Penguasa Wanita Di Dunia 1770-1800

 

WOMEN IN POWER 
1770-1800

Female leaders
and women in other positions of political authority
of independent states and
self-governing understate entities


  1770-95 Queen Kamakahelei of Kauai in Hawai’i (USA)
22nd Alii Aimoku of Kauai in the Northwestern part of the Island group of Hawai’i. She succeeded king Peleiokolai and was succeeded to king Kaumualii, who reigned until 1810 when the island was incorporated in the united Hawaiian Kingdom.  Her daughter Kawalu, married her half-brother, George Kaumu-alii, King of Kauai (1794-1810).

  1770-93 Denkyirahene Amoako Atta Yiadom of Denkyira (Ghana)
Reigned after Amoako Atta Kuma (1725-70). The state was founded in 1500 under the name of Agona, but was renamed in 1620. In 1701 it was defeated by the Asante and became a tributary kingdom. 

  1770/80-1807 Regent Dowager Princess Gusti Ayu Oka Kaba-Kaba of Mengwi (Indonesia)
After the death of her husband, Gusti Agung Made Munggu, she ruled in the name of her son Gusti Agung Putu Agung and from 1793/4 for grandson.

  1770-74 Tenant Caroline Carey of Herm (A Dependency of the English Crown)
Took over the tenantcy of the tiny Channel Island after the death of Peter Carey (1766-70). Peter John and Thomas de Jersey were joint Tenants (1774-79).

  1770-93 Politically Influential Franziska von Hohenheim in Württemberg (Germany)
Her husband, Freiherr Friedrich Wilhelm von Leutrum, was employed at the court of Duke Karl Eugen of Württemberg 1728-37-93). She became his Maitresse in 1770 and divorced her husband two years later. From then on they lived at the castle of Hohenheim. 1774 she was created Reichsgräfin von Hohenheim Karl Eugen’s wife, Elisabeth Friederike Sophie von Brandenburg-Bayreuth died in 1780 and they married secretly three years later, but the Catholic Church did not accept that he married a protestant until 1785. The following year she received the rank of a Duchess. She had a moderating influence on her husband, who developed in a less absolutist and ruthless direction than in his first years. She also engaged in charitable work. After her husband’s death she moved to Sindlingen. Daughter of Freiherr Ludwig Wilhelm von Bernerdin in Sindlingen and Johanna von Vohenstein zu Adelmannsfelden, did not have any children and lived (1748-1811).

  Until 1770 Treasurer Karoline Raphael Kaulla in Fürstenberg in Donaueschingen (Germany)
1770-1809 Treasurer in Württemberg (Germany)
Her Hebrew name was Chaile, but she was mainly known as Madame Kaulla or “Kiefe” Auerbacher, and she was one of the greatest Court Jews of her time, and was reputed to have been the richest woman in Germany. Her father, Isaak Raphael, was a Court Jew for the house of Hohenzollern. Besides her role as Treasurer (Hoffaktorin) she was Leader of the Trading House Kaulla in Stuttgart, and during the French war her business thrived and she was able to get supplies for the war for Württemberg. She later was a co-founder of the Royal Württemberg Court Bank, which, after many fusions, resulted in the Deutsche Bank in the 1920s.as a jew she was not allowed to live in Württemberg, but she was given a special right of residence, and she received great honours, amongst them the Civil-Verdienst-Medaille with golden chain presented to her by Emperor Franz I. She is reputed to have been a beautiful, impressive woman, praised for the welfare, her care for the poor and her works for the Jewish community in Hechingen. Her wealth and influence was similar to that of the Family of Rothschild. She was married to Salomon Auerbacher, and lived (1739-1809).

  1770-? Princess-Abbess Maria Electa Wrazda von Kunwald  of the Royal Chapter St. Georg at the  Hradschin in Prauge (Czech Republic)
Her election was confirmed by Empress Maria Theresia: “Maria Theresia, Römische Kayserin, Wittib”, bestätigt die nach dem Tode der Maria Josepha von Fürstenberg erfolgte Wahl der Maria Electa Freyin Wrazda von Kunwald zur Aebtissin von St. Georg.” 

  Around 1770 Reigning Abbess Germaine de Conty d’Hargicourt of Montvilliers (France)
Unpopular and accused the sisters of misusing the revenues of the abbey. The chapter was abandoned during the French revolution in 1792.

  1771-? Regent Princess Mai Desan of the Sikhs In Punjab (India)
Widow of Charhat Singh Sukarchakia and a great administrator, an experienced and a wise diplomat who conducted the civil and military affairs dexterously.

 


  1771-72 Overseer of the Crown Lands Anna Schmidt of Brodnica (Poland)
Appointed by the king to be in charge of certain aspects of the local administration

  1771 Overseer of the Crown Lands Antonina Rzewuska of Luboml (Ukraine)
Held the office of Starościna niegrodowa of the area which was then part of the Kingdom of Poland-Lithuania.

  1771-81 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Agatha von Ulm-Langenrhein of Lindau (Germany)
Her family had many Prince-Bishops and other ecclesiastical office holders trough the times.

  1771-74 Reigning Abbess-General Angela de Hoces of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

The Abbess of Las Huelgas held her own courts, granted letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction, to hear confessions, to preach, and to engage in the cure of souls.


  1771-ca. 85 Spy Chief Marguerite Wolters in Rotterdam, the Netherlands
Following her husband, Richard Wolters’s death, she carried on the British spy network in Rotterdam, at least until 1785.

  1771-96 The King’s Secret Diplomatic Representative and Advisor Henrietta Zofia z Puszetów Lullier in Poland
Born as Henriette Puszet, she had an affair with the later Polish King Stanislaw August Poniatowski when he stayed in Paris in 1753, and about one year later she married Louis Antoine Lullier. In 1762 Stanislaw Poniatowski re-established contact with her in Warsaw, and as his secret diplomatic representative and advisor, she negotiated on his behalf in secret international cases. For example she supported the mission of Franciszek Ksawery Branicki to the french Court. Daughter of Benedict Puszet and Barbara Euhinger. (d. 1802).

  1772-84 De-facto In Charge of the Government Dowager Queen Juliane-Marie zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Denmark and Norway
Initiated a coup d’etat against the “premier” count Struensee who had an affair with the Queen, Caroline-Mathilde of England, and total influence on the insane King Christian 7. Her son, Hereditary Prince Ferdinand and Premier Høegh-Guldberg became official leaders of the Government with her as the power behind the scenes in the triumvriate. In 1784 they were removed by her stepson, Crown Prince Frederik (6). Her sister Therese Natalie, was Princess-Abbess of Gandersheim 1766-77 and her sister-in-law was Grand-Duchess Anna Pavlovna, regent of Russia 1740-41 for her oldest son, Zar Ivan, and after she was executed, her younger children lived in Denmark. Juliane-Marie lived (1729-96).

  1772-89 Princess-Abbess Sofia Helena von Stadion-Tannhausen of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
When she became Dechaness in 1755, she had been Vice-Dechaness for some years. In 1756 she lost the elections for the post of Princess Abbess to Antonietta von und zu Eltz-Kempenich  and sided with the Bishop of Liège in the long lasting dispute over the position of the Princess-Abbess and territory. After Antonietta’s death, Sophia was in charge of the territory in her capacity as Dechaness. She accepted the “capitulation” of 1773 and recognized the owerlordship of Liège but kept the title of Princess and the lordship of her possessions. She stopped the internal infightings that lasted for centuries, but like her predecessors she was an authoritarian figure. The territory was marked by the ongoing wars and the economic situation very bad. After the election of Waldburg von Heidenheim in 1783, she seems to have lost some of her authority within the chapter. (d. 1789).

  1772-99 Reigning Abbess Maria Edmunda von Kolb of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
Mentioned as 1758 Kastnerin (bursary officer) and the related offices of Bursiererin and Oberbursiererin 1768-72. Her brother, who was a Pastr in Dietersofeh, accused her of mismanagement and suppression of her subjects and she was put under temporary administration in 1785. She was daughter of Karl Ferdinand von Kolb and Maria Anna Karrer, and lived (1734-99).

  1773-83 Regent Princess Dowager Marie Luise Eleonore von Hessen-Rheinfels of Salm-Salm 
1794-.. Possibly Regent of Salm-Kyburg (Germany)
Until 1777 she reigned alone, then she became regent for Konstantin Alexander Joseph, Fürst und Reingraf von Salm zu Salm, Wildgraf von Daun und Kyburg, Rheingraf von Stein et cetera  (1773-78-1828). In 1794 her late husband’s relative, Friedrich III von Salm-Kyburg died, and she possibly became one of the regents for his son, Friedrich IV (1789-94-1801-59) whose mother had already died. Marie Luise Eleonore lived (1732-1800).

  1773-79 (†) Regent H.H Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Durga Bai Sahib Maharaj of Kolhapur (India)  
After the death Jiji Bai Sahib Maharaj, who had been regent for adopted son since 1760, she took over the regency until her own death in 1779. They were both widows of Shahu Sambahaji II. she (d. 1779).

  1773-74 Joint Regent Princess Amina Kabafa’anu the Maldive Islands
Her brother, Sultan Al-Haj Muhammed (1766-77), appointed her and her husband, Ali Shah Bandor Vela’ana’a Manikufa’anu, as joint regents, when he went on a pilgrimage to Mecca. He drowned on his return in 1774. Her sister, Princess Amina Rani Kilegefa’anu, had been regent 1753-57.

  1773 Sovereign Countess Louise-Marguerite de la Marck of Marck and Schleiden, Baroness of Lummen, Seraing-le-Château and Schaffenburg (Germany and France)
Succeeded her father, Louis Pierre de La Marck et de Schleiden (1701-50-73), Marquis de Vares and Baron, the son of Count Ludwig Peter von der Marck (1674-1700) and Marie Marguerite Francoise de Rohan-Chabot, who lived in France as an imperial Field Marshal. Louise-Marguerite married the Belgian Charles Marie Raymond de Ligne, Duc d’Arenberg et d’Aerschot (1721-78). Through her possession of Schleiden and of Saffenburg, her husband had two votes in the single collegiate vote of the chamber of the counts of Westphalia in addition to his vote in the Chamber of Princes in his capacity as Duke of Arenberg. Their oldest son, Louis Engelbert inherited the Duchies of Arenberg and Aerchot (Aarchot) and was created Duke von Meppen and Fürst von Recklinghausen in 1803. Their second son, Auguste (1753-1833) inherited the County de la Marck. Mother of a total of eight children, and lived (1730-1820).

  1773-89 Joint Sovereign Countess Auguste Luise Friederike von Sachsen-Coburg of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Daughter of Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz and her first husband Christian Wilhelm von Sachsen-Gotha and one of the many reigning; she was married to Friedrich-Karl von Schwarzburg-Rudolstadt, and lived (1752-1805).

  1773-80 Joint Sovereign Countess Luise von Sachsen-Coburg of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Second daughter of Luise von Reuss zu Schleitz with her second husband, Johann August von Sachsen-Gotha, she married to Grand Duke Friedrich-Franz I von Mecklenburg-Schwerin (1756-1837), and lived (1756-1808). 

  1773-92 Princess-Abbess Maria Juliana Kurz of Heggbach (Germany)
Elected Abbess in third round after the 7 other candidates had been defeated, and managed to manoeuvre through Joseph II of Austria’s “anti-nun” reforms of 1782 because the Abbesses were highly politically influential because of the centuries of independence as an Imperial Immediacy (in posession of Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and uninterrupted membership of the College of the Prelates of the Realm, even though she was normally represented at the meetings of the Assemblies of the Realm, Circles and College, she would always be in close contact with her envoy. In July 1790 the Emperor wrote to her asking for a military contribution and she answered in August, and the territory was hard hit by the French wars. When Joseph died two years later, a “party of gratitude” was celebrated after the election of his successor. She lived (1726-92).

  1773-82 Princesse-Abbesse Abbess Christine de Saxe of Remiremont (France)
Maria Christina Anna Teresia Salomea Eulalia Franziska Xaveria von Sachsen, Royal Princess of Poland was one of the 14 children of King Friedrich August III of Poland and became Coadjutrice in 1764 after the personal intervention of her sister’s father-in-law, king Louis XV as her sister Marie Josephe (1731-67) was the second wife of the heir to the French throne, Louis (1729-65), whose son succeeded as King Louis XVI in 1774. Another sister was Marie Kuningunde, Princess-Abbess of Essen and Thorn from 1776. Their brother, Duke Albert von Teschen, was married to Marie-Christine von Hasburg, and they were joint Governor-Generals of the Lower Netherlands. Their father had 354 known children outside marriage. Marie-Christine lived (1735-82).

  1773 Abbess Nullius Vincenza Martucci of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The Cistercian monastery existed from before 889 and was placed under direct papal protection in 1110 and 1266 it was given to a group of Cistercian Nuns.

  1774-77 Regent Queen Maria Ana Vittoria de Borbon of Portugal
Wife of King José I (1750-77), who showed no interest in affairs of state and was dominated by Sebastião José Carvalho e Mello, Duke of Pombal. In 1774 her husband was declared insane, and she was named regent, and began gradually to erode the power of the Duke of Pombal. Her husband was succeeded by their daughter, Maria I. Maria Ana Vittoria was daughter of king Felipe V of Spain and Isabel Farnesio, and lived (1718-81).

  1774-92 Politically Influential Queen Marie-Antoinette von Habsburg-Lorraine of France
Very influential during the reign of her husband, Louis XVI (1774-92), and her very autocratic opinions and luxurious life-style was a contributing factor the to the French Revolution during which both her husband, son and herself was executed. She lived (1755-93).

  1774-1801 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline (I) zu  Waldeck-Pyrmont of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Unmarried daughter and successor of Dorothea von Solms-Assenheim. Her brother Josias (1774-88) was succeeded by son, Karl who died in 1849, and first succeeded by son Richard (1835-49-63) and then by daughter Mathilde (1826-99), who was married to Carel von Aldenburg-Bentinck (1792-1864). At some point she shared the sovereignty with Karoline (II). Karoline (I) lived (1729-1801).

  1774-89 Kpojito Chai of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Kpengla, she is not known to have been a priestess, but the aim of her office was to serve as compliment to the king and in some aspects as his double, not the least in the spiritual world.

  1774-96 Princess-Abbess Marie Félicité Philippine van der Noot of Nivelles, Dame Temporaire and Spirituelle of Nivelles (Belgium)
The last reigning Princess-Abbess of Nivelles, which was occupied by France and afterwards incorporated into the Kingdom of the Netherlands. She was member of the old Bruxelloise noble family whose title dates back to the beginning of the 1330s.

  1774-77, 1780-83 and 1786-89 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa de Chaves y Valle of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Temporal and Secular ruler of the territory.

  1774-75 Pretender to the Throne Princess Yelizaveta Alekseyevna Tarakanova in Russia
Appeared in various cities of Western Europe in the early 1770s and attracted several noble suitors. In 1774 she was convinced by émigré Polish rebels to pretend to the Russian throne and claimed that she was daughter of the unmarried empress Elizabeth (reigned 1741–62) and Count Aleksey Razumovsky and also that she was the sister of Y.I. Pugachov, who was then leading a rebellion in southeastern Russia. She was arrested by Catherine II’s supporter, Aleksey Orlov, discovered Tarakanova in Livorno, seduced her, and lured her aboard his ship in the harbour, and sent to St. Petersburg, where she was imprisoned by Catherine in the Peter and Paul Fortress. She died there without revealing the secret of her past. Also known as Knyaginya Vladimirskaya (Princess of Vladimir), Fräulein Frank, or Madame Trémouille. She claimed to have been reared in St. Petersburg, but she was probably not Russian, and her origins and real name are unknown. She lived (ca. 1745-1775).

  Around 1775-85 Queen Nankali of Uukwangali (Angola – Namibia)
During her reign friction developed with the neighboring communities and the Kwangali moved from Makuzu to Sihangu (near Mukukuta). Succeeded by Queen Simbara, during whose reign the Kwangali group moved down to Namibia.

  1775-76 (†) Regent Dowager Countess Auguste von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach of Salm-Dyck (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Johann Franz Wilhelm (1714-67-75), she reigned the small territory south-east of Mönchengladbach in present Nordrhein-Westphalien during the minoruty of her son, Altgraf Joseph Franz Maria von Salm Reifferscheid zu Dyck (1773-75-1806-61), who lost his territory to France in 1806 but was created Fürst und Altgraf in 1816. She lived (1743-76).

  1775-93 Regent Dowager Countess Maria Anna von Dalberg of Blieskastel (Germany)
Generally known as Marianne von der Leyden she took over as regent for son after the death of her husband, Reichsgraf Franz Karl von der Leyden und zu Hohengeroldseck. Her son came of age in 1791, but she continued to be in charge of the government. She supported the economic development and introduced social reforms, reformed the schools and in 1786 she abolished the serfdom. In 1793 she had to flee the French troops after having initially managed to keep a neutral position. She died in exile in Frankfurt am Main, and lived (1745-1804).

  1775-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Josepha Felicitas von Neuenstein-Hubacker of Obermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
The Freiin (Free Lady) von Neunstein was the last sovereign of the territory, which included the Hofmarks (Seigneurities) of Obertraublingen and Oberröhrenbac, the Provosties of Tegenheim, Sallbach, Mettenbach, Langenpreising, Grosshausen and Ottmaring and a member of farms all over Bavaria and circa 100 in the surroundings of Regensburg and also owned a substantial number of houses within the city. Known as an able ruler, she renovated the building of the chapter 1784-99 and the state experienced a period of economic growth. 1781 a number of younger canonesses appealed to the bishop of Regensburg for better living conditions, more servants etc, but her spartan approach won the upper hand. The territory was secularized in 1803 and became part of Bavaria/Bayern in 1805. She remained an inhabitant of the Chapter for the rest of her life. She was daughter of Privy Councillor and Crown Equerry  of the Princes of Fürstenberg, Freiherr Reinhard Friederich von Neuenstein and Maria Anna Maximiliana Theresia von Frauenberg. In her death announcement she was mentioned as “Ehrwürdige Frau Maria Josepha, Fürstin des heiligen Römischen Reiches, Äbtissin des adeligen Damestiftes in Obermünster”. she lived (1739-1822).

  1775-1802 Princess-Abbess Maria Maximiliana von Stadion of Buchau (Germany)
The last Sovereign Ruler of the Ecclesiastical Territory, she had been elected in the third round of voting with the participation of 10 Ladies of the Chapter and 2 Canons (Chorherren). Like that of her predecessor’s her election took part without the participation of the Bishop of Konstanz, and he protested at first but ended up inaugurating her. During her reign she reached compromises with the neighbours, the Count von Hohenberg and Prince zu Turn und Taxis, about some of the lands of the territory. During the end of her reign, she was preoccupied with the financial strain caused by the Coalition Wars. In July 1802 she had to flee for the invading French forces, but later returned. Her and the other families of the Ladies of the Chapter protested against the secularization and abolision of the chapter and territory using the the argument that the territory was already secular and not ecclesiastical. In the end Turn and Taxis took over the territory, and she moved to München and lived there the rest of her life. She was daughter of Count Anton Heinrich Friedrich von Stadion zu Thannhausen und Wartenhausen, Minister of the Elector of Mainz, and Freiin Maria Anna Augusta Antonia von Sickingen-Hohenburg. Maria Maximiliana Esther lived (1736-1818).

  1775-1802 Reigning Abbess Sophie Friederike von Holle of the Immediate Chapter of Kraichgau (Germany)
The free-worldly chapter for noble ladies, were place directly under the Holy Roman Emperor and the Imperial Diet, without any intermediary liege lord, and had the right to collect taxes and tolls themselves, and held juridical rights. De facto imperial immediacy corresponded to a semi-independence with a far-reaching autonomy.

  1775-81 Politically Influential Janab Aliya Muta’aliya Bahu Begum (Bahu Begum) of Oudh (or Avadh) (India)
After her father-in-law’s death, she paid off the huge debts of her husband, Jalal-ud-din-Haider, (Shuja-ud-daula), to the East India Company, thereby ensuring his succession. After this he seems to have decided to entrust his finances to Bahu Begum. After his death in 1775 she secured the succession for her son, Mirza Amani (Asaf-ud-daula) against the advice of her mother-in-law, Nawab Begum. Her son continuously demanded money from her. In 1781 both the Begums were arrested by the British, two eunuchs, whose position at the court of Bahu Begum were unrivalled, were tortured until they handed over the treasure. Members of the royal zenana and khurd-Mahal were harassed, humiliated and made to suffer enormous privation. She remained illiterate all her life, but it never seemed to hamper her perspicacity or tenacity in dealing with the outside world. She always militated against the growing influence of the British. She was quick to see through the British plans of making Avadh a buffer state between themselves in Bengal and the strong Marathas. And yet when she saw there was no one worthy in her own family she made the British the trustees of her property after her death. During her lifetime there were few women and men who could rival her strength or match her dignity in northern India. At the peak of her glory it is said that she had at her command ten thousand troops, an excellent cavalry, innumerable horses and elephants. Her son died in 1798, and she outlived five rulers of Avadh and saw the installation of the sixth. Born as Amat-uz-Zehra in Persia and lived (Ca. 1747-1815).

  1775 Politically Active Ex-Queen Caroline Mathilde of Great Britain of Denmark and Norway
In 1775 she was approached by a group of opponents of the rule of her step-mother-in-law, Queen Juliane Marie and her son, who wanted to depose her insane ex-husband, Christian 7. and make her Head of the Regency Government for her son. She had been exiled after her affair with the royal physician and minister Johann Friedrich Struensee, who was almost certainly father of her daughter, Louise Augusta (1771-1843). Struensee was executed in 1772, and she was divorced and deported to Celle in the Electorate of Hannover of her brother, Georg III, who was not supportive of her attempts to return to Denmark. The posthumously born daughter of Frederick, Prince of Wales by his wife, Augusta von Sachsen-Gotha, she died suddenly from throat cancer having lived (1751-75).

  1776-1801 Regent N.N. of Salm-Dyck (Germany)
It is not clear who succeeded Countess Auguste von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach as regent for Joseph Franz Maria, who was still a minor.

  1776-97 Princess-Abbess Maria Kunigunde von Sachsen of Thorn, Ladyof Thorn, Ittervoort, Grathem, Baexem, Stramproy, Ell, Haler and Molenbeerse (The Netherlands)
1776-1803 Princess-Abbess of Essen,
Lady of Breisig, Huckard and Rellinghausen (Germany)
After the failed weddings plans with Empress Maria-Teresia’s son, the later Joseph II of Austria, The Royal Princess of Poland and Sachsen was elected Coadjutorin of Essen and Thorn in 1775 with the right of succession, which took place the following year after the death of Franziska Christine von der Pfalz-Sulzbach. As Sovereign of the 2 Ecclesiastical Territories of Thorn and Essen in the Netherlands and Germany, she spend most of her time by her brother, Elector Klemens Wenzeslaus von Trier, and dominated the government here. During her reign Thorn experienced a strong economic growth, but when the war between Austria and France broke out on 1793, the ladies escaped to the other side of the Rhine. When the French had to withdraw the following year, 6 ladies returned, including Dechaness Clementine von Hessen-Rhinfels, who took the reigns and they were both busy buying back lands – securing the role of a “Free Lordship of the Realm” (Freie Reichsherrlichkeiten) – as all Ecclesiastical Territories were abolished by the Imperial Diet in 1803. She was the 14th and last child of the Elector of Sachsen and King of Poland and Lithauen, Friedrich August II and Maria Josepha von Habsburg. Her sister, Marie Christine, was Princess-Abbess of Remiremont from 1773. Known as Maria Cunegonda in Thorn, she lived (1749-1826).

  1776-1803 Princess-Abbess Justina von Erolzheim of Gutenzell (Germany)
Last sovereign ruler of the territory, which was secularized and first taken over by Joseph August von Toerring-Jettenbach and then incorporated into Württemberg. The last canoness died in 1859. Justina (d. 1809).

  1776-97 Reigning Abbess Amalie Dorothea Elisabeth von der Bottlenberg gnt. Kessel of the Free Worldly Abbey of Elsey (Germany)
Until 1793 the territory did not have a vote in the Local Assembly, but that year she bought the Manor of Berchum and thereby the Chapter came in the possession of its vote in the Landtag (In German: Berchumer Landtagsstimme). The Abbess was Lady of a number of possessions in Hohenlimburg but never had any sovereignty or any other rights than a local noble landowner.

  1777-1816 Queen Maria I of Portugal, 13th Duchess de Bragança, 7th Duchess de Barcelos, 12th Marquesa de Vila Viçosa, 1st Princess de Beira, 14th Countess de Arraiolos, 20th Countess de Barcelos, 14th Countess de Neiva and 17th Countess de Ourém
1808-1816 Queen of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves
Her full title was The Most High, Serene and Potent Lady Dona Maria I, by the grace of God, of the United Kingdom of Portugal, Brazil and the Algarves, and above and below the Seas of Africa, Lord of Guinea, of the Conquest, Navigation and Commerce of Ethiopia, Arabia, Persia, and the Indies, Most Faithful Queen. She was granted the title of Princess of Beira by her grandfather, King Dom João V at birth, and became Princess of Brazil in 1750. Her first act as queen was to dismiss the unpopular Prime Minister, the Marquis of Pombal, following the brutal treatment given to the Távoras in the Tavora affair. Noteworthy events of this period were Portugal’s membership of the League of Armed Neutrality (July 1782) and the 1781 cession of Delagoa Bay from Austria to Portugal. In 1801 the Spanish dictator Manuel de Godoy invaded Portugal with backing from Napoleon, but was forced to abandon the campaign in the same year. However the Treaty of Badajoz on June 6 1801 forced Portugal to cede Olivenza and part of Guyana to Spain. She suffered from religious mania and melancholia. It made her incapable of handling state affairs after 1799 and so her son Prince John became regent. The refusal of his government to join the Continental Blockade of Britain culminated in the 1807 Franco-Spanish invasion led by Marshal Junot. The royal family fled to Brazil, and Junot was appointed governor of the kingdom pending Napoleon’s decision on its ultimate fate. In 1808, the Duke of Wellington landed a British army in Lisbon and thus commenced the Peninsular War. When Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815, Maria and her family were still in Brazil. The aged Queen died at Rio de Janeiro in 1816 and the Prince Regent succeeded her as King John VI of Portugal and Brazil. She was married to her uncle, The Most High, Serene and Potent Lord Dom Pedro III, King of Portugal etc, their son; Infante Dom Jose (1761-88) was married to her sister, Infanta Dona Maria (1746-1829). Maria da Gloria was mother of 6 children, and lived  (1734-1816).

  1777-81 and 1789-93 12th Tui’i Kanokupolo Tupou’ Mohe’ofo of Tonga
Also known as Tupoumahe’ofo. She held temporal power, wielding absolute power over the life and death of the people. In the first period she reigned jointly with Tu’i Halafatai. She was deposed by Mulikiha’amea , who was Tu’i Ha`atakalaua 1777-99 and Tu’i Kanokupolu) 1777 and 1781-89. Her second husband, the Tu’i Tonga, Fatefehi Paulaho, was the lord of the soil, and enjoyed divine honours. He took no part in the civil government of the country and could not arbitrate in any civil quarrel, but could absolve sinners who had broken the taboo. They received Captain James Cook in 1777. Their two daughters succeeded each other as Tu’i Tonga Fefdine. Tupou’ Mohe’ofo was daughter of the 7th Tu’i Konkupolo, and lived (1745-93).

  1777-1819 Rani Junumabe Adi Raja Bibi II of Cannanore (India)
On December 18, 1790 Minicoy was surrendered to the Court of Directors of the English East India Company by the Ali Raja of Cannanore, Junumabe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi II. The Ali Raja was allowed to administer Minicoy in return for a tribute to the East India Company. On 27 July 1795, the Governor General of the Presidency of Madras under whose jurisdiction Minicoy was, abolished Junumabe Ali Adi-Raja Bibi’s coir monopoly. This was the beginning of the end of the Ali Raja’s real control over Minicoy, but she continued to dispute the transfer of sovereignty but in 1824, her successor, Mariambe Ali-Adi Raja Bibi made a formal written recognition of the suzerainty of the East India Company. She and her successors, however, continued the tributary arrangement. 

  1777-78 and 1779-85 Regent Dowager Sri Sri Sri Sri Sri Maharani Rajendra Rajya Lakshmi Devi of United Nepal
Rajendralaxmi’s minor son Rana Bahadur Shah was placed on the throne after the death of her husband King Pratap Singh Shah. In the beginning she was co-ruler with Bahadur Shah, but he had her imprisoned. When she was released from her imprisonment, she exiled Bahadur Shah and began to rule as the sole regent. She and her military chiefs managed to defeat an uprising by local chiefs and kings in 1781, resulting in the annexation of both the Lamjung and Tanahun to the kingdom of Nepal in 1782. The king of Kaski, Siddhi Narayan Shah also surrendered before the Gorkha troops, and his widow also made an unsuccessful attempt to control over Kirat state in the east. Also known as Rajendra Laximi she (d. 1785).

  1777-? High Chiefess Te-ha’a papa I Te-i’oa-tua Teri’i-tari’a of Huahine (French Polynesia)
First succeeded by son, Mahine Te hei ‘ura Puru, and then by daughter, Teri’i tari’a Ari’i paea vahine who reigned until 1852. Huahine is located 175 km North-West of Tahiti within the Leeward Islands. In 1809, Protestant missionaries Davies and Bennet undertake a 1-year round the island tour during which they wrote a detailed journal.

  1777-78 Queen Andrianghinarivo of Boina (Madagascar)
Daughter of King Andriamahatindrivo (ca. 1730-60), she succeeded her son Andrianikeniarivo, and was succeeded by Queen Tombola.

  1777-1800 Joint Duchess Marie-Adélaïde de France of Louvois (France)
Held the duchy jointly with her sister. She was unmarried and lived (1732-1800).

  1777-82 Joint Duchess Sophie-Philippine de France of Louvois (France)
 
The two unmarried daughters of king Louis XV held the duchy jointly. She lived (1734-82).

  1777-80 Reigning Abbess-General María Ana de Acedo y Torres of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

As Señora Abadesa de Las Huelgas, she had the privilege to confirm Abbesses of dependent convents, to impose censures, and to convoke synods.


  1777-… Sovereign Countess Karolina Franziska Dorothea von der Pfalz-Zweibrücken of Parkstein
1777-93 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm of Reipoltskirchen
1779-… Lady of Berzweiler, Seelen, Rudolphkirchen und Niederkirchen (Germany)
Also known Fürstin Karoline von Isenburg, she bought the Ellrodt’ian part of the lordship of Reipoltskirchen and reached an agreement with the co-owner, the Countess of Hillesheim, and the documents was approved by her father, Elector Karl Theodor von der Pfalz in 1777. In 1803 she was granted an eternal grant for her share in Reipoltskirchen and the other Lordship on the Left Side of the Rhine (Herrschaft Reipoltskirchen und anderen Herrschaften am linken Rheinufer), which had been seeded to France, and she was also compensated for her income from the shipping tax on the river. It is not clear when the county of Parkstein was incorporated into one of the other German states. She was married to Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm zu Isenburg-Birstein, and lived (1762-1816).

  1777-80 Opposition Leader Bahu Begum of Bhopal (India)
Widow of Nawab Faiz, and disputed the succession of his brother, Hayat, to the throne. She began a revolt against the de facto ruler her stepmother-in-law, Mamola Bai, supported by members of another branch of the family. She began holding courts at her husband’s tomb and set up a parallel government in Islamnagar. For three years she regularly held Dunbars (Assemblies) as an act of defiance against Mamola Bai. 

  1777-78 Regent The Asantehemaa Nana Akua Afriyie of Asante (Ghana)
It is not exactly known when she took office as Asantehemaa as successor of Nana Nketia Ntem Abamoo. She was mother of King Osei Kwadwo (Around 1764-77) and of three daughters. The oldest, Akyamaa was the mother of king Osei Kwame (Around 1777-98) and the 6. Asantehemaa. The second daughter, Sewaa Okuwa was mother of the 5. Asantehemaa. Akua Afriye was succeeded by the third daughter, Konadu Yaadom I as the 4. Asantehemaa.

  Ca.1778-1809 4th Asantehemaa Nana Kwaadu Yiadom I of Asante (Ghana)
Succeeded mother, Akua Afriye as Queen Mother and was mother of four kings; Osei Kwame, Opoku Fofie, (1798-1801), Osei Bonsu (1801-24) and Osei Yaw Akoto (1824-33) and of two Asantehemaas, Nana Ama Serwaa and Yaa Dufie. She lived (1752-1809).

  1778 Queen Tombola of Boina (Madagascar)
Ascended the throne after the death of Queen Andrianaginarivo, but abdicated soon after in favour of Queen Ravahiny.

  Ca. 1778-1808 Queen Ravahiny of Boina (Madagascar)
The kingdom in the northwestern coast of Madagascar was ruled by the Sakalava dynasty. It’s capital was Mahajanga, formerly located at the crossroads to Africa, Arabia and Asia, this Malagasy, and was therefore also an important trade centre. In Madagascar males and females had equal rights of succession, and the Queen’s husbands did not normally participate in the government.

  1778-1803 Regent Dowager Rani Suimri Begum of Sandhana (India)
1803-36 Rani Regnant
Governed in the name of Musffard ad-Daula Zafar Nab Han (Aloyis Baltasaar Reinhard) – illegitimate son of her husband, Bum Raja (1773/76-78), who was born in Luxembourg as Walther Reinhard. After her stepson’s death, she became Rani in her own right, and continued to perform her contracted military duties, leading her troops into battle in person. However she concentrated her efforts on developing the agriculture of Sardhana, which became famous as an island of green in a land of desolation, using her troops to keep out marauders and to enforce her policy, instead of plundering her neighbours as was the general practice at the time. She played a prominent part in the politics of the time, the fall of Mughals, the rise of the Mahrattas, and the establishment of the British. She emerged as a sovereign Princess of her own territories, which she had enlarged and improved, so that she accumulated vast wealth. Born as Johanna Noblis (d. 1836).

  1778-1815 Rani Regnant Arnapura of Pal Lahara (India)
Succeeded by Raja Nanda Pal (1815-25). 

  1778-1803 Joint Sovereign Countess Christiane Wilhelmine Luise von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim (Germany)
received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the Lordship after the death of her father, Wilhelm Carl Ludwig von Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim. She was in dispute over the inheritance with a relative, Johann Ernst Carl von Solms-Rödelheim. She married Fürst Friedrich Wilhelm zu Leiningen and mother of 3 daughters and a son; Elisabeth Christiane Mariana zu Leiningen (1753-92) married to Karl Ludwig Wilhelm, wild-und rheingraf von Salm-Grumbach, Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen  (1755-85) married to Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, Caroline Sophie Wilhelmine zu Leiningen (1757-1832) married to Friedrich Magnus I, Graf zu Solms-Laubach-Wildenfels and Emich Carl, Fürst zu Leiningen (1763-1814) who was married to Sophie Henriette Reuss-Ebersdorf and Viktoria von Sachsen-Coburg-Saalfeld. She lived (1736-1803)

  1778-1802 Princess-Abbess Auguste Dorothea zu Braunschweig-Wolfenbüttel of Gandersheim  (Germany)
The last Sovereign of the Ecclesiastical Ruler of the Territory of the Realm. 1776 she had become Dechaness in Quedlinburg and shortly after she was also elected to the post in Gandersheim, but refused to take up the position. Two years later she accepted the post of Princess-Abbess in Gandersheim but continued to spend most of her time at the court of Braunschweig, later also Pröpstin in Quedlinburg. In 1802 she resigned her rights and the chapter accepted the sovreignty of Braunschweig, but remained it’s Abbess until her death. After her death, King Jerome of Westphalen abolished and anexed the chapter. She was daughter of  Karl I von Braunschweig (1713-35-80) and Augusta of Great Britain, and lived (1749-1810).

  1778 Rebellion Leader Baltazara Chuiza in Ecuador
Leader of a revolt against the Spanish. 

  1779-1824 In charge of the government Dowager Duchess Anna Caroline von Nassau-Saarbrücken of Schleswig-Holstein-Glücksborg (Denmark and Germany)
After the death of her first husband, Friedrich Wilhelm, she remained in charge of the Duchy, also after her marriage to Duke Friedrich Karl Ferdinand of Braunschweig-Bevern (d. 1809) in 1782. One year after her death the title of Duke of Glücksborg was inherited by Duke Wilhelm zu Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Beck, whose son became king Christian 9 of Denmark in 1863. She was daughter of Wilhelm Heinrich von Nassau-Saarbrücken (1718-35-68) and Countess Sofie von Erbach, and lived (1751-1824).

  1779-94 Politically Influential Duchess Anna Charlotta Dorothea von Medem of Courland and Semigallia (Latvia)
1794-1821 Lady of Löbichau (Germany)
Due to the Duchy’s political difficulties with the Courland nobility and with the overlord, the King of Poland, her husband Peter Biron, sent her on frequent diplomatic missions to Warsaw, lasting months at a time, as well as shorter trips to Berlin, Karlovy Vary and Saint Petersburg. During these long absences she became alienated fro her husband and after the birth of her youngest daughter Dorothea in 1793 (Dorothea’s biological father was Alexander Batowski, although Peter acknowledged her as his own) she moved permanently to the Palais Kurland in Berlin, where she held an aristocratic salon. In 1794 she acquired the Gutsherrschaft Löbichau in Altenburgischen and spent her summers at the newly-built Schloss there. Inviting poets, philosophers, relatives and friends to Löbichau, it became known as the Musenhof der Herzogin von Kurland. When her youngest daughter, Dorothea married Edmond de Talleyrand-Périgord in 1809 she moved to Paris, having an intense relationship with Talleyrand and influenced him to turn against Napoleon. In 1814 she traveled to the Congress of Vienna to confront him with his love-affair with her daughter. 3 of her 4 daughters succeeded to the family titles from 1800 until 1862. She was Reichsgraf Friedrich von Medem, from the old Courland nobility, and Louise Charlotte von Manteuffel, and lived (1761-1821).

  1779-83 Princess-Abbess Maria Gabriela von Schaffmann of Göss bei Leoben (Austria)
The Freiin von  Schaffmann-Hämmerlewas the last Abbess of the Princely Chapter which was seculized by Emperor Joseph of Austria-Hungary together with all other both male and female convents within his realms. She lived (1724-1802).

  Around 1779-ca. 1793 Abbess Nullius Rosalba Noja of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Another version of her surname is Noya.

  1779-99 Titular Head of the Moctezuma Dynasty of the Kingdom of Tecnochtitlan Doña Clara de Oca Sarmiento y Mendoza Zuñiga, IX Condesa de Moctezuma [Mexico]
Also VI Marquesa de Tenebron. Succeeded brother, married to Jose Antonio Marcilla de Teruel, and succeeded by son Jose Antonio Marcilla de Teruel y de Oca 10th Count of Moctezuma. The family lived in Spain for many years. 

  1780 The Ndlovukati Layaka Ndwandwe of Swaziland
As Queen Mother she reigned after the death of her husband. She was from the Ndwandwe I Nxumalo Clan.

  1780-89 Co-Governor-General Princess Maria-Christina Johanna Josefa Antonia von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Southern Low Countries (Belgium and Luxembourg)
 1790-91 Gouvernante-General
1791-92 Co-Governor General
Her mother, Empress Maria-Theresia appointed her and her husband Albrecht von Sachsen as Joint Rulers of the Austrian Netherlands. Their reign was difficult with “revolution in Brabant” and the war against the French and had to leave the territory a couple of times. Albrecht inherited her father, Stephan von Lothringen’s possessions in Slesia and was named Duke of Teschen. They spend their last years in Wenen where she died of tyfus. She had no children and lived (1742-98).

  1780-1806 Sovereign Countess Augusta von Sternberg-Blankenheim of Mandercheid-Blankenheim and Gerolstein, Dame of Kronenburg, Jünkerath, Dollendorf, Gerolstein, Erp, Neuerburg, Oberkail, Falkenstein, Bettingen, Manderscheid, Osann-Monzel and Streubesitz (Germany)
After her marriage to Count Christian von Sternberg, from a Bohemian noble family, she took the name Reichsgräfin von Sternberg-Manderscheid after her marriage to Philipp-Christian Graf von Sternberg (1732-98). She mainly lived in Blankenheim, and the inhabitants of her lands were very happy with her rule. In 1794, she fled the county for attacking French forces, which looted the priceless book- and art collection of her family. In 1806, the county was incorporated into Württemberg. Her German title was Regierende Gräfin und Herrin, she was mother of 10 children of whom 6 died in infancy, and lived (1744-1811).

  1780-94 Countess Regnant Marie Isabella von Mansfeld-Vorderort-Bornstedt of Mansfeld, Princess of Fondi (Germany)
The oldest daughter of Heinrich Paul Franz II, Count von Mansfeld-Vorderort, Fürst von Fondi and his second wife Marie Josefa Czerninova z Chudenicz, she was the sole heiress of the Mansfeld-Querfurt Line of the Counts of Mandsfeld. She had married the Bohemian Prince Franz Gundackar von Colloredo, and 1789 the Emperor of Austria granted them the right to merge their name and shields, and they founded the new line of Colloredo-Mansfeld. Anna Maria Isabella Ludmilla Johanna Adalberta Michaela Franziska was mother of nine children, and lived (1750-94).

  Around 1780s Princess Fatafehi Ha’apai, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Daughter of H.H. Fatefehi Paulaho, Tu’i Tonga and Tupou Moheofo, 12. Tu’i Konokupolo, and married to Takitakimalohi, 3. Vuna and Tu’i Vava’u, She was mother of Prince Feileua Veasi, Tamaha (the only known male of that rank), and was succeeded as Tu’i Tonga Fefine by sister. As Tu’i Tonga Fefine Princess Nanasipau’u held higher rank than her father, her mother or her brothers, until the birth of her daughter, who traditionally outranked her.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Micaela Bastidas Puyuchaua in Peru
Another version of her surname is Puyurawa; she was leader of a revolt against the Spanish alongside her husband, Tupac Amaru. She led troops of both men and women in battle.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Cecilia Tupac Amaru in Peru
A member of the Inca Royal Family she was leader of a revolt against the Spanish together with her brother, José. Died in prison.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Huillac Ñusca in Chile
She was a Kolla princess that fought to the Spaniards. She became known by the nickname of ‘The Tyrant’ (La Tirana) because of her mistreatments to prisoners. She rebelled against the Spaniards, but felt in love with Vasco de Almeida (her prisoner) and plead with her people for him. After her father’s death, she became leader of a group of Incas brought to Chile to work in the silver Mines at Huantajaya. In 1780 she lead the rebellions in Amarista and Katarista Rebellion.

  1780 Rebellion Leader Manuela Beltran in Columbia
The first person to publicly challenge the Spanish exploitation. When the Spanish crown increased taxes, Manuela took from the tax collector’s hand the edict and tore it – something previously unseen. She organized a peasant revolt in the main cities of the northeast. The news and success of the revolt served as a catalyst for a revolution throughout the New Granada. But when the word reached the Viceroy, a headhunt for Manuela was organized, resulting in her decapitation. She was the first seed of defiance against the colonizer and became a national martyr.

  1780-1803 Princess-Abbess Marianne Antonia von Donop of Keppel   (Germany)
A Protestant, she was elected as successor to the Catholic Johanna Dorothea von Syberg. The Ecclesiastical Territory was incorporated into Nassau in 1803, but in 1808 Marquise Isabelle de Meslé (1761-1820) was appointed as Abbess by Joachim Murat, brother-in-law of Napoleon I, but never inaugurated. The Marquise lived in the Chapter until it was abolished in 1812. Marianne Antonia von Donop (d. 1806)

  1780-1828 Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain The Baroness Willoughby de Eresby of the kingdom of Great Britain 
Princilla Barbara Elizabeth Burrel née Bertie, succeeded to the title of 20th Baroness upon the death of her brother in 1779, and was admitted to the dignity of Lord Great Chamberlain, by a court decision jointly with her sister Georgiana. The office was conducted by her husband, Sir Peter Burrel of Beckenham, bt., who was appointed Deputy Lord Great Chamberlain of the Kingdom of Great Britain. The Lord Great Chamberlain has charge of the palace of Westminster, especially of the House of Lords, and when the sovereign opens parliament in person he is responsible for the arrangements, and walks himself in the procession on the right of the sword of state, a little before it and next to the sovereign.

  1780-1838 Joint Hereditary Lord Great Chamberlain Georgiana Bertie, Marchioness of Cholmondeley of the kingdom of Great Britain 
After the death of her brother, 4th Duke of Ancaster, the office was split between her and her older sister, and they shared it jointly, appointing a deputy to fulfil its functions when necessary. The office has continued to be split – among more and more candidates – since that time. First her brother-in-law acted as Deputy, and after his death in 1821 her nephew, Peter Drummond-Willoughby, 2nd Lord Gwydyr, who succeeded to the office after her death.

  1781-96 Princess-Abbess Friederike Caroline Josephine von Bretzenheim of Lindau (Germany)
The Fürstäbtissin was illegitimate daughter of Josepha Seyfert (1748-71) and Elector Karl IV Theodor of Kurpfalz (1742-77) and Elector of Bavaria (1777-79). In 1796 she married Count Maximilian von Westerhold (d. 1854), and 1802 her brother came in possession of the territories of the Chapter after it was secularized. She had a twin-sister, Eleonore Caroline, and lived (1771-1816).

  Around 1781 and 1786 Abbess Nullius Cherubina Therami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Listed as ruler in in 1689 in the alternative list of abbesses

  1782-92 Sultan Halimah III of Nzwani (Comoro Islands)
Her name is also spelled Alimah. She was de-factor ruler with Abdallah I until 1788 and in 1792 he again ruled until 1806. The island was formerly known as Anjouan.

  1782 Chief Ntsusa of the amaRharhabe (South Africa)
She was daughter of the Xhosa Chief Rharhabe, who was killed in battle against the Thembu tribe together with his son. Ntsusa’s nephews were both underage, and she was appointed chief by the Xhosa king, while the court quarrelled over who should be chief. A clan with many chiefs had developed under her tutelage, but was accused of theft of some Boer military horses, and therefore a commando group was sent out against the clan, which had been named Ntsusa after her. She (d. 1826). 

  1782-1800 Regent H.H. Shrimant Akhand Soubhagyavati Rani Nubadha Bai Sahib of Dhar (India)
Also known as Bala Bai, she was reigned in the name of her son, Ananol Rao II Khande, who was born six months after the death of her husband and lived until 1807. She was born as Princess of Baroda. 

  1782-1840 Hereditary Lady Amalie von Hoym of Slawentzitz (Poland)
At the time the Lordship was situated in Germany, today the area is part of Upper Slesia in Poland and known as Sławięcice and had been in her family’s possession since 1714. Countess Amalia von Hoym was married to Friedrich Ludwig, Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Ingelfingen (1746-1818) until their divorce in 1799, and the decendants of one of their their sons, Friederich August II Carl, Prince zu Hohenlohe-Öhringen, lived there until the Second World War. She lived (1763-1840).

  1782-86 Abbess Nullius Fedele Renna of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
Among the few Abbesses in the world to hold semi-episcopal powers and ecclesiastical jurisdiction.

  1782-1810 Abbess Sophie Magdalene af Slesvig-Holsten-Sønderborg-Glücksborg of the Chapter of Vallø (Denmark)

Used the titles of Heiress to Norway, Duchess to Slesvig, Hosten, Glücksborg, Stormarn og Ditmarsken, Countess to Oldenborg og Delmenhorst. She was head of the Lutheran chapter for unmarried noble ladies influenced both Church, shools, roads, bridges, inns, mills, forestry, care of the poor and sick. It was desided not to appoint new Abbesses after her death, and the Dechaness became the leader of the Chapter. She was daughter of Duke Friedrich of Schleswig-Holstein-Sønderborg-Glücksborg and Henriette Auguste zur Lippe-Detmold. After the death of her brother, Friedrich Heinrich Wilhelm of Glücksburg, Plön, Norburg and Rethwisch, his widow, Anna Karoline of Nassau-Saarbrücken, was de-facto regent of Glücksborg for many years. Sophie Magdalene lived (1746-1810).


  1782-86 Princesse-Abbesse Anne Charlotte II de Lorraine-Brionne of Remiremont (France)
Coadjutrice 1775-82 and arrived at Remiremont in 1784 and only visited the chapter a few times. She was daughter of Louis III Lorraine-Harcourt-Armagnac,  duc de Lorraine-Harcourt, comte Armagnac and his third wife Louise de Rohan. She lived (1756-86).

  1782-96 President of the Academy of Arts and Science Princess Ekaterina Romanovna Dashkova in Russia
She helped bring Empress Catharina II to power, but she disagreed with her absolutistic tendencies, and therefore spent 20 years travelling in Europe. When she returned home, she was appointed director of the Academy of Arts and Sciences and became it’s first President, and supervised the production of a dictionary, edited a journal and wrote several plays. She fell from favour after Catharine’s death, and forced to retire. She lived (1743-1813).

  1783-85 Joint Sovereign Countess Charlotte Luise Polixena zu Leiningen-Dagsburg of a portion of of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solm-Assenheim (Germany)
received the customary homage by the inhabitants of the lordship jointly with her husband, Franz II, Graf von Erbach-Erbach, after her mother, Christinane Wilhelmine Luise von Solms-Rödelheim, had resigned the quater of the Lordship of which she was heir of. Charlotte was mother of 1 son and 3 daughters, and lived (1755-85).

  1784  37th Tui’i Tonga Fefine H.H Fatafehi Fuonga of Tonga
One of the most powerful chiefs in the Tongan Islands, she married to the Tu’i Tonga, Fatefehi Paulaho, who received Captain James Cook in 1777, and who was first succeeded by their daughter in 1784 and then by son as Tu’i Tonga. She was daughter of the 7th Tu’i Konkupolo, and lived (1745-93).

  1784 Joint Administrator Princess Natasha Shelikova of the Colony Alaska (Russia)
She was the first white woman to live in Alaska. Married to the first Russian manager of the Alaskan territory, Gregory Shelikof. They grew barley, millet, peas, beans, gourds, parsnips, mustard, beets, potatoes, turnips and rhubarb. They picked berries and hunted. When Natasha’s husband would leave to go on expeditions she was left in charge. Perhaps one could consider her the first woman Governor of Alaska, if not in title, then in action. 

  1784-89 Princess-Abbess Maria Waldburga Anna Truchsess von Zeil-Waldburg of Elten, Abbess of Vreden and St. Urusla in Köln (Germany)
Abbess of of the Chapter of Vreden since 1764 and before that she had been canoness in Buchau 1757-64 She was elected as Abbess because of the support from Preussia, and was succeeded by candidate that was not elected in 1784, Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg. She was was daughter of Count Franz Ernst and Eleonora von Köpnigsegg-Rothensfels and lived (1730-89).

  Ca. 1784-1804 Politically Influential Countess Sophie Magdalene von Gram Krag-Juel-Vind in Denmark
1799-1810 Owner of the tenantcounty of Frijsenborg
Also known as Sophie Magdalene von Gram, to the County of Frijsenborg, she became the centre of “The Danish Party” a circle of high aristocracy and major landowners following the death of her husband, Baron Jens Krag-Juel-Vind of the Baronies to Juellinge and Stensballegård in 1776 (son of Jens Juel-Vind, who inherited the Barony of Juellinge from his mother, and Ida Helle Margrethe Krag to the Barony of Steensballegaard). The party was in opposition to the governing “German Party” lead by A.P. Bernstorff and Ludwig Reventlow. In 1790 she was one of the driving forces behind the united protest of the estate-owners of Jutland against the agricultural reforms. Also in her later years she was viewed as a formidable political force. In 1799 she inherited the county of Frijsenborg from her mother’s sister, Elisabeth Sophie Desmercières, who had inherited the county from her sister, Christine Sophie Frijs-Wedel, who was holder of the Fiefcounty 1763-87. Sophie Magdalene, who was daughter and Birgitte Christine Frijs and Carl Christian von Gram, thereby became the biggest landowner in the country, and belonged to the highest nobility. After her death, her son, Frederik Carl Krag-Juel-Vind-Frijs, inherited the tenant county and was granted the title of Fiefcount (Lensgreve), adding Frijs to his name. She lived (1734-1810).

  1785-1800 Queen Simbara of Uukwangali (Namibia)
Succeeded Queen Nankali as head of the kingdom and tribe of Uukwangali. During her reign the Kwangali group moved from Mukukuta in Angola to Karai, still in Angola, opposite Nkurenkuru in present-day Namibia. Queen Simbara was followed by Queen Mate II (ca. 1800-1818).

  1785-ca. 1806 Sovereign Countess of the Realm Anna Elisabeth Auguste Maria von Hillesheim of Hillesheim
1785-ca. 93 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
Succeeded her brother, Wilhelm-Ernst-Gottfried, Reichsgraf von Hillesheim und Herr zu Reipoltskirchen. The county was occupied by France from 1793 and in 1801 Germany had to give up its territories in Alsace to France. But at the “Reichsdeputationshauptschluss” (“chief inventory of the realm”) which distributed the German lands in to larger entities, she was granted 5.400 Gulden for her part in lordship. Furthermore, the possessions remained in the hands of her descendants by her marriage to Ambrosius Franz Reichsgraf zu Spee. She lived (1725-18..).

  1785-1806 Joint Sovereign Lady of the Realm Charlotte Elisabeth Regina von Hillesheim of Reipoltskirchen (Germany)
Held the Lordship jointly with her sister, Charlotte Elisabeth Regina, and the Princess Karoline von Isenburg nee von Pfalz-Zweibrücken. She was unmarried, and shortly before her death, she transferred her part of the Hillesheim-inheritance to her brother-in-law against a payment for life. She lived (1728-1807).

  1785-99 Sovereign Lady Clementine Cunigunde von Callenberg of Muskau (Germany)
Her father Georg Alexander Heinrich Hermann Graf von Callenberg, transferred the Standesherschaft to her and her husband, Ludwig von Pückler auf Branitz, they divorced 1799, when she married Curt Friedrich August von Seydewitz. After her first husband’s death, her son, Ludwig Heinrich Hermann, Count and later Prince von Pückler-Muskau, took over as Standesherr von Muskau. She lived (1770-1850).

  1785-87 Possible Regent Dowager Princess Johanna von Hohenzollern-Berg of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Karl Friedrich von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, she might have been the person who was regent for Prince and Count Anton von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, (1762-85-1805-31), her 8th and first surviving son, until her own death. The regency continued for one more year. Also mother of 4 daughters of whom only one survived into adulthood. Daughter of the “Dutch” Count Franz von Hohenzollern-Bergh and Marie Katharina von Waldburg-Zeil, she lived (1727-87).

  1785 Military Leader Kunying Jan in Phuket (Thailand)
After the death of her husband, the Governor of Phuket, she and her sister, Mook, dressed up as men and assembled what forces they could to fend off an attack by the Burmese. After a month-long siege, the Burmese were forced to retreat March 13, 1785. The sisters became local heroines, receiving the honorary titles Thao Thep Kasatri and Thao Sri Sunthon from King Rama I.

  1786-1808 and 1809-23 Rani Regnant Daya Kaur of Kalsia and Ambala (India)
Widow of Gurbakhsh Singh of the Nishanavali principality of the Sikhs who ruled over Ambala, assumed control of the misl and the family estate upon her husband’s death. She ruled over the territory remarkably well for nearly 37 years. Sir Lepel Griffin in his “The Rajas of the Punjab” noted that she was an excellent ruler and her estate was one of the best managed in the protected territory. In November 1808, Maharaja Ranjit Singh ejected her from the city and seized all her property and possessions, and divided the country between Raja Bhag Singh of Jind, his maternal uncle, and Bhag Singh’s friend and ally, Bhai Lal Singh of Kaithal. In 1809, the Sutlej chiefs passed under British protection. She appealed to Colonel David Ochterlony, agent to the Governor-General at the Ludhiana Political Agency, who forced the chiefs of Jind and Kaithal to restore to her the territories which originally belonged to her. After her death her estates and property lapsed to the British government. (d. 1823).

  1786-1800 Reigning Dowager Lady Dowager Landgravine Philippine von Brandenburg-Schwedt of Hainau in Hessen-Kassel (Germany)
1788-1800 Owner of a fifth of the Margravate of Schwedt in Brandenburg
After her marriage to  Landgrave Friedrich II von Hessen-Kassel (1720-1785) as his second wife, she established a seperate court with philosophers and other later statemen. In 1777 she secretly gave birth to a son at the residence of her sister and named him Georg Philippson, she travlled widely in Germany and France. After her husband’s death, she engaged in hard disputes with her stepson, Landgrave Wilhelm IX, which led to diplomatic problems between Hessen-Kassel, Preußen und Russland. In 1788 the last male of the Brandenburg-Schwedt line died out and she and her sisters, two sisters were Friederike Sophie Dorothea, married to Friedrich Eugen von Württemberg (1736-1797) and Anna Elisabeth Luise, married to Ferdinand von Preußen (1738-1820), were allodial heirs together with two cousins of the family possessions. In 1792 she moved to Berlin after the French had occupied Mainz, two years later she married her Oberhofmeister Georg Ernst Levin von Wintzingerode, whom she managed to have named Count of the Realm. In Berlin she first lived with her sister and in 1795 she was given a big Palais by her cousin, King Friedrich Wilhelm II. She made her husband her sole heir, and he inherited  1/5 of the Brandenburg-Schwedt possessions. The daughter of Friedrich Wilhelm von Hohenzollern, Markgraf von Brandenburg-Schwedt, Prinz in Preußen (1700-1771) and Sophie, Prinzessin in Preußen (1719-1765) she lived  (1745-1800).

  1786-90 Princesse-Abbesse Louise Adélaïde de Bourbon-Condé of Remiremont, Dame of Saint Pierre and Metz et cetera (France) 
She was the last Princess-Abbess of the most illustrious monastery in whole of Europe before the revolution. She had the title of Princesse d’Empire and was ruler of a number of lordships, but did not visit the chapter more than three times during her short term in office. During the revolution she was in exile in Belgium but later returned and founded a religious institution. She was daughter of Louis Joseph de Bourbon-Condé, Prince de Condé et Duc de Bourbon and Charlotte de Rohan-Soubise (1737-1760), and lived (1758-1824).

  1787-99 Regent Dowager Countess Juliane Wilhelmine Louise von Hessen-Philippsthal-Barchfeld of Schaumburg-Lippe (Germany)
At the age of 19 she decided to marry the 38 year older widower Graf Philipp Ernst, and after his death, she became regent for her son, Georg-Wilhelm (1784-1860, Count 1787-1807 and thereafter Prince), but initially had to flee the territory because of occupation by Hessen-Kassel, who would have inherited the county had her son not been born. She asked Hannover and Preussia for help and within 2 months the Imperial Court in Vienna decreed that Hessen had to leave the territory, and she took full control of the goverment, dismissing the civil servants who had supported Hessen, settled the huge depts of the County, by cutting down on court life and other expenses, but she still improved the relationship with the farmers by reducing the fees they had to pay, promoted smallpox vaccinations and other social improvements, and continued the tolerance towards the Jewish population of the county that had been begun by her father-in-law. Known as “Fürstin Juliane Wilhelmine Luise zu Schaumburg-Lippe, Vormünderin und Regentin, geborene Landgräfin zu Hessen, Hochfürstliche Durchlaucht”, using the title of Princess because of her princely background in Hessen. Apart from her son, she was mother of one daughter who died within the first year and 2 surviving daughters. She died of a serious cold and her son was under the guardianship of Reichsgraf Johann Ludwig von Wallmoden-Gimborn until 1807. She lived (1761-99). 

  1787-91 Regent Dowager Countess Christiane Luise von Salm zu Gaugrehweiler of Ortenburg-Neuortenburg, Tambach, Birkenfeld et cetera  (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Count Karl Albrecht zu Ortenburg (1743-87) she became regent for son, Joseph Karl, Count and Lord zu Tambach, Lord zu Birkenfeld etc. (1780-1831). She was in charge of the government during the second Napolian war, and she used all of her authority to limit the suffering of her people caused by the troops that marched through the county, and because of her intervention the county was recognized as neutral. Born as Wild- und Rheingräfin zu Gaugrehweiler, she lived (1754-1826).

  1787-1803 Princess-Abbess Sophie Albertine av Sverige of Quedlinburg (Germany)
The last Princess-Abbess or Reichsäbtissin of Quedlinburg, she had been elected Koadjutrix in 1767 and was one of the few to acctually reside in the territory, which at the time covered 102 square kilometers, most of the time – except for a stay in Sweden 1794-99. She found an administrational mess with no clear destinction of which authorlity lay by her and wich by the city. She reformed the educational system and became very popular. In 1801 the Imperial Diet met to reform the governing system in Germany and the number of states were reduced from around 1.500 to a few hundred. When Quedlinburg was incorporated into Prussia she changed her signature from “des kayserlich freyen weltlichen Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” to “Des fürstlichen Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” and her titulature change from “die Durchlauchtigste Fürstein und Frau Sophien Albertinen, Königliche prinzessin von Schweden, der Gothen und Wenden, Erbin von Norwegen, des kayserlinchen freyen Weltlinchn Stifts Quedlinburg Abbatissin” to “Frau Äbtissen königliche Hoheit wie auch dem Fürstlichen Stifts Amte”. She later moved back to Sweden. The Swedish Princess was daughter of Karl XII of Sweden and Lovisa-Ulrika von Preussen, and lived (1753-1808).

  1788-99 Regent and Guardian Dowager Countess Christine Wilhelmine von Isenburg-Büdingen of Waldeck-Bergheim and a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf-Solms-Assenheim (Germany)
After the death of her husband, Josias Wilhelm Leopold von Waldeck-Bergheim, joint heir of Dorothea zu Solms-Rödelheim und Assenheim, she took possession of the lordship and was hailed as, regent for their 4 surviving children, of whom Josias Wilhelm Karl, Graf zu Waldeck-Bergheim (1774-1802) did not have any chidlren, and the second, Karl, who was Count of Waldeck und Pyrmont and later also of Berghaim (1778-1849), and later bought the remaining parts of his brother and sister’s parts of the portion of the lordship in their hand. Christine Wilhelmine was daughter of the Danish Countess Dorothea Reventlow and Gustav Friederich von Isenburg, and lived (1756-1826)

  1788-1806 Joint Sovereign Countess Karoline (II) zu Waldeck-Pyrmont of a portion of Limpurg-Gaildorf (Germany)
Shared the sovereignty with three men and another woman, also named Karoline (I), who reigned from 1774. Karoline (II) was married to Georg of Struckrad. Since 1690 when the four sisters Juliane Charlotte, Juliana Dorothea I, Wilhelmina Christina and Sophia Elisabeth von Limpurg-Gaildorf inherited each a share of the territory a large number of co-heiresses and co-heirs shared the Limpurg inheritance and the seat belonging to the County on the Bench of the Fränkische Gräfen in the Imperial Diet – as the countly Limpurgian Allodial-heirs (Die gräfliche Limpurgischen Allodialerben). In 1806 the country was incorporated into Württemberg. She lived (1782-1820).

  1788-94 Politically Influential Duchess Izabela Czartoryska in Poland
During the debate of the Great Sejm in 1788-92 she was member of Patriotic Party, who supported the political reforms in Poland. In 1794 she supported active the insurrection of Tadeusz Kościuszko. She daughter of Jerzy Flemming and Antonina Czartoryska, married to prince Adam Kazimierz Czartoryski and mother of Adam Jerzy Czartoryski and Maria Wirtemberska. She lived (1746-1835).

  1789-97 Kpojito Senume of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Agonglo. During his reign a new the cult of the Christian God was placed alongside the old gods, and a female relative of one of his wifes, Sophie (Afro-Dutch woman) was placed in charge of this new vodun -or faith. 

  1789-1805 Mihrişah Valide Sultan of The Ottoman Empire (Covering Turkey, Greece, The Balcans, parts of the Middle East and Northern Africa)
The widow of Mustafa III, she became Queen Mother when her son, Selim III (1789-1807), succeeded to the throne. She was a willing protagonist of the reforms of his reign. She was especially preoccupied with the reforms of the military schools and the establishing of a diplomatic corps. She took little part in politics and only on the rare occasions approached her son to beg a favour or an act of mercy. Both she and her son were members of the Mevlana sect of Sufi mystics, the so-called Dancing Dervishes. Her origins are not known, but she lived (ca. 1745-1805).

  1789-93 Princess-Abbess Maria Franzisca Xaveria von Königsfelden of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
Elected as successor of Anna Febronia Elisabeth von Speth-Zwyfalten. 

  Until 1789 Princess-Abbess Madeleine Barbe de Landenberg of the Royal Abbey of Andlau (France)
Sold the chapter to her niece during the revolution, who married the Intendent of the Chapter, Keppeler, who became Prefect and Baron of the Empire. The chapter was abolished during the revolution in 1789

  Until 1789 Reigning Abbess Charlotte-Julie le Normant of Faremoutiers (France)
Also known as Madame de Maupéou. Her family were councillors of Louis XV and Louis XVI. She succeeded Françoise de Molé, who reigned at dates not known to me.

  1789-94/99 Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia II van Bentinck of Munsterbilzen, Dame of Wellen, Haccourt, Hallembaye and Kleine-Spouwen (Belgium)
Because of the French Revolution, which also reached Liège, she did not mark her election with an “entry into her lordships”, and her subjects did not pay homage to her, as they had done with as her predecessors. The territory was occupied by the French forces 1792-93, by Imperial Troops 1793-94 and then again by the French. Very few ladies remained in the chapter, and Maria Theresia moved to Gerresheim. The adminsitration was taken over by the Vice-Dechanesses; Beate von Freyberg, who resigned in 1795 and by the 68 year old Margaretha d’Isendorn de Blois de Cannenbourg until the chapter was finally abolished. Maria Theresia was daughter of Freiherr Adrian Konstantin Ferdinand Joseph van Bentinck and Freiin Anna Franziska von Bocholtz, and lived (1739-99).

  1789-92 and 1795-98 Reigning Abbess-General María Teresa de Oruñaof the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
As Señora Abadesa of Las Huelgas, her territory included the Lordships of Albillos, Alcucero, Arkanzón, Arroyak, Arrunquera, Arto, Barrio, Bercial, Can de muñó, Candasnos, Cardeñadijo, Castril de Peones, Cilleruelo de Hannoverquez, Congosto, Escobilla, Estepar, Fresno de Rodilla, Galarde, Gatón, Herramel, Herrín, La Llana, Lena, Loranquillo, Madrigalejo del Monte, Marcilla, Montornero, Olmillos, Ontiñena, Palanzuelos de la Sierrra, Piedrahita, Quintana de Loranco, Quintanilla de San García, Sargentes de Loxa, Requena, Revenga, Revilla del Campo, Revillagodos, Rivayaz, Robredo, San Mamés, San Memel, San Quirce de Humada, Saniuste, Santa Cruz de Juarros, Santa Lecina, Santa María de Invierno, Sargentes de Loxa, Tablada, Tardajos, Tinieblas, Torralba, Torre Sandino, Urrez, Valdazo, Villa Gonzalo de Pedernales, Villabáscones, Villaneueva, Villanueva de los Infantes, Villarmejo, Yarto and Zalduendo.

  1789-98 Reigning Abbess Delphine Madeleine Elisabeth de Sabran-Baudinard of Chelles (France)
Daughter of Joseph-Jules-Honoré de Sabran-Baudinard and Marie-Thérèse d’Arlatan de Lauris, and lived (1734-1820).

  Around 1790 Queen Logenge of Bimba (Cameroon)
Her husband, King Kwa of Duala, was co-regent of the Kingdom Bimba until 1792.

  1790-97 and 1814-29 Sovereign Duchess Maria Beatrice III Ricciarda d’Este of Massa, Sovereign Princess of Carrara and di Luniana  (Italy)
1792-1829 7th Duchess di Ajello, Baroness di Paduli and Lady of Lago, Laghitello, Serra and Terrati
1803-29 Titular Duchess of Modena
Succeeded her mother, Maria-Teresa Cybò-Malpasina di Massa-Carrara and was officially installed with the feudal titles two years after. The territory was occupied by France 1796-1814. She was married to a Archduke of Austria who became Titular Duke of Modena, after the death of her father, Ercole III Rinaldo of Modena in 1803. Maria Beatrice Ricciarda lived (1750-1829).

  1790-95 Ruler Daeng Lela of Mempawah (Indonesia)
Succeeded her husband. Her stepson, Gusti Jati, or Panembahan Suryanata Kusuma/Sultan Muhammad Zainal Abidin was regent for her from 1790-1795 until he became ruler. Her own son became ruler of the Principality in West-Borneo/Kalimantan in 1828. She was member of a Buginese dynasty from Luwu, who intermarried in the local dynasty

  From 1790 Regent Rani Janhabib Bahadur Maha Devi of Tipura (India)
Stand-in for Rajendra who was head of the principality the Chittagong Hills that is characterized by low mountains, hills, and valleys, all covered by dense tropical growth.

  Around 1790s Princess Sinaitakala-’i-Fekitetele, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
In 1793 she married, as his first wife, Vuna Fa’otusia Fakahiku-’o-’uiha, 6. Tu’i Ha’ateiho, son of Haveatungua, 5. Tu’i Ha’ateiho and Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. She was mother of a daughter and was succeeded by sister, Princess Fatafehi Lapaha, as the highest spiritual entity in the country.

  1790/1800 Princess Fatafehi Lapaha, Tu’i Tonga Fefine, Tonga
Married as his second wife, Vuna Fa’otusia Fakahiku-’o-’uiha, 6. Tu’i Ha’ateiho, son of Haveatungua, 5. Tu’i Ha’ateiho and Princess Nanasipau’u, Tu’i Tonga Fefine. Fatafehi Lapaha’s second husband was Fifitapuku, 2nd Tu’i Ha’angana, son of Fuapau Hikule’o, 1. Tu’i Ha’angana. Succeeded by sister.

  1790-96 Princess-Abbess Josepha Maria Anna Antonia Nepomucena von Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg of Elten and Vreden (Germany)
Brought up in Vienna and after the death of her father in 1755, her uncle, Leopold picked her and her brothers up, and secured her the position as Canoness of Elten, and on the way they visited Dresden, Meissen, Hubertusburg, Bautzen, Naumburg (Saale) and further places. She also received a Präbende Vreden, which was tied to her family. She became Küsterin in Vreden in 1763 even though she did not take oath of office as lady of the chapter until 1765 when she was permitted not to live in the chapter. She held the same office in Elten from 1766 and the same year she became a lady of the chapter of Essen which was considered more prestigious as an Imperial Immediate Secular Chapter (kaiserlich-freiweltliches Stift) than the High Countly Secular Chapter of Vreden (hochgräflich-freiweltliche Stift Vreden) and the Princely Secular Chapter of Elten (fürstlich-freiweltliche Stift). She became Dechantin in Vreden from 1779, in Essen 1782 and in Elten in 1784, but the same year she failed to be elected Abbess, because Prussia supported Walburga Maria Truchsess von Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach, but she succeeded her after her death 6 year later, and also in January she was elected Abbess of Vreden. She was daughter of daughter of Altgraf Karl Anton Joseph zu Salm-Reifferscheidt-Bedburg and countess Maria Franziska de Paula Eleonora Esterhazy, and lived (1731-96).

  1791-95 Datu Daeng Massiki of Sumbawa (Indonesia)
Also known as Safiatuddin, she succeeded her father, Datu Bodi Harunarrasyid II (Datu Jerewe), and married Sultan Abdul Hamid of Bima. A relative succeeded her.

  1791-1800 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna von Habsburg-Lothringen of the Theresian Chapter at the Hradschin in Prague (Austria-Hungary)
4 days after her installation with her princely ecclesiastical rank, she conducted the coronation – assisted by bishops – of her mother, Maria Ludovica de Borbon of Spain, as Queen of Bohemia. She and her husband, Leopold, had already been crowned as Holy Roman Emperor and Empress the previous year. Maria Anna resigned in 1800, and lived (1770-1809).

  Around 1791 Abbess Nullius Giuditta Terami of the Royal Convent of Saint Benedetto in Conversano, Temporal and Secular Ruler of Conversano (Italy)
The Kingdom of Napoli joined the first coalition in 1793, the kingdom was occupied by French troops and was declared to be abolished in 1799 and replaced by the Parthenopaean Republic which only lasted until June and Ferdinando I di Borbone was restored as king.

  1792-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Vogel aus Ummendorf of Heggbach (Germany)
Also known as Marianne, she was elected Abbess in the first round of voting against 5 other candidates. During her reign, the Chapter was marked by the wars with France 1790-1800, and she continued the daily routine of administering her territory with the knowledge that the French regime poised a great danger to the known world order. She secured the most valuable reliquia and sent them to Switzerland. 1793 the first refugees arrived and 1796-97 the French troops laid down quarter and had to be fed. The Reichsdeputation assembled in Rastatt 1793-99 tried to prevent the inevitable and so did the College of Prelates in Ochnhausen in 1798, but when Emperor Franz II of Austria signed off the Left Bank of the Rhine to the French as part of the peace settlement, the fate of the ecclesiastical territories of Swabia was sealed and they were secularised. The nuns were allowed to stay at the chapter, which came in the possession of the Count of Waldbott-Bassenheim. But even though they were granted a pension, they lived in great poverty. 1806 the Abbey became part of the Kingdom of Württemberg, but the financial troubles continued. In 1875 Fürst von Waldburg-Wolfegg bought the building and gave it to the Franciscans in 1884, and it is still a convent today. She lived (1752-1835).

  From 1792 Reigning Coadjutress Gabrielle de Tane of the Royal Abbey of Jouarre (France)
When she left with the nuns, the abbey was divided into 34 lots and sold in 1793. The Church, the chapter and the cloister were destroyed, the claustral buildings were transformed into houses along roads cut across the Abbey. But out of the 58 nuns expelled, a few stayed on in the village, succoured by the population. The locals carried the reliquaries, bells and statues of the Abbey to the Parish Church in order to save them from destruction. They even tried to make a request to the Committee for the Protection of the General Public in favour of the sisters. Those who came back discretely to live under the shadow the cloister were they had made profession were welcomed kindly repaying by their services and their example those who helped them. Twenty-six nuns survived in this way, waiting and watching in prayer. They bought back plots of the Abbey and kept a look-out for the eventuality of the revival of conventual life.

  1792-1825 Marchioness María Luisa de Silva y González de Castejón of Lanzarote (Spain)
As the 5th Marquesa de Lanzarote she was feudal lady of the island in the Canary Islands, where the feudal system lasted until 1812, though she lived in Madrid. She was also 15th Countess de Cifuentes, Countess de la Rivera, 5th Marquesa de Albaserrada, 9th Marquesa de Alconchel and de Gramosa in succession to both her parents, Juan de Meneses Silva and María Bernarda González Castejón y Villalonga, Marquesa de Albaserrada and was married to Juan Bautista de Queralt y de Pinós, 7th Count de Santa Coloma, marqués de Besora and mother of a son and a daughter. She lived (1765-1825).

  1792-95 Reigning Abbess-General María Rascón of the Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)
Had the right to grant letters dismissorial for ordination, and issued licenses authorizing priests, within the limits of her abbatial jurisdiction.

  1792-96 Guardian Dowager Queen Sofia Magdalena af Danmark of Sweden
After her husband, Gustav III was killed in 1792, her brother-in-law, Duke Karl became regent for her son, Gustav IV Adolf (1778-92-1809-37), but she never tried to take any political role what so ever. She was engaged to Gustav at the age of five, they got married in 1766 and he became king in 1772. She had a very religious and pietistic upbringing which made it difficult for her to cope with the much more vivacious Swedish court. In 1809 her son was deposed and send in exile after Sweden lost Finland to Russia, and she lived to see the arrival of the new Crown Prince Jean Batiste Bernadotte. Sofia Magdalena was the oldest daughter of King Frederik 5. of Denmark and Louise of England and sister of the insane Christian 7. She had one other son, Karl Gustaf (1782-83), and she lived (1746-1813).

  Until 1793 Chiefess Tafa’ifa Tupo o samoa sina of Le-samoa-na-ngalo in Samoa
She succeeded her father Ter’i-marotea, prince of Tahiti who had immigrated to Samoa.  

  1793-1807 Imperial Russian Governor Dowager Duchess Friederike Auguste Sophie von Anhalt-Bernburg of Jever (Germany)
Following the death of her husband, Friedrich-August of Anhalt-Zerbst, who had no children, her sister-in-law, Catherine II of Russia, inherited the land of Jever and created a Personal Union with Russia, which gave her a vote in the Imperial German Diet. Catherine appointed Friederike as administrator – kaiserlich russische Statthalterin. She also continued as administrator for her nephew, Czar Paul of Russia. She lived (1744-1827).

  1793-1800 Sovereign Countess Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline von Pückler of a Portion of Limpurg-Sontheim (Germany)
Successor of her mother, Karoline Christiane zu Löwenstein-Wertheim, she married Johann-Ludwig von Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein (d. 1796), who had previously been married to her older sister, Friederike Luise, who died 1772. She was co-regent with Friedrich Graf von Pückler, who was Count and ruler of Limpurg-Speckfeld 1793-1806, and whose wife Friederike-Amöne, was Countess of Limburg-Speckfeld (1757-65). Wilhelmine Henriette Karoline was succeeded by two sons and three daughters; Karoline, Friederike and Luise. She lived (1746-1800).

  1793-1801 Princess-Abbess Maria Violanta von Lerchenfeld-Premberg of Niedermünster in Regensburg (Germany)
She was member of the family of Counts of The Realm of Lerchenfeld-Siessbach-Prennberg.

  1793-1801 Military Commander Princess Bibi Sahib Kaur Ji of Patiala (India)
Commanded numerous battles during the reign of her younger brother, Raja Sahib Singh of Patiala. In 1793 her brother according to some sources entrusted to her the office of prime minister. She was allied with other Sikh commanders and was able to fight off all the enemies. She lived (1771-1801).

  1794-1801 Regent Dowager Princess Johanna Franziska Antonia von Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen of Salm-Kyburg (Germany)
Managed the affairs of state in the name of her son, Reichsfürst Friedrich zu Salm-Kyrburg, Fürst zu Ahaus und Bocholt, Wild- und Graf von Renneberg (1789-94-1801-59). She lived (1765-90).

  1795-98 In Charge of the Government Countess Ottoline van Reede-Lynden of Kniphausen and Varel  (Germany)
Her husband – and second cousin – the British-Dutch-German Wilhelm Gustav Bentinck-Rhoon, Count Bentinck, Sovereign Lord of Kniphausen and Varel (1762-1835), who was in the service of the Stadhouder of Holland et cetera, was imprisoned in the Netherlands, and she took over the government until he was released and settled in his German possessions. Mother of one son, who died 1813 and 2 daughters, and lived (1773-99).

  1794-95 Acting Head Beate von Freyberg  of Munsterbilzen (Belgium)
Soon after she was appointed Vice-Dechaness, she became Acting Head of the Chapter after the Princess-Abbess Maria Theresia van Bentnick had sought refuge in Gerresheim in 1794. She resigned because she did not feel up to the task of running the task during the French occupation.

  Around 1795 Governor Queen Ana Jambakur-Orbeliani of Imerati of Mingrelia (Georgia)
She was widow of King Davit II of Imerati and Amierati (1756-82-92-95), who was forced to abandon his throne when attacked by King Irakli II of Georgia, but returned when the latter faced an invasion by the Turks. Continued in rebellion until 1792, when he retreated into Russia, and was allowed to settle at Akhaltzykh. She abandoned her children, was received with honour at Moscow and appointed as Governor. Daughter of Prince Mamuka Jambakur-Orbeliani and a Princess of Kvenipneveli-Sidamoni of Ksani. Mother of one son and four daughters (1765- 1832).

  1795-98 Acting Head Margaretha d’Isendorn de Blois de Cannenbourg of Munsterbilzen (Belgium)
Took over as Vice-Dechaness and de-facto Leader of the Chapter after the resignation of Beate von Freyberg as the Princess-Abbess had left the territory. She tried to steer the chapter through the hardship of the French occupation and Presided over the final Gathering of the Chapter before it was closed down. She spend the rest of her life by her family, and lived (1727-1817).

  1795-97 Acting Head Clementine Franziska von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg of Thorn (The Netherlands)
As Dechaness, the Landgravine took the reigns after the French occupation, the Princess-Abbess Maria Kunigunde von Sachen, Princess of Poland, stayed in Essen to take care of the insterests of the chapter. In 1796 a bill was passed banning religious establishments with either female or male inhabitants. As Thorn had both canonesses and canons, they argued that the law did not include them. When a law was passed banning all religious establishments, Clementine claimed that Thorn was a secular domain, but the chapter was finally abolished in 1797. Both she and Maria Kunigunde were busy buying back lands – securing the role of a “Free Lordship of the Realm” (Freie Reichsherrlichkeiten), leaving the French only in charge of the administration of the chapter, as all Ecclesiastical Territories were abolished by the Imperial Diet in 1803. She was also Abbess of Van Sint Salvator Te Susteren (Süsteren) and Dechaness in Elten. Klementine Franziska Ernestina Leopoldina was daughter of Konstantin von Hessen-Rheinfels-Rotenburg and his second wife, Marie Jeannette de Bombelles, and lived (1747-1813).

  1796-18.. Member of the Council of Regency Sardani Sada Kaur of the Sukkarchakkias in Punjab (India)
Ca. 1796-18.. Regent of the Kanhaiya Territory
Widow of a prince of Kanhaiya. Her daughter, Mahitab Kaur was married to Ranjit Singh, leader of the Sukkarchakkias since his father’s death in 1792. His mother, Mai Raj Kaur and the minister both died, and she became the sole regent. After Ranjit came of age, she helped him in his military battles and led the armies side by side with her. Her daughter’s first son, died in infancy, but in 1807 she gave birth to twin sons, but Ranjit Singh’s son with another wife had been named heir apparent. She now opened secret negotiations with the British to secure herself the status of an independent Maharani. Ranjit Singh started making inroads into the Kanhaiya territory. After her grandsons reached majority, Ranjit Singh insisted that she hand over the administration of her estates to him. She refused and threatened to seek the protection of the British in the Cis-Sutlej territory. He then cajoled her into visiting Lahore, where she was kept under strict surveillance. Her territory was sequestered and the wealth of the Kanhaiyas was confiscated. Her grandson Batala was granted as a jagir to Sher Singh while the rest of her estates were placed under the governorship of Sardar Desa Singh Majithia. She died in confinement, having lived (1762-1832).

  1796-1803 Princess-Abbess Maria Juliana Maier of Rottenmünster (Germany)
She was the last Fürstäbtissin of the Imperial Immediate Zisterzienserinnen-Reichsabtei Rottenmünster before the ecclesiastical territory was secularized and became a part of Württemberg in 1803. She lived in the convent until her death and the last lady of the chapter left it in 1850. (d. 1826).

  1796-1810 Princess-Abbess Maria Walburga Theresia von Liebenfels-Worblingen of Schänis (Switzerland)
1798-1810 Reigning Lady of Worblingen and Beuren an der Aach in Hegau and Co-Lady of Liebburg (Switzerland)
As a result of the end of the old Swiss Confederation (alten Eidgenossenschaft) in 1798, the Fürstliche Reichsstift (The Princely Chapter of the Realm) lost all its feudal rights in 1803 and became part of the Canton of Sankt Gallen. It gradually had to give up its possessions outside the Canton and in 1811 the Grand Council of the canton decided to abolish the chapter. The convent house was sold, and the church of the chapter was taken over by the parish. Her bother was the last male member of the Liebenfels-Worblingen family and she inherited the Lordship of Worblingen and the Liebenfels’sche and the Worblinger Castles after his death in 1798. She was daughter of Christoph Albert zu Worblingen (Hegau) and Maria Anna Josepha Eleonora von Hornstein zu Weiterdingen, and (d. 1810). 

  1796-1803 Princess-Abbess Maximiliana Franziska de Paula zu Salm-Reifferscheid of Elten (Germany)
King Friederich Wilhelm III von Pressen incorporated the 14 square kilomeres large state with its 1.500 inhabitants in his own lands in 1802. This made it possible for protestants to live in the town, which had not been allowed before. The territory lost it’s independence (Reichsunmittelbarkeit) and shortly before the French occupation the Minister of State Count von Schulenburg, withdrew all special rights that belonged to the town through centuries of reign by the Abbess. The lands of the chapter was annexed by the French in 1811, but the ladies of the chapter was given a pension for life. She was daughter of Prince Siegmund zu Salm-Reifferscheid and Countess Eleonora von Walburg zu Zeil und Wurzbach, and lived (1765-1805).

  1796-1828 Politically Influential Tzarina Maria Fyodorovna von Württemberg of Russia
Her husband, Paul I Petrovich, succeeded his mother, Catharina II in 1796. He was unpopular at court and extremely hostile toward his mother. His coronation signalled a break with the stability of Catherine’s reign. Paul I freed those imprisoned by the Privy Council, liberated the Poles, abolished conscription and limited the power of landowners over the serfs. On April 5, 1797, he issued a decree on rights of succession that established procedures for the transfer of power from one monarch to the next. In foreign policy, he performed an abrupt reversal, changing from war with France to union with her. This was probably one of the main reasons for his murder in 1801. She continued to be influential during the reign of her son, Alexander I. Born as Sophie Marie Dorothea, she was mother of 10 children and lived (1759-1828).

  1796 Military Leader of the White Lotus Rebellion Wang Cong’er in China
A leader of the Anti-Manchu uprising that occurred during the Ch’ing dynasty which broke out among impoverished settlers in the mountainous region that separates Sichuan province from Hubei and Shaanxi provinces. It was crushed 1799.

  Until 1797 Queen Regnant Rabehety Andriantompoimrinamandimby Rambolamasoandro of Ambohidratrimo (Madagascar)
Ruled the small principality in the north of Madagascar.

  1797-1818 Kpojito Kentobasin of Abomey (Benin)
Reign mate of King Adandozan. The Kpojito were not Queen Mothers, but were elected/appointed by the kings after they ascended to the throne, and were seen as complimentary powers to that of the king. 

  1797-1800 Princess-Abbess Maria Anna Franziska Susanna Clara Ferdinanda von Ulm-Langenrhein of Lindau (Germany)
She was the last sovereign Princess-Abbess of Lindau, as the office was vacant until 1803, when the territory became a secular county. The following year it was annexed to Austria, 1805 to Bavaria and finally in 1806 it was incorporated in Württemberg.

  1797-1802 Abbess Wilhelmine Sophie von Cornberg of the Free Worldly Abbey of Elsey (Germany)
In 1802 the Abbey was secularized and incorporated in the possessions of the Count of Bentheim-Tecklenburg and in 1811 in the Grand Duchy of Berg. She was possibly identical with the Freiin (Baroness) Sophie Wilhelmine won Cornberg who married Dietrich von Hövel in 1802, and lived (1771-1819).

  1798 Sovereign Countess Philippine Karoline of Oettingen-Baldern in Dahstuhl (Germany)
As the only remaining member of her branch of the family, she succeeded her uncle, Franz Friedrich Wilhelm Notger Joseph (1725-78-98), since both her older brothers had died in infancy like most of her father’s 15 siblings. French forces occupied the county in 1798. She was married to Rudolf Count and Prince de Colloredo-Mansfeld (1776-1843), daughter of Joseph Anton Damian Albert Graf von Oettingen-Baldern in Dagstuhl (1720-78) and his second wife Maria Antonia Monika v.Waldburg-Zeil-Wurzach, mother of 3 sons and 2 daughters, and lived (1776-1842).

  1798-1815 Titular Senior Rani H.H. Sri Patmanabha Sevini Vanchipala Dyumani Raj Rajeshwari Rani Gouri Lakshmi Bai of Attingal in Travancore (India)
1810-15 Regent of Travancore
At the time of the death of her predecessor there were no eligible male members in the family, however Rani Gowri Lakshmi Bhai’s accession was not easy because a member of the Mavelikara Royal family, a distant cousin, Prince Kerala Varma, staked a claim on the throne. But the British Resident Colonel Munro sided with her and she first reigned alone until the birth of her son, and then she was regent for him until her own death. One of her earliest acts was to dismiss the existing Dewan or Prime Minister, the corrupt Ummini Thampi, who was replaced by Munro. She was the first to permit foreigners to enter the fort of Padmanabhapuram and also broke tradition by appearing personally to receive her foreign guests and Resident. She also made a speech on being installed as Maharani. To end corruption she reformed the administration and judidicy and also initiated social reforms, abolished the purchase and sale of all slaves and granted them independence excepting those attached to the soil for agricultural purposes. She was daughter of Princess Attham, Senior Rani of Attingal of the Travancore Royal Family, sister of Maharajah Balarama Varma, who were adopted into the Travancore family from their natal Palace at Mavelikara which then belonged to Kolathunadu. With her husband, M.R.Ry. Rajaraja Varma Avargal, Koil Tampuran of Changanasser, she had a daughter, Maharani Gowri Rukmini Bayi born in 1809, and 2 sons born in 1813 and 1814. She died soon after giving birth to the second son. After her death, her sister Parvathi Bhai, ruled the country till Maharaja Swathi Thirunal was old enough to take over. She lived (1791-1815). 

  1798-1801 Reigning Abbess-General Micaela de Osorio of the Royal Monastery of Santa Maria la Real de Las Huelgas in Burgos (Spain)

Her family were Counts of Trastamara and Marqueses of Astorga.


  Until 1798 Politically Influential Queen Darejan of Kakheti and Kakhet (The Kingdom of Georgia)
Among others she influenced her husband, King Irakli II, to altered the line of succession in favour of their sons on the expense of his children by his first two marriages. He was succeeded by the fat, lazy though devout son Giorgi XII. One of Giorgi’s first acts on becoming ruler was to secure the Russian Master’s agreement to recognise his eldest son as Heir Apparent and successor. This left him facing insurrections led by his half-brothers. Prince Farnavazi allied himself to the fearsome Lezgins and devastated parts of the kingdom. His other brothers, ensconced on the large domains assigned to them by their late father, ignored his authority and fermented rebellion. Devoid of stomach for any contest, the dying ruler was persuaded to resign his kingdom to the Russian Master. This he did in return for the recognition of himself and his own heirs as titular Kings of Georgia. However, while his envoys were in Russia still negotiating the terms of the new treaty, Emperor Paul decided to annex the kingdom outright. He issued a manifesto unilaterally annexing the realm to the Russian crown on 18th January 1801

  1798-1806 Politically Influential Princess Amalie Zephyrine von Salm-Kyrburg of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen in France, Germany and Sigmaringen
Left her husband, Hereditary Prince Anton Aloys of Sigmaringen, after the birth of her son, Karl in 1785, and returned to Paris, where she was born. Here she started an affair with Vicomte de Beauharnais, but she also came close to his wife and children during the French Revolution. 1798 she resumed contact with her Sigmaringen and her son became the centre of her interest. In order to be able to return to Germany and meet him, she became politically active and used her connections to the French government – the Foreign Minister Talleyrand or the Emperor himself. At the Peace-congress she acted with great self-confidence and together with her husband she negotiated the terms for the survival of Hohenzollern-Hechingen and Hohenzollern-Sigmarinen as sovereign states, at a time when most minor territories were merged, For instance Württemberg had to hand back the City of Sigmaringen in 1806 which it had been promised as part of the agreements. Her son came to Paris and married Antoinette Murat and in 1808 she returned to Sigmaringen with her son and daughter-in-law. Her husband refused her entrance to the Castle and she build a new residence close by and for the rest of her life she travelled a lot and had many social connections all over Europe. She lived (1760-1841).

  1798-1838 Politically Influential Maharani Data Kaur of Punjab (India)

Took an active part in the affairs of state during the reign of her husband, Maharaja Ranjit Singh (1780-92-1839), and accompanied her son, Kharak Singh, when he was send on an expedition to Multan in 1818. She (d. 1838).


  1799-1800 and 1802-04 Regent Sri Sri Sri Maharani Raj Rajeshwari Devi of Nepal
When her husband, Shamsher Jang Devanam Sada Samar Vijayinam, abdicated she took charge of the government in the name of her son, Girvan Yuddha Bikram Shah Deva (1797-99-1816). When her husband returned from India, where he had been a mendicant under the name and title of Sri Parama Mahanirvana Ananda Swami in 1804, she was imprisoned at Helambu and killed by being forced to kommit sati. Originally named, Sri Vidya Lakshmi Devi, she was granddaughter of Sri Sri Sri Raja Shiva Shah, Raja of Gulmi and (d. 1806).

  1799-1810 H.H. Soubhagyavati Maharani Sri Lakshmi Ammani Devi Avaru of Mysore (Mahisur) (India)
Regent for her adopted grandson, the five-year-old Prince Krishnaraja Wodeyar III who was installed on the throne. She was the eldest daughter of Sardar Kathi Gopalraj Urs, and lived (1742-1810).

  1799-1801 Regent Dowager Countess Wilhelmine Friederike zu Sayn-Wittgenstein-Hohenstein of Salm-Grumbach
1801-06 Regent of  Salm-Horstmar (Germany)
First regent for husband Karl Ludwig Wilhelm Theodor (1720-63-99) and then for son Wild- und Rheingraf Wilhelm Friedrich Karl August von Salm zu Horstmar (1799-1865), who was sovereign count of Salm-Grumbach until the territory was occupied by the French in 1801. He was then made count of Salm-Hostmar, and she continued as his regent until the territory was incorporated in Prussia. The counts continued as titular counts. Friederike lived (1767-1849).

  1799-1827 Sovereign Burgravine Luise Isabella von Sayn-Hachenburg of Kirchberg and Sovereign Countess of Sayn-Hachenburg, Lady of Farnrode (Germany)
The Burggräfin von Kirchberg und Erbbräfin zu Sayn-Hachenburg was also known as Burgfräulein Luise Isabella Alexandrina Augusta von Sayn-Kirchberg-Hachenburg. In 1788 she married Prince Friedrich-Wilhelm von Nassau-Weilburg (1789-1816) and her territory was incorporated into his lands. Their grandson, Adolf, became Grand-Duke of Luxembourg in 1890. She was daughter of Wilhelm-Georg and succeeded Johann-August (1714-77-99). She was mother of 2 sons and 2 daughters and lived (1772-1827).

  1799-1807 Reigning Abbess Maria Johanna Baptista von Zweyer auf Hoenbach of Wald, Lady of the Offices of Wald, Vernhof and Ennigerloh (Germany)
She had first tried to become a member of the Chapter of Frauenalb but did not have enough funds to pay the fees. Instead she spend a “test year” in Wald and was admitted because of her “special and exceptional abilities. Mentioned as Prioriss 1773-99. The territory was secularied as a result of the Reichsdeputationshauptschluss and became part of the Principality of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, whose ruler, Prince Anton Aloys, made an agreement with the ladies of the chapter that she would recieve a sum of money for the rest of their lives, but they were not allowed to accept more canonesses into the chapter. In 1806 Hohenzollern annexed the Chapter and Office of Wald (Kloster und Amt) and the Offices of Vernhof and Ennigerloh. She was daughter of Freiherr Karl von Zweyer.
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