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The Chinese Imperial Artwork Found In Indonesia (Continiu)

 

 

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART TWO

 LITERATURES  STUDIES

 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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2.1.

Scan2

 

 Photo: calender plate with Fu Luk Sau  symbols longevity  one of the three star king gogggest collection Dr Iwan

The  Book Of POTTERY AND PORCELEIN

Revised Edition

By

Warren E.Cox

New York, 1979

From this  literature found some informations of   design motifs Empire Chinese ceramic art in the world that can be comparable to those found in Indonesia

Dari Literatur ini ditemukan beberapa informasi bentuk design motif karya seni ceramic Kerajaan Tiongkok didunia yang dapat dijadikan pembanding dengan yang ditemukan di Indonesia.

 Photo: Guardian Plate Mo Li Ching  easr king of heaven motif collection Driwan

2.1.1

Ancient human figure motif, motive fauna  crane –horse and flora motif tree

Motif figure manusia kuno, motif fauna burung bangau  serta kuda dan motif flora pohon

Han China  tomb figure (page 73 and 74)

2.1.2.

Han Fauna (plate 21 Page  82)

Han Dog

Han Duck

 Han horse

 

2.1.3 

Tang Dinastypage 108

Motif fauna

Tang Horse

2.1.4.

Sung Three Colour Chrysanthenum and Lotus  Flower page 29

Motif flora flower chrysanthenum

2.1.5

Yuan Vase ear elephant (cover)

Motif Fauna elephant

2.1.7

 Photo: Bigger Wanli Kraak Porcelain 70 cm with Dragon fish and eight treasure  emblem symbol

Ming Imperial five clown dragon (front)

Motif fauna Imperial Dragon five clown

2.1.8

 

Qing Qx Blood red In glazed vase (page 532)

 

2.1.9

 

Imperial yellow ground figure of Shau Lao

(page  566 vol II)

Motif Figur Longlife  Shaou(one of three Star God)

 

2.1.10

Motif Calligraphy China Ceramic Mark

Mark Of Chinese Ware page

2.2.

 

The Eastren Phillosophy Of Time And Chamge

TAO

By

Philip Rowson and Lazlo Legeza,thames and Hudson,London 1973

2.3.

2.2.1  The Natural World

Carved jade moutain withnthreestar gods  of longevity 32

Celadon plte motif the flow of  vital energy(chi)

Landscape garden with  pools and udalating  rock tang dynasty

Hill jar Han dynast1

2.2.2. The Moving Spirit

2.2.3. Cycles Of Change

2.2.4. Heaven and Earth

2.2.5 Ritual

2.2.6 Themystical Power Of Calligraphy

2.2.7.Secret Practices

2.2.8.The Realm Of The Immortal

2.3.

 

CHINESE SYMBOLISM AND ART MOTIFS

BY

C.A.S. WILLIAMS

Beijing, 1st October,1932

From This Literatur found information the meaning  and design of   Symbolic Chinese Empire Artwork Motif  In china 1923 which arranged  from a to Z which be the base info to seek which one  found in Indonesia by Dr Iwan the researcher from 1973 to 2013

2.3.1                              

Sacrificial ploughing 3

Alarm staff 5                      

Amida cuddha 6

Amusement

Toy pedlar 8

Dice playing card 9

Elephant checker,Chinese cheess 10

Kite-flying 11dragon boat festival 13

Ananda 15

Chinese Coin

Confucius 85

2.3.2 Costume

Sacrificial 88

Dancing 89

Ancient warrior 90

Official first grade  92

Tzu – chisempress dowager93

 Modern men 95 and 96

 Modern women 97                                      

Crane 101

2.3.3.Diaper Pattern

121

122

123

2.3.4 Door Gods

129

130

 

 

 

2.3.5. Dragon

134

135

Drama  Huang Ho Lou 148

2.3.6.

Eight Immortal(Delapan Dewa)

     Chung li-chuan

and

Chang Kuo-lo 152

Lu tung-pin

and

Tsao kuo-chiu 154

Li tieh kuai

and

Han hsiang-tzu 155

LanTsai-ho

and

Ho Hsien-ku 156                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                  

2.37.

Eight Lohan

Pintulopolotoshe pindola the bharadvaya, kanokafatsho, pintaouluolosuishih,                  nantimindolochingyu nandimitra

Page 161

 Pa-no-ka,vakula or nakula

  Tamolopoto,tamra bhadra.  Kalika or kala,  fashenaputo or vajayputra

Page 162                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           

2.3.8.

eight ordinary symbols  158

dragon,golden coin,lozenge,mirror,stone chime,book

rhinoceros horn and artemesia

 

2.3.9. eight Budish Symbols 159

Jar

Conch-shell

Umbrella

Canopy

Lotus

Wheel of the laq

Fish

Mystic knot

2.3.10 Elephant

2.3.11 Five Poison 188

2.3.12 Four Heaven Kings 196

 Mo-li ching guardian of the east

 Mo-li hai   west

Mo-li hung south

Mo-li shou north                                         

2.3.13. Fu –His 203

2.3.14  chu jung God Of Fire 207

God of literature 209 kuei wang tin chung

God of longevity   canopus  209                      

2.3.15 God Of The Kitchen 210

2.3.16   Kuan Yu God Of War

2.3.17Tsai Tsen Yai The God Of Wealth 213

2.3.18 The Money Tree 214

2.3.19 Chinese Fans(Kipas)177

2.3.20 The Eight Horses Of Mu Wang 225

2.3.21. Hsi-wang Wu Royal Lady Of The West  227

2.3.22 Kuan Yin 243

2.3.23 Lamais

Lama priest 247

Insignia and Weapon Of Lama 248 and 249

2.3.24 Laocius 251

Mansjuri 265

Monkey ok

2.3.25  Musical Instrumen 284

2.3.26 Na Cha 293

2.3.27 OX(Water Buffalo) ok

2.3.28  Phoenix ok

2.3.29 Plant Of Long Laife

Taosist philosopher who discover

The  Sacred Fungus Of Immotarlity 329

2.3.30 Bpdishawa Pu Hsien 335

2.3.31 Queen Of Heaven337

2.3.32 Conventional Scroll 3444

2.3.33  Chinese Seals(346 and 347)

 

2.3.34

The Emperor Of Shun(358)

2.3.35 Snake (ok)

2.3.36

Three Chinese star Gods(366)

2.3.37.

Tao Mo,the Mother Of Yhe Bushei(370)

2.3.37

 The Poet Su Tong Po(377)

2.3.38

Swastika

2.3.38

Old Chinese Sword9383)

2.3.39 Tai Chi

2.3.40 The Great Yu the emperor of Hsia(386)

2.3.41 The Three Pure One OF the Taoist Trinity(393 and 395)

2.3.42 TOAD Liu Hai(402)

2.3.43

 Mara The Tempter, The Arch Fiend Of The BUddihst(417)

2.3.44  

Water

The  Chinese lord of Rain (420)

The spirit of the yellow river(422)

2.3.45 Wheel Of Law(424 ,426)

2.3.46 Willow

2.3.47 Written Character

The evolution of Chinese charater (442)

2.3.48 Yama

The Soul of the dead  arranged before  Yama (452)

2.3.49 Yin and Yang

2.3.50

Torture of the Budish Helll (455)

2.3.51

 

2.4.

The Story Of Chinese Landscape Design

By

Prof Pao The Han

Translarted by

Carl Shen.AIA

Youth Cultural enterprise,1992

From this information we  found the  landscape found in China and will compare with the artwork landscape motif which found in Indonesia

 

2.4..1. The View Of Landscape Designing Of Ancient China From Shang Dinasty To The Han Dinasty

Han dynasty tomb  page 26

2.4.,2 Fairy Tales Ands The Art Of Chinese Landscape Designing

Han  Page  28

The godess of Lao River Jin dinasty page 36

Tang dynasty landscape page 40

Sung dynasty  landscape page 42

Yuam dynasty landscape page 46

2.4.3 Taoism and The Art Of Chinese Landscape Designing

Sung dynasty Hrermit under willow tree page 60

Tang page 64

The Hsiao Chie Garden Ming landscape page 66

2.4.4 The Loyang Era

Singing bird landscape six dynasty page 80

Deer in the wood in the fall five dynasty landscape page  82

Emperor Tsuang Sung visit the Shu area page  92

2.4.5 The Tang Era

The Lingering Tang dynasty garden page  116

2.4.6 The King-Nan Era

Mountain Peak By Hsia Kwei Sung dynasty page  136

2.4.7 The Birth Of The Theory Of Landscape Designing

Decorated Landscape late ming plate page 168

2.4.8  The Qing Era

Two Bird by Pa Da  Shan Ren Qing dynasty page 170

Multi Storied Lo and Ko  in the landscape by Chiao Bin Chen page 214

2.5.

 Studies Report Of Arkeologist Situs Excavations In Indonesia

From this Literature we found information about history of trading artwork especially ceramic from from china to Indonesia, and also Information about type and motif of the Chinese empirae artwork which foun In the Situs in Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

 

2.5.1

BANTEN Before Islamic Era

Archelogist Stusies  At Banten Girang  932-1526

Indonesian National Archeologist Center with Ecole Francaise the extreme-Orient. Jakarta,1996

1)  Ditch That cleared things 57

Parit Yang dibersihkan hal 57


2) In the case of trench 58

Parit Dalam hal 58
3) Table 64 Findings Based on the time it

Tabel Temuan Berdasarkan waktu hal  64

 


4) The table can not be identified by the time it 65

Tabel Tidak dapat diidentifikasi menurut waktu hal  65


5) Table Excavasi Ceramic Import by time (centuries) 141-142 case

Tabel Excavasi Keramik Impor menurut waktu (abad) hal 141-142

 (motif) p 142-143


7) Comparison Table findings Banten Girang Site With Other Sites In Indonesia 145

Tabel Perbandingan temuan Situs Banten Girang Dengan Situs Lainnya Di Indonesia hal  145

 

 

 
6) Table Grouping findings based on Origin and Corak

Tabel Pengelompokan temuan berdasarkan  Asal dan Corak(motif) hal  142-143


8) Taoism Head Figurine Statue Qingbai 14 th AD (p. 163) and body image 91 image Qingbai 14th AD 92 images

Figurine Taoisme Head Statue Qingbai 14 th AD (hal 163) gambar 91 dan tubuh   Qingbai gambar  14th AD  gambar 92

2.5.2

HASIL PENELITIAN TEMUAN KERAMIK SITUS BANTEN LAMA  1976-1981

BY

m.Th.Naniek Arkeologist

Pusat Penewlitian Arkeologis nasional

Jakarta ,1983

1)

History of Trade Ceramics in Banten Lama (p. 387)

Sejarah Perdagangan Keramik di Banten Lama (hal 387)

 

 

 

 

2)

Similarities And Differences Ceramic Table findings (p. 392)

Tabel Persamaan Dan Perbedaan Keramik Temuan (hal 392)

3)

Origin and era ceramic table Findings (case 393)

Tabel asal dan zaman keramik Temuan (hal  393)

4)

Summary Research  on ceramic banten Lama 1976-1981 (hal 398)

2.6

FENG SHUI GOOD FORTUNE SYMBOLS

BY

LILIAN TOO

(Kula Lumpur Malaysia, 1999)

2.6.1

 

 

 

 

 

 

MOTIF SYMBOL OF WEALTH AND SUCCESS


1). COINS CHINA
2) Vase
3) Beetle
4) Fish
5) dragon with phoenix
6) Chillin
7) dragon turtle
8) pumpkins

(MOTIF )SIMBOL KEKAYAAN DAN SUKSES

1).KOIN CINA

2) Vase

3)Kodok

4)Ikan

5)naga dengan burung phoenix

6)Chillin

7)kura-kura naga

8)buah labu

2.6.2

(Motif) longevity Symbol
1) God of Longevity LAU
2) Birds Stork
3) Pine Tree
4) Peaches
5) bamboo tree
6) Deer
7) Tortoise
8) Eight god (god of immortality or eight immortal)
(1) Chung Li Chuan with fan symbol, god of longevity and provide energy that never stops (end)
(2) Chang Kuo-Lao Changdengan symbols give descendants banbu tube (prevents sterile)
(3) Pin Dong Lu (Lu Tung Pin) with a sword and a thermos fly symbol popped disease
(4) Guo Chiu Tsao (Tsao kuo-chiu) with the symbol for music bestows blessings to those who seek power
(5) Lie Tieh Guai (Li Tieh Kuai) with the symbol of bottle gourd, most berkausa of Delan gods bestowed wisdom
(6) Xian Tzu Han (Han Hsing-tzu) with flutes, restoring energy
(7) Tsai Ho Lan (Lan Tsai-ho) to deliver flowers clad blessing for the girls
(8) Ku Hsien Ho (Ko-Ku Tsien) with lotus symbol, bestowing good luck in the family and marriage

9) herb of immortality Ling zhi
10) Queen of the West Hsi Mu-wang
11) Shou Longevity Calligraphy
12) Three Star Gods Fuk-Luk-Sau

 

(Motif) Simbol umur panjang

1)      Dewa Umur Panjang LAU

2)      Burung Bangau

3)      Pohon Pinus

4)      Buah Persik

5)      Pohon bamboo

6)      Rusa

7)      Kura-kura

8)      Delapan dewa (dewa keabadian  or eight immortal)

(1) Chung Li Chuan dengan  simbol kipas, Dewa umur panjang dan memberikan energi yang tidak pernah berhenti(putus)

(2)Chang Kuo-Lao Changdengan  simbol  tabung banbu memberikan keturunan(mencegah mandul)

(3)Dong Pin Lu(Lu Tung Pin) dengan symbol pedang dan termos terbang menyembulkan penyakit

(4)Guo Chiu Tsao(Tsao kuo-chiu) dengan symbol alat music  menganugerahkan berkah bagi mereka yang mencari kekuasaan

(5)Tieh Guai Lie (Li Tieh Kuai) dengan symbol labu botol ,paling berkausa dari delan dewa menganugerahkan kearifan

(6)Hsian Tzu Han(Han  Hsing-tzu)  dengan seruling , memulihkan energy

(7)Tsai Ho Lan (Lan Tsai-ho)dengan Kerajang bunga mengantarkan berkah bagi gadis-gadis

(8)Hsien Ku Ho(Ko Tsien-Ku) dengan symbol lotus, menganugerahkan  keberuntungan dalam keluarga dan pernikahan

 

9)      Ramuan keabadian Ling zhi

10)   Ratu Barat Hsi-wang Mu

11)   Kaligrafi Umur Panjang Shou

12)   Dewa Bintang Tiga Fuk-Luk-Sau

 

 

2.6.3

Motif Symbol Love and marriage
1) Mandarin Duck
2) Geese
3) calligraphy double happiness (Double Happiness)
4) Peony Flower Tan Mou
5) butterfly
6) Lute
7) Birds Magpie
8) Paper Lantern
9) God marriages Chieh Lin

 

Motif Simbol Cinta Kasih dan perkawinan

1)Bebek Mandarin

2)Angsa

3)kaligrafi kebahagian ganda(double Happiness)

4)Bunga Peoni  Mou Tan

5)kupu-kupu

6)Kecapi

7)Burung Magpie

8)Lampion Kertas

9)Dewa pernikahan Chieh Lin

2.6.4

FRUIT AND FLOWER  GOOD FORTUNR LUCKY SYMBOL
1) Flowers Fruit Plum facilitate LUCK Good Fortune
2) Chrysanthemum flower (Chrysanthenum) SYMBOL BEAUTY
3) Lotus symbol of perfection and progress indefinitely
4) Orchid Flower epitome of perfection
5) citrus fruit brings many blessings

BUAH DAN BUNGA LAMBANG KEBERUNTUNGAN

1)Bunga Buah Plum MEMUDAHKAN KEBERUNTUNGAN

2)bunga Krisan(Chrysanthenum) LAMBANG KECANTIKAN

3)Bunga Teratai lambing kesempurnaan dan kemajuan tanpa batas

4)Bunga Anggrek lambang kesempurnaan

5)  jeruk berbuah banyak  membawa berkah

2.6.5

MOTIF PROTECTION SYMBOL
1) Kuang Kong or Kuan Ti
2) white tiger
3) a pair of dogs or lions chillin
4) God of Doors
5) Four Heavenly Kings North (Mo Li Shou), West) Mo Li Hai), the East (Mo Ling Ching) and the South (Mo Li Hung)
6) digit (number) Lo Shu
7) dragon turtle
8) Pat Kua Mirror (an antidote to the poison dart)
9) anti Sandalwood Fan negative energy
10) singing bowl

MOTIF SIMBOL PERLINTUNGAN

1)Kuang Kong  atau Kuan Ti

2)Harimau putih

3) sepasang anjing atau singa chillin

4)Dewa Pintu

5)Empat Raja Langit Utara(Mo Li Shou),Barat)Mo Li Hai),Timur (Mo Ling Ching)dan Selatan(Mo Li Hung)

6) angka(nomor) Lo Shu

7) kura-kura naga

8)Cermin Pat Kua(penangkal panah beracun)

9)Kipas Kayu cendana  anti energy negative

10)Mangkuk bernyanyi

2.6.6

EIGHT GOOD FORTUNE LUCKY SYMBOLS
1) mystic knot without unjung
(symbol beginning without end.  Buddhism cycle of birth and rebirth – reincarnation)
2) Skin snails and clams (shell conched) symbol of luck on the way
3) Two Fish symbol of wealth
4) Lotus symbol of purity of intention and mind
5) Canopy mighty symbol perlidunagn
6) Flower vase symbols to increase the happiness and goodness
7) Wheel symbol of true wisdom and knowledge
8) vessel for the ashes of religious symbols

 

 

 

DELAPAN SIMBUL KEBERUNTUNGAN

1)simpul mistis tanpa unjung

(lambang permulaan tanpa akhir. kepErcayan agama budha lingkaran kelahiran dan kelahiran kembali – reinkarnasi)

2)Kulit Siput dan kerang(conched shell) symbol keberuntungan dalam perjalanan

3)Dua Ikan symbol kekayaan

4)Lotus simbol kemurnian niat dan pikiran

5)Kanopi symbol perlidunagn yang perkasa

6)Vas bunga simbol  untuk meningkatkan kebahagiaan dan kebaikan

7)Roda symbol kearifan sejati dan pengetahuan

8) bejana untuk abu jenazah symbol religious

 

2.6.7

MOTIF ELEVEN CHINESE ZODIAC SYMBOLS
1) Mice(Rat)
2) Buffalo
3) Tiger
4) Rabbit
5) Dragon
6) Snake
7) Horse
8) Goat
8) Monkey
9) Chicken
10) Dogs
11) Pigs

MOTIF SEBELAS SIMBOL ZODIAK CINA

1)Tikus

2)Kerbau

3)Harimau

4)Kelinci

5)Naga

6)Ular

7)Kuda

8)Kambing

8)Monyet

9)Ayam

10)Anjing

11) Babi

 

2.6.8

GOD OF GOOD FORTUNE LUCKY
1) God of Wealth Tai Yeh sen
2) God of Wealth Hokkien Tua Pekkong
3) Three Star Gods Fu-Luk-Sau (God of Longevity)
4) Laughing Buddha (Buddha Wealth  and Happiness)

DEWA KEBERUNTUNGAN

1)Dewa Kekayaan Tai sen Yeh

2)Dewa Kekayaan Hokkien Tua Pekkong

3)Dewa Tiga Bintang Fu-Luk-Sau(Dewa Panjang Umur)

4)Buddha Tertawa(Buddha kekatyaan dan Kebahagiaan)

 

 

2.6.8

 

“Jingdezhen,

“The porcelain centre of the world.”

A short description of the developments, transport and production

of ancient Chinese porcelain

(not Upload,the info can read at the next part III)

2.4

The Report Of Indonesian Sea  Shipwrec Traesures

Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The Report Of Chinese South Sea  Shipwrec Traesures

(Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The Report Of International Shipwrec Traesures

(Not Upload,the studies result can read at the  next Part III) 

The End Of Part II

please look the next part Three Result Of Studies

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

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PART III.

RESULTS

Based on a literature study in chapter Two can be found  Information as follows

Berdasarkan hasil studi literature dalam bab Dua dapat ditemukan informasi sebagai berikut

a.The Chinese Royal Kingdom art collection in Indonesia by  researchers which collected from 1973 to 2013 (forty years) in Sumatra,Java.Kalmantan and South Celebes and Ambon as follows

koleksi benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti yang dikumpulkan dari tahun 1973 sampai 2013 (empat puluh Tahun) di Sumatra,Jawa,Kalimantan,Sulawesi selatan dan Ambon sebagai berikut

  

3.1 HISTORY BACKGROUND

LATAR BELAKANG SEJARAH 

 

.The Background history  of ceramic trade and royal art objects from China to Indonesia have started in the early centuries AD at the end of the Han Dynasty to the end of the Qing dynasty by the merchants of the kingdom of China, the Middle East, and very crowded in the Tang dynasty, Sung, Ming reduced initial in the mid Ming Ming and crowded again at the end of the transitional period and reduced to the Qing Ming and Qing dynasties crowded again at the end.

This information is obtained from te research, discovery of ceramic art and Chinese empire at several sites in Indonesia by the National Arkelologis Center and a review of the findings of a shipwreck in Southeast Asia as some footage below

 

. Latar belakang sejarah perdagangan  keramik dan benda seni dari kerajaan Tiongkok ke Indonesia sudah dimulai pada awal abad masehi pada dinasti Han akhir sampai akhir dinasti Qing oleh pedagang-pedagang dari kerajaan Tiongkok,Timur Tengah, dan sangat ramai pada dinasti Tang, Sung, awal Ming berkurang pada Ming pertengahan dan ramai lagi pada Ming akhir dan berkurang pada masa peralihan Ming ke Qing serta ramai lagi pada dinasti Qing Akhir.

Informasi ini diperoleh dari penelitian te,muan benda seni dan keramik kerajaan Tiongkok di beberapa situs di Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkelologis Nasional dan hasil kajian  temuan kapal karam di di Asia Tengara  seperti beberapa cuplikan dibawah ini

 

3.1.1

Report of research findings on Sirus Indonesia by Indonesian National Archaeology Center

Laporan Hasil penelitian Temuan di Sirus Indonesia oleh Pusat Arkeologi Nasioanl Indonesia

(1)      The Report Of Situs Banten Girang

Laporan Situan Banten Girang

(2)    The Report Of Situs Banten Lama Laporan Situs banten Lama

 

This report not upload

(3)     The Report Of Indonesian Shipwreck treasure Finding 

(a)    Yurnaldi(2012)

The  ceramic Of Cargo from shipswreck ,  almost always found in relatively large quantities.

Bambang Budi Utomo of the Center Arkenas who edited the book Shipwrecks Century 10 in North Java Sea, Cirebon said the shipwreck  that the artifact has been removed from commercial ships, most of his wares, even nearly 90 percent in the form of ceramics.

The rest is pottery and glass items
Porcelain and stoneware very Clearly not locally made​​. So far as the items have been found at various sites in Indonesia, and are known from various countries,

 such as China, Southeast Asia (Thailand, Vietnam, and Cambodia), the Middle East, Japan, and Europe (such as the Netherlands and Germany).


According Widiati, researcher and expert of ancient ceramics, Ceramic frequently found in Indonesia comes from China (2-20 century AD), Thailand (Century 13-18 CE), Vietnam (century-8-18 M), Europe (17 century AD -20), Japan (17-20 century CE), and the Middle East (7-14 century AD).


On the findings of ceramics in the waters north of Cirebon, based on the identification and Typology of the ceramic objects, a 10th-century ceramics from the AD Five Dynasties period.


Of course, through the identification of these tiles, there are many additional bits of the data to compose a past history of Indonesian culture.
(Kompas, Thursday, May 20, 2010)


Muatan Dari kapal-kapal tenggelam, hampir selalu keramik ditemukan dalam jumlah relatif besar.

Bambang Budi Utomo dari Puslitbang Arkenas yang menjadi editor buku Kapal Karam Abad ke-10 di Laut Jawa Utara Cirebon mengatakan, kapal tenggelam yang artefaknya telah diangkat berasal dari kapal niaga, barang dagangannya sebagian besar, bahkan hampir 90 persen berupa keramik. Selebihnya adalah tembikar dan barang-barang kaca

Porselin dan bahan batuan sangat jelas bukan buatan lokal.

Selama ini barang-barang seperti itu telah ditemukan di berbagai situs di Indonesia, dan diketahui berasal dari berbagai negara, seperti Tiongkok, Asia Tenggara (Thailand, Vietnam, dan Kamboja), Timur Tengah, Jepang, dan Eropa (seperti Belanda dan Jerman).

Menurut Widiati, peneliti dan ahli keramik kuno, Keramik yang sering ditemukan di Indonesia berasal dari China (abad ke-2–20 Masehi), Thailand (abad ke-13–18 M), Vietnam (abad ke-8–18 M), Eropa (abad ke-17–20 M), Jepang (abad ke-17–20 M), dan Timur Tengah (abad ke-7–14 M).

Tentang temuan keramik di perairan utara Cirebon, berdasarkan identifikasi dan tipologi benda-benda keramik itu, merupakan keramik abad ke-10 Masehi dari masa Dinasti Lima.

Sudah tentu, melalui hasil identifikasi keramik ini, ada sedikit-banyaknya tambahan data untuk merangkai sejarah kebudayaan masa lampau Indonesia.

(Kompas, Kamis, 20 Mei 2010) 

(b)     Shipwreck Ceribon

 

 

Described, in May 2004 the Chinese fishermen Indramayu find ceramics, such as jars, strands of gold, silver, agate, roomates Reaches Hundreds of species roomates According to research is a relic of the Ming Dynasty Chinese or fifth dynasty, 10th century
Indonesian government through the national committee appointment and utilization of valuable objects that sink a boatload of origin (Pannas BMKT) will conduct the auction results on the sinking ship that 10th century in northern waters of Cirebon
However, in terms of age, Rini estimates kono objects is not older than a discovery in waters Similar Karangsong, Indramayu In 2004, the the firm is a relic of the Ming Dynasty around the 10th century

 

Dijelaskan, pada Mei 2004 nelayan Indramayu menemukan keramik Tiongkok, berupa guci, untaian emas, perak, batu akik, yang jenisnya mencapai ratusan yang menurut hasil penelitian merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming atau dinasti kelima Cina, abad ke 10

Pemerintah Indonesia melalui panitia nasional pengangkatan dan pemanfaatan benda berharga asal muatan kapal yang tenggelam (Pannas BMKT) akan melakukan pelelangan hasil temuan kapal yang tenggelam pada abad ke-10 di perairan utara Cirebon

Namun, dari sisi usia, Rini memperkirakan benda-benda kono ini tidak lebih tua dari penemuan serupa di perairan Karangsong, Indramayu Pada tahun 2004 yang dipastikan merupakan peninggalan Dinasti Ming sekitar abad ke-10.

Gambar 7: Form atribut ukuran (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).

Gambar 8: Form atribut bentuk (sumber & modifikasi: Irdiansyah, 2011).

© Krawang Shipwreck report

Database Systems for Data Recording Archaeology: A Recommendation Based Database Systems Shipwrecks findings Falkirk

Sistem Basis Data untuk Perekaman Data Arkeologi: Suatu Rekomendasi Berdasarkan Sistem Basis Data Temuan-temuan Kapal Karam Karawang

22 April 2012

iaaipusat PIA 2011 BMKT, Irdiansyah Tinggalkan Komentar

Irdiansyah
Arkeolog, Karyawan Swasta
/

One category of findings that can be explained Shipwreck Falkirk sequence and category attributes is closed (closed). In the handling of these findings Shipwreck Karawang, closed category (closed) is defined as the diameter of the hole all the artifacts it is smaller than the diameter of the largest part of his body, and does not have a neck and / or beak.

Attributes recorded in the measurement process is the size and shape (in this system form later called). The forms are designed in such a way that the filler can run the measurement process easily and efficiently.


When the closed category (Figure 6) is clicked (click) it will display the form (form) fields that are used to find corresponding barcode measured artifacts and start timing measurements. The information entered is the barcodes, the name of filler, and the date (automatically recorded when the name charger included).

Furthermore, after the “ok” button is clicked will show up forms for measurement. Ranging from high (height), the largest diameter (body broadest diameter), the diameter of the hole (top opening diameter), high foot (bottom rim height), the diameter of the foot (bottom diameter), thick frame leg (bottom rim width), median diameter foot (bottom center diameter), up to the foot diameter (inside bottom rim diameter

Salah satu kategori temuan Karawang Shipwreck yang dapat dijelaskan urutan dan atributnya adalah kategori closed (tertutup). Pada penanganan temuan Karawang Shipwreck ini, kategori closed (tertutup) didefinisikan sebagai seluruh artefak yang diameter lubang atasnya lebih kecil dari diameter terbesar bagian badannya, serta tidak memiliki leher dan/atau cucuk. Atribut yang direkam pada proses pengukuran ini adalah ukuran dan bentuk (dalam sistem ini kemudian disebut form). Form-form itu dirancang sedemikan rupa agar pengisinya dapat menjalankan proses pengukuran dengan mudah dan efisien.

Ketika tombol kategori closed (gambar 6) diklik (click) maka akan muncul form (formulir) isian yang berfungsi untuk mencari barcode sesuai artefak yang diukur dan memulai penghitungan waktu pengukuran. Informasi yang dimasukkan adalah barcode, nama pengisi, dan tanggal (terekam secara otomatis ketika nama pengisi dimasukkan).

Selanjutnya setelah tombol “ok” diklik akan muncul form-form untuk pengukuran. Mulai dari tinggi (height), diameter terbesar (body broadest diameter), diameter lubang atas (top opening diameter), tinggi kaki (bottom rim height), diameter kaki (bottom diameter), tebal bingkai kaki (bottom rim width), diameter tengah kaki (bottom centre diameter), hingga diameter dalam kaki (inside bottom rim diameter)

(d)

Pameran “Jejak-jejak  KAPAL Karam”

Koleksi-koleksi yang berasal dari kapal karam (Foto: Djulianto Susantio)

 

EXHIBITION “SHIPWRECK  TRAILS”
History of the archipelago as real-fact is the history of the sea. Since the beginning of residential archipelago by the Austronesian language speakers, the sea has played a role in the event of a large-scale migration of the ancestors of Formosa (Taiwan) to the various regions in Southeast Asia, around 6,500 BC. The role of the ocean can not dinafikkan anyway when the archipelago became a haven of spice on Trade Ages, the 16th century until the mid-20th century AD, which then led to colonialism.
Thus, most of the territorial waters of the archipelago is also a historic site. In essence saved a lot of historical evidence. Traces of shipwreck. Remains, historical remains such as sunken ships, with cargo, when they first crossed the Indonesian waters. According to the documentation, there are around 400 points shipwreck in Indonesian waters. This is possible because of the archipelago, except indeed the spice-producing areas of high quality, also the crossing area that connects the western hemisphere and the eastern.
Objects cargo ship sank (BMKT), which comes from the past, obviously very important for the history of the archipelago disclosure. At least can give an overview of the various aspects of social life, political, economic, or cultural contiguity contiguity-that occurred in the past. And for that, of course, should be preserved for its utilization for the benefit of mankind

Pameran “Jejak-jejak  KAPAL Karam”

Sejarah Nusantara senyata-nyatanya adalah sejarah tentang laut. Sejak awal penghunian Nusantara oleh para penutur Bahasa Austronesia, laut telah memainkan peranannya ketika terjadi migrasi besar-besaran para leluhur tersebut dari Formosa (Taiwan) ke berbagai wilayah di Asia Tenggara, sekitar 6.500 SM. Peran laut tak dapat dinafikkan pula ketika Nusantara menjadi surga rempah-rempah pada Abad Perdagangan, abad ke-16 sampai pertengahan abad ke-20 Masehi, yang lantas bermuara pada kolonialisme.

Maka, sebagian wilayah perairan Nusantara adalah juga situs bersejarah. Di dasarnya banyak sekali tersimpan bukti-bukti sejarah. Jejak-jejak karam. Tinggalan-tinggalan historis berupa kapal-kapal yang karam, bersama muatannya, saat mereka dulu melintasi wilayah perairan Indonesia. Menurut pendataan, ada sekitar 400-an titik-titik kapal karam di perairan Indonesia. Ini sangat dimungkinkan karena Nusantara, selain memang wilayah penghasil rempah-rempah berkualitas tinggi, juga merupakan wilayah perlintasan yang menghubungkan belahan bumi bagian barat dan timur.

Benda-benda muatan kapal tenggelam (BMKT), yang berasal dari masa lalu, jelas sangat penting artinya bagi pengungkapan sejarah Nusantara. Paling tidak dapat memberikan berbagai gambaran tentang aspek-aspek kehidupan sosial, politik, ekonomi, atau persentuhan-persentuhan budaya yang terjadi di masa lalu. Dan untuk itu, tentu saja, harus dilestarikan demi pemanfaatannya bagi kepentingan umat manusia


THE HISTORY OF INDONESIAN MARITIME

Centuries ago, before the colonization of the peoples of Europe, the waters of the archipelago has been an important commercial shipping lines from around the world.

Some important port in the archipelago that already exist such as Pasai in Aceh, Palembang Chinese City, Banten, Batavia (now Jakarta), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, and Ternate.

 Foreign trade with the archipelago initially suspected to

 

trade in spices from the Moluccas by Arab and Indian traders. Transport early this archipelago spice trade through sea route to India, and then passed through a land trade routes to the Middle East, and ended up in Europe.

 

When the Roman Emperor Vespasion prohibit the export of gold from Rome in the first century,

 

Indian traders also turned to the archipelago-particularly Sumatra and Java as an alternative to gold imports.

In addition to Indian and Arab traders, Malay traders also have played an important role in the pilot boat to the east (China, Japan) and to the west (India, Middle East and Africa).

 

Since the 9th century the Chinese also contributed to the growth of sea trade through the export of ceramics.
Therefore from various records and historical documents from the 7th century until the 19th AD, hundreds or even thousands of ships alleged to have suffered shipwreck or drowning in the archipelago.

 

Ships were derived from Chinese merchant ships (of various dynasties), ship kingdoms in the archipelago, ships Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Dutch, Portuguese, Spanish, English, and Japanese.

Cause of the sinking ships, among others, by storms and bad weather, navigational knowledge geographic cruise ship hit a reef less so, or for other reasons such as being the target and battle pirates.
Number of lost ships and sunken over the centuries in the waters of the archipelago does not count.

In 2001 National Geographic has reported seven ancient ship that sank in the western part of the archipelago waters (Strait of Malacca) in the XVII-XX centuries AD. Such vessels are Diana (UK),

Tek Sing 

Treasure from Tek Sing

The Tek Sing (True Star) set sail from China, bound for Java, in 1822. She was heavily laden with Chinese porcelain, 1,600 passengers (mostly living outside on deck) and 200 crew. After 24 days she struck a reef, and quickly sank, taking more lives than even the Titanic disaster 90 years later. In 1999, salvage diver Captain Mike Hatcher found the wreck and recovered her porcelain cargo – the largest ever discovery of its kind, and in remarkably good condition

read more info (not upload)

and

 

// // photo

Chinese Ceramics From the Shipwreck Turiang 14th Century

Turiang (China),

Nassau

nd Geldermalsen (Netherlands),

€ 24 millions. Discovery, in Indonesia, of the Dutch VOC vessel wreck ‘Geldermalsen’ sunk in 1752.

Salvage of a cargo made of 160,000 pieces of porcelain and 127 stamped Chinese gold ingots 

Don Duarte de Guerra (Portuguese),

Archaeologists work to uncover shipwreck remains in Portimão

related Information(not upload)

and

Ashigara (Japan).

archeologists

Shipwreck off coast of Japan (via CNN)

Marine archeologists say that the ancient wreckage of a ship discovered in the seabed off the coast of Nagasaki, Japan, belongs to the ancient “lost fleet” of ships belonging to China’s 13th century Mongol ruler Kublai Khan, CNN reports.

Explorers found the 20-meter-long shipwreck by using ultra-sound equipment some 25 meters off the coast of Nagasaki. The team of researchers buried the ultra-sound sensors about a meter deep in the sandy earth beneath the sea. Archeologists believe the ship dates back to 1281, and was part of a 4,400-vessel fleet that China’s Mongol rulers during the Yuan Dynasty had employed as an invasion force.

The discovery of the ship’s well preserved and mostly intact 12-meter-long keel “could go a long way to helping researchers identify all the characteristics of the 20-meter warship,” CNN reported, citing the head of the research team that made the discovery.

“This discovery was of major importance for our research,” Yoshifumi Ikeda, of Okinawa’s University of the Ryukyus, said at a recent press conference in Nagasaki, according to the CNN report. “We are planning to expand search efforts and find further information that can help us restore the whole ship.”

According to Japanese legend, two typhoons–known as the Kamikaze–that occurred seven years apart in the 13th century twice saved Japan from Mongol invasion by “destroy[ing] two separate Mongol invasions fleets so large they were not eclipsed until the D-Day landings of World War II,” CNN reported. China was not so spared, however, and was ruled by the Mongol Yuan Dynasty from 1271-1368.

“According to a contemporary account cited in the book Khubilai Khan’s Lost fleet: In Search of a Legendary Armada,” by maritime archaeologist James P. Delgado, the typhoon’s destruction of the over 4,000-vessel Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet created such a vast quantity of material wreckage “that ‘a person could walk across from one point of land to another on a mass of wreckage,’” CNN reported.

The wooden-planked ship, originally believed to have been painted light gray, is among “more than 4,000 artifacts, including ceramic shards, bricks used for ballast, cannonballs and stone anchors [that] have been found in the vicinity of the wreck, linking it to the Yuan Dynasty invasion fleet,” CNN reported


Chinese sailing ship that has sailed the waters of Asia-including the archipelago for centuries-even many that are not reported back. Moreover, since 1650, from about 800 Portuguese ships that sailed from Lisbon, nearly 150 ships were never heard from again. Disappeared without a trace.


Between the years 1600 to 1800, the EIC informed has lost more than 7,000 ships. Generally the ship sank to the bottom of the sea declared carried away with its cargo.

relted info

Shipwrecks and the East India Company’s ‘Immaterial’ Material Culture(illustration not upload)

As the fate of both the Valentine and the Abergavenny attests, shipwreck was a frequent occurrence in the history of the EIC in the Georgian era.

Of the 980 EIC voyages between 1747-88, and discounting those ships which were to remain abroad, less than 94% returned home: 39 were wrecked or ‘lost’, 7 were burnt and 12 were captured.

By far the worst year was 1779/80 when six ships were captured and two were lost out of 26 which sailed. It was for this reason that ships were owned by a number of investors, and it seems Raymond had a group of associates who worked together in partnership. Cargos from shipwrecked vessels provide historians with a ghostly counterfoil to pristine collections of Asian luxuries assembled in many surviving stately homes in Britain, offering a unique, ‘immaterial’ perspective on the Company’s domestic material culture.

Diver Richard Keen preparing to dive near Guernsey. Image courtesy of Georgina Green.

When divers investigated the wreck of the Griffin East Indiaman, which sank in 1761 on her way home from China, they estimated she carried 125,800 pieces of chinaware.Fragments such as the Griffin’s porcelain shards have rarely featured in analyses of the Company’s material legacies, but they offer historians a wealth of material for understanding the EIC’s contribution to consumer culture. As they remind us, the Asian items displayed in stately homes and country houses today are only a fraction of what arrived in England in the eighteenth century. Indeed, much of the cargo brought home from India and China was of short term value and use. Tea, spices, fabrics – were all for immediate consumption and almost all are lost to us now. As an example, the cargo carried home from India in 1739 by Captain Charles Raymond on his second voyage of the Wager included cotton materials (callico, seersuckers, chints, ginghams etc) valued at approximately £85,030; raw silk at £9,780; redwood at £112 (this was dunnage: it was packed between cargo to prevent movement and keep it dry); salt petre at £1770; turmerick at £125; and cowries at £1,875. The total value of the cargo was nearly £100,000 which in present day terms would be around £10m. Unlike Raymond’s porcelain plate, books and artwork, these imports have left relatively few traces in domestic interiors. Recovering their histories requires us to step outside the home, and outside the archive, diving instead (quite literally) into the waters in which East Indiamen sailed to trade with Asia.

Nearly 200 years after the Valentine was wrecked, a young Guernsey diver, Richard Keen (see image above), decided to try and find the wreck. Richard was born and brought up in an old farmhouse in Guernsey (Channel Isles) where his father grew roses. It was expected he would join his father when he left school, but his life changed when he tried out the new sport of scuba diving while in his mid-teens. On leaving school he took up a career diving for shellfish. While looking for scallops he found many objects on the sea bed and his enquiring mind led him to an interest in marine archaeology.

Richard has discovered over 30 wrecks on the rocks and reefs in Guernsey waters, some by accident and others while un-snagging crab pots and trawl nets. He started to research these wrecks, and others which had been recorded in old newspapers and diaries but had never been located. His most important archaeological find was that of a Roman wreck, known as ‘Asterix’ which he discovered in the harbour mouth at St Peter Port in 1982.

Some years before this Richard came across a map in the Priaulx Library at St. Peter Port which houses some of the island’s archives. This is dated 1816 and shows a rock off the island of Brecqhou (close to Sark) with the words ‘Le Neste upon which the Valentine Indiaman was wrecked in 1779′. He became fascinated by the idea of finding the wreck but the very high rise and fall of the tide and strong currents, with many rocks in the area, make this a hazardous place in which to dive. However, Richard dived and successfully located the site in 1974. Others attempted to dive on the wreck the following year but their attempt was aborted. Eventually some pieces of lead, red dyewood, agate and pottery were retrieved and were declared to the Receiver of Wrecks.

On 9 January 1976 Richard gave a lecture to everyone interested in the wreck and as a result the ‘Valentines Excavation Group 1976’ was established to undertake a coordinated survey of the wreck site, near a rock called ‘Le Neste’ off the western tip of Brecqhou (to view the 1976 report click here). Dives were made on ten days, starting on 10 April with the last on 12 December. The seabed in the area comprises a mass of rocky gullies with gravel in the bottom, and with kelp growing on the rocks. Work on the site was only possible during neap tides and then only close to slack water, due to the strong currents. However the depth of the remains at diving time is between 10 to 18 metres, so the divers did not have any problems with decompression.

The main cargo of the vessel was salt petre which was much in demand for the manufacture of gun powder, a substance which would have dissolved in the sea. Another significant part of the cargo was red dyewood which was dunnage as well as being of value for dyeing. Large logs of dyewood were found as this is extremely hard wood. The timbers of the ship decomposed long ago although some canons remain to mark the site where the Valentine foundered. One interesting find was a broken anchor (which had been mentioned in the captain’s journal) with a cannon strapped to it. This illustrates the desperate attempts made by the crew to save their ship in 1779.

Richard Keen with richly coloured red dyewood (to left). Even after being in the sea for two-hundred years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut and it can still be used to dye fabric.

Since 1976 other dives have been held and a number of local people have retrieved items from the wreck site. Shards of blue and white Chinese porcelain are often found. It was made in China, loaded in Canton and either brought directly to England or taken to India by one of the many EIC ‘country ships’ used by the Company to transport their cargo in Asian waters. Porcelain was often packed in boxes with loose tea or pepper for padding, and best use of space. The Valentine had only visited India on her last voyage, but her cargo consisted of a range of Chinese porcelain from best quality items for the aristocratic tea party to thicker items for general use.

The finer shards illustrated right from a good quality (sugar?) bowl, decorated inside. The blue and white china was a popular design in England.

Many small pieces of agate were discovered (shown left), mostly orange or rust in colour. They were cut and roughly shaped square or rectangular in India to be made into signet rings and broaches in England. Agate is an extremely hard stone and it is remarkable that these pieces were smoothed and bevelled by India craftsmen without modern technology. Their loading was not noted in the captain’s journal so it is likely they were private trade.

Other items retrieved illustrate life on board ship: metal handles from furniture or travelling luggage (shown right), and ground glass stoppers for decanters or medical jars (shown right). They may have been for items used on the voyage – although there was a significant quantity found, which may suggest they were also part of the private trade.

Broken bottles were also found. They may have been loaded in Madeira and would have contained fortified or non-fortified wine. Madeira wine was collected on the outward journey and some of it was required for EIC staff in India. Apparently, the voyage improved the quality, if it wasn’t drunk by officers and passengers before they got back to England! As already stated, quantities of redwood have also been salvaged. Even after being in the sea for 200 years the red colour is vibrant when the wood is cut, and it can still be used to dye fabric.

While in 1808 and 1809, the EIC lost 10 ships that sailed with a cargo valued at over one million sterling. Dutch VOC has also lost 105 ships that sailed between 1602 and 1794. Bad period was between the years 1725-1749, when the VOC ship lost 44 on the way home from the east. 

SEJARAH MARITIM INDONESIA

Berabad-abad lampau, sebelum terjadi kolonialisasi bangsa-bangsa Eropa, perairan Nusantara sudah merupakan jalur penting pelayaran niaga dari berbagai belahan dunia. Beberapa pelabuhan penting di Nusantara yang sudah ada antara lain Pasai Aceh, Kota Cina Palembang, Banten, Batavia (Jakarta sekarang), Semarang, Demak, Jepara, Makassar, Gowa, Tallo, Sangihe, Talaud, Seram, serta Ternate. Perdagangan luar negeri Nusantara mulanya ditengarai dengan adanya perdagangan rempah-rempah asal Maluku oleh pedagang Arab dan India. Transportasi awal perdagangan rempah Nusantara ini melalui rute laut ke India, kemudian melewati darat melalui rute perdagangan ke Timur Tengah, dan berakhir di Eropa.

Ketika Roman Emperor Vespasion melarang ekspor emas dari Roma pada sekitar abad pertama, pedagang India pun beralih ke Nusantara –terutama Sumatera dan Jawa– sebagai alternatif impor emas. Selain pedagang India dan Arab, pedagang Melayu pun telah memainkan peran penting dalam rintisan rute kapal ke arah timur (Cina, Jepang) dan ke barat (India, Timur Tengah dan Afrika). Sejak abad ke-9 bangsa Cina juga memberi kontribusi pertumbuhan perdagangan laut melalui ekspor keramik.

Oleh karena itu dari berbagai catatan dan dokumen sejarah sejak abad ke-7 sampai ke-19 Masehi, ratusan bahkan ribuan kapal diduga telah mengalami karam atau tenggelam di Nusantara. Kapal-kapal tersebut berasal dari kapal dagang Cina (dari berbagai dinasti), kapal kerajaan-kerajaan di Nusantara, kapal-kapal Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (VOC), Belanda, Portugis, Spanyol, Inggris, serta Jepang. Penyebab kapal-kapal tersebut karam antara lain oleh badai dan cuaca buruk, pengetahuan navigasi geografis pelayaran yang kurang sehingga kapal menabrak karang, atau sebab lain seperti menjadi sasaran perompak dan peperangan.

Jumlah kapal hilang dan karam selama berabad-abad di perairan Nusantara memang tidak terhitung. Pada tahun 2001 National Geographic pernah melaporkan tujuh kapal kuno yang karam di perairan Nusantara bagian barat (Selat Malaka) pada abad XVII-XX Masehi. Kapal-kapal tersebut adalah Diana (Inggris), Tek Sing dan Turiang (Cina), Nassai dan Geldermalsen (Belanda), Don Duarte de Guerra (Portugis), dan Ashigara (Jepang).

Kapal layar Cina yang telah mengarungi perairan Asia –termasuk Nusantara– selama berabad-abad pun dilaporkan banyak yang tidak kembali. Selain itu, sejak tahun 1650, dari sekitar 800 kapal Portugis yang berlayar dari Lisabon, hampir 150 kapal tidak pernah terdengar lagi kabarnya. Hilang tanpa jejak.

Antara tahun 1600 sampai 1800, EIC menginformasikan telah kehilangan lebih dari 7.000 kapalnya. Umumnya kapal tersebut dinyatakan karam ke dasar laut terbawa bersama muatannya. Sementara pada tahun 1808 dan 1809, EIC kehilangan 10 kapal yang berlayar dengan muatan senilai satu juta sterling lebih. VOC Belanda juga telah kehilangan 105 kapal yang berlayar antara tahun 1602 dan 1794. Periode yang buruk adalah antara tahun 1725-1749, ketika VOC kehilangan 44 kapalnya dalam perjalanan pulang dari timur.

THE CULTURE  OF INDONESIAN UNDER WATER MARITIME

Exploration of the Sea and Fisheries Department (now Ministry of Marine Affairs and Fisheries) has an inventory of shipwrecks or sunken ships before World War II. There are at least 463 locations for the period between 1508 until 1878. Generally, the shipwreck was a merchant ship VOC, Portuguese ships, American ships, boats France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, and Asia (China, Japan, the archipelago). Of the 463 new locations 43 locations that have been successfully surveyed. However, only 10 locations payload object has been lifted.

There are about 300,000 objects lifted from the seabed and is now stored in special warehouses Objects Cargo Ship Sink (BMKT) in Cullinan, Bogor.
The ten points that have been raised generally valuable objects from the waters of Java and Sumatra.

Appointment of objects in Java waters is on the site Blanakan, Subang regency, 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, West Java, (2008); China Coral Island,

Thousand Islands, Jakarta, as well as in Jepara, Central Java, in 2008 . In the waters of Sumatra, the longest performed at Crocodile Island, Riau Islands, in 1998. In addition, Diamond Island, in the Strait of Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Gulf Sumpat in Tanjung Pinang, and Coral Heliputan in Riau Islands, in 2006.

Objects similar findings Heliputan Reef site was also found in the waters of the Thousand Islands, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, and West Kalimantan.

Lodging Thousand Islands found 11,000 objects made of various metals, such as gold, silver, bronze, and pewter. The findings probably derived from the 10th century AD. From the identification of the majority of the hull, the ship was made in Indonesia which sailed from Capital Sriwijaya, Palembang, to Central Java or East Java.
Mid-2008 in the village Punjulharjo, Apex, Central Java, some residents found relatively intact ancient boat, about 1 km from the beach.

The boat measures 4 m wide and 15.60 m long. Professor Pierre-Yves Manguin, maritime archaeologist from France, who invited Yogyakarta Archaeological Center to examine

the boat said the boat Apex dating back to

the Ancient Mataram Kingdom transitional Srivijaya, the period between the years 670-780 AD.

Tambuktu boat building technology using pegs or spot beam reinforced with rope fibers. On the boat found objects such as shells, pieces of sticks, and the head of the statue of Chinese women dress Java. The boat is a boat suspected of inter-island trade.

Warga Berdatangan Melihat Proses Evakuasi
In 2008, an ancient boat found in Bengawan Solo, precisely in the Village Banjarsari, District Trucuk, Bojonegoro, East Java.

In 2010 an ancient boat found another three who also predicted hundreds of years old, at the bottom of the river which is located in the Village District Panjunan Kalitidu and in District Malo.

Early identification stating a boat length up to 30 m with a width of 4 m. The boat is longer than the findings of an ancient boat in 2006 in the village of Padang, District Malo, which is known from Thailand made in 1312.


PENINGGALAN SEJARAH-BUDAYA BAWAH AIR

Departemen Eksplorasi Laut dan Perikanan (kini Departemen Kelautan dan Perikanan) telah menginventarisasi kapal karam atau kapal tenggelam sebelum Perang Dunia II. Setidaknya terdapat di 463 lokasi untuk periode antara tahun 1508 sampai 1878. Umumnya kapal karam tersebut adalah kapal dagang VOC, kapal Portugis, kapal Amerika, kapal Prancis, Inggris, Jerman, Belgia, dan Asia (Cina, Jepang, Nusantara). Dari 463 lokasi itu baru 43 lokasi yang telah berhasil disurvei. Namun, hanya 10 lokasi yang benda muatannya telah diangkat. Ada sekitar 300.000 benda yang terangkat dari dasar laut dan kini tersimpan di gudang khusus Benda Muatan Kapal Tenggelam (BMKT) di Cileungsi, Bogor.

Kesepuluh titik yang telah diangkat benda berharganya umumnya dari perairan Jawa dan Sumatera. Pengangkatan benda di perairan Jawa adalah di situs Blanakan, Kabupaten Subang, tahun 1998; Karangsong, Cirebon (2004); Karawang, Jabar, (2008); Pulau Karang Cina, Kepulauan Seribu, Jakarta; serta di Kabupaten Jepara, Jawa Tengah, pada 2008. Di perairan Sumatera, yang terlama dilakukan di Pulau Buaya, Kepulauan Riau, pada 1998. Selain itu, di Pulau Intan, di Selat Gelasa, Bangka Belitung; Teluk Sumpat di Tanjung Pinang; dan Karang Heliputan di Kepulauan Riau, tahun 2006.

Benda temuan serupa situs Karang Heliputan juga ditemukan di perairan Kepulauan Seribu, Bangka Belitung, Cirebon, dan Kalimantan Barat. Khusus di Kepulauan Seribu ditemukan 11.000 benda terbuat dari aneka logam, seperti emas, perak, perunggu, dan timah. Temuan-temuan itu diduga berasal dari abad ke-10 Masehi. Dari identifikasi sebagian badan kapal, kapal itu buatan Indonesia yang berlayar dari Ibu Kota Sriwijaya, Palembang, menuju Jawa Tengah atau Jawa Timur.

Medio 2008 di Desa Punjulharjo, Rembang, Jawa Tengah, sejumlah warga menemukan perahu kuno yang relatif utuh, sekitar 1 km dari pantai. Perahu itu berukuran lebar 4 m dan panjang 15,60 m. Profesor Pierre-Yves Manguin, arkeolog maritim asal Perancis, yang diundang Balai Arkeologi Yogyakarta untuk meneliti perahu tersebut menyatakan, perahu Rembang berasal dari zaman peralihan Kerajaan Mataram Kuno ke Sriwijaya, periode antara tahun 670-780 Masehi. Teknologi pembuatan perahu menggunakan tambuktu atau balok tempat pasak yang diperkuat dengan ikatan tali ijuk. Di perahu itu ditemukan benda seperti tempurung kelapa, potongan tongkat, dan kepala arca perempuan Cina berdandan Jawa. Diduga perahu itu merupakan perahu dagang antar pulau.

Pada tahun 2008, sebuah perahu kuno ditemukan di Bengawan Solo, tepatnya di Desa Banjarsari, Kecamatan Trucuk, Bojonegoro, Jawa Timur. Tahun 2010 ditemukan lagi tiga perahu kuno yang juga diperkirakan berusia ratusan tahun, di dasar sungai yang terletak di Desa Panjunan Kecamatan Kalitidu dan di Kecamatan Malo. Identifikasi awal menyatakan panjang perahu mencapai 30 m dengan lebar 4 m. Perahu tersebut lebih panjang dibandingkan dengan temuan perahu kuno pada 2006 di Desa Padang, Kecamatan Malo, yang diketahui asal Thailand buatan tahun 1312

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )

 

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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PART III.  

3.1.2

Report of  Shipwrecks Finding in South East Asia 

Laporan Temuan Kapal Karam di Asia tenggara

A short description of the developments, transport and production of ancient Chinese porcelain

(Sten Sjostrand)

This text is part of the Wanli shipwreck catalogue: “The Wanli Shipwreck and its Ceramic Cargo”

Early Production:Jingdezhen, the ‘city of all day thunder and lightning,’ is located in the northeastern part of Jiangxi province and is known as the porcelain centre of the world.  Some historians believe that ceramics production may have started there in the Han dynasty (206 BC.–AD. 220) with kilns spread along the Chang River, south and southeast of the town.

The town was then called

Xinping Town or Changnan

for its location to the south (nan) of the Chang River.  Pottery clay was in ample supply all around the town. 

More specifically,

 

the Gaoling mountain,

40 kilometers to the northeast, is one of the few areas in China which provided pure kaolin, one of the essential ingredients for porcelain. 

Other nearby areas such as

Nankang,

Sanbaopeng,

Dongliu

 

and Liujiawan

provided the other ingredient; the so-called ‘China stone.’

 

Another important material was fuel for the kilns. Pine wood was found in abundance around the town. 

 

 

The Chang River

provided transport for raw material to the kilns as well as for later shipping of the finished products. 

In summary, the ample clay resources, fuel supply, convenient transportation and eventual imperial favors provided the necessary catalyst for potters from other places in China to join in the commercial pottery production in the town.

Other texts say that pottery was being made

 

at Jingdezhen by A.D. 557

and that it had grown into an industry

 

by Tang dynasty (A.D. 618-906). 

Old texts mention the Tao kilns, which are said to be named after the Tao family who founded the kilns and who made high-fired pottery already then known to be translucent and often referred to as ‘artificial jade’.In support of this industry, Guangzhou in southern China became a thriving seaport that by the Tang dynasty was home to a large Arab community with its own mosques and trading houses.

 

 

By the reign of emperor Jingde (1004-1007) of the Song dynasty (960-1280), the court decreed that existing private kilns fire quality wares for imperial use and that the pieces should be marked with ‘Made in the Jingde period’ on the base. 
 
The town (zhen) was thereafter known as Jingdezhen and the earlier name of Changnan was gradually forgotten. 
 
This decree did not result in the creation of new kilns but merely appointed established private kilns to add imperial wares to their production. 
 
The kilns were thus producing high quality wares for the imperial court at the same time as producing common dinner sets for the domestic markets at the same time.

Tributary pottery for the court, like the thin-walled ‘thin as paper’ or qingbai wares, were made at the Hutian kilns in the northern Song dynasty.

 

By 1278 production at the Hutian kilns

was overseen by a government official from the ‘Porcelain Office’ who also overlooked the imperial production

at the Luomaqiao kilns and those on the Zhushan hill.

  Hutian had a great impact on other Jingdezhen kilns which began producing similar quality wares.  At this time, it appears certain that imperial wares were not fired in a kiln specially created for that purpose. 

Instead, after receiving production requirements from the court, Jingdezhen would summon all the best ceramists together to design, choose and fire the best ware possible.  (It is likely that this communal corroboration between the different potteries and kilns lasted until at least the 15th century and beyond, when private kilns are known to have assisted official kilns with imperial orders.)

During the Song dynasty high-fired ceramics were immensely popular and developed to perfection.

  Lot

Sung yueh colour motif dragon ear vase

Thousands of pieces were exported annually to the Middle East, India and Southeast Asia.  Despite this successful trade, the Song court was forced to exploit every means in order to pay ‘peace money’ to the Mongol invaders and to maintain its own administration and military.

  Aware of the threats from the invaders and its own diminishing empire and lack of finances, the court decided to increase its revenue by increasing foreign trade.  One of these measures was to establish Superintendents of Shipping offices and sponsoring of overseas trade. 

In combination with active sponsorship, this trade would greatly benefit the Chinese economy and spur the industrialization of the potteries at Jingdezhen. 

These late Song dynasty Superintendents offices were thus established at Guangzhou in the south,

 

hangzhou now,Driwan ever visit this beautiful city

Hangzhou in Zhekiang province

 

 Kaiyuan temple pagoda  in Quanzhou,Driwan wvwe visit this pagoda at his grandfather homeland

and Quangzhou in Fujian province

 

South Sung Celadon Plate with  insiced chrysanthenum flower motif

 

<!– –><!– –>

 

Although large quantities of Chinese pottery were exported to Southeast Asia, India and the Middle East from the 9th century, it was the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) under the rule of Kublai Khan that significantly expanded maritime trade. 
 
During the Mongol invasion of northern China it would appear that Cizhou potters from present-day Cixian of Handan municipally,
 

Human motif and dragon motif yuan cizhou vase

 
Hebei province migrated to the south and assisted in the technical and decorative achievements of porcelain making in Jingdezhen.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The technique of painting with iron black oxides before glazing, so long practiced elsewhere in China, may have given birth to the first cobalt decorated wares of Jingdezhen, although underglaze cobalt decorated wares from the Gongxian kiln in Henan are known from Tang times. 
 
This politically motivated transfer of technology resulted in the best known ceramics of all time – blue and white porcelain.  It also had a fundamental effect on Jingdezhen production, China’s trade and eventually on the whole world, although its full impact would not be seen until the fourteenth century. 

During the Yuan dynasty the Chinese potters introduced new forms and painted the earliest known untraditional Chinese motifs on high quality porcelain for foreign dignitaries. 

 

Yuan Dinasty high quality Vase wuth human figure motif vase

Porcelain that was customized to suit the needs of the Middle East included large plates with Islamic motifs. 

 

Yuan dynasti ceramic  with islamic motif

Shards from such plates, excavated from the original Yuan dynasty official kilns, are not imperial in form although the body and glaze are clearly of imperial quality.  This type of early export ware was reportedly not made before 1328, and the ware was not made after 1352. 

 

 

 

<!– –><!– –>

 

The earlier date is based on excavations at the kiln sites where the painted pattern was not seen before this date.  The later date marks the future Hongwu emperor’s conquest of the area and the subsequent cessation of production.  Professor Liu Xinyuan who excavated the kilns re-affirmed that shards from such large plates, excavated from these kilns are not Chinese but more suited for the Islamic markets.

The official kilns did however seem to have flourished during these times.  In the early Ming dynasty another 20 kilns in Jingdezhen were recognized for their quality wares and commissioned to produce ‘imperial porcelain’ exclusively for the court.  These kilns were set up next to an ‘imperial depot’ in 1425 which was to assemble, store and arrange transport to Beijing and the imperial palace.

While production for overseas markets was reduced, private kilns in Jingdezhen made blue and white porcelain for the huge domestic market.  Work for the official kilns was increased in 1433 when the Ming court ordered 443,500 pieces of porcelain for the imperial household. 

To fill this order, the number of official kilns was increased to 58.  In addition to the added production capacity, which probably came from up-grading previously private kilns, privately owned kilns assisted with the production of standardized wares.  Official kilns continued to make the finer wares. 

The 1433 order, as with most other imperial orders, was overseen by eunuch commissioners appointed by the court. Imperial orders in 1529 were limited to 2,570 pieces, but they gradually increased to 174,700 pieces in 1577.  

Private kilns that assisted with imperial production are thought to have been allowed to sell off rejected imperial pieces provided none bore the emperor’s reign mark.

The ‘flesh and bones’ of porcelain were two components mixed in different proportions depending of the type of ware desired.  The first of the ingredients is kaolin, a pure white clay formed by the decomposition of aluminum silicates, in particular decomposed feldspar. 

Yuan qingbei dragonphonix ewer found in Aceh and west borneo

Kaolin remains white when fired, but its low plasticity makes it difficult to pot. The clay is quarried in open mines and washed in a series of ponds where the finer particles are separated from heavier impurities. 

Only the upper supernatant fluid was allowed into a second and a third pond before the clay was dried and made into bricks. The word kaolin derives from the Gaoling (‘High Ridge’) hill 40 kilometers northeast of Jingdezhen where the clay was first found.

 

The ‘bones’ in porcelain is China stone (petuntse), a granitic grayish white stone which still retains much unaltered feldspar, quartz and sericite. 

After being pulverized by water driven pestles, the powder from the stone is also washed in successive ponds and then dried into bricks.  This material, by itself, can be fired only to about 1,150˚ Centigrade and is off-white in color.  The kaolin-petuntse mixture, however, is white and plastic and when used with for blue and white wares, is fired at 1,250-1,330˚ Centigrade.

Both materials were quarried in mines outside Jingdezhen by specialized mills and transported by river boats to the potteries. 

It is believed that very few expert suppliers of kaolin and China stone were in operation during the Ming dynasty, although a Qing dynasty treatise on porcelain of 1815 indicates that there were 28 rapids, each of them with water-driven pestles, east of Jingdezhen. 

After the pots were trimmed and allowed to dry, skilled artisans would decorate them. Outlines, for instance, could be drawn in darker cobalt mixture before other decorators used different shades of blue to fill in the design.

After the painted decoration was applied, the foot-ring was carved and circular rings were painted onto the base while the pot was still on the wheel.  Other craftsmen would then apply reign marks or an inscription within the rings. 

Some pieces of porcelain from The Wanli Shipwreck included the circular outlines on the base but no markings within them. These must have by-passed the decorator who was supposedly meant to fill them. Yet other kraak plates by-passed the artisans supposed to paint the fill in the main decorations.

After their decoration, the pots were glazed with a thin layer of specially prepared slurry containing fern ash.  This glaze mixture was delivered to the kilns in Jingdezhen as a liquid by specially lined river boats. 

When the pots were glazed and dried, the painted decoration disappeared under the whitish slurry, but reappeared after firing as crystal blue below transparent glaze.

 

Chinese tradition claims that the earliest cobalt at Jingdezhen was imported from Persia. This ore was rich in iron.  Later cobalt oxide, high in manganese, mined in China was utilized, sometimes in varying mixtures with imported cobalt.

 

The wanli Kraak Porcelain plate with the bird on rock longevity symbol motif

Once the pots were decorated and glazed, most private workshops sent them to kilns that specialized in firing ceramics.  The pots were carried on wooden planks added in layers to a ladder-like structure.  The early matiyao kilns were commonly built on the slope of hills in an area that was not necessarily suited to workshops.  From the 16th century, egg-shaped kilns (zhen yao) or mantou type kilns become more popular as they and the later ‘beehive’ kilns could be constructed on flat ground 

During the 13th century many other kilns were spread out over a large area southeast of the town.  The author visited the excavation of an early Song dynasty kiln 40 kilometers west of the Chang River in August 2005.

These remotely located kilns do however appear to have moved closer to the city center by the Yuan dynasty, possibly in connection with increased overseas trade.  It is reported in the Yuan-dynasty Notes of Ceramics by Jiang Qi that “All together there were over three hundred kilns in Jingdezhen.”  Wares made in these kilns were white, clean and flawless.  When sold in other provinces in China, people called them ‘jades’.

By the time the Mongols had established the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368), trade flourished. The seaports established by the Song court became even more successful under Mongol rule.   Marco Polo (1275-1292) wrote that Quanzhou harbor was the greatest port in the world and also mentioned the ceramics trade:

At the kiln, the pieces of pottery were placed in saggars, specially-made circular boxes, to ensure they received uniform temperature and to protect them from air currents and debris that might fall from the kiln ceiling.  The arrangement of the saggars in the kiln took into account the heat requirements for the different types of ware.  Observers in the 18th century report that it took about eight days to reach the required temperature.

  A kiln master determined the temperature by observing the color of the saggars.  When they reached silver-red, the fire was stopped.  Even though three to four days was allowed for initial cooling, the saggars as well as the kiln interior were still very hot when special workmen covered in wet cloth removed them.  The difficulties in determining kiln temperature and related risks are described in Pere’ d’Entrecolles letter of 1712:

“……the whole oven-full is hardly ever successful.  Sometimes it is quite lost, and when they open the furnace they find the porcelain pieces and the                 cases (saggars) are reduced to a mass as hard as rock…. For one workman who gets rich  there are hundred others who ruin themselves, though          they still try their fortunes further in the hope that they may save enough to become shopkeepers”.

A word of caution is in place here.  When referring to ‘kilns’ it is perhaps common to assume a place where the pots were made, decorated, glazed and fired.

  This may not be true for the export production as there were relatively few ‘kilns’ but many small potteries scattered all over the town.  It is therefore possible that future archaeology will discover actual kilns, specialized in firing the ware, while other places may yield evidences of porcelain production. 

These separate production segments are probably confirmed by Tang Ying, alias Jun Gong, who was decreed to supervise porcelain production in Jingdezhen during the early 18th century. His detailed description of all phases of production includes a statement about making the saggars:

…In the whole district of Jingdezhen there are only three or four workmen reputed clever at this special handiwork.”

Individual owners separated the fired wares into different quality groups and priced the export ware accordingly. 

 

 ArtsofAsiaVol40-3p71.jpg

high quality late ming plate with bird motif plate

FFirst class wares had the brightest color and no kiln defects such as warping; pieces with lower density color became second class. 

Read more late Ming Porcelain (not upload)

Read more

Overview of Folk Kiln (Minyao) Ming Blue and White (not upload)

Low quality late ming people kil ware with chillin gyardian motif plate

The remainder was sold on the domestic market.  Ceramics intended for overseas markets were packed in straw bundles and sent to the river for onward transport.  The domestic ware was not packed in straw but tied up in bundles of 30-40 pieces before being distributed.

When the volume of porcelain for export increased during the 17th century, many additional kilns appeared in and around Jingdezhen. 

There is estimated to have been no less than a thousand kilns at the peak of this period.  Most of the kilns were distributed along the eastern side of the Chang River, only a few were located on its western bank. Most private kilns were located along the Taoyang Shisan Li (‘thirteen mile’) road that ran north to south through the old city zone. 

The official kilns were located at or near Zhushan hill in the old city center.

Continued developments at Jingdezhen during the early Qing dynasty resulted in the finest porcelains ever made – those from the Kangxi (1662-1722) reign. Blue and white porcelains of that time were perfectly potted, fired to perfection, and decorated in sapphire blue against a bright white ground.

read  more

Kangxi transitional porcelain(not upload)

 

 

high quality Kangxi transitional porcelain plate

 

Thus, from the Ming dynasty we see superior quality porcelain wares made by specially appointed workshops for the exclusive use of the court. 

Read More

Ming High Quality Ware(not upload ) 

At the same time private kilns produce porcelain for the huge domestic and an ever increasing export market.

  We see private kilns assisting official workshops with large orders, and official potters and decorators joining the export industry when court orders diminished.  This degree of adaptability and outsourcing is unparalleled at any other production place at the time.

read more info

Overview of Folk Kiln (Minyao) Ming Blue and White

 (not Upload)

The Portuguese buyers:

 

In time, yet another political situation benefited Jingdezhen.

 

  In Europe the Portuguese made technical advances that led to the development of a merchant fleet. 

And their goal was to purchase spices directly from Southeast Asia rather than via Muslim middlemen in the Middle East and other agents in Italy. 

As a result of this desire for spices, they found Chinese porcelain first in India and then, after their settlement in Melaka was established in 1511, in China. 

The first pieces of Jingdezhen ware brought back to Portugal by ship were acquired in India and presented to

 Manuel I.jpg

King Manuel I

 

by Vasco da Gama.

Meanwhile, some of the early Portuguese ‘trade’ in Asia consisted of looting of Arab, Chinese and Indian merchant ships. 

This approach was not appreciated by the Chinese court which prohibited contact with the newcomers. 

Nevertheless, the Portuguese managed to order porcelain from Fujian middlemen, and eventually they were forwarding drawings to Jingdezhen for specially designed pieces.  The special orders included a blue and white ewer bearing the Portuguese armillary sphere, the emblem of King Manuel I (1495-1521), and various shapes decorated with other coats-of-arms.  While the designs were sometimes painted upside-down or misinterpreted in other ways, they show how willing the Chinese potters were to please new customers.

 

Ewer.
One of the earliest examples of Chinese porcelain made for a Portuguese patron. It presents the typical white and blue Ming decoration, featuring the armillary sphere, the emblem of King Manuel I.

The taste for Chinese porcelain in Portugal and elsewhere in Europe slowly gained popularity during the later part of the 16th century when the Portuguese royalty gifted other European nobilities with this exclusive commodity which they alone could acquire at source.  Here it is important to note that Chinese celadon, an important export in earlier times, rarely entered the trade with Europeans.  Blue and white porcelain had already become more fashionable than celadon in the 15th century, and the Portuguese arrived at the beginning of the 16th century.

 

Portuguese praise for Chinese blue and white porcelain can be seen in a letter by

 Bartolomé d e los Mártires

Frei Bartolomeu dos Martires

who, during a dinner with

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Pope Pius lV in 1563,

 

compared porcelain to silver tableware:

Large volumes of blue and white porcelain were exported to Southeast Asia during 1328-1352. 

Whether the Chinese chronicler Wang Ta-yuan’s reports, made during many years of visiting Southeast Asian countries, refer to qingpai as we know it today or blue and white porcelain, the David vases of 1351 confirm that Chinese blue and white porcelain production was well developed by the middle of the 14th century.

Shapes like cups and bowls were first thrown on the wheel.

After drying, back on the wheel, the leather hard pot was trimmed while careful measurements were taken to check overall diameter, height, thickness and foot-ring details.

  Upright forms were made in different sections that were luted together by adding clay slurry to the join surfaces. Plates were first thrown on the wheel before pressed to exact size in moulds. 

These moulds could sometimes have ridges, striations or other impressed designs.  An 18th century traveler to Jingdezhen reported, somewhat inaccurately, that these plates were so exact that they did not vary more than a hairbreadth in size.  Although this may be true in the 18th century, very few plates in the Wanli 17th century cargo had the same overall or foot-ring diameter.

Transition to blue and white porcelain:

Jingdezhen porcelain manufacturing:

When the Hongwu emperor, first ruler of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644),  prohibited the building of ocean going vessels and private overseas trade in 1371, it had a detrimental effect on export production at Jingdezhen. 

 

With the exception of increased trade in the time of the fabled Zheng He’s treasure ship voyages,

Read more about Zheng He

An Oriental armada(not upload)

very few ceramics were officially exported from China between the third quarter of the 14th and the late 15th century. There was however substantial smuggling despite the ‘Ming ban.’

One text states that when “not a single board was allowed to put out to sea, some renowned families at coastal areas built naval [narrow and fast ships] vessels without permission.  They sailed away to do business in many foreign countries every year.”

The quality of the Jingdezhen porcelain does however fall into two distinct basic groups.

 

high quality Ming  Hsuande Ceramic found in Indonrsi

One was made strictly for the imperial court and the other for the domestic and export markets.  Because imperial ware was made to strict specifications, personal artistic expression by the decorators was not only minimized but simply not allowed.  As a consequence of strict quality control, imperial porcelain may tend to appear artistically lifeless but is famous for its technical qualities.  Private kilns, on the other hand, made whatever form and decorative styles were in fashion and acceptable to foreign buyers.  On these wares individual decorators display their own styles of painting based on personal interpretation of traditional motifs, making them lively, innovative and individual.

 

It is unfortunate that export wares have been described as ‘provincial’ or even ‘unrefined,’ which suggest the pots were made in a different area than Jingdezhen and that private potteries were unable to produce quality ware. 

The truth is that the two categories of ware satisfied specific markets.  The private potters and decorators, as enterprising then as now, simply adapted a flexible market strategy for niche markets.  If freely sketched motifs and thick bodied ceramics mean they are ‘unrefined’, they certainly are not ‘provincial’ in any way.

“In Portugal we have a kind of tableware which, being made of clay, may be compared advantageously to silver both in its elegance and its cleanliness, and I would counsel all princes to use it in preference to any other service and to banish silver from their tables.

In Portugal we call it porcelain. It comes from India and is made in China. The clay is so fine and transparent that the whites outshine crystal and alabaster, and the pieces which are decorated in blue dumbfound the eyes, seeming a combination of alabaster and sapphires.

They are not concerned about their fragility since they are quite cheap. They may be esteemed by the greatest princes for their delight and curiosity, and this is why we have them in Portugal.

“The most beautiful vessels and plates of porcelain, large and small, that one can describe are made in  great quantity…more beautiful than can be found in any other city.  And on all sides they are much valued, for none of them are made in another place but in this city and from there they are carried to many places throughout the world.  And there is plenty there and the great sale, so great that for one Vientiane goat you would actually have three bowls so beautiful that none would know how to devise then better”.

read nore

 

 

PORTUGAL in PORCELAIN from CHINA   500 YEARS OF TRADE(not Upload)

This situation was also witnessed by the Arab traveler Ebn-e-Batuteh (1304-1378)

 

by the Arab traveler Ibn Batuta (1304-1378) who reportedly saw over a hundred big ships and innumerable smaller ships in Quangzhou harbor.

Read more

Ibn Batuta 1307-1377  – Morocco(not upload)

who reportedly saw over a hundred big ships and innumerable smaller ships in Quangzhou harbor.

 Photo: A mosaic of Marco Polo

Centuries after Marco Polo praised Chinese ‘porcelain’ and remarked on the large volume of export,

 

 

Father Matteo Ricci, writing about China in the period of his residency there (1582-1610), noted:

“The finest specimens of porcelain are made from clay found in the province of Jiangxi, and these are shipped not only to every part of China but even to the remotest corners of Europe where they are highly prized by those who appreciate elegance at their banquets rather than pompous display. This porcelain too, will bear the heat of hot foods without cracking and, what is more to be wondered at; if it is broken and sewed with brass wire it will hold liquids without any leakage.”

It is difficult to ascertain the volume of Jingdezhen porcelain intended for the European market in the later part of the 16th century due to lack of records.

  However, in the early 17th century

 

when the Portuguese carrack Santa Catarina

was captured by the Dutch there were more than thirty last (sixty tones) or about 100.000 pieces of porcelain in her holds.  When later auctioned in Holland it started a Dutch craze for Chinese porcelain.  Its fame spread to the rest of Europe by the second half of the century.

The Dutch buyers:

Export production at Jingdezhen witnessed yet another boost when the Dutch arrived in China in the early 17th century.  With the Portuguese well established in Macao, the doorstep to China,

the Dutch had repeated disputes with the Portuguese and the Chinese administration.  Misbehaving, as the Portuguese did before them, the Dutch were forced to trade along the Chinese coast and from various illegal settlements with primarily Fujian merchants.  The difficulties the Dutch had in establishing direct trade with the Jingdezhen potteries is reflected in a letter by Kr. Kohn, an officer of the Dutch VOC company in 1616: 

“These porcelains sold to us were produced in an inland kiln which was very far away, and those porcelain need to be ordered and paid in advance.”

From their various illegal bases on China’s coast, on Taiwan, and at later establishment in Japan, the Dutch had to wait a full year for their deliveries.  Yet, despite the distance and with unprecedented trust in the Chinese middlemen, the Dutch alone already in 1608 ordered more than 108,000 pieces of porcelain, a number that grew to 355,800 pieces in 1644, for the European market alone.

 

 

read more

Dutch colonial rule of Taiwan(not upload)

 

the Chinese export vase  with floral and human figure motif

Read more

Chinese Export Porcelain(not uplaod)

Following the sale of the porcelain cargo from Santa Catarina, it has been estimated that between at 1604 and 1657, more than three million porcelain pieces were shipped to Europe by the Dutch alone. Adding the even higher volume of porcelain for Southeast Asian markets, the total production at Jingdezhen was staggering.

 

 

Nouveau_Dessin_OpenDocument 

A Chinese Blue And White Porcelain Dutch Market Armorial Charger, Qing Dynasty, Kangxi Period (1662-1722)

The Dutch, as the Portuguese before them, relied on standard types of ware with standard decorations but often complained about the quality. 

In 1618 the Dutch officers of the VOC company in Surat complained about a Portuguese advantage:

“Your Honour forwards to us of the other kinds should be just right and good, because it will be judged for these qualities, as the Portuguese carry hither extra-ordinary fine and exquisite wares, so much so that our fine is coarse when compared with theirs.”

It was not only better quality the Portuguese managed to secure for themselves.  Marked porcelain pieces were not only popular in Europe but also in Southeast Asia and India. 

Another letter from a VOC official on the Coromandel Coast, dated 1610, complains about the lack of marked pieces delivered by the Chinese:

“It should be seen to that all these afore-noted kinds of porcelain have under the bottom a blue seal, for about this they are very particular.”

In the late Wanli (1573-1620) period imperial orders for Jingdezhen had dwindled and normal deliveries to Beijing become risky. 

At the same time some of the official kilns, were razed during peasant revolts and eventually closed in 1608.

With continued economic troubles and lack of imperial orders worsened by the approaching Manchus, the remaining kilns closed and did not re-open until a few years into the Qing dynasty. 

During this ‘transitional’ period (circa 1620-1663), some private kilns managed to stay in production for an ever increasing export market.  Unemployed potters and decorators from the official kilns joined the private kilns and were instrumental in improving production.  ‘Transitional’ wares from the 17th century are characterized by fine naturalistic motifs that are painted in brilliant blue cobalt and covered by a clear smooth glaze.

 

 TWO CHINESE BLUE AND WHITE PORCELAIN WARES,

 

Transitional cup and stempcup with natural landscape motif with brillian colour blue and smooth glaze

From about 1634 onwards, Chinese junk captains took orders from the Dutch for porcelain in special shapes for which models of European objects were provided.

There were also special patterns including ‘Dutch flower-and-leaf work’. 

 Chinese blue and white moulded teabowl and saucer,

 

Qing Dutch flower-and-leaf work’plate and cup

Some designs were initially incorporated into typical kraak panels, a practice that shows how the Jingdezhen decorators adopted new motifs to please their buyers.

 

 

VOC  emblem Kraak style Plate

read more

Kraak porcelain is a type of Chinese export porcelain produced mainly from the Wanli reign (1573–1620) until around 1640. It was among the first Chinese export ware to arrive in Europe in mass quantities, and was frequently featured in Dutch still life paintings of foreign luxuries, as in the one by Jan Davidsz de Heem at right.

(not upload)

Until late 1630s the supply of porcelain from Jingdezhen was relatively steady, but in the early 1640s there were reports of war in Jingdezhen and high mortality rates among the potters.  Production did however continue, and in large quantities, but supply remained uncertain until about 1657 when the Dutch ordered much of their porcelain in Japan.

 read more

 Japanese Arita porcelain for VOC

Japanese Arita VOC emblem plate

The Dutch East India Company, The Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie, VOC (1602-1798)-Not Upload

All Jingdezhen ceramics began their long journeys on the Chang River loaded

 Chang River banks in Jingdezhen. Photo: © Jan-Erik Nilsson, 1992

 

on small river boats.

 

 

 

The first transit point was at

 

 

Lake Poyang

where the cargo was transferred to larger boats that proceeded through the lake into

 1837 Antique engraving: VIEW of HANGZHOU, CHINA, Yangtze River, Zhejiang. 176 years old copper engraving

the Yangtze River

and downstream to

 

Nanjing.

  From there some of the boats followed

 

 
Loading zoom

the Grand Canal

and its associated waterways north to reach

 

vintage summer palace at beijing
 
 

Beijing

Driwan visit Summer Palace in 2008

also forvidden city,great wall,and xianmen(gulangyu island)

Gu lang yu island Xianmen 

The Greeat wall China 

Forbidden city Beijing 

a hazardous journey of about 1,900 kilometers. 

Other boats went south on the Grand Canal to reach

 photo

Hangzhou,

Driwan Visit  Naning, Hangzgou,Guillin and canton south china in 2009

 Nanning of Jiangsi autonom province by

 

Bus and Train ,  in 2008 visit

Xianmen city

 

at Sin Hua Book store near my Hotel where I found Chinese coin catalogue

 

Native market like in Indonesia

 

 Xianmen with beautiful Gulangyu island, by bus to

 my grandpa homeland

 

 Chiangzhou city to find more info and look

 

 

 the amazing tallest pagoda Kai yuan Quanzhou fujian

old village where my grandpa was born , from Xiamen by flight to

 Beijing by China Airlines to look

 

olympic games station,

With my wife Lily

 

 

 

south china Guangzou(canton),Hangzou to Guillin to look the amazing dancer on the river,

3.THE SHI BA SUI WATERFALL AT HEZOU
The common waterfall was decorated with Handmade lake, beautiful and clean road to the waterfall which made the exciting landscape . the clever decrated area must be copy by many countries like Indonesia where more exciting waterfall still in the riginalsituations the same with another place , if the landscape were ddecrated like the picture below , I think will be more beautiful an interesting area.

4.THE TEMPLE OF DRAGON’S MOTHER AT WUZHOU
The temple of the mother of China Emperors Prince Crown was from Wu Zhou, in this temple there were the Statue of the China Empires Prince Crown during the ancient Emprire Before Christ, at the top of the hill beside the Yuanyang River was the Dragons Mother statue. Dragon was the symbols of the China Emperor, I think She was a concubine and his son became the crwn prince because the Empress didnot have the sons (the same as the Empress Dwager Xi Cie). Look at the paintings and the monument below (the Mother and crown prince will illustrated at the unique collections from WuZhou.

5.YUE XIU PARK GUANZHOU
This beautiful and exciting park sitatuated at YueXiu Hill in the Guan Zhou (before Canton), consist seven hill, three builded Lake and The Goat Statue of Guan Zhou city emblem ,look at that city emblem photo illustrations below.

.at guangzhou night market I found many achina numismatic collection with colour illustration which help me much to open the mystery of chinese cast coin script and code of reign

canton at night

a journey of 1,000 kilometers. 

Other rivers and waterways coupled with some overland transport allowed porcelain cargoes to reach such seaports as

 ZHANGZHOU - SEPTEMBER 27: Hakka people settle in Tulou building on September 27 2010, in Zhangzhou, China. The Hakka people arrived from Central China to settle in Zhangzhou after centuries of war. - stock photo

Zhangzhou,

 

Kiyuan temple at Quanzhou

Quanzhou

Dr Iwan Grandpa Homeland

and

 Western old buildings preserved in Fuzhou city

Fuzhou in Fujian province,

 

Wenzhou in the Zhejiang province

 

 

and Changzhou in northern Guangdong province. 

The most cumbersome but most frequently used route in the 17th and 18th centuries ran from Jingdezhen to

 

Guangzhou (Canton) in southern China. 

This route began in Lake Poyang and proceeded up the Gan River to Nanchang.  Re-loaded onto smaller river boats, the porcelain cargo would then continue upstream to Ganzhou (122 meters above sea level).  Continuing on smaller rivers, the cargo boats eventually reached the southern border of Jiangxi province.

  Here the porcelain had to be hand carried over 

 
 
 
 
 
 
How Amizing pictures, Dr iwan in 2008 ever visit this area when back from Nanning to hanoi via the freedom Pass border ,now there were best road there but we must claimbed by foot,but Driwan by electric golf car
 

the Meiling Pass,

a stretch of some 30 kilometers that reached about 275 meters above sea level.  After the Meiling Pass, the goods was again re-loaded onto small boats that navigated the winding narrow upper reaches of

 

 

the Bei Jiang River

before reaching Guangzhou after a cumbersome, time-consuming journey of about 1,400 kilometers.

River transport was without doubt long and cumbersome.  Crews rowed long distances against the current and often used poles to push the heavily loaded boats though shallows and rocky streams.  In addition to this work and responsibility, whether they started upstream or downstream, they had to return to their original place of loading before repeating the journey.

 

With hundreds of thousands of pieces of porcelain transported during most years of the 17th century and many more in the 18th century, the transport of porcelain was another large industry in itself.  With large numbers of small boats navigating sometimes small and winding rivers, coming and going, the rivers were both crowded and dangerous, not least for the fragile cargo.

 

From coastal ports in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong, Ming and Qing dynasty porcelain reached Chinese merchants and shippers who supplied the Spanish in the Philippines, the Portuguese in Guangzhou and Macao, and the Dutch in Taiwan and later Japan.  In the early 17th century, when the Fujian people depended in fishing and cargo transport, they were prohibited from building large double-masted ships for fear they might supply the unpopular Dutch in Japan.   A special permit, which was often falsified by corrupt officials, was required for smaller ships before they could set sail to foreign countries.  Following the fall of the Ming dynasty, this situation reversed.  In the late 17th century Fujian ports exported more ceramics than Guangdong.  Although Macao and Guangdong saw more ships departing, the Fujian ships were larger.   This changed again in the 18th century when almost all porcelain cargo was handled by Hong merchants in Guangzhou, who supplied European ‘factories’ established on the shores of Guangzhou.

 

Newly discovered private kilns

While many kiln wasters has been found from the earlier production outside Jingdezhen town, increasingly more kilns from the Yuan, Ming and Qing dynasties are now being discovered in Jingdezhen.  Most of these are private kilns from the Ming and Qing dynasties.

 

A number of such export kilns has been investigated by Professor Cao Jianwen and Ms. Luo Yifei from the Jingdezhen Ceramic Institute.  These investigations include the Liujia Xianong kiln (2003) and Lianhualing kiln (2005), both situated within the old city zone, Miesilong kiln (2004), and the large Guanyinge kiln complex (2001) which is located north of the old city zone as well as the Dongfeng Cichang (2002-2003) and Xin Hua Cichang kilns just east of the old city zone.  These kiln sites provide a wide variety of blue and white kraak ware, thin walled bowls, large diameter bowls ranging from very high quality to medium and low quality.  The Lianhualing kiln provided a few shards with a Dutch tulip motif, and Guanyinge and the Liujia Xianong site provided medium sized plates with double deer motifs in the medallion.

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffic 

PART III.  

3.1.3

 

TRANSPORTATION AND TRADING TO SOUTH EAST ASIA

(1) Sten Sjostrand added by driwan studies info

The relative ease of transportation on

 

the Chang River

and its tributaries was a key circumstance in the successful development of

 

the porcelain industry in Jingdezhen. 

Look The jingdechen now please click

 http://chinaceramic.info/china-ceramic-news/ceramics/item/317-5a-level-tourist-attraction-with-ceramic-culture-as-the-theme-in-jingdezhen

One Ming official,

Miu Zongzhou,

wrote that

Kilns are arranged along the rivers and boats and ships which carry porcelain come and go everyday”. (31)  

 

Despite Jingdezhen’s location in the remote corner of Jiangxi province,

these boats and ships managed to transport huge volumes of ceramics to domestic markets as far away as Beijing as well as to different seaports for shipping overseas.

 

Directly related to The Wanli shipwreck cargo

 

are porcelain shards collected at the Guanyinge kiln site. 

These are identical to

the delicate, thin-walled underglaze blue and red bowls found in the Wanli shipwreck cargo.

In addition to these samples, shards from thin-walled ‘crow’ bowls were also collected.

In March 2005 the author was also privileged to discover other production sites being uncovered when a bulldozer was completing the excavation for the basement of a new building along the ‘Thirteen Mile Road.’ This site is today known as the Weituoqiao kiln site.

The excavated area, four meters deep, with perfectly cut sides, revealed three independent waste piles of

Song dynasty coarse secondary clay pottery,

 

finer qingpai shards, and

Ming

and

Qing dynasty export ware.

These perfectly cut stratograpic levels were covered by a concrete basement before any recording of the material had taken place.

During the visit and cursory inspections of kiln sites in Jingdezhen, it became evident that wasters from the same site could include a wide array of porcelain.

Bowl motif from "The Western Chamber"

The finest export ware

was often mixed with rather crudely potted bowls with an unglazed biscuit ring in the well.  These bowls have often been called ‘Guangdong wares’

Guandong figurine ware

or more broadly attributed to ‘southern China.’  The array of forms, quality and decorative styles seen at the sites supports the idea of communal kilns that fired many different types of ware, presumably from different potteries. 

The fact that an exhibition of kiln wasters at

the Palace Museum in Beijing in November 2005 displayed shards similar to those seen at Jingdezhen — which were however attributed to various kiln sites in Fujian – demonstrates the difficulties in determining the origin on some of these types of wares.

There is little doubt that further investigation of these private kilns, and others, would be fruitful and much appreciated.  With the continuing demolition of late Qing dynasty buildings, which were constructed on top of old kilns, many more discoveries are due in the near future. 

However, it is sad, to hear that China’s new economic boom does not provide for the resources for a long-term archaeological program despite the fact that much information about Jingdezhen’s most important industry would be better understood. 

Simply to be able to document the varying decorative styles on export wares at different times in history is an important art-historical objective.

If we thought that making ‘fake’ pottery was a new phenomena, it is interesting to see that Perez’ d’ Entrecolle already in his famous letter of 1712 confirmed that the Jingdezhen potters had perfected the “art of imitating old porcelain being passed for being three or four centuries old or at least of the preceding dynasty of Ming”.

 

As enterprising now as then, Jingdezhen potters are still mining kaolin in the same quarries and pulverizing China stone in the same traditional manner.  The potting process, including the application of painted decoration, glazing, and firing in wood-fueled kilns is often identical to old techniques.  Porcelain made in this way today is sometimes also being passed as being centuries old.

 

The Complete informations cand read at t the litertaures studies  in part two.

Informasi lengkap dapat dibaca pada hasil kajian literature pada bab dua.

Read More

Bowl motif from "The Western Chamber"

Qing Finest Ware(not Upload)

3.2

  The findings of ceramic artifacts and art objects in the Indonesian Chinese empire

Temuan artifak keramik dan benda seni kerajaan Tiongkok di Indonesia oleh peneliti

 

3.2.1

The Finding Of Reseacher 

The findings by researchers relative amounted to quite a lot with various types of design motifs more, not withstanding the findings during a shipwreck there are huge numbers but relatively more limited type of design motive was primarily produced by special royal kiln for the companions of the Emperor of China. 

Temuan oleh peneliti relati berjumlah cukup banyak dengan variasi  tipe disain motif yang lebih banyak,kendatipun demikian  jumlah temuan kapal karam jumlahnya sangat banyak tetapi relative jenis disain motifnya lebih terbatas terutama yang diproduksi oleh kiln kerajaan khusus untuk para sahabat Kaisar Tiongkok.

Untuk lebih jelas  sebagian informasi dari bab dua  ditampilkan dibawah ini hanya dalam bahsa Inggris .

3.2.2 The Finding Of Shipwreck from The Sounth China Sea From Literatur studies

 Shipwrecks,

 maritime archaeology and antique pottery and porcelain from the South China Sea

3.2.2 a

THE TANG TREASURE SHIPWRECK AT BELITUNG ISLAND

SOLD TO SINGAPORE MUSEUM

By Rachel

 

The Gaspar Strait runs between the Indonesian islands of Bangka and Belitung, some 300 miles southeast of Singapore, where I sit today, writing these words. Its calm, blue surface belies the snarl of rocks and reefs beneath, and the so-called Belitung Wreck is just one of many ships that met its demise in these perilous waters. In 1998, a German prospector by the name of Tilman Walterfang dove into the strait and struck gold: or rather, some gold, silver, and lots of pots.

Tang treasure

 Over the year, his prospecting company pulled 60,000 handmade artifacts out of the heavily silted waters in the Gaspar, from the wreck of a large ship that we now know sunk sometime in the ninth century. Its contents, known vaguely as ‘the Tang treasure’, have been said to enlarge forever the boundaries of our knowledge of Chinese Tang dynasty maritime history and of the nature and dimensions of early Asian trade.

 For the next six years or so, the treasure languished in a New Zealand warehouse, while Qatar, Shanghai, Singapore and private collectors all vied vigorously for ownership. In 2005, Singapore bought the lot.

 And this afternoon, I had the good fortune to be taken for a private tour of it.

.

Tang treasure

.

Junks and their junk

The vessel that sunk was likely a dhow of Arab or Indian origin, a conjecture substantiated well by Michael Flecker, an archaeologist who was invited by Tilman Walterfang himself to direct and document the excavation.

Tang treasure

 (Some of Flecker’s academic papers on the topic, as well as a fascinating but brief clip of part of the excavation, can be found here).

According to Flecker, one of the most striking features of the dhow is that it was not held together with nails or dowels, but sewn together, likely with coconut-husk fibers. Its probable destination is also well established. In the world of the ninth century, dominated economically by two imperial giants —

Tang Dynasty China and Abbasid Persia — the ship has been reasonably thought to be sailing from one to the other, probably from Guangzhou to Basra. The vessel is purported to be the first of Middle Eastern origin found in Southeast Asian waters.

Singapore, alas, didn’t acquire the actual ship, so I didn’t get to see it. We saw the Tang treasure instead. At present, most of it is housed in an unassuming basement at the bottom of the Hua Song Museum in Singapore. The place looked to me, as I walked in this evening, a little like a bomb shelter.

Selat Gaspar berjalan antara pulau-pulau Indonesia dari Bangka Belitung dan, sekitar 300 km sebelah tenggara dari Singapura, di mana aku duduk saat ini, menulis kata-kata ini. Yang tenang, permukaan biru memungkiri kekusutan batu dan karang di bawah, dan disebut Belitung Wreck hanyalah salah satu dari banyak kapal yang mengalami kepunahannya di perairan berbahaya. Pada tahun 1998, seorang Jerman pencari dengan nama Tilman Walterfang terjun ke selat dan memukul emas: atau lebih tepatnya, beberapa emas, perak, dan banyak pot.

 Selama tahun ini, perusahaan calon nya menarik 60.000 artefak buatan tangan dari perairan berat tertimbun lumpur di Gaspar, dari bangkai kapal besar yang sekarang kita tahu tenggelam kira pada abad kesembilan. Isinya, samar-samar dikenal sebagai ‘Tang harta karun’, telah dikatakan untuk memperbesar selamanya batas-batas pengetahuan kita tentang sejarah maritim China dinasti Tang dan sifat dan dimensi perdagangan Asia awal.

 Selama enam tahun ke depan atau lebih, harta mendekam di Selandia Baru gudang, sementara Qatar, Shanghai, Singapura dan kolektor pribadi semua bersaing keras untuk kepemilikan. Pada tahun 2005, Singapura membeli banyak.
 Dan sore ini, saya memiliki nasib baik untuk diambil untuk tur pribadi itu.

Jung dan sampah mereka
Kapal yang tenggelam adalah kemungkinan dhow asal Arab atau India, sebuah dugaan didukung dengan baik oleh Michael Flecker, seorang arkeolog yang diundang oleh Tilman Walterfang dirinya untuk mengarahkan dan mendokumentasikan penggalian.
 (Beberapa makalah akademis Flecker pada topik, serta klip menarik namun singkat bagian dari penggalian, dapat ditemukan di sini).

Menurut Flecker, salah satu fitur yang paling mencolok dari dhow adalah bahwa itu tidak direkatkan dengan paku atau pena, tapi dijahit, mungkin dengan serat sabut kelapa. Kemungkinan tujuan juga mapan. Dalam dunia abad kesembilan, didominasi ekonomi oleh dua kekaisaran raksasa – Dinasti Tang China dan Abbasiyah Persia – kapal telah cukup dianggap berlayar dari satu ke yang lain, mungkin dari Guangzhou ke Basra. Kapal ini konon menjadi yang pertama asal Timur Tengah yang ditemukan di perairan Asia Tenggara.

Singapura, sayangnya, tidak mendapatkan kapal yang sebenarnya, jadi saya tidak bisa melihatnya. Kami melihat harta Tang sebagai gantinya. Saat ini, sebagian besar bertempat di sebuah ruang bawah tanah yang sederhana di bagian bawah dari Museum Song Hua di Singapura. Tempat tampak bagi saya, setelah saya berjalan di malam ini, sedikit seperti perlindungan bom

 Tang treasure

What strikes you almost as soon as you walk into the warehouse is the sheer scale of production. It seems that China then, as now, was mass producing and exporting their goods in staggering quantities — several centuries earlier than scholars have previously thought. You might say that in the hold of this sunken ship lurked, for 1200 years, a kind of ancient Ikea.

Apa yang mengejutkan Anda segera setelah Anda berjalan ke gudang adalah skala produksi. Tampaknya bahwa Cina kemudian, seperti sekarang, adalah massa memproduksi dan mengekspor barang-barang mereka dalam jumlah mengejutkan – beberapa abad lebih awal dari sarjana telah diperkirakan sebelumnya. Anda mungkin mengatakan bahwa dalam memegang ini kapal yang tenggelam mengintai, untuk 1200 tahun, semacam Ikea kuno.

 

The serial nature of most of the cargo, and the fact that the ceramics exhibit styles distinct to at least five different kilns from all over China, both seem to suggest that this was an export vessel. Of particular interest is the enormous quantity of mint-condition Changsha pottery, a form of Southern Tang ceramic readily identified by its distinctive brown and straw-coloured glaze.

 

 Tang treasure

Serial sifat sebagian besar kargo, dan fakta bahwa keramik menunjukkan gaya yang berbeda untuk setidaknya lima tanur yang berbeda dari seluruh Cina, kedua tampaknya menunjukkan bahwa ini adalah sebuah kapal ekspor. Yang menarik adalah jumlah besar-kondisi mint Changsha tembikar, bentuk Selatan Tang keramik mudah diidentifikasi oleh khas glasir coklat dan kekuning-kuningan

 

The Changsha specimens found in the Belitung wreck are decorated with an enormous range of motifs. There is something for everyone: lotuses, makara fish and Chinese calligraphy for the Buddhists, invocations of Allah and non-pictorial, geometric patterns for the Muslims, and everything in between. These are not terribly valuable in and of themselves; they are, as Simon Worrall’s droll appraisal in his article in National Geographic goes, “the Tang equivalent of Fiestaware”.

Tang treasure

Changsha spesimen ditemukan di bangkai kapal Belitung dihiasi dengan berbagai motif besar. Ada sesuatu untuk semua orang: teratai, ikan makara dan kaligrafi Cina bagi umat Buddha, doa Allah dan non-bergambar, pola geometris bagi kaum muslim, dan segala sesuatu di antaranya. Ini tidak sangat berharga dalam dan dari diri mereka sendiri, mereka, sebagai penilai lucu Simon Worrall dalam artikelnya di National Geographic pergi, “setara Tang dari Fiestaware”


This photo by Tony Law,
National Geographic

But there were a few big fish amidst these plebeian offerings: articles so valuable that they are kept elsewhere, under armed guard. These were artifacts found in the stern of the ship: a small clutch of exquisite, royal-grade items, valuable not only in dollar terms, or for their exquisite craftsmanship, but in terms of their historical import. They include a fine octagonal-shaped gold cup — the largest Tang dynasty gold cup ever found, featuring Persian-looking men and women embossed on each face — and three incredibly rare, perfectly preserved specimens of pre-Yuan blue and white porcelain.

 

 

 

Tapi ada beberapa ikan besar di tengah penawaran ini kampungan: artikel begitu berharga sehingga mereka tetap di tempat lain, di bawah pengawalan bersenjata. Ini adalah artefak yang ditemukan di buritan kapal: kopling kecil indah, item kerajaan-grade, berharga tidak hanya dalam dolar, atau keahlian indah mereka, tetapi dalam hal impor sejarah mereka. Mereka termasuk secangkir emas murni berbentuk segi delapan – yang terbesar dinasti Tang emas cangkir yang pernah ditemukan, menampilkan pria Persia tampan dan perempuan timbul pada wajah masing-masing – dan tiga sangat langka, sempurna diawetkan spesimen pra-Yuan biru dan porselen putih.


These photos by Tony Law,
National Geographic

The latter is a particularly interesting testament to the cross-cultural fertilization that characterizes Silk Road histories. Cobalt oxide was almost certainly brought to China by Arab traders; the ore from which it is made can only be found in West Asia, and particularly in Persia. When Arab traders brought cobalt oxide into Guangzhou and began commissioning blue and white ceramics from China, they set into motion the process by which China began to create porcelain that would, over the course of the next five centuries, become so iconic that they came forever to bear China’s name. The story of cobalt oxide is quite well known amongst scholars, but the Jingdezhen blue-and-whites only really began to take off in the late Yuan period. These three small plates, from a ship wrecked in the ninth century, disclose a longer, deeper history.

My personal favourites, however, were the most plebeian offerings of all: those artifacts encrusted with barnacles and corals. In the whole collection, they stood out to me like elegant anomalies, mute witnesses of a millennia of submergence, and utterly beautiful.

Yang terakhir adalah bukti yang sangat menarik untuk fertilisasi silang-budaya yang mencirikan sejarah Silk Road. Kobalt oksida hampir pasti dibawa ke China oleh pedagang Arab, bijih dari yang dibuat hanya dapat ditemukan di Asia Barat, dan khususnya di Persia. Ketika pedagang Arab membawa kobalt oksida ke Guangzhou dan mulai komisioning keramik biru dan putih dari Cina, mereka diatur ke dalam gerak proses dimana China mulai membuat porselen yang akan, selama lima abad berikutnya, menjadi begitu ikonik bahwa mereka datang selamanya untuk menanggung nama China. Kisah oksida kobalt cukup terkenal di kalangan ulama, tetapi Jingdezhen biru-putih hanya benar-benar mulai lepas landas pada periode Yuan terlambat. Ketiga piring-piring kecil, dari sebuah kapal karam pada abad kesembilan, mengungkapkan lebih lama, sejarah yang lebih dalam.
Favorit pribadi saya, bagaimanapun, adalah persembahan yang paling kampungan dari semua: mereka artefak bertatahkan teritip dan karang. Di seluruh koleksi, mereka berdiri keluar bagi saya seperti anomali elegan, saksi bisu dari ribuan dari rendaman, dan benar-benar indah.

 

Undercurrents

Just like the waters of the Gaspar Strait, there too are hidden currents to the Belitung Wreck. For one thing, it came to Singaporean hands amidst a maelstrom of legal wrangling. In 2004, Tilman Walterfang became entangled in a court case when his own marketing agent, Baron Nicolai von Uexkull, took him to court for defaulting on the payment of his (the Baron’s) salary and commission, for the work of negotiating the sale of the treasure. In 2005, not long after the treasure was finally sold to Singapore’s Sentosa Leisure Group following months of negotiation, it emerged that the good Baron had, in his earlier negotiations with Singapore, allegedly disclosed price-sensitive information to the buyers. Walterfang then sued Von Uexkull in 2006 for breach of confidentiality.

 

As if that weren’t enough: in the course of the sale, Walterfang also became embroiled in a controversy with the Indonesian government, who accused him of failing to pay them the fair share of the proceeds from the treasure. 53,000 pieces of the Tang treasure were sold to Singapore for some US$32 million.

( sold by Indonesian government-Dr Iwan Note)

Under Indonesian conservation law, the state government is entitled to half of this, but it appears that only US$2.5 million or so ever made it into Indonesian coffers. The Indonesians are, naturally, highly displeased, and it seems unclear how Walterfang managed to get away with this. There have been, unsurprisingly, allegations of bribery.

tersembunyi
Sama seperti perairan Selat Gaspar, ada juga adalah arus tersembunyi untuk Belitung Wreck. Untuk satu hal, itu datang ke Singapura tangan di tengah-tengah pusaran perselisihan hukum. Pada tahun 2004, Tilman Walterfang menjadi terjerat dalam kasus pengadilan ketika agen pemasaran sendiri, Baron Nicolai von Uexkull, membawanya ke pengadilan untuk default pada pembayaran nya (Baron) gaji dan komisi, untuk pekerjaan negosiasi penjualan harta karun. Pada tahun 2005, tidak lama setelah harta karun itu akhirnya dijual ke Sentosa Leisure Group Singapura setelah berbulan-bulan negosiasi, terungkap bahwa Baron baik memiliki, dalam negosiasi sebelumnya dengan Singapura, diduga diungkapkan sensitif terhadap harga informasi kepada pembeli. Walterfang kemudian digugat Von Uexkull pada tahun 2006 untuk pelanggaran kerahasiaan.
Seolah-olah itu belum cukup: dalam perjalanan penjualan, Walterfang juga menjadi terlibat dalam kontroversi dengan pemerintah Indonesia, yang menuduhnya gagal untuk membayar mereka adil dari hasil harta itu. 53.000 buah harta Tang dijual ke Singapura untuk beberapa US $ 32 juta.
(Dijual oleh pemerintah Indonesia Dr Iwan Catatan)
Menurut hukum konservasi di Indonesia, pemerintah negara berhak atas setengah dari ini, tapi tampaknya hanya US $ 2,5 juta atau pernah jadi berhasil masuk ke pundi-pundi Indonesia. Orang-orang Indonesia adalah, alami, sangat senang, dan tampaknya jelas bagaimana Walterfang berhasil lolos dengan ini. Ada, tidak mengejutkan, dugaan suap.

 

 

But the most interesting hidden current, for me, is the way in which a find like this slowly gets shaped into history. Curators and creative minds at the Singapore Maritime Heritage Foundation,

 which was brought into existence for the purpose of administering the treasure, are right now groping for a Grand Story, a narrative into which the Tang treasure can fit. In particular, there’s talk of a great Maritime Silk Route Museum to be built in Singapore to house and exhibit these wares.

Its story will no doubt vaunt Singapore’s central place at the elbow of a great oceanic route that ran parallel to the overland Silk Road. Its objectives will no doubt be to inscribe Singapore into a wider and more ancient world history, and to give historical credence to a position that is crucial to Singapore’s self-image today: as a global, maritime entrepot, and the lodestone on which Southeast Asia turns.

Counterfactual thinking here might be illuminating. What if Qatar, or Shanghai, had been successful in the bid?

What if, amidst all that legal wrangling, Singapore had been jostled out of the buy, or if the Indonesian government had somehow got their act together, claimed the wreck and written it into a narrative demonstrating the magnificence and global reach of the great Srivijaya Empire, instead? What stories would be spun then, out of these fragments we shore up against our ruins? When you visit Singapore one day in not-too-distant years to come, and your Lonely Planet guidebook exhorts you to visit the brand new Maritime History Museum of Singapore, it will be beautifully done, stimulatingly presented. But remember this: none of it was set in stone. We sculpt our own stones, and we call that process history.

Tapi saat tersembunyi yang paling menarik, bagi saya, adalah cara di mana menemukan seperti ini perlahan-lahan akan dibentuk menjadi sejarah. Kurator dan pikiran kreatif di Heritage Foundation Maritim Singapura,
  yang dibawa ke dalam keberadaan untuk kepentingan pengelolaan harta, yang sekarang mencari-cari Grand Story, sebuah narasi ke mana harta Tang dapat ditampung. Secara khusus, ada pembicaraan tentang Silk Route Maritime Museum yang besar akan dibangun di Singapura ke rumah dan menunjukkan barang-barang tersebut.
Ceritanya tidak akan ragu tempat sentral memuji Singapura pada siku dari laut rute besar yang berlari sejajar dengan darat Silk Road. Tujuannya tidak diragukan lagi akan untuk menuliskan Singapura menjadi lebih luas dan lebih kuno sejarah dunia, dan memberikan kepercayaan sejarah ke posisi yang sangat penting untuk Singapura citra diri hari ini: sebagai, entrepot maritim global, dan lodestone di mana Asia Tenggara ternyata.
Kontrafaktual Pemikiran di sini mungkin mencerahkan. Bagaimana jika Qatar, atau Shanghai, telah berhasil tawaran?
Bagaimana jika, di tengah semua perselisihan hukum, Singapura telah berdesakan keluar dari membeli, atau jika pemerintah Indonesia telah entah bagaimana punya bertindak bersama-sama, mengklaim kecelakaan dan ditulis ke dalam narasi menunjukkan keindahan dan jangkauan global dari Sriwijaya Kekaisaran besar , bukan? Apa cerita akan berputar kemudian, dari fragmen ini kita menopang terhadap reruntuhan kita? Ketika Anda mengunjungi Singapura satu hari di tahun tidak terlalu jauh untuk datang, dan Anda buku panduan Lonely Planet mendesak Anda untuk mengunjungi baru Maritime History Museum of Singapore, akan indah dilakukan, stimulatingly disajikan. Tapi ingat ini: tidak ada itu diatur dalam batu. Kami memahat batu kita sendiri, dan kita sebut bahwa sejarah proses.

 

3.2.2.b

Shipwreck Cargo Report

By Sten Sjostrand

 

Sten has spent more than forty years in Southeast Asia designing and engineering various marine structures. His interest in Asia’s pottery and porcelain eventually lead to his search and excavation of numbers of ancient shipwrecks.

As a championship sailor Sten has extensive knowledge and interest in ancient maritime trade, ships designs and construction. It is these interests and gained knowledge that is the base for all his books and extensive lecturing.

 

Sten’s company; Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn. Bhd. works with Malaysia’s Department of Museums and Antiquities and can therefore offer legally excavated artifacts from these shipwrecks.

 

In addition to working with recovering artifacts, Sten has located number of ancient kiln sites in Thailand and in China were his shipwreck ceramics was made centuries ago. He is therefore able to offer absolute provenance on all ceramics sold via Nanhai Marine Archaeology Sdn. Bhd. and, with good conscience sign every Certificate of Authenticity supplied with the artifacts.

The maritime archaeology of Sten Sjostrand has led to major advances in the study of Asian trade and trade ceramics in Southeast Asia. 

His meticulous documentation of a series of nine shipwrecks from the 11th to 19th centuries reveals the early dominance of Chinese trade ceramics, a subsequent loss of the Chinese monopoly in the late 14th century when Southeast Asian ceramics entered the market, the basic parameters of the Ming gap shortages of the 14th-15th centuries, and a resurgence of Chinese wares in the 16th and 17th centuries.

  Just as important, Sjostrand freely shares the information from his discoveries.

  Researchers are welcome at his headquarters where he documents his finds and patiently answers the queries of others. 

A lifetime’s experience with the sea and sailing allows Sjostrand to bring new understanding to ancient ship construction, and his voluminous reading allows him to set the ships and their cargoes in historical perspective.

 

 

 

During the excavation phase of the Wanli shipwreck, about 7,000 pieces of porcelain pieces was registered.

Only those pieces which retained more than 50% of its original form was registered

while all other pieces was considered “shards”. 

 From the 7,000 registered pieces, there were less than 2,000 totally intact pieces with many of them showing glaze deterioration and other defects.

In addition to registered artifacts  9,083 kilo “shards” were recovered.

This weight was represented by less than 50% intact pieces (to avoid double registration), broken, fragmented and pulverized pieces. These “shards” was then separated into respective types, weighted and compared with the weight of an intact counterpart to find the total number of porcelains originally loaded onboard the ship. 

 It was thus calculated that the total cargo originally consisted of more than 37,000 pieces. 

Most of the damage to the cargo  is believed to have been caused by an fire followed by an explosion which is likely to have been caused by an attacking Dutch force.

The fire could also have been set by the Portuguese crew trying to avoid a Dutch capture.

 

Many of the broken plates with intact center medallions, have since been  trimmed and are now available for sale on this page.

Each one of these center medallions has been registered and now displaying its respective serial number on a sticker:

Historical shipwrecks with cargoes of porcelain and pottery are perfect time capsules if properly excavated and researched.

Frozen in time, shipwrecks provide an accurate insight into ancient maritime trade and the goods traded at the time when the ship was lost.

From the ten shipwreck excavated and researched by Nanhai Marine Archaeology, we have learned a lot about this trade and been able to assign estimated dates to these ten shipwrecks and thereby date the artefacts we recover.

 We have learned about different shipbuilding designs, construction methods and been able to map shipbuilding sites and learned how they changed over time, due to political events

European vessel loaded with Chinese kraak porcelain

From the shipwrecks presented here, and the archeology made, we have established how

the early Chinese monopoly on ceramic export was challenged in the 14th – 16th century

 

by two rivaling Thai kiln complexes, each making different types of traditional Chinese pottery.

 

 It also becomes clear that the Chinese regained its monopoly in the 17th century when the Europeans entered into the  Asian trade network

  

3.2.2. c

A seafarers tale – an archaeological elucidation of a shipwreck

(By Sten Sjostrand)

Dreary weather and intermittent rain has led to a dramatic drop in temperature over the last few days and then, just as the rain finally stopped, a cold wind began to blow from the north.

It whipped up high waves and enormous swells that broke repeatedly against the side of the ship giving the deck, and everyone on it, a good showering.  It was unbearably cold, wet and miserable.

 

Captain Heng Tai dexterously managed to avoid getting any salt water in his face as he crouched and turned with every hit. He was an experienced captain who had sailed this route many times before, but never so late in the season. 

The best time for the voyage was December when the northeast monsoon winds guaranteed a fair and safe passage all the way down the South China Sea. 

 

But now, late in February, the winds were forceful, occasionally violent and sometimes frightening. 

The swell generated by these waves was higher than any Heng Tai could remember.

As well as being cold and wet, Heng Tai was now starting to get a very uncomfortable feeling in the pit of his stomach.

The junk he commanded was old and hadn’t been reinforced against the hungry attacks of the Teredo woodworms, which feasted on vessels like this.

The owner had recently lost a ship near the Malaysian islands and didn’t have sufficient reserves to pay for the sacrificial planks that would protect the hull from the woodworms’ greedy onslaught. 

 

 It was this cost-cutting that now worried Heng Tai and he bitterly regretted the time he’d had to spend waiting to load the cargo

in Ayutthaya. 

Without that delay he would have been at sea much earlier and none of this would be happening.

Ever since the ‘‘Ming ban’’

 when emperor Hongwu imposed restrictions on private overseas trade,

potters at the Thai kiln sites had been working flat out to meet the growth in demand from the Southeast Asian market.

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanalai ,Sukothai

Read more

Thuriang Kiln at Si Satchanali . Sukothai

(not Upload)

They were now supplying more than half of the total ceramics for the whole region and the increase in orders meant the kilns were swamped and finding it increasingly hard to meet delivery deadlines.  Merchants and captains, like Heng Tai, were seriously concerned about these delays; after all, the monsoon waits for no man. 

( This info prooff  and related to the very hard to found the Middle Ming artwork In Indonesia from dynasti Yung Lo, Hung Wu,Hsuan de Cenghua and Ceng De in Indonesia, If found this only  the present from the Chinese emperor to the Indonesian Sultan or King only not  trading this wares and the sukothai from ayuthada sincanalai  artwork came to Indonesia  to fill the demand  -Dr Iwan note)

 

Heng Tai had docked in Ayutthaya in December and had waited patiently for two months before his main cargo finally arrived from the ceramic kilns up north. 

 He’d already loaded more than 20 tonnes of iron ore and

 

ingots and was worried about the uneven distribution of his cargo, so he was greatly relieved when, at last, the celadon ware was loaded and the junk was well balanced again.  

 

The last water containers were filled and the chickens and ducks, which would feed the crew during the voyage, were secured. 

Heng Tai was finally able to head downriver into

the Bay of Siam,

where he set his sails and laid a course for

the bay of Terengganu.

In those days this part of the Malaysian east coast was under the suzerainty of

the Kingdom of Ayutthaya,

so the waters off Terengganu were safe and familiar and Heng Tai could proceed without danger.

  When Heng Tai sighted the islands off Terengganu he set a new course for

Tioman Island further down the coast.

Tioman was a regular stopover point for sailors from all over Asia as it provided good navigational references and had a plentiful supply of fresh water.  For many centuries seafarers had stopped there to offer prayers for a safe voyage and trade for some local fruit before continuing their arduous journey.

Here Heng Tai would replenish his fresh water supply before setting sail for

Java, his

Kingdom Majapahit

final destination.

Kingdom of Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site, It’s time you stir the imagination of the life of a fictional kingdom in Indonesia a more than 700 years ago.

Yes, this is the site Trowulan Mojokerto, roomates is the site of a future century Majapahit Empire XIII – XV AD. Located in Trowulan, Mojokerto, East Java as a place where you can no longer remember his greatness and assume that we only know from history books or lessons at school first.

Trowulan is the only site in the Indonesian cities of the covering 11 x 9 km 99 km ² and save Hundreds of Thousands of archaeological remains, both discovered and is still buried. Traveled to this place is not just a vacation, but you can also climb the great history of an empire that inspired the Indonesian nation about “Unity Archipelago”. Additionally you will find out how the level of civilization in Trowulan in the Majapahit period, starting from the system of government, trade, foreign affairs, technology, architecture, agriculture, crafts to art.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site

Majapahit kingdom established after the fall of the kingdom in 1293 AD Singosari. Founded by Raden Wijaya, initially centered in the forest area there are many attractions that Maja tree that has fruit with bitter, hence the Majapahit. Raden Wijaya himself is the son of King Singosari Kertanegara lineage Ken Arok, founder of the Kingdom Singosari. He Became the first king of Majapahit until 1309 AD

Greatness Majapahit golden peak during the reign of King Hayam Wuruk and Gajah Mada Mahapatih Palapa Oath pledged to unite the archipelago. Majapahit managed to assemble networks of local and regional trade with commodities and rice crops in exchange for spices, ceramics, and textiles. The currency used is money and money ma gobog of gold or silver, the unique currency of the Chinese Tang Dynasty, Song, Ming, and Qing applies also in Majapahit. Pooling Occurs in religious life with the Buddhist religion of Shiva, in addition to developing Karesian religion and Islam. This shows Majapahit as a multicultural country and its people to live in peace with the various Faiths in harmony. Majapahit have ups and downs due to the seizure of the throne in the royal family until finally experiencing collapse XV century AD.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 2

Majapahit palace building is estimated as terraced houses with roofs of thin wood, walls of brick, the floor of the wicker or rattan mats. While the general population of a thatched roof. Sites in Trowulan restored to preserve its beauty. Trowulan site is crowded, especially on Saturday and Sunday and school holidays. Every day an average of 50-person on weekdays and on average 170′s of people on holidays and school holidays.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 3

Trowulan own site first Appeared in the literature Entitled “History of Java I” written Sir Stamford Raffles in 1817. Raffles said that the name came from Trang Wulan Trowulan or Light of the Moon. When found throughout the site covered a fairly dense teak forests, so she was not seen as a classic city.

Kingdom Majapahit in Mojokerto Trowulan Site 4

Classic city town site Trowulan divided Showed some segments that its role in the past. Built with a pattern of alleged water canal has to do with the concept of the mandala is used as a reference and basic Cosmological distribution of this city. Swimming Segaran proves this is like like a lake in the city center. By sketch reconstruction City Majapahit and aerial photographs showing the old city has a system of irrigation canals for drainage and water supply were made in a straight line extending the northwest-the southeast and the northeast-southwest.

Normally the stretch between Terengganu and Tioman was an opportunity for the captain and navigator to relax for a while.

There was a straight deepwater trench all the way so it was usually plain sailing. 

 This was a well-used shipping lane and he was hoping to come across a Chinese junk, sailing in spite of the ‘‘Ming ban’’, which he could hail for the latest news from China. But on this cold February afternoon, the strong winds and towering waves had ruled out any possibility of such communication and as Heng Tai fought to keep control of his ship his thoughts wandered homewards.

 

Heng Tai’s father had been an experienced sea captain who had left China fifty years before, shortly after the ‘‘Ming ban’’ came into force.  With their livelihoods at stake many seafarers like Heng Tai’s father, as well as merchants and artisans, had fled to Thailand where they were able to continue their trade.  It was these people who had made the celadon ware he was now carrying.

The Javanese kingdom of Majapahit, towards which he was heading, was flourishing and attracted many foreign merchants from all over Asia and the Middle East who paid top price for celadon ware as they believed it had magical protective powers. 

This era Chinese celadon were ban and only

sukothai celadon exist

Celadon plate, Sukhothai era

Compare the differences of the quality between Sukothai and Chinese celadon (  info not upload0

Read more about

Sukothai (Sangkhalok)celadon ware

(info not upload) 

Heng Tai was a good trader and knew the buyers well he also knew this year’s celadon was the best quality to ever come out of the Sisatchanalai kilns in northern Siam so he was sure of making a handsome profit.  Hopefully then his ship could be reinforced.

(This  info  told us the fact that many Celadon wares found in Indonesia not from Ming dynasty era but from  sisatchanalai  Nothern Siam  sent  export to Indonesia  from Atuthaya,

That is way we called Ayuthaya Siam celadon with the low  color and motif  celadon, but some Lungquan Chinese best celadon still found but very limited because this were not for trading ony as the present to the Chinese emperor friend in Indonesia-Dr Iwan Note)

Sejak” Larangan Ming ”

Ketika Kaisar Hongwu memberlakukan pembatasan perdagangan luar negeri swasta, tembikar di situs kiln Thailand telah bekerja keluar flat untuk memenuhi pertumbuhan permintaan dari pasar Asia Tenggara.

 Mereka sekarang menyediakan lebih dari setengah dari total keramik untuk seluruh wilayah dan peningkatan pesanan berarti kiln yang sibuk dan menemukan itu semakin sulit untuk memenuhi tenggat waktu pengiriman. Pedagang dan kapten, seperti Heng Tai, yang sangat prihatin penundaan ini, setelah semua, musim hujan tidak menunggu manusia.

(Info ini sebagai bukti  dan terkait dengan sangat sulitnya  untuk menemukan karya seni Ming pertengahan  Di Indonesia dari Dynasti Yung Lo, Hung Wu, Hsuan de Cenghua dan Ceng De di Indonesia,

Jika menemukan Kraya seni ini hanya ada sebagai  dari kaisar Cina kepada Sultan Indonesia atau Raja dan  tidak untuk perdagangan .Barang seni  dari  sukothai  sincanalai  dari ayuthada karya seni dikirim  ke Indonesia untuk mengisi kebutuhan  – catatan  Dr  Iwan )

Heng Tai telah berlabuh di Ayutthaya pada bulan Desember dan telah menunggu dengan sabar selama dua bulan sebelum kargo utamanya akhirnya tiba dari kiln keramik ke utara.
 Dia sudah dimuat lebih dari 20 ton bijih besi dan ingot dan khawatir tentang tidak meratanya distribusi kargo, jadi dia sangat lega ketika, akhirnya, para celadon ware dimuat dan sampah baik seimbang lagi.

Wadah air lalu diisi dan ayam dan bebek, yang akan memberi makan kru selama pelayaran, diamankan.
Heng Tai akhirnya bisa kepala hilir ke Teluk Siam, di mana ia mengatur layar dan meletakkan kursus untuk Terengganu.
Pada masa ini bagian dari pantai timur Malaysia berada di bawah kekuasaan raja dari Kerajaan Ayutthaya, sehingga perairan Terengganu yang aman dan akrab dan Heng Tai bisa dilanjutkan tanpa bahaya.
  Ketika Heng Tai terlihat pulau-pulau Terengganu ia menetapkan arah baru untuk Pulau Tioman lanjut ke pantai.
Tioman adalah titik perhentian reguler untuk pelaut dari seluruh Asia karena memberikan referensi navigasi yang baik dan memiliki pasokan air tawar. Selama berabad-abad para pelaut telah berhenti di sana untuk menawarkan doa untuk perjalanan yang aman dan perdagangan untuk beberapa buah lokal sebelum melanjutkan perjalanan yang sulit mereka.
Berikut Heng Tai akan mengisi pasokan air tawar sebelum berlayar ke Jawa, tujuan akhirnya.
Biasanya peregangan antara Terengganu dan Tioman adalah kesempatan bagi kapten dan navigator untuk bersantai untuk sementara waktu.
Ada Air yang dalam di diparit lurus sepanjang jalan jadi itu biasanya berlayar polos.
 Ini adalah jalur pelayaran baik digunakan dan ia berharap untuk menemukan kapal China, berlayar terlepas dari” Ming larangan”, yang dia bisa hujan es untuk berita terbaru dari Cina.

Tetapi pada sore dingin Februari, angin kencang dan ombak menjulang telah mengesampingkan kemungkinan komunikasi tersebut dan sampai Heng Tai berjuang untuk tetap mengontrol kapalnya pikirannya mengembara pulang.

Ayah Heng Tai pernah menjadi kapten kapal yang berpengalaman yang telah meninggalkan China lima puluh tahun sebelumnya, tak lama setelah” Ming larangan” diberlakukan.

Dengan mata pencaharian mereka dipertaruhkan banyak pelaut seperti ayah Heng Tai, serta pedagang dan pengrajin, telah melarikan diri ke Thailand di mana mereka mampu untuk melanjutkan perdagangan mereka. Itu orang-orang yang telah membuat ware celadon sekarang dia membawa.
Kerajaan Jawa Majapahit, ke arah mana ia menuju, sedang berkembang dan menarik banyak pedagang asing dari seluruh Asia dan Timur Tengah yang membayar harga tertinggi untuk celadon ware mereka percaya itu memiliki kekuatan magis pelindung.
Heng Tai adalah seorang pedagang yang baik dan tahu pembeli baik ia juga tahu celadon tahun ini adalah kualitas terbaik yang pernah keluar dari kiln Sisatchanalai di Siam Utara sehingga ia yakin untuk membuat keuntungan tampan. Semoga maka kapalnya bisa diperkuat.

 
(Info ini memberi tahu k
ita fakta bahwa banyak Celadon barang yang ditemukan di Indonesia bukan dari era dinasti Ming tapi dari sisatchanalai Nothern Siam mengirim ekspor ke Indonesia dari Atuthaya,
Itulah cara kita disebut Ayuthaya Siam celadon dengan warna rendah dan motif celadon, tetapi beberapa Lungquan Cina seladon terbaik masih ditemukan tetapi sangat terbatas karena ini bukan karena ony perdagangan sebagai hadir untuk
sahabat  kaisar Tiongkok di Indonesia- catatan Dr Iwan )

Heng Tai’s attention was suddenly drawn away from thoughts of future profit and ship maintenance as the wind continued to increase. 

Sea conditions were getting worse by the minute putting untold strain on the vessel and his nerves as he worried about the safety of his ship, crew and the precious cargo. 

 However, Heng Tai’s anxiety was nothing compared to how one of the passengers, a young man called Phra Dharmaraja, was feeling.

Dharmaraja was the king of Siam’s envoy who had boarded the ship in Ayutthaya.

King U-Thong Of Ayuthaya Sukhotai siam Kingdom

Everyone could tell just by looking at him that he wasn’t a sailor.  

 As a child he’d been traumatised by a crossing of

 

the Chao Phraya River

and had kept away from boats ever since. 

 Now, here he was being tossed about in middle of the South China Sea living out his worst nightmare. 

 He was the proud and only son of the first ‘Phra Khlang’ – the minister in charge of Ayutthaya’s treasure. 

His father’s position had allowed him to pull enough strings to secure a well-paid job in the revenue department and a recent promotion had further increased his confidence and status. 

It was a rare thing for a civil servant to be summoned by the king, so he’d been surprised and honoured when he was called to the palace.

The king appointed Dharmaraja as his personal envoy and commanded he accompany Heng Tai to Java to deliver some gifts to

the king of Majapahit

Read More Info

Driwan CD-Rom The Majapahit History Collections

in reciprocation for the tributes the Majapahit ruler had earlier sent to Ayutthaya.

Now as he clung to the handrail for dear life he wondered, between bouts of nausea and waves of terror, whether he’d be able to complete the mission he had been entrusted to undertake.

Every wave was forcing the ship into a near broach; even a small shift in the heavy cargo could prove disastrous. 

 The crew had managed to lower some of the sails to reduce the strain on the hull and rigging and were now struggling to take down the remaining sails, which were glued, by the force of the wind, to the mast, yarn and rigging.  Heng Tai and his crew knew that if the sails remained aloft they would eventually overpower the vessel but there was nothing more they could do.

With his proud character reduced to a mere memory and, in spite of being seriously concerned about his own safety and comfort, Dharmaraja had not forgotten the importance of his mission. 

 

 He knew that if he failed to deliver the gifts to the Majapahit ruler, it might cause some diplomatic tension and it would certainly embarrass his father.

The most important of all the gifts he was bearing was a royal seal, which reaffirmed Ayutthaya’s friendship and military alliance. 

 

 He kept it in a silk pouch tied around his waist, which he checked from time to time to make sure that it was still secure.  Arriving without the seal would mean landing without any purpose.  He resolved that, no matter how sick and frightened he was, he would not let this happen.

 

Suddenly, the crates containing the chickens and ducks were picked up by a huge wave and thrown onto the deck with such force that they smashed to pieces flinging the traumatised animals all over the place. 

As he listened to their terrified honks and screeches a premonition of impending doom sent an icy chill down Dharmaraja’s spine.

 

The tiller and rudder were under enormous and constant pressure as Heng Tai battled

 

the raging storm to keep the ship on course. 

Then, just as night fell, the strain finally took its toll and the tiller broke. 

 There was nothing more to be done.  Without the ability to steer her, the ship remained parallel to the waves and the sails dragged the vessel down sideways. 

 In a last effort to save the ship, the crew tried to slash the sails but it was too late. Capsizing was imminent as water came crashing over the decks from all directions.  Heng Tai’s last effort of beaching the ship on the shores of Tioman Island had proved impossible. The struggle to stay afloat was over.

 

Dharmaraja tried to save himself by clinging to the main mast in the hope of climbing to safety from the water that now engulfed him. 

 Being more experienced in this kind of situation, Heng Tai and his crew scoured the sea for some floating debris to cling to and slowly drifted away from the rattling sails, away from the creaks and groans of the straining hull, away from Dharmaraja’s screams.  The ship was swallowed up, leaving nothing but darkness and silence in its wake.

Read more

The south east china  Shipwreck archeology

(info not upload)

Perhatian Heng Tai tiba-tiba ditarik dari pikiran keuntungan masa depan dan pemeliharaan kapal sebagai angin terus meningkat.
Kondisi laut yang semakin parah oleh menit meletakkan ketegangan yang tak terhitung di kapal dan saraf saat ia khawatir tentang keselamatan kapal, awak dan barang berharga.
 Namun, kecemasan Heng Tai apa-apa dibandingkan dengan bagaimana salah seorang penumpang, seorang pria muda bernama Phra Dharmaraja, adalah perasaan.
Dharmaraja adalah raja utusan Siam yang telah naik ke kapal di Ayutthaya.
Semua orang bisa tahu hanya dengan melihat bahwa dia bukan seorang pelaut.

 Sebagai seorang anak ia sudah trauma oleh persimpangan dari Sungai Chao Phraya dan telah dijauhkan dari kapal sejak itu.
 Sekarang, di sini dia sedang terombang-ambing di tengah Laut Cina Selatan hidup dari mimpi terburuknya.
 Dia adalah anak bangga dan hanya yang pertama ‘Phra Khlang’ – menteri yang bertanggung jawab atas harta Ayutthaya.
Posisi ayahnya telah memungkinkan dia untuk menarik string cukup untuk mengamankan pekerjaan bergaji di departemen pendapatan dan promosi terbaru telah lebih lanjut meningkatkan kepercayaan diri dan statusnya. Itu adalah hal yang langka bagi seorang PNS untuk dipanggil oleh raja, sehingga ia terkejut dan merasa terhormat ketika ia dipanggil ke istana.
Raja mengangkat Dharmaraja sebagai utusan pribadinya dan memerintahkan dia menemani Heng Tai ke Jawa untuk memberikan beberapa hadiah kepada raja Majapahit di balasan untuk upeti penguasa Majapahit sebelumnya dikirim ke Ayutthaya.
Sekarang saat ia menempel pegangan erat-erat ia bertanya-tanya, antara mual dan gelombang teror, apakah dia akan bisa menyelesaikan misi yang telah dipercayakan untuk melakukan.
Setiap gelombang yang memaksa kapal ke dekat bros, bahkan pergeseran kecil di kargo berat bisa membuktikan bencana.
 Para kru berhasil menurunkan beberapa layar untuk mengurangi ketegangan pada lambung dan tali-temali dan sekarang berjuang untuk mencatat layar yang tersisa, yang terpaku, dengan kekuatan angin, tiang, benang dan tali-temali. Heng Tai dan krunya tahu bahwa jika layar tetap tinggi-tinggi mereka akhirnya akan mengalahkan kapal tapi tak ada lagi yang bisa mereka lakukan.
Dengan karakter bangga nya dikurangi menjadi memori belaka dan, meskipun secara serius prihatin tentang keamanan dan kenyamanan sendiri, Dharmaraja tidak melupakan pentingnya misinya.

 Dia tahu bahwa jika ia gagal untuk memberikan hadiah kepada penguasa Majapahit, mungkin menyebabkan beberapa ketegangan diplomatik dan tentu saja akan mempermalukan ayahnya.
Yang paling penting dari semua karunia ia bantalan adalah stempel kerajaan, yang menegaskan kembali persahabatan Ayutthaya dan aliansi militer.

 Dia menyimpannya di kantong sutra diikatkan di pinggangnya, yang ia diperiksa dari waktu ke waktu untuk memastikan bahwa itu masih aman. Sesampainya tanpa segel berarti mendarat tanpa tujuan apapun. Dia memutuskan bahwa, tak peduli betapa sakit dan takut dia, dia tidak akan membiarkan ini terjadi.

Tiba-tiba, peti yang berisi ayam dan bebek dijemput oleh gelombang besar dan dilemparkan ke geladak dengan kekuatan sehingga mereka hancur berkeping-keping melemparkan hewan trauma seluruh tempat.
Saat ia mendengarkan klakson mereka ketakutan dan pekikan firasat akan terjadinya kiamat mengirim dingin dingin ke tulang belakang Dharmaraja itu.

Penggarap dan kemudi berada di bawah tekanan besar dan konstan seperti Heng Tai memerangi amukan badai untuk menjaga kapal di jalur.
Kemudian, saat malam tiba, ketegangan akhirnya mengambil korban dan anakan pecah.
 Tak ada lagi yang harus dilakukan. Tanpa kemampuan untuk mengarahkan dia, kapal tetap sejajar dengan gelombang dan layar menyeret kapal turun menyamping.
 Dalam upaya terakhir untuk menyelamatkan kapal, kru mencoba untuk memangkas layar tapi itu terlalu terlambat. Terbalik sudah dekat seperti air datang menerjang atas deck dari segala arah. Upaya terakhir Heng Tai dari beaching kapal di tepi Pulau Tioman telah terbukti mustahil. Perjuangan untuk tetap bertahan usai.

Dharmaraja mencoba menyelamatkan diri dengan berpegangan pada tiang utama dengan harapan memanjat ke tempat yang aman dari air yang kini melingkupinya.
 Menjadi lebih berpengalaman dalam situasi seperti ini, Heng Tai dan krunya menjelajahi laut untuk beberapa puing-puing mengambang untuk melekat dan perlahan-lahan bergeser dari layar berderak, jauh dari pelan dan erangan dari lambung tegang, jauh dari jeritan Dharmaraja itu. Kapal itu ditelan, meninggalkan apa-apa kecuali kegelapan dan keheningan di belakangnya.

 

 

Epilogue

Almost 600 years later, a lone Swedish diver, monitored by an advanced ROV (remote operated vehicle) descended on the very spot where the vessel sank 

The only visible remains of the once proud ship was a mound of broken and overgrown ceramics. There was no sign of any ship’s timber above the seabed, the Teredo woodworms had taken care of that long ago.

The mound still points towards Tioman Island but the distance is too far for Heng Tai and his crew to have reached it safely in those sea conditions.  Dharmaraja would not have survived by clinging to the mast top either as the water was too deep, but the relationship between Ayutthaya and Majapahit did survive, even without the royal gifts.

Although fictitious, everything in Heng Tai’s story is based on evidence uncovered during the excavation of the Royal Nanhai shipwreck.  A seal was found next to the mast step but no remains of Dharmaraja could be found.

 

3,2,2 d

Brief historical background to Asia’s Maritime trade

(By Sten Sjostrand)

bagian terakhir dr suatu karya sastra
Hampir 600 tahun kemudian, tunggal Swedia penyelam, dipantau oleh ROV maju (dioperasikan kendaraan jarak jauh) turun di titik di mana kapal tenggelam
Satu-satunya sisa terlihat dari kapal sekali bangga adalah gundukan rusak dan ditumbuhi keramik. Tidak ada tanda-tanda kayu setiap kapal di atas dasar laut, para woodworms Teredo telah diambil dari perawatan yang lama.
Gundukan masih menunjuk pada Pulau Tioman namun jaraknya terlalu jauh untuk Heng Tai dan krunya telah mencapai dengan aman pada mereka kondisi laut. Dharmaraja tidak akan bertahan dengan berpegangan pada tiang atas baik sebagai air terlalu dalam, tetapi hubungan antara Ayutthaya dan Majapahit bisa bertahan, bahkan tanpa hadiah kerajaan.
Meskipun fiktif, segala sesuatu dalam cerita Heng Tai didasarkan pada bukti ditemukan selama penggalian dari Royal Nanhai kapal karam. Sebuah segel ditemukan di sebelah langkah tiang tetapi tidak ada sisa-sisa Dharmaraja dapat ditemukan.
Latar belakang singkat historis untuk perdagangan Maritim Asia
(By Sten Sjostrand)

 

Early Arab and Indian explorers opened the earliest maritime trade route between China, India and the Middle East.  By the 8th century Chinese merchants joined the trade and it wasn’t long before the South China Sea became a bustling marine highway.

 

Ships laden with Chinese pottery, textiles and iron stopped and trade all along the route, returning with cargoes of exotic indigenous products regarded as luxury items in China.  By the 13th century, green glazed celadon ware was in big demand as its colour resembled jade. It also had a reputation for having magical powers; Marco Polo was once told that celadon emitted a ringing tone when danger approached its owner. It was also reputed to change colour if poisoned food was placed on it. No wonder everyone wanted this ware, it was the only kind of life assurance available in those days. But whether celadon was really magical, or its “special powers” were nothing more than an innovative marketing strategy, the reality was that sales soared.  As a result Chinese ware enjoyed a virtual monopoly in the ceramics trade until the late 14th century.

 

As maritime trade increased, the Yuan dynasty slipped deeper into decline and eventually fell in 1368 to Zhu Yuan Zhang, a Chinese peasant who had led a successful rebellion against the Mongols.  He set up court in Nanjing where he established the Ming dynasty and named himself Hongwu, the ‘Son of Heaven’. Hongwu was eager to restore Chinese culture and so he reintroduced Confucian ideology that ranked chivalry higher than profit. Confucian scholars were given key positions at court but had little interest in seeing China develop into a great maritime trading power. Instead they concentrated on developing internal trade by rebuilding the network of canals that had been destroyed during the Mongol dynasty.  Hongwu felt threatened by the wealthy merchants and forcefully moved many of them inland. He then ordered their ships to be destroyed and prohibited all private overseas trade and the building of ocean going vessels.  This ‘‘Ming ban’’ on overseas private trade was introduced in 1371 and was often heavily enforced.  Anyone caught smuggling paid with his life.

 

By the beginning of the15th century however, a new ruler, the Yongle emperor (1403-1324) sent admiral Zheng He (also known as Cheng Ho) on a series of famous ocean voyages to promote tributary trade. This kind of trade emphasised the giving and receiving of tribute, which was in harmony with Confucian principles and meant trade could continue in the name of the emperor.  The expeditions visited Java, India, Mogadishu on the coast of Africa, Hormuz on the Persian Gulf, and sailed up the Red Sea to Jeddah. Gifts were exchanged, and rare spices, plants and animals, including a giraffe, were sent back to China.

 

The ‘‘Ming ban’’ caused China to loose its monopoly of the ceramic trade forcing many Chinese potters to migrate.  During the 14th century, ceramic production in Thailand and Vietnam increased and the Thai ceramic industry became internationally famous. The main developments seem to have been at the Thai kilns of Sukhothai and Sisatchanalai, which flourished between the 14th and 16th centuries. The kilns at Sukhothai produced underglaze black ware, which was very similar in design and decoration to pots that had been made in the northern Chinese kilns of Cizhou centuries earlier. The kilns at Sisatchanalai made celadon, which began appearing in overseas marketplaces from the last quarter of the 14th century

 

Evidence from 14th to 16th century South China Sea shipwrecks supports the idea that the Chinese shipbuilders also moved to S.E. Asia.  Traditionally, Chinese ships were made from a temperate climate species of wood and constructed around transverse bulkheads that were held together by square iron nails.  In contrast, Southeast Asian vessels were made from tropical hardwood and built around a framework joined by wooden dowels; a technique still used by boat builders in Terengganu today.  Almost all the shipwrecks from this period had transverse bulkheads attached to a framework, joined by wooden dowels and built from tropical hardwood. These hybrids are commonly referred to as South China Sea vessels and provide evidence that Chinese shipbuilders migrated southwards.

 

The ‘‘Ming ban’’ was officially abolished in 1567 and this allowed the Portuguese to openly trade with China.  By now Chinese potters were crafting exquisite blue and white porcelain ware that was as translucent as jade and almost as precious.  It captivated an ever-increasing group of European buyers and by the beginning of the 17th century blue and white porcelain was being exported to Portugal, Holland and England. From the beginning of the 18th century, more and more European merchant vessels were crossing the South China Sea with thousands of pieces of blue and white porcelain onboard. Many private European traders settled in Asia, using locally built ships to join in this lucrative commerce.

 

The ten historical South China Sea shipwrecks presented in this web page span these centuries of change.  Before the discovery of these wrecks, most of the information available to ceramic collectors came from pots that had been found at various archaeological excavations on land. These became a sort of benchmark for art historians who tended to date all types of similar ceramic pieces according to the dates of these sites.  Finding the ten shipwrecks not only resolved many of the questions I had about dating my own collection, it also provided important evidence for past maritime trade, ceramic development and shipbuilding techniques during a time when Asia was the leading technological hub and a dominant force in global trade.

 

 

Awal Penjelajah Arab dan India  membuka awal rute perdagangan maritim antara Cina, India dan Timur Tengah.

Pada abad ke-8 pedagang Cina bergabung perdagangan dan itu tidak lama sebelum Laut Cina Selatan menjadi jalan laut yang ramai.

Kapal sarat dengan tembikar Cina, tekstil dan besi berhenti dan perdagangan sepanjang rute, kembali dengan kargo produk asli eksotis dianggap sebagai barang mewah di Cina.

 Pada abad ke-13, hijau mengkilap celadon gudang adalah permintaan besar karena warnanya menyerupai batu giok. Ini juga memiliki reputasi karena memiliki kekuatan magis, Marco Polo pernah diberitahu bahwa celadon dipancarkan nada dering ketika bahaya mendekati pemiliknya.

Hal ini juga terkenal untuk mengubah warna jika makanan beracun ditempatkan di atasnya. Tak heran semua orang ingin gudang ini, itu adalah satu-satunya jenis asuransi jiwa yang tersedia pada masa itu. Tapi apakah itu benar-benar ajaib celadon, atau “kekuatan khusus” yang tidak lebih dari strategi pemasaran yang inovatif, kenyataannya adalah bahwa penjualan melonjak. Akibatnya gudang Cina menikmati monopoli virtual dalam perdagangan keramik sampai akhir abad ke-14.

Sebagai perdagangan maritim meningkat, dinasti Yuan tergelincir lebih dalam ke penurunan dan akhirnya jatuh pada tahun 1368 ke Zhu Yuan Zhang, seorang petani Cina yang telah memimpin pemberontakan berhasil melawan Mongol. Ia mendirikan pengadilan di Nanjing mana ia mendirikan dinasti Ming dan menamai dirinya Hongwu, ‘Anak Langit’. Hongwu sangat ingin untuk mengembalikan budaya Cina dan jadi dia diperkenalkan kembali ideologi Konghucu yang peringkat ksatria tinggi daripada keuntungan.

Konfusianisme ulama diberi posisi penting di pengadilan, tetapi memiliki sedikit minat dalam melihat Cina berkembang menjadi kekuatan perdagangan besar maritim. Sebaliknya mereka berkonsentrasi pada pengembangan perdagangan internal dengan membangun kembali jaringan kanal yang telah hancur selama dinasti Mongol.

 Hongwu merasa terancam oleh pedagang kaya dan tegas pindah banyak dari mereka pedalaman. Dia kemudian memerintahkan kapal mereka harus dihancurkan dan melarang semua perdagangan luar negeri swasta dan pembangunan kapal akan laut. Ini”” Ming larangan perdagangan luar negeri swasta diperkenalkan pada 1371 dan sering ditegakkan. Siapa pun yang tertangkap menyelundupkan dibayar dengan nyawanya.

Pada awal abad the15th Namun, penguasa baru, Yongle kaisar (1403-1324) mengirim Laksamana Zheng He (juga dikenal sebagai Cheng Ho) pada serangkaian perjalanan laut yang terkenal untuk mempromosikan perdagangan anak sungai.

 Ini jenis perdagangan menekankan memberi dan menerima upeti, yang selaras dengan prinsip Konfusian dan berarti perdagangan bisa berlanjut dalam nama kaisar.

 Ekspedisi mengunjungi Jawa, India, Mogadishu di pantai Afrika, Hormuz di Teluk Persia, dan berlayar ke Laut Merah ke Jeddah. Hadiah ditukar, dan rempah-rempah langka, tumbuhan dan hewan, termasuk jerapah, dikirim kembali ke China.

The” Ming larangan” menyebabkan China kehilangan monopoli dari perdagangan keramik memaksa banyak tembikar Cina untuk bermigrasi. Selama abad ke-14, produksi keramik di Thailand dan Vietnam meningkat dan industri keramik Thailand menjadi terkenal secara internasional.

Perkembangan utama tampaknya telah di kiln Thailand Sukhothai dan Sisatchanalai, yang berkembang antara abad 14 dan 16. Kiln di Sukhothai diproduksi underglaze hitam ware, yang sangat mirip dalam desain dan dekorasi untuk pot yang telah dibuat di tanur Cina utara Cizhou abad sebelumnya. Kiln di Sisatchanalai membuat celadon, yang mulai muncul di pasar luar negeri dari kuartal terakhir abad ke-14

Bukti dari 14 sampai 16 abad Laut Cina Selatan kapal karam mendukung gagasan bahwa pembuat kapal China juga pindah ke SE Asia. Secara tradisional, kapal Cina dibuat dari spesies iklim dari kayu dan dibangun di sekitar bulkheads melintang yang dilekatkan dengan paku besi persegi. Sebaliknya, kapal Asia Tenggara yang terbuat dari kayu keras tropis dan dibangun dengan kerangka bergabung dengan pena kayu, teknik masih digunakan oleh pembangun kapal di Terengganu hari ini.

Hampir semua bangkai kapal dari periode ini memiliki bulkheads melintang melekat pada kerangka, bergabung dengan pena kayu dan dibangun dari kayu keras tropis. Ini hibrida sering disebut sebagai Laut Cina Selatan dan kapal memberikan bukti bahwa pembuat kapal Cina bermigrasi ke selatan.

The”” Ming larangan secara resmi dihapuskan pada tahun 1567 dan ini membuat Portugis untuk secara terbuka perdagangan dengan China. Sekarang tembikar China kerajinan biru dan putih porselen indah yang seperti tembus seperti batu giok dan hampir sama berharganya. Ini terpikat kelompok yang terus meningkat dari pembeli Eropa dan pada awal abad porselen biru dan putih-17 telah diekspor ke Portugal, Belanda dan Inggris. Dari awal abad ke-18, lebih dan lebih Eropa kapal pedagang yang menyeberangi Laut Cina Selatan dengan ribuan keping porselen biru dan putih onboard.

Banyak pedagang swasta Eropa menetap di Asia, menggunakan kapal lokal dibangun untuk bergabung dalam perdagangan ini menguntungkan.

Kesepuluh sejarah Laut Cina Selatan bangkai kapal yang disajikan dalam halaman web rentang ini berabad-abad perubahan. Sebelum penemuan bangkai kapal ini,

sebagian besar informasi yang tersedia bagi kolektor keramik berasal dari pot yang telah ditemukan di berbagai penggalian arkeologi di darat. Ini menjadi semacam acuan bagi para sejarawan seni yang cenderung saat ini semua jenis potongan keramik yang sama sesuai dengan tanggal dari situs ini.

Menemukan sepuluh bangkai kapal tidak hanya diselesaikan banyak pertanyaan saya tentang kencan koleksi saya sendiri, juga memberikan bukti penting untuk perdagangan, pengembangan keramik masa lalu maritim dan teknik pembuatan kapal selama waktu ketika Asia adalah hub teknologi terkemuka dan kekuatan yang dominan di dunia perdagangan

 

Time capsules

(By Sten Sjostrand)

 

Diving on any shipwreck is an exciting experience full of mystique, but diving on an historical shipwreck is even more thrilling and definitely more challenging. 

These shipwrecks are fragile time capsules containing important information about a bygone era and the information they contain can be easily destroyed by careless excavation.  Some divers only value the cargo but the real treasure is the whole ship: its structure, cargo and the historical context.

 

Studying each shipwreck from this perspective means that everything onboard is valuable in determining the date and origin of the vessel.  The remains of perishable items onboard at the time of sinking, as well as the vessel’s design and construction method, are just as crucial as the cargo when it comes to fully understanding the importance of the wreck site.

 

By applying the same fastidious methods of excavation to each of the ten shipwrecks found in the South China Sea, I have been able to plot a proposed chronology for the development of ceramics. This wouldn’t have been as clear or comprehensive, if ten different people using different research criteria and techniques had undertaken the excavations.

 

Examining each ship’s cargo provided a lot of information. Most ships were loaded with items from different countries of origin, which not only sheds light on the trading routes, but also provides important information about the range of contemporaneous forms and styles of trade goods that were available along the route. 

Recording where each artefact was located often helps to unravel the true circumstances surrounding the item.  For example, on one occasion we found a few pieces of pottery that were older than the rest of the cargo, which possibly indicates the existence of a small trade in antiques at that particular time.  However as these pieces were discovered in a different location from the main cargo, it’s more likely to assume they were intended as gifts or were part of the personal effects of someone onboard.

 

By examining the remains of the ship it’s possible to determine its design, construction method and the type of timber used.  This information can tell much about the spread of shipbuilding techniques throughout the region.

A further examination of the ship’s loading arrangement and other objects found onboard provide a rather good picture of the historical events preceding the ship’s sinking.  It’s only when we combine all these factors that we can fully understand a shipwreck site.

 

Excavating historical shipwrecks is a daunting and painstaking business requiring enormous patience and stamina. I couldn’t wait to get started.

 

Kapsul waktu
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Diving pada setiap kapal karam adalah pengalaman yang menarik penuh mistik, tapi menyelam pada kapal karam sejarah bahkan lebih mendebarkan dan pasti lebih menantang. Ini adalah bangkai kapal kapsul waktu yang berisi rapuh informasi penting tentang zaman dulu dan informasi yang dikandungnya dapat dengan mudah dihancurkan oleh penggalian ceroboh. Beberapa penyelam hanya menghargai kargo tapi harta yang sesungguhnya adalah seluruh kapal: struktur, kargo dan konteks historis.

Mempelajari setiap kapal karam dari perspektif ini berarti bahwa segala sesuatu onboard berharga dalam menentukan tanggal dan asal kapal. Sisa-sisa barang tahan lama atas kapal pada saat tenggelam, serta desain kapal dan metode konstruksi, yang sama pentingnya dengan kargo ketika datang untuk sepenuhnya memahami pentingnya situs kecelakaan.

Dengan menerapkan metode rewel sama penggalian untuk masing-masing dari sepuluh bangkai kapal yang ditemukan di Laut Cina Selatan, saya telah mampu merencanakan sebuah kronologi diusulkan untuk pengembangan keramik. Ini tidak akan sejelas atau komprehensif, jika sepuluh orang yang berbeda menggunakan kriteria penelitian yang berbeda dan teknik telah dilakukan penggalian.

Memeriksa kargo setiap kapal memberikan banyak informasi. Kebanyakan kapal yang sarat dengan barang-barang dari berbagai negara asal, yang tidak hanya menyoroti rute perdagangan, tetapi juga menyediakan informasi penting tentang berbagai bentuk kontemporer dan gaya barang perdagangan yang tersedia di sepanjang rute. Rekaman di mana setiap artefak terletak sering membantu untuk mengungkap keadaan yang sebenarnya sekitar item. Misalnya, pada satu kesempatan kami menemukan beberapa potong tembikar yang lebih tua dari sisa kargo, yang mungkin menunjukkan adanya perdagangan barang-barang antik kecil pada waktu tertentu. Namun sebagai potongan ini ditemukan di lokasi yang berbeda dari kargo utama, itu lebih mungkin untuk menganggap mereka itu dimaksudkan sebagai hadiah atau merupakan bagian dari efek pribadi seseorang onboard.

Dengan memeriksa sisa-sisa kapal itu mungkin untuk menentukan desain, metode konstruksi dan jenis kayu yang digunakan. Informasi ini dapat memberitahu banyak tentang penyebaran teknik perkapalan di seluruh wilayah. Pemeriksaan lebih lanjut dari pengaturan pemuatan kapal dan benda-benda lain yang ditemukan onboard, memberikan gambaran yang lebih baik dari peristiwa sejarah sebelum tenggelamnya kapal. Hanya ketika kita menggabungkan semua faktor ini bahwa kita dapat sepenuhnya memahami situs kapal karam.

Menggali bangkai kapal sejarah adalah bisnis yang menakutkan dan melelahkan yang membutuhkan kesabaran yang sangat besar dan stamina. Aku tidak bisa menunggu untuk memulai.

 

Why Shipwrecked?

(By Sten Sjostrand)

 

Even though today’s ships are strongly built, carry good navigational equipment and charts and are manned by highly trained officers, an average of two ships per day still end up on the seabed – a staggering statistic!

 

Without any of this modern equipment and knowledge to rely on, ancient ships sailed virtually blind.  Some, like Heng Tai’s ship, were also weakened through lack of proper maintenance and some were in the hands of inexperienced officers, who were not always aware of all the navigational hazards they needed to avoid.  On top of this, these old ships were often terribly over crowded.

 

A common rule of trade was that individual merchants had to live above the compartment they had hired for their cargo. Consequently, there were a lot of passengers onboard and decks were often so crowded that people had to lie down to sleep in shifts.  Water jars, and other smaller items of cargo, were stored on deck too, which made it almost impossible for the crew to respond quickly in an emergency.  Presumably this would have been one of the reasons why Heng Tai’s crew couldn’t get their sails down fast enough to save the ship.  Another negative effect of this overcrowding was the fire risk created by the numerous cooking fires on deck.  Some of these old ships carried saltpetre and gunpowder so any fire onboard was potentially explosive.

 

The South China Sea offered plenty of hiding places for pirates and over the years these brigands became familiar with the course and destination of various trading ships and would lie in ambush along the route.  Normally the pirates stripped the ship of its precious cargo, firearms, cannons and anchors before killing everyone onboard and setting the ship ablaze. Destroying all evidence of the ship meant they could avoid detection. Surprisingly, the ship’s iron fittings were amongst the most valuable items onboard. Iron was very scarce in Southeast Asia, during this period, which is presumably why their shipbuilders didn’t use iron nails.

 

The European era adversely affected the safety of shipping in the South China Sea as the Portuguese, Dutch, English, and Spanish tried their best to minimize competition by inflicting as much damage as possible on each other’s vessels as well as any other Asian ship they encountered. Numerous reports exist about Portuguese captains beaching their own ships and setting them on fire rather than letting the Dutch capture them. Yet other reports describe how the Dutch immobilised ‘unfriendly’ ships by shooting down their masts. Then the cargo, anchors and bronze cannons were looted before the ship was set ablaze. Many later blew up ‘like thunder’ after the fire had spread to the powder store.

 

The Chinese and hybrid Southeast Asian vessels were better at surviving storms and reefs than any other local type of ship.  Their transverse bulkheads divided the ship into watertight compartments that could stay afloat if one or two of them became flooded. They would simply jettison the cargo from the damaged compartments, repair the broken structure from inside and then continue sailing.  All Chinese ships had bulkheads that went all the way to the deck and were quite watertight.  Watertight transverse bulkheads are still employed by ship designers today, which shows how innovative these early Chinese craftsmen had been. The Titanic sank because her watertight bulkheads didn’t go all the way to the upper deck and water was able to flow from one compartment to the other.

 

When a ship did sink it would have been almost inevitable that everyone onboard perished.  The chance of survival depended on how far the ship was from shore when it sank.  Of the ten historic wrecks excavated in the South China Sea, there’s only three (the Desaru, Tanjung Simpang and Wanli) that were close enough to shore for survival to have been possible. Sadly, most people onboard would have died and there would be no record of them. The human cost this early trade exacted is something I’m always respectfully mindful of when we work on a site.  Thankfully it’s very rare to find human remains on these sites.  Most of the passengers and crew would have jumped overboard before the ship sank and would have been swept away on the current.

Mengapa terdampar?
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Meskipun kapal hari ini yang kuat dibangun, membawa peralatan navigasi yang baik dan grafik dan diawaki oleh petugas terlatih, rata-rata dua kapal per hari masih berakhir di dasar laut – statistik mengejutkan!

Tanpa semua ini peralatan modern dan pengetahuan untuk mengandalkan, kapal kuno berlayar hampir buta. Beberapa, seperti kapal Heng Tai, juga melemah karena kurangnya perawatan yang tepat dan ada yang di tangan petugas berpengalaman, yang tidak selalu menyadari semua bahaya navigasi yang mereka butuhkan untuk menghindari. Di atas ini, kapal-kapal tua sering sangat lebih ramai.

Aturan umum dari perdagangan adalah bahwa pedagang individu harus hidup di atas kompartemen mereka telah menyewa untuk kargo mereka. Akibatnya, ada banyak penumpang onboard dan deck sering begitu ramai bahwa orang harus berbaring untuk tidur dalam shift. Tempayan, dan barang-barang kecil lainnya kargo, disimpan di geladak juga, yang membuat hampir tidak mungkin bagi kru untuk merespon dengan cepat dalam keadaan darurat. Agaknya ini akan menjadi salah satu alasan mengapa awak Heng Tai tidak bisa mendapatkan layar mereka turun cukup cepat untuk menyelamatkan kapal. Efek negatif lain dari kepadatan penduduk adalah resiko kebakaran yang diciptakan oleh berbagai kebakaran memasak di dek. Beberapa kapal tua dilakukan sendawa dan mesiu sehingga setiap kebakaran onboard, itu berpotensi meledak.

Laut Cina Selatan menawarkan banyak tempat persembunyian untuk bajak laut dan selama bertahun-tahun perampok ini menjadi akrab dengan program dan tujuan berbagai kapal dagang dan akan selalu menghalangi sepanjang rute. Biasanya para perompak dilucuti kapal kargo yang berharga, senjata api, meriam dan jangkar sebelum membunuh semua orang di pesawat dan pengaturan kapal terbakar. Menghancurkan semua bukti kapal berarti mereka bisa menghindari deteksi. Anehnya, fitting besi kapal berada di antara barang-barang yang paling berharga atas kapal. Besi sangat langka di Asia Tenggara, selama periode ini, yang mungkin mengapa pembuat kapal mereka tidak menggunakan paku besi.

Era Eropa berdampak buruk terhadap keselamatan pelayaran di Laut Cina Selatan sebagai Portugis, Belanda, Inggris, dan Spanyol mencoba terbaik mereka untuk meminimalkan persaingan dengan menimbulkan kerusakan sebanyak mungkin di kapal masing-masing serta setiap kapal Asia lainnya yang mereka temui . Sejumlah laporan ada tentang kapten Portugis beaching kapal mereka sendiri dan menetapkan mereka terbakar daripada membiarkan Belanda menangkap mereka. Namun laporan lain menggambarkan bagaimana Belanda amobil kapal ‘tidak ramah’ dengan menembak jatuh tiang-tiang mereka. Kemudian kargo, jangkar dan meriam perunggu dijarah sebelum kapal itu dibakar. Banyak kemudian meledak ‘seperti guntur’ setelah api telah menyebar ke toko bubuk.

Kapal Tenggara Cina dan hibrida Asia lebih baik dalam bertahan badai dan terumbu daripada jenis lokal lainnya kapal. Bulkheads melintang mereka dibagi kapal ke kompartemen kedap air yang bisa tetap bertahan jika salah satu atau dua dari mereka menjadi banjir. Mereka hanya akan membuang kargo dari kompartemen yang rusak, memperbaiki rusak struktur dari dalam dan kemudian melanjutkan berlayar. Semua kapal Cina memiliki bulkheads yang pergi semua jalan ke geladak dan cukup kedap. Kedap melintang bulkheads masih digunakan oleh desainer kapal saat ini, yang menunjukkan bagaimana inovatif ini pengrajin Cina awal telah. Titanic tenggelam karena dia bulkheads kedap air tidak pergi semua jalan ke atas dek dan air bisa mengalir dari satu kompartemen ke yang lain.

Ketika kapal itu tenggelam itu akan menjadi hampir tak terelakkan bahwa setiap orang atas kapal tewas. Kesempatan untuk bertahan hidup tergantung pada seberapa jauh kapal itu dari pantai ketika tenggelam. Dari sepuluh bangkai kapal bersejarah digali di Laut Cina Selatan, hanya ada tiga (di Desaru, Tanjung Simpang dan Wanli) yang cukup dekat dengan pantai untuk kelangsungan hidup telah menjadi mungkin. Sayangnya, kebanyakan orang atas kapal akan mati dan tidak akan ada catatan dari mereka. Biaya manusia perdagangan awal ini dituntut adalah sesuatu yang saya selalu hormat sadar ketika kita bekerja di situs. Untungnya sangat jarang untuk menemukan sisa-sisa manusia di situs tersebut. Sebagian besar penumpang dan awak akan melompat ke laut sebelum kapal tenggelam dan akan telah hanyut pada saat ini.

Early Laws of the Sea

(By Sten Sjostrand)

I was intrigued to discover that there were several Thai laws that related specifically to sailors even though there are no records of a strong maritime tradition.  

One law from 1350 prohibits the wife of a shipwrecked sailor from remarrying for seven years after his departure. 

This seems to have been quite a sensible law when you consider how long it might take for a shipwrecked survivor to eventually make his way back home. 

 

In 1690 a German traveller boarded a Dutch ship in Batavia that was heading first to Thailand and then onto Japan. 

Onboard he met a Japanese passenger who was finally going home after being shipwrecked in the South China Sea 10 years earlier. He and a few other survivors had been washed onto on a small sandbank in the middle of the South China Sea where they lived for a few years before being spotted and rescued.  The sandbank offered little in terms of quality of life being only fifty-three paces long and twenty-four paces wide!   When he finally returned to Japan, he found his wife had remarried and produced a son.

 

thai palace in bangkok

The same law states that a sailor has the right to give evidence in court in the furtherance of settling disputes involving other sailors. The fact that these laws had already been formulated by 1350 indicates that there was already a thriving Chinese seafaring community in Thailand before the ‘Ming ban’ of 1371. It also adds weight to my theory that part of the Chinese migration of Cizhou potters started as early as 1280 when the Mongols invaded China and established the Yuan dynasty.

These early immigrants most likely started the production of underglaze painted ceramics at Sukhothai, almost a hundred years before celadon production got underway at the Sisatchanalai kilns.  This theory is supported by evidence gathered from the Cizhou kiln sites and the Turiang shipwreck. This shipwreck cargo also reversed the earlier belief that Sisatchanalai was the first Thai kiln in export production.

 

The 15th century Melaka Maritime Code specifies rules pertaining to merchants and provides a general guide for ships as well as trading procedures. In this, the earliest known maritime code, it states that neither the merchant or the captain are liable to the owner for any lost goods if the cargo had to be jettisoned (a common practice if the ship hit a reef and needed repairs) or was totally lost by shipwrecking.  One can only assume that ships must have been lost quite frequently otherwise there would be no need for such a law.

Hukum  Laut Awal
(By Sten Sjostrand)
Saya tertarik untuk menemukan bahwa ada beberapa undang-undang Thailand yang khusus berkaitan dengan pelaut meskipun tidak ada catatan dari tradisi maritim yang kuat. Satu hukum dari 1350 melarang istri pelaut terdampar untuk menikah kembali selama tujuh tahun setelah kepergiannya. Hal ini tampaknya telah cukup masuk akal hukum ketika Anda mempertimbangkan berapa lama waktu yang diperlukan untuk korban terdampar akhirnya membuat jalan kembali ke rumah. Pada 1690 seorang musafir Jerman menumpang kapal Belanda di Batavia yang menuju pertama ke Thailand dan kemudian ke Jepang. Onboard ia bertemu seorang penumpang Jepang yang akhirnya akan pulang setelah terdampar di Laut Cina Selatan 10 tahun sebelumnya. Dia dan beberapa korban lainnya telah dicuci ke pada gosong pasir kecil di tengah Laut Cina Selatan dimana mereka tinggal selama beberapa tahun sebelum melihat dan diselamatkan. Gosong pasir ditawarkan sedikit dalam hal kualitas hidup yang hanya lima puluh tiga langkah panjang dan dua puluh empat langkah lebar! Ketika dia akhirnya kembali ke Jepang, ia menemukan istrinya sudah menikah lagi dan menghasilkan seorang putra.

Sama hukum menyatakan bahwa pelaut berhak untuk memberikan bukti di pengadilan dalam kelanjutan penyelesaian sengketa yang melibatkan pelaut lainnya. Fakta bahwa hukum-hukum ini sudah dirumuskan oleh 1350 menunjukkan bahwa sudah ada komunitas pelaut berkembang Cina di Thailand sebelum ‘Ming larangan’ dari 1371. Ia juga menambahkan bobot teori saya bagian dari migrasi Cina Cizhou tembikar dimulai sedini 1280 ketika Mongol menyerbu Cina dan mendirikan dinasti Yuan. Imigran awal ini kemungkinan besar mulai produksi keramik dicat underglaze di Sukhothai, hampir seratus tahun sebelum produksi celadon mendapat berlangsung di kiln Sisatchanalai. Teori ini didukung oleh bukti yang dikumpulkan dari situs kiln Cizhou dan Turiang kapal karam. Ini kapal karam kargo juga membalik keyakinan sebelumnya bahwa Sisatchanalai adalah kiln Thailand lebih dulu dalam produksi ekspor.

Abad ke-15 Melaka Maritime Kode menetapkan aturan-aturan yang berkaitan dengan pedagang dan menyediakan panduan umum untuk kapal serta prosedur perdagangan. Dalam hal ini, kode maritim dikenal paling awal, ia menyatakan bahwa baik pedagang atau kapten bertanggung jawab kepada pemilik untuk setiap barang yang hilang jika kargo harus dibuang (praktek umum jika kapal menabrak karang dan perbaikan diperlukan) ataukah benar-benar hilang dengan shipwrecking. Kita hanya bisa berasumsi bahwa kapal harus telah kehilangan cukup sering jika tidak, tidak akan ada kebutuhan untuk undang-undang tersebut.

 

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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 Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

3.3 Type and Motif Of Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork

3.3.1

Type And Motif Of Chinese Imperial Artwork Ceramic from

Shipwreck pottery

(By Sten Sjostrand)

Before sipwrecks were discovered there was little archaeological evidence available to help art historians date ancient pottery.

They theorised about origin, style of painting and choice of motifs, the kind of oxides used in the decorations and, in some cases, the density of the colour.

They also considered the type of clay used to mould the pot and the techniques involved in making the pottery.

But without a reference point much of this was educated guesswork mostly based on museum collections of unproven origin.  

 It was even thought that finer and more detailed decorations belonged to an earlier period and that somehow the art of decorating pots had devolved over time and become less refined 

The problem with this early method of dating is that it places too much emphasis on separating the different types of pottery into narrow time periods.

This has led to pieces that were actually made at the same time and place being given different dates. 

 Experts rarely considered the possibility that these different styles were produced contemporaneously.  

There was also little appreciation of the fact that not all of the potters and decorators would be equally skilled and that therefore some pots would look artistically superior to others.  

 In addition, these criteria were often applied to pieces in museum collections from unknown origins and so the research didn’t contribute to a long lasting chronology of ceramic ware. 

It’s in this area that historical shipwrecks have provided valuable new insights. 

 Most of the cargoes we’ve examined contained an array of pots, which according to the old way of dating, would have been made many years apart. 

But in fact most, if not all, of the objects found onboard these historic wrecks have revealed that a greater variety of ware was available than had previously been expected.

 It also seems clear that the production of different forms and styles of decoration overlapped and that each type was manufactured over a longer period than previously thought.

The contribution these shipwreck cargoes have made to the dating of ancient ceramics is one of the most important things to have come from their discovery and excavation.

Keramik Kapal Karam
(By Sten Sjostrand)

Sebelum sipwrecks ditemukan ada bukti arkeologi sedikit tersedia untuk membantu sejarawan seni saat tembikar kuno. Mereka berteori tentang asal, gaya lukisan dan pilihan motif, jenis oksida yang digunakan dalam dekorasi dan, dalam beberapa kasus, kepadatan warna. Mereka juga dianggap sebagai jenis tanah liat yang digunakan untuk cetakan panci dan teknik yang terlibat dalam pembuatan gerabah.

Tapi tanpa titik acuan banyak ini adalah dugaan berpendidikan sebagian besar didasarkan pada koleksi museum asal terbukti. Itu bahkan berpikir bahwa dekorasi halus dan lebih rinci milik periode sebelumnya dan bahwa entah bagaimana seni dekorasi pot telah diserahkan dari waktu ke waktu dan menjadi kurang halus

Masalah dengan metode ini awal kencan adalah bahwa hal itu menempatkan terlalu banyak penekanan pada memisahkan berbagai jenis gerabah dalam periode waktu yang sempit.

 Hal ini telah menyebabkan potongan-potongan yang benar-benar dilakukan pada waktu dan tempat yang sama diberi tanggal yang berbeda. Ahli jarang mempertimbangkan kemungkinan bahwa gaya yang berbeda yang diproduksi serentak. Ada juga sedikit apresiasi terhadap fakta bahwa tidak semua tembikar dan dekorator akan sama-sama terampil dan oleh karena itu beberapa pot akan terlihat artistik unggul dari orang lain. Selain itu, kriteria tersebut sering diterapkan untuk potongan dalam koleksi museum dari asal tidak diketahui sehingga penelitian tidak berkontribusi kronologi jangka panjang ware keramik.

Ini di daerah ini bahwa bangkai kapal sejarah telah memberikan wawasan baru yang berharga. Sebagian besar barang kami telah diperiksa berisi sebuah array pot, yang menurut cara lama berpacaran, akan telah dibuat bertahun-tahun terpisah. Namun pada kenyataannya sebagian besar, jika tidak semua, dari benda yang ditemukan onboard, ini bangkai kapal bersejarah telah mengungkapkan bahwa berbagai besar ware yang tersedia daripada yang sebelumnya telah diharapkan. Hal ini juga tampak jelas bahwa produksi berbagai bentuk dan gaya dekorasi tumpang tindih dan bahwa setiap jenis diproduksi periode yang lebih lama dari yang diperkirakan sebelumnya. Kontribusi tersebut kargo kapal karam telah dibuat untuk penanggalan keramik kuno adalah salah satu hal yang paling penting telah datang dari penemuan dan penggalian mereka

 

3.3.1 a

 TUNJUNG SIMPANG  SHIPWRECK.

(11th century)

The Tanjung Simpang ship

Wreck location
Brown glazed kendi
Bronze gong
Copper ingot
Same marks on bronze & ceramics

The wreck found off Tanjung Simpangmangayau, in the north of Sabah, carried a cargo of Chinese ceramics tentatively dated to the Northern Song dynasty (960-1126 AD). Some pi

.

A 1000 year-old wreck site providing archeology and art history with new information

The Tanjung Simpang shipwreck site, the oldest in Malaysian waters, was unusual in many ways. 

 It was the only site the company discovered in shallow water and close to shore. The site was heavily looted by local fishermen.

Despite this looting, a number of Sung dynasty ceramic wares and few hundred kilos of pottery shards were recovered together with bronze gongs.

Some of these gongs were signed with Chinese characters, painted on the reverse

It has been known for a long time that the ancient Chinese potters made markings in the base of his pots to identify each individuals wares after its firing. These markings are referred to as “potters marks”.

Few of the Tg. Simpang ceramic wares had “potters marks” painted in the base of the pots. These characters are however masterly executed, and question its signing by a lesser educated potter

Luckily, the bronze gongs remaining on the site showed identical painted characters as those seen on the pottery. Such identical markings should start a new debate about whom and when the artifacts were signed and for what purpose. The main point of contention seems to be if the pots were ‘signed’ before or after it firing and if it should continually be referred to as “potters marks”.

One argument presented here, with the evidences from the Tanjung Simpang shipwreck, is that these markings were not “potters marks” but markings made by the Captain or an onboard merchants to identify their individual objects when reaching their destination.

THE WRECKSITE:

Directed to an area off Tanjung Simpang-mangayau, the northwestern point of Sabah, by a local fisherman (who prefers to remain anonymous) the site was discovered on the 15th of April 2003. It was located 400 meters from the shore and in twelve meters of water.

The surface of the site is sandy but close to the fringing reef edge. The only indication of a shipwreck was stacks of bronze gongs that could be discerned above the flat seabed. This sandy layer varied between two and three feet in depth and is likely to have accumulated after the ship sunk.

This location is directly exposed to the northeast monsoon winds that generate large waves, which increases in height as they meet shallower water. After sinking, the ship appears to have landed on coral rocks. Pounding on these rocks by every wave, the ship is likely to have broken up almost immediately. This theory seems supported by the number of artefacts found scattered between the rocks.

Assuming that the ship sailed directly from China, it may have been damaged on the reefs extending east and west from Pulao Kalampunian and then sunk before the shore at Tanjung Simpangmangayau.

3.3.1 b

Turiang

shipwreck

(AD. c. 1370)

Chinese Ceramics From the Shipwreck Turiang 14th Century

Around 1400, a Chinese ‘junk’ sank off the east coast of the Malaysian peninsula. The ship was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand, to Indonesia. The cargo was stoneware, mostly with green and brown glazes, from Thailand (57%), southern China (35%) and Vietnam (8%).

Archeology on this shipwreck site adds both information and confusion to today’s art history.

The archeology and the early Ming pottery found on the site suggest that present knowledge need review.  For More information about the importance of the Turiang shipwreck and its mixed ceramic cargo,

It was thought in the 70’s that potters moved from Sukhothai to start additional kilns at Sisatchanalai when sources for better clay were discovered in that area. Sisatchanalai, it was supposed, first made a few fishplates in imitation of Sukhothai and then concentrated their production on the main body of their ceramics, which included pottery like underglaze black and celadon wares

 

This chronology was adjusted in the 1980s after archaeological excavations at the Sisatchanalai kiln complex.

These showed that these kilns were more ancient, and definitely larger than Sukhothai.

 

Consequently, it became accepted that the Sisatchanalai site was the earliest producer of hign-fired ceramics and consistently manufactured larger numbers of ware than Sukhothai.

 

 Then it was thought that the Sukhothai kilns might not have made more ceramics until the 15th century, and that they produced only about 10-12% as much as Sisatchanali.

This seemed like a reasonable conclusion, since at least 800 kilns have been counted at Sisatchanalai but only 50 have been noted at Sukhothai.

 

 

There have however been no comprehensive excavations at the Sukhothai site, much of which was destroyed for the building of a new road within the Sukhothai Historical Park.

 

Various scholars devised theories to explain the differences in size and the relationships between the two kiln sites.

 

 It was thought that Sukhothai might have had insufficient clay resources and/or the Sisatchanalai site was simply better managed.

 

Shipwreck pottery recovered in the Bay of Thailand generally supported the idea that Sukhothai was a relatively minor producer.

 

This company’s discovery of four fully loaded wrecks, all with Thai pottery, did little to contradict the idea of lesser numbers of ware from Sukhothai.

 

The Longquan wreck did however indicate that the low percentage of Sukhothai exports might not be correct after all, at least not during all periods.

 

The cargo from this early Ming-period wreck comprised about 20% Sukhothai wares, and only 40% Sisatchanali ceramics.

 

The remainder of the wares came from China. In this one instance the proportion of Sukhothai wares to Sisatchanalai was 1:2.

 

Then came the discovery of the Turiang wreck. Not only is the proportion of wares surprising, the date for the founding of the Sukhothai kilns must also be revised.

 

Thousands of Sukhothai fish plates were seen on the first dive, without any example from Sisatchanalai in sight.

 

This, despite the fact that the ship was headed for Indonesia, a major market for Thai ceramics.

 

Further investigation did reveal Sisatchanalai wares but in limited numbers and from a time before the Sukhothai kilns are believed to have opened.

 

The obvious conclusion is that the Sukhothai kilns were in operation earlier than supposed, at the same time that the so-called ‘Mon’ wares (which are the type recovered) were being produced at Sisatchanalai.

 

 This Mon group of wares has been securely dated by radiocarbon samples from the kiln site to the mid 14th century. Thus it seems that the Sukhothai kilns must have begun exporting before the time of the Ming ban in AD. 1369.

 

The few Chinese ceramics recovered, indeed, are types traditionally assigned to the Yuan dynasty (AD. 1279-1368).

 

While the Turiang cargo may not exactly represent the proportions of production at the two main kiln centers in the Sukhothai kingdom, it gives pause for thought. It is even possible that brick-built kilns were first introduced at Sukhothai and then copied at Sisatchanalai, where in-ground non-brick kilns were previously in use.

 

 

The cargo also suggests that the first major exports of Thai pottery came from the Sukhothai rather than Sisatchanalai site.

 

 Of course, by the 15th century, when the Sisatchanalai potters were producing higher quality ceramics, they became the major source.

 

In suggesting a time when Sukhothai was the major supplier, it is interesting to review old data from the Philippines. H. Otley Beyer, who first looked at the presence of Thai ceramics in the islands, was convinced that Sukhothai wares typified lower stratigraphic levels.

 

Sisatchanalai wares, he believed, came later and were associated with 15th-century Chinese blue and white ceramics. It should be noted, incidentally, that 95% of the ceramics from the Turiang wreck are highly deteriorated after their long submersion in salt water. This makes the few intact examples extremely valuable.

In summary, it is believed that the Turiang wreck sank at a time in the 14th century, possibly around the very beginning of the Chinese Ming dynasty in AD. 1368.

3.3.1 c

Nanyang shipwreck

(AD. c. 1380)

Nanyang, a 14th century shipwreck was located in Malaysian Territorial water 11 miles from nearest island. She was loaded with now antique celadon wares from the famous Sisatchanalai kilns. The ship was found ten miles from Tioman island, a popular tourist spot and a popular stopover for seafarers since the 9th century.

The construction details noted thus far, which includes transversal bulkheads, joined with wooden dowels, fits a South China Sea type ship. The site has been surveyed but not yet excavated as much of the ships feature and the ceramics onboard are similar to that of the Royal Nanhai. The length of the vessel appear to be 18 meters and the beam 5 meters and it may have carried as much as 10.000 pieces of pottery, primarily celadon from the Sisatchanalai kilns, many of them showing scars from the use of spur discs.

Celadons dishes with spur marks have hardly ever been documented and seem to indicate an early production technique. Because the same type of dish, when found onboard the Royal Nanhai, does not have these spur marks, it is believed that the Nanyang is an earlier shipwreck perhaps dating to the later part of the 14th century. All evidence from the kiln site suggests that celadon dishes with spur marks are earlier than similar dishes without them. The larger storage jars on the Nanyang also suggest an earlier date. The tentative date for the loss of the Nanyang is therefore set to the period 1372-1390.

Four hundred and two pieces recovered from the wreck, for comparison purposes, were deposited in the collection of the Malacca Museum Corporation, State of Malacca. Malaysia. Without the promised conservation and registration, the artefacts were later returned to the company for proper treatment.

 

 

Early celadon cups from the Sisatchanalai kilns

 

 

Celadon jarlets and water dropper from Sisatchanalai

 

 

Incised decortaions in the early days at the Sisatchanali kilns was simple but elegant3.3.1 d

Longquan shipwreck

(AD. c. 1400)

The Longquan shipwreck was located in 63 meters of water, 22 nautical miles from the nearest Malaysian Island. She was loaded with 15th century antique celadon wares of the best quality. The site is only surface investigated but is expected  to provide archeology and art history with new archaeological data. The ship seems to have been a rather large Chinese junk seemingly measuring more than 30 meters in length, with a beam of 8 meters. The Longquan is the largest Ming-period shipwreck found fully loaded

Celadons from the Sisatchanalai kilns feature incised decorations. A smaller number of plates shows large tubular support scars, suggesting that the traditional stacking method is being phased out(Copy longqusn celadon with low quality colour Driwan found this plate at West Borneo and also the original  longquan celadon)

compare with the longquan original also found below

 

Chinese celadon from the famous Longquan kilns was probably loaded in China, where the ship is likely to have departed

3.3.1 e

THE ROYAL NANHAI SHIPWRECK

(AD. c. 1460)

Over 20,000 ceramics were discovered in a vessel found north of the Turiang wreck.

The Royal Nanhai’s cargo consisted almost entirely of green- and brown-glazed stonewares of 1450-1500 made at Si Satchanalai in Thailand. The wares were probably being shipped to Indonesia. The discovery shows the success of the Si Satchanalai kilns in supplying this trade

The ceramic not upload because this werenot chinese imperial ware

3.3.1. f

Xuande

shipwreck

(AD. c. 1540)

While the outline of the finds produced an acoustic image of a sea going vessel, approximately 28 x 8 meters in size, on site investigation did not produced any evidence of timber. Scattered ceramics on the surface of the seabed outlined the shape of a wreck but the finds extended only a few inches into the muddy sea floor. Despite extensive scanning with a sub-bottom profiler and a magnetometer, plus probing three meters into the sea bed with water jets, no wood fragments at all could be found.

The ceramics recovered include Chinese blue and white porcelain and monochrome white-glazed wares, Sisatchanalai celadon and underglaze black decorated wares, as well as Sukhothai underglaze black decorated bowls. Seven of the Chinese pieces display the reign mark of the emperor Xuande (AD 1426-1435). These pieces were probably made after the end of that reign, however, sometime in the late 15th century or mid 16th century. The Sukhothai samples, with their ‘solar whorl’ motifs, tend to confirm this later date. The whorl design is believed to belong to the later years of the Sukhothai kilns.

Excavation of the Xuande site was discontinued since no further evidence has warranted additional search and/or recovery attempts. Since the ceramics recovered from this site include examples of at least 20 different designs of Chinese ware, along with some Thai pieces, and the age of the pieces is still controversial, the assemblage should remain intact. One single museum is sought to accommodate the entire collection of some 250 artefacts.

…..It was therefore concluded that the ship sunk in the middle of the 16th century but carried a few ceramics that were already old. The concept of an early trade in antique ceramics, is beginning to be considered by some scholars.

Despite earlier date on the ceramics, it was the Sukhothai underglaze wares and these, Portuguese cannons that eventually confirmed an mid 16th century date for the shipwreck site.

Ewer without any Reignmark with Chrysanthenum moti

 

Chrysanthenum motif Ewer

 

with emperor Xuande’s (1425-1436) reign mark

in the base

 

Reign mark in bowls

3.3.1 g

Singtai

shipwreck

(AD. c. 1550)

The Singtai shipwreck lies at a depth of 53 meters, 12 nautical miles from the island of Pulau Redang off the north-eastern coast of peninsular Malaysia.  The site was discovered in April 2001 and only a brief surface survey on the seabed has been conducted thus far.  The survey revealed a heavily loaded vessel perhaps 22 meters in length.  The construction of the ship which includes transverse bulkheads made from soft wood (joined by square iron nails) suggest that it may have been built in China.

the collections not upload because  this werenot chinese imperial ware

3.3.1 h

Wanli

shipwreck

(AD. C. 1625)

The Wanli Shipwreck.com

Ming dynasty porcelain, kraak porcelain and other antique Chinese porcelain from the Wanli shipwreck. This site also offers information about Jingdezhen pottery development, other shipwreck pottery and antique Chinese export porcelain as well as pages for Chinese pottery marks and Asian antiques

 

 

A small kraak dish from the Wanli (c.1625) shipwreck. This dish is more than likely made at the Guangyinge kiln complex (Jingdezhen, China) where we have located production waster similar to this dish. The main decorative motifs are Chinese auspicious symbols wishing for a healthy and long life. The dish is totally intact with good glaze and soft decoration and limited ‘tender edges’

 

 

Zhushan butterfly bowl from the Wanli (c.1625) shipwreck. Similar butterfly bowls are reportedly found at the Zhushan (imperial) kilns at Jingdezhen, China, during excavations in the late 1990’s. Although not likely made at those kiln, it is possible that this bowl was made by an imperial Zhushan potter after the ‘official’ factory was closed in 1608. This bowl was found in two parts but now restored. The glaze surface is satin and the rendering in high contrast. The rim is smooth and free from ‘tender edges’. The base show a apocryphal six character (Chenghua Nian Zao) reign mark of emperor Chenghua (1464-1487)

 

 

A RARE peony dish painted in reserve where the background, rather than the motif, is painted in blue. The painting is crispy blue and well executed. The rim has, as it should, some ‘tender edges. The dish is intact although with some warping and limited glaze (surface) deterioration.

  

This kraak plate shows a grasshopper on a rock below a lotus arrangement. The plate is in good condition with contrasty decoration and no tender edges’  whilst here is a small, short, shallow rim repair at 7 o’clock. Grasshopper is a rather rare motif in the Wanli cargo. The plate will be delivered  with a Certificate of Authenticity

 

 

This fungus bowl belongs to the ‘best available’ group of ceramic artefacts from the Wanli shipwreck site. It shows a series of fungus liangcao motifs. This plant is a rare Chinese herbal medicine reputed as “elixir of life”. The bowl is totally intact with little ‘tender edges’along the rim. The glaze is in a very good glossy condition and the resonance of the bowl is very high pitch

Large Character Bowl

 

This RARE and much south after character type of bowl depicts Shou Lao, the God of longevity, riding a crane above crested waves in the well. The exterior decoration feature four medallions, each depicting two of the Eight Immortals, surrounded by repeated shou (longevity) characters.  This repeated use of the the shou character  is known as Bai Shou Tu in Chinese, meaning the ‘Picture of One Hundred shou characters’ and is very common in Chinese traditional work of art. These bowls are traditionally an excellent gift as they provide wishes for long life. The Eight Immortals are the favorite pantheon in Daoism.

Character bowl W-5908 is well made with all decorations perfectly executed and in high contrast This bowl is intact except for a rim repair which is hard to see. A fine hairline has been professionally mended and the resonance of the bowl is fully restored and now provide a high pitch sound when tapped. The base is glazed and show the (apocryphal) reign mark of emperor Chenghua whom ruled China between 1464 – 1487. The bowl will be delivered with a Certificate of Authenticity The diameter of the bowl is 22 centimeter.

 

Ming Wanli Turtle Motif Bowl.

The Chinese Imperial Artwork Found In Indonesia ( Continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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 Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

Sunken Ship Found Treasure Ceramics and Jars from a old chinese Shipwreck in the South China Sea

3.3.1 i

OTHER SHIPWREC Report

(1)

Historical Shipwreck

 

 

HISTORICAL SHIPWRECKS

Shipwrecks which remain undisturbed on the seabed for centuries provide vital information about the past. The challenge of archaeology is to understand the past by studying material traces.

On land, archaeologists may excavate burial sites, lost monuments or deposited waste.

At sea, marine archaeologists may excavate ships fully loaded with today’s antique pottery. Object on board are usually assumed to be contemporary products dating from the year of sinking. Antique pottery recovered from such dated assemblages in the South China Sea, yield important clues about Asia’s ceramics developments and associated maritime trade.

“As time capsules, each with content deposited at a single moment in time, these are more valid as dating evidence than are decades of scholarly guesswork based on unprovenanced museum collections” (Asian Ceramic Research Organization)

The European East India ships of the 17th century provided the first direct contact with Asia’s spices, silk and ceramics. The Wanli Shipwreck was discovered off the coast of Terengganu, Peninsular Malaysia in November 2003. It was fully excavated in mid-2005 in association with the then Malaysian Department of Museums and Antiquities. Believed to be a Portuguese vessel circa 1625, the ship was carrying an impressive cargo of late Ming Dynasty blue-&-white kraakware, a form of export porcelain produced during and following the reign of Emperor Wanli (1563-1619).

Kraak was the first blue & white porcelain to arrive in Europe in large quantities where it became highly sought after. The Ming

    (

Wanli Kraak Porcelain with Bied on the rock symbol and surround by eight buddhist emblem and treasure emblem motif bigger palte 70 cm

porcelain of this period charmed buyers with its lively and spontaneous free painted images of deer, crickets and birds in natural settings.

The porcelain was named after the Carracks, the Portuguese ships that first transported this cargo. 

The Wanli Shipwreck bears testimony to the treacherous nature of maritime trade in the 17th Century. The distribution and condition of the porcelain cargo suggest that the ship’s gunpowder room may have exploded before sinking. It is thought that it was boarded and set alight by a ship from a rival nation.

WANLI PORCELAIN IN THE ARTS – AN HISTORICAL RECORD

 

Still Life with Fruit in a Wan-Li Bowl A Roemer c.1630
GILLIS GILLISZ DE BERGH

Detail from Tulips in a Wan-Li Vase c. 1619,
AMBROSIO BOSSCHAERT

 

Chinese kraakware was far superior in terms of form and style to anything available at the time. It inspired the development of blue & white Delftware in Holland which emerged more than a century later. Prized Wanli bowls and plates featured prominently in the still lifes of the Dutch Masters of the 1600s who wanted to demonstrate their skill at depicting the delicate surfaces and intricate detailing of the exotic blue & white porcelain from the Far East.

Quoted from Sten Sjostrand essay:

“The ‘‘Ming ban’’ was officially abolished in 1567 and this allowed the Portuguese to openly trade with China.  By now Chinese potters were crafting exquisite blue and white porcelain ware that was as translucent as jade and almost as precious.  It captivated an ever-increasing group of European buyers and by the beginning of the 17th century blue and white porcelain was being exported to Portugal, Holland and England. From the beginning of the 18th century, more and more European merchant vessels were crossing the South China Sea with thousands of pieces of blue and white porcelain onboard. Many private European traders settled in Asia, using locally built ships to join in this lucrative commerce. “

 

(2)

The Bin Thuan Shipwreck Ceramics

Motif duck and lotus flower

Salvaged in 2001, from the Bin Thuan shipwreck situated 40 miles east of Phan Tiet, Vietnam, these Zhangzou (Swatow) ceramics were produced in China between 1550 and 1650

(3) The Camau Shipwrec’ 

The Ca Mau wreck

 

Tea bowl and saucer from the Ca Mau wreck, about 1725

A tea bowl and saucer.
 

Where and how it was made

This tea bowl and saucer were made in about 1725 at a porcelain works in Jingdezhen in southern China. The blue and white pattern is called ‘over the wall’. It shows a man climbing over a wall to meet two maidens, and may have been inspired by a Ming dynasty novel. While this is a Chinese design, some of the other ceramics found in the same shipwreck feature European motifs.

Two decorative dishes.

Left: These ‘Scheveningen’ dishes were recovered from the Ca Mau shipwreck. The decoration shows the Dutch fishing village of Scheveningen. Courtesy: Sothebys.

Where and how it was traded

It’s believed the wreck at Ca Mau was a Chinese merchant’s junk on its way from Canton (Guangzhou) to Batavia when it caught fire and sank in about 1725. The goods on board had been ordered by the merchant for Dutch traders who had limited access to China and its ports.

Engraving of a port.

Left: This engraving shows the port of Canton (Guangzhou) in China, about 1669. Courtesy: The Bridgeman Art Library.

 
22 ceramic dishes stuck together.

Right: Many of the ceramics in the Ca Mau wreck were tightly packed in 60-centimetre pinewood barrels. The fire on board was fierce enough to fuse some of the ceramics together. Courtesy: Sothebys.

(4)Desaru

shipwreck

(AD. c. 1830)

Pirates could have attacked the Desaru ship, killed her captain, captured passengers and crew, taken the most precious cargo, and set fire to the ship before selling the captured as slaves.

If this happened, the pirates would have been likely to take the ship’s cannons, valuable commodities at the time. Piracy was virtually uncontrolled during the first half of the 19th century. Writing in the late 1830’s, Newbold indicated that pirate activities around the Malay peninsula were seasonal and determined by the wind conditions.

From April to May, pirates would focus on the east coast; from June to September the brunt of their depredations fell on Johor and nearby islands. One pirate chief boasted that he had killed twenty-seven captains of European ships with his own hands. Piracy was curbed in 1837 when Admiralty jurisdiction granted prosecuting authority to the Straits Settlements; until then, all cases had to be referred to Calcutta. Around this time, Singapore started to supply ships with anti-pirate cannon, similar to the one found on the Desaru ship.

During excavation, structural members were held in place only by the ceramics and the surrounding compacted mud.

The scattered shards are found up to 4 metres either side of the ship, and up to 20 metres to the north and south, along the trawling directions.

Ceramics found in the port bow area were more broken and disorganized than in other sections of the ship

The blue and white porcelain found on the ship is attractive and of not  high quality,

The many large and crudely-potted storage jars found onboard suggest that more practical objects were in higher demand than decorative objects or wares for fine dining – although the discovery of over 50,000 soup spoons

unmatched with bowls also demonstrates the scale of contemporary trade and the danger of extrapolating too much from a single cargo.

 By the 18th century imitations were being made in Europe.  Genuine Yixing pots are made from a distinctive purplish red clay found only in Jiangsu province, and each of the examples from the Desaru displays a mark on the base giving either a potter’s or a supervisor’s name.  A number of the teapots carry the mark of Shao Youlan who is known to have been active in the Daoguang reign (1821-1850) and this, for the time being, is the best indication for the age of the shipwreck.

DESARU SHIPWRECK – THE CHINESE JUNK

   
 

 

Blue & white porcelain on board consisted of a range of tableware from the Dehua and Jingdezhen kilns. Among these were flower bowls and dishes, lion dog and chrysanthemum blossom plates, Kamcheng jars decorated with delicate pea blossoms, covered wine bowls with Double Happiness motifs, and a large quantity of spoons.
The cargo comprised items typically used throughout Southeast Asia throughout this period.

Lion Dog Kamcheng Jars, teapots and Om plates from the Desaru Shipwreck

Much of the blue & white survived intact.  Excavated shards, however, were less abundant.  Due to the relative scarcity of these shards, pieces from from Tradewind Treasures’ Desaru Collection

The Desaru Shipwreck was found off the east coast of Peninsular Malaysia at a depth of 20 metres. It was fully researched and excavated in 2003. 

Chinese ceramics comprised 10% of the cargo of this Chinese vessel.  This included finely crafted Yixing teapots, and brown, black and green glazed stoneware for practical everyday use.

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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 The International Shipwreck Treasures

Other Shipcwrek Traesure Report

J

International Shipwreck Treasures Report

Chinese Shipwreck Treasures Revealed

A fabulous hoard of Chinese antiquities salvaged from shipwrecks in the South China Sea is causing a terrific stir among collecting and museum circles.

Until now, almost no one has been allowed to view material or pictures from the finds; certainly no one in the general public.

Though this doesn’t include every item, the treasures shown here, mark the first time they’ve been on such general display.

There are estimated hundreds of objects, most nearly 1,000 years old. According to experts, the number and rarity of the pieces found will significantly affect both the commercial market and scholarly research in top-flight East Asian antiques for years to come.

The shipwrecks were discovered six years ago in international waters between Malaysia and Borneo.

Tilman Walterfang Tilman Walterfang , the German mechanical engineer and director of a large concrete-supply company who discovered the wrecks, created a new company to pursue a salvage project, dubbed Seabed Explorations. Despite mounting costs and regular visits from pirates, Seabed Explorations , based in New Zealand, completed on-site raising operations in three years.

But the company decided to keep quiet about its findings until recently, because the company had been running the treasures through the painstaking desalination and immersion processes necessary for proper preservation. Costs to date have exceeded $7.5 million, according to Rolf Marie and Nikolai von Uexküll, marketing directors at Seabed.

So far the company has unveiled the details of two separate shipwrecks named after small landmarks near their sites of discovery. One is an 11th century wreck called Intan, which was filled with Song dynasty artifacts; the other is the 14th century Maranei, replete with Ming artifacts.

Between them, the ships held export cargoes of ceramic, stoneware and earthenware bowls and plates, bronze mirrors and containers, gold and silver jewelry, ingots and coins, and other things. Nobody knows just how much the hoard is worth, but according to Seabed officials, “The investors are thoroughly satisfied by the importance and value of the finds.”

The ships also offer revelations of hitherto unseen artifacts. For example, the Maranei wreck features a small hand cannon the size of firearms that was not thought to exist until three centuries later.

The Intan wreck is notable for the cultural diversity of its contents, wrought in Chinese, Javanese, Buddhist and Persian styles, denoting Chinese-made objects for foreign markets.

Such early examples of Chinese exports had not been seen before, according to experts consulted by Rolf Marie in the U.S. and Europe. It appears that Tilman uncovered a pivotal spot on the trade route from China out to the West. “It’s a kind of seaborne silk route,” Marie says, “so the finds are important and educational on many levels.”

The company emphasizes that, unlike standard treasure hunters, Seabed paid meticulous attention to historical, archeological and conservation procedures throughout its operations. Indeed Seabed seems to have received top marks from experts who were invited to supervise, such as Lothar Ledderose, Heidelberg University East Asian art history professor, who is now at the Getty Museum. He wrote the preliminary introduction to the Intan find. Says Marie: “Not a single object was ruined or a site irresponsibly excavated.”

Marie and colleague von Uexküll have been in the U.S. for a few weeks on a show-and-tell mission, assessing the market and talking to professionals.

They were in New York recently to take advantage of Asia Week’s concentration of the world’s top curators, collectors, dealers and experts. Marie met with dealer Khalil Rizk of the Chinese Porcelain Co. in Manhattan; Rizk is a well-known world authority on Asian antiques. In remarks made after their meeting, Rizk was clearly impressed by what he saw, though he wondered about the effect of so many artifacts descending on the market in one fell swoop.

According to Marie, Seabed has considered this issue. “We are in no hurry to unload or let go of anything. We will take our time and do it right, over several years if necessary–that includes consideration for the market as well as for the cultural and historical value of our finds. So we’re certainly talking museums too, who might be interested.”

It appears that Seabed may have more to reveal and other projects simmering, so a strategy over time would not be surprising.

According to Tilman, the whole thing began when he was chatting with Asian in-laws who told him of rumored treasures in the general area of the finds. Complete with scuba gear, he traveled to the area and went on his own underwater expedition.

Between then and now, Tilman’s perseverance and diplomacy in getting backers, creating a salvage company, mustering the technology and dealing with locals before raising the wreckage, then preserving it all patiently, seems nothing short of phenomenal. Under the circumstances, no doubt he feels he can wait a little longer.

White porcelain bowl with yingqinq glaze, Song dynasty or earlier, from the Intan shipwreck.

Green glaze ceramic box with rough incised petal design, Song dynasty or earlier, Intan( This Yuan Qinpai coverbox-Driwan note)

Ceramic flask with circular body and tall neck, Song dynasty, Intan

Porcelain headrest or pillow with flower design, Song dynasty, Intan

Glass bottle with strong early Islamic or mid-eastern design influence,

Gold handle, possibly part of ladel or other ritual implement,

Ingot with Chinese inscription showing weight and warning against forgery, Inta

Religious bronze icon with Buddhist styling, possibly Javanese,

Gold stud earring with seven precious stones,

Bronze mirror frames both Javanese and Chinese Song dynasty styles,

 Dasaru Shipwreck

large dragon Jar

 

Chrysanthemum Porcelain Vase


  Item 1: Large 16th century bronze Portuguese breech lock cannon measuring 66″. Barrel length measures 42″ with a 1 1/2 bore, 12″ breech inside. On top of the front breech is a motif with an early Arabic inscription which might have been put there years ago by early Arab traders as a good luck gesture for future trading by Portuguese mariners. Estimated weight 150-200 lbs. This is probably one of the nicest larger of the breech cannons I have found in years and are becoming rarer as the years go by. This piece was found in the Dutch East Indies Kalimantan Timur. Comes complete with knock down carriage.
 

Item 2: Early c17th century well used ornate bronze breech lock for a breech lock loading cannon. Was found on the Island of Maluku Dutch East Indies and probably came from a Portuguese breeched cannon. The lock measures 10 1/2″ long with a rear circumference of 8 1/4″ and front 7 1/4″. Weight is 14 lbs
 
Breech No 1: plus close-up of inside. Measures 25 1/2″
Breech No 2 with sight: plus close-up of inside. Measures 35 1/2″
Breech No 3 with sight: plus close-up of muzzle. Measures 34 1/2″ Item 3: Three bronze Portuguese breech lock cannons c1589-1600 found on a Portuguese shipwreck off the island of Ternate Dutch East Indies. These cannons were of small size and could have probably been used for barter for trade in the Dutch East Indies or were used as samples by a Portuguese salesman working for a gun company in Portugal. The cannons look as if they have been in the ocean for some time but are still stable. They measure No 1: 25 1/2″ No 2: 35 1/2″ and No3: 34 1/2″
 
Item 4: Early Dutch honey coloured genever (gin) pictorial bottle c1880 “Cosmopoliet Schiedam”. The bottle was found in jungle East Kalimantan Dutch East Indies and is in excellent condition. 10″ Tall


Item 5: Shipwrecked Dutch salt glazed drinking mug found on an un-known shipwreck near Guyana South America. Mug dates c1600 and has been somewhat distorted after years under the ocean. Still in excellent condition measures 4 1/2″ tall and has been cleaned

 

 

 

Item 6: Early 16th century bronze breech lock from a breech loading cannon probably Portuguese. Measures 9 2/3″ long x 10″ high and weights 13 lbs. Was found near Ambon Dutch East Indies


Item 7: Early Dutch shipwreck Onion wine bottle c1740 found on a unknown shipwreck near Makassar Dutch East Indies Indonesia, 7 1/2 high

 

  Item 8: Three shipwreck boarding cutlass swords found on a shipwreck in the Malaka straits Dutch East Indies.All swords c1860-1880 and are in excellent condition still in a solid state with some stress lines due to drying out.There have been a number of these swords found over the last three years on this site and these will probably be the last ones to come out of the wreck site as most of the wreckage has now been salvaged.It’s been very hard over the last three years to determine their place of origin but it looks as if a early Dutch Indiaman and a Chinese junk might have collided there at one time.
Sword No1: 23 1/2″
Sword no2: 22 1/4″
Sword no3: 21 1/2″
  Item 9: Quarter deck brass ships bell found on a shipwreck near Batam Singapore. Photos show the bell half way through cleaning and just after a mild polish to maintain its original patina. There were no marks found on the bell to determine its origin, weight 10 lbs, 8″ high x 8″ dia
 

Item 10: Four early Dutch long neck free blown Dutch wine bottles also know as “Hoof Wine Bottles” c1740 with twisted pontils. All are in excellent condition 7″-8″ tall and were dug in Ternate Dutch East Indies Indonesia
$

Item 11: Three late 18th century Dutch shipwreck bottles found on a shipwrecked Dutch East Indies retourship which is being salvaged off of the coast of Portugal. The two mallets are 9″ tall and the Dutch ” Cosmopoliet” gin is 11″ tall.

  Item 12: Early T’ang water jar c1618-906, 12″ high found on a shipwreck Tuban Indonesia
Item 13: Free blown Dutch mallet wine bottle found on a Dutch East Indies shipwreck in the Dutch East Indies, c1700, 6 ½”
$
  Item 14: Early Renish salt glazed Bellarmine jug c1650 found in the Dutch East Indies shipwreck. Some external light crustacean 10 3/4″ high excellent condition
Item 15: Martaban South East Asian storage jar 15th-16th century. Found at sea near Malaysia Timur 14″
    Item 16: Large masked Dutch saltglazed stoneware bellarmine jug c1700. Found Dutch East Indies. Probably VOC .Co 19 ½”
 
  Item 17: Early c1750 free blown Dutch onion wine bottle with twisted pontil with early rolled string lip 7″ in excellent condition. Found in the jungle Dutch East Indies

Item 18: Four 17th century cannon balls recovered from a Dutch East Indies shipwreck in the Celebe Islands. All four in very good condition. Circumference from 8″ to 10″. Almost have no weight.
$

  Item 19: Dutch-Portuguese signal cannon in its original carriage. Found in a small village in Menado Sulawesi Utara Indonesia. Cannon measures 18″ long with a large 1 1/4″ bore, trunnion length 1 3/4″ with a 1″ dia, trunnion. Length of carriage is 37″ and is missing its front leg. I have inspected the brackets and nails holding the trunnions and they look to be hand made and the cannon looks to have been imbedded in the same position for some years. This item would make a beautiful display item
WAS $3,000 + shipping
 

Item 20: Early Ming plate found on a shipwreck near Ternate Moluccas Indonesia. 10½”.
In excellent condition with some
crustacean on backside. c1850.
Stand not included.


Item 21: Mei-Ping Chinese flask. c1368. This large size is most unusual for this
type of early Mei-Ping flask which was
used in the early days by the Chinese to
store mercury. Measures 14″ high and was
found in the port of Tuban Indonesia on a
shipwreck. Stand not included.
 
Item 22: Early English seal “RHC 1815″ provenience, Richard Hall Clarke 1759-1821 was JP of Dridwell, Uffculme in Devon. Bottle was to commerate his return from the battle of Waterloo. 10 1/4″ mint condition

 

Item 23: Early 16th century bronze breech lock for a Breech Loading cannon. This is a shipwreck item and was found near Ternate Dutch East Indies Indonesia. This breech lock is marked just above the touch hole which is rare. Length 10 3/4″, front dia 2 1/4″, rear dia 3″, weight est, 18 lbs. Photos of mark available on request

  Item 24: Early English seal bottle dug in Johannesburg S.A “RHC 1815″ Provenience, Richard Hall Clarke 1759-1821 was JP of Dridwell, Uffculme in Devon. Bottle was to commerate his return back from the battle of Waterloo. Bottle measures 10″ high and has slight chip damage along outer top left hand side of seal.

Item 25: Early Dutch case sealed gins with rolled lips c1880. These two case gins were dug at Batavia Dutch East Indies.
Left A.H Avanhoboken.Co

 

   

 The Portugeus Shipwreck treasures

Info International Shipwreck treasures end