Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA 1945 (BERSAMBUNG)

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA

1945

 

 

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

BUKU YANG LENGKAP TERSEDIA BAGI YANG BERMINAT HUBUNGGI LIWAT KOMENTAR(COMMENT) DI WEB BLOG INI

sORRY FOR THE UNEDITED ARTICLES BELOW,I DID  TO PROTEC T AGAINST THE COPY WITHOUT PERMISSSION

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

Copyrught @ Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA 2013

Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author

PENGANTAR

Setelah melakukan penelitian selama kurun waktu empat puluh tahun  dari tahun 1973 ampai 2013 akhirnya saat ini telah ditemukan  informasi dengan ilustrasinya yang cukup lengkap yang berhubungan dengan sejarah Indonesia .

Saya telah berhasil mengumpulkan sebuah koleksi sejarah Indonesia yang merupakan salah satu koleksi terbaik dan terlengkap didunia,kendatipun sebagian ada yang telah dijual kepada kolektor lain tetapi ilustrasinya dan informasinya  ada dalam buku ini

 Penelitian ini dapat diselesaikan berrkat bantuan dari beberapa teman seperti  keluarga almarhum Soewil, Pak Cong , teman-teman di Sumatera barat yang banyak membantu saya dalam mengumpulkan koleksi dari Sumatera Barta, Herry Hutabarat , Aris siregar , teman di Medan,dan Jakarta  yang bnayak memberikan dorongan kepada saya untuk menyelesaikan penelitian ini  yang sangat penting bagi generasi mendatang . untuk itu saya ucapkan ribuan terima kasih

Untuk mereka dapat belajar dari sejarah, sehingga tidak mengulangi kesalahan yanm yang sma dan memanfaatkan hal yang benar dalam memecahkan maslah masa kini dan merupakan data awal dalam menyusun rencana masa depan/

Jakarta 2013

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA 

The Author Profile

.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum                                                              

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) The Indonesian History Collections  and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta October 2013

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

Indonesia History Collections 1945

The Dai Nippon

Occupation  java History Collections In 1945

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private limited E-BOOK IN CD-ROM EDITION

Copyright @ 2013

 

 

1945

The camp ‘4 & the 9th Battalion ‘

 

located north of the railroad that goes through Bandung.

It is bordered by the Gedong Delapan, the Bataljonsweg, the Kampementsweg and Stationsweg, also the street names that Bandung has traditionally been a camp.

The place where P. Meulenbroek encamped, is no longer what it was. In the area of ​​about 2000 m2, are a number of (sub-) public houses and barracks, intended for the alloy of approximately 2,500 people. (P/Meulenbroek)

1945

Kamp ‘4 & Batalyon-9 ‘
 
terletak di utara rel kereta api yang melewati Bandung.
Hal ini berbatasan dengan Gedong Delapan, Bataljonsweg tersebut, Kampementsweg dan Stationsweg, maka nama jalan juga bahwa Bandung secara tradisional menjadi sebuah kamp.
Tempat di mana P. Meulenbroek berkemah, tidak lagi apa itu. Di daerah sekitar 2000 m2, sejumlah (sub-) publik rumah dan barak, ditujukan untuk paduan sekitar 2.500 orang. (P / Meulenbroek)

 

 

 

 

JANUARY ,

January,9th.1945,

 

Kartupos Dai Nippon dengan lukisan skets dengan pena tinta parker biru dikirim dari Solo ke temannya satu kota, dengan tulisan Apakah ada air djarang mas , tidak kalau air grontol ada. ( djarang الوسائل ، وgrontol ).Di bagian depan kartupos tertulis ”  Terlebih sahulu saya ucapkan terima kasih atas pemberian saudara, gambar yang mengingatkan kami pergaulan di soempioeh.Kemudian saya mengirimkan gambar kembali tetapi tidak baik karena saya tidak pandai mengambar. Sekianlah sampaikan salam saya kepada mas Boesro. Sipengirim Mulyadi Solo.

 

 

Dai Nippon postcards with sketches of paintings with blue parker pen ink sent from his solo into a city, with the inscription djarang mas Is there water, if water grontol not exist. (djarang الوسائل, و grontol). At the front of the postcard is written “First I thank you for your gift, we meinggatkan picture association in soempioeh.Then I send a picture back but not good because I am not good at drawing. that is all to convey my greetings to mas Boesro. Mulayadi Solo sender

January,21th.1945

Pertempuran Pulau ramee

 

Pertempuran Pulau Ramree berlangsung selama enam minggu antara Januari dan Februari 1945, bagian dari serangan Korps XV India 1944/45 di Front Selatan Kampanye Myanmar pada Perang Dunia II. Pulau Ramree (Yangbye Kywan) terletak di lepas pantai Myanmar dan ditaklukkan bersama seluruh Myanmar Selatan pada tahap-tahap awal Kampanye Myanmar oleh Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang tahun 1942. Bulan Januari 1942, Sekutu berhasil melancarkan serangan untuk merebut Ramree dan tetangganya, Cheduma, dengan tujuan membangun pangkalan udara yang disuplai dari laut di sana. Garnisun Jepang di Ramree diisi oleh resimen Infanteri ke-121, bagian dari Divisi ke-54 Jepang. Komandan resimen dijabat oleh Kolonel Kanichi Nagazawa.[1]

Pertempuran ini juga dikaitkan dengan sejumlah laporan bahwa banyak tentara Jepang yang dimakan oleh ribuan buaya air asin yang mengendap di rawa. Guinness Book of World Records menyebut peristiwa ini sebagai “bencana buaya terburuk di dunia (diragukan)”[2] dan “jumlah korban serangan buaya terbanyak di dunia”.[3]

Pertempuran diawali dengan Operasi Matador, serangan amfibi untuk mencaplok pelabuhan strategis Kyaukpyu (terletak di ujung utara Pulau Ramree dan selatan Akyab di seberang Hunter’s Bay) dan lapangan udara penting di dekat pelabuhan. Aksi mata-mata yang dilakukan pada 14 Januari 1945 mengungkapkan bahwa pasukan Jepang sedang sibuk memasang baterai senjata di titik-titik pendaratan di pesisir Ramree. Angkatan Laut Kerajaan lantas menugaskan satu kapal tempur dan satu kapal pengawal untuk memberi bantuan dari laut kepada satuan tugas yang akan dikerahkan.

 

 

Tentara resimen Wiltshire dari Divisi Infanteri India ke-26 menyiapkan makanan di samping kuil di Ramree.

Pada tanggal 21 Januari,

satu jam sebelum Brigade Infanteri India ke-71 mendadrat, kapal tempur HMS Queen Elizabeth melepaskan tembakan dengan baterai utamanya sementara pesawat dari kapal pengawal HMS Ameer memberitahu targetnya. Kapal jelajah ringan HMS Phoebe juga ikut serta dalam pengeboman ini bersama B-24 Liberator dan P-47 Thunderbolt dari No. 224 Group RAF (di bawah komando HQ RAF Bengal and Burma). Semuanya menembaki dan mengebom wilayah pantai. Tentara penyerang mendarat tanpa perlawanan dan mengamankan kawasan tersebut. Keesokan harinya, Brigade Infanteri India ke-4 mendarat.[1]

Pada Operasi Sankey tanggal 26 Januari,

satu pasukan Marinir Kerajaan (Royal Marine) mendarat di Cheduba, yang terletak di selatan Ramree, dan mengetahui bahwa Cheduba tidak diduduki Jepang. Di Ramree, garnisun Jepang melawan habis-habisan. Brigade Infanteri India ke-36 mendarat bersama satuan RAF dan Marinir Kerajaan. Setelah Marinir berhasil membuat garnisun Jepang kewalahan, 900 prajurit Jepang di dalamnya meninggalkan pangkalan dan bergabung dengan batalyon yang lebih besar di seluruh pulau. Rute yang dilalui memaksa pihak Jepang menyeberang rawa mangrove sejauh 16 kilometer dan ketika mereka berjuang melewati hutan lebat, pasukan Britania mengepung rawa tersebut. Karena terjebak di tanah lumpur yang dalam, penyakit tropis langsung mendera para tentara diikuti serangan kalajengking, nyamuk tropis, dan buaya air asin.

 

Foto Seekor buaya air asin

Sumber wiki

 

 

.FEBRUARY  1945

February,2nd.1945

 

Kartupos pendudukan Jepang stasioner  tipe karbouw 31/2 sem dikirim dari Magelang  dengan tanda tangan  dan stempel cicicin kepala kantorpos  Magelang  karena tidak adanya  stempel kantorpos  mungkin kelupaan mengecapnya   ke Koedoes  tangbal 2.2.05

2.2.05 , unsuual handsign and hanchope of the Postmaster of Magelang send to Koedoes, the post stamped didnot exist,that is why the postmaster gave that sign and his own ring choped(report too by PR Bulterman, Dr Iwan)

19 Februari 1945

Panggilan berulang-ulang dari Britania agar Jepang menyerah diabaikan. Marinir yang mengamankan kawasan tersebut menembak setiap tentara Jepang yang berusaha kabur, sementara di dalam rawa ratusan tentara tewas dalam kurun beberapa hari akibat kelaparan atau kehausan.

Beberapa prajurit Britania, termasuk naturalis Bruce Stanley Wright, mengklaim bahwa sekumpulan buaya menyerang dan memakan para tentara. Penjelasan Wright dicantumkan dalam buku karyanya tahun 1962, Wildlife Sketches Near and Far:

“Malam itu [19 Februari 1945] adalah malam terburuk yang pernah dialami semua anggota kru M.L. [motor launch]. Tembakan bedil bertubi-tubi di rawa yang hitam legam disertai jeritan prajurit yang terluka yang dikoyak oleh rahang reptil-reptil besar, dan suara buaya mengendap-endap yang menakutkan, menciptakan campuran suara neraka yang jarang sekali tercipta di Bumi. Pada senja hari, burung-burung nasar tiba untuk membersihkan semua yang ditinggalkan buaya… Dari sekitar seribu tentara Jepang yang memasuki rawa-rawa Ramree, hanya dua puluh yang ditemukan hidup-hidup.”[2][4]

Setelah Britania akhirnya mendekati rawa tersebut, mereka menemukan bahwa dari sembilan ratus tentara yang awalnya kabur ke sini, hanya dua puluh tentara yang masih hidup (luka serius dan sangat lemas).

Secara keseluruhan, sekitar 500 tentara Jepang keluar dari Ramree meski diblokir habis-habisan. Jika klaim Wright benar, serangan buaya Ramree adalah yang terburuk sepanjang sejarah.[1]

British Burma Star Association tampaknya masih mau menerbitkan cerita serangan rawa ini, tetapi memisahkan klaim 20 korban selamat Jepang di satu serangan dengan 1.000 tentara Jepang yang dibiarkan bertahan hidup di rawa.[3].

Selain itu, tidak ada laporan militer Britania ataupun wawancara dengan tentara Jepang dan warga setempat yang menguatkan klaim peristiwa ini.[4]

Jumlah ini diragukan dan peristiwanya sendiri disebut sebagai mitos urban oleh sejarawan Britania Raya Frank McLynn. Ia berpendapat bahwa hanya beberapa tentara Jepang yang terluka yang dimakan, meskipun ia juga mengakui bahwa buaya air asin di sana dikenal sebagai “pemakan manusia dan pembunuh yang memanfaatkan kesempatan”.[4]

 

Kritik McLynn terhadap kesaksian ini berasal dari keraguan pribadinya bahwa “armada tempur Jepang, yang mampu melubangi tank-tank dan persenjataan Britania”, tidak mampu melawan buaya dalam jumlah besar pada malam hari. Keraguannya tidak dikutip oleh sumber-sumber lain maupun para sejarawan.

Selain itu, meski McLynn menduga eksistensi Bruce Wright “belum terbukti”, kariernya di Angkatan Laut Kerajaan Kanada dan profesinya sebagai ilmuwan dan penulis dicantumkan di berbagai sumber tambahan dan keraguan McLynn lagi-lagi tidak dikutip oleh sejarawan perang.[5]

Sumber Wiki

 

MARCH 1945

 

APRIL 1945

April,1st.05 ,

Madura News paper(Warta Madura Syu )  with Mother Kartini (Indonesian  Women Heros) illustrations.

 

Madura News paper(Warta Madura Syu )  with Mother Kartini (Indonesian  Women Heros) illustrations

 

 

16.4.1945,

 

Kartupos Ucapan terima kasih atas sumbangan  kematian suami /orang tua dari keluarga Na Ho Tauw  dari nyonya Khouw Malang dikirim dengan prangko hindia belanda seri karbaouw  2 sen tanpa cetak tindih stempel pos Malang  16.4.05 isi surat

berhubung dengan meninggalnya suami & papa kita dsb                                                            Kita terima sumbangan nyonya                                                                                                       berupa Uang Kontan                                                                                                                                 dengan ini  kita haturkan banyak terima kasih                                                                               Keluarga Na Ho Tauw

 

Postcards thanks for the donation death of their husband / parents  of the family Na Ho Tauw from  Mrs  Khouw Malang

MAY  1945

 

JUNE 1945

12.6.45, Dai Nippon Postcard send from Batoe to Malang

 

Perang Okinawa

 

Pertempuran Okinawa, nama kode Operasi Iceberg,[3] adalah pertempuran di Kepulauan Ryukyu, Okinawa yang dicatat sebagai serangan amfibi terbesar dalam Perang Pasifik, Perang Dunia II.[4][5] Pertempuran berlangsung selama 82 hari, mulai awal April hingga pertengahan Juni 1945. Melalui kampanye panjang strategi loncat pulau, Sekutu sedikit demi sedikit mendekati kepulauan Jepang. Pulau Okinawa adalah satu-satunya pulau besar milik Jepang yang berada 340 mil (550 km) dari daratan utama Jepang. Okinawa direncanakan sebagai basis operasi udara untuk rencana invasi ke daratan utama Jepang yang diberi kode Operasi Downfall. Empat divisi dari Angkatan Darat ke-10 Amerika Serikat (Divisi 7, Divisi 27, Divisi 77, dan Divisi 96), serta dua Divisi Marinir (Divisi 1 dan Divisi 6) bertempur di darat, sementara Divisi Marinir 2 disiapkan sebagai cadangan amfibi dan tidak pernah didaratkan. Invasi ini didukung oleh angkatan laut, pasukan amfibi, dan angkatan udara taktis.

Dalam bahasa Inggris, pertempuran dikenal sebagai “Typhoon of Steel” (Topan Baja),[6] [7][8] Dalam bahasa Jepang, pertempuran ini disebut tetsu no ame (鉄の雨?, hujan besi) atau kou no kaze (鋼の風?, angin baja). Julukan-julukan tersebut menggambarkan betapa ganasnya pertempuran, intensitas serangan kamikaze dari pihak bertahan Jepang, serta pengerahan secara besar-besaran kapal-kapal dan kendaraan lapis baja Sekutu sewaktu menyerbu ke Okinawa. Pertempuran Okinawa menimbulkan korban terbesar dalam Medan Perang Pasifik Perang Dunia II. Jepang menderita kerugian lebih dari 100.000 tentara tewas, ditangkap, atau bunuh diri. Di lain pihak, 65.000 tentara Sekutu tewas atau luka. Selama pertempuran berlangsung, puluhan ribu warga sipil Okinawa tewas, terluka, atau bunuh diri. Serangan bom atom di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki menyebabkan Jepang menyerah hanya dalam beberapa minggu setelah berakhirnya Pertempuran Okinawa

Komando Gabungan Sekutu untuk pertempuran ini berada di bawah Gugus Tugas 50 (TF 50) (pimpinan Laksamana Spruance A. Raymond).[9] TF 50 dibagi menjadi beberapa kelompok atau sub-gugus tugas:

       Gugus Kapal Induk Cepat (TF 58) di bawah Laksamana Madya Marc A. Mitscher dengan 88 kapal (11 kapal induk, 6 kapal induk ringan, 7 kapal tempur, 18 kapal penjelajah)[9]

       Gugus Kapal Induk Britania (TF 57) di bawah Laksamana Madya Sir Bernard Rawlings dengan 4 kapal induk, 2 kapal tempur, 5 kapal penjelajah, 14 kapal perusak, dan armada logistik;[9]

       Gugus Meriam dan Tembakan Pelindung (TF 54) di bawah Laksamana Muda Morton L. Deyo dengan 10 kapal tempur tua, 11 kapal penjelajah dan 30 kapal perusak. [10]

       Gugus Tugas 51 (TF 51; juga disebut Pasukan Ekspedisi Bersama) di bawah Laksamana Madya Richmond K. Turner (sebelumnya menjabat Laksamana Pertama, Pasukan Amfibi, Pasifik):[11]

       Gugus Dukungan Amfibi (TF 52) di bawah Laksamana Muda William H. P. Blandy[11]

       TG 52.1: 18 kapal induk pengawal berikut 450 pesawat terbang;[11]

       Gugus Kapal Induk Pengawal Khusus: 4 kapal induk pengawal beserta Gugus Pesawat Terbang Marinir 31 dan 33;[11]

       Flotila Ranjau (TG 52.2)

       Flotila Demolisi Bawah Air (TG 52.11): sepuluh Tim Demolisi Bawah Air (UDT) masing-masing beranggotakan 100 personel di atas sebuah kapal perusak pengawal[11]

       170 kapal pendarat pemberi dukungan tembak

       Grup Serang Kepulauan Barat (TG 51.1) di bawah Laksamana Muda Ingolf N. Kiland denganDivisi Infanteri ke-77, 17 kapal angkut kargo dan kapal angkut serang, 56 LST dan kapal pendukung;[11]

       Gugus Serang Utara (TF 53) di bawah Laksamana Muda Lawrence F. Reifsnider, Komandan Gugus Amfibi 4 di atas USS Panamint (AGC-13) bersama Korps Amfibi III (Mayor Jenderal Roy Geiger) dengan lebih dari 40 kapal angkut serang dan kapal angkut kargo serang, 67 LST, dan kapal pendukung;[11]

       Gugus Serang Selatan (TF 55) di bawah Laksamana Muda John L. Hall bersama Korps XXIV (Mayor Jenderal John R. Hodge);[11]

       Gugus Demonstrasi Militer (TF 51.2) bersama Divisi Marinir ke-2;[11]

       Pasukan Penjelajah (TF 56) di bawah Letnan Jenderal Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. bersama Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh Amerika Serikat.[11]

TF 56 adalah kekuatan terbesar dalam TF 50, dibentuk dari anggota Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh yang memiliki dua korps: Korps Amfibi III yang terdiri dari Korps Marinir (Divisi Marinir ke-1 dan Divisi Marinir ke-6) dan Korps XXIV Angkatan Darat (terdiri dari Divisi Infanteri ke-7 dan Divisi Infanteri ke-96). Divisi Marinir 2 adalah divisi cadangan, sementara Angkatan Darat Kesepuluh juga mengendalikan Divisi Infanteri ke-27 yang disiapkan sebagai sebuah garnisun, dan Divisi Infanteri ke-77. Secara keseluruhan, angkatan darat mengerahkan lebih dari 102.000 tentara (lebih dari 38.000 tentara di antaranya tentara artileri nondivisi, dukungan tempur, dan tentara markas besar, berikut 9.000 pasukan pemeliharaan),[11] lebih dari 88.000 Marinir dan 18.000 personel angkatan laut (sebagian besar dari batalion zeni Seabee dan personel medis).[12] Pada awal Pertempuran Okinawa, 182.821 personel berada di bawah komando Angkatan Darat ke-10.[12]

Sebagian besar dari pesawat tempur udara-ke-udara pesawat pengebom tukik kecil, dan pesawat serang darat berasal dari kapal induk Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat. Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat menderita kerugian lebih besar dalam operasi ini daripada semua pertempuran lainnya selama Perang Dunia II.[rujukan?]

Meskipun pasukan darat Sekutu seluruhnya terdiri dari unit-unit Amerika Serikat, Armada Pasifik Britania (disebut Angkatan Laut AS sebagai Gugus Tugas 57) menyumbang sekitar seperempat dari kekuatan udara angkatan laut Sekutu (450 pesawat). Armada Pasifik Britania terdiri dari 50 kapal perang, 17 di antaranya kapal induk. Sebuah kapal induk Britania hanya dapat mengangkut lebih sedikit pesawat, namun kapal-kapal induk Britania lebih tahan menghadapi serangan kamikaze berkat konstruksi geladak pesawat berlapis baja. Meskipun semua kapal induk berasal dari armada Britania, gugus kapal induk merupakan gabungan dari armada Negara-Negara Persemakmuran yang terdiri dari kapal-kapal dan personel dari Britania, Kanada, Selandia Baru dan Australia.[rujukan?] Misi mereka adalah menetralisir lapangan-lapangan udara Jepang di Kepulauan Sakishima dan memberikan perlindungan udara terhadap serangan pesawat kamikaze.

 

 

Para komandan Angkatan Darat ke-32, Februari 1945

Kampanye darat Jepang (terutama defensif) dilakukan oleh 67.000 tentara reguler Angkatan Darat ke-32 (77.000 menurut beberapa sumber) dan sekitar 9.000 pasukan Angkatan Laut Kekaisaran Jepang dari pangkalan angkatan laut Oroku (hanya beberapa ratus di antaranya telah dilatih dan dipersenjatai untuk pertempuran darat), didukung 39.000 wajib militer dari warga Ryukyu (termasuk 24.000 milisi garis belakang Boeitai yang direkrut tergesa-gesa dan 15.000 buruh nonseragam). Selain itu, 1.500 murid laki-laki kelas tiga sekolah menengah pertama diorganisir sebagai “Korps Sukarelawan Darah dan Besi” (Tekketsu Kinnōtai), sementara 600 murid sekolah putri dari Korps Pelajar Himeyuri bertugas sebagai unit perawat.[13]

Angkatan Darat ke-32 awalnya terdiri dari Divisi ke-9, Divisi 24, Divisi 62, dan Brigade Campuran Independen ke-44. Namun, Divisi 9 telah dipindahkan ke Taiwan sebelum invasi Amerika Serikat dimulai mengakibatkan disusun ulangnya rencana defensif Jepang. Pertahanan utama Jepang berada di selatan Pulau Okinawa, dipimpin oleh Letnan Jenderal Mitsuru Ushijima, dan kepala stafnya, Letnan Jenderal Isamu Chō serta kepala operasi Kolonel Hiromichi Yahara. Penganjur strategi defensif adalah Yahara, sebaliknya Chō menganjurkan strategi ofensif. Komando di bagian utara Pulau Okinawa berada di tangan Kolonel Takehido Udo. Pasukan Angkatan Laut Kekaisaran Jepang dipimpin oleh Laksamana Muda Minoru Ota. Jepang mengantisipasi Amerika Serikat mendaratkan 6 hingga 10 divisi yang akan dilawan oleh garnisun Jepang yang hanya berkekuatan dua setengah divisi. Menurut perhitungan Jepang, kualitas dan jumlah persenjataan yang lebih unggul menjadikan satu divisi Amerika Serikat memiliki daya tembak lima kali lipat hingga enam kali lipat divisi Jepang. Selain itu, Amerika masih memiliki daya tembak yang berlimpah dari udara dan laut.

Jepang telah menggunakan taktik kamikaze sejak Pertempuran Teluk Leyte. Namun baru dalam pertempuran kali ini, strategi kamikaze dimasukkan sebagai bagian utama pertahanan mereka. Antara 1 April hari dimulainya pendaratan Amerika di Okinawa, dan 25 Mei 1945, Jepang mencoba melakukan 7 kali serangan besar kamikaze yang melibatkan lebih dari 1.500 pesawat.

Pertempuran laut[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

USS Bunker Hill terbakar setelah dihantam dua kamikaze dalam selang waktu 30 detik.

Ada sebuah kekaguman yang membuatmu terhipnotis ketika melihat pemandangan begitu asing menurut filsafat Barat. Kami menyaksikan setiap ceburan pesawat kamikaze dengan perasaan ketakutan ketika seseorang menyaksikan peristiwa mengerikan dan bukan sebagai salah seorang calon korban. Kami lupa diri untuk sesaat sambil menggapai-gapai tanpa harapan tentang apa yang sedang dipikirkan (pilot Jepang) di atas sana”

Laksamana Madya C.R. Brown[14]

Gugus Tugas 58 Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat dikerahkan ke timur Okinawa dengan bersama grup piket 6 sampai 8 kapal perusak, menjaga 13 kapal induk: 7 CV (kapal induk) dan 6 CVL (kapal induk ringan) yang bertugas dari 23 Maret-27 April dan dalam jumlah kecil sesudahnya. Hingga 27 April, 14 hingga 18 CVE (kapal induk pengawal) berada di kawasan sepanjang waktu, dan sampai 20 April, Gugus Tugas 57 Britania bersama 4 kapal induk dan 6 kapal induk pengawal, tetap berada di lepas pantai Kepulauan Sakishima untuk melindungi sayap selatan.[15]

Perlawanan udara Jepang relatif ringan selama beberapa hari pertama setelah pendaratan. Namun perlawanan udara yang sudah dinantikan tiba pada 6 April, dimulai dengan serangan 400 pesawat dari Kyushu. Serangan udara berat berlanjut secara periodik sepanjang bulan April 1945. Selama periode 26 Maret-30 April, 20 kapal Amerika tenggelam dan 157 kapal rusak akibat aksi Jepang. Di lain pihak, Jepang hingga 30 April kehilangan lebih dari 1.100 pesawat, hanya dalam pertempuran melawan angkatan laut Sekutu.[16]

Antara 6 April dan 22 Juni, Jepang menerbangkan 1.465 pesawat kamikaze dalam serangan skala besar dari Kyushu, ditambah 185 sorti kamikaze perorangan dari Kyushu, dan 250 sorti kamikaze perorangan dari Formosa. Intelijen AS memperkirakan Jepang hanya punya 89 pesawat di Formosa, padahal Jepang memiliki sekitar 700, di antaranya dalam keadaan dibongkar atau disamarkan secara baik, dan disebar ke desa-desa dan kota-kota. Angkatan Udara Kelima AS meragukan klaim Angkatan Laut tentang adanya kamikaze dari Formosa.[17] Amerika Serikat mengalami kerugian kapal-kapal kecil, terutama kapal-kapal perusak dari piket radar serta kapal-kapal perusak pengawal dan kapal pendarat. Meskipun tidak ada kapal perang utama Sekutu yang menjadi tenggelam, beberapa kapal induk pesawat rusak berat. Perahu-perahu motor yang berpangkalan di darat juga dipakai dalam serangan bunuh diri oleh Jepang.

Kampanye panjang dan berlarut-larut di bawah kondisi stres memaksa Laksamana Chester W. Nimitz untuk mengambil langkah tidak terduga berupa pembebasan tugas komandan-komandan utama angkatan laut untuk memberi kesempatan mereka beristirahat dan memulihkan diri. Sesuai dengan praktek perubahan nama armada bersamaan pergantian komandan, armada Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat memulai pertempuran ini sebagai Armada V di bawah pimpinan Laksamana Spruance Raymond, tetapi ketika perang berakhir disebut Armada III di bawah pimpinan Laksamana William Halsey.

Operasi Ten-Go[sunting | sunting sumber]

Artikel utama untuk bagian ini adalah: Operasi Ten-Go

 

 

Kapal tempur Jepang Yamato meledak setelah diserang pesawat-pesawat terbang Amerika Serikat.

Operasi Ten-Go (Ten-gō sakusen) adalah percobaan serangan oleh kapal perang Angkatan Laut Kekaisaran Jepang yang dipimpin oleh kapal tempur Yamato yang dikomandani oleh Laksamana Seiichi Itō. Gugus tugas kecil ini diperintahkan untuk bertahan dari semua hadangan kekuatan laut musuh, lalu mengandaskan diri mereka, dan melakukan perlawanan dari pantai menggunakan meriam-meriam mereka sebagai artileri pantai dan awak kapal sebagai infanteri angkatan laut. Armada Ten-Go dipergoki oleh kapal-kapal selam tak lama setelah meninggalkan perairan Jepang, sehingga langsung diserang pesawat-pesawat kapal induk Amerika Serikat.

Setelah diserang lebih dari 300 pesawat selama lebih dari dua jam, kapal tempur terbesar di dunia, Yamato tenggelam pada tanggal 7 April 1945, jauh dari Pulau Okinawa yang menjadi tujuannya. Pesawat-pesawat pengebom torpedo AS diperintahkan membidik salah satu sisi saja untuk mencegah berhasilnya tindakan penanggulangan banjir oleh awak kapal Yamato, dan diperintahkan agar menghantam bagian haluan atau buritan yang diperkirakan hanya diperkuat pelat lapis baja paling tipis. Di antara kapal-kapal dalam armada tabir Yamato, sebuah kapal penjelajah ringan Yahagi dan delapan kapal perusak ikut tenggelam. Secara keseluruhan, Angkatan Laut Kekaisaran Jepang kehilangan sekitar 3.700 pelaut, termasuk Laksamana Itō. Di lain pihak, Amerika Serikat hanya kehilangan 10 pesawat terbang berikut 12 penerbang.

Armada Pasifik Britania[sunting | sunting sumber]

Armada Pasifik Britania yang mengambil bagian sebagai Gugus Tugas 57 ditugaskan menetralisir lapangan-lapangan terbang Jepang di Kepulauan Sakishima. Tugas tersebut berhasil dilaksanakan antara 26 Maret dan 10 April. Pada 10 April, perhatian Armada Pasifik Britania dialihkan ke lapangan-lapangan terbang di utara Formosa. Armada Britania mundur ke Teluk San Pedro pada 23 April. Pada 1 Mei, Armada Pasifik Britania kembali beraksi, membungkam lapangan-lapangan terbang Jepang seperti sebelumnya. Kali ini dibantu bombardemen angkatan laut serta dukungan pesawat. Sejumlah serangan kamikaze sempat menyebabkan berarti, tapi kapal-kapal Britania dilengkapi dek pesawat berlapis baja sehingga hanya mengalami interupsi singkat setelah serangan.[18]

Pertempuran darat[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Peta operasi Amerika Serikat selama pertempuran.

Pertempuran darat berlangsung sekitar 81 hari lebih, dimulai 1 April 1945.

Tentara Amerika yang pertama mendarat adalah pasukan dari Divisi Infanteri ke-77 yang mendarat di Kepulauan Kerama, 15 mil (24 km) sebelah barat Okinawa, 26 Maret 1945. Mereka diikuti oleh pendaratan pasukan tambahan, dan Kepulauan Kerama berhasil diamankan lima hari berikutnya. Dalam operasi-operasi awal ini, Divisi Infanteri ke-77 menderita 27 tewas dan 81 terluka, sementara korban tewas dan tertangkap di pihak Jepang mencapai lebih dari 650. Operasi di Kerama menyediakan tempat berlabuh yang aman dan menghilangkan ancaman dari perahu-perahu motor bunuh diri.

Pada 31 Maret, Marinir dari Batalion Intai Amfibi Armada Pasukan Marinir mendarat tanpa adanya perlawanan di Keise Shima, empat pulau kecil di 8 mil (13 km) sebelah barat ibu kota Okinawa, Naha. Meriam lapangan 155 mm (6.1 in) “Long Tom” didaratkan ke pulau-pulau kecil ini untuk memberi perlindungan operasi di Okinawa.

Okinawa Utara[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Kapal tempur USS Idaho melakukan bombardemen terhadap Okinawa pada 1 April 1945.

 

 

Bala bantuan Korps Marinir Amerika Serikat didaratkan untuk mendukung tumpuan pantai di Okinawa, 31 Maret 1945.

Pendaratan utama dilakukan oleh Korps Amfibi III dan Korps XXIV di pantai-pantai Hagushi, pesisir barat Okinawa pada Hari L (L-Day) 1 April yang bertepatan dengan Minggu Paskah dan Hari April Mop 1945. Divisi Marinir ke-2 mengadakan demonstrasi militer di lepas pantai Minatoga, pesisir tenggara Okinawa untuk membingungkan Jepang tentang rencana Amerika dan menghambat gerakan pasukan cadangan dari sana.

Angkatan Darat ke-10 menyapu[19] bagian selatan-tengah pulau dengan relatif mudah menurut standar Perang Dunia II, merebut pangkalan udara Kadena dan Yomitan beberapa jam setelah pendaratan. Menemui lemahnya perlawanan musuh, Jenderal Buckner memutuskan untuk segera melanjutkan rencana Tahap II, merebut Okinawa bagian utara. Divisi Marinir ke-6 menuju Tanah Genting Ishikawa, dan pada 7 April telah berhasil mengamankan Semenanjung Motobu.

Enam hari kemudian pada 13 April, Batalion 2, Resimen Marinir ke-22 sudah tiba di Tanjung Hedo, ujung utara Pulau Okinawa. Pada saat itu, sebagian besar pasukan Jepang di utara (nama sandi: Pasukan Udo) sudah terpojok di Semenanjung Motobu. Di medan bergunung-gunung dan berhutan di Motobu, pertahanan Jepang dipusatkan di Gunung Yae-Take, sebuah punggung perbukitan berbatu berikut jurang berkelok-kelok di tengah semenanjung. Pertempuran sengit terjadi sebelum Marinir akhirnya merebut Yae-Take pada 18 April.

Sementara itu, Divisi Infanteri ke-77 menyerang Ie Shima sebuah pulau kecil di ujung barat Semenanjung Motobu pada 16 April. Selain bahaya konvensional, Divisi Infanteri ke-77 harus menghadapi serangan-serangan kamikaze , dan bahkan wanita-wanita setempat bersenjatakan tombak. Pertempuran berat terjadi sebelum Ie Shima dinyatakan aman pada 21 April dan dijadikan satu lagi pangkalan udara dalam operasi melawan Jepang.

Okinawa Selatan[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Pesawat tempur F4U Corsair menembakkan roket untuk mendukung pasukan di Okinawa

Sementara Divisi Marinir 6 membersihkan utara Okinawa, Divisi Infanteri Angkatan Darat ke-96 dan Divisi Infanteri ke-7 bergerak ke selatan melintasi pinggang sempit Pulau Okinawa. Divisi Infanteri ke-96 mulai mendapatkan perlawanan sengit di barat-tengah Okinawa dari pasukan Jepang yang membentengi posisi-posisi di timur Jalan Raya No. 1 dan sekitar 5 mil (8.0 km) barat laut Shuri. Militer Amerika menyebut tempat ini sebagai Punggung Bukit Kaktus (Cactus Ridge). Divisi Infanteri ke-7 menghadapi perlawanan Jepang yang sama sengitnya dari sebuah puncak berbatu di sekitar 1.000 yd (910 m) barat daya Arakachi (tempat ini yang dijuluki “The Pinnacle”).

Pada malam 8 April, tempat-tempat tersebut dan beberapa posisi benteng lainnya berhasil direbut pasukan Amerika Serikat . Dalam pertempuran-pertempuran tersebut, korban di pihak Amerika lebih dari 1.500 orang, tapi berhasil menewaskan atau menangkap lebih dari 4.500 tentara Jepang. Pasukan Amerika Serikat lalu menyadari kalau pertempuran baru saja dimulai. Posisi-posisi Jepang yang berhasil direbut mereka hanyalah pos-pos luar penjagaan Garis Depan Shuri.

Sasaran berikut tentara Amerika adalah Punggung Bukit Kakazu, dua puncak yang dihubungkan oleh punggung bukit yang merupakan bagian dari pertahanan luar Shuri. Tentara Jepang telah mempersiapkan diri dengan baik di posisi-posisi mereka, dan berjuang dengan gigih. Mereka bersembunyi di gua-gua yang telah diperkuat. Tentara Amerika Serikat banyak yang tewas sebelum berhasil menghabisi perlawanan Jepang dari gua-gua atau lubang-lubang persembunyian mereka. Di bawah todongan senjata tentara Jepang, penduduk Okinawa dipaksa keluar untuk mengambil air dan perbekalan untuk tentara. Sebagai akibatnya, korban di pihak warga sipil sangat besar. Kemajuan pasukan Amerika tidak dapat dihindari, namun mengakibatkan korban besar di kedua belah pihak.[rujukan?]

 

 

Marinir melewati mayat prajurit Jepang di sebuah desa kecil, April 1945

Setelah serangan Amerika terhadap Punggung Bukit Kakazu menemui jalan buntu, Jenderal Ushijima yang dipengaruhi oleh Jenderal Chō memutuskan untuk melakukan ofensif balasan. Pada 12 April malam hari, Angkatan Darat ke-32 Jepang menyerang posisi-posisi Amerika Serikat di seluruh garis depan. Serangan Jepang itu berlangsung dengan gencar, terus menerus, dan terorganisasi dengan baik. Setelah pertempuran jarak dekat yang berlangsung sengit, tentara Jepang mundur untuk kemudian mengulangi serangan pada malam berikutnya. Serangan terakhir Jepang pada 14 April kembali berhasil ditangkal. Keberhasilan serangan Jepang membuat staf Angkatan Darat mengambil kesimpulan bahwa Amerika rentan terhadap taktik infiltrasi malam, tetapi daya tembak mereka yang lebih unggul sangat membahayakan konsentrasi-konsentrasi pasukan ofensif Jepang. Oleh karena itu, Jepang kembali menerapkan taktik defensif.[rujukan?]

Setelah Divisi Infanteri ke-27 yang mendarat 9 April berhasil mengambil alih pantai barat Okinawa, Jenderal John R. Hodge menempatkan tiga divisi di garis depan, Divisi Infanteri ke-96 di tengah, Divisi Infanteri ke-7 di timur, dengan masing-masing divisi memegang depan hanya sekitar 15 mil (24 km).[rujukan?]

Hodge melancarkan serangan baru pada 19 April dengan berondongan 324 buah meriam yang sekaligus tercatat sebagai penggunaan meriam terbanyak dalam medan perang Samudra Pasifik. Kapal tempur, kapal penjelajah, dan kapal perusak ikut serta dalam bombardemen, diikuti oleh serangan 650 pesawat angkatan laut dan marinir yang menyerang posisi-posisi Jepang dengan napalm, roket, bom, dan senapan mesin. Pertahanan Jepang ditempatkan di posisi lereng balik. Mereka hanya menunggu habisnya rentetan tembakan artileri dan serangan udara dalam keadaan relatif aman, lalu keluar dari gua-gua untuk menembakkan mortir dan granat ke arah tentara Amerika yang sedang mendaki lereng.

 

 

Personel demolisi dari Divisi Marinir ke-6 sedang meledakkan sebuah gua Jepang, Mei 1945

Ketika mencoba melintasi punggung bukit, sebuah serangan tank yang melakukan penetrasi dengan cara penyayapan di Punggung Bukit Kakazu, gagal mendapat dukungan infanteri. Akibatnya dalam serangan ini jatuh korban 22 buah tank. Meski tank penyembur api berhasil membersihkan banyak pertahanan Jepang di gua-gua, namun taktik semacam itu tidak berhasil membuat terobosan. Korps XXIV menderita korban 720 gugur tempur, luka, atau hilang. Kerugian Amerika Serikat bisa menjadi lebih besar, kalau semua cadangan infanteri Jepang secara praktis tidak sedang tertahan jauh di selatan. Mereka sedang disibukkan oleh serangan pengalih perhatian di pantai-pantai Minatoga yang dilancarkan Divisi ke-2 Marinir bersamaan dengan serangan ke Punggung Bukit Kakazu.[rujukan?]

Pada akhir April, setelah pasukan Angkatan Darat Amerika berhasil menembus garis pertahanan Machinato,[20] Divisi Marinir ke-1 menggantikan tugas Divisi Infanteri ke-27, dan Divisi Infanteri ke-77 menggantikan tugas Divisi Infanteri ke-7. Ketika Divisi Marinir ke-6 tiba, Korps Amfibi III mengambil alih sayap kanan dan kendali pertempuran berada di tangan Angkatan Darat ke-10.[rujukan?]

Pada 4 Mei, Angkatan Darat ke-32 Jepang kembali melancarkan ofensif balasan. Kali ini, Jenderal Ushijima berusaha melancarkan serangan amfibi ke pantai-pantai, di belakang belakang garis Amerika Serikat. Sebagai dukungan untuk ofensif Ushijima, artileri Jepang dipindahkan ke tempat-tempat terbuka dan Jepang dapat melancarkan sekitar 13.000 tembakan dukungan. Namun akhirnya lusinan artileri Jepang berhasil dihancurkan oleh tembakan jitu meriam-meriam Amerika Serikat.

 

 

Tentara Amerika dari Divisi ke-77 dengan tanpa ekspresi mendengarkan laporan radio Hari Kemenangan di Eropa pada 8 Mei 1945.

Buckner kembali melancarkan serangan pada 11 Mei. Serangan baru tersebut berlanjut sebagai pertempuran sengit selama sepuluh hari berikutnya. Pada 13 Mei, tentara dari Divisi Infanteri ke-96 dan Batalion Tank 763 berhasil merebut Bukit Conical di dataran pantai Yonabaru. Bukit setinggi 476 kaki (145 m) ini dijadikan jangkar timur pertahanan utama Jepang yang dipertahankan sekitar 1.000 tentara. Sementara itu, di pesisir timur, Divisi Marinir 6 bertempur memperebutkan “Bukit Sugar Loaf”. Setelah dua posisi kunci Jepang berhasil dikuasai, pasukan utama Jepang di sekitar Shuri dalam keadaan tidak terjaga dari sisi barat dan sisi timur. Buckner berharap dapat mengepung Shuri dan menjebak tentara Jepang yang bertahan di sana.

 

 

Sugar Loaf Hill (1945)

 

 

Sugar Loaf Hill (2010)

Pada akhir Mei, musim hujan mengubah bukit-bukit dan jalan-jalan yang sedang diperebutkan menjadi rawa-rawa hingga memperburuk situasi taktis dan medis. Gerak maju pasukan darat mulai menyerupai medan Perang Dunia I, pasukan terperosok ke dalam lumpur sementara banjir di jalan-jalan sangat menghambat evakuasi korban luka ke garis belakang. Pasukan tinggal di lapangan yang becek karena hujan, separuh tempat sampah dan separuh kuburan. Mayat-mayat tentara Jepang dan Amerika yang tidak terkubur membusuk dan tenggelam di lumpur, menjadi bagian dari jebakan berbahaya. Siapa pun yang meluncur menuruni lereng berlumpur, setelah tiba di tujuan dengan mudah akan mendapatkan saku-saku mereka dipenuhi oleh belatung.[21]

 

 

Letkol Richard P. Ross, komandan Batalion ke-1, Marinir ke-1 mengibarkan bendera Amerika Serikat di Istana Shuri dengan risiko ditembak oleh penembak jitu Jepang.

Pada 29 Mei, Mayor Jenderal Pedro del Valle, komandan Divisi Marinir ke-1, memerintahkan Kompi A, Batalion ke-1, Divisi Marinir ke-5 untuk merebut Istana Shuri. Berhasil direbutnya benteng utama Jepang di Istana Shuri merupakan pukulan strategis dan psikologis bagi Jepang, sekaligus tonggak bersejarah dalam Pertempuran Okinawa. Del Valle dianugerahi Distinguished Service Medal untuk kepemimpinannya dalam pertempuran serta pendudukan dan reorganisasi Okinawa di kemudian hari. Istana Shuri telah dibombardir oleh kapal-kapal perang USS Mississippi selama tiga hari sebelum pasukan Amerika bergerak maju.[22] Akibat bombardemen tersebut, Angkatan Darat ke-32 Jepang mundur ke selatan sehingga Marinir dengan mudah dapat mengamankan Istana Shuri.[22][23] Istana Shuri sebetulnya berada di luar zona penugasan Divisi Marinir ke-1. Korban besar Marinir di Istana Shuri akibat serangan udara dan bombardemen artileri dari teman sendiri dapat dihindari berkat upaya panik dari komandan dan staf Divisi Infanteri ke-77.

Mundurnya Jepang, meski sempat diganggu oleh tembakan artileri Amerika, berlangsung pada malam hari dengan keahlian tinggi, terbantu dengan adanya badai musim hujan. Angkatan Darat ke-32 berhasil memindahkan hampir 30.000 tentaranya ke garis pertahanan terakhir di Semenanjung Kiyan. Peristiwa ini berbuntut dengan pembantaian terbesar di Okinawa pada tahap terakhir pertempuran, termasuk tewasnya ribuan warga sipil. Selain itu, masih ada 9.000 tentara Angkatan Laut Jepang yang didukung oleh 1.100 milisi, di antaranya sekitar 4.000 tentara bersembunyi di markas bawah tanah di lereng bukit, di seberang Pangkalan Angkatan Laut Okinawa di Semenanjung Oroku, sebelah timur lapangan terbang. Pada tanggal 4 Juni, unsur-unsur dari Divisi Marinir ke-6 melancarkan serangan amfibi ke Semenanjung Oroku. Sejumlah 4.000 pelaut Jepang, termasuk Laksamana Minoru Ota, semuanya tewas bunuh diri pada tanggal 13 Juni 1945 di dalam terowongan-terowongan bawah tanah yang dijadikan markas Angkatan Laut Jepang. Pada tanggal 17 Juni, sisa-sisa tentara Angkatan Darat ke-32 pimpinan Jenderal Ushijima yang sudah cerai-berai didorong ke kantong-kantong kecil jauh di selatan Pulau Okinawa di sebelah tenggara Itoman.

Pada tanggal 18 Juni, Jenderal Buckner tewas terbunuh oleh tembakan artileri Jepang ketika sedang memantau gerak maju pasukannya. Buckner digantikan oleh Roy Geiger. Setelah mengambil alih komando, Geiger menjadi satu-satunya anggota Korps Marinir AS yang pernah mengomandani tentara Angkatan Darat AS dalam pertempuran. Ia digantikan lima hari kemudian oleh Joseph Stilwell.

Sisa-sisa terakhir perlawanan Jepang berhasil dihabisi pada tanggal 21 Juni. Meskipun demikian, beberapa tentara Jepang terus bersembunyi, termasuk di antaranya Masahide Ota[24] yang kemudian menjadi gubernur Okinawa. Jenderal Ushijima dan Jenderal Cho bunuh diri dengan seppuku di markas komando mereka di Bukit 89 pada jam-jam terakhir pertempuran. Kolonel Yahara meminta izin dari Jenderal Ushijima untuk bunuh diri, tetapi permintaannya ditolak dengan jawaban sebagai berikut:

“Kalau kau mati, nanti tidak akan ada yang tersisa, yang tahu kebenaran tentang pertempuran Okinawa. Pikul malu untuk sementara, tapi ditanggung saja. Ini adalah perintah dari Komandan tentara kau.”[25]

Yahara adalah perwira paling senior yang selamat dari pertempuran di Okinawa. Ia kemudian menulis sebuah buku berjudul The Battle for Okinawa.

 

Kerugian militer[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Foto terakhir dari Letnan Jenderal Simon Bolivar Buckner, Jr. (kanan), sehari sebelum terbunuh oleh artileri Jepang, 19 Juni 1945

Korban di pihak Amerika Serikat lebih dari 62.000 orang, di antaranya 12.500 korban tewas atau hilang. Berdasarkan besarnya jumlah korban, pertempuran ini tercatat sebagai pertempuran paling berdarah yang dialami pasukan Amerika Serikat dalam Perang Pasifik.[26][27][28] Beberapa ribu prajurit yang tewas secara tidak langsung di kemudian hari (akibat luka atau sebab lainnya), belum dimasukkan dalam total korban. Salah seorang korban di pihak AS yang paling terkenal adalah koresponden perang Ernie Pyle, yang tewas akibat tembakan penembak jitu Jepang di Ie Shima.[29]

Keputusan Jenderal Buckner untuk terus maju menyerang pertahanan Jepang terbukti membawa keberhasilan, meskipun harus dibayar sangat mahal dengan nyawa tentara Amerika Serikat. Hanya empat hari sebelum berakhirnya Pertempuran Okinawa, Jenderal Buckner tewas terbunuh oleh tembakan artileri Jepang yang melontarkan serpihan-serpihan karang ke dalam tubuhnya ketika sedang memeriksa pasukan di garis depan. Buckner tercatat sebagai perwira Amerika Serikat dengan pangkat tertinggi yang tewas oleh tembakan musuh dalam perang. Sehari sesudahnya, jenderal kedua, Brigadir Jenderal Claudius M. Easley tewas akibat tembakan senapan mesin.

Selama tiga bulan pertempuran, Amerika Serikat menderita kerugian 768 pesawat, termasuk pesawat yang dikerahkan untuk mengebom lapangan-lapangan terbang di Kyushu tempat diberangkatkannya pesawat kamikaze. Kerugian tempur berjumlah 458 personel, 310 korban di antaranya akibat kecelakaan operasional. Pada periode yang sama, kerugian pesawat Jepang berjumlah 7.830 pesawat, termasuk 2.655 pesawat akibat kecelakaan operasional. Pesawat-pesawat tempur Angkatan Laut dan Korps Marinir Amerika Serikat menjatuhkan 3.047 pesawat Jepang, sementara tembakan antipesawat dari kapal laut menjatuhkan 409 pesawat. Pesawat pengebom B-29 menghancurkan 558 pesawat di darat.[30]

Di laut, 368 kapal-kapal Sekutu, termasuk 120 pendarat amfibi rusak selama Pertempuran Okinawa, ditambah 28 buah kapal tenggelam, termasuk 15 kapal amfibi dan 12 kapal perusak. Korban tewas di pihak Angkatan Laut AS melebihi jumlah korban luka: 4.907 tewas dan 4.874 luka, terutama akibat serangan kamikaze.[31] Di antara korban pihak Amerika Serikat, angkatan laut menderita korban tewas paling besar, jauh di atas jumlah korban tewas angkatan darat dan marinir. [30] Enam belas kapal Jepang tenggelam, termasuk kapal tempur Yamato.

Di darat, pasukan AS kehilangan setidaknya 225 tank dan sejumlah besar LVT hancur. Sementara itu, kerugian Jepang sebanyak 27 tank 743 buah artileri (termasuk mortir, antitank, dan senjata antipesawat), beberapa di antaranya hancur oleh bombardemen laut dan udara, tapi sebagian besar di antaranya hancur karena tembakan balasan Amerika Serikat. Kerugian di pihak artileri darat Amerika tidak diketahui.

 

 

Sekelompok tawanan Jepang yang sedang menunggu diinterogasi. Mereka lebih suka menyerah daripada bunuh diri.

Menurut sebuah laporan, ada sekitar 95.000 tentara Jepang tewas dan 7.400 ditangkap. Sebagian besar prajurit melakukan seppuku atau meledakkan diri mereka dengan granat tangan. Ribuan tentara Jepang dikubur hidup-hidup di dalam gua-gua mereka oleh pasukan zeni Amerika Serikat.

Pertempuran ini merupakan pertempuran pertama dalam Perang Pasifik yang mengakibatkan ribuan orang Jepang yang menyerah dijadikan tawanan perang. Sebagian besar dari tawanan adalah penduduk asli Okinawa yang dipaksa menjadi anggota militer tidak lama sebelum pertempuran terjadi, dan mereka masih belum menjiwai doktrin pantang menyerah Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang.[32] Ketika pasukan Amerika menduduki Pulau Okinawa, orang Jepang mengambili pakaian orang Okinawa untuk menghindari penangkapan. Sebaliknya, orang Okinawa menawarkan jasa kepada orang Amerika untuk menemukan orang Jepang yang sedang bersembunyi. Bahasa Okinawa sangat berbeda dari bahasa Jepang. Warga Okinawa yang ditemani pasukan Amerika memberi perintah kepada penduduk dalam bahasa setempat. Mereka yang tidak mengerti adalah orang Jepang yang sedang bersembunyi, dan lalu ditangkap.

Kerugian sipil[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Warga sipil Okinawa (1945)

 

 

Dua Marinir sedang tidur di lubang perlindungan bersama seorang anak yatim warga Okinawa, 1945

Pada beberapa pertempuran, seperti Pertempuran Iwo Jima, warga sipil tidak ada yang terlibat, tapi Okinawa memiliki warga sipil penduduk asli Okinawa dalam jumlah besar. Menurut berbagai perkiraan, kira-kira antara sepersepuluh dan sepertiga dari warga asli Okinawa tewas selama pertempuran.[21] Kerugian warga sipil Okinawa dalam pertempuran ini diperkirakan antara 42.000 dan 150.000 tewas (lebih dari 100.000 warga tewas menurut Pemerintah Prefektur Okinawa).[33] Angka-angka statistik Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat menunjukkan total 142.058 warga sipil tewas, termasuk warga yang dipaksa menjalani dinas militer oleh Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang.[21]

Selama pertempuran, tentara AS menemui kesulitan dalam membedakan warga sipil dari tentara. Sudah menjadi rutinitas bagi tentara AS untuk menembaki rumah-rumah orang Okinawa. Sebagaimana dikisahkan oleh seorang prajurit infanteri, “Memang ada beberapa tembakan balasan dari sejumlah kecil rumah, tapi rumah-rumah lainnya kemungkinan dihuni warga sipil–dan kami tidak peduli. Mengerikan sekali tidak dapat membedakan musuh dari wanita dan anak-anak. Orang Amerika selalu memiliki kasih sayang yang besar, terutama untuk anak-anak. Sekarang kita menembak tanpa pandang bulu “.[34]

Menurut sejarah yang ditulis Museum Peringatan Perdamaian Prefektur Okinawa, [33] posisi Okinawa terjepit di tengah pertarungan antara Amerika Serikat dan Jepang. Selama pertempuran tahun 1945, Angkatan Darat Jepang telah menunjukkan ketidakpedulian terhadap pertahanan dan keselamatan Okinawa. Tentara Jepang menggunakan warga sipil sebagai perisai hidup melawan tentara Amerika. Militer Jepang merampok makanan dari orang Okinawa dan mengeksekusi mereka yang menyembunyikan makanan hingga mengakibatkan kelaparan massal di kalangan penduduk, serta memaksa warga sipil untuk meninggalkan tempat-tempat perlindungan mereka. Tentara Jepang juga membunuh sekitar 1.000 orang Okinawa yang berbicara dalam dialek lokal yang berbeda, dengan tujuan mengurangi jumlah mata-mata.[35] Museum Peringatan Perdamaian Prefektur Okinawa menjelaskan nasib warga Okinawa waktu itu, “sebagian luluh lantak oleh bom, sebagian yang sadar diri mereka dalam situasi tanpa harapan didorong untuk bunuh diri, sebagian mati karena kelaparan, sebagian mati karena malaria, sementara lainnya menjadi korban tentara Jepang yang sedang mundur.”[33]

Bunuh diri massal[sunting | sunting sumber]

Mengetahui kemenangan tentara Amerika sudah tidak terhindari, warga sipil banyak yang melakukan bunuh diri massal, di bawah anjuran tentara Jepang memberi tahu penduduk setempat kalau tentara Amerika yang menang akan mengamuk, membunuh dan memerkosa. Harian Ryukyu Shimpo, salah satu dari dua surat kabar utama Okinawa, menulis pada tahun 2007, “Ada banyak orang Okinawa yang telah bersaksi bahwa Angkatan Darat Jepang memerintahkan mereka untuk bunuh diri. Ada pula orang-orang yang bersaksi bahwa mereka diberi granat oleh tentara Jepang untuk meledakkan diri sendiri.[36] Sejumlah warga sipil yang termakan propaganda Jepang percaya bahwa tentara Amerika Serikat adalah orang barbar yang melakukan kekejaman mengerikan. Mereka berpendapat lebih baik membunuh anggota keluarga dan diri sendiri daripada tertangkap. Sebagian dari mereka meloncat bunuh diri ke laut dari tebing tinggi berdekatan dengan lokasi Museum Peringatan Perdamaian Prefektur Okinawa sekarang.

Meskipun sudah diberitahu oleh militer Jepang kalau mereka akan diperkosa, disiksa, dan dibunuh oleh orang-orang Amerika, orang Okinawa yang menyerah, “sering terkejut dengan perlakuan relatif manusiawi yang mereka terima dari orang Amerika musuh mereka.”[37][38] Menurut Mark Selden dalam buku Islands of Discontent: Okinawan Responses to Japanese and American Power, tentara Amerika “tidak melakukan kebijakan penyiksaan, pemerkosaan, dan pembunuhan warga sipil seperti sebelumnya telah diperingatkan oleh pejabat militer Jepang.”[39] Penerjemah lapangan dari Korps Intelijen Militer[40] Teruto Tsubota, anggota Marinir Amerika Serikat kelahiran Hawaii berhasil meyakinkan ratusan warga sipil untuk tidak melakukan bunuh diri, dan berhasil menyelamatkan nyawa mereka.[41]

Tuduhan perkosaan[sunting | sunting sumber]

Menurut laporan penduduk sipil dan sejarawan, tentara dari kedua belah pihak telah memerkosa warga sipil Okinawa selama pertempuran. Pemerkosaan oleh tentara Jepang menjadi “sudah umum” pada bulan Juni, setelah kekalahan tentara Jepang sudah menjadi jelas.[13][42]

The New York Times melaporkan pada tahun 2000, kalau di desa Katsuyama tahun 1945, warga sipil membentuk sebuah kelompok main hakim sendiri yang menyergap serta membunuh tiga tentara kulit hitam Amerika Serikat yang mereka tuduh sering memerkosa gadis-gadis setempat di sana.[43]

Pejabat Korps Marinir di Okinawa dan Washington telah menyatakan bahwa mereka “tidak tahu menahu soal adanya pemerkosaan oleh personel militer Amerika di Okinawa pada akhir perang, dan catatan mereka tidak mendaftar kejahatan perang yang dilakukan oleh Marinir di Okinawa”.[44] Meskipun demikian, wartawan George Feifer menulis bahwa pemerkosaan di Okinawa adalah “rahasia kotor lain dalam pertempuran ini” yang “kejahatannya diabaikan dalam sejarah militer Amerika.” Sejumlah wanita Okinawa ketika mengungkap soal kehamilan mereka, sebagai “stres dan kebiasaan makan yang buruk … menjadikan sebagian besar wanita Okinawa infertil. Sebagian besar di antara mereka yang hamil menggugurkannya sebelum suami dan ayah mereka kembali. Sejumlah kecil dari bayi baru lahir yang berayahkan orang Amerika dicekik “.[45] Feifer juga menulis bahwa “mungkin ada ribuan insiden” perkosaan yang dilakukan oleh pasukan Amerika Serikat, tapi tidak mungkin untuk menentukan jumlah yang sebenarnya. Namun, ia menyatakan bahwa “banyak unit tidak tahu menahu” telah terjadi perkosaan, dan kalau para perwira sudah secara keras memperingatkan tentaranya untuk tidak menganiaya perempuan.[46]

Kontroversi perintah bunuh diri[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Perlawanan warga sipil di Okinawa antara lain diatasi dengan pamflet propaganda Amerika, salah satunya sedang dibaca oleh seorang tawanan yang sedang menunggu pengangkutan.

Pemerintah daerah Okinawa dan pemerintah pusat masih tidak sepakat mengenai peran militer Jepang dalam bunuh diri massal warga sipil selama pertempuran. Pada bulan Maret 2007, Kementerian Pendidikan, Budaya, Olahraga, Sains dan Teknologi Jepang (MEXT) menyarankan penerbit buku pelajaran untuk menulis ulang bagian yang menjelaskan bahwa Angkatan Darat Kekaisaran Jepang yang kesulitan memaksa warga sipil untuk bunuh diri dalam perang agar mereka tidak akan ditawan oleh tentara Amerika. MEXT lebih menyukai penjelasan yang mengatakan warga sipil menerima granat tangan dari militer Jepang.

Keputusan tersebut memicu protes luas di kalangan warga Okinawa. Pada Juni 2007, Parlemen Prefektur Okinawa menyetujui sebuah resolusi yang menyatakan, “Kami dengan keras mengimbau pemerintah pusat untuk menarik kembali instruksi tersebut dan untuk segera mengembalikan penjelasan semula di buku-buku pelajaran sehingga kebenaran mengenai Pertempuran Okinawa akan diteruskan dengan benar dan perang tragis tidak akan terjadi lagi.”[47]

Pada 29 September 2007, sekitar 110.000 orang hadir pada demonstrasi politik terbesar dalam sejarah Okinawa. Massa menuntut MEXT menarik kembali perintahnya kepada penerbit-penerbit buku pelajaran tentang revisi sejarah bunuh diri massal warga Okinawa. Pernyataan tersebut menyatakan: “Sudah menjadi fakta yang tak terbantahkan bahwa “bunuh diri ganda” tidak akan terjadi tanpa keterlibatan militer Jepang dan setiap penghapusan atau revisi terhadap (deskripsinya) adalah sebuah penyangkalan dan distorsi dari sebagian besar kesaksian orang-orang yang selamat dari peristiwa ini”.[48]

Pada 26 Desember 2007, MEXT secara sebagian mengakui peran militer Jepang dalam bunuh diri massal warga sipil.[49] Dewan Otorisasi Buku Pelajaran Kementerian Pendidikan mengizinkan penerbit untuk mengembalikan bagian bahwa warga sipil “dipaksa melakukan bunuh diri massal oleh militer Jepang”, asalkan kata-kata tersebut diletakkan pada konteks yang sesuai. Laporan dewan menyatakan: “Bisa dikatakan bahwa dari sudut pandang warga Okinawa, mereka dipaksa melakukan bunuh diri massal.”[50]

Penulis pemenang Hadiah Nobel Kenzaburō Ōe menulis sebuah buklet yang menyatakan bahwa perintah bunuh diri massal diberikan oleh militer selama pertempuran.[51] Ia digugat oleh para revisionis, termasuk seorang komandan perang selama pertempuran yang mempermasalahkan isi buklet, dan meminta agar penerbitan buklet tersebut dihentikan. Menurut kesaksiannya di sidang pengadilan 9 November 2007, Ōe berkata, “Bunuh diri massal diperintahkan kepada penduduk Pulau Okinawa berdasarkan struktur sosial hirarkis Jepang yang berakar di negara Jepang, angkatan bersenjata Jepang, dan garnisun lokal.”[52] Keputusan Pengadilan Prefektur Osaka tanggal 28 Maret 2008 mendukung Ōe, menyatakan bahwa, “Bisa dikatakan militer sangat terlibat dalam bunuh diri massal ini.” Pengadilan mengakui keterlibatan militer dalam bunuh diri massal dan pembunuhan/bunuh diri, mengutip kesaksian tentang pembagian granat untuk bunuh diri oleh tentara dan fakta bahwa bunuh diri massal yang tidak tercatat di pulau-pulau yang tidak ditempati oleh militer.[53]

Akhir peristiwa[sunting | sunting sumber]

 

 

Monumen Cornerstone of Peace yang mendaftar semua korban, baik korban militer maupun sipil dari semua negara yang tewas dalam Pertempuran Okinawa.

Sembilan puluh persen dari bangunan di Pulau Okinawa hancur, dan lanskap tropis berubah menjadi “lahan lumpur luas, besi rongsokan, pembusukan, dan belatung”.[54]

Nilai militer Okinawa “melebihi semua harapan”. Okinawa menyediakan pelabuhan untuk armada Amerika Serikat, daerah tumpuan pasukan, dan lapangan-lapangan terbang yang berada di dekat Jepang. Amerika Serikat membersihkan perairan sekitarnya dari ranjau melalui Operasi Zebra, menduduki Okinawa, dan mendirikan sejenis pemerintahan militer bernama Administrasi Sipil Amerika Serikat untuk Kepulauan Ryukyu.[55] Tentara Amerika Serikat hingga kini masih ditempatkan dalam jumlah besar di Okinawa. Kadena merupakan pangkalan udara terbesar Amerika Serikat di Asia.

Beberapa sejarawan militer berpendapat bahwa kampanye Okinawa berakibat langsung terhadap keputusan menjatuhkan bom atom di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki, sebagai cara menghindari invasi darat ke daratan utama Jepang. Victor Davis Hanson menjelaskan pendapatnya dalam buku Ripples of Battle:

…karena orang Jepang di Okinawa… begitu gigih dalam pertahanan mereka (bahkan setelah [jalur logistik mereka] terputus dan tanpa perbekalan), dan karena jumlah korban sangat mengejutkan, sebagian besar ahli strategi Amerika mencari cara alternatif untuk menundukkan daratan utama Jepang, cara lain selain invasi langsung. Cara ini terbukti, dengan kemajuan bom atom, yang terbukti dengan mengagumkan dalam meyakinkan Jepang untuk mencari damai [tanpa syarat], tanpa korban di pihak Amerika. Ironisnya, pengeboman api konvensional terhadap kota-kota utama Jepang (yang telah berlangsung berbulan-bulan sebelum Okinawa) terbukti jauh lebih efektif dalam membunuh warga sipil daripada bom atom, dan bila Amerika meneruskannya, atau memperluasnya, Jepang kemungkinan akan menyerah juga.

Pada tahun 1995, Pemerintah Prefektur Okinawa mendirikan tugu peringatan yang diberi nama Cornerstone of Peace di Mabuni, lokasi terjadinya pertempuran terakhir di tenggara Okinawa.[56] Tugu peringatan ini mendaftar semua nama korban tewas dalam Pertempuran Okinawa, baik warga sipil maupun militer, warga negara Jepang dan warga negara asing. Hingga Juni 2008, pada tugu peringatan ini dicatat sejumlah 240.734 nama.[57]

Sumber: wiki

JULY 1945

 

THE  DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION JAVA’S CALENDER COLLECTION , JUNE 2605 (1945) with few days of August ,

 

 

Dai Nippon Magazine  Djawa Baroe No 7 july 1945

Bersama koran Asia Raja, majalah Djawa Baroe menjadi salahsatu majalah yang diizinkan terbit di zaman pendudukan Jepang. Terbit sebagai media propaganda dalam dua bahasa, yakni Indonesia dan Jepang

Daftar Isi Djawa Baroe (No 7, 2605 | 1945)

  • Ir Soekarno – Marilah kita rela menderita segala kekoerangan sebelum menghantjoer-loematkan Amerika-Inggeris!! (Oetjapan di Djawa Hoko Kai Tyuo Honbutyo di Oepatjara Perajaan Djawa Baroe III)
  • Marilah kita membantoe penjerahan padi jang akan dimoelai pada boelan IV
  • Karikatur Saseo – Takoet Mati, Poera-Poera Gila
  • Mr Maramis – Kesan dari Sidang Tyuuoo Sangi-in ke VII
  • Moewardi – Tentang Mendirikan Kenkoku Gakuin
  • Foto – Lambang Kebaktian Pemerintahan Balatentara jang Tjemerlang
  • Foto – Upatjara Perajaan Djawa Baroe ke III di Tanah Lapang Gambir Djakarta
  • Foto – Latihan Pertempuran jg Gagah-berani di Kota Surabaja
  • Foto – Undookai dalam Suasana Persahabatan Persaudaraan Bangsa-Bangsa
  • Foto – Bunga Rampai Djawa Baroe
  • Foto – Kami pun Bangsa Asia
  • Njonja Soenarjo Mangoenpoespito – Pembentoekan Kehidoepan Baroe
  • Toentoenan oentoek Penanaman Kapas di Pekarangan Roemah
  • Ananta Gs – Leloetjon dalam 1 Babak: Gerakan Hidoep Baroe
  • Dapoer dan Kesehatan
  • Partitur Lagu “Menaboeng Oeang”

 

5.7.05.

 

At Madura News paper (Warta Madura Syu) , the Haiho Song (Memoedji Amat Heiho)

 

30.7.05, Dai Nippon Postcard sent from Boemiajoe to Parakan

 

AUGUST,1945

1.Early August 1945:
The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

6 August 1945:
At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

 

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY

That same day, following TG 35.3’s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit.

8 August 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan.

9 August 1945:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4]

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5]

 

10 August 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state.

12 August 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity.

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000.

13 August 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!”

14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day.

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks.

 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

 

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

 

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August

Indonesia  Independence Revolution And War’s Postal And Document History Collections

part one  1945

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Copyright@Dr iwan Suwandy 2011

 

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR

part one 1945

Base On Postal And Document Collections

 

Created By

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited  cd-rom Special For Collectors.

 

Prolog in  1945

At the Independence Revolution 1945-1950 Indonesian republic,

the people of Indonesia are very excited with the shriek and the Free greeting each other when news, and in every letter is always with the words Freedom, I found an interesting collection of writings which the people of Indonesia are not anonymous on the front pages in the book language dutch “Wat Gebuerde in 1945″ what is born in 1945, in the Indonesian language:
“So with this in the name of the people of Indonesia all the (entire) property confiscated the Dutch people.”

 

Pada saat Revolusi Kemerdekaan Repoeblik Indonesia 1945-1950,rakyat Indonesia sangat bersemangat dengan pekik dan salam  Merdeka bila saling jumpa,

dan pada setiap surat selalu dengan tulisan Merdeka!,saya menemukan satu koleksi menarik tulisan rakyat Indonesia yang anonim tanpa nama, pada halaman depan buku bahasa belanda”Wat Gebuerde In 1945 “apa yang lahir tahun 1945,dalam bahasa Indonesia:

”Maka dengan ini atas nama rakyat Indonesia semua(seluruh) hak milik bangsa Belanda disita.”

(Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA)

 

 

1.July 1945

Pelatiah Lanuutan PETA di Bogor

Pada bulan Juli 1945, Soedirman dan beberapa orang perwira Peta lainnya yang termasuk kategori “berbahaya” dipanggil ke Bogor dengan alasan akan mendapat latihan lanjutan. Hanya kemudian ada kesan bahwa Jepang berniat untuk menawan mereka.

Dalam konferensi tanggal 21-23 Juli 1945

 masalah pendirian kembali CPN tidak lagi didiskusikan. Perdebatann yang agak sengit berkisar pada masalah pertanggung-jawaban, mencari siapa yang salah dan masalah-masalah pribadi.

 

Akhirnya dilakukan pemilihan pimpinan Partai dengan hasil pengikut De Groot mendapat mayoritas. De Groot berhasil bertahan berkat oposisi yang tampil compang-camping dan tidak taktis serta manuvernya yang cekatan dan menyakinkan.

Dalam hubungan di Belanda pendapat Roestam tidak sesuai dengan suasana “De Waarheid” dan juga PI yang diwakili oleh Setiadjit yang pada tahun 1944 duduk dalam Indische Commissie untuk perjuangan bersama yang dalam bulan Maret 1945 mengeluarkan pernyataan “Voor de bevrijding van Indonesie” (untuk Kemerdekaan Indonesia).

Ini merupakan pernyataan persetujuannya untuk bergabung dengan sukarela dalam suatu “vernieuwd gemenebest (persemakmuran bersama yang diperbaharui) dan akhirnya menyerukan agar “bekerja dengan sukarela” untuk memerdekaakan Indonesia dan bahkan menolak pengiriman “tentara milisi”.

Bagi de Groot dan kawan-kawan yang ingin menyebarluaskan gambaran tentang Gerakan De Waarheid/CPN yang moderat secara nasional,

 

visi Roestam Effenditidak bisa diterima sama sekal8

 World War II in the Pacific

General George C. Marshall
at Potsdam Conference July 1945
:

At the Potsdam Conference July 1945
General George C. Marshall, US Army Chief of Staff, agreed to transfer Java and nearby islands to the British Southeast Asia command raising the anger of General McArthur who planned the restoration of the Dutch government.

 
 

 

Potsdam, Germany July 1945
Those present are (from left to right):
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;
U.S. President Harry S. Truman;
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.

 

(Seated, left to right):
British Prime Minister Clement Atlee;
U.S. President Harry S. Truman;
Soviet Premier Joseph Stalin.
Standing (left ot right):
Fleet Admiral William D. Leahy, USN, Truman’s
Chief of Staff; British Foreign Minister Ernest Bevin;
U.S. Secretary of State James F. Byrnes;
Soviet Foreign Minister Vyacheslav Molotov

   
 

The Potsdam Conference
July 17-August 2, 1945

was held at Cecilienhof, the home of Crown Prince Wilhelm Hohenzolern, in Potsdam, Germany.August 2, 1945. The participants were the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.
Stalin, Churchill, and Truman—as well as Attlee,
who replaced Churchill after the Labour Party’s defeat of the Conservatives in the 1945 general election—
had gathered to decide how to administer the defeated Nazi Germany, which had agreed to unconditional surrender nine weeks earlier, on May 8 (V-E Day).
The goals of the conference also included the establishment of post-war order, peace treaties
issues, and countering the effects of war

 

 

July 1945

UK PM Clement Attlee, US President Harry S. Truman and USSR General Secretary Joseph Stalin
at the Potsdam Conference deciding the world’s fate

 

General McArthur’s reaction:

“After the Borneo campaign, I had planned to proceed with the Australian troops
to Java and to retake the Netherlands East Indies. Then, as in New Guinea, restoration
of Dutch government would have brought the return of orderly adninistration and law.
But for reasons I have never been able to discover, the proposed movement was vetoed
by Washington – even in the face of my assurances that its full success was certain at minor cost

 

 (1)The Calender Of DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION JAVA’S  JULY 1945

THE  DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION JAVA’S CALENDER COLLECTION , JULY  2605 (1945) with few days of August , THE LAST MONTH BEFORE SURRENDER TO THE ALLIED ARMED FORCES, AND THE BACK OF THIS CALENDER A NOTE HANDWRITTEN Married 16/7-1941 no.124 at Soerabaja.

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

 

(, if some have the other month,  August until December ‘s Calender please show us-auth).

 

(2)In July 1945 

Daan Mogot graduated from PETA

During the Japanese occupation, Daan Mogot entered the military organization formed by native Japanese in Java, the Defenders of the Homeland or PETA. The year was 1942, he became a member of PETA’s first generation. Daan Mogot actual age has not been determined eligible by the Japanese of 18 years. At that time he was 14 years old.

Because of his accomplishments, he was appointed manager of PETA members in Bali, then moved in Jakarta. When I was in Bali, he got two true friends of Kemal Idris and Zulkifli Lubis.

Those from Japan Seinen Dojo instructor was appointed as a Assistant Instructor. Therefore, training will be given to them much lighter than had ever received training at the Dojo in Tangerang Seinen. Education and training can be accomplished through four generations. The first batch started in December 1943 and the fourth generation, the last completed month of July 1945, before the Japanese surrender to the Allies on August 15, 1945.

There are 50 people taken from the first batch of trainees to attend educational “guerilla warfare” under the command of Captain Yanagawa. Among those who participated a special exercise that is Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Zulkifli Lubis, Kusno Wibowo, Sabirin Mukhtar, Syatibi and Effendi. The type of exercise is given, among others, how to maintain a dove, because birds that can be used for communication devices. In addition they are trained how to use a good weapon to face the opponent.

After the 50th person inducted into the officer, they no longer served as an Assistant Instructor, but a shodancho.

Once inducted into PETA officers, each officer returned to his native region. In Bali, Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis and Kemal Idris, along with several other officers set up PETA and PETA train candidates in there. The reason Japan founded PETA in Bali because Bali is considered a defense areas and landing sites. For that power is prepared, especially in the Nagara and Klungkung. Japan gives credence to the Daan Mogot train in Tabanan, Kemal Idris in the Nagara and Zulkifli Lubis in Klungkung. Although the three friends separated their posts, but they always make contact, either discuss matters relating to training as well as about the fate of people who are suffering under the soles of the invaders. Specific training activities when it is preparing to face an enemy attack the defense on the beach. During the year the shodancho in Bali is doing well. The next year they should be separated. Four people shodancho should go back to Java, while Daan Mogot, Zulkifli Lubis, and Kemal Idris, who stayed. They act as instructors PETA, provide training to prospective officers until they are proficient in various fields of the army.

Daan Mogot is famous in the history of the revolution time of war to maintain the independence of Indonesia in fighting in the forest-Serpong, Tangerang Banten Lengkong, when the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang he leads try to seize weapons from the Japanese army on 25 January 1946.

Ironically, while he struggled to maintain the independence of Indonesia even willingly fall on the battlefield, his father was killed by robbers who thinks “people Manado” (Minahasa people) as londoh-londoh (minions) the Netherlands.

One time, Major Daan Mogot meet with his cousin Alex Kawilarang. Wearing a green cap, he was down on his motorcycle. 17-year-old youth was later picked up by Alex on the roadside, and he showed the face of joy. A warm meeting place. Then they chatted in the house. Daan Mogot told me that he now lives in New Asem Jalan, riding on the family Singgih. Immediately disambungnya story of the struggle. About the attacks in Pondok Gede. He is also a story about his father who had just killed, is not known with certainty by whom. “A lot of true anarchy going on here,” said Alex. “Indeed, it is a must Torang clean up. Therefore, the weapon must be in the hands of Torang pe “continued Daan. He said again to Alex, “Torang, people of Manado, do not do the absurd. Caution, caution! Torang must actually demonstrate, at the side where we are. “

Then Daan also talked about his thoughts on a college to educate the youth who want to become soldiers, who later turned out to happen, is the establishment of “military academy” (military academy) on November 18, 1945 in Tangerang.

As a sponsor realization of the idea of ​​establishing a military academy school, then on 18 November 1945 he was appointed as Director of the Military Academy Tangerang (MAT) at the time he was 17 years old. Actually in Yogyakarta also stand Military Academy Yogya (Yogya MA) almost simultaneously, which is dated 5 November 1945. The idea of ​​establishing a military academy is indeed like that be imagined by Daan Mogot.

 (c)In July 1945,

 Sudirman and several other officers maps that include the category of “dangerous” were called to Bogor on the grounds will receive further training. Only then there is the impression that Japan intends to capture them. Even if they were in Bogor “Advanced Training” was canceled, because the single August 14, 1945 the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively. At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

AUGUST 1945

a.Early August 1945:
The Shimoda detachment of the First Special Attack Force (12 Kairyu type midgets) receives a report about the sighting of an American submarine shelling Mikimoto lighthouse, off Shimoda harbor. A Kairyu is diespatched to intercept the submarine, but fails to locate it.

August ,6th.1945:


At 0815, Colonel (later Brig Gen) Paul W. Tibbetts’ B-29 “Superfortress”, nicknamed “ENOLA GAY”, of the 509th Composite Group, drops the 15-kiloton yield “Little Boy” uranium atomic bomb on Hiroshima.

 

Colonel Tibbetts with B-29 ENOLA GAY

That same day, following TG 35.3′s bombardment of Kushimoto, four Kaitens are deployed from Otsujima base to Tanabe to be attached to the Sixth Special Attack Unit.

C John Lennon Remembrance in Words for the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima

     
 
The first atomic bomb
Imagine there’s no Heaven
It’s easy if you try
No hell below us
Above us only sky
Imagine all the people
Living for todayImagine there’s no countries
It isn’t hard to do
Nothing to kill or die for
And no religion too
Imagine all the people
Living life in peaceYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will be as oneImagine no possessions
I wonder if you can
No need for greed or hunger
A brotherhood of man
Imagine all the people
Sharing all the worldYou may say that I’m a dreamer
But I’m not the only one
I hope someday you’ll join us
And the world will live as one– Lyrics to “Imagine” by
John Lennon, 1971.
 
A-bomb goes off on Hiroshima
   
 
A watch that survived the blast which stopped at precisely 8:15
 
Devastation in Hiroshima….
   
 
One day after the bomb blast
 
Boy with burned back
   
 
A woman whose face is disfigured from the blast. Later, when the rain would fall, some of the mobile survivors would actually drink the rain water which was poisonous with radiation.
 
Young Japanese boy suffers from radiation burns
   
 
Japanese female whose face is totally disfigured from heat and radiation.
 
Another burn casualty from the A-bomb

 

May Man have learned from the lessons never to repeat again the tragedies of Hiroshima and Nagasaki…

 

 

 

 

 

 

Translate Indonesia:

Manusia mungkin telah belajar dari pelajaran untuk tidak mengulangi lagi

 

tragedi Hiroshima dan Nagasaki

 

Bayangkan ada Surga
Sangat mudah jika Anda mencoba
Tidak ada neraka di bawah kita
Di atas kita hanya angkasa
Bayangkan semua orang
Hidup untuk
Bayangan Hari ini

 

 

tidak ada negara
Hal ini tidak sulit untuk dilakukan
Tidak ada yang membunuh atau mati
Dan tidak ada agama juga
Bayangkan semua orang


 

Hidup dalam Damai Kamu  mungkin mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan menjadi seperti satu
bayangan tidak memiliki harta
Aku ingin tahu apakah Anda dapat
Tidak perlu untuk keserakahan atau kelaparan
Sebuah persaudaraan manusia
Bayangkan semua orang
Berbagi semua
dunia kamu dapat mengatakan bahwa saya adalah seorang pemimpi
Tapi aku bukan satu-satunya
Saya harap suatu hari nanti Anda akan bergabung dengan kami
Dan dunia akan hidup sebagai salah satu-
lirik untuk “Bayangkan”

oleh
John Lennon, 1971

John lennon Record Imagine 1971 Collections

 

 
 
 
 
Target Hiroshima Nagasaki
Dead/Missing 70,000-80,000 35,000-40,000
Wounded 70,000 40,000
Population Density 35,000 per sq mile 65,000 per sq mile
Total Casualties 140,000-150,000 75,000-80,000
Area Destroyed 4.7 sq mile 1.8 sq mile
Attacking Platform 1 B-29 1 B-29
Weapon(s) ‘Tall Boy’ 15 kT
(15,000 tons of TNT)
‘Fat Man’ 21 kT
(21,000 tons of TNT)    
     
  “Ground Zero” at Hiroshima. The A-bomb was dropped on August 6, 1945.JAPAN – The 509th CG B-29 takes off from North Field, Tinian at 0245 hours. At two-minute intervals, 2 observation B-29′s follow. At 0815 hours local, an atomic bomb is released over Hiroshima from 31,600 ft; it explodes 50 seconds later. More than 80% of the city’s buildings are destroyed and over 71,000 people are killed. The B-29 lands on Tinian at 1458 hours followed within the hour by the 2 observation aircraft.– Source: Air War Pacific Chronology: America’s Air War Against Japan in East Asia and the Pacific 1941-1945″ by Eric Hammel, (Pacifica, CA: Pacifica Press, 1988, ISBN 0-935553-26-6)  
     
     
     
       
The atomic bomb used to flatten Nagasaki…  
 
     
   
           

 

Today, Japan does not forget the loss of life and destruction through nuclear weapons…
 
Hiroshima’s A-bomb dome is a constant daily reminder of the consequences of a nuclear bomb
 
A young woman rings the bell on the 60th Anniversary of Hiroshima
 
Japanese visitors at Peace Memorial Park
 

Japanese Youth Rally– they file in a field declaring “Stop Nuclear DU Weapons.”  The hut by the two vans at the top had musicians providing “live” entertainment.

 

August,8th. 1945:
Moscow declares that from 9 August 1945, the Soviet Government will consider itself to be at war with Japan.

 August ,9th.1945:
At 1101, Major (later Brig Gen, ANG) Charles W. Sweeney’s B-29 “BOCKSCAR”, of the 509th Composite Group’s 393rd Bomb Squadron, drops the 21-kiloton yield “Fat Man” plutonium atomic bomb, on Nagasaki. [4]

That same day, carrying out Stalin’s pledge at Yalta, Marshal Aleksandr Vasilevsky, CINC, Soviet Far East Forces, launches Operation “August Storm”, the invasion of Japanese-held Manchuria (Manchukuo). The attack is made by three Soviet army groups (“fronts”) comprising 80 divisions of 1.5 million men. In less than two weeks, the Soviets defeat General Yamada Otsuzo’s depleted and ill-equipped Kwantung Army of over 600,000 men. [5]

August,10th. 1945:
Japan offers to surrender to the Allies, if Emperor Hirohito (Showa) is allowed to remain the nominal head of state.

 August,12th. 1945:
The United States announces it will accept the Japanese surrender and that the emperor can remain in a ceremonial capacity.

Shikoku, Kochi Prefecture. That same evening, the Suzaki kaiten detachment of the Eighth Special Attack Unit receives a report about the sighting of an enemy task force off Shionomisaki, Wakayama Prefecture. Based on that information the local IJA commander expects a landing at Tosa Bay the next morning. Two kaitens are immediately dispatched to Tosa Bay and sortie at 0600 the next morning, but fail to locate the enemy and return by 1000.

The Taiping  airport also marked a significant in the history of Malaysia, when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia landed at the airport on 12 August 1945 for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi and Ibrahim Yaakub who were leaders of a political party named KRIS to talk about the possibility of joining Malaya with Indonesia, when Indonesia achieved independence. The meeting was arranged by the Japanese officers during the World War II. However, the plan was never succeed and Indonesia announced its independence without Malaya

 

 

 August,13th. 1945:
Tokyo. At an evening conference attended by General Umezu Yoshijiro, Chief of the Army General Staff and Admiral Toyoda Soemu (33), (former CO of HYUGA), Chief of the Navy General Staff , the Vice Chief of the NGS, wild-eyed Vice Admiral Onishi Takijiro (40)(former XO of KAGA) proposes “that if we are willing to sacrifice 20 million Japanese lives in special attacks (kamikaze), victory can still be achieved!”

August,14th. 1945:


Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day.

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks.

 

Emperor Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescrip

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

 

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

 


Dutch prisoners just after release from a Japanese concentration camp, 1945.Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

P

ort Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August

August 14, 1945

the Japanese had surrendered to the allies. After that Soedirman and his friends returned to the propagators and respectively.

The Bali Sinbun closed, and the Indonesian  reporter K.Nandha which worked there preparing to open the Indonesian newspaper(130.K.Naha  sang perintis satria narada,bali,2001)

16 Agustus 1945

Dari Gyu Gun ke BKR dan TNI.
Tahun 1942 Yano Kazo; Residen ( zaman Jepang ) untuk wilayah Sumatera Barat , mengumpulkan pemuka masayarakat, Ninik Mamak, Ulama dan Cerdik Pandai Sumbar, ia mengemukakan akan membangun Gyu Gun ( Lasykar Rakyat ); Pembela Tanah Air ( PETA) namanya di pulau Jawa.


Setelah melalui diskusi dan tukar pendangan diantara pemuka masyarakat dalam rapat itu, akhirnya disepakati menerima usul Yano Kazo mendirikan Gyu Gun Ko En Kai, maka ditetapkan rapat tiga pemimpin yang akan membentukanya yakni Ahmad Dt. Simarajo (ninik Mamak), H. Machmud Yunus ( Ulama )dan Chatib Sulaiman (Cerdik Pandai ). Ketuanya ditetapkan Chatib Sulaiman dan dibantu oleh Suska, Rasuna Said, Latif Usman, Ratna Sari, Leon Salim, Mansur Taib, Rahmah El Yunusiah, Aziz Latif , Husin Ilyas, Tjik Ani, Nazarudin, Nurdin Kajai. Setelah diberikan penjelasan dan penerangan kepada masyarakat se Sumatera Barat, ternyata peminatnya cukup banyak.
“Nama-nama yang telah terdaftar cukup banyak antara alain tiga orang putera dari Syech . M. Djamil Djambek, seorang ulama besar di Minangkabau serta banyak lagi yang berpendidikan Barat maupun Islam”

 

Syech Abdullah, dikenal juga dengan sebutan “ Baliau Ketek” sejak awal, semasa usaha-usaha pra kemerdekaan RI ia aktif mendorong usaha-usaha pergerakan persiapan kemerdekaan, demikian pula dengan Syech Musatafa yang disebut juga “Baliau Godang”. Kedua beliau dari PERGURUAN Darul Funun, Puncak Bakuang ini melepaskan anaknya untuk ikut berjuang. Azhari Abbas anak baliau ketek di Koto Kociak, VII Koto, ikut berlatih Gyu Gun. dan Tantawi anak baliau Godang di Air Tobik ikut barisan Sabililah.
Ketika Agresi Belanda kedua 1948-1949, keduanya sudah muncul menjadi Perwira Pertama ( Pama ) TNI yakni Kapten Azhari Abbas dan Kapten Tantawi yang tewas dalam peristiwa 15 Januari 1949 di Lurah Kincir Situjuah. Nama Kapten Tantawi diabadikan Pemda menjadi nama lapangan bola kaki Payakumbuh yang semula bernama Poliko diganti dengan sebutan lapangan Kapten Tantawi.
“Berdirinya Gyu Gun di Sumatera Barat, yang sama dengan PETA di Jawa, mendapat sambutan yang hangat dari pemuda Payakumbuh dan Lima Puluh Kota, sehingga banyak diantara mereka yang mengambil bagian dalam Gyu Gun sebagai Pembela Tanah Air, seperti Nurmathias, Azhari Abbas, Amir Wahida, Inada Wahid, Makinudin HS dan lain-lainnya yang kemudian hari pada permulaan perjuangan kemerdekaan mereka memagang peranan di daerah ini”
 

Dua hari setelah Jepang menyerah, di Padang tanggal 16 Agustus 1945 Gyu Gun dibubarkan dan di Bukittinggi pembubarannya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945.(kolektorsejarah web blog)

 

.August,17th. 1945

 

 

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

MERDEKA! MERDEKA! MERDEKA !

 

Declaration event

 

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

 


Provisional guards for President Sukarno, Jakarta, 1945.

 

 

PRANGKO DEFINIT DAI NIPPON SUMATRA DIGUNAKAN DIKANTOR POS pADANG DENGAN STEMPEL DAI NIPPON HURUF KANJI pA-DA-N(G) DENGAN TANGGAL SHOWA 20.8.17 YANG BERARTI 17 AGUSTUS 1945, SAYANG SUDAH DICOPOT DARI SAMPUL, SUART DIKIRIM SAAT KEMERDEKAN INDONESIA DI PROKLAMASI DI jAKARTA, INI KOLEKSI SANGAT HISTORIS, SAAT PROKLAMASI KANTOR POS PADANG MASIH DIKUASAI DAI NIPPON. koleksi ini juga ditampilkan dalam buku Indonesia Independdent revolution and War

 

 

Money Order Frament  DEI stamp CDS Malang 17.8.5(August,17tgh.1945)

 

Postal History august,17th.1945 from other countries

Bussum – Zwitserland 1945 – Gezien door den Censuurdienst

Prijs: €20,00

( Wolfheze ) Bussum – Zurich 17.8.1945

 

 

 

 

 

B. The chronology of Indonesian Independence Proclamation

August,2nd/1945

A leetr about sending a flower for in memoriam husband from Kediri to Malang,received by his wife  send from the flower shop

.SUNDAY-AUGUST.12th.1945

__________________________________

On this Japanese callender,tehre were  the first day of August until 11th August , especially the day of  US “H”Bomb were thrown , Monday ,6th, at  Hirosima and thirsday, 9th, at Nagasaki

 

B.THE V. ESBENSEN’S CATALOGUE 1980 OF INDONESIA STRUGGLE FOR INDPENDENCE POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS 1945-19450

 

 

After the official end of the war on 15.8.45 the Japanese(Dai Nippon) were instructed to maintain Government service until Allied Forces arrived.Therefore the Dai Nippon Occupation Postal services continue operating after 15.8.45.TGhe Republic Postal services was officially inaugurated on Sumatra sometime during October 1945(the earliest date is note known).

The affect of the change of postal administration started to appear during the first week of November 1945.Thus for the purpose of postal history,the Japanese Occupation postal service ended during October 1945. But the cgange from one postal administration to the next was gradual and the effects of the occupation lasted for about three years.Japanese occupation stamp without Republican overprint were sold at some post offices as late as January or February 1948.The date on which Japanese occupation stamps because invaluid is not know,but it was probably about mid-1948.

Giving exact information about 1945-1949 postal history odf the Republic is practically imposible because nearly all official records were destroyed prior to 1950 and philatelist did not do any serious research inti this postal history while it was still fresh.(Dr Iwan have starting in 1956 until now,and in 1985 had communication and echange info with Mr V.Esbesensen during he stayed at Canada,but in 1994 he moved to Singapore,but he did not want to met Mr Suwito Harsono,and one year after that he was pass away)

It appears that the Republic collected Japanese Occupation stamps at a number of central points.These stamps were then overprinted with Republican overprint and redistributed.However,many stamps without republican overprint also appear to have been redistributed.Thus one can find stamps of Bangka-Billiton Dai Nippon overprint were used in Tapanoeli or middle Sumatra,stamps of overprint Dai Nippon Palembang used in the East Coast province etc.How stamps of Bangka-Billiton came into Republican hands is not clear because the Republic did not control Bnagka-Billiton.

The situation in Java almost same with Sumatra,but in java the Dutch East Indie stamps without queen potriat like dancer stamps never overpr8int by dai Nippon ,also the postal stationer karbouw 31/2 cent,different in Sumatra all kind of DEI stamps were overprint in every province and redidency.

According to a post office circular Dutch east Indies and Japanese Occupation stamps remained valid after the postal service were taken over by the Republic,but the Nederlanda indies and Japanese characters were supposed to be crossed out .

As aresult many different crude overprints were used to cross out the words.It is believed,but cannot be proved.taht most of these overprints were applied to stocks of mint stamps at local post offices before the stamps were sold to the publ8ic(Dr Iwan have the unused stamps sample ).

But in some case it is imposisible to prove wheter an overprint was applied by the postal services(my friend,retires postman told Dr Iwan that the postman used parker ink ),  was applied by the postal services or by a private person.But at that time few people would have bought stamp to keep at home and street mail boxes were probably none existent.Thus the stamps pn most non-phillatelic items would have been purchased and applied when these iyems were brought into a post officed to be mailed.

(Dr Iwan will discussed about the rare philatelic items based on V.Esbensen Catalogue 1980 and other Dai Nippon Club catalogue,the discussion only in the specialist full illustration CD-ROM Only because the common philatelist very difficult to understand if they did not know about the Dai Nippon Occupation Java and Suamtra postal hisyory 1941-1945, for that Dr Iwan asked sorry in the common cheapest CD-ROM this infoo did not exist)

 

 

 

 

August .14th 1945

(1)14 August 1945:
Tokyo. At 1020, the emperor convenes a conference of his most senior military officers. Field Marshall Hata, freshly arrived from Hiroshima, expresses no confidence in Japan continuing the war over appeals from such strong-willed, arrogant personalities as Field Marshal Sugiyama Hajime and Fleet Admiral Nagano Osami who exhibit a dull-witted state of denial. The emperor dismisses their protestations for protracted carnage.

The emperor notes that with the Soviet entry into the Pacific War and the enemy’s use of atomic weapons, not even Onishi’s Special Attack forces can stop them. He requests that his senior officers cooperate with him to end the war. Later, the Japanese announce that the emperor has decided to accept the Potsdam Declaration’s terms and end the War, effective the following day. 

That same day, 167 B-29s of the 20th Air Force from Saipan bomb Hikari Naval Arsenal, Yamaguchi Prefecture. The raid is supported by North American P-51 “Mustang” fighters from Iwo Jima, attacking various targets in the same area until 1040 in the morning. 71.8 percent of the arsenal’s total roof area is destroyed. 738 workers, mostly mobilized middle school students, die in the attacks. 

Emp eror Hirohito Reads an Imperial Rescript

 

The Dai Nippon Soldier hear the announcement

 

the allied forces very happy after hear the announcement

 

15 August 1945: Cessation of Hostilities:
Imperial Palace, Tokyo. At noon, the emperor announces Japan’s surrender that is broadcast by radio all over the Japanese Empire.

Port Arthur, Manchuria. Lost to Japan in 1905, the Soviet Navy Flag flies again on 22 August 

Sunday august,12th.1945

When Sukarno,Hatta and Dr R went to Dalat via Singapore  by flight  they stop at singapore

 

Sukarno ,hatta and dr Radjiman flight from Saigon to Singapor at taiping arport

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence.

The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

Source: Archives: taiping

Surkarno and Mohammad Hatta , the later president and vice-president of the Republic of Indonesia flew to Taping for discussions of independence in which Indonesia and Malaysia would fall under one flag.

The plan never got shape and in 1945, Indonesia declared independence without Malaysia.

Source

http://capuccino-lieza.blogspot.com/

 

Taiping Airport (IATA: TPG, ICAO: WMBI) is an airport in Taiping, Malaysia. It is located at Jalan Muzaffar Shah formerly Creagh Road, Assam Kumbang and also called as Tekah Airport.

.

 The Taiping  airport also marked a significant in the history of Malaysia, when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia landed at the airport on 12 August 1945 for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmi and Ibrahim Yaakub who were leaders of a political party named KRIS to talk about the possibility of joining Malaya with Indonesia, when Indonesia achieved independence.

 The meeting was arranged by the Japanese officers during the World War II. However, the plan was never succeed and Indonesia announced its independence without Malaya

 

Source

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taiping_Airport

read more

 

Dr. Burhanuddin al-Helmy, atau nama penuhnya, Burhanuddin

  1. 1.  

 

mustaphah.jpg

national-express-malaysia.blogspot.com

200 × 285 – Dr Burhanuddin Al Helmi. Dr Burhanuddin, a colossal

 

 

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta in Taiping, August 1945.

Another significant mark in the history of Taiping airport was when Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who later became the President and Vice-President of Indonesia, respectively, landed at Taiping airport on 12 August 1945, for a meeting with Dr. Burhanuddin Helmi and Ibrahim Yaacob who were leaders of Kesatuan Rakyat Indonesia Semenanjung (KRIS) to talk about the possibility of uniting Malaya with Indonesia (the concept of Indonesia Raya) when the latter achieved independence. The meeting was arranged by Japanese army officers during World War 2.

After the end of the Japanese occupation, Taiping airport only served flights to other airports within Perak, leaving Ipoh as the only Perak airport to provide passenger services to other Malay states. Today, the airport is no longer in regular use. Taiping airport is recognised by the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and carries the 3-letter IATA code of TPG

Source

sembangkuala.WEB BLOG

Monday, August 13th 1945

1)After returning from Dalat to Saigon,we heard that Russia had attacked Manchuria, and thus the blows against Japan were complete,coming from all direction(ibid yazni,page 117)

-Tuesday, August .14th .1945

August,14th.1945

Sukarno,Hatta and Dr Radjiman  Wedijodiningrat were invited by the highest command Japanese Military in east Asia to Dalat (Indochina)

 

a)to recieved  the decision of  Japanese Government about Indonesia Independence. In the official meeting ,General Terauchi

said :”Depand on your masters to decide when Indodesia will Independent”( Hatta,Legend and reality around Proclamation 17 Agustus,Mimbar Indonesia 17 Agustus 1951,no 32/33)

b) On the 12th of August ( which happened to coincide with may birthday) MARSHAL TERAUCHI told us in Dalat (300 km from Saigon) the decision of the Japanese Government to give up the question of Indonesia’s Independence to the Committee for Preparation of Indonesian Independence.

He said : “It is you gentlemen who are to carry this out, and it is entirely up to you to decide its execution”.

Sukarno then asked :”It is right if we do it a week from now ?

“It is up to you gentlemen” Answered Terauchi.

(Yasni Z,Bung Hatta Anwers,1981,page 116)

Field Marshal Terauchi

(1) ,who waswn’t Indonesian’s  friend ,Independence was forced by the government in Tokyo (gogle,internet).

(2)the vintage photo of Field Marshal Terauchi and his room with Sukarno’s  photo (P,google,internet)

 

 

The vintage  photo of Indonesian Proclamators

(1) Sukarno and Hatta during that time.

 

(2) I haven’t found the photo of Dr Radjiman

e) The Vintage picture postcard of Dalat and Saigon cochinchina

(   Emperor Bodai’s palace were in Dalat and used by Marskal Terauchi as Dai Nippon East Asia Command administrations Building, and Saigon after vietnam liberation change name to be Ho Chi Minh City-read the Vietnam Document and Postal History-auth)

 

 

 

1) when back from Dalat to Jakarta (Via Saigon and Singapore-auth),

(1) the three delegations meet with Mr Teuku Hassan,Dr Amir and Mr Abbas  , the member of PPKI (Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan) or the committee for the Preparation of Independence from Sumatra, which will departed with us to Djakarta.They have heard that Russian have anounced the War to Japan and  in-vasion Mansjuria(Manchuria), After the discussion we have conclution that the Japanese were falling down  willn’t in month and we must proclaimed Indonesia Independence fastly. ( they don’t know about the US “H”Bomb auth)(Ibid,Hatta,1951)

(2 In the morning of August 14 , before we were to be flown back to Jakarta on a bomber, we met Dr Amir. He asked whether it was true that Russian had attacked Japan in Manchuria ? I said tjat it was right.Then Dr Amir said :” then it won’t be much longer”

I said ,”That’s right.We are not counting in months anymore bur a most in just weeks . Psychollogy Japan had already lost, being attacked from the south and the North”(ibid Yasni ,p-117,1985)

(3)So the three of us (Sukarno,Hatta and Radjiman) started home for Indonesia. In Singapore, we recieved an invitation from the Commander of the Japanese army there) . Delegates from North Sumatra (Dr Amir,Abbas and Hassan) were invited to a party by a lower level of the Japanese army leadership. We were invited by a higher level. It looked as though the Japanese were afraid for us to meet (ibid,Yasni,p 117,1984)

(2 )Sukarno annouced that  Independence will be fastly  in Kemayoran airpot.

(a)After came back at Jakarta, in Kemayoran airport (Kemayoran now the Jakarta Fair area, and Sukarno Hatta international airport in Cengkareng Tangerang-auth), sukarno have said in he front of many peoples “ In before I have said that our Independence  before the “Jagung”  berbuah”or seeds…., now I can concluded that. Independence before “Jagung” were flowered)”  (ibid Hatta,1951)

(b) When we arrived at Kemayoran airpot in Jakarta, we were met by the Gunseikan.

Without going home first, we were taken to the Palace to meet the Gunseikan. We were welcomed with a happy face and clear laughter by the Gunsereikan , and had dinner  with high –ranked  Japanese authoritied, there were even a toast and congratulation over “Indonesia Independence” (Yasni,p-117,1984)

(3) Emperor Hirohito asked the Dai Nippon Military  surrendered to allied Army(D)

 

(4) Sjahrir Told Hatta that Japanese have aksed peace to Allied Armed Forces and suggest Sukarno annouced via radio Indonesia Independence.

(a)In the afternoon 14th Agustus , Sjahrir came to told me that Japanese have asked peace to Allied, and he asked how about our Independence ? I have aswered our Independence was on our hands.

The Sjahrir’s opinion,that the Indonesia Indepen-dence proclamation  willn’t by the commitee of preparation Indonesian Independecde because the allied Army will said that the  birth of Republic of Indonesia  was made by the Japanese. Better only Sukarno  himself annouced as the  leader under the people’s named via Radio.(ibid,Hatta,1951)

(b) This party was over around 1.30 in the afternoon. Only then did we go home.At Home I found Syahrir waiting. “How was it?”he said .

I said that the japanese had given the matter up to us.  Then Syahrir said that it would be better if the proclamation of Independence  were not made by the Committee for the Preparationb of Independence, because Japan had already surrendered, whilst the Committee were made by Japan. It would be better if the proclamation were made just by Bung Karno.

I said , would he want to do that, because, after all, he was the Chairman of that Committee. I phoned Bung Karno tight away. I asked :”You weren’t asleep yet?”.Bung Karno answered :”No,not yet” Then I said :”Something important has come up, Syahrir and I would like to come now for a few minutes”. Bung karno said :”Alright,please comenow”

Syahrir and I went there immedietely. Bung Karno was waiting for us. Syahrir then suggested that Bung Karno himself should make the proclamation. Sukarno said that, however things might be, it would not be right for him to seize the opportunity himself in this matter without acting together with the Committee.

Syahrir said that with the regard to this matter, Bung Karno should act as leader of the people, while the Committee was made by Japan.

Again Bung Karno said that no matter how things might be, we had cooperated with the Japanese for quite a long time.

Bung Karno also said at that time that he did not yet know for certain and was not yet convinced that the Japanese had surrendered already, as Syahrir said.

“All right then , tommorow,together with Bung Hatta, I’ll go yo the Gunseikanbu to make inquiries; that won’t be too late ,will it?” Bung karno said. Said Syahrir ,”No,that won’t be too late”.(Yasni,1984,p-118)

August,14th.1945

Pelatihan Lanjutan PETA Di Bogor Dibatalkan

Sekalipun sudirman  dan kawan-kawan sudah berada di Bogor “Pelatihan Lanjutan” dibatalkan, karena tunggal 14 Agustus 1945 Jepang sudah menyerah kepada sekutu. Sesudah itu Soedirman dan kawan-kawannya kembali lagi ke dai dan masing-masing. Pada saat Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia dikumandangkan, Soedirman berada di Kroya.

On August 14

incident has happened KAKKON mausoleum. In such August 22 “Round Ogasawara” ship salvaged from Sakhalin, “Taitomaru”, “circle emerging” second wreck, which sank under the bombardment, torpedo submarine USSR (incident martyrs Mifune).

 

 

 Pada tanggal 14 Agustus

 

insiden telah terjadi mausoleum KAKKON.

Pada bulan Agustus seperti 22 “Putaran Ogasawara” kapal diselamatkan dari Sakhalin, “Taitomaru”, “lingkaran muncul” kecelakaan kedua, yang tenggelam di bawah pemboman, Uni Soviet kapal selam torpedo (insiden Mifune martir).

 (2) Although Dai Nippon was officially surrendered, the Dai Nippon Military Administration still exist in Indonesia

(,they have waited to give the power to Allied army, but the allied army very late came to Indonesia, that is way the Japanese Military Administration still exist until The British Army under allied army came. The unique and postal  history collection will proved that situation-auth)

 

.In 15th August,

(a)the Japanese have asked” Peace” to Allied Armed forces( they didn.t like  to say “Surrendered”,may be they ashamed and still had the power -auth), that is way we dicided

(b) to invited the member of PPPK (Indonesia Independence prepatory Committee) to have the meeting at 10.00 morning in the Sanyo Office at Pejambon 2.

 

(c) Indonesia Indepence Proclamation must be announce as fast as we could, the Indonesia National Basic Law (UUD) must be “Mufakat” without any discussed  and the Indonesia Governerment at Central and Regional area must be done in several days only.

(d) The PPKI’s members from regional area must came back to their area with bring the complete instructions from the Indonesia Independence Government. If they back latetly,may be the Japanese will banned them backhome because the Japanese have the powered from the Allied Army( Jurukuasa  underpower.)

(e) That True Japanese had aggreed Indonesian Independence, but may be the allied army will asked the Japanese army to liquidatied Indonesia and will tried to gave back to Dutch East Indie Government.

(f) Organized revolution must exist, then Indonesion Independence could resisted with all Indonesian people’s struggled. Depend on this ,then I am “menentang” or against the Youngman,Peta and peoples’s “Merebut Kekuasaan” or Fight the Power theory, that suggested in the afternoon by in memoriam Subianto and subadio, the Parlemen’s member now.

(g)The fight of Power must be after the Independence Proclamation by Bung karno via Radio.To the two Men I said that I like Revulution, but against the “Putsch”or Rebellion.The Young men didn’t sustified to this explenation but latter they have said that that were true and Subianto have done my special tasked until he was died in Serpong. (ibid Hatta,1951)

The following morning (15th August 1945)

we went to the Gunseikanbu,( Dai nippon Military Administration Headquaters , the present Pertamina building-auth). There was nobody there. Except for a single Lieutenant by the name of Nomura, If I’m not mistaken.

Everybody had been summoned to the Gunserei-kanbu .I thought, the Japanese had indeed already surrendered.

Subardjo, assistant to  Admiral Tadashi Maeda,

 

who was also with us at the time suggested that we go straight away to Admiral Maeda. Which we did, and we met Maeda.(in 1946 Maera was arrested by the Allied army,in 1946 bring backhome to japan as ther retired Navy, and in 1976 he had gave Indonesia Narariya Star Medal  by Indonesian Gverment, and in 1977 he was pass away-info from samsi jacobalis book,2000)

Bung karno asked whether the rumours were true, the Japan had surrendered .Maeda was silent , for sevela minutes he did not anwer and his head was bowed. I pinched Bung Karno and whispered :”It looks as if the rumours are true”

In the end , Maeda drew a long breath and said :” According to Allied broadcasts,yes.But we have not yet recieved any instruction at all from Tokyo. It is those instructions  from Tokyo that are decive”(He didn’t told that The Tenno Haika Hirohito asked the Military to Surrender –auth)

After that we took leave from Maeda. As you know, Bung Karno was Chairman of The Preparatory Commi-tee, I was the Vice Chairmain, and for daily activity Siebardjo assited us. I told Soebardjo to call a meeting of all members of the Prepatory Committee for the morning of 16th August 1945 at Pejambon (now Foreign affair Ministry office-auth) Soebardjo called all the members by phone: they were all staying in the Hotel Des Indes.

In the afternoon of 15th August 1945

Two people came to my house, Soebianto (margono’s son) and soebadio. Both urged me to influence Soekarno to be willing to make the proclamation on behalf ofthe leaders of the people. Not on behalf of the Prepatory Committee, because ita was made by Japan.

I said that this depneded on Soekarno himself. I wondered whether he would want to do what or not. But I was afraid he would not want to, because he was the Chairman of that committee. If be stepped foward alone, he woulkd be usurping other people’s right. Maybe he wouldnot want to do that.

Soebianto and Soebadio continued to press me and said :” If you pres him, of course Bung Karno will do it.”I said :” On what grounds would I press him? He,myself, the member of the Committee, all have worked together with the Japanese, but if there somebody who will make the proclamation who ever never cooperated with the Japanese, it be best for him just vto do it.

We continue to argue, at the end those two people said : “Well, in arevolutionary period, Bung Hatta cannot be brought in.” I answered :” That is not how it is. I am now preparing a revolution. The revolution has not begun yet. We are preparing for it. I don not want to make a Putsch as Hitler did in Germany, which failed . If we act , we must succeed” then the two went away.

It shloud also be said here,that on the night of 15 august, in preparation fdor the meetinmg of the Prepatory Committee next morning in 16 August, I typed out the opening of the Constitution to be used as the text for proclamation.

While I was typing, Soebardjo came in, it was about eight o’clock at night.He said,”Bung Karno is being  attacked by the youth. We should go there together “. So I went in Soebardjo’s car because my driver was not there.Wikana talked a lot. Wikana insisted that the proclamation should be made the same night (The night of August 15th).Soekarno sait it could not de done because it was only tomorrow (August 16th) that we were going to have a meeting. Wikana said, we do not want the proclamation made by the Prepatory Committee is rgarded as made by Japan. I said, if the Prepatory Committee is regarded as made by Japan,Bung Karno and I, and also many other leaders, have been cooperatin with the Japanese for a long time.So if things are like this, it is neccessary to look for somebody to make the proclamation, chosen from among who have never cooperated with the Japanese.

And we will back them up.  But the youth still wanted Bung karno to do it. At the time Wikana said,that, if by twelve midninght Bung karno had not proclaimed the Indepnedence of Indonesia the on the following morning(16 August 1945) there would be bloodshed.Then Bung karno became angry.He stood up straight away and went up to Wikana, and, pointing to his neck, Bung karno said :” Here is my neck. You needn’t wait till tomorrow. Take me down and finishe me off this very night.”

“ Oh,that’s not what I mean,Bung” said Wikana.”Then ,what do you mean ?”.”The people and our youth will rebel and will start killing the Ambonese here”, said Wikana.

Then I put in ,:”Why  the Ambonese? You want to start a revolution, why do it by killing your own people , you want to kill innocent people? He answered :’ Well, the Ambonese are considered to be NICA (Netherlands Indische Civil Agency-auth) , aqccomplices of the Dutch”. I said :” That’s only what people think. For some time already, they have worked together with us, and now you want tokill them? What sort of way is that ?”

TEMPERS WERE RUNNING HIGH, the I SUGGESTED TO Bung Karno that the four of us should talk inside. These four were Bung karno, myself,Dr Boentaran and soebardjo. For fifteen minutes we talked in another room at Pegansaan Timur, I suggested to Bung Karno that he should tell thoise young people to find someone from among themselves who had never cooperated with Japanese to make the proclamation, and we would state we would(shall?) back them up to the full. Let them makes the proclamation.

After about fifteen minutes we came out again and Bung Karno firmly told them so.In turned out that they still wanted Bung Karno to make the proclamation. Not a single one of them was ready or dared do it.

“To nignt we will not come to an agreement. It is useless”’said Bung Karno,”I am determined to go on with the meeting of the Preparatory Commitee tomorrow. Then proceed with the proclamation of Independence. If you do not agree, that’sis your business.I’m not going to take their right for myself. There’s no use in your pressing me, just go home first, and we’ll stop here”(ibid Yasni,1984).

Thursday-AUGUST 16th 1945

1)SUKARNO AND HATTA , IN THIS MORNING AT 4.00 PM carried off  BY SUKARNI CS TO RENGASDENGKLOK .

(1)Vintage Hatta’s version in 1951

At 16 August 1945 ,10.00 morning, all members of PPKI  and several femous man with pers were presented in Pedjambon 2 building, but who weren’t present were…

…..the invitator, Sukarno and Hatta, because they at 4.00 morning they were carried out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni cs.

Their  reason have told by Sukarni  for bring us,  because Sukarno didn.t proclaimed the Indonesia Indepenced like what their will or  preffered , then the Youngmen , PETA(ex Dainippon defend Homeland army) and peoples will “bertindak” done themself.

In Jakarta will be an Revolution to fight the power from Japanese, that is way Bung karno and us must be flee to Rengasdengklok to administratived the Indonesia Independent Government there.

When heared that , in the front of my face(mind) that the Disasters will happened  to Indonesia, the mad actions of the younmen willn’t succeeded .This  Rebellion will killed the Indonesian Revolution.

At this day , the Hot blood youngmen could not relized their own theory. Rebellion didn’t happened , outside Jakarta theren’t preparations aanymore. The Japanese have ready with their completed war machined to welcome all will be happaned.

In Rengasdengklok weren’t any meeting. There we workless “mengangur” Lost worked one day to saw from far the vision without based with reality.But, if there a place in Indonesia that realy be the fight of the power was at Rengasdengklok. The Rengasdengklok’s PETA have arrested  theJapanese’s  Wedana(Village’s Chief and two or three Japanese”Sakura” who adminstratived the Rice. The Jakarta’s  Syotyokan(Mayor)this day have came to Rengasdengklok to check the Rice stock, he also arrested “coup d’etats .

For Who and under the whomed’s  name the PETA fight the power there? For  and under the name of Indonesian Independence?  Indonesian Independence wasn,t birth this day and There wasn,t exist Indonesia Revolusioner Government.

In the afternoon Mr Subardjo have came as the Gunseibu’s envoy to bring us Home and Sukarni didn’t against that. In the night we came back to Djakarta also with Sutardjo and Sukarn and the Peta asked what about the Wedana, we said released him. At this nignh the the chief of Revolutiuon , will be started, and came back to the hand of Sukarno-Hatta (ibid Hatta,1951)

(2)Later Version By Hatta in 1984

At four o’clock in the morning, after my last meal before sunrise ( this during the Moslem fasting month). Soekarni came to my house with somebody from PETA ( I don’t remenbmber his name anymore) to fetch me.

Soekarni said :”I,m asking you to came with us”. “Where to?” I said.”Out of town” he said.”What are we going out of town for ?”I said again. Soekarni anwered : “ Well, we are going to free Indonesia and continue the Goverment from there, out of town”

”What government, it hasn’t been formed ye t.Independence hasn’t been proclaimed yet, only tomorrow morning. What gouvernment are you talking about?”

“Well that is how it is.This is the decision of the youth. Bung Karno and you aare going to be taken out of town, independence will proclaimed there “ said Soekarni.

I answer ,:” Oh,that’s how it is. What you are trying to do is the same as Hitler’s abortive Putsch in Munich,that is,trying to seize power without any backbone and mature planning” I laso said :” We were gpoing to proclaim our independence and you’re going to make a failure of it”

Soekarni said again :” Well,in any case ,just come with us,Bung. If you don’t come. Bung karno won’t want to come either”

From my house I was tkaen to Bung Karno’shouse. From there Bung Karno, Fatmawati, Guntur, all of us, were taken to the border of Krawang in the direction of Rengasdengklok. Near krawang before turning off to Rengasdengklok, the car stopped. We were removed into a pick-up vehicle. The milk for baby Guntur was left behind in the previous car, which was sent back to Jakarta. Perhaps the reason was to prevent people from knowing where they had taken us. With that pick-up finally arrived in Rengasdengklok.

We were put in the office of the Daidan ( a lower administrative unit of PETA) . We were ordered to sit there. The house was two-storied, upstair seemed to be their bedrooms. We sat there together . Then the Wedana of Rengasdengklok was brought there.He was startled to see us there.

After sitting there for an hour, we were told to move to another house not far away.It seemd to be the house of a Chinese, a landowner herer. We were guarded by a young man with a bambooo spear. Until close to tweleve noon nothing happened . Then I called the guard and asked him to call Soekarni. I said :” The man who brought us here, his name is soekarni,” He still didn’t know. I told him to ask the daidan.

The guard went away, Of course, he should not have left us. But Bung Karno and I told him to go, so he went. Miltarily of course, he was in fact being indisciplinary. Not long after that the guard came back with Soekarni. We asked him :”How is it, have you stated your revolution ? This morning you said that the people would attack.Have the people attacked jakarta yet ?”

He said , there had been no contact with Jakarta,yet. Bung Karno and I told him tophone Jakarta, to contact his headquaters and asked them whether it had taken place or whether it had failed or was it just talk and there had been no realization at all

He went . We waited for a long time. It almost an hour, and still he had not comeback. I thought,  nothing was happenening.

About two o’clock in the afternoon he came back at last and said that he tried to contact Jakarta; it was very difficult to make contacct at first, but at least he had done so,he said.

“And what has happened ? have the people attacked Jakarta ?” .”No,there’s been no attack”,he said.”This morning you said that the people were going to attack and disarm the Japanese, therefore you brought us here. Now,itseems , nothing has happened. So,you’ve failed.” I said.”That is not sure yet.” H e replied.

Thus , we just waited and waited as we had done since morning. All that Bung Karno and I did was to take turns with Fatmawati holding Guntur and trying to quieten him.

 

Guntur with Sukarno and Fatmawati

 

He kept on crying because there was no milk. Fatmawati couldnot feed him and there was no canned milk because it had been left in the car had been sent back to Jakarta that morning.

When it was my turn to be holding Guntur on my lap, he uninated. My trouser were wet and I had no change.So I could not say mt prayers, wheas it was fasting month. Only aound one in the afternoon was atin of milk brought and only then  did Guntur become quiet.

That evening toward six o’clock,Soebardjo came from Jakarta looking for us. He negotiated with the Daidan to take us  back to Jakarta.

First the daidan refused. Soebardjo pointed out “What is the use of detaining Bung karno and Bung Hatta here ? Nothing is happening in Jakarta. It is absolutely queit there. The meeeting this morning was cancelled because you brought Bung Karno and Bung Hatta here. Why must it be like this ?”

When we were to be taken back to Jakarta , i asked jokingly,”Better if we spent the night here, it is ill-time now,” Fatmawati(Soekarno’s wife)protested :”No, the tin of milk for Guntur which the guard brought is finished. Guntur will suffer and will cry again.At least we started for Jakarta.

In the end we were ready again to go back to Jakarta.

Soekarni also went with us.

Funny things happaned also on our way ack. Soekarno,myself and Soebardjo sat in the back in the car, while Soekarni sat in front next to the driver. Fatmawati and Guntur together with Soetardjo were in another car.

On our way to Jakarta before we passed Krawqang, we saw smoke in the distance, said Soekarni :” Now then the people have started to burn down the properties of the Chinese.” Bung Karno told the driver to goon, then to stop for a while when we told the driver to have a look. Laten on, he said it was only the people burning rice straw. We all doubled up with laughter. Soekarni did look slightly embarrassed.

When we reached jakarta, Soetardjo accompanied Fatmawati and Guntur home to 56 pegangsaan street (now Proklamasi street)with their own car ,

Bung Karno and myself ,Soebardjo and soekarni went to my place with our car.

I immediately asked Soebardjo to phone Hotel de Indess  to CALL A MEETING THAT SAME NIGHT OF MEMBERS OF THE PREPATORY COMMITTEE AT MIDNIGHT AT HOTEL das INDES to continue the meeting which had not taken place that morning.look at the picture of Hotel Des Indes  below

 

Those at Hotel des Indes said by phone that for some time past the Japanese has instructed the hotel management sot to allow meetings to be held after ten at night.

Soebardho suggested we try to ask MAEDA’S AGREEMENT TO HOLD THE MEEETING AT HIS HOUSE. We AGREED WITH Soebardjo suggestion.Maeda answered by phone:”He would with pleasure put his house at our disposal for the meeting and he was happy to hear that the two of us had returned to Jakarta. All 21 members were invited to hold that  MIDNIGHT MEETING.

Each of us wanted to go home first since there were still a few hours to go before midnight.”What about me?” asked Soekarni.”You go home too”I said. “But,I can’t go like this, in my PETA uniform”. “Why are you afraid. You took tke risk,you dared make a revolution, why should you be afraid of being arrested by the Japanese?”. In the end i lent him a few clothes, which happened to fiyt. Perhaps a bit tight, but he went home in those cloth. Going back to Jakaeta he was in PETA uniform, although he had no right to them because he was not a member of PETA.

Then there was a telephone call from Miyoshi, my laisson man at the Gunseikanbu, saying that the Sumobucho wanted to see me. I told Miyoshi that we would come around 10. p.m. . After taking bath I phoned Bung Karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the Gunseikan at 10 p.m.

First we went to Maeda’s house and accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the house of the Sumabucho. (Read Dai Nippon Military adminstration Java about the Dai Nippon official goverment-auth) .

Maeda was delighted we were back and shook hands with us. The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meeting any longer. “What can we do? We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo no changes are to be made anymore.

We immediately answered rather harshy :”You are a Samurai. General Terauchi at Dalat left it to us. What about your oath and your promise as a Samutai to us ?” “We are in a different position now”, he said. “You alway stalk, about your Samurai spirit. Show it to us no”,We retorted.

Bung karno and I indeed used rather harsh words and apparentley Miyoshi refined it translation a little, but eventually, we didn’t achieve anything.

Bung Karno said again :” So, if our youth takes action,will your army shoot them ?” The Sumobucho said :” Yes, we are forced to. Thoses are the Allied instructions, there is nothing esle to be done.”

Maeda went home earlier. He seemed bored by that endless talk. In the end, after about one hour, we also left the house of the Sumobucho and returned to Maeda’s house.Maeda just laughed, saying that the Sumobucho had no standpoint. At the beginning we were five people gathered there, that is,Bung Karno

 

 

, myself(Bung Hatta)

 

, Soebardjo

 

, Sayuti Melik and Soekarni.

We agreed ten to write the text odf the proclamation. I said that the text had been prpared since last night, was at my place. It wasn’t quite ready; I was typing it, when I was taken to Bung Karno’s house.

Bung karno said that we should make just a short text ,” Bung Hatta knows better Indonesian than I do. Think about it and write it down” said Bung Karno.

To think and write at the same time is rather difficult. I’ll think out the sentences and Bung Karno write them down” I said.

Then I spoke the sentences of the draft proclamation, and Bung Karno wrote them down on paper. The two main sentences that i dictated were,” We, the Indonesian peopke, hereby proclaim the Independence of Indonesia. The tranfer of power and the like, matters relating there to will be carried out carefully and in the shortest possible time”

 

Bung Karno slowly read the text of the proclamation. Tree time he read it. Ultimately everybody agreed unanimously, everybody accepted it happily. Everybody shouter :”Agrreed”.

Then I asked the all saying:” So this is an important document for the history of our nation.Let us all who are present here sign this document . Just as when George Washington made his proclamation, evereybody present signed the document .” Nobody answere. Dilence. Then Soekarni said:” It is not good if all of us sign the document. Soekarno-Hatta is sufficient on behalf of all the people of Indonesia

Everybody was happy. I was rather annoyed, because they were given an opportunity to make history, but didn’it want to take it (may be they were affraid to Japanese ????-auth ,what your comment?). So, it seem they only looked like tigers from the outside. Iapparently they were brave, but in fact they were not).

The meeting was ended, everybody was happy. Maeda

 

came down from his room upstairs. He shook hands with everybody present. We ordered the btext of the proclamation to be retyped, multiplied and broadcast.

Thus, only that night had the Sunobucho told us that since tweleve noon that day instruction had been recieved by Japan from the Allies that the status quo was not to be changed, and therefore the holding of meetings could not be approved. But Maeda not only gave permission , but even put his house at our disposal for that historic meeting. I think the reason Maeda did that was HIS CONSCIENCE AS SAMURAI SOLDIER HE FELT BOUND BY Japan’s promise, and (perhaps) he felt he was going to punished by the Allies anyway, so it was better to help the wishes of the Indonesian ppeople to reach the treshold of their ieals.

That is my private guess. So, the meeting which was to be held in the morning 0f 16th August 1945 was cancelled which we had been carried off to Rengasdengklok, and it was not true the Japanese prevent it.

It is necessary to note here, which I learnt afterwards, that threre was a proposal by Soekarni which he conveyed through Soebardjo, to add five more names to participate in the signing of the text of the proclamation, but Soebardji did not mention this during the early morning meetin in August 17. Maybe it was because Soekarni had said that night it was enough for just two people to sign it (ibid Yasni,1984).

 

and then typing by Sayuti Melik

(In the originnal text, Soekarno writting some off Hatta dictated were stripped and changed from”Af-voi vo q(not clear) change to”Penjerahan”(recapitulation) and then change to”pemindahan”, the word “ dioesahakan’ change to “diselenggarakan” Djakarta 17-8-’05 Wakil2 bangsa Indonesia. This text of Proclamation’s concept than Type by Sayuti Melik with change Djakarta hari 17 Boelan 8 tahoen 05 (japanese year 2605 or 1945) , atas nama bangsa Indonesia(On behalf of Indonesian people ) Soekarno- Hatta, this original concept informed on the merdeka magazine during six moth Independent “Merdeka” by the owner B.M.Diah, and many years keep by him and then after many years he gave back to president Soeharto and now keep in MONAS monument Jakarta-auth)

(3)Other version were written by the Youngmen like Adam Malik,Sukarni,etc but didn’t listed here.

 

AUGUST,17.1945)Batavia, 17th/1945Photo: ABC Press

“Better to the hell than to be colonized again” was painted on a streetcar in Jakarta on 17 August 1945. This is the day of the Proclamasi, the day Sukarno plants the red and white flag in front of his home in Jakarta and proclaims the independent Republic of Indonesia. Two days after the surrender of Japan the situation is chaotic, and the Dutch government is not even inclined to consider acknowledging the republic.

The Indonesians will have to endure two wars and wait for more than four years until sovereignty is officially granted, on 29 December 1949.

______________________________________

DURING AND AFTER INDEPENDENCE PROCLAMATION

IN 17th AUGUST 1945.

A.Samsi Jacobalis ,2000,books info :

In the early moning Chaerul saleh bring  The copy of Indonesian independent proclamotion direct from Maeda house, and the documen gave to Eri sadewo at Prapatan 10 for copying and disebarluaskan after the ceremony at Eat pegangsaan styreet (private documantation by DR.Rushdy Hussein)

Mamahit had met Dr Muwardi the leader of Barisan banteng,he told hi  that Bung Karno this morning still sleep and did’t wat absudr(tak mau diganggu0 becaus eafter backhome fro m maeda house early in the morning his Malaria kambuh(exist again) . He will dibangunkan(call from sleep) about 9 o’clock for preparing himself to read the proclamation(mengucapkan proklamasi).

During proclamation only PPKI member,pejuang and old potiticia generation ,also the memeber of Prapatan 10 and student who live outside asrama ,with peoples. Sayhrir,Chaerul saleh.Sukarni and Adam malik didnot join the proclamation ceremony, Adam Malik in his book said that he didn’t joint (hadir)  because waiting the moment (kesempatan) in Domei for send telegraph about proclamation abroad(menirim berita proklamasi keluar negeri dari kantor berita jepang Domei).

During proclamation ceremony by Bung Karno in the front of his house at Pegangsaan street, the Studet at prapatan 10 jakarta also read the copy of Indonesian Independet Proclamation by Eri Sudewo as  the ceromy Inspectuer (inspektur upacara) ,The command of ceremony salamun,the up of flag Muhardewo.

 

 

 

 

 

Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 merupakan tonggak bagi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proses proklamasi yang berjalan cepat dan agak mendadak mengakibatkan reaksi yang beragam di kalangan masyarakat, pun demikian di kalangan kepolisian.

B.Info Of Indonesian Independent proclamation

(1)From Kuala tungkal Jambi

. August 17, 1945 Proclamation of Independence and Public Speech Kuala Tungkal

Head Office Telegraph Kuala Tungkal H. M. Kurchi / Madiah Syahbandar Kuala Tungkal, always follow the developments within and outside the country through radio broadcasts are heard in secret so as not known by the Japanese authorities. RI heard the news of the proclamation of independence by H. M. Kurchi on August 17, 1945, and then circulated(disebarluaskannya) to community leaders and youth. On August 20, 1945 a number of youth, among others, M. Kasim, Tuhirang Duladji at 07.00 am and flying the red and white flag at the port of Kuala Tungkal, which is then followed by a flag-raising by people in their homes.

 

 

(2)The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence

(Indonesian: Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply Proklamasi)

was read at 10.00 a.m. on Friday, August 17, 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed-resistance of the Indonesian National Revolution, fighting against the forces of the Netherlands until the latter officially acknowledged Indonesia’s independence in 1949. In 2005, the Netherlands declared that they had decided to accept 17 August 1945 as Indonesia’s independence date[1]

Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta, who were appointed President and Vice-president, respectively, were the document’s signatories.

Declaration event

 

Before Sukarno read his announcement , he prayed to Allah,the mighty only GOD as the moslem and the he speaked and then read the proclamations

 

Sukarno, accompanied by Mohammad Hatta (right), proclaiming the independence of Indonesia.

The draft was prepared only a few hours earlier, on the night of August 16, by Sukarno, Hatta, and Soebardjo, at Rear-Admiral Maeda (Minoru) Tadashi’s house, Miyako-Doori 1, Jakarta (now the “Museum of the Declaration of Independence“, JL. Imam Bonjol I, Jakarta).

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence was typed by Sayuti Melik.[2][3] Maeda himself was sleeping in his room upstairs. He was agreeable to the idea of Indonesia‘s independence, and had lent his house for the drafting of the declaration. Marshal Terauchi, the highest-ranking Japanese leader in South East Asia and son of Prime Minister Terauchi Masatake, was however against Indonesia’s independence, scheduled for August 24.

While the formal preparation of the declaration, and the official independence itself for that matter, had been carefully planned a few months earlier, the actual declaration date was brought forward almost inadvertently as a consequence of the Japanese unconditional surrender to the Allies on August 15 following the Nagasaki atomic bombing.

The historic event was triggered by a plot, led by a few more radical youth activists such as Adam Malik and Chairul Saleh, that put pressure on Soekarno and Hatta to proclaim independence immediately. The declaration was to be signed by the 27 members of the Preparatory Committee for Indonesian Independence (PPKI) symbolically representing the new nation’s diversity.

The particular act was apparently inspired by a similar spirit of the United States Declaration of Independence. However, the idea was heavily turned down by the radical activists mentioned earlier, arguing that the committee was too closely associated with then soon to be defunct Japanese occupation rule, thus creating a potential credibility issue.

Instead, the radical activists demanded that the signatures of six of them were to be put on the document. All parties involved in the historical moment finally agreed on a compromise solution which only included Soekarno and Mohammad Hatta as the co-signers ‘in the name of the nation of Indonesia’

Soekarno had initially wanted the declaration to be read at Ikada Plain, the large open field in the centre of Jakarta, but due to unfounded widespread apprehension over the possibility of Japanese sabotage, the venue was changed to Soekarno’s house at Pegangsaan Timur 56. In fact there was no concrete evidence for the growing suspicions, as the Japanese had already surrendered to the Allies, and the Japanese high command in Indonesia had given their permission for the nation’s independence. The declaration of independence passed without a hitch.

 

Draft

Indonesian

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan,d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempoh yang sesingkat-singkatnja

Djakarta (Jakarta), 17-8-45

Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia

Amendments

Three amendments were made to the draft, as follows:

  • tempoh“: changed to “tempo“, both meaning “time period”.
  • 17-8-45: changed to “hari 17, boelan 8, tahoen 05″ (“day 17, month 8, year 05″ of the Japanese sumera calendar); the number “05″ is the short form for 2605.
  • Wakil-Wakil Bangsa Indonesia” (Representatives of the people of Indonesian nation): changed to “Atas nama bangsa Indonesia” (“in the name of the nation of Indonesia”).

 

 

 

Final text

 

 

The original Indonesian Declaration of Independence

 

 

The monument commemorating the Indonesian Declaration of Independence

PROKLAMASI

Kami, bangsa Indonesia, dengan ini menjatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekoeasaan d.l.l., diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja.

Djakarta, hari 17 boelan 8 tahoen 05Atas nama bangsa Indonesia,

Soekarno/Hatta.

 

 

 

English translation

An English translation published by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs as of October 1948 included the entire speech as read by Sukarno. It incorporated remarks made immediately prior to and after the actual proclamation. George McTurnan Kahin, a historian on Indonesia, believed that they were omitted from publication in Indonesia either due to Japanese control of media outlets or fear of provoking a harsh Japanese response.[4]

PROCLAMATION

WE THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA HEREBY DECLARE THE INDEPENDENCE OF
INDONESIA. MATTERS WHICH CONCERN THE TRANSFER OF POWER AND
OTHER THINGS WILL BE EXECUTED BY CAREFUL MEANS AND IN THE
SHORTEST POSSIBLE TIME.

DJAKARTA, 17 AUGUST 1945

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE OF INDONESIA

SOEKARNO—HATTA

THE CHRONOLOGIC HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

B.Hatta Version

____________________________________________________

SATURDAY, AUGUST. 17th. 1945

________________________________________________

a)Proclamation Preparationed

1) Hatta’s version

(1) vintage version  (ibid,Hatta.1951)

At midnight(r early morning 17th August 1945-auth) , after the meeting with Sumobutjo where the Japanese have been the caretaker under the allied, there were the meeting with all the members of Independence prepatory Committee, the  delegation of Youngmen and people .

In the meeting  depend on the youngmen suggestion have the” round”(all said yes-auth) conclusion that the Indonesia Independent proclamation only sign by Sukarno-Hatta under the name of Indonesia’s nation.(Hatta didn’t told where and how the Independence declaration was produced, may be for the security. The detailed were told later in 1984 –auth.)

(2)later version (ibid,Yusni,1984)

I phoned Bung karno to fetch me to go to Maeda’s and the  Gunseikan at 10.00 PM (August 16th 1945). First we went to Maeda’s house, amd, accompanied by Maeda too, we went to the House of the Sumobucho (where the Gunsereikan, the hignest Dai Nippon military ‘s chief in Java, who know ? please give us information? –auth

The Sumobucho did not allow the holding of meetings any longer.(HE SAID)”‘WHAT CAN WE DO ?We have surrendered to the Allies and now we are just tools of the Allies. The Allies instructed us to guard the status quo, no changes are to be made anymore.”

We also left the house of the Sumobucho  and returned to Maeda’s house. At the beginning we were five people gather there. We agreed then to write the text of the proclamation. Etc read above!LOOK AT THE PHOTO OF BUNG KARNO AND BUNG HATTA IN BUNG KARNO HOUSE JUST BEFORE PROCLAMATIONS *ill.017

 

 

Later on, just before the meeting broke up, I asked for food of my before-dawn meal from Maeda. Before I went home in Soekarno’s car, we agreed to meet again at 10.00 a.m. that morning at Pegangsaan Timur , Soekarno,s house , to hold the ceremony of reading the text of the proclamation.

(This was the new information after 43 years independend  in 1984,that only five people in the meeting, and what about the member of Prepatory Committee as told in 1951 ?Hatta din’t mentioned in 1984?-who  have the factual collection about this, please momment- auth)

(3) Other version

Many version depend on the writers, (I haven’t written in this blocked, if someone need please tell us in the comment, and we will write in special topic-auth)

2)Proclamation ceremony

(1)vintage Hatta version

 

 

 

 

17 Agustus 1945 , 10.00 o,clock (Indonesia time )

 

the text of Indonesian Independence was proclaimed  to all the people (in the front of Sukarno house,East  Pengasaan street, the house was burned and now become the Pola Buildings and in the the locations was build Proclamation Sukarno-Hatta statue, the lattest locations was moved from the first location –look at the pictured postcard.(MANY MYSTERIOUS GUEST DURING BUNG KARNO READ THE TEXT WITH BUNG HATTA BESIDE HIM, because later many of that mysterious guest behind Bung Hatta were disapeared with black coloue, also the guest behind Bung Karno only Bu Fatmawati Sukarno dan Larief were said, who know the other mysterious gueast plese give info,look carefully the  mysterious guest from the three version  picture from the same photos below:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

and compare with the Proclamation statue,the Bung Hatta Position not like  the really during proclamation,he look Bung Karno , look carefully  below:

 

Hatta didn’t mantioned who read the Text of proclamation Sukarno or another people in  vintage and later version, also in another version by Moerdijanto(1952) “ Ir Sukarno and Drs Moh Hatta , on behalf of Indonesia nation, proclaimed Independence of all Indonesia. After read the proclamation text etc…”  ? please comment and show us your factual collection related to this historic moment, one information  have found , please read (2)- auth)

(2)Merdeka magazine’s version (17 Feb.1946)

The Narasion left of the Proclamation photo( the photo was cutted and the two ladies beside Fatmawati and two men with PETA uniform didn.t seen and not got quality repro.uth) :Your excellency, PJM(Paduka Yang Mulia),Presiden Ir. Soekarno , between  M.Hatta and Colonel Abdul Latief Hendradiningrat (wrong , because that moment he haven’t choose as President snd Abdul latief ex PETA ,didn’t rank Colonel-auth), Proclaimed on Behalf of all peoples(Indonesia) Indonesia Independence.

(3)Vintage  Proclamations day ‘s collections

(a) Document history collection

(1)Until this day I haven’t found the original document related with the text of Indonesia  Independence Proclamations , only Repro photos of Proclamations ceremony  and the Sukarno handwritten ‘s concept WITHOUT SIGN in Merdeka Magazine (feb.1946)

 

(2) I have seen before a Java character newspaper date August,17th,2605. without the informations of Proclamation and only the information of the Indonesia Independence preparation Committee. ( if someone have the original document/photos  about the cremony and  the text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation please contact us-auth)

(3) The original photo’s repro of  Indonesia Independence proclamations ,  Sukarno in Complete  White dress with “Kopiah”Cap, was holding bigger paper, not small Independece proclamation’s text, biside him at the left Hatta in white complete Dress and he put his hand back , without “Kopiah”Cap and at the right Abdoel latief Hendraningrat with PETA uniform, was holding Samurai.

 

 

 

 

They were standing in the front of the House and the vintage  loudspeaker was used.

In the back of repro photo,Violet  Handstamped “Foto Departemen Penerangan,Sumber”Foto Deppen” harus disebutkan jika foto dipakai untuk publikasi apapun. Kode negatip:”(the Photo of Indonesia “Penerangan”Departemen, source “Foto Deppen” must said if the photo was used for publication. Negative Code:

), Biside the stamped, three pen’s handwritten : 3 , R 83-4442 and  ½ Hal. In the biggest photo  we could seen Fatmawati (Sukarno wife, Hatta alone stilln’t married, and ten people , (Who were them ? please comment, because in small photo in another magazine Fatmawati didn’t seen and only five people with civil dress  behind sayuti Melik and  added three men with PETA uniform in the back of Hatta-auth) (page).(D)

 

 

in the front of Sukarno House, we can see Hatta  without cap and Soekarno with cap in the right side, and  Abdoel latief Hendradiningrat with PETA uniform and  two youngmen with civil dress (? Who) one  holding  the flag at left, and the other one in the center to pull the string to up the flag , also we can see Fatmawati(Sukarno’s wife who had made the flag)  from behind  Fatmawati with kebaya ,selen-dang on hair and  long stripdesign ‘s wear , and, beside her,  two another women with kebaya dress withoutt selendang on their hairs (who ?), and the leftside were seen  one  civillian’s youngmen (who ?).( who know the persons in the photo, please comment)

(5) The Situation before Independence proclamation ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur (D.Bassa,Merdeka Magazine,Jakarta, 17 February 1946)

In looked at the situation during Independence proclamation at East Pegangsaan , and at that memorable time, the writer was in the center of thousand youngmens.

Long before the ceremony, the sukarno’s house were different than anotther day, everybody who passed in the front of me that time with the meaning of that will be opened the new page of history.

In the front (beranda) and in the center o the house were exist many peoples , included envoys from other indonesian island ( outside Java-auth)  , the member of Independence Preparation Commitee, the other day(16 August)  they haved meeting to choose President and Vice-president Republic of Indonesia( The writer wrong , he didn’t know that the meetinh had cancelled because Sukarno-Hatta bring out to Rengasdengklok by Sukarni and Wikana-auth)

I couldn’t caculated how many youngmen and “Pelopor” guard(Barisan) which still came at this day. (Hatta later’s  information,” There were also rumours that it was(The Independence proclamation-auth) going to be read at Ikada Stadium (now was change to Market).

Therefore, may people went to Ikada, so that only about 100 people were present at the ceremony at Pegangsaan Timur; not many, but it was quite solemn, although it was short and concise.Ibid Yusni,1984,p-129)

Bung Karno and Bung Hatta Had came from the place (“Somewhere”? I think Sukarno stayed in that house because the Independence  Proclamation in the varanda at front of his house-auth) with Their Ex guard from PETA (? WHO) and the Independent Proclamation will fastly done (soon). My Heart Became “quiet” (easy) and “steady” (peace), although before feeled ‘sanctions’ (doubtness), The Independence will annouced “soon”.

 

The preparations of ceremony were done, the ceremony command’s(R.A.Abdoel Latif Hendraningrat)  words that asked all the participants : Famous men, youngmen and gilrs, the member of “Pelopor” (Barisan Pelopor) etc, to stand with “teratur” and must look atPresident and vice-president (the writers  haved written this article sixt month later, that is way he used the rank that time-aut)

 

 the ceremony with “Tertib” as still heared in my ear when write this article. He have said :”The People of Independence State must know how to honoured their “Leaders” (the writers used word President and vice prisident, he made the wrong statement again, that time Sukarno-Hatta only the National leaders-auth )

Everybody have done like the Young Opsir’s said . “The Indonesian Leaders Sukarno Hatta” in the front of the youngmen,students and Pelopor which stood in the bigger  “perkarangan” outside of the house were under the undrawned word’s feelling ( tak dapat dilukiskan dengan kata-kata), but deep in my heart I had feeled “Inocent (Kesoetjian) and happiness(kebahagiaan)”

After 55 years,this day,august.18th.2011, someone in Metro television  Jakarta told that he ,name Ilyas Karim still alive now) had “mengibarkan” the Red and white flag during Indonesia Independence Proclamation look the illustration below,a young man with short trouser in the center of the picture beside Abdul Latief Hendranigrat  (with PETA army dress and samurai  sword),also one young man hold the flag still donnot know who,why the man told now? very difficilut to confirmDr Iwan note.

 

This is the rare picture I have just found,we can see many people in the front of flag pole.who is the women with jilbab who pick the flag an 12 women behind her ,who?and at theother side many young people.who? still more research need,please the family tell me.

(6)Situation during Independence’s Proclamation ceremony (ibid,Basa.D,1946)

The text of Indonesia Independence Proclamation was readed by Dr Moewardi, the  Ceremonial,s Chief, and after that readed together ( by all the participants included Sukarna and Hatta, many years everybody have wrong that Sukarno had read the text, because in 1950 The Radio of Republic  Indonesia (RRI) have produced the record Indonesia National Song”Indonesia Raya” arranged by Indonesian National Police’s band command by in memoriam  R.Sudjasmin with the sound of Sukarno who read the proclamarion text, I have that record. Every morning the RRI have played this record as the started’s song before the beginning of the program -auth)

R.Soewirjo on the behalf of Jakarta city ‘s people, also gave “sambutan”’s word , “We, Indonesian People have choosed our  way to confrontated the difficult situation of this time, that we have dicided as the best and right moment  to proclaimed our  Independence at this day.(Later  he became the first Mayor of Jakarta-auth)

The Ceremonial’s participant have more attantioned when Hatta have came in the front of Microphone  and told about the meaning of Indonesia Independence text.

Soekarno have made the ceremonial’s participant into the  melanchollied’s felling(terharu),  when he said :” After many centuries all of  the people of Indonesia had fighted (became to be reality-auth)  , the duty and loaded (beban)  as the people of Independence’s state have became more heavy.

 

 

Sukarno said :”All the people,  at long time  in their heart have the believed  that  the Independence of any nation must be found by the power of their own nation.Sukarno also said “The enemy willn’t declined the “Red-White” Indonesia national’s flag before stepped up the dead-bodies of 70 millions Indonesia People bodies. We only like to see the Red-white flag inclined but not declined . Lets we guarded and  took care the flag still “berkibar”,fleed, until the end of the century  ”

The ceremony were closed with “Soempah Kesetiaan” The loyalty’s of the people and sung the Indonesia  national’s Song “Indonesia Raja” ( the tradition now that the National Song only Sing with or without Band during the inclination of the Flag ,

Only two photos exist taken By Frans mendur until nowFrom the front

 

 

And from the backside of Flag Pole(this photo not many published,may be someone in the picture had the political problem?

 

Photographer Frans Mendur (also Frans Mendoer)

 The writer have said the Song have sung at the end of ceremony after the inclination of the flag,I think that true , because if we look at the historic’s photo by Mendur ‘s brother every bodie’s mouth especially Sukarno and Hatta still closed not sung/open , if   some one have another information please comment-auth.)

The Bung Karno Introduction Said in Indonesia language :

Gentlemen All.I . has, anda-saudara brothers present here to witness an all-important event in our history.
Decades of our nation to independence Indonesia has stragulle our homeland. Rqatus hundreds and even years!
Wave action we are to achieve our independence there were ups and downs, but our souls remain to toward ideals.
Also in   Japan, era,  our efforts to achieve national independence did not halt. in the Japanese era, it seems we rely on them, but in essence we are still preparing its own power, we still believe in the own power .Sekarang it is time we really take the fate of the nation’s homeland dn fate in our own hands.
Only a nation that dared to take fate in own hands, will stand with the strong DAPT.
So, last night we had menadakan deliberations with leaders of the people of Indonesia Indonesia legendary eluruh. Deliberative ity seiiya one word opinion, that now comes the time to declare independence.
Brothers with this, we declare our unanimity embroidery iyu.Dengarlah proclamation.

PROCLAMATION
We the people of Indonesia hereby declare the independence of Indonesia.
The things about the transfer of power and others carried out by carefully and within shortest possible time.

Jakarta, August 17, 1945
Indonesia on behalf of the Nation
Soekarno-Hatta
Brief, only two sentences, not to 30 kata.Kata-simple words carefully chosen, neutral, unemotional, not incite, a notification that does not offend siapapun.Ditujukan to our own people and to all dunia.Bahwa, starting today, Indonesia merdeka.Pemindahan the takeover of power and not from anyone. Organized by regularly and not careful maksunya semerawutan.Dalam tempo shortest = brevity means that before any data or come back to destroy the independence kita.Disusul with words that also cover a brief and quiet, but clear.
So brothers and saudar. We have now been merdeka.Tidak merdeka.Kita now there’s one more ties that bind our land and our nation is currently preparing kita.Mulai State kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Indonesia.Merdeka Republic, eternal, and immutable . God bless Insyaalah independence (derived from the set of Regulations-Regulations Invitation RI, 1989 Jakrta.penusun and publisher of the New Ichtiar PT-van Hoeve)
After That Latif Hendranigrat with Uniform Map hoist (up) the Red and white flags with honor (honor to). The Indonesian national anthem sing together without derigent spontanously (conductor0.
The simple ceremony without protocoler, Hundreds attended only by people, with ordinary Their shirts, without honor troops (Honouraly), without music corps, without a radio journalist and becaus ethat time without reception of Ramadan month (fasting, Feast) bodies every proud and many cries . No Dai nippon Kempeitai attack, although the Bull Movement (Barisan bull) Had already exist to protect the command by Dr. Muwardi and Sudiro with Youngman militants included the Medicla Doctoral student in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from Their headquaters (Headquarters) at Prapatan 10 street

Original info:

 

 

” Saudara-saudara sekalian.Saya telah ,inda saudara-saudar hadir disini untuk menyaksikan suatu peristiwa maha penting dalah sejarah kita.

Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa indonesia telah bejuang untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita. Bahkan beratus-rqatus tahun !

Gelombang aksi kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naik dan turunnya,tetapi jiwa kita tetap menujuu ke arah cita-cita.

Juga didalm zanman Jepang , usaha kita untuk mencapai kemerdekaan nasional tidak berhenti-henti. di dalam zaman Jepang itu,tampaknya saja kita menyandarkan diri kepada mereka, tetapi pada hakekatnya tetap kita menyusun tenaga sendiri, tetap kita percaya kepada kekuatan sendiri.Sekarang tibalah saatnya kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dn nasib tanah air didalam tangan kita sendiri.

Hanya bangsa yang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri, akan dapt berdiri dengan kuatnya.

Maka,kami tadi malam telah menadakan musyawarah dengan pemuka-pemuka rakyat Indonesia daris eluruh Indonesia .Permusyawaratan ity seiiya sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnya untuk menyatakan kemerdekaan itu.

Saudara-saudara dengan ini,kami menyatakan kebulatan tekat iyu.Dengarlah proklamasi kami.

 

 

 

PROKLAMASI

Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menyatakan kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Hal-hal yang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama dan dalam tempo sesingkat-singkatnya.

Jakarta,17 Agustus 1945

Atan nama Bangsa Indonesia

Soekarno -Hatta

Singkat,hanya dua kalimat,tidak sampai 30 kata.Kata-kata sederhana dipilih dengan cermat,netral,tidak emosional,tidak menghasut,suatu pemberitahuan yang tidak menyinggung siapapun.Ditujukan kepada bangsa sendiri dan kepada seluruh dunia.Bahwa,mulai saat ini,Indonesia bangsa merdeka.Pemindahan kekuasaan dan bukan pengambilalihan kekuasaan dari siapapun. Diselenggarakan dengan cara seksama maksunya teratur dan bukan semerawutan.Dalam tempo yang sesingkat=singkatnya artinya sebelum siapapun data atau datang kembali untuk meniadakan kemerdekaan kita.Disusul dengan kata-kata penutup yang juga singkat dan tenang,tapi jelas.

Demikianlah saudara-saudar .Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Kita sekarang telah merdeka.Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi yang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita.Mulai saat ini kita menyusun Negara kita.Negara Merdeka.Negara Republik Indonesia.Merdeka,kekal,dan abadi. Insyaalah Tuhan memberkahi kemerdekaan itu(diturunkan dari himpunan Peraturan Perundangan-Undangan RI ,1989 Jakrta.penusun dan penerbit PT Ichtiar Baru-van Hoeve)

After that Latief Hendranigrat with Peta Uniform mengerek(up) the Red and white flag with penghormatan (honour to ) .The Indonesian national anthem sing spontanously together without derigent(conductor0

.

The ceremony simple without protocoler, dihadiri only by hundreds people,

 

with their ordinary shirt,without pasukan kehormatan(Honouraly ),

 

Why rthis photo was cutting?and the women with head cup disappeared who is she?

without music corps,without radio journalist and without reception becaus ethat time Ramadhan month(puasa,feast) every bodies proud and many cries.No Dai nippon Kempetai attack ,although the Banteng Movement(Barisan banteng) Had already exist to protect command by Dr Muwardi and Sudiro with youngman militan included the Medicla Doctor student  in the command of Piet Mamahit and Suraryo whic send from their headquaters(Markas) at Prapatan 10 street

 

3)AFTER PROCLAMATION CEREMONY

After the proclamation of independence 17/8-1945, the youth Jakarta moves to spread the news of the proclamation. Not only the villages in Jakarta, but the various corners of the country. “Better dead than colonized again,” the expression of the people to maintain independence. The situation 63 years ago got hotter when NICA troops allied with the free ride back to Indonesia.
All villages in Jakarta was established fortifications of barbed wire and bamboo spears. So if there are soldiers who entered the village NICA then heard a voice of command: Siaaap. Because of that era is also called the ‘time ready’.

Considering the event has been going 63 years, and have rarely experienced it, let us remind you again how the atrocity NICA soldiers during the revolution. They opened fire on people who look suspicious. To that end, President Sukarno announced so people do not leave the house after eight o’clock. Records in the National Archives of just eight thousand people have been killed between September and December 1945.
 Youths in the village of Kwitang aged 12 -18 years, participated as a student army even if it means carrying bamboo spears.
Many of them breathed her last the bullet NICA. At that time the mother-village kampong setting up soup kitchens for the fighters. Unknown in terms of corruption until they are willing to defend the homeland menymbangkan possessions they have.
Among the most feared fighters Dutch Betawi KH Nur Ali was from Bekasi. Until the Dutch courage to give a great gift for anyone who can catch it live or die. Betawi hero, Imam Syafi’ie collect the thugs Pasar Senen be a scary force the Netherlands. They operate in various neighborhoods in Jakarta

a) VINTAGE VERSION(ibid Hatta,1951)

The youngmen, Student, the Communication official and the writer”wartawan”  of Japanese Domei  announced the text of Indonesian Independence proclamations to all Indonesia.

b) Later Version (ibid Yusni,1984)

Among those present at that midnight meeting were also people from the Japanese news agency Domei in Jakarta. They succeeded in sending the news abroad that very same morning. The outside world was soon informed about this important event.

When they broadcast the news, the announcer’s booth was locked from the inside, to prevent the possibility of disturbance from the Japanese guard.

c)Samsi Jacobalis version(2000):

The Student ‘s attampt to sedn the new about proclamtion abroad trough Dai nippon Doemi radio not succeded. Suyono Martosewoyo which alway stayed at Dr Abdulrahman Saleh house , now that at that house there were the illegal radio broadcast  and with the permission of the owner that radio broadcast , Bung Karno and Bung Hatta were invited to Medical doctor Faculty Campus at Salemba street  for repeat the reading of Indonesian Independent Proclamatiomn  snf speaking(oration) through that illegal radio broadcasting, the instrument were bring to Physiology Laboratorium,where the attampt radio broadcasting had been trail by the student.Also exist Dr Abdulrachman Saleh,Mr Subarjo,Dr Buntaran,Mr Iwan Kusumasumatri,Wangsawijaya Bung hatta secretary,Suyono Martosewoyo .

d) Other Version

Many version have written, but all of the informations without   the factual documents ( that is way willn’t list in this infomation sheets , the factual documens and photos still needed, please comment-auth)

 

THE POSTAL HISTORY

 During Indonesia Independence

Proclamation day

AUGUST,17th,1945

During Indonesian Independence day Dai Nippon still had power at Postal office ,given by the British allied Forces until they came to Indonesia,

To proved thi situation ,until this day Dr Iwan only have two postally history collections:’

 

 

 

Off cover Fai Nippon Sumatra definitive stamps CDS Padang  20,8,15*Augusy,17th.1945)

 

 

 

Money Order Frament  DEI stamp CDS Malang 17.8.5(August,17tgh.1945)

At the time of the Proclamation of Independence of Indonesia voiced, Sudirman was in Kroja

 

The Dutch article about Indonesian Independent in 2012

Source

http://www.sukarnoyears.com/421dutchleaders.htm

Indonesian independence (1945)


At the end of the Second World War, Sukarno’s Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI) declares independence.

The Dutch government is initially unable to accept the loss of the colony. It launches military campaigns, which are condemned by the United Nations, supported by the US. Four years later, sovereignty is transferred to Indonesia.

The end of the Second World War brought a period of immediate decolonisation.

On 17 August 1945

Sukarno proclaimed the Republic of Indonesia. Sukarno was a civil engineer who had been active in politics from an early age. In 1927 he had set up a political party – the Partai Nasional Indonesia (PNI) –

to campaign for independence. Between 1929 and 1932 he was a political prisoner, and in 1933 he was again imprisoned by the Dutch authorities until finally liberated by the Japanese in 1942. During the occupation, he collaborated with the Japanese, who exploited nationalist feelings in the country for their own ends.

In the Netherlands

, there was a general expectation that the pre-war colonial status of Indonesia would be restored following the end of hostilities, despite the fact that Queen Wilhelmina had made a radio broadcast in 1942 promising to organise a post-war government conference to arrange Indonesian independence.

The Dutch underestimated the strength of Indonesian nationalist feeling and this was one of the factors which eventually prevented a gradual transition.

 Another was the Dutch view that colonial rule should be restored before talks on independence could begin.

However, Britain (which had liberated Indonesia) was unwilling to cooperate in this aim unless the representatives of the Republic were consulted. This was tantamount to a recognition of the Republic of Indonesia.

 In 1946, a conference was held in the Netherlands between representatives of the Republic and the Dutch government, but it proved impossible to reach agreement.

 In the same year, the Dutch parliament approved the Linggadjati Agreement, which provided for the eventual establishment of a Dutch-Indonesian Union consisting of the Kingdom of the Netherlands and the United States of Indonesia, headed by the Dutch Queen. Public opinion in the Netherlands and virtually all the political parties in the country were fiercely opposed to Indonesian self-rule

Informasi tentang Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia  dan sejarah perang kemerdekaan inndonesia akan dilengkapi dari buku Detik Dan Peristiwa 17 agustus 1945 -17 agustus 1950  terbitan Kementerian Penerangan Rep Indonesia januari 1950 sumbangan klise foto dari Kraton dan Nasional Djogjakarta .

Pada halaman depan tertulis

 Kepada Mr Sanoesi dan roeslan Abdoelgani  Menteri dan sekretaris jendra kementerian Penerangan Republik Indonesia yang sejak tanggal  21 januari 1950 telah meletakan Jabatannya untuk memangku jabatan baru di republic Indonesia serikat

(,koleksi dr Iwan ditemukan di Solo pada kunnungan terakhir awal November 2012)

Information about Indonesia Independence war of independence and the history of the book will be equipped inndonesia Seconds And Events August 17, 1945 -17 August 1950 issue of the Ministry of Information Rep. Indonesia January 1950 photogravure donation from the National Palace and Djokjakarta.
On the front page of the written
  To Mr. and Ruslan Sanoesi Abdoelgani Jendra Minister and secretary ministry of Information of the Republic of Indonesia on 21 January 1950 had put His post to assume the new Indonesian republic union
(, collection of Dr. Iwan found in Solo on last kunnungan early November 2012)

 

 

Informasi akan diberi catatan kaki

 KEMPEN 1950

 

 

Information will be footnoted
  Kempen 1950

Dalam buku KEMPEN 1950 tentang proklamasi Berisi teks proklamasi dan bilustrasi Gedung bersejarah di pegangsaan timur (rumah Bung Karno saat itu) dimana proklamasi dibacakan.

17 agustus 1945

Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Ir Sukarno dan drs Moh Hatta atas nama Bangsa Indonesia, disaksikan Panitia kemerdekaan Indonesia, yang terdiri dari wakil-wakil dari seluruh Kepualauan Indonesia.

In 1950 on the proclamation Kempen book contains the text of the proclamation and bilustrasi Pegangsaan historic building in the east (the Bung Karno time) where the proclamation was read.
August 17, 1945
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence by Ir Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta drs on behalf of the Indonesian nation, Indonesia’s independence witnessed Committee, consisting of representatives from all over Indonesia Kepualauan

 

 

August,18th.1945

Presiden dan Alat-alat Negara ditetapkan. Panitia persiapan kemerdekaan Indonesia mengambil Keputusuan.

a.Mengesahkan Undang_Undang Dasar  Negrara Republik Indonesia

b.Ir Sukarno dipilih sebagai Presiden dan drs Moh Hatta sebagai Wakil Presiden

c.Pekerjaan Presiden untuk sementara waktu dibantu oleh sebuah “Komite Nasional”.

Maklumak Pemerintah Kepada Rakyat Indonesia tentang Penyelengaraan Negraya republic Indonesia Merdeka, dan menganjurkan rakyat tinggal tentram, tenag dan siap sedia dan memegang tegus disiplin.(kempen 1950)

August, 18th.1945


President and Country Tools set. Indonesia Independence preparation Committee take Keputusuan.
a.Mengesahkan Undang_Undang Basic Negrara Republic of Indonesia
b.Ir elected President Sukarno and Mohammad Hatta drs as Vice President
c.Pekerjaan President for the time being helped by a “National Committee”.
Maklumak Government of Indonesia to the People of Free Indonesia Organizing Negraya republic, and encourage people to stay peaceful, tenag and poised and held tightly disciplined. (Kempen 1950)

August 18th.1945

PPKI moves to form an interim government with Sukarno as President and Hatta as Vice-President.August 18Piagam Jakarta (Jakarta Charter) mentioning Islam among the Pancasila principles is dropped from the preamble to the new constitution.

New Republic consists of 8 provinces: Sumatra, Borneo, West Java, Central Java, East Java, Sulawesi, Maluku, and Sunda Kecil.August 22Japanese announce their surrender publicly in Jakarta.Japanese forces disarm and disband Peta and Heiho. Many members of these groups have not yet heard of independence.

 

. The rare dai nippon Postal card, used with add Dai Nippon Java stamp  send from CDS Djatinegara  18.8.45 to Magelang

Ini koleksi kartupos milter jepang yang digunakan dengan prangko pendudkan jepand jawa dikirim dari Djatinegara ke magelang stempelpos 18 agustus 1945.ternyata satu hari setelah proklamasi kemerdekaan kantor pos jatinegara masih dikuasai Dai Nippon

 

 

 

The next day on August 18, 1945.

Japan dissolve Map and stripped of their weapons, then they are sent home to their respective homelands.

Esok harinya tanggal 18 Agustus 1945. Jepang membubarkan Peta dan senjata mereka dilucuti, selanjutnya mereka disuruh pulang ke kampung halaman masing-masing

Pagi, 18 Agustus 1945, Kota Rotterdam dikejutkan oleh berita Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, di Radio Hilversum. Berita itu memberikan kekuatan sugestif bagi kesembuhannya

(sumitro)

. August 18th.1945

 

In addition, the leaders of Manchukuo from Pu Yi et al sensation new love of the Emperor of Manchukuo lost the backing of Japan has collapsed virtually abdicated on August 18 is also in order to 逃命 to Japan by Soviet troops had invaded the was taken into custody.

Selain itu, para pemimpin Manchukuo dari Pu Yi cinta et al sensasi baru dari Kaisar Manchukuo kehilangan dukungan dari Jepang telah runtuh hampir turun tahta pada 18 Agustus ini juga dalam rangka 逃命 ke Jepang oleh pasukan Soviet telah menyerbu ditahan .

 

Agustus,19th.1945

Ingkang Sinuwun Kanjeng Sultan Hamengku Buwono Senopati Ing Ngalaga Abdurrahman Sayidin Panatagama Kalifatullah ingkang kaping IX ing Ngayogyakarta Hadiningrat,

pada kedudukannya dengan kepercayaan bahwa Sri Paduka Kanjeng Sultan akan mencurahkan segala pikiran,tenaga,jiwa dan raga untuk keselamatan daerah Yogyakarta sebagai bagian Republik Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

Jakarta 19 Agustus 1945
Jogja berdiri dibelakang Negara Indonesia,… bahkan ketika Belanda masuk lagi ke Indonesia… dan terpaksa Republik ini harus memindahkan Ibukotanya dari Jakarta ke Jogjakarta…. Sultan Hamengku Buwono IX tidak segan-segan membantu …!!! Segala gaji pemerintahan, penyiapan gedung untuk menjalankan roda pemerintahan… dikeluarkan dari ‘kocek pribadi’ Kanjeng Sultan …!!!

Peti-peti duit emas dan gulden… dikeluarkan oleh Kanjeng Sultan… dan Bung Hatta mengetahui sekitar 5 Juta Gulden telah dikeluarkan Kanjeng Sultan …. dan ia pernah menanyakan apakah perlu diganti… ???

Sampai akhir hayatnya… Kanjeng Sultan HB IX… tidak pernah menjawab… seolah mengerti betul akan “sepi ing pamrih rame ing gawe” …!!! Ntaaagh apa jadinya,… jika saat itu Kanjeng Sultan HB IX tidak fully support untuk Ibu Pertiwi ini …. ???

Ada kisah menarik tentang Kanjeng Sultan HB IX setelah pasca Indonesia merdeka… seorang wanita tua pedagang beras sudah biasa ‘nebeng’ jika ada kendaraan yang lewat …!!! Ketika asyik menunggu… kemudian ada Jeep Willys yang lewat… si wanita tua itu menyuruh sang supir… untuk menaikkan karung-karung berasnya… !!!

Setelah itu, wanita tua itu nebeng… dan sampai ditempat yang dituju… meminta lagi sang supir untuk menurunkan karung berasnya … !!! Sang supir kembali menurunkan karung-karung beras permintaan wanita tua itu… !!! Kemudian setelah seluruh karung beras diturunkan… wanita tua itu memberikan duit Rp. 1,- namun supir itu menolak… dan langsung melanjutkan perjalanan …!!! Wanita tua itu

 

 

Sukarno addressed the youth of Jakarta on Ikada field (now part of Merdeka Square) on 19 August 1945 to inform them on Indonesia’s proclamation of independence

Pada tanggal 19 Agustus 1945 anggota-anggota polisi di markas Tokubetsu Keisatsu Tai Semarang menurunkan bendera Hinomaru dan menggantinya dengan Sang Saka Merah Putih secara lancar dan tertib.

Panitia Kemerdekaan Menetapkan adanya  12 kementerian dan pembagian daerah Republik Indonesia dengan 8 Provinsi.(kempen 1950)

 

 

August,20th.1945

BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat “ dibentuk dengan kewajiban menjaga terjadinya Keamanan  dan Ketentraman Umum(kempen 1950)

After the announcement of the formation of BKR, Soedirman trying to gather them back and gather strength People’s Security Agency (BKR). Together with Mr. Resident Banyumas. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo and several other figures, Soedirman a coup d’etat from the hands of Japan peacefully. Japanese Army Battalion Commander Major Yuda pretty much handed weapons. Therefore BKR Banyumas an entity that has a complete weapon

 Setelah pengumuman pembentukan BKR, Soedirman berusaha mengumpulkan mereka kembali dan menghimpun kekuatan Badan Keamanan Rakyat (BKR). Bersama Residen Banyumas Mr. Iskaq Tjokroadisurjo dan beberapa tokoh lainnya, Soedirman melakukan perebutan kekuasaan dari tangan Jepang secara damai. Komandan Batalyon Tentara Jepang Mayor Yuda menyerahkan senjata cukup banyak. Karena itu BKR Banyumas merupakan kesatuan yang memiliki senjata terlengkap

 

The postally used Dai Nippon Shiokuio Haikyu Humiai private  card send from CDS Semarang 20.8.05  to Bajoeran with dai Nippon Java stamp.Dai Nippon still had power at Semarang Post office

(during dai Nippon occupation,all Dai Nippon office must paid postal cost if send letter,except the military post and the postal office,different with Dutch and NRI free _Bebas Bea _Free Post)

 

 

 

The letter about Coconut Oil distribution.special for the “pegawai negeri”Civil employee. Price f 0,04 per liter from Syokoku Haikyu Kumia(dai Nippon basic need office like now BULOG- national logistic organization)

Note in the letter: attation! When You came please bring this Postcard

 

August ,20th.1945

CDS Solok 2o-.8.18(18 august 1945)

 

Sencored number one of Dai nippon Gubnseikanbu Bukittinggi chopped CDS Pajakoemboeh 20.8.22(22 august 1945),Dai Nippon Postal administration still have power at solok  and Pajakoemboeh, the rate of postcard up with adding Dai Nippon definitive sumatra 4 cent stamps  at Solok and Raikin kan no,the port have paid chopped at Pajakoemboeh

Source:Dai Nippon club netherland

 

August,20th.1945

 

 

The rare money order fragment send to Serang Banten Java  CDS 20.8.05 ,and  the date on the  money order 2605,Dai Nippon Yubin Kyoku Serang still have power.

 

 

August,21th.1945

Beberapa hari setelah peristiwa pengibaran bendera  di semarang tanggal 19 agustus 1945 , para anggota markas kepolisian Surabaya mengadakan pertemuan yang dipimpin oleh IP.1 M. Jassin dan PIK.1 Soetardjo yang menghasilkan keputusan bahwa para anggota kepolisian bersedia untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan Indonesia

AUGUST,21th,1945

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera Barat

Birth trajectory Police in West Sumatra

Police were three friends who like to survive in the city of Padang facing the Allies / Dutch struggle for independence period of 1945-1946. Police Commissioner Johny Anwar, Inspector Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspector Pol. Boer Tamar (Photo: Collection / documentation Adrin Kahar)
 
August 17, 1945, from Jakarta Indonesia echoed the Declaration of Independence by Soekarno-Hatta on behalf of the people of Indonesia. People in West Sumatra is officially not yet able to receive clear information about independent, even though that time Indonesia has the atmosphere of “Dawn of Independence” as it has announced the establishment Investigation Agency Efforts Preparation of Independence (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) in Jakarta (May 28, 1945 ). The atmosphere at that time still showed the Japanese military government rule, the prisoners of war are released. Units Gyu-gun and Heiho (paramilitary troops and the People’s Voluntary Army Japan) consisting of the sons of Indonesia has been disbanded and the weapons collected by the Japanese. The offices of civil administration and police continue running as usual but the leadership held by the Japanese have been uncertain.

In the town of Padang and surrounding areas in those days there were several police units, such as: West Sumatra Police Residency (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), City Police Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Outer City Police Padang (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) and Forces A Special Police (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Padang City Police Office is located in the center of town (now: Police face portion of Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Padang Outer City Police Office on Jl. Teak (now: Police Police Hospital complex Sumatra) and Tokubetsu-tai-based complex in Belantung Catholic Seminary (now: Jos Soedarso complex, Jl. Sudirman). All police units are under the leadership of the Japanese people, except the Outer City Police Padang Indonesia have led people (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue).

On August 21, 1945,

 four police officers at the rank of Keishi (Police Commissioner) in West Sumatra, called by Keimubucho (Chief Constable of West Sumatra) and was told that the Greater East Asia War was stopped. Prompted by the Japanese police chief so that all the police weapons were collected. Demand-cho Keimubu it can not be accepted by police officers, instead they demand that the Japanese side immediately hand over the leadership offices to the Indonesian Police. Four Indonesian police officers are: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue and Soelaiman Effendi.

on 21 August 1945

 

It may be noted, that before the flag-raising event in the middle of the city of Padang, has been first hoisted at the headquarters of the Red White BPPI (Balai Pemuda Indonesia Illumination) jl. Mudik market on 21 August 1945

 

The certificate of the children iisued by dai Nippon Surakarta kooti jimmu kyoku(bagian pencatatan Jiwa)

 

 

 

Look close up

 

 

August,22th.1945

Komite Nasional Dibentuk

Suatu gerakan rakyat didirikan untuk dijadikan motornya revolusi,dinamakan P.N.I (Partai Nasional Indonesia) –

(Kempen 1950)

August,23th.1945

The People’s Safety Agency (BKR), which was formed on August 23, 1945 set up his headquarters in Jalan Cilacap No. 5 for the residency of Jakarta, four days after its formation. Moefreini Moe’min, a former battalion syodancho of Jakarta I was appointed as chairman. A number of officers engaged in it is Singgih, Daan Yahya Kemal Idris, Daan Mogot, Islam Salim, Jopie Bolang, Oetardjo, Sadikin (Cikampek Regiment), Darsono (Cikampek Regiment), and others.

Badan Keselamatan Rakyat (BKR), yang dibentuk pada 23 Agustus 1945 mendirikan markasnya di Jalan Cilacap No 5 untuk Karesidenan Jakarta, empat hari setelah pembentukannya. Moefreini Moe’min, sebuah batalion syodancho mantan Jakarta saya ditunjuk sebagai ketua. Sejumlah petugas yang terlibat di dalamnya adalah Singgih, Daan Yahya Kemal Idris, Daan Mogot, Islam Salim, Jopie Bolang, Oetardjo, Sadikin (Resimen Cikampek), Darsono (Resimen Cikampek), dan lain-lain.

 
Tjideng Camp Gate, 1945

This picture appears on the front cover of the book, Tjideng Reunion. It shows the Tjideng camp gate shortly

after the war was declared over ( August 23, 1945)

when the first curious visitors from Batavia came to see what lay behind the mysterious Bamboo wall from where so many dead emerged.

 The author and his mother may well be among the crowd of curious internees looking out onto the much changed outside world.

Source

http://www.boudewynvanoort.com/tag/indonesia/

 

 

August,23th.1945

Sertifikat miskin dan tidak bekerja diterbitkan Kantor Kelurahan Grogol pemerintah Dai Nippon(Grogol suntyo)

 

The rare  Dai Nippon Grogolsuntyo (lurah grogol Jakarta era dai nippon ) ‘s Poor certificate and did not had worked(workless)

 

Pada tanggal 24 Agustus 1945,

antara pemerintah Kerajaan Inggris dan Kerajaan Belanda tercapai suatu persetujuan yang terkenal dengan nama civil Affairs Agreement.

 

Dalam persetujuan ini disebutkan bahwa panglima tentara pendudukan Inggris di Indonesia akan memegang kekuasaan atas nama pemerintah Belanda.

 

 

 

Dalam melaksanakan hal-hal yang berkenaan dengan pemerintah sipil, pelaksanaannya diselenggarakan oleh NICA dibawah tanggungjawab komando Inggris.

 

Kekuasaan itu kelak di kemudian hari akan dikembalikan kepada Belanda.

 

Inggris dan Belanda membangun rencana untuk memasuki berbagai kota strategis di Indonesia yang baru saja merdeka.

 

Salah satu kota yang akan didatangi Inggris dengan “menyelundupkan” NICA Belanda adalah Medan.

 

On August 24, 1945,
between the United Kingdom and the Netherlands reached an agreement known as the Civil Affairs Agreement.

Under the agreement stated that the captain of the British occupation of Indonesia shall hold the power on behalf of the Dutch government.

In carrying out the things pertaining to the civilian government, organized by the NICA implementation under British command responsibility.

Power later in life will be returned to the Netherlands.

Britain and the Netherlands to build a plan to enter various strategic town in the newly independent Indonesia.

One of the cities that will be visited Britain with “smuggling” is a Medan Dutch NICA

August,24th.1945

on August 21, four Keishi (the police commissioner at the Residency) in Padang, namely Datuk Ahmadin Berbangso, Datuk Kaharudin Rangkayo Bases, R. Suleiman, and Suleiman Effendi after hearing the proclamation has been echoed immediately ordered his men to take up arms in order not to be abused by the Japanese.
Meanwhile, police in the capital Jakarta in the later states joined officially to the republic

original info

pada tanggal 21 Agustus empat keishi (komisaris polisi di tingkat Karesidenan) di Padang, yaitu Ahmadin Datuk Berbangso, Kaharudin Datuk Rangkayo Basa, R. Suleiman, dan Sulaiman Effendi setelah mendengar kabar proklamasi telah dikumandangkan langsung memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk mengambil senjata agar tidak disalahgunakan oleh pihak Jepang.

Sedangkan Polisi di ibukota Jakarta lebih belakangan dalam menyatakan bergabung secara resmi kepada republik

The Dai Nippon revenue 15 cent  at Grabag on complete received Money (kwitansi)document for paying Tobacco 933 kg f 1866

August,27th.1945

Only weapons with bamboo spears capitalize the people of Indonesia in Jakarta ready to sacrifice lives to defend the newly proclaimed independence of Bung Karno and Bung Hatta.

 In the picture looks troops BKR (Rows of People’s Security) with bamboo spears on the shoulders of the middle line which is specifically formed on August 27, 1945 in order to face the troops NICA (Netherlands) who came to colonize Indonesia hitchhike back to the Allies (Britain).

 

 

 

Original info

).

Senjata hanya dengan bambu runcing memanfaatkan rakyat Indonesia di Jakarta siap mengorbankan nyawa untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan yang baru diproklamirkan Bung Karno dan Bung Hatta.

 


  Dalam gambar tampak pasukan BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat) dengan bambu runcing di pundak garis tengah yang secara khusus dibentuk pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945 di untuk menghadapi pasukan NICA (Netherlands) yang datang untuk menjajah Indonesia membonceng kembali ke sekutu (Inggris).

 

.

 

 

on 23-8-1945

The NRI flag –rising in the Outer City Police Station Jalan Jati Padang on 23-8-1945

August,23th.1945

August ,23th.1945

Sukarno delivers first radio address to the nation.August 23BKR (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), first Indonesian military force, begins organizing from former Peta and Heiho members. Some former Peta batallions join as entire units, having been told to disband only a few days before.Dutch forces land at Sabang in Aceh.

Original info

pada 23-8-1945
Bendera NRI dinaikan  di kantor Polisi Padang luar kota Kota Polisi  Jalan Jati Padang pada 23-8-1945(sekarang ruamh sakit bhayangkara Polda Sumbar Padang)


Agustus, 23th.1945
Agustus, 23th.1945
Sukarno memberikan pidato radio pertama ke 23BKR nation.August (Badan Keamanan Rakyat), pertama kekuatan militer Indonesia, mulai dari mengatur Tentara Peta mantan dan anggota Heiho. Beberapa batalyon Tentara Peta mantan bergabung sebagai unit keseluruhan, telah diberitahu untuk membubarkan hanya beberapa hari before.Dutch tanah pasukan di Sabang di Aceh.

1945

But on August 23, 1945
changes the Internment 4th & 9th Battalion Tjimahi in a refugee camp. Japan surrendered on August 15, told the internees. From one day to the Japanese guards no longer, but Allied troops, the RAPWI, and Red Cross people.
They have food and clothing for themselves, and messages about loved ones elsewhere in the world. The drawing in a kind of ink or watercolor, is undated, describes the meager food supply of the camp.
But everything breathes the atmosphere of ‘shortly thereafter': Hotel Tjimahi as it no longer has since 23 August 1945.

Tapi pada 23 Agustus 1945
perubahan Internment 4th & 9 Batalyon Tjimahi di sebuah kamp pengungsi. Jepang menyerah pada 15 Agustus, mengatakan kepada interniran. Dari satu hari ke penjaga Jepang tidak lagi, tetapi pasukan Sekutu, RAPWI, dan orang-orang Palang Merah.
Mereka memiliki makanan dan pakaian untuk diri mereka sendiri, dan pesan tentang orang yang dicintai di tempat lain di dunia. Gambar dalam semacam tinta atau cat air, yang bertanggal, menggambarkan suplai makanan sedikit dari kamp.
Tapi semuanya bernafas suasana ‘lama kemudian': Tjimahi Hotel karena tidak lagi memiliki sejak 23 Agustus 1945.

Original info
Maar op 23 augustus 1945

verandert het Interneringskamp 4de & 9de Bataljon Tjimahi in een opvangkamp. Japan is op 15 augustus gecapituleerd, horen de geïnterneerden. Van de ene dag op de andere geen Japanse bewakers meer, maar Geallieerde militairen, de RAPWI, en Rode Kruis mensen.

Ze hebben voedsel bij zich en kleding, en berichten over dierbaren elders in de wereldoorlog. De tekening in een soort inkt of waterverf, is ongedateerd, beschrijft de karige voedselvoorziening van het kamp.

Maar alles ademt de sfeer uit van ‘vlak daarna': Hotel Tjimahi zoals het niet meer is sinds 23e augustus 1945.

 

 

Or P. Meulenbroek have been back in Hotel Tjimahi mentions are not history. But he remains for some time in Bandung.
  The RAPWI gave him in December 1945


permission to travel “given his role in the Borromeo hospital in Bandung”.
There he is right after the Japanese capitulation appointed as Head of the Kitchen. He is also the chef of Bandung Society and militia-cook-corporal in the Royal Navy, quite a lot of work for someone who three years camp behind him. (P.Molenbroek)

 

 

 

Atau P. Meulenbroek telah kembali di Hotel Tjimahi menyebutkan tidak sejarah. Tapi dia tetap untuk beberapa waktu di Bandung.
 

RAPWI memberinya pada bulan Desember 1945
izin untuk bepergian “diberikan perannya di rumah sakit Borromeo di Bandung”.
Ada dia benar setelah kapitulasi Jepang ditunjuk sebagai Kepala dapur. Dia juga koki
Masyarakat Bandung  dan kopral milisi-masak di Royal Navy, cukup banyak pekerjaan untuk seseorang yang tiga tahun dalam kamp di belakangnya. (P.Molenbroek)

 

Original info


Of P. Meulenbroek nog terug geweest is in Hotel Tjimahi, vermeldt zijn geschiedenis niet. Wel blijft hij nog een tijd in Bandoeng.

 De RAPWI verleent hem in december 1945

toestemming te reizen “gezien zijn functie in het Borromeus hospitaal in Bandoeng”.

Daar is hij direct na de Japanse capitulatie aangesteld als Hoofd van de Keuken. Hij is ook chefkok van de Bandoengse Sociëteit en militie-korporaal-kok bij de Koninklijke Marine, nogal veel werk voor iemand die drie jaar kamp achter de rug heeft. (P.Molenbroek)

August,27th.1945

 

Sementara di tempat lain pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945

 

rakyat Medan baru mendengar berita proklamasi yang dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku Moh Hassan sebagai Gubernur Sumatera.

 

 Mengggapi berita proklamasi para pemuda dibawah pimpinan Achmad Tahir membentuk barisan Pemuda Indonesia.

 

Meanwhile, elsewhere on the August 27, 1945

 

people heard the proclamation of a new field brought by Mr. Teuku Mohammad Hassan as Governor of Sumatra. Mengggapi news of the proclamation of the youth under the leadership of Ahmad was born into line Indonesian Youth.

 

 

 

 

Other version

 

 

Medan Map in 1945

 

Independence News just got in Medan on August 27, 1945.

This is due to the difficulty of communication and the censorship of the Japanese army.

The news brought by Mr. Teuku M. Hassan who was appointed Governor of Sumatra.

  He was commissioned by the government to uphold the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia in Sumatra Indonesia by establishing a National Committee in the region.

 

Original info

 

Berita Proklamasi Kemerdekaan baru sampai di Medan pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945.

 

Hal ini disebabkan sulitnya komunikasi dan adanya sensor dari tentara Jepang.

 

Berita tersebut dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku M. Hassan yang diangkat menjadi Gubernur Sumatra.

 

 Ia ditugaskan oleh pemerintah untuk menegakkan kedaulatan Republik Indonesia di Sumatera dengan membentuk Komite Nasional Indonesia di wilayah itu.

 

On August 28, 1945 night,

held more talks between the Indonesian side (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin and Soelaiman Effendi) with the Japanese (Keimubu / Police and Honbu / Government) in the way of the Rose (the former British Consulate building, next to the hotel Estuary now).

 

The conclusion that can be pointed out Japan that the Japanese would not surrender to government offices and the police to Indonesia without any provision granted by the Supreme Allied leaders in Singapore.

Before the meeting ended the Indonesian side also gave a statement: “Tomorrow we will fly the flag red and white, do not deter the Japanese side.”

 

Towards 22 o’clock hour,

 three police officers were leaving the place of negotiation and the way Rose was escorted by Kenpeitai (Japanese Military Police).

Arriving at the intersection of five end Kampong Java, appear motherly (Police Inspector) Bachtaruddin of Tokubetsutai with some young leaders in Padang has been waiting to find out the results of negotiations with the Japanese.

 

On that night

 Bachtaruddin given the task with the help of the youth mobilize the masses to be present to enliven the red and white flag raising will be done in the Office of Police on the morning of August 29, 1945.

 

 

 

 

Top of Form

Pada 28 Agustus 1945 malam,
mengadakan pembicaraan lebih lanjut antara pihak Indonesia (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin dan Soelaiman Effendi) dengan Jepang (Keimubu / Polisi dan Honbu / Pemerintahan) di jalan Mawar (gedung Konsulat mantan Inggris, sebelah Muara hotel sekarang).

Kesimpulan yang dapat menunjukkan Jepang bahwa Jepang tidak akan menyerah kepada kantor-kantor pemerintah dan polisi ke Indonesia tanpa ketentuan yang diberikan oleh para pemimpin Sekutu Agung di Singapura.
Sebelum pertemuan berakhir pihak Indonesia juga memberikan sebuah pernyataan: “Besok kita akan mengibarkan bendera merah putih, tidak menghalangi pihak Jepang.”

Menjelang jam 22 siang,
 tiga perwira polisi meninggalkan tempat negosiasi dan cara Rose dikawal oleh Kenpeitai (Polisi Militer Jepang).
Sesampainya di persimpangan lima ujung Kampong Jawa, muncul keibuan (Inspektur Polisi) Bachtaruddin dari Tokubetsutai dengan beberapa pemimpin muda di Padang telah menunggu untuk mengetahui hasil negosiasi dengan Jepang.

Pada malam itu
 Bachtaruddin diberi tugas dengan bantuan pemuda memobilisasi massa untuk hadir meramaikan pengibaran bendera merah putih akan dilakukan di Kantor Polisi pada pagi hari 29 Agustus 1945.

 

 

 

On August 28

Thereafter, the advance troops of the U.S. Army arrived at the airfield Atsugi as the first of occupation forces in Japan by the Allied Powers, on August 30 after the General Headquarters of the Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (GHQ / SCAP also arrived at the same base of the United States Army General Douglas MacArthur will be hitting the commander of the occupation of Japan by the Allies as commander of the total), also arrived, such as military occupation forces in Japan and Australia followed the British Army.

 


Pada 28 Agustus

 

Setelah itu, pasukan muka dari Angkatan Darat AS tiba di lapangan terbang Atsugi sebagai yang pertama dari pasukan pendudukan di Jepang oleh Sekutu, pada tanggal 30 Agustus setelah Markas Umum Panglima Tertinggi untuk Sekutu (GHQ / SCAP juga tiba di dasar yang sama dari angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat Jenderal Douglas MacArthur akan memukul komandan pendudukan Jepang oleh Sekutu sebagai komandan dari total), juga tiba, seperti pasukan pendudukan militer di Jepang dan Australia mengikuti angkatan Darat Inggris.

 

 

The night of 29-8-1945,

starting at 19:00 there was a meeting of senior police officers held at the Office of Police Padang Besar.

 

Tonight it was agreed that national police structure and personnel of West Sumatra as follows:
1. Raden Soelaiman, as Chief Constable of West Sumatra, Padang and concurrently Chief of Police
2. Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, as Deputy Chief Constable of West Sumatra;
3. Soelaiman Effendi, as the Head of Administration and concurrently Head of Strategy / Politics at the Office of Police of West Sumatra;
4. Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongues, as the inter-Area Police Officer Consolidation in West Sumatra.
To increase the cadre of middle-power in West Sumatra Police, recruited several youths graduate high school.
Police armed cadres of the first of Padang, which are: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

 

Original info:

Lintasan Kelahiran POLRI di Sumatera BaratListen

Read phonetically

 

Dictionary

 

 

Tiga sekawan POLRI yang betah bertahan dalam kota Padang menghadapi tentara Sekutu/Belanda, perjuangan kemerdekaan periode 1945-1946. Komisaris Polisi Johny Anwar, Inspektur Pol. Amir Mahmud, Pemb. Inspektur Pol. Boer Tamar (Foto: Koleksi/dokumentasi Adrin Kahar)

17 Agustus 1945, dari Jakarta dikumandangkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Soekarno-Hatta atas nama rakyat Indonesia. Rakyat di Sumatera Barat secara resmi belum dapat menerima informasi yang jelas tentang merdeka, sungguhpun masa itu Indonesia telah dalam suasana “Fajar Kemerdekaan” seperti yang telah diumumkan berdirinya Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan (Dokuritsu Zyumbi Chosa Kai) di Jakarta (28 Mei 1945).

Suasana pada waktu itu memperlihatkan masih berkuasanya pemerintahan militer Jepang, para tawanan perangnya sudah dilepaskan. Kesatuan-kesatuan Gyu-gun dan Heiho (Lasykar Rakyat dan Tentara Sukarela Jepang) yang terdiri dari putera-putera Indonesia telah dibubarkan dan senjata-senjata dihimpun oleh pihak Jepang. Kantor-kantor pemerintahan sipil dan polisi tetap berjalan sebagaimana biasa tapi unsur pimpinan yang dipegang oleh Jepang sudah tidak menentu.

Dalam kota Padang dan sekitarnya pada masa itu terdapat beberapa unit kepolisian, seperti: Kepolisian Keresidenan Sumatera Barat (Nishi Kaiganshu Keimubu), Kantor Polisi Kota Padang (Padang Si Keisatususho), Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota (Padang Si-gai Keisat susho) dan Pasukan Istimewa Polisi (Tokubetsu Keisat sutai). Kantor Polisi Kota Padang berlokasi di pusat kota (sekarang: bahagian muka Polres Padang, Jl. Moh. Yamin). Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota di Jl. Jati (sekarang: kompleks Rumah Sakit POLRI Polda Sumbar) dan Tokubetsu-tai bermarkas di kompleks Seminari Katolik di Belantung (sekarang: kompleks Yos Soedarso, Jl. Sudirman). Semua unit-unit kepolisian tersebut dibawah pimpinan orang-orang Jepang, kecuali Polisi Padang Luar Kota mempunyai pimpinan orang Indonesia (Keishi Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa).

Pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945,

empat orang perwira polisi yang berpangkat Keishi (Komisaris Polisi) di Sumatera Barat dipanggil oleh Keimubucho (Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat) dan diberi tahu bahwa Perang Asia Timur Raya telah berhenti. Diminta oleh Kepala Polisi Jepang itu supaya semua senjata-senjata polisi dikumpulkan. Permintaan Keimubu-cho itu tidak dapat diterima oleh perwira-perwira polisi tersebut, malah mereka menuntut supaya pihak Jepang segera menyerahkan pimpinan kantor-kantor Polisi kepada orang Indonesia. Empat perwira polisi Indonesia itu adalah: Raden Soelaiman, Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa dan Soelaiman Effendi.

Pada tanggal 28 Agustus 1945 malam,

diadakan lagi perundingan antara pihak Indonesia (Ahmadin, Kaharuddin dan Soelaiman Effendi) dengan pihak Jepang (Keimubu/Kepolisian dan Honbu/Pemerintahan) di jalan Mawar (gedung bekas Konsulat Inggris, di sebelah hotel Muara sekarang). Kesimpulan yang dapat dikemukakan Jepang, bahwa pihak Jepang tidak akan menyerahkan kantor-kantor pemerintahan dan kepolisian kepada pihak Indonesia tanpa ada ketentuan yang diberikan oleh Pimpinan Tertinggi Tentara Sekutu di Singapura. Sebelum pertemuan diakhiri pihak Indonesia memberikan pernyataan pula: “Besok kami akan mengibarkan bendera merah putih, janganlah pihak Jepang menghalanginya”. Menjelang jam 22.00, tiga orang perwira polisi tersebut meninggalkan tempat berunding dan jalan Mawar dikawal oleh Kenpeitai (Polisi Tentara Jepang). Sesampai di persimpangan lima ujung Kampung Jawa, kelihatan Keibu (Inspektur Polisi) Bachtaruddin dari Tokubetsutai bersama beberapa orang pimpinan pemuda di Padang telah menunggu untuk mengetahui hasil perundingan dengan pihak Jepang.

 

Pada malam itu juga Bachtaruddin mendapat tugas dengan bantuan para pemuda-pemuda menge-rahkan massa rakyat untuk hadir meramaikan pengibaran bendera merah putih yang akan dilakukan di Kantor Besar Polisi pada esok pagi 29 Agustus 1945.

Kira-kira jam 07.00 pagi tanggal 29 Agustus 1945 di sepanjang jalan sebelah Utara lapangan Nanpo Hodo (sekarang: lapangan Imam Bonjol), dari samping kantor Pos, di muka kantor Polisi dan di muka kantor Syuchokan (sekarang: Balai Kota Padang) terlihat anggota masyarakat ramai, tua muda, pemuda-pemuda termasuk pelajar-pelajar berkelompok kelompok berkumpul ingin menyaksikan upacara pengibaran/penaikan bendera Merah Putih pada gedung-gedung pemerintah.

Dalam pada itu serdadu-serdadu Jepang bersenjata lengkap meng-adakan penjagaan-penjagaan di keliling keramaian rakyat, namun tidak ada terjadi insiden-insiden. Penggerekan bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Padang dilakukan oleh anggota Polisi sendiri, sedangkan penaikan bendera Merah Putih di gedung Syuchokan dilaksanakan oleh pemuda-pemuda dan yang di kantor Pos Padang bendera Merah Putih dinaikkan oleh pemuda PTT yang sebenarnya adalah juga pegawai pos, telegraf dan telepon di kota Padang. Dapat dicatat, bahwa sebelum terjadi peristiwa penaikan bendera Merah Putih di tengah kota Padang ini, telah lebih dahulu berkibar Merah Putih di markas BPPI (Balai Penerangan Pemuda Indonesia) jl. Pasar Mudik pada tanggal 21 Agustus 1945 dan di Kantor Polisi Padang Luar Kota Jalan Jati pada tanggal 23-8-1945.

Seselesainya upacara pengibaran bendera Merah Putih di muka Kantor Polisi Kota Padang, pada pagi 29-8-1945 itu juga peristiwa penting ini diberitakan dengan telepon kepada semua kantor Polisi Wilayah se Sumatera Barat, dijelaskan pula bahwa pimpinan kepolisian sudah berada di tangan orang Indonesia. Diinstruksikan kepada pejabat-pejabat polisi bangsa Indonesia yang tertinggi pangkatnya pada kantor Polisi Wilayah supaya mengambil alih pimpinan.

Malam tanggal 29-8-1945, dimulai jam 19.00 diadakan rapat para perwira senior polisi bertempat di Kantor Besar Polisi Kota Padang. Malam itu disepakati susunan dan personalia Polisi RI Sumatera Barat sebagai berikut:

  1. 1.      Raden Soelaiman, sebagai Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat, merangkap Kepala Polisi Kota Padang
  2. 2.     Ahmadin Dt. Berbangso, sebagai Wakil Kepala Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  3. 3.     Soelaiman Effendi, sebagai Kepala Administrasi merangkap Kepala Siasat/Politik pada Kantor Besar Polisi Sumatera Barat;
  4. 4.     Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa, sebagai Petugas Konsolidasi Kepolisian antar Wilayah di Sumatera Barat.

Untuk menambah tenaga kader menengah POLRI di Sumatera Barat, direkrut beberapa pemuda-pemuda tamatan sekolah menengah. Kader-kader POLRI angkatan pertama dari Padang ini, diantaranya adalah: Johny Anwar, Amir Mahmud, Syamsul Bahri, Syawaluddin, Moh. Anhar.

Dr iwan ever met KOMBES POL Johnny Anwar in 1963 during the winner of west sumatra lawn tennis Police open tournament at Padang,his daughter Windy anwar Dr iwan high school classmate at Don Bosco High School Padang.

 

 

August 29th.1945

The New Republic:The constitution that had been drafted by the PPKI preparatory committee, and announced on the 18th, is adopted (UUD 45). Sukarno is declared President, Hatta is declared Vice-President. PPKI (originally BPUPKI, founded under the Japanese occupation the previous March) is remade into KNIP (Central Indonesian National Committee). KNIP is the temporary governing body until elections can be held.

.

 

 

Proklamasi: Sukarno at the microphone on August 17, 1945.The original constitution of 1945 is not very specific on many issues, and placed much power in the hands of the President.

 

 

 In 1950 a more comprehensive constitution was adopted that gave the most power to the Assembly, but this constitution was dropped in favor of a return to the 1945 constitution under Sukarno’s orders in 1959.

 

 

In the opinion of the victorious Allied powers in 1945, Lord Mountbatten, the Allied supreme commander in southeast Asia, was in charge of Sumatra and Java. Australian forces were given responsibility for Kalimantan and

.

Agustus 29th.1945
 Konstitusi
 Republik yang baru yang telah disusun oleh panitia PPKI persiapan, dan mengumumkan pada tanggal 18, diadopsi (UUD 45). Sukarno dinyatakan Presiden, Hatta dinyatakan Wakil Presiden. PPKI (awalnya BPUPKI, didirikan di bawah pendudukan Jepang bulan Maret sebelumnya) adalah remade menjadi KNIP (Komite Nasional Indonesia Pusat). KNIP adalah badan sementara sampai pemilihan umum dapat diselenggarakan

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Proklamasi: Sukarno pada mikrofon pada tanggal 17 Agustus, 1945.

 

Konstitusi asli 1945 adalah sangat tidak  spesifik pada banyak isu, dan menempatkan banyak kekuasaan di tangan Presiden.

  Pada tahun 1950

sebuah konstitusi yang lebih komprehensif diadopsi yang memberikan kekuatan yang paling kepada Majelis, tetapi konstitusi ini dijatuhkan dalam mendukung kembali ke UUD 1945 di bawah perintah Sukarno pada tahun 1959.

Menurut pendapat kekuatan Sekutu yang menang pada tahun 1945, Lord Mountbatten, Sekutu panglima tertinggi di Asia Tenggara, bertanggung jawab atas Sumatera dan Jawa. Pasukan Australia diberi tanggung jawab untuk Kalimantan dan area timur lainnya Indonesia

 

 

August,29th.1945

 

The earliest used Dai Nippon Postal  Choped Ryokin kanno(porto have paid) to increase the rate of postal stationer 31/2 cen to 7 cent. Sedn from CDS katakana dai Nippon Pa-Da-n(Padang) 20.8.29 or august,29th.45,and the Dai Nippon official  Tiho hoin stamped change with English character  Account Office and dai Nippon character inside the chopped overprint by violet ink(the office were changed

Pengunaaan Yang paling awal  stempel Pos Dai Nippon Ryokin Kanno (porto telah dibayar) untuk meningkatkan tingkat  biaya pos stasioner 31/2 menjadi sampai 7 persen cen.  dari CDS  ejanaan katakana Dai Nippon Pa-Da-n (Padang) 20.8.29 atau Agustus,, 29th.45 dan  stempel resmi kantor Dai Nippon Tiho Hoin  dirubah dengan bahasa Inggris  account office dan  huruf dai Nippon  dalam  lingkaran dalam stempel m dituttp  dengan tinta ungu (nama kantor diubah)

 

Look close up illustration

 

Provenance Dr Iwan 1985 found at Padang Panjang

At about 7:00 am on August 29, 1945

 along the north field Nanpo Hodo (now: Imam Bonjol field), from the side post office, front office and front office Police Syuchokan (now: Padang City Hall) visible members of the public lively, young and old, youth groups, including groups of students gathered to watch the ceremony raising / raising the flag on government buildings.
In the meantime the Japanese soldiers armed to the teeth to hold a guard-guard at the crowd around people, but no incidents occurred.

Raids flag in front of Padang Police

conducted by members of the police themselves, while raising the flag on the building Syuchokan carried out by young men and a post office in Padang flag was raised by a young man who is actually also PTT postal workers, telegraph and telephone in the city of Padang.(the leader of PTT was Mr Mas Soedibjo)
After the  flag-raising ceremony in front of Padang City Police Office, on the morning of 29-8-1945 was also an important event is reported by telephone to all Police Regional Office of West Sumatra se, explained also that the leadership of the police was already in the hands of Indonesia.

 

Instructed the officials of the Indonesian police of the highest rank in the office of District Police to take over the leadership.


Pada sekitar 7:00 pagi tanggal 29 Agustus 1945
 sepanjang lapangan utara Nanpo Hodo (sekarang: Imam Bonjol lapangan), dari kantor pos side, front office dan front office Polisi Syuchokan (sekarang:
balaikota Padang )

 

anggota terlihat dari hidup masyarakat, muda dan tua, kelompok pemuda, termasuk kelompok mahasiswa berkumpul untuk menyaksikan upacara menaikkan / mengibarkan bendera pada gedung-gedung pemerintah.

Sementara itu tentara Jepang bersenjata lengkap untuk mengadakan penjaga-penjaga di sekitar kerumunan orang, tapi tidak ada insiden terjadi.

Razia bendera di depan kantor Polisi Padang


dilakukan oleh anggota polisi sendiri, sementara mengibarkan bendera pada Syuchokan bangunan yang dilakukan oleh orang-orang muda dan sebuah kantor pos di Padang bendera dibesarkan oleh seorang pria muda yang sebenarnya juga PTT pos pekerja, telegraf dan telepon di kota Padang . (pemimpin PTT adalah Mas Mr Soedibjo)


Setelah upacara pengibaran bendera di depan Kantor Polisi Kota Padang, pada pagi hari 29-8-1945 juga merupakan peristiwa penting yang dilaporkan melalui telepon kepada seluruh Kantor Polda Sumatera Barat se, menjelaskan juga bahwa pimpinan polisi sudah berada di tangan Indonesia.

Menginstruksikan pejabat polisi Indonesia dari peringkat tertinggi di kantor Polres untuk mengambil alih kepemimpinan.

August,30th.1945

daerah lainnya pada pada tanggal 30 Agustus 1945, pernyataan bergabung Polisi Indonesia  dengan NRI  dihasilkan setelah para pegawai polisi tersebut menyatakan bahwa mereka adalah pegawai Republik Indonesia dan tunduk kepada pimpinan nasional

The off cover,block four DEI 5 cent stamps used CDS Tegal 30.8.05(1945) dai Nippon still had power at Tegal Post Office

 

 

 

Close up

 

 

pada tanggal 30 Agustus

 

setelah Markas Umum Panglima Tertinggi untuk Sekutu (GHQ / SCAP juga tiba di dasar yang sama dari Angkatan Darat Amerika Serikat Jenderal Douglas MacArthur akan memukul komandan pendudukan Jepang oleh Sekutu sebagai komandan dari total), juga tiba, seperti pasukan pendudukan militer di Jepang dan Australia mengikuti Angkatan Darat Inggris

August,31th.1945

The new government installed in August 31.
The duke (advisor) of Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya died.
His successor is selected, the Sultan took over responsibility for its own affairs, and began to institute reforms in Yogya
Tan Malaka reappears in Jakarta

Pemerintah baru dibentuk pada 31 Agustus.
The Patih (penasihat) dari Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX dari Yogya meninggal.
Penggantinya ada yang dipilih, Sultan mengambil alih tanggung jawab urusan sendiri, dan mulai lembaga reformasi di Yogya
Tan Malaka muncul kembali di Jakarta

BEFORE AND EARLIEST  ALLIED FORCES CAME IN SEPTEMBER 1945

Pada bulan September 1945 anggota- anggota teknik pesawat di Pangkalan Udara Andir Bandung mendapat berita, bahwa Lanud Cibeureum Tasikmalaya telah berhasil dikuasai oleh para pemuda dan rakyat Tasikmalaya.

 

Foto: Lanud Wiriadinata ,Cibeureum Tasikmalaya

 

Ini menjadi suatu kegembiraan dan kebanggan tersendiri bagi para insan dirgantara serta menimbulkan motivasi untuk segera memanfaatkan fasilitas yang ada. Berbekal kecintaan terhadap bendera negara yaitu merah-putih

(tasukmalaya web blog)

September 1945

 

Japanese surrender to Australian forces at Koepang, Timor, September 1945.

Jepang menyerah kepada pasukan Australia di Koepang, Timor, September 1945

 

Postage stamps of the Japanese occupation, overprinted with “Repoeblik Indonesia”, 1945.

Prangko pendudukan Jepang, overprinted dengan “Repoeblik Indonesia”, 1945.

 

1 September 1945

Pekik “Merdeka” Pertama

Ilustrasi dokumen asli tulisan tangan dengan tanda tangan Sukarno siatas secarik kertas

Sejak 1 Sepetember 1945 kita

Memekikkan pekik “Merdeka”

Dengungkan terus pekik itu,

Sebagai dengungan Jiwa juang

Jiwan Merdeka, yang berjuang

dan bekerja

BERJUANG DAN BEKERJA !

Buktikan Itu !

Tanda tangan Soekarno

Presiden

(ejaan sudah disesuaikan,kempen 1950)

 

 

 

 

 

1 September 1945
Yelled “Merdeka” First
Illustration of original documents with handwritten signatures Sukarno Siatas piece of paper
From 1 of September 1945 we
Shouting cries of “Freedom”
Dengungkan kept bellowing it,
As the buzz of fighting spirit
Jiwan Freedom struggle
and work
STRIVE AND WORK!
Prove It!
Soekarno signature
president
(spelling has been adjusted, kempen 1950)

SEPTEMBER 1st 1945

(1)The National salute “MERDEKA” was officially announce with one hand up at the ear level with five fingers ,meaning that the state of Republic Indonesia based one five sila(Panca sila) and Red-white pin start to use(D).

(2)Van Mook, Dutch Letnant-Governor General of the Indies, met British Lord Mountbatten in Ceylon and asked that Japanese troops still in Indonesia be ordered by the British to suppress the Republican gfoverment be the Japanese delay.(The Republican especially the youngmen very fast movement to got the guns from Japanese except the biggest city like Semarang and Surabaya –auth)(D)

(3)September 1Van Mook, Dutch Lieutenant-Governor of the Indies, meets British Lord Mountbatten in Ceylon, and asks that Japanese troops still in Indonesia be ordered by the British to suppress the Republican government. Mountbatten agrees, but the Japanese delay.

(4)Mass pro Republic robbers in Jakarta

(5) One month after Indonesia Independence proclamation, 50-100 peoples marched in the Jakarta city with holded flag , Bambo’s spears and “Golok”(bigger sharp’s knife ) .

In the night one Japanese was killed at Krekot area like cutting the chicken. The Gun shooting and the Telephon bar war sounding , as the danger’s situations signed.(SW,1946)

 

 

1)    Salam  Nasional MERDEKA” secara resmi mengumumkan dengan satu tangan sampai pada tingkat telinga dengan lima jari, yang berarti bahwa negara Republik Indonesia berdasarkan satu lima sila (Panca sila) dan Red-putih pin mulai menggunakan (D) .


(2) Van Mook, Letnant-Gubernur Jenderal Hindia
belanda , bertemu Inggris Lord Mountbatten di Ceylon dan meminta bahwa pasukan Jepang masih di Indonesia diperintahkan oleh Inggris untuk menekan pemerintah  Republik menjadi penundaan Jepang. (The Republik terutama youngmen tersebut gerakan sangat cepat untuk mendapat senjata dari Jepang kecuali kota terbesar seperti Semarang dan Surabaya-auth) (D)


(3) September 1
Van Mook, Letnan-Gubernur Belanda di Hindia, bertemu Inggris Lord Mountbatten di Ceylon, dan meminta bahwa pasukan Jepang masih di Indonesia diperintahkan oleh Inggris untuk menekan pemerintahan Republik. Mountbatten setuju, tapi delay Jepang.


(4) Mass pro Republik
Merampok di Jakarta


(5) Satu bulan setelah proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, 50-100 orang berbaris di kota Jakarta dengan bendera bersidekap, tombak Bambo dan “Golok” (pisau tajam yang lebih besar).


Di malam hari satu Jepang tewas di daerah Krekot seperti memotong ayam. Penembakan Gun dan Telephon bar perang terdengar, karena situasi bahaya itu ditandatangani.

(Star Weekly , 1946)

 

Sepetember,1st.1945

September 1Van Mook, Dutch Lieutenant-Governor of the Indies, meets British Lord Mountbatten in Ceylon, and asks that Japanese troops still in Indonesia be ordered by the British to suppress the Republican government. Mountbatten agrees, but the Japanese delay.

(1)Mass pro Republic robbers in Jakarta

(2) One month after Indonesia Independence proclamation, 50-100 peoples marched in the Jakarta city with holded flag , Bambo’s spears and “Golok”(bigger sharp’s knife ) .

In the night one Japanese was killed at Krekot area like cutting the chicken. The Gun shooting and the Telephon bar war sounding , as the danger’s situations signed.(SW,1946)

 

September,2nd.1945

 

End of World War II
Newsreel of
Japanese surrender on USS Misouri

2 September 1945

 
 
 

 

On September 2, 1945 on board the USS Missouri in Tokyo Bay,
General MacArthur , Supreme Allied Commander,
accepted Japan’s unconditional surrender

 
 
 

End of World War II
Official Japanese capitulation ceremony
aboard the USS “Missoury”
Tokyo Bay 2 September 1945

 

2 September 1945

USS “Missouri” in Tokyo Bay
where the offical Japanese
surrender ceremony took place

 

US Navy carrier planes fly
in formation over the U.S. and British fleets in Tokyo Bay during the surrender ceremony

 

General Douglas MacArthur,
Supreme Allied Commander,
reading his speech to open
the surrender ceremonies,
on board USS Missouri

 

Japanese delegation led by
Foreign Minister Shigemitsu and
Chief Imperial Army General Staff, General Yoshijiro Umezu arriving for the surrender ceremony

 

Japanese Foreign Minister
Mamory Shigemitsu signs the Instrument of Surrender

 

General Yoshijiro Umezu,
Chief Japanese Army General Staff signs the Instrument of Surrender

 

General Douglas MacArthur
signs the Instrument of Surrender

 

Fleet Admiral Chester W. Nimitz, USN, signs the Instrument of Surrender

 
 
 
 
 
 
 

From September 1945 to November 1946,

the Singapore-based British Southeast Asia Command under Vice-Admiral (later Lord) Louis Mountbatten assumed responsibility for taking the Japanese surrender in Java.  A similar role was assumed by the British in taking the Japanese surrender in southern Vietnam. Indonesian and Vietnamese nationalists viewed both events – correctly — as a cover for the return to power of, respectively, Dutch and French colonialists at a time when the British were vying to recover their own empire in Malaya, Singapore, India and elsewhere.  On Java, nationalists around Sukarno and Mohammed Hatta, having sidelined the veteran revolutionary Tan Malaka, declared independence on 17 August 1945, ambiguously in the Jakarta house of a Japanese admiral. With demobilized former Japanese auxiliaries coalescing into a putative independence army, today’s TNI, became a law unto themselves.

Dari September 1945 sampai November 1946,

 yang berbasis di Singapura British Tenggara Komando Asia di bawah Wakil-Laksamana (kemudian menjadi Lord) Louis Mountbatten menerima tanggung jawab untuk mengambil Jepang menyerah di Jawa.

Sebuah peran yang sama diasumsikan oleh Inggris dalam mengambil menyerahnya Jepang di selatan Vietnam. Indonesia dan Vietnam nasionalis dilihat kedua peristiwa – benar – sebagai penutup untuk kembali ke kekuasaan, masing-masing, kolonialis Belanda dan Perancis pada saat Inggris sedang berlomba-lomba untuk memulihkan kerajaan mereka sendiri di Malaya, Singapura, India dan tempat lain.

 Di Jawa, nasionalis sekitar Sukarno dan Muhammad Hatta, setelah absen revolusioner veteran Tan Malaka, mendeklarasikan kemerdekaan pada 17 Agustus 1945, ambigu di rumah Jakarta dari seorang laksamana Jepang. Dengan didemobilisasi pembantu Jepang mantan penggabungan menjadi tentara kemerdekaan diduga, TNI saat ini, menjadi hukum bagi diri mereka sendiri.

 

 

Sukarno (right) and Mohammed Hatta

In seeking to assist the Dutch restoration, both the British in Singapore and the Australian government offered facilities for the Dutch government-in-exile and the Royal Netherlands Indies Army. Singapore and Australia were host to a large number of Indonesians displaced by the war, not only seamen as in Australia, but large numbers of romusha (Japanese forced labourers) in Singapore where they comprised a politically volatile section of the population.

 

 In exile in Australia and Singapore, they found unlikely allies among trade union circles, left-wing allies, adventurers, and eventually, well-wishers including the governments and people of newly independent India and the Philippines, among other nations especially those the Arab world.

 

 On the other hand, the intelligence services of the British, Dutch, and Australians worked hard to neutralize support networks, Republican blockade busters, and sympathetic individuals, of which Dutch film maker Joris Ivens (1898-1989) was evidently one, albeit from inside the Dutch establishment.

Dalam upaya untuk membantu pemulihan Belanda, baik Inggris di Singapura dan pemerintah Australia menawarkan fasilitas untuk pemerintah pengasingan-in-Belanda dan Kerajaan Hindia Belanda Tentara. Singapura dan Australia adalah tuan rumah bagi sejumlah besar orang Indonesia mengungsi akibat perang, tidak hanya sebagai pelaut di Australia, namun sejumlah besar romusha (pekerja paksa Jepang) di Singapura di mana mereka terdiri bagian politik stabil penduduk.


  Dalam pengasingan di Australia dan Singapura, mereka menemukan sekutu tidak mungkin di kalangan serikat buruh, sayap kiri sekutu, petualang, dan akhirnya, simpatisan termasuk pemerintah dan rakyat India yang baru merdeka dan Filipina, di antara negara-negara lain, terutama mereka dunia Arab .

  Di sisi lain, layanan intelijen dari Australia Inggris, Belanda, dan bekerja keras untuk menetralisir jaringan dukungan, busters blokade Republik, dan individu simpatik, yang pembuat film Belanda Joris Ivens (1898-1989) adalah jelas satu, meskipun dari dalam pembentukan Belanda.

Vice Admiral Mountbatten Supreme Commander S.E. Asia issued the above
directive

 instructing Allied Forces to proceed to the island of Java to accept the
surrender of Japanese Imperial Forces and to release Allied prisoners.

Laksamana Mountbatten Panglima Tertinggi S.E. Asia dikeluarkan atas
direktif

memerintahkan pasukan Sekutu untuk melanjutkan ke pulau Jawa untuk menerima Penyerahan  dari Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang dan membebaskan para tahanan Sekutu.

The Directive concluded :


“As you are no doubt aware the local natives have declared a Republic, but we
are bound to maintain the status quo that existed before the Japanese invasion
 


Directive menyimpulkan:


“Seperti Anda tidak diragukan lagi menyadari pribumi setempat telah menyatakan sebuah Republik, tetapi kita
terikat untuk mempertahankan status quo yang ada sebelum invasi Jepang

 

 

 

 

 

T

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September,2nd.1945

The Javanase language document

 

Please some one help to translate

 

 

September,2nd. 1945:

Formal Surrender Ceremonies:

September,15th. 1945:

Cessation of Hostilities:

Surrender(National Archives)

 

 

降伏文書に調印する日本全権。中央で署名を行っているのは重光葵外務大臣。その左後方に侍しているのは加瀬俊一大臣秘書

Plenipotentiary of Japan to sign a surrender document. Saying that the Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu signed in the center. What are you left behind Samurai Minister Shunichi Kase its secretary

 

 

降伏文書に署名するマッカーサー元帥

General MacArthur to sign the surrender document.

 

 

大東亜戦争終結ノ詔

Roh decree the end of the Greater East Asia War

September 3rd.1945


The next day

 

asked the dispatch of liaison aircraft cease-fire in order to promote the disarmament of Japanese troops through Switzerland a neutral country, to expand throughout the acceptance and to mainland Japan of occupation forces the Allies, in the 19th cease-fire of the Japanese side Plenipotentiary, etc. is going to disarm, and cease-fire against British troops and American troops was carried out smoothly and attack aircraft to land in Manila, Philippines set. However, the army continued to attack the Soviet Union to countries ranging from South Sakhalin-Kurile Manchuria at the end of August by order of Stalin had been orchestrated the occupation of Japanese territory we can get.

Hari berikutnya

meminta pengiriman pesawat penghubung gencatan senjata dalam rangka untuk mempromosikan perlucutan senjata pasukan Jepang melalui Swiss negara netral, untuk memperluas seluruh penerimaan dan ke daratan Jepang pendudukan memaksa Sekutu,

 

dalam gencatan senjata 19 dari Berkuasa Penuh pihak Jepang , dll akan melucuti, dan gencatan api terhadap pasukan Inggris dan pasukan Amerika dilakukan dengan lancar dan menyerang pesawat untuk mendarat di Manila, Filipina ditetapkan.

 

Namun, tentara terus menyerang Uni Soviet ke negara-negara mulai dari South Sakhalin-Kuril Manchuria pada akhir Agustus atas perintah Stalin telah diatur pendudukan wilayah Jepang yang bisa kita dapatkan.

 

 

 

On September 2,

in the Battleship Missouri in the United States Navy was anchored in Tokyo Bay, under the presence of delegations of 17 countries Union countries UK, USA, Taiwan, Australia, France, and the Netherlands [42], the Japanese government signing and Foreign Minister Mamoru Shigemitsu plenipotentiary, to surrender the Allies Thailand by Chief of Staff Yoshijiro Umezu plenipotentiary Imperial Headquarters have been made, the Second World War lasted seven years leg rest from 1 September 1939 here came to an end finally. However, in the south Sakhalin and Kuril Islands, the large-scale fighting between the army was held in the Soviet Union until September 4. In addition, in the South Sea Islands and Okinawa, a local battle by soldiers was continued sporadically. Japanese troops overseas, but be disarmed after the surrender, were forced to maintain security for the activities of colonial rule in Asia in Western countries, many victims comes into the former Japanese soldiers. Then, although many salvage, war of independence Indonesia, Vietnam War of Independence, was that a number of former Japanese soldiers to participate in, such as civil war.

 

Top of Form

 

Pada tanggal 2 September,

 di Missouri Battleship di Angkatan Laut Amerika Serikat yang berlabuh di Teluk Tokyo, di bawah kehadiran delegasi dari 17 negara Uni negara Inggris, Amerika Serikat, Taiwan, Australia, Perancis, dan Belanda [42], penandatanganan pemerintah Jepang dan Menteri Luar Negeri Mamoru berkuasa penuh Shigemitsu, menyerahkan Sekutu Thailand oleh Kepala Staf berkuasa penuh Umezu Yoshijiro Markas Imperial telah dibuat,

 

Perang Dunia II berlangsung sisanya tujuh tahun kaki dari 1 September 1939 di sini berakhir akhirnya.

 

Namun, di Sakhalin selatan dan Kepulauan Kuril, pertempuran besar-besaran antara tentara digelar di Uni Soviet hingga 4 September.

 

Selain itu, di Selatan Laut Kepulauan dan Okinawa, pertempuran lokal oleh tentara dilanjutkan secara sporadis. Pasukan Jepang di luar negeri, tapi dilucuti setelah penyerahan, dipaksa untuk menjaga keamanan selama kegiatan pemerintahan kolonial di Asia di negara-negara Barat, banyak korban datang ke mantan tentara Jepang. Kemudian, meskipun banyak penyelamatan, perang kemerdekaan Indonesia, Vietnam Perang Kemerdekaan, adalah bahwa sejumlah mantan tentara Jepang untuk berpartisipasi dalam, seperti perang saudara

Original info

 

翌日には連合国軍が中立国のスイスを通じて、占領軍の日本本土への受け入れや各地に展開する日本軍の武装解除を進めるための停戦連絡機の派遣を依頼し、19日には日本側の停戦全権委員が一式陸上攻撃機でフィリピンのマニラへと向かう等、イギリス軍やアメリカ軍に対する停戦と武装解除は順調に遂行された。しかし、少しでも多くの日本領土の占領を画策していたスターリンの命令によりソ連軍は8月末に至るまで南樺太千島・満州国への攻撃を継続した。8月14日には葛根廟事件が起きた。そのような中で8月22日には樺太からの引き揚げ船「小笠原丸」、「第二新興丸」、「泰東丸」がソ連潜水艦の雷撃・砲撃を受け大破、沈没した(三船殉難事件)。

また、日本の後ろ盾を失った満州国は事実上崩壊し、8月18日に退位した皇帝の愛新覚羅溥儀ら満州国首脳は日本への逃命を図るも、侵攻してきたソ連軍によって身柄を拘束された。その後828日には、連合国軍による日本占領部隊の第一弾としてアメリカ軍の先遣部隊が厚木飛行場に到着し、830日には後に連合国軍最高司令官総司令部GHQ/SCAP)の総司令官として連合国による日本占領の指揮に当たることになるアメリカ陸軍のダグラス・マッカーサー大将も同基地に到着し、続いてイギリス軍やオーストラリア軍などの日本占領部隊も到着した。

9月2日には、東京湾内に停泊したアメリカ海軍の戦艦ミズーリにおいて、イギリス、アメリカ、中華民国、オーストラリア、フランス、オランダなどの連合諸国17カ国の代表団の臨席[42]の下、日本政府全権重光葵外務大臣と、大本営全権梅津美治郎参謀総長による対連合国降伏文書への調印がなされ、ここに193991日より足かけ7年にわたって続いた第二次世界大戦はついに終結した。しかし、南樺太千島列島では、9月4日までソ連軍との間で大規模な戦闘が行われた。また、沖縄南洋諸島においては、兵士達による局所的な戦闘が散発的に続けられた。海外の日本軍は降伏後に武装解除されるが、欧米諸国のアジア植民地支配のための治安維持活動を強いられ、元日本軍将兵に多くの犠牲者が出た。その後、多くは引き揚げるが、インドネシア独立戦争ベトナム独立戦争国共内戦などに多数の元日本軍将兵が参加することとなった。

降伏文書

Dai Nippon Capitulation

98日に降伏する神田中将

Lieutenant General Masatane Kanda

 

to surrender on September 8

 

3 September 1945

Kantor berita “Antara” dibentuk(kempen 1850)

September ,4th 1945

(1)Indonesia Red Cross was  inagurated.(D)

(2)Dutch aeroplanes flea above Jakarta, everybody were waited the British Allied Forces (D).

5 September 1945

Kabinaet Sukarno Dibentuk dengan susunan Kabinet

Menteri Dalam negeri R.A.A Wiranata Kusumah

Menteri Luar Negeri Mr A.Subardjo

Menteri Kehakiman Prof DR Mr oeupomo

Menteri Kemakmuran Ir R.P.Soerachman

Menteri Keuangan Dr Samsi(kemudian diganti Mr A.A.Mareamis)

Menteri Kesehatan DR R.Boentaran  Martoatmodjo

Menteri Pengajaran Ki Hadjar dewantara

Menteri social mr Iwa Kusuma sumantri

Menteri Penerangan Mr Amir Sjarifoedin

Menteri Perhubungan R.Abikoesno Tjokrosoejoso

Menteri Pekerjaan Umum R.Abikoesno Tjokrosoejoso

Wakil Menteri Keamanan Rakyat  Muhamad Sudjo Hadikoesoemo

5 Menteri Negera

Dr amir

Wachid Hasjim

Mr Sartono

A.A.Maramis

Otto Iskandar Dinata

Pengangkatan Gubernur provinsi dan residen seluruh Indonesia

PMI (Palang Merah Indonesia) dibentuk di Jakarta diketuai drs Moh Hatta

(kempen 1950)

 

 

September ,4th 1945

(1)Indonesia Red Cross was  inagurated.(D)

(2)Dutch aeroplanes flea above Jakarta, everybody were waited the British Allied Forces (D).

September.5th 1945

(1)Radio limited channels licensed Certificate, in the Japanese and Indonesia character form and the radio’channel have been protected only for the japanese program , with theDai Nippon  official stamped that radio have protected  (D)

(2)Sultan Hemangkubuwono IX and Paku Alam VIII declare that their kingdome to be part of Indonesia . The copy on their statement (Jogja Government,1952):

 

 

(1.1)The Statement of Hemangkubuwono IX

Sri Paduka Inkeng Sinuwun Kangdjeng Sultan.

We hemangku Buwono IX. Sultan Negeri Ngajogjakarta hadiningrat announced:

-        That the State of Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat as the Kingdom was the state of Republic Indonesia’s  special area.

-        That we as the Area Chief holded all the power in the State of Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat , and because of the situation this time, all the government administration in the state of Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat since this time under our hand and other powers  we handed all.

-        That because the straight relationship between the state of Ngajogjakarta hadiningrat and the central government of the state of republic Indonesia. We have the straight responsibility to the President of Republic Indonesia.

-        We order all the citizen in the country Ngajogjkarta hadiningrat to obey this statement.

-        Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat 28 Puasa Ehe 1876 or 5-9-1945.Hamenbgku Buwono IX (D)

 

(1.2)The statement of Paku Alam VII
Sri Paduka Kangdjeng Gusti

Pangeran Adipati Ario Paku Alam

We Paku Alam VIII the chief of Paku- Alaman state , Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat country, declare :

-That the state of Paku-Alaman, as the Kingdom were the Special area of the State of Republic Indonesia.

-That we as the areal chief handed all the power in the state of Paku-Alaman and that is way  because of the recent situation  all the government in the state of Paku-Alaman start from this day  and other power were in our hands.

-Between The state of Paku-Alaman and the central Government of Republic Indonesia have the straight relationship and we have responsibility straight (langsung) to the President of Republic Indonesia (D)

(d) The photo of  the first Cabinet , command straight by President Sukarno were born this day (P)

September.5th 1945

(1)Radio limited channels licensed Certificate, in the Japanese and Indonesia character form and the radio’channel have been protected only for the japanese program , with theDai Nippon  official stamped that radio have protected  (D)

(2)Sultan Hemangkubuwono IX and Paku Alam VIII declare that their kingdome to be part of Indonesia . The copy on their statement (Jogja Government,1952):

(1.1)The Statement of Hemangkubuwono IX

Sri Paduka Inkeng Sinuwun Kangdjeng Sultan.

We hemangku Buwono IX. Sultan Negeri Ngajogjakarta hadiningrat announced:

-        That the State of Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat as the Kingdom was the state of Republic Indonesia’s  special area.

-        That we as the Area Chief holded all the power in the State of Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat , and because of the situation this time, all the government administration in the state of Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat since this time under our hand and other powers  we handed all.

-        That because the straight relationship between the state of Ngajogjakarta hadiningrat and the central government of the state of republic Indonesia. We have the straight responsibility to the President of Republic Indonesia.

-        We order all the citizen in the country Ngajogjkarta hadiningrat to obey this statement.

-        Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat 28 Puasa Ehe 1876 or 5-9-1945.Hamenbgku Buwono IX (D)

(1.2)The statement of Paku Alam VII
Sri Paduka Kangdjeng Gusti

Pangeran Adipati Ario Paku Alam

We Paku Alam VIII the chief of Paku- Alaman state , Ngajogjakarta Hadiningrat country, declare :

-That the state of Paku-Alaman, as the Kingdom were the Special area of the State of Republic Indonesia.

-That we as the areal chief handed all the power in the state of Paku-Alaman and that is way  because of the recent situation  all the government in the state of Paku-Alaman start from this day  and other power were in our hands.

-Between The state of Paku-Alaman and the central Government of Republic Indonesia have the straight relationship and we have responsibility straight (langsung) to the President of Republic Indonesia (D)

(d) The photo of  the first Cabinet , command straight by President Sukarno were born this day (P)

Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX of Yogya and Pakualam VIII in Yogya declare their palaces to be part of the Republic of Indonesia

September.6th 1945

(1) The allies Radio have informed  that Lord Louis Mountbatten as the chief of South East Asia Command (SEAC)’s Allied armed forces ,Singapore as the headquaters.

He have ordered the Dai Nippon Gunseirekan to dismissed the State Of Republic Indonesia(NRI) and captured their leaders and brought to the allies.

This informations was made the Japanese became strong again and have insiatived to fight against the Native Indonesia peoples. (D)

(2) The Vintage photo of Lord Mountbatted (P)

September.6th 1945

(1) The allies Radio have informed  that Lord Louis Mountbatten as the chief of South East Asia Command (SEAC)’s Allied armed forces ,Singapore as the headquaters.

He have ordered the Dai Nippon Gunseirekan to dismissed the State Of Republic Indonesia(NRI) and captured their leaders and brought to the allies.

This informations was made the Japanese became strong again and have insiatived to fight against the Native Indonesia peoples. (D)

September,8th 1945

(1)Seven Laisson officers of Allied Mission was landed by parachutes at Kemayoran airport. They have duties to report the situations of Republic Indonesia as the preparations of Allied armed forces

(2)Postally used Dai Nippon Java 31/2 cent postcard , the rate still same before Independence proclamation  in Java (altough in july 1945 the Dai Nippon Postal Administration had annouced the increase of Postal rate, but in java cann’t done but in Sumatra the increase of postal rate had done, Read Dai Nippon in Java-auth),  send from CDS Bogor 8.9.05 to Djakarta without sencored

 

Communication between   E.A.Portier Nisja 35 Bandoori 7 street(still japanese name-auth) to Ch.Poiri about the bigger fiesta with 1000 invitations, but many couldn’t came. The first priest couldn’t came, the second priest were sicked since two weeks, and the third priest work outside the town.

My brother and sisters also haven’t came  and I had sicked since one week .Why the grand ma XXXVI years old , not 35 , must study again, please  dodn’t made a joke on me.In  the nex Tuesday or Wednesday ,here will be KERK(church) concert that is way we cann’t go to Djakarta.

Dad very angry that you didn’t came

Because  you have promise( Because the worst situation the Fieasta not succeed, everybody was afraid to went out their own houses, also they cann’t travel out of the city –auth)

September,8th 1945

(1)Seven Laisson officers of Allied Mission was landed by parachutes at Kemayoran airport. They have duties to report the situations of Republic Indonesia as the preparations of Allied armed forces

First British troops parachute into Kemayoran Airport at Jakarta.

Japanese navy in Kalimantan formally surrenders to Australian forces near Balikpapan.

September,9th 1945

(1)Japanese armed forces  in eastern area Indonesi finally surrender to Australian allied forces at Morotsai  and Timor Kupang harbor(D)

(2)Postally used Dai Nippon Java 31/2 cent postcard , the rate still same before Independence proclamation  in Java (altough in july 1945 the Dai Nippon Postal Administration had annouced the increase of Postal rate, but in java cann’t done but in Sumatra the increase of postal rate had done, Read Dai Nippon in Java-auth),  send from CDS Bogor 8.9.05 to Djakarta without sencored.

Communication between   E.A.Portier Nisja 35 Bandoori 7 street(still japanese name-auth) to Ch.Poiri about the bigger fiesta with 1000 invitations, but many couldn’t came. The first priest couldn’t came, the second priest were sicked since two weeks, and the third priest work outside the town.

My brother and sisters also haven’t came  and I had sicked since one week .

Why the grand ma XXXVI years old , not 35 , must study again, please  dodn’t made a joke on me.

In  the nex Tuesday or Wednesday ,here will be KERK(church) concert that is way we cann’t go to Djakarta.

Dad very angry that you didn’t came

Because  you have promise( Because the worst situation the Fieasta not succeed, everybody was afraid to went out their own houses, also they cann’t travel out of the city –auth)

September 9

Japanese navy in eastern Indonesia formally surrender to Australian forces at Morotai. Japanese forces on Timor surrender to Australians in Kupang harbor.

September,9th 1945

Japanese armed forces  in eastern area Indonesi finally surrender to Australian allied forces at Morotsai  and Timor Kupang harbor(D)

September ,10th 1945_

(a)Four days after the Allied’s Radio informed status Quo before allied came  , the Dai Nippon Gunseirekan announced that the Dai Nippon Government willn’t gave the power to the State of Republic Indonesia, but to Allies.(D)

(b)The Small -size Receipt of Government house rental (Hudoosan Kan Koodan) Kedoe-shuu Magelang,to pay the rental of the house at  Bajoeman Street no.36, for KU-Gatsu (August?) F.32.81, with 15 cent Dai Nippon Java revenue and official stamped(PH)(This was the latest document of Dai Nippon administration collection at Magelang, because in October there were the battle  between the allies & Dai Nippon with the Republic Indonesia soldier and youngmen people powers in Semarang,Ambarawa and Magelang .

 

I have seen a Dutchmen’s collection of document with Dai Nippon Magelang leges used in September or more later month . If some one have the Java or Sumatra’s document or postal history in October –December 1945 please inform us –auth)

(c) Off cover Deffinitive  Dai Nippon Sumatra stamps 2 x 2 cent, postally used Dai Nippon character date stamped :

 

Padang Pandjang .20.9.12 = September .12th .1945 (.very late used dai nippon date stamped –auth)(PH)

 

September,10th. 1945

 

 

 

 

Postally used dai Nippon Java postal stationer 5 cent send from CDS Salatiga  10.9.05 to Djakarta

 

 

.September.11th 1945

(1)Radio Republic Indonesia(RRI)  was officially born,  with the leader Dr Abdulrahman saleh, Maladi etc.(D)

September 11Th.1945

First official broadcast of RRI (Radio Republik Indonesia).

September 16British Rear Admiral Patterson lands in Jakarta. He announces that the British mission is “to maintain law and order until the time that the lawful government of the Netherlands East Indies is once again functioning”. The Dutch ask Patterson to have the leaders of the Republic arrested, but the British high command tells Patterson not to interfere in politics.

 

September ,10th 1945

(a)Four days after the Allied’s Radio informed status Quo before allied came  , the Dai Nippon Gunseirekan announced that the Dai Nippon Government willn’t gave the power to the State of Republic Indonesia, but to Allies.(D)

(b)The Small -size Receipt of Government house rental (Hudoosan Kan Koodan) Kedoe-shuu Magelang,to pay the rental of the house at  Bajoeman Street no.36, for KU-Gatsu (August?) F.32.81, with 15 cent Dai Nippon Java revenue and official stamped(PH)(This was the latest document of Dai Nippon administration collection at Magelang, because in October there were the battle  between the allies & Dai Nippon with the Republic Indonesia soldier and youngmen people powers in Semarang,Ambarawa and Magelang .

I have seen a Dutchmen’s collection of document with Dai Nippon Magelang leges used in September or more later month . If some one have the Java or Sumatra’s document or postal history in October –December 1945 please inform us –auth)

(c) Off cover Deffinitive  Dai Nippon sumatra stamps 2 x 2 cent, postally used Dai Nippon character date stamped :

Padang Pandjang .20.9.12 = September .12th .1945 (.very late used dai nippon date stamped –auth)(PH)

 

.September.11th 1945

(1)Radio Republic Indonesia(RRI)  was officially born,  with the leader Dr Abdulrahman saleh, Maladi etc.(D)

September 12th 1945

Dai Nippon Java prestamped postcard 31/2 cent ,postally used from Djakrta CDS  12.9.05 to Parakan. The letter was asking to send all his books , writing books in the “doos”(boxes0, he hope the importan books will send  fast, with best packed because that books very difficult to found that time .(During the war , he wasn’t forgotten his books collections-auth)

 

 

 

September ,12th.1945

912日に降伏するシンガポール部隊。

Singapore troops to surrender on September 12

City Hall, Singapore

Unable to cope with the humiliation of defeat, when General Itagaki told his officers of their surrender to the British, up to three hundred of them committed suicide using grenades, in their rooms at Singapore’s famous Raffles Hotel (which had been used as a base by the Japanese during the occupation).


Raffles Hotel, Singapore, in the 1930s. Japanese army officers committed mass suicide here in 1945 after their surrender to the British

With the successful ousting of the Japanese, even if it was three and a half years too late, the returning British forces were given a hero’s welcome by Singaporean civilians.

. When Singapore was liberated, this flag was handed to Lord Louis Mountbatten, who signed the British acceptance of the Japanese surrender, and who raised this flag over the island to signal the return of peace and stability to Singapore. A newsreel of the liberation of Singapore and the raising of the Union Jack may be viewed here.


September, 1945. Singaporeans hold a parade to celebrate the end of the Japanese occupation and the return of British forces

Source

http://scheong.wordpress.com/2011/08/13/gibraltar-of-the-east-the-fall-of-singapore/

913日に降伏する第18軍司令官(安達二十三中将

(Lieutenant General Hatazo Adachi )

September 12th 1945

 

Dai Nippon Java prestamped postcard 31/2 cent ,postally used from Djakrta CDS  12.9.05 to Parakan. The letter was asking to send all his books , writing books in the “doos”(boxes0, he hope the importan books will send  fast, with best packed because that books very difficult to found that time .(During the war , he wasn’t forgotten his books collections-auth)

 

September,12th.1945

Dainippon java postal stationer 31/2cent  ,used,

 

September,12th.1945

The earliest used on fragment,west Sumatra dai Nippon revenue without overprint republican f 1,50

September,12th.1945

tank2 dan panser di Surabaya, direbut dari tangan jepang dari gedung ini :

gedung ini kini masih tetap utuh dan digunakan sebagai Bank Mandiri

Pada pada zaman Jepang Gedung ini disebut sebagai Kitahama Butai, pada

 

 tanggal 12 September 1945

diserbu arek arek Suroboyo dibawah pimpinan Isa Edris dan Suprapto.

Dari tempat ini berhasil direbut 23 tank, diantaranya merk Marmout, Bedford dan Izusu. Ternyata dari 23 tank yang direbut ini hanya 8 yang dapat berjalan dengan baik dan 3 diantaranya harus diperbaiki lebih dahulu, sedangkan sisanya sama sekali tidak dapat dipakai perang sehingga para pemuda menggunakannya sebagai barikade pertahanan saja.

Sedangkan senjata berat yang berhasil direbut dari gedung ini :
– 6 pucuk penangkis udara kaliber 60mm
– 2 pucuk penangkis udara kaliber 10mm
– 11 pucuk penangkis udara kaliber 40mm
– 6 pucuk watermantel

ini foto pertempuran di depan gedung tersebut (perempatan kebonrojo) tampak tank yg bertuliskan PRI (pemuda republik Indonesia) sudah dilumpuhkan…

dari jumlah armoured vehicles yg dirampas ini ga mungkin membentuk kekuatan setingkat divisi, jadi dibagi ke kelompok2 pejuang, ada yg dipake TKR LAUT (seperti di foto atas,postingan agan RED ACE…. itu lokasinya di pertempuran Jl Tunjungan ) , ada yg dipake sama PRI, dan yg didapatkan dalam kondisi rusak digunakan sebagai BARIKADE , ini fotonya :

kalo mau tau lebih detil foto dan sejarah gedung ini ( yg digunakan sebagai bengkel armoured vehicle semasa pra kemerdekaan) bisa kemari, terlalu banyak foto interior gedungnya kalo saya pindahin sini semua

September,13th/1945

 

18 military commander to surrender on September 13.

September 13th. 1945

(1)“Berita Indonesia’(Indonesia Newpapers) was the first Indonesian  Newspaper after Independent.

(that is why difficult to find the proclamation information in August 1945, that time all Indonesia newspapers were banned by Dai Nippon, if someone have the Proclamations text in August newspapers inland or abroud please inform us-auth) (D)

September 13th. 194

(1)“Berita Indonesia’(Indonesia Newpapers) was the first Indonesian  Newspaper after Independent.

(that is why difficult to find the proclamation information in August 1945, that time all Indonesia newspapers were banned by Dai Nippon, if someone have the Proclamations text in August newspapers inland or abroud please inform us-auth) (D)

September,14th. 1945

(1)Radio Australia have annouced that tomorrow one 10.000 ton Cruiser ”Cumbe-rland”  will came to Java Island. This cruiser will bring Medical  Docters, food and medicine for Aliied Prisoner of War(D)

(2)Information from the Dai Nippon  Hoodobu’s bulletin  that The Allied Armed Forces will landed at Tandjong Priok harbour. The soldier will march at samo area in Djakarta city. The public suggested willn’t press them.(SW:Star Weekly Magazine,1946)

(3) All the “Rintangan” at Drossaer street have moved out . In the evening have seen the British allied soldier sat Eating and drinking at the Chinese restaurant  while hearing the Jazz music, biside them sat one Dai Nippon officer elone, how his filling we don’t know (SW ,1946

 

September,14th. 1945

(1)Radio Australia have annouced that tomorrow one 10.000 ton Cruiser ”Cumbe-rland”  will came to Java Island. This cruiser will bring Medical  Docters, food and medicine for Aliied Prisoner of War(D)

(2)Information from the Dai Nippon  Hoodobu’s bulletin  that The Allied Armed Forces will landed at Tandjong Priok harbour. The soldier will march at samo area in Djakarta city. The public suggested willn’t press them.(SW:Star Weekly Magazine,1946)

(3) All the “Rintangan” at Drossaer street have moved out . In the evening have seen the British allied soldier sat Eating and drinking at the Chinese restaurant  while hearing the Jazz music, biside them sat one Dai Nippon officer elone, how his filling we don’t know (SW ,1946)

 

 

September.15th.1945

915日に降伏するティモール島部隊

Dai Nippon Timor troops to surrender on 15 September

September ,15th. 1945

(1)Early in this morning the people saw  five Flying engines flied up the Kemayoran airport around two hours dropped Packets hanging on parachuttes and four Red cross Cars  were taken that packets to the Nort Djakarta, Hundreds people have seen this , especially Indo and ambonese.

Many peoples were waited the British allied Forces along the Gunung Sahari street. After one day waited , in  the evening came several Sedan car with British Marine officers and Trucks went to Hotel Des Indes, the people want to see the profile of the British soldiers. Indonesian people didn’t seen, only their propaganda ‘s draws at the buildings “Freedom the glory of any nation”,”The only road to peace (is) to acknowladge the  Republik Indonesia”, At the building near Weeskamer were written “Freedom or a general slaughter”(SW,1946)   .(SW,1946)

(2)The Allied’s Warship landed at Tandjong Priok,consist British ship “Cumberland”, and Dutch “Tromp” and few ships carried the Marine detasment.

In this landing also came Rear Admiral W.R. Patterson , vice Command SEAC , who have the temporary duty as The Command of Indonesia allied Armed forces or AFNEI (Allied Forces in The Netherlands Indie), also came with him Dutch’s army leader , General Van Straten , Colonel Abdul Kadir and Dr Ch.O. van der Plas as the vice of Dr H.J.van Mook (the chief of NICA: Nederlands Indies Civil Administration)(D)

 

 

 

September ,15th. 1945

(1)Early in this morning the people saw  five Flying engines flied up the Kemayoran airport around two hours dropped Packets hanging on parachuttes and four Red cross Cars  were taken that packets to the Nort Djakarta, Hundreds people have seen this , especially Indo and ambonese.

Many peoples were waited the British allied Forces along the Gunung Sahari street. After one day waited , in  the evening came several Sedan car with British Marine officers and Trucks went to Hotel Des Indes, the people want to see the profile of the British soldiers. Indonesian people didn’t seen, only their propaganda ‘s draws at the buildings “Freedom the glory of any nation”,”The only road to peace (is) to acknowladge the  Republik Indonesia”, At the building near Weeskamer were written “Freedom or a general slaughter”(SW,1946)   .(SW,1946)

(2)The Allied’s Warship landed at Tandjong Priok,consist British ship “Cumberland”, and Dutch “Tromp” and few ships carried the Marine detasment.

In this landing also came Rear Admiral W.R. Patterson , vice Command SEAC , who have the temporary duty as The Command of Indonesia allied Armed forces or AFNEI (Allied Forces in The Netherlands Indie), also came with him Dutch’s army leader , General Van Straten , Colonel Abdul Kadir and Dr Ch.O. van der Plas as the vice of Dr H.J.van Mook (the chief of NICA: Nederlands Indies Civil Administration)(D)

The arrival of British troops and the Netherlands
After the defeat of the Japanese, the people of Indonesia and the fighters tried to disarm the Japanese army. There arose the battles that took the lives in many areas. When the movement to disarm the Japanese troops were blazing,

on 15 September 1945,

 British troops landed in Jakarta,

 

September ,16th. 1945

September 16, 1945
British Rear Admiral Patterson lands in Jakarta.
He announces that the British mission is
“to maintain law and order until the time that the lawful government
of the Netherlands East Indies is once again functioning

 

(1)British Rear Admiral Patterson landed at Jakarta . He announced that the Britishmission  is to maintain law and order until that the lawfull governmentof the Netherlands  East Indies is once again functioning.

The Dutch Askes Patterson to have the leaders of the Republic Indonesia arrested, but thr British Highcommand Patterson not to interfere in politics.(D)

(1)                         Information from Berita Indonesia newspaper that the Dai Nippon still keep law enforcement because only some British were came (SW,1946)

(2)                         

 

September ,16th. 1945

(1)British Rear Admiral Patterson landed at Jakarta . He announced that the Britishmission  is to maintain law and order until that the lawfull governmentof the Netherlands  East Indies is once again functioning.

The Dutch Askes Patterson to have the leaders of the Republic Indonesia arrested, but thr British Highcommand Patterson not to interfere in politics.(D)

(2) Information from Berita Indonesia newspaper that the Dai Nippon still keep law enforcement because only some British were came (SW,1946)

 

 

. September .17th.1945

Mass pro-Republic rallies in Jakarta(PTIK 1952)

Pada mulanya rapat tersebut dimaksudkan untuk memeperingati satu bulan Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945.

Jadi rencananya dilaksanakan pada tanggal 17 September 1945. Tapi rupanya rencana ini ditanggapi Pemerintah Republik Indonesia secara ragu, ada kesan Pemerintah sangat berhati-hati kepada kekuasaan Militer Jepang yang baru saja kalah perang.

source

http://muhammadsoleh.blogspot.com/2012/09/rapat-raksasa-di-lapangan-ikada.html

September .18th 1945

The Gunseikanbu (Japanese army) announced forbidden to march  with gun and another kind of weapon   Bung Karno protest that the announcement made the Indonesian fell ashemed “Menghina” and the situation became worse, all the Chinese shop clossed (because they afraid the badman wll used the situation to robery-aut) 

(Rosihan Anwar,star weekly 1946)

Sedangkan tempat masih tetap direncanakan dilapangan Ikada.Pada tanggal 18 Sptember 1945 jam 11.00 pagi, tiba-tiba Mr Achmad Subardjo selaku menteri Luar Negeri RI mengadakan konferensi Pers untuk menyampaikan keputusan Pemerintah yang isinya sepertinya menghilangkan harapan rakyat yaitu menolak rencana Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Beliau juga memerintahkan agar rencana pembatalannya diberitakan dalam Berita Indonesia (sebuah surat kabar pada saat itu). Reaksi para pemuda dan mahasiswa yang hadir dalam konferensi tersebut sudah bisa diperkirakan sejak semula. Mereka menyatakan sikap bahwa “Apapun yang akan terjadi Rapat Raksasa Ikada akan tetap diadakan pada esok pagi yaitu tgl 19 September 1945”.

Sikap ini sebenarnya bukan hanya luapan emosi semata, tapi beralasan antara lain karena persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada sudah berjalan cukup jauh, termasuk usaha untuk mengundang rakyat dari berbagai peloksok Ibu kota dan daerah sekitar Jakarta. Cara pemberitaan ini cukup sukses padahal alat komunikasi sangat terbatas. Pada umumnya penyampaian berita undangan dilakukan secara berantai melalui sistim pembagian wilayah pada zaman Jepang dan organisasi RT/RW saat itu (Tonarigumi).Pemuda-mahasiswa protes kepada Pemerintah dan berusaha menjelaskan duduk perkaranya kepada Pemerintah dan meminta keputusan ditinjau kembali.

Desakan para hadirin agar Pemerintah sekali lagi bersidang, ahirnya ditanggapai oleh Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo dan berjanji untuk menyampaikannya kepada Presiden Sukarno. Setelah bubaran, para pemuda-mahasiswa tidak langsung pulang kerumah tapi berkumpul ditempat kelompoknya masing-masing, untuk membicarakan tindakan selanjutnya. Sedikit gambaran Pasca Proklamasi, setidaknya ada 3 kelompok besar pemuda-mahasiwa yang berbeda dalam latar belakang politiknya. Yang pertama kelompok Prapatan 10 (asrama mahasiswa kedokteran Ikadaigakho) yang 100 % terdiri dari mahasiswa, kelompok Menteng 31 yang sebagian besar terdiri dari pemuda dan kelompok BAPERPI (Badan Permusyawaratan Pelajar Indonesia) jl Cikini no.71. Terdiri dari campuran Mahasiswa dan Pelajar. Diluar itu ada juga kelompok yang tidak kalah partisipasinya dalam persiapan ini yaitu kelompok pelajar SMT (Sekolah menengah Tinggi) Jakarta. Dan dalam jumlah kecil ada juga para pemuda yang tergabung dalam asrama Indonesia merdeka dijalan Kebon Sirih no.80 Jakarta, dan pemuda dari Barisan Pelopor Jakarta. Mereka semua merupakan motor-motor persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada pada saat itu.

Anehnya berbagai kelompok pemuda/mahasiswa ini yang pada zaman Jepang dan awal Revolusi berbeda faham, tapi kini menjelang Rapat Raksasa bisa bersatu dan saling bahu membahu bekerja sama.Jangan dilupakan juga pada saat itu terdapat banyak para pemuda ex tentara PETA dan HEIHO yang sudah menceburkan dirinya dalam BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat). Organisasi mereka juga punya peranan yang menentukan dalam persiapan pengamanan Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Komandan BKR Jakarta pada saat itu adalah mantan Shodanco Mufraini Mukmin yang belakangan akan menjadi Komandan Resimen Jakarta. Yang tidak kalah pentingnya Polisi ex Jepang (Polisi macan) yang sudah menyatakan sumpah setia kepada Republik Indonesia. Merekalah satu-satunya kekuatan bersenjata yang ada difihak RI pada saat itu , termasuk untuk pengamanan keselamatan Presiden, Wakil Presiden dan para menteri kabinet.Untuk persiapan pendukung, telah siap pula anggota PMI (Palang Merah Indonesia), ibu-ibu penyelenggara Dapur Umum , dokter-dokter serta dokter-dokter muda CBZ (Centralle Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis) yang sejak zaman Jepang sudah berganti nama menjadi Roemah Sakit Pergoeroen Tinggi.

Mereka mempersiapkan obat-obatan, dan alat-alat medis lainnya serta telah dipersiapkan pula beberapa buah Ambulance. Yang tidak kalah menentukan adalah wartawan dan dokumentator, Radio Republik Indonesia , Juru Foto IPPHOS, serta Cameraman dari Studio Multi Film atau bahasa Jepangnya “Nippon Eiga Sha” (ex perusaan film Propaganda Jepang yang belakangan menjadi PFN) yang akan mendokumentasikan peristiwa penting ini. Hasil dokumentasi mereka ini nantinya meru-pakan satu-satunya visualisasi seluloid tentang hal tersebut sampai sekarang. Setelah menunggu beberapa saat rupanya Pemerintah menepati janjinya untuk mengadakan rapat kabinet kembali. Pada tgl 18 September 1945, jam 20.00 bertempat dikediaman Presiden Sukarno, jl Pegangsaan Timur 56, Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo melaporkan kepada Presiden tentang pertemuannya dengan pemuda-mahasiswa pada pagi hari dimana mereka pada dasarnya tetap bertekad untuk melaksanakan Rapat Raksasa Ikada.

 

 

Versi lain

Sumber

http://muhammadsoleh.blogspot.com/2012/09/rapat-raksasa-di-lapangan-ikada.html

Pada tanggal 18 Sptember 1945 jam 11.00 pagi,

tiba-tiba Mr Achmad Subardjo selaku menteri Luar Negeri RI mengadakan konferensi Pers untuk menyampaikan keputusan Pemerintah yang isinya sepertinya menghilangkan harapan rakyat yaitu menolak rencana Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Beliau juga memerintahkan agar rencana pembatalannya diberitakan dalam Berita Indonesia (sebuah surat kabar pada saat itu).

Reaksi para pemuda dan mahasiswa

 yang hadir dalam konferensi tersebut sudah bisa diperkirakan sejak semula. Mereka menyatakan sikap bahwa “Apapun yang akan terjadi Rapat Raksasa Ikada akan tetap diadakan pada esok pagi yaitu tgl 19 September 1945”.

Sikap ini sebenarnya bukan hanya luapan emosi semata, tapi beralasan antara lain karena persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada sudah berjalan cukup jauh, termasuk usaha untuk mengundang rakyat dari berbagai peloksok Ibu kota dan daerah sekitar Jakarta, padahal alat komunikasi sangat terbatas.

Pemuda-mahasiswa protes

kepada Pemerintah dan berusaha menjelaskan duduk perkaranya kepada Pemerintah dan meminta keputusan ditinjau kembali. Desakan agar Pemerintah sekali lagi bersidang, ahirnya ditanggapai oleh Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo dan berjanji untuk menyampaikannya kepada Presiden Soekarno.

Pasca Proklamasi, setidaknya ada 3 kelompok besar pemuda-mahasiwa yang berbeda dalam latar belakang politiknya. Yang pertama kelompok Prapatan 10 (asrama mahasiswa kedokteran Ikadaigakho) yang 100 % terdiri dari mahasiswa, kelompok Menteng 31 yang sebagian besar terdiri dari pemuda dan kelompok BAPERPI (Badan Permusyawaratan Pelajar Indonesia) jl Cikini no.71. Terdiri dari campuran Mahasiswa dan Pelajar.

Diluar itu ada juga kelompok pelajar SMT (Sekolah menengah Tinggi) Jakarta. Dan dalam jumlah kecil ada juga para pemuda yang tergabung dalam asrama Indonesia merdeka dijalan Kebon Sirih no.80 Jakarta, dan pemuda dari Barisan Pelopor Jakarta.

Mereka semua merupakan motor-motor persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada pada saat itu. Berbagai kelompok pemuda/mahasiswa ini yang pada zaman Jepang dan awal Revolusi berbeda faham itu bersatu dan saling bahu membahu bekerja sama.

Tidak ketinggalan, pada saat itu terdapat banyak para pemuda ex tentara PETA dan HEIHO yang sudah menceburkan dirinya dalam BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat).

Organisasi mereka juga punya peranan yang menentukan dalam persiapan pengamanan Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Komandan BKR Jakarta pada saat itu adalah mantan Shodanco Mufraini Mukmin yang belakangan akan menjadi Komandan Resimen Jakarta. Yang tidak kalah pentingnya Polisi ex Jepang (Polisi macan) yang sudah menyatakan sumpah setia kepada Republik Indonesia.

Merekalah satu-satunya kekuatan bersenjata RI pada saat itu, termasuk untuk pengamanan keselamatan Presiden, Wakil Presiden dan para menteri kabinet. Untuk persiapan pendukung, telah siap pula anggota PMI (Palang Merah Indonesia), ibu-ibu penyelenggara Dapur Umum , dokter-dokter serta dokter-dokter muda CBZ (Centralle Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis) yang sejak zaman Jepang sudah berganti nama menjadi Roemah Sakit Pergoeroen Tinggi. Mereka mempersiapkan obat-obatan, dan alat-alat medis lainnya serta telah dipersiapkan pula beberapa buah Ambulance.

Yang tidak kalah menentukan adalah wartawan dan dokumentator, Radio Republik Indonesia , Juru Foto IPPHOS, serta Cameraman dari Studio Multi Film atau bahasa Jepangnya “Nippon Eiga Sha” (ex perusaan film Propaganda Jepang yang belakangan menjadi PFN) yang akan mendokumentasikan peristiwa penting ini. Hasil dokumentasi mereka ini nantinya meru-pakan satu-satunya visualisasi seluloid tentang hal tersebut sampai sekarang.

Pemerintah menepati janjinya untuk mengadakan rapat kabinet kembali. Pada tgl 18 September 1945, jam 20.00 bertempat dikediaman Presiden Soekarno, jl Pegangsaan Timur 56, Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo melaporkan kepada Presiden tentang pertemuannya dengan pemuda-mahasiswa pada pagi hari dimana mereka pada dasarnya tetap bertekad untuk melaksanakan Rapat Raksasa Ikada.

September.19th 1945

Pada tgl 19 September 1945

 mulai pukul 10.00 pagi bertempat digedung KNIP Lapangan Banteng Jakarta (Mahkamah Agung samping Dep.Keuangan sekarang) diadakan Rapat Kabinet yang langsung dipimpin oleh Presiden Soekarno.

Cukup banyak yang dibicarakan dalam rapat tersebut termasuk rencana pembentukan Bank Negara Indonesia (BNI) oleh ayahnya Prof DR Soemitro Djojohadikusumo yaitu Margono.

Tetapi ada agenda cukup penting yang rupanya dibicarakan secara khusus, yaitu berlangsungnya “Rapat Raksasa Ikada” yang penyelenggaraannya dipersiapkan dan dilaksanakan rakyat Jakarta dan sekitarnya yang dimotori Pemuda-Mahasiswa Jakarta.Rencana Rapat Akbar yang sejak awal tempatnya sudah ditetapkan yaitu Lapangan Ikada (sekarang pojok timur Monas),

 pada mulanya dimaksudkan untuk memeperingati satu bulan Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945.

Jadi rencananya dilaksanakan pada tanggal 17 September 1945. Tapi rupanya rencana ini ditanggapi fihak Pemerintah Republik Indonesia secara maju mundur.

Ada kesan Pemerintah sangat berhati-hati atau nyaris takut kepada kekuasaan Militer Jepang yang baru saja kalah perang.

Untuk ini Kabinet sudah membahasnya dalam rapat tgl 17 September 1945. Kurang disetujuinya rencana rapat tersebut oleh Pemerintah, antara lain atas pertimbangan rakyat yang berkumpul cukup banyak , yang akan memancing kemarahan militer Jepang dan mungkin mengakibatkan bentrokan fisik dimana dikhawatirkan akan jatuhnya banyak korban sia-sia.

 Memang fihak militer Jepang jauh hari telah mengeluarkan larangan berkumpulnya massa lebih dari lima orang.

Dan bukan hal yang tidak mungkin fihak Jepang yang sekarang telah menjadi alat sekutu, sudah menjalankan kebijakan yang ditetapkan oleh SEAC (South East Asia Command) yaitu untuk mempertahankan keadaan Status Quo.

Fihak panitia penyelenggara yang terdiri dari banyak Pemuda dan Mahasiswa yang menggunakan nama panitia “Komite aksi”, menganggap Pemerintah harus didesak dan dimotivasi terus agar sadar bahwa Rapat Raksasa ini penting untuk diselenggarakan guna menunjukkan bahwa rakyat Indonesia mendukung Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia yang diproklamirkan tanggal 17 Agustus 1945. Inilah perwujudan nyata dari proses demokrasi dan harus dikampanyekan kepada dunia.

Bukankah Republik Indonesia secara defacto sudah ada melalui fakta adanya Rakyat, Wilayah dan Pemerintah.

Dalam Rapat Ikada inilah khsusnya penduduk Jakarta dan sekitarnya akan membuktikan suatu legitimasi politik bahwa “Indonesia sekarang telah Merdeka” yang didukung rakyat.

Karena tidak kunjung jawaban dari Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, ahirnya fihak penyelenggara memutuskan untuk mengundurkan rencana acara tgl 17 menjadi tanggal 19 September 1945.

Menanggapi tuntutan massa untuk berpidato dalam rapat raksasa Ikada, nampaknya Bung Karno melihat segi negatif dan positifnya usaha rakyat tersebut.

Segi negatifnya kalau saja fihak-fihak terkait baik rakyat yang sudah menyemut yang diperkirakan berjumlah 300.000 orang, maupun fihak penguasa militer Jepang yang sudah harus bertanggung jawab kepada fihak sekutu sebagai pemenang perang dunia dan kini melakukan stelling tempur kearah rakyat. Keduanya bisa mengalami konflik fisik, yang dapat diperkirakan akan menimbulkan pertumpahan darah hebat.

Segi positifnya adalah terbetuknya sosok Persatuan, Kesatuan Nasional serta munculnya nilai-nilai Demokrasi. Serta yang lebih pasti adalah legitimasi Pemerintah Republik Indonesia yang berdaulat dibawah Presiden Soekarno. Sebagaimana tertulis dalam sejarah, tidak banyak yang diucapkan dalam pidato tersingkat yang pernah disampaikan Soekarno. Namun apa yang tersirat dalam pidato tersebut sungguh sebuah monumen nasional yang tidak akan dilupakan orang. Semua fihak baik mengagung-agungkan dirinya, mencerca dirinya dan mengancamnya selama zaman Jepang dan disekitar Proklamasi, termasuk yang berpikiran naif tentang manusia bernama Soekarno ini, pada ahirnya mengakuinya bahwa Republik ini dalam mengusahakan perjuangan bangsa selanjutnya setelah Preoklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 membutuhkan seorang PEMIMPIN NASIONAL yang tidak pernah ada duanya dalam sejarah Indonesia.

(Sumber: Blog Sejarah Kita)

Rapat Raksasa di tanah Lapang Gambir(IKADA) di Jakarta untuk menyambut hari Proklamasi Kemerdekaan, dibawah ancaman bayonet Jepang(kempen 1950)

 

Jakarta 19 September 1945

Meskipun Rapat sebagian anggota kabinet ini berlangsung sampai jam 4.00 pagi, tapi tidak menghasilkan apa-apa dan diputuskan akan dilanjutkan di kantor KNIP di Lapangan Gambir IKADA

 paginya tgl 19 September 1945

dalam rapat pleno dimana anggota kabinet lengkap.Kembali kepada penuturan awal diatas dimana sedang berlangsungnya Rapat Kabinet tgl 19 September 1945, nampaknya semua unsur mengalami kegelisahan yang cukup mencekam..

 

 Disatu fihak pemuda-mahasiswa panitia penyelenggara dari Komite Aksi yang sejak pagi hari sudah menghadapi masa yang terus berbondong-bondong menuju Ikada yang diperkirakan telah mencapai lebih dari 100.000 orang.

 

Kepada panitia ini massa rakyat menuntut untuk menghadirkan segera para pemimpin bangsa, khususnya Presiden Sukarno.

 Difihak yang lain Presiden Sukarno dan Wakil Presiden Hatta dan seluruh anggota Kabinet bersama anggota KNIP masih mengulur-ngulur waktu tampa tau harus berbuat apa. Nampaknya disini dibutuhkan seseorang tokoh sentral yang berani dan tegas untuk berkata ya atau tidak sama sekali.

 

Sementara sekitar jam 12.00, kabinet sudah mengutus Mohammad Roem (Ketua KNIP Jakarta) dan Soewirjo (Walikota Jakarta) untuk menemui fihak militer Jepang untuk membicarakan hal-hal mengenai rapat raksasa tersebut. Dalam pembicaraan ini ada kesan bahwa fihak Jepang mulai kewalahan melihat pengumpulan masa yang makin lama makin besar tampa bisa berbuat sesuatu.

 

Mereka meminta Roem dan Suwirjo, membubarkan kumpulan massa rakyat tersebut. Hal ini dijawab Roem dan Soewirjo bahwa yang bisa membubarkan kumpulan massa itu hanya satu orang yaitu Presiden Sukarno.

 Kedu utusan Kabinet ini juga sempat menyaksikan keadaan dilapangan Ikada secara langsung, termasuk persiapan pasukan Tentara Jepang yang sudah sempat memobilisir sejumlah besar pasukan infantri bersenjata lengkap dengan sangkur terhunus yang didukung pasukan tank dan panser.

Semua hal tersebut kemudian dilaporkan kepada Presiden Sukarno.

 Ahirnya menjelang pukul 16.00 Presiden Sukarno tidak mungkin berpangku tangan lagi dan dengan tegas menyatakan

“ Saudara-saudara menteri dengarkan keputusan saya. Saya akan pergi kelapangan Ikada untuk menentramkan rakyat yang sudah berjam-jam menunggu. Saya tidak akan memaksa saudara-saudara untuk ikut saya. Siapa yang mau tinggal dirumah boleh, terserah kepada saudara masing-masing”.

 

 

Dengan adanya keputusan tersebut maka berahirlah sidang kabinet, dan secara resmi Pemerintah menyetujui Rapat Raksasa Ikada dilangsungkan. Dan hampir semua hadirin dalam sidang digedung KNIP ini ternyata ikut menuju Lapangan Ikada mengikuti Presiden, menurut caranya masing-masing.

 Presiden Sukarno sendiri telah dijemput pemuda-mahasiswa dari panitia penyelenggara Komite Aksi.

Mobil yang dipergunakan mahasiswa tidak tanggung-tanggung sebuah mobil berwarna hijau militer Jepang (kuning hijau) bekas milik salah seorang pimpinan Kempetai.

 Kendaraan ini dikendarai oleh mahasiswa Sujono Joedodibroto (sekarang profesor ahli mata) dan dimuka dikawal dua buah motor indian yang dikendarai

 

Subianto Djojohadikusumo (gugur sebagai letnan satu Polsi Tentara dalam peristiwa lengkong Tanggerang awal tahun 1946) dan Daan Yahya (mantan Panglima Divisi Siliwangi tahun 1948 dan gubernur militer Jakarta Raja tahun 1950).

Rupanya rombongan tidak langsung kelapangan Ikada tapi mampir di Asrama mahasiswa kedokteran jalan Prapatan no.10 Jakarta, karena Presiden Sukarno mau mengganti pakaian dahulu yang berwarna putih yang diambil dari rumah.

 

 

 

Sekitar jam 16.00 tepat

 

 rombongan Presiden yang dikawal mahasiswa

 

barulah rombongan Presiden yang dikawal mahasiswa ini yang kini sudah bertambah, termasuk mahasiswa Eri Sudewo, Sujono markas, Patiasina, Kamal dan sebagainya.

Sebelum masuk kelapangan Ikada (kira-kira dimuka PLN sekarang), rombongan Presiden turun dari mobil yang langsung disambut rakyat.

Bersama rombongan besar rakyat inilah Presiden dan anggota kabinet berjalan bersama menuju tempat yang sudah disediakan.

 Nampak beberapa tokoh mendekati Presiden, antara lain Hatta, Adam Malik, Ali Sastroamidjojo, Mufraini Mukmin dan sebagainya.

Tapi baru beberapa meter mereka berjalan tiba-tiba sudah dihadang beberapa perwira Jepang yang meminta agar Rapat dibubarkan.

Salah seorang perwira Jepang ini adalah Let.Kol Myamoto yang ditugaskan pimpinan militernya untuk berunding.

Melalui penterjemah yang juga seorang mahasiswa, Presiden Sukarno kemudian menjelaskan bahwa dia harus menentramkan rakyat yang sejak pagi menanti kedatangannya.

Kalau dia dihalangi maka bisa saja akan terjadi hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan yang akan menyulitkan tentara Jepang sendiri

 

. Akhirnya rombongan diizinkan melanjutkan perjalanan menuju lautan manusia yang mengelu-elukan para pemimpin mereka. Lautan manusia ini dilengkapi ribuan bendera Merah Putih yang berkibar dengan megahnya yang tidak terbayangkan pada saat sebelumnya pada masa pendudukan Jepang.

 

 Tampak beberapa spanduk besar bertuliskan antara lain “ Kalaoe ada orang bertanya berapakah jumlah moe, maka jawablah kami satoe”.

 Menunggu kesempatan baik, rombongan lebih dahulu menuju tribune utama. Dan pada saatnya sebagaimana harapan rakyat maka naiklah Presiden Sukarno keatas podium kayu setinggi kurang lebih 3 meter dikawal ajidan dan seorang anggota polisi.

 

Ketika itulah terdengarlah teriakan Merdeka…Merdeka…Merdeka, yang sambung menyambung.

Siapakah disebelah Bung Karno?sampai saat ini belum terindikasi(Dr Iwan)

 

 

Source

http://muhammadsoleh.blogspot.com/2012/09/rapat-raksasa-di-lapangan-ikada.html

 

Maka Presidenpun berpidato dimuka lautan rakyat yang mulai senyap tampa bersuara antara lain beliau berkata :

“ Kita sudah memproklamirkan Kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proklamasi ini tetap kami pertahankan, sepatahpun tidak kami cabut. Tetapi dalam pada itu, kami sudah menyusun suatu rancangan.

Tenang, tentram, tetapi tetap siap sedia menerima perintah yang kami berikan. Kalau saudara-saudara percaya kepada Pemerintah Republik Indonesia yang akan mempertahankan proklamasi kemerdekaan itu walaupun dada kami akan robek karenanya, maka berikanlah kepercayaan kepada kami dengan tunduk kepada perintah-perintah kami dengan disiplin. Sanggupkah saudara-saudara “

 dijawab dengan serentak oleh rakyat “Sanguuup”.

 

 

Lalu Presiden melanjutkan

 

 “Perintah kami hari ini, marilah sekarang pulang semua dengan tenang dan tenteram, ikutilah perintah Presidenmu sendiri tetapi dengan tetap siap sedia sewaktu-waktu. Saya tutup dengan salam nasional…..MERDEKA….”

.Maka terjadilah keajaiban tersebut. Kumpulan massa yang dianggap fihak Jepang akan sukar dikendalikan, ternyata mau menurut Presidennya dan pulang kerumah masing-masing dengan teratur.

 Apakah arti peristiwa Rapat Raksasa Ikada ini ?.

Bahwa rakyat Indonesia pada dasarnya mudah disatukan dalam langkah dan geraknya oleh kekuatan dari sebuah figur kharismatik serta diarahkan dan dikendalikan untuk tujuan yang postif dengan syarat jangan mengecewakan mereka.

Bung Karno sebagai Presiden memiliki itu semua yang harus menggambarkan antara lain bahwa, para pemimpin harus tegas dan lugas dan merupakan bagian dari mereka, dimana hal tersebut dimungkinkan kalau para pemimpinnya sendiri selalu turun kebawah.

 Para pimpinan rakyat khususnya pemuda dan mahasiswa amat menentukan dalam pembuatan kebijakan Nasional yang disepakati bersama, semua fihak dengan lebih dahulu dimusyawarahkan secara demokratis.

Peristiwa sejarah lokal yang menyangkut masalah Demokrasi, yang terjadi setelah setelah Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 ini selalu menarik dikaji karena benar-benar diselenggarakan oleh rakyat, untuk kepentingan perjuangan Nasional dibawah Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia dan selanjutnya rakyat menyadari bahwa hal itu amat penting sekali terutama dalam mewujudkan utuhnya Kepemimpinan Nasional.

Meskipun usaha ini dilakukan di Jakarta secara lokal, tapi maksud utamanya secara Nasional untuk melegitimasi Pemerintahan RI yang sah baik yang menyangkut lembaga eksekutif, legislatif maupun yudikatif. Sesungguhnya hal ini penting mengingat gaung Proklamasi belum cukup merata kepeloksok tanah air.

Selain itu belum terlihat tindakan bangsa Indonesia untuk mewujudkan Negara Kesatuan RI secara nyata sebaga

imana diamanatkan dalam Naskah Proklamasi maupun UUD 1945. Dan yang lebih penting lagi timbulnya keraguan masyarakat akan kedaulatan NKRI padahal dengan mata telanjang sejak awal September 1945 rakyat Indonesia menyaksikan masih eksisnya balatentara Jepang,

pasukan sekutu yang mulai berdatangan yang diyakini diboncengi pula pasukan Belanda, sementara Pemerintah RI yang dipimpin Presiden Soekarno dan Wakil Presiden Mohammad Hatta tidak nampak berbuat banyak.

Ada sebuah kekhawatiran lain dari fihak penguasa politik Bangsa pada waktu itu baik yang beraliran Nasionalis, Islam maupun Sosialis bahwa masa pendudukan Jepang berpengaruh sangat dalam dalam rencana pembangunan Bangsa dan Negara pasca Perang Dunia ke II.

 Konflik ini sangat mencuat mengingat baik Soekarno maupun Hatta adalah tokoh-tokoh yang erat bekerja sama dengan Jepang termasuk dalam mewujudkan Kemerdekaan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia.

Hanya beberapa gelintir tokoh politik yang benar-benar bersih dari kerja sama dengan Jepang, namun tidak dapat berbuat banyak karena nilai kepemimpinannya tidak dihargai rakyat sebegitu besar yang dimiliki Soekarno, atau penokohannya tidak dikenal. Situasi inilah yang menggambarkan masa transisi dari pendudukan Jepang kepada zaman Kemerdekaan dalam tahun 1945.

Berkaitan dengan hal diatas Soekarno sebagai Presiden dari kabinet Presidensiel pertama (sering disebut kabinet Buco) harus mampu menerima kritik maupun tuduhan-tuduhan politik yang belum tentu benar termasuk keabsahan dirinya sebagai pimpinan eksekutif yang diangkat rakyat.

 Adalah Sjahrir dan Tan Malaka yang paling vokal menyebar luaskan berbagai kelemahan Soekarno selama masa pendudukan Jepang.

Dan hal ini banyak ditelan bulat-bulat oleh sebagian kaum muda yang tergabung dalam kelompok pemuda-mahasiswa.

 

Read another version

Source

http://trimudilah.blogspot.com/2010/09/abdul-qahhar-mudzakkar-sang-patriot.html

 

 

Pada waktu sebagai komandan laskar, Abdul Qahhar banyak bergaul bersama pemuda-pemuda, komandan/anggota laskar pejuang dan tokoh politik lainnya. Dalam buku “Konsepsi Negara Demokrasi Indonesia” halaman 7 diceritakan tentang keterlibatan Abdul Qahhar dalam peristiwa Lapangan Ikada 19 September 1945

 

 

 

 

Source

http://muhammadsoleh.blogspot.com/2012/09/rapat-raksasa-di-lapangan-ikada.html

Rabu, September 19, 2012

Rapat Raksasa di Lapangan Ikada

at 11:40 AM Labels: Jakarta, Nasional, Politik, Sejarah

 

politik.kompasiana.com

 

Tanggal 19 September 1945, tercatat sebagai hari penting dan bersejarah bagi Jakarta dan Indonesia pada umumnya. Puluhan ribuan masa dari Jakarta dan sekitarnya berkumpul dalam Peristiwa yang disebut dengan rapat raksasa di Lapangan Ikada, sekarang jadi Lapangan Monas.

Penyelenggaraan rapat besar ini dipersiapkan dan dilaksanakan rakyat Jakarta dan sekitarnya yang dimotori Pemuda-Mahasiswa Jakarta  menggunakan nama panitia “Komite aksi”.

Mereka berkeinginan menyampaikan ke hadapan khalayak ramai dan dunia luar bahwa Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia oleh Soekarno-Hatta di Pegangsaan Timur 56 tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, merupakan kehendak seluruh bangsa Indonesia.

Dalam Rapat Ikada inilah khsusnya penduduk Jakarta dan sekitarnya akan membuktikan suatu legitimasi politik bahwa “Indonesia sekarang telah Merdeka” yang didukung rakyat.

Pada mulanya rapat tersebut dimaksudkan untuk memeperingati satu bulan Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945.

Jadi rencananya dilaksanakan pada tanggal 17 September 1945. Tapi rupanya rencana ini ditanggapi Pemerintah Republik Indonesia secara ragu, ada kesan Pemerintah sangat berhati-hati kepada kekuasaan Militer Jepang yang baru saja kalah perang.

Karena tidak kunjung jawaban dari Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, ahirnya penyelenggara memutuskan untuk mengundurkan rencana acara tgl 17 menjadi tanggal 19 September 1945. Sedangkan tempat masih tetap direncanakan dilapangan Ikada.

Pada tanggal 18 Sptember 1945 jam 11.00 pagi, tiba-tiba Mr Achmad Subardjo selaku menteri Luar Negeri RI mengadakan konferensi Pers untuk menyampaikan keputusan Pemerintah yang isinya sepertinya menghilangkan harapan rakyat yaitu menolak rencana Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Beliau juga memerintahkan agar rencana pembatalannya diberitakan dalam Berita Indonesia (sebuah surat kabar pada saat itu).

Reaksi para pemuda dan mahasiswa yang hadir dalam konferensi tersebut sudah bisa diperkirakan sejak semula. Mereka menyatakan sikap bahwa “Apapun yang akan terjadi Rapat Raksasa Ikada akan tetap diadakan pada esok pagi yaitu tgl 19 September 1945”.

Sikap ini sebenarnya bukan hanya luapan emosi semata, tapi beralasan antara lain karena persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada sudah berjalan cukup jauh, termasuk usaha untuk mengundang rakyat dari berbagai peloksok Ibu kota dan daerah sekitar Jakarta, padahal alat komunikasi sangat terbatas.

Pemuda-mahasiswa protes kepada Pemerintah dan berusaha menjelaskan duduk perkaranya kepada Pemerintah dan meminta keputusan ditinjau kembali. Desakan agar Pemerintah sekali lagi bersidang, ahirnya ditanggapai oleh Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo dan berjanji untuk menyampaikannya kepada Presiden Soekarno.

Pasca Proklamasi, setidaknya ada 3 kelompok besar pemuda-mahasiwa yang berbeda dalam latar belakang politiknya. Yang pertama kelompok Prapatan 10 (asrama mahasiswa kedokteran Ikadaigakho) yang 100 % terdiri dari mahasiswa, kelompok Menteng 31 yang sebagian besar terdiri dari pemuda dan kelompok BAPERPI (Badan Permusyawaratan Pelajar Indonesia) jl Cikini no.71. Terdiri dari campuran Mahasiswa dan Pelajar.

Diluar itu ada juga kelompok pelajar SMT (Sekolah menengah Tinggi) Jakarta. Dan dalam jumlah kecil ada juga para pemuda yang tergabung dalam asrama Indonesia merdeka dijalan Kebon Sirih no.80 Jakarta, dan pemuda dari Barisan Pelopor Jakarta. Mereka semua merupakan motor-motor persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada pada saat itu. Berbagai kelompok pemuda/mahasiswa ini yang pada zaman Jepang dan awal Revolusi berbeda faham itu bersatu dan saling bahu membahu bekerja sama.

Tidak ketinggalan, pada saat itu terdapat banyak para pemuda ex tentara PETA dan HEIHO yang sudah menceburkan dirinya dalam BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat). Organisasi mereka juga punya peranan yang menentukan dalam persiapan pengamanan Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Komandan BKR Jakarta pada saat itu adalah mantan Shodanco Mufraini Mukmin yang belakangan akan menjadi Komandan Resimen Jakarta. Yang tidak kalah pentingnya Polisi ex Jepang (Polisi macan) yang sudah menyatakan sumpah setia kepada Republik Indonesia.

Merekalah satu-satunya kekuatan bersenjata RI pada saat itu, termasuk untuk pengamanan keselamatan Presiden, Wakil Presiden dan para menteri kabinet. Untuk persiapan pendukung, telah siap pula anggota PMI (Palang Merah Indonesia), ibu-ibu penyelenggara Dapur Umum , dokter-dokter serta dokter-dokter muda CBZ (Centralle Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis) yang sejak zaman Jepang sudah berganti nama menjadi Roemah Sakit Pergoeroen Tinggi. Mereka mempersiapkan obat-obatan, dan alat-alat medis lainnya serta telah dipersiapkan pula beberapa buah Ambulance. Yang tidak kalah menentukan adalah wartawan dan dokumentator, Radio Republik Indonesia , Juru Foto IPPHOS, serta Cameraman dari Studio Multi Film atau bahasa Jepangnya “Nippon Eiga Sha” (ex perusaan film Propaganda Jepang yang belakangan menjadi PFN) yang akan mendokumentasikan peristiwa penting ini. Hasil dokumentasi mereka ini nantinya meru-pakan satu-satunya visualisasi seluloid tentang hal tersebut sampai sekarang.

Pemerintah menepati janjinya untuk mengadakan rapat kabinet kembali. Pada tgl 18 September 1945, jam 20.00 bertempat dikediaman Presiden Soekarno, jl Pegangsaan Timur 56, Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo melaporkan kepada Presiden tentang pertemuannya dengan pemuda-mahasiswa pada pagi hari dimana mereka pada dasarnya tetap bertekad untuk melaksanakan Rapat Raksasa Ikada.

Rapat dengan sebagian anggota kabinet ini berlangsung sampai jam 4.00 pagi, tapi tidak menghasilkan apa-apa dan diputuskan akan dilanjutkan di kantor KNIP di Lapangan Banteng besok paginya tgl 19 September 1945 dalam rapat pleno dimana anggota kabinet lengkap.

Nampaknya semua unsur mengalami kegelisahan yang cukup mencekam.. Disatu pihak pemuda-mahasiswa panitia penyelenggara dari Komite Aksi yang sejak pagi hari sudah menghadapi masa yang terus berbondong-bondong menuju Ikada yang diperkirakan telah mencapai lebih dari 100.000 orang.

Kepada panitia ini massa rakyat menuntut untuk menghadirkan segera para pemimpin bangsa, khususnya Presiden Soekarno. Di pihak yang lain Presiden Soekarno dan Wakil Presiden Hatta dan seluruh anggota Kabinet bersama anggota KNIP masih mengulur-ngulur waktu tanpa tau harus berbuat apa.

Sementara sekitar jam 12.00, kabinet sudah mengutus Mohammad Roem (Ketua KNIP Jakarta) dan Soewirjo (Walikota Jakarta) untuk menemui pihak militer Jepang untuk membicarakan hal-hal mengenai rapat raksasa tersebut. Dalam pembicaraan ini ada kesan bahwa pihak Jepang mulai kewalahan melihat pengumpulan masa yang makin lama makin besar tampa bisa berbuat sesuatu.

Mereka meminta Roem dan Suwirjo, membubarkan kumpulan massa rakyat tersebut. Hal ini dijawab Roem dan Soewirjo bahwa yang bisa membubarkan kumpulan massa itu hanya satu orang yaitu Presiden Soekarno. Kedua utusan Kabinet ini juga sempat menyaksikan keadaan dilapangan Ikada secara langsung, termasuk persiapan pasukan Tentara Jepang yang sudah sempat memobilisir sejumlah besar pasukan infantri bersenjata lengkap dengan sangkur terhunus yang didukung pasukan tank dan panser. Semua hal tersebut kemudian dilaporkan kepada Presiden Soekarno.

Ahirnya menjelang pukul 16.00 Presiden Soekarno tidak mungkin berpangku tangan lagi dan dengan tegas menyatakan “Saudara-saudara menteri dengarkan keputusan saya. Saya akan pergi kelapangan Ikada untuk menentramkan rakyat yang sudah berjam-jam menunggu. Saya tidak akan memaksa saudara-saudara untuk ikut saya. Siapa yang mau tinggal dirumah boleh, terserah kepada saudara masing-masing”.

Dengan adanya keputusan tersebut maka berakhirlah sidang kabinet, dan secara resmi Pemerintah menyetujui Rapat Raksasa Ikada dilangsungkan. Dan hampir semua hadirin dalam sidang digedung KNIP ini ternyata ikut menuju Lapangan Ikada mengikuti Presiden. Presiden Soekarno sendiri telah dijemput pemuda-mahasiswa dari panitia penyelenggara Komite Aksi.

Mobil yang dipergunakan mahasiswa tidak tanggung-tanggung sebuah mobil berwarna hijau militer Jepang (kuning hijau) bekas milik salah seorang pimpinan Kempetai. Kendaraan ini dikendarai oleh mahasiswa Sujono Joedodibroto (sekarang profesor ahli mata) dan dimuka dikawal dua buah motor indian yang dikendarai Subianto Djojohadikusumo (gugur sebagai letnan satu Polsi Tentara dalam peristiwa lengkong Tanggerang awal tahun 1946) dan Daan Yahya (mantan Panglima Divisi Siliwangi tahun 1948 dan gubernur militer Jakarta Raja tahun 1950).

Baca tentang Sunianto Djojohadikusumo

Sumber

http://koleksitempodoeloe.blogspot.com/2010/07/buku-kenangan-dari-3-jaman-oleh-margono.html

 

 

di makam Subianto Djojohadikusumo (paman dari Prabowo Subianto)

Buku Kenangan dari 3 jaman oleh Margono Djojohadikusumo, kakek dari Prabowo Subianto, Ketua Umum Partai Gerindra dan bakal Calon Presiden RI pada th.2014

 

Herinneringen uit 3 tijdperken

Kenangan 3 jaman oleh Margono Djojohadikusumo

 

 

Een geschreven familie-overlevering

(Sebuah catatan keluarga)

 

 

Nadruk van de uitgave (cetakan edisi) Djakarta 1969

 

 

Th.1963 di Kuala Lumpur, Margono Djojohadikusumo (duduk kanan)
Prabowo Subianto (kanan atas), Hasjim Djojohadikusumo (duduk tengah)

 

 

Bersama ibu (Dora Sigar) di Kuala Lumpur th.1963,

Prabowo Subianto di atas tengah

 

 

Keluarga besar di Purworejo, Jawa Tengah pada th.1918

 

 

Th.1926, Ibunda dari Prof. Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo,

atau nenek dari Prabowo Subianto sedang melukis kain batik.

 

 

Hari raya Lebaran di Djakarta pada th.1957

 

 

Ke dua paman Prabowo Subianto yang meninggal th.1946

di Serpong, Tangerang dalam perang gerilya melawan Belanda

 

 

Th.1947, Kolonel TB. Simatupang dan Major Daan Jahja
(yang kemudian pada th.1966 adalah Letnan Jenderal dan Major Jenderal)
di makam Subianto Djojohadikusumo (paman dari Prabowo Subianto)

 

 

Prof. Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo (ayah dari Prabowo Subianto)
di tengah, di samping kanan dari Mohammad Hatta (Wakil Presiden)

 

 

Prof. Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo

(ayah dari Prabowo Subianto) paling kiri, depan

 

Buku tentang keluarga besar dari Prabowo Subianto yang sekarang adalah

Ketua Umum Partai GERINDRA (Gerakan Indonesia Raya) dan calon Wakil Presiden.

Buku ini dikarang  oleh Margono Djojohadikusumo yang adalah

ayah dari Prof. Dr. Sumitro Djojohadikusumo dan kakek dari Prabowo Subianto

dan Hasjim Djojohadikusumo.

Berjudul Kenangan dari 3 Jaman, sebuah catatan keluarga.

Diterbitkan dalam bahasa Belanda (bukan bahasa Indonesia),

dengan banyak foto-foto keluarga besar sejak dari jaman dulu (th.1918, 1926 dll.),

silahkan lihat sebagian dari foto2 tsb. diatas.

Dicetak dalam format Hard Cover dengan tebal buku 191 halaman.

Kondisi buku: mulus dan bagus.

 

Sebuah Buku kuno yang langka – jarang ada.

Sang Kakek dari Prabowo sendiri (Margono Djojohadikusumo) yang menceritakan

kisah riwayat hidup keluarga besar dari Jaman Belanda, Jaman Jepang

hingga Jaman setelah Kemerdekaan.

Bagi anda yang memilih Partai Gerindra,

inilah buku yang harus anda miliki.

Prabowo Subianto sendiri di proyeksikan akan maju sebagai

calon Presiden RI (bukan WaPres lagi) pada th. 2014 mendatang

 


Rupanya rombongan tidak langsung kelapangan Ikada tapi mampir di Asrama mahasiswa kedokteran jalan Prapatan no.10 Jakarta, karena Presiden Soekarno mau mengganti pakaian dahulu yang berwarna putih yang diambil dari rumah. Sekitar jam 16.00 tepat barulah rombongan Presiden yang dikawal mahasiswa ini yang kini sudah bertambah, termasuk mahasiswa Eri Sudewo, Sujono markas, Patiasina, Kamal dan sebagainya. Sebelum masuk kelapangan Ikada (kira-kira dimuka PLN sekarang), rombongan Presiden turun dari mobil yang langsung disambut rakyat.

 

 

Bersama rombongan besar rakyat inilah Presiden dan anggota kabinet berjalan bersama menuju tempat yang sudah disediakan. Nampak beberapa tokoh mendekati Presiden, antara lain Hatta, Adam Malik, Ali Sastroamidjojo, Mufraini Mukmin dan sebagainya. Tapi baru beberapa meter mereka berjalan tiba-tiba sudah dihadang beberapa perwira Jepang yang meminta agar Rapat dibubarkan. Salah seorang perwira Jepang ini adalah Let.Kol Myamoto yang ditugaskan pimpinan militernya untuk berunding.

Melalui penterjemah yang juga seorang mahasiswa, Presiden Soekarno kemudian menjelaskan bahwa dia harus menentramkan rakyat yang sejak pagi menanti kedatangannya. Kalau dia dihalangi maka bisa saja akan terjadi hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan yang akan menyulitkan tentara Jepang sendiri. Ahirnya rombongan diizinkan melanjutkan perjalanan menuju lautan manusia yang mengelu-elukan para pemimpin mereka. Lautan manusia ini dilengkapi ribuan bendera Merah Putih yang berkibar dengan megahnya yang tidak terbayangkan pada saat sebelumnya pada masa pendudukan Jepang.

Tampak beberapa spanduk besar bertuliskan antara lain “Kalaoe ada orang bertanya berapakah jumlah moe, maka jawablah kami satoe”.

 

maniso93.wordpress.com

Menunggu kesempatan baik, rombongan lebih dahulu menuju tribune utama. Dan pada saatnya sebagaimana harapan rakyat maka naiklah Presiden Soekarno keatas podium kayu setinggi kurang lebih 3 meter dikawal ajidan dan seorang anggota polisi. Ketika itulah terdengarlah teriakan Merdeka…Merdeka…Merdeka, yang sambung menyambung.

Maka Presiden pun berdiri dimuka lautan rakyat yang mulai senyap, dalam pidatonya Soekarno menyampaikan antara lain . . .

Beliau berkata :

“Kita sudah memproklamirkan Kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proklamasi ini tetap kami pertahankan, sepatahpun tidak kami cabut. Tetapi dalam pada itu, kami sudah menyusun suatu rancangan. Tenang, tentram, tetapi tetap siap sedia menerima perintah yang kami berikan. Kalau saudara-saudara percaya kepada Pemerintah Republik Indonesia yang akan mempertahankan proklamasi kemerdekaan itu walaupun dada kami akan robek karenanya, maka berikanlah kepercayaan kepada kami dengan tunduk kepada perintah-perintah kami dengan disiplin. Sanggupkah saudara-saudara “

Dijawab dengan serentak oleh rakyat:

“Sanguuup…!!!”.

Lalu Presiden melanjutkan:

“Perintah kami hari ini, marilah sekarang pulang semua dengan tenang dan tenteram, ikutilah perintah Presidenmu sendiri tetapi dengan tetap siap sedia sewaktu-waktu. Saya tutup dengan salam  nasional….. MERDEKA….!!!” .

Maka terjadilah keajaiban tersebut. Kumpulan massa yang dianggap fihak Jepang akan sukar dikendalikan, ternyata mau menurut Presidennya dan pulang kerumah masing-masing dengan teratur.

sumber: suroenboyo.blogspot.com

PERISTIWA SEJARAH LOKAL 19 SEPTEMBER 1945

 

Blog Sejarah Kita – 13/08/2012 – 13:40 WIB

Sumber

http://acehimage.com/peristiwa-sejarah-lokal-19-september-1945/

 

Pada tgl 19 September 1945 mulai pukul 10.00 pagi bertempat digedung KNIP Lapangan Banteng Jakarta (Mahkamah Agung samping Dep.Keuangan sekarang) diadakan Rapat Kabinet yang langsung dipimpin oleh Presiden Soekarno.

 Cukup banyak yang dibicarakan dalam rapat tersebut termasuk rencana pembentukan Bank Negara Indonesia (BNI) oleh ayahnya Prof DR Soemitro Djojohadikusumo yaitu Margono.

Tetapi ada agenda cukup penting yang rupanya dibicarakan secara khusus, yaitu berlangsungnya “Rapat Raksasa Ikada” yang penyelenggaraannya dipersiapkan dan dilaksanakan rakyat Jakarta dan sekitarnya yang dimotori Pemuda-Mahasiswa Jakarta.

Rencana Rapat Akbar yang sejak awal tempatnya sudah ditetapkan yaitu Lapangan Ikada (sekarang pojok timur Monas), pada mulanya dimaksudkan untuk memeperingati satu bulan Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945. Jadi rencananya dilaksanakan pada tanggal 17 September 1945. Tapi rupanya rencana ini ditanggapi fihak Pemerintah Republik Indonesia secara maju mundur.

Ada kesan Pemerintah sangat berhati-hati atau nyaris takut kepada kekuasaan Militer Jepang yang baru saja kalah perang. Untuk ini Kabinet sudah membahasnya dalam rapat tgl 17 September 1945. Kurang disetujuinya rencana rapat tersebut oleh Pemerintah, antara lain atas pertimbangan rakyat yang berkumpul cukup banyak , yang akan memancing kemarahan militer Jepang dan mungkin mengakibatkan bentrokan fisik dimana dikhawatirkan akan jatuhnya banyak korban sia-sia.

Memang fihak militer Jepang jauh hari telah mengeluarkan larangan berkumpulnya massa lebih dari lima orang. Dan bukan hal yang tidak mungkin fihak Jepang yang sekarang telah menjadi alat sekutu, sudah menjalankan kebijakan yang ditetapkan oleh SEAC (South East Asia Command) yaitu untuk mempertahankan keadaan Status Quo.

 

 

Fihak panitia penyelenggara yang terdiri dari banyak Pemuda dan Mahasiswa yang menggunakan nama panitia “Komite aksi”, menganggap Pemerintah harus didesak dan dimotivasi terus agar sadar bahwa Rapat Raksasa ini penting untuk diselenggarakan guna menunjukkan bahwa rakyat Indonesia mendukung Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia yang diproklamirkan tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

Inilah perwujudan nyata dari proses demokrasi dan harus dikampanyekan kepada dunia. Bukankah Republik Indonesia secara defacto sudah ada melalui fakta adanya Rakyat, Wilayah dan Pemerintah.

Dalam Rapat Ikada inilah khsusnya penduduk Jakarta dan sekitarnya akan membuktikan suatu legitimasi politik bahwa “Indonesia sekarang telah Merdeka” yang didukung rakyat. Karena tidak kunjung jawaban dari Pemerintah Republik Indonesia, ahirnya fihak penyelenggara memutuskan untuk mengundurkan rencana acara tgl 17 menjadi tanggal 19 September 1945.

Sedangkan tempat masih tetap direncanakan dilapangan Ikada.Pada tanggal 18 Sptember 1945 jam 11.00 pagi, tiba-tiba Mr Achmad Subardjo selaku menteri Luar Negeri RI mengadakan konferensi Pers untuk menyampaikan keputusan Pemerintah yang isinya sepertinya menghilangkan harapan rakyat yaitu menolak rencana Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Beliau juga memerintahkan agar rencana pembatalannya diberitakan dalam Berita Indonesia (sebuah surat kabar pada saat itu).

Reaksi para pemuda dan mahasiswa yang hadir dalam konferensi tersebut sudah bisa diperkirakan sejak semula. Mereka menyatakan sikap bahwa “Apapun yang akan terjadi Rapat Raksasa Ikada akan tetap diadakan pada esok pagi yaitu tgl 19 September 1945”.

Sikap ini sebenarnya bukan hanya luapan emosi semata, tapi beralasan antara lain karena persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada sudah berjalan cukup jauh, termasuk usaha untuk mengundang rakyat dari berbagai peloksok Ibu kota dan daerah sekitar Jakarta. Cara pemberitaan ini cukup sukses padahal alat komunikasi sangat terbatas. Pada umumnya penyampaian berita undangan dilakukan secara berantai melalui sistim pembagian wilayah pada zaman Jepang dan organisasi RT/RW saat itu (Tonarigumi).Pemuda-mahasiswa protes kepada Pemerintah dan berusaha menjelaskan duduk perkaranya kepada Pemerintah dan meminta keputusan ditinjau kembali.

Desakan para hadirin agar Pemerintah sekali lagi bersidang, ahirnya ditanggapai oleh Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo dan berjanji untuk menyampaikannya kepada Presiden Sukarno. Setelah bubaran, para pemuda-mahasiswa tidak langsung pulang kerumah tapi berkumpul ditempat kelompoknya masing-masing, untuk membicarakan tindakan selanjutnya. Sedikit gambaran Pasca Proklamasi, setidaknya ada 3 kelompok besar pemuda-mahasiwa yang berbeda dalam latar belakang politiknya.

Yang pertama kelompok Prapatan 10 (asrama mahasiswa kedokteran Ikadaigakho) yang 100 % terdiri dari mahasiswa, kelompok Menteng 31 yang sebagian besar terdiri dari pemuda dan kelompok BAPERPI (Badan Permusyawaratan Pelajar Indonesia) jl Cikini no.71. Terdiri dari campuran Mahasiswa dan Pelajar. Diluar itu ada juga kelompok yang tidak kalah partisipasinya dalam persiapan ini yaitu kelompok pelajar SMT (Sekolah menengah Tinggi) Jakarta. Dan dalam jumlah kecil ada juga para pemuda yang tergabung dalam asrama Indonesia merdeka dijalan Kebon Sirih no.80 Jakarta, dan pemuda dari Barisan Pelopor Jakarta. Mereka semua merupakan motor-motor persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada pada saat itu.

Anehnya berbagai kelompok pemuda/mahasiswa ini yang pada zaman Jepang dan awal Revolusi berbeda faham, tapi kini menjelang Rapat Raksasa bisa bersatu dan saling bahu membahu bekerja sama.Jangan dilupakan juga pada saat itu terdapat banyak para pemuda ex tentara PETA dan HEIHO yang sudah menceburkan dirinya dalam BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat). Organisasi mereka juga punya peranan yang menentukan dalam persiapan pengamanan Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Komandan BKR Jakarta pada saat itu adalah mantan Shodanco Mufraini Mukmin yang belakangan akan menjadi Komandan Resimen Jakarta.

Yang tidak kalah pentingnya Polisi ex Jepang (Polisi macan) yang sudah menyatakan sumpah setia kepada Republik Indonesia. Merekalah satu-satunya kekuatan bersenjata yang ada difihak RI pada saat itu , termasuk untuk pengamanan keselamatan Presiden, Wakil Presiden dan para menteri kabinet.Untuk persiapan pendukung, telah siap pula anggota PMI (Palang Merah Indonesia), ibu-ibu penyelenggara Dapur Umum , dokter-dokter serta dokter-dokter muda CBZ (Centralle Burgerlijk Ziekenhuis) yang sejak zaman Jepang sudah berganti nama menjadi Roemah Sakit Pergoeroen Tinggi.

Mereka mempersiapkan obat-obatan, dan alat-alat medis lainnya serta telah dipersiapkan pula beberapa buah Ambulance. Yang tidak kalah menentukan adalah wartawan dan dokumentator, Radio Republik Indonesia , Juru Foto IPPHOS, serta Cameraman dari Studio Multi Film atau bahasa Jepangnya “Nippon Eiga Sha” (ex perusaan film Propaganda Jepang yang belakangan menjadi PFN) yang akan mendokumentasikan peristiwa penting ini. Hasil dokumentasi mereka ini nantinya meru-pakan satu-satunya visualisasi seluloid tentang hal tersebut sampai sekarang.

Setelah menunggu beberapa saat rupanya Pemerintah menepati janjinya untuk mengadakan rapat kabinet kembali. Pada tgl 18 September 1945, jam 20.00 bertempat dikediaman Presiden Sukarno, jl Pegangsaan Timur 56, Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo melaporkan kepada Presiden tentang pertemuannya dengan pemuda-mahasiswa pada pagi hari dimana mereka pada dasarnya tetap bertekad untuk melaksanakan Rapat Raksasa Ikada.

Meskipun Rapat sebagian anggota kabinet ini berlangsung sampai jam 4.00 pagi, tapi tidak menghasilkan apa-apa dan diputuskan akan dilanjutkan di kantor KNIP di Lapangan Banteng besok paginya tgl 19 September 1945 dalam rapat pleno dimana anggota kabinet lengkap.

Kembali kepada penuturan awal diatas dimana sedang berlangsungnya Rapat Kabinet tgl 19 September 1945, nampaknya semua unsur mengalami kegelisahan yang cukup mencekam.. Disatu fihak pemuda-mahasiswa panitia penyelenggara dari Komite Aksi yang sejak pagi hari sudah menghadapi masa yang terus berbondong-bondong menuju Ikada yang diperkirakan telah mencapai lebih dari 100.000 orang.

Kepada panitia ini massa rakyat menuntut untuk menghadirkan segera para pemimpin bangsa, khususnya Presiden Sukarno. Difihak yang lain Presiden Sukarno dan Wakil Presiden Hatta dan seluruh anggota Kabinet bersama anggota KNIP masih mengulur-ngulur waktu tampa tau harus berbuat apa. Nampaknya disini dibutuhkan seseorang tokoh sentral yang berani dan tegas untuk berkata ya atau tidak sama sekali.

Sementara sekitar jam 12.00, kabinet sudah mengutus Mohammad Roem (Ketua KNIP Jakarta) dan Soewirjo (Walikota Jakarta) untuk menemui fihak militer Jepang untuk membicarakan hal-hal mengenai rapat raksasa tersebut.

 Dalam pembicaraan ini ada kesan bahwa fihak Jepang mulai kewalahan melihat pengumpulan masa yang makin lama makin besar tampa bisa berbuat sesuatu. Mereka meminta Roem dan Suwirjo, membubarkan kumpulan massa rakyat tersebut. Hal ini dijawab Roem dan Soewirjo bahwa yang bisa membubarkan kumpulan massa itu hanya satu orang yaitu Presiden Sukarno.

Kedua utusan Kabinet ini juga sempat menyaksikan keadaan dilapangan Ikada secara langsung, termasuk persiapan pasukan Tentara Jepang yang sudah sempat memobilisir sejumlah besar pasukan infantri bersenjata lengkap dengan sangkur terhunus yang didukung pasukan tank dan panser.

Semua hal tersebut kemudian dilaporkan kepada Presiden Sukarno. Ahirnya menjelang pukul 16.00 Presiden Sukarno tidak mungkin berpangku tangan lagi dan dengan tegas menyatakan “ Saudara-saudara menteri dengarkan keputusan saya. Saya akan pergi kelapangan Ikada untuk menentramkan rakyat yang sudah berjam-jam menunggu. Saya tidak akan memaksa saudara-saudara untuk ikut saya. Siapa yang mau tinggal dirumah boleh, terserah kepada saudara masing-masing”.

Dengan adanya keputusan tersebut maka berahirlah sidang kabinet, dan secara resmi Pemerintah menyetujui Rapat Raksasa Ikada dilangsungkan. Dan hampir semua hadirin dalam sidang digedung KNIP ini ternyata ikut menuju Lapangan Ikada mengikuti Presiden, menurut caranya masing-masing.

Presiden Sukarno sendiri telah dijemput pemuda-mahasiswa dari panitia penyelenggara Komite Aksi. Mobil yang dipergunakan mahasiswa tidak tanggung-tanggung sebuah mobil berwarna hijau militer Jepang (kuning hijau) bekas milik salah seorang pimpinan Kempetai. Kendaraan ini dikendarai oleh mahasiswa Sujono Joedodibroto (sekarang profesor ahli mata) dan dimuka dikawal dua buah motor indian yang dikendarai Subianto Djojohadikusumo (gugur sebagai letnan satu Polsi Tentara dalam peristiwa lengkong Tanggerang awal tahun 1946) dan Daan Yahya (mantan Panglima Divisi Siliwangi tahun 1948 dan gubernur militer Jakarta Raja tahun 1950).

Rupanya rombongan tidak langsung kelapangan Ikada tapi mampir di Asrama mahasiswa kedokteran jalan Prapatan no.10 Jakarta, karena Presiden Sukarno mau mengganti pakaian dahulu yang berwarna putih yang diambil dari rumah. Sekitar jam 16.00 tepat barulah rombongan Presiden yang dikawal mahasiswa ini yang kini sudah bertambah, termasuk mahasiswa Eri Sudewo, Sujono markas, Patiasina, Kamal dan sebagainya. Sebelum masuk kelapangan Ikada (kira-kira dimuka PLN sekarang), rombongan Presiden turun dari mobil yang langsung disambut rakyat. Bersama rombongan besar rakyat inilah Presiden dan anggota kabinet berjalan bersama menuju tempat yang sudah disediakan.

Nampak beberapa tokoh mendekati Presiden, antara lain Hatta, Adam Malik, Ali Sastroamidjojo, Mufraini Mukmin dan sebagainya. Tapi baru beberapa meter mereka berjalan tiba-tiba sudah dihadang beberapa perwira Jepang yang meminta agar Rapat dibubarkan. Salah seorang perwira Jepang ini adalah Let.Kol Myamoto yang ditugaskan pimpinan militernya untuk berunding. Melalui penterjemah yang juga seorang mahasiswa, Presiden Sukarno kemudian menjelaskan bahwa dia harus menentramkan rakyat yang sejak pagi menanti kedatangannya.

Kalau dia dihalangi maka bisa saja akan terjadi hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan yang akan menyulitkan tentara Jepang sendiri. Ahirnya rombongan diizinkan melanjutkan perjalanan menuju lautan manusia yang mengelu-elukan para pemimpin mereka. Lautan manusia ini dilengkapi ribuan bendera Merah Putih yang berkibar dengan megahnya yang tidak terbayangkan pada saat sebelumnya pada masa pendudukan Jepang. Tampak beberapa spanduk besar bertuliskan antara lain “ Kalaoe ada orang bertanya berapakah jumlah moe, maka jawablah kami satoe”.

Menunggu kesempatan baik, rombongan lebih dahulu menuju tribune utama. Dan pada saatnya sebagaimana harapan rakyat maka naiklah Presiden Sukarno keatas podium kayu setinggi kurang lebih 3 meter dikawal ajidan dan seorang anggota polisi. Ketika itulah terdengarlah teriakan Merdeka…Merdeka…Merdeka, yang sambung menyambung. Maka Presidenpun berpidato dimuka lautan rakyat yang mulai senyap tampa bersuara antara lain beliau berkata : “ Kita sudah memproklamirkan Kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proklamasi ini tetap kami pertahankan, sepatahpun tidak kami cabut. Tetapi dalam pada itu, kami sudah menyusun suatu rancangan.

 

Tenang, tentram, tetapi tetap siap sedia menerima perintah yang kami berikan. Kalau saudara-saudara percaya kepada Pemerintah Republik Indonesia yang akan mempertahankan proklamasi kemerdekaan itu walaupun dada kami akan robek karenanya, maka berikanlah kepercayaan kepada kami dengan tunduk kepada perintah-perintah kami dengan disiplin. Sanggupkah saudara-saudara “ dijawab dengan serentak oleh rakyat “Sanguuup”. Lalu Presiden melanjutkan “Perintah kami hari ini, marilah sekarang pulang semua dengan tenang dan tenteram, ikutilah perintah Presidenmu sendiri tetapi dengan tetap siap sedia sewaktu-waktu. Saya tutup dengan salam nasional…..MERDEKA….”.Maka terjadilah keajaiban tersebut.

Kumpulan massa yang dianggap fihak Jepang akan sukar dikendalikan, ternyata mau menurut Presidennya dan pulang kerumah masing-masing dengan teratur. Apakah arti peristiwa Rapat Raksasa Ikada ini ?. Bahwa rakyat Indonesia pada dasarnya mudah disatukan dalam langkah dan geraknya oleh kekuatan dari sebuah figur kharismatik serta diarahkan dan dikendalikan untuk tujuan yang postif dengan syarat jangan mengecewakan mereka.

Bung Karno sebagai Presiden memiliki itu semua yang harus menggambarkan antara lain bahwa, para pemimpin harus tegas dan lugas dan merupakan bagian dari mereka, dimana hal tersebut dimungkinkan kalau para pemimpinnya sendiri selalu turun kebawah. Para pimpinan rakyat khususnya pemuda dan mahasiswa amat menentukan dalam pembuatan kebijakan Nasional yang disepakati bersama, semua fihak dengan lebih dahulu dimusyawarahkan secara demokratis.

Peristiwa sejarah lokal yang menyangkut masalah Demokrasi, yang terjadi setelah setelah Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 ini selalu menarik dikaji karena benar-benar diselenggarakan oleh rakyat, untuk kepentingan perjuangan Nasional dibawah Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia dan selanjutnya rakyat menyadari bahwa hal itu amat penting sekali terutama dalam mewujudkan utuhnya Kepemimpinan Nasional. Meskipun usaha ini dilakukan di Jakarta secara lokal, tapi maksud utamanya secara Nasional untuk melegitimasi Pemerintahan RI yang sah baik yang menyangkut lembaga eksekutif, legislatif maupun yudikatif. Sesungguhnya hal ini penting mengingat gaung Proklamasi belum cukup merata kepeloksok tanah air.

Selain itu belum terlihat tindakan bangsa Indonesia untuk mewujudkan Negara Kesatuan RI secara nyata sebagaimana diamanatkan dalam Naskah Proklamasi maupun UUD 1945. Dan yang lebih penting lagi timbulnya keraguan masyarakat akan kedaulatan NKRI padahal dengan mata telanjang sejak awal September 1945 rakyat Indonesia menyaksikan masih eksisnya balatentara Jepang, pasukan sekutu yang mulai berdatangan yang diyakini diboncengi pula pasukan Belanda, sementara Pemerintah RI yang dipimpin Presiden Soekarno dan Wakil Presiden Mohammad Hatta tidak nampak berbuat banyak.

Ada sebuah kekhawatiran lain dari fihak penguasa politik Bangsa pada waktu itu baik yang beraliran Nasionalis, Islam maupun Sosialis bahwa masa pendudukan Jepang berpengaruh sangat dalam dalam rencana pembangunan Bangsa dan Negara pasca Perang Dunia ke II. Konflik ini sangat mencuat mengingat baik Soekarno maupun Hatta adalah tokoh-tokoh yang erat bekerja sama dengan Jepang termasuk dalam mewujudkan Kemerdekaan Negara Kesatuan Republik Indonesia. Hanya beberapa gelintir tokoh politik yang benar-benar bersih dari kerja sama dengan Jepang, namun tidak dapat berbuat banyak karena nilai kepemimpinannya tidak dihargai rakyat sebegitu besar yang dimiliki Soekarno, atau penokohannya tidak dikenal. Situasi inilah yang menggambarkan masa transisi dari pendudukan Jepang kepada zaman Kemerdekaan dalam tahun 1945.

Berkaitan dengan hal diatas Soekarno sebagai Presiden dari kabinet Presidensiel pertama (sering disebut kabinet Buco) harus mampu menerima kritik maupun tuduhan-tuduhan politik yang belum tentu benar termasuk keabsahan dirinya sebagai pimpinan eksekutif yang diangkat rakyat. Adalah Sjahrir dan Tan Malaka yang paling vokal menyebar luaskan berbagai kelemahan Soekarno selama masa pendudukan Jepang. Dan hal ini banyak ditelan bulat-bulat oleh sebagian kaum muda yang tergabung dalam kelompok pemuda-mahasiswa. Buat Belanda yang memiliki badan NICA (Netherlands Indie Civil Administration) yang baru kemudian secara resmi tiba di Jakarta pada awal Oktober tiba di Jawa, isu politik ini amat menguntungkan dan mulai membina masyarakat Indonesia yang pro Belanda serta melakukan persiapan-persiapan akan kembalinya Pemerintahan Hindia Belanda yang kabur ke Australia ketika Jepang secara resmi masuk ke Indonesia pada tgl 8 Maret 1942. Diantara tokoh NICA yang tiba lebih dahulu dengan tentara sekutu adalah Van der Plas.

Usaha-usaha yang dilakukannya adalah mulai merehabiliter ex tentara KNIL baik yang bebas maupun yang baru lepas dari camp interniran Japang. Agitasi dan provokasi Van der Plas cs, membuat Jakarta menjadi kurang aman karena dimana-mana timbul konflik bersenjata yang memakan korban tidak sedikit. Padahal kelompok pemuda-mahasiswa Jakarta sedang giat-giatnya melakukan pengambil alihan badan-badan Pemerintah ex Jepang untuk difungsikan dalam Pemerintah RI atau setidaknya Pemerintahan Daerah Jakarta Raya.

Slogan-slogan anti Kolonialisme dan Imperialisme bermunculan yang ditulis oleh pemuda-mahasiswa Jakarta pada dinding-dinding gedung, trem dan kereta api maupun dalam spanduk-spanduk yang dapat dibaca dipersimpangan jalan-jalan, Semua ini dengan harapan dapat dibaca siapa saja khususnya tentara sekutu bahwa “Indonesia sudah Merdeka dan berdaulat”. Menanggapi tuntutan massa untuk berpidato dalam rapat raksasa Ikada, nampaknya Bung Karno melihat segi negatif dan positifnya usaha rakyat tersebut.

Segi negatifnya kalau saja fihak-fihak terkait baik rakyat yang sudah menyemut yang diperkirakan berjumlah 300.000 orang, maupun fihak penguasa militer Jepang yang sudah harus bertanggung jawab kepada fihak sekutu sebagai pemenang perang dunia dan kini melakukan stelling tempur kearah rakyat. Keduanya bisa mengalami konflik fisik, yang dapat diperkirakan akan menimbulkan pertumpahan darah hebat.

Segi positifnya adalah terbetuknya sosok Persatuan, Kesatuan Nasional serta munculnya nilai-nilai Demokrasi. Serta yang lebih pasti adalah legitimasi Pemerintah Republik Indonesia yang berdaulat dibawah Presiden Soekarno. Sebagaimana tertulis dalam sejarah, tidak banyak yang diucapkan dalam pidato tersingkat yang pernah disampaikan Soekarno. Namun apa yang tersirat dalam pidato tersebut sungguh sebuah monumen nasional yang tidak akan dilupakan orang. Semua fihak baik mengagung-agungkan dirinya, mencerca dirinya dan mengancamnya selama zaman Jepang dan disekitar Proklamasi, termasuk yang berpikiran naif tentang manusia bernama Soekarno ini, pada ahirnya mengakuinya bahwa Republik ini dalam mengusahakan perjuangan bangsa selanjutnya setelah Preoklamasi 17 Agustus 1945 membutuhkan seorang PEMIMPIN NASIONAL yang tidak pernah ada duanya dalam sejarah Indonesia.

[ Blog Sejarah Kita

 

Sumber

duniahistori WEB BLOG

Kamis, 02 Agustus 2012

 

(Suatu Fakta Bahwa Kemerdekaan Indonesia Tidak Di Akui Jepang)

 

 

RAPAT RAKSASA LAPANGAN IKADA 19 SEPTEMBER 1945

 

Para Pemuda dan Mahasiswa yang memiliki rencana tersebut, dengan semangat juang tinggi yang menggunakan nama panitia “Komite aksi”, menganggap Pemerintah harus didesak dan dimotivasi terus agar sadar bahwa Rapat Raksasa ini penting untuk diselenggarakan guna menunjukkan bahwa rakyat Indonesia mendukung Kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia yang diproklamirkan tanggal 17 Agustus 1945. Inilah perwujudan nyata dari proses demokrasi dan harus dikampanyekan kepada dunia. Bukankah Republik Indonesia secara defacto sudah ada melalui fakta adanya Rakyat, Wilayah dan Pemerintah. Dalam Rapat Ikada inilah khsusnya penduduk Jakarta dan sekitarnya akan membuktikan suatu legitimasi politik bahwa “Indonesia sekarang telah Merdeka” yang didukung rakyat.

            Sebelum rapat ini dilaksakan sebetulnya banyak timbul polemik antara para tokoh dalam menyikapi rencana rapat raksasa tersebut. Rapat Kabinet yang langsung dipimpin oleh Presiden Soekarno pada tanggal 17 September 1945 di gedung KNIP Lapangan Banteng Jakarta (Mahkamah Agung samping Dep.Keuangan sekarang) membahas rencana rapat ini. Kurang disetujuinya rencana rapat tersebut oleh Pemerintah, antara lain atas pertimbangan rakyat yang berkumpul cukup banyak , yang akan memancing kemarahan militer Jepang dan mungkin mengakibatkan bentrokan fisik dimana dikhawatirkan akan jatuhnya banyak korban sia-sia.


           Memang fihak militer Jepang jauh hari telah mengeluarkan larangan berkumpulnya massa lebih dari lima orang. Dan bukan hal yang tidak mungkin Pihak Jepang yang sekarang telah menjadi alat sekutu, sudah menjalankan kebijakan yang ditetapkan oleh SEAC (South East Asia Command) yaitu untuk mempertahankan keadaan Status Quo.

 

            Pada tanggal 18 September 1945 jam 11.00 pagi, tiba-tiba Mr Achmad Subardjo selaku menteri Luar Negeri RI mengadakan konferensi Pers untuk menyampaikan keputusan Pemerintah yang isinya sepertinya menghilangkan harapan rakyat dengan menolak rencana Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Beliau juga memerintahkan agar rencana pembatalannya diberitakan dalam Berita Indonesia (sebuah surat kabar pada saat itu). Reaksi para pemuda dan mahasiswa yang hadir dalam konferensi tersebut sudah bisa diperkirakan sejak semula. Mereka menyatakan sikap bahwa “Apapun yang akan terjadi Rapat Raksasa Ikada akan tetap diadakan pada esok pagi yaitu tgl 19 September 1945”.

            Pemuda-mahasiswa protes kepada Pemerintah dan berusaha menjelaskan duduk perkaranya kepada Pemerintah dan meminta keputusan ditinjau kembali. Desakan para hadirin agar Pemerintah sekali lagi bersidang, ahirnya ditanggapai oleh Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo dan berjanji untuk menyampaikannya kepada Presiden Sukarno.

            Setelah bubaran, para pemuda-mahasiswa tidak langsung pulang kerumah tapi berkumpul ditempat kelompoknya masing-masing, untuk membicarakan tindakan selanjutnya. Sedikit gambaran Pasca Proklamasi, setidaknya ada 3 kelompok besar pemuda-mahasiwa yang berbeda dalam latar belakang politiknya. Yang pertama kelompok Prapatan 10 (asrama mahasiswa kedokteran Ikadaigakho) yang 100 % terdiri dari mahasiswa, kelompok Menteng 31 yang sebagian besar terdiri dari pemuda dan kelompok BAPERPI (Badan Permusyawaratan Pelajar Indonesia) jl Cikini no.71. Terdiri dari campuran Mahasiswa dan Pelajar. Diluar itu ada juga kelompok yang tidak kalah partisipasinya dalam persiapan ini yaitu kelompok pelajar SMT (Sekolah menengah Tinggi) Jakarta. Dan dalam jumlah kecil ada juga para pemuda yang tergabung dalam asrama Indonesia merdeka dijalan Kebon Sirih no.80 Jakarta, dan pemuda dari Barisan Pelopor Jakarta. Mereka semua merupakan motor-motor persiapan Rapat Raksasa Ikada pada saat itu.

            Jangan dilupakan juga pada saat itu terdapat banyak para pemuda ex tentara PETA dan HEIHO yang sudah menceburkan dirinya dalam BKR (Barisan Keamanan Rakyat). Organisasi mereka juga punya peranan yang menentukan dalam persiapan pengamanan Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Komandan BKR Jakarta pada saat itu adalah mantan Shodanco Mufraini Mukmin yang belakangan akan menjadi Komandan Resimen Jakarta. Yang tidak kalah pentingnya Polisi ex Jepang (Polisi macan) yang sudah menyatakan sumpah setia kepada Republik Indonesia. Merekalah satu-satunya kekuatan bersenjata yang ada dipihak RI pada saat itu , termasuk untuk pengamanan keselamatan Presiden, Wakil Presiden dan para menteri kabinet.

            Setelah menunggu beberapa saat rupanya Pemerintah menepati janjinya untuk mengadakan rapat kabinet kembali. Pada tgl 18 September 1945, jam 20.00 bertempat dikediaman Presiden Sukarno, jl Pegangsaan Timur 56, Men.Lu Achmad Subardjo melaporkan kepada Presiden tentang pertemuannya dengan pemuda-mahasiswa pada pagi hari dimana mereka pada dasarnya tetap bertekad untuk melaksanakan Rapat Raksasa Ikada. Meskipun Rapat sebagian anggota kabinet ini berlangsung sampai jam 4.00 pagi, tapi tidak menghasilkan apa-apa dan diputuskan akan dilanjutkan di kantor KNIP di Lapangan Banteng besok paginya tgl 19 September 1945 dalam rapat pleno dimana anggota kabinet lengkap. Kembali kepada penuturan awal diatas dimana sedang berlangsungnya Rapat Kabinet tgl 19 September 1945, nampaknya semua unsur mengalami kegelisahan yang cukup mencekam.. Disatu fihak pemuda-mahasiswa panitia penyelenggara dari Komite Aksi yang sejak pagi hari sudah menghadapi masa yang terus berbondong-bondong menuju Ikada yang diperkirakan telah mencapai lebih dari 100.000 orang.

            Kepada panitia ini massa rakyat menuntut untuk menghadirkan segera para pemimpin bangsa, khususnya Presiden Sukarno. Difihak yang lain Presiden Sukarno dan Wakil Presiden Hatta dan seluruh anggota Kabinet bersama anggota KNIP masih mengulur-ngulur waktu tampa tau harus berbuat apa. Nampaknya disini dibutuhkan seseorang tokoh sentral yang berani dan tegas untuk berkata ya atau tidak sama sekali. Sementara sekitar jam 12.00, kabinet sudah mengutus Mohammad Roem (Ketua KNIP Jakarta) dan Soewirjo (Walikota Jakarta) untuk menemui fihak militer Jepang untuk membicarakan hal-hal mengenai rapat raksasa tersebut. Dalam pembicaraan ini ada kesan bahwa fihak Jepang mulai kewalahan melihat pengumpulan masa yang makin lama makin besar tampa bisa berbuat sesuatu.

            Mereka meminta Roem dan Suwirjo, membubarkan kumpulan massa rakyat tersebut. Hal ini dijawab Roem dan Soewirjo bahwa yang bisa membubarkan kumpulan massa itu hanya satu orang yaitu Presiden Sukarno. Kedua utusan Kabinet ini juga sempat menyaksikan keadaan dilapangan Ikada secara langsung, termasuk persiapan pasukan Tentara Jepang yang sudah sempat memobilisir sejumlah besar pasukan infantri bersenjata lengkap dengan sangkur terhunus yang didukung pasukan tank dan panser. Semua hal tersebut kemudian dilaporkan kepada Presiden Sukarno.

            Ahirnya menjelang pukul 16.00 Presiden Sukarno tidak mungkin berpangku tangan lagi dan dengan tegas menyatakan “ Saudara-saudara menteri dengarkan keputusan saya. Saya akan pergi kelapangan Ikada untuk menentramkan rakyat yang sudah berjam-jam menunggu. Saya tidak akan memaksa saudara-saudara untuk ikut saya. Siapa yang mau tinggal dirumah boleh, terserah kepada saudara masing-masing”.

            Dengan adanya keputusan tersebut maka berahirlah sidang kabinet, dan secara resmi Pemerintah menyetujui Rapat Raksasa Ikada dilangsungkan. Dan hampir semua hadirin dalam sidang digedung KNIP ini ternyata ikut menuju Lapangan Ikada mengikuti Presiden, menurut caranya masing-masing. Presiden Sukarno sendiri telah dijemput pemuda-mahasiswa dari panitia penyelenggara Komite Aksi.

            Mobil yang dipergunakan mahasiswa tidak tanggung-tanggung sebuah mobil berwarna hijau militer Jepang (kuning hijau) bekas milik salah seorang pimpinan Kempetai. Kendaraan ini dikendarai oleh mahasiswa Sujono Joedodibroto (sekarang profesor ahli mata) dan dimuka dikawal dua buah motor indian yang dikendarai Subianto Djojohadikusumo (gugur sebagai letnan satu Polsi Tentara dalam peristiwa lengkong Tanggerang awal tahun 1946) dan Daan Yahya (mantan Panglima Divisi Siliwangi tahun 1948 dan gubernur militer Jakarta Raja tahun 1950).

            Rupanya rombongan tidak langsung kelapangan Ikada tapi mampir di Asrama mahasiswa kedokteran jalan Prapatan no.10 Jakarta, karena Presiden Sukarno mau mengganti pakaian dahulu yang berwarna putih yang diambil dari rumah. Sekitar jam 16.00 tepat barulah rombongan Presiden yang dikawal mahasiswa ini yang kini sudah bertambah, termasuk mahasiswa Eri Sudewo, Sujono markas, Patiasina, Kamal dan sebagainya. Sebelum masuk kelapangan Ikada (kira-kira dimuka PLN sekarang), rombongan Presiden turun dari mobil yang langsung disambut rakyat.

 

            Bersama rombongan besar rakyat inilah Presiden dan anggota kabinet berjalan bersama menuju tempat yang sudah disediakan. Nampak beberapa tokoh mendekati Presiden, antara lain Hatta, Adam Malik, Ali Sastroamidjojo, Mufraini Mukmin dan sebagainya. Tapi baru beberapa meter mereka berjalan tiba-tiba sudah dihadang beberapa perwira Jepang yang meminta agar Rapat dibubarkan. Salah seorang perwira Jepang ini adalah Let.Kol Myamoto yang ditugaskan pimpinan militernya untuk berunding.

            Melalui penterjemah yang juga seorang mahasiswa, Presiden Sukarno kemudian menjelaskan bahwa dia harus menentramkan rakyat yang sejak pagi menanti kedatangannya. Kalau dia dihalangi maka bisa saja akan terjadi hal-hal yang tidak diinginkan yang akan menyulitkan tentara Jepang sendiri. Ahirnya rombongan diizinkan melanjutkan perjalanan menuju lautan manusia yang mengelu-elukan para pemimpin mereka. Lautan manusia ini dilengkapi ribuan bendera Merah Putih yang berkibar dengan megahnya yang tidak terbayangkan pada saat sebelumnya pada masa pendudukan Jepang. Tampak beberapa spanduk besar bertuliskan antara lain “ Kalaoe ada orang bertanya berapakah jumlah moe, maka jawablah kami satoe”.

 
 

Menunggu kesempatan baik, rombongan lebih dahulu menuju tribune utama. Dan pada saatnya sebagaimana harapan rakyat maka naiklah Presiden Sukarno keatas podium kayu setinggi kurang lebih 3 meter dikawal ajidan dan seorang anggota polisi. Ketika itulah terdengarlah teriakan Merdeka…Merdeka…Merdeka, yang sambung menyambung. Maka Presidenpun berpidato dimuka lautan rakyat yang mulai senyap tampa bersuara antara lain beliau berkata :

            “Kita sudah memproklamirkan Kemerdekaan Indonesia. Proklamasi ini tetap kami pertahankan, sepatahpun tidak kami cabut. Tetapi dalam pada itu, kami sudah menyusun suatu rancangan. Tenang, tentram, tetapi tetap siap sedia menerima perintah yang kami berikan. Kalau saudara-saudara percaya kepada Pemerintah Republik Indonesia yang akan mempertahankan proklamasi kemerdekaan itu walaupun dada kami akan robek karenanya, maka berikanlah kepercayaan kepada kami dengan tunduk kepada perintah-perintah kami dengan disiplin. Sanggupkah saudara-saudara? “
Kerumunan rakyat menjawab serentak, “Sanguuup”.

 


            Lalu Presiden melanjutkan, “Perintah kami hari ini, marilah sekarang pulang semua dengan tenang dan tenteram, ikutilah perintah Presidenmu sendiri tetapi dengan tetap siap sedia sewaktu-waktu. Saya tutup dengan salam nasional….. Merdeka!….” .

“Merdekaaaaa….”, sahut rakyat secara lebih gemuruh lagi.

            Bukan jumlah waktunya Presiden berbicara, tetapi makna dari periwtiwa ini adalah sebuah, kedaulatan rakyat Indonesia yang diserahkan kepada Dwi Tunggal dan pemerintahan RI yang masih mudah. Bahkan sangat muda karena umumnya hanya baru 1 bulan saja.

            Bukti kedaulatan itupun langsung di perlihatkan rakyat Indonesia kepada Penjajah Jepang. Rakyat pulang dengan tertib dan terkendali. Kumpulan massa yang dianggap pihak Jepang akan berbuat barbar, ternyata menunjukkan sebuah budaya dari negeri yang merdeka, dengan presiden yang memiliki kewibawaan atas rakyat, dan rakyatpun secara sukarela mendukungnya.

            Peristiwa Rapat Raksasa Ikada ini telah menunjukkan bahwa rakyat Indonesia mendukung pemerintahan yang dipimpin oleh Ir. Soekarno dan Dr. Mohammad Hatta dan siap sedia kapan saja untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan RI yang telah diproklamasikan pada 17 Agustus 1945. Dari peristiwa ini juga mulai terjadinya benih perjuangan yang lebih terorganisir, baik rakyat, pemerintah dan angkatan bersenjata. Untuk menjalani tahap perjuangan berikutnya yang tidak lebih ringan dan penuh dengan pengorbanan.

            Dari sini pula dapat disimpulkan bahwa Jepang yang ingin memberikan kemerdekaan bagi Indonesia ternyata hanya untuk menarik simpati rakyat saja. Setelah kemedekaan Indonesia, Jepang sendiri yang mengiming-imingkan kemerdekaan tidak mengakui kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia.

 

 

(1)The first “Giant ” mass meeting at IKADA’s field Gambir Djakarta with many peoples, although was forbidden by the japanese.

Bung Karno only speak 5 minutes “ We will protected the Indepenence , not only one word will off. We had made the Plan. Queit and “Tentram” , but always ready to have our command(ibid,M,1952)

Tan Malaka  (Datoek Soetan Malaka) Indonesia nationalist who fight against the japanese , was came to Ikada (Ikatan Atletik Djakarta or Jakarta Athelic association)’s field with Sukarno,

In the book “Hatta Answered “ (ibid Yusni,1981) , Bung hatta said that “ Tan malaka emerged on 19 September 1945, many people say that he entered Indonesia dutring the Japanese time and worhed as a romusha at Bayah, South Banten, in mine there, as a houses servant. At that time Bung Karno, Sukardji Wiryopranoto and I went there , and indeed Tan Malaka was in Bayah. Because he knew that I knew him, he served me tea from behind me. This I learnt later, when he emerged in Jakarta on 19 September 1945. That was when the people in Jakarta flooded Ikada Stadium and the Kempetai and the Japanese army came out with their guns because we were not allowed to hold a mass meeting.

Bung Karno and I (Bung Hatta) went to the mass meeting and announced that Independence had been proclaimed and that we should build up our strength ; we advised the people to remain calm , not to shed blood uselessly and to go home.

The people did go home, and we held a meeting afterwards at Soebardjo’s house. ( but if we look at the photo the man behind Bung Karno wasn’t like Tan Malaka face, they, Tan malaka and Sukarno have different principle and strategy in Indonesian  Independent movement, Bung Karno Collaburator Japanese and struggle with political , but Tan Malaka want a liberation war like Ho Chi Minh at Vietnam, they didn’t collaburated with japanese and fight with liberation war against Dutch, Tan Malaka and Ho chi Minh before Independent were study Sosialist-communism at Russia, that was why they called as the communist.Hatta said in the book Hatta Answered (ibid yuzni,1981) that Tan Malaka established new Party PARI, on this basis,Moscow expelled him from the communist Party) .

After the Ikada meeting , .Everybody came home with peace, nothing happen like what Sukarno’s prefered, he could managed the people’s emosion with his very short and powerful talked-auth)

(2)Fiver  photos of the Ikada Mass Meeting,

(a)The  first IKADA’s  photo

 

Bung Karno with many peoples, marched to the IKADA there were three Indonesia polcemen, and beside Sukarno two Indonesia leader (? Who, Poetze said Tan Malaka because approved by Bung Hatta, but the face not like him , where Bung Hatta ? He was there ?)

 

(b) the Second IKADA’s photo

Thousands Indonesian people in the IKADA-Gambir and 4 Dai nippon Militaries with guns were standing there.

 

 

(c) The third IKADA ‘s photo,

 

the Djakarta youngmen with “bambu Runtjing”or bamboo spears  had ready to protect their country, they were went to Ikada-field to join the Giant Meeting in 19 September 1945“

(d) the fourth photo :

 

the peoples  and native armed forces “Laskar” with the   Red -white flag and Banteng ‘s flag in the front went to IKADA “Giant” Meeting (P&D

(eThe 5th photo

 

Bung Karno speaking in the IKADA field, Mr Poetze have seen one man with l hat “Helm” near Bung Karno and the same man walking together with Bung Karno ( the 1st photo)  after compared that photo, he concluded that Tan Malaka was the man because he smaller than Bung Karno, Tan Malaka 165 cm and Bung Karno 172 m.

( we must compared too  with the photo profilae on Tan Malaka in 1945, because the  Tan Ma laka photo during in Moscow different, and we didn,t have  the Tan Malaka’s photo 1n 1945, please someone comment and shiw us the Tan Malaka profile in 1745 for comparative-auth.)

(3)I was laid bedrest because of Malaria, that many cases after one month Republic Indonesia, the information had came to my ear. This day in Gambir there was the “Giant” meeting  , thousand people from around Djakarta with train-wagon were came to hear their Preseident ‘s speaked.The japanese were afraid that the people  will took a revanced.Tank and Mitraljoer were standby . My friend had told me that the Meeting with People-action, sukarno said that the Independence  not only by the will of Sukarno but also by 70 Million Indonesian people.(ibid,Rosihan Anwar,1946)

(4) In the midday

one Japanese was killed in the front of M de Koning’s Shop at Noordwijk Batavia (now Jakarta), and at that place everybody could read the propaganda:

“ I expect freedom and Justice”( from the Mac Athur at Missouri  Sept 3rd 1945).

The robery begun at the people house and the storage building , one was belong of Magazinmessters , they was phone that they forbidden to  tell  the Kampetai (Japanese Military Police-auth)  (Star Weekly,1946)

(5)September 19th 1945

 (a) In  this day the British allied Forces have taken over  the duty from the Dai Nippon soldiers when their reinforcement were landed, six  weeks after Dai Nippon surrendered.

(b)The situasion in September were “Afraid and Hate”, The afraid’s people were Indomen which hate by the Japanese.

(c)Pelopor Indonesia have phisically contact with the Indo, and in the Berita Indonesia newspaper  and the propaganda Plaque put on the wall we could read the “provacation “ against the Indomen, the Police couldn’t taken any action . The word Nippon did’t used anymore.(Star Weekly,1946)

Read more info from Paradox Interactive by Rare Han

Bersiap and the road to the British intervention

Indian soldier of 49th Brigade takes cover from Indonesian sniper fire during the battle of Surabaya.

“Ignorance and self-delusion were a potent mixture…the Dutch authorities were yet to appreciate the enormity of the situation facing them and the limits of their own power…The Dutch are behaving like reactionary exiles or neurotic prisoners of war and internees. The former refuse to admit that Indonesians did declare their independence and assume power on 17th of August, the latter are hysterically frightened that the locals will now seek revenge and turn against them.”
Parts of the reports of British civilian liason officers within NICA, 1945.

Ignorance, fear and hatred

The battle lines of Indonesian decolonizatio

n were in many ways well drawn way before an Allied soldier had set foot there. The gross underestimations of Dutch political leadership and the ambitions of burgeoning Indonesian nationalism created a situation where the foolhardy Dutch were making demands they could neither back by force themselves nor request their Allies to help.

Meanwhile the Indonesians viewed the recently ended period of Japanese occupation as an era filled with opportunities of greater freedom in administration, education and public discussion of new ideas:

 all of which had been far more limited under Dutch rule. In this situation the meeting between Dutch delegation led by van Mook and Mountbatten in his HQ at Kandy on 4th of September 1945 was poised to bring trouble.

 The British were both dismayed and astonished by the initial Dutch attitude. Discussions centered on how to deal with the existence of the Republic. The Dutch proposed that leaflets instructing the local population to obey neither the Japanese military nor the “so-called Republic”

should be dropped to major cities in Java, but British rejected this proposal out of hand as a certain recipe for anarchy in the archipelago.

 The Dutch in turn strongly objected to all proposals to enter negotiations with the Republic, and stated that they would not accept recognition of the Sukarno regime and told that for now they would be content of dealing with Field Marshal Terauchi, the commander of Japanese Southern Army as the highest acknowledged authority in the region until NICA could take over. Mountbatten, in turn, delegated the whole matter to politicians in London and refused to take sides on the issue.

Mountbatten instructed Terauchi to keep the civilian population in check, but the Japanese military leadership soon informed the Allies that de facto control of Java had already passed to the nationalist movement. Anti-Dutch sentiment was gaining more ground, and when the returning NICA officials once again hoisted the old flag to public buildings this gesture caused many local riots and demonstrations as nationalists sought to immediately storm the buildings and tear the old flags down by force.

At the same time Mountbatten was under constant pressure to send in British troops in order to maintain security and pave the way for a Dutch military reoccupation.

 Finally two Indian brigades of the 23rd Infantry Division stationed to Malaya were despatched to Batavia and Surabaya. General Christison, who commanded these forces, was given the task to facilitate the recovery and repatriation of local POWs and internees as a part of the RAPWI mission, but it soon became clear that the Dutch expected them to secure bridgeheads as future bases of operations for Dutch military units that would arrive later.

Meanwhile, speaking in Singapore on 28th of September, J.J. Lawson, the new Secretary of State for War of Atlee´s Labor Government, publicly stated that no British soldiers would be used to intervere in Java.

 

For Christinson and his war-weary veterans such rhetoric was a welcomed gesture, and the general went on to publicly imply to local journalists that there were no Dutch soldiers under his command.

 Official orders from London soon confirmed that Christinson was strictly prohibited to take sides in the local conflict. Frustrated by the constant Dutch demands, Mountbatten begun to pressure them in turn, urging van Mook to open some form of dialogue with the nationalists or risk losing the Indies altogether.

 As a starters he demanded van Mook and his aides to issue a new declaration, a clear-cut statement about the future of the region.

The Dutch delegation was outraged by Mountbatten´s political advises, but while they continued to pressure the British military leadership to at least keep their troops in Batavia and Surabaya for the time being they also stated that they were prepared to start limited negotiations with the Indonesian leaders – provided that this was not taken to imply any recognition of the Republic of Indonesia!

As London did its best to pour oil on troubled waters, the two sides were indeed brought to round-table discussions on British insistence.

The initial Dutch proposals were half-hearted at best: Nederlands-Indië would be renamed Indonesië, a reconstituted Volksraad would have an Indonesian majority; legal discrimination against Indonesians would be removed; Indonesians would have more chances for advancement in the civil service.

 

 

 

 

 

 

However, imperial authority would have to be restored before any of this could be done.


As the new Lieutenant Governor General of East Indies van Mook was initially instructed not to negotiate with Sukarno or Hatta, and make tough demands on the Republic officials as a part of the Dutch diplomatic campaign against Indonesian nationalists.

Meanwhile Indonesia was descending into chaos known as the bersiap period.

Tens of thousands of young Indonesians in various pemuda militias waged a conflict against the Japanese, the Dutch, the British and even local feodal leaders suspected to be sympthatizers of the prewar colonial regime.

As the unrest spread, larger quantities of Japanese weapons fell into pemuda hands. The British response was to send in more troops, and the first major contigents arrived on Java on 28th of September.

The British moved in reluctantly and uncertain of their true mission in the island. There was no possibility to accelerate the movement of Dutch forces from Europe without sacrificing the interests of British transfers of their own troops back to Europe where the war still continued.

Thus the only alternative at the moment was to deploy more British forces from former Burma Front, even though it was quite likely that they would encounter armed resistance and suffer casualties, and that they would in any case have to be withdrawn from more pressing tasks elsewhere.

As a result, it was decided that the demoralized Japanese forces on Java would be partially remobilized to act as local garrison forces. But this solution did not solve the issue of the final purpose of British involvement. Was the mission to merely hold a few strongholds and major cities, or should the occupation be extented to the interiours of the densely-populated island?

October 1845

Behind the British the first NICA officials crept back to Batavia, van Mook among them. He arrived on October 1945 together with a small escort of former KNIL soldiers cobbled together from locally based former POWs.

At the moment he was in charge of a powder keg that had formerly been considered as a well run and major colony. Never in the history of Dutch East Indies had an acting governor confronted so many and such important problems and questions on his arrival.

But while van Mook continued his defiand negotiation tactics with Mountbatten and British officials, he was painfully aware that the Dutch government-in-exile had so far managed to get only a single battalion of soldiers made up of former POWs to Java and even this small force was causing the British military constant trouble by acting provocatively towards the locals and summarily executing known “collaborators.”

General Christison, fearful that his Indian and British troops would soon found themselves in a middle of a civil war between the Dutch authorities and local nationalists, noted to Mountbatten that van Mook should “be realistic, fly to London and give the Dutch Government the true picture.

They must face the fact that Indonesia did declare her independence on 17th of August 1945 and since then, without Japanese support, Java has been run by the Sukarno Cabinet. This simple fact has been such a shock to the Dutchmen coming in that I have had the greatest difficulty in dragging the ostriches´ heads out of the sand.”


General Christison received a tough assingment when he was tasked to command the British military expedition to Java in 1945.

As the peace negotiations in Europe were slowly turning the most destructive war in human history towards end, the Dutch were indeed becoming increasingly desperate and the “willingness to compromise”

British hoped for was displayed in several ways: they refused to issue a statement of the future of Indonesia, still precluded van Mook from opening talks with Sukarno and Hatta and continued to describe them as terrorists and “fascist Japanese puppets.” In early October the Dutch government even officially asked the British to arrest Sukarno and Hatta as war criminals.

In this climate, compromise seemed impossible. But despite the palpable British frustrations the Dutch were not merely acting as sore losers. They knew that the Republic was a result of uneasy union of nationalists, indigenous bureaucratic elite and notable leaders of orthodox Islam.

The Dutch cynically pushed the situation towards increased anarchy, calculating that if and when the conditions worsened, their prospects of being welcomed back might improve. Additionally it was possible that even more radical elements (communists) would take over in the interim – and that would increase the propabality of British and American aid to assist the Dutch ambitions.

 

During these critical first months it was no way ensured that the unity of purpose between hard-line and moderate elements in Indonesia in the shared objective of obtaining full independence would last.

But as time passed, it was increasingly clear that Sukarno had managed to ensure loyalty of common Javanese as a personal embodiment of the Republic. Eventually even van Mook noted that there was a general unanimous hatred against the Netherlands and such a desire for freedom that the only chance to avoid bloodshed was to concede independence to Sukarno and Hatta. Yet getting van Mook to accept the new realities was one thing; having him persuade his exiled countrymen at London of those realities was something else entirely.

Surabaya 19 September  1945

Jam 10 pagi insiden bendera di Tunjungan Surabaya

Ilustrasi foto

Insiden Bendera di  Tunjungan Surabaya  yang mulai memebakar :AREK AREK”  surabaya

(kempen 1950)

(D) This day was the historical day for young Surabaya

 

That was when the flag incidence at hotel Madjapahit Surabaya, the youngter was angry when Dutch flag was raised at yamato hotel. They went to the hotel and ripped the blue part of the dutch flag to became the Indonesian flang red and white.

 

In 1942 the dai Nippon took this oranye hotel and in 1945 the Dutach take back from Dai Nippon and in 1946 gave back to the owner b efore Sarkies family

 

Tuesday, October 12, 2010
Incident Yamato Hotel in Surabaya
Chronology of events causes

Incident at Hotel Yamato, Tunjungan, Surabaya

After the emergence of the Indonesian government’s announcement dated August 31, 1945 which provides that from 1 September 1945 the national flag flown at the Saka Red and White continue in all regions of Indonesia, the movement of the flag raising was further extended to all corners of the city of Surabaya. Flag-raising climax in Surabaya movement occurred in the incidence of tearing of the flag in Yamato Hoteru / Hotel Yamato (named Oranje Hotel or Hotel Orange in colonial times, now the Hotel Majapahit) on Jl. Tunjungan no. 65 Surabaya.


A group of Dutch people under the leadership of Mr. WVCh Ploegman on the afternoon of September 18, 1945, precisely at 21:00, flying the Dutch flag (Red-White-Blue), without the approval of the Regional Government of Indonesia Surabaya, on the pole at the top of Yamato Hotel, the north side. Surabaya the next day the young men saw him and became angry because they thought the Dutch had insulted the sovereignty of Indonesia, about to return the power back in Indonesia, and insulting the flag-raising movement is taking place in Surabaya.
Shortly after the mass mengumpulnya at Hotel Yamato, Resident Sudirman, warrior and diplomat yangsaat it served as the Deputy Resident (Fuku Syuco Gunseikan) is still recognized by the government Dai Nippon Syu Surabaya, Surabaya as well as a Resident Local Government Affairs, came through the crowd and went into Yamato was escorted hotel Sidik and Hariyono. As he conferred with representatives of Mr RI. Ploegman and his friends and asked that flags be lowered from the Netherlands HotelYamato building.

 

In these negotiations Ploegman refused to lower the Dutch flag and refuse to acknowledge the sovereignty of Indonesia. Negotiations took place heats up, Ploegman out a gun, and a fight broke out in the negotiating room. Ploegman died strangled by Sidik, who later was killed by Dutch soldiers on guard, and heard the gun Ploegman, while Sudirman and Hariyono fled the Yamato Hotel. Most of the young scramble up onto the hotel to lower the Dutch flag. Hariyono originally along Sudirman back into the hotel and get involved in climbing the flag pole and along Kusno Wibowo successfully lowered the Dutch flag, tore the blue, and mengereknya return to the top of the flagpole as the flag ..

 

 

Top of Form

Incident at Hotel Yamato, Tunjungan, Surabaya

After the emergence of the Indonesian government’s announcement dated August 31, 1945 which provides that from 1 September 1945 the national flag flown at the Saka Red and White continue in all regions of Indonesia, the movement of the flag raising was further extended to all corners of the city of Surabaya.

 

Flag-raising climax in Surabaya movement occurred in the incidence of tearing of the flag in Yamato Hoteru / Hotel Yamato (named Oranje Hotel or Hotel Orange in colonial times, now the Hotel Majapahit) on Jl. Tunjungan no. 65 Surabaya.

A group of Dutch people under the leadership of Mr. WVCh Ploegman on the afternoon of September 18, 1945, precisely at 21:00, flying the Dutch flag (Red-White-Blue), without the approval of the Regional Government of Indonesia Surabaya, on the pole at the top of Yamato Hotel, the north side. Surabaya the next day the young men saw him and became angry because they thought the Dutch had insulted the sovereignty of Indonesia, about to return the power back in Indonesia, and insulting the flag-raising movement is taking place in Surabaya.

Shortly after the mass mengumpulnya at Hotel Yamato, Resident Sudirman, warrior and diplomat yangsaat it served as the Deputy Resident (Fuku Syuco Gunseikan) is still recognized by the government Dai Nippon Syu Surabaya, Surabaya as well as a Resident Local Government Affairs, came through the crowd and went into Yamato was escorted hotel Sidik and Hariyono.

 

As he conferred with representatives of Mr RI. Ploegman and his friends and asked that flags be lowered from the Netherlands HotelYamato building. In these negotiations Ploegman refused to lower the Dutch flag and refuse to acknowledge the sovereignty of Indonesia. Negotiations took place heats up, Ploegman out a gun, and a fight broke out in the negotiating room.

 

Ploegman died strangled by Sidik, who later was killed by Dutch soldiers on guard, and heard the gun Ploegman, while Sudirman and Hariyono fled the Yamato Hotel. Most of the young scramble up onto the hotel to lower the Dutch flag.

 

 Hariyono originally along Sudirman back into the hotel and get involved in climbing the flag pole and along Kusno Wibowo successfully lowered the Dutch flag, tore the blue, and mengereknya return to the top of the flagpole as the flag ..

BEFORE AND EARLIEST  ALLIED FORCES CAME IN SEPTEMBER 1945

 

An unidentified Australian prisoner of war poses with an accordion in Sumatra, Indonesia in September 1945

 

September 19th 1945

(a) In  this day the British allied Forces have taken over  the duty from the Dai Nippon soldiers when their reinforcement were landed, six  weeks after Dai Nippon surrendered.

(b)The situasion in September were “Afraid and Hate”, The afraid’s people were Indomen which hate by the Japanese.

(c)Pelopor Indonesia have phisically contact with the Indo, and in the Berita Indonesia news paper  and the propaganda Plaque put on the wall we could read the “provacation “ against the Indomen, the Police couldn’t taken any action . The word Nippon did’t used anymore.(SW,1946)

 

 

 

 

 

September,20th 1945

Terbentuknya Kepolisian

 

Pengangkatan R.S. Soekanto sebagai Kepala Kepolisian Negara yang Pertama dan Terbentuknya Kepolisian Nasional Indonesia

Dalam rangka membentuk lembaga kepolisian yang terstruktur dan organisasional Presiden Soekarno menunjuk Raden Said Soekanto Cokrodiatmojo sebagai Kepala Kepolisian Negara RI atas saran dari Iwa Kusumasumantri dan Mr. Sartono. Penunjukan ini dilakukan dalam sidang kabinet pada tanggal 29 September 1945 tanpa sepengetahuan dirinya.

Pengangkatan Soekanto sebagai Kepala Kepolisian Negara merupakan langkah awal pembentukan kepolisian nasional yang integratif.

Hal ini terlihat dari upaya untuk menyatukan satuan-satuan polisi di daerah yang mandiri dan tanpa koordinasi setelah kemerdekaan dalam Kepolisian Negara RI. Sejak peresmiannya, Kepolisian Negara memikul tanggungjawab keamanan yang berat karena tentara nasional belum dibentuk secara resmi.

(1)Rear admiral Patterson have called General Nagama and General Yamamoto from Dai Nippon Military Adminstration and instructed them to delivered all Indonesia Inventaritations to Allied.(The British Occupation Jakarta were started-auth) (D)

(2)the psikiatric hospital send Dai nippon 31/2 cent Karbouw design postcard , postally used  from Padang 20.9.05 to Boekittinggi, added Dai Nippon Sumatra 5 sent stamp (increase rate to 81/2 cent).( Sumatra still under Dai Nippon administration-auth)(PH)

 

September,20th 1945

(1)Rear admiral Patterson have called General Nagama and General Yamamoto from Dai Nippon Military Adminstration and instructed them to delivered all Indonesia Inventaritations to Allied.(The British Occupation Jakarta were started-auth) (D)

(2)Dai nippon 31/2 cent Karbouw design postcard , postally used  from Padang 20.9.05 to Boekittinggi, added Dai Nippon Sumatra 5 sent stamp (increase rate to 81/2 cent).( Sumatra still under Dai Nippon administration-auth)(PH)

(3) the Chief Of Indonesian Police Commisaris General R.S.Soekanto inaugurated

 

Commissioner-General (Pol.) Raden Said Soekanto Tjokrodiatmodjo (born in Bogor, West Java, June 7, 1908 – died in Jakarta, August 24, 1993 at age 85 years) is Head of the Indonesian National Police (Chief of Police; first named Chief Djawatan State Police)

The first, held from 29 September 1945 to December 14, 1959.

In 1952 a member of Indonesia Purwo Daksia lodges. He served as Chief of Police Affairs. Soekanto a temperature of eastern Indonesia’s Supreme Court or the National Federation of Mason.

He also served as chairman of Raden Saleh Foundation which is a continuation of the Carpentier Alting stiching

Later his named used the central Police Bhayangkara Hospital kramatjadi south Jakarta

September,20th. 1945

 

Telegrafische postwissel gefrankeerd met f. 7.00 op 2 1/2 cent en definitief 50 cent en 1 gulden, Singaradja 20-9-5, pracht ex.

 

[ostally used Dain Nippon postacard with ryokin kan no(port have paid) in 1945 from balige to Medan

 

 

 

September, 21th. 1945

(1)Soerakarta Zaisan Kanri Sikyoku’s death certificate form send to Masaran Soncho (Sragen).

In this certifiacte were listed the identity  of the Death Mean,Father and mother, when they merried,the property , if they weren’t officially merried must merried officially in Solo.(until september Dai nippon still have powered in Solo and sragen,Middle java-auth)

(2)Dai Nippon Postcard 31/2 cent karbouw,overprint Aceh  small Rep.Indonesia send from  Sigli to Biruen Aceh (very rare card)

 

 

 

September, 21th. 1945

(1)Soerakarta Zaisan Kanri Sikyoku’s death certificate form send to Masaran Soncho (Sragen).

In this certifiacte were listed the identity  of the Death Mean,Father and mother, when they merried,the property , if they weren’t officially merried must merried officially in Solo.(until september Dai nippon still have powered in Solo and sragen,Middle java-auth)

September.22th 1945

(1)Postally used Dai Nippon 31/2 cent Java postcard. Send from CDS Djakarta 22.9-05 to Parakan.the letter :” Very long time didn’t have informations.If you come hear you willn,t familier anymore to our house because we have renovated.Our brothers had came homes. I want to go to Djawa, but must be waited one or two month when the train weren’t full.I hope after recieved this letter you will write again.”(The Allied forces(British) didn’t aoccupied the Central Djakarta post office (Pasar Baru,now phillatelic center), and the Dai nippon callender stil used on Date stamped, the postal rate didn’t change-auth)(PH)

September 23th 1945

September 23Patterson sends Captain Huyer of the Dutch Navy to inspect installations in Surabaya

(1)Native Java “ wono Caroko” characters’s certificate , receipt in this day (may beone day  someone will tranlate this native certificater –auth)(D)

(2) Patterson send Captain Hayes of the Dutch navy to inspect the Surabaya situation (D)

(3) Three or four days after the Ikada Mass meeting (on the 23rd of Sepetember 1945) the meeting at Subardjo’s house was continued, again at Soebardjo’s place. That was when Tan Malaka appeared at the meeting  (I think meneer Poeze wrong, Tan Malaka wasn’t appeared in Ikada  mass meeting September .19th 1945, he appeared in September 23th 1945 at Soebardjo’s house second meeting ,Hatta saw  Tan Malaka, please comment Mr Poeze-auth)

There was no doubt that it was he, when we shook hands with each other. At the time Tan Malaka  to join us, saying(Hatta):”Do join us in the government, for instance by training  a propaganda front”

“ No, you two ( Bung karno and I) are just right,” he (Tan Malaka) said, “Let me just help in the background” (this was the anserwd of my queation many years, why Tan malaka didn’t joint the Indonesia Independent (that he was created) Government? –auth), Thus, he(Tan Malaka) did not like to be under us who were much younger, because he was older. I (Hatta) think that was his real reason ( May be Tan Malaka didn’t want to be the prsedent of NRI –the state of Republic Indonesia, he want to be the The Biggest leader of all Indonesia revolutionary area(Peminbin Besar Revolusi Indonesia)-auth). So he (tan malaka) said that he wanted to help in the background by strenggthening the movement and to stryggle to defend our freedom.

(ibid,Yusni.”Hatta Unswered”,1981)

September,23th.1945

923日に武器を引き渡す第52師団の歩兵

Dai Nippon 52 infantry divisions to deliver the weapon on 23 September

October,3th.1945

103日に第48師団が降伏した。

48th Infantry Division surrendered on October 3.

英軍に降伏する第7方面軍司令官(板垣征四郎大将

Military commander to surrender to British forces in the direction of 7

 

 (Gen. Seishiro Itagaki)

September 25 th 1945.

(a)Two days after the second meeting at Subardjo ‘s House and met tan Malakq, Bung Karno came to my House (57 Diponegoro street,Menteng jakarta), he said :” What shall we do, I have gone too far and have given a verbal promise that, if the two of us are arrest by the Alliest, the country’s leadership will be transferred to Tan Malaka ( very famous and sensational “ Bung Korno’s Will Of the next Leaders “ was true due to Hattas –auth)

Hatta react to Sukarno’s will, he said :

“ That is impossible” he said to Bung Karno.

“ You remenbered , since the Japanese time it was felt ( it was not officially expreseed, but it was felt) that the PKI (Indonesian communist Party) elements were against Tan Malaka. How could he become a successor to the two of us ?

“ But because Bung Karno has gone too far, how would it be if we just change it ? We will give the mandate not just to Tan Malaka alone. Let us take four people. Tan Malaka represent the radical group, Syahrir the emi radical, Sukiman represent the Moslem group, while Wongsonegoro represent the conservative group. Thus they will represent the whole people. Sukarno agreed.

He went home to his house at 56 Pegangsaan Timur Jakarta (near Menteng, now became the Indpendent garden with the Statue Sukarno-hatta Independence proclamations, the house was broken down by Sukarno later and made the Pola building, also the proclamation ‘s PEWARI (Indonesian Lady’s association) statue-auth)

, and frome there phoned Soebardjo to inform Tan Malaka that Bung Karno wanted to see him again, “ But also with Bung Hatta who was not preent the previoeus time” He (Bung Karno) said.

(b)At that meeting, I again explained that it was necessary for the four elements to participate (Hatta was true, until this day the four element alsways cann,t joint together,and the situation always made Indonesia not too stable between 1950 until 1965, and again after 1998-2004, I hope our president SBY-susilo bambang Yudoyono will anticipating the four element to joint together, Hatta was very best strategic heros in Indonesia-please comment-auth)

At the meeting. Iwan Kusuma Sumantri said that Sukiman was not there :”I could take his place, because I am aslo from the Masyumi(islamic party-auth) “ He said. Ultimately a document was prepared with Iwa replacing Sukiman,

Sukarni once said that the idea and the term Republic of Indonesia originated with Tan Malaka, I (Hatta) said :” That is not true. Dr Cipto Mangunkusumo had used that term earlier, that was in 1913. So it was not Tan Malaka’s idea. Cipto was opposed to monarchs . Ad all of us from the nationalist movement at that time were republicans”

The PKI movement , in 1948 , Muso’soriginal plan was to procalim as Indonesia Soviet State,

(the story read at 1948-November chapter-.

Hatta have told us that the public ‘s opinion ,especially the Tan Malaka folloower that the term of Republic Indonesia was Tan malaka Opinion wasn’t true-please comment Meneer Poeze –the Tan Malaka expert-auth)

 

NRI Palembang Overprint REPublik Indonesia on Nedderland stamp(original rep Ind always  not clear-Dr Iwan note)

 

 

 Palembang 26.9.1945

September,27 th.1945

Republican youths take over PTT (Post, Telegraph and Telephone) headquarters in Bandung.

Republican’s youth take over PTT headquaters at Bandung (D)

 

Republican youths take over PTT (Post, Telegraph and Telephone) headquarters in Bandung.

 

Republican’s youth take over PTT headquaters at Bandung (D)

 

 

 

The “Kadaulatan Rakyat” newspaper was issued at Djogja

 

September.28th 1945

 

The infant republic was soon faced with military threats to its very existence. British troops landed in Indonesia as a contingent of the Allied Forces to disarm the Japanese. Dutch troops also seized this opportunity to land in the country, but for a different purpose,
namely, to regain control of the former East Indies. At the beginning they were assisted by British troops under General Christinson, a fact later admitted by Lord Louis Mountbatten,
the Commander of the Allied Forces in Southeast Asia based in Myanmar.

In fact, theBritish troops were officially only assigned to the task of repatriating Allied prisoners
of war and internees.

 (1)British reinforcement landed at Jakarta(D)

(2)Soerakarta Kooti Jimu Kyoku letter with official Kanji stamped  to Semarang Zaisan kanri Kyoku about the report of birth that not yet  report the birth since 1942.

 

(Because of war, many chlid’s birth have  very late report, due to the law must report in two weeks and the Dai Nippon administration still done their duties although they have surrender , salute to their deciplined., this was the best Document history-auth) (D)

(3) From Aneta’s information that, Soekarno and Hatta under House arrest(SW,1946)

(4)Foreign Radio have announced that General Dempsy had an order tho sent the soldier to Indochina and Java (SW,1946)

 

 

Dutch opposition to independence
The archipelago was put under the jurisdiction of British Admiral
Earl Louis Mountbatten,
Supreme Allied commander Southeast Asia. The British were charged with restoring order and a civilian government in Java, which the Dutch took to mean pre-war colonial administration and continued to claim sovereignty over Indonesia.[11] The Dutch East Indies administration had just received a ten million dollar loan from the United States to finance its return to Indonesia.[5]

They accused Sukarno and Hatta as collaborating with the Japanese, and denounced the Republic as a creation of Japanese fascism.[7]

The Netherlands, however, was critically weakened from World War II in Europe and did not return as a significant military force until
early 1946. The Japanese and members of the Allied forces reluctantly agreed to act as caretakers.[11] Because of Indonesia’s distance from the main theatres of war, Allied troops, mostly from the British Commonwealth, did not land on Java to accept the Japanese surrender until late September 1945 but their arrival was the first serious challenge to the Republic

28 September 1945

Pemboikotan pekerja-pekerja pelabuhan Australia terhadap kapal-kapal Belanda yang hendak  memuat senjata dan alat-alat militer untuk Indonesia.*kempen 1950)

September, 29th.1945

 

The rare postally used(the written were bluur off by water) dai Nippon java postal stationer 5 cent on Dai Nippon Military card.send from CDS Magelang 29.9.05 .

 

British reinforcements land in Jakarta.

Republican youths take over railways and radio stations in Jakarta, installations in Yogya, Solo, Malang, and Bandung.

Mass independence rallies are held in Jakarta and Surabaya.

The Susuhunan of Solo declares allegiance to Republic.

King of Bone declares support for the Republic; rajas of Makassar and Bugis join him.

Balinese rajas declare their support for the Republic.

Scattered violence breaks out between youths and Dutch former internees. Dutch soldiers who had been prisoners-of-war under the Japanese are put back into active service against the Republic.

Australian troops take surrender from Japanese navy. Australian military gives support to NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Administration) to retain government control in eastern areas, Sulawesi, and Kaliman

(1) Republican youth take over railways and radio station at Jakarta and Surabaya, installation  at jogja,solo,Malang and Bandung(D)

(2) Fighting escalaters between Republican Youth with  foreigners Dutch troops  and Military Police massacre Republican youths in Pekalongan

(3) Japanese troops pushed Republican out of Bandung , hand over that city to British allies armed forces

(4)Allied forces(British) landed at Djakarta with the command of Leutenant General Christison (ibid,M.1952)

(5) Radio SEAC, The Letnan General Christison, the Chief  Command of Indonesia Allied Forces (AFNEI) ‘s  annouced about their  duty in Indonesia :

(a) Repatriated the prisonor of War and Internirnees, which administrated and operationed by RAPWI ( Rehabilitation Allied Prisoners of War and Internees)

(b) “Melucuti” dearmed the Japanese and repatiated them  backhome to Japan .

(c) Keep the situations still in well conditions ( “tertib&aman”) in orded the duty will be done.(D)

(6)The Sudanco of Solo declare allegiancy to Republic(D)

(7) King of Bone declares support for Republic, Raja of Makassar and Bugis join .(D)

(8)Former PETA ,HEIHO and islamic forces organized themselves adds a new fighting forces.

(9) Australian troops take surrender from Japanese navy, and they give support to NICA(D)

(10) About 11.00pm  many trucks full with British-India allied soldiers came in Jakarta city. In the night were raining, the wheater felt good , everybody happy that the British armed forces now came to protect the security .

Many leaflet that aksing the people suggested don’t interface the Allies and the Dutch because they came only for protect the general securities, the status of Indonesia willn’t “ditetapka’ by them but by one United Nation conference of America,England, Rusland, Tiongkok(China) and Franch (if someone have this leaflet please show us-auth) (SW,1946)

 

by Boudewyn van Oort

 

 

 

Cumberland

Towards the end of September 1945,

one and a half months after the war had ended, the first Allied military personnel set foot on Java. The arrival of HMS Cumberland and HMNS Tromp in Tandjong Priok, the port of Batavia, was hardly the way we had anticipated being liberated by our victorious Allies. The tiny force was barely sufficient to take over Tjideng Camp guard duty from the Japanese army who for one and a half months had continued to guard the gate, but now from the threat of Indonesian rebels.

 

 

Guards

Elsewhere on Java, Japanese soldiers continued their new task of “protecting us” from former fellow citizens, an utterly bewildering turn of events. Seldom in history has a political weathervane swung so swiftly from one extreme to another. The Korean and Japanese chaps who had spent three and a half years trying to keep us locked up in the camp as enemy aliens, immediately after the armistice was signed, changed their role, and kept us locked up under Allied orders “for our safety”.

The tsunami of Japanese invasion was now replaced by the typhoon winds of political change. Within three and a half years life on Java had morphed from colonial oppression through military tyranny to descend into anarchy.

 

 

 

 

 

 

by Boudewyn van Oort

 
Trivelli House

This is a typical house on the main street of Tjideng camp.

These images give an impression of our living conditions. Trivelli was the name of the street. Today it is called Jalan Tanah Abang 2.

This is the sort of house we occupied in Tjideng along with another 110 occupants. This was a better type of home, located along the mainstreet through the camp. The picture was taken by Mr Ripassa, a Eurasian photographer who had remained at liberty throughout the war, and after September 2, when the cease fire was signed, visited Tjideng

 
Trivelli House 2

This house is probably number 93. Note the potties and makeshift sun shade, probably plundered after the war from the camp wall.

by Boudewyn van Oort

 
Gedek Destruction

When food became more plentiful after the war we needed firewood and the bamboo wall was an attractive source of this commodity. The plundering operation was soon stopped by the Japanese camp Commandant because the bamboo wall had now become our defense against rioting Indonesians.

 

 

by Boudewyn van Oort

 
Tjideng Camp Gate, 1945

This picture appears on the front cover of the book, Tjideng Reunion. It shows the Tjideng camp gate shortly after the war was declared over ( August 23, 1945) when the first curious visitors from Batavia came to see what lay behind the mysterious Bamboo wall from where so many dead emerged. The author and his mother may well be among the crowd of curious internees looking out onto the much changed outside world.

Source

http://www.boudewynvanoort.com/tag/indonesia/

 

 

 

29 September 1945

AFNEI( Allied Forces In Netherland East Indie)m Tentara Serikat tiba di Jakarta dibawah pimpinan Jendral christison menamakan pemerintahan sukarno Pemerintahan “de Facto:/

Dalam suatu  Pindato Radio,christison menerangkan bahwa untuk

1.Melindungi dan menjalankan pemeindahan tawanan perang dan orang interniran,

2,Melucuti  senjata tentara Jepang dan mengembalikan tentara Jepang

3.Memelihara ketertiban dan keamanan umum agar kedua tujuan pertama dapat dilaksanakan.

(kempen 1950)

 

 

Balinese rajas declare their support for the Republic.

The bali book illustration(winkler encyclopedia,1948)

 

 

 

 

 

Scattered violence breaks out between youths and Dutch former internees. Dutch soldiers who had been prisoners-of-war under the Japanese are put back into active service against the Republic.

Australian troops take surrender from Japanese navy. Australian military gives support to NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Administration) to retain government control in eastern areas, Sulawesi, and Kalimantan

(1) Republican youth take over railways and radio station at Jakarta and Surabaya, installation  at jogja,solo,Malang and Bandung(D)

(2) Fighting escalaters between Republican Youth with  foreigners Dutch troops  and Military Police massacre Republican youths in Pekalongan

(3) Japanese troops pushed Republican out of Bandung , hand over that city to British allies armed forces

(4)Allied forces(British) landed at Djakarta with the command of Leutenant General Christison (ibid,M.1952)

(5) Radio SEAC, The Letnan General Christison, the Chief  Command of Indonesia Allied Forces (AFNEI) ‘s  annouced about their  duty in Indonesia :

(a) Repatriated the prisonor of War and Internirnees, which administrated and operationed by RAPWI ( Rehabilitation Allied Prisoners of War and Internees)

(b) “Melucuti” dearmed the Japanese and repatiated them  backhome to Japan .

(c) Keep the situations still in well conditions ( “tertib&aman”) in orded the duty will be done.(D)

(6)The Sudanco of Solo declare allegiancy to Republic(D)

(7) King of Bone declares support for Republic, Raja of Makassar and Bugis join .(D)

(8)Former PETA ,HEIHO and islamic forces organized themselves adds a new fighting forces.

(9) Australian troops take surrender from Japanese navy, and they give support to NICA(D)

(10) About 11.00pm  many trucks full with British-India allied soldiers came in Jakarta city. In the night were raining, the wheater felt good , everybody happy that the British armed forces now came to protect the security .

Many leaflet that aksing the people suggested don’t interface the Allies and the Dutch because they came only for protect the general securities, the status of Indonesia willn’t “ditetapka’ by them but by one United Nation conference of America,England, Rusland, Tiongkok(China) and Franch (if someone have this leaflet please show us-auth) (SW,1946)

Dai nippon death certificate

 

 

September.Sunday 30th 1945

(1)General Christison announced that   Republic Indonesia have “the de facto’s power”(defacto Government)after he have seen with his own eyes  the Indonesia’s Power in Jakarta at September 29th 1945( This was the British political statement that made  their movement at Central Java will more peace conditions, and they have succeeded –auth) (D).

(2) Van der Plas didn’t succeeded to asked the good favour from the R.I ‘s Police at their meeting in the Allies headquaters at south Gambir no 13 (ex Dai Nippon Military Headquaters , now Pertamina building?)(D)

(3) The Dutch soldier also landed with the British allies, and many Leaflet asked the people to attactk the Dutch “Attacked the Dutch durin the best situations”, but the Indonesian did’t foud the gun from Japanese , that is why nothing happened because without guns the Indonesian couldn’t moved.(SW,1946)

(4) At 1.00 pm, CH.O.der Plas have spoken in  Malay at the Radio , he said that  “The politician who collaborator with the Japnese willn’t sue except who made the danger situation to the people life(Yang mendatangkan tjilaka kepada sesama pendoedoek), after that in Dutch “ everybody were invited tomorrow  at Koningsplein Ost KPM building , and the life securities were protected, and he use the word  in dutch “Een Nieuw Indonesia” one new Indonesia.

At 1,15 pm The Allies Radio read the the news in English and then in Indonesia and Dutch language only five minutes about “The Allies forces have came in Batavia as the proposal . This morning the turn of the power will begun”(SW,1946)

(5) Some Dutch Marines were walking around  Koningsplein Oost 5, KPM Building . but the visitors had told that Van de Plas didn’t seen. At the Koningsplein Zuid(South) no 8 we could read “Headquaters  U.S.Dept.404 “ and the USA flag flow (now the USA Ambassy-auth)(SW,1946)

(6) Dai Nippon Java prestamped 31/2 cent postcard postally used from CDS Solo 30.9005 to the chief of Zaisan Kanri Sikyoku at Tambaksegaran Solo, with letter that  the Land (perponding)Tax (pajeg)2605/2606 haven’t paid because he haven’t recieved the Tax administration form until this day

 

(The best people, he always thinking of this tax paid duty, he didn’t know that the Japanese was surrender , he must write to Republic Indonesia Tax office, maybe not exist, please comment if someone have the republic Indonesia Tax form of Solo, because in Sumatra the tax always paid altough the war was went on-aut

October 1945

1 Oktober 1945

Pengumuman Pemerintah Belanda  : Tidak akan mengadakan perundingan dengan Pemerintahan sukarno

(kempen 1950)

 

Used  Money Order fragment CDS Ketangoengan  West 1.10.5

 

Bandingkan dengan CDS tahun 1935

 

Ketangoengan west Pabrik gula (sugar fabric)

Read more

 Suikerfabriek (pabrik gula) di  Ketangoengan West, weeginstallatie.

Sumber info

S-769 Fotocollectie Stork, 1868-1968, Historisch Centrum Overijssel

 

 

Ketanggungan Barat (dalam pemugaran, 10 Agustus 2010)

Stasiun Ketanggungan Barat (KGB, +16m) adalah stasiun kereta api yang terletak di Cigedog, Kersana, Brebes. Stasiun ini termasuk ke dalam Daops 3 Cirebon. Stasiun ini hanya disinggahi oleh kereta api ekonomi. Stasiun ini memiliki tiga jalur lintasan. Sampai tahun 1990-an, Stasiun Ketanggungan Barat masih disebut sebagai Stasiun Ketanggungan West.

 

Stasiun Ketanggungan Barat, 15 Februari 2009
(Wikipedia )

The earliest British Allied Armed Forces came to Jakarta in October 1945.

 Di Pelabuhan Tannjung Priok mendarat  delapan kapal dengan bendera Australia  dengan orang belanda sebagai penumpangnya

At Tandjong Priok harbour were landed eight ship with Australian flag with  the Dutchmen as passangers(D)

 Dai Nippon imprint revenue 2605(1945) used for water billing.

 

Surat Tagihan Dai Nippon Hodosan keibodan (Perusahan air Minum=PAM) cabang Bandung  f 15,25 gulden dengan meterai inprint Dai Nippon Jawa bulan September 1945

 Buat Belanda yang memiliki badan NICA (Netherlands Indie Civil Administration) yang baru kemudian secara resmi tiba di Jakarta pada awal Oktober tiba di Jawa, isu politik ini amat menguntungkan dan mulai membina masyarakat Indonesia yang pro Belanda serta melakukan persiapan-persiapan akan kembalinya Pemerintahan Hindia Belanda yang kabur ke Australia ketika Jepang secara resmi masuk ke Indonesia pada tgl 8 Maret 1942.

Diantara tokoh NICA yang tiba lebih dahulu dengan tentara sekutu adalah Van der Plas.

Usaha-usaha yang dilakukannya adalah mulai merehabiliter ex tentara KNIL baik yang bebas maupun yang baru lepas dari camp interniran Japang. Agitasi dan provokasi Van der Plas cs, membuat Jakarta menjadi kurang aman karena dimana-mana timbul konflik bersenjata yang memakan korban tidak sedikit. Padahal kelompok pemuda-mahasiswa Jakarta sedang giat-giatnya melakukan pengambil alihan badan-badan Pemerintah ex Jepang untuk difungsikan dalam Pemerintah RI atau setidaknya Pemerintahan Daerah Jakarta Raya.

Slogan-slogan anti Kolonialisme dan Imperialisme bermunculan yang ditulis oleh pemuda-mahasiswa Jakarta pada dinding-dinding gedung, trem dan kereta api maupun dalam spanduk-spanduk yang dapat dibaca dipersimpangan jalan-jalan, Semua ini dengan harapan dapat dibaca siapa saja khususnya tentara sekutu bahwa “Indonesia sudah Merdeka dan berdaulat”.

 

Republik Indonesia at Bali

From October 1945 until late January 1946 there was a short period of Republican rule on Bali.

 

 

October,1st 1945

(1)Merdeka Newspaper as the newspaper after Asia Raya, had written the information“At Pendjaringan The Scot soldier had shooted many roberries “ (SW,1946)

(2) After fighting, the Dai Nippon Headquaters at Surabaya have surrendered to The Indonesian people(M,1952)

(3) The Dutch goverment announced that the suggestion of the meeting with” Sukarno government” willn’t accepted (M,1952)

(4) 

Very late Dai Nippon Solok (west Sumatra)Isankarisha’s agent latter to Isankanrisho (weeskamer or the official office to administratated “Warisan”) , the letter that

 

“Because no papers exist, the report of the new reciept of September 2605 didn’t made, “Rekening-courant”(Fiscal administration) was same with April,1st 1943/1945 (1 Gatsu 4 Nichi Djowa 20/2603 (December 2602), was no money in or out . (Very interesting and historic letter but very pity the cover wasn’t found may be burn/loss or through out from the file-auth)

At the back of above Th letter used old paper with info:

Islam guna perjuangkan dan kepandaian di Sungai batang selain dari perkumpulan Muhamadiyah dan aisyah sudah dibbuat pula )KO Perkumpuln Penolong Kesengsaraan U(Oe)mum yaitu toong menolong dalam kesengsaran yaitu menolong orang msikin membuat rumah dan membantu orang yang terbenam dalam laut dan selanjutnya pengurus(vorsitter) meminta terima kasih kepada Dt Madjolelo dan kemudian berdiri sutan sjarif sekretaris Muhamaddiyah Padang Pandjang tersebab kekurangan orang yang hadir berderma seberapa suka orang penolong sekolah itu.

Kemudian kira-kira pukul setengah dua siang hari itu pertemuan ditutup dengan membaca fatiah Pada hari selasa 9 agustus 1927 saya dating ditempat itu melakukan pertemuan Aisyah perkumpulan  muhamadiyah perempuan di mesjid Arikir juga yang dihadiri 100 orang perempuan saj yang dipimpin oleh 5 orang seperti diatas(the document was cutting)

 

 

 

 

 

THE JAVA LANGUAGE FRONT PAGE BOOK

 

2 Oktober 1945

Markas besar tentara jepang di Surabaya menyerah kepada rakyat

GPII(Gerakan Pemuda Islam Indonesia) didirikan

(kempen 1950)

October,2nd.1945

 

DN Java Postal stationer  on dai Nippon Military Postcard send from CDS Serang (Banten)6.10,45 to Bandoeng.the serang postal services still under Dai Nippon Administration.

 

OCTOBER 2nd 1945

(1)In the night at  Kramat, Senen,Tanah tinggi, Kalibaru , Bungur and Kepu area of Central Jakarta, the  Indo-Dutch and Japanese have made the secret ’s patrol operations (in native language: ,”pengre-bekan”  -auth) (PTIK 52)

 

 

The Jakarta Book illustrations(ibid winkler,1948)

 

 

 

 

 

(2)TheRepublic  Indonesia announced that the NICA banknotes not accepted “Tidak belaku” not circulated.(Majalah .PTIK 1952)

3 Oktober 1945

Pemerintah Negara republic Indonesia dengan resmi di Jalankan di Sumatra,pengangkatan residen-residen dan staf Gubernur.(kempen 1050)

October 3rd 1945

(1)Some Japanese were tried to assasinated President Soekarno, but not succeed.(D

(2)The Dai Nippon Zaisan kanri_weeskame_Balai Peningaklan Harta letter of Blitar about house rent billing

 

4 Oktober 1945

Dr H.J. van Mook tiba di Jakarta(kempen 1950)

Octiber,4th.1945

 

JAPON: OCUPACION EN INDONESIA. 1945.

Cover bearing Sumatra issue 50 c. & 1R. (JSCA 15S11-12) tied by Dai Nippon BINDJEI Postmark CDS Oct 4 cds addressed locally. Very late usage after the end of War, especially with high value stamps, Bindjei Postal service  near Medan city still under Gai Nippon Administration

 

 

 

5 Oktober 1945

TRI”Tentara Keamanan Rakyat” dibentuk untuk memperkuat keamanan umum,

 

Sdr Soepriadi,yang pada masa Jepang memimpinpemberontakan melawan jepang di Blitar diangkat menjadimenteri Keamanan.(kempen 1950)

 

Supriadi Pahlawan nasional Indonesia

Reda more

Siapa sih yang tidak kenal dengan sosok pahlawan satu ini. Supriyadi adalah pahlawan nasional Indonesia, pemimpin pemberontakan pasukan Pembela Tanah Air (PETA) terhadap pasukan pendudukan Jepang di Blitar pada Februari 1945. Ia ditunjuk sebagai menteri keamanan rakyat pada kabinet pertama Indonesia, namun tidak pernah muncul untuk menempati jabatan tersebut.

Pada waktu itu, Supriyadi memimpin sebuah pasukan tentara bentukan Jepang yang beranggotakan orang orang Indonesia. Karena kesewenangan dan diskriminasi tentara Jepang terhadap tentara PETA dan rakyat Indonesia, Supriyadi gundah. Ia lantas memberontak bersama sejumlah rekannya sesama tentara PETA. Namun pemberontakannya tidak sukses. Pasukan pimpinan Supriyadi dikalahkan oleh pasukan bentukan Jepang lainnya, yang disebut Heiho.

Kabar yang berkembang kemudian, Supriyadi tewas. Tetapi, hingga kini tidak ditemukan mayat dan kuburannya. Oleh karena itu, meski telah dinobatkan sebagai pahlawan nasional oleh pemerintah, keberadaan Supriyadi tetap misterius hingga kini. Sejarah yang ditulis pada buku-buku pelajaran sekolah pun menyebut Supriyadi hilang.

 

Namun yang membikin sosok Supriyadi semakin misterius adalah banyaknya kemunculan orang-orang yang mengaku sebagai Supriyadi. Salah satu yang cukup kontroversial adalah sebuah acara pembahasan buku ‘Mencari Supriyadi, Kesaksian Pembantu Utama Bung Karno’, yang diadakan di Toko Buku Gramedia di Jalan Pandanaran Semarang. Dalam acara itu, seorang pria sepuh bernama Andaryoko Wisnu Prabu membuka jati diri dia sesungguhnya. Dia mengaku sebagai Supriyadi, dankini berusia 88 tahun.

Namun sampai sekarang pengakuan tersebut belum bisa dibuktikan kebenarannya, meski secara perawakan dan sejumlah saksi membenarkan klaim tersebut.

Sumber

http://oroginak.wordpress.com/tag/indonesia/page/2/

 

 

 

 

October 5th 1945

 

BKR later gave birth to the People’s Security Army or TKR-Tentara Keamanan Rakyat on October 5, 1945  which later became the TNI until now. In the early days of the revolution TKR members consist of young soldiers bekeas PETA, Heiho, Kaigun, Hezbollah and the Barisan Pioneers_

(1)Republic Indonesia Army, The People Security Army (TKR) Tentara Keamanan Rakyat ) were founded in this day, and Mayor Genera Oerip Sumohardjo as the chief of General staf and Soeprijadi (ex PETA rebellion Blitar) as the Minestry of security and the high command , but he never came   (later this day celebrated as Indonesia armed forces day and suprijadi still mysteriuos , until now eight men confest to be Soeprijadi-auth), Vintage photo of General Oerip and ex sudanco PETA  Suprijadi(D&P)

(2)Also Landed in this day three Cargo-ships and four sumarines belong to theDutch(D)

(3)Seven thousand Tandjong Priok’s Workmen “mogok” they didn’t want to served the Dutch’s Ships (D)

(4) The Battallion X soldiers  started to show their “brutallity,kekejaman” at Hospital street(D)

 

Jendral  Gatot Soebroto pengagas TNI angkatan darat

October,6th.1945

 

DN Java on dai Nippon Postcard send from CDS Serang (Banten)6.10,45 to Bandoeng

October 7th 1945

Presiden sukarno mengundang liwat radio Pecinta kemerdekaan:

Madame Chiang Kai sek dari tiongkok,Pandit Nehru dari India,Dr Hebert Evatt dari Australia, Jendral Carlos Romulo dari Phillina, untuk menyaksikan keadaan sesungahannya di Indonesia dewasa ini (kempen 1950)

Pemerintah sipil Hindia belanda NICA (nederlands Indie  Civil Administration) data di Pulau Jawa dengabn  pendirian :

a.berdasarkan  Persetujuan Postdammerasa mempunyai  kadaulatan penuh atas kepulauan Indonesia

b.Berkewajiban membangun kembali Pemerintahan Hindia belandayang pada tanggal 8 Maret 1942 diserahkan dengan tisda be syarat kepada balatentara Jepang.

Tetapi :

1.Lord Louis Mounbatten supreme Commander South East asia Command(Panglima tertinggi komando asia tengara),berpendapat,bahwa pertikaian yang kini timbul>antara bangsa belanda dan bangsa Indonesia jangan diselesaikan dengan jalan menghancurkan republic Indonesia dengan kekerasan senjata, melainkan hendaknya tetapi hendaknya diambil jalan damai

Sukarno dan hatta jangan dipandang sebagai penghianat dan pembantu (kolaburator) jepang, melainkan sebagai orantg-orang dalam hatinya hanya membelautamakan kepentingan kesejahteraan Tanahairnya.

Pemerintah Belanda di den Haag, tidak sudidalam keadaan bagaimana juga, mengadakan perundingan dengan sukarno-Hatta(kempen 1950)

Markas Jepang di Jogjakarta menyerah kepada Rakyat(kempen 1950)

(1)At Singapore’s discussion, Dr van Mook asked Mountbatten and Chritison took more hard actions in Indonesia (M,1952)

(2) Vintage photo of Mountbatten,Christison and Van Mooke (P)

(3) The used Dai nippon revenue f1,50-

 

October 8th 1945

(1)The chief ofJjakarta’s National Govern-ment order that the Jakarta’s people must protected (menjaga) the Food’s storages  building .(D)

(2) TRI –Tentara republik Indonesia (republican Armed Forces) had taken Capten Huyer into custody at Surabaya( TRI wrong informations this time BKR-Bandan Keamaan rakyat- People Defeand organisation  –auth .(D)

(3) British Allied Forces landed at medan,

 

(That is why the Republic indonesia stamps cann’t exist in 1945 at Medan, but some fake & bogus postal history ever seen-auth)

Sumber

Buku karangan pejuang dari medan,jembatan emasditemukan di medan tahun 1976

October,9th.1945

 

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945

 

pasukan Sekutu mendarat di Sumatera Utara di bawah pimpinan Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly. Serdadu Belanda dan NICA ikut membonceng pasukan ini yang dipersiapkan mengambil alih pemerintahan. Pasukan Sekutu membebaskan para tawanan atas persetujuan Gubernur Teuku M. Hassan.

Para bekas tawanan ini bersikap congkak sehingga menyebabkan terjadinya insiden di beberapa tempat.

Achmad Tahir, seorang bekas perwira tentara Sukarela memelopori terbentuknya TKR Sumatra Tirnur.

 

On October 9, 1945

in Civil Affairs Agreement plan actually implemented. Diboncengi by British troops landed in Medan NICA. They were led by Brig T.E.D Kelly.


Initially they were accepted by the government of North Sumatra Indonesia in connection with his duty to free the prisoners of war (the Dutch army). An incident occurred at Jalan Bali,

 

 

Pendaratan Sekutu di kota Medan terjadi pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945 dibawah pimpinan T.E.D Kelly.

 

 Pendaratan tentara sekutu (Inggris)ini di ikuti oleh pasukan dan NICA yangdipersiapkan untuk mengambil alih pemerintahan. Kedatangan tentara sekutu dan NICa ternyata memacing berbagai iniden.

 

 

 

 

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945

Source

http://warofweekly.blogspot.com/2011/04/pertempuran-medan-area.html

 

 rencana dalam Civil Affairs Agreement benar-benar dilaksanakan. Tentara Inggris yang diboncengi oleh NICA mendarat di Medan. Mereka dipimpin oleh Brigjen T.E.D Kelly.

 

Awalnya mereka diterima secara baik oleh pemerintah RI di Sumatra Utara sehubungan dengan tugasnya untuk membebaskan tawanan perang (tentara Belanda).

Allied landing in Medan happen
on October 9, 1945
  Kelly led T.E.D. The landing of the allied forces (Britain) was followed by the allied forces and the NICA-prepared to take over the government.
The arrival of allied forces and NICA turns fishing incidents.
On October 9, 1945
diboncengi by British troops landed in Medan NICA. They were led by Brig T.E.D Kelly. Initially they were accepted by the government of North Sumatra Indonesia in connection with his duty to free the prisoners of war (the Dutch army)

Original info

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945 tentara Inggris yang diboncengi oleh NICA mendarat di Medan. Mereka dipimpin oleh Brigjen T.E.D Kelly. Awalnya mereka diterima secara baik oleh pemerintah RI di Sumatra Utara sehubungan dengan tugasnya untuk membebaskan tawanan perang (tentara Belanda).

Pendaratan Sekutu di kota Medan terjadi

pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945

 dibawah pimpinan T.E.D Kelly. Pendaratan tentara sekutu (Inggris) ini diikuti oleh pasukan sekutu dan NICA yang dipersiapkan untuk mengambil alih pemerintahan.

 

Kedatangan tentara sekutu dan NICA ternyata memancing berbagai insiden.

 (4)The Djawa Denki Djigyo Sha” Gas and Electricity” administration , belong to Mr Lie Soen Ho, adress Yamato Bagi Minami Doori no 159. Gas used 21 and electric used 6.10 , must pay F.8.10. the form print on  old form. (D) (3) The dai Nippon revenue on Magelang House rent billing

 

The Java POW camp  Information(ibid Winkler,1948)

But when Japan surrendered (15 agustus 1945) were still 1200 European men and 12,000 women and children eurpose outside the camps.

 In Bandung is also excellent and Tjimahi krigsgevangenen 2700 and 23,000 men and boys in the camps. The women and children first in the protected area (after the camp) Tjihapit were housed, the Japanese had already been to the camps in Batavia and Java middle transferred.

Once under the influence of events in Batavia, Yogya and others place the tension between the different population groups increased continuously was attacked on October 10, 1945.

 

 (3) British Allied Forces landed at medan,

 

 

 (4)The Djawa Denki Djigyo Sha” Gas and Electricity” administration , belong to Mr Lie Soen Ho, adress Yamato Bagi Minami Doori no 159. Gas used 21 and electric used 6.10 , must pay F.8.10. the form print on  old form. (D)

 

 

 

 

 

Pada tanggal 10 Oktober 1945.

 

Di samping TKR, di Sumatera Timur terbentuk Badan-badan perjuangan dan laskar-laskar partai.

Pada tanggal 18 Oktober 1945 Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly memberikan ultimatum kepada pemuda Medan agar menyerahkan senjatanya. Aksi-aksi teror mulai dilakukan oleh Sekutu dan NICA. Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945 Sekutu memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di berbagai sudut pinggiran kota Medan.

Mereka dengan gigih membalas setiap aksi yang dilakukan pihak Inggris dan NICA.

 

October 11th 1945

(1)The fighting with NICA (Netherlands Indische Civil Agency)’s soldiers at Kebajoran, Klender, Tjawang (jatinegara-auth), Pondokgede and Pasar minggu

And the vintage photo of Pasar minggu train railways station  (D&P)

(2) The fight between TKR-tentara Keamaan rakyat (republic army, this true because   BKR wad changed to be army ,TKR  in 5 October 1945 -auth)  with the youngmen against Allies and NICA at Magelang, before  defeated, Allies made the meeting , and agree to cease fire and all the road between Ambarawa and Magelang  will open to Allies and Republican and there willn’t done anything against the NICA activities. (D)

 

11 oktober 1945

 

 Sesudah proklamasi Paul De Groot berbicara dalam suatu rapat tertutup kader Partai tentang politik Indonesia pada tanggal 11 oktober 1945:

“Pertama-tama kita harus menyatakan dengan tegas bahwa kita setuju ikatan bersama antara Indonesia dengan Belanda dipertahankan. Indonesia terlepas dari Belanda berarti dalam sekejap jatuh ke tangan Inggris”

De Groot sungguh-sungguh mempunyai keberatan terhadap pemimpin-pemimpin Revolusi Indonesia yang terpenting terutama Sukarno yang pada masa pendudukan “telah bekerja-sama dengan fasisme dunia” dan juga dengan Hatta yang seorang “Trotskyst, musuh Uni Sovyet yang sejak sebelum perang dunia ke II sudah menjadi agen Jepang”.

De Groot berpendapat:

“Seluruh gerakan nasional di Indonesia telah bekerjasama dengan Jepang. Ini sama sekali merusak nama baik.

 Apabila kita boleh berbicara secara blak-blakan maka kita akan mengatakan: Sukarno dan Hatta adalah kolaborator, tapi dari berita-berita ternyatalah bahwa pemerintahan baru yang dibentuk disana mendapat dukungan massa Rakyat yang luas.

 Maka akan lebih taktis jika pengadilan terhadap para kolaborator itu diserahkan kepada Rakyat Indonesia sendiri.

Sudah mendesak waktunya bagi Partai Komunis Indonesia/PKI kembali tampil.

Di sini kita tidak bisa mendirikan PKI. Kekuatan-kekuatan Indonesia belum diketahui. Tapi dari sini kita sejauh mungkin akan mengingatkan tentang keharusan adanya organisasi legal PKI. Terbuka kemungkinan-kemungkinan besar apabila kita melakukan politik yang tepat.

 Didalam hubungan kenegaraan dengan Belanda kita akan bisa mengambil langkah jauh lebih banyak untuk kemerdekaan Rakyat Indonesia, ketimbang dibawah semboyan Indonesia lepas dari Belanda.

Sekarang Belanda berdiri di simpang sejarah. Akan-kah menempuh jalan menuju pembaruan dan kemajuan demokratis ataukah akan melangkah terus diatas jalan “dolorosa” kekolotan dan reaksi dengan segala akibat-akibatnya.

Pemilihan umum yang dipercepat yang juga dirindukan dengan tidak sabar dan dicari oleh berjuta-juta kaum democrat yang beritikad baik di Indonesia, Suriname dan Curaqao, itulah yang akan menentukan hasilnya”.

(D) This day was the historical day for young Surabaya

Tuesday, October 12, 2010
Incident Yamato Hotel in Surabaya
Chronology of events causes

 

That was when the flag incidence at hotel Madjapahit Surabaya, the youngter was angry when Dutch flag was raised at yamato hotel. They went to the hotel and ripped the blue part of the dutch flag to became the Indonesian flang red and white.

 

In 1942 the dai Nippon took this oranye hotel and in 1945 the Dutach take back from Dai Nippon and in 1946 gave back to the owner b efore Sarkies family

Incident at Hotel Yamato, Tunjungan, Surabaya

After the emergence of the Indonesian government’s announcement dated August 31, 1945 which provides that from 1 September 1945 the national flag flown at the Saka Red and White continue in all regions of Indonesia, the movement of the flag raising was further extended to all corners of the city of Surabaya. Flag-raising climax in Surabaya movement occurred in the incidence of tearing of the flag in Yamato Hoteru / Hotel Yamato (named Oranje Hotel or Hotel Orange in colonial times, now the Hotel Majapahit) on Jl. Tunjungan no. 65 Surabaya.
A group of Dutch people under the leadership of Mr. WVCh Ploegman on the afternoon of September 18, 1945, precisely at 21:00, flying the Dutch flag (Red-White-Blue), without the approval of the Regional Government of Indonesia Surabaya, on the pole at the top of Yamato Hotel, the north side. Surabaya the next day the young men saw him and became angry because they thought the Dutch had insulted the sovereignty of Indonesia, about to return the power back in Indonesia, and insulting the flag-raising movement is taking place in Surabaya.
Shortly after the mass mengumpulnya at Hotel Yamato, Resident Sudirman, warrior and diplomat yangsaat it served as the Deputy Resident (Fuku Syuco Gunseikan) is still recognized by the government Dai Nippon Syu Surabaya, Surabaya as well as a Resident Local Government Affairs, came through the crowd and went into Yamato was escorted hotel Sidik and Hariyono. As he conferred with representatives of Mr RI. Ploegman and his friends and asked that flags be lowered from the Netherlands HotelYamato building.

 

In these negotiations Ploegman refused to lower the Dutch flag and refuse to acknowledge the sovereignty of Indonesia. Negotiations took place heats up, Ploegman out a gun, and a fight broke out in the negotiating room. Ploegman died strangled by Sidik, who later was killed by Dutch soldiers on guard, and heard the gun Ploegman, while Sudirman and Hariyono fled the Yamato Hotel. Most of the young scramble up onto the hotel to lower the Dutch flag. Hariyono originally along Sudirman back into the hotel and get involved in climbing the flag pole and along Kusno Wibowo successfully lowered the Dutch flag, tore the blue, and mengereknya return to the top of the flagpole as the flag ..

 

 

Top of Form

Incident at Hotel Yamato, Tunjungan, Surabaya

After the emergence of the Indonesian government’s announcement dated August 31, 1945 which provides that from 1 September 1945 the national flag flown at the Saka Red and White continue in all regions of Indonesia, the movement of the flag raising was further extended to all corners of the city of Surabaya.

 

Flag-raising climax in Surabaya movement occurred in the incidence of tearing of the flag in Yamato Hoteru / Hotel Yamato (named Oranje Hotel or Hotel Orange in colonial times, now the Hotel Majapahit) on Jl. Tunjungan no. 65 Surabaya.

A group of Dutch people under the leadership of Mr. WVCh Ploegman on the afternoon of September 18, 1945, precisely at 21:00, flying the Dutch flag (Red-White-Blue), without the approval of the Regional Government of Indonesia Surabaya, on the pole at the top of Yamato Hotel, the north side. Surabaya the next day the young men saw him and became angry because they thought the Dutch had insulted the sovereignty of Indonesia, about to return the power back in Indonesia, and insulting the flag-raising movement is taking place in Surabaya.

Shortly after the mass mengumpulnya at Hotel Yamato, Resident Sudirman, warrior and diplomat yangsaat it served as the Deputy Resident (Fuku Syuco Gunseikan) is still recognized by the government Dai Nippon Syu Surabaya, Surabaya as well as a Resident Local Government Affairs, came through the crowd and went into Yamato was escorted hotel Sidik and Hariyono.

 

As he conferred with representatives of Mr RI. Ploegman and his friends and asked that flags be lowered from the Netherlands HotelYamato building. In these negotiations Ploegman refused to lower the Dutch flag and refuse to acknowledge the sovereignty of Indonesia. Negotiations took place heats up, Ploegman out a gun, and a fight broke out in the negotiating room.

 

Ploegman died strangled by Sidik, who later was killed by Dutch soldiers on guard, and heard the gun Ploegman, while Sudirman and Hariyono fled the Yamato Hotel. Most of the young scramble up onto the hotel to lower the Dutch flag.

 

 Hariyono originally along Sudirman back into the hotel and get involved in climbing the flag pole and along Kusno Wibowo successfully lowered the Dutch flag, tore the blue, and mengereknya return to the top of the flagpole as the flag ..

 

October 12th 1945

(1)In this day the sporadic Battles also at gang Kernolong and Gang Listrik of Kramat area

(2) Tentara serikat mendarat di medan, kemudian di Palembang,dan Padang bersama mereka NICA di sumatera(kempen 1950,mungkin info pendaratan di medan terlambat diktahui di Jawa yang sebenarnya pendaratan d medan tanggal 10 oktober 1945-catatan dr iwan)

Barisan pemberoktak Rakyat berdiri(kempen 1950)

Bandung diduduki(kempen 1950,tidak dijelaskan oleh siapa? Pendapat dr iwan Tentara sekutu)

 

(3)The postal used Dai Nippon karbouw 31/2 cent Postcard add handchoped dai Nippi ryokin Kan No(port had paid)  for increase rate to be 7 cent,send from CDS Padang  12.10.45(this day Post office still used Dai Nippon card)

 

 

October 12th 1945

(1)In this day the sporadic Battles also at gang Kernolong and Gang Listrik of Kramat area(D)

The British allies landed at Padang and  Medan, and occupied Bandung.(M PTIK ,1952) (their was differrent date  with another sources informations before at Oct.10th, what was the true date , please comment-auth die to other info the Allied forces landed at medan in October,10tyh.1945)

 

 

October 13th 1945

Sebuah insiden terjadi di hotel Jalan Bali, Medan

 

 pada tanggal 13 Oktober 1945.

Source

http://warofweekly.blogspot.com/2011/04/pertempuran-medan-area.html

 

At that time the residents (NICA troops) rob and stomp red and white insignia used Indonesian youth.

This angered the youth. The result is destruction and attack on the hotel which was inhabited NICA troops

 

.

On October 13, 1945


youth and TKR fight against the Allies and the NICA in an effort to seize and take over government buildings from the Japanese.
Britain issued an ultimatum to the people of Indonesia to hand over weapons to the Allies.
Ultimatum is never ignored.

An incident occurred at Jalan Bali, Medan
  on October 13, 1945.


At that time the residents (NICA troops) rob and stomp red and white insignia used Indonesian youth. This angered the youth. The result is destruction and attack on the hotel that much

 

 

 

Original info

Saat itu seorang penghuni hotel (pasukan NICA) merampas dan menginjak-injak lencana Merah Putih yang dipakai pemuda Indonesia.

 

Hal ini mengundang kemarahan para pemuda. Akibatnya terjadi perusakan dan penyerangan terhadap hotel yang banyak dihuni pasukan NICA


Pada tanggal 13 Oktober 1945

pemuda dan TKR bertempur melawan Sekutu dan NICA dalam upaya merebut dan mengambil alih gedung-gedung pemerintahan dari tangan Jepang.

Inggris mengeluarkan ultimatum kepada bangsa Indonesia agar menyerahkan senjata kepada Sekutu.

Ultimatum ini tidak pernah dihiraukan.

Sebuah insiden terjadi di hotel Jalan Bali, Medan

 pada tanggal 13 Oktober 1945.

Saat itu seorang penghuni hotel (pasukan NICA) merampas dan menginjak-injak lencana Merah Putih yang dipakai pemuda Indonesia. Hal ini mengundang kemarahan para pemuda. Akibatnya terjadi perusakan dan penyerangan terhadap hotel yang banyak

 

The British allies landed at Padang and  Medan, and occupied Bandung.(M,1952) (their was differrent date  with another sources informations before at Oct.10th, what was the true date , please comment-auth)

The book illustration of Bandung gouverment headquarters,known as gedong sate (ibid,winkler,1948)

 

 

Medan on October 13, 1945.
At that time the residents (NICA troops) rob and stomp red and white insignia used Indonesian youth. This angered the youth. The result is destruction and attack on the hotel which was inhabited NICA troops. On December 1, 1945, the Allies installing signs that read Fixed Field Area Boundaries in various corners of the city of Medan.
Since then the field area to be famous. British troops and NICA mop up the Republican element in the city of Medan.
This is clearly a reaction to the youth and TKR against foreign powers trying to power back. On August 10, 1946 at Tebingtinggi meeting between army commanders who fought in Medan Area. The meeting decided that the establishment of a command named People’s Army Commando Regiment Field Area.

 

Pada tanggal 13 Oktober 1945

pemuda dan TKR bertempur melawan Sekutu dan NICA dalam upaya merebut dan mengambil alih gedung-gedung pemerintahan dari tangan Jepang. Inggris mengeluarkan ultimatum kepada bangsa Indonesia agar menyerahkan senjata kepada Sekutu. Ultimatum ini tidak pernah dihiraukan

 

 

 

October 14th 1945

The Five days Battle of Semarang have begun between The Republican youngmen with the Dai Nippon ,(D)

Semarang incident,

the Japanese army garrison had been ordered to “status quo”,for two months

until the occupation coalition forces.On the other hand ,

the Republic of Indonesia declared its independence on 8/17.

Organized the (Armed Forces) People’s security team,

who requested the surrender of the Japanese military weapon.

 

However, the upper garrison, may be punished as war criminals and pass a weapon,for fear that demobilization will be postponed to the mainland,

continued to reject it.

 

As a result, anti-Japan sentiments goes extremely worse.

 

 

People’s security team (Central Java)  was arrested at once the military officials of the Japanese residents Semarang

 

night of October 14,

the landing of allied forces approaching four days later, was impatient.

 

October,15th.1945

 

Kido Butai semarang rampage (kempen 1960)

 

 Kido butai semarang mengamuk(kempen 1960)

 

 

 

 

 

1945.10.15

 

 

 October 15th

 

, military conflict

 and finally the People’s security team for rescue Japanese nationals garrison.

Victims of the Indonesian side is said to have been 1000 people to 2000.

 

When you release the camp, about 180 Japanese people had been killed already. In Semarang , Indonesia was the Japanese army and hostilities side,

there are many cases in other regions to avoid the collision by passing the Japanese military weapon.  Pro-independence Indonesia got the weapons,

25,000 people mark the fifth British division, challenged to a fight against the Dutch troops of 100,000 troops

October 15th 1945

(1)The Japanese made teror movement to Indonesia peoples at Semarang, they burn houses especially at Batik & Suburan village etc. The Indonesia youngmen fighted against the japanese and the five days Semarang war was begun.(There were two version of Semarang five days war were written by Indonesian and British, but we didn’t discussed the detailed, you can found that in the book or another block, please attention that the very rare document and postal history at this war, if someone have it please inform us-auth.(D)

 

(2) The Kido Butai (Dai Nippon) “AMOK” at Semarang (M,1952)

(3) The Battle of Semarang were the fight to keep the Japanese weapons by The Youngmen . the Japanese “Amok”  and teror (mengacau) in the city.Many the Hospital workers including the chief Dr Karyadi were died. Governor of the central Java, Mr Wongsonegoro was be prisoner by the Japanese . The people and Youth around Semarang city erected and counter , the battle were begun.(Bahar,1983)

(4) The vintage photo of Mr Wongsonegoro, gouvenour of Central Java (P)

(5) The battle with Kido Butai Semarang were heard by the youngmen from another area, that is why youngmen poured from Purwodadi, Solo, Jogja, Magelang,Salatiga, Ambarawa ,Banyumas, Kendal, Pekalongan, Putwkerto and arounds area .

The book illustration of Borobudur temple near magelang(ibid winkler,1948)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The counter attacks were prepair at Technical school at Karren street (now Dr Cipto) , but Governor Wongso were arrestted by the Japanese, and he puss by the Japanese to annouced the cease fire.(D)

.October 16th,1945

Full trial of the central national committee


By edict Vice President Date 16 oktover 1945No X
 KNP got  legislative power  and helps to define the lines of State Policy.

Working board  formed , headed by St Sjahrir and Mr Amir Sjarifoedin as Vice ketuan to run day-to-day work, dealing with the urgency of the situation. (Kempen 1950)

Original info

Sidang lengkap dari Komite nasional pusat

Dengan Maklumat Wakil Presiden Tanggal 16 oktover 1945No X

KNP Mendapat kekuasaan legislative dan ikut menetapkan garis-garis Besar Haluan Negara.

Dibentuk badan Pekerja yang diketuai oleh St Sjahrir dan Mr Amir Sjarifoedin sebagai Wakil ketuan untuk menjalankan pekerjaan sehari-hari, berhubungan dengan gentingnya keadaan.(kempen 1950)

(1)        The Dutch ‘s Ship were carriaged 250 Indonesians native from Australia with 1000 Dutch soldiers landed at Tandjong Priok( I have some collections of the Dutch armed forces in Australia during Dai Nippon Occupation,e.g  Papua-brisbane Dutch soldier emergencey pasport via papua and Brisbane to their camp atCasino New South Wales and another historic collections  , look at the next info “KNIL, the Netherlands Indie armed forces ,before,during and after World War II- auth )(D)

 

 

Kapal Belanda yang membawa  250 pribumi dari Australia dengan 1000 tentara Belanda mendarat di Tandjong Priok (saya memiliki beberapa koleksi dari angkatan bersenjata Belanda di Australia selama Pekerjaan Nippon Dai, misalnya Papua-brisbane Dutch tentara emergencey pasport via papua dan Brisbane ke perkemahan mereka at Casino New South Wales dan lain koleksi bersejarah, melihat “Info selanjutnya KNIL, Belanda Indie angkatan bersenjata, sebelum, selama dan setelah Perang Dunia II-auth)

(2)       TheFirst complete Central Comittee National Indonesia (KNPI) meeting,KNI have found the power of executive and legislative. Working board(Badan Pekerja)for everyday operational  were builded  with the command of Syahril as the chief and Mr amir Sjarifuddin as the vice with tweleve members( Maklumat X of NRI) (M PTIK ,1952)

 

Pertemuan  lengkat pertama Komite National Pusat Indonesia (KNPI)

 

 KNI telah menemukan kekuatan eksekutif dan legislatif. Kerja Dewan (Badan Pekerja) untuk operasional sehari-hari yang dibangun dengan perintah dari Syahril sebagai kepala dan Mr amir Sjarifuddin sebagai wakil dengan anggota tweleve (Maklumat X NRI) (M PTIK, 1952)

 

(3)       Sutan Sjahrir and Amir Sjarifuddin take over Central Indonesia Nsational Comittee (KNIP) and Sjaheir became Prime Menistry of the Republic.( Sujatmiko had told the story about this moment , Sukarno after several days disappear, this day was  standing between two kind of menistry, the first one with ex  Japanese collaburator and the second on collaburator, Sukarno then choosed non collaburator’s parliamentary cabinet. The Youngmen said that all the Japanese’s collaburator will punished as the war criminal -auth)

 

Sutan Sjahrir dan Amir Sjarifuddin mengambil alih Komite nasional Pusat Indonesia (KNIP) dan Sjaheir menjadi Perdana Menteri Republik.

 

(Sujatmiko telah menceritakan kisah itu tentang saat ini, Sukarno setelah beberapa hari menghilang, hari ini berdiri di antara dua jenis kementerian , yang pertama dengan mantan  kollaburator Jepang dan yang kedua tanpa kollaburator,

 

 Sukarno kemudian memilij kabinet parlementer tanpa kolaburator

 

Para  Anak muda   mengatakan bahwa semua kollaburator Jepang akan dihukum sebagai penjahat perang-dibaca dari buku karanagna sujatmiko – catatan Dr Iwan )

 

(4)       Very late used Hudoosan Kanrikoodan Bandung branch with imprint revenue letter sheet 15 cent 1945, as the recieved  F 13.25 , issued Oct 4th o5 and paid 16/10-95 .(very rare postal history, because the letter sheet revenue 2605 not many found in usec condition during the Bandung battle times, have anyone have the same collections please comment-auth)

 

Pengunaan Sangat terlambat  Hudoosan Kanrikoo  cabang Bandung dengan kertas meterai  Dai Nippon Jawa   imprint 15 sen 1945 yang digunakan sebagai surat pajak pendapatan, sebagai tanda terima  uang F13,25, dikeluarkan 4 Oktober 05 dan dibayar 16/10-95

 

(sejarahfiskal  pos yang sangat langka., Karena dokumen surat pendapatan  tahun 2605 tidak banyak ditemukan dalam kondisi terpakai  pada saat selama waktu pertempuran di Bandung,  bila  ada yang punya koleksi yang sama silakan melaporkan liwat komentar-auth)

 

 

October,17th 1945

NRI issued paper money in October,17th.1945

 

1945 Issue – Oeang Republik Indonesia (ORI) 1st Emission

  P13 – 1 Sen
Issue Date: 17 October 1945
Front: Number “1” with dagger inside at left, issue date, 17 October 1945 at center
Back: Forgery warning
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 96 x 45 mm
  P14 – 5 Sen
Issue Date: 17 October 1945
Front: Denomination, issue date, 17 October 1945 underneath
Back: Forgery warning
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 98 x 48 mm
  P15 – 10 Sen
Front: Denomination, issue date, 17 October 1945 underneath
Back: Forgery warning
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 106 x 50 mm
  P16 – ½ Rupiah
Front: Denomination, issue date, 17 October 1945 underneath
Back: Legal warning at center indicating anyone who counterfeits money in the regions of the Indonesia Republic may be punished according to the Book of Criminal Law Articles 244, 245 and 249.
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 119 x 57 mm
  P17a – 1 Rupiah
Front: Soekarno at left, volcano at left, issue date, 17 October 1945 at lower right, serial number with letters at lower left and upper right
Back: Legal warning at center indicating anyone who counterfeits money in the regions of the Indonesia Republic may be punished according to the Book of Criminal Law Articles 244, 245 and 249.
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 138 x 65 mm
  P18 – 5 Rupiah
Front: Soekarno at left, issue date, 17 October 1945 at lower center, serial number with letters at lower left and upper right
Back: Legal warning at center indicating anyone who counterfeits money in the regions of the Indonesia Republic may be punished according to the Book of Criminal Law Articles 244, 245 and 249.
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 145 x 68 mm
  P19 – 10 Rupiah
Front: Soekarno at left, volcano at right, issue date, 17 October 1945 at lower center
Back: Legal warning at center indicating anyone who counterfeits money in the regions of the Indonesia Republic may be punished according to the Book of Criminal Law Articles 244, 245 and 249.
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 158 x 76 mm
  P20 – 100 Rupiah
Issue Date: 30 October 1946
Serial Number: 16695 EH
Front: Soekarno at left
Back: Legal warning at center indicating anyone who counterfeits money in the regions of the Indonesia Republic may be punished according to the Book of Criminal Law Articles 244, 245 and 249.
Signature: Mr. A.A. Maramis
Size: 174 x 66 mm

 

(1)Van Mook send a telegram to Dutch government urging that negotiation with the Republic (D)

(2)NoelBaker announced that British didn’t accepted another power beside DUTCH (M,1952)

(3) Bung Hatta  didn’t accepted the cooperation with Dutch(M,1952)

(4) The Receipt (kwitansi) certificate from KNI Koedoes money  F 230,-for buying the things were used during Indonesian Independence commemorative 17.10.1945(Two month independence-auth) with Dai Nippon 15 cent Revenue (Historic postal history-auth)

 

October,17th.1945

Pada tanggal 17 oktober 1945

 Roestam Effendi memberikan reaksinya didalam sidang parlemen Belanda. Visi politik Roestam berjarak jauh dari kelompok disekitar Paul De Groot tapi pimpinan CPN yang baru tidak tidak bisa menyiapkan jalan untuk Roestam guna pengunduran dirinya di Parlemen Belanda sebab Roestam adalah satu-satunya anggota parlemen CPN yang selamat dari perang dunia ke II dan untuk pengunduran dirinya harus dilakukan lewat mekanisme pemilu yang sepertinya baru bisa dilakukan pertengahan 1946.

 

Roestam pada sidang parlemen tanggal 17 oktober 1945

 itu menyulut kembang-api retorika menurut tradisi sebelum perang. Ketua Tweede Kamer membiarkan Roestam dua kali menarik kembali “bagian yang tidak bisa diterima”. Roestam Effendi sekarang berbicara sebagai “orang Indonesia dan Komunis” kepada “massa luas kaum Pekerja di Belanda” dan kawan-kawanya setanah air di Indonesia, atas nama “massa demokratis yang luas” dan “kaum Pekerja yang Revolusioner di Belanda”.

 

Ia menyerukan kerja sama antara Indonesia dan Belanda; “suatu syarat mutlak dan kepentingan vital yang esensil bagi dua Negara” untuk tidak menjadi “bulan-bulanan permainan buruk” dari “kekuatan-kekuatan imperialis yang bergulat, intrik dan pat-pat gulipat”. Tapi kerja sama itu hanya bisa dilakukan atas dasar HAK MENENTUKAN NASIB SENDIRI, SEDERAJAT DAN HAK SAMA!

 

Bisakah dari “kejadian-kejadian itu sesuatu yang baik dan besar masih akan lahir? Atau, apakah didalam konflik yang pecah terkandung benih untuk permusuhan yang kekal dan jurang yang tidak terjembatani, sehingga kedua-dua bangsa itu akan berpisah untuk selamanya?”. Untu menjawab pertanyaan ini Roestam sebegitu jauh menegaskan apa yang didengar dari rekan-rekannya yang mengandung sifat:

 

“Picik, menyimpang dan kaku. Mereka tidak mempunyai orisinalitas dan pemikiran. Mereka terlalu berbau udara museum yang apek, dimana matahari pikiran waras rupanya tidak pernah tercerahkan! Apa yang ku dengar hanyalah suatu reaksi dan kekolotan. Roh reaksi dan mentalitas colonial tua, yang selama bertahun-tahun peperangan dan pendudukan didalam ketakutan dan gentar bersembunyi duduk di tempat persembunyian mereka yang gelap, pada saat ini seakan-akan muncul dari gua-gua persembunyian tua mereka dab bermaksud bisa bermain lagi dengan permainan tua devide et impera”.

 

“Dan jika bicara tentang kerjasama adalah “kebijakan colonial yang fatal” bahwa bangsa Indonesia harus di giring dan di giring dibawah kekuasaan Imperialisme Jepang. Adalah “politik Digul dan politik bayonet yang busuk, politik amuk rezim colonial yang mengancam, yang membikin bangsa Indonesia menjauh dari Belanda.

 

“Kami bekerjasama dengan Jepang hanya karena mengkonsolidasikan kekuatan kami dan tidak karena kami pro-Jepang”.

 

“Kaum Komunis berbicara blak-blakan bahwa mereka mendukung sepenuhnya perjuangan demokratis bangsa Indonesia untuk mengakhiri hubungan-hubungan colonial dan penindasan imperialism. Kita yang telah mempertaruhkan semuanya dalam perjuangan menentang Nazi di negeri ini, atas dasar yang sama membela kemerdekaan bangsa Indonesia terhadap penindasan bangsa yang lain!”

 

Jalan pikiran Roestam tidak bisa mendapat pengertian sedikitpun dan sama sekali diluar pola pikiran parlemen dan kabiner. Hal serupa juga berlaku bagi Partainya sendiri: Paul De Groot didepan sidang pimpinan Partai, memberikan pernyataan yang sangat bertentangan.

 

Sementara itu posisi Roestam Effendi didalam CPN ternyata tidak bisa dipertahankan lagi. Pada tanggal 27 November 1945, “De Waarheid” memberitakan bahwa pimpinan Partai telah memberhentikan Roestam Effendi untuk sementara waktu sebagai anggota Partai dan juga dianggap bukan lagi sebagai anggota fraksi CPN di parlemen Pada bulan Januari 1946 didalam kongres CPN Roestam Effendi dinyatakan dipecat dari keanggotaan CPN karena dianggap tidak tunduk pada garis kebijakan Partai baik di tingkatan Nasional Belanda maupun dalam urusan Indonesia. Dan sejak itulah maka Roestam Effendi sudah berpisah jalan dengan sesama teman Komunisnya di CPN seperti Paul De Groot dkk serta teman Komunisnya sesama orang Indonesia seperti Setiadjit, Abdul Madjid, Maruto Darusman dkk yang dulu pernah bersama-sama di dalam organisasi Perhimpunan Indonesia (PI).

 

Untuk meng-counter usaha pemecatan dirinya dari keanggotaan CPN Roestam Effendi melayangkan sebuah surat kepada ketua sidang kongres CPN:

 

Berdasarkan skorsing saya dan akibat-akibat yang timbul daripadanya, saya menyatakan:

  1. Bukan saya, melainkan kalian sendiri yang telah membawa keluar krisis intern di dalam CPN melalui publikasi secara sadar didalam “De Waarheid” dan suratkabar-suratkabar lainnya. Suatu krisis politik yang karena kedisiplinan dan terutama pengendalian diri saya sampai sekarang tidak tersebar keluar.
  2. Bahwa salah langkah politik ini yang dilakukan pada saat Rakyat Indonesia berjuang mati-matian untuk kemerdekaan, tidak lain berarti suatu penghianatan terhadap persekutuan antara Rakyat Indonesia dan kelas Buruh belanda ditengah-tengah pergulatan anti imperialis melawan musuh bersama.
  3. Bahwa skorsing itu pada hakikatnya tidak lain berarti suatu daya upaya untuk membelokkan upaya perhatian Partai seluruhnya dari persoalan politik yang penting dan itulah yang dihadapi oleh kelas Buruh belanda dan khususnya Partai.
  4. Bahwa tindakan politik baru yang keliru dari pimpinan Partai sementara ini timbul dari pandangan opportunisme yang sama, yang pada waktu itu telah berakibat pada dilikuidasi CPN secara otoriter, tidak demokratis.
  5. Bahwa dengan motivasi skorsing melalui perusakan dan pemutar baikkan fakta-fakta dengan cara yang paling halus, dicobanya saya diserahkan kepada reaksi yang merasa marah dan tersinggung dan bersamaan dengan itu membikin pimpinan yang sekarang lebih menarik bagi kaum borjuasi, suatu cara yang harus diprotes keras oleh setiap orang Komunis.
  6. Bahwa didalam alasan yang disiarkan tentang skorsing saya dilansir insinuasi secara sadar, yang tentang ini pimpinan Partai tahu dan harus tahu bahwa banyak kawan separtai dan buka separtai dengan bukti-bukti yang kongkrit bisa membantah insinuasi itu.
  7. Bahwa pimpinan Partai yang sekarang mengibarkan formalisme setinggi-tingginya dan melecehkan Sentralisme Demokrasi kita!

Setelah Roestam di pecat dari keanggotaan CPN maka pada akhir tahun 1946 Roestam Effendi bersama keluarganya pulang ke Indonesia menggunakan kapal laut bersama 250 orang buangan Indonesia yang ada di luar negeri yang termasuk didalamnya terdapat Douwes Dekker atau Setiabudi seorang politikus senior pendiri Nasional Indische Party (NIP). Setelah tiba di Jakarta maka Roestam dan keluarga bersama Douwes Dekker melanjutkan perjalanan menggunakan kereta api menuju Jogjakarta. Setibanya di Jogjakarta mereka disambut dengan meriah dan diterima oleh Sukarno yang pada saat itu merupakan presiden Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 13 Januari 1947.

 

Pada tanggal 27 Januari 1947 Comite Central (CC) PKI mengumumkan bahwa “berhubung dengan berita-berita dan pertanyaan-pertanyaan” Roestam Effendi tidak bisa diterima menjadi anggota PKI, sebab menurut berita resmi dari CPN dia sudah di royer (dipecat) karena telah melanggar disiplin Partai dan bahwa PKI sudah sepatutnya mengambil keputusan tersebut”. Pada saat kongres PKI yang dilangsungkan di Solo pada tanggal 11-13 Januari 1947 Roestam Effendi yang datang beserta banyak anggota-anggota PKI lama dari periode 1926 yang juga baru datang dari pembuangan di Australia seperti Djamaludin Tamin, Nurut, Ongko D, Wiro S, dll juga ditolak masuk oleh Sardjono dengan alasan bahwa Roestam sudah di royer dari CPN dan para anggota PKI lama tahun 1926 semacam Djamaludin Tamin dkk juga dikatakan sudah di royer sebab pada tahun 1926 menghalang-halangi pemberontakan yang dipimpin oleh PKI terhadap pemerintahan colonial Hindia-Belanda.

 

Sejak peristiwa Solo itulah maka kekuatan Komunis di Indonesia terpecah menjadi dua, PKI menuduh Roestam Effendi, Djamaludin Tamin dkk adalah pengikut Tan Malaka yang berarti kaum Trotskyst dan sejak itulah di mulai satu periode oposisi bersenjata dari kekuatan Komunis di luar lingkaran PKI terhadap jalannya Revolusi Pembebasan Nasional di Indonesia yang dianggap sudah menyeleweng sejak ditandatanganinya perjanjian Linggardjati oleh PM Sutan Sjahrir dan Menteri Pertahanan Amir Sjarifuddin (PKI Illegal).

 

Sejak di Indonesia untuk menyalurkan ide-ide politknya Roestam Effendi sering menulis artikel-artikel yang dimuat harian “Pasific” di Solo, yang sejak tanggal 1 Febuary 1947 di terbitkan oleh Barisan Banteng pimpinan dr Muwardi. Selain itu juga kakak kandung Roestam Effendi yaitu Boes Effendi juga secara teratur menulis di “Pasific” dari kakaknya itu maka Roestam bisa menyumbangkan karangan-karangannya disana.

 

Setelah Perjanjian Linggardjati di tandatangani di Jakarta dan tidak lama kemudian belanda melanggar perjanjian gencatan bersenjata di Mojokerto maka Roestam Effendi kembali menuliskan:

 

“menghadapi politik kapitalulasi dan reformisme ini kekuatan Revolusioner harus mengatur organisasinya mereka sendiri”. Reformisme Amir Sjarifuddin dan Sutan Sjahrir telah kandas. Percaya kepada itikad baik belanda merupakan “struisvogel en zelfmoordpolitiek” (politik burung unta dan politik bunuh diri”, sekarang saatnya Amir dan Sjahrir harus menjawab!!

 

Sesudah dilancarkannya aksi polisionil bulan Juli 1947, Roestam menyatakan tentang harus diakhirinya politik diplomasi dan politik slogan. Harus ada perjuangan dan tindakan. Perjuangan melawan imperialism belanda tidak bisa dielakkan lagi; untuk ini diperlukan suatu pemerintahan yang Revolusioner, yaitu pemerintahan yang Anti-Imperialis yang memimpin kabinet perang. Masukkanya semua politisi yang bertanggung jawab atas Linggardjati harus di tolak. Semua tapol (dari Persatuan Perjuangan dan semua elemen-elemen lain) yang menolak politik diplomasi dari pemerintahan RI harus mendapat amnesty, sebagai pengakuan terhadap kekeliruan tindakan penahanan mereka dan sebagai jaminan politik Anti-Imperialis yang sejati.

 

Roestam Effendi sering tampil sebagai pembicara pada banyak organisasi politik seperti Barisan Banteng, Partai Rakyat, Partai Rakyat Djelata, Partai Buruh Merdeka, Laskar Rakyat Djelata, Partai Wanita Rakyat, Laskar Rakyat Djawa Barat, AKOMA dll.

 

Karena lama pernah berdiam di Eropa dan juga pernah mengikuti khursus Marxis-Leninis di Moscow, Roestam Effendi cukup mampu menyampaikan pengetahuannya tentang Marxisme dengan lebih mendalam kepada para peserta khursus politik baik dari kalangan politikus maupun di kalangan Laskar. Tulisan-tulisan dari teks-teks klasik karya-karya Marx, Lenin dan Stalin sering dibawakannya pada khursus-khursus politik tersebut. Roestam Effendi membedah politik kapitalulasi Linggardjati sebagai politik reformis atau paham opportunis kanan, Linggardjati berarti memantapkan posisi capital asing di Indonesia. Pemimpin-pemimpin Revolusioner “gadungan” yang menamakan dirinya sebagai “komunis” dan Leninis-Stalinis seperti Amir Sjarifuddin, Sardjono, Abdul Madjid, Maroeto Darusman, Alimin dan Setidjit mendukung penuh politik kapitulasi dan opportunis kanan ini.

 

Menurut Roestam Effendi:

 

“kaum “Pseudo-Leninisten” (Leninis gadungan) didalam republic ini hanya menunggu dan sibuk dengan kata-kata mereka. Mereka mendukung pengembalian hak milik asing dan dengan begitu kapitalisme bisa datang kembali serta menunda jalannya Revolusi Borjuis Demokratis yang harus diselesaikan sampai akhir. Politik Persatuan Perjuangan (PP) mendukung program untuk mendapat dukungan luas dalam fase Borjuis-Demokratis. Dibawah pimpinan yang Revolusioner fase ini bisa beralih menjadi Revolusi-Sosialis. Memang barangkali aka nada suatu “adempauze” – jika keadaan “objektif” memerlukan – tapi “adempauze” yang sekarang ini, pada saat borjuasi berkkuasa hanya berakibat regresif.

 

Posisi Roestam Effendi dalam pendidikan politik dan ideology menggantikan sementara posisi Tan Malaka yang masih berada di dalam penjara. Dalam setiap kursus-kursus yang dilakukan olehnya selalu dibanjiri oleh banyak peserta terutama dari golongan pemuda anggota-anggota AKOMA yang berpendidikan baik, yang Komunis tapi menentang PKI, karena PKI dianggap sudah menjalankan politik kapitalulasi/menyerah-isme kepada kaum Imperialis dengan mendukung perjanjian Linggardjati dan perjanjian Renville sebab itu merupakan penyelewengan terhadap Perjuangan Kelas Buruh dan Tani demi kemerdekaan Nasional dan Sosialnya di Indonesia.

 

Pada saat pembentukan Partai Murba pada tanggal 7 November 1948 di Solo posisi Roestam Effendi, Tan Malaka dan Djamaludin Tamin duduk diluar struktur Partai yang pada saat itu banyak diisi oleh para Pemuda. Selama perang Kolonial ke II Roestam Effendi aktif melakukan perang gerilya di Djawa Timoer dan duduk sebagai Komisaris Politik pada Centraal – Commando pada organisasi “Guerilla Pembela Proklamasi” (GPP) bersama Abidin Effendi (adik kandung), J.F. Warraow, Sjamsu Harja Udaya dan Gondo Wardojo. Setelah perang kemerdekaan selesai pada periode 1950-1965 Roestam Effendi duduk sebagai dewan penasehat Partai Murba.

 

Ketika terjadi huru-hara politik tahun 1965-1967 yang berbuntut pada tumpasnya Partai Komunis Indonesia dan digulingkannya presiden Sukarno oleh oleh Jendral Suharto-Nasution untuk menghindari penangkapan maka Roestam Effendi membakar seluruh dokumentasi yang dimiliki olehnya baik itu berupa artikel, surat-menyurat, dan buku-buku. Pada saat itu Roestam juga terus diawasi oleh militer sebab aktifitasnya dimasa lalu yang dianggap juga orang kiri. Selama periode akhir 1960an sampai dengan pertengahan tahun 1970an Roestam Effendi mengajar di Fakultas Ekonomi universitas Pajajaran bersama Mr. Iwa Kusuma Sumantri dan Semaun. Selain mengajar dia juga aktif menulis tentang karya-karya sastra.



Roestam Effendi meninggal dunia akibat serangan jantung karena usia tua pada tahun 1979.

di 4:43 AM Label: Biografi Tokoh

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MASSA AKSI! RENCANA EKONOMI BERJUANG! KEMERDEKAAN 100%! EKONOMI SOSIALISTIS!

October,18th.1945

The earliest NRI Midddle Sumatra handchopped overprint black RE:IND: used on Dai Nippon Postyal stationer card with handcoped Dai Nippon Ryokin Kanno(Port Had Pain) to increased postal rate.double overprint REP: IND: send from Padang CDS 18.10.46 to Sawahloento,found at sawahloento city that time  coal minning city.(not clear fotocopy ex dr Iwan  Collections)

 

 

Close up with digital clean

 

 

 

 

October,17th.1945

Sekitar dua bulan setelah diproklamasikannya Republik Indonesia di Jakarta tanggal 17 Agustus 1945, pasukan sekutu yang dipimpin Mayor Anderson tiba di Emma Haven, Teluk Bayur. Mereka kemudian menduduki gedung-gedung, gudang dan barak bekas Jepang di Padang.

Bersama sekutu itu, membonceng pula NICA (Nedelandsch Indie Civil Administratie), yakni pemerintahan Sipil Hindia Belanda. Tujuannya tak lain mencengkeramkan kukunya kembali setelah tiga setengah tahun lamanya hengkang dari Indonesia karena keok oleh Jepang. Waktu Jepang takluk dalam perang dunia kedua karena dibombardir sekutu, gantian Belanda tergiur lagi hendak masuk ke Indonesia.

Janji Belanda kepada sekutu waktu masuk ke Sumatera dan tempat lainnya di Indonesia adalah untuk membebaskan tawanan perang , memulangkan Jepang ke negerinya dan ikut serta menjaga keamanan dan ketertiban umum hingga pemerintahan peralihan berfungsi kembali. Belanda tidak diperkenankan oleh Komando Sekutu Asia Tenggara yang disebut SEAC untuk campur tangan dalam urusan pemerintahan Republik, baik sipil maupun militer.

Demikian cerita Zulwadi Datuk Bagindo Kalih, Ketua III Dewan Harian Daerah (DHD) ’45 Sumatera Barat, mengutip buku Sejarah Perjuangan Kemerdekaan 1945 – 1949 di Kota Padang dan sekitarnya yang disusun Dr Mestika Zed, MA dan kawan – kawan, tahun 2002.

Waktu ditemui di Gedoeng Joeang, jalan Samudera, Padang, ia menceritakan catatan-catatan sejarah perjuangan Kota Padang tempo dulu yang dirangkum dari berbagai sumber.

Merinding juga bulu roma ketika diceritakan tentang perlawanan rakyat Padang hingga peristiwa Indarung dan Bandar Buat dibombardir Belanda dari udara.

Sejak sekutu menyerahkan kembali Indonesia ke tangan Belanda, meskipun dengan perjanjian tidak akan turut campur dalam urusan Republik, namun kurenah Belanda yang terkenal “cerdik buruk” itu malah ingin menguasai kembali Indonesia sepenuhnya. Belanda melancarkan agresi dimana-mana di wilayah Republik.

Tanggal 8 Januari 1947, pabrik semen di Indarung yang didirikan Belanda tahun 1910 dengan nama NV NIPCM (NV Nederlandsch Indische Portland Cement Maatschappij ditembaki dari udara oleh beberapa pesawat Mustang Belanda.

“Masyarakat Indarung dan Padang sekitarnya waktu itu mencari perlindungan dengan membuat lubang atau lari ke perbukitan sekitar Solok dan Pesisir Selatan. Mereka terdiri dari orang tua, wanita dan anak-anak, ada yang lari ke pegunungan dan hutan-hutan,” ujar pria yang lahir sekitar tahun 1940-an itu.

 

Veteran yang masih fokus memperjuangkan idealisme kebangsaan ini seperti menerawang sejenak. Lalu, katanya, tanggal 18 Januari 1947 atau 10 hari setelah pemboman Indarung, Belanda datang kembali dengan pesawat Mustang dan melancarkan serangan udaranya di Pasar Bandar Buat.

Saat itu hari Minggu, merupakan hari pasar di daerah itu. Meskipun ada versi yang mengatakan serangan itu terjadi sekitar pukul 15.00 WIB, tapi ada pula catatan Angku Darwis yang dibuat tahun 1994 mengatakan itu terjadi pada pukul 10:00 WIB.

“Yang ini mungkin lebih mendekati, karena melihat faktanya yang meninggal mencapai ratusan jiwa. Pada jam itu, keadaan di pasar memang pas puncaknya keramaian orang yang datang dari berbagai penjuru sekitar Padang, Solok, Pariaman dan Pesisir Selatan,” ujarnya.

“Yang bersangkutan (Angku Darwis) saat diwawancarai untuk membuat sebuah buku tahun 1994 itu sedang sakit dan dalam perawatan dokter. Namun, berkenaan dengan perisitiwa itu ia masih sanggup mengingat dan menceritakan tentang perisitiwa Bandar Buat,” sela Zulwadi.

Ada pula Angku Munir yang menjadi saksi mata, lanjutnya Hingga sorenya, Angku Munir dan beberapa orang temannya bekerja keras mengumpulkan ratusan korban yang luka parah serta mayat – mayat yang tak tahu pasti jumlahnya.

“Mungkin ratusan,” Zulwadi memperkirakan.

Para korban dibawa dengan pedati, alat transportasi populer masa itu. Mereka di bawa ke Lapangan Kabun, sekitar setengah kilometer dari Pasar Bandar Buat. Di tempat itu, yang luka parah segera ditangani oleh Palang Merah.

Pemandangan memiriskan waktu itu sudah dapat dibayangkan. Sebagian besar korban adalah wanita dan anak-anak. Konon, saksi mata Angku Munir melihat banyak wanita meregang nyawa sambil mendekap anaknya yang masih bayi. Ada pula beberapa pedati yang ditarik sapi atau kerbau berjalan sendiri karena tukang pedatinya telah tewas.

“Takut akan serangan berikutnya. Setelah mengumpulkan para jenazah ke satu tempat bersama teman-temannya, Angku Munir lari ke hutan sekitar Indarung. Benar saja, pesawat Belanda kembali meraung-raung mencari sasaran bergerak di bawahnya. Rentetan tembakan terdengar lagi mulai dari Indarung, Bandar Buat dan Lubuk Begalung,” tutur Datuk Bagindo Kalih dalam nada agak emosional.

Setelah beberapa hari keadaan dirasakan cukup kondusif, Angku Munir Cs tadi baru keluar dari persembunyian dan menemukan jenazah-jenazah yang tadi ditinggal sudah agak mengurai sehingga segera mereka kuburkan dalam satu lubang. Puluhan jenazah dikuburkan dalam satu lubang.

“Rupanya setelah selesai menguburkan puluhan mayat masih terdapat sekitar 40 mayat lagi yang belum dikubur menurut yang diceritakan Angku Munir dan Angku Kamar dalam catatan yang dibukukan oleh Mestika Z dan kawan – kawan,” ucap Zulwadi.

Ya, itu baru satu peristiwa di Pasar Bundar Buat, belum lagi di Kamang, di Situjuh, dan Cupak serta beberapa tempat lainnya. Perlawanan rakyat dipatahkan Belanda dengan cara keji dan membabibuta. Anak – anak dan wanita menjadi korban.

“Ini adalah kejahatan perang yang dilakukan Belanda terhadap Bangsa Indonesia,” ujarnya.

Mengingat sejarah itu, para korban rakyat sipil Indonesia terutama pada masa Agresi I dan Agresi II, Belanda harus meminta maaf yang diucapkan oleh Pemerintah Belanda kepada segenap Rakyat Indonesia. Perjuangan agar Belanda mau mengakui tindakan pengrusakan, perampokan, dan penindasan yang dilakukan olehnya sehingga membuat penderitaan yang amat sangat pada rakyat Indonesia.

Belanda harus kembali meringankan penderitaan mereka. Tuntutan dan perjuangan itu dilakukan terus oleh sebuah yayasan yang didirikan tanggal 4 April 2007 di Belanda dengan nama Stichting Comite Nederlandse Eresculden atau Foundation Commitee of Dutch of Honour atau dalam nama Indonesia KUKB (Komite Utang Kehormatan Belanda) yang diketuai Dhr. JM Podaag.

Yayasan ini melakukan pengumpulan data dan fakta seputar peristiwa dan korban yang terjadi masa agresi Belanda tersebut. Kepada ahli waris korban atau yang bisa dikenali sebagai keluarga korban berdasarkan verifikasi yayasan KUKB, maka berhak menerima santunan dari pemerintah Belanda melalui yayasan KUKB ini. Besaran nilai santunan yang disebutkan oleh Diki dari yayasan yang bertugas di DHD, jika dirupiahkan sekitar Rp150 juta. (derius)

 

October.18th.1945

(1)Japanese troops secure Semarang before hand over that city to British (D)

(2) The reciept document to paid the maubeluer 15 pieces F 1750, with Dai Nippon Java revenue 15 cent,at Magelang.

(Magelang in this day still under Dai nippon administration-auth)

 

October, 19th.1945

(1)Allied armed forces were accapted by the Republic army (BKR) because the allied have Politically announced that they only administrated the perisoner of war and Japanese army without any movement against the Republic Indonesia.( This situation were ordered by the Republic Indonesia Government due to the political tactic of the Allies’s annouced that they have statement that  “ De Facto Indonesia Government”-auth)

The first Contact between Governor Java, Wongsonegoro with General Bethel from Allies as Commandant of the  Central java Allied forces , Indonesia will served allied with foods and everyday things, and the allied will done their duty without interference the Republic Indonesia.

After this the allies could moved to Magelang trough Ambarawa, but the allies have made bad situasions because the NICA’s also came with them. The Nicas released the Dutch internees that concentratated in that city, especially Ambarawa. Many ex internees work back at their old position and the Native Indonesian people become angry.(D)

 

The Working’s agreement certificate for work at Indonesia Malaya branch office Surabaya, with One and half  Roepiah Dai Nippon Revenue .(the unusal high nominal Dai Nippon Java revenue was very late used in Surabaya, during that time the situation very worst- auth)

 

(1) Sertifikat Perjanjian Kerja untuk bekerja di Indonesia Malaya kantor cabang Surabaya, dengan  meterai dai Nippon Satu setengah Roepiah  ( meterai dai Nippon Jawa  nominal Tinggi ini   sangat terlambat digunakan di Surabaya, selama waktu itu situasi sangat buruk-auth )

October, 19th. 1945
 SPECIAL POLICE(Polisi Istimera NRI) At  Balige,East Sumatra.

1) With the defeat of the Japanese Army in World War II and Independence to the People shrieked menggemanya Indonesia throughout the homeland Indonesia, as well as the Residency Tapanuli by decree. Sumatra Governor T.M. Dr. HASAN was appointed. Ferdinand LUMBAN TOBING as Resident Tapanuli domiciled in Tarutung and in early October 1945 in kibarkanlah FLAG RED WHITE Tarutung in the field led by Resident Tapanuli Dr. F. LUMBAN TOBING and also attended by MAS KADIRAN.

2) Coming home from Tarutung ,MAS  KADIRAN affect Japan’s Police Chief Toba (T. SYOGA) so presumably the Dormitory Police Balige can kibarkan WHITE RED flag. With the approval of Japan’s then Chief of the General Police berkibarlah Saka THE RED WHITE at Dormitory Police General of Japan in Balige despite the threat of the Japanese Army in Balige but Police Chief General Japan (T. SYOGA) remains accountable because he believes that Indonesia This independence can not be blocked – block again.

 

 

Priginal info

POLISI  KHUSUS (Polisi Istimera NRI)  Di Balige, Sumatera Timur.
1) Dengan kekalahan tentara Jepang dalam Perang Dunia II dan Kemerdekaan untuk Rakyat teriak menggemanya Indonesia di seluruh tanah air Indonesia, serta
Keresidenan Tapanuli dengan dekrit. Gubernur Sumatera T.M. Dr HASAN diangkat. Ferdinand Lumban Tobing sebagai Residen Tapanuli berkedudukan di Tarutung dan pada awal Oktober 1945 di kibarkanlah BENDERA MERAH PUTIH Tarutung di bidang dipimpin oleh Resident Tapanuli Dr F. LUMBAN TOBING dan juga dihadiri oleh MAS KADIRAN.
2) Sepulang dari Tarutung
,MAS KADIRAN mempengaruhi Kepala Polisi Jepang Toba (T. SYOGA)  untuk medirikan asrama Polisi Balige dan  dapat dikibarkan bendera MERAH PUTIH. Dengan persetujuan itu Kepala Polisi Jepang  berkibarlah  Sang Saka Mera Putih di Asrama Polisi  di Balige meskipun ancaman Tentara Jepang di Balige namun Kepala polisi Jepang (T. SYOGA) tetap bertanggung jawab karena ia percaya bahwa  Kemerdekaan Indonesia  ini tidak dapat dihentikan lagi

The book illustration of Tapanoeli,battaks landen(ibid winkelr,1948)

 

3) With the departure of the Japanese Army / Civil Government of Japan in the MAS KADIRAN Balige mengambill directly over the job of Chief of Police for the Toba in Balige, after Police Chief General Position Toba Balige held by MAS KADIRAN Police along with members of the former Dutch and the Japanese Government to return to Java and there is a return to their village, who still live only 25 souls Faithful and Compliance under the leadership of MAS KADIRAN with awareness and responsibility in Nusa and the nation and at that time the Japanese Government is only giving 10 KARABYN shoots guns and 15 pieces SAMURAI.

Orifinal info

3) Dengan keberangkatan Tentara Jepang / Pemerintah Sipil Jepang di Balige , MAS KADIRAN langsung mengambil   tugas Kepolisian untuk Toba di Balige,

setelah posisi Kepala Polisi Umum Toba Balige dipegang oleh MAS KADIRAN bersama dengan mantan anggota Belanda  dan Pemerintah Jepang untuk kembali ke Jawa dan ada yang kembali ke desa mereka,

yang masih hidup hanya 25 jiwa Setia dan Kepatuhan di bawah kepemimpinan MAS KADIRAN dengan kesadaran dan tanggung jawab di Nusa dan bangsa, dan pada waktu itu  pemerintah Jepang  hanya memberikan 10 pucuk senjata Karabyn dan 15 potong  SAMURAI

 

4) With capitalize Members of 12 people, guns and shoots 10 Samurai 15 pieces. MAS KADIRAN form “POLICE SPECIAL” in Balige in his direction to his men KADIRAN MAS said “that to maintain security to capitalize gun and shoots 10 Samurai 15 pieces that was enough, but to maintain independence was not mean anything. So we have to look for weapons as much as “one of Japan’s proposal is to seize weapons in Japan in Parapat Armory.

 

 

Original info

4) Dengan bermodalkan Anggota 12 orang , 10 senjata  dan 15 buah Samurai  bu. MAS KADIRAN membentuk “POLISI KHUSUS” di Balige

Dalam Arahan kepada anak buahnya , Mas Kadiran mengatakan “bahwa untuk menjaga keamanan untuk memanfaatkan senjata 10 pucuk dan Samurai 15 buah itu sudah cukup, tetapi untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan tidak berarti apa-apa. Jadi kita harus mencari senjata sebanyak sebagai “salah satu usulan Juntuk merebut senjata Jepang di Markas Jepang di  Parapat.

 

5) On October 19, 1945 SPECIAL POLICE FORCES led by MAS KADIRAN in aid by the Japan Society seized Armory in Parapat, using the techniques at DAWN ATTACK. 04:00. Pm. Special Forces assisted by the Community can master the Armory and seized its contents, from the spoils of confiscated 20 guns, 60 pieces hand grenade and 50 Stel clothing and 2 Japanese Army Ammunition crates in accordance with the agreement of arms and ammunition to troops while the Special Police handed Apparel to the Society. News of the victory of the Special Police Forces Leadership MAS KADIRAN to the Villages People cheered and the name MAS KADIRAN and men become fragrant and the people providing food ingredients such as rice etc.. To the troops MAS KADIRAN and between the People and the Special Police Forces Police Balige blend that makes the spirit grow.

 

 

 

Original info

5) Pada 19 Oktober 1945

PASUKAN KHUSUS POLISI dipimpin oleh MAS KADIRAN  dengan dibantu oleh Masyarakat menguasai  Markas jepang  di Parapat, menggunakan teknik di ATTACK DAWN. 04:00. Pm.

Pasukan Khusus dibantu oleh Masyarakat dapat menguasai Markas dan menyita isinya, dari rampasan disita 20 senjata, granat 60 buah tangan dan pakaian Stel 50 dan 2 peti amunisi  Angkatan Darat Jepang .

 sesuai dengan kesepakatan senjata dan amunisi untuk pasukan sementara Polisi khusus menyerahkan Pakaian kepada Masyarakat.

 Berita kemenangan dari Pasukan Polisi  Khusus dibawah pimpinan MAS KADIRAN ke Desa

Orang-orang laki-laki bersorak dan nama MAS KADIRAN menjadi harum dan orang-orang yang menyediakan bahan –bahan makanan seperti beras dll. Untuk MAS KADIRAN  Gabungan Polisi khusus ,  Tentara dan  Rakyat  Balige yang membuat semangat tumbuh.

 

6) MAS KADIRAN asked former Police Chief T. SYOGA Japanese general in Balige to ask for weapons of Japanese troops in Sopo SURUNG T. SYOGA three days later handed the weapon to the MAS as many as 20 shoots KADIRAN US.KARABYN model and Ammunition 2 crates and MAS KADIRAN say thank T. SYOGA. The news on the sealing and delivery of weapons in Sopo Surung has spread widely throughout the District People’s Trust Toba and increasing the forces Toba Chairman MAS SPECIAL POLICE KADIRAN.

7) Since the number of weapons, while only 12 persons SPECIAL POLICE MAS KADIRAN then add members to take the children from the police who are teenagers and youths who are passionate Balige Dami struggling to maintain independence. They were trained in marching, taught how to use the weapon, the theory of enemy attack and others in this field KADIRAN MAS has included an expert because he is the former Head Coach and BETSU STORES KAISATSU TAI plus never trained at the Foreign Military

Original info

Top of Form

6) MAS KADIRAN meminta  kepada mantan Kepala  Polisi  Umum jepang T. SYOGA di Balige  senjata pasukan Jepang di Sopo Surung

 

T. SYOGA tiga hari kemudian menyerahkan senjata kepada MAS KADIRAN  sebanyak 20  pocuk sejnata  model US.KARABYN dan amunisi 2 krat dan MAS KADIRAN mengucapkan terima  kasih kepada T. SYOGA.

 

Kabar tentang penyegelan dan pengiriman senjata di Sopo Surung telah tersebar luas ke seluruh Rakyat Kabupaten Dipercaya Toba dan meningkatkan kekuatan T  Kepala  KHUSUS POLISI  KHUS  Toba MAS KADIRAN.
7) Karena jumlah senjata, sementara hanya 12 orang POLISI KHUSUS
 kemudian MAS KADIRAN  menambahkan anggota untuk mengambil anak-anak dari polisi yang remaja dan pemuda Balige Dami bergairah berjuang untuk mempertahankan kemerdekaan.

 

Mereka dilatih dalam berbaris, diajarkan bagaimana menggunakan senjata, teori serangan musuh dan lain-lain dalam bidang MAS KADIRAN sudah termasuk ahli karena dia adalah mantan Kepala Pelatih Kaisatsu  dan BETSU TOKOTAI   ditambah pernah dilatih di Militer Asing
 

Terdengarlah pada berita bahwa tentara Jepang akan melemparkan Senjata dan amunisi di Tarutung  Danau Toba dari 5 Truck.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

October 20th.1945

(1)The last day of five days Semarang war, many were died, the victim of Indonesia people  2000, and Japanese 850.(D)

(There were special book that told the detailed about Semarang five days war, but not dicussed on this block. But if someone want the  detailed information, please asked the editor on comment form, and we will dicuss in as a special request-auth)(D)

(2) President (Sukarno) send telegram to President Truman about the NICA Terors who used the US’s  uniform, guns and trucks .(M,1952)

(3) The inagurated the Top command of Indonesia ‘s People Security Menistry: Menistry ad interm Moehamad Soeljodikoesoemo ( because Soeprijadi very long time didn’t shoe himself), The high leader Soeprijadi,the Chief of  General Staf: Mayor General Oerip Soemodihardjo .(M,1952)

 

(4)The official document od Residrnt Kedoe Malang

 

 

 

October 20, 1945

The “Comite van Actie” (Action Committee) sponsored a petition to be submitted to Prime Minster Schermerhorn advocating negotiations with the Sukarno government and a peaceful resolution of the Indonesia conflict.

The “Comite van Actie” was formed by
Van Heuven Goedhart (Editor in Chief of the prominent Dutch newspaper
“Het Parool),
Van Randwijk (SDAP party leader),
Verdoorn (mission physician) and
Setiadjit (representative of the Perhimpoenan Indonesia)


Palar, Riemens, Soenito, Pamoentjak, Schermerhonr, Setiadji,
Van Randqwijk and Verdoorn after submission of a petition by the (Comite van Actie) to Prime Minster

October, 21th.1945

(1)The 250 native- Indonesians who came from Australia were put at the Battallion X-camp.(D)

(2) KRIS was born from The Indonesian  Sulawesi Youngmen forces(D)

 

 

October,22th.1945

The Bandung information during British Occupations

week later (22 October 1945) a small British Indisc (British India) force in Bandung on, this entrenched in North Bandung, Tentative remained calm, so self-evacuees nit other regions to Bandung sent warden and the number of Europeans aangr9eide to 60,000 .. After several rampokparftijen (robbery), finally the long awaited assault on the British Indian garnizoen.Deze snakes but was cut and kidnappings since then brandatichtingen were given extent; therefore Europease people back into the camps and protected areas had to find a refuge . Brfitse the commander finally decided to Bandung in two parts splitsen.Het hedeelte of town, N of the railway grlrgrn would be guarded by the British and Indians here, the Europeans and other endangered groups (Chinese) berscherming find . South Bandung warden and the Japanese troops from the TRI responsible for order and peace

 

Original info in dutch language(winkler,1948)

 Ee week  later(22 october 1945)  een kleine  Brits-Indisce(British india)  troepen macht in Bandoeng aan,deze verschanste zich in Noord Bandoeng,Voorlopig bleef het rustig, zodat  zelf evacue’s nit andere streken naar Bandoeng gezonden  warden en het aantal Europeanen  aangr9eide to 60.000..Na enkele rampokparftijen(robbery)  ten slotte de Langverwachte aanval op het Brits Indische garnizoen.Deze werd afgeeslangen maar ontvoeringen en brandatichtingen kwamen sindsdien in verstrekte mate voor, weshalve de Europease bevolking opnieuw in de kampen en beschermde wijken een toevlucht moest  zoeken.Ten slotte besloot de Brfitse commandant om Bandoeng in twee delen te splitsen.Het hedeelte van de stad, ten N van de spoorbaan grlrgrn,zou worden bewaakt door de Brits Indiers en  hier zouden de Europeanen en andere bedreigde groepen(Chinezen) berscherming kunnen vinden. In Zuid-Bandoeng warden de japanners en troepen van de TRI verantwoordelijk gesteld voor de orde en de rust

October, 23th. 1945

(1)Under British pressure , Van Mook had a meeting with Sukarno (D)

(2) Japanese Admiral Shibata  surrender Surabaya to Dutch, but hands over his weapons to Republicans . Many japanese troops were destroyed by the Republican youth.(D)

(3) The meeting between Sukarno and Christison. (M,1952)

(4) The Republic Indonesia government announced that NRI will aggreed to have  a meeting with all block on the basic to decide their own way of life (Nasib sendiri) .(M,1952)

(5)The fragment of bigger  cover send from Malili(rare area) CDS 23,10.06 on 4 X21/2 cent  DEI dancer stamps

 

October,24th. 1945

 

 

This is October 1945

 

after the Second World War, is a stamp cover less tentative in Singapore.

September 1945,

 with the defeat of Japan, the United Kingdom re-landed in the Malay Peninsula, military rule has been enforced.

Cover of introduction, although immediately after the end of World War II, the handling of postal items has been restarted under control of the United Kingdom, for the distribution of stamps required was not enough, instead of the stamp, that which contains the charge this time In these cases the corresponding preliminary press the marker to indicate, is a thing destined for Australia. As for the case of a similar use on the island of Penang, and it will also be introduced in the previous post, if you like, please.

 

Guidance of the event

In the following schedule, my book: Performs the meeting sign-sale of “Buddha convey a stamp design and history” (also referred to as a peddler). Admission is free of charge, to the way the day, who purchased my book, so the offers unique benefits of the venue, if you like, please come to play.

13:00 to 17:00 House of towns and villages nationwide auction + Star Bazaar at (Sat) June 6

(Ikebukuro, Tokyo) at 10:15 to 16:00 Kiri Academy apricot stamp market (Sunday) June

October 25th 1945

British Troops  landed in Surabaya

on October 25, 1945.

 

 The British are coming to Indonesia joined in

AFNEI (Allied Forces Netherlands East Indies)

 for block-making and on behalf of the Allies, with the task of disarming the Japanese troops, freeing the prisoners of war who were detained Japan, the Japanese army and to return to his country.

 

But other than that the British soldiers who came to restore Indonesia’s mission to bring the administration of the Dutch as the Dutch East Indies colony. NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Administration) come ride with a group of British troops for the purpose. This triggered the turmoil the people of Indonesia and Indonesia led to the movement of popular resistance everywhere against the AFNEI and the NICA

(1)British 49th Indian Infantry under Brigardir  General Mallaby arrived at Surabaya (D)

(2) British landed at Semarang (M,1952)

(3) The vintage photo of the meeting between Christison and Sukarno in this day . Sukarno said that NRI government will accepted peace with their ownself to decide (P)

 
 

25 October 1945
President Sukarno and Lt. General Christison,
Commander Allied Forces Dutch East Indies

Lt General Christion stated:
“I am not going to Java to return the country to the Dutch.”

October 26th.1945

(1)Reaching Magelang on this day, the Allied troops took over the town. Almost at once conflict developed over the behavior of certain Dutchmen attachewd to RAPWI and a boycott wasorganizred in reprisal by local youngmen(Pemuda),(D) _

Schermerhorn

 

 

October.27th.1945

(1)The Battallion disembarked . most of the battalion went in transport to the Marine school in the south east part of the city. Leutnant COL. Doyle detached “B” COMPANY TO PROTECT Brigade head-quaters.

When the bulk of the battalion arrived at the school, a platoon was detached to protect the radio station in that area “ the communication officer is critical of this move and the deployment of the brigade as a whole at this  time “

The rising of violence was so manifest that he (Mallaby) must have recognized that a crisis was developing. The troops in the isolated positions should have been withdrawn into their surrounded by mobs and destroyed. Even the last battalion of the brigide 4 –approximately  1/3 rd of the brigide strength –arrivingon t5he  very day  of the rising , instead of being held back to reserve and consequently being available to affect the situation, was despatched to the far far end of town where it was just in time to be surrounded and trapped like the rest of the brigade.

In addition to not altering the disposition of his troops. Mallaby did nothing to moltify indonesian opinion in the ground despite the fact that the dropping of the leaflets had, at the very least, exposed the British to a charge of bad faith on the contrary, he seems to have provocative.(if someone have the leaflet please inform us ) (D

(5)       British aerplane drop leaflets on Surabaya  demanding the Republican Armed Forces’s surrendered within 24 hours.(I havan’t seen the leaflets,please somene show us-auth)

(6)       British troops on the ground are nearly destroyed by Indonesian troops and ordinary people’s mobilizations(The people’s powers –auth

 

(7)The original document of the chief of Police West Sumatra(Effendi)

 

 

Setelah Insiden Di Hotel Yamato Tersebut,pada tanggal 27 oktober 1945

meletuslah pertempuran pertama antara Indonesia melawan tentara Inggris .

Serangan-serangan kecil tersebut di kemudian hari berubah menjadi serangan umum yang banyak memakan korban jiwa di kedua belah pihak Indonesia dan Inggris, sebelum akhirnya Jenderal D.C. Hawthorn meminta bantuan Presiden Sukarno untuk meredakan situasi

 

 

tanggal 27 Oktober 1945 Basir Surya dan Tjarmadi, dengan peralatan seadanya memperbaiki pesawat Curen peninggalan Jepang dan diberi identitas dengan tanda Merah Putih dengan memberi warna putih pada  bulatan merah bendera Jepang dan berhasil diterbangkan oleh Adisutjipto mengelilingi lapangan terbang Maguwo Yogyakarta.

(tasikmalaya web blog)

October 28th.1945

(1)The day after the dropping of the leaflet, Mallaby set about  repositioning indonesia vehicles in a heavy-handed manner.

This is recorded in the Brigade war diaries :” COL. Pogh commanding sub area ( presumably  acting on Mallaby,s order) ordered each battaliond 3 IND Fd  Regt to stop  and sieze 17 car each. Indonesian occupant very angry , the indonesian response is also recalled by Colonel Doyle.

The Indonesian had apperenty agree to hand over cars , and when those were not quickly provided , British troops  were sent into the streets , stopped….. cars at random , removed the occupants and took posse-sions. The british soldier was very disturbed when he heard of this action and even now after all these year they found it difficult to believe that their acted in this way, you can imagine the news of this action, enlarged and distorted, went eddying throught the street.

The same day, the British began the evacuation of women and children from the camp at Goebeng to  Dharmo Barracks, where thery could be properly looked after prior to their evacuation. It is questionable hoe sensible this was given that the ubderstanding between british and indonesian had broken down and that unrest was likely. There was a vary real danger that the women and children would be attacked by Indonesian “Republic”.

A rumour was circulated in the villages that Moestopo, whom the British still could  not find, had been murdurer by the British.

Indonesian troops moved into position, covering each british position with a superiorforce. Members of black buffaloes , as indonesian paramilitery (laskar) group.

Went around what indian troops would do to them,  indonesia civillian  were organized  into group, each of which was ordered to go to it allowqed station when the time shoul come.

At 4,20 pm, shots were fire south of simpang.  The british regarded that at the pre-arranged signal for the fighting to begin. All over surabaya , british possition were attacked. Many british officers have recalled the movement when openhostility finally abrupted.(D)

.(2) The Surabaya’s people fighting with British troops and the command of the Allied forces was Brigadir General Mallaby(M,1952)

 

 

October, 29th.1945

_

 

Surabaya, October 29, 1945

The British Allied Forces had not counted on the severe fierce opposition
from Indonesian revolutionaries. Driven in a corner, the Allied Forces Command
requested President’s Sukarno’s mediation in the Surabaya fightings

 
   
   

Revolution
Freedom fighters

Battle of Surabaya
The heroic battle of Surabaya

 

 

Indonesia

During World War II, with the Netherlands under German occupation, in December 1941 Japan began
a five prong campaign towards Java and the vital fuel supplies of the Dutch East Indies. Though Japan captured Java
by March 1942, it was unable to find any national leader willing to cooperate with the Japanese government against the Dutch, eventually the Japanese commander ordered that Sukarno be released from his prison island and in July 1942 Sukarno arrived in Jakarta. Sukarno, with colleagues, cooperated with the Japanese occupiers. In 1945, with the war drawing to a close, Sukarno was made aware of an opportunity to declare an independence. Upon lobbying, Japan
agreed that Sukarno established a committee to plan for independence.
Sukarno, and Mohammad Hatta, declared independence on 17 August.

In an effort to regain control of their previously occupied colonies, the Allies sent in their armies, together with the Netherlands’ Army. Indonesia’s war for independence lasted from 1945 until 27 December 1949, when, under heavy international pressure, the Netherlands acknowledged Indonesia’s independence. Sukarno became the country’s first president, with Mohammad Hatta as the first vice president. See Indonesian National Revolution. It was not until 16 August 2005 that the Dutch government recognised 1945 as the country’s year of independence and expressed its regrets over the Indonesian deaths caused by the Netherlands’ Army.

The 1950s and 1960s saw Sukarno’s government aligning itself first with the emerging non-aligned movement and
later with the socialist bloc. The 1960s saw Indonesia in a military confrontation against neighboring Malaysia, and increasing frustration over domestic economic difficulties.

Army General Suharto became president in 1967 with the excuse of securing the country against an alleged
Communist coup attempt against a weakening Sukarno. In the aftermath of Suharto’s rise, hundreds of thousands
people were killed or imprisoned in a backlash against alleged Communist supporters.
Suharto’s administration is commonly called the New Order era. Suharto invited major foreign investment into the
country, which produced substantial, if uneven, economic growth. However, Suharto enriched himself and his family through widespread corruption and he was forced to step down amid massive popular demonstrations and a faltering economy by the Indonesian Revolution of 1998.

 

 

 (1)Sukarno and Hatta arrived in Surabaya by plane . They and Brig. Gen Mallaby agrree on a truce.(D)

(2) President Sukarno , Vive president Hatta and Menister Amir Sjariffudin flyed to Surabaya in order to stop the battle, and cease fire . In the Battle of Surabaya  show to front the youngmen Sutomo (Bung Tomo).

 

(3) The picture of Surabaya major and allied forces on the front of car

 

 

 

 

Read more

On October 28, 1945,

 Lieutenant General Christison, the Allied Forces commander headquartering in Singapore, was left with no option but to take a diplomatic approach to Indonesian government. Halfheartedly he gave order to Jakarta: “Invite Soekarno and Hatta to Surabaya and ask their help for ceasefire.”

Letnan Jenderal Christison, Sekutu Angkatan komandan headquartering di Singapura, yang tersisa tidak memiliki pilihan tetapi untuk mengambil pendekatan diplomatik kepada pemerintah Indonesia.

 Setengah hati ia memberi perintah ke Jakarta: “Undang Soekarno dan Hatta ke Surabaya dan meminta bantuan mereka untuk gencatan senjata.”

The short visit of Soekarno-Hatta to Surabaya on October 29-30,

sufficed for Mallaby to save his brigade from a catastrophic annihilation.

The battle which Mallaby had experienced was without precedence. Surabaya people were very determined. They attacked in waves his  troops anywhere in the streets leaving no one behind, and tightly encircled those withstanding in various buildings in the city.

Kunjungan singkat dari Soekarno-Hatta ke Surabaya pada tanggal 29-30


cukup untuk Mallaby untuk menyelamatkan brigade nya dari pemusnahan bencana.
Pertempuran yang Mallaby mengalami adalah tanpa preseden. Orang Surabaya yang sangat ditentukan. Mereka menyerang dalam gelombang pasukannya di mana saja di jalan-jalan tanpa meninggalkan satu di belakang, dan erat melingkari mereka menahan di berbagai bangunan di kota

 

Hawthorn who came to Surabaya on the day after Soekarno and Hatta arrived, annulled his ultimatum. He agreed, in addition, to recognize the People Security Army (TKR) and the local police role to maintain the security and order in Surabaya. The Indonesian side, on the other hand, allowed the British army to continually occupy some buildings in the city to facilitate their job in repatriating the Japanese soldiers and evacuate the European internee.

The day after Soekarno and Hatta left Surabaya, General Mallaby accompanied by his staffs and several prominent Surabaya leaders a), both sides were members of the Contact Bureau, campaigned for the ceasefire to various hot spots in the city. At 17.15 they arrived on the square in the front of the “Internatio Bank” building occupied by the British soldiers.

 The Contact Bureau members asked hundreds armed people surrounded the building to observe the ceasefire and dismiss the place.

The people there insisted that they were ready to do so if the British troops evacuated the building as they endangered the people passed by its vicinity. As a compromise, the representatives from the Contact Bureau consisting of Captain Shaw, Mayor Muhammad, the commander of TKR, and Kundan, the interpreter, were sent into the building to communicate with the soldiers inside.

Major Mohammad, the Commander of Surabaya TKR later witnessed:” as we came to the second floor, Kundan and I were asked to wait outside the room. Captain Shaw entered and as the door was left opened, I could see he made a telephonic communication, which I supposed, with the headquarters. Soon after, I saw a mortar was set up in front of the Commander’s window, which I guessed, directed toward the Bureau Contact cars stopped lining near the Red Bridge

In fact, my guess was correct as Soedirman’s car was set on fire by the mortar shot. That mortar shot ignited the cross-fire

At around 21.00 suddenly I heard in the outside an order shouted through a loudspeaker to the mob to immediately halt the clash. Captain Shaw, who I had followed since the afternoon, informed me that Mallaby was shot to dead by the people. The death of a high officer will be paid by British with all their forces, from the sea, land and the air. ”

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Hawthorn yang datang ke Surabaya pada hari setelah Soekarno dan Hatta tiba, membatalkan ultimatumnya. Dia setuju, di samping itu, untuk mengenali Rakyat Tentara Keamanan (TKR) dan peran polisi setempat untuk menjaga keamanan dan ketertiban di Surabaya. Pihak Indonesia, di sisi lain, memungkinkan tentara Inggris untuk terus menempati beberapa bangunan di kota untuk memfasilitasi pekerjaan mereka dalam memulangkan tentara Jepang dan mengevakuasi interniran Eropa.


Sehari setelah Soekarno dan Hatta meninggalkan Surabaya, Jenderal Mallaby didampingi staf dan beberapa tokoh Surabaya pemimpin a), kedua belah pihak adalah anggota Biro Contact, berkampanye untuk gencatan senjata untuk hot spot berbagai kota. Pada 17.15 mereka tiba di alun-alun di depan gedung “Bank Internatio” diduduki oleh tentara Inggris.


 Anggota Contact Biro meminta ratusan orang bersenjata mengepung gedung untuk mengamati gencatan senjata dan memberhentikan tempat.

Orang-orang di sana bersikeras bahwa mereka siap untuk melakukannya jika pasukan Inggris mengevakuasi bangunan karena membahayakan orang melewati sekitarnya. Sebagai kompromi, perwakilan dari Biro Contact terdiri dari Kapten Shaw, Walikota Muhammad, komandan TKR, dan Kundan, penafsir, dikirim ke gedung untuk berkomunikasi dengan tentara di dalamnya.

Mayor Mohammad, Panglima TKR Surabaya kemudian menyaksikan: “ketika kami datang ke lantai dua, Kundan dan saya diminta untuk menunggu di luar ruangan. Kapten Shaw masuk dan sebagai pintu dibiarkan terbuka, aku bisa melihat dia membuat komunikasi telepon, yang saya seharusnya, dengan kantor pusat. Segera setelah itu, saya melihat mortir didirikan di depan jendela Komandan, yang saya duga, diarahkan menuju mobil Contact Biro berhenti lapisan dekat Jembatan Merah …

Bahkan, dugaan saya benar sebagai mobil Soedirman yang dibakar oleh tembakan mortir. Itu mortir ditembak memicu silang-api … Pada sekitar 21.00 tiba-tiba aku mendengar di luar perintah berteriak melalui pengeras suara kepada massa untuk segera menghentikan bentrokan itu.

 

Kapten Shaw, yang saya telah diikuti sejak sore hari, memberitahu saya bahwa Mallaby ditembak mati oleh orang-orang. Kematian seorang perwira tinggi akan dibayar oleh Inggris dengan segala kekuatan mereka, dari darat, laut dan udara. “

 

 

T. D. Kundan, Indonesian Indian descent interpreter, told that when he was in the inside of the building, he heard about the plan for firing with mortar. The Commander of the troops (Major Gopal) thought that the firing would make the crowd become disorganized and they could break them through. He saw the Captain Shaw reaction to such plan which would endanger the Brigadier Mallaby position. As Kundan felt that matter was getting worst he went out the building, leaving Captain Shaw and Major Mohammad inside.

Roeslan Abdulgani, one of the Contact Bureau members, latter wrote: “Clearly I myself saw that it was the British troops who started the fire, and not our people. Evidently those sudden shots made many casualties among our people. I saw they were falling dead or heavily injured. In the middle of such deadly situation, we spread out to save our own life. We crept under fires and directly jumped to Kalimas (the river nearby)… At 18.30 we decided to cross the river … and at 21.00 I came home safely fully covered by mud and somebody’s blood spread out on my cloth”.

Captain Shaw, a Field Security Officer, told that no consideration was ever given to the possibility of leaving the bank unarmed. Military action was resolved from the start: ”… I got into the Bank and the Company asked me the form. I told him to place his Company in the most advantageous position in the building which would give the greatest fire power, and to await my word to fire. I told him I was acting under the orders of Brigadier. I waited for about a quarter of an hour and then the crowd become very turbulent and started to gather around the building. I told the Company Commander to be ready to fire. The Indonesians brought up a machine gun along the front of the building. The opening burst killed about 200 Indonesians in the square and the rest dispersed. The area of the Brigadier’s car was omitted from the arc of fire...”

Captain R.C. Smith, Mallaby’s liaison officer,  witnessed b) : “… eventually, the mob demanded that the troops in the building laid down their arms and marched out. They and us were guaranteed a safe conduct back to the air field.  The Brigadier flatly refused to consider this proposal.  After further pressure, however, Captain Shaw agreed to the terms on his own responsibility. The Brigadier at once countermanded this: … He did not believe in the safe conduct in so far as it applied to us, but thought that some at least of the Company might get away. Accordingly Captain Shaw was sent into the building to give the necessary orders

When Captain Shaw got into building, the Indonesian brought up a machine gun to cover the entrance. He and the Company commander decided that any attempt to walk out unarmed would lead to a massacre and so order to open fire was given. As soon as the firing started the three of us who were in the car crouched down on the floor as far as possible. An Indonesian came up to Brigadier window with a rifle. He fired four shots at the three of us, all of which missed

The battle went on for about two and a half hours, to about 20.30 hrs, by which time it was dark. At the end of that time, the firing died down to some extent, and we could hear shouting as though the Indonesians were being collected… and one of them came back to the front door on the brigadier’s side… and then suddenly reached his hand in through the front window, and shot Brigadier Mallaby

As soon as he had fired, the Indonesian ducked down beside the car, and remained there …The Indonesian appeared again , and fired another shot which grazed Captain Laugland shoulder. I let go the lever of the grenade … and threw it out of the open door by Brigadier’s body…”

Captain TL Laughland, another Mallaby liaison officer, witnessed: “… About 5 o’clock the Brigadier decided that the Company should come out without arms, as some of them might have a chance to escape …The crowd got hold of Captain Shaw and took him off to the building. The three of us remained in the car. They had taken away our arms … one of the Indonesian leaders came back and said that the Company was coming out within five minutes.

Soon after, the firing broke out from both sides. We dived in the bottom of the car. One man fired four shots through the back … we remained there for about two hours with the firing going as that time…They came back again and the Brigadier once more asked to be taken to one of the leaders. Without any warning at all, one of them fired his revolver at the Brigadier …As far as I can remember the time of his death was between 7.30 pm to 7.45 pm. After this shot, the two men ducked down behind the door as firing has again broken out….They popped up at the window and fired a revolver at me. Simultaneously Captain Smith threw the grenade and firing broke out in the street…”

Major V.K. Gopal, Commander of Maharatta 8-Battalion, D-Company who withstood in the building witnessed: “… Soon thereafter, the armed men started pushing in and I was left with no option but to open the fire. The decision was mine and mine alone. Captain Smith is correct, when he says that Brigadier Mallaby did not away any orders to Captain Shaw. We soon clear the veranda, and just as the last people were running away, we could hear shots being fired into a car. Mallaby most certainly was not killed by our firing because we stopped as soon as we cleared the armed mob from the veranda and the vicinity of the building”.

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TD Kundan, Indonesia Indian juru keturunan, mengatakan bahwa ketika ia berada di dalam bangunan, ia mendengar tentang rencana untuk menembak dengan mortir. Komandan pasukan (Gopal Major) berpikir bahwa penembakan tersebut akan membuat orang menjadi tidak teratur dan mereka bisa memecahkan mereka melalui. Dia melihat reaksi Kapten Shaw rencana tersebut yang akan membahayakan posisi Brigadir Mallaby. Seperti Kundan merasa hal yang semakin buruk ia pergi keluar gedung, meninggalkan Kapten Shaw dan Mayor Mohammad dalamnya.


Roeslan Abdulgani, salah satu anggota Contact Biro, yang terakhir menulis: “Jelas saya sendiri melihat bahwa itu adalah tentara Inggris yang memulai api, dan bukan orang-orang kita. Terbukti tembakan-tembakan tiba-tiba membuat banyak korban di kalangan rakyat kita. Aku melihat mereka jatuh mati atau luka berat. Di tengah situasi yang mematikan seperti, kami menyebar untuk menyelamatkan hidup kita sendiri.

Kami merayap di bawah kebakaran dan langsung melompat ke Kalimas (sungai terdekat) … Pada 18.30 kami memutuskan untuk menyeberangi sungai … dan pukul 21.00 aku pulang dengan aman sepenuhnya ditutupi oleh lumpur dan darah seseorang tersebar pada kain saya “.

Kapten Shaw, Petugas Keamanan Lapangan, mengatakan bahwa tidak ada pertimbangan yang pernah diberikan terhadap kemungkinan meninggalkan bank bersenjata. Aksi militer itu diselesaikan sejak awal: “…

 

Saya masuk ke Bank dan Perusahaan meminta saya bentuk. Saya mengatakan kepadanya untuk menempatkan Perusahaan dalam posisi yang paling menguntungkan di gedung yang akan memberikan kekuatan api terbesar, dan menunggu kata-kata saya untuk menembak.

 

Aku bilang aku bertindak di bawah perintah dari Brigadir. Saya menunggu sekitar seperempat jam dan kemudian kerumunan menjadi sangat bergolak dan mulai berkumpul di sekitar gedung.

Saya mengatakan kepada Komandan Kompi untuk siap api. Indonesia membawa sebuah senapan mesin di sepanjang bagian depan bangunan. Pembukaan meledak menewaskan sekitar 200 orang Indonesia di alun-alun dan sisanya tersebar. Daerah mobil Brigadir itu dihilangkan dari busur api … “

Kapten R.C. Smith, petugas penghubung Mallaby itu, menyaksikan b): “… akhirnya, massa menuntut agar pasukan di gedung meletakkan senjata mereka dan berbaris keluar.

 

Mereka dan kami yang dijamin perilaku aman kembali ke lapangan udara. Brigadir tegas menolak untuk mempertimbangkan usulan ini. Setelah tekanan lebih lanjut, bagaimanapun,

 

Kapten Shaw menyetujui syarat pada tanggung jawab sendiri. Brigadir sekaligus countermanded ini: … Dia tidak percaya pada perilaku aman di sejauh itu diterapkan kepada kita, tetapi berpikir bahwa setidaknya beberapa dari Perusahaan bisa lolos.

Dengan demikian Kapten Shaw dikirim ke gedung untuk memberikan perintah yang diperlukan …

Ketika Kapten Shaw masuk ke gedung, orang Indonesia membawa sebuah senapan mesin untuk menutup pintu masuk.

 

Dia dan komandan Perusahaan memutuskan bahwa setiap upaya untuk berjalan keluar bersenjata akan menyebabkan pembantaian dan sebagainya agar api terbuka diberikan. Segera setelah penembakan dimulai tiga dari kita yang berada di dalam mobil berjongkok di lantai sejauh mungkin.

 

Orang Indonesia datang ke jendela Brigadir dengan senapan. Ia menembakkan empat tembakan pada kami bertiga, yang semuanya terjawab …

 

 

Pertempuran berlangsung selama sekitar dua setengah jam, sekitar pukul 20.30 WIB, yang pada saat itu gelap. Pada akhir waktu itu, penembakan mereda sampai batas tertentu, dan kita bisa mendengar berteriak seolah-olah Indonesia sedang dikumpulkan … dan salah satu dari mereka datang kembali ke pintu depan di sisi brigadir … dan kemudian tiba-tiba mencapai tangannya di melalui jendela depan, dan menembak Brigadir Mallaby …

Segera setelah dia dipecat, orang Indonesia merunduk di samping mobil, dan tinggal di sana …

 

 Orang  Indonesia muncul lagi, dan menembakkan tembakan yang menyerempet Kapten bahu Laugland. Aku melepaskan tuas dari granat … dan melemparkannya keluar dari pintu terbuka oleh tubuh Brigadir s … “

Kapten TL Laughland, seorang perwira penghubung Mallaby, menyaksikan: “… Sekitar 5 pukul Brigadir memutuskan bahwa Perusahaan harus keluar tanpa lengan, karena beberapa dari mereka mungkin memiliki kesempatan untuk melarikan diri …

 

 Orang-orang mendapat memegang Kapten Shaw dan mengambil dia pergi ke gedung. Kami bertiga tetap di dalam mobil. Mereka telah dibawa pergi tangan kita … salah satu pemimpin Indonesia datang kembali dan berkata bahwa Perusahaan itu keluar dalam waktu lima menit.

Segera setelah itu, tembakan pecah dari kedua belah pihak. Kami menyelam di bawah mobil. Seorang pria menembakkan empat tembakan melalui belakang … kami tetap di sana selama sekitar dua jam dengan penembakan yang terjadi waktu itu …

Mereka kembali lagi dan Brigadir sekali lagi diminta untuk dibawa ke salah satu pemimpin. Tanpa peringatan sama sekali, salah satu dari mereka menembakkan pistolnya ke Brigadir …

 

 Sejauh yang saya ingat waktu kematiannya adalah antara 19:30-07:45. Setelah tembakan ini, dua laki-laki merunduk di balik pintu seperti penembakan telah kembali pecah ….

 

Mereka muncul di jendela dan menembakkan pistol pada saya. Bersamaan Kapten Smith melemparkan granat dan penembakan terjadi di jalan … “

Mayor V.K. Gopal, Komandan Batalyon-Maharatta 8, D-Perusahaan yang bertahan di gedung menyaksikan: “… Tak lama kemudian, orang-orang bersenjata mulai mendorong masuk dan aku ditinggalkan dengan pilihan tetapi untuk membuka api. Keputusan adalah milikku dan milikku sendiri.

 

 

 Kapten Smith benar, ketika ia mengatakan bahwa Brigadir Mallaby tidak pergi setiap perintah untuk Kapten Shaw.

 

Kami segera membersihkan beranda, dan hanya sebagai orang-orang terakhir yang melarikan diri, kita bisa mendengar tembakan yang ditembakkan ke sebuah mobil.

 

 Mallaby pasti tidak dibunuh oleh tembakan kami karena kami berhenti segera setelah kami membersihkan massa bersenjata dari beranda dan sekitar bangunan “.

 

Tom Driberg, the back bench labor MP, stated In his speech before the House of Commons,  that Mallaby was not murdered but was honorably killed in action. This speech was made after he had spoken with officer who were present in the square  and after the reports of Captain Smith, Laughland and Shaw b)  were commissioned by the British government as part of a re-examination of the death of Mallaby c).  In addition Driberg stated that Mallaby had given the order for the the troops inside the building to open fire, thus breaking the truce d).  Mallaby had been subsequently killed in his car although it was not certain  whether he was killed by Indonesians or by a grenade thrown by a [British] Indian officer at some Indonesians who were approaching his car which exploded simultaneously with the attack on him e) .

Summary:

  1. 1.    Both sides admitted that it was the British troops who shot the first fire (Major Gopal, Captain Smith, Major Mohammad, Ruslan Abdulgani).
  2. 2.    Captain Shaw agreed with the terms imposed by the crowd and was willing to enter the building  to convey the message on his own responsibility (Captain Smith).
  3. 3.    Brigadier Mallaby countermanded Captain Shaw initiative but at the end he agreed to send Captain Shaw into the building to give the necessary orders (Captain Smith).
  4. 4.    Brigadier Mallaby never gave any order to open fire (Major Gopal, Captain Smith).
  5. 5.    Captain Shaw didn’t accomplish the mission he committed  to take the responsibility and which Brigadier Mallaby had given order (Major Mohammad, Kundan), letting instead Major Gopal open fire (Major Gopal, Major Mohammad). Captain Shaw had clearly committed a breach of discipline.
  6. 6.    Captain Shaw and Major Gopal were remaining in the building for a quarter of an hour when the Indonesian around the building were waiting for them to come out. It had aroused suspicions, firstly about the intensions of the British troops in the building and secondly about what were Mallaby’s orders.
  7. 7.    Major Gopal was convinced that his troops did not kill Brigadier Mallaby, as they stopped firing as soon as they cleared the armed mob from the square (Major Gopal). The fact was that  the crossfire endured for at least two hours after he had opened fire (Captain Smith, Captain Laughland, Major Mohammad).
  8. 8.    Sooner after the first fire, someone shot into Mallaby’s car  (Captain Smith, Captain Laughland). Major Gopal could hear the shots being fired into a car presumably the Mallaby’s car (Major Gopal) , albeit the noise of  the crossfire taking place at that time.
  9. 9.    The Indonesian Contact Bureau members who were under fired spreading out to save themselves and jumping directly into the river nearby . They left the spot at around18.30 and abandoned Mallaby and his staff on their own (Ruslan Abdulgani).
  10. 10.  The crossfire happened for around two hours and a half, to about 20.30, when someone at the outside of the building gave order to the crowd to halt the clash (Captain Smith, Captain Laughland, and Major Mohammad).
  11. 11.  As the firing died down to some extent, two men came up to the car and one of them shot Brigadier Mallaby. Both of them were killed by Captain Smith’s grenade (Captain Smith, Captain Laughland).
  12. 12.  No Indonesian witnessed Mallaby’s shooting as Captain Smith had killed the unknown shooters with his grenade (Captain Smith, Captain Laughland) and all Indonesian Contact Bureau members had long  gone leaving the spot (Roesland Abdulgani).
  13. 13.  Two scenarios are still opened: Mallaby was killed by Indonesians or by a grenade thrown by a [British] Indian officer at some Indonesians who were approaching his car which exploded simultaneously with the attack on him (Tom Driberg).

Some mysteries, however,  remain:

  • Why did Major Gopal not even try to send some of his troops to go out the building and rescue Brigadier Mallaby and his entourage?
  • What did the content and to whom Captain Shaw  make telephonic communication? Did he receive some specific instruction concerning the troops and Mallaby safety? Was it true that the first fire was on the initiative of Major Gopal?
  • Was it possible that Captain Shaw repeated the message to Major Mohammad from his  telephonic communication with someone that the death of British high officer will be responded by British with all their forces, from the sea, land and the air which exactly Christison did sooner after?
  • How come that Major Gopal could hear the shots directed to Mallaby car soon after he opened fires, but not those of the second shots and the grenade explosion launched by Captain Smith to the unknown killers?
  • How come that Major Gopal was so sure not hitting Brigadier Mallaby as his troops continued firing for more than two hours, while he contrarily stated  that his troops stopped firing once they cleared the square?
  • How come that the Headquarters did not send the supporting troops to secure Mallaby and the troops inside the building, or did they restraint to do so avoiding the whole ceasefire that was agreed upon broke down and sacrificed, instead, Brigadier Mallaby life?
  • Was it true that Brigadier Mallaby and his entourage did not try to escape from the car as they got [missing] shots soon after the opening fire and became sitting ducks for more than two hours?

Conclusions:

Captain Shaw’s indiscipline action broke the truce and arose new fighting during which Mallaby was to lose his life. The death of Brigadier Mallaby was used as a casus belli to enable British forces on behalf of the Allies to deploy all their modern war machines to crush Surabaya. On November 10th, 1945, the second Surabaya battle was opened by the bombardment from the whole weight of British sea, land and air forces against Surabaya people resulting in around 10,000 of them lost their life.

Notes:

a)    Soedirman, Mayor of Surabaya, Roeslan Abdulgani, Soengkono, Doel Arnowo  and Koesnandar. Roeslan Abdulgani later on served as Minister of Foreign Affair (1956-1957), Head of Supreme Advisory Council (1959-1962), Minister of Information (1962-1963) and Ambassador to the United Nations (1967-1971).

b) The reports by Laughland and Smith are to be found in a War Office file in the National Archives in London which was declassified in 1996 on the request of John Springhall, who was preparing an article on the death of Mallaby. Springhall had been unable to locate a report by Captain Shaw. However, R. McMillan, could locate the report in the file series FO 371, open for the past 25 years.

It is possible that an official, reading all three reports, collected separately with no chance of the witnesses conferring to agree a standard version, saw that a measure of blame could be attached to Shaw and therefore removed his report from the file containing the reports of Smith and Laughland.

c) The re-examination had also been prompted by the raising of the issue at a meeting at the Security Council of the UN at the same time.

d) Driberg believed on Captain Shaw’s version more than the others.

e) Driberg doubted Captain Smith and Laughland’s version.

Top of Form

Tom Driberg, bangku belakang perburuhan MP, menyatakan Dalam pidatonya di hadapan House of Commons, yang Mallaby tidak dibunuh tapi terhormat tewas dalam aksi.

 

Pidato ini dibuat setelah ia berbicara dengan petugas yang hadir di alun-alun dan setelah laporan dari Kapten Smith, Laughland dan Shaw b) yang ditugaskan oleh pemerintah Inggris sebagai bagian dari pemeriksaan kembali dari kematian Mallaby c).

 

 Selain Driberg menyatakan bahwa Mallaby telah memberikan perintah untuk pasukan di dalam gedung melepaskan tembakan, sehingga melanggar gencatan senjata d). Mallaby telah kemudian tewas dalam mobilnya meskipun itu tidak yakin apakah ia dibunuh oleh orang Indonesia atau oleh sebuah granat yang dilemparkan oleh seorang perwira [Inggris] India di beberapa orang Indonesia yang mendekati mobilnya yang meledak bersamaan dengan serangan terhadap dirinya e).

Ringkasan:


1. Kedua belah pihak mengakui bahwa itu adalah tentara Inggris yang menembak api pertama (Mayor Gopal, Kapten Smith, Mayor Mohammad, Ruslan Abdulgani).
2. Kapten Shaw setuju dengan persyaratan yang dikenakan oleh orang banyak dan bersedia untuk memasuki gedung untuk menyampaikan pesan pada tanggung jawab sendiri (Kapten Smith).
3. Brigadir Mallaby countermanded Kapten Shaw inisiatif tapi pada akhirnya dia setuju untuk mengirim Kapten Shaw ke gedung untuk memberikan perintah yang diperlukan (Kapten Smith).
4. Brigadir Mallaby tidak pernah memberikan apa pun untuk membuka api (Mayor Gopal, Kapten Smith).
5. Kapten Shaw tidak mencapai misi yang berkomitmen untuk mengambil tanggung jawab dan yang Brigadir Mallaby telah memberi order (Major Mohammad, Kundan), membiarkan api terbuka bukan Mayor Gopal (Gopal Mayor, Mayor Mohammad). Kapten Shaw telah jelas melakukan pelanggaran disiplin.
6. Kapten Shaw dan Mayor Gopal yang tersisa di gedung untuk seperempat jam ketika Indonesia di sekitar gedung itu menunggu mereka untuk keluar. Hal itu menimbulkan kecurigaan, pertama tentang intensions dari pasukan Inggris di gedung dan kedua tentang apa yang perintah Mallaby itu.


7. Mayor Gopal yakin bahwa pasukannya tidak membunuh Brigadir Mallaby, karena mereka berhenti menembak segera setelah mereka dibersihkan massa bersenjata dari alun-alun (Gopal Mayor). Faktanya adalah bahwa baku tembak bertahan selama setidaknya dua jam setelah ia melepaskan tembakan (Kapten Smith, Kapten Laughland, Mayor Mohammad).


8. Cepat setelah kebakaran pertama, seseorang menembak ke mobil Mallaby ini (Kapten Smith, Kapten Laughland). Gopal Mayor bisa mendengar tembakan yang ditembakkan ke sebuah mobil mungkin mobil Mallaby ini (Gopal Major), meskipun suara baku tembak yang terjadi pada waktu itu.


9. The Indonesian Contact Biro anggota yang berada di bawah dipecat menyebar keluar untuk menyelamatkan diri dan melompat langsung ke sungai di dekatnya. Mereka meninggalkan tempat pada around18.30 dan ditinggalkan Mallaby dan stafnya sendiri (Ruslan Abdulgani).


10. Baku tembak terjadi selama sekitar dua jam setengah, menjadi sekitar 20,30, ketika seseorang di luar bangunan memberikan perintah kepada orang banyak untuk menghentikan bentrokan (Kapten Smith, Kapten Laughland, dan Mohammad Mayor).


11. Sebagai penembakan mereda sampai batas tertentu, dua pria datang ke mobil dan salah satunya ditembak Brigadir Mallaby. Keduanya dibunuh oleh granat Kapten Smith (Kapten Smith, Kapten Laughland).


12. Tidak ada Indonesia menyaksikan penembakan Mallaby sebagai Kapten Smith telah membunuh penembak tak dikenal dengan granat nya (Kapten Smith, Kapten Laughland) dan semua Contact Indonesia Biro anggota sudah lama pergi meninggalkan tempat (Roesland Abdulgani).


13. Dua skenario masih dibuka: Mallaby dibunuh oleh Indonesia atau oleh sebuah granat yang dilemparkan oleh seorang perwira [Inggris] India di beberapa orang Indonesia yang mendekati mobilnya yang meledak bersamaan dengan serangan terhadap dirinya (Tom Driberg).

Beberapa misteri, bagaimanapun, tetap:


  • § Mengapa Mayor Gopal bahkan tidak mencoba untuk mengirim beberapa pasukannya untuk pergi keluar gedung dan penyelamatan Brigadir Mallaby dan rombongannya?

  • § Apa isi dan kepada siapa Kapten Shaw melakukan komunikasi lewat telepon? Apakah dia menerima beberapa instruksi khusus mengenai pasukan dan keselamatan Mallaby? Apakah benar bahwa api pertama adalah atas prakarsa Gopal Mayor?

  • § Apakah mungkin bahwa Kapten Shaw mengulangi pesan kepada Mohammad Mayor dari komunikasi lewat telepon dengan seseorang bahwa kematian perwira tinggi Inggris akan direspon oleh Inggris dengan segala kekuatan mereka, dari darat, laut dan udara yang justru Christison lakukan cepat setelah ?

  • § Bagaimana bisa bahwa Gopal Mayor bisa mendengar tembakan diarahkan untuk Mallaby mobil segera setelah ia membuka kebakaran, tapi bukan dari tembakan kedua dan ledakan granat yang diluncurkan oleh Kapten Smith kepada pembunuh yang tidak diketahui?

  • § Bagaimana bisa bahwa Gopal Mayor begitu yakin tidak memukul Brigadir Mallaby sebagai pasukannya terus menembak selama lebih dari dua jam, sementara ia sebaliknya menyatakan bahwa pasukannya berhenti menembak setelah mereka dibersihkan alun-alun?

  • § Bagaimana bisa bahwa Kantor Pusat tidak mengirim pasukan pendukung untuk mengamankan Mallaby dan tentara di dalam gedung, atau mereka menahan diri untuk melakukannya menghindari gencatan senjata seluruh yang disepakati rusak dan dikorbankan, sebagai gantinya, Brigadir Mallaby hidup?

  • § Apakah benar bahwa Brigadir Mallaby dan rombongannya tidak mencoba untuk melarikan diri dari mobil ketika mereka turun [hilang] tembakan segera setelah api pembukaan dan menjadi sasaran empuk selama lebih dari dua jam?  

Kesimpulan:


Tindakan indisipliner Kapten Shaw melanggar gencatan senjata dan muncul pertempuran baru selama yang Mallaby adalah kehilangan nyawanya.

 

Kematian Brigadir Mallaby digunakan sebagai casus belli untuk memungkinkan pasukan Inggris atas nama Sekutu untuk menyebarkan semua mesin modern mereka perang untuk menghancurkan Surabaya.

 

Pada 10 Nopember 1945, pertempuran Surabaya kedua dibuka oleh pemboman dari berat seluruh kekuatan laut, darat dan udara Inggris terhadap rakyat Surabaya mengakibatkan sekitar 10.000 dari mereka kehilangan kehidupan mereka.

 

 


Catatan:
a) Soedirman, Walikota Surabaya, Roeslan Abdulgani, Soengkono, Doel Arnowo dan Koesnandar. Roeslan Abdulgani kemudian menjabat sebagai Menteri Luar Negeri (1956-1957), Ketua Dewan Pertimbangan Agung (1959-1962), Menteri Penerangan (1962-1963) dan Duta Besar untuk PBB (1967-1971).


b) Laporan oleh Laughland dan Smith dapat ditemukan dalam file Kantor Perang di Arsip Nasional di London yang dideklasifikasi pada tahun 1996 atas permintaan John Springhall, yang sedang mempersiapkan sebuah artikel tentang kematian Mallaby. Springhall sudah tidak dapat menemukan sebuah laporan oleh Kapten Shaw. Namun, R. McMillan, dapat menemukan laporan dalam seri berkas FO 371, terbuka selama 25 tahun terakhir.


Ada kemungkinan bahwa seorang pejabat, membaca semua tiga laporan, dikumpulkan secara terpisah dengan tidak ada kesempatan saksi conferring menyetujui versi standar, melihat bahwa ukuran menyalahkan dapat melekat Shaw dan karena itu dihapus laporannya dari file yang berisi laporan Smith dan Laughland.


c) pemeriksaan ulang juga telah diminta oleh pengibaran masalah pada pertemuan di Dewan Keamanan PBB pada saat yang sama.
d) Driberg percaya pada versi Kapten Shaw lebih dari yang lain.
e) Driberg meragukan Kapten Smith dan versi Laughland itu.

References:

  1. 1.    Alwi, D.:” Pertempuran Surabaya, November 1945,” BIP, Jakarta, 2011,  p.292 -323.
  2. 2.    McMillan, R.: “ The British occupation of Indonesia 1945-1946,” Routledge, London, 2005, p. 46-51

the death certificate of Chinese overseas at Tjomal

 

________________  ___________________

 

October, 30th.194

(1)British Mayor General Hawtorn fly to Surabaya from Jakarta , and he sign cease fire agreement  with Sukarno and Mallaby.

(2) Death of Brigadier Mallaby

 

Brigadier Mallaby got killed in battle on 30th October.

 

The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby where he was killed on 31 October 1945.

Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby, the British brigade commander in Surabaya was killed on 30 October 1945 under circumstances that remain debated today. Brigadier Mallaby was traveling about Surabaya to spread the news about the new agreement to his troops. When his car approached the British troops post on International building near the Jembatan Merah (“Red Bridge”), his car was surrounded by Indonesian Republican militia. Fearing that their commander was about to be attacked by the militia, the British troops in the International building, led by Major Venu K. Gopal, fired into the air to disperse the Indonesian militia. [4] The militia, thinking that British were taking hostile action, fired back at the British troops. [4]

Captain R.C. Smith, w

(2)Under the influence of events in Surabaya , figting broke in Semarang and spread rapidilly to Magelang.

Fearing the possibility of an Allied strike into the hear land of the Jogjakarta-Surakarta plain, Indonesian armed forces bands began pouring into the outskirts of Magelang from the South. Only repeat air strikes from Semarangprevented  the Gurkha  from overwhelmed.

(3)In This Emergency , the British felt they had no recourse, but to “the report on the Semarang Incident” says that the group was under the command of Captain Takeshita and was on  in way to an internement camp prior to repatriation.(D)

(4) Indonesian armed forced and the Youngmen “laskar”  activities in and around Magelang reinforcement poured in especially from Kedu,Jogjakarta and Banjumas.(D)

(5)Mac Donald and Mallaby, reporting on his morning’s finding.he told how he worried everything was so quiet .

(6)The vintage photo General Mallaby and Dr Sugiri sat on the front of his car(P), and he was killed in the center of riot at the front of Internatio building near the red bridge (Jembatan merah) Surabaya.(Bahar,1983) The vintage photo of Mallaby broken car(P)

(7) General Christison asked the Surabaya government to surrendered the men who killed Mallaby to the Allies.(Bahar,1983)

October,30th.1945

British Army Gurkha soldiers came and occupied the Sisters of the building and used it as headquarters

Original info:

Tentara Inggris dengan pasukan Gurkha datang dan menduduki gedung Susteran dan mempergunakannya sebagai markas. Keesokan harinya

October 31 th.1945

(1)The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby where he was killed on 31 October 1945.

(2) Unofficial meeting between Sukarno-Hatta with van Mook-van der Plast, Idenberg at Christison’s place to exchange of Idea (D)

(3)The  Djakarta,s Situation in September and October 1945 (Star Weekly Magazine no. 42, 21 october 1946,page 18-19)

 

 

 (a))Situation Djakart October-November 1945 with much blood from innocent peoples.

(b)The murder in secret places like near Gang Sentiong, Menteng Poelo and Gang Sembilan,(  in  1946 have found the murdered bodies in this site-auth)

(c)The October was opened by the fighting between  native citizen  Indonesia, Ambon, menado with  Nippon especially around Senen-Tanah Tinggi because the feeling of  suspect (curiga) and hate up to the top.

(d)The House became the shield and street became fighting area.Everybody who cross will examined  and if suspacted the “golok” were flying and blood were flowed or poured (mengalir)

(e)In the afternoon , the youngmen had stoped and  taken (beslag) the Japanese and Indo-Dutch car at Pasar Baroe

(f)The youngmen had the power in the Jakarta, it’s better to stay at home.

(g)The Ambonese, Indo and manado have evacuated / moved from Senen-Tanah Tinggi to Battallion X where they were stayed temporally.In the market they were forbidden to buy anything by the youndmen, and the traders asked them to ask their helper to buy the food etc.

(h)To make difference, the Indonesia youngmen used the National Cap “Kopiah” with red-white pin especially the men’s face near like Ambon or Indo ( the youngmen didn’t like them because before the WW II , many Indo and Ambonese became the Dutch east Indie ‘s soldiers-auth)

(i)In this worst situation, no one could told who was the Government, there only Government’s Candidate. Thefirst : British army’s Government , but they didn’t announced anything against the murderer  and arrested .They only guarded the city, but only in the center area and crossed road only (prapatan) and in that area their policey was nothard.(lembek). They became more hard when one British was killed at Angke. The second candidate, Japanese, altough they were surrendered, in their hand still have the power (Restant/sisa). The third candidate : Indonesia, now they had the power on the japanese later’s offices . The fourth candidate Dutch  under Van Der Plaas. They have week powers, and they were afraid to flow their flag .In this time four powers in one city of Jakarta.

(k)All the day from morning to night the red-white Indonesia’s flag were flown everywhere in Jakarta.

(l)In the front of   South Koningsplein street’s building  (now Merdeka selatan) flowed three Flag: British, Dutch and USA , the Allies Headquaters

(3)In order to had the balance power  with the Allied in Semarang, All the national potential ( TKR=tentara keamanan Rakyat, & Badan Lasykar Djawa Tengah) were moved to fight against Allied forces at semaran

The used oof document of Dai Nippon Java wage tax

 

 

The wage tax revenue used as the common revenue,with round official stamped,but not clear cannot identified.only read kepala(chief),normal the wage revenue ude hslf for control and half for the payer.,this still joined,unusual used.

NOVEMBER 1945

Billing of Electricity from the Republic Indonesia at Bajaman,read the slogan Soekarna Hatta our Indonesia leader

 

November 1st.1945

Republican government issues Manifesto Politik.

November 3th.1945

Hatta announces that the ban on political parties is lifted (Maklumat Pemerintah 10).

happened to the bloody drama Pastoran St. Ignatius Magelang. Father of five, two Brothers, one brother and two youths were kidnapped by a group of youths. On the basis of allegations has come under fire from the rectory pages, they were sentenced to death by a group of youths. They were killed in Giriloyo magelang, and was buried in a hole sparks

Original info

 drama berdarah menimpa keluarga Pastoran St. Ignatius Magelang. Lima Romo, dua Frater, satu Bruder dan dua pemuda diculik oleh sekelompok pemuda. Dengan dasar tuduhan telah terjadi penembakan yang berasal dari halaman Pastoran, mereka dijatuhi hukuman mati oleh kelompok pemuda tersebut. Mereka dibunuh di Giriloyo magelang, dan dimakamkan dalam latu lubang.

NOVEMBER 1945

 

Billing of Electricity from the Republic Indonesia at Bajaman,read the slogan Soekarna Hatta our Indonesia leader

 

.

 

 

 

 

November,2nd.1945

 

Postally used fragmen cover send from CDS Sragen 2.12.05 on dai Nippon java stamp

November,3rd.1945

 

The dai Nippon revenue used on document buying bicicle.

 

November,5th,1945

 

The soerskart chineseoverseas(tionghoa) calling letter

November,7th.1945

 

The dai Nippon Sumatra Postal stationer 31/2 send card send from CDS Pematangsiantar add the haandchopped overprint T dai Nippon on DEI stamp

 

TRI di bawah pimpinan Djarot tertangkap oleh pasukan inggris ketika mencoba infiltrasi ke Soerabaja | 1945

beberapa persenjataan yang di pakai oleh TRI yang di sita oleh tentara inggris

yang tertangkap dan terluka ketika BOS 45

 

   

 

Brimob pertama kali terbentuk dengan nama Pasukan Polisi Istimewa. Kesatuan ini pada mulanya diberikan tugas untuk melucuti senjata tentara Jepang, melindungi kepala negara, dan mempertahankan ibukota. Brimob turut berjuang dalam pertempuran 10 November 1945 di Surabaya.

 

 

Di bawah pimpinan Inspektur Polisi I Moehammad Jasin, Pasukan Polisi Istimewa ini memelopori pecahnya pertempuran 10 November melawan Tentara Sekutu.

 

 

 

 

Kemudian, dengan dibantu delapan orang teknisi dan Pangkalan Udara Andir kembali memperbaiki pesawat Nishikoren dengan tanda segi empat merah putih dan diterbangkan oleh Adisutjipto tanggal 7 Nopember 1945 dengan mengelilingi Tasikmalaya selama 30 menit. Pembukaan Pangkalan Udara Cibeureum

(Tasikmalaya web blog)

November,8th.1945

Masyumi declares itself to be a political party

November,9th.1945

Sukarno asks Sjahrir to form a Cabinet.

British 5th Indian Division lands at Surabaya

Pada tanggal 9 November 1945,

Gubernur Suryo berpidato agar seluruh rakyat Jawa Timur bersiap-siap mengangkat senjata untuk menghadapi agresi Inggris

NOVEMBER,1oth.1945

Pertempuran 10 November di Surabaya


Pertempuran 10 November 1945 di kota Surabaya diawali oleh ultimatum Mayor Jenderal Mansergh, Panglima Tentara Darat Sekutu di Jawa Timur, yang memerintahkan rakyat Surabaya untuk menyerahkan senjata yang mereka miliki.

Ultimatum ini menimbulkan kemarahan rakyat Surabaya karena dianggap menghina dan merendahkan martabat bangsa Indonesia. Setelah mengadakan pertemuan guna menindaklanjuti ultimatum tersebut,.



On November 10, 1945, fierce fighting broke out between British troops and Indonesian freedom fighters after the British lost Brigadier Mallaby got killed in battle on 30th October. British turned to an all-out combat from the sea, air and land and they largely captured Surabaya the second largest city in Indonesia in three days the newly-recruited and poorly armed army fought for 3- weeks in which thousands of people died.

Although the battle was lost, the resistance they put up against much stronger forces helped Indonesia get international support for their freedom later and every year November 10th is celebrated as the “Hero’s day” in Indonesia

Battle of Surabaya

The Battle of Surabaya was fought between pro-Independence Indonesian soldiers and militia against British and Dutch troops as a part of the Indonesian National Revolution. The peak of the battle was in November 1945. Despite fierce resistance, British and Indian troops managed to conquer Surabaya, the second-largest city in Indonesia, on behalf of the Netherlands. The Battle was the heaviest single battle of the Revolution and became a national symbol of Indonesian resistance. [2] Considered a heroic effort by Indonesians, the battle helped galvanise Indonesian and international support for Indonesian independence. 10 November is celebrated annually as Heroes’ Day (Hari Pahlawan).

By the time the Allied forces arrived at the end of October 1945, the pemuda (‘youth’) foothold in Surabaya city was described as “a strong unified fortress”. [4] Ferocious fighting erupted when 6,000 Indian troops landed in the city to evacuate European internees. Following the killing on 30 October of the British commander, Brigadier W. S. Mallaby, [4] the British retaliated with a punitive sweep that began on 10 November, under the cover of air attacks. Although the European forces largely captured the city in three days, the poorly armed Republicans fought for three weeks, and thousands died as the population fled to the countryside.

Despite the military defeat suffered by the Republicans and a loss of manpower and weaponry that would severely hamper Republican forces for the rest of the Revolution, the battle and defence mounted by the Indonesians galvanised the nation in support of independence and helped garner international attention. For the Dutch, it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support. It also had the effect of convincing Britain that wisdom lay on the side of neutrality in the Revolution; [2] within a few years, in fact, Britain would support the Republican cause in the United Nations.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Battle of Surabaya

Part of Indonesian National Revolution


An Indian soldier fires at snipers from behind a knocked out Indonesian tank in
Surabaya, November 1945.

Date

27 October – 20 November 1945

Location

Surabaya, Indonesia

Result

British victory

  • British forces occupy Surabaya

 

 

 

 

Belligerents

Indonesia

United Kingdom

Netherlands

Commanders and leaders

Bung Tomo

A. W. S. Mallaby
Robert Mansergh

Strength

20,000 infantry
100,000 irregulars [1]

30,000 (peak) [1]
with tanks, aircraft and warships

Casualties and losses

6,000 [2] – 16,000 [1] killed

600 [3] – 2,000 [1] killed

1. Background

On 17 August 1945, Soekarno and Hatta declared the independence of Indonesia in Jakarta, two days after the Japanese Emperor’s surrender in the Pacific. As the news about the independence declaration spread throughout the archipelago, ordinary Indonesians felt a sense of freedom that led most to regard themselves as pro-Republican. [5] In the following weeks, power vacuums existed, both from outside and within Indonesia, creating an atmosphere of uncertainty, but also one of opportunity. [6] On 19 September 1945, a group of Dutch internees supported by the Japanese raised the Dutch flag outside the Hotel Yamato (formerly Hotel Oranje) in Surabaya, East Java. This provoked Nationalist Indonesian militia, who overran the Dutch and Japanese, and tore off the blue part of the Dutch flag, changing it into the Indonesian flag. [7] The leader of the Dutch group, Mr Pluegman, was killed because of mass anger. [7]

 

A defiant Bung Tomo in Surabaya, one of the most revered revolutionary leaders. Note the Imperial Japanese Army uniform he is wearing. This photo became an iconic image of the revolution. [8]

The senior Japanese commander in Surabaya, Vice Admiral Shibata Yaichiro, supported the Republicans and gave Indonesians ready access to arms. [2] On 3 October, he surrendered to a Dutch navy captain, the first Allied representative to arrive. Recognising the reality of Indonesian control of the city, he ordered his forces to hand over their remaining weapons to the Indonesians. The Indonesians were to hand them to the Allies, but neglected to do so. [2]

British forces brought in a small Dutch military contingent which it termed the Netherlands Indies Civil Administration (NICA). The British became worried about the increasing boldness and apparent strength of the nationalists, who attacked demoralised Japanese garrisons across the archipelago with rudimentary weapons such as bamboo spears in order to seize their arms.[citation needed] The main goals of British troops in Surabaya were the seizing of weapons from Japanese troops and Indonesian militia, taking care of former prisoners-of-war (POW), and sending the remaining Japanese troops back to Japan.

In September and October 1945 a series of incidents took place involving pro-Dutch Eurasians, and atrocities were committed by Indonesian mobs against European internees. [9] In late October and early November, the leadership of the mass Muslim organisations Nahdlatul Ulama and Masyumi, declared that war in defence of the Indonesian fatherland was Holy War, and thus an obligation for all Muslims. Kyai and their students, began to stream into Surabaya from Islamic boarding schools throughout East Java. The charismatic Bung Tomo made use of local radio to encourage an atmosphere of fanatical revolutionary fervour across the city. [2] Six thousand British Indian troops were sent into the explosive[clarification needed] city on 25 October to evacuate European internees and within three days fighting began. [2] After heavy fighting between the Indian forces and around 20,000 Indonesian armed regulars of the newly formed People’s Security Army (TKR) and mobs of 70,000-140,000 people, the British flew in the influential President Sukarno, and his ministers Hatta and Amir Sjarifuddin, and a ceasefire was achieved on 30 October. [2]

 

2. Prelude

On 26 October 1945, Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby reached an agreement with Mr Suryo, the Republic of Indonesia’s governor of East Java, that the British would not ask Indonesian troops/militia to hand over their weapons. An apparent misunderstanding about the agreement between British troops in Jakarta (led by Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison) and Mallaby’s troops in Surabaya was to have serious ramifications.

Initially British troops were 6,000-strong lightly armed Indian soldiers from 49th Infantry Brigade of the 23rd Indian Division. When the battle reached its peak, the British sent additional troops which consisted of 24,000 fully armed soldiers from the 5th Indian Division, 24 Sherman tanks, 24 armed aircraft, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers. [1]

Indonesian forces consisted of 20,000 soldiers from the newly formed Tentara Keamanan Rakyat (TKR; People’s Security Troops) and estimated 100,000-120,000 irregulars. TKR was formed by the former members of Peta, a semi-military organisation during Japanese occupation. The irregulars consisted of pro-Independence mob, armed with rifles, swords, and bamboo spears. Some of their weapons were taken from the demoralised Japanese troops. [4]

3. Battle

3. 1. Beginning

On 27 October 1945, a British plane from Jakarta dropped leaflets over Surabaya urging all Indonesian troops and militia to surrender their weapons. The leader of Indonesian troops and militia was angered, seeing it as a breaking of the agreement reached with Mallaby earlier. On 28 October 1945, they attacked the British troops in Surabaya killing more than 200 fully prepared soldiers. On 30 October, in desperation, the British flew Sukarno (president of RI), Mohammad Hatta (the vice president of RI), and Amir Syarifuddin Harahap (the minister of information of Indonesia) into Surabaya. The three were seen as the only Indonesian leaders able to quell fighting between Republican and British Indian forces in which the British brigade were hopelessly outnumbered and facing annihilation. A cease fire was negotiated with Major General Hawthorn (the commander of 23rd Indian Division) and Brigadier Mallaby and immediately adhered to. Fighting, however, soon recommenced after confused communications and mistrust between the two sides, leading to the famed Battle of Surabaya. [10]

 

 

 

 

 

 

3. 2. Death of Brigadier Mallaby

 

The burnt-out car of Brigadier Mallaby where he was killed on 31 October 1945.

Brigadier A. W. S. Mallaby, the British brigade commander in Surabaya was killed on 30 October 1945 under circumstances that remain debated today. Brigadier Mallaby was traveling about Surabaya to spread the news about the new agreement to his troops. When his car approached the British troops post on International building near the Jembatan Merah (“Red Bridge”), his car was surrounded by Indonesian Republican militia. Fearing that their commander was about to be attacked by the militia, the British troops in the International building, led by Major Venu K. Gopal, fired into the air to disperse the Indonesian militia. [4] The militia, thinking that British were taking hostile action, fired back at the British troops. [4]

Captain R.C. Smith, who was in the stationary car, reports that a young republican shot and killed Mallaby after a short conversation. Smith then reports throwing a grenade from the car in the direction of where he thought the shooter was hiding. Although he is not sure whether it hit its target, the explosion caused the back seat of the car to ignite. [4] Other accounts, according to the same source, [4] stated that it was the explosion and not a shooter that killed Mallaby. Regardless of its exact details, Mallaby’s death was a significant turning point for the hostilities in Surabaya, and a catalyst for the battle to come. The British ordered an Indonesian surrender, and on 10 November they rolled out a large retaliatory attack. [2]

 

November 10 (Heroes’ Day/Hari Pahlawan)Indonesian counterattack in Surabaya. Fighting continues for three weeks. 600 Indian troops defect from the British and join the Indonesians.

November 11Sjahrir moves a proposal through KNIP to take powers away from the President and transfer them to a Prime Minister and the Cabinet. The effect is to make Sukarno’s position less powerful for a while.

The republic was soon faced with military threats to its very existence. British troops landed in Indonesia as a contingent of the Allied Forces to disarm the Japanese. Dutch troops also seized this opportunity to land in the country, but for a different purpose, – namely, to regain control of the former East Indies. At the beginning they were assisted by British troops under General Christison, a fact later admitted by Lord Louis Mountbatten, the Commander of the Allied Forces in Southeast Asia based in Myanmar. In fact, the British troops were officially only assigned to the task of repatriating Allied prisoners of war and internees.

On November 10, 1945,

fierce fighting broke out between British troops and Indonesian freedom fighters in which the British lost Brigadier Mallaby. As a result, the British turned to all-out combat from the sea, air and land. The newly-recruited army of the Republic soon realized the superiority of the British forces and withdrew from urban battles. They subsequently formed guerrilla units and fought together with armed groups of the people.

Under the pretext of representing the Allied Forces, the Dutch sent in more troops to attack Indonesian strongholds. Between 1945 and 1949 they undertook two military actions.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Related info

AREK “BENTENG KOTA” SURABAYA DALAM KARYA M. SOCHIEB

Penulis: Nanang Purwono

Di antara para pelukis, khususnya asal Surabaya, M. Sochieb adalah sosok pelukis yang sangat identik dengan peristiwa kepahlawanan 10 Nopember. Selain sebagai pelaku sejarah dalam peristiwa pertempuran Surabaya, corak lukisannya sangat naturalis sehingga dirinya mampu memvisualkan kisah-kisah pertempuran Surabaya. Melalui karya-karyanya, kita diajak mengenal serangkaian peristiwa heroik ketika pemuda-pemuda Surabaya (arek-arek Suroboyo) rela mengorbankan jiwa dan ‘raganya’ untuk melindungi kedaulatan bangsa dan kemerdekaan yang telah diproklamasikan pada 17 Agustus 1945. M. Sochieb lahir di Surabaya pada 1931 dan ketika pecah perang di Surabaya tahun 1945, dirinya masih tergolong remaja. Usianya baru 14 tahun.

Darah muda yang mengalir seiring dengan gejolak denyut nadi bangsanya membuat Sochieb bersatu dalam barisan rakyat. Bersama rakyat Surabaya, ia pun menyingsingkan lengan baju untuk negara. Dari berbagai kesaksian itulah, ia mencoba memvisualkan kisah pertempuran Surabaya melalui karya seninya. Sesungguhnya arek Suroboyo ini mulai belajar melukis di usia 31 tahun. Mungkin dalam hati Sochieb, tak ada kata terlambat untuk belajar termasuk belajar melukis. Ketika itu ia belajar melukis dari pelukis Surabaya INDRA HADI KUSUMA. Dengan berbekal semangat belajar yang besar dan tujuan yang mulia, ia pun tumbuh menjadi seorang pelukis yang handal. Melalui aliran lukisannya yang naturalis, Sochieb memvisualkan berbagai peristiwa pertempuran yang terjadi di kota Surabaya dengan indahnya.

Tahun 1965 ia mulai pameran di Jakarta bersama para pelukis Jawa Timur dan sejak tahun 1970 ia pun secara rutin menyelenggarakan pameran lukisan setiap tanggal 10 Nopember di Surabaya dan Jakarta. Tujuannya menyelenggarakan pameran lukisan setiap 10 Nopember di Surabaya dan Jakarta. Tujuannya untuk memperingati hari Pahlawan dan berbagi informasi kepada generasi penerus bangsa.

Beberapa reproduksi karya Sochieb sebagai gambaran betapa arek-arek Suroboyo itu telah rela berkorban sebagai benteng kota demi kedaulatan bangsa dan kemerdekaan yang telah diraihnya. Berikut kisah arek “benteng kota” Suroboyo dalam lukisan karya M. Sochieb yanag dikutip dari sumber “Peristiwa 10 November 1945 Dalam Lukisan”.

 

 

 

 

INSIDEN BENDERA
Banteng-banteng Surabaya dengan dada sebagai tameng rela berkorban demi tegaknya kedaulatan bangsa. Mereka pun berani memanjat menara hotel demi berkibarnya Merah-Putih. (Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA. hlm. 116)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

SEMANGAT MENGABDI
Tetes air mata dan doa tulus bunda adalah bekal semangat dan tekad baja. Kami bangkit mengayun langkah pasti, membuka dada menyerahkan jiwa dan raga bagi ibu pertiwi. (Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA. hlm. 120)

 

 

 

GAGAH BERANI
Berperang tanpa strategi adalah kesia-siaan. Mati tanpa arti. Kami sadar akan kekuatan sendiri. Menyergap musuh, merebut benteng.
(Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA. hlm. 121)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

JALAN MENUJU DAMAI
Perang telah menelan nilai-nilai kemanusiaan, kehancuran, kesengsaraan dan kematian. Meski semua tiada sia-sia namun, demi hak tanah merdeka, masih ada syarat tanpa pengurbanan, yakni :”Jalan Damai”
(Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA. hlm. 122)

 

GENCATAN SENJATA
Perdamaian adalah impian setiap insan di dunia. Perang hanya ciptakan bencana, membuat istri kehilangan suaminya, menjadikan anak kehilangan bapaknya. Gencatan senjata merupakan jalan menuju kerukunan hidup antar umat manusia.
(Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA. hlm. 123)

 

MELUCUTI MUSUH
Putra-putra bangsa gagah berani tidak gentar walau kalah persenjataan. Semangat baja dan bamboo runcing di tangan menyongsong musuh. Serdadu Sekutu menjadi jeri dan ngeri. (Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 124)

 

BERKOBAR
Asap hitam meruah, menghanguskan kota. Pekik arek-arek Surabaya membahana kobarkan semangat. Mati satu tumbuh seribu. Demi satu tujuan. Mengusir penjajah.
(Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 125)

 

PUTRA BANGSA
Berdiri tegap, menatap maut. Pejuang sejati tak mengenal takut. Hadapi dan langkahi mayat kami sebelum kau kuasai negeri ini.
(Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 126)

 

(Karya: Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 126)

 

INSTRUKSI
Di
awal kemerdekaan, kekacauan ada di mana-mana.Merongrong pemerintahan, rakyat resah, BKR, TKR dan pejuang  bahu membahu menjaga ketentraman.

 

DOA & PENGORBANAN
Sebening harap dari jiwa yang tulus gema doa dan cita-cita. Bagai sejuk bunga menyiram raga tegak berdiri di atas tanah pertiwi. Bila esok atau nanti. Darah menyiram bumi tercinta. Gugur sebagai syuhada. Demi segenggam harap “Tanah Merdeka”. (Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 127)

 

TANDA PERINGATAN
Sepatu lars dan senjata adalah bukti sejarah, keikutsertaan kami berkorban untuk membela tanah air. Kemerdekaan itu harus ditebus dengan jiwa, raga dan air mata

 

PEKIK MERDEKA ATAU MATI
Padamu, Ibu Pertiwi; kami berjuang kobarkan semangat persatuan dengan tinju terkepal dan dada tegap menyongsong pertempuran. Dengan satu tujuan, kibarkan Sang Saka Indonesia Merdeka.
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 128)

 

GEMA PERJUANGAN
Perjoangan panjang putra bangsa mempertahankan setiap jengkal tanah pusaka megah sang saka bertumpu diatas jerit dan kesengsaraan. Semua tiada sia-sia, damai sejahtera bergema di seluruh dunia. Bukti kejayaan negeri tercinta. Indonesia.
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 129)

 

PANTANG  MENYERAH
Demi kebenaran, demi menuntut hak tanah pusaka. “Allahu Akbar” Senantiasa Tuhan memimpin putra-putra bangsa yang menyerahkan jiwa raga di medan joang. Demi tegaknya negara Republik Indonesia. (Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 130)

 

 

 

HANYA SATU JUTUAN
Sebuah perjalanan panjang beriring darah dan air mata. Tak ada akar rotan pun jadi, tiada Meriam Golok pun jadi, tak ada Golok bamboo pun jadi. Hanya satu tujuan kami …… MERDEKA. (Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 131)

 

MENGINTAI DAN MENYERANG
Dalam sepi ada gerak. Dalam diri ada semangat Perjuangan takkan terbuang sia-sia. Rawe-rawe Rantas, Malang-malang Putung. Itulah falsafah arak-arek Suroboyo yang gagah berani.
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 132)

 

SATU TEKAD, MERDEKA !
Di bawah hujan peluru, di tengah bising dan selimut asap mesiu dalam tekad yang satu, merdeka. Sekalipun harus kehilangan jiwa dan raga tak ada kata takut, mundur ataupun jera demi membela negeri tercinta.
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 133)

 

SATU KEMENANGAN
Negri ini adalah miUk kami; putra-putri Ibu Pertiwi, tak gentar mati. Semua kami pertaruhkan demi nusa dan bangsa. Meski korban-korban telah berjatuhan, namun bara di hati tak pernah padam. Perjuangan kami demi satu kemerdekaan. Demi satu kemenangan
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 134)

 

BARA SEMANGAT
Ketidakseimbangan senjata bukan hambatan bagi pejoang sejati. Tekad, berani, penuh semangat, senantiasa, kilatan peluru ledakan bam, adalah bara semangat yang tak pernah padam.
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 135)

 

BAKTI MULIA
Nilai sebuah perjuangan terlalu mahal. Setiap detik putra bangsa setya mempersembahkan bakti mulia di medan laga. Mempertaruhkan jiwa dan raga. Biarlah hari ini negeri ber[umur darah. Demi esok bertabur cah’ya katulistiwa
(Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 136)

 

BUNG MINTA APINYA
Fisik tak lagi diperhatikan; begitu pula luka. Pertempuran membuat kami berpisah dari orang-orang tercinta. Melepas lelah sambil berbincang dan merokok. Namun, bukan berarti hilang waspada untuk menghadapi segala kekacauan.

 

 

MENGATUR SIASAT
Mundur bukan berarti takut melainkan mengatur siasat untuk menang. Pemimpin yang cerdik mengetahui kekuatan sendiri. Kapan saat menyerang atau mundur mangatur siasat. (Karya : Sochieb, melacak jejak tembok kota SOERABAIA hlm. 138)

 

 

 

November,10th.1945

The earliest Repoblic Indonesoa Official letter used Dai Nippon Form with overprint by typemachine,and red official stamped(rare document)

 

 

 

NOVEMBER,10 th.1945

At dawn on 10 November, a day now commemorated in Indonesia as Heroes’ Day, British troops began a methodical advance through the city under the cover of naval and air bombardment. Fighting was heavy with British troops clearing buildings room by room and consolidating their gains. Despite the fanatical resistance of Indonesians, half the city was conquered in three days and the fighting over in three weeks. At least 6,000 Indonesians died and perhaps 200,000 fled the devastated city. [2] British and Indian casualties totalled approximately 600. [3]

East java in nov.10th 1945

, Indonesia commemorates the bloody fighting in Surabaya, East Java, on 10 November 1945,  between local patriots and the British military forces who came to help the Dutch re-conquer the country.

Actually the fighting also took place in other parts of Indonesia a.o in Bandung, West Java,  but the one in Surabaya was the fiercest one that killed so many people.

I hope that today’s commemoration would remind Indonesians that the country exists because there were patriotic men and women who sacrificed their blood, sweat and tears to defend the country’s independence

The Republicans lost much of their manpower, but it was the loss of weaponry that would severely hamper Republican military efforts for the remainder of the independence struggle. [2] The battle for Surabaya was the bloodiest single engagement of the war, and demonstrated the determination of the rag-tag nationalist forces; their sacrificial resistance became a symbol and rallying-cry for the Revolution. It also made the British reluctant to be sucked into a war it did not need, considering how stretched their resources in southeast Asia were during the period after the Japanese surrender; within a few years, in fact, Britain openly supported the Republican cause in the United Nations. It was also a watershed for the Dutch as it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support. [2] In November 1946, the last British troops left Indonesia. The “Heroes of the 10th of November” statue in Surabaya commemorates this battle. 10 November is now commemorated in Indonesia as “Heroes’ Day”, in memory of the battle.

 

 

 

 

Read related info from Paradox interactive by Rare Han

Battle of Surabaya

Meanwhile the relations between British forces and locals met a crisis point in Surabaya.

The arrival of 49th Indian Brigade on 25th of October

was met by barricades erected by local nationalists. Two days later RAF dropped leaflets on the city calling on all Indonesians to lay down their arms, claiming that the British Military Administration would now replace the nationalists who had run the area since August.

The effect was immediate. Moderate local nationalists were ousted by extremists, who led their troops to mount attack against British positions.

When light tanks and armoured cars captured from the Japanese arsenals were also brought to the battle, it became clear that the Republicans could muster much more military strength than previously estimated.

Two days later the battle was still raging in the area when Sukarno and Hatta were hastily flown in by the British to organize a truce and help restore the order.

 A day later, while ceasefire agreement was still being negotiated British Brigadier Mallaby was shot in the street during the chaotic urban combat that caused extensive damage to Surabaya.

After Mallaby’s murder van Mook went ahead and met Sukarno and other nationalists on 31st of October,

in spite of his government’s objections. New of the meeting was greeted with horror in Dutch Cabinet in London and van Mook was threatened with dismissal, but he was reprieved by the Queen on the grounds that to replace him “in the midst of battle” would be a mistake.

While the government agreed that contacts with nationalists would have to take place, any contact with Sukarno had to be broken off.

News of the battle destabilized Java, and left with few brigades in the middle of increasingly agitated local population of roughly 50,000,000 people strong Christison urgendly requested new orders and reinforcements.

The imperial and international implications of the incidents in Surabaya were clear for both London and Washington.

Although the United States had effectively withdrawn from SEAC by September 1945, it was still a major force in determining the future of East Indies.

In Washington, attitudes towards the Dutch remained mixed, and the first reactions to public reaction to the events were to stop the permissions for new volunteers to US-trained Dutch Marine brigade still in training in the USA, terminate the Lend-Lease for SEAC and identifying marks on trucks and other equipment was ordered to be painted out.

 In Indonesia the limit´s of Sukarno´s local political control were now apparent as it was widely understood that Britain would not lose face by withdrawing their forces from the islands, but that they would instead bring in more troops if necessary, thus possibly threatening the existence of the Republic itself.

Uncontrolled pemuda violence and raids against the British troops continued despite these political calculations, and British leaders were increasingly aware that the dogged resistance they were encountering derived primarily from the local fear that the Dutch would come in on British coat-tails – something that was indeed timetabled to happen according the civil affairs agreement between NICA and SEAC once the Japanese forces in Java had been rounted up.


For Sukarno’s Republic of Indonesia, the new Cabinet of Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir was the last, best hope for peace.

Republican leaders were equally eager to find a solution to the threatening crisis that was quickly escalating towards a new war in the Pacific just months after the previous one had ended.

 In November 1945

 a new Cabinet was formed under Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir, a Social Democratic politician who had refused to collaborate with the Japanese during the war.

Six of the eleven Cabinet ministers had studied in Netherlands and four were Christians.

According to van Mook who was also desperately looking for a way out from the crisis, Sjahrir was perceived as “respectable” and his Cabinet was also seen to consist of “representatives of a better type.”

 Soon van Mook took contact to his superiours in London and stated that it was pivotally important to “avoid everything which may cause or hasten Sjahrir’s fall and do everything which could, without damaging the Netherlands, strengthen Sjahrir’s position.”

Even though Sukarno remained head of state, the new government was initially perceived to be capable of sidelining him, allowing further tripartite talks between British, Dutch and Republic to take place almost immediately.

As the politicians negotiated, fighting in archipelago continued. British troops extented their control over the islands, and there was severe fighting in Bandung and British reprisal air raids against Bekassi on December. Jakarta became increasingly exposed, and Sjahrir was subject to several assasination attempts.

 

 

 

 

 

 

November ,11th.1945

Keesokan harinya tanggal 11 november 1945 pertempuran pun pecah, segenap lapisan masyarakat, polisi, TKR, pemuda, dan pelajar bahu membahu melakukan perlawanan. Walaupun perbedaan kekuatan dengan tentara sekutu sangat besar namun itu tidak menyurutkan semangat tempur rakyat Surabaya dan kota Surabaya berhasil dipertahankan selama 21 har

November,11th.1945


Diplomacy and Fighting
——————————————————————————–

 

Meanwhile, on November 11, 1945,

Vice-President Hatta issued a manifesto that outlined the basic policy
of the new Republic. It was a policy of good neighborhood and peace with the rest of the world.

On November 14 of the same year, the newly-appointed Prime Minister, Sutan Syahrir, introduced a parliamentary system,
with party representation, in the Republic.

 

Republik Indonesia at Bali

From October 1945 until late January 1946 there was a short period of Republican rule on Bali.

 

 

 

The dai Nippon anchor east area Bali used on fragmen CDS Denpasar 2.11,1945(very rare)

November 12th.1945

Sudirman becomes leader of army forces on Java.on 12 November 1945. During the conference at the headquarters of the army Yogjakarta, leaders of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia Sumatra gave six votes on behalf of the Division of Sumatra to Colonel sudirman, so Sudirman found sound a little more than Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo which  currently nominated as well as Panglima Beasr (Book General Sudirman, Chapter Selection of Great Commander, Tjokropranolo)

 

November,12th.1945

 

Sudirman becomes leader of army forces on Java.on 12 November 1945. During the conference at the headquarters of the army Yogjakarta, leaders of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia Sumatra gave six votes on behalf of the Division of Sumatra to Colonel sudirman, so Sudirman found sound a little more than Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo which  currently nominated as well as Panglima Beasr (Book General Sudirman, Chapter Selection of Great Commander, Tjokropranolo)

on 12 November 1945. conference at the headquarters of the army Yogjakarta, leaders of the Army of the Republic of Indonesia Sumatra gave six votes on behalf of the Division of Sumatra to Colonel Sudirman, so Sudirman got slightly more votes than Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo currently nominated also as Commander in Chief (Book General Sudirman, Chapter Selection Palingma Large, Tjokropranolo)

Unique Selection of Great Commander General Sudirman

When Allied troops, as represented by the British with being followed by the Dutch landed behind him, and they demanded the Japanese weapons from our hands again, then erupted everywhere new battles. First with Japan, now with the Allies. We are not willing to give back the weapons we seized it. The new battles are not only happening in Jakarta and its surroundings, but also in Semarang, and the largest and longest in the city of Surabaya, from 28 to October 30, 1945, and from 10 to 30 November 1945. Soedirman who was appointed by the Government as the Chief of the Division of Sunan Gunung Jati or Division V, and are responsible for Banyumas and Kedu, also faced attacks from the British who came to the majors Semarang Ambarawa and Banyubiru. Thanks to the spirit of leadership Soedirman British troops can be removed. In such an atmosphere that’s Colonel Sudirman selected as Commander in Chief. Which to choose is the Division Commander and Commander of the Regiment who gathered in Yogyakarta on 12 November 1945. Rank since it was General. In that election he defeated another colon-colon. Judging from the military education, then the other candidates were far higher than that of General Sudirman. This unique selection reflects the Zeitgeist or “spirit day” at the time. That is the spirit of revolution everywhere. Our people as if stricken with fever. Fever revolution. The spirit of the revolutionary struggle raged everywhere. Waged in public meetings, organized by the Movement from the time our politicians, and by means of the new Government was formed, and therefore less than perfect. Everywhere our people actively remodel the Dutch East Indies colonial system and system of Japanese militarism. People fed up with both systems during colonialism and militarism Iampau it. People can not wait, and in the old system’s overhaul effort, not infrequently arise turmoil of chaos. Serobot-pilfer, good fortune and even oust-kidnap kidnap occasionally occur. Who is undergoing his own situation at that time, really feel the revolution, the rapid changes in force lightning. Especially among our youth. Often a quick change without the rule of “normal”. Sometimes even “anarchistis” at all. Irosionalitas and emotionality often overcome rationality and cold mind. It’s a revolution! Eine Umwertung aller Werte. Penjungkirbalikkan all kinds of value. An “inspiration razende van de historie”. An “inspiration that look rather than history.” And the “inspiration of history” was “a meeting point of all that is the nation’s consciousness with what is living under the nation’s historical consciousness.” He ontmoetingspunt, en het van het vewuste onderbewuste in de geschiedenis! “The choice of Commander Soedirman fall in such situations. Many emotions in the subconscious in determining that choice. Many are not pleased rationalistic mind into consideration the choices. Indeed the revolution has its own values. Moreover the character of popular revolution, as the revolution we had it. Agree or disagree, the reality is that the values ​​of magical emotions, instincts and vibration-mystical charismatic in determining the course of our revolution at that time. Also in the selection of Grand Commander of RI for the first time, those values ​​will determine. Of course, rational values ​​and cool thoughts Also living at that time. But the more prominent and more powerful are the values ​​of magical emotions, instincts charismatic and mystical vibrations mentioned above. And that then empties into the decision-lift Sudirman as the Commander in Chief. The chosen candidate instead of having levels rationality and high technical military skills, the product of Western education in big cities, but the chosen people was a child, raised in the village, then by a wave of revolution which catapulted to the top, and is a milestone confidence of the majority of the division commander and the commanders regiment were present at that time. The composition of divisions and regiments of our army at that time was far from perfect. Headquarters, the headquarters were uncertain, and often have to move. The Division Commander and the commanders of the regiment did not all have the military-technical skill perfect, according to measures such as the West. Skill military service may be questionable, but which can not be doubted is the struggle to defend the spirit and soul of the Proclamation, against the return of colonialism. If the choice of Commander in Chief position at the time submitted to the Central Government, then it most likely that the choice will not fall to Soedirman. And indeed, the Government at that time, executive power in the hands of PM Sjahrir want another character. Among Urip Sumohardjo, a Dutch-educated military man, but the patriotic spirit. Also proposed lane, which at the time It received the titular rank of General. In the meeting of the Division Commander and Commander of the Regiment also called names Sjarifuddin Sjahrir and Amir, who sits in Cabinet as Minister of Information Sjahrir. Apparently, the pattern of placing the army under the leadership of the civil-political power at that time was about to be applied by politicians. But the majority of the audience chose Soedirman. One thing that is unique in our revolution. Great Commander of the first is not appointed by the Government, but elected “democratically” by the division commander and regimental commander. That’s the revolutionary atmosphere of the time. That is also Zeit -Geist her, or the “spirit of the age” full of revolutionary populist soul. Elan revolutionary erupted out onto the surface of our society that is churning away in the election results reflect that. Elan revolutionary leadership of the army was entrusted to a person we Soedirman. ( dr. H. Roeslan Abdulgani Soedirman Commander Role in Revolution Indonesia, Restu Agung, Jakarta, 2004, p.32-35.

original info:

pada tanggal 12 November 1945. dalam konperensi di Markas besar tentara Yogjakarta, Para pemimpin Tentara Republik Indonesia dari Sumatra memberikan enam suara atas nama Divisi Sumatra kepada Kolonel Sudirman, sehingga Pak dirman mendapat suara sedikit lebih banyak dari Let.Jendral Oerip Soemadihardjo yang saat ini dicalonkan juga sebagai Panglima Besar (Buku Jendral Sudirman,Bab Pemilihan Palingma Besar,Tjokropranolo)

Pemilihan Unik Panglima Besar Jenderal Soedirma

 

 

 

 

November,13th.1945

 

The  Age newpaper about Surabaya Battle in 1945

November 14th.1945

Sjahrir is installed as first Prime Minister of Indonesia.

Some Japanese troops battle Republican forces on Java, Sumatra, Bali.

Dutch abandon Aceh forever.

Japanese-favored leaders removed from NU and Muhammadiyah.

Kongres Ummat Islam Indonesia meets, remakes the originally Japanese-organized Masyumi as an Indonesian and Islamic political party. Natsir is head of the new Masyumi party.

Partai Kristen Indonesia is founded.

Barisan Tani Indonesia (Indonesian Peasants Front) is organized by PKI to promote land reform and take actions against landowners.

November 15TH AND 16TH 1945

RM Suryo make a ceasefire agreement with the British army commander Brigadier General Mallaby in Surabaya on October 26, 1945. Still three days of fighting erupted in Surabaya October 28 to 30 who make Britain pressed. President Sukarno decided to come to Surabaya to reconcile both parties.

The ceasefire agreed not known sepebuhnya by indigenous fighters. Still, it contacts the weapon that killed Mallaby. This infuriated the British troops. Commander named General Mansergh Surabaya people ultimatum to hand over all weapons at November 9, 1945, or the next day Surabaya will be destroyed.

Responding to an ultimatum, President Sukarno gave a decision entirely in the hands of the government of East Java, that is, reject or give up. Governor Suryo explicitly addressed in RRI that Arek-Arek Suroboyo British ultimatum will fight until death.

So great battle erupted between the people of East Java against the British in Surabaya, which began on 10 November 1945. During three weeks of fighting which occurred in Surabaya eventually became a ghost town. Governor Suryo including the last group to leave Surabaya to then build an emergency government in Mojokerto.

September 10, 1948, RM Suryo car intercepted the rebel members of the Communist Party of Indonesia (PKI) in the middle of the woods Peleng, Kedunggalar, Ngawi. Two police officers passing by car arrested. To 3 people and then stripped naked, dragged into the woods and murdered. Bodies to 3 people found the next day by a search of firewood.

R. M. T. Soerjo buried in the tomb Sasono Mulyo, Sawahan, Magetan. A monument built to commemorate his services located in District Kedunggalar Ngawi district.

3. 3. The main battle

 

Bren gunners of 3/9th Jat Regiment cover the advance of their regiment against Indonesian nationalists, circa 15-16 November 1945.

Lieutenant General Sir Philip Christison was angered when he heard that Brigadier Mallaby had been killed in Surabaya. During a lull in fighting, the British brought in reinforcements and evacuated the internees. [2] An additional two brigades (9th and 123rd Indian) of the 5th Indian Division led by Major General Robert Mansergh were deployed with Sherman and Stuart tanks, 2 cruisers and 3 destroyers (including HMS Cavalier) in support. [1] [11]

Aftermath

 

The Brirish and Indian armed forced attacked Surabaya in November 1945

The Republicans lost much of their manpower, but it was the loss of weaponry that would severely hamper Republican military efforts for the remainder of the independence struggle. [2]

The battle for Surabaya was the bloodiest single engagement of the war, and demonstrated the determination of the rag-tag nationalist forces; their sacrificial resistance became a symbol and rallying-cry for the Revolution.

It also made the British reluctant to be sucked into a war it did not need, considering how stretched their resources in southeast Asia were during the period after the Japanese surrender; within a few years, in fact, Britain openly supported the Republican cause in the United Nations.

 It was also a watershed for the Dutch as it removed any doubt that the Republic was not simply a gang of collaborators without popular support. [2] In November 1946, the last British troops left Indonesia. The “Heroes of the 10th of November” statue in Surabaya commemorates this battle. 10 November is now commemorated in Indonesia as “Heroes’ Day”, in memory of the battle.

 

 

 

 

 

Sydney Morning Herald, Sept 25th

Batavia september,28th Newspaper

Java were comperatively quaet on Wendsday,butfour Dutchmen were murdered at surabays

 


Jakarta, November 17, 1945
Headquarters Allied Forces Command
First meeting British and Dutch with Indonesia representatives.

   

Indonesia

Sutan Sjahrir

Allied Forces Command

Lt General Christison

Dutch Government

Dr. H.J. van Mook

   
 

 

 

Sewaktu Tentara Sekutu, yang diwakili oleh Inggris dengan dibuntuti oleh Belanda dibelakangnya mendarat, dan mereka menuntut senjata Jepang kembali dari tangan kita, maka meletuslah dimana-mana pertempuran-pertempuran baru. Dulu dengan Jepang, kini dengan Sekutu. Kita tidak sudi menyerahkan kembali senjata yang kita rebut itu. Pertempuran-pertempuran baru tidak hanya terjadi di Jakarta dan sekitarnya, tetapi juga di Semarang, dan yang terbesar serta paling lama adalah di kota Surabaya, dari 28 hingga 30 Oktober 1945, dan dari 10 hingga 30 Nopember 1945. Soedirman yang pada waktu itu diangkat oleh Pemerintah sebagai Panglima Divisi Sunan Gunung Jati atau Divisi V, dan yang bertanggungjawab untuk daerah Banyumas dan Kedu, menghadapi juga serangan-serangan Inggris yang datang dari jurusan Semarang menuju ke Ambarawa dan Banyubiru. Berkat semangat kepemimpinan Soedirman tentara Inggris dapat dienyahkan. Dalam suasana demikian itulah Kolonel Soedirman dipilih sebagai Panglima Besar. Yang memilih adalah para Panglima Divisi dan Komandan Resimen yang berkumpul di Yogyakarta pada tanggal 12 Nopember 1945. Pangkatnya sejak itu adalah Jenderal. Dalam pemilihan itu beliau mengalahkan colon-colon lain. Ditinjau dari pendidikan kemiliteran, maka calon-calon lain itu jauh lebih tinggi dari Jenderal Soedirman. Pemilihan yang unik ini mencerminkan Zeitgeist atau “Semangat Zaman” waktu itu. Yaitu semangat revolusi dimana-mana. Rakyat kita seakan-akan terserang demam. Demam revolusi. Semangat perjuangan revolusioner di mana-mana berkobar. Dikobarkan dalam rapat-rapat umum, yang diselenggarakan oleh kaum politisi kita dari zaman Pergerakan, dan oleh alat-alat Pemerintahan yang baru dibentuk, dan karenanya kurang sempurna. Di mana-mana rakyat kita giat merombak sistem kolonialisme Hindia-Belanda dan sistem militerisme Jepang. Rakyat muak terhadap kedua sistem kolonialisme dan militerisme masa Iampau itu. Rakyat tidak sabar lagi, dan di dalam usaha merombak sistem lama itu, tidak jarang timbul gejolak kekacauan. Serobot-menyerobot, daulat mendaulat dan malahan culik-menculik adakalanya terjadi. Siapa yang menjalani sendiri situasi pada waktu itu, benar-benar merasa adanya revolusi, adanya perubahan cepat kilat yang sedang berlaku. Terutama di kalangan pemuda kita. Seringkali perubahan cepat itu tanpa aturan “normal”. Kadangkadang malahan “anarchistis” sama sekali. Irosionalitas dan emosionalitas seringkali mengatasi rasionalitas dan pikiran dingin. Memang itulah revolusi ! Eine Umwertung aller Werte. Penjungkirbalikkan segala macam nilai. Suatu “razende inspirasi van de historie”. Suatu “ilham yang memandang daripada sejarah”. Dan “ilham sejarah” itu adalah “titik temu dari segala apa yang merupakan kesadaran bangsa dengan apa yang hidup di bawah kesadaran sejarah bangsa itu. “He ontmoetingspunt, van het vewuste en het onderbewuste in de geschiedenis!” Pilihan atas Panglima Besar Soedirman jatuh dalam situasi demikian. Banyak emosi di bawah sadar ikut menentukan pilihan itu. Banyak pikiran rasionalistis tidak berkenan masuk dalam pertimbangan pilihan tersebut. Memang revolusi mempunyai nilai-nilai sendiri. Apalagi revolusi yang berwatak kerakyatan, seperti revolusi kita dulu itu. Setuju atau tidak setuju, realitanya ialah bahwa nilai-nilai emosi magis, naluri kharismatis dan getaran-mistis ikut menentukan jalannya revolusi kita pada waktu itu. Juga dalam pemilihan Panglima Besar RI untuk pertama kalinya, nilai-nilai tersebut ikut menentukan. Sudah barang tentu nilai-nilai rasional dan pikiran dingin hidup Juga pada waktu itu.

Namun yang lebih menonjol dan lebih kuat adalah nilai-nilai emosi magis, naluri kharismatik dan getaran mistis tersebut di atas. Dan itulah yang kemudian bermuara ke dalam keputusan mengangkat Soedirman sebagai Panglima Besar.

Yang terpilih bukan calon yang memiliki kadar rasionalitas dan ketrampilan militer teknis yang tinggi, produk dari didikan Barat di kota-kota besar, melainkan yang terpilih adalah seorang anak rakyat, dibesarkan di desa, yang kemudian oleh gelombang revolusi terlempar ke atas, dan merupakan tonggak kepercayaan mayoritas para panglima divisi dan para komandan resimen yang hadir pada waktu itu. Susunan divisi serta resimen tentara kita pada waktu itu jauh dari sempurna. Markas-markas pun belum menentu, dan seringkali harus berpindah-pindah. Para Panglima Divisi serta para komandan resimen pun tidak semuanya memiliki kepandaian kemiliteran-teknis yang sempurna, seperti menurut ukuran-ukuran Barat.

Kepandaian kemiliterannya boleh diragukan, namun yang tidak dapat diragukan adalah semangat dan jiwa perjuangannya membela Proklamasi, melawan kembalinya kolonialisme.

Andaikata pilihan jabatan Panglima Besar pada waktu itu diserahkan kepada Pemerintah Pusat, maka besar sekali kemungkinan bahwa pilihan tidak akan jatuh kepada Soedirman. Dan memang, Pemerintahan yang pada waktu itu kekuasaan eksekutifnya berada di tangan PM Sjahrir menginginkan tokoh lain.

Di antaranya Urip Sumohardjo, seorang tokoh militer didikan Belanda, tetapi berjiwa patriotik. Juga dikemukakan Sri Sultan Hamengku Buwono, yang pada waktu itu mendapat pangkat Jenderal Tituler. Dalam rapat para Panglima Divisi dan Komandan Resimen disebut juga nama-nama Sjahrir dan Amir Sjarifuddin, yang duduk sebagai Menteri Penerangan dalam Kabinet Sjahrir.

Rupanya pola menempatkan pimpinan ketentaraan di bawah kekuasaan sipil-politis pada waktu itu hendak diterapkan oleh kaum politisi. Namun mayoritas hadirin memilih Soedirman. Suatu hal yang unik dalam revolusi kita. Panglima Besar yang pertama tidak diangkat oleh Pemerintah, melainkan dipilih secara “demokratis” oleh para panglima divisi dan komandan resimen. Itulah suasana revolusio

ner pada waktu itu. Itulah juga Zeit-geist-nya, atau “semangat zaman” revolusioner yang penuh dengan jiwa kerakyatan. Elan revolusioner yang meletus keluar ke atas permukaan masyarakat kita yang sedang bergolak mencerminkan diri dalam hasil pemilihan tersebut.

Elan revolusioner tersebut mempercayakan kepemimpinan tentara kita kepada seorang pribadi Soedirman. (Dr. H. Roeslan Abdulgani Peranan Panglima Besar Soedirman dalam Revolusi Indonesia, Restu Agung, Jakarta, 2004, hal.32-35.

 

 

 

 

 

November,14th.1945

President Soekarno inaugurated St sjahrir Cabinete,Republic cgange from Presidedentiil to parlementary cabinet.

 

November,16th.1945

Antwerpen – Amsterdam – Bandoeng 16.11.1945

Ned. Censuur

 

 

 

Sencored Postally cover from Belgie to Bandung via Amsterdam  cds antwerpen 15.11.45

 

November,17th.1945

The Vintage book illustration,the first meeting between British allied army  lead by Let.general christison , Ducth Let.general Dr  Van mook and NRI Prime menistry Soetan sjarir at British allied headquarters Jakarta.

 

The vintage book illustration IPPOS photo, After the first meeting above, Prime ministry Soetan sjarir had  speaking with USA journaklid Ktut Tantri about the Soerabaja Battle.

 

 

November,18th.1945

 

The repob;lic Indonesia document of the lisence permit to burn (izin menguburkan Mayat)

deathman (izin menguburkan Mayat)

November,20th.1946

The Dai Nippon Java 5 cent postal stationer send from CDS Boemiajoe to Parakan.

 

 

November,22th.1945

Dai Nippon revenue without overprint used at bukittinggi(fragment)

 

 

November 23th.1945


A British soldier fires at snipers in Surabaya, November 1945.Many of the British occupying troops in Indonesia in 1945 were actually from India. Nehru strongly protested the use of Indian troops against Indonesians; this was an important reason that the British withdrew.

British Foreign Secretary Bevin urges negotiations between the Dutch and the Republic.

PKI begins operating again through front organizations

 

 

 

 

Tjimaki Ned. Indie – Amsterdam 1945

Tjimaki – Laag Soeren : postmark CDS  23.11.1945
send from  POW Camp  Tjimaki WOII

 

Novermber,26th.1945

 

 

Posatlly used Cover from Den Haag –to Women Camp Tjihapit Bandoeng Ned. Indie 26.11.1945

 

 

Close up letter

Posatlly used Cover from Den Haag –to Women Camp Tjihapit Bandoeng Ned. Indie 26.11.1945

NOVEMBER,28th.1945

28.11.45 :British attack Chinine Fabric in Bandoeng

Padang major letter sign by the secretary

 

November 23th.1945

soerabaja 1945


A British soldier fires at snipers in Surabaya, November 1945.Many of the British occupying troops in Indonesia in 1945 were actually from India. Nehru strongly protested the use of Indian troops against Indonesians; this was an important reason that the British withdrew.

British Foreign Secretary Bevin urges negotiations between the Dutch and the

Republic.

PKI begins operating again through front organizations

November ,26th 1945

 

 

CVK ( Centraal Vrijwillegers Kamp ) Hilvarenbeek – Haarlem – women camp  Tjihapit Bandoeng Ned Indie 26.11.1945
Onbekend – Terug afzender ( Not found Return To Sender )
Dienst – OAS – On active Service

 

 

Postal history from womenc camp Tjihapit Bandung

 

 

 

 

 

Read more about Tjihapit women Camp

Source

http://www.boudewynvanoort.com/tag/boudewijn-van-oort/

by Boudewyn van Oort

 
Boudewijn van Oort and his Mother

This photograph of the author and his mother was taken in Tjihapit camp for women and children, 1943

 

 

Boudewijn Van Oort

by Boudewyn van Oort

 

This prewar map shows the surroundings of Bandoeng (Bandung). It is dated around 1937.

 

The Tjihapit district lay along the north eastern edge of town.
Included in the book,

 

 

To clarify the position of the camp, comparison of the two images makes the location obvious because of the curious road layout.

 

The map Of Tjihapit camp for women and children, 1945

 

 

 

NOVEMBER,28th.1945

28.11.45 :British attack Chinine Fabric in Bandoeng

Padang major letter sign by the secretary

 

The postally used Dai Nippon karbouw  31/2 cent postal stationer card  with add 5 cent stamp,incread rate to81/2cent c,send from CDS Priaman  28.11.45 to Padang(fotocopy of ex Dr iwan collections,sold to Mr Karel)

 

 

November,30th.1945

The rare original TKR(tentara Keamanan Rakyat)People security Army, Pajakoemboh official stamped document

 

 

 

 

November,30th.1945

The rare original TKR(tentara Keamanan Rakyat)People security Army, Pajakoemboh official stamped document

 

 

General sudirman inspection The TKR army

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

November,30th.1945

 

Envelope with stamps Karbouw Ned. India, validated with stamp JAKARTA / Menteng with date display 30.11 vk 5. vk vk (vk = black square)

Two questions:
Are BATAVIA stamps immediately upon the transfer of sovereignty by which JAKARTA replaced, or is that later happened?
When this was no date stamp, but with three black squares used and it had a special purpose?


  Comments to the webmaster
Comment:

The stamp is from the time of the republic interim period, used in offices which were controlled by the republican authorities.

The date is November 30, 1945, just before the Dutch regained their power in Batavia / Jakarta tried to restore through acquisition of the English spelling of the strategic punten.De date in accordance with the Japanese dating in the era in which Sumera 30.11.05 equal to 11/30/1945.

 

 The republican offices initially followed these dating (they were just used to it?) But instead of “0” were also used as spacers black sometimes for the hour is a suburb Menteng (then) of Batavia (yet) republican authority prevailed since the English only a bridgehead in the form of the city occupied. Off from January 1946 to January 1950 the Dutch stamps used and very shortly after 27.12.1949, the first Indonesian office names included in the Dutch navy field postmarks and post stamps with the name include Batavia
was replaced by the name Djakarta.JPGvdM

Dr Iwan Note

This time the Batavia not used from the Dai Nippon era in april 1942, Dai Nippon forbidden to used dutch languaguage ,and they changed to Djakarta, the date 5 means  Dai Nippon showa 05(1945), which means the Djakarta menteng Post Office(Cikini Posy Office)  still under the Dai Nippon power because if the republican have power, they will putthe strip pen or overprint Ned Indie  on rthe stamps and the date will used 1945  not 05

 

 Cikini Post Office now still the same building during the DEI,Dai Nippon and Indonesian Independent revolusion era, in 1989-1998 ever used  by the PFI Perhimpunan Filateli Indonesia(Indonesian Phillately Association) office which now move to Old Pasar baru Post Office(DEI era Batavia weltevreden Post Office)

 

 

 

December 1945

Batavia(Jakarta) Map issued by  AFNEI Headquaters in december 1945

MAP OF KONINGSPLEIN ,Risjwijk palace AND ITS SURROUNDINGS(now Monumen Nasional-MONAS and Istana Merdeka)

Blue point is location of Kerkhof in Tanah Abang.
Source:
“Batavia Military Guide Map”, published by Survey HQAFNEI in December 1945.

 

 

REVOLUTIONARY SLOGANS THAT SPEAK FOR THEMSELVES

 

 

 

 

Early December 1945,

The Battle at Soerabaja,Semarang,Djakarta,Bandoeng and Ambarawa.

Dec.1st: The earliest Dai Nippon Postal stationer card 31/2 cent used at Blora (east java ) Post office by Republican with CDS-post cancelled with International date 1.12.45 not in Dai Nippon date 05, also Chinese overseeas Blora had written indonesia national Independence greeting ” SALAM MERDEKA”  this card send to  Parakan to tell that he have recieved the latter and thank you.

Dec. 3rd :Mr  Longemaan, Dutch colonial menister , announced that Dutch kingdom will meeting NRI prime minister St Syahrir , but our didn’t  excepted with President Sukarno.

Dec.4th : Prime minister St Syahril annouced that the meeting with Dutch gouverment only if Dutch execpted State of Republic Indonesia in facct and Justice.

 

 

 

 

 

December,1st.1945

 

 Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945,

Source

http://warofweekly.blogspot.com/2011/04/pertempuran-medan-area.html

 

 pihak Sekutu memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di berbagai sudut kota Medan.

 

 

Sejak saat itulah Medan Area menjadi terkenal.

 

 Pasukan Inggris dan NICA mengadakan pembersihan terhadap unsur Republik yang berada di kota Medan.

 

Hal ini jelas menimbulkan reaksi para pemuda dan TKR untuk melawan kekuatan asing yang mencoba berkuasa kembali.

 

 

 

Pertempuran Medan Area 1 Desember 1945

Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945,

Sekutu memasang papan yang tertuliskan “Fixed Boundaries Medan Area” (batas resmi wilayah Medan) di berbagai pinggiran kota Medan. Tindakan Sekutu itu merupakan tantangan bagi para pemuda.

Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945,

pihak Sekutu memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di berbagai sudut kota Medan.

Sejak saat itulah Medan Area menjadi terkenal. Pasukan Inggris dan NICA mengadakan pembersihan terhadap unsur Republik yang berada di kota Medan.

 

Tetapi perang Medan Area lebih khas,

 karena semua etnis dapat bersatu di kawasan itu untuk menentang kolonialisme.

 

Dengan begitu, jargon kesatuan kiranya lebih pas untuk menggambarkan keadaan tersebut,”

kata Erond, malam ini.

Peristiwa Medan Area bermula dari kedatangan tentara Inggris (Sekutu) yang membonceng NICA dengan tujuan meninjau tawanan perang Jepang, namun kemudian beralih untuk membebaskan tawanan.

Selanjutnya tentara sekutu juga membangun kekuatan untuk mengembalikan kekuasaannya yang pernah dirampas oleh Jepang. Pihak Inggris yang seharusnya menjadi penertib malah lebih berpihak kepada Belanda.

Menghadapi situasi semacam itu, rakyat Medan malakukan taktik perimbangan, yang akhirnya terjadilah perlawanan Laskar Rakyat dan Tri melawan sekutu.

Source :

Henriko Mei Erikson Simatupang

Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1946

pasukan kita (NRI)mulai menembakkan mortir ke sasaran pangkalan Udara Polonia dan Sungai Mati.

December,1st.1945

The Dai Nippon Karbouw 31?2 cent without overprint postal sattioner ccard send from CDS Blora to Parakan.

 

 

December,2nd.1945

 Keesokan harinya Belanda menyerang kembali daerah belakang kota. Kampung Besar, Mabar, Deli Tua, Pancur Bata dan Padang Bulan ditembaki dan di bom. Tentu tujuannya adalah memotong bantuan logistik bagi pasukan yang berada di kota.

 Tapi walaupun demikian, moral pasukan kita makin tinggi berkat kemenangan yang dicapai.
Karena merasa terdesak, Belanda meminta kepada Pimpinan RI agar tembak menembak dihentikan dengan dalih untuk memastikan garis demarkasi yang membatasi wilayah kekuasaan masing-masing.

Dengan adanya demarkasi baru, pasukan-pasukan yang berhasil merebut tempat-tempat di dalam kota, terpaksa ditarik mundur

.Selagi kita akan mengadakan konsolidasi di Two Rivers, Tanjung Morawa, Binjai dan Tembung, mereka diserang oleh Belanda.

 Pertempuran berjalan sepanjang malam. (ibid simatupang HME)

 

Dec.5th 1945 :

(1). The British allied forces leave Banjoebiroe village at central Java due to the situation that they cann’t defend themself against the NRI troops attacked . Ambarawa were surrounded by Republican’s  troops and many Allies forces dropped with parachutes rom airfighter to the Republican area.

(2). At Singapore , there were meeting between Admiral  Lord Mounbatten , Let.Gen. Christison and Dr H.J. van Mook to take the strong attacked in order to stabilized the worse security situation in Java and give back the authority to Dutch east indie Gouverment (that time called “NICA” Netherlands Indie civil Agency-auth) .

(c) At Least , Banjoebiroe Fort occupied by the Republic Indonesia People army(laskar).

December,7th.1945

7 Desember 1945

Lasykar Sabililah Lima Puluh Kota.
Kongres MIT pada tanggal 7 Desember 1945 di Bukittinggi antara lain memutuskan membentuk Barisan Sabilillah.
(kolektorsejarah web blog)

 

 

 

Dec.8th , 1945:

Bogor attacked by British Allied forces with NICA soldier.

Dec.9th. 1945

(1) Republican troops occupied Semarang Airport “Kalibanteng” that is why the allied forces couldn’t dropped troops and amunition etc to battle area around Ambarawa ,and this situation made Allied forces became weaker . Soekaboemi ,s bombardement .

(2)Soekaboemi were Boombing

December,19th.1945

Pada tanggal 10 desember 1945,

 

Source

http://warofweekly.blogspot.com/2011/04/pertempuran-medan-area.html

 

NICA allies and launch a massive attack against the city of Medan. This attack caused much koraban on both sides.


NICA allies and launch a massive attack against the city of Medan. These attacks cause tire Battle in Sumatra (Medan Area, December 10, 1945)


Dated August 27, 1945

 people heard the news of the proclamation of the new field brought by Mr. Teuku Mohammad Hassan as Governor of Sumatra.

 

Responding news of the proclamation of the youth under the leadership of Ahmad was born into line Indonesian Youth.

 

Allied landing in Medan occurred on October 9, 1945 under the leadership of TED Kelly.

 

The landing of the allied forces (Britain) is followed by the army and the NICA yangdipersiapkan to take over the government. The arrival of allied forces and Nica iniden turns your fishing range. On October 13, 1945 and TKR youth fighting and NICA Allies in an effort to seize and take over government buildings from the Japanese. Britain issued an ultimatum to the people of Indonesia to hand over weapons to the Allies. Ultimatum is never ignored. On the. On December 15, 194% Allies put up a sign that tertulis.kan Fixed Field Area Boundaries (official limit Medan) in several suburban terrain. Allied action was a challenge for the youth. On 10 December 1945, the Allies and the NICA launch a massive attack against the city of Medan. This attack caused much koraban on both sides. In April 1946, the Allies succeeded in occupying the city of Medan. Central struggle of the field and then transferred to Pemantangsiantar.
To continue the struggle in the field in August 1946 established the People’s Army Commando Regiment Field Area. Commander initerus conduct attacks against Allied territory of Medan. Nearly all areas of Sumatra occurred rakayat resistance against Japan, the Allies, and the Netherlands. The battle took place, between lian in Perspective, a high hill and Aceh.

Battle Field and Surrounding Areas

Independence News just got in Medan on August 27, 1945. This is due to the difficulty of communication and the censorship of the Japanese army.
The news brought by Mr. Teuku M. Hassan who was appointed Governor of Sumatra. He was commissioned by the government to uphold the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia in Sumatra Indonesia by establishing a National Committee in the region.
On October 9, 1945 the Allies landed in North Sumatra under the command of Brigadier General TED Kelly. Dutch soldiers and join piggybacking NICA troops prepared to take over the government. Allied forces liberate the prisoners with the approval of the Governor Teuku M. Hassan.
The former prisoners being cocky causing incidents in some places.
Tahir Ahmad, a former army officer spearheaded the formation of Volunteer TKR Tirnur Sumatra. On l0 October 1945. In addition TKR, in East Sumatra formed bodies struggle and army-paramilitary party.
On October 18, 1945 Brigadier General TED Kelly gave an ultimatum to the youth field to hand over their weapons. Terrorist acts initiated by the Allies and NICA. On December 1, 1945 Allied installing signs that read Fixed Field Area Boundaries in various corners of the outskirts of Medan.
They vigorously respond to any action taken by the British and the NICA. On December 10th 1945 the Allied forces launched a military offensive on a large scale using warplanes. In April 1946 the British forces succeeded in getting the government of Indonesia to the outside Medan. Governor, Division Headquarters TKR, RI Mayor moved to Siantar. Though it has not managed to dispel the Allied forces, Medan people continue to struggle with forming the People Brigade Field Area.


In addition in the field, in the surrounding areas also occur uprising against the Japanese, the Allies, and the Netherlands. In Padang and Bukittinggi battle lasted since November 1945. Meanwhile, in the same time in Aceh fighting against the Allies. In this battle the Allies use of Japanese troops to face the opposition of the people so that the fighting broke out, known as event Krueng Panjol Bireuen.
The fighting around Langsa / Kuala Simpang Aceh intensified when the people led by the Resident Teuku Nyak Arif. In this battle our fighters managed to repel the Japanese. Thus in Sumatra with the government to defend the people and defend freedom.

Battle Field Area December 10, 1945
On August 24, 1945, between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands reached an agreement known as the Civil Affairs Agreement. Under the agreement stated that the captain of the British occupation of Indonesia shall hold the power on behalf of the Dutch government.

In carrying out the things pertaining to the civilian government, organized by the NICA implementation under British command responsibility. Power later in life will be returned to the Netherlands. Britain and the Netherlands to build a plan to enter various strategic town in the newly independent Indonesia. One of the cities that will be visited Britain with “smuggling” is a Medan Dutch NICA.

 

 

On 10 December 1945,

the Allies and the NICA launch a massive attack against the city of Medan. This attack caused much koraban on both sides. In April 1946, the Allies succeeded in occupying the city of Medan. Central struggle of the field and then transferred to Pemantangsiantar.


To continue the struggle in the field in August 1946 established the People’s Army Commando Regiment Field Area. Commander initerus conduct attacks against Allied territory of Medan. Nearly all areas of Sumatra occurred rakayat resistance against Japan, the Allies, and the Netherlands. The battle took place, between lian in Perspective, a high hill and Aceh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

original info

 

Sekutu dan NICA melancarkan serangan besar-besaran terhadap kota Medan. Serangan ini menimbulkan banyak koraban di kedua belah pihak.

Sekutu dan NICA melancarkan serangan besar-besaran terhadap kota Medan. Serangan ini menimbulkan ban Pertempuran di Sumatera ( Medan Area, 10 Desember 1945)

 

 Pada tanggal 15 Desember 1945

 Sekutu memasang papan yang tertulis.kan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area ( batas resmi wilayah Medan) diberbagai pinggiran kota MEdan. Tindakan Sekutu itu merupakan tantangan bagi para pemuda.

 

 Pada tanggal 10 desember 1945,

Sekutu dan NICA melancarkan serangan besar-besaran terhadap kota Medan. Serangan ini menimbulkan banyak koraban di kedua belah pihak. Pada bulan April 1946, Sekutu berhasil menduduki kota Medan. Pusat perjuangan rakyat Medan kemudian dipindahkan ke Pemantangsiantar.

Untuk melanjutkan perjuangan di Medan maka pada bulan Agustus 1946 dibentuk Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area. Komandan initerus mengadakan serangan terhadap Sekutu diwilayah Medan. Hampir di seluruh wilayah Sumatera terjadi perlawanan rakayat terhadap Jepang, Sekutu, dan Belanda. Pertempuran itu terjadi, antara lian di Pandang, Bukit tinggi dan Aceh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pertempuran Medan Area dan Sekitarnya

 

Pada tanggal 10 Desember 1945

 

 pasukan Sekutu melancarkan serangan militer secara besar-besaran dengan menggunakan pesawat-pesawat tempur. Pada bulan April 1946 pasukan Inggris berhasil mendesak pemerintah RI ke luar Medan. Gubernur, Markas Divisi TKR, Walikota RI pindah ke Pematang Siantar. Walaupun belum berhasil menghalau pasukan Sekutu, rakyat Medan terus berjuang dengan membentuk Lasykar Rakyat Medan Area.

Selain di daerah Medan, di daerah-daerah sekitarnya juga terjadi perlawanan rakyat terhadap Jepang, Sekutu, dan Belanda. Di Padang dan Bukittinggi pertempuran berlangsung sejak bulan November 1945. Sementara itu dalam waktu yang sama di Aceh terjadi pertempuran melawan Sekutu. Dalam pertempuran ini Sekutu memanfaatkan pasukan-pasukan Jepang untuk menghadapi perlawanan rakyat sehingga pecah pertempuran yang dikenal dengan peristiwa Krueng Panjol Bireuen.

Pertempuran di sekitar Langsa/Kuala Simpang Aceh semakin sengit ketika pihak rakyat dipimpin langsung oleh Residen Teuku Nyak Arif. Dalam pertempuran ini pejuang kita berhasil mengusir Jepang. Dengan demikian di seluruh Sumatera rakyat bersama pemerintah membela dan mempertahankan kemerdekaan.

 

Pertempuran Medan Area 10 Desember 1945

Pada tanggal 24 Agustus 1945, antara pemerintah Kerajaan Inggris dan Kerajaan Belanda tercapai suatu persetujuan yang terkenal dengan nama civil Affairs Agreement. Dalam persetujuan ini disebutkan bahwa panglima tentara pendudukan Inggris di Indonesia akan memegang kekuasaan atas nama pemerintah Belanda.

 

Dalam melaksanakan hal-hal yang berkenaan dengan pemerintah sipil, pelaksanaannya diselenggarakan oleh NICA dibawah tanggungjawab komando Inggris. Kekuasaan itu kelak di kemudian hari akan dikembalikan kepada Belanda. Inggris dan Belanda membangun rencana untuk memasuki berbagai kota strategis di Indonesia yang baru saja merdeka. Salah satu kota yang akan didatangi Inggris dengan “menyelundupkan” NICA Belanda adalah Medan.

 

Sementara di tempat lain pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945 rakyat Medan baru mendengar berita proklamasi yang dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku Moh Hassan sebagai Gubernur Sumatera. Mengggapi berita proklamasi para pemuda dibawah pimpinan Achmad lahir membentuk barisan Pemuda Indonesia.

 

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945 rencana dalam Civil Affairs Agreement benar-benar dilaksanakan. Tentara Inggris yang diboncengi oleh NICA mendarat di Medan. Mereka dipimpin oleh Brigjen T.E.D Kelly.

Awalnya mereka diterima secara baik oleh pemerintah RI di Sumatra Utara sehubungan dengan tugasnya untuk membebaskan tawanan perang (tentara Belanda). Sebuah insiden terjadi di hotel Jalan Bali, Medan pada tanggal 13 Oktober 1945.

Saat itu seorang penghuni hotel (pasukan NICA) merampas dan menginjak-injak lencana Merah Putih yang dipakai pemuda Indonesia. Hal ini mengundang kemarahan para pemuda. Akibatnya terjadi perusakan dan penyerangan terhadap hotel yang banyak dihuni pasukan NICA. Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945, pihak Sekutu memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di berbagai sudut kota Medan.

Sejak saat itulah Medan Area menjadi terkenal. Pasukan Inggris dan NICA mengadakan pembersihan terhadap unsur Republik yang berada di kota Medan.

Hal ini jelas menimbulkan reaksi para pemuda dan TKR untuk melawan kekuatan asing yang mencoba berkuasa kembali. Pada tanggal 10 Agustus 1946 di Tebingtinggi diadakan pertemuan antara komandan-komandan pasukan yang berjuang di Medan Area. Pertemuan tersebut memutuskan dibentuknya satu komando yang bernama Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area.

Pada tanggal 10 desember 1945, Sekutu dan NICA melancarkan serangan besar-besaran terhadap kota Medan. Serangan ini menimbulkan banyak koraban di kedua belah pihak. Pada bulan April 1946, Sekutu berhasil menduduki kota Medan. Pusat perjuangan rakyat Medan kemudian dipindahkan ke Pemantangsiantar.

Untuk melanjutkan perjuangan di Medan maka pada bulan Agustus 1946 dibentuk Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area. Komandan initerus mengadakan serangan terhadap Sekutu diwilayah Medan. Hampir di seluruh wilayah Sumatera terjadi perlawanan rakayat terhadap Jepang, Sekutu, dan Belanda. Pertempuran itu terjadi, antara lian di Pandang, Bukit tinggi dan Aceh.

 

 

Battle Field and Surrounding Areas

Independence News just got in Medan on August 27, 1945. This is due to the difficulty of communication and the censorship of the Japanese army.
The news brought by Mr. Teuku M. Hassan who was appointed Governor of Sumatra. He was commissioned by the government to uphold the sovereignty of the Republic of Indonesia in Sumatra Indonesia by establishing a National Committee in the region.
On October 9, 1945 the Allies landed in North Sumatra under the command of Brigadier General TED Kelly. Dutch soldiers and join piggybacking NICA troops prepared to take over the government. Allied forces liberate the prisoners with the approval of the Governor Teuku M. Hassan.
The former prisoners being cocky causing incidents in some places.
Tahir Ahmad, a former army officer spearheaded the formation of Volunteer TKR Tirnur Sumatra. On l0 October 1945. In addition TKR, in East Sumatra formed bodies struggle and army-paramilitary party.
On October 18, 1945 Brigadier General TED Kelly gave an ultimatum to the youth field to hand over their weapons. Terrorist acts initiated by the Allies and NICA. On December 1, 1945 Allied installing signs that read Fixed Field Area Boundaries in various corners of the outskirts of Medan.
They vigorously respond to any action taken by the British and the NICA. On December 10th 1945 the Allied forces launched a military offensive on a large scale using warplanes. In April 1946 the British forces succeeded in getting the government of Indonesia to the outside Medan. Governor, Division Headquarters TKR, RI Mayor moved to Siantar. Though it has not managed to dispel the Allied forces, Medan people continue to struggle with forming the People Brigade Field Area.
In addition in the field, in the surrounding areas also occur uprising against the Japanese, the Allies, and the Netherlands. In Padang and Bukittinggi battle lasted since November 1945. Meanwhile, in the same time in Aceh fighting against the Allies. In this battle the Allies use of Japanese troops to face the opposition of the people so that the fighting broke out, known as event Krueng Panjol Bireuen.
The fighting around Langsa / Kuala Simpang Aceh intensified when the people led by the Resident Teuku Nyak Arif. In this battle our fighters managed to repel the Japanese. Thus in Sumatra with the government to defend the people and defend freedom.

Battle Field Area December 10, 1945
On August 24, 1945, between the Government of the United Kingdom and the Netherlands reached an agreement known as the Civil Affairs Agreement. Under the agreement stated that the captain of the British occupation of Indonesia shall hold the power on behalf of the Dutch government.

In carrying out the things pertaining to the civilian government, organized by the NICA implementation under British command responsibility. Power later in life will be returned to the Netherlands. Britain and the Netherlands to build a plan to enter various strategic town in the newly independent Indonesia. One of the cities that will be visited Britain with “smuggling” is a Medan Dutch NICA.

Meanwhile, elsewhere on the August 27, 1945 people heard the proclamation of a new field brought by Mr. Teuku Mohammad Hassan as Governor of Sumatra. Mengggapi news of the proclamation of the youth under the leadership of Ahmad was born into line Indonesian Youth.

On October 9, 1945 in Civil Affairs Agreement plan actually implemented. Diboncengi by British troops landed in Medan NICA. They were led by Brig T.E.D Kelly.
Initially they were accepted by the government of North Sumatra Indonesia in connection with his duty to free the prisoners of war (the Dutch army). An incident occurred at Jalan Bali, Medan on October 13, 1945.
At that time the residents (NICA troops) rob and stomp red and white insignia used Indonesian youth. This angered the youth. The result is destruction and attack on the hotel which was inhabited NICA troops. On December 1, 1945, the Allies installing signs that read Fixed Field Area Boundaries in various corners of the city of Medan.
Since then the field area to be famous. British troops and NICA mop up the Republican element in the city of Medan.
This is clearly a reaction to the youth and TKR against foreign powers trying to power back. On August 10, 1946 at Tebingtinggi meeting between army commanders who fought in Medan Area. The meeting decided that the establishment of a command named People’s Army Commando Regiment Field Area.
On 10 December 1945, the Allies and the NICA launch a massive attack against the city of Medan. This attack caused much koraban on both sides. In April 1946, the Allies succeeded in occupying the city of Medan. Central struggle of the field and then transferred to Pemantangsiantar.
To continue the struggle in the field in August 1946 established the People’s Army Commando Regiment Field Area. Commander initerus conduct attacks against Allied territory of Medan. Nearly all areas of Sumatra occurred rakayat resistance against Japan, the Allies, and the Netherlands. The battle took place, between lian in Perspective, a high hill and Aceh.

BATTLE FIELD AREA
On 9 November 1945,
 Allied forces under the command of Brigadier General TED Kelly landed in North Sumatra, followed by troops NICA.
The Government of the Republic of Indonesia in North Sumatra allow them to occupy some of the hotels located in the city of Medan, such as the Hotel de Boer, Grand Hotel, Hotel Astoria, and other hotels. Furthermore, they are placed in Binjai, Cape Field.
A day after landing team came RAPWI camps that exist in the field with the approval of Governor M. Hasan. The group was immediately formed into Medan KNIL Battalion.
With the strength of it, turned out to be a former prisoner of arrogant and arbitrary that provoke the emergence of the incident. The incident first occurred
dated October 13, 1945
at Jalan Bali, Medan. The incident originated from an act of depriving residents and step-nginjak badge Red and White. As a result, the hotel was attacked and destroyed by the youth. The impact of the incident spread to several other cities such as Siantar, and Brastagi.
On October 10, 1945
East Sumatra formed TKR boss Tahir Ahmad. Furthermore, the former dialing held Giyugun and Heiho to East Sumatra. Besides TKR, well formed bodies struggle since the date of October 15, 1945
Youth of the Republic of Indonesia to East Sumatra and later renamed Pesindo.
After the issuance of the Government Notice of formation of political parties
 in November 1945,
Sumatra formed army-paramilitary party. PNI has named National Pioneer camps Indonesia (Napindo),
PKI has a row of red, Masyumi has set up paramilitary Hizbullah and Youth Parkindo Parkindo.
Meanwhile, on October 18, 1945,
Brigadier General T.E.D. Kelly gave an ultimatum to the youth field handing weapons to allies. -British Allied forces also getting muddy with hostility among youth in Sumatra Indonesia.

On December 1, 1945,
 Allies-England installing signs that read Fixed Field Area Boundaries in the outskirts of the city of Medan. Since then the name of the field area to be famous. England with NICA undergo a cleansing of the elements of the Republic of Indonesia in Medan. Even the date of December 10, 1945, they attempted to destroy the concentration of TKR in Trepes. The action was certainly a fierce opposition from the youth field.
With the occurrence of such an event, Brigadier General TED Kelly returned to threaten the youth to give up their weapons and if not, will be shot dead.
In April 1946
Allied British were urging the Government of the Republic of Indonesia in Medan. Governor, TKR division headquarters and the mayor moved to Siantar. Britain had occupied the city of Medan.
CONCLUSION
On 9 November 1945,
Allied forces under the command of Brigadier General TED Kelly landed in Medan. Initially their arrival was welcomed by the ruler of terrain, but because they are trying to come up with NICA restore Dutch rule in Indonesia
 then on December 10, 1945,
 The incident happened between Indonesia with Allied fighters. With the incident Brigadier General TED Kelly threatened the youth to surrender its weapons. And on August 10, 1946 was held a meeting between the Commander-People’s Army Commando Regiment Field Area. And this is under the command of them to continue the struggle in Medan Area.yak ko parties

 

original info

Pertempuran Medan Area dan Sekitarnya

Berita Proklamasi Kemerdekaan baru sampai di Medan pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945. Hal ini disebabkan sulitnya komunikasi dan adanya sensor dari tentara Jepang.

Berita tersebut dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku M. Hassan yang diangkat menjadi Gubernur Sumatra. Ia ditugaskan oleh pemerintah untuk menegakkan kedaulatan Republik Indonesia di Sumatera dengan membentuk Komite Nasional Indonesia di wilayah itu.

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945 pasukan Sekutu mendarat di Sumatera Utara di bawah pimpinan Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly. Serdadu Belanda dan NICA ikut membonceng pasukan ini yang dipersiapkan mengambil alih pemerintahan. Pasukan Sekutu membebaskan para tawanan atas persetujuan Gubernur Teuku M. Hassan.

Para bekas tawanan ini bersikap congkak sehingga menyebabkan terjadinya insiden di beberapa tempat.

Achmad Tahir, seorang bekas perwira tentara Sukarela memelopori terbentuknya TKR Sumatra Tirnur. Pada tanggal l0 Oktober 1945. Di samping TKR, di Sumatera Timur terbentuk Badan-badan perjuangan dan laskar-laskar partai.

Pada tanggal 18 Oktober 1945 Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly memberikan ultimatum kepada pemuda Medan agar menyerahkan senjatanya. Aksi-aksi teror mulai dilakukan oleh Sekutu dan NICA. Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945 Sekutu memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di berbagai sudut pinggiran kota Medan.

Mereka dengan gigih membalas setiap aksi yang dilakukan pihak Inggris dan NICA. Pada tanggal 10 Desember 1945 pasukan Sekutu melancarkan serangan militer secara besar-besaran dengan menggunakan pesawat-pesawat tempur. Pada bulan April 1946 pasukan Inggris berhasil mendesak pemerintah RI ke luar Medan. Gubernur, Markas Divisi TKR, Walikota RI pindah ke Pematang Siantar. Walaupun belum berhasil menghalau pasukan Sekutu, rakyat Medan terus berjuang dengan membentuk Lasykar Rakyat Medan Area.

Selain di daerah Medan, di daerah-daerah sekitarnya juga terjadi perlawanan rakyat terhadap Jepang, Sekutu, dan Belanda. Di Padang dan Bukittinggi pertempuran berlangsung sejak bulan November 1945. Sementara itu dalam waktu yang sama di Aceh terjadi pertempuran melawan Sekutu. Dalam pertempuran ini Sekutu memanfaatkan pasukan-pasukan Jepang untuk menghadapi perlawanan rakyat sehingga pecah pertempuran yang dikenal dengan peristiwa Krueng Panjol Bireuen.

Pertempuran di sekitar Langsa/Kuala Simpang Aceh semakin sengit ketika pihak rakyat dipimpin langsung oleh Residen Teuku Nyak Arif. Dalam pertempuran ini pejuang kita berhasil mengusir Jepang. Dengan demikian di seluruh Sumatera rakyat bersama pemerintah membela dan mempertahankan kemerdekaan.

 

Pertempuran Medan Area 10 Desember 1945

Pada tanggal 24 Agustus 1945, antara pemerintah Kerajaan Inggris dan Kerajaan Belanda tercapai suatu persetujuan yang terkenal dengan nama civil Affairs Agreement. Dalam persetujuan ini disebutkan bahwa panglima tentara pendudukan Inggris di Indonesia akan memegang kekuasaan atas nama pemerintah Belanda.

 

Dalam melaksanakan hal-hal yang berkenaan dengan pemerintah sipil, pelaksanaannya diselenggarakan oleh NICA dibawah tanggungjawab komando Inggris. Kekuasaan itu kelak di kemudian hari akan dikembalikan kepada Belanda. Inggris dan Belanda membangun rencana untuk memasuki berbagai kota strategis di Indonesia yang baru saja merdeka. Salah satu kota yang akan didatangi Inggris dengan “menyelundupkan” NICA Belanda adalah Medan.

 

Sementara di tempat lain pada tanggal 27 Agustus 1945 rakyat Medan baru mendengar berita proklamasi yang dibawa oleh Mr. Teuku Moh Hassan sebagai Gubernur Sumatera. Mengggapi berita proklamasi para pemuda dibawah pimpinan Achmad lahir membentuk barisan Pemuda Indonesia.

 

Pada tanggal 9 Oktober 1945 rencana dalam Civil Affairs Agreement benar-benar dilaksanakan. Tentara Inggris yang diboncengi oleh NICA mendarat di Medan. Mereka dipimpin oleh Brigjen T.E.D Kelly.

Awalnya mereka diterima secara baik oleh pemerintah RI di Sumatra Utara sehubungan dengan tugasnya untuk membebaskan tawanan perang (tentara Belanda). Sebuah insiden terjadi di hotel Jalan Bali, Medan pada tanggal 13 Oktober 1945.

Saat itu seorang penghuni hotel (pasukan NICA) merampas dan menginjak-injak lencana Merah Putih yang dipakai pemuda Indonesia. Hal ini mengundang kemarahan para pemuda. Akibatnya terjadi perusakan dan penyerangan terhadap hotel yang banyak dihuni pasukan NICA. Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945, pihak Sekutu memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di berbagai sudut kota Medan.

Sejak saat itulah Medan Area menjadi terkenal. Pasukan Inggris dan NICA mengadakan pembersihan terhadap unsur Republik yang berada di kota Medan.

Hal ini jelas menimbulkan reaksi para pemuda dan TKR untuk melawan kekuatan asing yang mencoba berkuasa kembali. Pada tanggal 10 Agustus 1946 di Tebingtinggi diadakan pertemuan antara komandan-komandan pasukan yang berjuang di Medan Area. Pertemuan tersebut memutuskan dibentuknya satu komando yang bernama Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area.

Pada tanggal 10 desember 1945, Sekutu dan NICA melancarkan serangan besar-besaran terhadap kota Medan. Serangan ini menimbulkan banyak koraban di kedua belah pihak. Pada bulan April 1946, Sekutu berhasil menduduki kota Medan. Pusat perjuangan rakyat Medan kemudian dipindahkan ke Pemantangsiantar.

Untuk melanjutkan perjuangan di Medan maka pada bulan Agustus 1946 dibentuk Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area. Komandan initerus mengadakan serangan terhadap Sekutu diwilayah Medan. Hampir di seluruh wilayah Sumatera terjadi perlawanan rakayat terhadap Jepang, Sekutu, dan Belanda. Pertempuran itu terjadi, antara lian di Pandang, Bukit tinggi dan Aceh.

 

PERTEMPURAN MEDAN AREA

Pada tanggal 9 Nopember 1945,

 pasukan Sekutu di bawah pimpinan Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly mendarat di Sumatera Utara yang diikuti oleh pasukan NICA.

Pemerintah Republik Indonesia di Sumatera Utara memperkenankan mereka untuk menempati beberapa hotel yang terdapat di kota Medan, seperti Hotel de Boer, Grand Hotel, Hotel Astoria, dan hotel-hotel lainnya. Selanjutnya mereka ditempatkan di Binjai, Tanjung Lapangan.

Sehari setelah mendarat Tim RAPWI mendatangi kamp-kamp tawanan yang ada di Medan atas persetujuan Gubernur M. Hasan. Kelompok itu langsung dibentuk menjadi Medan Batalyon KNIL.

Dengan adanya kekuatan itu, ternyata bekas tawanan menjadi arogan dan sewenang-wenang sehingga memancing munculnya insiden. Insiden pertama kali terjadi

tanggal 13 Oktober 1945

di Jalan Bali, Medan. Insiden itu berawal dari ulah seorang penghuni hotel yang merampas dan menginjak-nginjak lencana Merah Putih. Akibatnya hotel itu diserang dan dirusak oleh kalangan pemuda. Dampak dari insiden itu menjalar ke beberapa kota lain seperti Pematang Siantar, dan Brastagi.

Pada tanggal 10 Oktober 1945

dibentuk TKR Sumatera Timur dengan pimpinannya Achmad Tahir. Selanjutnya diadakan pemanggilan bekas Giyugun dan Heiho ke Sumatera Timur. Disamping TKR, terbentuk juga badan-badan perjuangan yang sejak tanggal 15 Oktober 1945

menjadi Pemuda Republik Indonesia Sumatera Timur dan kemudian berganti nama menjadi Pesindo.

Setelah dikeluarkannya Maklumat Pemerintah tentang terbentuknya partai-partai politik

 pada bulan November 1945,

di Sumatera dibentuk laskar-laskar partai. PNI memiliki laskar yang bernama Nasional Pelopor Indonesia (Napindo),

PKI mempunyai barisan Merah, Masyumi mempunyai laskar Hisbullah dan Parkindo mendirikan Pemuda Parkindo.

Sementara itu pada tanggal 18 Oktober 1945,

Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly memberi ultimatum agar para pemuda Medan menyerahkan senjatanya kepada sekutu. Pasukan Sekutu-Inggris juga semakin memperkeruh suasana dengan permusuhan dikalangan pemuda Indonesia di Sumatera.

 

Pada tanggal 1 Desember 1945,

 pihak Sekutu-Inggris memasang papan-papan yang bertuliskan Fixed Boundaries Medan Area di daerah-daerah pinggiran kota Medan. Sejak saat itu nama Medan Area menjadi terkenal. Inggris bersama NICA melakuan pembersihan terhadap unsur-unsur Republik Indonesia di Medan. Bahkan pada tanggal 10 Desember 1945, mereka berusaha menghancurkan konsentrasi TKR di Trepes. Aksi tersebut tentu saja mendapat perlawanan yang sengit dari pemuda Medan.

Dengan terjadinya peristiwa seperti itu, Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly kembali mengancam para pemuda agar menyerahkan senjata yang mereka miliki dan jika tidak, akan ditembak mati.

Pada bulan April 1946

tentara Sekutu Inggris sudah mulai mendesak Pemerintah Republik Indonesia di Medan. Gubernur, markas besar divisi TKR dan walikota pindah ke Pematang Siantar. Inggris pun menduduki kota Medan.

KESIMPULAN

Pada tanggal 9 November 1945,

Pasukan Sekutu di bawah pimpinan Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly mendarat di kota Medan. Awalnya kedatangan mereka disambut baik oleh penguasa medan, tapi karena mereka datang bersama NICA yang berusaha memulihkan kembali kekuasaan belanda di Indonesia

 maka pada tanggal 10 Desember 1945,

 terjadilah  Insiden antara pejuang Indonesia dengan Sekutu. Dengan adanya Insiden tersebut Brigadir Jenderal T.E.D. Kelly mengancam para pemuda untuk menyerahkan senjata yang dimilikinya. Dan pada tanggal 10 Agustus 1946 di selenggarakan suatu pertemuan antara para Komando-Komando Resimen Laskar Rakyat Medan Area. Dan di bawah komando inilah mereka meneruskan perjuangan di Medan Area.yak ko belah pihak

December,10th.1945

Bandoeng – Voorburg – aankomststempel 10.12.1945

 

Bandoeng – Voorburg – aankomststempel 10.12.1945

 

Dec.11th 1945

 Colonel Sudirman ‘s meeting with the Republican Armies ‘s    commanders   in order to prepared the Ambarawa Liberation General attack (Serangan Umum-very popular among Indonesian) . b. The Indonesian Poeple Security Army (TKR_Tentara keamanan Rakjat)  had succeed to protect the British Food convoy from Jakarta to Bandung.

Dec.12th.1945

The General Ambarawa Liberation attacked strating  at 4.30 pm in this day with Sudirman coordination. Col Sudirman order to made Road Barricade between Semarang and Ambarawa in order to prevent Allied  reinforcement  form semarang . The Allies borbardement the village around Ambarawa but didn’t succeed to help Allied forces March across Tuntang River.

Des.13th. 1945

:a.The battle between Indonesian people with British army at Bekasi  at Bekasi and that city was flamming  by British armies. b. Many  Tebingtinggi(North sumatra) people army (Laskar) attacked Dai Nippon offices there in order to find the guns , but they didn;t succeeed , many died shooted by the dai Nippon soldiers.

 

Batavia – Amsterdam – aankomststempel 13.12.1945

 

 

Postally used Free Port Official cover from Batavia to Amsterdam,destination postal stamped 13.12.45(may be the cover send via courier and then post at Amsterdam)

 

 

Dec,14th.1945

(1)The first Republican Cancelled CDS Padang REP. Indonesia 14.12.45 on Postal saving book , this the earliest Republican postmark at Padang West Sumatra.

(2)The Natived Indonesian People  with army occupying Ambarawa

Dec.15th . The British allied forces leaving Ambarawa back to Semarang and republican armies marched into the city ( Sudirman became the hero of Ambarawa battle, and later  he were choose  to The highest command of Indonesia National Armed Forces-auth)

 

 

 

December,15th.1945

The document of Oei Tiong Ham semarang, house billing payment with dai Nippon java revenue(Oei is the the king of Sugar cane in Indonesia and asia)

 

December,16th.1945

 

Canned be heard on the news that Japanese soldiers would throw Tarutung Weapons and ammunition at the Lake Toba total of 5 Truck. On December 17, MAS KADIRAN and His men went to SIPINTU-DOOR that were located 14 Km from Balige toward Tarutung.Medannya very good to do ambushes, after waiting for 3 days the Japanese troops arrived in Truck-DOOR SIPINTU but could not proceed because it was blocked by stones in the streets. SPECIAL POLICE FORCES Balige and its people who are ready to assist if needed.

9) The Japanese were stopped and dialogue with MAS KADIRAN with a dialog that asks tough Japanese Army finally make peace on condition that all the weapons in the exhaust into the abyss SIPINTU-DOOR only. So the Japanese Army commander ordered his men to throw away all weapons and ammunition into the abyss, in a short time all the weapons and ammunition was dumped completely into the abyss, and the men get rid of rocks that MAS KADIRAN Truck Japanese Army to pass shortly afterwards went to the Japanese Army Truck to the seals.

10) After the Japanese troops leave their men KADIRAN MAS helped by Japan Society took the weapon that the waste in the gulf SIPINTU-DOOR, after you take it is as many as 179 shoots collected US.KARABYN Cal. 8.6. Mm, 15 and 12 VICHER shoots gun shoots kind CARABYN Johson, 30 Peti Cal.8, 6.mm and 8 Peti Pistol Ammunition.

11) With the results in SIPINTU Spoils of Japanese weapons-DOOR then add KADIRAN MAS SPECIAL POLICE former Member of the Military Forces Netherlands, GIUGUN, HEIHO and youths People Balige thus led forces Balige MAS SPECIAL POLICE KADIRAN getting bigger and stronger

 

Original info

 

 Pada tanggal 17 Desember 1845’

, MAS KADIRAN dan Anak buahnya pergi ke SIPINTU-DOOR yang terletak 14 Km dari Balige menuju Tarutung.Medannya sangat baik untuk melakukan penyergapan, setelah menunggu selama 3 hari pasukan Jepang tiba Truk di PINTU SIPINTU tapi tidak bisa melanjutkan karena itu diblokir oleh batu di jalan-jalan. POLISI KHUSUS PASUKAN Balige dan rakyatnya yang siap untuk membantu jika diperlukan.


9) Orang Jepang dihentikan dan dialog dengan MAS KADIRAN dengan dialog yang meminta Tentara Jepang tangguh akhirnya membuat perdamaian dengan syarat bahwa semua senjata di knalpot ke PINTU SIPINTU-jurang saja.

 

Jadi Tentara Jepang komandan memerintahkan anak buahnya untuk membuang semua senjata dan amunisi ke dalam jurang, dalam waktu singkat semua senjata dan amunisi dibuang sepenuhnya ke dalam jurang, dan orang-orang menyingkirkan bebatuan yang MAS KADIRAN Tentara Truck Jepang untuk lulus tak lama kemudian pergi ke Truck Tentara Jepang ke segel.


10) Setelah tentara Jepang meninggalkan laki-laki mereka MAS KADIRAN dibantu oleh Masyarakat Jepang mengambil senjata bahwa limbah di PINTU SIPINTU-jurang, setelah diambil adalah sebanyak 179 pucuk dikumpulkan US.KARABYN Cal. 8.6. Mm, 15 dan 12 VICHER tunas tunas pistol jenis CARABYN Johson, 30 Peti Cal.8, 6.mm dan 8 Amunisi Peti Pistol.


11)
Kemudian dengan hasil   perampasan  Senjata jepang oleh Polisi Khusus di  PINTU SIPINTU , MAS KADIRAN  – menambah Anggota POLISI KHUSUS  dari mantan Pasukan Milite belanda , GIUGUN, HEIHO dan pemuda Orang Balige sehingga  POLISI KHUSUS  Balige  dibawah pimpinan MAS KADIRAN semakin besar dan kuat

 

 

 

Dec.17th 1945

The British allied forces  burned  Bekasi

 

Dec.18th ,1945

Col Sudirman was choosen by all Indonesian regional commander to be The Highest Command (Panglima Besar) of republic Indonesia  TKR (People Secured Army) and his rank up to General .  Dr H.J. van Mook arrived at Netherlands in order to the meeting with his Government about Polical action against Indonesia.

THE Dai Nippon Sumatra revenue f1- and f0,60 ,used on fragmen without overprint at Bukittinggi 18.12.1945

 

 

 

 

 

 

December,19th.1945

Overprint revenue solo on DEI and Dai Nippon Java stamps on complete document od dai Nippon zaisan Kanri(weeskamer_Balai peninggalan Harta)

 

The Magazine Reporter’s travel Permit card issued by TNI(Indonesia national Amry) Garoet

 

December,20th.1945

The fotocopy od postally used official cover free stamp with repoeblik Indonesia stamped,cds Sawahloento,middle suamtra,20.12.45

 

(provenance Dr iwan,this cove r had sold to Mr Karel)

 

 

 

 

Governor Sumatra announcement(Maklumat)

 

 

 

 

 

December,22th.1945

The rare revenue overprint tasikmaja on DEI port stam,used as the received of tasikmalaja hospital billing

 

December,25th.1945

The fotocopy of postally used cover with republiacan revolution special postmark TETAP MERDEKA(always independence)

 

 

Dec.24th.1945

 Agrreement between TKR and British Allied Forces about APWI (Allied Prisoner od War Indonesia) action against  Dai Nippon’s POW. The earliest Republic Indonesia postal used cover send withs CDS Sawahloento ( west sumatra) Rep. Indonesia 24.12.45 to Padang with overprint repoebelik Indonesia on DN overprint DEI Stamps kon 10 cent(triple overprints)

December,24th.1945

The rare revenue overprint tasikmaja on DEI port stamp,used as the received of tasikmalaja hospital billing

 

 

Dec.24th.1945

 Agrreement between TKR and British Allied Forces about APWI (Allied Prisoner od War Indonesia) action against  Dai Nippon’s POW.

TKR(Tentara Keaman Rakyat_People Security Army ) truck bring the APWI

 

 

The earliest Republic Indonesia postal used cover send withs CDS Sawahloento ( west sumatra) Rep. Indonesia 24.12.45 to Padang with overprint repoebelik Indonesia on DN overprint DEI Stamps kon 10 cent(triple overprints) .

The fotocopy of rare postally used cover, Middle sumatra Padang overprint “Repoebelik Indonesia “ on DEI Kon.10 cent  stamps send from sawahloento to Indonesian red cross Padang

 

Dec. 27th.1945

(1)The London meeting between British and Netherland about Indonesian situasion. The Badan pekerja KNIP (Center Indonesia National Comittee -worker ) choosen the president(ketua) KNIP Mr Soepeno, vice : m.Natsir, and secretary Mr Sjafroedin Prawiranegara.

(2)The threads of Menistry of  informations (NRI)’s  alsways life

December,27th.1945

 

Official DEI KDP-PTT Medan Airmail Cover  Cover  in December,27th.1945

 

Look the close up

 

Official DEI KDP-PTT Medan Airmail Cover    in December,27th.1945 with straight line postal stamped KDP-PTT MEDAN 27 Dec 1945 to mr H.Moss Holland

Dec 29th.1945

British allied army have take over the gun(melucuti)  of  Indonesia National Police (POLRI) at Jakarta

Abbekerk – Batavia Ned. Indie 1945 – RAPWI – Rode Kruis

( Delft ) Abbekerk – Batavia 29.12.1945

RAPWI postkantoor – vroegst bekende datum = 9.2.1946 ( zie Bulterman blz. 353 )

Censuur – Zwerfpost – Envelop twee zijden open ( inclusief inhoud )

Em. Kind 1945

 

( Delft ) Abbekerk – Batavia 29.12.1945RAPWI postkantoor – vroegst bekende datum = 9.2.1946 ( zie Bulterman blz. 353 )
Censuur – Zwerfpost – Envelop twee zijden open ( inclusief inhoud )

Dec.30th.1945

800 Dutch Marine landing at Tandjong Priok  Batavia(Jakarta)  and they marched in the center of the city (Photo-IPPHOS)

By the time that the British had departed Java at the end of December 1946, some 55,000 Dutch troops had landed. In the following months, by a combination of military and other means including the deployment of economic blockades with Singapore, the Republic’s major source of cash and clandestine weapon supplies, the Dutch had re-established civil administration in Jakarta and other coastal cities.  Elsewhere in Indonesia the Dutch mounted bloody pacification actions outraging nationalists and antagonizing world opinion.

Dec.30th.1945

 

800 Dutch Marine landing at Tandjong Priok  Batavia(Jakarta)  and they marched in the center of the city (Photo-IPPHOS)

 

 

December 1945
Dutch Marines enter Jakarta

 

 

Th elder brothe(saudar tua0 Dai Nippon soldier before back home,made the remenvrance picture in the front of the statue  at Binjei East Sumatra,near medan.

 

 

 

 

 

 

December ,30th.1945

Serangan Belanda pada tanggal 30 Desember 1946 ini benar-benar melumpuhkan kekuatan laskar kita. Daerah kedudukan laskar satu demi satu jatuh ke tangan Belanda.

Dalam serangan Belanda berhasil menguasai Sungai Sikambing, sehingga dapat menerobos ke segala arah.Perkembangan perjuangan di Medan menarik perhatian Panglima Komandemen Sumatera. Ia menilai bahwa perjuangan yang dilakukan oleh Resimen Lasykar Rakyat Medan Area, ialah karena kebijakan sendiri. (ibid simatupang HME)

December,21th.1945

The Indonesian Police became the  international police CP(civilian Police) in Jakarta

 

Under Kawi hill,miss Deventry,the foreign reporter told the story of Surabaya battle.

 

December,20th.1945

The fotocopy od postally used official cover free stamp with repoeblik Indonesia stamped,cds Sawahloento,middle suamtra,20.12.45

 

(provenance Dr iwan,this cover had sold to Mr Karel

 

 

Governor Sumatra Mr Teukeu Mohammad Hasan  announcement(Maklumat) in December,20th.1945

Original Text

Makloemat(Maklumat) Gobernoer(gubernur) Soematera(Sumatra)

No : 4/1945

Meras perloe(perly) Oentoek(Untuk) Ketentraman Oemoem(umum)Mengadalan peratoeran(peraturan) Segabai berikut:

Sub satoe(satu): 1.Dilarang keras memboeat(membuat)

                                    a.Kesalahan terhadap seseorang

                                    b.Perampokan

                        c.Pengganggoean (penganguan) kemerdekaan

Perdjalanan(perjalanan) Laloelintas(lalulintas) dari segala orang-

Orang didjalan(dijalan) oemoem(umum) oleh orang-orang  jang(yang) tidak berkoeasa

Memindahkan harta benda oartikoelir(pribadi) dari soetoe(suatu)

tempat ke tempat lain dengan tidak mempoenjai(mempunyai) soerat(surat) izin jang(yang) diberikan oleh jang(yang) poenja(punya) dengan senang hati dan djoega(juga) ditanda tangani oleh pemerintah, berarti perampokan.

Sub Doea(dua): Pelangaran pelangaran jang(yang) terseboet(tersebut) di    sub satoe(satu) nomor 3 dihoekoem(dihukum) berat, nomor 1 dan 2 dapat dihoekoem(dihukum) mati.

Sub Tiga : Peratoeran(peraturan) ini moelai(mulai) berlakoe(berlaku) pada hari penggoemoeman(pengumuman).

                                                                                                Medan, 20 desember 1945

Goebernoer(Govenor) Soematera Dari

Repoeblik Indonesia                                    MrMr Teukoe Mohammad Hasan

Diumumkan di Sumatra Barat  pada tanggal 25 desember 1945 oleh residen sumatera barat Dt Parpadi Baringek

 

 

The picture of Governur Sumatra Mr Teuku Mohammad Hasan

 

 

 

The Orbituary Of Mr teuku moh.Hassan when information during he was passed away in September,21th.1997

 

On December 22,

Sutan Syahrir announced Indonesia’s acceptance of the British proposal to disarm and confine to internment camps 25,000 Japanese troops throughout the country. This task was successfully carried out by TNI, the Indonesian National Army. Repatriation of the Japanese troops began on April 28, 1946.

Because fighting with Dutch troops continued, the seat of the Republican Government was moved from Jakarta to Yogyakarta

h .1945

(1)Solo (Soerakarta) had  developed the Native Red-soldiers
 or Red People Army(Laskar Merah)

(2)the threads of NRI Prime Menistry’s life.

Dec 26th Dutch NICA (Netherlands Indies Civil Agency) Soldier tried to kill prime menister St.Syahril , but didn’t succeed.

December,31th.1945

 

Den Haag – Bandoeng 31.12.1945

 

Den  Haag- Bandung 12/31/1945
Bandung 15th Battalion Java
Other names Tjikoedapateuh, 1st Depot Battalion (northern part)
This military encampment was bordered by the Encampment Street (north-west side), North Encampment ¬ street (north-east), Van Oldenbarneveldtstraat (south-east) and North Magazijnstraat (southwest side). The camp consisted of barracks, the site was fenced with barbed wire and gedek. From January 1944 this was a civilian camp-man camp

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Indonesian Pamphlet,

(not date,no name)

Independence OR DIE?
NOT!
HIDOEP (LIFE), TO INDONESIA RAYA, PROSPEROUS, INDEPENDENT!
Slogan “Freedom or Death” is very dangerous for the State and people of Indonesia, for which many are interested in her youth Indonesia! Thousands of youths have led to death by the rebels to use this slogan!
Indonesia is very membutuhi (requires) the youths to Indonesia menyusus new prosperous, safe and merdeka.Amat dibutuhi to later become pemimpindisemua circles, whether in government or in economics, engineering and commerce.
Before the war was very kekurabngan Indonesia Indonesia educated people (scientists), even those who attended high school or technique is very less (a little). Lack of seeds for the coming age it becomes even greater, than the cause (because) in almost all the time Jepangsekolah Japan was closed and thereafter fall, teaching is also very less so than Sebat (result) confusion (confusion) common.
Among the most important question now is added as soon as possible Indonesian youth are educated, but rather the educated son of Mother Earth being led to death by insurgents using a false slogan that! From where the hell’s motto? Native Japanese dai! As the saying Paduka Tuan Soetan Sjahrir in his essay “Our Struggle” page 8 “Oeh because he (our youth) are not knowledgeable others, he organized cra propaganda and agitation in people a lot of it like he saw and taught the Japanese, that is fascistis, very sad state of the soul kita.Peganganbya many times the youth was none other than the motto Independence or Death.
Free or die motto is none other than the teaching of Japanese “Jibaku”. What is it biased jibakyu bring victory Japanese bai? Of not! Japan fell, collapsing and blocking the Indonesian people themselves hold the rank and high work and leadership among industry trade, technical and general economic.the Japanese  means   so lack of  leaders of Indonesia and forced to wear a lot of foreigners, that is his hope, the Japanese! ! Batalkanlah(donnot confirmation) mean hell it’s Japanese! Disposal should be the motto of the Free fake Dead or  Live helped lead Indonesia to a bias toward security, prosperity, justice and freedom!\

 

 

Original info:

MERDEKA ATAU MATI?

TIDAK!!

HIDOEP(HIDUP) ,SUPAYA INDONESIA RAYA,MAKMUR DAN MERDEKA!!

Semboyan”Merdeka atau Mati” amat berbahaya bagi Negara dan rakyat Indonesia,sebab yang banyak tertarik olehnya pemuda-pemuda Indonesia!Ribuan pemuda-pemuda sudah digiring ke kematian oleh si pemberontak dengan memakai semboyan ini !!

Indonesia amat membutuhi(membutuhkan) pemuda-pemuda untuk menyusus Indonesia baru yang makmur,aman dan merdeka.Amat dibutuhi untuk dikemudian hari menjadi pemimpindisemua kalangan,baik di pemerintahan maupun di ekonomi,teknik dan perdagangan.

Sebelum perang Indonesia sudah amat kekurabngan orang Indonesia terpelajar(ilmuwan),malah orang yang bersekolah menengah atau teknik amat kurang(sedikit).Kekurangan bibit untuk zaman yang akan datang itu menjadi lebih besar lagi,dari sebab (oleh karena) di waktu Jepangsekolah hamper semua ditutup dan sesudahnya Jepang jatuh,pengajaran juga amat kurang sekali dari sebat (akibat) kekalutan(kekacauan) umum.

Antara soal yang terpenting sekarang yaitu tambahnya secepat mungkin pemuda Indonesia yang terpelajar,tetapi sebaliknya anak Ibu Pertiwi yang terpelajar digiring ke kematian oleh pemberontak dengan memakai semboyan palsu itu! Dari mana semboyan Jahanam itu?? Asalnya dai Jepang! Seperti kata Paduka Tuan Soetan Sjahrir di karangannya “Perjuangan Kita” halaman 8”Oeh karena ia(pemuda kita) tidak berpengetahuan lain, cra ia mengadakan propaganda dan agitasi pada rakyat banyak itu seperti dilihatnya dan diajarkan dari jepang,yaitu fascistis,sangat menyedihkan keadaan jiwa pemuda kita.Peganganbya banyak kali tak lain dari pada semboyan Merdeka atau Mati.

Semboyan merdeka atau mati tak lain daripada pengajaran Jepang”Jibaku”.Apa jibakyu itu bias membawa kemenangan bai Jepang?tentu tidal! Jepang jatuh,runtuh dan menghalangi orang Indonesia sendiri memegang pangkat dan pekerjaan tinggi dan juga pimpinan di kalangan dagang industry,teknik dan ekonomi umum.Maksudnya jepang supaya Indonesia kekurangan pemimpin bangsa Indonesia dan terpaksa memakai orang asing banyak-banyak,yaitu harapannya,orang Jepang!!!! Batalkanlah maksud Jahanam si jepang itu! Buangkan semboyan palsu Merdeka atu Mati. Hiduplah supaya bias turut menuntun Indonesia kearah keamanan,kemakmuran ,keadilan dan kemerdekaan!!

Sumatra:  1945 – 1946

Mr John Searby has kindly allowed us to publish his photographs here

This selection of photographs is from John’s time in Sumatra and includes Padang, Medan and Palembang. John served as an MT Driver, with the 1st Battalion, The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment.

Some pictures on this page include Japanese soldiers. According to John, British Troops were sent in to Sumatra with orders to disarm the Japanese, but it was soon evident the Japanese were not at all keen to agree. Disarming them was not possible, but they reluctantly agreed to taking orders from the British, whilst keeping up the appearance of governing the majority of the Country themselves.

The Picture  from Padang in 1945

Padang-Loeboek aloeng road in 1945

 

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA 1946 (BERSAMBUNG)

KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA

1946

 

 

OLEH

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

EDISI PRIBADI TERBATAS

KHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR  DAN HISTORIAN SENIOR

Copyright @ 2013

INI ADALAH CUPLIKAN DAN CONTOH BUKU KOLEKSI SEJARAH INDONESIA HASIL PENELITIAN Dr  IWAN , HANYA DITAMPILKAN SEBAGIAN INFO DAN ILUSTRASI TAK LENGKAP.

BUKU YANG LENGKAP TERSEDIA BAGI YANG BERMINAT HUBUNGGI LIWAT KOMENTAR(COMMENT) DI WEB BLOG INI

sORRY FOR THE UNEDITED ARTICLES BELOW,I DID  TO PROTEC T AGAINST THE COPY WITHOUT PERMISSSION

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

Copyrught @ Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA 2013

Forbidden to copy without written permission by the author

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE REVOLUTION AND WAR

HISTORY COLLECTIONS

Part Two 1946

Base On  Postal And Document Collections

 

Created By

 

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

 

1946

Information from Paradox interactive By Rare Han(2012)

In early 1946

the Cabinet relocated to Yogyakarta, further inland.


The few Dutch military units present in the region were hastily organized from former members of KNIL who had been Japanese POWs during the war. Once British shipped first battalions to Java they soon gained notorious reputation as triggerhappy, undiscplined forces that caused the already hard-pressed British Army further trouble by unnecessarily provoking the locals and acting unprofessionally.

Meanwhile the negotiations were not getting anywhere, as Sjahrir was evasive on most issues.

As the British troops extented their control over the region and the smaller Dutch colonial units were finally arriving to the area as well, the following incidents made the British strongly critizice the Dutch commander, General van Oyen. Attempts to make van Mook to relieve him and other old Guard-leaders led to nothing,

as the stressed Governor made it clear that his own position was already heavily criticized at London. Meanwhile van Oyen and his chief of staff Helfrich held the view that the nationalists had little real mass supported and that Dutch rule could be reimposed through military action.

The British were especially critical towards Helfrich, suggesting that his solution to most problems amounted to “shoot the lot.” Meanwhile more reasonable Dutch leaders such as Internal Affairs director van der Plas and General W Schilling all reported to London that they were loosing control of the situation and that a military solution was impossible.

As much as he had irritated them earlier, British now realized that the strained relations within Dutch leadership were seriously threatening the position of van Mook, whom the British considered to be the sole Dutch representative with enough prestige to broker a peaceful settlement to the dispute –

at least long enough for the British forces to withdraw. At a meeting on December 6th in Singapore Mountbatten stated that he would not allow Dutch troops to enter Java until their government would agree to negotiate with the Indonesian Republic.

This was (not coincidentally) van Mook’s primary goal, and he once again flew to London to further negotiate with the rest of the Dutch Government.

 There the mood was pessimistic, as the prospects of liberating Netherlands were fading fast as Britain and USA were already negotiating with German representatives in Zürich. Humiliated van Mook was castigated as a traitor and an oriental despot who had been conspiring to destroy everything the Kingdom had left by negotiating with the Indonesian fascist rebels without consulting the queen and government.

 But despite this incident van Mook still had solid position, and finally the government agreed a more liberal formula as the basis for future discussions with the nationalists. Bitterly the government was forced to accept that the existing civil affairs agreement gave overall control to Mountbatten and the British, and that without merchant fleet to transfer troops and economy to support them in Indies, they had no choise but to accept Indonesia´s right to secede from the Kingdom.

As WWII drew to an end, the Dutch government hastily replaced van Oyen, Helfrich and other members of their old guard that had caused so much trouble during the winter. By the beginning of 1946, the most pressing issue was Dutch insistence that their remaining troops in Europe should be brought to Indonesia – a matter of urgency in their eyes if they were to establish control and so carve out a bargaining position for future talks. Meanwhile Mountbatten still viewed the arrival of more Dutch troops as a recive for further violence. Ultimately the British still agreed to permit the deployment of the Dutch Marine Brigade if van Mook requested it.


Dutch marines in the Great East. Even when he had gained permission to grant independence to Indonesia, Lieutenant Governor General van Mook still wanted to enter the final negotiations from a position of force and reoccupy as much of the gormer East Indies with Dutch troops as possible.

Meanwhile van Mook had returned to East Indies, and was busily trying to reassert his control over the situation after securing the permission to start his ambitious scheme. While populous Java and Sumatra were bound to be out of reach of Dutch capabilities – it would be impossible to find more than 30 000 Dutch troops for the East Indies in early 1946 –

other areas of the former empire could be retaken with minimal cost. This meant concentration on Borneo and the Great East, where reoccupation was already occurring under Australian tutelage. Van der Plas reported that it would take no more than 5000 – 8000 soldiers to establish Dutch authority in these regions, and successful reoccupation of the other territories would finally give the Dutch a more secure foothold in the region, thus giving them possibility to pursue a more long-term approach to the Javanese nationalist threat if necessary.

 The replacement of Australian troops in Borneo, Celebes, the Moluccan Islands and the lesser Sunda Islands took place with little opposition, but on Bali and Celebes the small garrison forces were soon met by local partisan attacks organized by local pemuda supporters of the Republic. As the Germans and Allies negotiated about new status quo in Europe, the Dutch were hastily trying to secure their political future in Indonesia. Both sides knew that the upcoming negotiations would be crucially important for the future of whole Southeast Asia.

Comment

A good update. Indonesia certainly is a big mess, but you did a good job breaking it all down

Although I have no idea how the Dutch can seriously think they can hold on

I would expect the British or Americans to step in more forcefully, since it should be obvious from the start that the few Dutch exiles have no chance in hell to restore colonialism to a country of millions who have tasted independence.

In fact that is may one quip with this story and the one about the Free French… neither the French exiles nor the Dutch exiles would realistically be able to hold on to the colonies. Algeria would realistically have become an early version of Rhodesia – white minority against the indigenous majority, with tons of weapons flowing into the country from all sides and turning the country from a bad case of bush war into a nightmare of civil strife rather sooner than later. As the French exiles try to keep the heart of their empire under control, the remainder of their colonial empire would slip away quickly.

Realistically there would have been no way for France to hold on to Algeria or any part of the Maghreb. And after losing there, French Africa would just politely ask the French to leave, and that would be the end of the French colonial empire. The story is really giving the Free French a much better development that would have been realistic, had something like the Zürich accords happened in history.

Same with the Dutch… there really isn’t much they can do, the Indonesians know there is no help coming for the Dutch so Mook et al will have to relocate to Surinam or Curacao rather sooner than later. It’s not even that there are so few Dutch. The British ran their Indian Raj with less than 10,000 administrators at any time. The thing is, the Indians knew that those 10,000 had the backing of the home country, while the Indonesians (and Maghrebi) actually know that there is no home country to help the Dutch and French exiles. That goes a long way in eroding their chance to hold on

 

 

All true. Still, remember that the Indonesian independence is only months old and the WWII is still ongoing. Once it becomes clear that Holland is part of New Europe for good, things will definitively change in former East Indies.

Ah okay thanks for the clarification. I had forgotten that the war was not actually over in 1945 when the Indonesian and the first Algerian story updates take place.

If the war in Europe is still going on, especially with the Dutch riding the coat tails of the victorious US and with Dutch liberation being a possibility (from Indonesian point of view), it makes sense that the Indonesians are kind of not completely behind the independence struggle. The Dutch could still come back after all.

However after 1946 both the Dutch and the French efforts ought to collapse like a house of cards, and I still think Algérie Francaise would die a painful death before the decade is over. AOF and AEF would IMHO quickly follow suit, even though on the surface the French are still unchallenged there…

I don’t see the remaining French exiles as determined / idealistic enough to try and keep together this pretense of an empire. Losing Algeria would be losing one war too many…

I think they would opt to leave Africa altogether and relocate to Canada, Cayenne or New Caledonia, rather than wait until the Africans throw them out. Of course a few adventurers who have no future outside of Africa would probably stay… maybe Afrique Central will have a white Emperor instead of a black one? With a handful of ex-resistance-fighters-now-mercenaries at his side

 

CIKAL BAKAL

 Satuan Brimob Daerah Sumbar

Sekolah Polisi Istimewa


Di awal tahun 1946,

 bersamaan dengan dipindahkannya Markas Kepolisian Daerah Sumatera Barat dari Padang ke Bukittinggi, Komisaris Polisi II Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa mengemukakan pembentukan Polisi Istimewa berdasarkan Skep KKN No. 12/78/ 91/1946. Maka sejak 18 Mei 1946 di kota sejuk ini dibuka Sekolah Polisi Istimewa dengan kampusnya terletak di Birugo (Komplek SMA 2 sekarang) dan beliau diangkat menjadi Kepala Sekolahnya, yang dikukuhkan dengan Surat Residen Sumatera Barat No. R/78/P2 tanggal 15 Juni 1946.

Pada acara peresmian Sekolah Polisi Istimewa yang berlangsung pada tanggal 18 Mei 1946, Komisaris Polisi II Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa yang ditetapkan sebagai Direktur sekolah ini menetapkan maksud dan tujuan pendidikan sekolah tersebut, sebagai berikut:

  1. 1.      Polisi Istimewa Negara Republik Indonesia, khusus dipandang sebagai garis depan Polisi Sumatera Barat
  2. 2.     Dan merupakan Korps yang Mobil dari Polisi Negara Republik Indonesia di Sumatera Barat yang bergerak cepat, bila diperlukan penugasannya juga dapat diluar tempat kedudukan kesatuannya
  3. 3.     Bertanggung jawab terhadap ketertiban dan keamanan dimasa damai dan ikut serta berjuang dimasa perang

Adinegoro yang mewakili sebagai pemerintah untuk Sumatera, menegaskan bahwa Polisi Istimewa sebagai pasukan Pelopor patut berpenampilan penuh gaya dan Sekolah Polisi Istimewa melaksanakan pendidikan yang berlangsung selama 3 bulan dan pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1946 dilantik sebanyak 10 orang Pembantu Inspektur dan 134 agen Polisi.

Dalam penugasan ternyata Polisi Istimewa ini lebih mudah beradaptasi dengan masyarakat ketimbang polisi tiga jaman sebelumnya. Lulusan Sekolah Polisi Istimewa awalnya banyak ditugaskan di Padang, namun kemudian disebar keberbagai tempat, kelak mereka bergabung dalam apa yang disebut Barisan Istimewa Polisi (BIP).

Barisan Istimewa Polisi
BIP dibentuk pada bulan September 1946 di Bukittinggi, Polisi yang tergabung didalamnya diasramakan. Ini dimaksud agar penempaan dan latihan biar lebih terkonsentrasi dan terarah, terutama dalam pemakaian beraneka macam persenjataan. Tugas yang diemban kepada BIP. Mengatasi kerusuhan, memulihkan keadaan bila ada kekacauan, mengawasi lalu lintas barang dan orang. Satuan-satuan BIP ini ditempatkan di Sijunjung, Tanjung Simalidu, Bangkinang, Danau Bingkuang, Pariaman, serta perbatasan dengan Sumatera Utara.

 

Karena tugas BIP yang tidak ringan diperlukan senjata yang memadai, sementara persenjataan di Sumbar tidak mencukupi, maka harus dicari ke daerah lain. Pada saat itu diperoleh informasi oleh Kepala Polisi Sumbar bahwa Tapanuli menyimpan senjata eks Jepang yang hendak dijual oleh Residen, meski rakyat setempat tidak menghendaki, maka ditugaskan Kaharudin bersama Dewan Polisi Sumbar beserta empat orang agen polisi berangkat ke Sibolga untuk membelinya. Rombongan disambut dengan sukacita oleh Residen Tapanuli DR.F. Lumantobing, dan Tapanuli Selatan menjual 66 pucuk US, Caraben, 3 pucuk senapan mesin beserta amunisi juga sejumlah granat tangan. Penambahan senjata ini melengkapi persenjataan BIP di Bukittinggi, hal ini menaikkan moril anggota dalam pengaplikasian tugas, dan ditegaskan oleh Residen Mr.Rasyid untuk tidak adanya keraguan dalam pencapaian tujuan pendidikan Polisi Istimewa, sebagai organisasi Semi Militer dibawah pimpinan Komisaris Polisi II Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo Basa.

 

 

In 1946 verlaat hij het Borromeus Hospitaal

 en mag hij eindelijk op verlof: “2 maanden, 2 weken en 3 dagen”, en krijgt hij een voorschot uitbetaald op zijn “achterstallige bezoldiging 40-45″. Hij is immers sinds 11 januari 1942 “onafgebroken in werkelijken dienst” geweest, bevestigt het Commandement der Zeemacht in Batavia. Het lijkt erop dat hij zijn ‘klein verlof’ in Nederland heeft doorgebracht. (P.Molenbroek)

Indian troops with four armed Indonesians captured at Bekassi before the village was burnt as a reprisal for the murder of five members of the Royal Air Force and twenty Maharatta riflemen whose Dakota transport aircraft crash landed near the village


 

 

30. Generaal Simon Spoor

General Simon Spoor on a troopship in Tanjung Priok in 1946.

 

Oeang Republik Indonesia

Series 1, ‘1945’

The first ‘Indonesian rupiah’ bank notes bore the date of the proclamation on new Indonesian money, 17 October 1945, under the authority of the “Republik Indonesia”, and were apparently intended for issue on February 1, 1946, but due to the capture of most of the notes, only a tiny number escaped at this time.

The circulation began in earnest in Java from October 10, 1946. The notes were in denominations of 1, 5, and 10 sen notes, plus ½, 1, 5, 10, and 100 rupiah notes.

1945 Republik Indonesia series

Image

Value

Dimensions

Main Colour

Description

Date of

Remarks

Obverse

Reverse

Obverse

Reverse

Watermark

Serial

printing

issue

withdrawal

   

1 sen

97 × 45 mm

Green

Keris

Legal text with wings

None

None

1946

October 10, 1946

May 1, 1950

Violet underprint

 

 

Green underprint

 

 

5 sen

100 × 49 mm

Violet

Various leaves

Legal text with wings

Buffalo underprint (strong)

   

Dark blue

Buffalo underprint (faint)

   

10 sen

105 × 51 mm

Black

Keris and machete underprint

Legal text

Narrow borders

 

 

Brown

 

 

Wide borders

 

 

1/2 rupiah

119 × 58 mm

Green

Horned motif

Legal text

Six numbers two letters [01234]nnnnn [LMNPRST][PRTUVWX]

Pink underprint

   

Orange underprint

   

1 rupiah

138 × 65 mm

Blue

Sukarno, volcano

Volcano, legal text

Some without serial, some with six-digit, two-letter serial (1st letter is check code), some with simple two letter code

 

   

5 rupiah

148 × 71 mm

Green

Rice stalk, Sukarno

Rikce stalks, legal text

Six numbers, two letters, first letter is check code; two different serial printing styles

 

   

10 rupiah

160 × 77 mm

Blue

Sukarno, volcano

Legal text

Six numbers, two letters, or Six numbers, three letters. First letter is check code. Several serial printing styles

 

   

100 rupiah

174 × 86 mm

Blue/green

Sukarno, keris, horns

Legal text, horned ‘100’

Five numbers, two letters, first letter is check code.

 

 

Sumatra, Tandjungkarang 1946 Regional Issue

  P-S385 – 1 Rupiah
Front:
Repulik Indonesia, Propinsi Sumatera, Keresidenan Lampung (Republic of Indonesia, Province of Sumatera, Lampung Residency
Back: There is no back — It’s a uniface note
Size: 122 x 72 mm
                           

 

 

The interesting book written by  A.A.Maramis L.L..D publish by Merdeka Press jakarta 1946:

 

NO MORE LEGAL POWER OF THE NETHERLANDS IN INDONESIA.

 
   
   
   

January .1946

 

ill.no 1. Vintage republic Indonesia callender.

i..(c)Native calender January 1946

 

Ill, no 3. Republic Indonesia flag 1946 (native Calender 1946 ill.)

 

ill no 2. The Republic Indonesia First President Sukarno (vintage calender ill)

.Indonesia Calender January 1946 with illustrated The first Indonesian President Sukarno(ill.no 2) with the picture of Mountain and Indonesia National Flag (ill no3) anonim painters. ill. no 4 : The recieved of Kredit money 10 gld(Rp) from Indonesia State  National Cooperation (Koperasi Oesaha Nasional ranting) Kerdjaan Koedoes. This day Koedes occupied by Republic Indonesia.

 

January,1st.1946

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Republik Indonesia at Bali

From October 1945 until late January 1946 there was a short period of Republican rule on Bali.

Here, too, initially 4 cent occupation cards continued to be used.

However, in January 1946

 cards were overprinted 5 sen which was the rate on Java. The 5 sen cards were also distributed to the neighboring island of Lombok.

Subsequently these cards were overprinted with the additional overprint + 2 sen which was surcharge to help finance the independence movement.

 

Close up the independence fund tax’s  red stamped

(revenue tax collections)

 

 

The complete Repoeblic Indonesia Water supply Billing  Document

The Dai Nippon Watersupply Billing Djawa Denki Digyo Sha,overprint Repoeblik Indonesia Soerat Penagihan(billing letter)  with handchoped Oentoek Fonds Kemerdekaan F 0,10(revenue tax for Indonesia Independence Fund) used ad Bajomanfrom Bayeman  with added 0.50 gld(Rp) for Independence Fund (oentoek Fonds kemerdekaan) used old Dai Nippon Form “Djawa Denki Djigyosha  DS” but this char.was surcharge with red color machinal (Nama berbahasa Nippon dicoret dengan garis merah, ini kantor PAM daerah Bayaman ) Who Know where was the Bayaman Village, please informed via comment

Close Up

 

Front document

 

ill. 1.1.46

The Rechieved of native people credit money 10 gld to republic Indonesia national coperation (Koperasi ) village Kerdjaan Koedoes . Koedes central Java official stamped . Many Kreteks cigaret produnction in this city and this day occupied by Republic Indonesia .at the back the Netherland Tragebank check f 10.000 guilders.

Back of document

The old Dutch Trade bank check f 10.000.-

 

ill. 1.1.46The Rechieved of native people credit money 10 gld to republic Indonesia national coperation (Koperasi ) village Kerdjaan Koedoes . Koedes central Java official stamped . Many Kreteks cigaret produnction in this city and this day occupied by Republic Indonesia .at the back the Netherland Trade (Neth.Handels) bank check f 10.000 guilders.

 

January,2nd.1946

 

 

 

Ex POW send to Amsterdam Netherland

January ,3rd.1946

(a)Repoeblic Indonesia ‘s Department of Religion is founded

 

 

(b) Repoebelik Indonesia overprint kon.10 cent  padang issued 3x 10cent added  Dai nippon sumatera definitive 10 cent stamp(rate 40 cent) , postally used on cover send from  Padang ,pasar gadang street to Indonesian red cross padang

 

January, 4th.1946

Kempen

 

 

Prime Minister Sutan Sjahrir and Foreign Minister,Haji Agus Salim, leading the Indonesian delegation to defend the Indonesian cause before the
United Nations Security Council.
Other members Sumitro Djohadikusumo and Sudjatmoko

Sutan Sjahir statement to te UN Security Council on August 19, 1947:
We ask for action by the Security Council because we have no faith
in the honesty andg goodwill of the Dutch government

Te UN Security Council decided to appoint a Good Offices Committee of representatives from the US, Australia and Belgium to mediate the conflict, establish a cease-fire and promote negotiations.

 

Sukarno and Hatta remove by night to Yogya, leaving Sjahrir and the more pro-negotiations faction in Jakarta.PNI party is reestablished.Persatuan Perjuangan (Union of Struggle) formed by Tan Malaka to oppose the Sjahrir government and negotiations with the Dutch. Soedirman speaks against negotiations and Sjahrir.Barisan Banteng radicals kidnap Pakubuwono XII of Surakarta.

Gajah Mada University founded in Yogya; Sultan offers front portion of Kraton to house it.

Dutch forces occupy Bangka and Belitung.

 

 

Indonesia issue is raised in the United Nations for the first time.

The Indonesian Question in the United Nations

 

The war in Indonesia posed a threat to international peace and security. In the spirit of article 24 of the United Nations’ Charter, the question of Indonesia was officially brought before the Security Council by Jacob Malik of the Soviet Unions. Soon afterwards, on February 10, 1946, the first official meeting of Indonesian and Dutch representatives took place under
the chairmanship of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr

 

 

But the freedom fight continued and Dutch military aggressions met with stiff resistance from Indonesian troops.
The Indonesian Government conducted a diplomatic offensive against the Dutch.

 

With the good offices of Lord Killearn of Great Britain, Indonesian and Dutch representatives met at Linggarjati in West Java.
The negotiations resulted in the de facto recognition by the Dutch of lndonesia’s sovereignty over Java, Sumatra and Madura.
The Linggarjati Agreement was initialled

Jan.4th 1946

Jawatan Kepolisian Pindah ke Purwokerto


Pada awal tahun 1946

Jakarta sudah sepenuh- nya dikuasai oleh Sekutu. Atas pertimbangan situasi yang demikian gentingnya, ditambah dengan kenyataan bahwa Jakarta sudah sepenuhnya diduduki Sekutu, Presiden Soekarno dan Wakil Presiden Mohammad Hatta beserta Menteri Pertahanan Amir Sjarifudin pindah ke Yogyakarta pada tanggal

 4 Januari 1946.

 Dan sejak saat itu Yogyakarta ditetapkan sebagai Ibukota Republik Indonesia. Selanjutnya kantor-kantor pemerintahan lainnya juga memindahkan tempatnya dari Jakarta. Kementrian Dalam negeri termasuk Kepolisian Negara RI merupakan salah satu yang turut berpindah tempat. Purwokerto dipilih sebagai tempat baru kantor Kementrian Dalam Negeri. Sedangkan Kantor Kepolisian Jakarta Raya dipindahkan ke Subang.

. Republic Indonesia President and Vice president moved from Djakarta to Jogyakarta because terror at Djakarta.(Vintage PTIK-Police Science High School journal,1952,compile by Moerdijanto,Candidats PTIK). all the information below from the same journals except the collection belong to Dr iwan S.

Jan.6th.1946

 Purwokerto Meeting,coordinated by Tan Malaka, in this meeting developed the new Native Indonesia Organisation ” PERSATOEAN PERDJOANGAN” ( Unity Struggle) with 143 organiztations an the member. (ibid,PTIK,1952)

Jan.7th. 1946

January,7th.1946

 

Postally used homemade free port cover send from Wedana Kajoe Agoeng to pejabat Makamah tinggi Palembang CDS Kajoeagoeng 7.1.46

The name of TKR-Tentara Keamanan Rakjat-People Secure army  was changed to TKR-Tentara Keselamatan Rakjat-People  Safety Army with the same TKR.(ibid.PTIK,1952)

ll.no.9. Contraversial Letter (cover not found) from Indonesia village(Negeri in west sumatra means village) Book Aquantance examinine to calculate the amont of tax must paid from Village or small city chinese overseas Trader, this official office Padang didn’t mantioned from what government Dutch east indie, Dai Nippon or Republic Indonesia because the Chinese overseas asked to send the Trade account Books from 1939-1941(during Dutch East Indie), 1942-1945 (Duirng Dai Nippon Occupation) and 1945-1946 (during Republic Indonesia nd British Allied occupation) that cann’t sent at August 1945 due to the Independence war situation, This tax belong to what State? please comment, very best Fiscal collection during the War

 

 

 

January,12th,1946

 

The first NRI Java stamps were issued in this day in comemoratate half year Indonesian Proclamations Day

(courtecy Pipiet Solistyowati)

 

 

 

Jan.15th .1946

(a)The Chinese overseas Death Certificate issued by The Special Populatian Official Gouverment Stamped (Stempel Pegawai Loear Bias Pencatatan djiwa) Pemalang small city Central Java.

 

(a)          The earliest used Middle Sumatra handoverprint Rep: IND: type 32 black,info from Esbensen catalogue,1980

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dr Iwan mint ,and CTO collection made by the padang Postman that time Mr Soewil ,and now Dr iwan Collections:look illustration below

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Information from Dutch Phillatelic magazine”Mijn Stookpaardje”1947

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b)         This day was the earliest used of Medan Handstamped small rep.Indonesia type 213.

Common CTO Medan,on and off cover, approximately 80 genuinely used entire exist of all overprint types and colour pu together Type A 3.0 mm  and type b 2,2 mmm.the earliest used CDS Tebing tinggi 15.1.46 on veryfind money order(v.esbensen,1980)

 

 

 

During visit medan in 1976,I found the mint stamp ,overpint type 213 on vereious Dai Nippon ovpt stamp like iPL Palembang,lampong,banka red and violet overprint.I sen many CTO cover from Mr Sajoer the stmp collector Medan.(Dr Iwan notes)

 

 

Jan.16th. 1946

Van Poll mosion for sent the Dutch parlementair to Indonesia accepted by The second house (tweede Kamer) .(ibid PTIK,1952)

January,17th.1946

Throughout Indonesia celebrated the five month  birthdays of  Repoblik Indonesia , coinciding with the anniversary of intu in Medan, Sumatra, Ibn city officially opened by the Governor of Sumatra in the hall of Information and viewing the (Board of Information and Investigation). Sumatran Governor in his opening speech Mr. Mohammad hassan Justin, among others said that in 1946 is expected to be a year of development of our Country, where every effort will be coordinated in order to enforce our republic as hard-kuatnya.Pekerjaan koordiniasi can not be done efficiently if the people were lighting tidka and education about politics, economics and culture at large. Hence Sumatran provincial government has set up this office and is now expected to be emanating from this soon penernagan and advice necessary for us to gain further insight memerkokoh. Demikina also here will be centered all ynag investigation needs to be done on the results of all the propaganda, the investigation of public welfare purposes and intent-intent seta other people of this island of Sumatra. I hope with this office will increase immediately the good mutual understanding between the peoples of Indonesia and a foreign nation that is in Sumatra. Thus the explanation given by the Governor of Sumatra

original info:

Seluruh Indonesia  merayakan umur Repoblik Indonesia Yang ke 5 bulan, bertepatan dengan hari peringatan intu di Medan ,Ibnu kota Sumatera dibuka dengan resmi oleh Gubernur sumatra di balai Penerangan dan Penilikan(Board of Information and Investigation). dalam pidato pembukaan Gubernur sumatra Mr Teuku Mohammad hassan antara lain mengatakan ,bahwa tahun 1946 ini diharapkan menjadi tahun pembangunan Negara kita, dimana segala usaha akan dikoordinir guna menegakkan republik kita sekuat-kuatnya.Pekerjaan koordiniasi ini tidak dapat dilakukan dengan effisien jika rakyat tidka diberi penerangan dan pendidikan tentang soal politik,ekonomi maupun kebudayaan secara luas. Oleh karena itulah pemerintah Propinsi sumatra telah mendirikan kantor ini dan kini dari sinilah diharapkan akan memancar segara penernagan dan saran yang diperlukan untuk memerkokoh negar kita. Demikina pula disini akan dipusatkan segala penyelidikan ynag perlu dilakukan atas hasil segala propaganda itu,penyelidikan atas kemakmuran rakyat dan keperluan-keperluan  seta hajat-hajat rakyat lainnya dipulau Sumatra ini. Saya harap dengan adanya kantor ini akan bertambah dengan segera saling pengertian yang baik antara bangsa Indonesia dan bangsa asing yang ada di Sumatra. Demikianlah penjelasan yang diberikan oleh Gubernur Sumatra .

 

Saat Dewan Keamanan Perserikatan Bangsa-Bangsa bersidang di Church House, London, 17 Januari 1946, ia dan Mr. Zairin Zain ikut hadir. Seusai sidang, Sumitro dan Zairin terbang ke Jakarta. Tiba di rumah orang tuanya, Sumitro disambut suasana duka: dua adiknya, Subianto (21) dan Sujono (16) gugur dalam pertempuran melawan Jepang di Tangerang.

(Sumitro Djojohadikusumo)

Jan.19th.1946

(a)British Gouvernment had dicided to sent Sir Archibald Clark Kerr, British Moscow Ambassador , to Indonesia as the the Special envoy for finishing the Indonesia problem (ibid PTIK,1952).

(b)

 

ill no 7. 19.1.46 Dai Nippon Revenue used by republican without Syowa date in Bukittinggi

. 19.1.46.

Dai nippon revenue  f.50 and f1,- on fragment, used without syowa date by Indonesian people at Bukittingi(this city occupied by Republic Indonesia abd became the capital Sumatra province)

Jan.20th. 1946

 

 

 

 

ill no 8 : 20.1.46.Postally used Postcard , Repoeblik Indonesia 5 den surcharged Dai nippon java 5 sen , send from CDS Djokjakarta 20.1.46 to Magelang, the earliest Republic Indonesia java postal history

 

January,21th.1946

(a)The rare Dai nippon round choped Ryo Kin Kan No(Porto had paid) to up the rate of Dai Nippon postal sationer card 31/2 cent,postally used  CDS Pajakoemboeh  21.1.46 to boekittinggi(Dai Nippon still had power at Pajakoemboh and padang city post office,this only fotocopy ,the original I had sold to Karel in 1985)

(b) The letter from  wakil kepala  pemeriksaan buku dagang Untuk Padjak negeri(State Tax accounting book  inspection)  from padang to wajib pajak Padang Pandjang .

 

(c) The postally used Dai Nippon java stamp 40 cent on money order fragment CDS Djojakarta 21,1.6.(Djokjakarta Post office still in Gai Nippon power.

Jan.22th . 1946

(a)Manouilsky , Ukranian member of  Security Council(Dewan Keamanan ) United Nation (PBB) had  pusshed Security Council during meeting at london to made a special meeting and get the action related to Charter of The United Nations no.35.(ibid.PTIK,1952). Ill no 9. 22.1.46. IndonesianTradeaccount Book Check of State Tax Office (Kantor Pemeriksaan Boekoe Dagang oentoek Padjak Negeri ) Padang ‘s Letter to chinese overseas Padang pandjang(west sumatra) , asked him to sent Tke Account Book from 1939 to 1945 because couldn’t send since 21.8.45 because of the Indonesian Independence war situation. During the war worse situation, the Tax still asked the account  book to analyse the Income tax , they didn.t mantion from Dutch east indie-Dai nippon occupation-indonesian Independence war and British allied occupation era, all Income still must paid Income tax forn Indonesian Gouverment or for Dai Nippon or British allied Forces Aministration because no Gouvernment name at the letter ,the choped with blank armour.Historic Fiscal collection during the war.(b)

 

 

 

 

 

 

January,22th.1946

22.1.46

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dai nippon sumatra revenue without overprint used at Bukittingi without Syowa date, Bukittingi under Republic Indonesia Occupation .

(c)Dai Nippon Sumatra revenue 50 cent  used at Bukittinggi.

and Dai Nippon sumatra  f1,-one roepiah used at bukittinggi

 

Jan.23th.1946

 

Briefkaart Japanse bezetting met dubbel violet port betaald stempel (93) en Rep. Indonesia (213) in violet, Koetaradja 21.1.23 (23.1.46), onbekend in Bulterman, verticale vouw ov. pracht ex.

 

 

 

Indonesia Guvernment Police Pajakoemboeh (west Sumatra) official stamped(stempel Kepala Pilisi Pamongpraja Republik Indonesia)  from letter’s document.

 

 

 

ill no 11. 23.1.46 The chief of Repoeblik Indonesia Government Police Pajakoemboh (west sumatra) official stamped in violet color(Kepala Polisi Pamongpraja)this is from INdonesian National Police organization or Province Government organization ? please comment !

Jan.24th

 TKR-People Security Army ‘s name changed to TRI-Tentara Republik Indonesia (Republic Indonesia Army).(ibid.PTIK,1952)

 

Rare Dai Nippon Occupation postal stationer with  double overprint Dai Nippon ryokin kan No (port have paid) and overprint Rep.indonesia send from Sihombing Kantor Keresidenan Koetaradja to K Simorangkit KSO Office /kontrole at Medan no destination CDS

Briefkaart Japanse bezetting met dubbel violet port betaald stempel (93) en Rep. Indonesia (213) in violet, Koetaradja 21.1.23 (23.1.46),

January,24th.1946

Komandemen memutuskan membentuk komando baru, yang dipimpin oleh Letkol Sucipto. Serah terima komando (Medan area) dilakukan pada tanggal 24 Januari 1947 di Tanjung Morawa. Sejak itu pasukan-pasukan TRI memasuki Front Medan Area, termasuk bantuan dari Aceh yang bergabung dalam Resimen Istimewa Medan Area

Pasukan Republik berhasil menang pada beberapa front yg kemudian membuat kedudukan Belanda di Medan terdesak sehingga mereka terpaksa mengeluarkan taktik liciknya: meminta gencatan senjata. Kemudian disepakati ada garis demarkasi/batas utk membagi wilayah kekuasaan. Jadi ada pembagian wilayah di Medan pada waktu itu antara NRI dan Belanda. artinya Medan tidak seluruhnya dikuasai oleh Belanda.(ibid Simatupang HME)

 

Jan.25th.1946

The idea of ​​establishment of Military Academy of Tangerang came from four people: Daan Mogot, Kemal Idris, Yahya and Daan Taswin.Pada early stage there are 180 people Midshipman Candidates are trained first.

Among them were students from the School of Medicine Ika Daigaku Jakarta. There are among those who became a platoon commander, company commander and even battalion commanders. A number of officers and NCOs who became coach / instructor MAT include Taswin Captain, Captain Tommy Prawirasuta, Rukman Captain, Captain Kemal Idris, Captain Oscar (Otje) Mochtan, Jopie Bolang Captain, Captain Endjon Djajaroekmantara, Bahruddin Sergeant, Sergeant Sirodz.

 In Tangerang Taswin Regiment served on the staff while Kemal Idris in soldiers.Pada dated January 24, 1946 Major Daan Yahya received information that the Dutch Colonial Army troops had occupied Parung and will make a move the Japanese army seize weapons depots in depot Lengkong (later revealed that the newly occupied Parung NICA March 1946). NICA provocative actions that would threaten the position of the Dutch Regiment and the Military Academy IV Tangerang Tangerang seriously. Therefore the Fourth Regiment, held a security measure Tangerang. Daan John Major as Chief of Staff of the Regiment, Major immediately called Daan Mogot and Major Wibowo, who had been the liaison officer to the Fourth Regiment, Tangerang.

Dated January 25, 1946

 through the middle of the day around 14.00, after reporting to the commander of the Fourth Regiment, Lt. Col. Singgih Tangerang, departed TKR troops under the command of Major Daan Mogot with a magnitude 70 cadets MA Tangerang (MAT) and eight Gurkha soldiers.

In addition to cadets, the troops would be some officers were Major Wibowo, and Lieutenant Lieutenant Soebianto Djojohadikoesoemo Soetopo.

First it was the second officer military police officer (Military Police Corps / CPM now). This was done to preempt the Japanese not to weapons that have been surrendered to the allies handed over to the Dutch Colonial Army-NICA which time it had reached in Sukabumi to Jakarta.

After going through a tough journey because the road is damaged and full of holes tank traps, and full of barricades, TKR troops arrived in Japan in Lengkong headquarters at around 16.00.

In the distance is not how far from the gates of the headquarters, trucks and troops laid down TKR. They entered the headquarters of the Japanese army in regular formation. Daan Mogot Major, Major Alex Wibowo and cadets Sajoeti running up front and the three of them then go to the office of Captain Abe. MAT Midshipman troops handed over to Lieutenant and Lieutenant Soebianto Soetopo to wait outside.

The first movement is managed well and impress the Japanese.

 Inside the headquarters office of the Japanese Major Daan Mogot explain the purpose of his arrival. However, Captain Abe asked for time to contact his superiors in Jakarta, because he says his superiors have not received instructions about disarmament.

When negotiations goes, apparently Soebianto First Lieutenant and First Lieutenant Soetopo already mobilized the cadets entered the barracks and disarmed a number that were there with the willingness of subordinates Captain Abe. About 40 Japanese ordered to gather in the field.

Then suddenly heard gunshots, which is not known from where datangnnya. The sound was immediately followed by a barrage of three checkpoints, armed with a hidden Submachine directed to the army cadets are trapped. Another Japanese soldier who originally had surrendered his gun, the other Japanese soldiers who lined the field scattered reclaim some of their weapons which have not been loaded into the truck.

Within a very short berkobarlah unequal battle between the Indonesia and Japan, long combat experience, supported by a more complete arsenal, causing MAT Midshipman becomes an easy target.

In addition to machine guns used by the Japanese, also occurred grenade and bayonet fights an opponent one.

Major actions Daan Mogot who immediately ran out to leave the negotiating table and try to stop the fighting but the efforts were unsuccessful.

It is said that Major Daan Mogot with his entourage and the Military Academy Midshipman Tangerang, left the dorm the Japanese army, withdrew to the forest called the forest Lengkong rubber.

MAT cadets who successfully escaped to save himself among the rubber trees. They have difficulty using a carbine owned Terni.

 Often the bullet that entered into the rooms do not fit because of different sizes or plazas. The battle did not last long, because the forces that fought in the Japanese fortification with weaponry and equipment is very limited supply of bullets.

In battle, Major Daan Mogot by a bullet in the right thigh and chest. But when he saw his men holding machine guns shot dead, he then took the machine gun and shoot your opponent until he himself was showered with bullets from various parts of the Japanese army.

Finally, 33 cadets and three officers killed and 10 seriously injured cadets and midshipmen Major Wibowo with 20 taken prisoner, while the three cadets, namely Soedarno, Menod, Oesman Sjarief escaped on January 26 and arrived at the Command Headquarters Regiment TKR Tangerang in the morning. The officers and the Military Academy cadets Tangerang (MAT) which fall on the event are as follows:

Japanese troops acted with great brutality, they had bullet wounds and is still alive finished off with a bayonet.

There is caught when he gets out of the sanctuary, then handed over to Kempeitai Bogor. Some people are still living a prisoner of the Japanese and forced to dig graves for his friends. What a story that sadly for those who are still alive.

In case of wounded, taken prisoner, still forced to dig graves for their colleagues while their fate is still unclear what to do.

in Tangerang funeral held back 36 bodies killed in the incident followed a Lengkong Soekardi cadets who were seriously injured but later died in hospital in Tangerang. They were buried near the prison children or more is now known TMP Taruna Tangerang.

 In addition to the officers of Tangerang, Tangerang Military Academy, Army Liaison Office, also attended the ceremony, Prime Minister of the Republic of Indonesia Sjahrir, Vice Foreign Minister Haji Agoes Salim Salim, the son Sjewket participate in the event fall and their family members cadets were killed. Major Daan Mogot girlfriend, Hadjari Singgih cut his long hair reaching her waist and planted it with corpses hair Daan Mogot.

 After that long hair was never allowed again.

January,27th.1946

The fragment of rare Dai Nippon revenue  block five of 10 cent and block ten of 10 cent(rate f 1,50.) used without overprint at boekittinggi January ,29th. 1946

 

 

 

January,28th .1946

General Christison changed with Let.Gen. Sir Montague Stopford as the highest Command of  Brithish allied Forces at Indonesia (ibid PTIK,1952

January.30th. 1946

(a)  the Soerakarta Hospital in patien billing two days f.10,- recieved with repoeblik Indonesia revenue -,15 unperforated.

 

(b) Gen. Spoor takes command of Dutch forces in the Indies Let.Gen. van Ojen changed with Let.Gen.Spoor as the highest  command of Dutch Army in Indonesia.


Gen. S. H. Spoor, commander of Dutch forces in Indonesia, 1946-1949.At the beginning of 1946, Dutch forces in Indonesia numbered about 20,000.

 

(c) 31.1.6(1946)

The official free postal(bebas bea sudah dibajar) cover of Republic Indonesia Defend area Kedoe send from Magelang CDS 31.1.6 (1946) to parakan (official Military defend area official cover), the official stamped look above.

 

The closed up of  Official Kedoe Defend are NRI Magelang stamped.

 

 

The closeup of CDS Malang 31.1.6.

 

Complete cover

 

Compared the Magelang postal stamped  CDS  31.1.6.13(time) means send from magelang January,31th.1946(syowa 2606) 13.00 (PM 1.00) type line parallel with the fragment of CDS Magelang 22.11.50.8(November,20th.1945.time 08.00 AM,different type CDS  point of Magelang PW(poswessel or monwy order)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February 1946

 

 

1946. Native Indonesia calender February 1946 with the sacred Beringin tree picture painting illustraion look below. Forgive me if there was mismatch between Illustration number and the document informations because very difficult to arranged this collections. the complete document and covers only showed completely in IMUCS Cybermusuem if the collectors choose that item as the best collection. the nex Indonesia Independent War collection (March ’46) were the very rare collections, I only showed this collection if the collector asked me because all the collections I put in Bank Deposit box, all the collection were area overprint republic Indonesia on Dai Nippon revenue,stamps and postal card 7 Document,every area had their own creation overprint because no communication between that area due to the war situation after british allied forces backhome and the inflations situation need new rate on postal and fiscal revenue in republic indonesia sumatra and java . I need many hours to arranged this collections please remember @Copyright dr iwan s.2010

 

,forbdden to copy or repro in anykind technology, before put in Cybermusuem ,I cann’t give permission to repro or copy the illustration for put in anykind informations media. If my research of this Historic collection Postal or revenue History write scientifically may be the university will give me Honorary Phillosohy Doctore degree,because i have the Master degree.this is my vision, what the collector comment, please look and reand carefully my statement about the historical fact collection related with the authority of republic indonesia in Sumatra and Java area 1945-1948, I hope The Royal Dutch crown will accepted the Indonesia Proclamations 17.8.45 and the Indonesia Independent wasr as the fact that Republic Indonesia ever exist 1n 1945-1949 and didn’t called our loving independent country as the extrimist anymore viva republic Indonesia and Netherlands ex motherlands.@copyright Dr iwan S.

 

 

1946 February native Indonesia picture painting illustration of the sacred java tree with phrase in Java language ” Wringin Soetji Korining Kerta’ please native javavenese trasnlate this phrase for our collectors abroad. this illsutration painters anonmi from the native calender february 1946.

 

Inside Java such groups as the perjuangan or struggle group supported by Tan Malaka came into conflict with the diplomasi line supported by the fledgling Republican government under Sutan Sjahrir.

 

 More than 133 groups including socialist youth groups or pemuda, the communists and, for a time, the Muslim party Masjumi fell in line.  Around the slogan of “merdeka atau mati,” independence or death, the struggle front was uncompromising in rejection of a Dutch restoration.

 

In February 1946

 

they demanded the resignation of the Sjahrir cabinet. While Sukarno had been attracted to the struggle camp he now kept his distance.

 

nformation from Paradox interactive By Rare Han

 

From Linggadjati to Makassar – birth of the USI

The Round-Table Conference of Makassar.

The fact that the Republic had survived its first months of existence gave it a credibility that the rest of the world could not ignore.

 

Battle lines were drawn as national sympathies through the globe were rising to either support the Indonesian independence or the cause of the Dutch exiles.

 

For some, such as the USA, the choise remained surprisingly complicated despite their official rhetoric, and thus Washington tried initially to avoid taking sides altogether.

Ultimately the fact that their wartime Allies were now ranged against them doomed the Dutch attempts to restore their colonial regime, and the effort that was already plagued with lack of necessary economical, military and political resources came to an end.

Trotskyits, Jihadis and the threat of peace in Europe

By February 1946

 

 the position of Dutch exiles in the East Indies was turning from precarious to critical.

 

They had next to none viable military strength and even the small forces they had were ultimately Allied auxiliaries, armed and thus also supplied by either Britain or the US. It was increasingly clear that even if they could transfer all of their remaining troops to Java, it would be impossible to dislodge the Republic by force.

As the British troops now increasingly confined themselves to keeping order in Batavia and war in Europe was coming to an end as negotiations in Zürich slowly made progress,

the situation in East Indies was finally ripe for diplomatical solutions. Sukarno and Sjahrir were hard-pressed to keep the militant elements among the pemudas in check, but they were more worried about the fact that the lack of progress in diplomacy was providing increasing support for their strongest political rivals.

 

Initially they considered Trotskyist leader Tan Malaka and his followers as their prime competitors.

 

 By skillfully organizing local alliances Tan Malaka had by now created an impressive coalition force of 141 local organizations that had joined forces as a new Unified Front, encompassing elements from the whole political spectrum.

 

Malaka and his followers opposed diplomatic settlements and were content to wait out for war in Europe to end

 

. While Sukarno might have personally agreed with this approach, he was much more willing to wait a little longer and appear more diplomatic to create better relations to postwar Allies.

At this time Sukarno and Hatta were also increasingly worried about the growing power of Sekarmadji Maridjan Kartosuwirjo and his Darul Islam-movement that was based on the region of Garut in West Java.

 

 Demanding that NEI should be replaced by an unified Negara Islam Indonesia, an Islamic state organized according to the shari’a law this movement was initially dismissed as a small group of fanatics without wider support. Sukarno would come to regret this initial overconfidence later on.


Kartosuwirjo was an Islamic mystic and a guerrilla leader with ambitious goals for the future of his homeland.

 

 


Due their own problems all sides were thus now surprisingly willing to give up their earlier defiance and seek a common ground. Separate British-Dutch and British-

 

Indonesian negotiations had been given increased importance from London as it became more and more clear that the conflict in Europe would end into a negotiated truce rather soon.

 

The Dutch delegation led by van Mook entered to the negotiations with a proposal where a transitional Commonwealth of Indonesia would be recognized within the Kingdom of the Netherlands, after which the parties would decide their future relationship.

The Sjahrir government replied by a demand of immediate diplomatic recognition of the Republic as a precondition of future negotiations.

 As the Unified Front was in the meantime trying to unseat Sjahrir and lobbied for outright independence without further negotiations, the British who were initially prepared to dismiss the Indonesian precondition as untenable gave in, and pressured van Mook to accept and come up with a new plan.

 

February,1st.1946

1.2.46

Fiscal Income tax paid recieved by Padang pandjang Postal office CDS padang pandjang PTT Rep Indonesia 1.2.46 (The earliest Republic Indonesia Fiscal at sumatra) I have lend this collection for scanning to put in Mr Vosse Revenue Catlogue @Copyright Dr iwan S.2010.

 

 

 

February,1st.1946

 

1.2, 046

Dai nippon sumatra Revenue 2x f -.15,-,20 and F1.- used on the republican document without overprint at Rengat Riau.

 

The closeup illustration

 

 

 

 

 

 

The full illustration of document

 

 

 

 

February,1st,1946

The free port cover send from CDS RAF-032  (British  Royal Air Force code area 032)  II-I .1946 )february,1st.1946)to London.N15 England

 

Front

 

 

 

 

Back

 

Sender:

 

 P.Sood RAF

(British Royal Air Force)

No 1647296 c/A/c

 

 

 

February,2nd.1946

 

2.2.46

Used off cover Dai Nippon sumatra definive stamps 5 sen without overprint used in republic area CDS (Pakan b-)aroe PTT Rep. Indonesia.

 

Off cover Dai Nippon Sumatra definitive stamps 3 cent CDS (pakanba)roe PTT Rep Indonesia (February),2,1946

 

2/II/46.

 

 

DEI stamps dancer 4cents(4x) without overprint used as revenue on the recieve of photographer Potrait billing at Solo.@copy right Dr Iwan s. Ihave lend this stamp to scanning by Mr Vosse to put in his revised revenue catalogue. February,6th.1946(

 

 

 

Uang nica javasche bank 1000 gulden in 1946

 

 

February,4th.194

the fotocopy of very rare  military private handpainted from Kedoengora-lelen on Dai Nipopon java postal stationer

 

 

Front

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Back

 

 

 

 

February,5th.1946

 

The esrliest used of Repoeblik Indonesia machinal Overprint Java CDS  Randoe Baltoeng 14.3.45.

 

Forgeries of the following machinal overprint are plentiful.This forgeries prodsuced in Djkarta around 1946-1947 and are frequewntely CTO Djakarta.The forgeries have been described in detail by Drs W.Bruynesteyn in the phamphlert”De boekdruk Opdruken van 1945”.For this you who do not have a copy of Dr Bruynstein.s pamphlet the following is a summary of the forgery types from the last page of the pamphlet(v.esbensen 1980)

Look illustration

 

 

I have original three used Money oder fragment of this machinal overprint java repoeblik Indonesia on DEI dancer stamps with CDS from small village at Java,rare CDS, this collections  ,found at jakarta from my friend who now have pass away in memoriam Mr Bachtiar,look the rare collection below:

a.machinal overprint on Dancer 4 cent(2x) date not clear

b.un overprint DEI dancer 4 cent(2x) and machinal overprint on dai Nippon java stamps 40 cent,CDS Karang Obar 1.3.6.

 

 

c.Machinal over print on DEI dancer stamp 3 cent block four ,CDS Goenoek Radja 5.3.46.

 

 

 

February,6th.1946

6.2.46

close up

 

Dai Nippon Sumatra definive stamps F 1.-without overprint used as revenue in the republic area Bukittingi because inflation high nominal value revenue didn.t exist, if used to low nominal the document will full with revenue,also that revenue didn’t exist anymore and republic haven’t issued revenue,this time ,because the war situation. February,8th.1946 8.2.46

 

Complete document

Same at solo, at Padang Dai Nippon postal card without Republic overprint used at republic occupied area CDS Padang 8.2.46 (didn’t used Dai Nippon Syowa anymore). In 1942 only Djojakrta have machinal overprint Repoeblik Indonesia 5 SEN in red Color overprint Dai Nippon postcard look Jan 46 collection 20.1.46 from Djogjakarta. Later other city will overprint repoeblik Indonesia on Dai Nippon Postcard by Handstamped because no official printed Office in that area.The young collectors very difficult to understand the Postal History,but if you look carefully no problem. February 9th..46

 

 

Postal stationer dai Nippon Java card 5 sen still used duriing Rep.indonesia occupied Solo, Postally Used cover with republican postalcancelled CDS SOLO 9.2.46(Not 06-Dai Nippon syowa date), earliest Republic Indonesia Postal Administrations without overprint, later this postcard will overprin Republic Indonesia 5 SEN-look the later collections)

 

 

 

February,8.th 1946

 Contraversial Machinal overprint wrong Repoebelik(not Repoeblik) Indonesia on Dai nippon Cross &dai Nippon Yubin overprin on DEI stamps kon 10 cent 9famoues as three era stamps-prangko tiga zaman) Mr Bulterman Dutch expert told me that this stamps overprint printed at padang Printer office same with the one years Independence free military postal card, All the stamps and postcard burned by the dutch NICA(KNIL) soldier, but some still exist and used at republican Area, here were many types Dai nippon overprint or without overprint DEI Kon.stamps were surcharges. The printing office at padang only five that time, Government didn’t have, Three from that printing office belonging to my familiy , when i have asked the owner they told me they didn’t printed this stamps, the other one my family friend he told no, the only one i haven’t asked and may the printing office where this stamps was printing was the haluan Newspaper printing office still exist until now.

 

8.2.46 Contraversia Three era Overprint two type from dai nippon Cross and dai Nippon Yubin, and one from Rep.Indonesia but in wrong spelling “Repoebelik” the right one “Repoeblik’ used CDS Padang PTT Rep.Indonesia , Mr Bulterman Dutch phillatelist expert when met me in 1985 had told me that this stamps machinal overprint by Padang Private Printing office because government didn’t have it. All the stamps including the rare postal card commemorate one years independence military free card were burne by Dutch NICA soldiers(KNIL), but some stamps with many different Dai Nippon type overprint still keep by the Padang Postman , may be the specimen stamps and not many used on the postally used cover because after lingarjati agrrement Padang was the Dutch NICA area9 , Paraf at November 1946,only three month after six moth this stamps issued but resticted. I have written my research about this contraversial stamps compare between all collectors collection in the world with my collections,if the collector choose this stamps as the best stamps I will put that information in Driwancybermuseum.

 

 

February,10th.1946

(a)The remebrance picture of Solok landscaped from Agoes latif B.tinggi 10/2.1946

 

+

 

(b)February 10Van Mook sends proposal to Sjahrir for “democratic partnership” between the Netherlands and Indonesia, but which still does not provide for real independence.Sjahrir reshuffles cabinet under pressure.

 

 

 

February,12th.1946

 

12.2.46 Only one ever seen document with contraversial Tax account Office Padang (kantor Accountant Padjak) official stamped in violet color without the gouvernment emblem (lambang), This office from what State gouvernment Dutch NICA or Republic indonesia ,may be still Dai Nippon Administration, I think before hinomaru Dai Nippon emblem. this contraversial office asked the chinese overseas trader to pay text from 1939 to 1945 (from three era DEI,Dai Nippon,and Rep.Indenio or Dutch Nica)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February,15th.1946

 

The earliest date used Middle Sumatra repoeblic Indonesia handstamped overprint 32 black(ibid V.esbensen catalogue,1980) look the page illustration below:

 

 

Another information from Dutch phllatelic magazine”My Stokpaardje,Maart 1947 about this stamp

 

. Original info.in Dutch language: What is this? In our January number we gave the figure of three prints: “Ned: Indie” on stamps of the Sumatra series The gown has not yet besetting.Er fourth value from this series that marked the heals and whey are generally depicted 40 cents bruin.Maar not only to seal the series, this print Japones Sumtra for, including Queen rabbit type seals we Trell him, teramen me the famous “T” print and 15 cents a red Golden paars.Deze prints, with a hand stamped, come in many positions for horizontal, sloping downward, upward sloping, headstand etc.etc. (etc.) See figure

Original info.in dutch language:

 

Wat is dit? In ons januari-number gaven wij de afb. Van drie opdrukken:”Ned:Indie” op zegels van de Sumatra-series de Japonse besetting.

 

Er is evenwel nog een vierde waarde uit deze serie die de opdruk heelt en wei de hier algebeelde 40 cent bruin.Maar niet allen op zegel van de japonese Sumtra serie komt deze opdruk voor, ook op Koninginne zegels type konijnenberg trellen wij hem dan,teramen me de bekende “T” opdruk 15 cent rood en 1 Gulden paars.

 

Deze opdrukken ,met een handstempel aangebracht,komen in vele standen voor horizontal,schuin naar beneden,schuin naar boven,kopstand enz.enz.(etc) Zie afbeelding.

 

I have a complete collection in mint unsued ,found from the Padang Postman who work at the post office this time.(ex Mr Soewil collections,now courtecy Dr iwan )

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February,16th.1946

 

 

 

Express postcard (Bu RJ.N9) bijgefrankeerd with 2x 20 cents NRA Java, Yogyakarta 16.2.46, to Magelang former splendor.

 

 

16.2.1946 The original document of REP Indonesia Menistry of law annoucement about proposal Indonesia Citizen Law(RUU WNI).I am sorry the complete document or cover cann’t illustrated because copyright, if you choose this document as the best collection it will put in complete document in IMUC Cybermusuem.

 

 

16.2.1946.

The republic Indonesia’s Minestry of Law : Proposal of INdonesia State Citizens law (RUU Warga Negara Indonesia dari menteri kehakiman). Sorry I cann’t showed the complete document or cover because that complete ilustration will put in Driwancybermusueum after choose by Collectors as the best collection, if you choose this document it will be show in the cybermusuem with your name, it is very impportant to chinseoverseas Indonesia ,now became Tionghoa national ethnic, this document was the basic law. (b) The  Dai Nippon Postal saving Book Tjokin Kyoko Palembang ,chang the hinomaru red to be indonesian flag red  and white inside 17.8.45,complete with yubinkyoku postal savinbvg label 16.2.46 until 2.5.46(four illustration b) February,18th.1946

 

18.2.46(b)(b) REP.IND. West Sumatra overprint Dai nippon sumatra definitive Stamps 30 cent and 50 cent used CDS Padang PTT Rep Indonesia 18.2.46 (the earliest used) Before at Bagansiapi-api riouw Rep Ind . typemechine overprint exist i found ond piece in Jakarta bank deposit and Ricardo off Cover now in Den haag Museum, I cann’t showed this very rare stamps because only found two in the world, Iam afraid being copy by the mad stam trader or collector, if the expert or Den Haag musuem want to look at this stamps I will made a show in Den Haag Musuem if official invitation with another rare (RRR) stamps or revenue February,19th.1946(b)

 

19.2.46 Dai Nippon west sumatra Cross overprin on Dutch East indie Kon.1 gld stamps and Dai Nippon definitif 50 cent emergency used as revenue because inflation the low value revenue off , republic Indonesia high nominal value not yet issued that is why the high nominal value Stamps used @copyright Dr iwan S.2010. February,28th.1946

 

28.2.46 Dai Nippon java Revenue still used at Semarang on Oei Tiong Ham House rental Billing .Dai Nippon and British Allied forces still administrated this city and after that under Dutch NICA, never found Republic Indnesia Revenue ,stamps or Document in this city same as Soerabaja. .FEBRUARY 1946

 

native Rep.indonesia calender February 1946

Feb. 1st : Sir Archibald Clark Kerr with Sir Montague Stopford arrived at Jakarta. ill 1 .Native Rep.Indonesia Calender February 1946 , with picture Beringin Woods ” Wringin Soetji Korining Kerta” incrisption below the wood (the Sacred Beringin , please native javanese translate Korining Kerta) look ill.no.2. Ill no 3. 12.46 :The recieved of paying Income tax on Rep,Indonesia Fiscal with Poastal canceled CDS Padang Pandjang ptt rep.Indonesia .

 

Feb.2nd, 1946

2.2.46

Used Dai Nippon definitif 5 sen without overprint used (Pakan b-)aroe PTT Rep INdonesia 2.2.46 (Pakan baroe Riouw occupied by Rep.Indonesia), I have from Bagansiapi-api Riouw CDS on Definitif Dai Nippon stamps 10 cent overprint machinal typed Rep. Indonesia on piece fragment-the only one in the world exist because Ricardo have the same off covered,sorry I cann’t showed this very rare stamps in this blog because very expensive and I am afraid will be reproduced, i put that stamps in bank deposit, I am only showed this stamps to expert and specialist Indonesia collector by appointment, I am very happy to found this stamps that more rare than the Dutch’s ricardo stamps in Den Haag phillatelic Museum, if the museum want the original photo please asked via comment, and I will send the photo illustration to your e.mail.@copyright Dr Iwan S.2010. Ill.no 5 : 2/II/46 Dutch east Indie Stamp 4 cent (4x) without overprint used as revenue on The recieved of paying Photograper Billing at Solo. I have lend this rare revenue ‘s scanning to Mr Vosse to put in his revise Revenue catalogue, I hope he put my name as the provenance remember @Copy right Dr iwan S. 2009.

 

February,4th.1946

The rare  Islamic lasykar handpainted laskar on Dai Nippon Java postal stationer card 5 cent ,send from CDS Leles Kedoungora to Serang(Banten) ( this only fotocopy illustration from Ricardo collections)

The Indonesian People from Loeboek Kilangan west sumatra

 protes letter to the leader at that village whon did not stop the native gambling;

People Protest Letter Lubuk refined
Lbk.Kilangan February 4, 1946
MERDEKA! !
With respect penuhy, we on behalf of the various layers of people who kalu Lubuk refined we can say is start or has insjaf with the will of the current situation, please with the mediation of the glorious majesty, fear the onset of action alone, get support and assistance (to) the situation Affairs (village) Lubuk refined, because the situation in the country kalu note let alone to the press of Lubuk memperkokohkan (strengthening) and maintain INDEPENDENCE, even the opposite is proven by leaders in the depths of nature with the press of a. Ninik Mamak (oldest Minangkabau) is the National pasif.b.Komite pasif.Bersifat passive nature because we say: After the bodies were held over several residents Lubuk Business refined, so that there was rtidak vadan can move from non-supported and supported by ninik mamak and by the national committee, even into the barrier, otherwise we say Ninik Mamak slah not understand the situation now ini.Segala actions taken by the Committee Naasional, we mean by the chairman, who may bring poverty and misery on the people, the form asks Bakti with a forced, and rice that have been borrowed more or less 200 (two hundred) sacks, ninik mamak remain silent saja.Pada every Saturday and Tuesday behind Bandar Create (village), named Koto Lalang (Under Mangosteen) held a large gambling- scale, form sabung (sabunbg chicken), bounce, tenong, dice and other, which has from the start bubarnay manaini goen GIJOE (Dai Nippon Gyugun) passes, and from the start tanggal17.1.46 until now held every night of gambling (dice, Koa and others ) in Bandar Create los Market. Inipuhn ninik mamak National Committee even stay quiet even if this work (gambling) has berterangan (light have publicly) it was held.
Committee Nasionla we say is passive, because everything this action is for oneself was a time held the question of borrowing rice to the people, sales and sap Indarung cement (cement factory), he explained that it was his affair sendiri.Padahal payment rice people until now belumtentu position, and sales of cement and resin Indarung has stayed away,
 Any body in the form of fees (fee), for example (like) Pesindo danPB (Police assistance) can not run, because virtually no assistance, as evidenced by the dissolution of the PB in Lubuk refined when (when) we make of this letter, yet none dabn Youth a well-structured, even kslau there, is the emergence in its own course and not tersusun.Beberapa article (this hal0 we noted on His Excellency, to the attention of our request, hopefully we get changes appropriate to the circumstances present . We intentionally made this letter 4 sheets:
We send to His Excellency: 1. Resident of western Sumatra in Padang, 2. Wali LUHAK in Padang, Sumatra Regional Center 3.Komite Nsional west, 4.Komite Outer City National Branch in Padang.
According sure Kamui, we will have to change as soon as possible, and respect and we khimad:
Was signed by
Chairman of the Bandar Hezbollah Tapatan Create, Create Pesindo Bandar, Bandar Indigenous Rangkato Create, national Committee Member, Chairman aisyah, Muhamaddijah Chairman, Chairman of the Red signpost, Chairman of the pious Ulama, an outrigger Clever, Merchant’s Association, Cooperative kitchen’s chief.

 

Listen

Read phonetically

 

 

 

 

 

Original info

Surat Protes Rakyat Lubuk Kilangan

Lbk.Kilangan 4 pebruari 1946

MERDEKA ! !

Dengan penuhy hormat, kami atas nama berbagai golongan rakyat Lubuk Kilangan yang kalu boleh kami katakana mulai atau telah insjaf dengan kehendak keadaan sekarang,mohon dengan perantaraan paduka yang mulia ,takut akan timbulnya tindakan  sendiri-sendiri,mendapat sokongan dan bantuan  tentang(kepada) keadaan Negeri(kelurahan) Lubuk Kilangan ,karena kalu diperhatikan keadaan di  negeri Lubuk Kilangan jangankan menuju memperkokohkan(memperkuat)  dan mempertahankan KEMERDEKAAN, bahkan adalah  sebaliknya terbukti dengan pemimpin di lubuk kilangan bersifat dengan: a. Ninik Mamak (tertua minangkabau ) bersifat pasif.b.Komite Nasional bersifat pasif.Bersifat pasif kami katakana karena: Setelah diadakan badan-badan  atas Usaha beberapa  orang penduduk Lubuk Kilangan,maka vadan  yang ada itu rtidak dapat bergerak akibat tidak disokong dan ditunjang oleh ninik mamak  dan oleh Komite nasional,bahkan menjadi penghalangnya,kalau tidak slah kami katakana Ninik Mamak tidak mengerti dengan keadaan sekarang ini.Segala tindakan yang diambil oleh Komite Naasional,yang kami maksud dengan ketuanya,yang mungkin membawa kemelaratan dan kesengsaraan pada rakyat,berupa meminta Bakti dengan sebagai dipaksa,dan meminjam padi yang telah lebih kurang 200(dua ratus) karung,ninik mamak tinggal diam saja.Pada tiap-tiap hari Sabtu dan Selasa dibelakang Bandar BUat(kampong),bernama Koto Lalang(Dibawah Manggis) diadakan judi besar-besaran,berupa Sabung(sabunbg ayam),ambung,tenong,dadu dan lainnya ,yang manaini telah dari mulai bubarnay Gijoe Goen(Dai Nippon Gyugun) berjalannya, dan dari mulai tanggal17.1.46 sampai sekarang diadakan setiap malam judi(dadu,Koa dan lainnya) di los Pasar Bandar Buat. Inipuhn ninik mamak bahkan Komite Nasional tinggal diam saja biarpun  kerjaan ini(judi) telah berterangan (dilakukan terang terangan) saja diadakan.

Komite Nasionla kami katakana bersifat pasif,karena segala sesuatu tindakan yang diambilnya adalah untuk diri sendiri  ternyata dengan waktu diadakan pertanyaan tentang peminjaman padi pada rakyat, penjualan semen dan getah Indarung(pabrik semen),beliau menerangkan bahwa semua itu adalah urusan beliau sendiri.Padahal pembayaran padi rakyat sampai sekarang belumtentu kedudukannya,dan penjualan semen dan getah Indarung telah tinggal begitu saja,

 Segala Badan yang berupa ongkos(biaya),umpama  (seperti) PESINDO danPB(POlisi bantuan) tidak dapat berjalan,karena bantuan boleh dikatakan tidak ada,terbukti dengan bubarnya PB di Lubuk Kilangan sewaktu (ketika)kami membuat surat ini, dabn belum satupun Pemuda yang yang tersusun baik,bahkan kslau ada, adalah timbulnya dengan sendiri-sendiri saja dan belum tersusun.Beberapa pasal(hal0 ini kami kemukakan pada Paduka yang Mulia,untuk menjadi perhatian atas permohonan  kami,mudah-mudahan kami mendapat perubahan yang sesuai dengan keadaan sekarang. Sengaja kami buat surat ini 4 lembar :

Kami kirim ke Paduka Yang Mulia : 1. Residen Sumatra barat di Padang, 2. Wali Luhak di Padang,3.Komite Nsional Pusat Daerah Sumatra barat,4.Komite Nasional Cabang Luar Kota di Padang.

Menurut yakin kamui, kami akan mendapat perobahan dengan selekasnya,hormat dan dan khimad kami:

Di tanda tangani oleh

Ketua Badan Tapatan Hisbullah Bandar Buat,PESINDO Bandar Buat, Rangkato Adat Bandar Buat,Anggota Komite nsional,Ketua aisyah,Ketua Muhamaddijah, Ketua Plang Merah,Ketua alim Ulama, Cadik Pandai,Persatuan Saudagar,Ketua Koperasi dapur

February.6th ,1946

Indonesia problem were discussed at United nation Secirurity councile meeting at London. Maousky said that the British allied forces landing  due the beginning of war in Indonesia. Dai Nippon soldiers werw used to push down (menindas) Indonesia native people, that is ay he suggected to build the special commision to research (menyelidik) Indonesian Situations but not accepted.  ill no 7 . 6.2.46 Dai nippon Sumatra definitif Stamps F 1.- without overprint used as emergency revenue at Bukittinggi (Inflation made low nominal revenue off, and hing nominal didn’t exist and republic Indonesia rvenue still in process to issue.

Dutch Marine Tank in indonesia 1946

February,6th,1946

the earliest adi nippon stamps withour NRI overprint used as revenue in complete document

 

 

 

February,7th.1946

 

Postally used cover from Padang via CDS RAPWI postal violed handchoped RAPWI POST PADANG NRI 7 FEB 46 TO LOS ANGELES Usa

1946, Netherlands Indies “RAPWI-POST/PADANG N.E.I/7 FEB” boxed postmark (RAPWI = Rescue of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees) on airmail cover to Los Angeles/USA. Very unusual.Between September 1945 and November 1946, up to 35,000 surrendered Japanese troops were assimilated into Lord Louis MountbattenŽs South East Asia Command in the Netherlands East Indies. The Japanese fought alongside the British to assist in the restoration of pre-war European empires in Asia.

The Repoeblik Indonesia Padang Post Office in the NRI power but because not the UPU member,the letter cannot transferred to overseas foreign countries,that is why send via RAPWI Post Padang.very historic collections Dr Iwan know the Soei Bie shop owner  and the location too and also his home(Dr Iwan Notes)

 

The postally used postcard  with overprint Repoeblik Indonesia on DN java definive  stamps 5 cdent. send from Malang to Soerabaia.Feb.28th. ill no 13. 28.2.46

Dai Nippon revenue F 1,- used with indonesian date . in Bukittinggi.ill.no 14.Dai Nippon Sumatra Revenue F-,15 used with Indonesia date in Bukittinggi

 

Feb.8th. 1946

8.2.46

 

Dai Nippon cross overprint Dutch kon.Stamps  added new repoeblik Indonesia overprint (triple overprint0  used  CDS Padang PTT Rep. Indonesia 8.2.46 on Dai Nippon Postal card without overprint.(padang occupied by Republic Indonesia) ill.no 8 .Dai Nippon Postal card without overprint used CDS Padang PTT Rep Indonesia  8.2.46.

Feb.9th 1946(this day my one years birthday) :

ill.no. 9 : 9.2.46 . Dai Nippon Java Postal card without overprint used CDS Solo 9.2.46 -Indonesia date cancelled.(Solo occupied by Rep.Indonesia) (b)

Feb.10th : Dr H.J. van Mook announced the official statement from the Dutch government about the Future of Indonesia government :a. Indonesia Commonwelath consisting with daerah-daerah (areas) with their own governments  as the part of the Dutch Kingdom . b. Everybody who born Indonesia will became the Indonesian state citizens.(Warganegara).c. The Indonesian Government will free administrated their own state alone  . d. There will be the people representative board (badan perwakilan Rakyat0  with one envoy (wakil) from the Royal dutch as the chief of Indonesia state government. e. The transition period in ten years. f. Indonesia will be a member united nation. In this day there were no official meeting between Clark kerr,Sjahrir and van Mook  in order to delivered this official Dutch government statement.

February,10th.1946

 

The Linggajati Agreement was a key political accord in the struggle of Indonesia for Independence. When the Republic of Indonesia proclaimed its independence on August 17, 1945, right after Japanese surrender to the Allies, Colonialist Government of Dutch tried to regain control of the former East Indies by sending more troops to attack Indonesian strongholds. It was noticed that between 1945 and 1949 they undertook two military actions.

In this regard, the freedom fight continued and Dutch military aggressions met with solid resistance from Indonesian troops. Along with military action, the young Republic of Indonesian conducted also a diplomatic offensive against the Dutch. Indonesia raised the Dutch’s invasion to the United Nations and pushed the Dutch Government to negotiate.

In the United Nations, sponsored by the Soviet Unions, the question of Indonesia was discussed in the Security Council.

 

 

Then on February 10, 1946,

 the first official meeting of Indonesian and Dutch representatives took place under the chairmanship of Sir Archibald Clark Kerr.

In terms of negotiation, with the good offices of Lord Killearn of Great Britain, Indonesian and Dutch representatives met at Linggarjati in West Java

February,11th.1946

Perjuangan Tanjung jabung kuala tungal Jambi

PERIOD IN 1946

A. Consolidation and Reform Pemyempurnaan Civil Government and the Formation of TRI Regiment II Division II Jambi

On February 11, 1946 d Sarolangun TRI officer held a meeting of the Residency Jambi led by Second Division Commander Colonel Hasan Kasim, and was attended by Colonel Abunjani.

 

 

As the decision of the meeting is:

1. Formation of the TKR Unitary Residency become TRI Regiment II Jambi Jambi Province.

2. Appoint Lieutenant Colonel Justin Mohd. Isha as a regimental commander II Jambi, which at that time still ”menjabat” as Chief of Police Kersidenan Jambi.

3. Define the rank of the officer who attended the meeting in defenitif from Second Lieutenant to Lieutenant Colonel.

Feb.12th.1946

 

12.2.46 Tax account Office Padang official stamped on the letter to chinese overseas trader at padang pandjang. This official stamped without state government emblem (lambang pemerintah) ,blank, contraversial , this tax office from Government ? -British allied forces, nica-dutch or Rep Indonesia government because the office asked the tax from three era from 1939-1941(Dutch era), 1942-1944(Dai Nippon era), and 1945 -republic Indonesia era. The tax alway must paid to the lattest stete government no excuse the war situation/@copyright Dr iwan S.2010, and what the collectors comment ?

February.14th . 1946

The Indonesia native origin of Indonesia Royal Dutch soldier(KNIL) at Minahasa  were rebelled with the command of Taulu and Wuisan , they succeed to occupied for Republic Indonesia from NICA-Dutch civil administration. The Republic Indonesia administration with RED-WHITE flag at Minahasa only exist 26 days (very rare and historic postal used cover on this period,but never seen until this day) .At March 11th 46 Taula cs  arrested by Dutch during meeting on Dutch warship eit hein’ at Manado port (ibid.PTIK,1952, the information above and below from same source)

February. 17th. 1946

This day Six month Indonesian Independence proclamation day,some interesting collection were issued:

(1)Padang west Sumatra Repobelik Indonesia machinal overprint on DEI with dai Nippon overprint KOn.10 cent stamps.

 

This day  ,the six month Indonesia independence proclamation day anniversary, the earliest used of Padang Machinal overprint “Repoebelik Indonesia” on DEI Konijnenberg 10 cent red ,still used syowa dai Nippon language CDS Loeboek Sikaping 21.2.17(17.2.1946),I found this cover at bukittingi 1985 and I have sold to Mr karel,sorry only fotocopy illustrations exist.

 

I also found postally used postcard from CDS Repoeblik Indonesia Bukittingi 23.4.46,the overprint Repobelik Indonesia on Dai Nippon T overprint on DEI Konijneberger 10 cent

 

 

And postally used registered homemade cover  send from CDS  Painan 163.46,overpirint on Dai Nippon middle Sumatra overprint cross.(the two collections also found at Bukittinggi ,and I have sold to Mr Karel 1n 1985,sorry the illustration fotocopy black ad white)

 

 

 

 

 

 

From Mr Soewil,The Padang Postman during this time,now  he was passed away,and became my collections,

 

The block 23 mint stamps with ORI overpeint.

 

Block ten and single on Dai Nippon and ORI overprint.with other double overprint Dai Nippon T and ORI repoeblic Indonesia overprint(Triple overprint)

Many types overpint on T soematra overprint dai Nippon,

 

 On Dai Nippon Yubin T  Sumatra overprint

 

 

On Dai Nippon middle Sumatra cross

 

On Dai Nippon yubin oblique middle Sumatra

 

Also soewil CTO postal stationer card, Dai Nippon cross and oblique overprint(rare CTO made by the Padang postman Soewil)

 

Information from dai Nippon catalogue

The rare variation print  overprint(one per sheet)

(a)             with vertical line.

 

 

 

 

(b) horizontal line.I seen Mr suwito have this two rare type in pain, I have onle mint verticsl lines

 

 

 

 

© I have also  with the variation Dai Nippon overprint

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b)            Also the variation of basic Dai Nippon overprint stamps

 

(1)              The  Java Sixth Month Of Independence Issued(Zon 23-24).

Proof exist in various colours,both imperf, and perf 11.The imperf. Stamps is normal colours listed in the catalogue are probably proofs since  used copies of these have not been found.the earliest date used on money order CDS Pekalongan 5,2.6.(v.esbensen,1980)

 

 

Other used CDS Djogjakarta 18.2.46

 

 

 

I have found only one postally used card with thi stamp perf. 11,CDS Poerworedjo 8.6.47 to CDS Keboemen 1.7.47,please look care fully this stamp with Indonesian flag red and white in the center because later issued  the same stamp bull without flag .this rare coillection(Dr Iwan note)

 

 

 

(3)

The Merdeka newaspaper Jakarta special Issued Sic mont IRepoeblik Indonesia anniversary

 

 

 

Special Edition  issued by Merdeka newspaper Jakarta “Special number edition anniversary six month Indonesia Independence. In this rare journal consist very rare Photo and authography from President,Vice President, Primemenistry. Menister Cabinet I & II, Gouvernour, President Wife Fatmawati, Viece President wife Rahmi , preisdent son Guntur, Gouvenur, Java king, oposititon Tan malaka, senior journalist etc, this vintage Picture and authography will showed later in “Indonesia Independence war Picture &Authography added with my Collections, I hope vintage photography and authography will happy to look at that very rare collections, but must be patient I need time to write and install that collections@copyright Dr iwan S.2010.

The six month annyversary of indonesia indepedence were celebrated at many area in Indonesia. Ill no 11. Vintage Book : Special edition to commemorate six month Indonesia Independence proclamation day by Merdeka newspaper. This rare vintage book consist the photo of all the Indonesian Leader 1945-1946 like President,vice prsident, prime menister, java king (  with their authographys and also menister Kabinet I and II (not complete)   , Gouvernor, Tan malaka profile, the wife of proclamator Fatmawati sukarno  & Rahmi Hatta and senior -jurnalist etc. This photo will showed at “Indonesia Independence War picture/authographed added with my collections” the collectors must be patient becuase to much to showed only by me alone need many hours times working. I hope the photgraphy and authography collector wil be happy to look at the very rare illustr

 

 Cover illustration

 

 

speaking(sambutan) and handsign

 

 

(c)             Kata Sambutan Vice President Hatta and handsigned

 

(d)            (e)Sambutan and handsigned Mangkoeneoro VIIII

(e)             ( f) Sambutan and handsigne St Sjahril

(f)              ,prime menistry Melaokekan Rewvoloesi dengan Pengertian(g) Kata sambutan Pakoe Boewono(h) Wassiat Pemimpin Bung Karno,Hatta and Sjahrir

 

 

(i)the first NRI Cabinet

 

 

The first NRI cabinet(presientiil cabinet or Sukarno cabinet)

 

 

(g)            

 

 

(j) The second Cabinet with illustration(k) illustration Bung Karno  and bung hatta in the middle of Family

 

(l) The great (agung)NRI Gouverment inspection the people situation(m) Sultan Hamengkubuwono IX Jogyakarta pictures.(n) Sumatra during 6 month Independence(o) The dismiss(pembubaran) the NRO secondr Cabinet Sjahrir,.(the complete illustration will add in the e-book on CDRom,special for  premium member)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

President Sukarno and family illustrations

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

February,18th.1946

The Fragment of Used Dai Nippon stamp used as revenue at bukitttinggi

 

February,19th.1946

The dai Nippon Stamp without NRI overprint used on complete document(very rare)

 

Feb.19th 1946:

Non official meeting between  prime enister St Sjahrir and van Mook were announced but the source not found. Dutch announced to have the meeting with republic but Republic Indonesia not yet answered. (ibid PTIK,1952)

Feb. 21th.1946

(a)To answered the dutch government official statement, the KNIP (Center Indonesia  National comittee) have annouced that Only Republic Indonesia have authority in all Indonesia area.

(b) RAPWI  BATAVIA POSTALLY USED COVER

The postally used cover send from Sergeant marinir BA Olymmyulder M 4393,Royal Netherlands Marine Corps Brigade I Bataljon Cie.A p.a. Marine Postkantoor Batavia-C Ned oost Indie, free stamp military post, with RAPWI Post Kantoor Batvia CDS 21 Feb 46 to Roterdam Nederland.RAPWI  means Rescue of Allied Prisoners of War and Internees.(rare cover)

 

 

 

and look  the picture of Repoeblic Indonesia TRI(Military) help the RAPWI Prisoner Of War(POW) move from cam to their homeland by TRI truck.

RAPWI Official Travel Permit and Pass form unused.

 

 

 

also the Royal dutc Marien pantser picture in 1946

Dutch marines in Indonesia, 1946

 

Feb.22th : The complete KNIP meeting with Mr Asaat as the chief(ketua) at Solo have discussed about the authority(beleid) of Sjahrir cabinet..”Persatuan Perdjoeangan “(Unity Revolt , the leader Tan Malaka)  opposition in KNIP have very strong (demikian hebat) that is why Sjahrir cabinate was falling down(jatuh). The British Allied forces begun to back home ( mjulai mengundurkan diri) from Indonesia (ibid PTIK,1952)

February,24th.1946

Inauguration of the Second Division II TRI Regiment Edinburgh and the inauguration of the officers will be held in the city of Jambi on February 24, 1946.

Structure and Core Personalian Regiment II / Division II Jambi is:

1. Commander: Lt. Col. Teuku Mohd. Jesus

2. Chief of Staff: Captain R. A. Rachman Kadipan

HQ Regiment II / Second Division based in Jambi Jambi.

Second Division Commander Colonel Hasan Kasim South Sumatra on February 24, 1946 inaugurated the Second Regiment, Second Division TRI Edinburgh and induct the officers of the rank of Second Lieutenant to the top, place in the field Tungkal Straat (now terminal oplet Rawasari city) Jambi city.

In April 1946, to complement the shortage of personnel Regiment II, Division II, Edinburgh, at the request of the Regiment Commander II has received additional personnel from the Second Division are:

Bureau II Strategy
Lt. A. Roni

Second Lieutenant M. Nawawi

Lieutenant Young Mukhtar

Military Police
Lieutenant R. Sumardi

Young Lieutenant Idris Saman

Lieutenant W. Young Sumardi

B. Terbentuknua Navy of the Republic of Indonesia (ALRI)

Due to violations of the territory of Indonesia by the Dutch war ships in the waters of Kuala Tungkal and provocation as well as the interception of a passing motor boat, then from Palembang in South Sumatra brought an army of ALRI. ALRI troop strength is 15 people with him Lieutenant Commander (Sea) Sanusi, between 7 (seven) people stationed at the port of Kuala Tungkal with major Sersa Commander (Sea) Arwansyah and the remainder placed in the port city of ALRI Kasang Jambi (Jambi Pertamina now ship port )

With the increasingly precarious situation of the struggle, in September 1948 the Navy base was transferred entirely to Kuala Tungkal, while the base is part of Jambi ALRI ALRI unit based in New Boom palembang dnegan Kaptem Commander (Sea) Sarongsong.

VII.The Center Of Indonesia Republic Stare(NRI) Moved To Jogya in 1946

 

 

 

 

March 1946

“Social War” breaks out in Batak areas of Sumatra. Local rulers are accused of collaborating with the Dutch.Tan Malaka and Persatuan Perjuangan increase criticism of Sjahrir

 

 

Alamanak Perjaungan Indonesia bulan Maret 1946 
Pada Alamanak ini tertulis informasi sebagai berikut :

 

a. Tema lukisan alamanak dengan narasi Mengapa Beras dikirim ke Jepang sedangkan Rakyat Indonesia miskin dan kelaparan.

b. kronologis situasi Indonesia bulan Nopember dan Desember 1945 :

(a) 28.11.45 :British attack Chinine Fabric in Bandoeng
(b) Early Dec.45 : The Battle at Soerabaja,Semarang,Djakarta,Bandoeng and Ambarawa.
(c) 5.12.45 : The People occupying Banjoebiroe Fort
(d) 8.12.45 : Bogor attack by Enemy(BritisH Allied Forces)
(e) 9.12.45 : Soekaboemi were Boombing
(f) 14.12.45 : The People occupying Ambarawa
(g) 17.12.45 : The British Allied Forces burn Bekasi
(h) 25.12.45 : Solo develop the Native Red-soldiers
and the threads of NRI Prime Menistry’s life.
(i) 27.1.2.45 : Also The threads of Menistry of
informations(NRI)’s life.

c.Pernnyataan Bung Karno:

Three hundreds years or more than one thousand years (occupied by Colianialism) cann’t off the Peoples right to lived Independence.
In other to have that Rights again , we are ready to accept all the national country’s difficulties and unhapinnes situations.
Anytimes we are ready to sacrifice for the Motherland.(free tranlate by Dr iwan S.)

By March 1946

 the struggle front had been weakened by resignations and defections. Emboldened in its newly won support, the Republican government then launched a counter coup effectively pre-empting the emergence of a socialist current in the nationalist revolution.

2) DR OEI BOEN ING SOLO’S RECEIPT OF PATIENT BILLING
Illustration Caption  Oen Revenue 1946.


 

DR OEI BOEN ING SOLO’S RECEIPT OF PATIENT BILLING
Illustration Caption  Oen Revenue 1946.

The receipt still used the Dai Nippon Java revenue without overprint (late used).

 
:::dr.Oen Boen Ing :::

Dr. Oen Boen Ing became involved in polyclinics Jisheng Tsi Sheng Yuan Yuanturned, When the war of independence came,polyclinics turned into makeshift hospitals, accommodating the fighters and refugees.

According to the testimony Soelarso, Chairman of the Society of Ex-Army Student Detachment Rumpun II Brigade XVII, “… regardless of the shot Netherlands, Dr Oen and out of military areas to treat the soldiers …”

(Name of clinic or Jisheng Tsi Sheng Yuan Yuan
it means the Institute of Life Rescue. This clinic was founded by eight young men who joined the Chinese Tsing Hua Chiao Hui Nien (abbreviated HCTNH),
which means Chinese Youth Association. They are Jap Kioe Ong, Tan Kiong Djien, The Tjhioe Tik, Sie Ngo Spot, Sie Boen Tik, Gan Kok Sien, Tiauw Tan An, and Jap Pole Liem.
In 1935 Dr. Oen Boen Ing became involved in the ministry of the clinic and subsequently became the founding pemprakarsa Health Foundation Tsi Sheng Yuan)

Angka tiga punya makna penting
Sebagai dokter, Oen Boen Ing terkenal tidak membeda-bedakan pasiennya, apapun juga kelompok etnis, suku, agama, dan kelas sosialnya. Bahkan pasien dibiarkannya mengisi ataupun tidak mengisi kotak uang yang terletak di ruang praktiknya secara suka rela. “Tugas seorang dokter adalah menolong,” demikian semboyan kehidupan dan pelayanan Dr. Oen.

Selain itu, Dr. Oen selalu membuka praktiknya sejak pk. 3.00 dini hari. Konon ini dihubungkan dengan hari kelahirannya, 3 Maret 1903. “Maka semua karya saya sebaiknya dimulai dengan angka 3,” begitu katanya. Angka tiga memang menjadi ciri kehidupan Dr. Oen Boen Ing. Nomor telepon di rumahnya 3333.

Bangunan pertama di Rumah Sakit Kandang Sapi yang didirikannya, dinamai Triganda, dan diresmikan pada 3 Maret 1963.

Ketika Dr. Oen meninggal dunia pada 1982, rakyat banyak sungguh merasakan kehilangan yang besar. Hal ini tampak dari kehadiran ribuan rakyat kecil kepadanya yang berdiri di tepi jalan untuk memberikan penghormatan mereka yang terakhir kepada orang yang telah berjasa memberikan kehidupan yang lebih sehat kepada mereka di tengah-tengah keberadaan mereka yang serba kekurangan.

Penghargaan
Karena jasa-jasanya dan pengabdiannya yang tanpa pamrih kepada masyarakat, Dr. Oen Boen Ing mendapatkan penghargaan Satya Lencana Bhakti Sosial dari pemerintah Republik Indonesia pada 30 Oktober 1979. Beliau juga dianugerahi gelar kebangsawanan oleh Sri Mangkunegoro VIII Solo, dengan nama Kanjeng Raden Toemenggoeng Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo. Pada 24 Januari 1993 Sri Mangkunegoro IX menaikkan gelarnya dari Kanjeng Raden Toemenggoeng menjadi Kanjeng Raden Mas Toemenggoeng Hario Oen Boen Ing Darmohoesodo

Dr Iwan Notes


Dr Oei Boen Ing in his lattest life have help many Indonesian poor patients like Becak drivers with free of charge for his private medical practise at his own home almost 30 years ( in this patient billing he charge only 200 Rupiah from March 1945 to February 1946 consultation and medicines).

Dr Oei Boen Ing were the Medical doctor hero in Solo and his name was using to the name of a big NGO Hospital at Solo. (Dr Iwan S suggest Indnesian Menistry of Health suggest to the Indonesian President SBY to honor him as the Indonesia National Health Hero in August ,17th. 2010 ,may be together with another Tionghoa (ex Chinese Overseas) National hero like Indonesia naval heros John Lee ).

This very rare memoriable cover was better to show in special frame at Dr Oei Boen Ing Hospital Solo, if the hospital want that show during Indonesian Indepence Day 65 years Anniversary in August,17th 2010 please

NRI defense fund label(Bakti Pertahanan) f.10, block four.

 

Bakti pertahanan were the people tax for komite basional Indonesia at village,rare collection,found at padang pandjang,

28th of February 1946:

 

 The British presented the new Dutch counterproposal to Indonesian delegation on 28th of February 1946:

 

it envisaged recognition of “an Indonesian republic on Java that would remain part of a federal Indonesian state, which was, in turn, a constituent part of the Kingdom of Netherlands.”

Indonesian counterproposal accepted part of the proposed terms, but insisted that Sumatra would have to be included to the territory of the Republic so that the new state could become economically viable, and that the rest of the territories would have to have subordinate status within the new state.

 

Additionally they insisted that any treaty would have to be enacted between equal sovereign states rather than between former colony and a government representing the old metropolitan regime.

 

When van Mook once again wired the latest development to London, he went to great lengths to persuade his enraged colleagues that this was indeed “take it or leave it”-offer they had no effective power to alter.

 

The new Attlee Government in Britain wanted to use the impending withdrawal of their troops to finally brownbeat the uppity Dutch, in the meantime ensuring that both sides came to agreement by pressuring the Indonesians into accepting the Republic as a constituent part of the Kingdom and the Dutch to include Sumatra as a part of the Republic.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

March 1946

 

Postal used Dai Nippon naval postal stationer with additional 3 cent CDS den Pasar to Soerabiaia in March 1946

March,1st.1946(b)

Fragment  Dai Nippon Sumatra definitive used without overprind as revenue at Boekittinggi

March 2nd’ 1946

 

Stamps as Revenue 1946

INDONESIA INDEPENDENCE WAR COLLECTION
MARCH 1946


Amphibious landing by Dutch (KNIL) troops at Sanur beach, Bali, March 1946.

MARCH 2nd 1946

1. The Central Indonesia national Committee(KNI-pusat) meeting have appointed St Sjahril to built the Cabinet.
The 3rd indonesia Cabinet with 14 menistries :
(1) Prime Menistery : St Sjarir


(2) Internal country affair menistery : Dr Sudarsono
(3) International Affairs menistry : St Sjahrir
(4) Defend Menisttry : Mr Amir Sjarifuddin

2. NRI(Indonesia) Prime Menistry St.Sjahrir profile this day(ill 1 caption St Sjahrir 1946)

3. The latest used on document Dai Nippon Sumatra definitif stamps without overprint as Revenue 1-3-46 at the NRI area Bukittinggi,(ill 2 caption Stamp as Revenue 1946).

March,3th.1946

At the beginning of 1946 was also the position of central gonernment moved to Bukittinggi West Sumatra. In times of transition mutations occur in Several Positions of Police of West Sumatra. Commissioner of Police I Became Chief of Police Darwin Karim Residency West Sumatra.Effective as of March 3, 1946, Johny Anwar got a job taking office the Chief of Police Affairs with the rank of Padang City Police Commissioner II.

March,7th.1946

The original  Padang Tax office letter with hoemade paper.cover and letter send by courier.

’March,7th.1946.

 

THE RARE EARLIEST DUTCH NICA POSTAL USED COVER SEND FROM CDA 7.4.46 PANGKAL PINANG  BANGKA TO BATAVIA WITH CHINESE ADDRESS

March,11th.1946

The rare Dai Nippon Jva postal sationer 5 cent postally used expres mail with add  ovtp Repoblic Indonenesia  on overprint Dai nippon jave on DEI dancer stamp  from Pasoeroean to  Malang

Look the other  used off and framgmen M.O of the other series of NRI java double overprint on DN java stamps.(two pictures b)

March,12th.1946

Sjahrir publicly replies to Van Mook’s offer of February, demanding immediate recognition of Indonesia’s sovereignty without delay.


Sutan Sjahrir


Sjahrir had been a leading figure in the independence movement in the 1930s, and had spent time in the Boven Digul concentration camp. He organized the governments of the new Republic in 1945-1947, and spent a great deal of energy in negotiations with the Dutch.To some, Sjahrir was a respectable voice of moderation with an educated, Western outlook on things.

In his time, he was criticized both by Communists and by Army nationalists for being allegedly “pro-Dutch”. (Among other things, Sjahrir had married a Dutch woman when he was a young student in the Netherlands.) Conversely, Sjahrir was a critic of those who he felt had worked too closely with the Japanese, implicitly criticizing Sukarno as well.

 

The OVW battalion 1-8 RI is derived from the Interior Forces of Region 6 (Veluwe) and Region 5 (Achterhoek). After the training the battalion under the command of the 21st Army Group in Germany for monitoring tasks. Far as it did not. Through England, where the battalion was equipped with the necessary equipment, the battalion went to India. As the commander of the Southeast Asia Command (SEAC), the Admiral Mountbatten, from November 2, 1945 a landing ban on Java and Sumatra for Dutch troops had set was migrated to Malaya. This ban was lifted in March 1946. Shortly after arrival at Batavia on 12 March 1946 the battalion moved to Mr.. Cornelis. After about one week began posting the battalion to take over the British Indian Gurkhas in the sector Klender.


Control by 1-8 at RI station Klender infiltration Source: Guys act (J 279-10)

Through daily patrols and the surrounding villages to purify calm was again somewhat in this area. On 7 June the battalion took part in a cleansing action in relation brigade in the area between Klender and Pondok Gedeh. Four days later the battalion occupied Bekasi and posts were set up to Krandji, and Tjakoeng Oedjoengmenteng. In July the battalion to the area around Tangerang. On November 24 the battalion departed, after being relieved by elements of the “7 December Division”, to Padang on Sumatra middle. There the battalion deployed to guard barracks and city patrols and provided the guards at important buildings and objects such as the hospital, the fuel storage and the prison. Soon began the purification of several villages such as in Padang, Jawa and Baharoe Dalam. As a result there was an improvement in December, and it was a lot calmer and safer in the city. Gradually the “Haantjes” will henceforth be applied to items on the edge and outside Padang.

During the first police action began the battalion on the night of 20 on July 21, 1947 with the arrest of subversives and members of the NRA city police. The NRA’s managed buildings and institutions were also occupied and taken over. Also, the battalion went on to Boengoesbaai south of Padang. In the further course of action the battalion remained in reserve and was used wherever necessary. This was just the case with Loeboek Aloeng, north of Padang on Aug. 4 with an RJ-occupied to the constant threat of infiltration from the north to counter. In October 1947 the battalion took the items to include Loeboek Boeaja, Baringin, Loeboek Aloeng and Pasar Oesang about 1 RJ-northwest of Padang. Here the battalion remained until repatriation.

Established:
15/06/1945 Ermelo

Leaving England:
10/15/1945 Aldershot

Leaving India:
28/10/1945 a / b “New Amsterdam”

Check in Malacca:
11/20/1945 Kuala Ketjil

Check in India:
Batavia 08/03/1946

Added to:
T.T.C. West Java, * T.T.C. Central Sumatra

Classified by:
U-Brigade (B division)

Action area (s):
Batavia, Padang *

Commander:
Maj. W. Spiering 15-06-1945/07-06-1948

Repatriated:
24/04/1948 a / b “John v. oldebarneveldt”
18.05.1948 arrival Netherlands

Killed:
25 people

Nickname:
Veluwe Battalion, the “Haantjes”

At the village of Bekassi, 15 miles from Batavia in Java, the bodies of 20 Indian infantrymen and 5 Royal Air Force personnel killed by nationalist fighters after the crash landing of a Dakota transport aircraft near the village are uncovered and prepared for exhumation.

An Indonesian woman is questioned during an operation to capture nationalist fighters who killed 20 Indian infantrymen and 5 Royal Air Force aircrew after the crash landing of a Dakota transport aircraft near the village of Bekassi, 15 miles from Batavia in Java.

Indian troops with four armed Indonesians captured at Bekassi before the village was burnt as a reprisal for the murder of five members of the Royal Air Force and twenty Maharatta riflemen whose Dakota transport aircraft crash landed near the village.

sumber Imperial war musseum

 

 

 

 

March,14th.1946

 

uncommon without Republic ovpt

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Look the closed up

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The extreme rare west Sumatra  red RepInd Overprint

Only one ever report in the worldcompare with uncommon black overprint below

 

 

 

 

 

uncommon black overprint

 

 

 

 

Buy corn for poor people

 

Rare pati revenue

 

 

 

 

On 14th of March

the final rounds of Indonesian-Dutch negotiations finally brought the two sides into final agreement in the resort of Linggadjati.

The de facto authority of the Republic if Indonesia over Java, Madura and Sumatra was recognized, and the governments of the Repulic and the Netherlands agreed to cooperate in the establishment of “a sovereign democratic state on the basis of a federation called the United States of Indonesia.

Once again the devil was in the details, since the Indonesian inclusion of word “sovereign” had effectively undermined the earlier Dutch proposal of a Netherlands-Indonesian Union headed by the Queen of the Netherlands.

The agreement was initialled on the same day, but remained subject to ratification by Republican parliament. On a wider scale it was clear that the military situation in the region was deteriorating, with Indonesian and Dutch politicians finding it hard to control their armed forces and commanders in the field as the British troops were being pulled out.


Tan Malaka was temporarily outmanouvred by strong-hand tactics of Sukarno, but he was still far too popular political figure to just disappear without a trace, and was merely temporarily imprisoned.

Within the Republic, the government hastily started to promote the merits of the agreement. Hatta described it as a springboard for the next phase in the campaign to create a sovereign Indonesian republic that would control the entire Dutch East Indies.

This failed to dampen all opposition, but Sukarno soon went ahead and promptly ordered Tan Malaka and other top leaders of the Unified Front to be arrested and simultaneously extented the parliamentary representation of the Republic to include all areas of NEI by immediately appointing new temporary governors for Borneo and the Great East. In practice and as a sign of things to come, these new representatives were all residents of Java and strong supporters of Sukarno.

The result was an assured pro-agreement majority and a clear signal that Sukarno would be both willing to play rough, and that he would not be content with a final agreement confining the Republic on Java and Sumarta. Both parties signed the basic terms of the Linggadjati Agreement on 25th of March 1946, three days after the official end of WWII.

Yet even before this the Dutch exiles had been doing the best they could to give them some kind of an alternative power base in NEI after the peace in Europe had left them effectively without homeland and future. In practice they had taken steps to create other “states” to act as counterweights to the Republic within the proposed USI.

 But while the Dutch navy continued to blockade the ports of the Republic and KNIL sought to bolster its ranks by any means necessary, van Mook was quick to take contact to Sjahrir and propose that the next step in implementing the Linggadjati Agreement would be the formation of an interim federal government, including representatives from the Republic, other “Indonesian states” and from the crown.

 A Council of Foreign Affairs would be constructed on a similar manner, and a Directorate of Internal Security would have to be set up so that a new joint Indonesian-Dutch gendarmerie could start to maintain law and order across the Indonesian archipelago.

In this situation the Dutch government-in-exile theoretized that they currently had four possible courses of action.
1.) Implement the agreement in full by conceding total control of Java, Sumatra and Madura to the nationalists.
2.) Try to persuade the the Republican government that a United States of Indonesia would best fulfil their nationalist aims.
3.) The third promoted option, use of armed force to crush the Republic, was quickly ruled out as military unfeasible and politically suicidal.


4.) and the final option was to surrender the entire problem for outside settlement before an outbreak of full-scale civil war. Even though the first option represented major political and military “defeat” and was still unacceptable to conservative members of the government, it was soon concluded that the second option was equally unlikely to find any real support among Republican leadership and that the Dutch simply lacked power to implement the third.


Republican armed forces were steadily gaining strength, while the Dutch government was increasingly hard-pressed to provide supplies and funding for KNIL.

Luckily for the Dutch, the American response to the ongoing crisis in the Dutch East Indies changed dramatically after the Zürich Accord was signed.

 Faced with the possibility of an all-out war and total breakup of Netherland East Indies, the Americans abandoned their policy of neutrality in the dispute as a part of the postwar foreign policy reform initiated by President Truman.

 On a wider scale traditional US anticolonianism was now tempered and modified by new-found desire to defend and promote the American core values of free markets, democracy and individualism through the globe outside the new German sphere of interest.

 In this respect it is understandable that the officials of State Department regarded that the Linggadjati Agreement was a godsent – a negotiated settlement between a former colonial power and an indigenous independence movement – and the Americans were keen to make it work in practice as well.

In concert with London they demanded modifications to the agreement to make the details more acceptable for Republic, and most importantly offered financial aid to assist Indonesia’s economic rehabilitation.

The State Department was thus more or less forcing the hand of the Dutch exiles. British government, in turn, was quick to state that they were more than willing to act as a neutral arbiter in the situation and made and offer of good offices to both parties. Based on this the UN Comittee of Good Offices (UNCGO) was organized within the recently established new world organization to settle the Indonesian question.

Each party in the conflict nominated one member and these two nominated the third. The Dutch nominated Belgium (Belgian government-in-exile to be more precise), the Republic nominated Australia and these two then brought in the USA.

For Indonesian nationalists this high-profile diplomacy provided further boost to their profile and local prestige. The Republic was recognized as a party to the international dispute among the former Allies in the UN, and its representatives led by Sjahrir represented their state in the ensuing debates. The only drawback for them was the fact that representatives from Dutch-propped Indonesian state of South Moluccas were also brought in.

The UNCGO arrived on Jakarta on May 1946, after a further Security Council resolution bolstered the official ceasefire that had been declared between KNIL and Indonesian armed factions as a part of Linggadjati Agreement,

but had since then been broken several times on local by both sides. Soon it was agreed that the following negotiations should take place at a neutral venue, and USS Renville soon sailed to the region from Okinawa. Led by Frank Porter Graham, UNCGO devised a new set of proposals

and increased State Department frustration to the unrealistic attitudes of Dutch government made the US to wield a big stick: in “strong informal representations” on the Dutch Embassy in Washington it was made clear that unless Graham’s proposals and political program would be accepted and implemented in full, the promised economic help for Dutch government would never materialize.

 

 

Kenyataan ini memperkuat tekad sumitro hadikusumo  untuk melawan Belanda dalam mempertahankan proklamasi kemerdekaan RI. Bersama Perdana Menteri Sutan Sjahrir, Sumitro dan Zairin pada 14 Maret 1946 menyusun argumentasi baru untuk menghadapi diplomasi Belanda.

(sumitro)

March,16th.1946

 

The complete  document with wage(loon or Oepah) Tax  with overprint repoeblik indonesia on dai nippon and dutch wage tax.

and unused Wade Tax Dai Nippon with rep.Indonesia overprin(may be fake overprint  becaus ethis revenue never overprint,please comment)

 

 

 

Unused typemachine overprint Republik Indonesia on Dai Nipponwage revenue

After this NRI Java issued meterai oepah(wage salary revenue),

 

 I only have the unussued collection which not known when the first used and what area,may be in 1946 or 1947,who have the used on document please contact me via my web blog

Hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

-Dr Iwan Note

March 17th.1946

On 17 March 1946,Tan Malaka and other struggle leaders were arrested – according to recent Indonesian writing  – by Republican forces on the orders of Sukarno. In the same month, the local chairman of the communist party (PKI) was also arrested.

Sjahrir and Sjarifuddin pull their followers out of Persatuan Perjuangan, arrest Tan Malaka and others.

 Tan Malaka is held in jail until September 1948.

Sjahrir secretly agrees with Dutch to negotiate for Republican control of Java, Madura and Sumatra only, in a political union with the Netherlands, Curaçao and Surinam.

 


Amir Sjarifuddin had been involved in the movements for Indonesian independence since the late 1930s.

During World War II, he led a small underground resistance against the Japanese occupation. He served with Sutan Sjahrir in several early governments of the Republic.

Just before the “Madiun incident” of September 1948, he revealed that he had been a secret member of the PKI for some time.

After the failed Communist revolt at Madiun, he was captured and executed by the military

 

March,19th.1946

The Dai Nippon  Malang Hyakkarten form use for recieved money  with NRI revenue -,15 cent.

 

March,25th.1946

The Bandoeng Information(ibid winkler,1948)

Before this happened (March 25, 1946) was terrorisiten the said part of the city on fire and then leave. Zeer together long restoring the city is now of the damage. The Laboratoria and collections with the Technisce University communicate, were for the most part on damage to his left and education warded modestly resumed the gebeek to arbeidakrachten and the still uncertain relationships restrict economic activity, textile companies are again run, and some other bedrijjes 9rubberwaren, paraffin candles). The small manufacturing plant raises her relapse. Overall they work to restore the meaning of the houses, which she thanks to its convenient location and climate had acquired the Geode will recover (DR O.kuperus)

 

 

Original info in dutch language

Voor dit gebeurde(25 maart 1946) werd door terrorisiten het genocmde gedeelte van de stad in brand gestoken en daarna verlaten. Zdeer langsaam herstelt de stad zich thans van de toegebrachte schade. De Laboratotia en verzamelingen die met de Technisce Hogeschool in verbinding staan,bleken voor het merendeel on beschadigd  te zijn gebleven en het onderwijs weerd op bescheiden schaal hervat, het gebeek aan arbeidakrachten en de nog steeds onzekere verhoudingen beperken de economische activiteit, textielbedrijven zijn weer in werking gesteld , evenals enkele andere bedrijjes 9rubberwaren,paraffinekaarsen). De kleinefabriek heft haar productie herval. Overall werkt men aan het herstel der huizen betekenis,die ze dank zij haar gunstige ligging en het geode klimaat had verkregen zal herwinnen(DR O.kuperus)

March,26th.1946

The recieved  of  koedoes and salatiga Study Fund from donatur  by IPI-ikatan peladjar Indonesia(Indonesia student association) with official choped on Rep.Indonesia revenue  -.15 sen

 

 

March,27th.1946

(a)The dai nippon Letter revenue(kertas meterai) 2604 padjak-segel used on  march,27th.1946

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) Aceh kutaradja newspaper:”Semangat Merdeka” with some info

(a) Presiden and Vice President may be Visit Sumatra.

 

(b) The Indonesian Youngman with”Gemas” against English at Bandoeng

According to British news we heard last night said that Bandoeng had been occupied by the British. He said the action was carried out on the orders of supreme leader to mewnghentikan combustion (for re-enforce the Dutch colonization) are not useful and mortars firing on British troops and the former Allied Prisoners of War and internees (acting as kkai hand NICA). Action was achieved in 1 day and before the movement started by British forces, about 2 hours continuously England gave to the armed threat to leave the area or submit senjatanya.Beribu-thousand letters Distribution (phmaflet) deployed in the area south Bandoeng and loudspeakers every hour to deliver the threat. TRI that have the discipline to tell that they would leave the south, large segrombolan tertapi armed youths explained that they will not leave the place tersebut.Pemuda was originally intended to do the burning of houses and banguna stau night before the British troops advanced, but kemarisn said that the next news they get away, residents lose home-banyakibanyak tangga.Dilaporkan that the extrimis destroy 20% of the building, local leaders are not under orders to stay regular duties sepewrti (DR Iwan Note, these events are written lagus struggle memebrikan inspiration in Bandung, such as South Bandung, Hello-Hallo Bandung Bandung and write the South Lake of Fire)

 

 

original uinfo

Menurut berita Inggeris yang kita dengar tadi malam mengatakan bahwa Bandoeng telah diduduki oleh Inggris.

Katanya  tindakan itu dilakukan  atas perintah Pimpinan tertinggi untuk mewnghentikan pembakaran(untuk menegakkan  penjajahan Belanda kembali) yang tidak berguna dan penembakan mortir  atas pasukan Inggris dan bekas  Tawanan Perang Sekutu dan Interniran(bertindak sebagai kkai tangan NICA).

Tindakan itu tercapai  dalam 1 hari dan sebelum gerakan dimulai oleh pasukan Inggris,sekitar 2 hari  terus-menerus Inggris  memberikan ancaman kepada  kaum yang bersenjata supaya meninggalkan daerah tersebut atau menyerahkan senjatanya.

Beribu-ribu surat  Sebaran(phmaflet) disebarkan  didaerah selatan Bandoeng dan  pengeras suara setiap jam untuk  memberikan ancaman.

TRI yang  mempunyai tata tertib memberitahukan  bahwa mereka  akan meninggalkan daerah selatan, tertapi  segrombolan besar pemuda  yang bersenjata lengkap menerangkan,bahwa mereka tidak akan meninggalkan tempat tersebut.Pemuda tersebut semula berniat  melakukan pembakaran terhadap rumah-rumah  dan banguna stau malam sebelum pasukan Inggris maju,tetapi  kemarisn kata  berita itu 

selanjutnya mereka menyingkir diri,banyakibanyak penduduk kehilangan rumah-tangga.Dilaporkan bahwa  kaum extrimis  membinasakan 20% dari bangunan,pemimpin daerah tidak menurut perintah  untuk tetap tinggal menjalankan tugas sepewrti biasa(DR Iwan Note,

kejadian ini memebrikan inpirasi ditulisnya lagus perjuangan di bandung,seperti

 

 Bandung Selatan,Halo-Hallo Bandung dan tulis Bandung Selatan Lautan Api)

 

Read more

March,23th.1946

Candung Lautan Api

Sumber Wiki

Bandung Lautan Api

Bagian dari Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia

 

Tanggal

23 Maret 1946

Lokasi

Bandung

Hasil

Tentara Rakyat Indonesia mundur dari Bandung

Pihak yang terlibat

Indonesia

Inggris

Komandan

Muhammad Toha

Brigadir MacDonald

Peristiwa Bandung Lautan Api adalah peristiwa kebakaran besar yang terjadi di kota Bandung, provinsi Jawa Barat, Indonesia pada 24 Maret 1946. Dalam waktu tujuh jam, sekitar 200.000 penduduk Bandung[1] membakar rumah mereka, meninggalkan kota menuju pegunungan di daerah selatan Bandung. Hal ini dilakukan untuk mencegah tentara Sekutu dan tentara NICA Belanda untuk dapat menggunakan kota Bandung sebagai markas strategis militer dalam Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia.

Latar belakang

Pasukan Inggris bagian dari Brigade MacDonald tiba di Bandung pada tanggal 12 Oktober 1945. Sejak semula hubungan mereka dengan pemerintah RI sudah tegang. Mereka menuntut agar semua senjata api yang ada di tangan penduduk, kecuali TKR dan polisi, diserahkan kepada mereka. Orang-orang Belanda yang baru dibebaskan dari kamp tawanan mulai melakukan tindakan-tindakan yang mulai mengganggu keamanan. Akibatnya, bentrokan bersenjata antara Inggris dan TKR tidak dapat dihindari. Malam tanggal 24 November 1945, TKR dan badan-badan perjuangan melancarkan serangan terhadap kedudukan-kedudukan Inggris di bagian utara, termasuk Hotel Homann dan Hotel Preanger yang mereka gunakan sebagai markas. Tiga hari kemudian, MacDonald menyampaikan ultimatum kepada Gubernur Jawa Barat agar Bandung Utara dikosongkan oleh penduduk Indonesia, termasuk pasukan bersenjata.

 

 

Monumen Bandung lautan api

Ultimatum Tentara Sekutu agar Tentara Republik Indonesia (TRI, TNI kala itu) meninggalkan kota Bandung mendorong TRI untuk melakukan operasi “bumihangus“. Para pejuang pihak Republik Indonesia tidak rela bila Kota Bandung dimanfaatkan oleh pihak Sekutu dan NICA. Keputusan untuk membumihanguskan Bandung diambil melalui musyawarah Madjelis Persatoean Perdjoangan Priangan (MP3) di hadapan semua kekuatan perjuangan pihak Republik Indonesia, pada tanggal 24 Maret 1946[2]. Kolonel Abdoel Haris Nasoetion selaku Komandan Divisi III TRI mengumumkan hasil musyawarah tersebut dan memerintahkan evakuasi Kota Bandung.[rujukan?] Hari itu juga, rombongan besar penduduk Bandung mengalir panjang meninggalkan kota Bandung dan malam itu pembakaran kota berlangsung.

Bandung sengaja dibakar oleh TRI dan rakyat setempat dengan maksud agar Sekutu tidak dapat menggunakan Bandung sebagai markas strategis militer. Di mana-mana asap hitam mengepul membubung tinggi di udara dan semua listrik mati. Tentara Inggris mulai menyerang sehingga pertempuran sengit terjadi. Pertempuran yang paling besar terjadi di Desa Dayeuhkolot, sebelah selatan Bandung, di mana terdapat gudang amunisi besar milik Tentara Sekutu. Dalam pertempuran ini Muhammad Toha dan Ramdan, dua anggota milisi BRI (Barisan Rakjat Indonesia) terjun dalam misi untuk menghancurkan gudang amunisi tersebut. Muhammad Toha berhasil meledakkan gudang tersebut dengan dinamit. Gudang besar itu meledak dan terbakar bersama kedua milisi tersebut di dalamnya. Staf pemerintahan kota Bandung pada mulanya akan tetap tinggal di dalam kota, tetapi demi keselamatan mereka, maka pada pukul 21.00 itu juga ikut dalam rombongan yang mengevakuasi dari Bandung. Sejak saat itu, kurang lebih pukul 24.00 Bandung Selatan telah kosong dari penduduk dan TRI. Tetapi api masih membubung membakar kota, sehingga Bandung pun menjadi lautan api.

Pembumihangusan Bandung tersebut dianggap merupakan strategi yang tepat dalam Perang Kemerdekaan Indonesia karena kekuatan TRI dan milisi rakyat tidak sebanding dengan kekuatan pihak Sekutu dan NICA yang berjumlah besar. Setelah peristiwa tersebut, TRI bersama milisi rakyat melakukan perlawanan secara gerilya dari luar Bandung. Peristiwa ini mengilhami lagu Halo, Halo Bandung yang nama penciptanya masih menjadi bahan perdebatan.

Beberapa tahun kemudian, lagu “Halo, Halo Bandung” secara resmi ditulis, menjadi kenangan akan emosi yang para pejuang kemerdekaan Republik Indonesia alami saat itu, menunggu untuk kembali ke kota tercinta mereka yang telah menjadi lautan api.

[sunting] Asal istilah

Istilah Bandung Lautan Api menjadi istilah yang terkenal setelah peristiwa pembumihangusan tersebut. Jenderal A.H Nasution adalah Jenderal TRI yang dalam pertemuan di Regentsweg (sekarang Jalan Dewi Sartika), setelah kembali dari pertemuannya dengan Sutan Sjahrir di Jakarta, memutuskan strategi yang akan dilakukan terhadap Kota Bandung setelah menerima ultimatum Inggris tersebut.

 

“Jadi saya kembali dari Jakarta, setelah bicara dengan Sjahrir itu. Memang dalam pembicaraan itu di Regentsweg, di pertemuan itu, berbicaralah semua orang. Nah, disitu timbul pendapat dari Rukana, Komandan Polisi Militer di Bandung. Dia berpendapat, “Mari kita bikin Bandung Selatan menjadi lautan api.” Yang dia sebut lautan api, tetapi sebenarnya lautan air.” – A.H Nasution, 1 Mei 1997

Istilah Bandung Lautan Api muncul pula di harian Suara Merdeka tanggal 26 Maret 1946. Seorang wartawan muda saat itu, yaitu Atje Bastaman, menyaksikan pemandangan pembakaran Bandung dari bukit Gunung Leutik di sekitar Pameungpeuk, Garut. Dari puncak itu Atje Bastaman melihat Bandung yang memerah dari Cicadas sampai dengan Cimindi.

Setelah tiba di Tasikmalaya, Atje Bastaman dengan bersemangat segera menulis berita dan memberi judul “Bandoeng Djadi Laoetan Api”. Namun karena kurangnya ruang untuk tulisan judulnya, maka judul berita diperpendek menjadi “Bandoeng Laoetan Api”.

[sunting] Referensi

  1. 1.       ^ http://nationalgeographic.co.id/
  2. 2.       ^ Bandung Lautan Api

 

 

 

 

 

April 1946

the native Wayang repoblik calender April 1946,with the history of NRI  august until october 1945, and  Rabindranath Tagore phillosopny and Arabindo Ghose phillosophy.

 

APRIL 1946

By April 1946, the struggle of the people in the town of Padang and Surrounding areas Increased in the presence of NICA oppose a free ride with the Allied forces, WHO were the resource persons going to charge for the settlement of Japanese prisoners of war. Since the city of Padang and Surrounding areas into the arena of struggle or an arena of clashes the between fighters of the Republic of Indonesia with Allied / Dutch, of course Police act to protect the freedom fighters, even though Their actions in terms of security can not be justified in a world of peace. These experiences are also complicated to determine the agreement the between the National Police with the young fighter / BKR (Called the Dutch as “Extremist”) in determining the authority and responsibility for security in urban areas.

. December 27, 1949, the day of delivery of Dutch Sovereignty to the RIS (United States of Indonesia) was held in Padang city government delivery of Resident HTB (“Hoofd Tijdelijk Bestuur”) Van Straten to the governor of Central Sumatra, Mr. M. Nasroen.

On 17-8-1950 the RIS Officially disbanded and returned the Republic of Indonesia as a unitary state in the archipelago. Padang city police WHO Had been with the RIS police personnel status of the Dutch and the “cooperator” was again held a leadership mutation. To replace the positions left by “Dutchmen” was, was appointed by the Government of Indonesia is an Indonesian citizen police Republicans. In this case Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue (the Commissioner of Police I) Had been named Chief of Police City of Padang and Surrounding areas in order to form the structure and placement of personnel in accordance with Police Organizations of the Republic of Indonesia (Padang, June 1945).

April,1st.1946

The document of recieved money for buying one bicycle without mark with Revenue black small -,15 sen .

 

The rare NRI overprint the white of hinomaru became red-white with handwritten 17.8.45 on Dai Nippon Palembang Tjokin kyoky _ Postal saving book,the first saving 1-4.46

Front cover

 

Inside postal saving book

 

Thr label of NRI posal saving only from 1-4.46 until 2-5.46 The NRI only had power in Palembang Post Office almost one month only.

April,4th.1946


the error printing repoeblik Indonesia revenue, Off center and the  Repoeblik became at below of the revenue. compare with te normal printing revenue,

 

and the unsued  one full sheet f 0,15 sen revenue(not many used because the devaluation the rare  up,and still found unused in full and half sheet )

 

 

also the other error printing

 

(a) Rare error NRI Sumatra revenue missing “rai of meterai “became meter

 

 

April,8th,1946

(a)The recieved of House rent document ,by the Repoeblic Indonesia  Magelang Housing Office with official chope on NRI revenue -,15.cent.

(b) The recieved of NRI Phone office with NRI revenue -,15 blod type,this was the emergency homemade form.

(c) The letter fragment of small rep.Indonesia overprint on Dai Nipoon sumatra definitive 40 cent stamp used CDS Boekitinggi Indonesia 8.4.46(rare)

 

April ,9th.1946.

 

there was only one Indonesian 

People security power holding a multi-engine pilot license from the pre-war Dutch Flying School (but did not have an opportunity to fly during the 3.5-year Japanese occupation).

 He was assisted by a few Japanese pilots who decided to stay in the newly born country. The new roundel was created simply by painting white on the lower part of the Japanese Hinomaru, reflecting the red and white of the Indonesian flag. The People’s Security Force was then re-organized to form a formal armed force. This marked the birth of the Indonesian Air Force

on April 9, 1946.

(1)Indonesian Air Force (TNI-AU) is founded, with limited former Japanese small aircraft.King of Bone and the local Republican government are arrested by Dutch forces on Sulawesi.Dutch forces replace the British in Bandung. “Bandung Lautan Api”: Indonesians start to burn down the city rather than surrender it to the Dutch. Much of the southern part of Bandung is burned.Barisan Banteng rules Surakarta in defiance of the Sjahrir government.

 

 

 

 

April,9th.1946

very rare first palembang republic overprint RI in box on dai nippon occupation palembang and sumatra DN definitif stamp,used on PP 2 pospakket card send cds palembang to Pagaralam.

 

v.esbensen catalogue,this  handstamped overptint Palembang issues type 52, five different types are known,approximately 12 genuinely used entires exist of all types put together,look the catalogue book illustration below

 

Londen 12 April 1946

British and Dutch government leaders discuss Indonesia
Archibald Kerr, Hubertus van Mook, Dr. J.H.A. Logemann,
Prof. Ir. W. Schermerhorn, PM Clement Attlee

April ,14th.1946.

Dutch and Indonesian representatives begin talks at Hoge Veluwe in the Netherlands. The talks are unsuccessful

 

 

14 April 1946

Dutch and Indonesian representatives begin talks at
Hoge Veluwe in the Netherlands. The talks are unsuccessful.

April,16th.1946

 

Mr Amir Sjarifuddin  the minestry Of defense NRI visist Sumatra Govenor mr Teukue Mohammad hasan

April,17th.1946

One day before the opening session of the Council of Representatives of Sumatra on 17 April 1946, taken a decision to divide daderah administration in three baagin namely North Sumatra, Sumatra, central and southern Sumatra, each led by a Governor Young. As a result of the conference decision, the Governor of Sumatra lifted Dr.Adnan Kapau Gani (Resident of Palembang) became Governor of South Sumatra Young, which include the residency of Palembang, Lampung, Bengkulu and bangka_Belitung. Then appointed Dr. M. Djamil (Resident of West Sumatra) was governor of Central Sumatra Young, which include the residency of western Sumatra, Riau and Djambi. In this kjaitan, Mr. Hermani, Governor Roving conjunct the interior minister, during a visit to Sumatra, along with Information Minister Mr. Amir Sjarifuddin in the month of April 1946, proposed to the governor to lift TTDaudyah Sumatra (Aceh resident) became Governor of North Sumatra Young, but one staff governor of Sumatra menginggatkan that TTDaudsyah is a son of Aceh and Sumatra as well as with the governor, so from a psychological view of both these officials come from one area of ​​residency, because we desire and aim toward the Indonesian national, then we should appoint a untu North Sumatran Governor Young, who qualified third psychological residencies that include North Sumatra. In regard to the governors of Sumatra Staff proposes to raise Mr.SMAmin, head of the Bureau of Justice residency of Aceh, North Sumatra Governor Young, since he was the son of a teacher from Mandailing (residency Tapanuli) was born in Raba Krueng Aceh Besar, married with a daughter Aceh.tinggal and work in Aceh and have the family in the Residency of East Sumatra, he summarily duikenal people in the Sumatran Utara.Stelah memepertimbangkan proposal, Sumatra Governor decided to appoint Mr. Young SMAmin became Governor of North Sumatra

Original Info

(sumber:  Mr Teuku Mohammad Hassan,1986)

Satu hari sebelum  dibuka sidang Dewan Perwakilan Rakyat Sumatra

pada tanggal 17 April 1946,

diambil suatu keputusan untuk membagi daderah administrasi pemerintahan dalam tiga baagin yaitu Sumatera Utara,Sumatera tengah dan sumatera Selatan , masing-masing dibawah pimpinan seorang Gubernur Muda.

Sebagai akibat keputusan konperensi tersebut, Gubernur Sumatera mengangkat Dr.Adnan kapau gani (Residen Palembang) menjadi Gubernur Muda Sumatera Selatan,yang meliputi Keresidenan Palembang,Lampung,Bengkulu dan bangka_Belitung.

 Kemudian diangkat dr M.Djamil (Residen sumatera Barat) menjadi Gubernur Muda Sumatera Tengah,yang meliputi  Keresidenan Sumatera barat,Riau dan Djambi.

Dalam kjaitan ini, Mr Hermani,Gubernur Keliling diperbantukan pada menteri dalam negeri, dalam kunjungan ke Sumatera bersama Menteri Penerangan Mr Amir Sjarifuddin dalam bulan april 1946,mengusulkan kepada gubernur sumatra supaya mengangkat T.T.Daudyah(Residen Aceh) menjadi Gubernur Muda Sumatera Utara, akan tetapi salah seorang staf Gubernur Sumatra menginggatkan bahwa T.T.Daudsyah adalah seorang putera Aceh,dan demikian pula dengan gubernur sumatra, jadi dari pandangan psikologis kedua pejabat ini berasal dari satu daerah keresidenan,oleh karena kita berhasrat dan bertujuan ke arah nasional Indonesia,maka kita harus mengangkat seorang Gubernur Muda untuk sumatera Utara,yang memenuhi syarat psikologis ketiga keresidenan yang meliputi Sumatera Utara.

 Dalam kaitan itu Staf gubernur Sumatera tersebut mengusulkan supaya mengangkat Mr.S.M.Amin ,kepala Jawatan Kehakiman Keresidenan Aceh,menjadi Gubernur Muda Sumatera Utara, berhubung beliau adalah putera seorang guru dari Mandailing(keresidenan Tapanuli) lahir di Krueng Raba Aceh Besar,kawin dengan seorang puteri Aceh.tinggal dan bekerja di aceh dan mempunyai kaum keluarga di Keresidenan Sumatera Timur,ringkasnya beliau duikenal orang di sumatera Utara.

Setelah memepertimbangkan usul tersebut,Gubernur Sumatera memutuskan mengangkat Mr S.M.Amin menjadi Gubernur Muda sumatera Utara.

 

Ilustrasi dari buku, rombongan perwira Polisi NRI bersama Gubernur Sumatera Mr  Teuku Mhd Hasan dalam suatu kunjungan

(1) Komisaris Roestam Effendi.(2) Kepla intel (3) Komisaris  Elisa siregar(Kepala Polisis Lahuhan batu)(4) Mr Teuku Mohammad hasan Gubernur Sumatera

 

 

 

April,21th.1946

the earliest Used Overprint repoeblik Indonesia on Handelzegel(traderevenue)  2x f1.50 on complete document

April,25th.1946

Th rare post mark Bantoelah Pindjaman Nasional 1946(National o9bligation) on  prive chinese overseas card sent from moentilan to koedoes with Dai Nippon Java stamp  10 cent,

also look the two document relation with national obligations:

(a)  the other National fund 1946 postmark on Dai Nippon karbouw 3 1/2 cen postal stationer with PTT repoeblik Indonesia postmark,the stamp off,

(b)the form for buying the National fund obligation 1946

(c) The National fund obligation 1946 with interaest 4 % per years.

 

The John served as an MT Driver, with the 1st Battalion, The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment.at Palembang

Some pictures on this page include Japanese soldiers. According to John, British Troops were sent in to Sumatra with orders to disarm the Japanese, but it was soon evident the Japanese were not at all keen to agree. Disarming them was not possible, but they reluctantly agreed to taking orders from the British, whilst keeping up the appearance of governing the majority of the Country themselves.

 

Moesi river Palembnag sketch 1946

 

Lord Louis Mountbatten inspect the guard of Honour of the 1st Battaliom at Palembang sumatra in Aprilm25th.1946

 

the 1st Battalion, The Royal Lincolnshire Regiment.at Talang betutu Palembang Airfield

April.27th.1946

Postally used cover with Repoblik Dai nipppoon local sumatra definitive stamp 40 sen without overprint send from CDS padang to Bukittinggi.

April,28th.1946

 

Jendral Soedirman  inspection the  Japanese prisoner of war which collected at Malang.

 

May 1946

The PTT Batavia (AMACAB) Alliede Military Aministration Civil Affair Branch CDS on Nica USA wihelmina stamp PTT Batvia- C ,off cover collections(repair Postmark.(rare amacab postmark)

and look the illustration of Amacab Bandoeng officila handcpode on small book.

 

The native NRI calender May 1946 design wayang with NRI revolution info Nov 1945 with Jules Harmand and Thucijadides phylosophy.

 

The Vintage Book ‘s Illustration Of Gouvenur Sumatra T.M.Hassan  and Resident South sumatra Dr Mah.Isa when the gouvenor visit South sumatra.

 

the picture of  Sumatra NRI national Police ,Commisaris Roestam effendi and commisaris Elias Siregar ,chief police intel Labuhan Batu) with Guvernor sumatra Mr Teuku Mohammad Hassan during visit Labuhan batu,east sumatra .

.

 

the picture of Banteng(bull) republic,the people lasjkar

 

b. Barisan SPECIAL POLICE

 

F.L. TOBING

Top of Form

1). Tapanuli Residency Government Leader Dr  FL Tobing taken  Decision to form a special sequence  Police after  seen remarkable development of the Special Police Forces Balige and insistence INDONESIA NATIONAL COMMITTEE.

Resident Tapanuli Government at tarutung  ordered to move the Police Special Forces under the leadership of MAS KADIRAN  from Balige to Tarutung and handed over to the  Toba Police Sihombing Sarif.

2) Special Police Forces moved to the capital in Tarutung Tapanuli with the task of enforcing the law and maintaining security and ensure the safety of the entire residency Tapanuli, based on the decision of Mr Resident FL Tobing Tapanuli “POLICE SPECIAL FORCES” and changed its name to
“POLICE Khuus Tapanuli residency”.

3). By changing the name of “SPECIAL FORCES POLICE” to “POLICE SPECIALROWS” scope and greater strength then MAS KADIRAN want to add strength and weapons and demolition plan

Soon Mas KADIRAN execute talks with Japanese Army Chief in Tarutung, Sibolga, Padang Sisempuan  and  Kotanopan city . Regarding submission of Weapons and Ammunition

 From the results of these negotiations MAS KADIRAN received weapons from the Japanese army in the form of eight shoots Machine Gun Bren MK-II, Aircraft Machine Gun Shooter 2 shoots and ammunition of various types of weapons and 8 Peti 100 bags

4). With increasing Weapons and ammunition Japanese Army then MAS KADIRAN add 100 Members

5) Taken away from former Japanese soldiers, GYOGUN, HEIHO and Youth-Youth from across the region in the Residency Tapanuli up to 350 people with Organic arrangement consists of three parts Rifle 180 people, and Members of the Procurement section 40. 1 Armament chapter 15, and Section of Health 15.
visible image when the vice president visited the High Cliff Moh.Hatta eastern Sumatra.

c. SOCIAL REVOLUTION IN Tapanuli

1). The existence of the elements of the Regional Security Pengacau Tapanuli calling itself “The Warriors” of eastern Sumatra comprising Ft RATE, INTEREST RATE Tapanuli Aceh and led by ARIFIN Nainggolan with his friends in order to catch the leader (KING) in the entire Tapanuli,

With the advent of Social Revolutionary Movement of East Sumatra, the Resident FL Tobing Tapanuli MEMRINTAHKAN AGAR Leadership Special Police stopped and held back by MAS KADIRAN

2) Social Movements and Revolutionary Sidikalang Samosir.

After receiving orders from Redien Tapanuli, the MAS KADIRAN berkoordinasikan the Brigade Commander XI Tapanuli south Regiment – III TRI, Lieutenant Colonel Jansen Siahaan,

 In coordination, agreed to cooperate in the suppression of what SOCIAL REVOLUTION MOVEMENT called East Sumatra.

3). On the appointed day XI TRI Regiment – Third Brigade Tapanuli south, Lieutenant-Colonel and Chief Jansen Siahaan SPECIAL POLICE Mas Kadiran move towards Pangururan through Dolok bun and TELE.

Arriving at Pangururan, TRI-III Force Regiment and the Brigade XI SPECIAL POLICE Barisan residency Tapanuli happen shootout (shoot shoot) with PEOPLE Warriors will make the Social Revolution in Tapanuli.

 In this battle Pangururan City didududki and EVERYONE can be disabled and the leader of Laskar Alimin Nainggolan can be captured and become prisoners transported to Balige with arms and ammunition.

4). after destroying Social Revolution in Samosir the TRI and BIP move towards Sidikalang to extinguish the Social Revolutionary Movement in Tapanuli to the border region between Tapanuli and Aceh,

 After more than two months in charge at the Dairi Dairi TRI Head of Government – I Regiment Brigade XI and negotiations with the Barisan doing this SPECIAL POLICE CHIEF CHIEF CHIEF-ADAT and party negotiations can be agreed that the Social Revolution in stop and never happen again.

So TRI and BIP can restore and recover the Dairi and Regional Security in the vicinity.

5) In the BIP and TRI served in Dairi, Tarutung arrest of Tapanuli residency heads and staff and maintained in the cost Balige as an accomplice to the Netherlands with “FRONT Tarutung Volk” and be taken to court Siantar East Sumatra.

In order to enforce the law and restore the authority of the police. MAS KADIRAN take steps to conduct negotiations between the Republic of Indonesia to the Chairman of the People, and the FRONT PARTY CHAIRMAN Pesindo,

 The result of the negotiations held in mind that according to the review by the Head of Legal Tarutung no evidence PolisiKeresidenan Tapanuli as Hand Foot Foot Netherlands Tapanuli and finally police chief. Police Residency Tapanuli M. Nurdin and his staff were released and returned to duty in Tarutung.

d. SPECIAL POLICE row Move To Sibolga

Because state Politis, Tapanuli headquarters moved to Sibolga, then the order of the Resident Tapanuli Dr FL Tobing, The Army and SPECIAL pollicis Tapanuli Kereresidenan transferred to Sibolga in mid-May 1946 and MAS KADIRAN build a dormitory for the members of Barisan SPECIAL POLICE in Sibolga

Original Info

Top of Form

b. Barisan Pilisi KHUSUS


1). Pemerintah
 Keresidenan  Tapanuli Pemimpin Dr F.L. Tobing

 mengamambil. Keputusan  membentuk Barisan Khusus Kepolidsian melihat perkembangan yang luar biasa dari  Pasukan  Polisi  Khusus Balige  dan desakan INDONESIA KOMITE NASIONAL.

 

Residen Taoanuli  memerintahkan  Pemerintah  Tarutung di Tapanuli  untuk memindahkan  Polisi Pasukan Khusus  dibawah pemimpinan MAS KADIRAN dari  Balige  ke  Tarutung dan diserahkan kepada Polisi Toba Sihombing Sarif.

2) Pasukan Polisi Khusus pindah ke ibukota Tapanuli di Tarutung dengan tugas menegakkan hukum dan menjaga keamanan dan menjamin keamanan seluruh  keresidenan Tapanuli , berdasarkan keputusan dari Mr Resident FL Tobing Tapanuli “PASUKAN KHUSUS POLISI” dan mengubah namanya menjadi

” POLISI  Khuus Keresidenan Tapanuli  “.


3). Dengan mengubah nama “PASUKAN KHUSUS POLISI” untuk “POLISI Barisan KHUSUS” lingkup dan kekuatan yang lebih besar maka MAS KADIRAN ingin menambah kekuatan dan senjata dan
merencanakan pembongkaran

 

Segera  Mas KADIRAN  melaksanakan  pembicaraan dengan Kepala Angkatan Darat Jepang di  Tarutung, Sibolga , Padang Sidempuan dan Kota Nopan. Mengenai penyerahan Senjata dan Amunisi

 

 Dari hasil  negosiasi tersebut MAS KADIRAN menerima senjata dari tentara Jepang dalam bentuk delapan pucuk Bren Machine Gun MK-II, Pesawat Machine Gun Shooter 2 pucuk dan amunisi dari berbagai jenis senjata 100 karung dan 8 Peti


4). Dengan meningkatnya Senjata dan amunisi Angkatan Darat Jepang kemudian MAS KADIRAN menambah 100 Anggota


5)
Diambil  lagi dari mantan tentara Jepang , GYOGUN, HEIHO dan Pemuda-Pemuda dari seluruh wilayah di  Keresidenan Tapanuli  hingga 350 orang dengan pengaturan Organik terdiri dari tiga bagian Rifle 180 orang, Pengadaan seksi dan Anggota 40 orang. 1 Persenjataan pasal 15, dan Bagian Kesehatan 15.
terlihat gambar wakil presiden Moh.Hatta ketika mengunjungi Tebing Tinggi timur sumatra.

 

c. REVOLUSI SOSIAL DI Tapanuli


1). Keberadaan unsur-unsur dalam Pengacau Keamanan Daerah Tapanuli yang menamakan dirinya “Orang Laskar” dari Sumatera Timur yang terdiri dari RATE Ft, SUKU BUNGA Tapanuli ACEH dan dipimpin oleh ARIFIN Nainggolan bersama teman-temannya dengan maksud untuk menangkap pemimpin (RAJA) yang ada di seluruh Tapanuli,

 

Dengan munculnya Gerakan Revolusioner Sosial Sumatera Timur, maka  Resident FL Tobing Tapanuli  MEMRINTAHKAN AGAR Kepemimpinan Polisi Khusus  berhenti   dan dijabat kembali oleh MAS KADIRAN

 

2)Gerakan Sosial Revolusioner di Samosir dan Sidikalang.


Setelah menerima perintah dari
 Redien Tapanuli , maka MAS KADIRAN berkoordinasikan dengan Komandan  Brigade XI Tapanuli selatan Resimen – III TRI , Letnan Kolonel  Jansen  Siahaan ,

 

 Dalam koordinasi, disepakati untuk bekerja sama dalam penindasan apa GERAKAN namanya REVOLUSI SOSIAL Sumatera Timur .


3). Pada hari yang ditentukan Resimen
 XI TRI – Brigade Ketiga Tapanuli selatan , Letnan Kolonel  Jansen Siahaan  dan Pemimpin POLISI KHUSUS  Mas Kadiran bergerak menuju Pangururan  melalui Dolok Sanggul dan TELE.

 

Sesampainya di Pangururan, Angkatan Resimen TRI-III Brigade XI dan Barisan KHUSUS POLISI residensi Tapanuli terjadi Bakutembak (tembak menembak) dengan ORANG Laskar yang akan membuat Revolusi Sosial di Tapanuli.

 

 Dalam pertempuran ini  Kota Pangururan dapat didududki dan ORANG Laskar dapat dinonaktifkan dan pemimpin Alimin Nainggolan dapat ditangkap dan menjadi tahanan diangkut ke Balige  bersama persenjataan dan amunisi.


4). setelah menghancurkan Revolusi Sosial di Samosir yang TRI dan BIP bergerak menuju Sidikalang untuk memadamkan Gerakan Revolusioner Sosial di Tapanuli ke daerah perbatasan antara Tapanuli dan Aceh,

 

 Setelah lebih dari dua bulan bertugas di Dairi Kepala TRI Dairi Pemerintah – I Resimen Brigade XI dan negosiasi Barisan melakukan KHUSUS POLISI dengan ini dengan-KETUA KETUA KETUA ADAT dan Partai negosiasi dapat disepakati bahwa Revolusi Sosial di berhenti dan tidak pernah terjadi lagi.

 

Jadi TRI dan BIP dapat mengembalikan dan memulihkan Keamanan Regional di Dairi dan sekitarnya.

5) Pada BIP dan TRI bertugas di Dairi, Tarutung penangkapan dari Tapanuli residensi kepala dan staf-staf dan diselenggarakan dalam biaya Balige sebagai kaki tangan dengan Belanda dengan “FRONT Volk Tarutung” dan akan dibawa ke  Pengadilan Pematang Siantar  Sumatera  Timur .

 

 

Dalam rangka menegakkan hukum dan mengembalikan Kewibawaan Polisi . MAS KADIRAN mengambil langkah untuk mengadakan perundingan  antara Republik Indonesia dengan  Ketua Rakyat  , KETUA FRONT dan PIHAK Pesindo,

 

 Hasil dari perundingan yang diselenggarakan  diketahui bahwa menurut pemeriksaan  oleh Kepala Hukum  Tarutung  tidak ada bukti PolisiKeresidenan tapanuli sebagai Kaki Tangan Kaki  Belanda di tapanuli  dan  akhirnya  Polisi Kepala. Polisi Keresidenan tapanuli  M. Nurdin dan stafnya dibebaskan dan kembali bertugas di Tarutung.

d. Barisan POLISI KHUSUS Pindah Ke Sibolga


Karena
 Keadaan Politis , Markas Tapanuli dipindahkan ke Sibolga, maka atas perintah Residen   Tapanuli Dr FL Tobing , Perangkat Angkatan Darat dan Polisis KHUSUS Tapanuli Kereresidenan  dipindahkan  ke Sibolga pada pertengahan Mei 1946  dan MAS  KADIRAN membangun asrama bagi anggota  Barisan POLISI KHUSUS di Sibolga

May,1st.1946

The collection of verious type fifteen sen -,15 sen  black repoeblik Indonesia java revenue unperfortated,earlist date 1.5.46, the latest date 1.7.46.

 

 

and other collection the latest date  7.12.1946.

also one full sheet revenue -.15 sen  in red ,one error plate 93 Lime belas  from normal limabelas.

 

(amizing historic revenue collections)

 

 

May,2nd.1946

The rare Djakarta Emergency Porto handchopped on postally used cover from solo to Djakrta,(gis the rare collections of Mr Ricardo ever show at Indonesia phillatelic exhibiton 1995  at Djakarta Fair Kemayoran-Dr Iwan Nite,sorry this fotocopy recoloured)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May.6th.1946

 

The earliest used Machinal machine overprint of North Sumatra this day,CDS Medan 6.5.-46,coomon CTO,both loose and on cover,approximately 75 genuninely used entires exist. Look book illustration below(V.esbensen,1980)

 

 

Another information from Dai Nippon catalogue,1981.Machinal overprint with new nominal ,issued at Pematang siantar in Black bar, on DEI karbouw series overprint type 23.(look the book illustration and Dr iwan collections)

 

 

This type machinal overprint also in may type Dai Nippon Stamp from some residency areal ,this was very specialistist ,like from

Dai Nippon IP Lengkong (IPL) handstamped

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Dai Nippon overprint star Aceh,AND FOTOCOPY EX DR IWAN COLLECTION USED AT Pajakoemboeh(all dai Nippon stamp from ll residency pull to pematangsiantar ,get machinak overptit repoeblic with bar,and redistribution to all residency Sumatra,that is why the dai Nippon aceh star stamp after nri overprint redistribution to west Sumatra and used cds pajakoemboeh,interesting postal history,amazing.

 

 

 

Dai Nippon yubin Overprint on the top and red Dai Nippon chopped(unidentified) at the center of stamp,this very rare.not list in TMA catalogue ,only one ever seen

TMA Indonesian specialist catalogue discussed this overprint,please look at that catalogue iisued by Suwito Harsono,and now also by Indonesian  specialist Catalogue 2009

 

 

 

 

 

And  overprint type 24 east sumatra dai nippon yubin

 

 

Overprint with two bar and new nominal on konijnenberg stamps with and withour Rep.Indonesia overprint

(double and triple overprint)

 

May,7th.1946

(a)Same as before document, the recieved of House rent bill by the NRI Magelang Housing Office

 

(b) the rare error printing bold f 1,50 repoblik Indonesia sumatra revenue,used on fragment ,compere with the normal revenue.

 

May,8th.1946

The House rental biiling from Malang,with NRI revenue ,the Dai Nippon form  overprint by typewriter.,ichi gatsun became Boelan(month) IV-1946

 

 

Hudoosan Kanrikoodan typewriter overprint kantor peroemahan(housing Offices)

 

The NRI phone billing,very small and native typewriter form

 

 

Look carefully this used NRI  phone billing form

The fotocopy of rare fragmen overprint  Middle Sumatra small repoeblik Indonesia on Dai Nippon definitive Sumatra 40 cent send from  CDS Boekittingi 8.4.46

 

 

May,9th.1946

The very rare postally used Palembang handoverprint RI on box ,money order cds pagaralam south Sumatra.

 

The overprint typev52 above,had five different types are known,known CTO Palembang,pladjoe,and pendopo.Genuinely used at Batoeradja,Martapoera,and Palembang.Approximately 12 genuinely used entire exist of all types put together,the earliest date 8.4.46 Palembang.

 

 

May,10th.1946

Postally used registered cover with typewriter overprint tandjongradja on talanggehar label, send from Tandjongradja(south Sumatra) to the same village , with 25 X overprint RI in box on  Dai Nippon def.stamp 40 cent(rate f1.-)

(fotocopy of Ricardo collections)

 

This NRI Handstamped Overprint Palembang issued type 51 violet.V.esbensen  in his catalogue(1980) written:’Only one used cover exist definitive 30cent(10x),CDS Tandjongradja 2.5.47 on back cover and no fragment or loose used stamps known.

With Ricardo collection and vrijdag collections in the catalogue, until now there were two postally used cover exist in the world,doeas anyone have another sample?please contact Dr Iwan to put in this e-book CD-ROM.

 

 

May,11th.1946

The rare Trade revenue overprint repoeblik Indonesia on complete document.

 

May,12th.1946

Penghimpunan Anggota Kepolisian dalam P3RI
Perasaan senasib dan sepenanggungan di antara sesama warga kepolisian memunculkan keinginan untuk mewadahi seluruh warga kepolisian dalam satu organisasi.

Keinginan itu diwujudkan dengan pembentukan Persatuan Pegawai Polisi Republik Indonesia (P3RI) di Madiun pada 12 Mei 1946.

Tujuan didirikannya organisasi ini adalah dalam rangka memper- satukan berbagai organisasi perjuangan kepolisian di berbagai daerah seperti Angkatan Muda Polisi RI (AMPRI) Yogyakarta, Pemuda Polisi RI (PPRI) Kediri, Barisan Polisi Istimewa (BPI) Solo, Persatuan Sekerja Polisi (PSP) Purwokerto, dan Ikatan Buruh Polisi Republik Indonesia (IBPRI) Bojonegoro.

Revolusi

 

May,13th.1946

With the removal of senior police officers from Padang to Bukittinggi, Kaharuddin Dt. Rangkayo tongue gets the task to foster and develop the organization’s Special Police. Exercises for Special Police started on May 13, 1946 until August 17, 1946 located at the police complex, Jl. Birugo Bukittinggi (now complex SMA Negeri 2). The Instructors at the Special Police training is comprised of police officers and TRI and c