confirmed in 16666 that the Abbey was under direct authority of the Pope and not the local Bishop. She was daughter of Lord of Warluzel and Rombrin.

  1664-69 Regent Dowager Duchess Isabella Clara von Habsburg of Mantova and Monferrato (Italy)
Widow of Carlo II Gonzaga and regent for their only child, Carlo III. Also known as Isabella Clara d’Asburgo, she was daughter of Leopold of Tirol, she lived (1629-85).

  1664-79 Regent Dowager Princess Albertina Agnes van Oranje-Nassau of Nassau in Diez and Friesland, Groningen and Drente (Germany and the Netherlands)
1679-96 Reigning Dowager Lady of Oranienburg (Germany)
Her husband, Prince Willem Frederik von Nassau-Dietz, Stadholder of Drente and Groningen, died from the wounds he got when he shot himself by cleaning his gun. She then took over the government in Friesland, Groningen and Drente for son Hendrik Casimir II of Nassau-Diez. In 1665 England and the Bishop of Münster declared war on The Netherlands. As the main provinces of The Netherlands, Holland, Zeeland and Utrecht had been without a Stadholder since 1650; their armies had been neglected, as the fleet was favoured. Count Johann Moritz of Nassau-Siegen was put in charge of the army but still the Bishop’s army could not be stopped. Even the strongly defended city of Groningen was threatened and to give moral support, Albertine Agnes hurried to the besieged city. Pressure by King Louis XIV of France, then an ally, forced the Bishop of Münster to withdraw. Six years later, Louis XIV changed his mind and attacked the south of The Netherlands himself, while the Bishop of Münster together with the Bishop of Köln attacked the North. Albertine Agnes arranged the defence and suggested opening the dykes to flood the lands. Her moral support kept Johann Moritz of Nassau-Siegen going; and at last her nephew, Prince Willem III of Orange became Stadholder. She was born as Countess van Nassau-Katzenelnbogen and lived (1634-96).

  1664-86 Princess Regnant Nyai Cili Muda of Solor (Indonesia)
Succeeded mother, Nyai Cili, and was followed by son of her sister, Sengaji Cili.

  1664-77 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca zu Rhein of Schänis (Switzerland)
One of her relatives, Johann Jakob zu Rhein von Morschwiller (1643-90), was Domherr and Scholasticus of the Prince Bishop of Basel, where her family had been influential since the 12th century. The next of her family to reign the territory took office in 1701. She was daughter of Lorenz zu Rhein, of a Ministerial family (Civil Servant Nobility), and Maria Agnes von Rosenbach.

  1665-75 Regent Dowager Queen Maria Ana de Austria y Austria of Spain and The Indies
Widow of Felipe IV and regent for son Carlos V (b. 1661). Her reign was hampered by her dependence upon her Jesuit advisors and her preference for her Austrian advisors. She was preoccupied with combating Louis XIV of France’s attacks on the Spanish possessions in the Netherlands. Court nobles, lead by Don Juan José de Austria gained the upper hand, and eventually forced her to resign. After his death in 1679 she again gained political influence. She lived (1635-96). 

  1665-90 Regent Dowager Princess Christine Charlotte von Württemberg-Stuttgart of Ostfriesland (Germany)
1690-99 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Office of Pewsum and Breum in Ostfriesland
She was pregnant when her husband, Georg Christian, suddenly died after 3 years of marriage, and she reigned in the name of Christian Eberhard, who was born a few months later. after his father. She tried to change the Principality into an absolute state and she was engaged in disputes with the Estates for much of her time in office and almost resulted in civil war a couple of times. But the Emperor gave his support to the existing constitution and declared her son to be of age before time. In 1690 the Estates pressured her to hand over the government to her son, and she withdrew to her dowries. She was daughter of Duke Eberhard III and Anna Dorothea von Salm-Kyrburg, and lived (1645-1699).

  1665-76 Sovereign Archduchess Clara Filicitas von Habsburg of Tirol and Vorlaberg (Austria)
Daughter of Karl von Habsburg and Anna de’ Medici. Married to Emperor Leopold I of Austria, and mother of two daughters: Anna Maria Sophia (Born and dead 1674) and Maria Josefa Klementina (1675-76). The territory was incorporated into the Austrian-Hungarian Realm after her death. Claudia-Felicitas lived (1653-76).

  1665-ca. 67 Captain-Donatary Joana de Menezes of Santa Maria in the Azores (Portugal)
She was daughter of Branca da Gama Freire, Capitana Donataria from 1646, and married to Jorge Mascarenhas. She was mother of 2 children. Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, Conde de Castelho Melhor was Captain-Donatary from 23rd of May 1667 until 1720.

  1665-72 Reigning Princess Gryzelda Wiśniowiecka of Zamość (Poland)
Gryzelda Konstancja z Zamoyskich Wiśniowieckabecame the owner of the great hereditary property of ordynacja zamoyska (Zamość) after her brother’s death. In 1669 she managed to secure the Polish throne for her only son, Michał Korybut. She was the daughter of Tomasz Zamoyski, Voivode of Kiev and Katarzyna. 1638-1651 she was married to Duke Jeremi Wiśniowiecki of Wiśniowiec and Łubnie, and lived (1623-72).

  1665-1705 Sovereign Countess Anna Dorothea von Criechingen of Criechingen (Germany)
Succeeded her brother, Ernst Kasimir (1640- 65) and married to Count Edzard Ferdinand von Ostfriesland-Rietberg. She was succeeded by two sons, Edzard Eberhard Wilhelm, who died two years later, and Friedrich Ulrich, who were succeeded by his infant daughter, Christiane Luise, in 1710. The daughter of Albrecht Ludwig von Criechingen (1610-51) and Altgräfin Agathe zu Salm-Kyburg, she lived (ca. 1645-1705)

  After 1665-88 Lady Anna-Elisabetha von Sachsen-Lauenburg of Philippseck bei Butzbach in Hessen-Homburg (Germany)
After Wilhelm Christoph von Hessen-Homburg’s first wife Sophia Eleonora von Hessen-Darmstadt died giving birth to their 12th child, they got married, but their marriage soon failed. Her husband tried unsuccessfully to divorce her, but she was “exiled” to the Castle of Philippseck bei Butzbach, where she became a loved “mother of the realm” (Landesmutter) who cared for the young and the poor and among others founded several schools. She lived (1624-88).

  1665-68 Reigning Dowager Lady Dorothea von Holstein-Glücksburg of Castle and Administrative Unit of Herzberg am Harz in Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle (Germany)
1668-88 Political Advisor in Brandenburg
1671-89 Lady of the Lordship of Schwedt and the Castle of Caputh in Brandenburg
1688-89 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Administrative Unit of Potsdam
Her first husband, Duke Christian Ludwig von Braunschweig-Lüneburg-Celle, died after 12 years of not very happy and child-less marriage and she lived at her dowry until her marriage to Elector Friedrich Wilhelm von Brandenburg 3 years later. She took over the care of his 3 minor sons and had 7 children from 1669 to 1677, and all but one reached adulthood. She also became his close political advisor. She was given the Amt Potsdam and the Castle of Potsdam became her favourite residence and later her dowry. From 1671 she also owned Caputh and she later bought the Lordship of Schwedt, which became the basis for the Margravate of her son Philipp Wilhelm, who founded the line of Brandenburg-Schwedt. From 1673 she built the Neustadt/Dorotheenstadt in Berlin which were given city rights in 1674. She was daughter of Duke Philip von Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksburg and Sophie Hedwig von Sachsen-Lauenburg, mother mother of 4 sons and 3 daughters, and lived (1636-89).

  1665-69and 1672-77 Reigning Abbess-General Isabel María de Navarra y de la Cueva of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Daughter of Don Pedro batard de Navarra and his mistress Beatriz Morales and granddaughter of Pedro II de Navarra, 3. Vizconde de Muruzábal de Andión. Her aunt, Jeronima de Navarra, succeeded her father in 1556 as 2nd Marquesa de Cortes, 7th Vizcondesa de Muruzábal de Andión. She was married twice but had no children. Another aunt was Antonia Jacinta, who had been Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas 1653-56.

  1665-78 Princess-Abbess Dorothea Hedwig zu Slesvig-Holsten-Nordburg of Gandersheim (Germany)
Her full title was Heiress to Norway, Duchess of Slesvig, Holstein, Stormarn and Ditmarsken, Countess of Oldenborg and Delmenhorst, and she had been Dechaness since 1652 and lived a very free life for a Fürstäbtissin. Converted to Catholisism and married Count Christof von Rantzau-Hohenfeld (1625-96), and Pope Innocentius XI sent a personal congratulation on occasion of their wedding. After some years she went on a a journey to Vienna, where she paid her respect to Emperor Leopold. In Rome she moves in the circles of her far away cousin the ex-queen Christina of Sweden. In 1681 she gives birth to a son, Alexander Leopold Anthon, whose  sponsors are queen Christina of Sweden, the German Emperor Leopold and her brother-in-law, Duke Anton Ulrich of Braunschweig. Returned to Schleswig in 1682. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Norborg and his second wife Eleonore von Anhalt-Zerbst, and lived (1636-92).

  1666 Overseer of the Crown Lands Katarzyna Piotrowska of Szadek (Poland)
Appointed by the Polish king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration.

  1666-89 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Marie-Magdalene zu Pfalz-Birkenfeld of Auleben in Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (Germany)
Widow of Count Anton Günther I von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen (1620-42-66). The Pfalzgräfin was mother of 11 children and lived (1622-89).

  1666-83 Politically Influential Queen Maria Francisca de Savoie-Namour of Portugal
Known as Maria Francisca de Sabóia, she was married to Afonso VI of Portugal and Afonso VI of Portugal in 1666. He was an ill young man paralyzed of the left side of his body and mentally unstable. In Lisbon she fomented a palace coup that ended the government of Luís de Vasconcelos e Sousa, 3rd Count of Castelo Melhor and the following year she conducted a revolt together with her brother-in-law Pedro, forcing the king to abdicate his powers and consent to a practical exile in Terceira in the Azores. She also managed to get an annulment of the marriage, by invoking the supposed impotence of the king, and only months afterwards she married Prince Pedro, now the Prince Regent. Afonso died in 1683, and her husband became king and she was Queen until her death in December of the same year. Marie Françoise de Nemours was daughter of Charles Amédée of Savoy, 6th Duke of Nemours and Elisabeth de Bourbon-Vendome and mother of Isabel Luísa Josefa of Braganza, Princess of Beira. She lived (1646-83).

  1666 Possible Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan, the II Condesa de Moctezuma (Mexico)
The gender of the second holder of the Countly tilte is not known.

  1667, 1672 and 1678 Regent Queen Marie-Thérèse d’Austrice of France
Did not have any part in political affairs except when she acted as regent during the campaign of her husband Louis XIV in the Netherlands. She was daughter of King Felipe IV of Spain and Elisabeth of France, Heiress to the Throne, and it was through her, that her husband (the Sun King) claimed the Spanish inheritance for their sons after the death of her half-brother Carlos II in 1700. Of her six children only one survived her, the dauphin Louis, who died in 1711. She lived (1638-83).

  1667-74 Regent Dowager Duchess Sophie Auguste von Holstein-Gottorp of Anhalt-Zerbst (Germany)
1778-80 Reigning Dowager Lady of the Castle and Administrative Unit of Coswig
Both she and her daughter, Sophia Augusta, survived the smallpox but her husband, Johann, died. She was named regent for their son, Carl Wilhelm, who was Duke of Anhalt-Zerbst, Duke of Sachsen, Angaria and Westphalia, Count of Ascania, Lord of Bernburg, Zerbst, Jever and Knyphausen. After her son came of age, she withdrew to her dowry, but the following year she suffered a number of strokes and fevers and had to endure months of suffering before she died. The mother of 14 children of whom 5 survived into adulthood, she lived (1630-80).

  1667-75 Sovereign Duchess Louise-Françoise de La Baume Le Blanc of Vallière (France)
Given the duchy in 1667, but eight years later she resigned in favour of her daughter, Marie-Anne de Bourbon, whose father was King Louis XIV, upon entering the Carmelite order as Louise de la Miséricode. She lived (1644-1710). 

  1667-85 Joint Ruler Princess Francesca Maria Cristina di Simiana of Masserano and Crevacuore (Italy)
Reigned together with her second husband, Sovereign Prince Francesco Ludovico Ferrero Fieschi of Masserano, Sovereign Marchese of Crevacuore, Principe del Sacro Romano Impero sulla Contea di Lavagna, Conte Palatino del Sacro Romano Impero, etc, etc. (1638-1685). The state involved several small territories in northwestern Italy near the Pennine Alps. She was first married to Francesco Valperga Conte di Masino. Her second son, Carlo Besso (1662-1720) succeeded his father. Her niece, Maria Irene Delfina di Simiana succeeded her brother as Princess di Montafia etc. in 1706. Francesca lived (1640-1716).

  1667-80 Princess-Abbess Elisabeth III von der Pfalz of Herford (Germany)
The Pfalzgräfin was daughter of Elector Friederich V von der Pfalz and King of Bohemia (The Winter-king) and Elizabeth Stuart. She was in close contact with many of the philosophers and scientists of the day. In 1661 was she elected Coadjutorin of the Abbess of the “reichsunmittelbaren” chapter (Imperial Immediate Territory) for Noble ladies and in 1667 she was elected as Princess-Abbess. She gave freedom of faith and shelter to a number of protestant churches, which were not allowed elsewhere – among others the Quaker. Her sister, Sophia von Hanover, was named Heiress to the British throne in 1701. Elizabeth lived (1618-80).

  1667-96 In charge of parts of the County Dowager Countess Sophia Katharina von Schleswig-Holstein-Sonderburg of Oldenburg (Germany)
After her husband, Anton Günther von Oldenburg (1583-1667) died, his inheritance was split up because they had no children and his natural son, Reichsgraf Anton I zu Aldenburg did not have any rights of inheritance. The King of Denmark inherited the county; she remained in charge of parts of it as her dowry and resided at the Castle of Neuenburg. She was daughter of Duke Alexander of Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg and Dorothea von Schwarzburg-Sondershausen and lived (1617-96).

  1668 Regent Vicereine Ana de Borja y Doria of the Vice-Kingdom of Peru (June-November)
Her Spanish title was “Virreina Gobernadora” and she was appointed regent by her husband and cousin, Pedro Fernandez de Castro Andrade y Portugal, Count of Lemos, Marquis of Sarria and Duke of Taurisano, who was Viceroy of Peru 1666-72, when he went on a military campaign and during his absence she issued a number decrees and her authority was recognized by the Audiencia of Lima. She met with them and other officials on 5 July 1668. She was the daughter of Francisco Diego Pascual de Borja de Aragón y Centelles, 8th duque de Gandía, and of Artemisa María Ana Teresa Gertrudis, princesa de Doria de Melfi, and mother of 5 children. She was a niece of Francisco de Borja y Aragón, poet and viceroy of Peru (1615-1621) and related to other famous members of the House of Borgia, including Pope Calixtus III, Pope Alexander VI, and Saint Francis Borgia.  (1640-1706).

  1668-82 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Countess Sophie Juliana zu Hohenlohe-Waldenburg-Pfedelbach of Obersulzbürg in Castell-Remlingen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Count Wolfgang Georg I von Castell-Remlingen (1610-68). Mother of 2 daughters and a son, and lived (1620-98).

 

1668-71 Joint Guardian Dowager Duchess Marie Elisabeth von Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Sachsen-Eisenach
1681-87 Politically Influential of Sachen-Coburg
(Germany)

Her 5th and only surviving son, Wilhelm August,, was born 3 months after the death of her first husband, Adolf Wilhelm, and her brother-in-law,  Johann Georg I,  became regent and took over the whole Duchy when her son died at the age of 3. She was influential during the reign of her second husband, Duke Albrecht III (1648-81-99). Their only son died within the first year of his life in 1678. Her sister, Clara Augusta, Reigned Weisshof as Dowager Duchess of Württemberg from 1682. Marie Elisabeth lived (1638-87).

  1668-1705 Princess-Abbess Madeleine-Thérèse de Noyelle of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
She was the second member of the de Noyelle-family to rule the territory. The first, Marguerite V was in office 1561-69. 

  1669-95 Sovereign Duchess Ludwika Karolina Radziwiłł of Biržai, Dubingiai, Slutsk and Kedainiai (Lithuania)
Also known as Charlotte von Radziwill-Birze, she was a magnate of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth as the last agnatic-line member of the most prominent Calvinists of Lithuania, and a descendant of the Gediminids and Jagiellons. She spent most of her life in Berlin and Königsberg, but laid much attention to her lands in the grand duchy. Like her father, she funded the issue of books in the Lithuanian language, and supported education and Calvinist parishes. She established scholarships for Lithuanian students of theology in the universities of Königsberg, Frankfurt an der Oder, and Berlin. She was sued by King John III Sobieski for the alleged breach of the prenuptial agreement with his son, Jakub Ludwik Sobieski, with the intention to seize her estates. The case was lost, since it was proven that the agreement was falsified. She first married Margrave Louis of Brandenburg and after his death, Elector Palatine Charles III Philip von der Pfalz, with whom she had 3 daughters; Leopoldyna Eleonora, Maria Anna and Elizabeth Augusta Sophie, but only the latter’s issue survived. She was daughter of Bogusław Radziwiłł/Boguslavas Radvila, Duke of Dubingiai, Governor of Prussia (1620-69) and Princess Anna Maria Radziwiłł/Ona Marija Radvilaitė, Heiress of Birzhai and Kedainiai (1640-67), and lived (1667-95).

  Before 1669-74 Princess-Abbess Maria Sophie zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten, Abbess of Vreden (Germany)
In 1669 she created a foundation in the “Princely and Imperial Free Chapter of Elten” and the “High Countly” to Vreden in favour of young women of her family in both male and female line. Daughter of Count Ernst Friedrich zu Salm-Reifferscheid in Bedburg and Countess Maria Ursula zu Leiningen Her sister, Anna Salome, was sovereign of Essen. She lived lived (1620-74).

  Until 1669 Princess-Abbess Freiherrin Raitz von Frentz of Burtscheid (Germany)
The last of 4 members of the family who reigned the territory from 1618. And like the case with her predecessor, her first name is not known.

  1669-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia I von Sulz of Buchau, Lady of Strassberg (Germany)
After her election the inhabitants of Strassberg paid homage to her(Erbhüldigung) and later her other subjects paid her the customary homage. After her inauguration, she stressed her right to appoint the Priest of the Chapter against the Bishop of Konstanz and she tried to attempted to reintroduce serfdom in Strassberg. She was listed among the Secular Princes of the Swabian Circle in 1672, 1675, 1690 and 1692. She left the College of the Counts of the Realm (Reichgrafen) because of there ever stronger attempts to interfere in the internal affairs of the chapter. The chapter never fully recovered from the devastations during the Thirty Years War and had sell a number of lordships and take up heavy loans to survive. She was daughter of Ludwig Ernst, Count von Sulz and Landgrave im Klettgau and Countess Maria Elisabeth von Hohenzollern, and lived (1634-92).

  1669-72 and 1680-83Reigning Abbess-General Magdalena de Mendoza y Miño of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
A relative (probably her sister), Inés, was elected Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas twice; 1662-65 and 1677-80.
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