The Japan historic Collections During Edo Period

THE JAPAN HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

DURING EDO PERIOD 

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy

Li mited Privated edition In CD-ROM

Copyright@2012

INTRODUCTION

Periode Edo (1600 – 1868)

Selama Periode Edo, keshogunan yang dilakukan sejumlah kebijakan yang signifikan.

 Mereka menempatkan kelas samurai di atas rakyat jelata yaitu petani, pengrajin, dan pedagang. Mereka membuat hukum sumptuary membatasi gaya rambut, pakaian, dan aksesoris.

 Mereka terorganisir

 jelata ke dalam kelompok lima, dan memegang semua bertanggung jawab atas tindakan setiap individu. Untuk mencegah daimyo dari memberontak, para shogun diperlukan mereka untuk mempertahankan tempat tinggal mewah di Edo dan tinggal di tempat tinggal ini dengan jadwal berputar; melaksanakan prosesi mahal ke dan dari domain mereka, memberikan kontribusi pada pemeliharaan kuil, candi, dan jalan, dan mencari izin sebelum memperbaiki istana mereka.

 

Bakumatsu

Bakumatsuare tahun-tahun terakhir zaman Edo ketika keshogunan Tokugawa berakhir.

 Hal ini ditandai dengan peristiwa besar terjadi antara 1853 dan 1867 di mana Jepang berakhir kebijakan isolasionis luar negeri dikenal sebagai sakoku dan dialihkan dari Keshogunan feodal kepada pemerintah Meiji.

 Kesenjangan ideologis / politik besar selama periode ini adalah antara kelompok pro-imperialis ishin shishi (patriot nasionalis) dan kekuatan shogun, termasuk elit Shinsengumi (korps yang baru dipilih) pedang.

Meskipun kedua kelompok adalah kekuatan yang paling terlihat, faksi-faksi lain berusaha untuk menggunakan kekacauan Bakumatsu untuk merebut kekuasaan pribadi. Selanjutnya ada dua kekuatan pendorong utama lainnya untuk perbedaan pendapat: pertama, kebencian tumbuh pada bagian dari daimyo tozama (atau tuhan luar), dan kedua, berkembang sentimen anti-Barat setelah kedatangan Matthew C. Perry.

Yang pertama berhubungan dengan orang-orang bangsawan yang telah berjuang melawan pasukan Tokugawa pada Pertempuran Sekigahara (di 1600) dan memiliki dari saat itu sudah dihilangkan secara permanen dari semua posisi yang kuat dalam keshogunan. Yang kedua adalah untuk diekspresikan dalam kalimat sonnō joi, atau “memuja Kaisar, usir kaum barbar”. Titik balik dari Bakumatsu adalah selama Perang Boshin dan Pertempuran Toba-Fushimi ketika pro-Keshogunan pasukan dikalahkan.

 

Masa  bagian awal abad ke-17,

 shogun menduga bahwa para pedagang dan misionaris sebenarnya pelopor dari penaklukan militer oleh kekuatan Eropa.

Kristen menyebar di Jepang,

terutama di kalangan petani. Keshogunan tersebut diduga loyalitas petani Kristen terhadap daimyos mereka dan sangat dianiaya mereka. Hal ini menyebabkan pemberontakan oleh petani dianiaya dan Kristen pada tahun 1637 dikenal sebagai Pemberontakan Shimabara yang melihat 30.000 orang Kristen, samurai, dan petani menghadapi tentara samurai besar lebih dari 100.000 dikirim dari Edo.

Pemberontakan itu dihancurkan dengan biaya tinggi untuk tentara shogun. Setelah pemberantasan pemberontak di Shimabara, keshogunan menempatkan orang asing di bawah pembatasan semakin ketat. Ini dimonopoli kebijakan luar negeri, dan mengusir pedagang, misionaris, dan orang asing, dengan pengecualian pedagang Belanda dan Cina dibatasi ke pulau buatan manusia Dejima di Nagasaki Bay dan pos-pos perdagangan beberapa kecil di luar negeri. Namun, selama periode isolasi (sakoku) yang dimulai pada 1635, Jepang adalah jauh lebih sedikit terputus dari seluruh dunia daripada yang umumnya diasumsikan, dan beberapa akuisisi pengetahuan barat terjadi di bawah sistem Rangaku.

Gangguan-gangguan Rusia dari utara memimpin shogun untuk memperluas kekuasaan langsung ke Hokkaido, Sakhalin dan Kuriles pada tahun 1807, namun kebijakan pengecualian melanjutkan.

Sakoku

 

Akhir kebijakan SeclusionThe isolasi berlangsung selama lebih dari 200 tahun. Pada tahun 1844, William II dari Belanda mengirimkan pesan mendesak Jepang untuk membuka pintu-nya, yang mengakibatkan penolakan Keshogunan Tokugawa ini.

Pada tanggal 8 Juli 1853, Komodor Matthew Perry dari Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat dengan empat kapal perang – Mississippi, Plymouth, Saratoga, dan Susquehanna – dikukus ke teluk di Edo, tua Tokyo, dan ditampilkan kekuatan mengancam meriam kapal-kapal ‘selama Kristen pemakaman, yang orang Jepang diamati. Dia meminta agar Jepang terbuka untuk perdagangan dengan Barat. Kapal ini kemudian dikenal sebagai kurofune, Kapal Hitam.

Tahun berikutnya, pada Konvensi Kanagawa pada tanggal 31 Maret 1854, Perry kembali dengan tujuh kapal dan meminta Shogun menandatangani “Perjanjian Perdamaian dan Persahabatan,” membangun hubungan diplomatik formal antara Jepang dan Amerika Serikat. Dalam lima tahun Jepang telah menandatangani perjanjian serupa dengan negara-negara barat lainnya. Perjanjian Harris telah ditandatangani dengan Amerika Serikat pada tanggal 29 Juli 1858.

Perjanjian-perjanjian secara luas dianggap oleh Jepang sebagai intelektual yang tidak sama, yang telah dipaksakan pada Jepang melalui diplomasi kapal perang, dan sebagai tanda keinginan Barat untuk menggabungkan Jepang ke dalam imperialisme yang telah mengambil pegangan dari seluruh benua Asia. Di antara langkah-langkah lain, mereka memberi negara-negara Barat kontrol tegas dari tarif impor dan hak ekstrateritorial untuk semua warga negara mereka kunjungi. Mereka akan tetap menjadi titik mencuat dalam hubungan Jepang dengan Barat hingga pergantian abad.

 

 

Sejarah Jepang
 
 

Nikko Tōshō-Gu
 
Edo periode (Tokugawa)
1603-1868
Bakumatsu
Meiji periode 1868-1912
Restorasi Meiji
Taisho periode 1912-1926
Jepang pada Perang Dunia I
Showa periode 1926-1989
Showa krisis keuangan
Jepang militerisme
Pendudukan Jepang
Pasca pendudukan Jepang
 

 

Sejarah Jepang
 

Sejarah Jepang
 
Edo periode 1603-1868
Akhir Keshogunan Tokugawa
Meiji periode 1868-1912
Restorasi Meiji
Taisho periode 1912-1926
Jepang pada Perang Dunia I
Showa periode 1926-1989
Jepang ekspansionisme
Pendudukan Jepang
Pasca Pekerjaan Jepang
Heisei 1989-sekarang
 

Sejarah adalah Jepang dalam bentuk tertulis yang tersedia dari abad ke-1. Tapi, arkeolog telah menemukan bukti orang yang tinggal di Jepang untuk yang terakhir beberapa ribu tahun dari waktu ketika Zaman Es terakhir telah berakhir ..

Edo Periode
 

 

Sekelompok samurai

Selama periode Edo, Jepang memiliki penguasa kecil. Ada sekitar 200 dari mereka. Mereka disebut daimyo. Dari mereka, klan Tokugawa adalah yang paling kuat. Mereka memerintah dari tempat yang bernama Edo. Tempat ini adalah sekitar hari ini di Tokyo. Selama lima belas generasi mereka adalah klan yang paling kuat di Jepang.

Zaman Edo juga waktu yang sangat penting dalam sejarah Jepang. Banyak perkembangan terjadi. Perkembangan utama adalah:

Samurai menjadi kelompok tertinggi di masyarakat. Petani, pengrajin, dan pedagang disimpan lebih rendah dari samurai.
Orang umum diselenggarakan dalam kelompok lima. Jika salah satu dari mereka melakukan kesalahan apapun atau melakukan sesuatu yang salah, semua lima orang menjadi bertanggung jawab untuk itu kesalahan atau salah.
Banyak hal baru keluar di bidang seni. Jenis khusus dari pencetakan dengan blok kayu muncul menjadi ada. Hal ini dikenal sebagai pencetakan ukiyo-e-blok kayu. Khusus jenis teater juga muncul menjadi ada. Mereka bernama teater kabuki dan bunraku.
Perdagangan dan perdagangan terus meningkat selama periode Edo.
Pada tahun 1868,

 

perang bernama Perang Boshin terjadi.

Dengan perang ini, pemerintah Keshogunan berakhir. dan Jepang datang lagi di bawah kekuasaan kaisar.

Pengasingan
Mulai dari awal abad 17,

penguasa Jepang pun mengikuti kebijakan pengasingan, yang dikenal sebagai sakoku dalam bahasa Jepang.

 

 Mereka menduga bahwa pedagang, pedagang dan misionaris ingin membawa Jepang di bawah kendali kekuatan Eropa. Para penguasa ini (dikenal sebagai Keshogunan) mulai kebijakan pengasingan. Kecuali Belanda dan Cina, semua orang asing, pedagang dan pedagang dari negara lain, misionaris menghadapi pembatasan. Mereka juga memerintahkan beberapa orang asing untuk keluar dari Jepang.

Namun bahkan selama periode pengasingan, Jepang terus mendapatkan informasi dan pengetahuan tentang bagian-bagian lain dunia.

[Mengubah] Akhir dari pengasingan
Ini kebijakan pengasingan berlangsung sekitar 200 tahun. Akhirnya ia berakhir di bawah kekuatan. Pada 8 Juli 1853, Komodor Matthew Perry dari Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat mencapai Edo, tua Tokyo dengan empat kapal perang. Kapal-kapal itu bersenjata lengkap dan senjata mereka menunjuk ke arah kota. Setelah menunjukkan seperti kekuatan, Jepang diminta untuk menyetujui perdagangan dengan negara lain. Kemudian, Jepang menyebut kapal kurofune, Kapal Hitam.

Tahun depan, on 31st Maret 1854, Perry datang dengan tujuh kapal, dan Jepang menandatangani perjanjian (dikenal sebagai Persetujuan Kanagawa) membentuk hubungan diplomatik dengan Amerika Serikat. Lain perjanjian (dikenal sebagai Perjanjian Harris) telah ditandatangani dengan Amerika Serikat pada 29 Juli 1858. Hal ini memberikan fasilitas lebih kepada orang asing datang ke Jepang dan melakukan bisnis dengan Jepang. Meskipun Jepang mulai hubungan dengan Amerika Serikat dan beberapa negara lain, Jepang banyak yang tidak senang dengan gaya memaksa Jepang untuk melakukan hal-hal tersebut.

[Inggris] Restorasi Meiji
Restorasi Meiji merupakan periode penting dari sejarah Jepang. Saat itu, Kaisar Meiji memerintah Jepang. Selama periode ini, kekuatan Jepang kaisar (bernama Meiji) dipulihkan, yaitu, ia mendapatkan kembali kekuatan penuh, dan ini adalah mengapa periode ini disebut Restorasi Meiji. Selama periode ini, dimulai setelah Perang Boshin tahun 1868, banyak perubahan terjadi di Jepang.

Halaman Utama: prefektur Jepang

Sistem feodal berakhir. Jepang disalin sistem banyak negara barat. Perubahan terjadi dalam sistem hukum Jepang dan pemerintah.

[Inggris] Perang dengan China dan Rusia
Pada akhir abad ke-19, sejumlah Jepang belajar didukung teori tertentu. Menurut teori ini, Jepang harus membuat dirinya lebih besar dalam ukuran untuk menghadapi kekuatan asing. Dengan demikian Jepang berusaha untuk memperluas wilayahnya. Ini ingin bagian dari negara-negara terdekat untuk membuat perbatasannya aman. Hal ini mengakibatkan perang dengan negara tetangganya. Pada 1894-1895, Jepang dan Cina memiliki perang. Setelah sekitar sepuluh tahun, 1904-1905, perang lain berlangsung dengan Rusia. Jepang menjadi kekuatan yang kuat setelah perang-perang ini. Tapi, pengaruh Rusia terus tumbuh di dalam Cina.

[Mengubah] Anglo-Jepang Aliansi
Pada akhir abad 19 dan awal abad ke-20, pengaruh Rusia meningkat di Cina. Jepang dan Inggris digunakan untuk mendapatkan manfaat ekonomi dan lainnya dari hubungan mereka dengan China. Oleh karena itu, Jepang serta Inggris tidak menyukai pengaruh Rusia berkembang di Cina. Kedua negara membahas masalah tersebut. Akhirnya, mereka menandatangani sebuah perjanjian pada 30 Januari 1902. Mereka sepakat bahwa dalam hal terjadi serangan atau perang terhadap salah satu dari mereka, mereka akan berjuang bersama-sama. Hal ini dikenal sebagai Aliansi Anglo-Jepang. Rusia tidak senang pada jenis perjanjian. Dia juga mencoba untuk menandatangani perjanjian serupa dengan Jerman dan Perancis. Pada 6 Maret 1902, Rusia dapat menandatangani perjanjian serupa dengan Perancis. Tapi, Jerman tidak bergabung dengan mereka.

Segera setelah ini, Jepang dan Rusia sedang berperang dan berkelahi satu sama lain. Dengan 1905, Jepang telah memenangkan beberapa putaran kemenangan atas Tsar Rusia. Pada saat itu tsar memerintah Rusia, dan karena itu disebut Tsar Rusia. Tapi, kemenangan Jepang belum final. Amerika Serikat datang untuk bermeditasi di bawah Presiden AS Teddy Roosevelt. Jepang mendapat sejumlah konsesi. Pada tahun 1910, Jepang sepenuhnya mengambil alih Korea dan dibuat bahwa bagian dari Jepang.

[Mengubah] Perang Dunia I untuk Akhir Perang Dunia II
Pada tahun 1914, Perang Dunia Pertama pecah. Jepang juga memasuki perang. Ini menyerang beberapa tempat (Asia Timur), yang koloni Jerman. Setelah perang berakhir pada tahun 1919, Jepang berkembang sangat cepat. Ini menjadi salah satu kekuatan utama di Asia.

[Inggris] Perang Dunia II
Sebelum awal Perang Dunia II, Jepang bertempur dengan China. Ini disebut Sino-Jepang (1937-1945). Ketika Perang Dunia II pecah di tahun 1939, Jepang pergi ke sisi Nazi Jerman dan fasis Italia. Pesawat Jepang menyerang Pearl Harbor pada 7 Desember 1941. Pertempuran itu berlangsung selama bertahun-tahun. Ketika Amerika Serikat menjatuhkan bom atom pertama di kota-kota Jepang Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, Jepang mengaku kalah dan menyerah pada tahun 1945.

[Mengubah] Pendudukan Jepang
Setelah akhir Perang Dunia II, Jepang berada di bawah kontrol internasional. Jepang menjadi seorang teman penting dari Amerika Serikat ketika masuk ke dalam perang dingin dengan Korea. Selama beberapa tahun ke depan, perubahan politik, ekonomi dan sosial yang terjadi. Diet Jepang (legislatif) muncul menjadi ada. Pada tahun 1951, Amerika Serikat dan 45 negara lainnya menandatangani perjanjian dengan Jepang, dan Jepang kembali menjadi negara merdeka dengan kekuatan penuh (negara dengan kedaulatan penuh) tanggal 28 April 1952.

[Inggris] Pasca Pekerjaan Jepang
Pasca Pekerjaan Jepang berarti Jepang setelah pendudukan dan kontrol oleh sekelompok negara telah berakhir. Ini adalah periode setelah Perang Dunia Kedua. Perang Dunia Kedua telah merusak Jepang sangat buruk. Hal ini telah hampir kehilangan industri dan ekonomi berada dalam bentuk yang sangat buruk. Setelah perang, Jepang menerima bantuan dan teknologi dari Amerika Serikat dan beberapa negara lain Eropa. Kemajuan itu sangat cepat. Selama sekitar 30 tahun, dari sekitar tahun 1950 hingga 1980-an, Jepang tumbuh sangat cepat. Ini menjadi salah satu kekuatan ekonomi utama dunia.

Ketika pasukan PBB berperang di Korea selama Perang Korea, Jepang adalah salah satu pemasok utama. Ini juga membantu perekonomian Jepang. Dengan 1980, Jepang telah menjadi perekonomian terbesar kedua di dunia, setelah Amerika Serikat. Pada awalnya, ada hubungan yang sangat erat antara Jepang dan Amerika Serikat. Tapi, kekuatan ekonomi Jepang mengakibatkan menjadi defisit perdagangan Amerika Serikat. Defisit perdagangan terjadi ketika impor lebih dari ekspor. Dengan demikian, Amerika Serikat itu mengimpor lebih dari itu diekspor ke Jepang.

Karena berbagai alasan, ini tahap perkembangan pesat berakhir pada 1990-an. Beberapa sejarawan menggambarkan dekade ini sebagai dekade yang hilang dari ekonomi Jepang. Sekitar 5 sampai 10 orang di 100 orang tidak bisa menemukan pekerjaan.

[Mengubah] Kehidupan politik
Dengan 1952, Jepang telah menjadi bebas dari sebagian besar kontrol dari masa pendudukan. Ini punya sistem sendiri demokrasinya. Berbagai partai politik terbentuk dan kehidupan politik Jepang menjadi aktif.

[Mengubah] Modern Life (Heisei Era)
Para sejarawan dan sosiolog menyebut kehidupan baru-baru ini Jepang sebagai kehidupan modern. Dalam bahasa Jepang, periode ini disebut Heisei. Pada tahun 1989, ekonomi Jepang telah menjadi ekonomi yang sangat besar. Semua pengembangan bulat telah terjadi. Pertumbuhan militer Jepang mulai lagi [sumber]. Dalam perang Teluk 1991, Jepang memberi miliaran dolar.

Jepang juga menghadapi beberapa masalah. Pada tahun 1995, sebuah gempa bumi besar terjadi di Kobe. Gempa lain terjadi pada tanggal 23 Oktober 2004 di Niigata Prefecture.

[Mengubah] Referensi
1. ↑ Perpustakaan Studi Negara Kongres, Jepang, “Nara dan Heian Periode”; diambil 2011/10/20.
2. ↑ Perpustakaan Studi Negara Kongres, Jepang, “Kamakura dan periode Muromachi”; diambil 2011/10/20
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Para periode Edo

 1603-1868

Periode Edo atau Tokugawa adalah waktu yang relatif damai dikelola oleh pemerintah militer konservatif.

Dalam rangka mendorong stabilitas, dan dipengaruhi oleh kembali minat dalam adat istiadat Konghucu, rezim Tokugawa dipisahkan masyarakat ke dalam empat kelas: pejuang, petani, pengrajin, dan-di bagian bawah tumpukan-pedagang. Mencari untuk mengontrol perilaku masyarakat,

 

 

 

 

 

 Keshogunan Tokugawa

 

sisihkan daerah berdinding di semua kota besar untuk pendirian rumah bordil, kedai teh, dan teater. Di beberapa daerah semua kelas comingled, dan uang dan gaya didominasi.

 

 

 

 

Legendaris Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Cerita [+ Pict] ~
Tokugawa Ieyasu (徳 川 家 康;

 lahir di Okazaki, 31 Januari 1543 – meninggal di Shizuoka, 1 Juni 1616 pada usia 73 tahun, lahir dengan nama Matsudaira Takechiyo 松 平 竹 千代) adalah seorang daimyo dan shogun di Jepang. Pendiri Keshogunan Tokugawa yang memerintah Jepang dari Ishida Mitsunari menaklukkan dalam Pertempuran Sekigahara pada tahun 1600 hingga Restorasi Meiji pada tahun 1868. Bersama dengan Toyotomi Hideyoshi dan Oda Nobunaga, Ieyasu adalah salah satu dari tiga pemersatu Jepang pada periode Sengoku. Ia memerintah dari tahun 1600 karena terjadi sepeninggalan Shogun Hideyoshi dalam perjuangan kekuasaan antara daimyo.daimyo akhirna Ieyasu berhasil merebut kekuasaan saudara keshogunan.Perang antara Daimyo memperubatkan keshoguna kekuasaan, terkenal dengan perang Sekighara. Tokugaw shogun Ieyasu mendirikan dinasti, pemerintahan berpusat di Edo. selama 264 tahun (1603-1868) Dinasti Tokugawa berkuasa di jangka jepang.Pemerintahanya oleh diktator militer yang kejam.kekuasaany cenderung diktator militer yang kejam.kekuasaanya absolud cenderung menjadi seperti dalam disiplin organisasi militer.

Spoiler untuk kehidupan awal:
Kehidupan awal dari Ieyasu lahir di Okazaki Castle di wilayah Mikawa pada hari ke 26 bulan sampai 12 dan tahun, Kalender 11 tenbun Jepang. awalnya bernama Matsudaira Takechiyo, ia adalah anak dari Matsudaira Hirotada (松 平 広 忠), daimyo Mikawa Matsudair klan, ibu-Nya bernama Odaikata (於大 の 方), putri seorang samurai Mizuno tadamasa. dua tahun kemudian, Odainokata dikirim kembali ke keluarganya dan tidak pernah kembali lagi.

Spoiler for Periode Matsudaira:
Matsudaira klan terbelah 1550, di satu pihak memilih untuk mengikuti Imagawa Clan dan di sisi lain lebih memilih Klan Oda. Akibatnya, Ieyasu menghabiskan kehidupan awal dalam bahaya karena dampak dari perang Oda Imagawa. Matsudaira permusuhan suku yang timbul dari kakek Ieyasu membunuh, Matsudaira Kiyoyasu. berbeda dari ayahnya, yang disukai klan Imagawa.

tahun 1548, ketika Oda klan Mikawa menyerang, Hirotada meminta bantuan kepada Imagawa Yoshimoto, Imagawa Clan Daimyo, untuk mengusir Oda Marga Mikawa. Yoshimoto setuju untuk membantu dengan ketentuan Takechiyo Hirotada mengirim anaknya untuk Sumpu sebagai sandera, Hirotada setuju. Nobuhide Oda, Oda Klan pemimpin, untuk belajar tentang perjanjian ini dan yang diculik Ieyasu Rombangan dalam perjalanan ke Sumpu. Ieyasu hanya enam tahun.

 

 

 

Spoiler for Penampilan Nobuhide ODA:

Nobuhide mengancam akan mengeksekusi Takechiyo / Ieyasu kecuali ayahnya memutuskan semua hubungan dengan klan Imagawa. Hirotada menjawab anak mengkorbankan akan terjadi jika masalah serius dengan klan Imagawa. meskipun ditolak, Nobuhide memilih untuk tidak membunuh Takechiyo tapi menahannya selama tiga tahun di manshoji kuil di Nagoya.

Spoiler untuk masa depan Takechiyo / Tokugawa:

pada tahun 1549, ketika Takechiyo berusia tujuh tahun, ayahnya, Hirotada meninggal. hampir sama, Oda Nobuhide meninggal karena wabah. kematian menjadi pukulan berat bagi klan Oda. tentara di bawah perintah Imagawa, Sessai Taigen mengepung benteng yang merupakan rumah dari baru Daimyo Oda klan, Oda Nobuhiro. dengan benteng akan jatuh, menawarkan pengepungan ketika Klan Oda Sessai tidak akan menyerah atau menyerah Takechiyo disandera dan dibawa ke Sumpu. Di sini ia mendapat kehidupan yang baik sebagai sandera dan Imagawa sekutu potensial di masa depan.
Quote:
Tambahan Setelah Kematian Takechiyo. kekuasaan digantikan oleh Tokugawa Hidetada
Quote:
Tambahan Pada saat Mikawa Toda Yasumitsu membelot dari klan Imagawa ke klan Oda, Matsudaira Takechiyo sandera diselamatkan dari musuh. Nobunaga sering menghabiskan masa bersama Takechiyo Matsudaira (kemudian dikenal sebagai Tokugawa Ieyasu) sehingga mereka menjalin persahabatan yang erat.

 

 

Untuk pertama kalinya, seniman yang terinspirasi oleh dan menanggapi kepentingan dan preferensi masyarakat umum.

Saham

| More

Edo periode-kota

terkandung kaya baru warga kota,

Hagi -

Sebuah kota di mana Anda masih dapat menggunakan peta dari periode Edo

Tsuwano -

Sebuah kota di mana bangunan bersejarah dari zaman Edo yang diawetkan

Apa zaman Edo? (Tahun 1600-an)

 

 

 

Hagi – Museum Hidup

Pada 1604, Mori Terumoto

 

 

 

dibuat Hagi

 

Ini adalah Jepang Hagi ware (Hagi-yaki) melayani set piring.

 

Mori Terumoto Made Hagi benteng, dan untuk jangka waktu 260 tahun,

 

 

Ini adalah tradisional Jepang Hagi gudang demi botol dan set cangkir.

Hagi ware tembikar dibuat di daerah Hagi di Yamaguchi PrefectureW.

Pada 1604, Mori Terumoto, penguasa feodal Jepang, membawa dua seniman Goryeo ke Jepang dari semenanjung Korea, dan kemudian membangun sebuah kiln di Hagi, karena itu, Hagi gudang berasal dari Goryeo (Korea sekarang) ware.

Hagi barang ini telah terutama dihargai oleh tuan dari upacara minum teh.

Ada pepatah pergi “Raku ware yang terbaik untuk cangkir teh, kedua Hagi ware dan ketiga Karatsu.”

Fitur yang paling menarik dari Hagi gudang adalah bahwa perubahan waktu desain ke waktu.

Perubahan ini terjadi oleh keseimbangan dari tanah liat dan glasir.

Setelah gerabah dibakar, hal itu akan retak kecil, dan noda teh celah-celah dan membuat desain.

Lebih digunakan, menjadi lebih lezat.

 

 

Hagi makmur sebagai kota benteng menonjol senilai 360.000 bal beras (dalam periode itu, klan masing-masing diberikan sejumlah bal beras per tahun, dan ini mewakili senilai klan). Ada sifat bersejarah dan pemandangan jalan atmosfer tersisa dari periode itu, dan bahkan hari ini peta dari periode Edo masih dapat digunakan. Ungkapan “Hagi – Museum Hidup” berarti bahwa seluruh kota dapat diambil sebagai museum, dan kami mempromosikan “tipe baru perencanaan kota” yang melindungi dan mengambil keuntungan dari harta kota. Museum Hagi adalah pusat dari program itu, memberikan kesempatan bagi pengunjung untuk mempelajari lingkungan alam, sejarah, adat istiadat etnis, dan budaya Hagi.

Para Hagi Museum

————————————————– ——————————

Sebuah Kota Sempurna Untuk Memakai Kimono – Hagi – Kimono Berjalan Di Hagi

Dengan sejarahnya yang panjang, pemandangan indah dan jalanan adegan Hagi telah lama dicintai dan dilindungi oleh penduduk kota.

Jepang yukata dan kimono,

 melambangkan konsep Jepang “harmoni”, dan sebagai kota di mana gaya pakaian terlihat tepat, kita merasa bahwa kita harus menjaga harmoni, budaya dan suasana adegan jalan Hagi untuk generasi untuk mengikuti.

Untuk mencapai tujuan itu, kami telah memulai beberapa acara dan program, seperti “Kampanye Yukata,” yang “Kimono Berjalan Di Hagi,” dan Hagi Taketoro Monogatari (Hagi Bambu Lentera Penerangan Jalan Cerita), sehingga pengunjung bisa belajar tentang suasana dan budaya Japane.

Castle Town

————————————————– ——————————

Yomei-ji Temple (Tsuwano-cho)

Dibangun sekitar 230 tahun yang lalu, Yomei-ji Temple dicatat untuk ruang utama, yang dibatasi oleh atap yang penuh jerami, contoh langka seperti struktur di Jepang. Selain itu, situs ini berisi bangunan yang jelas menggugah dari sebuah kuil Zen tradisional.

Jerami atap:

Atap struktur tradisional Jepang yang terbuat dari ilalang

 

 

Takeda Shin-Gen

Ini muncul sebagai besar di bumi. Bergantung pada kebijaksanaan dan keputusan yang menentukan. Tapi untuk menahan sebagai yang terbesar di negeri itu, tetapi pada akhirnya. Saya perlu lebih dari itu. Itu yang saya menyebutnya.

Takeda Shin-Gen

 

berbatasan dengan modal untuk sepenuhnya Itu adalah serangan maag. Di era itu, adalah penyakit dengan obatnya. Dia sakit parah. Takeda dan tentara pasukan tidak bisa bergerak lebih lanjut. Akhirnya meninggal pada tahun 1573, termasuk usia 52 tahun.

Macan berakhir pada perdagangan tersebut. Dia adalah anak dari Takeda adalah akhir dari perjalanan (Shiro) ke tulang punggung. Kembali ke bayangan sebelumnya dan mundur kembali ke keluarga Takeda perdagangan dalam diam, lalu tiga tahun telah memberikan pernyataan berkabung kematian gen pertama saya. Perawatan di militer. Mengingat sebagai fungsi dari 10 militer senior dan Takeda, yang mengkhususkan diri dalam pertempuran di atas kuda, dan pertempuran panjang dengan Shin-Gen. Thanked julukannya.

Hal ini sangat menarik. Jika Shin Gen tidak mati. Dan ke depan sampai bertemu Nobu di manga. Hasilnya akan menjadi keuntungan. Anda mungkin harus menulis sejarah baru setelah ini. Kematian Jenderal terbiasa. Beberapa sejarawan Jepang setuju bahwa potensi yang dibunuh. Suku mengirimkan Nobu di manga. Sejarah Jepang selama perang. Awalnya misterius dan kompleks. Mereka yang hidup dalam bayang-bayang dan tidak muncul di depan suku atau pembunuh. Telah memberikan kontribusi signifikan terhadap sejarah mengemudi. Kematian Jenderal Shin rencana Nobu di manga. Atau nasib saya sendiri bahwa saya akan berlaku sampai dengan titik tertinggi tanah.

 
Saat lawan yang terlalu besar untuk gen. Aku tidak akan puas hasil maksimal dari Nobu di manga. Mereka sudah tahu siapa di balik Shin Gen Shogun Yoshi Akiba. Jadi dia memutuskan untuk menangani tegas dengan shogun, Yoshi Akiba, kehilangan.

Rencana awal adalah untuk hidup di Hari Chicago Sun Shin Gen Honda di New York diadakan di Asakura serangan terhadap Nobu di banyak manga. Shin Gen dan Angkatan Darat pasukan ke ibukota. Nobu dalam manga sendiri dengan situasi dan bertekad untuk menempatkan kudanya untuk sketsa pembunuh atas di Gifu sudah. Tapi ketika kematian Jenderal Shin. Rencana segala sesuatunya segera. Hanya saja Asakura Asahi dan Honda cara mengukurnya. Tidak cukup untuk membekukan tentara selatan memiliki Nobu di manga. Bahwa itu adalah kesalahan yang Chiaki telah mengandalkan pada gen akrab juga. Ketika Shin-Gen memiliki kematian. Semua rencana yang lengkap. Tetapi Chiaki adalah beruang menemukan cara untuk memberontak melawan Nobu di manga pula. Jadi kepala Hosokawa Fuji staf kulitnya, yang menunjukkan bahwa Kyoto hampir dikelilingi. Untuk kembali berorientasi suara dan respon dari Nobu di manga.

Nobu di manga tidak acuh tak acuh terhadap perang dan banyak lagi. Mungkin karena perang berakhir, mereka gen. Dia lebih besar dari tiga ribu pasukan ke ibukota terkepung. Chiaki untuk memaksa penyerahan diri. Saya takut kaisar memiliki Gi di ibu kota akan menyapu. Kedua belah pihak telah membuat perdamaian. Nobu Niigata demi untuk menyepakati Chiaki, tetapi juga untuk melawan beruang. Seri berikutnya dari aliansi Inggris dengan Taman Depan Mobile untuk bertempur lagi. Nobu La Manga ditentukan untuk berurusan dengan Chiaki. Tanpa permintaan damai dari kaisar.

 
The 1573 tahun tujuh bulan Nobu di manga tentara membakar dan menghancurkan ibukota. Dan sekitar Kastil Nijo. Akhirnya aku menyerah pada Chiaki. Nobu di Niigata tidak membunuhnya. Namun, dideportasi dari ibu kota. Dan menduduki tempat yang besar di ibukota saja.

 

Akan berakhir aturan jalan ke Bulan Baru. Seri manga di Chicago dengan lebih dari 200 tahun kaisar ketika ia dinobatkan sebagai pertempuran baru hanya atas permintaan dari Rancho La Manga Nobu.

Akan menjadi era sepenuhnya diedit. Target berikutnya adalah Nobu di manga jelas adalah bahwa keluarga berada di dalamnya, dan Asakura.

Itulah tragedi perang ke Kota di New Castle.

Asli Info

ต้อง อาศัย ความ สามารถ สติปัญญา และ การ ตัดสินใจ ที่ เด็ดขาด ยัง อาศัย มากกว่า ต้อง นั้น นั่น ก็ คือ สิ่ง ที่ เรียก ว่า ดวง

ทา เค ดะ แต่ กลับ ถูก โรค กระเพาะ เล่น งาน เขา ป่วย หนัก ต้อง ใน ที่สุด ก็ เสีย ชีวิต ลง ใน ปี ค.ศ. 1573 รวม อายุ ได้ 52 ปี

เมื่อ พยัคฆ์ แห่ง คา อิ สิ้น ลง บุตร ชาย ของ เขา ทา เค ดะ คั ต สึ โย ริ (ชิ โร่) ก็ได้ ขึ้น สืบทอด ต่อ จาก นั้น 3 ปี 10 แห่ง ทา เค ดะ จน ได้ ฉายา ว่า ฟุ ริน คา ซัน

ตรง นี้ น่า สนใจ มาก ว่า หาก ชิน เก็ น ยัง ไม่ ตาย ผล จะ ออก มา เป็น เช่น ไร ซึ่ง การ ตาย ของ ชิน เก็ น นี้ โดย พวก นินจา ที่ โน บุ นา งะ ส่ง มา

  

วัน ฮ อน กัน จิ อา ซา อิ อา ซา คุ ระ และ ให้ ชิน เก็ น บก ทัพ เข้า เมืองหลวง แต่ ใน เมื่อ ชิน เก็ น ตาย ลง แผน ทุก อย่าง ก็ พัง ทันที เพราะ ลำพัง กองทัพ อา ซา อิ อา ซา คุ ระ และ วัด ฮ อน กัน จิ นั้น เมื่อ ชิน เก็ น มา ป่วย ต้อง ตาย ลง แบบ นี้ แผน ทุก อย่าง ก็ จบ สิ้น ดังนั้น โฮ โซ คา ว่า ฟุ จิ ทา กะ

เขา ยก ทัพ ใหญ่ กว่า 3 หมื่น เข้า ล้อม เมืองหลวง ไว้ เพื่อ บีบ ให้ โย ชิ อา กิ ยอม แพ้ โน บุ นา งะ เห็นแก่ รับสั่ง จึง ยินยอม จึง ไป ผูก พันธมิตร กับ ทาง โม ริ เท รุ โม โตะ เพื่อ เปิด ศึก อีก ครั้ง

  

ปีค.ศ. 1573 เดือน 7 และ เข้า ล้อม ปราสาท นิ โจ ไว้ และ ใน ที่สุด โย ชิ อา กิ ก็ ยอม แพ้ ต้อง โน บุ นา งะ ไม่ สังหาร เขา แต่ เนรเทศ ออก ไป นอก เมืองหลวง

และ ตระกูล อา ชิ คา งะ มี มากกว่า ที่ 200 ปี

ตระกูล อา ซา อิ และ อา ซา คุ ระ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sebagian besar pedagang dan pengrajin yang dikenal sebagai

 chonin,

 

yang memperoleh kekuatan ekonomi dengan mengambil keuntungan dari ekspansi dramatis dari kota-kota dan perdagangan. Akhirnya, mereka menemukan diri mereka dalam posisi paradoksal secara ekonomi kuat tapi secara sosial terbatas. Akibatnya, mereka mengalihkan perhatian mereka, dan aset mereka, untuk konsumsi dan mengejar kesenangan di distrik hiburan.

Chonin Informasi

Chōnin 町 人
Chōnin (“orang kota”, 町 【まち (P); ちょう (町)】 kota bangsal) adalah kelas sosial yang muncul pada awal abad ke-16 biasanya menetap sekitar istana (jōka-machi 城 下町 【】 じょうかまち, “benteng kota “). Mereka terutama terdiri dari pedagang dan pengrajin yang memasok barang dan jasa untuk feodal dan samurai. Selanjutnya, orang lain, petani, pekerja dan pegawai diikuti, menawarkan jasa mereka untuk mantan. Sebagai petani dan samurai tidak diizinkan untuk terlibat dalam kegiatan warga kota komersial tumbuh cepat kaya. Selama Periode Edo chōnin menjabat sosial terendah subordinasi Bushi (武士), petani (nōmin) dan pengrajin (ko). Mereka tunduk pada undang-undang membatasi seperti penyitaan tanah dan bangunan atau pinjaman wajib. Meskipun semua pembatasan kelas pedagang tumbuh dalam jumlah besar, akhirnya menghasilkan istilah “chōnin” diterapkan bagi seluruh penduduk perkotaan yang bukan bangsawan, samurai atau petani.

Pedagang menangani beras (beras broker) disebut

“Fudasashi”

di Edo

melihat gambar fudasahi pasar bawah

 

 

 

dan

“Kakeya” di Osaka.

 

Beberapa dari mereka menjadi kaya ke titik di mana mereka dapat meminjamkan uang kepada daimyo lokal miskin.

Banyak petani dan samurai yang dililit hutang untuk chōnin, mengakibatkan kemarahan yang cukup besar dan ketegangan sosial. Di sisi lain, chōnin bertindak sebagai sponsor dari seni dan ilmu pengetahuan. Istilah “chōnin-Bunka” mengacu pada gaya baru budaya urban dan populer yang berkembang berkat pedagang kaya yang memberikan kontribusi untuk berkembangnya kabuki, ukiyo-e, jōruri dan genre sastra seperti chōnin-mono (cerita pendek berurusan dengan chōnin-hidup yang muncul pada akhir abad ke-17), ukiyo-zōshi dan haiku.

Perlu disebutkan bahwa beberapa perusahaan Jepang besar, banyak dari mereka masih ada, didirikan oleh chōnin kaya. Meskipun chōnin pengaruh yang sangat besar budaya dan keuangan tidak pernah berhasil menjadi faktor politik dan tetap tergantung pada sponsor pemerintah.

 

original info

Edo Period (1600 – 1868)During the Edo Period,The shogunate carried out a number of significant policies. They placed the samurai class above the commoners: the agriculturists, artisans, and merchants. They enacted sumptuary laws limiting hair style, dress, and accessories. They organized commoners into groups of five, and held all responsible for the acts of each individual. To prevent daimyo from rebelling, the shoguns required them to maintain lavish residences in Edo and live at these residences on a rotating schedule; carry out expensive processions to and from their domains; contribute to the upkeep of shrines, temples, and roads; and seek permission before repairing their castles.

 

Bakumatsu

Bakumatsuare the final years of the Edo period when the Tokugawa shogunate came to an end. It is characterized by major events occurring between 1853 and 1867 during which Japan ended its isolationist foreign policy known as sakoku and transitioned from a feudal shogunate to the Meiji government. The major ideological/political divide during this period was between the pro-imperialist ishin shishi (nationalist patriots) and the shogunate forces, including the elite Shinsengumi (newly selected corps) swordsmen.

Although these two groups were the most visible powers, many other factions attempted to use the chaos of Bakumatsu to seize personal power. Furthermore there were two other main driving forces for dissent: first, growing resentment on the part of the tozama daimyo (or outside lords), and second, growing anti-western sentiment following the arrival of Matthew C. Perry.

The first related to those lords who had fought against Tokugawa forces at the Battle of Sekigahara (in 1600) and had from that point on been excluded permanently from all powerful positions within the shogunate. The second was to be expressed in the phrase sonno joi, or “revere the Emperor, expel the barbarians”. The turning point of the Bakumatsu was during the Boshin War and the Battle of Toba-Fushimi when pro-shogunate forces were defeated.

 

SeclusionDuring the early part of the 17th century, the shogunate suspected that the traders and missionaries were actually forerunners of a military conquest by European powers. Christianity spread in Japan, especially among peasants. The shogunate suspected the loyalty of Christian peasants towards their daimyos and severely persecuted them. This led to a revolt by persecuted peasants and Christians in 1637 known as the Shimabara Rebellion which saw 30,000 Christians, samurai, and peasants facing a massive samurai army of more than 100,000 sent from Edo.

The rebellion was crushed at a high cost to the shogun’s army. After the eradication of the rebels at Shimabara, the shogunate placed foreigners under progressively tighter restrictions. It monopolized foreign policy, and expelled traders, missionaries, and foreigners, with the exception of the Dutch and Chinese merchants restricted to the man-made island of Dejima in Nagasaki Bay and several small trading outposts outside the country. However, during this period of isolation (Sakoku) that began in 1635, Japan was much less cut off from the rest of the world than is commonly assumed, and some acquisition of western knowledge occurred under the Rangaku system.

Russian encroachments from the north led the shogunate to extend direct rule to Hokkaido, Sakhalin and the Kuriles in 1807, but the policy of exclusion continued.

Sakoku

 

End of SeclusionThe policy of isolation lasted for more than 200 years. In 1844, William II of the Netherlands sent a message urging Japan to open her doors, which resulted in Tokugawa shogunate’s rejection.

On July 8, 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy with four warships – the Mississippi, Plymouth, Saratoga, and Susquehanna – steamed into the bay at Edo, old Tokyo, and displayed the threatening power of his ships’ cannons during a Christian burial, which the Japanese observed. He requested that Japan open to trade with the West. These ships became known as the kurofune, the Black Ships.

The following year, at the Convention of Kanagawa on March 31, 1854, Perry returned with seven ships and requested that the Shogun sign the “Treaty of Peace and Amity,” establishing formal diplomatic relations between Japan and the United States. Within five years Japan had signed similar treaties with other western countries. The Harris Treaty was signed with the United States on July 29, 1858.

These treaties were widely regarded by Japanese intellectuals as unequal, having been forced on Japan through gunboat diplomacy, and as a sign of the West’s desire to incorporate Japan into the imperialism that had been taking hold of the rest of the Asian continent. Among other measures, they gave the Western nations unequivocal control of tariffs on imports and the right of extraterritoriality to all their visiting nationals. They would remain a sticking point in Japan’s relations with the West up to the turn of the century.

 

 

History of Japan

 

Nikkō Tōshō-gū

 

History of Japan

 


History of Japan

The history is Japan in written form was available from the 1st century. But, archeologists have found proof of people living in Japan for last several thousand years from the time when the last Ice Age had ended..

Edo Period

 

 

A group of Samurais

During the Edo period, Japan had many small rulers. There were about 200 of them. They were called daimyo. Out of them, the Tokugawa clan was most powerful. They ruled from a place named Edo. This place was around the present day’s Tokyo. For fifteen generations they were the most powerful clan in Japan.

Edo period is also very important period in the history of Japan. Many developments took place. Main developments were:

  • Samurais became the highest group in the society. Agriculturists, artisans, and merchants were kept lower than the Samurais.
  • Common persons were organized in groups of five. If any one of them made any mistake or did anything wrong, all five persons became responsible for that mistake or wrong.
  • Many new things came out in the field of art. A special type of printing with wood blocks came into being. This is known as the ukiyo-e wood-block printing. Special type of theaters also came into being. They were named the kabuki and bunraku theaters.
  • Trade and commerce continued to rise during the Edo period.

In 1868,

 

a war named the Boshin War took place.

With this war, the government of the Shogunate ended. and Japan again came under the rule of an emperor.

Seclusion

Beginning from the early 17th century,

the rulers of Japan started to follow a policy of seclusion, known as sakoku in Japanese language.

 

 They suspected that traders, merchants and missionaries wanted to bring Japan under the control of European powers. These rulers (known as shogunate) started a policy of seclusion. Except the Dutch and the Chinese, all foreigners, traders and merchants from other countries, missionaries faced restrictions. They also ordered some foreigners to go out of Japan.

Still even during the period of seclusion, Japanese continued to gain information and knowledge about other parts of the world.

[change] End of seclusion

This policy of seclusion lasted for about 200 years. At last it was ended under force. On July 8th 1853, Commodore Matthew Perry of the U.S. Navy reached Edo, old Tokyo with four warships. The ships were heavily armed and their guns pointed towards the city. After shown such a power, Japan was asked to agree to trade with other countries. Later on, Japanese called these ships the kurofune, the Black Ships.

Next year, on 31st March 1854, Perry came with seven ships, and Japanese signed a treaty (known as the Convention of Kanagawa) established diplomatic relationship with the USA. Another treaty (known as the Harris Treaty) was signed with the USA on 29th July 1858. This gave more facilities to foreigners coming to Japan and doing business with Japan. Though Japan started relationship with the USA and several other countries, many Japanese were not happy with this style of forcing Japan to do such things.

[change] Meiji Restoration

Meiji Restoration is an important period of history of Japan. At that time, Emperor Meiji was ruling Japan. During this period, power of Japan’s emperor (named Meiji) was restored, that is, he gained back his full power; and this is why the period is called Meiji Restoration. During this period, beginning after the Boshin War of 1868, many changes happened in Japan.

Main page: Prefectures of Japan

The feudal system was ended. Japan copied many systems of the western countries. Changes occurred in Japan’s legal system and the government.

[change] Wars with China and Russia

At the end of the 19th century, a number of learned Japanese supported a particular theory. According to this theory, Japan had to make itself bigger in size to face foreign powers. Thus Japan tried to expand its areas. It wanted parts of nearby countries to make its borders safe. This resulted in wars with its neighboring counties. In 1894-1895, Japan and China had a war. After about ten years, in 1904-1905, another war took place with Russia. Japan became a strong power after these wars. But, Russian influence continued to grow inside China.

[change] Anglo-Japanese Alliance

By the end of the 19th century and beginning of the 20th century, the Russian influence was increasing in China. Japan and the Great Britain used to get economic and other benefits from their relationship with China. Therefore, Japan as well as the Great Britain did not like Russia’s growing influence in China. Both countries discussed the matter. Finally, they signed a treaty on 30th January 1902. They agreed that in the event of any attack or war on any of them, they would fight together. This is known as the Anglo-Japanese Alliance. Russia was not happy at this type of agreement. He also tried to sign similar treaty with Germany and France. On 6th March 1902, Russia could sign a similar treaty with France. But, Germany did not join them.

Soon after this, Japan and Russia were at war and fighting with each other. By 1905, Japanese had won several rounds of victories over Tsarist Russia. At that time the Czar ruled Russia, and hence it was called Tsarist Russia. But, the Japanese victory was not final. The USA came to meditate under the US President Teddy Roosevelt. Japan got a number of concessions. In 1910, Japan completely took over Korea and made that a part of Japan.

[change] World War I to End of World War II

In 1914, the First World War broke out. Japan also entered the war. It attacked several places (of East Asia), which were colonies of Germany. After the war ended in 1919, Japan developed very fast. It became one of the major powers of Asia.

[change] World War II

Before the beginning of the Second World War, Japan was fighting with China. This is called Second Sino-Japanese War (1937-1945). When the Second World War broke out in 1939, Japan went to the side of Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy. Japanese planes attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. The fighting continued for years. When the USA dropped the first atomic bombs on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki, Japan accepted defeat and surrendered in 1945.

[change] Occupied Japan

After the end of the Second World War, Japan came under international control. Japan became an important friend of the USA when it entered into the Cold war with Korea. Over next few years, many political, economic and social changes took place. Japanese Diet (legislature) came into being. In 1951, USA and 45 other countries signed an agreement with Japan, and Japan again became an independent nation with full power (a country with full sovereignty) on 28th April 1952.

[change] Post-Occupation Japan

Post-Occupation Japan means Japan after its occupation and control by a group of nations had ended. This is the period after the Second World War. The Second World War had damaged Japan very badly. It has almost lost its industry and economy was in a very bad shape. After the war, Japan received assistance and technology from the USA and several other countries of Europe. The progress was very rapid. For about 30 years, from around the 1950s to the 1980s, Japan grew very fast. It became one of the major economic powers of the world.

When the UN forces were fighting in Korea during the Korean War, Japan was one of the major suppliers. This also helped Japan’s economy. By 1980s, Japan had become the world’s second largest economy, after the USA. At first, there was very close relationship between Japan and the USA. But, Japan’s economic might resulted into trade deficit for the USA. A trade deficit results when imports are more than exports. Thus, USA was importing more than it exported to Japan.

For various reasons, this phase of rapid development ended in the 1990s. Some historians have described this decade as the lost decade of Japanese economy. About 5 to 10 persons in 100 persons could not find any work.

[change] Political life

By 1952, Japan had become free from most of the controls of occupation period. It got its own democratic system. Various political parties came into being and Japan’s political life became active.

[change] Modern Life (Heisei Era)

Historians and sociologists call the recent life of Japan as modern life. In Japanese language, this period is called Heisei. By 1989, Japan’s economy had become a very big economy. All round development had taken place. Japan’s military growth again started[source?]. In the Gulf war of 1991, Japan gave billions of dollars.

Japan also faced some problems. In 1995, a big earthquake took place in Kobe. Another earthquake took place on 23rd October 2004 in Niigata Prefecture.

[change] References

  1. 1.     Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,“Nara and Heian Periods”; retrieved 2011-10-20.
  2. 2.     Library of Congress Country Studies, Japan,“Kamakura and Muromachi periods”; retrieved 2011-10-20

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The Edo period

 1603-1868

The edo  or Tokugawa period was a time of relative peace administered by a conservative military government.

In order to encourage stability, and influenced by a revived interest in Confucian mores, the Tokugawa regime segregated society into four classes: warriors, farmers, artisans, and—at the bottom of the heap—merchants. Seeking to control public behavior,

 

 

 

 

 

 the Tokugawa shogunate

 

set aside walled areas in all major cities for the establishment of brothels, teahouses, and theaters. In these districts all classes comingled, and money and style dominated.

 

 

 

 

Legendary Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu Story [+Pict] ~

Tokugawa Ieyasu ( ;

 born in Okazaki, January 31, 1543 – died in Shizuoka, June 1, 1616 at the age of 73 years, born with the name of Matsudaira Takechiyo 千代) was a daimyo and the shogun in Japan. The founder of the Tokugawa shogunate that ruled Japan from conquering Ishida Mitsunari in the Battle of Sekigahara in 1600 until the Meiji Restoration in 1868. Together with Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Oda Nobunaga, Ieyasu was one of three unifying Japan in the Sengoku period. He reigned from the year 1600 because sepeninggalan Shogun Hideyoshi’s happening in the power struggle between the daimyo.daimyo akhirna Ieyasu managed to seize power keshogunan.Perang brothers among the Daimyo memperubatkan keshoguna power, famous for its war Sekighara. Tokugaw shogun Ieyasu founded the dynasty, reign centered in Edo. during 264 years (1603-1868) Tokugawa dynasty in power in jepang.Pemerintahanya run by military dictators who kejam.kekuasaany tend to be military dictator who kejam.kekuasaanya absolud tend to be like in the disciplines of military organization.

Spoiler for life early:
Early life of Ieyasu was born in Okazaki Castle in Mikawa region on the day to 26 months to 12 and year 11 tenbun, Japanese Calendar. originally named Matsudaira Takechiyo, he was the son of Matsudaira Hirotada ( ), daimyo of Mikawa Matsudair clan, his mother called Odaikata (於大 ), the daughter of a samurai Mizuno tadamasa. two years later, Odainokata is sent back to his family and never come back again.


Spoiler for Period Matsudaira:
Matsudaira clan split in 1550, on the one side chose to follow the Clan Imagawa and on the other hand prefer the Oda Clan. As a result, Ieyasu spent early life was in danger because the impact of war-Oda Imagawa. Matsudaira clan feud arising from the killing grandfather Ieyasu, Matsudaira Kiyoyasu. different from his father, who favored the Imagawa clan.

year 1548, when Oda clan invaded Mikawa, Hirotada have recourse to Imagawa Yoshimoto, Imagawa Clan Daimyo, to expel Oda Clan of Mikawa. Yoshimoto agreed to assist with the provision Takechiyo Hirotada send his son to Sumpu as hostages, Hirotada agreed. Nobuhide Oda, Oda Klan leader, to learn about this agreement and of Rombangan Ieyasu abducted on his way to Sumpu. Ieyasu was only six years old.

 

 

 

Spoiler for Appearance Nobuhide ODA:


Nobuhide threatened to execute Takechiyo / Ieyasu unless his father severed all ties with the Imagawa clan. Hirotada replied mengkorbankan son would happen if a serious problem with the Imagawa clan. though rejected, Nobuhide chose not to kill Takechiyo but detained him for three years at the temple manshoji, Nagoya.

Spoiler for future Takechiyo / Tokugawa:

in the year 1549, when Takechiyo was seven years old, his father, Hirotada died. at almost the same, Oda Nobuhide died of plague. death becomes heavy blow to the Oda clan. soldiers under the command Imagawa, Sessai Taigen besieged fortress which is home of new Daimyo Oda clan, Oda Nobuhiro. with the fortress will fall, offers a siege when the Klan Sessai Oda would not give up or surrender Takechiyo taken as hostages and taken to Sumpu. Here he gets a pretty good life as a hostage and an ally Imagawa potentially in the future.
Quote:
Additional After Death Takechiyo. power is replaced by Tokugawa Hidetada
Quote:
Additional At the time of Mikawa Toda Yasumitsu defected from clan to clan Oda Imagawa, Matsudaira Takechiyo hostage was rescued from the enemy. Nobunaga is often spent childhood together Takechiyo Matsudaira (later known as Tokugawa Ieyasu) so that they make lasting friendships.

 

 

For the first time, artists were inspired by and responded to the interests and preferences of the general public.

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Edo-period cities

contained newly rich townspeople,

Hagi -

A town where you can still use a map from the Edo period

Tsuwano -

A town where historical buildings from the Edo period are preserved

What was the Edo period? (the 1600s)

 

 

 

Hagi – The Living Museum

In 1604, Mori Terumoto

 

 

 

made Hagi

 

This is Japanese Hagi ware (Hagi-yaki) serving plate set.

 

Mori Terumoto Made Hagi his stronghold, and for a period of 260 years,

 

 

This is a Japanese traditional HAGI ware sake bottle and cups set.

Hagi ware is pottery made in Hagi area in Yamaguchi PrefectureW.

In 1604, Mori Terumoto, a Japanese feudal lord, brought two Goryeo artists to Japan from the Korean Peninsula, and then built a kiln in Hagi; therefore, Hagi ware is originated from Goryeo (the present Korea) ware.

Hagi ware was especially prized by the masters of tea ceremony.

There is a saying goes “Raku ware is the best for teacup, secondly Hagi ware and thirdly Karatsu.”

The most attracting feature of Hagi ware is that it changes the design time after time.

The change happens by the balance of the clay and glaze.

After the pottery baked, it gets tiny cracks, and tea stains the cracks and makes designs.

More it is used, it becomes tastier.

 

 

Hagi prospered as a prominent castle town worth 360,000 bales of rice (in that period, each clan was allotted a certain number of rice bales per year, and this represented the worth of the clan). There are many historical properties and atmospheric street scenes left from that period, and even today a map from the Edo period can still be used. The phrase “Hagi – The Living Museum” means that the entire city can be taken as a museum, and we are promoting a “new type of city planning” that preserves and takes advantage of the treasures of the city. The Hagi Museum is the center of that program, providing the opportunity for visitors to study the natural environment, the history, the ethnic customs, and culture of Hagi.


The Hagi Museum


A City Perfect For Wearing Kimono – Hagi – Kimono Walk In Hagi

With its long history, the beautiful scenery and street scenes of Hagi have long been loved and protected by the residents of the city.

Japanese yukata and kimono,

 symbolize the Japanese concept of “harmony,” and as a city where this style of clothing looks appropriate, we feel that we must preserve the harmony, the culture and the atmosphere of the street scenes of Hagi for the generations to follow.

In order to achieve that goal, we have initiated several events and programs, such as the “Yukata Campaign,” the “Kimono Walk In Hagi,” and the Hagi Taketoro Monogatari (Hagi Bamboo Lantern Street Illumination Story), so that visitors can learn about the atmosphere and culture of Japane.


Castle Town


Yomei-ji Temple (Tsuwano-cho)

Built approximately 230 years ago, Yomei-ji Temple is noted for its main hall, which is capped by a roof that is fully thatched, a rare example of such a structure in Japan. In addition, this site contains buildings that are vividly evocative of a traditional Zen temple.

Thatched roof:

A traditional Japanese roof structure made of thatch

 

 

Takeda Shin-Gen

It emerged as a major in the earth. Relies on the wisdom and decisive decisions. But to hold up as the biggest in the land, but in the end. I need more than that. That’s what I call it.

Takeda Shin-Gen

 

is adjacent to the capital to fully It was an ulcer attack. In that era, is a disease with no cure. He was seriously ill. Takeda and army troops could not move further. Eventually died in the year 1573, including the age of 52 years.

Tigers end up on the commerce. He was the son of Takeda was the end of the trip (Shiro) to the backbone. Back to previous shadow and retreated back to the Takeda family of commerce in silence, then three years have provided a statement mourning the death of my first gen. The care in the military. Given as a function of the 10 senior military and Takeda, which specializes in combat on horseback, and a long battle with Shin-Gen. Thanked his nickname.

This is very interesting. If Shin Gen is not dead. And forward until it encounters Nobu in manga. The result will be a profit. You may have to write a new history after this. The death of Gen. accustomed to. Some Japanese historians agree that the potential of being assassinated. The tribe sent a Nobu in manga. The history of Japan during the war. The initially mysterious and complex. Those who live in the shadows and do not appear on the front of the tribe or the assassin. Has contributed significantly to the driving history. The death of Gen. Shin is a plan of Nobu in manga. Or the destiny of my own that I will apply up to the highest point of land.

 
When the opponent is too large to gen. I would not have satisfied the most out of Nobu in manga. They already know who is behind the Shin Gen Shogun Yoshi Akiba. So he decided to deal decisively with the shogun, Yoshi Akiba, to lose.

The original plan was to live in the Chicago Sun Shin Gen Honda’s Day in New York was held at the Asakura attack against Nobu in many of the manga. Shin Gen and Army troops into the capital. Nobu in the manga itself with the situation and determined to put his horse to the killer’s sketch over at Gifu already. But when Gen. Shin’s death. Plan everything down immediately. It’s just the Asahi Asakura and Honda do I measure it. Not enough to freeze the army of the south have a Nobu in the manga. That it is a mistake that Chiaki had been relying on the familiar gen too. When Shin-Gen have had a death. All plans are complete. But Chiaki is a bear to find a way to rebel against the Nobu in manga anyway. So Hosokawa Fuji’s chief of staff of his skin, which suggests that the Kyoto are virtually surrounded. To be re-oriented sound and response of Nobu in manga.

Nobu in the manga is not indifferent to the war and much more. Perhaps because of the war is over, they gen. He was larger than three thousand troops into the besieged capital. Chiaki to force a surrender. I fear the emperor had his Gi in the capital city will be swept. The two sides have made peace. Nobu Niigata sake in order to agree on Chiaki, but also to fight the bear. The next series of Britain’s alliance with the Mobile Home Park to start fighting again. Nobu La Manga is determined in order to deal with on Chiaki. Without a request for peace from the emperor.

 
The year 1573 seven months Nobu in manga army burned and destroyed the capital. And surrounding the Nijo Castle. Eventually I gave up on Chiaki. Nobu in Niigata not kill him. However, deported from the capital. And occupied a large place in the capital alone.

 

Shall end the rule of the road to New Moon. The manga series in Chicago with more than 200 years of the emperor as he was crowned as the new battle is only at the request of the Rancho La Manga Nobu.

Shall be the era of the fully edited. The next target is Nobu in manga is clear is that the family was in it, and Asakura.

That is the tragedy of war into the City in New Castle.

Original info

การจะผงาดขึ้นมาเป็นใหญ่ในแผ่นดินได้นั้น ต้องอาศัยความสามารถ สติปัญญา และการตัดสินใจที่เด็ดขาด แต่การจะขึ้นมาเป็นผู้กุมความเป็นใหญ่ในแผ่นดินแต่ผู้เดียวในท้ายสุดนั้น ยังต้องอาศัยมากกว่านั้น นั่นก็คือสิ่งที่เรียกว่าดวง

ทาเคดะ ชินเก็นกำลังจะเข้าประชิดถึงเมืองหลวงเต็มทน แต่กลับถูกโรคกระเพาะเล่นงาน ซึ่งในยุคนั้นนับว่าเป็นโรคร้ายที่ยังไม่มียาแก้ เขาต้องป่วยหนัก และทำให้ทัพทาเคดะไม่อาจเคลื่อนพลต่อได้ ในที่สุดก็เสียชีวิตลงในปี ..1573 รวมอายุได้ 52 ปี

เมื่อพยัคฆ์แห่งคาอิสิ้นลง บุตรชายของเขา ทาเคดะ คัตสึโยริ (ชิโร่) ก็ได้ขึ้นสืบทอดต่อ และรับหน้าที่ขุนพลเงาเพื่อถอยทัพตระกูลทาเคดะกลับไปคาอิอย่างเงียบๆ จากนั้น 3 ปี จึงจัดให้มีการไว้ทุกข์ขึ้นตามคำสั่งเสียก่อนตายของชินเก็น ส่วนการดูแลเรื่องทั่วไปในกองทัพนั้น มอบให้เป็นหน้าที่ของขุนพลอาวุโสทั้ง 10 แห่งทาเคดะ ซึ่งมีความเชี่ยวชาญในการรบบนหลังม้าและร่วมสู้ศึกกับชินเก็นมาช้านาน จนได้ฉายาว่าฟุรินคาซัน

ตรงนี้น่าสนใจมากว่า หากชินเก็นยังไม่ตาย และสามารถรุกคืบต่อไปได้จนได้เผชิญหน้ากับโนบุนางะ ผลจะออกมาเป็นเช่นไร บางทีอาจต้องมีการเขียนประวัติศาสตร์หลังจากนี้กันใหม่เลย ซึ่งการตายของชินเก็นนี้ นักประวัติศาสตร์ญี่ปุ่นบางคนก็ลงความเห็นว่าอาจเกิดจากการถูกลอบสังหาร โดยพวกนินจาที่โนบุนางะส่งมา เนื่องจากประวัติศาสตร์ญี่ปุ่นในช่วงสงครามนั้น มีเบื้องหน้าเบื้องหลังที่ลึกลับและซับซ้อนมาก บรรดาผู้ที่อาศัยในเงามืดและไม่ได้แสดงตัวที่ด้านหน้าเช่นพวกนินจาหรือมือสังหารนั้น มีส่วนอย่างมากในการผลักดันประวัติศาสตร์ให้เป็นไป ซึ่งการตายของชินเก็นนั้นอาจเป็นแผนการของโนบุนางะ หรือเป็นชะตาของชินเก็นเองที่ไม่มีดวงพอจะขึ้นไปถึงจุดสูงสุดของแผ่นดิน

 

เมื่อเสี้ยนหนามใหญ่อย่างชินเก็นหายไป ผู้ที่หัวเราะอย่างสะใจที่สุดย่อมไม่พ้นโนบุนางะ เขารู้อยู่แล้วว่าผู้อยู่เบื้องหลังของชินเก็นคือโชกุนโยชิอากิ ดังนั้นเขาจึงได้ตัดสินใจที่จะจัดการกับโชกุนโยชิอากิให้เด็ดขาดเสีย

เดิมทีแผนการของโยชิอากิคือการอาศัยกำลังของชินเก็น วันฮอนกันจิ อาซาอิ อาซาคุระ จัดขึ้นเป็นแนวร่วมเข้ารุกโนบุนางะจากหลายทาง และให้ชินเก็นบกทัพเข้าเมืองหลวง ฝ่ายโนบุนางะเองก็พร้อมรับสถานการณ์และตั้งใจจะเผด็จศึกกับกองทัพม้าไร้เทียมทานของชินเก็นที่กิฟุอยู่แล้ว แต่ในเมื่อชินเก็นตายลง แผนทุกอย่างก็พังทันที เพราะลำพังกองทัพอาซาอิ อาซาคุระ และวัดฮอนกันจินั้น ยังไม่เพียงพอที่จะตรึงทัพของโนบุนางะไว้ทุกทิศได้ จะว่าไปแล้วโยชิอากิเองก็พลาดที่หวังพึ่งในตัวชินเก็นมากเกินไป เมื่อชินเก็นต้องมาป่วยตายลงแบบนี้ แผนทุกอย่างก็จบสิ้น แต่โยชิอากิก็ยังดึงดันที่จะหาทางก่อกบฏต่อโนบุนางะอยู่ดี ดังนั้นโฮโซคาว่า ฟุจิทากะ เสนาธิการของเขาจึงแนะนำให้ใช้กำลังเข้าล้อมจวนที่ว่าการเกียวโต เพื่อจะดูกำลังและหยั่งเชิงการตอบโต้ของโนบุนางะ

ผลคือโนบุนางะไม่ได้แยแสกับศึกทางภายนอกมากเท่าไหร่นัก อาจเพราะศึกทางภายนอกไร้ชินเก็นแล้วก็ได้ เขายกทัพใหญ่กว่า 3 หมื่นเข้าล้อมเมืองหลวงไว้ เพื่อบีบให้โยชิอากิยอมแพ้ องค์จักรพรรดิโองิมาจิเกรงการศึกที่เกิดขึ้นจะทำให้เมืองหลวงต้องพินาศ จึงมีรับสั่งขอให้ทั้งสองฝ่ายสงบศึก โนบุนางะเห็นแก่รับสั่ง จึงยินยอม แต่โยชิอากิก็ยังคงดึงดันที่จะสู้ต่อ จึงไปผูกพันธมิตรกับทางโมริ เทรุโมโตะ เพื่อเปิดศึกอีกครั้ง โนบุนางะจึงตัดสินใจเด็ดขาดในการที่จะจัดการกับโยชิอากิ โดยไม่สนใจคำขอให้สงบศึกจากองค์จักรพรรดิ

 

ปีค.. 1573 เดือน 7 โนบุนางะยกกองทัพเข้าเผาเมืองหลวงจนวอดวาย และเข้าล้อมปราสาทนิโจไว้ และในที่สุดโยชิอากิก็ต้องยอมแพ้ โนบุนางะไม่สังหารเขา แต่เนรเทศออกไปนอกเมืองหลวง และเข้ายึดครองความเป็นใหญ่ในเมืองหลวงไว้แต่ผู้เดียว

เป็นอันปิดฉากการปกครองของรัฐบาลมุโรมาจิ และตระกูลอาชิคางะ ที่มีมากกว่า 200 ปี จากนั้นองค์จักรพรรดิจึงยอมเถลิงปีศึกราชขึ้นใหม่เป็นปีเทนโชตามคำขอของโนบุนางะ

เป็นอันเปิดศักราชแห่งจอมมารอย่างสมบูรณ์แบบ และเป้าหมายต่อไปที่โนบุนางะจะต้องสะสางก็คือ ตระกูลอาซาอิ และอาซาคุระ

ซึ่งนั่นคือจุดเริ่มสู่การศึกแห่งโศกนาฏกรรมที่ปราสาทโอดานิ

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Mostly merchants and artisans known as

 chonin,

 

who gained economic strength by taking advantage of the dramatic expansion of the cities and commerce. Eventually, they found themselves in a paradoxical position of being economically powerful but socially confined. As a result, they turned their attention, and their assets, to conspicuous consumption and the pursuit of pleasure in the entertainment districts.

Chonin Informations

Chōnin 町人

Chōnin (“townspeople”, 【まち(P); ちょう() city ward) were a social class that emerged at the beginning of the 16th century usually settling around castles (jōka-machi 城下町 【じょうかまち】, “castle towns”). They consisted mainly of merchants and craftsmen who supplied goods and services to their feudal lords and the samurai. Subsequently, other people, peasants, workers and servants followed, offering their services to the former. As peasants and samurai were not permitted to engage in commercial activities townspeople rapidly grew rich. During Edo Period chōnin held the lowest social position subordinated to bushi (武士), peasants (nōmin) and artisans (kō). They were subject to restrictive legislation such as land and property confiscation or compulsory loans. Despite all those restrictions the merchant class grew in large numbers, eventually resulting in the term “chōnin” being applied to all urban inhabitants who were not nobles, samurai or peasants.

Merchants dealing in rice (rice brokers) were called

“fudasashi”

in Edo

look fudasahi market picture below

 

 

 

and

“kakeya” in Osaka.

 

Some of them became wealthy to a point where they were able to lend money to impecunious local daimyō.

Many peasants and samurai were heavily indebted to the chōnin, resulting in considerable resentment and social tension. On the other hand, chōnin acted as sponsors of arts and sciences. The term “chōnin-bunka” refers to a new style of urban and popular culture that thrived thanks to the rich merchants who contributed to the flourishing of kabuki, ukiyo-e, jōruri and literary genres such as chōnin-mono (short stories dealing with chōnin-life that emerged at the end of the 17th century), ukiyo-zōshi and haiku.

It is worth mentioning that quite a few big Japanese enterprises, many of them still in existence, were founded by rich chōnin. Despite their tremendous cultural and financial influence chōnin never managed to become a political factor and remained dependent on government sponsorship. Their influence waned after Meiji Restoration when their position as business leaders was gradually replaced by former samurai

 

While the military class continued to play an important role as art patrons, the pleasure quarters and the sophisticated entertainments they offered exerted an enormous impact on the culture of the Edo period. Celebrations of the exploits of the women, actors, and visitors of these districts provided the subject matter of the highly popular ukiyo zoshi novellas and ukiyo-e paintings and woodblock prints.

 The word ukiyo originally expressed the Buddhist idea of the transitory nature of life.

 

This rather pessimistic notion was overturned during the Edo period. The character meaning “to float” was substituted for the homonym meaning “transitory” to express an attitude of joie de vivre. This hedonistic culture that glorified life in the “floating world” was particularly well expressed in the production of woodblock prints, which made available to anyone with a bit of extra cash captivating images of seductive courtesans, exciting kabuki actors, and famous romantic vistas. For the first time, artists were inspired by and responded to the interests and preferences of the general public.

Kabuki,

performed in elaborate costumes and often with arresting make-up, provided viewers with highly entertaining plays drawn from traditional legends, historical events, and classical or popular stories. A fusion of dance and drama derived from the ancient Noh theater, kabuki was introduced in Kyoto at the beginning of the seventeenth century by a female performer named Okuni. Before it became an all-male theater, as it is today, kabuki underwent a series of transformations.

 After several years of success, the government, displeased by the highly profitable after-hours pursuits of the actresses, passed a series of prohibitions against female performers in 1629.

The young boys who replaced them incurred a similar prohibition in 1652,

after attracting too much attention from homosexuals, and their roles on stage were taken over by mature men.

Ukiyo-e represents the final phase in the long evolution of Japanese genre painting. Drawing on earlier developments that had focused on human figures, ukiyo-e painters focused on enjoyable activities in landscape settings, shown close-up, with special attention to contemporary affairs and fashions. As artists chose subjects increasingly engaged in the delights of city life, their interest shifted to indoor activities. The most favored subjects of painting in the early seventeenth century were scenes of merry-making at houses of pleasure, especially in the notorious Yoshiwara quarter of Edo. About the time of the Kanbun era (1661–72), actresses and the alluring courtesans of Yoshiwara were singled out for individual portrayal, often a scale larger than usual and garbed in opulent costumes.

Portraits of famous courtesans and actors were made more accessible to a mass audience in the form of inexpensive woodblock prints. The method of reproducing artwork or texts by woodblock printing was known in Japan as early as the eighth century, and many Buddhist texts were reproduced by this method. Until the eighteenth century, however, woodblock printing remained primarily a convenient way of reproducing written texts. What ukiyo-e printmakers of the Edo period achieved was the innovative use of a centuries-old technique.

In the late seventeenth and early eighteenth century, woodblock prints depicting courtesans and actors were much sought after by tourists to Edo and came to be known as “Edo pictures.”

 In 1765,

 new technology made possible the production of single-sheet prints in a range of colors. The last quarter of the eighteenth century was the golden age of printmaking. At this time, the popularity of women and actors as subjects began to decline.

During the early nineteenth century,

Ando Hiroshige (1797–1858)

and Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849)

 brought the art of ukiyo-e full circle, back to landscape views, often with a seasonal theme, that are among the masterpieces of world printmaking (JP1847).

In the decade following the death of Hiroshige,

in 1858,

 the major printmakers disappeared in the brutal sociopolitical upheavals that brought down

 the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867.

Edo’s society, the mainstay of ukiyo-e art, underwent a drastic transformation as the country was drawn into a campaign to modernize along Western lines. Like many other elements of Japanese culture, ukiyo-e was swept away in the maelstrom that heralded the coming of a new age.

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Yukihira and the Salt Maidens, Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1716–35
Okumura Masanobu (Japanese, 1686–1764)
Hanging scroll; ink and color on silk

33 1/8 x 12 7/8 in. (84.1 x 32.7 cm)
The Harry G. C. Packard Collection of Asian Art, Gift of Harry G. C. Packard, and Purchase, Fletcher, Rogers, Harris Brisbane Dick, and Louis V. Bell Funds, Joseph Pulitzer Bequest and The Annenberg Fund Inc. Gift, 1975 (1975.268.126)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

The young man strolling with an alluring courtesan plucks a whisker in the stylish hedonism affected by bon vivants of eighteenth-century Edo. In this painting, Okumura Masunobu, one of the most versatile artists to portray the theater and brothels in woodblock prints, gives an irreverent twist to a classical theme in an urbane parody of a story immortalized by the poet and statesman Ariwara no Yukihira (818–893). Two of Yukihira’s poems tell of his love for the sisters Matsukaze and Murasame, who, like him, were brought by misfortune to the lonely shores of Suma. Their love for Yukihira, during his three-year exile there, their heartbreak at his departure, and his parting gift of court robe and hat were well known through several popular kabuki plays.

Here, draped on the fabled pine of Suma, is the stylish coat and cap of an Edo bourgeois—not Yukihira’s court hat, which is seen in the crest on his sleeves. Erotic Heian and Edo motifs decorate the couple’s robes; the samisen on hers symbolizes the accomplished geisha, while the lattice and bamboo blinds on his evoke the secrecy of Heian romances. A palette of primary colors and gold heightens the contrast between their hedonistic world and that of the ink-painted shores of Suma. Index

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Crow and Heron, or Young Lovers Walking Together under an Umbrella in a Snowstorm, ca. 1769
Suzuki Harunobu (Japanese, 1725–1770)
Polychrome woodcut print on paper

11 1/4 x 8 1/8 in. (28.6 x 20.6 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1936 (JP2453)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

Suzuki Harunobu was one of the earliest woodblock print artists to exploit the full-color print technique, making him one of the most successful commercial designers in Edo. His first effort in making multicolor prints (nishiki-e), which had heretofore been made in black and white or with only a limited range of colors, was a calendar commissioned in 1764 and later widely marketed. During the next five years until his death, Harunobu capitalized on its popularity and designed hundreds of color prints of classical and contemporary themes.

Here an elegantly dressed couple stroll along under a shared umbrella beneath a snow-laden willow tree. The man is dressed in black and wears a hood, while the lady is cloaked in a flowing white outer robe. This fashionable pair reflect the rise of the wealthy chonin and their interest in elegant clothes, pleasurable pastimes, and the arts, especially woodblock prints. Harunobu depicted beautiful women as being slender and graceful. He

 

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Otani Oniji II, dated 1794
Toshusai Sharaku (Japanese, active 1794–95)
Polychrome woodcut print on paper

15 x 9 7/8 in. (38.1 x 22.9 cm)
Henry L. Phillips Collection, Bequest of Henry L. Phillips, 1939 (JP2822)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

The actor Otani Oniji II is captured here in the role of Yakko Edobe. A yakko is a manservant often used by samurai to perform violent deeds. Otani Oniji’s leering face, shown in three-quarter view, bristling hair, and groping outstretched hands capture the ruthless nature of this wicked henchman. Sharaku was renowned for creating visually bold prints that gave rare revealing glimpses into the world of kabuki. He was not only able to capture the essential qualities of kabuki characters, but his prints also reveal, often with unflattering realism, the personalities of the actors who were famous for performing them. Because kabuki plays have relatively simple plots, the acting style of the performer is central to the performance. As a result, successful kabuki actors enjoyed great celebrity status. Unlike earlier masters, Sharaku did not idealize his subjects or attempt to portray them realistically. Rather, he exaggerated facial features and strove for psychological realism.

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Three Kabuki Actors [from right to left]: Iwai Hanshiro V (1776–1847), Segawa Kikunojo (1802–1832), and Onoe Kikugoro III (1784–1849), Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1823
Utagawa Kuniyasu (Japanese, 1794–1832)
Surimono, woodblock print; ink and color on paper

Triptych, each: 7 1/4 x 8 3/8 in. (18.4 x 21.3 cm)
Purchase, Jack Green Gift, 2001 (2001.715.4)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

This surimono triptych, produced in honor of the New Year, features three kabuki actors, one per sheet, each standing near a tall fence. Branches of blossoming plum trees, the first flowers of early winter, and pine trees, a popular symbol of longevity, extend over the fence. These images from kabuki theater combine the sumptuous costumes, distinctive acting styles, and popular delights of the urban pleasure quarters. Two actors, Iwai Hanshiro V on the right and Segawa Kikunojo in the center, are portrayed in characteristic poses from female roles. Onoe Kikugoro III, on the left, is shown in a male role. The two figures on the left hold battledores (hagoita), and the actor on the right holds a feathered shuttlecock. Hanetsuki, a badminton-like game game, is a New Year’s activity. Because the figures do not interact with each other but stand in poses that well display their sumptuous clothes, the image focuses on the visual appeal of kabuki actors and their costumes.

Each sheet bears at least one humorous poem, a kyoka (literally “crazy poem”) composed by the following poets: Shohuen no Yamazumi; Shizentei rachi no Akikane; Ryuotei Edo no Hananari; and Ryukaen Fushi no Zuigaki. Each sheet bears the artist’s signature, Ipposai Kuniyasu ga (“painted by Ichiyusai Kuniyasu”).

Surimono, or “printed things,” are high-quality woodblock prints made on sumptuous, unsized paper. Made by special order, surimono were especially popular as New Year’s gifts. They differ from more typical woodblock prints in that they are usually made in very limited quantities, are frequently decorated with gold, silver, and copper overlays, and have added texture and depth

 

 

 

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The Great Wave at Kanagawa (from a Series of Thirty-Six Views of Mount Fuji), Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1831–33
Katsushika Hokusai (Japanese, 1760–1849); Published by Eijudo
Polychrome ink and color on paper

10 1/8 x 14 15/16 in. (25.7 x 37.9 cm) (Oban size)
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (JP1847)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

The preeminence of this print—said to have inspired both Debussy’s La Mer and Rilke’s Der Berg—can be attributed, in addition to its sheer graphic beauty, to the compelling force of the contrast between the wave and the mountain. The turbulent wave seems to tower above the viewer, whereas the tiny stable pyramid of Mount Fuji sits in the distance. The eternal mountain is envisioned in a single moment frozen in time. Hokusai characteristically cast a traditional theme in a novel interpretation. In the traditional meisho-e (scene of a famous place), Mount Fuji was always the focus of the composition. Hokusai inventively inverted this formula and positioned a small Mount Fuji within the midst of a thundering seascape. Foundering among the great waves are three boats thought to be barges conveying fish from the southern islands of Edo. Thus a scene of everyday labor is grafted onto the seascape view of the mountain.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

.

The Japanese porcelain industry

was actually pioneered by Korean potters living in Japan.

 

Many of them came to Japan during two invasions of Korea led by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in the 1590s.

 

 

An appreciation of Korean ceramics had recently developed in Japan, and many of the feudal lords who accompanied Hideyoshi brought back Korean potters to build up the ceramic industry in their territories (1983.557.2). The Nabeshima lord took Korean potters back to his province of Hizen on Kyushu, the southernmost of Japan’s main islands. These potters would eventually become the first producers of porcelain in Japan, but they started out by reviving the production of a type of stoneware called Karatsu ware (2002.447.21). This type of ceramic is usually simple, inexpensive, and made rapidly but skillfully on the potter’s wheel. The potters also introduced a new type of kiln to Japan, the noborigama, or climbing kiln, which allows for greater precision during firing. Therefore, when in the early seventeenth century the Korean potters living in the Arita district of Hizen found suitable clay for the manufacture of porcelain, the infrastructure for its production was already in place. The Hizen region thus became the major center of porcelain production in Japan.

The first porcelain made in Japan by these Korean potters is known as early Imari (1975.268.495). “Imari” refers to a port near the Arita kilns, from which these wares were shipped to the rest of the country. Since these porcelains were primarily for domestic consumption, the term “early” is added to distinguish them from later wares also classified as “Imari” which were typically for export. Most early Imari pieces feature designs painted in cobalt blue on a white ground, then coated in a transparent glaze, in the style known as underglaze blue (1975.268.477). The porcelain has a coarse, grainy texture and the designs are generally carried out by a free, fluid hand. The technique of painting pictoral designs under a clear glaze was sometimes employed on Karatsu ware, so early Imari may have in part stemmed from this earlier tradition.

Early Imari was probably also inspired by underglaze blue porcelain manufactured at kilns in the south of China. These heavy, rough wares with flowing blue brushstrokes were exported to Japan around the beginning of the seventeenth century. They differ significantly from the varieties of Chinese underglaze blue that were exported to the West from the Jingdezhen kiln, which have structured, stylized patterns. The less formal wares from the southern kilns conformed more to Japanese taste of the time, which was inspired by the tea ceremony and favored a rustic, simple appearance.

By the mid-seventeenth century, Chinese porcelain production, which had dominated the international market up to that point, went into decline due to social unrest and accompanying dynastic change. There was therefore a demand for porcelain in the international market shortly after the industry had begun to develop in Japan. This coincided with the early Edo Period (1615–1868), during which time the country was unified under the strict control of the Tokugawa shogunate. In 1639, less than a century after Europeans had first found their way to Japan, the shogun instituted a policy of national isolation. The Dutch and Chinese, however, were partially exempted from this policy. Dutch merchants were permitted to maintain residences on the small man-made island of Deshima, near Nagasaki, and continue trade with Japan. Responding to European demand, the Dutch encouraged the fledgling Japanese porcelain industry to fill the gap left by China. This Japanese export porcelain is commonly referred to as Arita ware (79.2.176a,b), for the district in which the kilns were located. From the nearby port of Imari, the Japanese would transport the goods to Nagasaki, where the Dutch or Chinese could pick them up and reship them to their final destination. They are therefore sometimes also identified as Imari ware.

The porcelain the Dutch brought to Europe in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries was some of the first Japanese art to which Europeans were exposed. However, these ceramics were not a direct reflection of indigenous styles because they were consciously designed to cater to Western tastes. To ensure that they would find a ready market, the Dutch often made wooden or earthenware models of designs they believed would be appealing to Europeans, and sent those to Japan to be copied. Therefore, some Japanese ceramics are decorated with designs credited to Dutch artists, such as the draughtsman Cornelis Pronk (2002.447.123). Models were also used to demonstrate European vessel shapes for the Japanese potters, who would have been unfamiliar with those forms (79.2.176a,b).

The Dutch also exposed the Arita potters to Chinese underglaze blue porcelain, which was popular in Europe, so that they could use it as an example in their own work. There were two varieties of underglaze blue that became models for Japanese export porcelain. The type known as kraak (1995.268.1) was commonly used for plates, while the Transitional style, also popular on Chinese export wares, was employed for closed shapes like jars and tureens. Kraak ware is identified by a paneled border around a central scene, and is generally quite regimented and complex (2002.447.40). Vessels modeled on Transitional wares usually depict stylized landscapes (2002.447.47a,b). Over time, there was a departure from this strict copying, and elements common in early Imari ware were incorporated into the export wares, giving them a more spontaneous feel.

A technique of using colored enamels over the glaze was developed in the 1630s, so that in addition to blue-and-white porcelain, multicolored objects could now be made (23.225.144). Since this new style appeared attractively exotic to European buyers, it was frequently employed in the decoration of Japanese export porcelain. One such type of overglaze enameled porcelain is known as Kakiemon ware, because it was made at the Kakiemon kiln in Arita. These objects feature motifs derived from Japanese paintings, such as figures, animals, and flowers, which were painted in a distinctive palette of red, yellow, green, blue, and black on a milky white ground (1975.268.528).

The Nabeshima lord, who supported and controlled the Arita kilns, also spurred the development of a new style of porcelain. In order to win favor with the shogunate, he would regularly present gifts of porcelain. Originally, he imported wares from the Chinese kiln site of Jingdezhen, since those were considered to be of the finest quality. However, around the middle of the seventeenth century, as domestic porcelain improved and foreign imports declined, the Nabeshima lord commissioned the production of a specialty ware at a separate kiln in his province. Perhaps the most refined and elegant variety of Japanese porcelain, this is known as Nabeshima ware, and was created exclusively for the shogunal family, feudal lords, and the nobility (1975.268.556). The techniques and designs of this kiln were kept secret and were not permitted to be imitated on porcelain for the general market. Nabeshima ware is characterized by smooth, uniform surfaces, soft colors, and Japanese motifs. Designs are painted precisely and often echo patterns from textiles and simple themes from the natural world (1975.268.555). Despite their beauty, these dishes were not purely decorative, but rather were used as tableware by the ruling classes. The rounded figures and high feet of these wares reflect the fact that they were intended to harmonize with the precious lacquer bowls that would be placed beside them.

 

Though Japan’s premodern porcelain history is rather short in comparison to its mainland neighbors, the industry had a vigorous life. Founded by Korean potters, inspired by Chinese styles, and encouraged by Dutch traders, Japanese porcelain absorbed foreign influence while also incorporating uniquely Japanese elements.

Anna Willmann
Intern, Department of Asian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

 


Large bowl with floral design, Edo period (1615–1868)
Japan
Porcelain with celadon glaze and underglaze blue (Hizen ware, early Imari type)

H. 4 5/8 in. (11.7 cm), Diam. 12 1/2 in. (31.8 cm)

This bowl is an interesting example of the early Imari style of porcelain. Early Imari was the first porcelain produced in Japan, and was typically made in the blue-and-white style, in which designs would be painted on the white surface in cobalt and then covered with a transparent glaze. This bowl, however, was covered with a celadon glaze, giving the vessel a soft green color. The shape of the bowl is reminiscent of a flower, and there are floral designs painted beneath the glaze. I


Dish with figure, Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1620
Japan
Porcelain with underglaze blue (Hizen ware, early Imari type)

H. 1 1/8 in. (3 cm), Diam. 6 in. (15.2 cm)

A lone figure is loosely drawn in cobalt blue on the blank white clay, covered in a transparent glaze. The free style of painting and the empty background of this dish reflect compositional elements found throughout Japanese art. The grainy quality of the surface was probably the potter’s intention, since a rustic style was fashionable at the time this was made.

This dish is classified as early Imari, the type of Japanese porcelain produced in the first half of the seventeenth century, primarily for the domestic market. Early Imari was the first porcelain produced in Japan, and was made in the Arita region of the island of Kyushu, then shipped to the rest of the country from the port of Imari. The exact year when porcelain was first made in Japan in still debated, but it was most likely in the 1610s. Since this work dates from around 1620, it is a very early example of Japanese porcelain. Early works such as this were not mass produced and were presumably expensive to make, so they were considered luxury items.

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Wine bottle, Edo period (1615–1868), first half of 17th century
Japan
Porcelain with underglaze blue (Hizen ware, early Imari type)

H. 6 3/8 in. (16.1 cm), Diam. 3 1/2 in. (8.9 cm)
,

The flower pattern on this delicate bottle was painted with soft brushstrokes, resulting in a fluid appearance and pale coloring. The focus on an isolated motif from nature is characteristic of early Imari porcelain, a style that differed from Chinese porcelain, which would later have a profound effect on Japanese wares.

This porcelain vessel would have been used as a wine bottle for sake, Japanese rice wine. It belongs to the category of early Imari, which is the first type of porcelain produced in Japan. Works considered early Imari were made from the 1610s to the 1660s. After this point, the style of Japanese porcelain changed drastically due to the stimulation of the industry by the Dutch East India Company, when it began to buy Japanese wares and export them to Europe.

 


Coffee pot, Edo Period (1615–1868), 1650–75
Japan
Porcelain with underglaze blue and mounted with silver (Hizen ware, Arita type)

H. 12 1/2 in. (31.8 cm)

A seemingly odd shape for Japanese porcelain, this coffee pot was made specifically for export to Europe. From the mid-seventeenth to the mid-eighteenth century, when Chinese porcelain production was in decline, the Japanese porcelain industry thrived through trade with the Dutch. Since shapes like coffee pots were unfamiliar to Japanese potters, the Dutch would provide models to be copied. Additions of silver or gold mountings to a porcelain vessel were common in export wares, highlighting the high value placed on porcelain by the wealthy European consumers.

 


Jar, Momoyama period (1573–1615)
Japan
Stoneware with painted decoration in underglaze brown iron (Karatsu ware)

H. 4 1/2 in. (11.4 cm), W. 6 in. (15.2 cm)

It was in the Karatsu area of the island of Kyushu that Korean potters first introduced the noborigama, or climbing kiln, to Japan. This type of kiln was more advanced than previous ones, and allowed for better control during firing. This jar, painted with a simple motif reminiscent of the character dai, or great, was made in such a kiln. This austere aesthetic was promoted by followers of the tea ceremony during the Momoyama period. The techniques employed by Korean potters at Karatsu kiln sites were integral to the emergence of porcelain production in Japan in the early seventeenth century.

 


Standing figure, Edo period (1615–1868), late 17th century
Japan
Porcelain with underglaze blue decoration (Hizen ware, Kakiemon type)

H. 15 5/8 in. (39.7 cm), W. 5 3/8 in. (13.7 cm), D. 4 7/8 in. (12.4 cm)

This type of brightly colored female figure is a popular example of exotica exported from Japan to Europe in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries. It was executed in the Kakiemon style, in which bright, overglaze enamels are applied to the white porcelain surface. This figure is dressed in a fashionable outfit of the day; she is draped in several layers of kimono, which are belted at the waist with a black obi. Characteristic of Japanese fashion, the contours of her body are obscured by the layers of fabric, but the material itself catches the viewer’s eye. She wears a jovial expression, and one foot is slightly revealed at the hem of her garment, but her hands are held demurely by her body.

Depictions of such bijin, or beautiful ladies, were also becoming popular in Japan at this time in the newly budding art form of ukiyo-e, or “pictures of the floating world.” Ukiyo-e woodblock prints showed various aspects of the pleasure quarters that flourished during this period, including courtesans and onnagata, male kabuki actors who played female roles. The fashions of the day were typically shaped by the denizens of the pleasure quarters, and this figure’s attire is probably also styled on such a model


Large tureen and cover with landscape decoration, Edo period (1615–1868), late 17th century
Japan
Porcelain with underglaze blue (Arita ware)

Diam. 10 in. (25.4 cm)

This large tureen is a piece of export porcelain made for the European trade that was conducted by the Dutch during the Edo period (1615–1868). It is decorated in the Transitional style, in which a stylized landscape scene is executed in underglaze blue on a white surface. This style originated in Chinese export porcelain and was popular in Europe in the first half of the seventeenth century. When, toward the middle of that century, the Dutch porcelain trade was carried out primarily with Japan, Chinese styles were used as models. This large tureen shape was not widespread in Japan, but rather was created specifically to meet the demand of European buyers.

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Plate with monogram of the Dutch East India Company, Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1660
Japan
Porcelain with underglaze blue (Arita ware)

H. 2 3/8 in. (6 cm), Diam. 12 3/8 in. (31.4 cm), Diam. of foot 6 3/8 in. (16.2 cm)

This porcelain dish is emblazoned with the monogram VOC, which stands for the Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, the Dutch East India Company. During most of the Edo period (1615–1868), the Dutch were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan. They were confined to the small man-made island of Deshima, off the coast of Nagasaki, from which point they acquired Japanese porcelain. Although the Dutch brought many wares back to Europe, the dishes inscribed VOC were intended only for officers of the company.

This dish has a white background decorated ornately in underglaze blue, with a paneled border around the rim. This is typical of the type of export ware known as kraak, which originated in China and was imitated by potters in Japan at the request of the Dutch.

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Dish with hydrangea design, Edo period (1615–1868), 18th century
Japan
Porcelain with celadon glaze and underglaze blue decoration (Hizen ware, Nabeshima type)

H. 2 1/4 in. (5.7 cm), Diam. 8 in. (20.3 cm)

This dish draws the viewer’s attention to a single sprig of hydrangea, a typical summer blossom of Japan, framed by a pale green mist. The flowers painted in cobalt blue paired with the hazy celadon glaze give the impression that we are seeing these flowers shortly after a summer rain shower.

The refined, almost poetic nature of this dish is appropriate considering its use. This is an example of Nabeshima ware, a specialty porcelain that was produced during the Edo period. The production of this type of porcelain was carried out at a separate kiln from those making commercial porcelain, in order to keep the techniques and designs secret. These wares would be reserved exclusively for use as presents to members of the ruling class. Nabeshima ware, therefore, had to live up to the highest standards and was made to suit a discriminating taste.

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Dish with cherry blossom design, Edo period (1615–1868), 18th century
Japan
Porcelain with celadon and iron glazes and underglaze blue decoration (Hizen ware, Nabeshima type)

H. 1 5/8 in. (4.1 cm), Diam. 7 3/4 in. (19.7 cm)

The design on this dish is painted in the classic tricolor palette of polychrome Nabeshima ware: cobalt blue, light green celadon, and a rust-red iron glaze. This almost abstract image shows a spray of cherry blossoms, a flower closely associated with Japan, against the backdrop of a multicolored curtain. Nabeshima ware was a specialty product reserved for the military rulers and nobles of Japan, so it was expected to be distinct from the porcelain sold to the general public, as well as more sophisticated. Therefore, the production of this type of porcelain was carried out at a separate kiln from those making commercial porcelain, in order to keep the techniques and designs secret.

 

Plate with design of ladies with parasol, Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1736
Japan
Design attributed to Cornelis Pronk (Dutch, 1691–1759)
Porcelain with underglaze blue decoration (Arita ware)

Diam. 10 1/2 in. (26.7 cm)

Two graceful ladies attired in Japanese kimono have stopped to look at three birds that have crossed their path. An inner border encircles the scene with floral designs, while the outer border contains panels with images of birds and ladies, echoing the central motif. The design on this plate is a modified version of a drawing by a Dutch artist named Cornelis Pronk, originally depicting Chinese ladies in the same setting. Pronk was commissioned by the Dutch East India Company to create a design for tea and dinner sets for Chinese potters to use as a model. At some point, this design made its way to Japan, where Pronk’s original design was altered to reflect Japanese fashions instead of Chinese. However, the Japanese versions of this type were sold privately, not by the Dutch East India Company.  


Plate, Edo period (1615–1868), 1760
Japan, Hizen Province, Arita kiln
Porcelain decorated with the figure of Ononokomachi in blue and brilliant enamels (Arita ware, Imari type)

H. 1 3/4 in. (4.4 cm), W. 8 in. (20.3 cm), L. 11 1/4 in. (28.6 cm)

This unusual dish is in the shape of a Heian court lady, identified by her sumptuous, multilayered attire and flowing black hair. The Heian period occurred several centuries before this piece was made, but was remembered as a high point in Japanese culture. It was a time of vibrant court life, when court ladies were becoming involved in literary pursuits; the beauty Ono no Komachi was composing poetry at this time, and the author Murasaki Shikibu penned her famous novel The Tale of Genji. People of the Edo period, when this dish was made, would have recognized a Heian noblewoman’s appearance from the beautiful handscrolls that depicted stories from that era.

Although this dish was produced at the Arita kilns, which are mainly associated with export porcelain, it was intended for a Japanese buyer. During the time this dish was made, in the mid-1700s, porcelain exports were slowing down and there was a focus instead on the domestic market. Additionally, the historical subject matter and unique shape suggest that this piece was privately commissioned by a Japanese customer. Several other dishes with similar designs are known, and it is believed that they have auspicious significance and were presented as gifts to children at holidays.

 


Incense burner (koro) with a reticulated cover, Edo period (1615–1868), mid-18th century
Japan, Hizen Province (Hirado ware)
White porcelain with blue underglaze decoration of maple leaves

H. 3 1/4 in. (8.3 cm)

Incense burners such as this were usually placed in the tokonoma alcove of a room both to scent the room and as decorative artworks. This oval-shaped incense burner has small legs, and a cover reticulated in maple-leaf forms to match the underglaze blue decoration of the body. The handle is a figure of a horse. The incense burner would have contained fine ash on top of which incense wood or incense mixture would have been burned. The delicate smoke of the burning incense would come through the reticulated maple leaves of the cover. The incense used would have provided a seasonal reference to autumn, along with the maple-leaf theme of the burner and other items displayed in the alcove, such as flowers and paintings or calligraphy.

 

 

Plate, Edo period (1615–1868), 19th century
Japan; Arita ware, Ko Kutani style
Green, yellow, black, and brown enamels

Diam. 8 5/8 in. (21.9 cm)
Dr. and Mrs. Roger G. Gerry Collection, Bequest of Dr. and Mrs. Roger G. Gerry, 2000 (2002.447.101)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

This handsome high-footed dish is a characteristic product of the nineteenth-century revival of Ko Kutani porcelain. The body is dense and very heavy, and it is crudely and boldly produced. The design is strongly drawn in the well and somewhat cursorily in the back. If there is a glaze under the coarse dark enamels, it is very thin and concealed by the overall decoration. The design of scattered fans that boldly defies the confines of the round plate is characteristic of these celebrated, if problematic, wares.

Controversy surrounds the definition of wares termed Ko Kutani (Old Kutani). The best known are large plates that feature bold, decorative designs rendered in a limited palette of blue, green, yellow, and aubergine, with touches of red. The pigments are so thickly applied that they often form deep pools of glossy color. It is now thought that Ko Kutani porcelain was made at the Hizen kilns on Kyushu, rather than at the Kutani kilns in northwestern Japan. After the 1660s, this ware was superceded by the more delicate wares of Kakiemon and Nabeshima.

 

 


Incense box (kogo) in the form of a plum flower, Edo period (1615–1868), mid-19th century
Japan, Hizen Province, Kutani kilns
Porcelain with polychrome overglaze decoration

H. 1 3/4 in. (4.4 cm)
Mark: Fuku, in black on green

Plum trees were not native to Japan, but were brought over to the island country from China in the Nara period (710–784). Plum blossoms appeared instantly in contemporary court literature, where they were associated with the bush warbler, representing the beginning of spring. Along with its symbolic value as a harbinger of spring, the plum blossom’s sweet fragrance was also an inspiration for courtly poetry. From as early as the Heian period (794–1185), plum trees appeared in paintings and in stylized form on decorative art objects, upon which frequently only the flowers were depicted. From the early history of the Japanese incense culture, plum had a significant role. Several incense mixtures and incense games were related to the flower. As a reference to its smell, the plum motif was often represented on incense-related utensils. Incense mixture balls would most likely have been stored in this plum-flower-shaped incense box.

 


Pair of incense boxes (kogo) in the shape of dog-charms (inuhariko), Edo period (1615–1868), ca. mid-19th century
Japan, Minpei kilns (active 19th century)
Porcelain with creamy glaze, polychrome and gold overglaze decoration

H. 1 3/4 in. (4.4 cm), L. 2 1/2 in. (6.4 cm)

Pairs of dog-shaped papier-mâché figures (inuhariko) were produced from the Heian period on as protective amulets. By the beginning of the Edo period, they were part of the traditional wedding set, used to ensure safe childbirth and also to protect the child’s health. Initially, inuhariko pairs—male and female—were presented at the engagement ceremony; later, they had an important role in the wedding process as well—they were carried in the wedding palanquin as good luck amulets. Inuhariko can also be found in the shape of cats. 

The forging of a Japanese sword

is a subtle and careful process, an art that has developed over the centuries as much in response to stylistic and aesthetic considerations as to technical improvements. To fashion these blades, the smith not only must possess physical strength, but also patience, dexterity, and a refined eye for the limits of the material and the beauty of a finished sword.

Japanese smiths traditionally use tama-hagane,

 steel produced in a tatara smelter from iron-rich sand. Modern smiths making Japanese swords in the traditional manner still use this type of steel today, now produced in the last operating tatara smelter, located in Yokota, Shimane Prefecture. However, the tatara smelting process, though efficient, is not perfect and tama-hagane is full of impurities and lacks a consistent dispersal of carbon content, the vital ingredient for turning iron into steel. Too little carbon and the metal will be soft, too much and the metal is brittle.

 

 

Sword blade (katana), Edo period (1615–1868), dated June 1622
Kanewaka, also known as Takahira (Japanese, active 1609–26)
Steel

L. 36 1/2 in. (92.8 cm), edge 28 1/8 in. (71.5 cm)
Signed and dated: Echu no kami Fujiwara no Takahira / Gen’na hachi nen rokugatsu hi
Gift of Etsuko O. Morris and John H. Morris Jr., in memory of Dr. Frederick M. Pederson, 2007 (2007.478.2a, b)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

Kanewaka was the most famous swordsmith of Kaga (now in Ishikawa Prefecture) during the shinto (new sword) period, which spanned 200 years, from the late sixteenth to the late eighteenth century. Sometime between making a sword dated September 18, 1619, and his next recorded sword, dated January 1621, Kanewaka began signing his blades with the name Takahira and including two important titles granted him by the emperor. This is seen in the signature on the Museum’s sword: Echu no kami Fujiwara no Takahira (Takahira, Honorary Governor of Echu, Honorary Member of the Fujiwara Family).

In forging the surface texture of blades he signed Kanewaka, the swordsmith favored a mixture of two patterns: itame (wood grain) and masame (straight grain). His later blades signed Takahira, of which this is among the most beautiful, show a change to the koitame pattern, a small, finely patterned wood-grain effect. The pattern of the temper line along the edge of the blade is also a key stylistic feature. Here Takahira chose an oblique clove-shaped pattern with mixed zigzag lines influenced by blades from the Mino and Aoe schools of the mid-fourteenth century to create a temper line that is one of the most attractive on his known works.

Uda Kunimitsu lived in Uda in Yamato

(present-day Nara Prefecture) and later moved to Ecchu (present-day Toyama Prefecture). He is recorded as working in the early to mid fourteenth century. There were three generations of Kunimitsu swordsmiths who were active from the early fourteenth century to the mid-fifteenth century, spanning the late Kamakura period to the mid Muromachi period. Uda Kunimitsu was the first generation swordsmith of the family and founder of the Uda School. Although there are a small number of surviving swords signed by Uda Kunimitsu, until the authentication of the inscription on this tanto in 1998 there were no known works by him that were both signed and dated. This tanto, therefore, provides an important foundation for the study of the entire Uda School.

The shape of the tanto has a very slight curvature, with proportions that are wider and somewhat larger than a typical tanto of the early 14th century, but which became more common later in the century. The surface texture of this blade combines the appearance of a wood grain with a straight grain. The edge is tempered with a narrow straight line bordered by a double line, characteristics that show the influence of the Yamato School of swordsmiths.

The unsigned mountings, which were made for this tanto in the 19th century, are subtle and elegant. The ribbed scabbard is covered in black lacquered sharkskin. The metal fittings on the hilt and the scabbard are made of silver and are beautifully chiseled with billowing waves. These are completed by the menuki (grip buttons), which are gilt copper, and the tsuba (sword guard), which is shakudo (a copper and gold alloy patinated bluish black) inlaid with gold

 

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Sword guard (tsuba), 19th century; Edo period (1615–1868)
Inscribed by Ishiguro Masayoshi (Japanese, 1772–after 1851)
Japanese
Shakudo, gold, shibuichi, copper

2 7/8 x 2 5/8 in. (7.3 x 6.7 cm)
The Howard Mansfield Collection, Gift of Howard Mansfield, 1936 (36.120.79)

On view: Gallery 378   Last Updated February 3, 2012

Tsuba were originally utilitarian fittings, made to protect the hand from the cuts of an opponent’s sword. From the sixteenth century onward, however, more decorative tsuba became the specialty of some craftsmen. By the nineteenth century, when this tsuba was made, there were many well-defined schools and styles of tsuba making. Tsuba were interchangeable and were often made as part of sets of matching sword fittings, which could be mounted with blades of various types and dates


Incense burner (koro), Edo period (1615–1868), mid-17th century
Nonomura Ninsei (Japanese, active ca. 1646–94)
Japan, Kyoto, Kyoto ware
Light fawn clay covered with crackled glaze and gold application; “flowers of the four seasons” decoration depicted in polychrome overglaze and gold paint

H. 6 3/4 in. (17.1 cm), W. 7 1/4 in. (18.4 cm), D. 7 1/4 in. (18.4 cm)
Mark: Ninsei (imprint)
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.668)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

The richly decorated body of this incense burner has diaper patterns on its shoulder and a metal cover. The seasonal motifs would have made the burner suitable for use with several types of incense. Ninsei was one of the first Japanese potters to mark his pieces. Before him, almost all Japanese potters were anonymous. His wares produced in Kyoto in the second half of the seventeenth century are known by their colorful overglaze and gold decorations as well as refined Kyoto-style patterns. Later, his style was adapted by several artists.


Six-lobed incense burner (akoda koro), first half of Edo period (1615–1868)
Japan
Black lacquer with decorations in ground gold, pear-skin sprinkling, line drawing, omitted line drawing, and needle drawing; metal rim and lattice work metal cover

3 1/4 x 3 7/8 in. (8.3 x 9.8 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1912 (12.134.29)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

With the rise of the warrior class to political power in the Momoyama period (1573–1615), a new style of lacquer ware called Kodaiji maki-e evolved. This technique included sprinkling of metal powder on lacquered architectural elements, tableware, and other types of objects that had not previously been decorated with maki-e (decoration of gold and/or silver sprinkled powder). The style originated in Kyoto, at the Kodai-ji temple, dedicated to the warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi (1536–1598). His wife, O-ne, erected the temple to commemorate her husband. The temple’s furnishings, which have black-lacquered surfaces decorated with autumn grasses in the maki-e technique, represent the quintessence of the new style. The delicately executed incense burner represents a later period and style of Kodaiji maki-e.

An autumn grasses pattern is depicted all around the body of the incense burner. The design includes chrysanthemum, bush clover, tail flower, arrowroot, pink, bellflower, and maiden flower. The seven grasses of autumn are mentioned in the earliest court anthologies of the Heian period (794–1185). Autumn comes with a certain sadness at the passing of summer days and the anticipation of cold winter, but nonetheless represents the beauty of changing nature.


Incense burner (koro) with reticulated cover, Edo period (1615–1868), 18th century
Japan, Satsuma Province
Earthenware, Satsuma ware with clear crackled glaze

H. with cover 3 3/4 in. (9.5 cm)
Rogers Fund, 1919 (19.14.2a–c)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

The cover as well as the body of this three-legged incense burner is molded and reticulated. The earthenware body is covered with a transparent, slightly yellowish crackled glaze, a typical glazing technique for Satsuma ware. Satsuma ware was produced in Satsuma Province in Kyushu from the sixteenth century by Korean potters brought over to Japan; later Satsuma ware was produced in Kyoto as well (Kyoto Satsuma). The body’s material represents a transition between porcelain and earthenware, fired at a lower temperature than porcelain. The harmonic proportions and the delicate curves of the object, as well as its undecorated surface, are indicative of the earlier history of Satsuma ware. By the mid-Meiji period (1868–1912), Satsuma ware was extensively decorated in overglaze polychrome paint and gold depicting bird-and-flower compositions, scenes inspired by woodblock prints, or similar popular Japanese imagery to satisfy the demands of Westerners. After Satsuma pieces were introduced at the 1867 Paris Exposition, they became popular among Western collectors, but the most appreciated collectibles for connoisseurs remained early Satsuma ware

 

 

Incense game utensils, Edo period (1615–1868)
Ryuryukio Shinsai (Japanese, mid-18th–early 19th century)
Woodblock print; ink and color on paper

4 7/8 x 10 3/4 in. (12.4 x 27.3 cm)
Signed: Ryuryukio Shinsai ga; seal: Ryu
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (JP2065)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

This privately commissioned, limited-edition New Year’s greeting print (surimono) depicts various utensils of the incense game. It features a decorative mica stand, which held the small, silver-framed mica plates under the chopped incense wood pieces as they were heated in the incense heater. The poem refers to several spring symbols using word play, as is customary in New Year’s greetings. Also mentioned is the first incense game of the year (hatsuneko), an incense game that celebrates the advent of spring.

Although the Japanese word for the tea ceremony, chanoyu, literally means “hot water for tea,” the practice involves much more than its name implies. Chanoyu is a ritualized, secular practice in which tea is consumed in a specialized space with codified procedures. The act of preparing and drinking matcha, the powdered green tea used in the ceremony, is a choreographed art requiring many years of study to master. The intimate setting of the tea room, which is usually only large enough to accommodate four or five people, is modeled on a hermit’s hut. In this space, often surrounded by a garden, the participants temporarily withdraw from the mundane world (San Francisco Art Museum  ).

 

In the tea room,

the emphasis is on the interaction between the host, guests, and tea utensils. The host will choose an assemblage of objects specific to that gathering and use those utensils to perform the tea preparations in front of the guests. Each tea gathering is a unique experience, so a particular assemblage of objects and people is never repeated. The guests are expected to abide by tea room etiquette with regard to the gestures used to drink the tea and the appreciation of the utensils. When presented with a bowl of tea, a guest will notice and reflect upon the warmth of the bowl and the color of the bright green matcha against the clay before he begins to drink (2002.447.28). The ceramics used in this context—tea bowls, water jars, flower vases, tea caddies, and so forth—are functional tools valued for their practicality as well as artworks admired for their aesthetic qualities. A key element in this practice is the host’s connoisseurship skills; the host acquires a collection of objects that conform to a shared aesthetic standard and selects which objects to use in a particular gathering.

 

The tea ceremony as it is known today emerged in the sixteenth century. It was an elite artistic pursuit that provided a forum for the rulers of Japan, the warrior elite, and wealthy merchants to forge and reinforce social ties. The first ceramic utensils appreciated in this context were ancient ceramics from China that had been handed down in Japan for generations (91.1.226). Imbued with the potency of age and the glamour of ancient Chinese civilization, which the Japanese had long revered as a source of culture, these objects were treasured in Japan. A shift occurred in the mid-sixteenth century, pioneered by influential tea masters such as Sen no Rikyû (1522–1591). These tea masters began to incorporate rustic ceramic vessels from Korea (1983.557.2) and Japan (25.215.47a,b), and found beauty in unrefined, natural, or imperfect forms. By the authority of their recognized connoisseurial abilities, the leading tea men of the time elevated these objects to the same level as the ancient Chinese treasures. This aesthetic that celebrates austerity, spontaneity, and apparent artlessness is known as wabi.

 

Many of the Japanese-made ceramics used in this ceremony are unglazed stonewares first intended as utilitarian vessels for farmers. Such wares were made at a variety of kilns, including Shigaraki (1975.268.428) and Bizen (25.215.47a,b). These sites produced vessels as early as the Heian period, long before the development of the tea ceremony or the wabi aesthetic. The different clay in each location resulted in specific colors and textures when the piece was fired. Shigaraki ware, for example, is characterized by a fiery orange color and a speckled, bumpy surface caused by the feldspar in the clay. Bizen ware, on the other hand, is known for its deep reddish to blackish brown color.

 

Since their purpose was not decorative, these vessels were not necessarily made with aesthetic considerations in mind. Large jars would usually be shaped using a method of coiling bands of clay, instead of the more precise potter’s wheel, often resulting in asymmetrical vessels. When fired in the kiln, ash would settle on the shoulders of jars, melt, and drip down the sides, resulting in natural ash glazes. Therefore, the ultimate appearance of these rustic pieces was unpredictable, shaped more by the forces of fire and the natural characteristics of the clay than by a careful hand. With these ceramics we can especially notice the role of tea practitioners in assigning value. Not every agricultural storage jar in Japan was deemed a work of art when the wabi aesthetic arrived. Rather, tea practitioners discovered certain objects and recognized specific qualities in the glaze, shape, and texture that they considered worthy of artistic merit. Each instance in which these “found objects” passed from one famous tea master to another contributed to their pedigree, further increasing their value.

 

Shortly after tea practitioners began to take an interest in the utilitarian vessels from sites like Shigaraki and Bizen, these kilns began changing their approach to ceramic production. They introduced new shapes into their repertoire that were specifically designed for use in the tea ceremony. Rather than placing objects in the kiln and letting the natural processes work unhindered, these potters began to predict the effects within the kiln in order to achieve the characteristics of glaze and shape that conformed to the aesthetic standard of the tea community. This was aided by the fact that the technology for making and firing ceramic vessels improved in the early seventeenth century, allowing potters more control over their work than ever before.

 

Furthermore, the establishment of the tea ceremony also led to the creation of new types of wares, such as Raku, Shino, and Oribe. Raku ware is particularly prized in the tea community. Most often in the form of tea bowls, these lightweight glazed earthenwares were molded by hand rather than thrown on a potter’s wheel (17.118.74). This difficult technique requires a high level of skill in order to produce bowls with thin walls of even thickness. Handmade bowls are also thought to better reflect the spirit of the maker than something thrown on a wheel. As opposed to agrarian vessels that were created by unknown potters, this type of ceramic puts more emphasis on the creator’s role in the process. Although many tea practitioners made their own Raku ware, the style has come to be most closely linked with the Raku family of potters, which traces its lineage to the time of the early tea master Sen no Rikyû, and still produces tea bowls today.

 

Shino and Oribe wares emerged slightly later than Raku, both produced at kilns in Mino province. Oribe ware was named for Furuta Oribe (1543/44–1615), a tea master and disciple of Rikyû, alluding to his well-known preference for warped or seemingly flawed wares. Glazed in eye-catching colors such as copper green, and molded into iconoclastic forms, Oribe ware is easily recognizable (1975.268.443). The flamboyant decoration indicates a shift in style at the time, and reminds us of the constant quest by tea practitioners to find new assemblages to intrigue and surprise their guests. Furuta did not directly oversee the production of these ceramics, but the style developed during the time he lived, in his native province of Mino, and was influenced by his taste in tea vessels. Shino ware, also favored by Furuta, is identifiable by the milky white glaze typically applied to the surface, and it is the first variety of Japanese pottery to which pictorial designs are applied. These designs were simple motifs from the natural world done with an unrestrained hand, coinciding with the wabi sensibility (1975.268.436).

 

Although tea wares were highly valued, it was not until the time of two great innovators, Nonomura Ninsei (active ca. 1646–94) and Ogata Kenzan (1663–1743), that potters began to sign their work. Ninsei was the first potter to do so. His work primarily consists in lavish tea jars and incense containers. His bold style of bright enamel designs was far removed from the humility of wabi, though his works were also highly regarded as tea utensils. In fact, his wares were popularized by the tea master Kanamori Sôwa (1584–1656) (29.100.668). His skill is evident in his less decorated pieces as well; a feeling of control and refinement is apparent in all his work (36.120.559a–f).

 

Ogata Kenzan also worked in Kyoto and inherited the techniques of Nonomura Ninsei, but his style differed greatly (29.100.614a,b). He seems to treat his ceramic works as paintings that simply happen to employ clay for the ground instead of silk or paper. Kenzan was the brother of the famous painter Ogata Kôrin, with whom he often collaborated. The brothers came from a wealthy background where the arts of painting, calligraphy, and poetry were part of their education. Unlike Ninsei, Kenzan did not train for many years as a potter, but rather approached ceramics as an amateur with an eye for design. The novel ceramic wares of Kenzan and Ninsei became the basis for a ceramic style associated with Kyoto.

 

Although the notion of wabi is useful in helping us to understand the high value placed on certain wares that may have gone unnoticed in other contexts, ceramics used in the tea ceremony came in a variety of styles. From sleek, dark Chinese tea bowls, to rough, unglazed Shigaraki jars, to the brilliantly enameled incense containers of Ninsei, a spirit of eclecticism can be found in the tea room. In fact, the contrast between these ceramics serves to highlight the unique beauty of each.

Anna Willmann
Intern, Department of Asian Art, The Metropolitan Museum of Art

 


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Tea bowl, Song dynasty, 960–1279; Jian ware
Fujian Province, China
Stoneware with hare’s-fur glaze

Diam. 5 in. (12.7 cm)
Edward C. Moore Collection, Bequest of Edward C. Moore, 1891 (91.1.226)

On view: Gallery 205   Last Updated February 3, 2012

The Jian ware temmoku tea bowls of Fujian Province have long been appreciated in Japan; indeed, the term temmoku itself is derived from the Japanese pronunciation of the Chinese Tianmu Shan, a mountain where, according to tradition, Japanese Buddhist priests visited a Buddhist temple and acquired some of these bowls to take back to Japan. The Jian tea bowls are fairly uniform in potting, with dark, coarse-grained stoneware bodies and lustrous bluish black or brownish black glazes that generally are shot through with brownish streaks likened to “hare’s fur.” Occasionally, as in this fine bowl, the glaze exhibits a multicolor surface iridescence as light plays across it.

 

Dish in the shape of Mount Fuji with a design of horses and deer, Ming dynasty (1368–1644), ca. 1620–30
China
Porcelain with underglaze blue over white slip (Jingdezhen ware)

H. 2 1/16 in. (5.3 cm), W. 9 7/8 in. (25.1 cm), L. 11 1/4 in. (28.5 cm)
Purchase, Barbara and William Karatz Gift, Gift of C. T. Loo and Company, by exchange and Rogers Fund, by exchange, 2010 (2010.206)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

This dish was made in China during the Ming dynasty (1368–1644), but was comissioned by a Japanese tea practitioner for use in the tea ceremony. It would have probably been used to serve a light meal that preceded the tea, known as the kaiseki. The shape of the dish is characteristically Japanese, imitating the iconic figure of Mount Fuji. The painting, however, is more Chinese in style, with deer and horses gamboling through a rugged landscape. The poem at the top echoes the painting; it reads, “Living among trees and rocks, roaming with deer and horses.” The style of the plate is known as ko-sometsuke, or “old blue-and-white.” The technique involves painting on the smooth white porcelain surface in cobalt and then coating the piece with a transparent glaze. The chipped edges on the dish resulted when it was shrunken during firing, but followers of the tea ceremony considered such imperfections desirable. Index

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Water jar (mizusashi) with design of pine trees, Edo period (1615–1868), ca. 1720
Japan
Stoneware with underglaze iron-oxide and lacquer cover (Kenzan style)

H. 4 1/2 in. (11.4 cm), Diam. 6 1/2 in. (16.5 cm)
H. O. Havemeyer Collection, Bequest of Mrs. H. O. Havemeyer, 1929 (29.100.614a,b)

Not on view   Last Updated February 3, 2012

This mizusashi is a container that would have been used in the tea ceremony to hold fresh water to rinse the tea bowls or fill the kettle. The potter coated the dark clay ground of this jar in a white slip, providing a light background for painting. The trunks of the stylized pine trees were painted in almost calligraphic strokes, while the leafy tops seem almost like puffs of clouds.

The style is that of Ogata Kenzan (1663–1743), though this jar was probably produced by one of his followers. Kenzan was an amateur painter and potter active in the Edo period, and was known for his painterly, decorative wares.

 

 

 

 

. Edo period History collections

 
 
 
 
 

 

 

The Edo Period (江戸時代, Edo jidai?), or Tokugawa period (徳川時代, Tokugawa jidai?),

is a division of Japanese history which was ruled by the shoguns of the Tokugawa family, running from 1603 to 1868. The political entity of this period was the Tokugawa shogunate.

The Tokugawa shogunate was officially established in Edo on March 24, 1603 by the shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu. The Tokugawa shogunate was overthrown by the Meiji Restoration on May 3, 1868, the fall of Edo and the restoration of Tenno‘s rule at the reign of fifteenth and last shogun Tokugawa Yoshinobu. [edit] Rule of shogun and daimyo

Main article: Tokugawa shogunate

 

 

Tokugawa Ieyasu, first shogun of the Tokugawa shogunate

A revolution took place in the centuries from the time of the Kamakura shogunate, which co-existed in equilibrium with the Tenno’s court, to the Tokugawa, when the bushi became the unchallenged rulers in what historian Edwin O. Reischauer called a “centralized feudal” form of government. Instrumental in the rise of the new bakufu was Tokugawa Ieyasu, the main beneficiary of the achievements of Oda Nobunaga and Toyotomi Hideyoshi. Already powerful, Ieyasu profited by his transfer to the rich Kantō area. He maintained 2.5 million koku of land, new headquarters at Edo, a strategically situated castle town (the future Tokyo), and also had an additional two million koku of land and thirty-eight vassals under his control. After Hideyoshi’s death, Ieyasu moved quickly to seize control from the Toyotomi family.

Ieyasu’s victory over the western daimyo at the Battle of Sekigahara (October 21, 1600, or in the Japanese calendar on the 15th day of the ninth month of the fifth year of the Keichō era) gave him virtual control of all Japan. He rapidly abolished numerous enemy daimyo houses, reduced others, such as that of the Toyotomi, and redistributed the spoils of war to his family and allies. Ieyasu still failed to achieve complete control of the western daimyo, but his assumption of the title of shogun helped consolidate the alliance system. After further strengthening his power base, Ieyasu installed his son Hidetada (1579–1632) as shogun and himself as retired shogun in 1605. The Toyotomi were still a significant threat, and Ieyasu devoted the next decade to their eradication. In 1615, the Toyotomi stronghold at Osaka was destroyed by the Tokugawa army.

The Tokugawa (or Edo) period brought 250 years of stability to Japan. The political system evolved into what historians call bakuhan, a combination of the terms bakufu and han (domains) to describe the government and society of the period. In the bakuhan, the shogun had national authority and the daimyo had regional authority. This represented a new unity in the feudal structure, which featured an increasingly large bureaucracy to administer the mixture of centralized and decentralized authorities. The Tokugawa became more powerful during their first century of rule: land redistribution gave them nearly seven million koku, control of the most important cities, and a land assessment system reaping great revenues.

The feudal hierarchy was completed by the various classes of daimyo. Closest to the Tokugawa house were the shinpan, or “related houses”. They were twenty-three daimyo on the borders of Tokugawa lands, daimyo all directly related to Ieyasu. The shinpan held mostly honorary titles and advisory posts in the bakufu. The second class of the hierarchy were the fudai, or “house daimyo”, rewarded with lands close to the Tokugawa holdings for their faithful service. By the eighteenth century, 145 fudai controlled such smaller han, the greatest assessed at 250,000 koku. Members of the fudai class staffed most of the major bakufu offices. Ninety-seven han formed the third group, the tozama (outside vassals), former opponents or new allies. The tozama were located mostly on the peripheries of the archipelago and collectively controlled nearly ten million koku of productive land. Because the tozama were least trusted of the daimyo, they were the most cautiously managed and generously treated, although they were excluded from central government positions.

The Tokugawa not only consolidated their control over a reunified Japan, they also had unprecedented power over the emperor, the court, all daimyo and the religious orders. The emperor was held up as the ultimate source of political sanction for the shogun, who ostensibly was the vassal of the imperial family. The Tokugawa helped the imperial family recapture its old glory by rebuilding its palaces and granting it new lands. To ensure a close tie between the imperial clan and the Tokugawa family, Ieyasu’s granddaughter was made an imperial consort in 1619.

A code of laws was established to regulate the daimyo houses. The code encompassed private conduct, marriage, dress, types of weapons and numbers of troops allowed; required feudal lords to reside in Edo every other year (the sankin kōtai system); prohibited the construction of ocean-going ships; proscribed Christianity; restricted castles to one per domain (han) and stipulated that bakufu regulations were the national law. Although the daimyo were not taxed per se, they were regularly levied for contributions for military and logistical support and for such public works projects as castles, roads, bridges and palaces. The various regulations and levies not only strengthened the Tokugawa but also depleted the wealth of the daimyo, thus weakening their threat to the central administration. The han, once military-centered domains, became mere local administrative units. The daimyo did have full administrative control over their territory and their complex systems of retainers, bureaucrats and commoners. Loyalty was exacted from religious foundations, already greatly weakened by Nobunaga and Hideyoshi, through a variety of control mechanisms.

 

 

The San Juan Bautista is represented in Claude Deruet‘s painting of Hasekura Tsunenaga in Rome in 1617, as a galleon with Hasekura’s flag (red swastika on orange background) on the top mast.

 

 

Itinerary and dates of the travels of Hasekura Tsunenaga

 

 

View of Dejima island as a Dutch trading post in Nagasaki, 1897

 From openness to seclusion

Main article: Sakoku

Like Hideyoshi, Ieyasu encouraged foreign trade but also was suspicious of outsiders. He wanted to make Edo a major port, but once he learned that the Europeans favored ports in Kyūshū and that China had rejected his plans for official trade, he moved to control existing trade and allowed only certain ports to handle specific kinds of commodities.

The beginning of the Edo period coincides with the last decades of the Nanban trade period during which intense interaction with European powers, on the economic and religious plane, took place. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautista, a 500-ton galleon-type ship that transported a Japanese embassy headed by Hasekura Tsunenaga to the Americas and then to Europe. Also during that period, the bakufu commissioned around 720 Red Seal Ships, three-masted and armed trade ships, for intra-Asian commerce. Japanese adventurers, such as Yamada Nagamasa, used those ships throughout Asia.

The “Christian problem” was, in effect, a problem of controlling both the Christian daimyo in Kyūshū and their trade with the Europeans. By 1612, the shogun’s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands had been ordered to forswear Christianity. More restrictions came in 1616 (the restriction of foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyūshū), 1622 (the execution of 120 missionaries and converts), 1624 (the expulsion of the Spanish), and 1629 (the execution of thousands of Christians). Finally, the Closed Country Edict of 1635 prohibited any Japanese from traveling outside Japan or, if someone left, from ever returning. In 1636 the Dutch were restricted to Dejima, a small artificial island—and thus, not true Japanese soil—in Nagasaki’s harbor.

The shogunate perceived Catholic Christianity to be an extremely destabilizing factor, leading to the persecution of Catholicism. The Shimabara Rebellion of 1637–38, in which discontented Catholic Christian samurai and peasants rebelled against the bakufu—and Edo called in Dutch ships to bombard the rebel stronghold—marked the end of the Christian movement, although some Catholic Christians survived by going underground, the so-called Kakure Kirishitan. Soon thereafter, the Portuguese were permanently expelled, members of the Portuguese diplomatic mission were executed, all subjects were ordered to register at a Buddhist or Shinto temple, and the Dutch and Chinese were restricted, respectively, to Dejima and to a special quarter in Nagasaki. Besides small trade of some outer daimyo with Korea and the Ryukyu Islands, to the southwest of Japan’s main islands, by 1641, foreign contacts were limited by the policy of sakoku to Nagasaki.

By 1650, Christianity was almost completely eradicated, and external political, economic and religious influence on Japan became quite limited. Only China, the Dutch East India Company, and for a short period, the English, enjoyed the right to visit Japan during this period, for commercial purposes only, and they were restricted to the Dejima port in Nagasaki. Other Europeans who landed on Japanese shores were put to death without trial.

 Society

Main article: Edo society

 

 

The house of the merchant (Fukagawa Edo Museum)

After a long period of inner conflict, the first goal of the newly established Tokugawa government was to pacify the country. It created a balance of power that remained (fairly) stable for the next 250 years, influenced by Confucian principles of social order. Most samurai lost their direct possession of the land: all land ownership was concentrated in the hands of the about 300 daimyo. The samurai had a choice: Give up their sword and become peasants, or move to the city of their feudal lord and become a paid retainer. Only a few land samurai remained in the border provinces of the north, or as direct vassals of the shogun, the 5,000 so-called hatamoto. The daimyo were put under tight control of the shogunate. Their families had to reside in Edo; the daimyo themselves had to reside in Edo for one year and in their province (han) for the next. This system was called sankin kōtai.

During the Tokugawa period, the social order, based on inherited position rather than personal merits, was rigid and highly formalized. At the top were the Emperor and Court nobles (kuge), together with the Shogun and daimyo. Below them the population was divided into four classes in a system known as mibunsei (身分制): the samurai on top (about 5% of the population) and the peasants (more than 80% of the population) on the second level. Below the peasants were the craftsmen, and even below them, on the fourth level, were the merchants.[1] Only the peasants lived in the rural areas. Samurai, craftsmen and merchants lived in the cities that were built around the daimyo’s castles, each restricted to their own quarter.

Outside the four classes were the so-called eta and hinin, those whose professions broke the taboos of Buddhism. Eta were butchers, tanners and undertakers. Hinin served as town guards, street cleaners and executioners. Other outsiders included the beggars, entertainers, and prostitutes. The word eta literally translates to “filthy” and hinin to “non-humans”, a thorough reflection of the attitude held by other classes that the eta and hinin were not even people. Hinin were only allowed inside a special quarter of the city. The actors usually travelled in groups from one village to another, performing in each city then moving to the next. Sometimes eta villages were not even printed on official maps.

The individual had no legal rights in Tokugawa Japan. The family was the smallest legal entity, and the maintenance of family status and privileges was of great importance at all levels of society. For example, the Edo period penal laws prescribed “non-free labor” or slavery for the immediate family of executed criminals in Article 17 of the Gotōke reijō (Tokugawa House Laws), but the practice never became common. The 1711 Gotōke reijō was compiled from over 600 statutes promulgated between 1597 and 1696.[2]

 

 

Edo, 1865 or 1866. Photochrom print. Five albumen prints joined to form a panorama. Photographer: Felice Beato

[edit] Economic development

 

 

Terakoya, private educational school

The Edo period bequeathed a vital commercial sector in burgeoning urban centers, a relatively well-educated elite, a sophisticated government bureaucracy, productive agriculture, a closely unified nation with highly developed financial and marketing systems, and a national infrastructure of roads.

Economic development during the Tokugawa period included urbanization, increased shipping of commodities, a significant expansion of domestic and, initially, foreign commerce, and a diffusion of trade and handicraft industries. The construction trades flourished, along with banking facilities and merchant associations. Increasingly, han authorities oversaw the rising agricultural production and the spread of rural handicrafts.

 

 

Tokugawa coinage: Ōban, Koban, Ichibuban (1601-1695).

By the mid-eighteenth century, Edo had a population of more than one million, and Osaka and Kyoto each had more than 400,000 inhabitants. Many other castle towns grew as well. Japan had almost zero population growth between the 1720s and 1820s, often attributed to lower birth rates in response to widespread famine, but some historians have presented different theories, such as a high rate of infanticide artificially controlling population.[3] Osaka and Kyoto became busy trading and handicraft production centers, while Edo was the center for the supply of food and essential urban consumer goods.

Rice was the base of the economy, as the daimyo collected the taxes from the peasants in the form of rice. Taxes were high, about 40% of the harvest. The rice was sold at the fudasashi market in Edo. To raise money, the daimyo used forward contracts to sell rice that was not even harvested yet. These contracts were similar to modern futures trading.

It was during the Edo period that Japan developed an advanced forest management policy. Increased demand for timber resources for construction, shipbuilding and fuel had led to widespread deforestation, which resulted in forest fires, floods and soil erosion. In response the shogun, beginning around 1666, instituted a policy to reduce logging and increase the planting of trees. The policy mandated that only the shogun and daimyo could authorize the use of wood. By the 18th century, Japan had developed detailed scientific knowledge about silviculture and plantation forestry.[4]

[edit] Artistic and intellectual development

 

 

Wadokei, Japanese-made clockwatch, 18th century.

During the period, Japan progressively studied Western sciences and techniques (called rangaku, literally “Dutch studies”) through the information and books received through the Dutch traders in Dejima. The main areas that were studied included geography, medicine, natural sciences, astronomy, art, languages, physical sciences such as the study of electrical phenomena, and mechanical sciences as exemplified by the development of Japanese clockwatches, or wadokei, inspired by Western techniques.

The flourishing of Neo-Confucianism was the major intellectual development of the Tokugawa period. Confucian studies had long been kept active in Japan by Buddhist clerics, but during the Tokugawa period, Confucianism emerged from Buddhist religious control. This system of thought increased attention to a secular view of man and society. The ethical humanism, rationalism, and historical perspective of neo-Confucian doctrine appealed to the official class. By the mid-seventeenth century, neo-Confucianism was Japan’s dominant legal philosophy and contributed directly to the development of the kokugaku (national learning) school of thought.

Advanced studies and growing applications of neo-Confucianism contributed to the transition of the social and political order from feudal norms to class- and large-group-oriented practices. The rule of the people or Confucian man was gradually replaced by the rule of law. New laws were developed, and new administrative devices were instituted. A new theory of government and a new vision of society emerged as a means of justifying more comprehensive governance by the bakufu. Each person had a distinct place in society and was expected to work to fulfill his or her mission in life. The people were to be ruled with benevolence by those whose assigned duty it was to rule. Government was all-powerful but responsible and humane. Although the class system was influenced by neo-Confucianism, it was not identical to it. Whereas soldiers and clergy were at the bottom of the hierarchy in the Chinese model, in Japan, some members of these classes constituted the ruling elite.

Members of the samurai class adhered to bushi traditions with a renewed interest in Japanese history and in cultivation of the ways of Confucian scholar-administrators, resulting in the development of the concept of bushido (the way of the warrior). Another special way of life—chōnindō—also emerged. Chōnindō (the way of the townspeople) was a distinct culture that arose in cities such as Osaka, Kyoto, and Edo. It encouraged aspiration to bushido qualities—diligence, honesty, honor, loyalty, and frugality—while blending Shinto, neo-Confucian, and Buddhist beliefs. Study of mathematics, astronomy, cartography, engineering, and medicine were also encouraged. Emphasis was placed on quality of workmanship, especially in the arts.

For the first time, urban populations had the means and leisure time to support a new mass culture. Their search for enjoyment became known as ukiyo (the floating world), an ideal world of fashion, popular entertainment, and the discovery of aesthetic qualities in objects and actions of everyday life, including sex (shunga). This increasing interest in pursuing recreational activities helped to develop an array of new industries, many of which could be found in an area known as Yoshiwara. The region was better known for being the center of Edo’s developing sense of elegance and refinement. This place of pleasure and luxury became a destination for the elite and wealthy merchants who wished to flaunt their fortune.[5] Their economy relied primarily on the patronage of such individuals in order to sustain itself. For many of those who inhabited and worked in this region maintaining the illusion of grandeur was the only way of supporting their business.

 

 

Kaitai Shinsho, Japan’s first treatise on Western anatomy, published in 1774.

Yoshiwara was home to mostly women who, due to unfortunate circumstances, found themselves working in this secluded environment. Combining factors such as rent, value of their employment contract, cost of clothing, make-up, gift giving and other expenses, this ensured that many would spend their entire lives working to pay off their debts . These females were expected to perform dances, sing, play an instrument, gossip or provide companionship in order that their guests would come again. As a result, the region developed its own culture which, in turn, determined what would be popular in the rest of the country. This was particularly true for fashion because a woman’s identity was determined by her clothing, specifically it clarified what her profession and status was within that field. The quality of her attire ensured that she stood out from the rest of her competition. It was her only means of establishing a reputation and helped to market her talents. However, Yoshiwara also possessed a seedier side. Much of the business conducted here incorporated the use of prostitution as a means to deal with the women’s cost of living. As a result, since its establishment was first authorised by Toyotomi Hideyoshi in 1589,[6] this area became the country’s government sanctioned red-light district. This designation lasted for approximately 250 years.

Professional female entertainers (geisha), music, popular stories, Kabuki and bunraku (puppet theater), poetry, a rich literature, and art, exemplified by beautiful woodblock prints (known as ukiyo-e), were all part of this flowering of culture. Literature also flourished with the talented examples of the playwright Chikamatsu Monzaemon (1653–1724) and the poet, essayist, and travel writer Matsuo Bashō (1644–94).

Matsumura Keibun is one of the most significant painters of this period. His works commonly included realistic depictions of birds, flowers and animals.[7]

 

 

The Great Wave off Kanagawa by Katsushika Hokusai (1760–1849).

Ukiyo-e prints began to be produced in the late 17th century, but in 1764 Harunobu produced the first polychrome print. Print designers of the next generation, including Torii Kiyonaga and Utamaro, created elegant and sometimes insightful depictions of courtesans. In the 19th century, the dominant figure was Hiroshige, a creator of romantic and somewhat sentimental landscape prints. The odd angles and shapes through which Hiroshige often viewed landscape and the work of Kiyonaga and Utamaro, with its emphasis on flat planes and strong linear outlines, later had a profound impact on such Western artists as Edgar Degas and Vincent van Gogh.

Buddhism and Shinto were both still important in Tokugawa Japan. Buddhism, combined with neo-Confucianism, provided standards of social behavior. Although not as powerful politically as it had been in the past, Buddhism was espoused by the upper classes. Proscriptions against Christianity benefited Buddhism in 1640 when the bakufu ordered everyone to register at a temple. The rigid separation of Tokugawa society into han, villages, wards, and households helped reaffirm local Shinto attachments. Shinto provided spiritual support to the political order and was an important tie between the individual and the community. Shinto also helped preserve a sense of national identity.

Shinto eventually assumed an intellectual form as shaped by neo-Confucian rationalism and materialism. The kokugaku movement emerged from the interactions of these two belief systems. Kokugaku contributed to the emperor-centered nationalism of modern Japan and the revival of Shinto as a national creed in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. The Kojiki, Nihon Shoki, and Man’yōshū were all studied anew in the search for the Japanese spirit. Some purists in the kokugaku movement, such as Motoori Norinaga, even criticized the Confucian and Buddhist influences—in effect, foreign influences—for contaminating Japan’s ancient ways. Japan was the land of the kami and, as such, had a special destiny. [8]

[edit] End of the shogunate

Main article: Late Tokugawa shogunate

[edit] Decline of the Tokugawa

 

 

Dai-Roku Daiba (第六台場) or “No. 6 Battery”, one of the original Edo-era battery islands.

 

 

One of the cannons of Odaiba, now at the Yasukuni Shrine. 80-pound bronze, bore: 250mm, length: 3830mm.

The end of this period is particularly called the late Tokugawa shogunate. The cause for the end of this period is controversial but is recounted as the forcing of Japan’s opening to the world by Commodore Matthew Perry of the US Navy, whose armada (known by Japanese as “the black ships“) fired weapons from Edo Bay. Several artificial land masses were created to block the range of the armada, and this land remains in what is presently called the Odaiba district.

The Tokugawa did not eventually collapse simply because of intrinsic failures. Foreign intrusions helped to precipitate a complex political struggle between the bakufu and a coalition of its critics. The continuity of the anti-bakufu movement in the mid-nineteenth century would finally bring down the Tokugawa. Historians claim that a major contributing factor to the decline of the Tokugawa was “poor management of the central government by the shogun, which caused the social classes in Japan to fall apart.” [9] From the outset, the Tokugawa attempted to restrict families’ accumulation of wealth and fostered a “back to the soil” policy, in which the farmer, the ultimate producer, was the ideal person in society.

Despite these efforts to restrict wealth and partly because of the extraordinary period of peace, the standard of living for urban and rural dwellers alike grew significantly during the Tokugawa period. Better means of crop production, transport, housing, food, and entertainment were all available, as was more leisure time, at least for urban dwellers. The literacy rate was high for a preindustrial society (by some estimates the literacy rate in the city of Edo was 80 percent), and cultural values were redefined and widely imparted throughout the samurai and chōnin classes. Despite the reappearance of guilds, economic activities went well beyond the restrictive nature of the guilds, and commerce spread and a money economy developed. Although government heavily restricted the merchants and viewed them as unproductive and usurious members of society, the samurai, who gradually became separated from their rural ties, depended greatly on the merchants and artisans for consumer goods, artistic interests, and loans. In this way, a subtle subversion of the warrior class by the chōnin took place.

A struggle arose in the face of political limitations that the shogun imposed on the entrepreneurial class. The government ideal of an agrarian society failed to square with the reality of commercial distribution. A huge government bureaucracy had evolved, which now stagnated because of its discrepancy with a new and evolving social order. Compounding the situation, the population increased significantly during the first half of the Tokugawa period. Although the magnitude and growth rates are uncertain, there were at least 26 million commoners and about four million members of samurai families and their attendants when the first nationwide census was taken in 1721. Drought, followed by crop shortages and starvation, resulted in twenty great famines between 1675 and 1837. During the Tokugawa period, there were 154 famines, of which 21 were widespread and serious.[10] Peasant unrest grew, and by the late eighteenth century, mass protests over taxes and food shortages had become commonplace. Newly landless families became tenant farmers, while the displaced rural poor moved into the cities. As the fortunes of previously well-to-do families declined, others moved in to accumulate land, and a new, wealthy farming class emerged. Those people who benefited were able to diversify production and to hire laborers, while others were left discontented. Many samurai fell on hard times and were forced into handicraft production and wage jobs for merchants.

Although Japan was able to acquire and refine a wide variety of scientific knowledge, the rapid industrialization of the West during the 18th century created for the first time a material gap in terms of technologies and armament between Japan and the West (which did not really exist at the beginning of the Edo period), forcing it to abandon its policy of seclusion and contributing to the end of the Tokugawa regime.

Western intrusions were on the increase in the early nineteenth century. Russian warships and traders encroached on Karafuto (called Sakhalin under Russian and Soviet control) and on the Kuril Islands, the southernmost of which are considered by the Japanese as the northern islands of Hokkaidō. A British warship entered Nagasaki harbour searching for enemy Dutch ships in 1808, and other warships and whalers were seen in Japanese waters with increasing frequency in the 1810s and 1820s. Whalers and trading ships from the United States also arrived on Japan’s shores. Although the Japanese made some minor concessions and allowed some landings, they largely attempted to keep all foreigners out, sometimes using force. Rangaku became crucial not only in understanding the foreign “barbarians” but also in using the knowledge gained from the West to fend them off.

By the 1830s, there was a general sense of crisis. Famines and natural disasters hit hard, and unrest led to a peasant uprising against officials and merchants in Osaka in 1837. Although it lasted only a day, the uprising made a dramatic impression. Remedies came in the form of traditional solutions that sought to reform moral decay rather than address institutional problems. The shogun’s advisers pushed for a return to the martial spirit, more restrictions on foreign trade and contacts, suppression of rangaku, censorship of literature, and elimination of “luxury” in the government and samurai class. Others sought the overthrow of the Tokugawa and espoused the political doctrine of sonnō jōi (revere the emperor, expel the barbarians), which called for unity under imperial rule and opposed foreign intrusions. The bakufu persevered for the time being amidst growing concerns over Western successes in establishing colonial enclaves in China following the First Opium War of 1839–1842. More reforms were ordered, especially in the economic sector, to strengthen Japan against the Western threat.

Japan turned down a demand from the United States, which was greatly expanding its own presence in the Asia-Pacific region, to establish diplomatic relations when Commodore James Biddle appeared in Edo Bay with two warships in July 1846.

[edit] End of seclusion

 

 

Matthew Calbraith Perry

 

 

Landing of Commodore Perry, Officers and Men of the Squadron To meet the Imperial Commissioners at Kurihama Yokosuka March 8th, 1854.

When Commodore Matthew Calbraith Perry‘s four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay in July 1853, the bakufu was thrown into turmoil. The chairman of the senior councillors, Abe Masahiro (1819–1857), was responsible for dealing with the Americans. Having no precedent to manage this threat to national security, Abe tried to balance the desires of the senior councillors to compromise with the foreigners, of the emperor who wanted to keep the foreigners out, and of the daimyo who wanted to go to war. Lacking consensus, Abe decided to compromise by accepting Perry’s demands for opening Japan to foreign trade while also making military preparations. In March 1854, the Treaty of Peace and Amity (or Treaty of Kanagawa) opened two ports to American ships seeking provisions, guaranteed good treatment to shipwrecked American sailors, and allowed a United States consul to take up residence in Shimoda, a seaport on the Izu Peninsula, southwest of Edo. The Treaty of Amity and Commerce Between the U.S. and Japan (Harris Treaty), opening still more areas to American trade, was forced on the bakufu five years later.

The resulting damage to the bakufu was significant. Debate over government policy was unusual and had engendered public criticism of the bakufu. In the hope of enlisting the support of new allies, Abe, to the consternation of the fudai, had consulted with the shinpan and tozama daimyo, further undermining the already weakened bakufu. In the Ansei Reform (1854–1856), Abe then tried to strengthen the regime by ordering Dutch warships and armaments from the Netherlands and building new port defenses. In 1855, a naval training school with Dutch instructors was set up at Nagasaki, and a Western-style military school was established at Edo; by the next year, the government was translating Western books. Opposition to Abe increased within fudai circles, which opposed opening bakufu councils to tozama daimyo, and he was replaced in 1855 as chairman of the senior councilors by Hotta Masayoshi (1810–1864).

At the head of the dissident faction was Tokugawa Nariaki, who had long embraced a militant loyalty to the emperor along with anti-foreign sentiments, and who had been put in charge of national defense in 1854. The Mito school—based on neo-Confucian and Shinto principles—had as its goal the restoration of the imperial institution, the turning back of the West, and the founding of a world empire under the divine Yamato Dynasty.

In the final years of the Tokugawa, foreign contacts increased as more concessions were granted. The new treaty with the United States in 1859 allowed more ports to be opened to diplomatic representatives, unsupervised trade at four additional ports, and foreign residences in Osaka and Edo. It also embodied the concept of extraterritoriality (foreigners were subject to the laws of their own countries but not to Japanese law). Hotta lost the support of key daimyo, and when Tokugawa Nariaki opposed the new treaty, Hotta sought imperial sanction. The court officials, perceiving the weakness of the bakufu, rejected Hotta’s request and thus suddenly embroiled Kyoto and the emperor in Japan’s internal politics for the first time in many centuries. When the shogun died without an heir, Nariaki appealed to the court for support of his own son, Tokugawa Yoshinobu (or Keiki), for shogun, a candidate favored by the shinpan and tozama daimyo. The fudai won the power struggle, however, installing Tokugawa Yoshitomi, arresting Nariaki and Keiki, executing Yoshida Shoin (1830–1859, a leading sonnō-jōi intellectual who had opposed the American treaty and plotted a revolution against the bakufu), and signing treaties with the United States and five other nations, thus ending more than 200 years of exclusion.

 

 

Tokugawa Yoshinobu in later life.

 

 

Kanrin Maru, Japan’s first screw-driven steam warship, 1855.

 Bakumatsu modernization and conflicts

Main article: Late Tokugawa shogunate

During the last years of the bakufu, or bakumatsu, the bakufu took strong measures to try to reassert its dominance, although its involvement with modernization and foreign powers was to make it a target of anti-Western sentiment throughout the country.

The army and the navy were modernized. A naval training school was established in Nagasaki in 1855. Naval students were sent to study in Western naval schools for several years, starting a tradition of foreign-educated future leaders, such as Admiral Enomoto. French naval engineers were hired to build naval arsenals, such as Yokosuka and Nagasaki. By the end of the Tokugawa shogunate in 1867, the Japanese navy of the shogun already possessed eight Western-style steam warships around the flagship Kaiyō Maru, which were used against pro-imperial forces during the Boshin war under the command of Admiral Enomoto. A French military mission was established to help modernize the armies of the bakufu.

Revering the emperor as a symbol of unity, extremists wrought violence and death against the Bakufu and Han authorities and foreigners. Foreign naval retaliation in the Anglo-Satsuma War led to still another concessionary commercial treaty in 1865, but Yoshitomi was unable to enforce the Western treaties. A bakufu army was defeated when it was sent to crush dissent in the Satsuma and Chōshū Domains in 1866. Finally, in 1867, Emperor Kōmei died and was succeeded by his minor son Emperor Meiji.

Tokugawa Yoshinobu reluctantly became head of the Tokugawa house and shogun. He tried to reorganize the government under the emperor while preserving the shogun’s leadership role. Fearing the growing power of the Satsuma and Chōshū daimyo, other daimyo called for returning the shogun’s political power to the emperor and a council of daimyo chaired by the former Tokugawa shogun. Yoshinobu accepted the plan in late 1867 and resigned, announcing an “imperial restoration”. The Satsuma, Chōshū, and other han leaders and radical courtiers, however, rebelled, seized the imperial palace, and announced their own restoration on January 3, 1868.

Following the Boshin war (1868–1869), the bakufu was abolished, and Yoshinobu was reduced to the ranks of the common daimyo. Resistance continued in the North throughout 1868, and the bakufu naval forces under Admiral Enomoto Takeaki continued to hold out for another six months in Hokkaidō, where they founded the short-lived Republic of Ezo.

 Events

  • 1600: Battle of Sekigahara. Tokugawa Ieyasu defeats a coalition of daimyo and establishes hegemony over most of Japan.
  • 1603: The emperor appoints Tokugawa Ieyasu as shogun, who moves his government to Edo (Tokyo) and founds the Tokugawa dynasty of shoguns.
  • 1605: Tokugawa Ieyasu resigns as shogun and is succeeded by his son Tokugawa Hidetada.
  • 1607: Korean Joseon Dynasty sends an embassy to Tokugawa shogunate.
  • 1611: Ryūkyū Islands become a vassal state of Satsuma domain.
  • 1614: Tokugawa Ieyasu bans Christianity from Japan.
  • 1615: Battle of Osaka. Tokugawa Ieyasu besieges Osaka Castle, all opposition from forces loyal to the Toyotomi family. Tokugawa authority becomes paramount throughout Japan.
  • 1616: Tokugawa Ieyasu dies.
  • 1623: Tokugawa Iemitsu becomes the third shogun.
  • 1633: Tokugawa Iemitsu forbids travelling abroad and reading foreign books.
  • 1635: Tokugawa Iemitsu formalizes the system of mandatory alternate residence (sankin kōtai) in Edo.
  • 1637: Shimabara Rebellion (1637–38) mounted by overtaxed peasants.
  • 1638: Tokugawa Iemitsu forbids ship building.
  • 1639: Edicts establishing National Seclusion (Sakoku Rei) are completed. All Westerners except the Dutch are prohibited from entering Japan.
  • 1641: Tokugawa Iemitsu bans all foreigners, except Chinese and Dutch, from Japan.
  • 1650: With peace, there evolved a new kind of noble, literate warrior according to bushido (“way of the warrior”).
  • 1657: The Great Fire of Meireki destroys most of the city of Edo.
  • 1700: Kabuki and ukiyo-e become popular.
  • 1707: Mount Fuji erupts.
  • 1774: The anatomical text Kaitai Shinsho, the first complete Japanese translation of a Western medical work, is published by Sugita Gempaku and Maeno Ryotaku.
  • 1787: Matsudaira Sadanobu becomes senior shogunal councillor and institutes the Kansei Reforms.
  • 1792: Russian envoy Adam Laxman arrives at Nemuro in eastern Ezo (now Hokkaidō).
  • 1804: Russian envoy Nikolai Rezanov reaches Nagasaki and unsuccessfully seeks the establishment of trade relations with Japan.
  • 1837: Rebellion of Oshio Heihachiro.
  • 1841: Tenpō Reforms.
  • 1854: The USA forces Japan to sign a trade agreement (“Treaty of Kanagawa“) which reopens Japan to foreigners after two centuries.
  • 1855: Russia and Japan establish diplomatic relations.
  • 1864: British, French, Dutch and American warships bombard Shimonoseki and open more Japanese ports for foreigners.
  • 1868: Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigns, the Tokugawa dynasty ends, and the emperor (or “mikado”) Meiji is restored, but with capital in Edo/Tokyo and divine attributes.

Legacy

In 2009 Azby Brown published the book “Just Enough: Lessons in Living Green from Traditional Japan”, arguing that the Edo period offers answers to 21st century environmental problems.[11]

Popular culture

Main article: Edo period in popular culture

The Edo period is the setting of many works of popular culture. These include novels, stage plays, films, television shows, animated works, manga, and video games.

 

   
Preceded by:
Azuchi-Momoyama period
1573 – 1603
History of Japan
Edo period
1603 – 1868
Succeeded by:
Empire of Japan
1868 – 1945

 Notes

  1. ^ Beasley, p. 22.
  2. ^ Lewis, p. 31–32.
  3. ^ Books.google.com
  4. ^ Diamond, pp. 297–304.
  5. ^ Stephen Longstreet and Ethel Longstreet, Yoshiwara: the pleasure quarters of old Tokyo (Rutland, Vt. ; C.E. Tuttle Co., 1989), 2.
  6. ^ Cecilia Segawa Seigle, Yoshiwara: The Glittering World of the Japanese Courtesan (University of Hawaii,1993), 17.
  7. ^ Birmingham Museum of Art (2010). Birmingham Museum of Art : guide to the collection. [Birmingham, Ala]: Birmingham Museum of Art. pp. 42-44. ISBN 9781904832775. http://artsbma.org
  8. ^ Lewis, p. 45–47.
  9. ^ Jansen 2002, p. 289-192
  10. ^ A Chronology of Japanese History
  11. ^ “Eco Edo: A new book delves into Japan’s past for tips on how to save the planet”. Metropolis Magazine. February 4, 2010. http://metropolis.co.jp/features/feature/eco-edo/

References

 This article incorporates public domain material from websites or documents of the Library of Congress Country Studies. Japan

ikansetsu Irohanihoheto

 

 

 

The Main Character

Bakumatsu Kikansetsu Irohanihoheto is a Japanese anime series, created by Ryousuke Takahashi and Sunrise. It premiered October 6 2006 on the Japanese internet streaming channel, GyaO.

]

The Story

Bakumatsu.

The final period of time when men fought like men… and cast their lives and ideals on a single blade.

It was the time when long peaceful Tokugawa Dynasty began to be overshadowed, triggered by the arrival of Westerners.

During the upheaval, when youths were seeking for new age, there was an existence that brought turmoil and chaos. It was a supernatural Head called the

Hasha no Kubi

 and it was said that the person who could obtain the Head, which would wake during revolution time, could rule over the whole country. On the other hand, there was another shadow existence called the Eternal Assassin.

They have been destined to fight

the Hasha no Kubi

in order to seal. These two beings have been in eternal conflict, affecting the course of history from the shadows, influencing those who craved power.

Someone wanted it for themselves, someone wanted it for avengeance, and someone wanted it for their ideals…

The wills of men intersect over the Hasha no Kubi. They combine and move together like complicated gear wheels of an engine pushing events towards the future…

 

 

 

The Title

Bakumatsu

Bakumatsu (幕末): Latest part of the Tokugawa era,

comprised between the opening of Japan to foreign trade in 1853 and the Meiji Restoration in 1867.

The bakumatsu period is one of the most agitated and romanticized part of Japanese history. It is the age of the last samurai, of intense fighting between the pro-emperor ishin shishi from Satsuma and Choshu and the pro-shogunate Shinsengumi troops.

Kikansetsu

 

Irohanihoheto

Irohanihoheto (いろはにほへと) is the first line of a Japanese poem. It is famous because it is a perfect pangram, containing each character of the Japanese syllabary exactly once. Because of this, it is also used as an ordering for the syllabary.

The text of the poem in hiragana (with archaic and but without voiced consonant marks) is:

いろはにほへと
ちりぬるを
わかよたれそ
つねならむ
うゐのおくやま
けふこえて
あさきゆめみし
ゑひもせす

i ro ha ni ho he to
chi ri nu ru wo
wa ka yo ta re so
tsu ne na ra mu
u wi no o ku ya ma
ke fu ko e te
a sa ki yu me mi shi
we hi mo se su

An English translation:

The flowers that bloom today so sweetly wither and fall.
Our human life, too, is fleeting.
Today, again, I will cross the mountain pass of this uncertain world,
and will not entertain shallow dreams or give way to drunkenness.

More info can be found at the Iroha article.

Iroha

The Iroha (いろは?)

is a Japanese poem, probably written in the Heian era (AD 794–1179). Originally the poem was attributed to the founder of the Shingon Esoteric sect of Buddhism in Japan, Kūkai, but more modern research has found the date of composition to be later in the Heian Period.[1] The first record of its existence dates from 1079. It is famous because it is a perfect pangram, containing each character of the Japanese syllabary exactly once. Because of this, it is also used as an ordering for the syllabary.

Text

The first appearance of the Iroha, in Konkōmyōsaishōōkyō Ongi (金光明最勝王経音義?), was in seven lines: six with seven morae each, and one with five. It was also written in man’yōgana.

以呂波耳本部止
千利奴流乎和加
餘多連曽津祢那
良牟有為能於久
耶万計不己衣天
阿佐伎喩女美之
恵比毛勢須

Structurally, however, the poem follows the standard 7-5 pattern of Japanese poetry (with one hypometric line), and in modern times it is generally written that way, in contexts where line breaks are used. The text of the poem in hiragana (with archaic and but without voiced consonant marks) is:

Archaic

Modern

Ordering (see usage)

Translation

hiragana

transliteration

kanji and hiragana

pronunciation

numbers

 

いろはにほへと

i ro ha ni ho he to

色は匂へど

Iro wa nioedo

1 – 7

Even the blossoming flowers

ちりぬるを

chi ri nu ru wo

散りぬるを

Chirinuru o

8 – 12

Will eventually scatter

わかよたれそ

wa ka yo ta re so

我が世誰ぞ

Wa ga yo tare zo

13 – 18

Who in our world

つねならむ

tsu ne na ra mu

常ならむ

Tsune naramu

19 – 23

Is unchanging?

うゐのおくやま

u wi no o ku ya ma

有為の奥山

Ui no okuyama

24 – 30

The deep mountains of vanity–

けふこえて

ke fu ko e te

今日越えて

Kyō koete

31 – 35

We cross them today

あさきゆめみし

a sa ki yu me mi shi

浅き夢見じ

Asaki yume miji

36 – 42

And we shall not see superficial dreams

ゑひもせす

we hi mo se su

酔ひもせず

Ei mo sezu.

43 – 47

Nor be deluded.

Notes:

  1. 1.     Archaic hiragana uses and , which are now only used in certain Okinawan orthographies; modern writing uses voiced consonant marks (with dakuten.) This is used as an indicator of sound changes in the spoken Japanese language in the Heian era.

An English translation by Professor Ryuichi Abe[1] reads as:

Although its scent still lingers on

the form of a flower has scattered away

For whom will the glory

of this world remain unchanged?

Arriving today at the yonder side

of the deep mountains of evanescent existence

We shall never allow ourselves to drift away

intoxicated, in the world of shallow dreams.

Research by Komatsu Hideo has revealed that the last syllable of each line of the Man’yō-gana original (止加那久天之須), when put together, reveals a hidden sentence, toka [=toga] nakute shisu (咎無くて死す), which means “die without wrong-doing”. It is thought that this might be eulogy in praise of Kūkai, further supporting the notion that the Iroha was written after Kūkai’s death.[1]

[edit] Usage

The iroha contains every kana once, with the exception of [-n], which was written “mu” at the time. For this reason, the poem was frequently used as an ordering of the kana until the Meiji era reforms in the 19th century. Thereafter the gojūon (五十音, literally “fifty sounds”) ordering system, which is based on Sanskrit, became more common. It begins with “a, i, u, e, o” then “ka, ki, ku…” and so on for each kana used in Japanese. Although the iroha is often considered “old fashioned” the earliest known copy of the gojūon predates the iroha.

The iroha is still occasionally encountered in modern Japan. For example, it is used for seat numbering in theaters, and (from right to left) across the top of Go game diagrams (kifu), as in Yasunari Kawabata‘s novel The Master of Go (Meijin). Western go game diagrams use either letters or letters and numbers. In music, the notes of an octave are named i ro ha ni ho he to, written in katakana.

Musical Notes

English

A

B

C

D

E

F

G

Japanese

(i)

(ro)

(ha)

(ni)

(ho)

(he)

(to)

The word いろは (iroha) can also be used to mean “the basics” in Japanese, comparable to the term “the ABCs”.

Although the Japanese employ the heavenly stems for rank order besides both the Chinese and Arabic numerals as well as the Latin alphabet, the iroha sequence was used to note the rank of submarines of the Imperial Japanese Navy during the Second World War. All long-range submarines had designations beginning with “I” (e.g., the largest submarine had “I400” painted on its conning tower), coastal submarines began with “Ro”, and training or marginally usable submarines had “Ha”.

Japanese weapons made before 1945 were numbered in series with the original poem—refer to Military Rifles of Japan, 1897–1945 by Honeycutt and Anthony[2] for examples of this practice. It is not known today if this was done out of respect for custom, or for reasons of military security or secrecy. Beginning with the second production of the Type 38 rifle, i.e.: after they produced the first 1,000,000 rifles, the Japanese Koishikawa Arsenal began with series “I” and continued until the Type 38 was replaced by the improved Type 99 (in 1939). The rifles were made in blocks of 100,000 each, before changing the kana symbol to the next in order of the poem.

This practice apparently started after the great Tokyo earthquake of 1923, when the Tokyo Arsenal was almost totally destroyed and production was moved to the Kokura and Nagoya Arsenals.

The weapons affected by this, among others, were the Type 38 rifle, the Type 38 carbine, the Type 44 carbine, and certain machine guns, all in 6.5×50mm Arisaka caliber. After 1939, when the caliber was increased to 7.7 mm, the weapons numbered with this system included the Type 99 long and short rifles, and the Type 0 and Type 2 paratrooper rifles. Handguns were made under a different system, involving subcontractors and private purchases by Japanese officers.

Iroha is also used in numbering the classes of train car for Japanese National Railways (now known as JR). I is first class, Ro is second class and Ha is third class.

Finally, iroha is frequently used as a design motif, as in the stencil-dyed works of the late Serizawa Keisuke.

[edit] Origin

Authorship is traditionally ascribed to the Heian era Japanese Buddhist priest and scholar Kūkai (空海) (774–835). However, this is unlikely as it is believed that in his time there were separate e sounds in the a and ya columns of the kana table. The (e) above would have been pronounced ye, making the pangram incomplete.[1]

It is said that the iroha is a transformation of these verses in the Nirvana Sutra:

諸行無

是生滅

生滅滅

寂滅為

which translates into

All acts are impermanent

That’s the law of creation and destruction.

When all creation and destruction are extinguished

That ultimate stillness (nirvana) is true bliss.

The above in Japanese is read

Shogyō mujō

Zeshō meppō

Shōmetsu metsui

Jakumetsu iraku .

Japanese Economic History Prior to the Meiji Restoration


Korean Minjok Leadership Academy
International Program
Nam, Sangjoon
Research Paper, Fall 2010

 

Table of Contents


I. Introduction
II. The Social Background of Japan’s Pre-Modern Economy
II.1 Changes in the Manorial System
II.2 Characteristics and Kinds of Money
II.3 The Rise of Markets
II.4 The Momentum of Economic Progress
III. Agriculture prior to the Edo Period
III.1 Changes in Agricultural Production
III.2 Independence of Peasants
III.3 Introduction of Incentive for Economy
IV. Further Changes in Social Structure
IV.1 Changes of Cities

 

 

A nation torn asunder by raging battles

A nation plagued by intrigue and vengeance

A nation conquered by dissenting factions

A nation beleaguered by avarice for dominance

 

Such is the summarized description of the Land of the Rising Sun, when the nation existed amidst civil wars and political discord from the middle of the 15th century to the beginning of the 17th century. This period, historically known as the Sengoku Period (戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) (1467 – 1573), marks the era when Japan was plagued with civil wars and political upheavals, without a definite central authority in place. Central powers once held by the Emperor and the shogunate (Japanese central government) deteriorated and were gradually replaced by daimyos (local territorial warlords) who exerted political influence over their respective territories. To make matters worse, these daimyos waged constant wars against one another, plunging the nation into deeper unrest.

 

It was during this era of turbulence that the renowned apostle of Catholic Christianity, Francisco de Jaso y Azpilicueta, better known as Saint Francis Xavier, ventured into Japan to bring the gospel and introduce Catholic Christianity.

 

 

A Japanese artwork depicting the Sengoku Period  (戦国時代, Sengoku-jidai) (1467 – 1573)

 

Saint Francis Xavier (1506 – 1552), a Catholic Christian missionary born in the town of Javier, Kingdom of Navarre (present-day Spain), is perhaps most famed for his extensive missionary activities in Goa of India, Malacca of present-day Malaysia and Ambon and Maluku Islands of present-day Indonesia. Nevertheless, some of you may actually be unaware of the fact that it is this noble saint who is also credited for introducing Catholic Christianity and laying its initial foundations in the far-east nation of Japan.

 

Being one of the founding members of the Society of Jesus, also known as the Jesuits (a missionary order within the Catholic Church), Francis Xavier spent much time carrying out missionary activities in several regions in India and Southeast Asia. It was in Malacca that Father Xavier first heard about the Land of the Rising Sun and thus obtained the inspiration to bring the gospel to the nation.

 

 

Saint Francis Xavier (1506 – 1552)

 

In December 1547, whilst in Malacca, a Portuguese captain by the name of Jorge Alvares brought a Japanese samurai named Anjiro (アンジロー) to meet Father Xavier. Apparently, Anjiro had killed someone back in his home country and was now fleeing Japan, accompanied by two of his servants. He boarded a Portuguese ship, whereby he met Captain Jorge Alvares. At the captain’s suggestion, Anjiro decided to meet the “Holy Father” to confess his sins, since his conscience was disturbing him. He then met Father Xavier, in whom he was greatly impressed at the “Holy Father’s” charisma and kindness. From Anjiro, Father Xavier learnt more about Japan and its people. In one of their conversations, Father Xavier asked Anjiro, “If I went to Japan, would the people become Christians?” Anjiro then replied:

 

“My people would not immediately become Christians, but they would first ask you a multitude of questions, weighing carefully your answers and your claims. Above all, they would observe whether your conduct agreed with your words. If you should satisfy them on these points, by suitable replies to their inquiries and by a life above reproach, then, as soon as the matter was known and fully examined, the king, the nobles and the educated people would become Christians. Six months would suffice; for the nation is one that always follows the guidance of reason.”

 

(Ropp, 1997)

 

Under Father Xavier’s guidance, Anjiro decided to accept Catholic Christianity. Anjiro was then sent to a missionary college in Goa, India, where he received baptism, learnt Portuguese and was trained as a Catholic missionary. Finally, after undergoing sufficient training and attaining passable proficiency in the Portuguese language, Father Xavier decided to set off for Japan with Anjiro.

 

 

The voyages of Saint Francis Xavier

 

In August 1549, Father Francis Xavier, accompanied by Spanish missionaries Father Cosme de Torres (1510 – 1570) and Brother Juan Fernandez (d. 1567), as well as Anjiro and his two servants, landed in Kagoshima (鹿児島), the capital of the then Satsuma Province (薩摩国, Satsuma-kuni) on the Japanese island of Kyushu (九州). Upon arriving in Kagoshima, Father Xavier and his fellow missionaries were warmly welcomed into Anjiro’s home, in which they stayed throughout their time spent in the city. Father Xavier’s first impression of the Japanese was indeed favourable, in which he described them as such:

 

“The people with whom we have thus far conversed are the best that we have yet discovered; and it seems to me that, among pagan nations, there will not be another to surpass the Japanese. They are a race of very fine manners and generally good and not malicious, a people of an astonishingly great sense of honour, who prize honour more than any other thing.”

 

(Yusa, 2002)

 

Shortly after arriving in Kagoshima, Father Xavier was invited to meet the daimyo (territorial warlord) of Satsuma Province, Shimazu Takahisa (島津貴久) (1514 – 1571). It must be noted that, at that time, trade between Portuguese merchants and the Japanese was gradually growing, particularly around Kyushu Island. Hence, upon meeting Father Xavier, Takahisa was under the impression that he could acquire more trade from Portuguese merchants through the Jesuits. He thus gave them a very warm welcome. Without hesitation, the daimyo granted Father Xavier’s request of permitting the Jesuits to preach the gospel throughout Takahisa’s domain. Takahisa issued an edict ensuring freedom for the Jesuits to preach the gospel and permitting anyone within his domain to freely convert to Catholic Christianity.

 

 

Location of Kagoshima (鹿児島), with Satsuma Province (薩摩国) coloured red

 

One of Father Xavier’s biggest problems in reaching out to the Japanese was the language barrier. To Xavier, Japanese was a difficult language to learn. For the first few months in Kagoshima, Father Xavier and his Spanish companions tried learning Japanese from Anjiro, but only Brother Fernandez could passably master the language. Xavier, on the other hand, relied mostly on Anjiro to serve as a translator when communicating with the locals.

 

Father Xavier also wrote a summary of Catholic Christianity, which was translated into Japanese with Anjiro’s assistance. Translating the summary was a major headache, as the Japanese language of that era hardly had any suitable terms to accurately express Christian teachings. Various Buddhist terminologies had to be adapted to express Christian concepts, in which some of these terminologies wrongly expressed the tenets of Christianity. Perhaps the most notable blunder in this matter was translating the name of God into Japanese. Back then, there was no Japanese term that could accurately express the biblical God, so Anjiro suggested the name Dainichi (大日) instead, which is actually the Japanese name of Vairocana, the celestial Buddha. As such, this became a source of confusion for the Japanese people when Father Xavier preached the gospel to them. He only realized this grave mistake when he was in Yamaguchi later during his mission in Japan.

 

 

Shimazu Takahisa (島津貴久) (1514 – 1571), daimyo of Satsuma Province

 

For the period of one year that Father Xavier stayed in Kagoshima, he did much in preaching the gospel to the Japanese, albeit with difficulty. He would frequently preach in public places for everyone to hear. Most of his preaching involved reading out aloud the translated summary in Japanese, occasionally adding in some additional information with Anjiro’s help for translation. Father Xavier’s public preaching attracted large crowds, which not only consisted of commoners, but also Buddhist monks and aristocrats under Takahisa. Initially, Father Xavier’s preaching caused much confusion, in which many people thought he was a Buddhist monk preaching a different sect of Buddhism. This was because of two reasons: firstly, he came, after all, from India, the birthplace of Buddhism and secondly, he mistakenly used the term Dainichi to refer to the biblical God.

 

Many a times, Father Xavier’s public preaching drew jeers of laughter and ridicule as a result of his poor pronunciation in the Japanese language, coupled with the facts that the summary was badly translated and that the gospel was a new and strange teaching in the eyes of the Japanese. Despite all these, Father Xavier was still able to convey the fundamental essence of the gospel to them, probably either by his charismatic personality or his powerful ability to preach. This was proven by the fact that, during the later months of his stay in Kagoshima, the local Buddhist monks started to realize that Father Xavier’s preaching was distinctly different from Buddhism, consequently pressurizing Takahisa to expel the Catholic missionaries from Satsuma Province.

 

 

An artist’s impression of the arrival of Francis Xavier and his companions in Kagoshima

 

Initially, Takahisa chose to ignore the pressure from the local Buddhist monks and continued ensuring freedom for the propagation of Catholic Christianity within Satsuma. However, when more Portuguese merchants started docking their trade ships in Hirado (平戸) rather than Kagoshima, Takahisa was angered by this and subsequently banned Catholic Christianity throughout his domain. As a result, Father Xavier was forced to leave Kagoshima in August 1550, after spending one year there. Nonetheless, Father Xavier’s missionary activities in Kagoshima were not in vain. He successfully baptized approximately 150 Japanese there who accepted Christianity, some of whom were serving directly under Takahisa in his castle. Many others were impressed and convinced by Father Xavier’s message, but they did not accept baptism out of fear of the numerous, powerful and influential Buddhist monks.

 

Finally, in August 1550, Francis Xavier left Kagoshima on a Japanese ship, accompanied by Father de Torres, Brother Fernandez, Anjiro’s two servants and a Japanese Catholic convert bearing the Spanish name of Bernardo, who was a young samurai. (Bernardo’s actual Japanese name has been lost in history.) Before leaving, however, Father Xavier entrusted the spiritual care of the newly-founded Christian community in Kagoshima to Anjiro.

 

In the next part of this article, I will be describing Father Xavier’s subsequent journey throughout Japan.

 

 

Statues of Saint Francis Xavier (centre), Anjiro (left) and Bernardo (right) in Xavier Park, Kagoshima

 

Main References:

1)      Ropp, M. (1997), Francis Xavier and the Land of the Rising Sun, theRopps.com, viewed 5 July, 2010, http://www.theropps.com/papers/Winter1997/FrancisXavier.htm

2)      Yusa, M. (2002), Japanese religious traditions, Prentice Hall, Upper Saddle River, N.J.

***

Part 1 – Francis Xavier’s arrival in Japan & initial missionary activities in Kagoshima

Part 2 – Francis Xavier’s subsequent missionary activities and travels throughout Japan

Part 3 – Missionary activities carried out in Kyushu, central and northern Japan by subsequent missionaries arriving in Japan

Part 4 – Reception of Christianity by the Japanese people of the era

Part 5 – Persecution and decline of Christianity

 

 

IV.3 Regional Differences
IV.4 The Emergence of Middle Ground and the New Manorial System
V. Foreign Trade and Relations
V.1 International Environment
V.2 Japan’s development in contact across the sea
V.3 Expansion of Portuguese Colonial Rule and Trade

 

V.4 The Relationship between Portugal and Japan
V.5 Expansion of British and the Dutch Trade
V.6 The Impact of Isolation
VI. Prosperity within Edo Economy
VI.1 History of Maritime Shipping
VI.2 Factors of Development
VI.3 Centralization of Wealth in the Capital
VI.4 Exchange between Currency and Rice
VI.5 Improved Demand, Improved Consumption
VI.6 Economic Cycles
VI.7 Kinds and Usages of Currency
VI.8 Middlemen and their Roles in Market
VII. Changes in Edo City
VII.1 Tenka-Hushin: Definition and Characteristics
VII.2 Effective Demand at the City of Edo
VII.3 Development of Market Economy
VII.4 Old Money and New Money
VII.5 The Structure of Edo City
VII.6 The Use of Fire to Clear Areas for Planned Reconstruction
VII.7 Inland Waterway System
VIII. Middle Phase in Edo Period
VIII.1 Isolation
VIII.2 Kyoho Reform
VIII.3 Era of Tanuma
VIII.4 Kansei Reform
VIII.5 Tenpo Reform
IX. Fall of Tokugawa Shogunate
IX.1 Intrusions from the West
IX.2 Ideal of Agrarian Society and the Coalition of Critics
IX.3 Affairs with Commodore Perry
IX.4 Meiji Restoration
IX.5 The Japanese Economy during the Last Years of the Edo Period
X. Conclusion
Notes
Bbliography

 

 

 

I. Introduction
            In discussing the Japanese economic history, Western historians have focused largely on the Meiji Restoration and post-Edo period. Although Meiji Restoration lit the first light on the Japanese modern economy, they often neglect the factors that brought the sweep economic reform. Although the word “revolution” often follows the Meiji Restoration, the revolution itself cannot take place without any preparation. Before Meiji Restoration, there had been developments in the Japanese economy. Structural changes in society, agriculture, foreign relations, and later in commerce can all be seen as the preparatory steps toward Meiji Restoration. Unfortunately for foreigners, these preparatory steps have not widely been disclosed in languages other than Japanese. The primary objective of this paper lies in analyzing the Japanese historical books and the researches of Japanese historians, organize them, and reveal them in English. Therefore, this research uses the Japanese historical texts on pre-Meiji Restoration as the primary sources to discuss the economic development during the Edo Period and its influence on the Meiji Restoration.

II. The Social Background of Japan’s Pre-Modern Economy

II.1 Changes in the Manorial System
            In the formation of economic society, the first changes occurred inside the manorial system. Money reimbursement was the only means to put the seniority devotion in the manorial system. It came from the end of Kamakura period but progressed in earnest in late 14th century through 15th century. At this time, perhaps a seniority-based product in the form of transportation seemed to be difficult because the administrative power of statute government indispensible for the peaceful transportation had been reduced decisively. The Invasion upon manor by forces of arms made the manor keep losing the conditions necessary for the acquisition of the seniority. The amount of seniority itself was so reduced that the manor took it unavoidable that he should choose whether abandon the urban life for rural life or lower the standard of living in Muramachi Period (1336-1573). The only remaining means is to receive the seniority by easier transportation. (1)

II.2 Characteristics and Kinds of Money
            There were many obstacles in replacing seniority with money: it did not have sufficient savings and regular farmers were completely outside the fence of monetary circulation. If money was received as a tribute, it had to be exchanged for everyday essentials, but it was not prepared. (2) Therefore, paying money to manor rather than seniority never occurred; however, it went in parallel with the resolution of these issues while they had a long and slow progression.
            The first problem was how the money had to be made. As a casting coinage, so-called Kowoojyo 12 was available at this time since the statute regime established at the late Heian Period (794-1192) and there was distribution of gold and silver as a quantitative monetary but somehow was not good enough to cover. So, a number of foreign coins began to be imported. After the end of Kamakura Period (1192-1333), the Chinese coins such as those from Ming Chuan and Song Chuan were imported from China in a big volume through Wakou (Standing commercial tube for Japanese) or ship for trade with Ming Dy\nasty in China. As a result, a large scale trade with the onset of Kamakura Period led a competition in trade privileges politically and the formation of trade merchant layer, trading port and trade city economically. Import could not be made without export. Export form Japan at that time centered on weapons, especially Japanese sword, lacquer and sulfur.
(3)
            The second issue was how the farmers acquired money. It is thought that a 3rd party, maybe a trader or a merchant who held currency acted on credit basis. In this case, the farmers paid in product but alongside it, the trader converted it to money.

II.3 The rise of markets
            When the manors receive the tribute in the form of currency, they needed to live to spend it to buy goods. In other words, it could be met through the market. The city changed from the group of self-sufficiency under the manor lord-farmers to that of money spending for goods. It decomposed the population group who can have economic function. In this case, the place under the strongest influence was the rural area that surrounded the city where monetization was developing and the scope of the monetary impact was expanding. Thus, the farmers of this region caught up in the distribution of money are able to pay seniority in the currency of their own. Then production purpose for sale added to the purpose of the traditional seniority-based conventional and self-sufficiency made significant changes in the way of production relationship. (4)
            Hence money that was paid to seniority gave larger impact to each floor of the society than usually expected. While this kind of changes occurred slowly over one or two centuries, the recipients became noticeably difficult even though tribute giving to manor was changed to money paying seniority. If you see Kyoto only, the size and the population in Muramachi Period rather declined than before and the life of manor class became into poverty according to stories often been handed down. On the other hand, new types of city were born continuously. In addition, not only the manor and the parasitic class but the merchants and craftsman dealing with necessities of life can travel to Kyoto and the number of the latter was increasing. At this time, the formation of a public street can be explained from this background.
(5)

II.4 The Momentum of Economic Progress
            Although the preliminary steps toward economic society had been observed during as early as Heian Period, it was not until the development of Kinai Plain in 15th century that economic production, diversification, and distribution gained its momentum. Throughout the late 16th century and early 17th century the process of forming economic society extended nationwide. During this period, Japanese economy would experience large regional differences. As to the period earlier than the unification of regime (era before the end of Sengoku Period: 1467-1573), we can say that the characteristics are roughly the same politically. (6) The details about the Kinai Plain will be dealt with in the next chapter.

III Agriculture prior to the Edo Period

III.1 Changes in Agricultural production
            Concerning the impact on rural caused by this change, the process of supplying fish and food already existed on the outskirts of the city. This time, however, currency distribution and types of production for sales had expended around the city. By just adding the element of “sales” to the conventional purpose of production, technical conditions and productive conditions were alleviated.
            Farmers earned the money by selling the surplus of production. With the money into their lives, a wide variety of influences come out. The expansion of cultivated area could be realized without the need to change the traditional farming organization. However, it is thought that there is not so much non-tilled land in Kinai Plain, where the cultivation progressed at the earliest time by farming technology at that time. Thus, the production increase was nothing more than very small portion. The next way we can consider is the increase of output under a certain cultivated area. This is of course an increase in land productivity, which means the advancement of land use. However, it was difficult to achieve this change by the conventional production method and organization. The land use for cultivation under the previous labor force was nothing more than poor level because the production organization moved by only forced labor. In particular, agriculture, owing to the difficulties in the intensive management for labor forces, depended on the attitude of the individual so highly that it is hard to realize such kind of labor as bulk of labor input or high density labor operation. It is assumed that there had been no any other way than crying out loud to strengthen the labor, thus, the agriculture had limits that much. Hence the management transition from the farming labor forces to family business with the need of increasing production came from producer-side response. (7)
            However, this transition never simply can happen. For example, in practice, sudden change of management split into several smaller families was very risky behavior to manors who continued to leverage on their managements customarily over the centuries using as serfs, servants. It is thought that management entity changed by splitting the blood family first and after a long period of time it had been dismantled into the management for taking advantage of serfs and servants later.
(8)

III.2 Independence of Peasants
            The specific motivation and process concerning the independence of peasants is less clear than other topics within the economic history of Japan. Some authors say that this was a policy of manors but the others say that this was achieved by peasants who won manors. However, it is difficult to accept both of two different argue. Some say that self-reliance started even before the advent of the manors but that the conventional tillage farmers stood as one of the movement is unthinkable. Especially, when this problem is associated with land holdings, it becomes more difficult to understand. If independent peasants had been the holder of the land, it is comparable to the liberation war of farmland that was a big social change. At this moment, it is fair to suspect that any good-tempered manors giving the land to serfs and servants to allow independence really existed. (9)
            Thus, several questions actually remain on the process of self-reliance peasants. The author himself does not have a clear answer. However, there was a gradual change over long periods in this process, too, and perhaps the independence did not include land holdings. As to the latter, the peasants who held the land as a result through the process of independence are also involved. The fact that branch family set-up and provision of temporary fields so-called Homachi were made customarily might mean that the land tenancy was granted. As to the land ownership favorable due to the pressure of population increase since the middle of Edo Period, or prior to the development of landownership system with such conditions immobilized institutionally, the relationship of landlord and tenant should be separated from that of parasitic landownership The lords of manor dismantled lord management because they judged it would be advantageous. Unless it is dismantled by the system, to the lord of manor the management of labor by their families was deemed more favorable shift than his direct management of the cultivation by his serfs.
(10)

III.3 Introduction of Incentive in the Economy
            The implementation of peasant farmers’ management will be accompanied by the change of production purposes. In other words, production for sale had been entered for that purpose. However, regardless of land tenure, farmers, as the unit of couple families, they became the being responsible for each self-management. Of course, even so, the type of crop and cultivation period was not completely freed. As to the use of common land, water and selection of specific kind of farming works to be done as a community, they were obliged to follow the order. However, if the farmers could take these economic opportunities as the purpose, the possibility of increasing profits in the form of money could be provided to them. The necessary goods are required to be exchanged at any time because the accumulation became possible as one of the benefits of the currency. Some farmers were also able to purchase the land by some money gathered. The same opportunity was given to the independent farmers who did not hold the land. (11)
            Since the economic incentives came to the farmer’s living, all daily action and awareness of the farmers would be greatly changed. The way of thinking on the production changed. It would change from laborious and unavoidable work to the virtue of labor with higher fees bringing a better life. Therefore, physical pain can be endurable one, Family labor was the best labor force to this concept. Because family members are the ones who make up the management, the hard work and long hours of labor was a sort of pre-paid investment.
            Apart from tangible incentives, diligence had also taken part in the growing economic incentives. Before Edo Period, we can hardly find any work or idea originating from thinking that labor is a virtue. However, the hard work was enough to be regarded as a virtue in Edo period. In Japan, this is a kind of morality and it is being delivered through the channel of family system. Characterized by intense prolonged labor, or with the Japanese farmers’ mentality or on the current assessment of the current Japanese work ethic, the principle of industriousness is thought to have been formed at this time. However, economic purpose and money penetration into farmer’s life did not give only economic development. On the other hand, some people got a chance but some failed to fall at the same time. In some cases, especially with regard to monetary pressure on borrowed money, it is thought that there were many farmers plagued with money. Peasant revolt which won Kinai plain in 15th century had a deep relationship with the foregoing voluntary union of peasants, but it was one of their response entangled in the currency distribution because the main target of attack were the land, warehouses owned by financiers.
(12)

IV. Further Changes in the Social Structure

IV.1 Changes of Cities
            With the change of rural area, the change occurred in the city. The city of Kyoto and Nara had functional alteration, and in addition, new types of city appeared such as Sakai, Hyogo which can exist only by the economic activity of the original inhabitants. So, as the production for sale being penetrated, materials are gathered at the place easy to use waterways and roads while market streets were established in a chain reaction where merchants and craftsmen live. The shadow is left even today at Imai, Yamato where are the markets founded at that time. Thus, Kinai Plain was covered with the product distribution network connecting these cities. (13)
            However, it is not possible to simplify these changes. Since the riot of Onin, Kinai Plain had been kept under the wing of wars and the decadence of Kyoto was more severe. Of course, one step forward to go out from Kinai Plain, there was almost no changes of situation. Except a handful of cities, the function was not properly exercised while the conventional production technology and organization was still in rural areas and the presence of the money was unknown to most of the farmers. Therefore, the production level was so low that there was a considerable distance in the formation of economic society. So, there was a very big regional difference in economic aspects. In Kinai Plain, the production was done for sale and currency was in circulation while the formation of a group of people based on the principle of economic behavior and economic value were progressed, especially several cities were known as “municipal” However, it need to be considered that the unusual existence of “municipal” was possible under a form of political anarchist at that time in the history of Japan.
(14)

IV.2 The Social Effects of the Sengoku Period (1467-1573) and the Sengoku Daimyo
            In Kinai, not anything new political system was made corresponding to economic changes. Rather, this area was the last stronghold to the manor and Ashikaga shogunate and the last remaining area for manorial system. On the other hand, in provinces, though there were moderate disorders in the period of Muramachi through Warring states caused by the non-implementation of statute and manorial system, local forces came to grow slowly through the power competition among the manors classes who had land in their hands. This is called Nationwide Shogun, or Sengoku Shogun.
            Until the end of the Warring States Period lived in the country, Da-te, Gohojo, Imakawa, Murata and Uesgi were standing in East Japan and Josokabe, Mori, Nabeshima and Simazo were standing in West Japan. However, they raged forces over the centuries across a few dozen provinces. As described above, these Daimyo had bases in frontier zones which are materially different from the area of Kinai which was economically advanced. But their governance has no material relationship to the statute system manorial system and Suigo Daimyo (a kind of top-down system) and totally new one in that sense. Basically nationwide shoguns promoted to expand the territory by establishing allegiance relationship while acknowledging the right of manor, originally localized, as the same one but under their inland territory. Of course, in parallel with enlargement of the area, the power of connecting the land often got weaker and there was a form of governance on behalf of officials for the crown land of Daimyo, though, being with the land was strong in principle. Most of the feudatories were located in a rural area and military service and agricultural farming was in a non-separate situation, thus the formation of castle streets did not appear or even if any, the street remained in small. However, in the form of master and servant relationship was established, the pyramid was a hierarchical order, it was worthy of the name of a “feudal system” because, under this system, most importantly, the feudatories were recognized as lower manor authorities. With preparation of force, they resided in rural trails dominating the manor including the management of Daimyo’s estates of larger space and this state was preserved. If Daimyo expands the territory, it also needs an order as one of the country. However, the instability could be involved in the relationship with the feudatories as long as the recognition of the lower manor authority can prevail. Through the form of legislation, there came a series of laws which are so-called family law or splitting country law. (15)
            While local and provincial canal constructions followed, more than 90% of today¡¯s Grand Canal was completed during Sui Dynasty. By 600, Under the Sengoku Daimyo system, the relationship between feudal lord and the peasant is surprisingly not well known One is a conventional system which could maintain the relationship but situation was not uniform. However, in case that the conventional relationship was destroyed by military conquest, there was a need to set up a new relationship.

IV.3 Regional Differences
            The constituents of warring period have a combination of political and economic development with mutual cross shape due to regional structure, for Kinai’s case, the old form remained politically while economically progressed, as a result, manor system deployed separately but economically Kinai was backward state. So, in order to unify Japan under this state, unified governance structure was needed to integrate the two areas by a few principles of unity. Therefore, we can’t say it a coincidence that unification was implemented by Oda Nobunaga, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, and later by Tokugawa Ieyasu, all of whom were all from the middle of both regions (16)

IV.4 The Emergence of Middle Ground and the New Manorial System
            When Sengoku Daimyo oriented to the center of the region by the expansion of the zone in the second half of the 16th century, a new type of manor system had grown around Kinai area, especially Nobi plain. Unlike the rest of Sengoku Daimyo, the power structure of Nobunaka had the system for the separation of military and agriculture and it had a standing army to conduct the collective training, a number of apparently small, but powerful military force was paramount. Exactly as described below, the iron gun was introduced by contact with the Portuguese and it was very suitable type of weapons for this kind of military organization. Novi Plain was located in the region surrounding Kinai, and thus by some infiltration of economic society transition deployed continuously the gradual change would have started to happen during this period. Increasing output was realized by a change to peasant management in the agricultural production, as a result, the manors were able to enforce a bold reform in the military system by separating military service and agriculture. Since the consumer population was brought by so called street below the castle which was not affected by the traditional dominance, the new manors did not need to consider the existing system. (17)
            The new manor system exerted the benefits even in military conflict with Sengoku Daimyo and thereby the unification of the country was completed by Hideyoshi followed by Nobunaka in a relatively short time. In this system, generalized peasants management, penetration of money distribution and the separation of military and agricultural conditions are maintained to enable it occurred, but in the process of conquering the country, it was expanded nationwide beyond the area occurred. In other words, by redistribution of Daimyo and implementation of this system by Sengoku Daimyo except for a very small number, the manors lost the combination with the land around late 16th century until the 17th century. What enabled it is the adoption of system like land inspection and amount of crops, with regard to this are described later. In this regard, leading authority, Hideyoshi, Tokugawa Ieyasu, and the subsequent shogun were able to have a strong authority to control a multiple of Daimyo. Extremely speaking, Daimyo did not know when the command of movement could be received to the will of Shogun. Mostly concentrated in the castle and even if a certain territory was given in the form of local bound, authority of exercising was limited. In other words, it’s sort of a poor rate to receive seniority rights of the human ruling confined to the farmers of the manor and other tributes to receive than regular seniority and jurisdiction for the people of territory was forbidden. As such, it could be switched to the salary system at any times.
(18)
            It is difficult to understand if we put the name of this form of governance as feudal. Even in Edo period, due to such reasons, it is expressed as ruling feudalism or something dismantling feudalism. Therefore, in Japan’s feudal history, the most similar age of dominant form of feudalism to that of European history had a relatively short period of time in a limited area. So what came after that was not without the manor system had a dominant form including the formation of urban governance and separation of the military service and agriculture. They were subject to some advanced state of economic activity.
(19)

V. Foreign Relations

V.1 International Environment
            At the time of the Meiji Restoration, Japan had experienced repeated periods of stress in foreign relations. In foreign relations, Japan temporarily had taken an opening stance aggressively from the passive stance, and then confronted the forces of Eastern expansion from Christianity and Europeans and eventually turned into rejecting response with so-called “Isolation” (1641). During this process, entangled in various forces competing domestically in Japan and inside Europe since the end of the 16th century throughout early 17th century, the most delicate reaction lasted. From the 16th century throughout the 17th century, the international environment surrounding Japan were varied enough to be eye popping. The international relations including the domestic changes conducted in the same period were under the turbulent era and finally so-called isolation policy in its most extreme form of proximity to the closure of foreign relations was chosen. During the era, isolation would be politically, economically and culturally significant and it is necessary to look the foreign relations of this era as a whole. (20)

V.2 Japan’s development in contact across the sea
            From the early Muramachi Period (1336-1573), the piracy had been done already by the pirate forces of north-western coast of Kyushu who went to Korean Peninsula by small vessels and to Mainland China by assault on the coast. People say it Japanese raiders. Though not necessarily limited to Japan, there was a military vacuum at that area. Holding hands with the Joseon Dynasty, China’s Ming government made requests a number of times for banning that piracy to the Muramachi Shogunate; however, the Shogunate did not have that much power. In view of the Japanese overseas expansion, Japanese raiders can be thought of in conjunction with subsequent entry into Southeast Asia. From the late 16th century to early 17th century throughout China, Indochina Peninsula, Guam, the Malay Archipelago, and the Philippines, a number of traders appeared on Japanese streets, and some of them were employed as foreign mercenaries. Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Shogunate issued red stamp paper for the trade permit to get overall control of all the financial resources and finally greeted the new era of so-called red stamp trade. (21)
            Thus, no foreign relations existed before this time when they shifted the stance from Japan to overseas by the positive attitude. After the fall of Su and Tang Dynasty, strong presence in the ancient empire was in a recession in the Korea Peninsula and Mainland China and meantime, Japan finally came to establish a nation with its own power, which resulted in the change in the relative position. So the aforementioned power struggle ended by the reckless invasion into Korea Peninsula by Hideyoshi after the complete reunification of the national territory but it was a short-lived one by the failure of the Expedition and followed by the isolation policy which contradicted toward inside as a result.
(22)
            On Foreign Relations, an important experience was in contact with the European powers and Christian culture. At the initial stage, state monopoly was made by Portugal as a country and Jesuit Order as a Christian missionary organization and in late 16th Century Spain and the Franciscan and Jesuit Orders joined and in 1641 the V.O.C. (Dutch East India Company) was granted a monopoly for trading with China; Portuguese, Spanish and English merchants were banned from entering Japan.
(23)

V.3 Expansion of Portuguese Colonial Rule and Trade
            Portugal had a strong relationship with Japan late 16th century; in the 15th and 16th century, together with the states that were to form Spain they were active in expanding aboard especially to Africa and Asia via the Cape of Good Hope and monopolized trade by installing colonial strongholds. The overseas expansion should be understood as an extension of the Reconquista Movement on the Iberian Peninsula. (24)
            However, trade and mission were inextricably linked in Portuguese maritime expansion. From the beginning, the motive for expansion was trade and mission and the vertex was the royal household. . This is why you can see in the historical background of the two Iberian countries. Extremely speaking, the society of the two countries was composed of the royal court and the nobility over the royal court and the peasants and there was no choice for the general populace to be involved in the economic activity especially with the thin middle tier status. Thus, the royal monopoly in the form of trade carried on and if any rival emerged in the course of it, the weakness had been thoroughly exposed.
(25)
            Nevertheless, the country with a small military force could monopolize oriental transoceanic trade because the disruptive circumstance of the Asian countries at that time. For example, when they first arrived in India, it had been divided into several states, as well as the struggle between Muslims and Hindus. It was the only possible way of expansion for Portugal with low population by focusing the organizations on the base and connecting it with naval forces. Portuguese monopolized the Eastern trade for censers primarily and had not entered more than that required and kept by silence. That’s why the trade with southern China was the only contact and it was nothing more than pursued. Not any original goal such as the case of Japan was known at all. Therefore, the relationship between Japan and Portugal, close to half a century elapsed since entry of the East had been made by accident. One day in the 1540s, the Portuguese aboard the Chinese ship adrift in Tanegashima was said as the beginning. But when the relationship with Japan had begun, Japan was a perfect target for the missionary and the trade.
(26)

V.4 The Relationship between Portugal and Japan
            In Japan, the religious activities were not very strong to challenge the Christian missionary unlike India and Southeast Asia. Above all, at the level of ordinary citizens at that time there was a missionary activity such as Nichirensyu and Jyorensyu but it was limited to near the center of Japan and still did not reach the West of Japan. Through the long-lasting war there were potential needs among the people to obtain the peace of mind and in the late 16th century the Christianized proceeded rapidly in the West. By the Jesuit Order, churches, monasteries, hospitals and schools were installed and finally Japan had experienced a Christian century. Meanwhile, speaking about trade with Japan, it was revealed to be one of the benefits. It was to use the difference of price between gold and silver, in Japan at that time, nearly Gold 11 or 12 to Silver 1 ration but silver was much more expensive in China (Ming Dynasty) Nevertheless, this difference would not have been conscious by the severed diplomatic status between Japan and Ming. As intermediate traders, the Portuguese, 3rd party country could reap huge profit when functioning as intermediary in the trade between the two countries. They export silver from Japan and replace it with gold in China and bring to exchange the gold for silver in Japan. It is clear that it would have been able to calculate by just a second look how much profit they could get from the exchange which do not require expenses too much. Thus, the trade and missionary became an important goal in Japan and, Macau, as a base, it took more importance than before. Silver exports from Japan became the most prosperous at the late 16th century and it was found in a recent study that the output reached one third of world output (about 40 to 50 tons) at that time. So the trade became an important source of funds required for Portugal’s Asian operation and the Jesuit mission. (27)

V.5 Expansion of British and Dutch Trade
            Meanwhile, Spain, in the wake of loss of power by the defeat of the invincible Armada in 1588, could not prevent the British and Dutch forces from expanding internationally. Followed by the arrival of a Dutch vessel in 1600, relationship between the Britain and Japan was created, thereby opening the trade competition between British and Dutch chartered companies engaging in transoceanic trade. These two companies concentrated on trade only and refrained from engaging in or promoting Protestant mission. The V.O.C. (Dutch East India Company) obtained the privilege as a merchant organization, which was in good terms with Tokugawa Shogunate. The commercial depot of Dutch East India Company was built in Hirado at first and in Nagasaki later by the order of the Shogunate and offices in each city was established to care for extremely efficient marketing, thus the royal household trading of Portugal was forced to face slowdown. However, the Portuguese, who did not separate trade from missionary work, were expelled from Japan trade so that the Dutch were the only left (1641). Here in Nagasaki by the Dutch East India Company’s monopoly (though a Chinese vessel was recognized as an exception), the isolation would be completed from the Japanese perspective. (28)

V.6 The Impact of Isolation
            Losing contact with the world, Japan showed an aggressive attitude, which was a great loss both economically and culturally. As the market was limited to the domestic market only, Japan of Edo Period had become the laboratory of isolated economy. In terms of economic history, at least during 1st half of the Edo period, the narrowness of the market did not work so much as there remained room to expand the domestic market. But in 2nd half, we can only say that economic limitation also hindered the economy. On the whole, the negative evaluation was given to isolation, but it was not considered in the past as to what it gained by running it through the determination of isolation by the government. Above all, isolation has to be precisely expressed as one to be referred to be a series of diplomatic actions as a result because Japan had never had a sense of it. (29)
            It is no doubt that a great change of attitude would be taken against the Christianity and the Netherlands and the UK Inner Harbor (harbor arrival) if the unification of Japan delayed more decades. Otherwise, the isolation status might be impossible. The contact was made when the most dramatic development in the history of both parties was made. Through Nagasaki the window was open to foreigners and they managed to come to Nagasaki and travel to Edo. The Japanese also came to be apprised of the world affairs incoming through Nagasaki. In Nagasaki, the trade was managed by the Shogunate, and even though the trade quantity and items did not cause the decisive influence on the national economy such as Meiji period, it played an important role economically and politically. Not only Nagasaki but also the trade with Joseon Dynasty through Tsushima and trade with Okinawa through Sajjieuma (Southern Kyushu) had been authorized and it was found that the trade and volume were far ahead of Nagasaki’s according to a recent study. At Busan the foreign trade was carried at Wakou. Overseas Knowledge came through the study of books imported from the Netherlands, and remarkable especially in the field of medicine and natural science and art which made a great influence on the formation of rational thinking. It is wrong to obtain the cause of isolation from the Japanese side only. Japan was a leading exporter of silver and copper at that time. Competition between European countries surrounding the acquisition of those would be aimed at a type of the monopoly in the mercantilist era and it need to look the “isolation” from the international and historical perspectives.
(30)

VI. Prosperity within Edo Economy

VI.1 Political Background
            To understand the Edo Period and its economy, it is essential to understand the political circumstances surrounding its Shogun, Tokugawa Ieyasu. In the history of Japan, two power centers have existed over decades: Tenno’s Court, which was represented by the Emperor of Japan, and the shogunate, which held the greatest power in the military class. From Kamakura Period, which started in 1185, rough equilibrium in authority had been maintained between two power centers, although occasional periods of conflicts, like Kenmu Restoration (1333-1336) existed. It was Tokugawa Hideyoshi, the first shogun of Tokugawa Shogunate, who broke the peaceful equilibrium. Tokugawa Shogunate, as US historian Edwin O. Reischauer coined, brought about a “centralized feudal” form of government, in which the most powerful shogun held the control not only around his region but also a wide range of Japanese territory. (31)
            After the Battle of Sekigahara (October, 1600), in which Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated Western Daimyo led by the bakufus under Toyotomi Hideyosi, Tokugawa Shogunate grasped the virtual control over Japan. Tokugawa Ieyasu declared the city of Edo as the capital of Japan, a proclamation that gave Edo period its name. Although Edo Period officially initiated in 1603, it was not until 1615 that Tokugawa Ieyasu finally shattered the remaining power of Toyotomi Hideyosi and the Western Daimyo centered in Osaka. Therefore, during the short term of 12 years, Tokugawa shogunate funneled its attention to military conquest and this is why the record of sea trade between Edo and Osaka began to appear roughly from 1620 onwards. Although the city of Edo enjoyed peace during the same 12-year period, the peace was confined to the city and its surrounding areas (i.e. today’s Saitama and Yamanasi Prefactures). Thus, the first several years did not provide a favorable environment for the future merchants and traders of Edo, who urgently needed safeguarded roads under a stabilized political power.
(32)

VI.2 Rice-Based Economy and the Currency-Based Economy
            The economy of Edo Period was established on two existing economic systems: rice-based economy and currency-based economy. These two pillars of Edo economy have been maintained until the Meiji Restoration introduced western free market system. But as time went by, Edo’s economy was more influenced by the exchange of money rather than rice-based economic system. The shift from rice-based to monetary economy in Edo Period shifted the position of warriors (known as samurais in Japan) and the commons: the commons, through trade, would become a stronger force of Edo society. (33)
           
“Since the Shogunate became the dominant political structure of Japan, the warrior families were usually the landlords who gained economic superiority through the exploitation of crops. From the vast domain of their territory, the commoners, who should better be defined as farmers, harvested rice, potato, corns, and other grains and vegetables and gave large proportion of their crops to warrior families in respective regions. The warrior families then exchange the crops to gold and silver, using them to support their farming business and maintain their own living.” (34)

VI.3 Accumulation of Wealth in the Capital
            Before the Edo Period, the landlords expanded the domain of arable lands, which boosted the gross harvest in many areas. On the other hand, during the Edo Period, most of these landlords restrained themselves from further expansion of lands; instead, they started to plant crops that had higher values in the market. The kinds of crops variegated from simple rice in the Heinan Period to high-quality rice and various vegetables in the Edo Period, marking the beginning of “Quality-over-Quantity” style of Edo agriculture. Still, the main crop in the market was rice, and many commoners preferred rice as their customary standard of currency that was used in smaller-scale economic transactions. The rice-based economy, therefore, was still conspicuous in the Edo economic system. (35)
            Among the landlords were some of the most prosperous, politically influential landlords, who were collectively called as Daimyo. During the Azuchi-Momoyama Period, which continued for about 35 years just before the Edo Period (1603~1868), along with the movement toward administrative centralization, the Daimyo were occasionally demanded to pay sums of capital to build various social infrastructures at that time. In the Edo Period, the Daimyo had to sacrifice more amount of wealth to build roads, bridges, and other public facilities in the city of Edo. Under the policy of “Tenka Fusei (Worldly Unification), “a term that never implied unification in reality, the shogun demanded Daimyo to deliver their money for the holy cause. Daimyo’s wealth was centered in the city of Edo, an area that surrounds today’s central and eastern Tokyo, Kawasaki, and the northeastern part of Yokohama. According to historian Oishi Junsanroh, the average tax rate imposed to farmers in the beginning of Edo Period was about 70 %, reflecting the necessity of landlords to collect huge capital from their commoners to pay for Tenka Fusei. By 1620, Tenka Fusei succeeded in concentrating 42 % of Japanese national wealth on the city of Edo, which has been approximately 35 % around 1610.
(36)

VI.4 Exchange between Currency and Rice
            Thanks to the massive centralization of wealth, the city of Edo could enjoy substantial development in commerce. Commercial development triggered the necessity of currency, which was used to purchase consumer goods and other necessities in the city’s open market. Meanwhile, the use of currency spread to the countryside. Not only did the expanding market of Edo extended its scope to the farming villages around the city of Edo, but also the merchants from city provided currency in exchange for the crop they bought from landlords and individual farmers. The currency-based economy naturally soaked into the heart of farming provinces, increasing the usage of currency for economic transactions in Edo Japan overall. As time went by, the net agricultural production in Japan also increased, which exhilarated economic activities around major cities like Edo and Osaka. Economic growth in major cities furthered the centralization of capital in major cities and increased the power of merchants. (37) In theory, the rice-based economy was still in existence in the Edo Period but in reality, the currency-based economy was the heart of Edo economy from its early stages. A quotation below represents the superiority of money (gold, silver) to rice as a form of currency.

 

 

            Translation : “Throughout Edo Period, rice-based economy maintained its form, but the landlords could not get anything unless they exchange their rice into tangible money. In reality, rise-based economy had almost been assimilated into currency-based economy.” (38)

            Now comes the part where historian and the prominent Edo specialist Suzuki Kouzou called “the world of gold, silver, and sen.” (39) Sen referred to a type of coin made of copper alloy, by and large similar to Joseon’s sang-pyeong tong-bo in appearance, which was used in the markets of Edo. It was during the beginning of Edo period that people agreed upon the official rate of exchange among three money. Rice-based economy, although meager to currency-based economy, was still visible, which means that the exchange rate between rice and metal currency was also agreed upon.

VI.5 Improved Demand, Improved Consumption
            In most areas, as gross consumption of products increased, not only the quantity but also the quality of consumption improved. In Edo Japan, as people consumed more products, not only did the quality of consumption increase but also the demand for currency escalated. Alcohol is often cited as the prototype for this consumption trend. Before the Edo Period, people around Kanto Province, which encompasses areas around Tokyo, Yokohama, and Sendai, produced thick, turbid alcohol called daku-shu. Residents of Kanto Province regarded daku-shu as their daily alcohol, an alcohol that they could afford in ordinary times. Another kind of traditional alcohol, called sen-shu, was also consumed in Japan, but it was only made in the inner hinterlands for the limits in transporting ingredients. Kanto people knew about sen-shu, which was daily alcohol for hinterland populations, but in a different manner: for them, sen-shu was an expensive gift that could be imbibed only in specific occasions among privileged people. This conception gradually changed by the beginning of the Edo Period. In the midst of vibrant economic atmosphere were the transporters and merchants who specialized in “connective distribution.” (39)
            The popularization of sen-shu in Edo commercial market changed the pattern of daily alcohol consumption. It was the year 1610 when bottles of sen-shu emerged in Edo market through mountain routes. From about 1630, sen-shu gathered in the City of Edo is transported by merchant ships – called Tarukai-sen – and was shipped to major cities like Osaka. Through the commercialization and distribution of products, the people in Edo Period, especially those living in Edo city, were able to enjoy diverse selections of products. Their aggregate demand enhanced, which led to the improved quality and quantity in their consumption.
(40)
            General quality of demand and consumption kept improving throughout the entire Edo Period. Shoyu, or Japanese soy sauce, was a condiment transported mainly from Saitama Province, which is less than a hundred kilometers away from the city of Edo. The proportion of dai-tou (a kind of soybeans used to make shoyu) was high in the shoyu of Saitama, which made it impossible to season food with great delicacy. Cooks of military class and meticulous housewives in Edo city demanded shoyu with low proportion of dai-tou. Finally in about 1711 to 1715, high-quality shoyu began to be imported from Osaka in great quantity. These shoyu were lower in the concentration of dai-tou and acted as a high-class condiment in Edo city. As people ceaselessly demanded high-quality shoyu from Osaka, import from Osaka continued until 1753 when a wealthy merchant, backed by the government subsidy, built a high-quality shoyu factory in the City of Edo and produced the same quality of shoyu produced in Osaka.
(41)

VI.6 Economic Cycles
            Before the Tokugawa Ieyasu exterminated the remaining powers of Toyotomi Hideyoshi, his Shogunate took part in shaping economic policies. During the first 50 years, the City of Edo could grew rapidly thanks to Tokugawa’s financial support channeled to activating markets and vitalizing trades among the Edo merchants and those from the surrounding regions which were not affected by belligerence between Toyotomi. Particularly benefited from Tokugawa’s support was in the field of architecture. Japanese historian Suzuki Kozo even termed it Construction Boom (42) describing the massive amount of construction effort exerted within the City of Edo. The Construction Boom not only provided new homes but also provided them with new jobs. The jobs created by the Construction Boom provided financial support to the immigrants who had been small, independent farmers in rural regions.
            The economic boom, however, did not benefit every single class of people. During the commercial revitalization, the influence of military class had declined as the national wealth once accumulated on their vaults spread in the form of commercial capital. Since Tokugawa shogunate relied on numerous small military classes to retain its power, it could not ignore their complaints. In addition, around the late 17th century, the shogun also felt that the commerce was flourishing excessively, since merchants imported goods from virtually all around the nation (i.e. Osaka, Kyushu, and Tohoku).
(43)
            Throughout the Edo Period, Tokugawa Shogunate intermittently loosened and tightened its economic control. Thus the ups and downs in commerce, or economic cycles, were created by artificial policies. Since the concept of market economy and a set of commercial laws had not been introduced, human factors would have probably been the means to control economic cycles. Fortunately, as the current economic theories state, economic cycles are the natural regulators that precluded bubbles and hyperinflations.
(44)

VI.7 Kinds and Usages of Currency
            Japanese historian Suzuki Kozo coined the term Gold of East, Silver of West (45) to recapitulate the core of currency used in the Edo Period. In Japan, the East refers to the Kanto region around Tokyo (the city of Edo during the Edo Period) while the West refers to the Kansai region around Osaka. As Suzuki’s term implies, there were two compatible currencies in the Edo Period, but they were used primarily in different regions. In the Kanto region, gold was the standard currency both among the merchants and consumers. On the other hand, in the Kansai region, silver was the standard currency among the two classes. Meanwhile, bronze, in the form of irregularly minted coin (sen) was used all around the nation as the subsidiary form of currency that were mainly circulated among mid-income families, retail merchants, and small-scale consumers. (46)
            It does not mean, however, that Edo people could never buy goods with silver and Osaka people could never buy goods with gold. They could, and indeed, there was a limited exchange market for gold and silver. Only did people get disadvantage in the quantity/quality of their value when they presented money that are not dominantly traded. For example, if silver was one-eighth value of gold, one could buy a pack of rice with one men of gold in Edo while the same person could buy the same quantity and quality of rice in only one-tenth amount of the pack in Osaka. The price discrimination was also imposed on the basis of class level and the currency possessed by a certain class. For example, Japanese during Edo period believed that gold was the right currency for the powerful military class and large-scale merchants.
(48) If, let’s say, a farmer wishes to buy rice with gold, the merchants were likely to provide less quantity of rice to farmer than to those who were “fit” for gold.
            Some variation in dominant/subordinate currency existed according to the kind of products. In the city of Edo, all goods were traded in gold except tea, woods, clothes, medical ingredients, candies, and salt. For these goods, silver served as the dominant currency instead. This rule was particularly strict for military class (daimyos) and wholesale merchants, whose level of transaction was regular in period and higher in quantity in general.
(49).

VI.8 Middlemen and their Roles in Market
            One of the most distinguishing characteristics during Edo Period was the influence of middlemen on the overall economy. As nationwide trade system developed, so did middlemen who purchased goods from an outskirt region and transported them to the major cities. By doing so, middlemen did not only create a new kind of well-paid occupation but also enhanced the value of products. You may think of these middlemen as the ones under current capitalistic society who efficiently distributed goods from one region to another. Their importance in Edo Period is illustrated in the quotation below, which compares them as the first signal of a capitalist economy :

 

 

            Translation : “Commercial capital developed during the Edo Period came not from merchants who lived on commissions but from the professional middlemen who happened to have followed capitalistic principles of economy.” (50)

VII. Changes in Edo City

VII.1 Tenka-Hushin: Definition and Characteristics
            As discussed in the previous chapter, one of the driving forces of Edo economy in its commencing stage was the construction boom. Although the construction boom might have taken place anyway as Edo was becoming the commercial, social center of Japan, it was largely encouraged by the shogun-driven movement called Tenka-Hushin. Tenka-Hushin refers to the reestablishment, or restructuring of the universe, with Tenka meaning the heaven and the land and Hushin meaning the construction of god’s holy places (in the context, temples). As Suzuki defined in the quotation below, Tenka-Hushin originally meant that the Japanese people rose upon to the cause of massive construction, though it was not in reality :

 

 

            Translation : “People of Tenka ordered Daimyo to build castles, civic infrastructures, temples, waterways, and other constructions.” (51)

            Considering the omnipotence held by the Shogunate in Edo Period, the definition does not seem to be practical at all. In fact, it was Tokugawa Shogunate that proclaimed Tenka-Hushin in order to build a strong, unified nation by creating and fixing social infrastructures and centralizing both human and financial resources in its capital, Edo. Meanwhile, Tenka-Hushin was also effective in subjugating the military classes, Daimyo, which were spread all over the nation. Although Tenka-Hushin was initiated by the Shogun, it was Daimyo’s responsibility to oversee and finance the construction process. Since Shogun could usurp the authority of Daimyo which failed to achieve its obligation, the Daimyo was eager to contribute to the cause of Tenka-Hushin. Japanese historians often point to Tenka-Hushin as a prominent example of Keynesian policy during the Edo Period, since the movement resembled in its methods to Roosevelt’s New Deal. It is also widely cited as an example which shows that the Edo economy was not singularly marked by the influx of capitalistic systems. (52)

VII.2 Effective Demand from Tenka-Hushin
            Tenka-Hushin was a nationwide movement that changed the landscape of Japan during the early Edo Period. A great proportion of investment for Tenka-Hushin, however, was channeled into the city of Edo. In theory, the Daimyo were supposed to take part only in the restructuring of its own provinces, but Tokugawa Shogunate summoned a number of Daimyos in Kanto region to restructure the city of Edo. During the first seventy years, Edo underwent a gradual process of transformation, as new buildings and markets along with the organized streets and canals were built in the heart of the city. The most notable ramification of Tenka-Hushin was the increase in effective demand at the City of Edo. The construction required a huge number of laborers and equally huge number of new residents, which Daimyo taking part in the Tenka-Hushin movement of Edo city summoned from their regions. They worked, ate, slept, and earned money in Edo city. Unlike merchants who perambulated from region to region, these laborers and residents spent their whole income within the city and since their spending was concerned with their daily living, the city could enjoy a constant, regular amount of transactions in the markets. Their regular spending stabilized the incomes of merchants and other residents, and their profits guaranteed the economic boom in the Edo city; in other words, they created what today’s economists call “multiplier effect” in the Edo economy. (53)

VII.3 Development of Market Economy
            Tenka-Hushin was cited as a Keynesian aspect of Edo economy; ironically, however, it also instilled the concept of market economy. Tokugawa Shogunate ordered all Daimyo to take part in Tenka-Hushin. And each Daimyo was assigned randomly assigned tasks. However, not all Daimyo had the same skills, knowhow, and technicians for a particular project. For example, the Shogun ordered several Daimyos to produce stone walls in the outskirt of the city. Some Daimyo had technicians who knew where to get good rocks, how to cut them, and how to deliver them to the target point. Others did not have any technicians in their regions specialized in making stone walls, but they might have other professionals, such as blacksmiths. Through their own traders, these Daimyo looked for a Daimyo which had rock specialists and were willing to trade them with their blacksmiths. If the counterpart did not need blacksmiths, the Daimyo were also willing to reimburse gold and silver. Without human trade, many Daimyo would have failed to achieve their own projects and Tenka-Hushin might have been bungled. In the course of these trades, however, the Daimyo contributed greatly to the introduction of capitalistic concept to the Edo economy. The basis of capitalism lies in free trade of resources between two agents, just like two Daimyo that traded their technicians. In fact, the tradition resembles to today’s “carbon emission trade,” in which a country sell their part of rights to emit carbon dioxide to another country who need to produce more carbon dioxide for the sake of its industrial development. (54)

VII.4 Old Money and New Money
            1601 was the year when Tokugawa Ieyasu defeated the Western Daimyo at the Battle of Sekigahara. Soon after the victory, Tokugawa issued gold and silver currency under his daimyo’s name – he was yet to be the Shogun. During the Tenka-Hushin, Tokugawa Shogunate increased the amount of issuance to support the construction. It was 1695 when the second gold currency, Gen-Roku Gold was introduced with lower purity in order to differentiate the laborers’ wage further. Until the end of Edo Period, Tokugawa Shogunate issued different types of gold and silver currency with different shapes, engravings, and purity. The record of these money is listed in the diagram below.

Table : Gold and Silver Currency during the Edo Period (55) after Suzuki Kozo, Capitalism was born in the Edo Period, p 53

 

Gold

mass (g)

purity (%)

period in use

 

Kei-Cho Gold

17.85

86.79

1601-1738

 

Gen-Roku Gold

17.85

57.36

1695-1717

 

Kan-Zi Gold

9.37

84.29

1710-1719

 

Sei-Toku Gold

17.85

84.29

1714-1860

 

Kyo-Ho Gold

17.85

86.79

1715-1860

 

Bun-Si Gold

13.17

65.71

1736-1827

 

Bun-Tei Gold

13.17

56.41

1819-1842

 

Ho-Si Gold

11.25

56.77

1837-1866

 

Sei-Zi Gold

9.00

56.77

1859-1866

 

Man-Tei-Sho-Han

9.00

56.77

1860-1877

 

Silver

mass (g)

purity (%)

period in use

 

Kei-Cho Silver

N/A

80

1601-1738

 

Gen-Roku Silver

N/A

64

1695-1722

 

Oku-Hin Silver

N/A

40

1710-1722

 

Bun-Si Silver

N/A

46

1736-1827

 

Sho-Wa Silver

18.75

46

1765-1772

 

Ao-Ni-Tei Silver

10.12

99.75

1772-1828

 

Bun-Tei Silver

N/A

36.00

1820-1842

 

Bun-ka-Hei-Ni Silver

7.5

99.75

1824-1842

 

Ho-Si Silver

N/A

26.00

1837-1868

 

Tei-Si Silver

N/A

13.00

1859-1868

 

Mexican Silver

27.00

87.00

1859-1868

 

            The leftmost corner is the name of gold/silver currency (the upper half is about gold and the down half is about silver). The next corner is mass (g) per unit. The third corner is purity and the fourth corner is the period of issuance. The merchants preferred the currency in issuance and were reluctant to give the same value to the old currency because it was the currency in issuance that was recognized by the Shogunate. It did not mean, however, that the use of old currency that was no longer issued was illegal in Edo Period; it was only that the old currency was as much appreciated as the new currency. (56) The merchants’ penchant for new currency also helped the Shogunate, who could hold one further authority over the control of overall Edo economy by issuing currency.

VII.5 The Structure of Edo City
            The city of Edo was the first Japanese city that functioned as the center of both inland and marine economy. In Edo city, both the land and waterways were of paramount importance. The main street of Edo city formed along the straight canal covering Manse-bashi, Nihon-bashi, Kyo-bashi, and Shin-bashi, four “bridges” (“bashi” means bridge in Japanese) that are still constituting the economic centers of Tokyo. Along the canal under these bridges came the skippers from what is now Tokyo Bay, shipping products from Western cities that were carried to the markets formed along these bridges. (57) In short, as the map below shows, Edo possessed the harmony of sea, land, and inland waterways, all of which played a significant role in prospering Edo economy.

 

Picture: The Map of Edo City (58) Modified after Suzuki Kozo, Capitalism was born in the Edo Period, p. 58

 

VII.6 The Use of Fire to Clear Areas for Planned Reconstruction
            Throughout the history of Edo city, there had been a number of records about fire. No other cities in historical Japan – maybe in the world – could match Edo in terms of the number of fires they had. Most of fire in Edo, however, was not caused by arsonists or by accident; rather, they were caused deliberately. Throughout the first two centuries, numerous Japanese moved to the city, some by Daimyo’s participation in Tenka-Hushin and some to look for a new job. The population increased so greatly that Tokugawa Shogunate deemed it necessary to tear down the old city structure and build the new, efficient constructions on the site. From 1650 to 1800, a number of “deliberate” fires, such as The Great Fire of Meiryaku cleared the main areas which were suffering from unbearably high population density. Within months, with meticulous blueprint, the site of fire was reconstructed into a well-planned district capable of encompassing massive population at once. (59)
            The reconstruction was a part of Tenka-Hushin, and it had the same positive impact as Tenka-Hushin had on Edo economy. Although the fires tear down the valuable buildings, the massive labor under Tenka-Hushin replaced these buildings very quickly. The workers earned money from the deliberate fires, which in turn created effective demand within Edo economy.
(60) Ironically, the fire that destroyed the economic infrastructure stimulated its economy in the end.

VII.7 Inland Waterway System
            Initially, the canals in Edo city were limited to those that connected inner regions with what is now Tokyo Bay. However, as the city expanded throughout a series of fire, the small canals could not support the huge amount of traffic. The ships that carried goods to Edo were concentrated in the port of Edo, which was way beyond its capacity. It was then the Tokugawa Shogunate suggested a long, inland waterway system that connected main cities around Edo. The construction of waterway began in 1660 and lasted for 70 years. The completed waterway system extended from the northern province of Sendai to the southwestern neighbor of Edo, called Izu peninsula. Around Sendai stretched thousands of acres of farmland for rice, and it is the rice from Sendai that supported a large proportion of Edo people’s appetite. Meanwhile, Izu peninsula was where the quarries were located. From these stone mines came the stones and other construction materials necessary for reconstruction in Edo city. Through the new waterway system, two main ingredients of Tenka-Hushin, as well as other subsidiary materials produced in the cities along it, were efficiently delivered to Edo city. (61)
            The inland waterway system was particularly effective because it vouchsafed the regular transportation of rice, rocks, and other materials. The ocean current along the pacific rim of Japanese island was often vicarious during the Edo Period, which sometimes made it difficult for middlemen to carry their goods through ocean route. Moreover, the regions that were laid alongside the waterway became the beneficiary with the introduction of regular passenger ships on the waterway. Thus the waterway helped to scatter the congestion around the “main street” of Edo city and to develop its suburban areas. Now-famous sites such as Ikebukuro and Omiya were the examples of suburban areas that were boomed during Edo period.
(62)

VIII. Middle Phase in Edo Period

VIII.1 Isolation
            The first decades of Edo Period was the last decades of Nanban trade period, in which Japanese traded intensely with Europeans and exchanged goods, machineries, and Christianity. It is at the beginning of the Edo period that Japan built her first ocean-going Western-style warships, such as the San Juan Bautista. At first, Tokugawa Shogunate did not intend to isolate Japan completely; rather, he had an ambition to develop Edo as the major port. However, he learned that the Europeans were willing only to engage in trade in Southern ports of Kyushu (i.e. Nagasaki), he deemed it necessary to restrict foreign trade. He was not sure about the impact the Europeans would have in the Southern regions, and he was highly suspicious that Christianity would break the peace of newly unified Japan. (63)
            By 1612, the shogun’s retainers and residents of Tokugawa lands had been ordered to forswear Christianity. More restrictions came in 1616 when the Shogunate restricted foreign trade to Nagasaki and Hirado, an island northwest of Kyushu. In 1622, the Shogunate executed 120 missionaries and converts; in 1624 it expelled the Spanish from its land and in 1629 executed thousands of Christians in Kyushu. Finally, the Closed Country Edict of 1635 prohibited any Japanese from traveling outside Japan or, if someone left, from ever returning. In 1636 the Dutch were restricted to Dejima, a small artificial island-and thus, not true Japanese soil-in Nagasaki’s harbor. Portuguese, meanwhile, were permanently expelled and its missionaries were executed at site.
(64) Tokugawa Shogunate, on the other hand, was less suspicious about the Asians; he allowed a Daimyo to trade with China and Korea, the latter of which spread its cultural excellence through annual Josen Tsusinshi (Joseon Tongshinsa in Korean).

VIII.2 Kyoho Reform
            Kyoho Reform initiated in 1722 when the Shogun Tokugawa Yoshimune introduced agricultural reforms called Agemairei, although several Western sources, such as Wikipedia, date its origin to 1736. The reforms were aimed at making the shogunate financially solvent. Because of the tensions between Confucian ideology and the economic reality of Tokugawa Japan (Confucian principles that money was defiling was against the commercial progress within Edo economy), Yoshimune deliberately violated certain Confucian principles that were hampering his reform process. In this context, some Japanese historians claim that Kyoho Reforms demonstrated Shogunate’s cherishment of economic prosperity over traditional value systems. (65)
            Kyoho Reform was implemented in order to compensate huge financial investment by Tokugawa Shogunate, which poured its money too much on the Edo economy to take care of its own living. It included an emphasis on frugality, as well as the formation of merchant guilds that allowed greater control and taxation. But the most important of all was Agemairei . Agemairei included two major changes: first, the Shogunate reduced workforces in its administration and second, it decreed a certain amount of rice for every ten-thousand seki to be provided additionally to the Shogunate. Both changes were intended to increase the asset of the Shogunate. Yoshimune later extended the latter policy in 1744 as to ensure the constant supply of rice. The policy in 1744 banned peasants from selling their lands, but guaranteed a certain amount of their production to be returned to them. The returning amount of production was roughly the same as before, but considering that Kyoho Reform restricted economic vitality, the policy was generous to the peasants. In reflection upon today’s economic theory, Kyoho Reform was an artificial measure that promoted deflation. But the difference between the reform and general deflation was that Edo economy did not lose vitality through its continued construction boom and increasing trade.
(66)

VIII.3 Era of Tanuma
            Era of Tanuma was the most prosperous era of Edo Period, which lasted from 1759 to 1786. It was named after Tanuma Okitsuku, who was a senior counselor of Tokugawa Shogunate and implemented pro-commerce, pro-merchant economic policies during “his” era. Era of Tanuma smoothed many restrictions imposed on the merchants and their commercial activities. Later, it also loosened a part of Shogunate’s isolationist policy, allowing Christian books and a limited number of Western inventions – these inventions had been introduced to Japan either before the hard-line isolationist policy was implemented or through smuggling – to be traded freely in the Edo city’s market. (67)
            By the beginning of Era of Tanuma, the city of Edo had a population of more than one million, and Osaka had more than 400,000 inhabitants. Many other castle towns along the waterway system grew as well. Osaka and Kyoto became busy trading and handicraft production centers, while Edo was the center for the supply of food and essential urban consumer goods. Although currency had become widespread before the Era of Tanuma, Rice still constituted the base of the economy, as the daimyo collected the taxes from the peasants in the form of rice. Taxes during the Era were high, about 40 % of the harvest. The rice was sold at the Fudasashi Market in Edo. To raise money, the daimyo used forward contracts to sell rice that was not even harvested yet. These contracts were similar to modern futures trading.
(68)

 

Picture: Fudasashi Market in Edo during the Era of Tanuma (69) Modified after Suzuki Kozo, Capitalism was born in the Edo Period, p. 76

VIII.4 Kansei Reform
            Kansei Reform was a reactionary reform that was introduced in response to the growing economic flexibility accumulated during the Era of Tanuma. The reform was led by Matsudaira Sadanobu, the Shogun’s chief councilor, who was disgruntled about the excessive liberalization implemented under Tanuma. Sadanobu implemented deflationary policy, expecting the positive effect that the Shogunate enjoyed in the Kyoho Reform.

(70) However, his policy of banning any western influences, reducing liquidity in market, and discouraging immigration into the city of Edo only constricted the consumer spending and aggravated the economic prosperity. Japanese historian Oseki Sensanro summarized the side effects of Kansei Reform as follows : (“Kansei Reform delayed the Meiji Restoration for a hundred years.”) (71).
            After the Kansei Reform came the “downs” in the economic cycle of Edo. Drought swept Kanto Province in the late 18th century, which decreased the total agricultural production, and thus commercial vitality. In 1835, an earthquake of 7.6 magnitudes, called Sanriku Earthquake, destroyed many infrastructures of Edo city. Although these events have little to do with the reform itself, the negative economic effects of the reform and the natural disasters together thwarted prosperity in Edo economy. The recession was, however, surprisingly mild considering the impacts the failed economic policy, drought, and the earthquake might have on one’s economy. This was because more and more people were flowing into the Edo city, and since they had their jobs to reconstruct the hard-hit city, the overall demand in its economy kept increasing during the post-Kansei period.
(72)

VIII.5 Tenpo Reform
            In 1842, Tokugawa Shogunate implemented its last social reform. Tenpo Reform was a socioeconomic reform that attempted to improve the economy and change the social landscape struck by the previous natural disasters. It was initiated by Mizuno Tadakuni, who tried to solve the problems within local politics at first but extended his measures to the nationwide scale. (73) Economic restrictions introduced in Kansei Reform, such as price control on certain commodity, were lifted to revitalize the economy. Social reforms were also introduced in order to bring order to Japanese society. Under the social reforms, a unified calendar system was introduced and the families were required to register themselves at their nearest Shinto shrine, which was a place for safekeeping sacred objects but also had administrative function during the Edo period. Meanwhile, as an effort to maintain social order, Tenpo Reform banned the distribution of Rangaku and restricted the influx of population into Edo city. Soon after Tenpo Reform was instituted, however, the focus of Tokugawa Shogunate turned to foreign intrusions which, within less than three decades, brought about its demise. (74)

IX. Fall of Tokugawa Shogunate

IX.1 Intrusions from the West
            Western intrusions were on the increase in the early nineteenth century. Russian warships and traders encroached on Karafuto (called Sakhalin in Russia) and on the Kuril Islands, the archipelago just north of Hokkaido’s northernmost city, Asahikawa. A British warship entered Nagasaki harbor searching for enemy Dutch ships in 1808, and other warships and whalers were seen in Japanese waters with increasing frequency in the 1810s and 1820s. Whalers and trading ships from the United States also arrived on Japan’s shores. Although the Japanese made some minor concessions and allowed some landings, they largely attempted to keep all foreigners out, sometimes using force. Rangaku became crucial not only in understanding the foreign “barbarians” but also in using the knowledge gained from the West to fend them off. (75)

IX.2 Ideal of Agrarian Society and the Coalition of Critics
            From the onset, the Tokugawa Shogunate considered agriculture as the pillar of growing Japanese society. In the economic history of Japan, we have explored different economic measures that supported commercial activities; however, Shogunate believed in the principle that the agrarian society could prosper only if their crops were smoothly distributed and sold in the markets. The Shogunate still retained the principle in the 19th century, though it had become much challenging for him to continue its emphasis on agrarian society. Although the natural disasters and Kansei Reform did not have as much impact in the economy, it did have negative ramifications in society and politics. Throughout the Edo Period, there were more than 20 nationwide famines, some of which invoked massive protests from the peasants. Some merchants, who owned greater fortune than the military class, meanwhile, demanded political power, only to be refused by the Shogunate. These merchants, based on their accumulated wealth, began to take advantage of social unrest launched by disgruntled peasants and formed so-called “coalition of critics.” These critics would later contribute to the demise of Tokugawa Shogunate after Commodore Perry signed contract that opened Japanese ports to the United States. (76)
            Yet, the Tokugawa did not eventually collapse simply because of intrinsic failures. Foreign intrusions helped to precipitate a complex political struggle between the Shogunate and the coalition of its critics. The continuity of the protests in the mid-nineteenth century would finally bring down the Tokugawa Shogunate.
(77)

IX.3 Affairs with Commodore Perry
            When Commodore Perry’s four-ship squadron appeared in Edo Bay in July 1853, Tokugawa Shogunate was thrown into turmoil. Perry appeared in the coastline with two ships, demanding the Shogunate to open the ports, but the Shogunate had refused their offer. The chairman of the senior council, Abe Masahiro, was responsible for dealing with the Americans. Abe was confused to see the opposing sides: the Shogunate who did never want to welcome Americans and the local Daimyos who wanted to go war. Lacking consensus, Abe decided to compromise by accepting Perry’s demands for opening Japan to foreign trade while preparing for future battle against him. In March 1854, the Treaty of Kanagawa opened two ports to American ships seeking provisions, guaranteed good treatment to shipwrecked American sailors, and allowed a United States consul to take up residence in Shimoda, a seaport on the Izu peninsula. Abe probably did not know that his preparation would be futile as the liberals and the coalition of critics worked together to draw as much Western influences as possible. The Harris Treaty, which opened still more areas to American trade, was forced on the Shogunate five years later.

the complete info with illustrations exist but only for premium member.

the edn @ copyright 2012

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