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Chrustmas Hiastory Collections

Dr Iwancybermuseum

sent to All collectors from all over the word

Marry christmas

And’ Happy New Year

Special for You We upload a sample of dr Iwan E-book In Cd-ROM

THE CHRISTMAS HISTORY COLLECTIONS

1500

1800

1800

World’s first Christmas card

Christmas cards originated as hand-written letters sent by school children to their families in England in the early 1800s. The invention of the steam press in 1840 made it possible to mass-produce Christmas greetings.

Christmas cards were first printed in London, England. They were designed by John Calcott Horsley of the Royal Academy for Sir Henry Cole in 1843 and were sold at Felix Summerly’s Home Treasury Office.

The greeting was “A Very Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You.”

A portrayal of a child sipping wine in a toast on the central panel caused a stir with temperance groups. Cards were first mailed (to friends) by W. C. Dobson (Queen Victoria’s favorite painter) in 1845. First mailings in U. S. were in 1846. Louis Prang, a Boston lithographer, marketed multicolored Christmas Cards in Europe in 1865, and in the U. S.

in 1875. He made Christmas Cards popular. Mailing was expanded with the “penny post card,” 1893. Half-tone engravings appear in 1900. The home photograph card begins in 1902 by Eastman Kodak. LINK

 

The world’s first commercially produced Christmas card, designed by John Callcott Horsley for Henry Cole (c1843):

 

Image: LIbrary of Congress

 

The first signs of people mailing cards to each other in the United States occurred around 1845. Until 1875 Americans had to import their Christmas Cards from Europe, but in 1875 that changed when a German immigrant by the name of Louis Prang published the first line of U.S. Christmas Cards.

 

An advertisement for Prang’s Christmas cards (c1886):

Image: Library of Congress

 

Christmas card by Louis Prang. Late 18th century:

Image: Wikimedia Commons

 

Christmas card by Louis Prang. Late 18th century:

Image: Wikimedia Commons

 

Prang’s card proved extremely popular, but he was soon forced out of business as cheap imitations began to flood the market.

 

 

Here is an assortment of vintage Christmas cards for your enjoyment:

 

New York : Published by Currier & Ives (c1876):

 

 

St. Claus. Lithograph by S. Merinsky (c1872):

Image: Library of Congress

 

Approach of the New Year. Lithograph by James Hoover (c1877):

Image: Library of Congress

 

Christmas greeting card in art noveau style, date unknown, possibly 1900:

Image: Wikimedia Commons

 

Christmas card, (c1885):

Image: Wikimedia Commons

 

Christmas card (c1900):

Image: Wikimedia Commons

 

Victorian Christmas card (c1870):

Image: WIkimedia Commons

 

Christmas card (c1860). Silk fringe and tassels:

 1900

1919

Christmas art deco in 1919

200

rare Coca cola Promo

Christmas songs –

the oldest ones are the best

 
© Getty Images Carol singing became popular in the 19 century

Christmas carols were mostly a Victorian tradition along with trees, crackers and cards. Eugene Byrne explains the why the popularity of Silent Night has never faded, why there’s always a place for Hark! The Herald Angels Sing and why the British fondness of Good King Wenceslas has not yet subsided.

Christmas carols were mostly a Victorian tradition along with trees, crackers and cards. Eugene Byrne explains the why the popularity of Silent Night has never faded, why there’s always a place for Hark! The Herald Angels Sing and the British fondness of Good King Wenceslas has not yet subsided.

Although Christmas was celebrated in song in the Middle Ages, most carols in use now are less than 200 years old. Only a handful, such as I Saw Three Ships or the decidedly
pagan-sounding The Holly and the Ivy, remind us of more ancient yuletides. Carols fell from favour in England after the Reformation because of their frivolity and were rarely sung in churches until the 1880s when EW  Benson, Bishop of Truro (later Archbishop of Canterbury) drew up the format for the Nine Lessons and Carols service, which has remained in use ever since.

 

Silent Night (1818)

Words: Josef Mohr
Music: Franz Xaver Gruber

Arguably the world’s most popular Christmas carol comes in several different translations from the German original. It started out as a poem by the Austrian Catholic priest Father Josef Mohr in 1816. Two years later, Mohr was curate at the parish church of St Nicola in Oberndorf when he asked the organist and local schoolteacher Franz Xaver Gruber to put music to his words.

An unreliable legend has it that the church organ had been damaged by mice, but whatever the reason, Gruber wrote it to be performed by two voices and guitar. It was first performed at midnight mass on Christmas Eve 1818, with Mohr and Gruber themselves taking the solo voice roles.

Its fame eventually spread (allegedly it has been translated into over 300 languages and dialects) and it famously played a key role in the unofficial truce in the trenches in 1914 because it was one of the only carols that both British and German soldiers knew.

 

Good King Wenceslas (1853 or earlier) 

Words: John Mason Neale
Music: Traditional, Scandinavian

The Reverend Doctor Neale was a high Anglican whose career was blighted by suspicion that he was a crypto-Catholic, so as warden of Sackville College – an almshouse in East Grinstead – he had plenty of time for study and composition. Most authorities deride his words as “horrible”, “doggerel” or “meaningless”, but it has withstood the test of time. The tune came from a Scandinavian song that Neale found in a rare medieval book that had been sent to him by a friend who was British ambassador in Stockholm.

There really was a Wenceslas – Vaclav in Czech – although he was Duke of Bohemia, rather than a king. Wenceslas (907–935) was a pious Christian who was murdered by his pagan brother Boleslav; after his death a huge number of myths and stories gathered around him. Neale borrowed one legend to deliver a classically Victorian message about the importance of being both merry and charitable at Christmas. Neale also wrote two other Christmas favourites: O Come, O Come Emmanuel (1851) and Good Christian Men, Rejoice (1853).

 

Once in Royal David’s City (1849)

Words: Cecil Frances Humphreys Alexander
Music: HJ Gauntlett

Cecil Frances Humphreys was born in Dublin to a comfortable Anglican family. In 1848 she published Hymns for Little Children, a book of verse explaining the creed in simple and cheerful terms and which gave us three famous hymns. So to the question who made the world, the answer was All Things Bright and Beautiful. Children’s questions on the matter of death were answered with There is a Green Hill Far Away, while Once in Royal David’s City told them about where Jesus was born. The book was an instant hit and remained hugely popular throughout the 19th century.

The organist and composer Henry Gauntlett put music to it a year later and nowadays it traditionally opens the King’s College Cambridge Festival of Nine Lessons and Carols.
Cecil threw herself into working for the sick and poor, turning down many requests to write more verse. Much of the proceeds from Hymns for Little Children went to building the Derry and Raphoe Diocesan Institution for the Deaf and Dumb.

 

Hark! The Herald Angels Sing (1739 or earlier)

Words: Charles Wesley
Music: Felix Mendelssoh
n

Charles, the brother of Methodist founder John Wesley, penned as many as 9,000 hymns and poems, of which this is one of his best-known. It was said to be inspired by the sounds of the bells as he walked to church one Christmas morning and has been through several changes. It was originally entitled Hark How All the Welkin Ringswelkin being an old word meaning sky or heaven.

As with most of his hymns, Wesley did not stipulate which tune it should be sung to, except to say that it should be “solemn”. The modern version came about when organist William Hayman Cummings adopted it to a tune by German composer Felix Mendelssohn in the 1850s. Mendelssohn had stipulated that the music, which he had written to celebrate the 400th anniversary of the invention of the printing press and which he described as “soldier-like and buxom”, should never be used for religious purposes.

 

God rest you merry, Gentlemen

Origin unknown

This is thought to have originated in London in the 16th or 17th centuries before running to several different versions with different tunes all over England. The most familiar melody dates back to at least the 1650s when it appeared in a book of dancing tunes. It was certainly one of the Victorians’ favourites.

If you want to impress people with your knowledge (or pedantry), then point out to them that the comma is placed after the “merry” in the first line because the song is enjoining the gentlemen (possibly meaning the shepherds abiding in the fields) to be merry because of Christ’s birthday. It’s not telling “merry gentlemen” to rest!

lET’S jOIN OUR cHRISTMAS pARTY

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Christmas is a time when you really appreciate what you value most in life, time spent surrounded by your closest friends and family reminiscing about the great times passed over a grand feast. Since the late 1600’s and earlier,

there has been a Christmas celebration, and along with it a great feast. In the early 1700’s, the Christmas feast was of a grand scale and held by the aristocracy.

This grandeur continued on into the 30s and 40s where The Great Depression and World War II made celebrating much harder and made the great feast of yesterday into a meal consisting of canned vegetables and jellies.

The pheasants, oysters, consumé, and crown roasts were lost with the greatly depreciated economy. As time continued on, the 50s, 60s, and 70s brought back roast duckling, oysters Rockefeller, and standing rib roasts. Understanding tradition and why it is so important to keep the essence of the feast alive, will help you truly make an amazing meal this Christmas.

This year, mix tradition with a new approach to a healthy lifestyle. Create dishes inspired by classics but with a much lighter load on our bodies and our wallets.

Every Christmas feast was centered around a roast of an animal; pheasant, pork, beef, and duck are a few examples of traditional roasts served for dinner.

Because pork is so lean and high in protein, I chose a pork-based dish for this Christmas centerpiece.

Apple Cider Brined Pork Loin with Cider Mustard Sauce

Brine:

1-Gallon Apple Cider
10 Cloves Garlic
10 Sprigs Fresh Thyme
5 Sprigs Fresh Rosemary
2 Cloves
1 Cinnamon Stick
2 T Mustard Seeds
1 T Fennel Seeds
1 Orange Peel
1-Cup Sugar
1-Cup Kosher Salt
2 T Whole Pepper Corns
1 Bay Leaf

Bring all ingredients to a boil in a large pot. Turn the heat down and simmer for 2 minutes to dissolve sugar and salt and coax flavor out of ingredients. Cool down completely and then add your pork loin.

(It’s important to use kosher salt because kosher salt weighs about 5 ounces per cup and iodized salt weighs 10 ounces per cup. If you use iodized salt, only use a ½ cup.)

Acquiring your roast:

In the supermarket, you can usually find boneless pork loins ranging from 1-4 pounds. It takes about 30 minutes of cooking time per pound of pork loin, so you can gauge your cooking time based on the size of pork loin you can find and the size you need.

For this recipe, I use a 4 pound boneless pork loin roast, but again you can use any size. Place your pork loin in your cooled brine and make sure it’s completely submerged. If it’s sticking out you can place a plate on top to keep it down. Cover completely in plastic wrap and let it sit for 12 to 24 hours.

Preparing your roast:

2 T Olive Oil
1 T Salt
1 T Cracked black pepper
1 T Thyme, chopped finely
1 T Rosemary, chopped finely
1 T Orange Zest 

Remove your pork loin from its brine and place it on a wire rack on top of a sheet pan.

Take paper towels and dry the pork loin completely. Drizzle olive oil on your roast and coat with all other ingredients.

 Place your roast into a 425° oven for 20 minutes, or until nicely browned.

Then turn the oven down to 400° and cook until roast has an internal temperate of 140°.

You want your roast to be at an internal temperature of 145°, but the roast will still cook when you take it out of the oven.

This is called carryover cooking. Carryover cooking will finish cooking the roast gently and redistribute the juices within the meat, keeping it nice and juicy when you cut into it.

It should take about 1 hour and 45 minutes to 2 hours of cooking and resting time.

Take all your dripping from the pan and set aside for the sauce! Be sure to check the roast throughout its cooking time. There is nothing worse than a dry roast!

Apple Cider Mustard Sauce:

2 cups apple cider
2 cups chicken stock
1 shallot
4 cloves garlic
1 bay leaf
1 thyme sprig
3 T whole grain mustard
Pan drippings

To start, slice your shallot thinly and mince your garlic finely. Sauté them in your pan drippings for a few minutes and then add all of the ingredients besides the mustard.

Bring to a boil and then reduce down to a simmer and let it cook until it has reduced three-fourths and is a sauce consistency. When the sauce is finished, add the mustard.

To go along with your roast, you need a few delicious sides to compliment and complete your meal. Roasting vegetables really brings out a depth of flavor and naturally occurring sweetness.

Roasted Butternut Squash

2 large Butternut Squash
1 sprig Thyme
2 T Olive Oil
Drizzle of Honey
2 T Salt
1 T Pepper

Peel and seed your squash. Dice it into 1” cubes. Remove the tiny green leaves from the stem of the thyme sprig and chop it finely. Toss the squash with the olive oil, thyme, honey, salt, and pepper and place on a sheet pan.

Roast at 400° for 15-20 minutes. Turn the squash every 5 minutes to avoid blackening. Check the squash with a knife to ensure doneness.

Roasted Fennel

4 large bulbs – Fennel
1 sprig -Thyme
1 whole – Lemon
4 cloves – Garlic
2 T – Salt
1 t – Pepper
2 T – Olive Oil

Wash, halve, and core your fennel. Cut each half into fourths. Remove the leaves from the thyme and chop finely. Zest the lemon and smash the garlic cloves. Toss all ingredients together and roast in a 375° oven for 20 minutes.

Haricot Verts with Shallot and Almond

2 T Olive Oil
2 T Salt
1 T Pepper
1 Pound Haricot Vert
1 Large Shallot
2 Cloves Garlic
½ cup Sliced Almonds

Bring a pot of water to a boil, add salt and drop your haricot vert in. Boil until just tender and then drain and set aside to cool. Slice shallot paper thin, and mince the garlic finely. Toast the almonds and set them aside. When ready to eat, sauté the cooked beans in a tablespoon of olive oil with the shallot and garlic. Add salt and pepper and cook through. Top with toasted almonds.

Parsnip Puree

5 large parsnips
6 cloves Garlic
1 liter Chicken Stock
1 sprigs Thyme
1 Shallot

Peel parsnips and cut into large chunks of equal size. Smash garlic cloves and roughly cut the shallot. Remove the leaves from the thyme and put all ingredients into a pot. Bring the pot to a boil and then turn down to a simmer. Cook until fork tender, or about 15-20 minutes depending on the size. Once cooked, strain the parsnips but keep the liquid. Blend the parsnips and add the liquid slowly until you have a nice smooth mass, with a texture similar to mashed potatoes. Although it’s more work to blend them this way, you want to do this to make sure that that texture is correct and not too watery.

Naval Orange Marmalade

2 oranges
3 cups water
2 cups sugar

Cut the ends off of you oranges and then halve them. Slice the oranges as thin as you can. Put your oranges, sugar, and water in a pot and bring to a boil. Turn down to a simmer and cook for 40 minutes, stirring frequently so that it doesn’t scorch.  Once it has thickened and the fruit is completely softened, pull it off of the heat and cool.

Wine Pairing:

For this meal I would serve a light red wine that would compliment the pork and not compete with it. A pairing that would be great would be a Beaujolais Noveau!

This wine is made from the Gamay varietal of grapes and is very light and easy drinking. It is also special to have it with this meal because it is only released the third Thursday of November every year and needs to be consumed soon after because it doesn’t have the ability to age. On another note, it should be served slightly chilled to enhance its fruity flavors.

Now it’s time for the finale to this fantastic meal! Traditionally the dessert course is full of heavy puddings, tarts, and pies. This year, try something different and end the meal with a light and seasonal dessert. A Pavlova is a pastry that is made from a meringue base and is baked until it’s light and crispy. The inside stays chewy like marshmallow, and then there is a cream filling and it is topped with fruit. The dessert was named after the famous ballerina Anna Pavlova and is a holiday tradition that started in the 20s.

Pavlova with dried fruit compote

Filling:

1 cup Ricotta
1/4  Chevre
¼ Greek yogurt
2 T Honey
½ t Vanilla

For the filling, blend all ingredients until smooth. This filling is delicious and much healthier than the regular filling, which is made of cream and sugar!

Fruit Compote:

2 oz Dried Apricots
2 oz Dried Cherries
2 oz Golden Raisins
2 oz Dried Cranberries
2 oz Dried Figs
1 T Orange Zest
1 T Lemon Zest
1 cup Brandy
1 cup Orange Juice
1 Cinnamon stick

Cut your apricots and figs into smaller pieces, and zest your orange and lemon. Put all ingredients into a saucepot and cook until the fruit is soft and the juices thicken, about 20 minutes.

Pavlova:

4 Egg whites
¼ t cream of tartar
1-cup brown sugar
4 t cornstarch
2 t white vinegar
1 t Vanilla

Put your egg whites and cream of tartar in a bowl and beat it until small peaks form. Add the sugar slowly with the mixer on low until it is thick and glossy. Add the cornstarch, vinegar, and vanilla. Mix for 30 seconds just to blend all ingredients.

Bake on a parchment-lined sheet pan and form it into a disc in the middle of the pan. Smooth the top of mass so that it cooks evenly.

Bake at 250° for an hour and a half.  After the total baking time, turn the oven off and let it cool completely in the oven. This will form the crisp texture and prevent it from becoming sticky.

Only assemble this dessert right before you are about to eat it! The Pavlova should be room temperature, the cream should be cold, and the compote should be just warmed through.

Top the Pavlova with the goat cheese mixture and compote and serve!

This dessert is so impressive and so easy! It is an indulgence and a lot healthier than most desserts. Although there are eggs and sugar in this recipe, you are using the white of the egg, which has no fat, and a small amount of sugar. There are lots of textures and flavors going on, which will be a great end to a fantastic meal. Try something new this year, and start a new tradition with your friends and family!

Merry Christmas!

-

The Euro World War II Prologue

this is the sample  of Dr Iwan E-Book In Cd-Rom limited edition without illustrations, the complete info with illustrations and editing exist but only for Premiuum member,please subcribed via comment

 

The Euro world War II

Prologue 1933-1938

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-Rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors Copyright@2012

Praface

I have found the Postal history Postally Used cover Euro World War II Included Mediterianian,Africa and Middle East World War II from Mr Suwito Haesono at jakarta in 1994 which he bought from Euro Auctions, and he did not collected this topic, from this collection I started to research the related informations and collected other kind of picture and document collections,

In 2007 I found another best euro world war II collections from Stampdom trader at Kota Kinibalu(before Jesseltown) Sabah Malaysia(before Norrh Borneo),

after that I am starting to write and seeking more related collections until this day. Now The reaseach are finish and I editing the informations in E-Book In CD-Rom Special for senior collector.

I know that this informations still not complete, that is why comment,corrections and ore info still need.

I hope this informations will given more new info for the senior collectors and special to the family of the Soldiers who joined this war and given a sweet remembrance for them

Jakarta December,14th.2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA PROLOG .

The WRAF Women in the Blue

Approximately 500 women served abroad after 1919, service which set a new precedent for the world. The time the women abroad gave the Allied forces a favourable impression of

the WRAF.

They served on ten units in France and Germany, all without a complaint or any of the problems most feared by those who thought that mixing male and female service personnel was a mistake.

Once back in England, however it was not long before the demob procedures were started and the WRAF finally disbanded

on 1st April 1920,

only two years after it had been formed. Post-war, there were many indicators that society’s view of women was fast changing.

During the 1920

‘s women could first obtain the contraceptive pill, and as a result of the women’s war effort, fashion changed as trousers and shorter skirts became acceptable.

Women had begun to win their battle of the sexes, at least in some areas. Another change occurred during the 1930′s when the tobacco companies deemed it acceptable for women to smoke! During the slump and general depression of the 1920′s/30′s,

women found it necessary to obtain work as and when they could to better support the family.

This set many new precedents, as for the first time it was openly accepted that there was a role for women in the workplace, as well as for more traditional roles.

Things started to change on a huge scale. Oddly, it was sometimes easier for some women than men to obtain work, as the slump made it necessary to cut hours and work shorter days.

Many women found they could still bring up their children at the same time as working, because they could work around school hours

The Polish Airforce 1918 — 1939

The modern history of Poland is reflected in its pioneering spirit towards aviation in the inter-war years’.

While the Twenty Years of Independence (Niepodelosc) marked the re-emergence of Poland at the Treaty of Versailles, no other re-emerging nation received such gratuitous abuse and derision (Davies, 1981) from diplomats and politicians across Europe.

While Poland re-emerged from the vacuum left in central European politics through the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire, its very existence was to be repeatedly challenged through to the latter part of this century.

As a divided nation Poles had fought for and against the major armies of Europe. Within three years of its re-emergence, Poland had fought forces from Germany, Lithuania, the Ukraine and Russia over the sovereignty of land.

While Polish politicians like Dmowski wanted frontiers based upon ethnic boundaries, many Poles sought the former glory of the Polish —

Lithuanian Commonwealth which had existed at the end of the eighteenth century. The ‘Polish Question’ had dogged politicians both during war and at the Treaty of Versailles.

Friction caused by complex ethnic boundaries and contested cities, ultimately led to the outbreak of war.

The first operational flight of the Polish Airforce took place on 5th November 1918

from Lewandówka airfield against Ukrainian nationalistic forces attacking Lwów (Zamoyski, 1995). Janusz de Beaurain and Stefan Bastyr piloted a plane cannibalised from parts of other aircraft that was assembled while mechanics and the airfield was under attack. Painted in the Polish colours of white and red, it made its first sortie and the emergence of a new fighting arm.

Many Poles on returning ‘home’ after the Great War brought new skills in aviation whether they were pilots, mechanics or engineers.

Contemporary historians tend to forget or minimize Polish achievement throughout history.

It was a Pole who built the first helicopter in Russia in 1903.

Prince Stanislaw Lubomirski had set up a flying school and aircraft works at Mokotów, just outside Warsaw and built the first Polish designed plane in 1910.

Also, in the same year Grzegorz Piotrowski had flown a record 23 miles over water from St. Petersburg to Kronstadt. In 1914 Jan Nagórski made the first Arctic flight.

While Flight had captured the hearts and minds of many young men, key members of the military were a little more ambivalent towards the role and effectiveness of an airforce.

Numerous Poles were introduced to the delights of flight either through pleasure trips or from ‘joining-up’

as this was cheaper than private lessons. Not all introductions to flying or flight were in this manner as the following story in Tygodnik Podhalanski reported.

Zenon Krzeptowski and a group of friends were playing in the lush meadows around Zakopane at the foot of the Tatry mountains’.

A gentleman flying an early bi-plane found himself ‘shot-down’ by a group of schoolboys and their catapults. Most of the culprits fled, leaving Zenon to face the wrath of his father, Jan and forfeiture of his pocket money. PZL 11, 2â?

Reg. As a fledgling state, Poland was fortunate in that large amounts of war material and ordnance which had been abandoned by the various retreating forces, particularly the Germans who left disassembled aircraft in hangars at Poznan (Koniarek, 1994).

While Marshall Jozef Pilsudski amalgamated and remodelled a new army through the use of French military advisors, the Polish Airforce (Lotnictwo Wojskowe) began to take shape. French military advisers also played an important role and so did a number of key individuals. Lieutenant Stefan Stec flew a ‘liberated’

Fokker D.V to Warsaw in November 1918 decorated in his personal colours of the red and white chequerboard with a border of complimentary colours which became adopted as the national insignia (Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995).

Two Americans, Major Cederic E. Fauntleroy and Captain Merian C. Cooper volunteered to fight and help train airmen after observing the Allies (which included Polish units) marching up the Champs-Elysées

on 14th July 1919

after hearing the Soviets were threatening Poland. No. 7 Squadron largely consisted of American volunteers, some fifteen in all (Koniarek, 1994; Zamoyski, 1995) who fought with distinction during the 1920-1930

Strategy During the 1920s and 1930s

British and French strategic concepts had stagnated. The generals expected to fight a future war in which defence rather than attack would dominate.

They believed that set-piece battles would develop slowly and be dominated by infantry and artillery. They put their faith in the Maginot Line, France’s fortified border with Germany.

Ignoring the lessons learnt during the battles of 1918, tanks and aircraft were largely cast in a supporting role Polish-Bolshevik War 1919 — 1921.

The Squadron was named after Tadeusz Kosiuszko, the Polish general who fought in the United States during the Revolutionary War.

Lieutenant Elliot Chess designed the famous squadron insignia.

The thirteen blue stars and stripes represent the original American colonies. In the centre, crossed scythes reforged as lances and a four-cornered hat represents Poland’s insurrection against Russia in the 19th Century (Koniarek, 1994). (No. 7 Kosciuszko Squadron flew with distinction as part of the famous 303 Squadron in the Second World War). Plage and Laskiewicz (Lublin) R.XVIIID As a fledgling state,

Poland could not match the inter-war arms race between Germany, Britain, France, Italy or Soviet Russia.

The early years of Lotnictwo Wojskowe saw the development of Europe’s second largest airforce under the direction of General Wlodzimierz Zagorski and later General Ludomil Rayski who may be regarded as the driving force behind Poland’s military aviation industry.

By 1929

the PZL (Panstwowe Zaklady Lotnicze) P.1 had flown. This all metal, gull winged aircraft was an advanced fighting machine and largely went for export to countries like Rumania, Bulgaria, Turkey and Greece.

By 1936

15 Squadrons were equipped and then General Ludomil Rayski shifted the production of aircraft towards bomber production at the expense of fighter development and up-grading.

In 1934 work had begun on the PZL P.37 Los bomber which began to enter service

in In 1932, German President Paul von Hindenburg, old, tired, and a bit senile, had won re-election as president, but had lost a considerable portion of his right/conservative support to the Nazi Party.

Those close to the president wanted a cozier relationship to Hitler and the Nazis.

Hindenburg had contempt for the Nazis’ lawlessness, but ultimately agreed to oust his chancellor, Heinrich Bruning, for Franz von Papen, who was willing to appease the Nazis by lifting the ban on Hitler’s Brown Shirts and unilaterally canceling Germany’s reparation payments, imposed by the Treaty of Versailles at the close of World War I . 1933

But Hitler was not appeased.

He wanted the chancellorship for himself. Papen’s policies failed on another front:

His authoritarian rule alienated his supporters, and he too was forced to resign. He then made common cause with Hitler, persuading President Hindenburg to appoint Hitler chancellor and himself vice-chancellor.

He promised the president that he would restrain Hitler’s worst tendencies and that a majority of the Cabinet would go to non-Nazis. As Hindenburg’s current chancellor could no longer gain a majority in the Reichstag, and Hitler could bring together a larger swath of the masses and a unified right/conservative/nationalist coalition, the president gave in.

In January 1933,

Hitler was named chancellor of Germany. But that was not enough for Hitler either.

In February 1933,

Hitler blamed a devastating Reichstag fire on the communists (its true cause remains a mystery) and convinced President Hindenburg to sign a decree suspending individual and civil liberties,

Hitler rearms

When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 he promised to reverse the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and reassert Germany’s dominance of Europe. Rearmament began almost immediately and the German army, navy and air force expanded.

1934

a decree Hitler used to silence his political enemies with false arrests.

Upon the death of Hindenburg in 1934, Hitler proceeded to purge the Brown Shirts (his storm troopers), the head of which, Ernst Roem, had began voicing opposition to the Nazi Party’s terror tactics.

Hitler had Roem executed without trial, which encouraged the army and other reactionary forces within the country to urge Hitler to further consolidate his power by merging the presidency and the chancellorship.

This would make Hitler commander of the army as well.

A plebiscite vote was held on August 19. Intimidation, and fear of the communists, brought Hitler a 90 percent majority.

He was now, for all intents and purposes, dictator August 19, 1934,

Adolf Hitler, already chancellor, is also elected president of Germany in an unprecedented consolidation of power in the short history of the republic in 1936 Seeking to reverse the territorial losses after the First World War,

his troops re-occupied the Rhineland in 1936 1937 1937,

Romania had come under control of a fascist government that bore great resemblance to that of Germany’s, including similar anti-Jewish laws.

Romania’s king, Carol II,

dissolved the government a year later, but was unable to suppress the fascist Iron Guard paramilitary organization.

In June 1940,

the Soviet Union co-opted two Romanian provinces, and the king searched for an ally to help protect it and appease the far right within its own borders. 1938 01.

Hitler rearms When Adolf Hitler came to power in 1933 he promised to reverse the terms of the Treaty of Versailles (1919) and reassert Germany’s dominance of Europe.

Rearmament

began almost immediately and the German army, navy and air force expanded.

Seeking to reverse the territorial losses after the First World War, his troops re-occupied the Rhineland in 1936.

January,14th.1936

Postally Used Picture Postcard send from  J.Beur CDS Riga  Latvia  14.1.35 to Mr Kwie Swi Yauw Hoof(Chinese overseas Captain?)  destination CDS Wonosobo Middle Java Indonesia 7.2.36

June.9th.1936

Postally Used German Hindenberg green 5 cen postal stationer Card send from CDS Middleberg 9,7,36 special rolling Vurgess Nicht Strasse  und  hausnumer Anzugeben to  Nagdenberg.postmark

August,8th.1936

 International Olympicen Games  XL Berlin

Sonderbriefmarken  de Cuetreichpost

Fur die XL OlympyschenSpielen 1936

Berlin

Maximum card  with complete set of Olympic Berlin 1936 stamps with special postmark  Berlin OlympischeGDR with Bell logo  Nazi postmark 8.8.36

THE First day Cover Of

Germany Berlin 1935

 1-16 August  

Olympic Games

Jigoro Kano

represented Japan as an IOC Official at the 1936 Berlin Olympic Games. 

You can see him in the photograph standing behind the Olympic Champion Jesse Owens (Gold Medal winner) with Lutz Long and Naoto Tajiia.  Copyright remains with: Library of Congress, Prints & Photographs Division, NYWT&S Collection, [reproduction number, LC-USZ62-115933)

In March 1938

German troops entered Austria to carry out the Anschluss (unification) of the two German-speaking countries.

The French and British governments did nothing to stop these actions.

Hitler and Mussolini at German air manoeuvres,

1937. 1938.

The relatively small defence budget was no match for the European arms race and by the late 1930s Poland had slipped behind Russia, Britain, France and Germany (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).

C ontemporary historians like Liddell-Hart portrayed Poland as ill-prepared and weak without taking into account that large-scale industrialization had not started in Poland until the mid-1920s.

Between 1936 — 1939

military capital expenditure accounted for 70% of all domestic capital investment and represented a Defense Budget of 800 million Zloty (Zaloga and Madej, 1991).

T he small oil reserves in Galicia near Boryslaw were strategically significant to both the German and Soviet military high-command, but production was limited.

For such a young country much had been achieved within this fledgling democracy despite political turmoil and numerous border disputes in the early 1920s.

Following Pilsudski’s death in 1935,

the military junta led by General Rydz-Smigly did not have extensive popular support. PZL 23B Karas, 42â? Esc.

In March 1938

German troops entered Austria to carry out the Anschluss (unification) of the two German-speaking countries.

The French and British governments did nothing to stop these actions. would rather argue that he was, for all intents and purposes,

dictator after the Reichstag had passed the Gesetz zur Behebung der Not von Volk und Reich (Enabling Act), on 23 March 1933.

It had been passed with 441 deputies voting in its favour, and 94 Social Democrats being opposed.

It was this Act which gave Hitler the power to erode the Weimar Constitution and create a totalitarian state.

The following is the text of the Act: “The Reichstag has resolved the following law, which is, with the approval of the Reichsrat, herewith promulgated, after it has been established that the requirements have been satisfied for legislation altering the Constitution.

SECTION 1.

Reich laws can be enacted by the Reich Cabinet as well as in accordance with the Procedure established in the Constitution.

This applies also to the laws referred to in article 85, paragraph 2, and in article 87 of the Constitution.

SECTION 2.

The national laws enacted by the Reich Cabinet may deviate from the Constitution so far as they do not affect the position of the Reichstag and the Reichsrat. The powers of the President remain undisturbed. SECTION 3.

The national laws enacted by the Reich Cabinet are prepared by the Chancellor and published in the Reichsgesetzblatt.

They come into effect, unless otherwise specified, upon the day following their publication. Articles 68 to 77 of the Constitution do not apply to the laws enacted by the Reich Cabinet.

SECTION 4.

Treaties of the Reich with foreign states which concern matters of national legislation do not require the consent of the bodies participating in legislation. The Reich Cabinet is empowered to issue the necessary provisions for the execution of these treaties.

SECTION 5.

This law becomes effective on the day of its publication.

It becomes invalid on April 1, 1937; it further becomes invalid when the present Reich Cabinet is replaced by another.

” The Nazis in turn had been successful in getting the Enabling Act passed by the Reichstag by taking advantage of Hindenburg’s Presidential decree of 28 February 1933,

suspending constitutional guarantees of freedom. Goering and other Nazi conspirators had immediately caused a large number of Communists, including party officials and Reichstag deputies, and a smaller number of Social Democratic officials and deputies to be placed in “protective custody”, therefore making it possible for a majority in the Reichstag to pass the bill.

Having already achieved the necessary power, the Nazis were then able to combine the offices of President and Reichs Chancellor.

The merger of the two offices was accomplished by the law of 1 August 1934, signed by the entire cabinet.

The official Nazi statement concerning the effect of this statute contained this observation: “Through this law, the conduct of Party and State has been combined in one hand…

He is responsible only to his own conscience and to the German nation.” Peace at Munich?

In 1938,

Hitler demanded that the German-speaking part of Czechoslovakia, the Sudetenland, be annexed to Germany.

Fearful of a war for which they were unprepared, Britain and France adopted a policy of ‘Appeasement’.

They agreed to a deal with Germany at Munich in September 1938, brokered by the Italian dictator Mussolini.

The Sudetenland was occupied by Germany, and shortly afterwards the whole of Czechoslovakia was seized.

Flexible tactics German strategic thinking contrasted greatly with that of the Allies.

The Germans emphasised speed of decision-making, speed of manoeuvre and decentralised action by armoured units with motorised infantry and air support.

They went to war with fewer tanks than the Allies, but concentrated them in powerful armoured formations rather than dispersing them.

Although there were Allied officers who realised that a new form of warfare was possible, no sustained effort had been made to apply these doctrines in a similar way to that of the German High Command.

A Mark II Panzer during Germany Army manoeuvres, 1938.

ATS

The Auxiliary Territorial Service (ATS) also protected the Home Front.

Formed in 1938,

the ATS recruited women to work as telephonists, drivers, mess orderlies, postal workers, ammunition inspectors, radar operators, gun crew and military police.

Austria:

On March 13, 1938,

Germany took over Austria (termed the Anschluss) – a contingeny specifically disallowed in the Versailles Treaty.

Czechoslovakia:

The French and the British handed Germany a large portion of Czechoslovakia at the Munich Conference in September 1938.

Hitler had then taken the rest of Czechoslovakia by March 1939.

Why was Germany allowed to take over both Austria and Czechoslovakia without a fight?

The simple reason is that Great Britain and France did not want to repeat the bloodshed of World War I. They believed, wrongly as it turned out, they could avoid another world war by appeasing Hitler with a few concessions (such as Austria and Czechoslovakia).

Great Britain and France

had not clearly understood that Hitler’s goal of land acquisition was much, much larger than any one country

March,16th.1838

Fragment Cover from Austria with special post mark FUHRER IN WIEN 1936 WITH SWASTIKA NAZI EMBLEM  cds 8wien g 5, 16.iii.1938 on Austria Definitive 24 sent stamp 

On September 30, 1938,

Adolf Hitler, Benito Mussolini, French Premier Edouard Daladier, and British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain signed the Munich Pact, which sealed the fate of Czechoslovakia, virtually handing it over to Germany in the name of peace.

Although the agreement was to give into Hitler’s hands only the Sudentenland,

that part of Czechoslovakia where 3 million ethnic Germans lived, it also handed over to the Nazi war machine 66 percent of Czechoslovakia’s coal, 70 percent of its iron and steel, and 70 percent of its electrical power.

Without those resources, the Czech nation was left vulnerable to complete German domination.

No matter what concessions the Czech government attempted to make to appease Hitler, whether dissolving the Communist Party or suspending all Jewish teachers in ethnic-German majority schools, rumors continued to circulate about “the incorporation of Czechoslovakia into the Reich.”

In fact, as early as October 1938,. On November 7, 1938 in Paris,

a 17-year-old German Jewish refugee, Herschel Grynszpan, shot and killed the third secretary of the German embassy, Ernst vom Rath.

Grynszpan had intended to avenge the deportation of his father to Poland and the ongoing persecution of Jews in Germany by killing the German ambassador.

Instead, the secretary was sent out to see what the angry young man wanted and was killed.

The irony is that Rath was not an anti-Semite;

in fact, he was an anti-Nazi. As revenge for this shooting, Joseph Goebbels, Nazi minister of propaganda, and Reinhard Heydrich, second in command of the SS after Heinrich Himmler,

ordered

“spontaneous demonstrations” of protest against the Jewish citizens of Munich.

The order, in the form of a teletyped message to all SS headquarters and state police stations, laid out the blueprint for the destruction of Jewish homes and businesses.

The local police were not to interfere with the rioting storm troopers, and as many Jews as possible were to be arrested with an eye toward deporting them to concentration camps.

In Heydrich’s report to Hermann Goering after Kristallnacht, the damage was assessed: “…815 shops destroyed, 171 dwelling houses set on fire or destroyed…119 synagogues were set on fire, and another 76 completely destroyed…20,000 Jews were arrested, 36 deaths were reported and those seriously injured were also numbered at 36….”

The extent of the destruction was actually greater than reported.

Later estimates were that as many as 7,500 Jewish shops were looted, and there were several incidents of rape.

This, in the twisted ideology of Nazism, was worse than murder, because the racial laws forbade intercourse between Jews and gentiles.

The rapists were expelled from the Nazi Party and handed over to the police for prosecution.

And those who killed Jews? They “cannot be punished,” according to authorities, because they were merely following orders.

To add insult to massive injury, those Jews who survived the monstrous pogrom were forced to pay for the damage inflicted upon them. Insurance firms teetered on the verge of bankruptcy because of the claims.

Hermann Goering came up with a solution: Insurance money due the victims was to be confiscated by the state, and part of the money would revert back to the insurance companies to keep them afloat.

The reaction around the world was one of revulsion at the barbarism into which Germany was sinking. A

s far as Hitler was concerned, this only proved the extent of the “Jewish world conspiracy.”

November,9th.1938 1938

saw the organized destruction of Jewish businesses and homes in Munich, as well as the beating and murder of Jewish men, women, and children. It was an exercise in terror that would be called “Kristallnacht,” or “the Night of Broken Glass,” because of the cost of broken glass in looted Jewish shops–$5 million marks ($1,250,000).

the end

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The Euro Wolrd War II History Collections 1940

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May,8th.1940

The special envoy returned to France on the next morning, bringing the good news to his master in Paris.

Meanwhile the French High Command had decided to alter its plans for Austria; reports had been received that the forces defending the Alps were already in a dreadful state and lacking essential supplies.

Also,

Mussolini had become quite impatient and angry over the France’s refusal to allow his forces to attack from the south.

He declared that he had no interest in Austrian land and that it was shameful to deny Italy its right, no obligation, to support its brothers in arms.

The Emperor gave the High Command green light to involve the First, Second and the Alpine Army in the attack on the Alps.

in

Beginning Of  May 1940

The Attack on the Austrian Alps

The Luftwaffe Tries Again

International observers were surprised to see the German High Command unleash yet another Air Offensive in the beginning of May.1940

May,8th.1940

8 May

1940
In Britain..

. For a while it seems that Lord Halifax will be the next prime minister. Most of the Conservative majority in Parliament would prefer to have Halifax, and the Labour minority are also ready to support him.

The problem is that as a peer he sits in the House of Lords and this is not ideal for a national leader.

At the meeting of senior Conservatives Halifax’s own worries about this leave Churchill as the only alternative.

Churchill with the King on the day of his appointment.

.

May,9th.1940

 

May,9th.1940

1940
In Belgium..

. The Belgian army is placed on alert because of recent tension and signs of German troop movements. The Luftwaffe has been successful in keeping Allied reconnaissance flights away from the German preparations.

In France

Reynaud has been growing more and more unhappy with the leadership of Gamelin, the Supreme Commander.

He has been unable to dismiss him because he is supported in Cabinet by Daladier, who remains influential although he is no longer prime minister. These quarrels now come to a head but no announcement is made pending the formation of a new government. The German attack on May 10th will cause the changes to be deferred.

In Germany…

Hitler issues orders for the Western offensive.

May,9th.1940

1940 (9 May) cover from GB to HOLLAND

with tied PC 90 OBE 3269 label and boxed NO SERVICE RETURN TO SENDER h/s. London m/c. to rear 25 May

 

The Battle Of britain Handdrawing card 1940Ganger somewhere In Wales

Parry”What do you doing now

Whateffer”Workler “ Knitting a nuffler for’itler

Bent Wright 1940Cartoonist :Evening Express”

 

1940 origional pen and ink drawing [88 x 127 mm] ‘The Battle of Britain’ by Bert Wright. Cartoonist “Evening Express” L’pool. The other side signed by ‘Capt. Geo Gibbons CBE RD RNR. Late Cunard White Star Ltd’. CAPTAIN OF THE QUEEN MARY. Captain George Gibbons, C.B.E., R.D., R.N.R., 1-29-36. first taking command. Taken from autograph book.

£65.00

Look Othe caricature oF Battle Of britain Pilot

May,10th.1940

1940
On the Western Front…

The Germans launch Operation Gelb, the offensive in the west. Army Group C (Leeb) holds the German frontier opposite the French Maginot Line while Army Group A (Rundstedt) makes the main attack through the Ardennes and Army Group B (Bock) makes a secondary advance through Belgium and Holland to draw the main British and French forces north.

During the day, Army Group A strikes, with three armored corps in the lead, heading for Sedan, Montherme and Dinant. The advance is rapid and the little opposition, mostly French cavalry, is thrown aside.

To the north, Army Group B carries out parachute landings deep inside Holland which do much to paralyze Dutch resistance, while German units cross the Maas River near Arnhem and the Belgian fort at Eben Emael is put out of action by a German airborne force which lands its gliders literally on top of it.

The fort is meant to cover the crossings of the Albert Canal nearby and this is not achieved. The Luftwaffe gives powerful support. At the end of the day the German advance has gone almost exactly according to plan.

Meanwhile, the Allied Plan D provides for the French 1st Army Group ( General Billotte), consisting of the British Expeditionary Force ( General Lord Gort) and the French 7th Army (General Giraud) to advance to the line of the Dyle River and the Meuse River above Namur, to be joined there by the Belgian forces and on the left to link with the Dutch.

General Gamelin is the Allied Supreme Commander and General Georges commands the armies on the French Northeast Front. The Allies react quickly to the German attacks as soon as they hear of them from the Belgians.

By the evening much of the Dyle line has been occupied but the troops find that there are no fortifications to compare with the positions they have prepared along the Franco-Belgian frontier during the Phony War period. Some of the reserve is therefore committed to strengthen the line. Some of the advance forces of French 7th Army make contact with the Germans in southern Holland and are roughly handled.


German paratroopers drop in Holland

In Britain…Churchill visits the King and officially takes office as prime minister.

In Norway… British forces are sent south from Harstad to Mo-i-Rana to join the small units trying to delay the German advance to relieve the Narvik force. Some of these units are now engaged at Mosjoen.

In Iceland… British troops land on the island. They are the advance elements of a force which is to set up a destroyer and scout-plane base to help in the convoy battles in the Atlantic. Equally, they will prevent the Germans using the island to aid their U-boat campaign.

.

 

.

May,11th.1940

May,11th.1940

Fort Eben-Emael Falls to German Paratroopers and Glider Units.

Fort Eben-Emael was reputed to be the strongest military stronghold in the world. On May 10th 1940, Fort Eben-Emael was attacked by the Germans as part of their blitzkrieg attack on Western Europe. The speed with which Eben-Emael fell and how the raid was executed was symptomatic of just how devastating blitzkrieg could be.

<span>First Lieutenant Rudolf Witzig, Commander of the Group which captured Eben Emael Fortress on the 10th of May, 1940.</span>

Fort Eben-Emael was north of the large Belgium city of Liege. It commanded the Albert Canal and was seen by the Belgium military as being the principle barrier against an attack from her eastern borders. As well as the Albert Canal, the fort also had a commanding position over the high bridges over the canal. If an enemy captured these bridges, their ability to move military vehicles and troops would have been greatly helped. Without the control of these bridges, such movement into Belgium would have been severely restricted and the mobility that blitzkrieg needed for success would have been blunted.

<span>The DFS 230 assault glider, the type of machine which carried German paratroops into action at Eben Emael, the invasion of Crete, and the rescue of Mussolini.</span>

The fort itself was awesome. Built between 1932 and 1935, it abutted the Albert Canal at Caster. From north to south, the fort was 900 meters long and from east to west, it was 700 meters. The fort was a base for infantry and artillery units, and the defences of the fort were placed so that each mutually covered the other should the fort come under attack. Getting into the fort would have been very difficult. Two of the walls were 40 meters high and nearly vertical. Climbing them in an assault would have been all but impossible. The other sides of the fort were protected as a result of a man-made ditch around them, again making any assault difficult. To further complicate any assault, outer trenches had been built and more walls, the majority of which were 4 meters high.


<span>Fort Eben Emael</span>

The weaponry within the fort was also awesome. The fort contained 7.5-cm cannons, 12-cm revolving cannon; machine guns; searchlights; anti-tank cannons and anti-aircraft cannon. Dummy weapon emplacements were built to fool the enemy.

<span>One of the immensely thick cupolas of the Eben Emael fortress complex. Even the largest of hollow charge grenades had little effect on them.</span>

The fort itself was connected within by a series of tunnels that totalled many kilometres. There was only one access to these tunnels at Fort 17 in the south-west of the vast complex. The fort was effectively self-sufficient as it contained barracks, sick bays and a communication centre. The tunnel complex was built with a ventilation system complete with filters in case of a poison gas attack.

However, Eben-Emael had one major weakness. It was vulnerable to an attack from the air. The German High Command knew that they had to capture intact the bridges over the Albert Canal if blitzkrieg was to function. They also knew that a paratrooper attack — so devastating in Holland — would be unlikely to be successful at Eben-Emael as it would give the defenders too much time to react as the paratroopers descended. They therefore decided on a mode of attack the defenders would be surprised by — the use of gliders carrying troops. The gliders would land at half-light inside the fort thus negating its defences. Such an attack would possess a high surprise factor which would not be achieved using paratroopers.

<span>German troops standing on the roof of part of the Eben Emael fortress complex.</span>

The attack had to be carefully co-ordinated so that it took place just at the same time as the main Wehrmacht attack across the Belgium border. In this way, the Belgium army would be fully occupied and no units outside of the fort could come to its aid.

<span>Defender’s of the Fort</span>

The raid was full of risks. Take-off and landings were potential problems. When the gliders came within range of the fort’s anti-aircraft guns, they were at risk. To compensate for the latter, the attack was planned at half-light — making the task of the glider pilots even more difficult as visibility would be a key issue. The plan was to release the gliders 20 kilometres from the fort at a height of 2000 meters. The pilots selected for the raid were considered to be the best and were given a target of landing their gliders within 20 meters of their chosen target.

<span>Although obsolete as a bomber by World War II, the Junkers Ju 52s delivered the attacking forces and their supplies during the German invasion of Norway, Denmark, France, and the Low Countries in 1940.</span>

The attack was entrusted to the Koch Storm Detachment formed in November 1939. The main section of this unit comprised of paratroopers, including those trained in sapping. The actual attack on the fort itself was carried out by these sappers led by Colonel Rudolf Witzig.

The unit led by Witzig trained for six months for this attack. They were to use 11 gliders and the glider pilots were also expected to fight in the attack. Each glider was to fly seven or eight men, excluding the pilot. Each glider unit had two targets to attack. The sappers carried large quantities of explosives and such weapons as flame throwers.

The attackers landed at 05.25 on May 10th 1940, five minutes before the main attack across the Belgium border. To confuse the Belgium military around the area, the Germans also used dummy gliders that ‘landed’ in areas around the canal but served no other purpose but to confuse the defenders. Nine of the eleven gliders got through to the fort — one glider being lost to anti-aircraft fire and one having to land just outside of Cologne as its towrope had broken.

The Koch Storm Detachment had given themselves just 60 minutes to create a base in the fort which they could defend. In this time, they destroyed many of the gun emplacements in the fort and captured a large section of it. Some of the complex remained in the hands of the Belgium army but by May 11th, the fight was over as the advancing German army arrived in force. Confronted with an enemy literally within and surrounded by a massive army without, the defenders had no real choice but to surrender.

The attack was a success for the Germans as the fort was taken and the vital bridges captured intact. The Germans lost 6 men killed out of the 85 who set out on the attack with 15 wounded. The Belgium defenders lost 23 men killed and 59 wounded.

The attack on Fort Eben-Emael shows how blitzkrieg worked within a small environment as opposed to an attack on a whole country. The element of surprise was key, as was the use of a method of attack not really considered possible by other Western European armies. The use of troops specifically trained to become experts in explosives, parachuting etc were also vital. The defensive mentality of the Belgium army was exposed by the success of the attack on Fort Eben-Emael

May,11th.1940

 

1940
On the Western Front… The German offensive continues. The advance in Holland is very rapid and even more of the Dutch army is put out of action. In Belgium the Germans are approaching the British and French positions which are now strongly held. Eben Emael falls to German attacks after some fruitless resistance. Rundstedt’s forces advance nearer to the Meuse.

Hitler poses with the paratroopers who captured Eben Emael

May,12th.1940

 

May,12th.1940

12 May 1940.


<span>Bf 109 E-4N – The aircraft of Lt. Col. Adolf Galland, on Audembert airfield, France, December 1940. </span>

At the beginning of WW II, Galland flew in Poland in the Henschel Hs 123, until October 1, 1939, performing ground attack missions and proving the dive-bombing concept. For his efforts Galland was awarded by Iron Cross.


<span>Major Adolf Galland after scoring his 40th victory on 23 September 1940. Galland is greeted first by his crew chief Uffz. Mayer.</span>

Next, he was assigned to JG 27, commanded by Oberst Max Ibel. During the French campaign Adolf Galland scored his first kills on 12 May 1940, when he went with Gustav Rödel on a mission. Galland shot down two “Hurricanes” from 87th Squadron in two sorties.
On 12 May, west of Liege, Belgium, he scored his first aerial victory and had two more victories that day. All three victims were RAF Hurricanes.
By the end of the French campaign he had accumulated 14 victories.


<span>Here is a right profile of a Messerschmitt Bf 109 E-4N W.Nr. 5819, used by Galland in the period of September 1940 – April 1941. This view is dated 23 September 1940, when Galland claimed his 40th victory. Note – this plane was repainted and remarked many times. </span>

1 12.5.1940… Hurricane Stab JG 27 10 km W Lüttich Hurricane I (L1970) of 87 Sqn RAF flown by F/O J A Campbell, killed
2 12.5.1940… Hurricane Stab JG 27 18 km S Lüttich Hurricane I (L1632) of 87 Sqn RAF flown by Sgt F V Howell, baled out
3 12.5.1940… Hurricane Stab JG 27 7 km EEN Tirlemont
4 16.5.1940… Spitfire Stab JG 27 5 km S Lille
5 19.5.1940… Potez 63 Stab JG 27 N Albert
6 19.5.1940… Potez 63 Stab JG 27 SW Hirson
7 20.5.1940… Potez 63 Stab JG 27 S Amiens
8 29.5.1940… Blenheim Stab JG 27 15 km N Gravelines
9 29.5.1940… Blenheim Stab JG 27 30 km NW Gravelines
10 2.6.1940… Spitfire Stab JG 27 W Dunkirk
11 9.6.1940… Curtiss Hawk 75 Stab JG 27 E Rotoy
12 9.6.1940… Morane MS 406 Stab JG 27 13 km NW Meaux
13 14.6.1940… Blenheim Stab III./JG 26 22km SE Vernon/Breval
14 14.6.1940… Battle Stab III./JG 26 10km S Evreux

Ian R. Gleed Pilot of the 87 Sq RAF in France.

<span>Ian R. Gleed </span>

<span>His personal insignia: Figaro the Cat.</span>

In May 1940, Gleed was promoted to Flight Lieutenant and received orders to report to 87 Squadron, flying Hurricanes with the Advanced Air Striking Force (AASF) in France. Between receiving his orders and reporting to the squadron in Northern France on may17, 1940, the Germans had attacked in the West and the Hurricanes of the AASF were doing their best to keep the Stukas off the backs of the British Expeditionary Force as it made a fighting retreat out of Belgium. 87 Squadron was in the middle of the action, with pilots flying several sorties in a day and seeing combat on nearly every one.

<span>According to serial number, P2798 may have begun life as a “rag-wing” Hurricane. Metal wings were produced beginning in the fall of 1939, and the units of the Advanced Air Striking Force were among the first to have their Hurricanes refitted with the new metal wings. In the Spring of 1940, they swapped out the Watts two-blade wooden prop for the de Havilland two-position controllable prop, while a few received early examples of the Rotol constant-speed prop, which maximized the airplane’s performance at all speeds and altitudes. It’s not known when these modifications were made to P2798, but the airplane had both the metal wing and Rotol prop by the time Gleed took delivery in May, 1940. It’s very likely that the improved performance of this Hurricane, along with Gleed’s superior flying skills, were what combined to allow him to score as he did against the Bf109E, an airplane that outperformed the Hurricane on all points other than turning circle. </span>

It was here that Gleed encountered Hurricane P2798, which would be his combat mount for the rest of 1940.
In the ensuing week of combat and dodging from airfield to airfield ahead of the Germans, Gleed scored 5 victories over Messerschmitt 109s, and one shared.
By the time 87 was withdrawn from France ten days later, after suffering more than 50 percent losses among its pilots, Gleed had 7 kills and had decorated P2798 with what would be his personal insignia: Figaro the Cat. Figaro was a well-known “cat with an attitude” in prewar British newspaper comics who always defeated his opponents by use of feline wiles, perhaps a predecessor of today’s Garfield; the little black-and-white cat seemed a symbolic “companion in war” for Gleed.

<span>As with most RAF fighters in France, P2798 didn’t carry a serial number after the fin flash was added to the insignia, since that was where the serial had been carried in 6-inchnumbers and letters until April 1940. Additionally, the airplane had a non-standard fuselage insignia after going through the various changes in insignia that happened between September 1939and August 1940. Also, while the lower surfaces had been painted black/white prior to June, 1940, it was repainted with the new Sky color, and 35-inch roundels were applied for identification. </span>

As 87 Sqn. sorted itself out back in England, Gleed – whose combat leadership skills had become very apparent in the confusion of battle in France – was promoted to Squadron Leader and became Officer Commanding 87 Squadron. He would have a very short time to bring the “new boys” on board and pass on to them the rudiments of what he had learned of survival in aerial combat before the Battle of Britain would begin

Boulton-Paul Defiant flies it first Combat Missions.


<span>RAF Defiant coded PS-A </span>

The Defiant had a significant but brief operational career with the RAF. The first front-line RAF Defiant squadron was also the first to be deployed into battle on 12 May, 1940 over the beaches of Dunkirk, its fighters claiming 38 enemy aircraft in one day. The squadron totalled 65 enemy aircraft shot down by the end of May, 1940. When the RAF Defiants were moved to night fighter operations, many of them carried the then-new AI airborne interception radar. In this role the Defiant again proved itself in combat, achieving more “kills” per interception that any other of the improvised night fighter aircraft of the period.


<span>RAF Museum Boulton Paul P.82 Defiant I N1671</span>

General characteristics Defiant Mk.I
Primary function Fighter
Power plant One 12cylinder water-cooled Rolls-Royce Merlin engine
Thrust Merlin III (Mk.I) 1,030 HP 768 kW
Merlin XX (Mk.II) 1,260 HP 940 kW
Wingspan 39.4 ft 12 m
Length 35.3 ft 10.75 m
Height 12.1 ft 3.7 m
Wingarea 250 sq ft 23.23 sq m
Weight empty 6,000 lb 2,722 kg
takeoff 8,350 lb 3,787 kg
Speed 303 mph 488 km/h
Initial climb rate 1,900 ft/min 579 m/min
Ceiling 30,512 ft 9,300 m
Range 500 mi 805 km
Armament 4x 7.7mm machine gun (600 rounds each)
Crew Two
First flight Prototype 11.8.1937
Date deployed December 1939
Number built 1064 (both versions)

Often maligned as a failure, the Boulton Paul Defiant found a successful niche as a night-fighter during the German ‘Blitz’ on London, scoring a significant number of combat kills before being relegated to training and support roles.
The Boulton Paul company first became interested in powered gun turrets when it pioneered the use of a pneumatic-powered enclosed nose turret in the Boulton Paul Overstand biplane bomber. The company subsequently brought the rights to a French-designed electro-hydraulic powered turret and soon became the UK leaders in turret design.

<span>Defiant F. Mk I banks away</span>

On 26 June 1935, the Air Ministry issued Specification F.9/35 calling for a two-seat fighter with all its armament concentrated in a turret. Peformance was to be similar to that of the single-seat monoplane fighters then being developed. It was envisioned that the new fighter would be employed as destroyer of unescorted enemy bomber formations. Protected from the slipstream, the turret gunner would be able to bring much greater firepower to bear on rapidly moving targets than was previously possible.
Boulton Paul tendered the P.82 design, featuring an 4-gun turret developed from the French design, and was rewarded with an order for two prototypes. On 28 April 1937, the name Defiant was allocated to the project and an initial production order for 87 aircraft was placed before the prototype had even flown.

<span>Defiant TT. Mk I DR972</span>

The first prototype (K8310) made its maiden flight on 11 August 1937, with the turret position faired over as the first turret wasn’t ready for installation. Without the drag of the turret, the aircraft was found to handle extremely well in the air. With these promising results, a further production contract was awarded in Febrary 1938. Performance with the turret fitted was somewhat disappointing, but still considered worthwhile. In May 1938, the second prototype (K8620)was ready for testing. This aircraft was much closer to the final production standard. Development and testing of the aircraft and turret combination proved somewhat protracted, and delivery to the Royal Air Force was delayed until December 1939, when No.264 Squadron received its first aircraft. Numerous engine and hydraulic problems were not finally resolved until early in 1940.

<span>Defiant first prototype K8310 with turret fitted</span>

The A. Mk IID turret used on the Defiant was a self-contained ‘drop-in’ unit with its own hydraulic pump. To reduce drag two aerodynamic fairings, one fore and one aft of the turret, were included in the design. Rectraction of these fairings by means of pneumatic jacks allowed the turret to traverse. Too allow the turret a clear field of fire, two rather large radio masts were located on the underside of the fuselage. These masts retracted when the undercarriage was extended. The overall aircraft was of modern stressed skin construction, designed in easy-to-build sub-assemblies which greatly facilitated the rapid build-up in production rates.

<span>No. 264 Squadron.</span>
<span>Stations
Duxford 10 May 1940
Fowlmere 3 July 1940
Kirton-in-Lindsey 23 July 1940
Hornchurch 22 August 1940
Rochford 27 August 1940
Kirton-in-Lindsey 28 August 1940
Rochford 29 October 1940</span>

<span>A Boulton Paul Defiant Mk 1 in 264 Squadron day-fighter markings</span>

Previously, a single-seat fighter unit, 264 Sqn spent some time working out the new tactics required by the type. Good co-ordination was required between the pilot and gunner in order to get into the best position to open fire on a target. A second day fighter unit, 141 Sqn, began converting to the Defiant in April 1940. The Defiant undertook it first operational sortie on 12 May 1940, when 264 Sqn flew a patrol over the beaches of Dunkirk. A Junkers Ju 88 was claimed by the squadron. However, the unit suffered its first losses the following day, when five out of six aircraft were shot down by Bf 109s in large dogfight. The Defiant was never designed to dogfight with single-seat fighters and losses soon mounted. By the end of May 1940, it had become very clear that the Defiant was no match for the Bf 109 and the two squadrons were moved to airfields away from the south coast of England. At the same time, interception of unescorted German bombers often proved successful, with several kills being made.

<span>Defiant single-seat fighter mock-up</span>

In the summer of 1940, flight testing commenced of an improved version of the Defiant fitted with a Merlin XX engine featuring a two-speed supercharger (prototype N1550). The resultant changes included a longer engine cowling, deeper radiator and increased fuel capacity. Performance increases were small. Nevertheless, the new version was ordered into production as the Defiant Mk II.

The limitations on the Defiant’s manoeuvrability forced its eventual withdrawal from daylight operations in late August 1940. 264 and 141 squadrons became dedicated night-fighter units. The Defiant night fighters were painted all-black and fitted with flame damper exhausts. Success came quickly, with the first night kill being claimed on 15 September 1940. From November 1940, an increasing number of new night fighter squadrons were formed on the Defiant. Units operating the Defiant shot down more enemy aircraft than any other night-fighter during the German ‘Blitz’ on London in the winter of 1940-41. Initial operations were conducted without the benefit of radar. From the Autumn of 1941, AI Mk 4 radar units began to be fitted to the Defiant. An arrow type aerial was fitted on each wing, and a small H-shaped aerial added on the starboard fuselage side, just in front of the cockpit. The transmitter unit was located behind the turret, with the receiver and display screen in the pilot’s cockpit. The addition of radar brought a change in designation for the Mk I to N.F. Mk IA, but the designation of the Mk II version did not change. By February 1942, the Defiant was obviously too slow to catch the latest German night intruders and the night fighter units completely re-equipped in

May,12th.1940


On the Western Front… The French 7th Army advancing into Holland is engaged with the German advance near Tilburg and is thrown back. In their main armored thrust the Germans enter Sedan without a fight. The French forces in the area retire to the left bank of the Meuse River where they have substantial artillery support deployed to deny the crossing to the Germans. During the night, French artillery shells Sedan. Meanwhile, other German armored forces reach the Meuse farther north.

French artillery opens of on Sedan during the night

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May,12th.1940

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10 – 12th May 1940

It was obvious that the Luftwaffe hadn’t recovered since its resounding defeats during the winter and early spring, the intensive raids on Hannover amidst a powerful thunderstormon the 10 – 12th May 1940 caused many to wonder if Reich President Beck had gone mad.

May,13th.1940

The Battle of France

Fall of the Low Countries and France

In October 1939, accepting the fact that the conquest of Poland, however impressive, would not prompt Great Britain and France to withdraw from the war, Adolf HITLER directed the High Command of the Armed Forces ( Oberkommando der Wehrmacht or OKW) to prepare for an offensive in the west. Although the leading German commanders believed the better course to be to await an Allied offensive, he insisted on striking within six weeks in order to forestall further Allied preparations. The first version of the plan for the attack, called Fall Gelb (Plan Yellow), was modeled on the old Schlieffen Plan, which had received a modified test in 1914. It was based on a main effort through Belgium north of Liege. A total of 37 divisions was to make this effort, while a subsidiary force of 27 divisions moved through the Ardennes region of Belgium and Luxembourg.

This was exactly what the Allied commanders expected. An attack against northeastern France was improbable because of the existence of the Maginot Line, the formidable belt of fortifications built in the 1930′s from Switzerland to Longuyon, near the junction of the borders of Belgium, Luxembourg, and France. Because of the barrier of the hilly, forested Ardennes, Allied commanders considered a major attack there also improbable. Thus only the Liege area, leading to the flatlands of Flanders and thence to France’s northern frontier, was supposedly open to the Germans.

Though built originally merely to protect Alsace and Lorraine until France could mobilize against a surprise attack, the Maginot Line had engendered a false sense of security in the war-weary country. French commanders were nevertheless conscious of the great gap reaching from the end of the line to the English Channel. They accepted the fact of the gap on the theory that France could not afford to fight along this line. In the first place, battle in the industrial Lille-Cambrai region would destroy or deny two thirds of the nation’s coal resources. Secondly, accepting battle there would mean acquiesence in the surrender of Belgium. This France, victor over Germany in World War I and still a major power with reputedly the world’s strongest army, could not accept.

It was apparent to French and British leaders that once the Germans attacked, the Allies had to move into Belgium. To provide time for this movement the Allied leaders depended on a delaying action by the Belgian Army, reinforced by the barrier of the Ardennes and the Meuse River, the large forts at Liege, the deep cut of the Albert Canal north of that city, and Fort Eben-Emael near the Dutch-Belgian border. (This fort was said to be the strongest single fortress in the world.) The major problem was the lack of consultation and coordination with the Belgians and the Dutch. Although the Low Countries realized that Nazi Germany would include them in any pattern of conquest against the West, they continued to hope that a policy of abject neutrality would forestall the inevitable.

The Allies planned nevertheless to advance into Belgium to the line of the Scheldt (Escaut, Schelde) River (Plan E). As the months passed without a German attack and the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) was increased to 10 divisions, this plan was replaced by a more ambitious decision to move to the Dyle River, a few miles east of Brussels (Bruxelles). Under Plan D, as the new concept was called, the Belgian Army was to fall back on the Dyle and the lower reaches of the Albert Canal to protect Antwerp (Antwerpen), the British were to defend the upper Dyle, and the French were to hold the Gembloux gap between the Dyle and the Meuse at Namur (Namen) and the Meuse itself where the river crosses the Ardennes. In the continued belief that the main German effort would be made in the Liege area, the supreme French commander, Gen. Maurice Gustave Gamelin, assigned to the Gembloux gap his strongest force, the mechanized First Army under Gen. Georges M. J. Blanchard. The second strongest force, the Seventh Army under Gen. Henri Giraud, ostensibly a reserve, was to move swiftly into the southern Netherlands to assist the Dutch. In keeping with the theory that the Ardennes itself was a considerable barrier, a weaker force, the Ninth Army under Gen. Andre Georges Corap, was to defend the Meuse from Namur to Sedan; and another weak force, the Second Army under Gen. Charles Huntziger, was to serve both as a bridge between Sedan and the garrison of the Maginot Line and as a hinge for the wide-swinging movement of the Allied armies into Belgium.

As the Germans prepared for attack in November 1939, an invasion scare gripped the Allies, but bad weather forced postponement of the attack. After repeated postponements because of weather conditions, the attack was firmly scheduled for Jan. 17, 1940. A week before the target date, however, a German plane strayed off its course and was forced down in Belgium. On the two officers aboard the Belgians found orders for the air phase of the invasion. This prompted an alarm of even greater proportions than before, and some French forces began moving toward their assigned sectors along the Belgian border. German observers could not help but note the nature of the French deployment, particularly the weakness of the armies at the hinge near Sedan. Of even greater consequence was the fact that the information gained from the fliers confirmed General Gamelin’s view that the invasion was to come through the Liege area and not through the Ardennes.

In the meantime, Hitler and several of his subordinates had begun to question the basic concept of Plan Yellow. Indeed, even before the November target date, Hitler himself had forced a change in plan that shifted the main effort from north of Liege to both sides of the city. Col. Gen. (later Field Marshal) Gerd von Rundstedt, commander of Army Group A, which was to drive through the Ardennes, insisted that the main effort be made through that sector with armored divisions to the fore. In an audience with the German leader, Rundstedt’s chief of staff, Lt. Gen. (later Field Marshal) Erich von Manstein, apparently provided the final arguments needed to change Hitler’s mind. After weather again forced the cancellation of the target date, Hitler postponed the offensive until spring and ordered a basic alteration in the plan. Army Group B in the north, commanded by Col. Gen. Fedor von Bock, was reduced to 28 divisions, only 3 of which were armored. Rundstedt and Army Group A in the Ardennes had 44, including 7 armored divisions. With the main thrust moving via Sedan, Rundstedt was to drive to the channel, trapping French, British, and Belgian armies in Belgium.

Meanwhile, the Allies failed to profit materially from the eight months’ respite that they had gained between the declaration of war and the onset of major hostilities in the west. They still felt no real sense of crisis, for they continued to consider the speed of the Polish campaign attributable less to German strength and to a new mode of warfare than to Polish weakness. Although some effort was made to extend the Maginot Line fortifications to the coast, it produced little more than a shallow antitank ditch and a few widely spaced blockhouses. Modern equipment for the French armies and the BEF remained a promise rather than a reality. Allied timetables for troop movements still resembled those of World War I. Corap’s Ninth Army, for example, planned on five days for the move to the Meuse covering the Ardennes while only cavalry units sought to delay the Germans east of the river. The Allies, and particularly the French, still looked on tanks as servants of the infantry, parceling them out to infantry divisions rather than massing them in hard-hitting armored formations in close liaison with tactical aircraft.

The Allies actually were superior numerically to the Germans. The French, Dutch, Belgians, and British together had approximately 4,000,000 men available, in contrast to about 2,000,000 Germans who might be used against them. As of May 1940, 136 German divisions were in the west, as opposed to 94 French divisions in northeastern and northern France, plus 10 British, 22 Belgian, and 9 Dutch divisions. In tanks, too, the opposing forces were relatively equal. The Germans had 2,439 tanks in the west; the Allies, 2,689. Nor were German tanks vastly superior except in speed. Created as infantry support weapons, French tanks were heavily armed and armored but lacked appreciable speed and cruising range. In aircraft the Germans enjoyed some advantage in over-all numbers, with about 3,200 planes to 1,200 French and 600 British planes, but in fighter aircraft alone the two forces were approximately equal. Only in antiaircraft and antitank weapons were the French markedly inferior. The difference in opposing forces thus was less a question of numbers and quality than of a variance in approach to modern warfare. The Germans had developed new methods based on quick breakthroughs by armor supported by mobile artillery and aircraft, followed by rapid exploitation of the resulting gaps. In addition, a kind of war-weary lethargy still gripped both France and Britain, as is evidenced by their relatively slow industrial mobilization. Not until Hitler invaded Denmark and Norway in April 1940 was the full portent of the Nazi threat accepted in the two nations. By that time it was too late.

By the evening of May 12 (the third day) Guderian had reached the Meuse at Sedan with the main force in less than seventy-two hours.
Sedan is only a short drive from Bouillon.
Steep banks along much of the Meuse in this region means it is easily protected; Guderian headed for Sedan specifically because the countryside there is flat on both sides of the river, making a crossing more difficult to oppose.

<span>In addition to the crossings at Mouzaive, the Germans captured Bouillon and began pouring troops across the river less than 15 kilometers from Sedan. </span>

General Guderian began preparations for crossing the river and attacking the French 55th Infantry Division, which had occupied positions on the opposite bank of the river.
The attack did not go as planned.
Orders to subordinate units did not arrive in a timely manner, close air support coordination proved difficult, and units strung out for miles had a hard time consolidating for the attack. Nevertheless, 13 May 1940 the 1st Panzer Division led the attack on Sedan. Resistance rapidly crumbled and the Germans were across the Meuse River.

<span>The city of Sedan and the Meuse River. According to the French high command the Germans could not cross the Meuse in less than ten days. The Germans were there in three and across in four..</span>

<span>Crossing site on the Meuse River used by the 1st Panzer Division on 13 May 1940. Hard to see on the far bank are the French bunkers defending the river.</span>

<span> Bunker 7ter. One of the many French bunkers on the high ground overlooking the Meuse River and Sedan.</span>

Despite several counterattacks to contain the breakout around Sedan, the French army could not stop the Germans.
Wanting to maintain the initiative, Guderian did not stop and consolidate his forces once across the Meuse River.
Instead he pivoted to the west and broke out from the breach he had created in the French lines.
Holding the French off to the south with one division, the remaining divisions in his corps began their turn west and continued to advance deeper into France.

<span>Though the 55th Division had not buried all its commo wire and completed all its bunkers, General LaFontaine, commander of the French division, constructed an impressive command bunker well behind front lines. Still beautiful 50 years later, one can only imagine it its appearance in 1940. Unfortunately, it did little to help stop the Germans.</span>


<span>2nd Panzer Division had the hardest time crossing the Meuse River. Finally, with the assistance of 1st Panzer, the 2nd crossed late on 13 May 1940 near Donchery.</span>

<span>Commanding the countryside near Donchery were several French bunkers, which hampered the German advance. </span>

<span>Many historians have criticized the French defense during the opening days of the 1940 campaign; however, few deny that some of the toughest fighting took place near La Horgne.
</span>

Steel bridge over the Muese in Houx
Commanding the northernmost arm of Guderian’s Panzer corps–before he became an infamous figure in the war–Erwin Rommel’s division reached the Meuse, on the same day as Guderian, but roughly 40 miles to the north, just above Dinant.
His route, unlike Guderian’s, did not go through undefended Luxembourg, and Rommel ran into more resistance. But the roads were better and Rommel, himself, was driven like no other division commander.
When he reached the Meuse at Yvoir, the bridge had been blown. Rommel went up river (south) to find a crossing. Here, in an area with low river banks, he found an old weir, or low dam, between the shore and a small island at the little village of Houx. The weir extended to the western bank.
Rommel promptly got troops across on top of the weir, under cover of darkness. It’s all there today, except that the old wooden dam has been replaced with steel and a foot bridge. As they reached the far side, history books describe the troopers as crouching under the bank fighting off French defenders, but in fact there are no steep sides here and the country to the west is reasonably flat.
The next morning, several hundred yards upstream, Rommel strung a cable over the
Flat country near Rommel’s river crossing
river capable of carrying pontoon-supported vehicles. After commandeering another division’s bridging equipment (his had been used farther back) a full pontoon bridge was laid a mile upstream, at Bouvinges, on May 14.
Tanks were moved over the Meuse both here and at Sedan.


<span>Steel bridge over the Muese in Houx</span

May,13th.1940

On this day in 1942, a bill establishing a women’s corps in the U.S. Army becomes law, creating the Women’s Auxiliary Army Corps (WAACs) and granting women official military status.
It would take until 1978 before the Army would become sexually integrated, and women participating as merely an “auxiliary arm” in the military would be history. And it would not be until 1980 that 16,000 women who had joined the earlier WAACs would receive veterans’ benefits

 

1940
On the Western Front… The German panzer divisions cross the Meuse River in two places at Sedan and Dinant. The French troops opposing them have not prepared their positions properly and are quickly demoralized and terrorized by heavy dive-bomber attacks. At Sedan Guderian is right at the front, urging his troops on and at Dinant the young commander of the 7th Panzer Division, General Rommel, is also doing well. Farther north the Germans take Liege and in Holland the defense has now been totally disrupted. The advancing German ground troops have linked with the paratroops at Moerdijk. French 7th Army (Giraud) is in full retreat.

German assault troops crossing the Meuse

 

May,14th.1940

May,14th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… After a surrender demand has been submitted but before it has expired, Rotterdam is very heavily bombed by the Luftwaffe. The Dutch Commander in Chief, General Winkelmans, decides that he must surrender. Meanwhile, German armor pours across the Meuse River at Sedan and Dinant. French tank units in both areas, but especially at Sedan fail to put in any concerted counterattacks and are brushed aside. There are considerable air attacks on the German bridgeheads by both British and French bombers. Many of the attacking planes are shot down. Once across the river the Germans drive west, cutting a huge gap between the French 9th Army (Corap) and 2nd Army (Huntziger) — which has no orders on which way to retreat.

Rotterdam after the German bombing

Britain… Recruiting begins for a volunteer home-defense force from men in reserve occupations or too old or young for military service. This force is to be called the Local Defence Volunteers. In July the far more effective title of Home Guard is chosen.

Invasion of Norway… A transport carrying a large part of the British 24th Guards Brigade to join the holding forces south of Narvik is bombed and sunk by the Germans. Much equipment is lost.

May,15th.1940

 

May,15th.1940

French infantry on the march</span>

As on the 14th of May the city of Rotterdam was heavily bombed by 84 Heinkel He-111 bombers, this catastrophe caused the Dutch commander-in-chief General Winkelman to surrender, as the Germans threatened to bomb Utrecht, maybe more cities.

15 May 1940,
The Netherlands surrenders to Nazi Germany at Rijsoord. Seys-Inquart Government Commissioner of the Netherlands, numbers of losses after 4 days war: 2890 killed; 6889 wounded; 29 missing.

After five days of war, only 36 Dutch aircraft were left.
Some of the airmen (mostly from the pilot school), took the chance to escape with their planes to France. They had to leave their planes their and were shipped to Great Britain.
A number of remained aircraft were destroyed by their crew and some were captured by the Germans.

In 1943 the Dutch airmen got their own squadron. As allied pilots they served over Britain, took part in D-Day in France and actions over Holland and had a humble part in destroying the entire German Luftwaffe.

15 May – 24 RAF Blenheims attack bridges and communications targets in Belgium. 3 aircraft lost.
Also… Britain begins strategic bombing campaign against Germany when RAF bombs targets in the Ruhr.

May 15 1940 – The German 20th Panzer Korps (Hoth) repels a counter-attack by French armoured forces, destroying 125 out of 175 tanks.
An attack by 6th Army (von Reichenau) against the Dyle line in Belgium is repulsed.
In Paris, panic breaks out over reports of a German breakthrough at Sedan with thousands of civilians fleeing the city for the west and south of the country, clogging the roads for Allied military traffic which is attacked by Luftwaffe bombers and fighter bombers

1940
On the Western Front… The Dutch army capitulates at 1100 hours. General Bilotte, commanding the French 1st Army Group, decides to abandon the Dyle line in the face of Reichenau’s attacks. His superior, General Georges, concurs with the decision and is now in fact beginning to lose his nerve. At this stage Gamelin, the Supreme Commander, remains oblivious and confident. The German tank forces push forward, urged on all the time by their commanders who are up with the leaders and in complete control of the situation. Their momentum is maintained by this leadership. The optimistic atmosphere at French GHQ is partly dispelled by the news that Guderian’s tanks have reached Montcornet less than 15 miles from Laon. Guderian is ordered to halt here but after vigorous complaints he is allowed another day’s march.

Dutch soldier waves the white flag of surrender

In London… This is a vital, symbolic day for several reasons. At crucial meetings of the Chiefs of Staff Committee and the War Cabinet, Air Marshal Dowding argues strongly against sending any more RAF fighters to France. Despite strong opposition Dowding has his way. The decision is taken also to send the first strategic bombing raid against the Ruhr. Finally on this day Churchill sends the first in a long series of telegrams to Roosevelt, signing himself as Former Naval Person. He asks consistently for American aid, works to develop a good relationship with Roosevelt and above all to bring America closer to active participation in the war. Already in this first message he presents a shopping list which includes old destroyers and aircraft as well as other arms.

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May,15th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… The British and French forces which advanced into Belgium only a few days ago, begin to retreat to their former positions behind the line of the Scheldt. Units of Hoth’s 15th Panzer Corps, with Rommel’s 7th Panzer Division well to the fore, have reached just east of Cambrai to the south Guderian’s forces are moving on St. Quentin. Again a halt order is issued to the German tank forces because some of the more conservative minds at army headquarters cannot accept that the panzers can advance so far without exposing their flanks. In fact the speed of the advance has itself protected them and thrown the French into confusion.

BEF Mark VI light tanks on the march

In Paris… Perhaps the best indication of the German success is the conversation between Churchill and Gamelin in which Churchill asks where the strategic reserve is and is told that there is none, or at least none left. Outside the room where this meeting takes place French government employees are beginning to burn secret files.

In Washington… Roosevelt asks Congress to authorize the production of 50,000 military planes per year and for a $900,000,000 extraordinary credit to finance this massive operation.

May,16th.1940

15/16 May – 39 Wellingtons, 36 Hampdens and 24 Whitleys (99 aircraft in total) despatched to 16 targets in the vital Ruhr industrial area of Germany. 81 aircraft report bombing their primary or secondary objectives. 1 Wellington lost. 6 Wellingtons and 6 Whitleys also raided targets in Belgium without loss. These are the first Bomber Command raids to the east of the Rhine and mark the beginning of Bomber Command’s Strategic Offensive.

16/17 May – 6 Hampdens and 6 Wellingtons bomb oil targets in the Ruhr with 1 aircraft being lost. 9 Whitleys attack communications sites without loss.

French General Charles de Gaulle’s 4th Armored Division made the only Allied counterattack on the Meuse bridgehead. The French tanks, especially the Char B1bis and the Somua, were superior one-on-one to the German Panzerkampfwagen pzkpfw I and II panzers. But the Germans required their tanks to have radios to allow maneuver as a group, and the French used tanks as infantry support. De Gaulle’s attack was too little too late.

Churchill flew to Belgium on May 16. General Gamelin, shocking Churchill with the hemorrhage of the front at Sedan, listed defeat after defeat as the weight of five German divisions bared down on Paris. “Where is the strategic reserve?” asked Churchill. “There is none.” Replied Gamelin. Churchill returned to London with the first of two great shocks of the war, the other was the loss of the HMS Prince of Wales in December 1941.

The shocked French command began to break down. The World War I hero General Weygand replaced Gamelin. Attempting to pull together his forces, Weygand flew to the front, but was forced down and lost contact with his high command. Another French General, Billote, was killed. BEF Commander Lord Gort was without orders for four critical days.

<span> The Forces On paper, the German and Allied forces were roughly evenly matched. The Germans offensive fielded 136 divisions against 94 French divisions, and the 10 British divisions of the British Expeditionary Force. 22 Belgian and 9 Dutch divisions were also involved. The numbers of tanks fielded on each side was also approximately equal. It was only in the air that the Germans enjoyed massive superiority: 2500 aircraft against a few hundred British, and largely obsolete French aircraft.
The quantity of the Allied troops was fine. The quality was not. Britain and France had been largely unprepared for war, and the training of their conscript armies was abysmal. In Britain, ammunition shortages had the notorious result of each recruit being allowed only five rounds in total for rifle training. The French conscripts were more badly trained still. Fortunately, the small British Expeditionary Force had many professional troops rather than recent conscripts.
By contrast, the Germans side had had much more intensive and elaborate training. Accurate, full-scale mockups of crucial fortifications were built in Germany, and troops rehearsed their attacks until perfect. </span>

The “phoney war” was over. On May 10, 1940, upwards of seventy airfields in France, Belgium and the Netherlands came under heavy attack from the Luftwaffe, at that time rampant across the skies of northern Europe.

Aware that the crucial Battle of Britain was to come, Fighter Command’s Hugh Dowding could risk but four squadrons of his valuable Hurricane fighters to support the British Expeditionary Force as it fought its rearguard action in France. In the face of the overwhelming might of Germany’s Blitzkrieg tactics, the RAF Hurricane Squadrons were involved in some of the most ferocious and sustained air fighting of the entire war. In spite of being so heavily outnumbered, in May and June of 1940, almost 1300 Luftwaffe aircraft fell to the guns of the young RAF pilots, though at a heavy price.

Based at a temporary forward airfield at Lille Marc, the Hurricanes of No. 87 Squadron were in the thick of the fighting. Flying the early model Mk Is, armed only with machine guns, their task was to beat back the incessant air attacks on the British ground forces, and to do what they could to hamper the advance of the German Panzer divisions as they plundered inexorably towards Dunkirk.

Flying from ill-prepared grass strips, with groundcrews making the best of what meagre facilities were on hand, the Hurricane pilots literally flew themselves to a standstill

May,17th.1940

 

May,17th.1940

During the day German panzers reach the Serre River in France, then stop.


<span> German column is attacked on the road to Marcke.</span>

16/17 May – 6 Hampdens and 6 Wellingtons bomb oil targets in the Ruhr with 1 aircraft being lost. 9 Whitleys attack communications sites without loss.


<span>Handley Page Hampden</span>

17 May – No 82 Squadron are tasked with attacking an enemy armoured column near Gembloux. 12 Blenheims, led by Squadron Leader Paddy Delap, are despatched but owing to mix-up in timings, a planned escort of Hurricane fighters fails to show. The tight formation is broken up by a mobile flak battery near the target and the formation becomes easy prey to 15 German BF109 fighters. Eleven aircraft are shot down. The only aircraft to survive the raid later crash-landed in England because of heavy damage.

17/18 May – Oil installations in Hamburg and Bremen are attacked by 48 Hampdens and 24 Whitleys respectively. A further 6 Wellingtons bomb railway yards at Cologne while 46 Wellingtons and 6 Hampdens attack German troops in Belgium. No losses.

Handley Page Hampden


<span>Hampden was designed as a medium day-bomber</span>

Like the Wellington, the Hampden was designed as a medium day-bomber and was the last of the trio of front-line twin-engined bombers to enter service with Bomber Command. The Hampden suffered greatly due to a lack of manoeuvrability and defensive firepower (it was not fitted with powered fun turrets) at the hands of the German fighters during the early daylight bomber raids of the ‘Phoney War’.

The Hampden was designed to meet Specification B9/32 (as was the Wellington) issued in September 1932. Handley Page designed the aircraft with a very slim, deep fuselage to decrease drag although, as crews later found out on extended operations, its cramped interior did increase fatigue somewhat. Extending back from the forward fuselage was a very slim tailboom and it was not long before the Hampden was christened the ‘Flying Panhandle’ by those who flew it.

The prototype made its first flight on 21 June 1936, six days after the Wellington, and the most obvious difference from production aircraft was the angular nose profile as a final design had not yet been settled on. Part of the problem was trying to marry the fuselage to existing powered turrets, a problem which was solved by deleting the requirement in favour of a glazed nose with fixed-position gun.

Shortly after the first Hampden’s maiden flight, the Air Ministry placed an order for 180 aircraft and the first of these began to enter service with No 49 Squadron at Scampton in August 1938 replacing Hawker Hind biplane day-bombers. As was the practice of the time, entire groups concentrated on a single aircraft and No 5 Group’s complement of 8 front-line squadrons were operational on Hampdens by September 1939.

At the same time as the order for 180 production Hampdens was placed, a further 100 aircraft powered by different engines, Napier Daggers in place of Bristol Pegasus’, were ordered. These re-engined aircraft were known as Herefords, but no further orders were forthcoming and the Herefords served only in the training role.

Hampdens joined the first Bomber Command daylight operation of the war when aircraft of No 83 Squadron (one of which was piloted by Guy Gibson) joined an attack on German naval vessels in the Schillig Roads along with Wellingtons and Blenheims. Unlike their counterparts, the Hampdens failed to locate their targets and returned to Scampton after releasing their loads over the North Sea. Daylight operations continued – but at a price. It was noted that German Me110s would formate on the Hampdens, out of reach of the gun positions (just forward and off to one side), for some time before the enemy gunners would strafe the bombers and send them earthwards.

<span>In its original configuration, the Hampden was armed with a single, dorsally mounted gun covering the sky above and behind the aircraft; another single gun in the belly which was sighted to fire on targets behind and below the aircraft, and a gun in the nose which was operated by the pilot.
The mounts of the dorsal and belly guns, according to Harris, “were rickety and had a limited traverse with many blind spots.” And the pilot’s gun was almost worthless. He had to be lucky enough to have targets fly directly in front of him, at a moment when he had nothing else to do of course, or he had to maneuver the bomber like a fighter, a difficult task at any time, an impossible task on a final bomb run.
Nevertheless, there is a record of a Hampden pilot successfully downing a German fighter. Eventually, the Hampden was armed with six of the Vickers machine guns, including one that the observer could poke out of ports cut into each side of the fuselage.
Harris also ordered improved mounts for the dorsal and belly guns. Even with these improvements, however, the Hampden’s crew enjoyed rather less firepower than a modestly-armed terrorist does today. Harris didn’t mince words when he said the Hampden was “cold meat for any determined enemy fighter in daylight.”
The Hampden had yet another serious shortcoming: its crew compartment was so narrow — scarcely three-feet wide — that crew members could move about only with difficulty.
If a crew member was wounded, it was virtually impossible for other crewmen to come to his aid. If the pilot was seriously wounded, it was unlikely that anyone would survive: although observers were trained as pilots, the chances of getting a wounded pilot out of the cockpit, to be replaced by the observer, were slim indeed.
The back of the pilots seat would have to be laid flat, and his body would have to be dragged out of the cockpit while the observer awkwardly scrambled over the pilot and into the cockpit. Even practicing this maneuver in the safety of English skies proved to be deadly and was soon abandoned.</span>

The Hampdens were then modified with additional guns (but still on fixed mountings) and armour-plating but the losses to both Hampdens and Wellingtons on daylight operations continued to be unacceptable and both types were eventually switched to the night offensive.

The aircraft did find a niche for itself in Bomber Command as an ideal platform for carrying aerial mines. Many ‘Gardening’ sorties were flown in enemy waters by Hampdens and they continued in this role for the remainder of its bomber service.

The first two VCs awarded to Bomber Command personnel were to Hampden crew-members. The first was to Flight Lieutenant RAB Learoyd of No 49 Squadron in August 1940 for his leadership of a successful attack on a viaduct on the important Dortmund-Ems canal during the night of 12th/13th August 1940. The second was, unusually, not to a pilot but a wireless operator/gunner. Sergeant John Hannah was awarded the medal for extinguishing a fire in a Hampden of No 83 Squadron he was flying in which had been badly damaged during an attack on Antwerp during the night of 15th/16th September 1940.

By the time of the 1,000-bomber raids of May/June 1942, the Hampden was nearing the end of its service with Bomber Command and the final operation by Hampdens took place in mid-September 1942 when No 408 Squadron RCAF were in action over Wilhelmshaven.


<span>144 Sqn. Hampden… which didn’t quite make it!</span>

Hampden Mk I
Type four-crew bomber, torpedo bomber, & minelayer
Dates
Service entry August 1938
Engine Two 980hp (kN) Bristol Pegasus XVIII 9-cyl. radials
Dimensions
Wingspan
Length
Height
Wing area 69′ 2″ (21.08m)
53′ 7″ (16.33m)
14′ 11″ (4.55m)
Weights
Empty
Loaded
Maximum 11,780 lb (5343 kg)
18,756 lb (8508 kg)
21,000 lb (9526 kg)
Speed
Maximum
Max s/l
Max cruising 265 mph (426 km/h) at 15,500 ft (4724m)
Inital Climb 980 ft (298m) /min
Service Ceiling 22,700 ft (6919m)
Armament Up to six 0.303-in mgs in nose, dorsal & ventral positions
4,000 lb (1814 kg) of bombs internally, two 500 lb (223 kg) bombs underwings or one 18″ torpedo
Range 1200 miles (1931 km) /w max bomb load
1885 miles (3033 km) /w 2,000 lb (907 kg) bomb load

Hampdens had found a new lease of life as torpedo-bombers with Coastal Command and operated as such until the end of 1943. These were the last operations of the 1,453 Hampdens to serve with the RAF.

1940
On the Western Front… Troops of the German 6th Army (Reichenau) enter Brussels. Antwerp and the islands at the mouth of the Scheldt are also being abandoned but have not yet been taken by the Germans. The British and French forces in Belgium have now fallen back to the Dendre River. General Gort is now worried by the growing threat to his right flank and rear areas and, therefore, forms a scratch force to defend this area. General Mason-Macfarlane is put in command. [He has up till now been Gort's Chief of Intelligence. Gort can be criticized for weakening this important department at such a vital stage.] In the main German attacks Guderian’s forces, exploiting the loophole in their orders allowing reconnaissance in force, reach the Oise River south of Guise. On the German left flank, the French 4th Armored Division (Colonel de Gaulle) attacks northward from around Laon. The Luftwaffe attacks them fiercely and prevents any real gains.

German armor enters Brussels

In Belgium… The government has moved to Ostend.

In Norway… The British cruiser Effingham

goes aground and is lost while carrying men and stores to join the forces south of Narvik.

 

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May,18th.1940

Den Haag – Italie 1940 – Retour afzender – Verbinding verbroken

Prijs: €125,00

Den Haag – Rome 18.5.1940

Stempel: Retour Afz. – Verbinding verbroken

Read the closeup letter below

 

 

May,18th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… St. Quentin and Cambrai are taken by German panzer units. Farther north German 6th Army (Reichenau) takes Antwerp.

German armored column advances in France

In Holland… Artur Seyss-Inquart is appointed Reich Commissioner for Holland.

In Paris… Reynaud appoints a new Cabinet in an attempt to strengthen the French conduct of the war. He himself takes the Ministry of Defense, Marshal Petain is deputy prime minister and Mandel is Minister of the Interior. General Weygand, even older than Gamelin but far more vigorous, has been recalled from the Middle East to take over Supreme Command. Although these changes probably do strengthen Reynaud’s team, especially his own new office, they will turn out to have been ill-advised. Some of the new men, Petain in particular, will become deeply pessimistic about the outcome of the war and will in time bring Reynaud down when he himself would have preferred to fight on.

In Britain… Tyler Kent, a clerk at the US Embassy in London, and Anna Wolkoff, a Russian emigree, are arrested on spying charges. Kent has had access to the correspondence between Churchill and Roosevelt, and Wolkoff has helped pass it to Germany via Italian diplomats. Kent’s diplomatic immunity is waived by the United States ambassador. Wolkoff has had connections with a pro-Fascist organization, the Right Club.

 

May,19th.1940

Battle of France

The rapid German advance now poses a threat to the remaining RAF aircraft in Belgium. Evacuation of the remaining squadrons is carried out over the next two days, and fighter operations over the battlefield are carried out by Hurricanes and Spitfires based in southern England.

General Gamelin is replaced by Maxime Weygand as Chief of the French General Staff and C-in-C of all theatres of operations. Marshal Henri Petain, the hero of the First World War, is appointed as Deputy Prime Minister. German troops of 20th Panzer Korps (Reinhardt) capture St. Quentin.

18/19 May – Oil refineries and railways in Germany along with enemy troops in Belgium attacked by 24 Wellingtons, 24 Whitleys and 12 Hampdens (60 aircraft in total).

On the Western Front…

French General Gamelin orders an attack into the southern flank of German General Guderian’s Panzer corps.

Most of the German panzer forces halt in positions between Peronne and St. Quentin to regroup but some of Guderian’s troops are still pushing forward.
Rommel’s 7th Panzer Division also makes a small advance in the direction of Arras.
De Gaulle’s 4th Armored Division again attacks north from around Laon. It makes very good progress against gradually stiffening resistance but is ordered to retire before any real gains can be achieved.
The possibility that it will be necessary to evacuate the BEF is raised for the first time in telephone conversations between London and the commanders in the field.
The government are still optimistic at this stage. The main British forces are now in positions along the Scheldt.

The air force did its best to support Colonel Charles de Gaulle’s armored thrusts toward Montcornet on 16 and 17 May.
Night fighters received day ground assault missions, and the remains of the bomber units were committed.
But Colonel de Gaulle failed to tell the air force the time and direction of his movements. As a result, 68 bomber sorties went in before de Gaulle moved and were of no assistance to him.

19/20 May – 36 Hampdens, 30 Wellingtons and 12 Whitleys despatched to a number of targets in France, Belgium and Germany. 2 Whitleys lost.

Armstrong Whitworth Whitley

Twin-engined monoplane bomber. The Whitley was one of the first heavy night bombers of the RAF, and the first RAF aircraft with a stressed-skin fuselage. It had a characteristic nose-down flying attitude, because of the high incidence of the wing. Performance was mediocre, and from 1942 onwards it was used as trainer and glider tug.


<span>Armstrong Whitworth Whitley</span>

From the outset, the Whitley was utilised by Bomber Command as a night bomber, complementing the daylight missions of the Wellington and Hampden, the type was the RAF’s first ‘heavy’ bomber.

The Whitley was designed in response to Specification B3/34 issued in July 1934 and within two years the first Whitley had made its maiden flight and the first orders for the new aeroplane (160) had been placed. Although far more capable than the aircraft it replaced (such as the Fairey Hendon and Heyford biplanes), the Whitley was hardly a modern looking aircraft with a slab-sided fuselage and prominent, jutting chin and a very distinctive nose-down flying attitude. It was however, capable of carrying a very impressive bombload of 7,000lb.


<span>Whitley V </span>

One feature which dogged the Whitley during its early career was the unreliability of its two Armstrong Siddeley Tiger engines and later marks were fitted with the ubiquitous Rolls Royce Merlin.

Initial aircraft were delivered to Dishforth-based No 10 Squadron in a year after the maiden flight of the prototype, with sister squadron No 78 following in July and No 58 at Boscombe Down in October. These Whitley Is and the subsequent Mark IIs, fitted with Improved Tiger engines, had left front-line squadrons by the outbreak of war and the Mark III (improved armament and minor design tweaks) was the standard version in service with Bomber Command. These, in turn, were being replaced by the first Merlin-powered version the Mark IV and then the definitive Mark V with later model Merlins.

The Whitley’s first operations of the war ironically were not to drop bombs on German targets, but leaflets, and these duties continued well into 1940. The first bombing raids on Germany were made in May by Nos 77 and 102 Squadron from Driffield. Following Italy’s entry into the war in the following month, 36 Whitleys from 5 squadrons in No 4 Group, visited Turin and Genoa, but many encountered bad weather over the Alps and were forced to turn back due to icing – another problem that was never cured with the aircraft.

During the Spring of 1940, the Wellingtons and Hampdens had been withdrawn from daylight operations after a series of heavy losses and the three different types now took the war to Germany by night and aircraft of all three types made the first raid on Berlin in August.

Because of its better range, the Whitleys were used on some of the longest-range sorties in the early years, with the raid on the Skoda factory in Czechoslovakia (a return trip of almost 1,500 miles, much of the outward leg being flown over enemy territory in daylight). Many famous bomber pilots cut their teeth on ops with Whitleys including Leonard Cheshire (later awarded the VC whilst serving with No 617 Squadron), Don Bennett (commanded the Pathfinders) and James Tait (commanded 617 Squadron and awarded 4 DSOs).

As the Command slowly moved across to four-engined operations with the arrival of the Stirling, Halifax and Lancaster, the Whitleys were gradually withdrawn from the Main Force, although a number did participate in the first 1,000-bomber raids in May 1942. The last Whitley operational sorties had been flown some 4 weeks previously against Ostend.

After Bomber Command, Whitleys equipped a number of Coastal Command units, their long range being an advantage for the extended patrols over the Atlantic, and the first U-boat was sunk by an aircraft from No 502 Squadron in November 1941. Other Whitleys made the first paratroop drops during Operation Colossus, the failed attack on the Tragino viaduct in Italy and also on the daring raid to seize German radar equipment from Bruneval in the Channel coast. A small number of Whitleys also served with Nos 138 and 166 (Special Duties) Squadrons into 1943.


<span>Whitley II with covered nose</span>

Primary function Heavy bomber
Power plant Two 12cylinder Rolls-Royce Merlin X engines
Thrust 2x 1,145 HP 2x 854 kW
Wingspan 84 ft 25.6 m
Length 70.5 ft 21.5 m
Height 15 ft 4.57 m
Weight empty 19,330 lb 8,768 kg
max. 33,500 lb 15,196 kg
Speed max. 222 mph 357 km/h
cruising about 185 mph about 297 km/h
Initial climb rate 800 ft/min 244 m/min
Ceiling 20,000 ft 6,100 m
Range 1,647 mi 2,650 km
Armament 5x 7.7 mm machine gun; 3,175 kg bombs
Crew Five
First flight 17.3.1936
Date deployed 1937 (version I)
Number built 1,737 all versions

 

May,19th.1940

Amsterdam – Zwitserland 1940 – Postverbinding verbroken

Prijs: €150,00

Amsterdam – Geneve 19.5.1940
Etiket: Terug afzender – Postverbinding verbroken Em. Duif

 

 

 

 

19 – 20th May.1840

 German losses were horrendous and when the remaining squadrons were again thrown against Hannover on the 19 – 20th May, most were convinced that only the desperation associated with imminent defeat could have instigated such blunders. The French Imperial Air Force was now effectively ruling the skies over Germany.

French refugees machine-gunned along a road by …

French refugees near Louvain, May 1940

 

May,19th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… Most of the German panzer forces halt in positions between Peronne and St. Quentin to regroup but some of Guderian’s troops are still pushing forward. Rommel’s 7th Panzer Division also makes a small advance in the direction of Arras. De Gaulle’s 4th Armored Division again attacks north from around Laon. It makes very good progress against gradually stiffening resistance but is ordered to retire before any real gains can be achieved. The possibility that it will be necessary to evacuate the BEF is raised for the first time in telephone conversations between London and the commanders in the field. The government are still optimistic at this stage. The main British forces are now in positions along the Scheldt.

French armor rolls forward under attack

 

May,20th.1940

Allies break the Enigma code that had been changed three weeks ago.

In the West, units of XIX. Panzerkorps (Guderian) German 1st Panzer Division seizes Amiens, France and the German 2nd Panzer Division forces advance to the Channel coast at Abbeville, separating the British Expeditionary Force (Gort) and the Belgian Army from the French forces to the south.
A battalion of German 2nd Panzer Division passes through Noyelles, reaching the sea near Abbéville, France. This battalion is the first German unit to reach the Atlantic coast, just ten days after the start of the offensive.

The Battle of Arras

Until now, the Germans had been content to race along westward, bouncing off French forces which had dug in along their line of advance. In reality, though, this meant that the French line was along an east-west parallel, one which mirrored the German advance. At Arras, however, this was about to change. Here the Allied line took on a north-south axis from St Quentin to Lille. And it was exactly here that the Germans had planed to move through & onwards towards Calais & the English Channel.

The Battle of Arras, which started on 20 May, was in effect three different battles. To the south of Arras commenced the Battle of Peronne. Here stood the French 6th & 9th Armies. Although the 6th Army was new to the front line, the area had already been prepared well by the 9th Army. With Guderian in the lead, the German 16th Army attacked without hesitation. Although successful at first, the French rallied themselves & held the Germans. The Battle of Peronne would continue for 2 days. The French, although sustaining heavy causalities, held the Germans.

At around the same time, in the centre, the Battle of Arras proper took place. The German 4th Army came straight at Arras itself. The defence at first was confusing because Arras was the army border between the 9th French army & the BEF. The Germans, however, did themselves a miss-service by getting themselves entangled in & around the town. The BEF rushed forces to the sector, regardless of jurisdiction, & then managed to hold the Germans in place. By the time the Germans attacked again, French reinforcements from the 9th Army ensured that the Germans got nowhere.

Finally on 21 May, to the north of Arras, the BEF (reinforced with the 5th British Tank Brigade) came under attack between the towns of Lens & La Bassee. The Germans would throw four panzer divisions at them under the command of Rommel. It would be desperate, but good defences, which had been prepared since 10 May, stopped the German advance. Nonetheless, BEF casualties were heavy.

20 May – Escorted by RAF fighters, 47 Blenheims attempt to halt an armoured attack by German troops against the British Army on the Bapaume-Arras road. No losses.

20/21 May – 77 aircraft from 92 despatched (32 Wellingtons, 24 Whitleys and 18 Blenheims) continue the RAF’s attempt to halt the German advance in northern France.

Vickers Wellington


<span>The Prototype Wellington</span>

The longest-serving of the trio of medium bombers with which Bomber Command at the outset of World War II, the Wellington, affectionately known as the ‘Wimpey’ by its crews, flew on many of the defining operations until its last bombing mission over the Reich in October 1943, although a few soldiered on with specialist units within the Command until January 1945.

The Wellington can trace its origins back to 1932 when, in answer to Air Ministry Specification B9/32, Vickers proposed a twin-engined ‘heavy’ bomber with an empty weight of 6,500lbs. (These limits were imposed by the Ministry in light of the on-going Geneva Conference on disarmament which was seeking to eliminate ‘heavy’ bombers in toto.) Utilising geodetic construction, a method of ‘weaving’ the individual struts of the fuselage structure to provide an incredibly resilient airframe, able to absorb tremendous damage, combined with a low weight penalty.

The first aircraft took to the air some four years later in June 1936 and was, for a short time, known as the Vickers Crecy (and appeared at the 1932 Hendon Air Display as such) before the name Wellington was adopted. The prototype differed from production aircraft in carrying no defensive armament, smaller tail (from the Stranraer flying boat), was slightly smaller and more streamlined.


<span>Wellington I</span>

The first true Wellington took to the air just before Christmas 1937, less than two years after a revised Specification, B29/35, had been drawn up around the Vickers design, and the first order for 180 aircraft placed for the RAF. The aircraft now featured nose and tail turrets designed by Vickers as well as a retractable ‘dustbin’ under the belly of the aircraft. These were quickly deleted and the nose and tail positions refitted with turrets from Fraser Nash.

The Wellington was almost a quantum leap ahead for Bomber Command both in terms of construction, payload (some three times greater than Heyford then in service) and armament. The first squadron to receive the Wellington was No 99 based at RAF Mildenhall, Suffolk, in October 1938 and by September 1939 a further seven squadrons (Nos 9, 37, 38, 115, 149, 214 and 215), and all in No 3 Group, had traded their Heyfords and Hendons for Wellingtons.

The type was principally involved in day operations, and the very first full day of conflict, 4 September 1939, saw 14 Wellingtons from Nos 9 and 149 Squadrons involved in action against the German fleet at Brunsbüttel. This and subsequent daylight raids were flown against steadily increasing fighter opposition and the losses mounted. Bomber Command’s thinking of that time, namely that a concentrated formation of a bombers could defend itself against enemy opposition, was shown to be folly by two raids flown in December 1939.


<span>A Wellington II with Merlin Engines</span>

As a precursor to this, 24 aircraft from Nos 38, 115 and 149 Squadrons were ordered to attack German warships in the Heligoland Bight on the 3rd of the month. Cloud over the target area meant that no attacks could be carried out and no defending aircraft were encountered. Staff back at Bomber Command Headquarters believed that this meant that Wellingtons were able to successfully penetrate German defenders in daylight and ordered 12 aircraft from No 99 Squadron to attack German ships in the Schillig Roads on the 14th. Half of the aircraft involved were lost (three to flak and fighters, two collided and one crashed on landing). Then, four days later, 24 aircraft from Nos 9, 37 and 149 Squadrons were again ordered to the Schillig Roads. This time, fore-warned by radar stations, the fighters were able to intercept the formation en-route. Nine Wellingtons were shot down, three ditched into the sea and a further three were forced to seek other landing strips as they were too badly damaged to return.

Despite these losses, the Wellington was proving to be a sturdy aircraft, by far the most capable of the medium bombers in service at the time, and this was reflected in the numbers of aircraft being ordered. The Wellington’s capacious bomb bay also meant that it could carry the 2,000- and subsequent 4,000lb bombs.

By October 1940, the next version of the Wellington, the Mark II, was entering service. This aircraft had two of the famous Merlin engines instead of the earlier Tiger radials, but proved less popular and it wasn’t long before the Mark III, powered by Hercules radials, was introduced. The Mark IV, of which only 220 were built, followed in mid-1941 and served for about 18 months, primarily with the Polish squadrons.


<span>An Expermental Wellington with a Radar-Controled upper Turret</span>

Two interesting versions were then developed, the Marks V and VI. Both were intended for high-altitude operations and had a completely redesigned forward fuselage with a pressurised compartment for the crew and small bubble canopy for the pilot. Both versions had engines fitted with superchargers (Hercules’ and Merlins) to provide the additional performance required to achieve the higher altitudes, but neither was flown operationally, although a pair of Wellington VIs did join No 109 Squadron for a short time.

The final Wellington version to see service with Bomber Command was the Mark X which was introduced in late 1942. Of the 3,803 built, many saw active service in the Middle and Far East as well as at home with Coastal Command.

The peak of the Wellington’s service probably came in 1942, when just over half of the forces of the three 1,000-bomber raids flown in May and June was made up of Wellingtons.


<span>The Wellington is now extremely rare with only two extant examples in the World, one at the RAF Museum (UK) and the other at the Brooklands Museum (UK).</span>

But with the arrival of the four-engined heavy bombers, the Wellington’s days were numbered, but the type long out-lived the other twin-engined bombers with which Britain had taken the war to Germany in the first years of World War II (Hampdens and Whitleys), and is perhaps not given the recognition it deserves as the Lancaster and Mosquito claimed the limelight in the second half of Bomber Command’s war.

Over 11,000 Wellingtons were built in total, many surviving past the end of the war mainly in second-line duties with the RAF into the 1950s. Others became test aircraft for a variety of engines and armament installations with Service and civilian companies.

<span>The Vickers Wellington, affectionately known as the “Wimpy,” was armed with twin .330 machine guns in the nose and tail turrets. It also had 2 manually-operated .303 guns in the beam positions and could carry a 4,500 lb bomb load. Slow speed, limited ceiling, and a small bomb load soon made the Wellington obsolete, although one significant design advantage was Barnes-Wallace’s geodetic lattice-work fuselage construction. This made the Wimpy extremely tough, and it often survived battle damage which would have destroyed other aircraft. </span>

Vickers Wellington B.Mk III
Type:six-crew medium bomber
Powerplant: two 1,500-hp (1119-kW) Bristol Hercules XI air-cooled 14-cylinder radial piston engines
Performance: maximum speed 255 mph (410 km/h) at 12,500 ft (3810 m); initial climb rate 930 ft (283 m) per minute; service ceiling 19,000 ft (5790 m); range 2,200 miles (3540 km) with 1,500 lb (680 kg) of bombs, or 1,540 miles (2478 km) with 4,500 lb (2041 kg) of bombs
Weights: empty 18,556 lb (8417 kg); maximum take-off 29,500 lb (13381 kg) Dimensions:span 86 ft 2 in (26.26 m); length 60 ft 10 in (18.54 m); height 17 ft 5 in (5.31 m); wing area 840.0 sq ft (78.04 m2)
Armament: two 0.303-in (7.7-mm) machine-guns in nose turret, four similar weapons in tail turret, and one similar weapon in each rear fuselage beam position, plus a maximum bombload of 4,500 lb (2041 kg), or one 4,000-lb (1814-kg) bomb

Bismarck

Throughout 19 and 20 May, the German force and their escorting aircraft continued north and west through Scandinavian waters. Though Group North had attempted to keep the route clear of shipping in order to preserve secrecy, to Lütjens’s dismay, there was a hole in Group North’s net: At approximately 1300 hours on 20 May, the neutral Swedish cruiser Gotland appeared on the horizon along the Swedish coast. For several hours, she steered a course parallel to the German fleet. Additionally, a few small fishing vessels were in the area.

Lütjens realised that it was almost certain that Gotland would report what she had seen — his fleet had been exposed even before entering the North Sea. News of the German force’s movements had indeed been relayed to the British Admiralty — unofficially via representatives of the Swedish government. Resistance operatives in Norway also monitored their progress up the Norwegian coast. The force was also seen by Norwegian citizens.

At this point, Lütjens once again changed his mind — the force would now follow Group North’s recommendation and put into Bergen, Norway. Though his motives are unclear, it is possible he felt that since his ships had been sighted and almost certainly reported by Gotland, he had lost the impetus. It would be best to refuel at Bergen and then escape later under the cover of bad weather.

British Admiral Tovey’s Dilemma

Meanwhile, back at Scapa Flow, Admiral Tovey was considering how best to cover the possibility of a German warship breakout. On 18 May, Tovey ordered the cruiser H.M.S. Suffolk, which was on patrol in the Denmark Strait, to keep a special watch on the passage close to the ice pack. Further initial precautions followed: On 19 May, H.M.S. Norfolk, flying the flag of Rear-Admiral W.F. Wake-Walker, Rear-Admiral Commanding First Cruiser Squadron, was ordered to proceed from Hvalfjord, Iceland and relieve Suffolk. Suffolk was to return to Hvalfjord to refuel and then rejoin Norfolk on patrol

1940
On the Western Front… The German armored advance again makes considerable progress. The most spectacular gains are made by Guderian’s 19th Corps. Amiens is taken in the morning and in the evening Abbeville is captured. Advance units even reach the coast at Noyelles. The Germans have now driven a corridor at least 20 miles wide from the Ardennes to the Channel. The obvious need is for the British and French to cut through this corridor before its walls can be strengthened to cut off irrevocably the forces to the north. Before his dismissal Gamelin was planning such an attack, but it has been cancelled following his sacking only to be revived now by Weygand. The delay imposed by these changes of mind prevents it from retaining even a slim chance of success


First German troops reach English Channel

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May,20th.1940

1940 (May) cover from SLOVENIA to Bohemia & Moravia with German censor label tied by rollar h/s. Riemer G-3a of Vienna.

Dienst Militair Groningen – Bergen 20.5.1940 – Aan bewaker ???

Groningen – Bergen 20.5.1940

Aan 1 Comp. Bewakingstroepen ( Luchtverdediging )

May,21th.1940

a “special unit” carries out its mission-and murders more than 1,500 hospital patients in East Prussia.

Mentally ill patients from throughout East Prussia had been transferred to the district of Soldau, also in East Prussia. A special military unit, basically a hit squad, carried out its agenda and killed the patients over an 18-day period, one small part of the larger Nazi program to exterminate everyone deemed “unfit” by its ideology. After the murders, the unit reported back to headquarters in Berlin that the patients had been “successfully evacuated.”

On this day in 1942, 4,300 Jews are deported from the Polish town of Chelm to the Nazi extermination camp at Sobibor, where all are gassed to death. On the same day, the German firm IG Farben sets up a factory just outside Auschwitz, in order to take advantage of Jewish slave laborers from the Auschwitz concentration camps.

Sobibor had five gas chambers, where about 250,000 Jews were killed between 1942 and 1943. A camp revolt occurred in October 1943; 300 Jewish slave laborers rose up and killed several members of the SS as well as Ukrainian guards. The rebels were killed as they battled their captors or tried to escape. The remaining prisoners were executed the very next day.

 

The Battle of Arras was still raging.


<span>Mark II, Matilda II. </span>

Gen Gamelin ordered ‘Instruction No12′ on 19th June for
an attack towards Mezieres from the south, and the Somme
from the north. This was cancelled by Weygand on assuming
command, who also ordered the roads cleared of refugees
and the un-mothballing of as many WWI 75s as possible.

On the 20th while Weygand flew around over Northern France
having meetings, Gen Ironside ordered Gen Gort to
attack south with all possible strength at 0800 hours on
that day. Gort pointed out that seven of his nine divisions
were already engaged and refused. He said that he was
instead planning a limited attack with his two unengaged
divisions south from Arras.

<span>The Light Tank marks began in 1931 as a development of earlier experimental designs which could be traced back to the Carden-Lloyd tankettes. Early Light Tank marks (from I to IV) had two-man crews, increased to three with the Mark V. Although the speed and fair reliability of the Light Tanks compensated their poor armour and firepower, they proved of limited combat value, even in reconnaissance role.</span>

Ironsides then went to see Billotte (Gorts nominal
commander) and bullied Billotte and Blanchard into accepting
the attack plan, and it ws agreed that both armies would
attack with two divisions each on the 21st.


<span>This tank was a development of the Matilda I Infantry Tank whose main armament consisted of no more than either a .303 or a .50 Vickers mg. Such was the thinking behind pre World War II tank development in many Countries (including Britain) that it was considered that the fitting of larger calibre weapons was not warranted.
The Matilda Mark II arose out of a need to provide a better armoured and armed vehicle, which could act in the role of an infantry support tank.
For its time, the Matilda II was a heavily armoured vehicle and it was particularly successful in the early years of WW II at Arras, France 1940 and in the Western Desert during 1940-1941.
Unfortunately, its performance was hindered by its small calibre gun and relatively slow cross country performance. (NB: See notes on the Centurion Tank to see how much British tank development changed during World War II). Despite its shortcomings, it was more than capable of being used aggressively. This was especially demonstrated in the Western Desert where it was virtually immune against anti-tank and tank guns of the day. In its early conflicts in the Western Desert, its value as a shock assault weapon was significant and it soon earned the title “Queen of the Battlefield”. Unfortunately, it was soon outclassed by better enemy tanks and the German’s 88mm gun. However, it found a renewed operational life in the Pacific.
Although the design ideas were sound for their time, the Matilda could not be up-gunned as the turret ring was too small to accept a larger tank gun. However, it was found that a low velocity 3 in. howitzer could be fitted as a substitute for the tank gun. Such a weapon proved invaluable when operating against infantry, light skinned vehicles, bunkers and other fortifications.
Mechanically, the Matilda possessed a hydraulic, power operated turret. Its twin engines were linked through an epicyclic gearbox, which in turn drove a pair of rear sprockets. The suspension consisted of sets of bogies which were linked together and worked against horizontal compression springs.</span>

Attack was coordinated by Major General Franklyn (GOC
5th Div) and he was allotted 5th and 50th Div plus 1st
Army Tank Brigade.

BUT, the infantry divisions only had two brigades each, one
from 5th Div was sent to relieve the French on the river Scarpe
and the other brigade (17th) was held in reserve.

50th Div lost a brigade to garrison Arras itself and to hold the
river line east of the city.

So, all that was left for the attack were two battalions of
151st Brigade (50th Div), plus the armour.

<span>Infantry Tank Mk I “Matilda”
The Matilda I was the first of the Infantry Tanks line of vehicles, characterized by the emphasis placed on crew protection. The small Matilda’s designers had a twofold target : low cost and quick production rates.
In spite of its excellent protection, the Matilda I was obsolete by 1939. Production ceased after 139 had been built.
</span>

<span>Matilda II Compartment Drawnings</span>

<span>Fighting Compartment Looking Forward</span>

<span>Driver’s Cockpit</span>

<span>Engine Room</span>

1st Army Tank Brigade started with 100 tanks, but by the 21st
its runners consisted of 58 Matilda Is and 16 Matilda IIs. It
may also have had some light Vickers IV or VI in the
regimental scout troops (not mentioned in Horne).

Meanwhile late on the 20th Blanchard informed Gort that the
French infantry could not attack until the 22nd, so instead
Priouxs Cavalry Corps was allotted to provide flank cover
to the West. Unfortunately Prioux had already lost most
of 1st DLM fighting Hoeppner,a nd the rest of his tanks had
lent to various infantry units, even by 1700 hours on the 20th
he had not succeeded in reassembling his armour. He was only
able to commit “a few weak detachments of 3rd DLM” – I believe
this amounted to around a battlion of H39s.

No RAF or ZOAN support was forthcoming.

The attack finally went in at 1400 hours on the 21st.

Gen Martel led from an open car. The troops were divided
into two equal sized columns of a tank battalion, an
infantry battalion (DLI – Durham Light Infantry) plus a
battery of field artillery and AT guns. These would probably
have been 18/25 pdrs (eight or twelve guns) and the AT guns
would be Swedish 37mm Bofors AT guns (three troops of four
each). The tanks seem to have been equally divided up.

The right hand column – fought to clear Duisans and left two
infantry companies & some AT to garrison it. Pushed on to
Warlus, again captured after a stiff fight, took Berneville,
and put troops across the Doullen-Arras road. The infantry
were pinned down by MG/mortar fire and attacked by Stukas.
The tanks left them behind and attacked Wailly where they
caused panic among the lead units of 3rd SSTK. They were now
overextended and the whole force fell back to Warlus with
heavy losses, where the British AT gunners and Priouxs tanks
fought each other! Some of the French tanks (six) than
engaged 25th Panzer Regiment around Duisans.

The left hand column – fought all the way but made rapid
progress. Took Dainville, destroying a “motorised column”
in the process (vehicles KO’d, troops made prisoner). Two
miles east six Matildas wiped out an AT battery near Achicourt
then pushed on to Agny and Beaurains, a few units reached
Wancourt on the River Cojeul (the objective of the attack).
Most of the heavy fighting took place in the Agny-Beaurains
area between 4th RTR and German 6th Rifle Brigade, backed up
by the Div artillery and Flak of 7th Panzer Div. Both sides
suffered heavy losses.

Meanwhile 150th Brigade (50th Div) attacked across the Scarpe
to Tilloy, and 13th Brigade also established a bridghead.
However it was obvious that the ground could not be held, and
the whole force fell back as 25th Panzer Reg approached Arras
from the west. They took 400 prisnoers, destroyed “large
numbers” of tanks and vehicles, but were left with only
26 Matilda Is and 2 Matilda IIs.

<span>Somua S-35 </span>

3rd SSTK evidently abandoned its positions in Wailly and
showed ‘signs of panic’ (Guderian).

Rommel was busy trying to round up 6th and 7th Rifle brigades
to support 25th Pz Reg when the attack started. He couldn’t
find 7th Bde.

He found elements of 6th Bde south of Wailly, and howitzers
north of the village were engaging British tanks. The village
itself came under MG fire as Rommel reached it. He found that
the vilage was jammed with troops and vehicles trying to take
cover (RtC!). West of Wailly were some light AA guns and AT
guns again hiding in full cover, and there were some destroyed
German tanks (he says Pz III, they must have been Pz38s).

The German infantry and gun crews in the village then broke and
ran. At this point Rommel brought up all the available guns,
both AA and AT and concentrated their fire on each group of
tanks, evidently with some success as the attack petered out
(this was the high water mark of the right hand column).
Rommel reports several British tanks destroyed or disabled,
and the rest retreating.

By the time he got the rest of 6th Rifle reg it had suffered
‘very heavy losses in men and material’ and he reports
the overrunning of their light AT batteries. He organised
a gun line between Agny and Beaurains from the Div artillery
and heavy AA (88) batteries – according to Guderian there
were at most six of these. This finished off the attack in the
north, one 88 battery claiming nine kills.

25th Panzer Reg eventually intervened, and Rommel reports the
destruction of seven tanks for the loss of nine of his own (no
mention of the French though) fighting NW of Arras.

He had lost ‘considerable numbers’ of tanks, 205 dead or wounded,
and 173 missing (presumably the remaining 200 prisoners were
from 3rd SS).

<span>Probably the best tank in the world at the beginning of WWII, it was made of cast parts instead of bolted plates, had up to two inches of armor in the turret, an excellent gun and was relatively fast at 25mph.
The tank did have one or two drawbacks… The one-man turret was one of them, the other was the fact that only 18 rounds of ammunition were carried for the main gun. As the cast hull did not lend itself well to conversions, some S35s stayed in their original configuration until the end of the war.</span>

May,21th.1940

1940
On the Western Front…Rommel’s division is sharply attacked around Arras by British tank forces. The attack does very well at first largely because of the comparative invulnerability of the Matilda tanks to the standard German antitank weapons. After some panic on the German side the attack is halted, principally because of the fire of a few 88mm guns. The British force is too small to repeat the advance or to shake free from this setback. Weygand visits the commanders of the northern armies to try to coordinate attacks from north and south of the German corridor to the coast. By a series of accidents he misses seeing Gort, and Bilotte, to whom he has given the fullest explanation of his plans, is killed in a car accident before he can pass them on. The attack will never take place. The small British effort has already been made. The Belgians will try to free some more British units for a later effort but this will not be possible. The French themselves, both north and south, are already too weak.

British Matilda abandoned after the attack

In Norway… The French, Polish and Norwegian forces moving in on Narvik advance another stage and gain positions on the northern side of Rombaksfiord.

In Berlin… In a conference Admiral Raeder mentions to Hitler for the first time that it may be necessary to invade Britain. The German navy has made some preliminary studies before this but they have not been based on the availability of French bases. Little though is given to the possibility at this stage even after this conference.

.

 

May,22th.1940

Bismarck

Operation “Rheinübung”

While at their anchorages, Bismarck and Prinz Eugen were repainted. Both took on additional supplies, and the Prinz Eugen topped up her fuel tanks, but the Bismarck did not. For some unknown reason, Lütjens and Lindemann decided not to top up the Bismarck’s fuel tanks while she was lying in Grimstadfjord. Bismarck had used a significant amount of fuel sailing from Gotenhafen to Norway, and it would have been prudent to refuel at that time, as was done for the Prinz Eugen. The only opportunity that remained for refuelling the Bismarck before she entered the Denmark Strait was by the german tanker Weissenburg, which was stationed in the Norwegian Sea above the Arctic Circle and was not too far off their intended course.

<span>V. Admiral Gunther Lutjens</span>

The information that Lütjens received from the German intelligence showed that as far as was known, all units of the Home Fleet were still at their base at Scapa Flow. The British Home Fleet appeared to be no serious threat to the breakout for the German task force along the more northerly routes that Lütjens could take.

<span>Kapitan zur See Ernst Lindemann</span>

The German task force could choose between four different routes into the North Atlantic. The passage between the Orkney Islands and the Shetland Islands, and the passage between the Shetland Islands and the Danish Faeroe Islands was rejected because of the short distance to the British RAF airbases in northern Scotland and the naval base at Scapa Flow. The only truly viable alternatives were either the passage between the Faroe Islands and Iceland or the Denmark Strait between Iceland and Greenland. Lütjens was not convinced of the safety of using the passage between the Faroe Islands and Iceland since his ships had been spotted by the Swedish cruiser Gotland and by Danish and Swedish fishing boats in the Kattegat. Lütjens decided to take the long way around through the Denmark Strait even though he was aware of the dangers of that route. Because of the pack ice surrounding Greenland, the passage between Iceland and Greenland was quite narrow. He also knew of the minefield that had been laid off the north-western coast of Iceland, but in the end, as the operational commander, the decision was up to him.


<span>ADMIRAL OF THE FLEET LORD TOVEY </span>

It was now very important for the British to locate the two German ships and to keep track of their movements. The Royal Air Force was requested to undertake reconnaissance missions along the coast of Norway in an attempt to locate and positively identify the reported German warships. On the morning of 21 May, RAF photographic-reconnaissance Spitfires took off from northern Scotland to scout the lower portion of the Norwegian coastline, especially its fjord systems which could easily hide the ships.

Shortly after noon on 21 May, one of the Spitfires (Flying Officer Michael Suckling) flew at high altitude over the fjord system in the area of Bergen, Norway and routinely photographed all of the possible anchorages in sight. One photograph taken over Grimstadfjord showed a large ship surrounded by several much smaller ones. The size of the ship and a measurement of its beam-to-length ratio was indicative of a modern battleship. The British was certain that the Bismarck had been found.

After the discovery of the Bismarck in Grimstadfjord, RAF Bomber Command was immediately ordered to attack her anchorage.


<span> Bismarck photographed in Grimstadfjord by a British photographic-reconnaissance Spitfire.</span>

At 1930, 21 May the Bismarck weighed anchor and headed north to join the Prinz Eugen and the destroyers outside Kalvanes. The formation continued on its way. Later that evening, the weather got worse and the sky became completely overcast. At about 2300 they turned away from the rocky shoreline, the destroyers in the lead, followed by the Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen.


<span> At 1930, 21 May Bismarck weighed anchor and headed north to join the Prinz Eugen and the three destroyers in Kalvanes Bay.</span>

During the night of 21 May the area, where Bismarck were sighted, was heavily bombed by the British, but due to poor visibility, the planes returned without being able to report the results of their raid. The next day, an RAF Coastal Command reconnaissance plane scouted the area and found the anchorages to be empty. At this time it was more than 24 hours since the RAF photographic-reconnaissance Spitfire (Flying Officer Michael Suckling) had photographed the German task force at Bergen, and they could have sailed over 600 miles in that time.


<span>Prinz Eugen </span>

According to plan, around 0500 on Thursday 22 May, Lütjens released the destroyers that had shielded the formation from British submarines. The task force were in the latitude of Trondheim. From now on, the Bismarck and the Prinz Eugen were alone, and the squadron continued northwards at 24 knots. Lütjens was still uncertain whether to go north or south of Iceland.


<span>Bismarck in front of Prinz Eugen in the North Atlantic.</span>

Steaming at 24 knots in hazy weather under an overcast sky, the task force reached a position approximately 200 nautical miles from the Norwegian coast, in the latitude Iceland-Norway, at about noon 22 May. Weather conditions, which seemed settled, were just what Lütjens hoped to encounter when he attempted to break out into the Atlantic through the northern passage. At noon, Lütjens advised the Prinz Eugen that he intended to go direct for the Denmark Strait but not to oil from Weissenburg (German tanker) unless the weather lifted. A fatal decision that would have consequences later for the Bismarck and her crew. What may have finally decided Lütjens to stick to the originally plan was the continuing poor visibility which meteorologists predicted would last to southern Greenland. The squadron altered from due north to north-west.

At 1237 22 May, the Bismarck sounded her submarine and aircraft alarms – a periscope sighting had been reported. The task force turned to port and steered a zigzag course for half an hour, but nothing transpired and at 1307 it resumed its former course. Due to poor weather and and thick fog the Bismarck shone her big searchlights astern to help the Prinz Eugen keep position. They were now in the northern latitudes, where the nights are almost as light as the days, so they could stay in a tight formation and maintain 24 knots even in poor visibility.


<span>She never sunk a single enemy vessel, but her crew fondly remember her as “the lucky ship.” Although heavily damaged on several occasions, Prinz Eugen was the only heavy surface unit of the Kriegsmarine to survive WW2 intact. Under the circumstances, it was more than could be expected. </span>

The British was now well aware that Bismarck was on her way trying to break out into the North Atlantic. Admiral Tovey ordered Hood and Prince of Wales to take station south of Iceland. There they would be in a position to cover the Denmark Strait passage or turn east to back up the forces covering the Faeroes-Iceland passage should the Bismarck appear in that area. The Suffolk was ordered to join the Norfolk, in the Denmark Strait. The light cruisers Arethusa, Birmingham and Manchester were directed to resume their patrol of the Faeroes-Iceland passage after refuelling at their bases in Iceland.

Admiral Tovey then formed his second task force from the remainder of the Home Fleet that was still at Scapa Flow. This included the battleship King George V, aircraft carrier Victorious, light cruisers Aurora, Galatea, Hermione, Kenya, and Neptune, and six destroyers. Admiral Tovey’s force left port some time before midnight on 22 May. The Repulse, about to embark on convoy duty, was recalled from the Firth of Clyde near Glasgow and ordered to join Admiral Tovey’s force at sea north-west of Scotland. There the task force would lie in wait behind the light cruiser screen, ready to pounce on the Bismarck should she attempt the Iceland-Faeroes passage, or be prepared to turn westward and support the Hood-Prince of Wales task force should the Germans come through the Denmark Strait.
At 2322 Lütjens ordered a course change to the west: a course toward the Denmark Strait.


<span>1945 Photo of the Prinz Eugen</span>

<span>Arado Stowage on the Prinz Eugen.</span>

1940
On the Western Front… The German forces on the Channel coast turn their attacks to the north toward Boulogne and Calais. The Belgian forces retreat to the Lys.

German artillery firing at the railroad station in Hangest

In Paris… Churchill is discussing plans for an Allied offensive. Once more Weygand proposes an attempt to cut the German line to the Channel by attacks from the north and south. It is agreed that this should be attempted but in reality there is little with which to implement the plan.

In London… Parliament passes an Emergency Powers Act giving the government sweeping powers over the persons and property of British citizens.

.

May the 22nd.1940

The Fall Of Bregenz

The successful German defense of Bregenz had been a thorn in the side of the otherwise victorious French High Command for some time.

Not only a personal failure for the Emperor the intact alpine defense had so far made any serious French-Italian cooperation impossible.

Luckily for the Axis, this was to be changed in a short while; the old and trusted Field Marshal Gamelin commanded both French and Italian forces as they attacked on the early hours of May the 22nd.1940

 The French 5th Army assaulted from the north while the Army Of The Alps under the command of the celebrated hero of the Spanish civil war Lt. General Gonzalez de Linares (holder of the prestigious Spanish Order of the Golden Fleece), the Italian 1st Army and the Alpine Army advanced from the south.

In all, three French and four Italian Mountain divisions participated in the offensive; furthermore the enormous bomber force of the 1st and 3rd Air Fleet assisted the attack.

The German defenders fought bravely but the absence of the Luftwaffe and the superior Axis firepower blew their positions to smithereens.

May,24th.1940

1940
On the Western Front…

 The German attacks on Boulogne continue.

Farther along the coast they are also attacking Calais. The Royal Navy is active in support of the British forces in both towns. During the day and later in the night destroyers are used to evacuate 5000 men from Boulogne and over the next three days two light cruisers and seven destroyers are in support near Calais.

There are also German attacks on the line of the Lys and around Tournai. The plans for the Allied counteroffensive depend on the Belgians being able to take over a longer section of the front but with this pressure they will not be able to do so. Meanwhile, the partial halt of the main German armored forces already made by Rundstedt is confirmed by Hitler. They have reached the line Gravelines – Omer – Bethune. Although the ground north of here is not well suited to armed action the Allied defenses are weak. The pause, which lasts until the morning of May 27th, gives the French and British time to strengthen this position and is generally seen as being the move which makes the evacuation of the BEF possible.

German armor halted in France

In Paris… The Supreme War Council decides to end its involvement in Norway. They agree to capture Narvik and destroy the port facilities before they will evacuate. Ironically the airfield at Bardufoss has only just received its first complement of British aircraft and already the campaign is seeming less one-sided, showing what might be done. The Norwegians are not yet told of the decision to leave.

 

May,25th.1940

The Battle of Dunkirk begins.

The city of Boulogne is captured by the Germans.
By evening British commander Gort cancels a planned advance to the south, and orders his troops north, so they can embark for England.

CASSEL May 1940

by Lieut-Col. E.M.B. Gilmore, DSO
(Back Badge 1946)

After the withdrawal of the BEF from the line of the River Scheldt, the 61st found itself for some hours at a village called Nomain, some miles south-east of Lilles. We received orders to proceed by motor transport, during the night of 24-25th May, to Cassel. Cassel is an important local road junction, whence roads lead to Dunkirk, Lille, Calais, St. Omer and other lesser towns.

The Battalion reached Cassel in the early hours of the morning, Saturday 25th May. With us were the 4th Ox and Bucks L.I., some RFA 18-pdrs, machine gunners from a TA Battalion of the Cheshire Regt, Brigade A.T. Unit and some French army elements. There were also some RAMC, RE, and Royal Signals personnel present. The first 2 days at Cassel were ones of rest. Houses and buildings forming a perimeter were linked by demolition or digging, and strengthened. Roads and lanes were blocked. The town was divided in half, the 4th Ox & Bucks LI holding the east, the 61st the west sector.

Capt. H.W. Wilson’s Company (“B”) linking on its right with the 4th Ox & Bucks, stretched along the perimeter to the north-west to join with “D” Coy. It faced an open area of country, with an isolated farm some 400 yards out in front which was occupied by No. 10 Platoon under 2nd Lieut. R. Weightman. Also in the Company were a party of French and later a platoon of the Cheshire Regt (MG).

Next to the left and facing west, was Capt. A.P. Cholmondeley’s Company (“D”) with the Battalion Mortar Platoon. This company area consisted mainly of a residential house surrounded by a small demesne. The foremost edge of the area was formed by an escarpment, below which was a small wooded enclosure. A section of machine guns occupied some cottages on the left, and of 2 roads which flanked either side of this company. British and French AT guns were included.

Round to the south-west and completing the Battalion perimeter was Capt. E.H. Lynn-Allen’s (MC) Company (“C”), holding a somewhat more difficult area, whose field of fire was minimized by small walled enclosures on the outskirts of the town.

The reserve consisted of Major W.H. Percy-Hardman’s (MC) Company (“A”), the remains of the Carrier Platoon under Sergt. Kibble, the available elements of HQ Company under CSM Haberfield, and the AT gun section under 2nd Lieut. J. Robertson, which was used to thicken up generally the anti-tank defence of the whole area. As usual in these days, the Battalion was very think on the ground. (Over 130 other ranks were reported missing after the bombing of “A” and “C” and HQ Companies in the bottle-neck traffic jam at Leuze near Tournai, on 19th May).

The Battalion “Keep” and HQ, with the RAP, was in and around the local bank in La Place Dunkirk. The organisation here was mainly due to the admirable efforts of Major Colin Campbell (MC) (2nd-in-Command), Capt. E. Jones (MID) (Adjutant), RSM G. Pearce (MID) and Lieut. Ian Spencer (MO). Later tactical moves led to a serious alteration in the disposition of the reserve. From “A” Coy. it was necessary to find 2 detachments which completely used up this company. The first of these alterations was the sending out of No.8 Platoon under 2nd Lieut. R.W. Cresswell (MC) to occupy a partially completed blockhouse about 2 and half miles out of Cassel on the road to Dunkirk, on the afternoon of the 26th. The second was the sending out of the rest of “A” Coy. under Major Percy-Hardman to occupy the village of Zuytpene, on the railway line west of the town; early hours of the morning of the 27th. A Company of the 4th Ox & Bucks LI was sent to occupy Bavinchove, also on the railway line, south by a mile or 2 of Zuytpene. These were the forward positions to break up any enemy onslaught before reaching the main position.

The enemy was first met on the 26th, when 2 patrol actions between the enemy tanks and carriers with AT guns occurred in the wooded area to the south-west. The main enemy effort began during the early morning of the 27th, when he attacked simultaneously from the west, south and south-east, using infantry supported by machine guns, mortars and tanks, with occassional assistance from the air, in which he had complete superiority. The Germans were also helped by obvious “Fifth Column” activities in Cassel itself. It was remarkable how Unit and Company HQ’s were perpetually singled out for accurate mortaring.

On this day the main enemy point of attack was aimed at the south-east part of the defences, near the neck linking up with Mont Des Recollets. But at the same time, attacks were maintained on the other parts, as well as the villages of Zuytpene and Bavinchove. No. 8 Platoon in the blockhouse came into action about 1800 hrs that evening. On no future occasion was contact ever regained with either Major Percy-Hardman or 2nd Lieut. Cresswell. Both were completely surrounded and cut-off, and both admirably fulfilled their role of holding on to their positions and inflicting the maximum delay and casualties on the enemy.

Zuytpene was attacked through the western end of the village at about 0800 hrs, when an aerial bombing, followed up with tanks, opened proceedings; infantry and mortars supported and by midday the enemy had surrounded the position. It was not until about 1900 hrs that 2 members of “A” Coy. (Ptes Tickner (MID) and Bennett) arrived at Battalion HQ in an exhausted state, having been sent earlier on by Major Percy-Hardman to try and get through the surrounding Germans. It was long afterwards learnt that the remnants of “A” Coy. at Zuytpene were finally forced to give in about 1900 hrs, when their last defensive position at Company HQ was in flames and a superior number of the enemy had got close enough to throw grenades into the cellar into which they had been finally driven. A final effort to reach “A” Coy. at Zuytpene was made during the night of 27-28th by means of a patrol under 2nd Lieut. S. Reeve-Tucker, but the enemy was too thick on the ground to get the patrol through.

No.8 Platoon, under 2nd Lieut. Cresswell, held out against continuous attacks from the evening of the 27th to the late aternoon of the 30th, when casualties, a fire in the blockhouse, lack of food and the ominous silence from Cassel caused them to give in to overwhelming numbers.

“D” Company suffered very heavily in casualties this first day of the attack. An enemy tank succeeded in getting into the grounds of the Company “Keep”. An attempt by a party from “B” Coy., consisting of Capt. Wilson, 2nd Lieut. Fane, CSM Robinson (MID), and Pte Palmer, to assist “D” Coy. by a flanking stalk against the tank was ended by a direct mortar bomb hit on their Boys rifle. Eventually the tank was set on fire by a hit from one of our AT guns.

“C” Coy. had a tough but successful time in dealing with hostile tanks, which pressed forward in support if infantry, against the company position. Sergt. Collins (MM) by himself put one tank out of action with a Boys rifle.

The enemy did not press his attack after darkness had fallen. On the 28th May the only real attack was made on “B” Coy. in the late afternoon, which was beaten off without much difficulty. An attempt was made to get a carrier through to No.8 Platoon, but it was impossible to get beyond the town owing to heavy machine gun fire.

On Wednesday 29th May a heavy and sustained attack broke out again, preceeded by an accurate mortar bombardment. “B” Coy. came in for the brunt of the day’s onslaught. No. 10 Platoon, in the farm forward of the company area, under command of 2nd Lieut. Weightman, was very heavily bombarded. 2nd Lieut. Weightman was killed by a direct hit. He had acted throughout most gallantly and had led his platoon ably in all the fighting. Cpl. C. Waite (MID) hung on with a few men until the situation was restored by Capt. Wilson.

Another serious loss was the death of 2nd Lieut. Gerry French, the Intelligence Officer, always indefatigable, cheerful, conscientious, and willing, who was killed by a mortar bomb while on a mission to liaise with the artillery.

It was a hard day, well borne, by the whole Battalion, but in spite of casualties and diminishing effective manpower, at no time did the enemy gain a footing anywhere. The Carrier Platoon had been used to reinforce dangerous points on the perimeter. HQ Coy. had also played its part and it is impossible to speak too highly of the Signallers under Sergt. Bartlet (MM?), the stretcher-bearers under Sergt. Tilton, or the Pioneers under PSM Murphy. Weaponless members of the AT gun section had been used to strengthen the emaciated Battalion Reserve.

The fighing died down about 1700 hrs and the enemy had withdrew. Movement could be seen away to the north, but too far away to engage with fire. About this time a warning order was received from Force HQ that the garrison would withdraw that night and try to rendezvous near the Dunkirk area. Hopes were high of being alble to get away, but what was not known was that this order was 24 hours delayed. The withdrawal after dusk, in spite of the close contact of the enemy, was carried out successfully, but the exasperating events of the next 2 days are another story.
About 100 men of the 2nd Glosters made it back home. 5 officers and 132 men were dead. 472 taken prisoner.

Also French Ground Forces in Indochina, May 1, 1940

The French comfortably held down the entire region with the equivalent of a reinforced division’s worth of infantry, a good proportion of whom were locally recruited troops. Just a few years later this would have been an impossibly tiny number.

The French Army in Indochina was organized into two divisions and a brigade:

Tonkin Division [Division du Tonkin DDT]

Cochinchina-Cambodia Division [Division de Cochinchine-Cambodge DCC]

Annam-Laos Brigade [Brigade d'Annam-Laos BAL]

The motorized detachments were reconnaissance units.

DDT

Tonkin Motorised Detachment (DMT)

Foreign Legion Motorised Detachment (DML)

9th Colonial Infantry Regiment

19th Mixed Colonial Infantry Regiment

5th Foreign Legion Infantry Regiment

1st Tonkinese Tirailleurs Regiment

3rd Tonkinese Tirailleurs Regiment

4th Tonkinese Tirailleurs Regiment

4th Colonial Artillery Regiment

DCC

Cochinchina Motorised Detachment (DMC)

11th Colonial Infantry Regiment

Annam Tirailleurs Regiment

Second Annam Tirailleurs Regiment

Cambodian Tirailleurs Regiment

5th Colonial Artillery Regiment ()

BAL

Annam Motorised Detachment (DMA)

10th Colonial Infantry Regiment

16th Mixed Colonial Infantry Regiment

South Annam Montagnard Tirailleurs Battalion

Air Units Groupe Aérien Autonome 41

E.R. 1/41
9 Potez 25
Pursat [Cambodia]

E.R. 2/41
4 Farman 221
Tong [Tonkin]

Groupe Aérien Autonome 42

E.R. 1/42
10 Potez 25
Pursat [Cambodia]

E.B. 2/42
6 Potez 542
Tan-Son-Nhut [Cochinchina]

Groupe Aérien Mixte 595

E.O. 1/595
7 Potez 25
****-Hoi [Annam]

Groupe Aérien Mixte 596

E.O. 1/596
6 Potez 25
Tourane/Da Nang [Annam]

Esc. 1/C.B.S.
8 Loire 130 + 4 CAMS 37 & 55
Cat-Lai [Cochinchina]

Please note that the French Escadrille actually corresponds to the word Flight. Escuadron, or Squadron, was used for army units. The Groupe is the equivalent of a traditional air squadron. The French system allowed the mixing-and-matching of units within a squadron, whereas usually a squadron is all one type of aircraft.

Commandement des Bases du Sud – Southern Bases Command (Indochina)

Groupe A̩rien Mixte РComposite Squadron (usually Fighter / Reconnaissance)

E.R. — Escardrille Reconnaissance
E.O. — Escadrille Observation
E.B. — Escadrille Bombardement

in France…

The 5th Bn The Gloucestershire Regt. had mobilized 1st Sept. 1939 and sailed for France on 14th January 1940. After a halt at Caudebec, near Havre, they were billetted at Thumeries. In very cold, snowy conditions they helped with preparing anti-tank obstacles and undertook training. In the spring they moved into the front line, taking over a sector in the Saar front, beyond the Maginot Line. During a patrol in the Grossenwald-Grindorff-Bizing area they had their first engagement with the Germans. End of April they were billetted at Auby. 13th May moved to Waterloo, near Brussels.

Grindorff

by Michael Shephard
(Back Badge 1950)

Grindorff was, and far as I know is, a tattered village on the edge of that tattered frontier between Alsace and Germany; from the tower of its church you can see well into Germany.

In March 1940 the 5th Glosters entered the line and awaited the onslaught of the enemy with trepidation. I was in command of No. 12 Platoon, “C” Coy., at that time commanded by Charlie Norris. We were positioned in the village with another platoon on our left some 100 yards away and staggered back by 100 yards, and on our right by a platoon of another company, also lying behind us in woodland. A sudden blitz raid was made against a platoon of “D” Coy. commanded by Tom Carter. This was held and repulsed, although we lost men as prisoners and casualties. We only heard about this action, but were ourselves involved in another:

On the morning of 3rd March I was ordered to report to Company HQ at Bizing, which lay about three quarters of a mile from Grindorff down a very straight road. Charlie Norris told me that I was to take a patrol out that evening and lie up, listening for any enemy patrol movement across the stream that cut our No Man’s Land in two. I was to take a section with me and this would be made up by a section recruited from HQ under the command of CSM Clifford. Cap comforters were worn, faces were blackened, genades fastened to web belts by the hand levers, and ammunition was readily available. For the trip through the deserted streets we were escorted by another section which formed the normal evening stand-to patrol.

At 2100 hrs I led my 7 men (country me from Tewkesbury and Winchcombe) away from the main lower street of the village and down through a cottage garden and crossed a wire fence. It was about 5 minutes after this that the enemy, about 30 strong, opened fire on my platoon position back at Grindorff. We were moving steadily along the old French wire when we heard the firing behind us. We carried on our patrol for about 15 minutes until enemy snipers began to make things difficult. We found a hollow and used that as cover, lying in a circle, keeping an all-round outlook.

By 2145 hrs the battle was going strong up at the platoon positions. We had watched about 150 of the enemy move up the wire. The enemy were attacking in front of the Platoon HQ when the Bren gunner covering the position, Pte Bailiss, was wounded by a Schmeizer and hand grenade. He was carried back just as the enemy came through the wire and the Bren gun slipped and Pte Bailiss fell. It was then that Sergt. Bill Adlam moved out in full view of the enemy and, under fire, recovered the gun, firing it and beating off the German assault. For this he received the Military Medal – the first TA soldier of the war to get this award.

About 2300 hrs Pte Bidgood, one of my patrol, was wounded and seemed in a bad state. I decided to get him back and moved the patrol up to the village. We moved steadily, carrying Pte Bidgood in the rear, but I realised that our own troops would be ready to fire on anything that moved in the street. I decided to hail the post and shout “Blackbird coming back wounded.” (From the old marching song, “Where be that backbird be?”) At 2330 hrs we entered the post, but as we did furious firing broke out again. Sergt. Adlam came out from the sandbags and helped us home. By 2345 that attack was so strong on our left flank that I put up the machine gun SOS of three greens. What a glorious sound that sustained staccato fire was; it broke up the enemy attack very swiftly. For half an hour there was a welcome lull.

At 0100 hrs the next attack came with a sudden shock, on our right and behind us. Above the row I could hear Sergt. Walker swearing in the good old Tewkesbury tongue at the Boche. 0120 French 75′s put down 30 shells, but the attack continued. At 0130 a German dropped a grenade through the window of Platoon HQ. No one was hurt as we were all on the floor. The attack continued until 0300 hrs. Another burst of French artillery brought the fighting to an end. At about 0440 hrs the third attack began, on our right and behind us.

Ammunition was running low but at 0530 the Carriers arrived, Gavin Scott leading 20 men with 7 Bren guns. After they opened up on the enemy, the Boche left the village for good.

The 5th Glosters at Ledringhem

by Major F.W. Priestley (Adjutant, 5th Bn. 1940)
(Back Badge 1946)

After the strenuous march back from near Brussels and the sharp engagement on the River Escault, at Bruyelle, the 5th Glosters were ordered to withdraw on the 22nd May 1940, to Aix. On the following day a further move was carried out to Nomain. Then followed a long march over congested roads to Herlies, some 10 miles south-west of Lille. From here on the 25th, after a meal but very little rest, the Battalion bussed by different routes to Oost Capelle.

The 25th May was a day of air combats and signs of trouble could even be seen in the Dunkirk direction. After a short rest the Battalion moved off at 1600 hrs to take up positions defending Wormhoudt. The town, till then, had been untouched by bombing and evacuation of its inhabitants had only just commenced. Orders were issued in the early afternoon of the 26th May for the 5th Glosters to move forward and hold outpost positions at Ledringhem and Arneke, some 3 and 5 miles from Wormhoudt. Preceeded by the Carrier Platoon, the Battalion, less “A” and “D” Companies, moved cautiously into Ledringhem without meeting any signs of opposition and were in the village soon after 1700 hrs. The carriers then moved forward to Arneke preparatory to “A” and “D” Comapanies occupying the village, again without opposition. Orders had also been received for 1 platoon, with 1 platoon MG of 4th Cheshires, to be detached to form a road block with a section of anti-tank guns at Rietveld in the rear (east) of Ledringhem on the road Wormhoudt-Cassel. The platoon was provided by “C” Coy. and took no part in the fighting at Ledringhem; joining at Brigade HQ when the Battalion was isolated at Ledringhem and rejoining the Battalion later on.

The forward southern position at Arneke was held by “D” Coy. under Capt. E. Rockett, with three 25mm anti-tank guns of the Battalion under 2nd Lieut. Goscomb. No. 11 Platoon, under 2nd Lt. Henn, was on the railway line some way north of the village.
“A” Coy. with Major D.W. Biddle in command, held the centre and northern part of the village on either side of the railway.
“C” Coy. under Capt. H. Mason, less the platoon under 2nd Lieut. Liversidge at Rietveld, was disposed to cover the road junctions between Arneke and Ledringhem.
Battalion HQ was established in the Ledringhem Mairie, in the centre of this one street village.
“B” Coy. under Capt. C. Norris was given the task of defending the north end of the village and the east flank.
HQ Company under Major A. Waller, disposed sections on the west of and close to Battalion HQ, and also south of Ledringhem.

Battalion transport, such as was necessary for the battle, was dispersed in an orchard on the east side of the village, where, although well camouflaged, it suffered destruction by enemy mortar fire as soon as the battle started. The remaining transport was located near Wormhoudt. The Battalion was given the support of an artillery regiment, whose FOO was present throughout, and which did considerable damage to enemy AFV’s and discouraged all enemy concentrations in the neighbourhood. A section of 2-pdr guns of the 53rd Anti-Tank Regiment came up during the evening and were disposed at Arneke. One additional MG Platoon came forward later in the battle and was sited with “C” Company.

The first night was comparatively peaceful. Little was seen of the French, thought to be withdrawing from around St. Omer. Very odd civilians were brought in, interrogated, and locked up, and it was not discovered till afterwards that these were wandering lunatics. The morning of the 27th May, which was fine and warm, brought a detachment of Royal Engineers sent to fix road blocks of iron rails let into the road by camouflet and these proved most efficient. Good progress was made in making earthworks and strenghtening defensive positions in buildings.

First news of the enemy came from “A” and “D” Coys at Arneke who observed AFVs to the east and south. These were the leading elements of the German forces, which, having broken through the French, were now wheeling north to cut off Dunkirk. During the afternoon tanks and embussed infantry were observed out of rifle range and apparently avoiding the villages. An enemy reconnaissance plane was continually overhead and then followed bursts of mortar fire on both villages. The CO decided to send forward a carrier section, and this under Sergt. L.E. Brown, who was later awarded the MM, did valuable work in ambushing parties of the enemy who were now making a determined attack on Arneke from various directions. A large concentration of the enemy was successfully dealt with by Lieut. D.L. Norris with his platoon of “D” Coy. Lieut. Norris was wounded the following day and had to be left as a prisoner of war. This very gallant officer died when in captivity (24th August 1942).

The fighting spread into the village and a burst of machine gun fire wounded Major Biddle, Capt. Rockett, and CSM Hill of “A” Coy.
At Ledringhem the attack was confined to mortar fire and so the remaining sections of the Carrier Platoon, under Lieut. N.W.H. Shephard, were ordered forward to Arneke to prevent an organised attack on the village from the south and north flanks. This they were able to do. The carriers also brought up fresh supplies of ammunition. The enemy withdrew from the village, and then followed a lull in fighting, enabling wounded men to be evacuated well before dark. For comparatively few casualties at Arneke, the enemy had lost during the day, 5 tanks, 5 armoured cars, and a considerable number of personnel.

It was now decided to concentrate the Arneke garrison at the north end of the village. “A” and “D” Companies were, however, brought back to the “C” Coy. area just south of Ledringhem under cover of darkness as there was a possibility of Arneke being cut off. The night was quiet, enemy patrols keeping off, and 0400 hrs 28th May, our artillery opened up on a pre-arranged plan. This fire was kept up most of the morning. Cassel, on the Battalion south-east flank, was seen to be undergoing air bombardment and an enemy aircraft of the Henschel type was seen delivering ammunition in the field south of Arneke. During the morning the QM (Major Vigrass) succeeded in delivering rations, but this was the last occassion, and he and his staff remained at Battalion HQ.

“A” Coy. (now under Capt. Scott), and “D” Coy. under Lieut. C. Norris, together with “C” Coy. were withdrawn in the afternoon from south of Ledringhem to positions forming an all-round defence of the village, orders having been received to hold the present positions for another 24 hours. It was impossible to contact No. 11 Platoon “D” Coy. who had been isolated on the railway line and who eventually returned via Wormhoudt, before rejoing the Battalion at Rexpoede.

During the day the enemy worked around the flanks of Ledringhem, only engaging the village with mortar and some sniping. Telephone communications with Brigade were finally severed by midday, and a despatch rider who made 5 trips during the day to Brigade HQ had come under fire on 4 occassions (Pte A.W. Joines, the D.R. received the MM for his devotion to duty). It was pretty evident that the village was surrounded.

Very soon afterwards the attack started seriously. Short and sharp bombardment by mortars would follow air-burst artillery over the village. The enemy were seen concentrating on both flanks near the church. No direct approach was made before dusk. As the first serious attack was developing 2 NCOs of “C” Coy. came into Battalion HQ with a message from Brigade to the effect that the Battalion was to withdraw if, and when, it could disengage, and proceed to Bambecque via Herzeele. L/Cpls. J.E. Barnfield and R.L.E. Mayo, who were part of the “C” Coy. platoon withdrawn to Brigade HQ at Rietveld, had volunteered to take this message and had taken 4 hours to complete 3 miles. They were both awarded the MM for their brave and timely action, without which the Battalion would have stood fast and would have been eventually overrun. It was now becoming very difficult to link up with the various company HQ’s and section posts. This was done by runner during the lulls in bombardments. Two observers in the church tower had been killed by snipers and it was difficult to discover from which flank the enemy was likely to develop his attack.

Counter sniping was taking place from possible upper windows, in which the CO joined at Battalion HQ. Armour piercing bullets came through the walls without doing much damage, but the gaping circles made in many places by shell-fire did not add to any feeling of security in buildings which had to be occupied. By now all carriers and anti-tank guns had been put out of action, most of the crews bing casualties. The artillery continued to give good support, but with darnkess coming on it was difficult to select suitable targets with the enemy in such close proximity.

The plan of withdrawal was based on a timed thinning out from all positions, a concentration in the orchard where the MT had been parked, and a stealthy creeping away by the fields and hedges remote from the road. Zero hour for the head of the colum to leave had been fixed at 2115 hrs.

During the evening the enemy continued short periods of mortar and machine gun fire, followed by an infantry rush from the south end near the church. Two such attacks developed after dark, necessitating the cancelling of zero hour. Unfortunately the cancellation did not reach “C” Coy. at the church and the greater part of them, under Capt. Welford, withdrew as ordered. Missing the turning for the field they passed on through the village and the majority, including Capt. Welford, were captured.

The enemy entered the church yard and tried to get down the village street; this was stopped by heavy Bren-gun fire, but he did established himself in the end houses. They were evicted by a counter-attack with bayonets, led by Capt. C. Norris, Lieut. Dewsnap, the IO, and Lieut. D. Norris, all of whom were wounded and eventually left behind.

During a second attack, the enemy produced a flame-thrower, the fuel of which did not ignite. He was disposed of, but not before much of this unpleasant oil had coated the defenders making it almost impossible for them to hold their weapons and giving rise to a temporary alarm of gas, so pungent was the oil. The withdrawal plan was set at 0001 hrs 29th May. The artillery support was now over and the FOO joined the withdrawal. Major Waller, HQ Coy. successfully led a sally to clear the churchyard. He had gone with the CO to investigate an enemy patrol at the back of the Mairie where Battalion HQ was sited. Both officers were wounded by tommy-gun fire and Major Waller was hit in the head. He died before the Battalion left the village. Colonel G. Buxton was wounded in the leg. Throughout the day Capt. Flowers (the Medical Officer) had worked valiently to collect and assist the wounded under almost impossible conditions. 2nd Lieuts. Shephard, Goscomb, and Owen had been slightly wounded but were also able to accompany the Battalion withdrawal.

This, fortunately, coincided with a lull in fighting. Two medical orderlies were left behind with the 3 wounded officers and the men in the school who were too severely injured to move. The remainder of the Battalion moved off. Smoke from burning buildings in the village helped cover movements. Complete silence was enjoyed and the Battalion left the orchard at 0015 hrs. The Battalion column was single file and fairly lengthy. Capt. L. Hauting (Adjutant) kept the column on the right route. A party of sleeping Germans was discovered and taken prisoner, together with their officer. The column reached Herzeele by 0530 hrs, which proved to be unoccupied. After a short pause they continued to Bambecque which was reached at 0630 hrs. Here the 8th Worcesters were in position and the tired Battalion were able to have a complete rest and food.

The Adjutant of the Worcesters wrote: “During the early-morning stand-to I saw a wonderful sight. Round the corner as I came out of Battalion HQ appeared the survivors of the 5th Gloucesters. They were dirty and haggard, but unbeaten. Their eyes were sunken and red from lack of sleep, and their feet as they marched seemed to me no more than an inch from the ground. At their head limped a few prisoners…. I ran towards Colonel Buxton, who was staggering along, obviously wounded. I took Colonel Buxton indoors….assuring him again and again that his men were all right.”

The Battalion embussed later that morning and taken to Rexpoede, commanded by Capt. Mason and the Adjutant. All the wounded were evacuated, prisoners handed over, and the remaining 13 officers and 130 men were soon on their way to the coast for evacuation. The move to the coast commenced after midnight on 30th May. It was the last, and most weary trek. All along the route were abandoned vehicles, many of which had been set on fire by their drivers. French equipment and loose artillery horses were eveywhere.

The beaches were reached close to Bray Dunes at about 0430 hrs, when contact was made with Major F.W. Priestley, who with RSM and 30 men of Battalion HQ and HQ Company, had missed the Battalion at Rexpoede. During the day evacuation was commenced by wading out to small boats for conveyance to ships. The last party embarked consisted of Major Priestly, Capt. Mason, Berenger (the French Agent de Liaison), CSM Wilcox, and 10 men, who were picked up at about 0400 hrs 31st May and taken to the paddle steamer ‘Glen Avon’ which was moving off for Harwich.

The Battalion eventually concentrated at Kingstone, Herefordshire, a total of some 400 all ranks. 2 officers and 83 men were killed.

November 1941, the 5th Glosters were converted into the 43rd Reconnaisance Regiment.

Awards for France 1940:

Military Cross

T/Capt. N.W.H. Shepherd – 5th Bn – 20 August 1940 – France

Military Medal
Sergt. W.G.H. Adlam – 5th Bn – 4 June 1940 – France 1940
Pte J.E. Barnfield – 5th Bn – 20 August 1940 – France 1940
Pte P. Morris – 20 August 1940 – France 1940
Pte A.W. Joines – 5th Bn – 3 Sept. 1940 – France 1940
L/Cpl. R.L.E. Mayo – 5th Bn – 3 Feb. 1944 – France 1940
Sergt. L.E. Brown – 5th Bn – 25 Oct. 1945 – France 1940

MID
Lieut-Col. G.A.H. Buxton – 5th Bn – 20 Dec. 1940 – France
T/Lieut-Col. F.W. Priestley – 5th Bn – 20 Dec. 1940 – France
Capt. P.P.L. Owen – 5th Bn – 20 Dec. 1940 – France
A/Capt. L.C. Hauting – 5th Bn – 20 Dec. 1940
2nd Lieut. L.C. Jenkins – 5th Bn – 20 Dec. 1940

The Battle of France:
10 May-25 June 1940
The French faced the German invasion with 4360 modern combat aircraft and with 790 new machines arriving from French and American factories each month. However, the air force was not organized for battle. The regular air force had only half again as many units as during its peacetime nadir in 1932. As the battle opened, 119 of 210 squadrons were ready for action on the decisive northeastern front. The others were reequipping or stationed in the colonies. The 119 squadrons could bring into action only one-fourth of the aircraft available. These circumstances put the Allied air forces in a position of severe numerical inferiority vis-Ã -vis the Luftwaffe. (See Table II.) Qualitatively, however, the French pilots and aircraft proved to be more effective than their adversaries.

Table II. Modern Combat Aircraft Deployed on the Western Front, 10 May 194022

Type French /British Belgian and Dutch /Combined /German

Fighters 583 /197 /780 /1264
Bombers 84 /192 /276 /1504
Reconnaissance
and Observation 458 /96 /554 /502

Totals 1125 /485 /1610 /3270

The fighter units on the northeastern front were equipped exclusively with machines built within the preceding eighteen months. The American-made Curtiss 75A fighter joined French squadrons beginning in March 1939. It was the most effective type in its class in combat over France until the Dewoitine D520 became operational in mid-May 1940. Eight squadrons equipped with the Curtiss 75A shot down 220 German aircraft (confirmed kills), losing only thirty-three pilots. In seven aerial battles in which the Curtiss fighters were engaged with Messerschmitts, the total score was twenty-seven Bf 109Es and six Bf 110Cs destroyed for three of the French aircraft.23

The Morane-Saulnier MS 406 equipped eighteen squadrons in France on 10 May 1940. The kill-loss ratio for units flying the MS 406 was 191 to 89. The shortcomings of the Morane fighter compared to the Bf 109E have been the topic of many memoirs, but in the reported battles in which Messerschmitts faced Moranes alone, the French posted a record of thirty-one kills and five losses. Both the Morane and the Messerschmitt were designed to met specifications issued in 1934, prototypes flew in 1935, and quantity production began in 1938. The Messerschmitt design was better suited for evolutionary development, and the Bf 109E-3 model of December 1939 was superior to the Morane. (See Table III.) During the Battle of France, the air staff converted twelve squadrons equipped with Moranes to other types as rapidly as training facilities permitted. This policy marginally increased the efficiency of the individual units, but it acted to decrease the effectiveness of the fighter force as a whole by taking combat-experienced squadrons out of the line at a critical time. Further, it failed to capitalize on new production to increase the size of the fighter force.

Table III. Comparative Characteristics of Fighter Aircraft in the Battle of France25

Country Type; Horse-power Speed (mph) at Best Altitude (ft) Service Ceiling (ft) Armament
France Curtiss 75A-3; 1200 /311 at 10,000 /33,700 /six 7.5-mm
France Dewoitine 520; 910 /329 at 19,685 /36,090 /one 20-mm four 7.5-mm
France Morane 406; 860 /302 at 16,400 /30,840 /one 20-mm two 7.5-mm
France Bloch 152; 1100 /320 at 13,120 /32,800 /two 20-mm two 7.5-mm
England Hawker Hurricane I; 1030 /324 at 16,250 /34,200 eight 7.7-mm
Germany Messerschmitt Bf 109E-3; 1175 /348 at 14,560 /34,450 /two 20-mm two 7.9-mm

Another fighter designed to meet the same specification as the MS 406 was the Bloch MB 150. Though it lost out in the procurement competition to the Morane, the Bloch firm developed the basic design around a more powerful engine. The resulting Bloch MB 152 was faster and more powerfully armed than the MS 406. Twelve squadrons had Bloch fighters on 10 May 1940, and six more became operational with them during the battle. Units while equipped with Blochs shot down 156 German planes and lost 59 pilots.24

The first two squadrons equipped with the fast and agile Dewoitine 520 entered the battle on 13 May; eight others completed conversion training and became operational before the armistice. Between them, they shot down 175 enemy aircraft for a loss of 44 aviators. Polish pilots manned two squadrons of Caudron C 714 fighters. The ultralight Caudron (3086 pounds, empty) was capable of 302 mph with a 450-horsepower engine. Becoming operational on 2 June, the Poles shot down seventeen German aircraft and lost five pilots before their unit was disbanded on 17 June.

The French fighter force had available to it during the battle more than 2900 modern aircraft. At no time did it have more than one-fifth of these deployed against the Germans. The operational rate of the fighter force was 0.9 sorties per aircraft per day at the height of the battle. (German fighter units flew up to four sorties per aircraft per day.) Yet in spite of committing only a minor portion of its resources at a low usage rate, the fighter force accounted for between 600 and 1000 of the 1439 German aircraft destroyed during the battle.

The bulk of the published commentary on the French bomber force has focused on the fact that eight squadrons of Amiot 143M twin-engine medium bombers remained in the French order of battle. Designed in 1931 and manufactured between 1935 and 1937, the Amiot 143M by 1940 had been left behind by the rapid evolution of aviation technology. Critics of the prewar regime and apologists for the air force have drawn attention to this aircraft to highlight the poor quality of the equipment with which the French Air Force had to fight. Operationally, units equipped with the Amiot 143 performed with distinction. The eight squadrons flew 551 night bombing sorties between 10 May and 16 June and lost only twelve aircraft. In addition, six of the squadrons furnished thirteen aircraft for one desperate daylight mission on 14 June against German bridges and vehicular traffic approaching Sedan. A strong fighter escort kept the loss to three Amiots.26

The French long-range, four-engine heavy bomber, the Farman 222, equipped four squadrons. These squadrons flew seventy-one night bombing missions, striking targets such as Munich, Cologne, and Koblenz. They lost only two aircraft.

Modern French day bombers included the 307mph Lioré et Olivier LeO 451 (18 squadrons, 392 sorties, 98 losses), the 298-mph Amiot 354 (4 squadrons partially equipped, 48 losses), and the 304-mph Breguet 693 (10 squadrons, 484 sorties, 47 losses). The French machines were supplemented by shipments from America of the 288-mph Martin 167F (first of 8 squadrons into action 22 May, 385 sorties, 15 losses) and the 305-mph Douglas DB-7F (first of 6 squadrons into action 31 May, 69 sorties, 9 losses).

The effectiveness of the French bomber force was reduced by poor communications arrangements that made massing of bomber squadrons impossible and rendezvous with fighter-escort problematic. Attacking piecemeal, the two day-bomber wings operational on 10 May lost twenty-eight of their forty-two aircraft in the first week. RAF day-bomber units, operating in the same command/control/communications environment, lost 132 out of 192. Most of the surviving machines were in need of extensive repairs. Although new aircraft and units came into action, the low operational rate (.25 sorties per aircraft per day) of the bomber force degraded its ability to have a significant effect on the land battle.

French reconnaissance and observation units had the most powerful aircraft in these two categories in the world. The standard French strategic reconnaissance aircraft, the Bloch 174, was capable of 329 miles per hour and an altitude of 36,000 feet. First delivered to units in March 1940, the Bloch 174 was produced quickly enough to equip all of the strategic reconnaissance squadrons during the battle. The reconnaissance units obtained early, accurate, and detailed information on German concentrations and axes of advance. They continued to keep senior army headquarters informed, irrespective of weather and enemy opposition, throughout the battle. However, the tempo of activity in reconnaissance units was extraordinarily low–an average of one mission every three days for a squadron (.04 sorties per aircraft perday). At the peak of intensity–from 10 to 15 May–the most active squadron flew two missions per day.27

The observation branch, relegated to reserve status in 1936, was the stepchild of the air force. The air staff had no program to modernize its equipment–aircraft dating from 1925 to 1935. Guy La Chambre in June 1938 directed the air staff to reequip the observation squadrons. Pilots in operational units wanted an ultrafast singleseater for long-range reconnaissance and a light two-seater capable of landing on unimproved fields for short-range observation missions. The air staff, preoccupied with political issues and indifferent to the views of men on squadron duty, ordered the Potez 63.11, the fastest, heaviest, most complex observation plane in the world. With a top speed of 264 miles per hour, it was 40 miles per hour faster than its German counterpart (Henschel Hs 126 B) and 50 miles per hour faster than the British Lysander. With twelve machine guns, it was the most heavily armed machine in any air force. Too fast and heavy to land on improvised strips yet too slow to escape German fighters, it was an elegant and graceful coffin for its crews.

Observation squadrons trained and mobilized under the army commands they would support. Army corps commanders viewed their observation squadrons as their private air forces and often imposed unrealistic demands that led to heavy losses early in the war. The air force general staff made rules to protect observation aircraft that limited their utility–for example, they had to fly behind friendly artillery, no mission could exceed fifteen minutes, fighter escort was required, and only the most modern (Potez 63.1 1) aircraft could be used. Poor liaison between the army and air force, coupled with slow communications within the air force, led to many observation squadrons being kept on forward airfields until they were about to be overrun by German motorized units. As a result, more than half of the observation aircraft in units on 10 May were destroyed to prevent capture or simply abandoned by the end of the first week. When the front stabilized between 25 May and 5 June, the observation units performed effectively, but coordination between the air force and army was too threadbare to permit them to function in a war of movement.21

The ability of the air force to provide close combat support to the army had been fatally compromised by the aviators’ struggle for independence. Senior army officers were ignorant of the capabilities and limitations of aviation, and the air force had done almost nothing to develop a capability to attack battlefield targets. Army generals declined strikes on appropriate targets. They demanded support without being able to describe the nature or location of the target or the plan and timing of the friendly maneuver to be supported. The air force organized maximum efforts to support French armored counterattacks. On 14 May, British and French bombers flew 138 sorties and lost 51 planes in support of General Charles Huntziger’s counterattack at Sedan. He postponed the attack. The next day the air force mounted 175 sorties; the attack was canceled. The air force did its best to support Colonel Charles de Gaulle’s armored thrusts toward Montcornet on 16 and 17 May. Night fighters received day ground assault missions, and the remains of the bomber units were committed. But Colonel de Gaulle failed to tell the air force the time and direction of his movements. As a result, 68 bomber sorties went in before de Gaulle moved and were of no assistance to him. A major breakout south by the encircled Army Group 1 was planned for 21 May. The air force received orders to support the attack but had no information on the time, place, or direction.29 (The mission was canceled.)

The air force general staff, dedicated to the strategic bombing mission, had quietly ignored Guy La Chambre’s directive to prepare for the ground assault mission. La Chambre had forced the air staff to procure assault bombers in 1938, and the first aircraft arrived in units in October 1939. The instructional manual for assault bomber units did not appear until January 1940, and there never was a manual for the employment of fighters in the assault role. The air staff complied with the letter of ministerial and army demands for a ground assault capability but did not commit intellectual, developmental, or training resources to developing one.

With German armor overrunning France, the air force belatedly sought to improvise an antitank capability. More than 2300 of the 2900 French fighter planes and all of the 382 assault bombers available during the battle carried 20mm cannon capable of penetrating the topside armor of all of the German tanks. The air staff designated Fighter Group III/2 to carry out the first aerial antitank missions. Its MS 406 aircraft carried high-velocity, engine-mounted 20-mm guns, but no armor-piercing ammunition was available. On 23 and 24 May, the unit flew nine sorties, lost three aircraft, and destroyed no tanks. Two weeks later, several fighter units flew a total of forty-eight antitank sorties over a four-day period–again without armor-piercing shells. They lost ten aircraft and did inconsequential damage. Two attacks in mid-June cost an additional three aircraft without seriously damaging any tanks.30 The capability of the armament and the valor of the pilots were wasted because of the absence of intellectual and logistical preparation.

The story of the French Air Force is one of gallant and competent individual performances that made no perceptible difference in the outcome of the battle. A dozen years of political strife had unraveled the network of trust and confidence through which bravery and professional skill could have an effect. The army and the air force each fought its own battle, weakened by the lack of coordination. The air staff, with its eyes on Berlin, neglected the preparation of command/control/communications systems and thereby denied the French Air Force the ability to integrate the efforts of individual units. The air force was so bitterly alienated from the political leadership that it declined to expand its organization and thereby deprived France of the powerful air force that its industrial base had provided.

Could the French Air Force Have
Seized Command of the Air?
On 10 May 1940, the operational units of the French Air Force committed to the Western Front were heavily outnumbered. The low rate of operations in the French Air Force compared to that of the Germans increased by a factor of four the French inferiority in the air during the first month of the battle. By mid-June, however, the Luftwaffe was exhausted. It had lost 40 percent of its aircraft. Its flyers had been operating above hostile territory without navigational aids and with the certainty of capture in the event their aircraft were disabled. The air and ground crews were working from captured fields at the end of lengthening supply lines. The French, on the other hand, had conducted much less intensive flight operations, were able to recover the crews of disabled aircraft, were falling back on their logistical bases, and were bringing new units on line with brand new aircraft every day. By 15 June, the French and German air forces were at approximate parity with about 2400 aircraft each, but the French were operating from their own turf, and they had the support of the RAF. Mastery of the air was there for the seizing, but on 17 June the French air staff began to order its units to fly to North Africa. The justification put forth by the air staff was that the army was destroyed and could not protect the airfields.

An examination of which units were ordered to North Africa and which were left behind reveals much about the motivation behind the evacuation. The units flown to North Africa were those regular air force squadrons with the most modern and effective aircraft–all of the squadrons equipped with the Curtiss 75A (10), Dewoitine 520 (10), Amiot 354 (8), Bloch 174 (18), Farman 222 (4), Douglas DB-7 (8), and Martin 167 (10), plus most of those with the Lioré et Olivier 451 (12 of 18). Those left behind included all of the air force reserve units–47 observation squadrons and 12 fighter squadrons–and all of the units closely connected with the army (the observation squadrons, the 10 assault bomber squadrons, and 7 night fighter squadrons converted to the ground assault role).31

The behavior of the leaders of the French Air Force before and during the Battle of France suggests that their primary purposes were to protect the regular air force against its domestic adversaries and to ensure its survival after the battle and the expected defeat. Refusing to expand the regular air force, spinning off the dangerous and unglamorous observation mission to the reserves, maintaining a low operational rate, declining to seize command of the air when the Luftwaffe was weak, and selecting only regular air force units and those unconnected with direct support of the army to send to North Africa constitute a coherent pattern. The senior aviators kept their service small, protected the cadres from severe danger, and kept most of the regular air force together out of the Germans’ reach. Such decisions suggest a preposterous misordering of priorities in a nation at war but do make psychological and institutional sense when one reflects on both the frustration the aviators had suffered in their struggle to achieve operational independence from the army and the cavalier and callous way in which parliamentary officials had played with their lives, careers, and values.

The relevance of the French experience for leaders of the United States Air Force lies in the fact that the institutional struggle for autonomy and the operational necessity for cooperation are permanent and uncongenial elements of every defense establishment. The U.S. Army Air Service (and Air Corps) endured as much destructive and capricious treatment by uniformed and civilian officials of the army and the navy during the interwar years as did the French Air Force.32 By facing the issue of institutional independence for aviation just after (rather than just before) a great war, American military leaders avoided an interservice confrontation on the battlefield. But the interservice struggle goes on: doctrinal divergence retains its potential to sabotage mutual support among the services in future wars. The French experience can be useful as a cautionary tale about the ease with which institutional loyalties can weaken a national defensive posture.

Bryn Mawr College, Pennsylvania

 

25th of May.1940

Von Rundstedt and his men refused to give up and they fought on to the bitter end; of the 180000 defenders only around 32000 managed to withdraw to Innsbruck, the French and Italians marched into the ruins of Bregenz on the 25th of May. 148000 German soldiers were dead, wounded or missing; French intelligence estimated that the seven Vulksstrum divisions that had participated in the battle had been destroyed; it was a major victory for the Axis and a national tragedy for Germany.

May,25th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… The Belgian forces are driven out of Menin by attacks of units from Army Group B. The last pockets of resistance in Boulogne are eliminated. At 1700 hours Gort cancels the preparations he has been making to join Weygand’s offensive. Later in the day Wegand in turn cancels the whole scheme, blaming Gort for this decision. In fact the French forces on the Somme have not made any attacks, as has been claimed, and the French forces with the northern armies are in no condition to do so.

German infantry marching through a town in Belgium

 

 

 

 

May,26th.1940

Boulogne fell to the Germans. The Belgian armies, disorganized and short of supplies after 16 days of fighting, could not sustain further attacks, and Leopold III ordered them to capitulate.

Evacuation of Allied troops from Dunkirk begins.

Polish destroyer Blyskawica takes part in the evacuation of the British Expeditionary Force from Dunkirk.

<span>Douglas Bader, a member of 222 Squadron, attempted to protect Allied forces leaving Dunkirk. </span>

We were all flying around up and down the coast near Dunkirk looking for enemy aircraft which seemed also to be milling around with no particular cohesion.
The sea from Dunkirk to Dover during these days of the evacuation looked like any coastal road in England on a bank holiday. It was solid with shipping. One felt one could walk across without getting one’s feet wet, or that’s what it looked like from the air.
There were naval escort vessels, sailing dinghies, rowing boats, paddle-steamers, indeed every floating device known in this country. They were all taking British soldiers from Dunkirk back home.
The oil-tanks just inside the harbour were ablaze, and you could identify Dunkirk from the Thames estuary by the huge pall of black smoke rising straight up in a windless sky.
Our ships were being bombed by enemy areoplanes up to about half-way across the Channel and the troops on the beaches were suffering the same attention.
There were also German aircraft inland strafing the remnants of the British Expeditionary Force fighting their way out to the port.

<span>General Harold Alexander served under General John Gort who gave him the task of planning the rear guard action that enabled the British Expeditionary Force to be evacuated from Dunkirk. </span>

At Charleville, on 24 May, when the B.E.F. was absolutely ripe for the plucking, Hitler informed his astonished generals that Britain was ‘indispensable’ to the world and that he had therefore resolved to respect her integrity and, if possible, ally himself with her. Perhaps a less fanciful explanation of Hitler’s attitude is supplied by Ribbentrop’s representative at the Fuhrer’s headquarters, who has left on record the comment: “Hitler personally intervened to allow the British to escape. He was convinced that to destroy their army would be to force them to fight to the bitter end.”

<span>On the military side the facts are clearer. On 23 May Field-Marshal von Rundstedt, commanding Army Group A, halted</span>

General Guderian’s XIX Army Corps when two of its panzer divisions were heading for Dunkirk, not twenty miles distant and with little or no opposition ahead. The British counter-attack at Arras on 21 May, though undertaken by no more than two mixed columns, each comprising a tank battalion, an infantry battalion, a field battery, an anti-tank battery, and a machine-gun company, had caused him some concern.
He therefore called the halt in order to “allow the situation to clarify itself and keep our forces concentrated”. The panzers had just reached the Channel, and the success of this British counterattack engendered the fear of a larger operation that would cut them off from their supporting infantry.
The next morning he received a visit from the Fuhrer, who confirmed the stop order. The panzers were not to be risked in a possibly flooded area but preserved for future operations-presumably against the French Army. On the other hand, the Luftwaffe’s ‘field of action’ was not to be restricted.
Actually, on the available evidence, there can be little doubt that it was at the particular instance of the Luftwaffe’s commander-in-chief, Field-Marshal Goering, that in the upshot the B.E.F. Was “left to the Luftwaffe”.
Guderian was to write, bitterly, of the first day of the evacuation, 26 May: “We watched the Luftwaffe attack. We saw also the armada of great and little ships, by means of which the British were evacuating their forces.” Guderian’s bitterness was shared by the whole of the German Army High Command.

<span>A British artillery officer produced an anonymous account of what it was like waiting on the beaches at Dunkirk on 30th May, 1940.</span>

The whole front was one long continuous line of blazing buildings, a high wall of fire, roaring and darting in tongues of flame, with the smoke pouring upwards and disappearing in the blackness of the sky above the roof-tops.
Along the promenade, in parties of fifty, the remnants of practically all the last regiments were wearily trudging along. There was no singing, and very little talk. Everyone was far too exhausted to waste breath. It was none too easy to keep contact with one’s friends in the darkness, and amid so many little masses of moving men, all looking very much alike. If you stopped for a few seconds to look behind, the chances were you attached yourself to some entirely different unit.
A group of dead and dying soldiers on the path in front of us quickened our desire to quit the promenade. Stepping over the bodies we marched down the slope on the dark beach. Dunkirk front was now a lurid study in red and black; flames, smoke, and the night itself all mingling together to compose a frightful panorama of death and destruction.

1940
On the Western Front… The position of the Belgian army is becoming increasingly grave. It is clear that it is unable to stay in the fight for much longer. The British forces are beginning to fall back on Dunkirk and in the evening the order is issued to begin Operation Dynamo, the evacuation from Dunkirk. Admiral Ramsay, who commands the Royal Navy forces based at Dover, is appointed to command the operation. The scope of the operation is not made clear to the local French commanders at first and they feel, with some justice, that they are being abandoned.

British soldiers wade to waitng boats at Dunkirk

In Norway… The British cruiser Curlew is sunk by air attack off Harstad.

From London… General Dill becomes Chief of the British General Staff. His predecessor General Ironside takes over as Commander in Chief of Home Forces.

. Channel May 26, 1940
C class AA cruiser HMS Curlew sunk by air attack.

 

the 26th of May. 1940

A Desperate Counter Attack

The celebratory mood and high spirits in the French High Command were interrupted by the news of a powerful German thrust towards Schweinfurt on the 26th of May. 1940

General Weygand, who had recently assumed command of the 4th Army, mounted a determined defense. The Germans advanced initially due to the element of surprise, but the offensive ebbed out outside Coburg on the morning after.

on the 26th of May. 1940
Salzburg

With the German counter offensive an obvious fiasco the Emperor felt it was time to strike southeast and surround the German forces in the Austrian Alps, therefore he ordered de Gaulle to advance with the Grand Army. Air General Bouscat, famous among French Air Force officers as the ‘Tank Buster’, launched ferocious attacks on German forces around Salzburg on the 26th of May. 1940

on the 27th.May 1940

 The French Air Force crippled German communications and struck vital artillery positions, it was obvious to the German commander General Schniewind that the situation was already hopeless, but Reich President Beck was adamant that he should continue the advance. This wasn’t possible and the Germans withdrew on the 27th.May 1940

May,27th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… The German armor resumes its attacks, trying to cut off the British and French forces around Lille. A desperate defense enables most of them to get away to positions nearer the coast. There is also trouble nearer the coast where the Belgian resistance is becoming increasingly weak. In the Dunkirk evacuation only a little is achieved with less than 8000 men being landed in Britain.

Armor of the 7th Pz. Div.continues the attack toward Lille

In Norway… The Allied assault on Narvik gets under way. The attacking troops are led by the French General Bethouart. The town is taken after a brisk fight. When bad weather at the Bardufoss airfield grounds the Allied fighters, the attack is briefly held up because the ships providing bombardment support have to fight off the Stukas alone.

.

May,28th.1940

1940
In Belgium… King Leopold agrees to the surrender of the Belgian army without consulting the other Allies or his government (now in Paris). The capitulation becomes effective at 1100 hours.

King Leopold on his way to surrender

On the Western Front… Before the Belgian capitulation becomes effective at 1100 hours, these is a desperately hurried redeployment of the British and French forces that prevents the Germans from reaching Nieuport, and from there the Dunkirk beaches. A corps of French 1st Army is holding out in Lille but they are now cut off from the main British and French forces in the evacuation area. The evacuation continues, with 17,800 men being brought off at the cost of one destroyer and several other vessels. There is fierce fighting around Cassel and Poperinghe where Rundstedt’s men again press forward.

28 May 1940,
King Leopold of Belgium agreed to capitulate: Belgium surrenders to Germany.
Allied capture Narvik, Norway and at 3 June evacuation from Narvik.
French General Béthouart leads a force from Bjerkvik on Narvik, Norway.
Polish troops attack Narvik, Norway, from south of the village.
Allied troops complete taking Narvik, Norway.

The steamer “Mona’s Isle” is the first ship which arrived in Dunkirk and came under fire from coastal batteries and leaved with more than 100 dead on board

.

 

 

 

May,29th.1940

May 29, 1940
Admiralty W class destroyer Wakeful sunk by E-boat off Nieuport.
HMS Grenade sunk by aircraft off Dunkirk.
HMS Grafton sunk by E-boat off Dunkirk

29 May 1940,
Dunkirk is encircled by German artillery and fired by the Luftwaffe but the evacuation continues with French troops joining the theatre. Lost are the destroyers HMSS Wakeful, Grafton and Grenade. Even though the Germans had clear weather, the Stukas are less effective around Dunkirk than Gôring had expected. Their ability to hit land convoys and static targets is not matched when faced wîth the armada of vessels going to and from the French coast. While more than 860 vessels are going on runs to and from the Dunkirk beaches, the German bombardment decreases and some units move back to prepare for action elsewhere in France.

27 May – 2 Blenheims lost from a total of 48 attempting to bomb German positions around Dunkirk.

27/28 May – 120 aircraft to a variety targets; 24 Hampdens attack oil refineries near Hamburg and Bremen, 36 Whitleys bomb railway yards in the Ruhr and 35 Wellingtons and 25 Hampdens attack communications behind German lines. No aircraft lost. First German fighter to be shot down by RAF claimed by tail gunner in 10 Sqn Whitley.

28 May – 48 Blenheims attack German positions near Dunkirk. 1 aircraft shot down.

28/29 May – 34 Wellingtons and 13 Whitleys again concentrate on German forces at Dunkirk. 1 Whitley lost.

29 May – 51 Blenheims continue raids on German troops. No losses.

French Armor 1940

<span>Char de combat moyen Renault D2
Weight : 20.5 ton
Dimensions:5.05 x 2.18 x 2.66 mt
Armor (max) : 40 mm
Range : 155 km
Speed (max – route) : 23 km/hr
Main gun : n.1 47mm gun
MG : n.2 7.5mm
Crew : 3
The “Char D”, developed at the end of the 1920s as an improvement of the light Renault N.C. tank, was, up to 1935, “The” French AFV.
Due to financial constraints, production was limited to 160 units of the lighter D1 version (1931), and to 50 units of the D2 version (1932). </span>

<span>Char B 1 bis
Weight : 31.5 ton
Dimensions:6.50 x 2.49 x 2.80 mt
Armor (max) : 60 mm
Range : 140 km
Speed (max – route) : 29 km/hr
Main guns : n.1 47mm gun + n.1 75mm howitzer
MG : n.2 7.5mm
Crew : 4
The heavy Char B1 bis, “la fortresse”, dated from the late 1920s and was intended to be the French Army’s main battle tank. It was considered an advanced vehicle : only the German 88mm anti-aircraft gun could penetrate its frontal armour, while its 47mm anti-tank gun, which armed a small one-man turret (the same APX turret mounted on the S35 and Char D tanks), was considered the best gun in its category.
Production was slow : by 1940 only 400 had been built (due to both complexity of the design and lack of mass production capacity). The B 1 bis’ potential was, however, wasted as they were committed to piecemeal battles and not concentrated as the German panzertruppen. </span>

<span>Renault R.35
Weight : 9.8 ton
Dimensions:4.00 x 1.85 x 2.10 mt
Armor (max) : 45 mm
Range : 138 km
Speed (max – route) : 19 km/hr
Main gun : n.1 37 mm
MG : n.1 7.5mm
Crew : 2
The R.35 was supposed to be the replacement for the light FT-17. By 1940 some 2,000 were manufactured, making it numerically the most important tank of the French Army. Technically advanced, fast and reliable, the R.35 was handicapped by two main factors : its poor main gun (a short-barrelled 37mm dating from 1918) and its two-man crew.
As well as the other French tanks, its action was penalized by the foolish strategy implemented by the French Headquarters</span>

<span>Somua S35
Weight : 20.0 ton
Dimensions:5.30 x 2.12 x 2.62 mt
Armor (max) : 55 mm
Range : 230 km
Speed (max – route) : 40 km/hr
Main gun : n.1 47 mm
MG : n.1 7.5mm
Crew : 3
When first revealed in 1935 the SOMUA S35 was regarded by many as the finest tank in the world. It had a cast steel hull (the first of its kind) and a cast steel turret, mounting a 47 mm gun, and was fast. The S35 turret used an electrical drive system.
By 1940 about 430 tanks had been manufactured.
The S35 had, however, quite a few weaknesses : the cast upper hull bolted to the lower section (so that it split apart along the length of the vehicle if struck by an AP projectile), the one-man turret (which required the commander to load, aim and fire the gun, leaving short time for actual commanding), and the cast turret and hull (which produced a terrific “bell resonance” effect when the tank was simply hit even by MG shots).
After 1940 many S35 were used by the Germans, mainly for second-line duties.
</span>

<span>Hotchkiss H39
Weight : 12.1 ton
Dimensions:4.22 x 1.95 x 2.15 mt
Armor (max) : 40 mm
Range : 120 km
Speed (max – route) : 36.5 km/hr
Main gun : n.1 37 mm
MG : n.1 7.5mm
Crew : 2
The Hotchkiss H39 was considered one of the better of the French tanks in 1940. Some 1100 units were manufactured prior to the German invasion of France.
The H39 features were similar to those of S35: reliable mechanics but of limited value as “battle beasts” (like all two-man tanks). After June 1940 the H39 began a second career with the German Army (including the Vichy French). From 1942, the H39 was gradually downgraded to second-line duties. </span>

By the end of WW1 France had produced nearly 4000 battle tanks (St. Chamond M16, Schneider M16 CA1, and the Renault FT17), more than double the amount produced by Britain (about 1300) and two hundred times the amount produced by Germany. At the start of WW2, France possessed one of the numerically strongest arrays of armored vehicles in the world. Some 5000 battle tanks were on hand, however, a good portion of this number was of WW1 vintage. According to French doctrine, the purpose of the tank was to provide support for the infantry. French tanks were organized into many small units and dispersed.
On May 10, 1940, there were almost 3500 battle tanks available to combat units located along the front facing Germany. Here is a breakdown in actual numbers. The remainder of France’s tank force were located in arsenals or in training schools.

Renault FT17 534
Renault R35/40 1035
Hotchkiss H35 398
Hotchkiss H39 790
FCM 36 90
Renault D2 75
Renault B1
& B1 bis 313
FCM 2C 6
Somua S35 243

French tanks were well armed, armored and automotively designed. After the Great war came a debate about the future of the tank in many nations.
This debate fell into basically 2 schools of thought. Was the tank an infantry support weapon or was it a new form of weapon? The end of WW1 left the question wide open. Tanks were not advanced enough to be much more than infantry support weapons when the war ended and advancing technology caused thought and tactics to fall into the realm of the military dreamer.
Tanks proponents and dreamers of what a future war would be like were usually ignored or abused in their home country while being admired by men in other nations. What would the next war be like? How will we make the next war bend to our dreams and planning? Old school officers are trained to be slow to accept change. They are taught to think things out carefully. After all, the military in every nation is the bulwark of national tradition.
Tradition resists change. This occurs everywhere. Wartime leaders rarely are successful in peace as peacetime leaders are rarely successful in war. The politics of life dictate that. In war, everyone loves a decisive, “line in the sand” leader as they bring stability and reduce fear. In peace, people find this kind of person inflexible. A great example is Winston Churchill, loved in war, tossed out of office 3 weeks after VE day.


<span>Char B1 bis</span>


<span>Renault AMR-33</span>


<span>Renault D2</span>


<span>Somua S35</span>

The fall of France in 1940 came from some rather simple reasons.
The first was motivation and leadership – German troops were simply more motivated and better lead. The second was tactics – some nations got the idea of tank warfare right (Germany) and others got it wrong (France).
Those nations that followed the French system of tank deployment quickly learned to change tactics after the fall of Poland and France. Anyone who employed the French system can give thanks that Germany did not practice on them first.
However, it should be noted that the German Blitzkrieg, though excellent in 1939, was a defective plan by 1942. The next logical step was the “all arms” approach practiced today. Massing tanks like Germany did would simply not work today any better than the French penny packet infantry support idea worked in 1939.
Both systems were absolutely correct – when you add them together – you get “all arms”. You can see this in 1944 after the allies invaded France. The allies did not possess better tanks or guns, but they did, by then, use an all arms approach.


<span>Renault R.35</span>

<span>Renault R.40</span>


<span>Hotchkiss H35</span>


<span>Hotchkiss H39 </span>

The Germans did not have more or better of anything in the form of equipment when they invaded France in 1940. France fell to the two factors of leadership and motivation.
An excellent example of the same factors can been seen in the fall of Burma in 1942 to the Japanese. Another is the much maligned airplane – the Brewser Buffalo. In the hands of the British and Dutch in Burma, the plane was defeated at every encounter against the Japanese. This gave it a horrible reputation. HOWEVER in the hands of the Finns, it went on to become a plane of Aces! The American ace – Johnny Johnson – said it all when he said the difference between him and other not so successful pilots was that when he flew, it was with the thought of “I am going up to kill the enemy” others went up with the thought “I hope that I don’t get killed today”.
In conclusion, it is easy to pick on the defeated. We can point fingers all day at items like the lack of communications in the French army HQ, or the inferiority of French anti tank guns and the like. But, the French did not have military morons in charge. They loved their country and were prepared to die for France. They simply did not have the right formula – motivation and tactics. If they had these, Germany would have been halted, or even more, France would have truly invaded Germany when she had the chance.


<span>Renault D2</span>


<span>Panhard AMD-35 </span>


<span> Renault UE-31</span

1940
On the Western Front… The German forces continue to press all round the contracting Dunkirk perimeter. By the end of the day most of the remaining British troops and a large proportion of the French are inside the final canal positions. The evacuation from Dunkirk and over the beaches goes on. The Luftwaffe increases the strength of its attacks despite the efforts of the RAF to give protection. A further 47,310 men are evacuated but 3 destroyers are sunk and 7 others damaged. At least 15 other vessels are sunk. The French are now beginning to allow their troops to be evacuated and have sent some ships to assist. Owing to the destroyer losses and the demand for them in other operations the Admiralty decides that the more modern types must be withdrawn.

Ships evacuating Allied troops from Dunkirk

May,29th.1944

 

1944
In New Guinea… On Biak Island, as well as Arare on the mainland, the American beachheads are heavily attacked by Japanese forces. The Japanese garrison on Biak makes use of tanks to force the US 162nd Regiment back towards its landing zone.

In the North Atlantic… The American escort carrier Block Island

and a destroyer are sunk by U-549 before it is itself sunk.

The USS Block Island damaged and sinking

Over Germany… About 400 American bombers attack German synthetic fuel works and oil refineries at Polits and other locations. The damage caused sets back aircraft fuel production.

In Berlin… In a presentation to Hitler, Field Marshal Busch, commanding German Army Group Center on the Eastern Front, presents evidence of a major Soviet buildup along his lines. Hitler emphasizes the need to improve the defensive fortifications at Vitebsk, Polotsk, Rosh, Mogilev and Bobriusk and to defend the area at all costs.

In Italy… At Anzio, the British and American troops of the US 6th Corps take Campoleone and Carroceto. The Canadian 1st Corps begins to advance up Route 6 from Caprano toward Frosinone.

May,29th.1945

1945
In Belgium… Belgian socialists call on King Leopold III to abdicate. The former government in exile and some Belgians hold the king in low regard because of his independent policies before the war and his unilateral decision to surrender to the Germans in 1940, without consulting the British and French who were assisting in the defense of Belgium.
In Norway… The Nobel prize winning author Knut Hamsun is arrested for collaborating with the Nazis during the occupation.

In Syria… French forces shell Damascus and Hama. Syrian gendarmes attack French military posts. Meanwhile, Syrian representatives ask the British for assistance.

In Tokyo… Admiral Ozawa replaces Admiral Toyoda as commander of the Combined Fleet.
Over Japan… American B-29 Superfortress bombers drop incendiaries on Yokohama, burning 85 percent of the port area

 

29th of May.1940

Field Marshal von Bock’s ten divisions were taking a merciless beating for three days, and when the Grand Army finally reached the German defenses on the roads towards the city they were all but wiped out. Salzburg fell to the practically unscathed columns of French armor 10:00 on the 29th of May.1940

May,29th.1940

.

29 May 1940,
Dunkirk is encircled by German artillery and fired by the Luftwaffe but the evacuation continues with French troops joining the theatre. Lost are the destroyers HMSS Wakeful, Grafton and Grenade. Even though the Germans had clear weather, the Stukas are less effective around Dunkirk than Gôring had expected. Their ability to hit land convoys and static targets is not matched when faced wîth the armada of vessels going to and from the French coast. While more than 860 vessels are going on runs to and from the Dunkirk beaches, the German bombardment decreases and some units move back to prepare for action elsewhere in France

May,30th.1940

1940
On the Western Front… There is something of a lull in the land battle around Dunkirk because of confusion and disagreement in the German command. The panzer forces begin to withdraw from the front line to take up positions to the south for the next stage of the battle of France. The evacuation, of course, continues with 53,823 men being taken off. The small ships over the beaches do most of the lifting but transfer their loads to larger vessels for the trip to England. One destroyer is sunk during the day, the French Bourrasque, three others are hit and at least nine of the smaller ships are also sunk. This total does not include the smallest vessels whose losses are also considerable. General Brooke, who has commanded the British 2nd Corps with distinction, is one of the evacuees.

Bourrasque strikes a mine and sinks during the evacuation

.

.

 

 

 

 

May,31th.1940

The Evacuation of Dunkirk continues.


<span>Dunkirk Harbour, oil tanks ablaze from German bombing.</span>

<span>A Lockheed Hudson low over the inferno of blazing oil tanks.</span>

On 10 May 1940 Hitler’s armies struck westwards across Europe. Within three weeks Holland and Belgium had surrendered and German Panzer (tank) divisions had split the British and French armies.

<span>A call to surrender, dropped from the air.</span>

The British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and a substantial number of French troops were trapped in a diminishing pocket of land centred on the port of Dunkirk. On 25 May Boulogne was captured and on the following day Calais fell. That evening the Admiralty signalled the start of Operation Dynamo – the evacuation of the troops stranded on the beaches at Dunkirk.

<span>Private ack-ack.</span>

<span>Au Revoir.</span>

Operation Dynamo was masterminded by Vice Admiral Bertram Ramsay, who had been given less than a week to prepare. From his headquarters in tunnels beneath Dover Castle, he directed and inspired a small staff who had the awesome task of planning the evacuation of up to 400,000 British and French troops under constant attack from German forces.

By 26 May Ramsay had assembled 15 passenger ferries at Dover and a further 20 at Southampton. These it was hoped would be able to embark troops direct from the quays at Dunkirk. To help in the evacuation and to provide escorts for the merchant ships Ramsay had a force of destroyers, corvettes, minesweepers and naval trawlers. These ships were augmented by cargo vessels, coasters and some 40 Dutch self-propelled barges


<span>DHM732AP. With the harbour under attack, HMS Express casts off having embarked troops of the British Expeditionary force (B.E.F.). Leaving with her are the trawlers, which were part of the small boat armada which played such a major part in the evacuation of Dunkirk. </span>

Minefields and shelling from German batteries on the French coast forced evacuation convoys to take longer routes to Dunkirk. The first convoy, after sustaining heavy air attacks, found the port of Dunkirk and its oil tanks ablaze and only the passenger ferries ‘Royal Daffodil’ and later the ‘Canterbury’ succeeded in berthing. By the end of the first day only 7,500 troops had been rescued and it was clearly impossible to use the port. Captain Tennant, in charge of the naval shore party at Dunkirk, signalled for the rescue ships to be diverted to the beaches east of the town. But here shallow waters prevented the large ships getting within a mile of the shore and troops had to be ferried in smaller craft from the beaches to the ships. There was an alternative, a spindly concrete pier with a wooden walkway, never designed to have ships docking against it but it was found that it could be used. Differences in loading speeds were dramatic HMS ‘Sabre’ took 2 hours to load 100 troops from the beach, but from the pier it took only 35 minutes to board 500 troops.

<span>Human life line.</span>

<span>The 34 year old paddle steamer, ‘Emperor of India’ was there, her deck crowded with passengers in garb unfamiliar to her. </span>

<span>Not even standing room.</span>

In London the Admiralty’s Small Vessels Pool had been collecting all available seaworthy pleasure craft. With volunteer crews, many of whom had never sailed out of sight of land before, they were checked at Sheerness Dockyard and then sent to Ramsgate to await final sailing orders. The pleasure craft were joined by lifeboats, trawlers, Thames sailing barges, tugs and other small craft. The first convoy of ‘little ships’ sailed from Ramsgate at 10pm on 29 May and by the next day they were streaming across the Channel in seemingly unending lines. The dangers were great, ships, both large and small, were targets for German fighters, bombers, submarines and coastal batteries plus the random danger of mines. Fortunately, throughout the evacuation, the seas remained abnormally calm. Most of the small craft headed for the beaches to act as tenders, while some of the larger trawlers and drifters loaded troops directly in Dunkirk Harbour.

<span>Dunkirk in flames, a portent of ‘the dark time through which we passed…’</span>

Trek to the beaches through a blitz on the town.

On the evening of 2 June, with the German forces closing in, Ramsay despatched a large force of ships, including 13 passenger ships, 14 minesweepers and 11 destroyers. At 11:30 pm Captain Tennant sent the historic signal from Dunkirk “BEF evacuated.” By now, the German forces were nearly in the outskirts of the town. Only one more night evacuation was possible. On the night of 3 June a final effort was made using British, French, Belgian and Dutch ships to bring out as many of the French rearguard as possible and over 26,000 were saved.

Between 26th May and 4th June 338,000 troops were rescued from Dunkirk, over 200,000 of them passing through Dover. During the nine day period the Southern Railway laid on a total of 327 special trains, which cleared 180,982 troops from Dover. 4,500 casualties were treated at the town’s Buckland Hospital and all but 50 of these seriously ill men were saved.

<span>The first chance a sleep.</span>

<span>These men were left.</span>

Churchill’s famous speech summed up the British spirit on the 4th June 1940:

“We shall outride the storms of war, and outlive the menace of tyranny.
That is the resolve of the Government; that is the will of parliament, and of the nation, and we shall not flag or fail.
We shall fight on the sea and the oceans,
we shall fight on the beaches,
we shall fight on the landing grounds,
we shall fight in the fields and in the streets.
We shall fight on the hills.
“We shall never surrender”.

1940
On the Western Front… This is the most successful day of the Dunkirk evacuation, with 68,014 men being taken to Britain. The ships lost include one destroyer and six more are damaged. General Gort returns to Britain after handing over command of the remnant of the BEF to General Alexander as ordered. There are considerable air battles over the beaches at various stages during the day in which the RAF claim to shoot down 38 German aircraft for the loss of 28. In fact the figures are nearer equality.

Small boat floatilla picking up soldiers from Dunkirk

In Norway… The British blocking force is evacuated from Bodo.

In Britain… A series of measures, including the removal of all direction signs from crossroads, is taken to counter worries about fifth-column and parachute attacks.

In Washington… President Roosevelt introduces a “billion-dollar defense program” which is designed to boost the United States military strength significantly.

 

 

 

 

 

 

1st June 1940,

 Braubach, Marksburg Castle

He was feeling bored again and that was fascinating in a way. He had spent six long years in Landsberg prison but it didn’t take more than three weeks of good food and these excellent facilities to restore him physically and stir his natural impatience.

He was still a prisoner but the new ‘cell’ was quite the improvement, a spatial bedroom, a drawing room and a bathroom.

He was still wearing the same nondescript military fatigues but they were clean, he ran his right hand through his hair, I’ll have to ask them to start letting me out into the courtyard for some exercise he thought.

There was a polite knock on the door, which was then opened by a soldier who walked in and stood beside the door, another man, wearing a French General Officer’s uniform entered.

He was in his late forties with a square jaw, short black hair; his piercing green eyes projected quiet menace.

Göring rose and the man extended his hand smiling “Ah, General Göring, a pleasure to finally meet you, I’m General Mannfred von Habsburg, Aide-de-Camp to the Emperor.” They shook hands and he replied, “Thank you Sir the pleasure is all mine, would you please sit down?”

There was a flicker of amusement in the man’s eyes over Göring’s attempt to act as a host and thereby create a small psychological advantage.

The German sat down on one of the chairs at the large table in the drawing room while von Habsburg remained standing; two servants entered the room and brought in a splendid ‘General of the Luftwaffe’ uniform including hat, riding boots, gold threaded belt and what Göring recognized as his own sword, which had cost a fortune to make.

 They also put a folder with documents on the table and then exited the room together with the soldier who closed the door. Von Habsburg walked over to the window and took in the view,

“I’m sure you find your new quarters satisfactory?” Göring raised an eyebrow, “Of course General, Landbsberg might not be the worst prison in the Reich, but I naturally prefer this.”

“Good, then let’s get down to business, as I’m sure you have realized, France is winning the war against Germany, it might take another six months to put down the last resistance but there is no doubt how this conflict will end. The Emperor has a plan for the future of central Europe, which of course includes Germany. As soon as certain territorial revisions have been made there are no further reasons for conflict between our two great nations and France will need a powerful and focused Germany at her side in the coming struggle against communism and possibly British Imperialism. That Germany will need a strong and determined leader, a leader who accepts the new order in Europe and takes responsibility for his people and brings Germany out of the darkness which the useless Ludwig Beck and his cohorts have plunged it into.”

“Are you saying what I think you are saying?”

Göring looked surprised.

“Yes I am. Our beloved Emperor has decided that you are the most suitable candidate for the position of leading a restructured Reich. He is most impressed by your exploits during the Great War and your performance throughout your party’s rise to power. Let me stress that we are interested in you as a person, there is no future for the National Socialist movement, which will become apparent to you very soon.”

“I would never betray my comrades…”

Göring began.

“Spare me your empty phrases Herr General; I’m only interested in a final yes or no when you have your options clear to you. If you decide to cooperate we will immediately let you begin creating an organization that can support your ascent to power when the war has been won.

This includes setting up a shadow cabinet with any men you find suitable, we will also allow you to set up a battalion of Luftwaffe troops from volunteers drawn from our German prisoners of war, to act as your personal and most trusted guard, something that will be essential during the first potentially shaky years of your reign. You will be most dependent on us of course, but we want to give you as much independence as possible.” Von Habsburg paused and sat down in front of Göring at the table.

“What’s the catch? Why should I become your puppet?” Göring was flustered.

“We expect you to be loyal to the Axis alliance and France; we do not expect you to be a puppet. There is a catch as you suspected, we need to tie your destiny to ours and at the same time remove your past loyalties. For that reason, your first act as Regent of Germany must be to order the elimination of all your party comrades; they are to be shot by your own Luftwaffe troops.”

Göring stared at von Habsburg in amazement. “Never! I will never betray the party and the Reich!”

Von Habsburg looked pityingly at the German. “Face it, your loyalty was to Adolf Hitler and he is dead and now when the Reich needs you the most, you are backing down? What will happen to the German people? Remember the years after the last war!”

 

“But…” Göring was faltering.

“Are you telling me you are choosing a life in prison over this”, von Habsburg rose and walked over and pointed to the Luftwaffe uniform. “It can all be yours again Hermann, remember the heady days in 1933? The feeling of power and destiny? Think about Emmy, you could have her in your arms within weeks! Your nation needs you man!”

Both men were quiet for several minutes and von Habsburg returned to the window, looking down on the small town of Braubach.

Finally Göring said, “How much territory will we have to give up.”

 

Von Habsburg turned slowly and walked over to the table and leafed through the documents in the folder on the table, he found what he was looking for and presented Göring with a map, who sighed when he saw the extent of the French demands, the only consolation where some former Polish provinces in the east. Von Habsburg produced another document and put it beside the map,

 “This is the order my dear General, I’ll give you an hour to decide, if you choose wisely we can have a friendly dinner together and plan your future, otherwise I’ll arrange for your transfer to a proper prison tomorrow. The French General put a very expensive fountain pen on the document and left the room.

Göring looked at the document; it was the execution order of his former party comrades.

He rose and walked over to the uniform, it was beautiful; he carefully explored the golden rank insignias on the shoulder boards with his fingers. He thought about the ‘good old days’ and his party comrades and their hard struggle, but most of them were nothing but sycophants who’s only goal was to further their own desires, they cared nothing for the Reich or the Führer! Why should he care about them?

Didn’t Hitler tell him during their long private conversations that the party was nothing more than a propaganda vehicle so they could save the fatherland? Wasn’t this the chance to continue the great work, to make Germany strong again?

He put on the uniform jacket and admired the exquisite work; Paris’ best tailor must have made this he thought.

He walked over to the mirror and looked at himself…Emmy would be beaming at him now if she had been here.

He carefully put on all parts of the uniform and admired his image in the mirror; ten minutes passed.

He looked back to the paper, tormented by the inner struggle, he could see all of their faces clearly in his mind…but only as prisoners…weak…useless…prisoners…there was a reason the Emperor of France had chosen him! He had no equal in Germany! He stood motionless for a while and then walked over to the table and signed the document…

June,1st.1940

Allied Naval losses off Dunkirk in June,1st.1940
Six British and seven French destroyers lost during evacuations from France.
A force of 41 British destroyers under Vice Admiral Ramsay were used in the evacuation along with a large number of smaller ships.

June 1, 1940
B class destroyer HMS Basilisk sunk by aircraft off the coast of Dunkirk.
B class destroyer HMS Keith lost.
H class destroyer HMS Havant attacked by aircraft off Dunkirk.
Locust class river gunboat HMS Mosquito lost to aircraft off Dunkirk.
Halcyon class minesweeper HMS Skipjack lost to aircraft off Dunkirk.

By 3 June 1940, instead of the 45,000 originally hoped for, 328,000 Allied

Evacuation British troops evacuating to ship via lifeboat bridgeDue to war-time censorship and the desire to keep up the morale of the nation, the full extent of the unfolding “disaster” around Dunkirk was not publicised. However, the grave plight of the troops led King George VI to call for an unprecedented week of prayer. Throughout the country, people prayed on 26 May for a miraculous delivery.[10] The Archbishop of Canterbury led prayers “for our soldiers in dire peril in France”. Similar prayers were offered in synagogues and churches throughout Britain that day, confirming the public suspicion of the desperate plight of the troops.[11] Initial plans called for the recovery of 30,000 men from the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) within two days, at which time it was expected that German troops would be able to block further evacuation. Only 25,000 men escaped during this period, including 7,000 on the first day.[12] Ten additional destroyers joined the rescue effort on 26 May and attempted rescue operations in the early morning, but were unable to closely approach the beaches, although several thousand were rescued. However, the pace of evacuation from the shrinking Dunkirk pocket steadily increased. On 29 May 47,000 British troops were rescued[13] in spite of the first heavy aerial attack by the Luftwaffe in the evening. The next day, an additional 54,000 men[14] were embarked, including the first French soldiers.[15] 68,000 men and the commander of the BEF—Lord Gort—evacuated on 31 May.[16] A further 64,000 Allied soldiers departed on 1 June,[17] before the increasing air attacks prevented further daylight evacuation.[12] The British rearguard left the night of 2 June, along with 60,000 French soldiers.[17] An additional 26,000 French troops were retrieved the following night before the operation finally ended.[12] Two French divisions remained behind to protect the evacuation. Though they halted the German advance, they were soon captured. The remainder of the rearguard, largely French, surrendered on 3 June 1940. The next day, the BBC reported, “Major-General Harold Alexander [the commander of the rearguard] inspected the shores of Dunkirk from a motorboat this morning to make sure no-one was left behind before boarding the last ship back to Britain.”[2][18] Date Troops evacuated from beaches Troops evacuated from Dunkirk Harbour Total 27 May – 7,669 7,669 28 May 5,930 11,874 17,804 29 May 13,752 33,558 47,310 30 May 29,512 24,311 53,823 31 May 22,942 45,072 68,014 1 June 17,348 47,081 64,429 2 June 6,695 19,561 26,256 3 June 1,870 24,876 26,746 4 June 622 25,553 26,175 Totals 98,780 239,446 338,226 Royal Navy gunner covering retreating troops at Dunkirk (1940)[edit] Little shipsMain article: Little ships of Dunkirk Most of the “little ships” were private fishing boats and pleasure cruisers, but commercial vessels also contributed, including a number from as far away as the Isle of Man and Glasgow. Guided by naval craft across the English Channel from the Thames Estuary and Dover, these smaller vessels were able to move in much closer to the beaches and acted as shuttles between the shore and the destroyers, lifting troops who were queuing in the water, some of whom stood shoulder-deep for many hours to board the larger vessels. Thousands of soldiers were also taken in the little ships back to Britain. Thirty-nine Dutch coasters—which had escaped the occupation of the Netherlands by the Germans on 10 May—were asked by the Dutch shipping bureau in London to assist. The Dutch coasters—able to approach the beaches very closely due to their flat bottoms—saved 22,698 men for the loss of seven boats.[19] Nineteen lifeboats of the Royal National Lifeboat Institution (RNLI) sailed to Dunkirk. Those from the lifeboat stations at Ramsgate and Margate were taken directly to France with their usual volunteer crews, but the others sailed to Dover where they were requisitioned by the Royal Navy, which provided the crews. Some of the RNLI crews remained behind in Dover and set up a workshop to repair and fuel the little ships. One lifeboat—The Viscountess Wakefield—was lost after it was run onto the beach at Dunkirk.[20] The Jane Holland was holed when a Motor Torpedo Boat rammed her and her engine failed after being machine gunned by an aircraft. She was abandoned but later found adrift, towed back to Dover and repaired. She returned to service on 5 April 1941.[21] The lifeboats included: The Cyril and Lilian Bishop (RNLI official number 740); a 35 ft 6 in (10.82 m) self-righter from Hastings.[22] Jane Holland; a 40 ft (12 m) self-righter from Eastbourne.[21] The Michael Stevens (ON 838); a 46 ft (14 m) Watson class from Lowestoft.[23] The Viscountess Wakefield (ON 783); a 41 ft (12 m) Watson class from Hythe, Kent.[24] Thomas Kirk Wright (ON 811); a 32 ft (9.8 m) Surf class from Poole.[25] Unnamed ON 826; a 35 ft 6 in (10.8 m) newly-built self-righter. She was repaired then entered service in 1941 at Cadgwith with the name Guide of Dunkirk.[25] Mary Scott; then at Southwold, the Mary Scott was towed to Dunkirk by the paddle steamer Emporer of India together with two other small boats. Between them they took 160 men to their mother ship, they made a journey with fifty men to another transport vessel. She was abandoned on the beach, recovered and returned to service with the RNLI at Southwold. Dowager; launched 1933, as the Rosa Woodd and Phyllis Lunn. Based at Shoreham, she made 3 trips between Dover and Dunkirk. Stenoa; launched 1929, as Cecil and Lilian Philpott. Then at Newhaven, she saved 51 persons from the beach at Dunkirk. Then returned to RNLI service at Newhaven. However, not all those called upon to serve did so enthusiastically. Some life boat crews, and the Rye fishing fleet, were invited to participate, but declined to assist the operation.[26] [edit] Losses A beached French coastal patrol craft and a British Universal Carrier abandoned at Dunkirk hours after the evacuation[edit] Men and materielDespite the success of the operation, all the heavy equipment and vehicles had to be abandoned. Left behind in France were 2,472 guns, almost 65,000 vehicles and 20,000 motorcycles; also abandoned were 416,000 short tons (377,000 t) of stores, more than 75,000 short tons (68,000 t) of ammunition and 162,000 short tons (147,000 t) of fuel.[27] 30,000–40,000 French troops were captured in the Dunkirk pocket. [edit] Naval lossesSix British and three French destroyers were sunk, along with nine large boats. In addition, 19 destroyers were damaged.[17] Over 200 of the Allied sea craft were sunk, with an equal number damaged.[28] The Royal Navy’s most significant losses in the operation were six destroyers: Grafton, sunk by U-62 on 29 May; Grenade, sunk by air attack off the east pier at Dunkirk on 29 May; Wakeful, sunk by a torpedo from the E-boat S-30 on 29 May; Basilisk, Havant and Keith, sunk by air attack off the beaches on 1 June. The French Navy lost three destroyers: Bourrasque, mined off Nieuport on 30 May; Sirocco, sunk by the E-boats S-23 and S-26 on 31 May; Le Foudroyant, sunk by air attack off the beaches on 1 June. [edit] Merchant navy lossesThe merchant navy also paid a heavy price during the evacuation. Numerous ships were sunk ranging from small pleasure craft to cross-channel ferries. The Isle of Man Steam Packet Company despatched eight of its vessels, rescuing a total of 24,699 British troops – one in fourteen of those evacuated from Dunkirk.[29] However, three of its ships were lost in one day, 29 May 1940. Mona’s Queen, mined off Dunkirk on 29 May; Fenella, sunk by air attack whilst berthed alongside the East Pier on 29 May; King Orry, sustained heavy damage following several air attacks on 29 May, and consequently sank off the beaches on 30 May. [edit] Air lossesWinston Churchill revealed in his volumes on World War II that the Royal Air Force (RAF) played a most important role protecting the retreating troops from the Luftwaffe. Churchill also said that the sand on the beach softened the explosions from the German bombs. Between 26 May and 4 June, the RAF flew a total of 4,822 sorties over Dunkirk, losing just over 100 aircraft in the fighting.[30] Fortunately for the BEF, bad weather kept the Luftwaffe grounded for much of operation thus helping to reduce the losses.[31] The RAF claimed 262 Luftwaffe aircraft destroyed over Dunkirk.[32] The RAF lost 177 aircraft between 26 May and 3 June, while the Luftwaffe lost 240 aircraft from all causes during the same time frame in operations over France and Belgium.[33] Fighter losses from units based in France and Britain from 10 May to 4 June were 432, while total RAF losses from all causes during all of May and June were 959, of which 477 were fighters.[34] However, most of the dogfights took place far from the beaches and the retreating troops were only aware of being bombed and strafed by German planes that managed to elude or get through the protective cordon. As a result, many British soldiers bitterly accused the airmen of doing nothing to help.[35] The Royal Navy claimed the destruction of 35 Luftwaffe aircraft from ships’ gunfire during the period from 27 May to 1 June, and damage to another 21 aircraft.[36] [edit] Aftermath Rescued British troops gathered in a ship at Dunkirk Dunkirk-rescued French troops disembarking at a port on the south coast of England A wounded French soldier being taken ashore on a stretcher at Dover after his evacuation from DunkirkBefore the operation was completed, the prognosis had been gloomy, with Winston Churchill warning the House of Commons to expect “hard and heavy tidings”. Subsequently, Churchill referred to the outcome as a “miracle”, and the British press presented the evacuation as a “disaster turned to triumph” so successfully that Churchill had to remind the country, in a speech to the House of Commons on 4 June, that “we must be very careful not to assign to this deliverance the attributes of a victory. Wars are not won by evacuations.” Nevertheless, exhortations to the “Dunkirk spirit”, a phrase used to describe the tendency of the British public to pull together and overcome times of adversity, are still heard in Britain today.[37] The rescue of the British troops at Dunkirk provided a psychological boost to British morale; to the country at large it was spun as a major victory. While the British Army had lost a great deal of its equipment and vehicles in France, it still had most of its soldiers and was able to assign them to the defence of Britain. Once the threat of invasion receded, they were transferred overseas to the Middle East and other theatres and also provided the nucleus of the army that returned to France in 1944. [edit] German mistakesGerman land forces might have pressed their attack on the British Expeditionary Force (BEF) and the Allies, especially having secured the ports of Calais and Boulogne. For years, it was assumed that Adolf Hitler ordered the German Army to stop the attack, favouring bombardment by the Luftwaffe. However, according to the Official War Diary of Army Group A, Generalfeldmarschall Gerd von Rundstedt – the Chief of the General Staff, disconcerted by the vulnerability of his flanks and supply to his forward troops, ordered the halt.[38][39][40] Hitler merely validated the order several hours after the fact. Hitler had been urged by Göring to let the Luftwaffe finish the British off,[38] much to the consternation of OKH Chief of Staff, General Halder,[41] who noted in his diary that the airforce was dependent upon the weather.[41] This lull in the action provided the Allies a few days to evacuate by sea. Von Rundstedt had ordered the halt on 23 May, confirmed by Hitler on 24 May at 11:30 am. On 26 May, at 1:30 pm Hitler ordered the German armour to continue the advance, but the delay had allowed the construction of defences vital for the following week’s evacuation.[41] Several high-ranking German commanders—for example, Generals Erich von Manstein and Heinz Guderian,[42] as well as Admiral Karl Dönitz—considered the failure of the OKW (German High Command) to order a timely assault on Dunkirk to eliminate the BEF to be one of the major mistakes the Germans had made on the Western Front in WWII. [edit] Fate of the French soldiersMore than 100,000 evacuated French troops were quickly and efficiently shuttled to camps in various parts of southwestern England where they were temporarily lodged before quickly being repatriated.[43] British ships ferried French troops to Brest, Cherbourg and other ports in Normandy and Brittany, although only about one half of the repatriated troops were deployed against the Germans before the armistice. For many French soldiers, the Dunkirk evacuation was not a salvation, but represented only a few weeks’ delay before being made POWs by the German army after their return to France.[44] Of the French soldiers evacuated from France in July 1940, only about 3,000 chose to continue the struggle, joining Charles de Gaulle’s Free French army in London.[45] By the end of the year, De Gaulle commanded just 7,000 Free French soldiers, despite the large number ferried to England during Operation Dynamo.[46] In France, the unilateral British decision to evacuate through Dunkirk (rather than counterattack to the south), and the perceived preference of the Royal Navy for evacuating British forces at the expense of the French led to some bitter resentment. According to Churchill, the French Admiral François Darlan originally ordered that the British forces should receive preference, but he intervened at a 31 May meeting in Paris to order that the evacuation should proceed on equal terms and the British would form the rearguard.[47] In fact, the 35,000 soldiers who finally surrendered after protecting the BEF retreat were essentially French. Their desperate resistance allowed to extend the evacuation effort to the 4 June, bringing on that day another 26,175 Frenchmen to Britain. [edit] British POWsFor every seven soldiers who escaped through Dunkirk, one man was left behind as a prisoner of war (POW). The majority of these prisoners were sent on forced marches into Germany. Prisoners reported brutal treatment by their guards, including beatings, starvation, and murder (see also War crimes of the Wehrmacht). In particular, the British prisoners complained that French prisoners were given preferential treatment.[48] Another major complaint was that German guards kicked over buckets of water that had been left at the roadside by French civilians.[49] Many of the prisoners were marched to the town of Trier, with the march taking as long as 20 days. Others were marched to the river Scheldt and were sent by barge to the Ruhr. The prisoners were then sent by rail to POW camps in Germany.[50] The majority (those below the rank of corporal) then worked in German industry and agriculture for five years.[51] [edit] LegacyThe St George’s Cross defaced with the arms of Dunkirk flown from the jack staff is known as the Dunkirk jack and is only flown by civilian ships and boats of all sizes that took part in the Dunkirk rescue operation in 1940.[52] The only other ships permitted to fly the George’s Cross flag at the bow are those with a Royal Navy Admiral on board. [edit] See alsoBattle of France Operation Ariel – the later evacuation from Normandy and Brittany Operation Cycle – the evacuation of 11,000 troops from Le Havre, beginning on 10 June [edit] References[edit] Notes1.^ “1940: Dunkirk rescue is over – Churchill defiant.” BBC, 2008. Retrieved 25 July 2010. 2.^ a b Longden 2009, p. 1. 3.^ Longden 2009, p. 48. 4.^ Safire 2004, p. 146. 5.^ Winston Churchill 1949, p. 86. 6.^ Taylor 1965 7.^ Knowles, David J. “The ‘miracle’ of Dunkirk”. BBC News, 30 May 2000. Retrieved 18 July 2009. 8.^ “History”. The Association of Dunkirk Little Ships. Retrieved 11 April 2008. 9.^ Lord 1983, pp. 43–44. 10.^ Miller 1997, p. 83. 11.^ Gelb 1990, p. 82. 12.^ a b c Liddell Hart 1999 13.^ Keegan 1989 14.^ Liddell Hart 1999, p. 79. 15.^ Murray and Millett 2000, p. 80. 16.^ Keegan 1989, p. 81. 17.^ a b c Murray and Millett 2000 18.^ The inspection of the beaches had, however, taken place in the early hours of the previous morning. 19.^ “Operation Dynamo.”(Dutch) wivonet.nl. Retrieved 27 July 2010. 20.^ Beilby, Alec. “More lifeboats at Dunkirk.” Lifeboat, (RNLI) Volume 53, Issue 530, 1994, p. 270. 21.^ a b Morris and Hendy 2006, pp. 13–14. 22.^ Morris 2000, p. 7. 23.^ Salsbury 2010, p. 79. 24.^ Denton 2009, pp. 16–17. 25.^ a b Denton 2009, pp. 18–19. 26.^ Hastings, Max, p.66, All Hell Let Loose, Harper Press, London (2011) 27.^ Longden 2009, p. 11. 28.^ Holmes 2001, p. 267. 29.^ company’s own web site. 30.^ Operation Dynamo, the evacuation from Dunkirk of 27 May 4 June 1940 31.^ Lord, Walter (1982). The Miracle of Dunkirk. London. pp. 161, 211. ISBN 0-7139-1211-1. 32.^ Ramsey, B. H.The Evacuation of the Allied Armies from Dunkirk and Neighbouring Beaches. Despatch published in the London Gazette, 17 July 1947, p. 3297. 33.^ Murray 1985, pp.42–43 34.^ Richards, Denis. “Royal Air Force 1939–1945, Volume I, The Fight at Odds”, pp. 145, 150. funsite.unc.edu. Retrieved 1 September 2010. 35.^ Shirer 1990, p. 736, footnote. 36.^ Ramsey, B. H. The Evacuation of the Allied Armies from Dunkirk and Neighbouring Beaches. Despatch published in the London Gazette, 17 July 1947, Appendix III. 37.^ Rodgers. Lucy. “The men who defined the ‘Dunkirk spirit’.” BBC, 19 May 2010. Retrieved 30 July 2010. 38.^ a b Noakes and Pridham, 2010, p. 167. 39.^ War Diary of Army Group A, 24.v.40. 40.^ OKW Jodl Diary, 25.v.40. 41.^ a b c Noakes and Pridham, 2010, p. 168. 42.^ see his book “Panzer Leader”, pp. 117 ff.: Hitler’s momentous order to stop 43.^ “Le Paradis apres l’Enfer: the French Soldiers Evacuated from Dunkirk in 1940.” Franco-British Council, Publications. Retrieved 26 March 2010. 44.^ Mordal 1968, p. 496. 45.^ Jean-Benoît Nadeau; Julie Barlow (2003). Sixty million Frenchmen can’t be wrong: why we love France but not the French. Sourcebooks, Inc.. pp. 89–. ISBN 978-1-4022-0045-8. http://books.google.com/books?id=wtUWuzzYqa8C&pg=PA89. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 46.^ Pierre Goubert (20 November 1991). The Course of French History. Psychology Press. pp. 298–. ISBN 978-0-415-06671-6. http://books.google.com/books?id=1VbZMbFw89YC&pg=PA298. Retrieved 6 March 2011. 47.^ Churchill 1959, p. 280. 48.^ Longden 2009, p. 367. 49.^ Longden (2009) p. 361 50.^ Longden 2009, pp. 383–404. 51.^ Longden 2007 52.^ “The Association of Dunkirk Little Ships”. http://www.adls.org.uk/t1/. (“Over 100 Little Ships are presently represented by members of the Association”). [edit] BibliographyChurchill, Winston. “Their Finest Hour.” The Second World War. Vol. II. London: Cassel & Co., 1949. Churchill, Winston. Memoirs of the Second World War. Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1959. ISBN 0-395-59968-7. Collier, Richard. The Sands of Dunkirk. New York: Dell Publishing Co. Inc. / E.P.Dutton & Co. Inc., 1961. Danchev, Alex and Daniel Todman, eds. War Diaries 1939-1945: Field Marshal Lord Alanbrooke. Berkeley, California: University of California Press, 2001, First edition 1957. ISBN 0-520-23301-8. Denton, Tony. Handbook 2009. Shrewsbury, UK: Lifeboat Enthusiasts Society, 2009. Franks, Norman. The Air Battle of Dunkirk. London: William Kimber, 1983. ISBN 0-7183-0349-0. Gardner, W. J. R., ed. The Evacuation from Dunkirk: ‘Operation Dynamo’ 26 May – 4 June 1940. London: Frank Cass, 2000. ISBN 0-7146-5120-6 (hardcover), ISBN 0-7146-8150-4 (paperback). ISSN 1471-0757. Gelb, Norman. Dunkirk: The Incredible Escape. London: Michael Joseph, 1990. ISBN 0-7181-3203-3. Hastings, Max. “A fine account of a triumphant defeat.” The Telegraph, Book Review, 28 May 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2007. Holmes, Richard, ed. “Dunkirk evacuation.” The Oxford Companion to Military History. New York: Oxford University Press, 2001. ISBN 0-19-866209-2. Keegan, John. The Second World War, New York: Viking Penguin, 1989. ISBN 0-670-82359-7. Longden, Sean. Dunkirk: The Men They Left Behind. London: Constable and Robinson, 2009. ISBN 978-1-84529-977-4. Longden, Sean. Hitler’s British Slaves: Allied POWs in Germany 1939–1945. London: Constable and Robinson, 2007. ISBN 978-1-84529-519-6. Lord, Walter. The Miracle of Dunkirk. London: Allen Lane, 1983. ISBN 1-85326-685-X. Liddell Hart, B. H. History of the Second World War. New York: Da Capo Press, 1999. ISBN 0-306-80912-5. Miller, Nathan. War at Sea: A Naval History of World War II. New York: Oxford University Press (U.S.), 1997. ISBN 0-19-511038-2. Mordal, Jacques. Dunkerque. Paris: Editions France Empire, 1968. Morris, Jeff. The Story of the Hastings Lifeboats. Coventry, UK: Lifeboat Enthusiasts Society, 2000. Morris, Jeff and Dave Hendy. The Story of the Eastbourne Lifeboats. Coventry, UK: Lifeboat Enthusiasts Society, Fifth Edition 2006 Murray, Williamson. Luftwaffe. Baltimore, Maryland: The Nautical & Aviation Publishing Company of America, Inc., 1985. Murray, Williamson and Allan R. Millett. A War to Be Won. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Belknap Press, 2000. ISBN 0-674-00163-X. Noakes, J. and G. Pridham. Nazism 1919–1945: Volume 3 – Foreign Policy, War and Racial Extermination. Exeter, Devon, UK: University of Exeter Press, 2010, First edition 1988. ISBN 978-0-85989-602-3. Overy, Richard. “A very British defeat.” The Telegraph, Book Review, 28 May 2006. Retrieved 3 June 2007. Safire, William. Lend Me Your Ears: Great Speeches in History. New York: W. W. Norton & Company, 2004. ISBN 0-393-04005-4. Salsbury, Alan. A History of the Exmouth Lifeboats. Wellington, Somerset, UK: Halsgrove, 2010. ISBN 978-0-85704-073-2. Sebag-Montefiore, Hugh. Dunkirk: Fight to the Last Man. New York: Viking, 2006. ISBN 0-670-91082-1. Shirer, William L. The Rise and Fall of the Third Reich. New York: Simon & Schuster, 1990, First edition 1960. ISBN 0-671-72868-7 . Taylor, A. J. P. English History 1914–1945 (Oxford History of England). London: Oxford, 1965. Weinberg, Gerhard L. A World at Arms. New York: Cambridge University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-521-44317-2. Wilmot, Chester. The Struggle for Europe. New York: Carroll & Graf, 1986. ISBN 0-88184-257-5. [edit]

The sample Of Dr Iwan Ebook In CD-Rom”The Aceh History Collections”

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD ROM WITHOUT ILLUSTRATIONS, THE COMPLETE CD EXIST BUT SPECIAL FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT OT GET THE CD-ROM

The  Aceh History Collections

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

Before Aceh War collections

1870

The poster of atjeh War in 1870

1873

The Atjeh War,landing of DEI  Marines at atjeh in 1873

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. Benting Penajoeng van het KNIL in de noordwesthoek van de kraton te Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie

and

look the eastren  area above

fort benteng Penajoeng Atjeh in 1873

Eerste Atjeh Expeditie. KNIL-artillerie gelegen aan de hoofdweg in bivak Penajoeng bij Koetaradja tijdens de tweede Atjeh-expeditie in 1873

Look from outside area

Fist Atjeh Expedition in 1873

1874

Mrs Teuku Umar in 1874

Atjeh River’s bridge in 1874

Atjeh river bridge

The controleur and Inland chief of Masingit atjeh in 187

Bras island beach of Atjeh nord Sumatra in 1874(three photos)

The Gouvenor of Atjeh house at North sumatra in 1874

The Zinc Roof(atap seng) House at Atjeh in 1874

The Inland Atjeh tomb cementary  in 1874

The railways of Koetaradja atjeh in 1874

1877

Controleur of Krueeng  Raba atjeh in 1877

1879

Bivak Tjoet Basetoel Atjeh in 1879

1880

Gouvenor Atjeh bridge in 1880

The Teuku of West atjeh with his bride,look his revolver and rencong knife  in 1880

The road of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

Controleur of IDI Atjeh in 1880

The Atjeh Club of Koetaradja during fload in 1880

The Atjeh river of Koetaradja in 1880

The Kraton of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

The Kratonlaan(street) of Koetaradja atjeh in 1880

The Atjeh women in 1880

The Chief of Tadji atjeh and young women in 1880

1881

Baiturahman Mosque Of Koetaradja in 1881

1883

Wonig (House)Atjeh,panted  b Jhr. Josias Cornelis Rappard1884

The lithography caricature poster of new toewan besar(Bigger Man) Atjeh during the way to paradise  in 1884

1888

The ship at Oleh-leh Atjeh in 1888

The Gouvenor of Atjeh’s  house(woning)in 1888

The brige of Koetaraja Chief Atjeh Keraton  in 1888

Fishing at Masudji Pante Perak(silver beach) Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

Mesdjid Mosque Raja Koetaradja in 1888

The train railway at Lamjong Lambaroe Atjeh in 1888

Kota Petjoet Tomb Of Koetaradja atjeh in 1888

The European and asian at water reasource building  at sabang Atjeh in 1888

1890

Bivak Tjot Mantjang atjeh in 1890

1892

The Atjeh Chief of Koetaradja in 1892

Standing from right: Mohammed Arif, hoofddjaksa bij het gerecht te Koetaradja; Teukoe Machmoed van Lamtenga, halfbroer van Teukoe Baid; Ketjiq Oemar van Lampisang, boodschapper van Teukoe Oemar; Hadji Abdoellah, schrijver van de assistent-resident; Teukoe Nja Daoed, hoeloebalang van Bolohan; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, waarnemend hoofd van de IX Moekims; Teukoe Nja Mohamad, inlandse zendeling; assistent-resident H.P.A. Bakker; Hadji Abdoellah, hoofdpenghoeloe; wakil Joesoef van Lohong; adjunct-djaksa Aboe Bakr; schrijver van assistent-resident A.J.C. de Neve; onbekend; controleur J.B. Léon. Siting from right  : Panglima Medsjid Rajah, rijksgrote; vermoedelijk een hoeloebalang van de [?] Moekims; Teukoe Sjech Toenkoep; Teukoe Neq Moeda Setia Radjah; Pangeran Hoesain; Teukoe Njah Bantah van Lamreng, sagihoofd van de XVI Moekims; Teukoe Malikoel Adil, erfelijk opperrechter van Atjeh

The bridge at Koetaradja in 1892

The daughter and son of Teuku Maharadja Atjeh in 1892

The Resident Scherer in ship at the teloek semelue (sabang) atjeh with atjeh chief of government official in 1892

Fort benteng Bras island Atjeh in 1892

The Aceh War Collections

Aceh War !!

Source

.asiafinest.

 


The invasion of Aceh in 1873 was the brainchild of Isaac Dignus Fransen van de Putte (1822-1902), Netherlands Minister of Colonies, to prevent encroachment by Britain into Sumatra from British colonies in Malay Peninsula


Van de Putte’s idea was strongly supported by his close friend the Dutch governor-general in Batavia (now Jakarta), James Loudon (1824-1900)


Map of the defeated Dutch first invasion of Aceh in 1873, and successful second invasion in 1874


Optimistic reporting of the first Dutch invasion of Aceh in Java-Bode newspaper, 10 April 1873


Generaal-Majoor JHR Kohler, leader of first Dutch expedition to Aceh. His 2000 soldiers managed to penetrate to the Koetaradja Market and the Baiturrahman Mosque. The Dutch stopped to burn down the mosque, in which courtyard they set up a camp.

On the night of 14 April 1873,

a suicidal Acehnese sneaked into the camp and shot Kohler in the chest. Kohler was killed instantly. The next days, the Dutch faced suicidal Acehnese attacks from all sides.

On 24 April 1873,

they were forced to retreat back to their ships. Dutch casualties were 50 dead (including Kohler) and 500 wounded


Kohler Tree, under which General Kohler was shot dead. Photograph from 1936 Dutch magazine.


Generaal Jan van Swieten (1807-1888),

 leader of second Dutch invasion in 1873. Swieten was an experienced soldier, fighting in Java War (1825-1830), Belgian War of Independence (1830), Padri War (1830-1837), Bali Expeditions 1848 and 1849, Bone War 1859.

The second expedition sailed with the force of 18 warships, 7 supply ships, 12 auxillary ships, 2 patrol boats, and 22 transport ships carrying more than 13,000 soldiers.

Landing on 9 December 1873

some distance from Koetaradja, by 24 January 1874 had successfully occupied the capital. The three-year-old Acehnese sultan, Mohammad Daud, was taken to the jungle by his followers to continue guerilla warfare.


Engraving of the deadly fighting during Dutch second expedition.


After successfully occupying the royal palace, van Swieten declared victory and opened up the champagne crates to celebrate. Governor-General Loudon telegramed Minister van de Putte back in The Netherlands, informing him that
“Atjeh is ons”, “Aceh is ours”. According to past experience, other Dutch wars of conquest in Indonesia was usually won by occupying the capital of the particular region to be conquered. This is not the case in Aceh.

After failed attempts to retake Koetaradja, by April 1874 the Acehnese settled to lay siege on the town, cutting all supplies from coming in from the interior. Road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee port, where Dutch supplies came from, was unsafe due to frequent Acehnese attacks. By 1875, 25% of Dutch troops in Koetaradja had been put out of action by disease, hunger, and war wounds.


Coinciding with silver jubilee of King Willem III’s coronation in 1874, Generaal van Swieten received the
Militaire Willemsorde medal above for his “victory” over the Acehnese. However, by 1875, only around 0.1% of Aceh is under Dutch control, which is Koetaradja and the port of Oelee-Lhee.

 


In May 1875,

 Generaal van Swieten, 68 years old and well-above retirement age, turned over command to Generaal-Majoor Pieter Cornelius van Pel (photo and Jakarta grave above).

Van Pel’s tenure saw increasing Acehnese attacks on Dutch-held areas around Koetaradja. The Dutch lost control of Peukan Bada, Blang Kala Pass, Pagar Ajer, and Koetaradja suburbs of Moekim IX and VI. These disastrous losses caused Generaal-Majoor van Pel to be recalled. He sailed for Batavia on June 1877, replaced by one-eyed Generaal Karel van der Heyden


Generaal Karel van der Heyden (1824-1901),

 half-Dutch and half-Bugis general who took over command of Aceh troops in 1877.

He was known as generaal een-oog (one-eyed general) by his troops and setan seblah mata (one-eyed demon) by his Acehnese opponents.

He strengthened Koetaradja’s defences and secured the road between Koetaradja and Oelee-Lhee.

 On 29 June 1878,

he launced an attack from Koetaradja, successfully capturing strategic Glitaroenpass, leading to the capture of Montasik plains, the stronghold of Acehnese guerilla leader Panglima Polim. By the end of his tenure in 1880, van der Heyden had secured tenuos Dutch control over most of Groot-Atjeh, the area surrounding Koetaradja (now Aceh Besar district).


Among the important leaders of Acehnese resistance in this early part of the war is Tengku Chik di Tiro, an Islamic cleric who led Acehnese contingent from Pidie in the fighting around Koetaradja.

 He declared jihad, holy war against infidel Dutch invaders who had burnt the Baiturrahman mosque, centre of Acehnese Islam. He decreed the war a perang sabil, in which Acehnese killed by the Dutch would be assured a place in paradise.

In 1876,

 he presided over the re-coronation of the child Sultan Muhammad Daud in Indrapoeri Mosque as symbol of the continuation of Acehnese sultanate.
Militarily, he launched unsuccessful seaborne attacks on Breueh and Nasi islands off Koetaradja

 in 1880,

attempting to disturb Dutch sea supply routes. In May 1881, he successfully assaulted the Dutch fort at Lambaro, Groot Atjeh. In 1891, an Acehnese under the pay of the Dutch killed Chik di Tiro by poisoning his food.


Habib Abdoerrachman Al-Zahir, a Turkish cleric, travelled to Turkey to gather support for Aceh from the Ottoman Empire, the chief Muslim state at the time; to Singapore where he met United States consul; and to Penang where he promised the British the island of Sabang if they would help Aceh against the Dutch.
Failing in his efforts, Habib Abdoerrachman surrendered to the Dutch at Koetaradja on July 1878,

secured an annual subsidy of $500 from the Dutch government, then sailed back to Istanbul where he died in 1902.


Tjoet Nja Dhien (1850-1908),

a famous female guerilla leader from Lampisang, just west of Koetaradja. She first led a unit under her father, Nanta Setia and husband, Teuku Ibrahim in the successful fighting in 1870s. In 1881 her husband was killed in a battle, whereby she married her cousin Teuku Umar, another guerilla leader.


Teuku Umar (1854-1899),

leader of contingent from West Aceh in fighting around Koetaradja. His father Mahmoed is the brother of Nanta Setia, father of Tjoet Nja Dhien whom he married in 1884. After ten years as effective guerilla leader against the Dutch, Teuku Umar surrendered to the Dutch on 30 September 1893, receiving the title Teuku Djohan Pahlawan, “Lord Hero-Winner” and substantial amount of guns and ammunition to help the Dutch fight other insurgents.


Teuku Umar (sitting left), partially wearing Dutch uniform.

In 1896, Teuku Umar abandoned the Dutch, carrying off 880 rifles, 25000 bullets, 500 kg of explosives, 5000 kg of lead balls, and $18000 worth of cash back to the jungles.
This extraordinary exploit send shockwaves all the way to The Netherlands. A popular poem was sung by the Dutch:

Teuku Umar die moet hangen
Aan en touw, aan en touw
Teuku Umar en zijn vrouw

meaning
Teuku Umar must be hanged
On the rope, on the rope
Teuku Umar and his wife!

Upon hearing Teuku Umar’s deed, Queen Wilhelmina and Dowager Emma send a telegram to Dutch commander in Koetaradja demanding they recover the lost honour inflicted on the name of The Netherlands.

Three years later,

 on 11 February 1899,

Teuku Umar and his 800 men was ambushed by 20 men of special Marechausse troops near Meulaboh, West Aceh. Umar was shot in the chest and died days later in front of his wife, Tjoet Nja Dhien.


Dutch memorial on the site of Teuku Umar’s fall on February 1899


The Dutch Point of View
Throughout the 1880s, Dutch control over Aceh is limited in Koetaradja and its surrounds, while cooperative local rulers allowed the Dutch footholds in Idi, Langsa, Lhokseumawe, Meulaboh, Tapaktuan, and Trumon. The Dutch were unable to contol the rural areas due to its unfamiliarity to guerilla warfare.


To protect Koetaradja from constant Acehnese raids, Generaal van der Heyden decided to establish a line of 16 forts linked with barbed wire, telephone and telegraph lines, and a tramline. This fortification system is called the concentration line (geconcentreerde linie) and was finished in 1884.


Dutch family on the concentration line tramline, 1880s


Damaged tramcar line after Acehnese attack, 1890s


Unable to defeat the Acehnese militarily, the Dutch tried a cultural approach. They asked the advice of Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857-1933), an expert on Islam who had visited Mecca in 1884 posing as an Arab. His advice was basically to woo the Acehnese nobility (uleebalang) and crush the remaining resistance mercilessly.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 02:08 PM

Aceh War !!


In accordance the advice of Snouck Hurgronje, a Dutch officer named Koloneel, later Generaal Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz (1851-1924) came up with the idea of highly mobile and independent units capable of fighting the Acehnese insurgents deep in the jungles, at the home of the guerillas themselves.


The idea was realised in 1896 with the establishment of Korps Marechausse. Each of its units consisted of 20 native soldiers (due to their natural ability to live in the jungle) led by a Dutch officer and an Ambonese corporal. Each soldier was armed with the new M95 self-loading rifle and a
klewang, a native sword. Their motto was “Berani soempah!” (Dare to swear!)


First commander of the Korps Marechausse, Kapitein Jonkheer GJWCH Graafland


Ceremonial uniform of the Korps Marechausse, worn by a Luitenant Geldorp


The regimental banner of the Korps Marechausse


Generaal van Heutsz (centre) watching the assault on Acehnese fortress Batee Iliek in Tiro, Pidie on 3 February 1901. To his right were Kolonel van Dussen, Majoor Doorman, Kapitein Spruijt, Luitenant Schutstal van Woudenberg, and controleur Frijling. The defeated Acehnese lost 71 men, the Dutch lost 5 killed and 37 wounded.


Van Heutsz was military governor of Aceh fron 1898-1904. He became governor-general of the Netherlands East Indies from 1904-1909. He later returned to Europe and died in Montreux in 1924. Above picture was the Van Heutsz Memorial in Koetaradja in 1932.


Van Heutsz Monument in Batavia (Jakarta), demolished in 1945


Van Heutsz Monument in Vijzelstraat 32 Amsterdam. His son, Johannes Benedictus van Heutsz Jr joined the German army during World War II, reaching the rank SS-Sturmbahnfuhrer der Waffen-SS, and was killed in Russia in 1943.

Van Heutsz is credited as the first person in history to unite the Indonesian Archipelago under one political unit. In his Amsterdam Monument, the epitaph was written:

JB VAN HEUTSZ
GOUVERNEUR-GENERAAL VAN NEDERLANDS-INDIE
1904 TOT 1909
HIJ SCHIEP ORDE, RUST, EN WELVAART
EN HEEFT DE VOLKEN VAN NEDERLANDS-INDIE
TOT EEN EENHEID GESMEED

meaning
JB VAN HEUTSZ
GOVERNOR-GENERAL OF NETHERLANDS INDIES
1904 TO 1909
HE SHAPED ORDER, PEACE, AND WELFARE
AND GUIDE THE PEOPLE OF NETHERLANDS INDIES
TOWARDS THE GATE OF UNITY


Koos Speenhoff and Caesarina Speenhoff-Prinz (1907), anti-war folk singers who specialised in slamming the bloody Dutch war in Aceh.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 06:15 PM

Aceh War !!

Other Dutch generals:


Luitenant-Kolonel HNA Swart (1857-1922), ruthlessly eliminated Acehnese guerillas in Lhokseumawe-Bireuen area, govenor of Atjeh 1908-1912, vice-president of Raad van Indie (Indies Council advising the governor-general) in Batavia till his death in 1922. His governorship on Aceh saw the last guerilla bands destroyed by Marechausse troops, hence he was known as “pacifier of Aceh”.


Luitenant Hendrikus Colijn (1869-1944), adjudant to van Heutsz, the person receiving surrender of Panglima Polim, later Prime Minister of The Netherlands (1925-1926; 1933-1939). Colijn died under German custody in 1944.


Kapitein Heinz Christoffel, organised
Tijger Colonne that devastate the Panton Laboe and Pidie areas, destroying the guerilla’s base there. He received the Militaire Willemsorde and later led the Dutch “pacification” of Flores, Buton, and East Borneo in 1907-1912.


Christoffel leading a
Tijger Colonne in Aceh


Kolonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen (1863-1930), Dutch colonel who devastate the Gayo-Alas area from February-July 1904, subjugating the highland tribes under Dutch rule. His method was known as
van-daal-isme (van-daal-ism).



Remnants of Koeta Reh village in Gayo Highlands after a vist by van Daalen


Van Daalen resting on the hanging cot while leading a patrol into Gayo Highlands in 1904


Men of Korps Marechausse posing after a sucessful operation.

purnomor

Aug 31 2004, 06:56 PM

Aceh War !!


Korps Marechausse men in their
egelstelling “porcupine formation” in Aceh.


Captured Acehnese guerillas.


Medals given to veterans of Aceh War in 1870s, bearing the likeness of Dutch king Willem III, father of future Queen Wilhelmina


A Surabaya restaurant 1902 menu celebrated recent Dutch victories over Indonesians in Aceh and elsewhere in the archipelago by naming its dishes after vanquished Indonesian cities


Aceh War veterans reunion in 1938.


Toekoe Oemar Spel, a popular children’s game in 1890s Netherlands involving 25 white figurines (Dutch soldiers) chasing one black figure (Teuku Umar)!


Dutch anti-war cartoon from 1900 ridiculing the awarding of
Militaire Willemsorde to “bloodhounds”.


Another cartoon depicting Dutch missionaries spreading the Bible to “pacified” natives.

Click here for detailed history of Aceh War and other events in Netherlands Indies

Nusantara

Aug 31 2004, 10:26 PM

That fu-king dutch troop did genocide to Achehnese Gayo civillian.
The way they won the war by killing all civillian related to Achehnese warrior.
I heard/read somewhere most this barbaric act done by fanatic Cristian Ambonese soldier and some of them also Javanse soldier which Indonesian who fought against dutch called them at that time “black dutch” since Ambonese is black/dark skin typical melanesian. They are more cruel than dutch itself.

QUOTE (purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 07:15 PM)



Remnants of Koeta Reh village in Gayo Highlands after a vist by van Daalen

purnomor

Sep 1 2004, 12:29 PM

Bandung, West Java

The first buildings of Technische Hogeschoole te Bandoeng (THB), now the Institut Tekhnologi Bandung (ITB) when it was opened in 1920. First president Soekarno would later enrolled in the THB in 1924.

Alun-alun (Town Square) and Grand Mosque area in Bandung

Pasteurstraat, showing the current Biofarma building

Bragastraat, the main shopping avenue of Dutch Bandoeng

European residential area

A street in European residential area

Bethel Church, built 1926

Aerial photograph of northern Bandoeng

Welcoming Queen Wilhelmina in Alun-alun area

Black-and-white film of Bandoeng in 1930 and 1912

Black-and-white film of Batavia (Jakarta) in 1919

rasibiduk

Sep 1 2004, 02:22 PM

ohh Bandung, my sweet hometown, it’s much more crowded and hectic but I still love my Bandung. Can’t help to wonder if only we had a better city planning and not destroy some of the beautiful heritage buildings- but it’s quite heart-warming too to see that some of buildings from the movie clip still look exactly the same. Oh and Purnomor, you just posted my grandfather’s old house under “European residential area”. The row of houses on top of the stonewalls, it is Jalan Wastukencana and my grandfather’s house is on the right. He sold the house in the 80′s when my grandmother passed away.

purnomor

Sep 3 2004, 01:39 PM

Civic Heraldry from the Dutch colonial era city authorities

Civic seal of Amboina (Ambon), Maluku

Civic seal of Bandoeng, West Java

Civic seal of Batavia (Jakarta)

Civic seal of Buitenzorg (Bogor), West Java

Civic seal of Tjeribon, West Java

Civic seal of Madioen, East Java

Civic seal of Makassar, South Celebes

Civic seal of Medan, North Sumatera

Civic seal of Malang, East Java

Civic seal of Padang, West Sumatera

purnomor

Sep 3 2004, 01:44 PM


Civic seal of Pekalongan, Central Java

Civic seal of Semarang, Central Java

Civic seal of Tegal, Central Java

Civic seal of Tjiandjoer, West Java


Coat-of-arms of Netherlands East Indies, same with coat-of-arms of The Netherlands

International Civic Heraldry Website

flipcombatmedic

Sep 3 2004, 11:58 PM

some of the pics here looks like the old manila before ww2 when the japanese f’ed it up bad. the rape of manila and the battle of manila really made manila so f’ed up it never recovered. but yeah nice pics really nice. many of them structures still up or what.

purnomor

Sep 4 2004, 01:04 PM

^ yeap, most of ‘em still standing

Sody

Sep 21 2004, 03:10 PM

QUOTE (purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 07:56 PM)


Another cartoon depicting Dutch missionaries spreading the Bible to “pacified” natives.


I am so ignorant when it comes to Indonesian history. I wish I knew more, I am learning a lot from reading these forums, it has really broadened my understanding. Can anyone tell me if Christianity was forced upon Indonesians? I hate Christianity. Most of my family are Christian and most of the Indonesians I know here in Canada are as well. It is a dumb fu-king religion that has ruined much of Asian culture throughout many Asian countries. It is a white man’s religion that is detrimental to the Asian way of life as well. Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that in Indonesia Muslims and Christians get along. I wouldn’t have it any other way. But I believe that all people should be able to live together in harmony and not try and influence others to change. I see so many stupid Chinese here in Canada that are so concerned with the White man’s opinion that they naturally turn to Christianity. It is truly sad.

Sody

nama_user

Sep 22 2004, 05:32 AM

No religion should be forced to another, that’s how we should live in a plural country.

gvelde

Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.

furansizuka

Mar 20 2005, 05:40 AM

QUOTE (gvelde @ Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM)

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.


so those are the photos of yours?
Wow! Could you tell me the history of her?

gvelde

Sep 8 2005, 02:53 AM

QUOTE (furansizuka @ Mar 20 2005, 12:40 PM)

QUOTE (gvelde @ Mar 20 2005, 05:01 AM)

How nice that the photos from my wife’s grandfather -CE Maier- have been found! Thanks for filling me in on names of places and Teukuhs etc.


so those are the photos of yours?
Wow! Could you tell me the history of her?


I am working on a short history of my wife’s family in colonial times. In short, they meant well but not always did. I certainly will post a reference for you guys when it is ready. Maybe you have seen the films? they are on: http://www.vandervelde.net/familie/fammaier/film00.htm.

furansizuka

Sep 8 2005, 04:17 AM

Thanks for the interesting link!

haqine

Dec 13 2006, 03:44 AM

QUOTE(rasibiduk @ Sep 2 2004, 02:22 AM) [snapback]400665[/snapback]


ohh Bandung, my sweet hometown, it’s much more crowded and hectic but I still love my Bandung. Can’t help to wonder if only we had a better city planning and not destroy some of the beautiful heritage buildings- but it’s quite heart-warming too to see that some of buildings from the movie clip still look exactly the same. Oh and Purnomor, you just posted my grandfather’s old house under “European residential area”. The row of houses on top of the stonewalls, it is Jalan Wastukencana and my grandfather’s house is on the right. He sold the house in the 80′s when my grandmother passed away.

Oh that used to be your grandfather’s house?
I think the house in that area are beautiful !
Had u been there?

BTW, i just know about this thread.
Interesting thread!

alfan

Dec 13 2006, 04:28 AM

@ purnomor, where did you find the infos on indonesia’s history? Were they online somewhere or did you actually went to a library? I’ve tried neither of them however…

santoloco

Dec 13 2006, 11:12 AM

seems like the dutch has been a good time in indonesia.

GluTTony

Dec 13 2006, 11:06 PM

ewww the Indonesian are soo skinny!

yaa_ampyun

Dec 13 2006, 11:33 PM

QUOTE(purnomor @ Aug 29 2004, 05:05 PM) [snapback]395997[/snapback]


His wife, Greta Linda Maier-Goossens (1895-1945), died of dysentry in Japanese concentration camp in Lubuk Linggau, 13 August 1945

http://members.lycos.nl/fammaier/

wahh tempat lahirku

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 14 2006, 01:39 AM

QUOTE(Sody @ Sep 21 2004, 03:10 PM) [snapback]441799[/snapback]


I am so ignorant when it comes to Indonesian history. I wish I knew more, I am learning a lot from reading these forums, it has really broadened my understanding. Can anyone tell me if Christianity was forced upon Indonesians? I hate Christianity. Most of my family are Christian and most of the Indonesians I know here in Canada are as well. It is a dumb fu-king religion that has ruined much of Asian culture throughout many Asian countries. It is a white man’s religion that is detrimental to the Asian way of life as well. Don’t get me wrong, I am happy that in Indonesia Muslims and Christians get along. I wouldn’t have it any other way. But I believe that all people should be able to live together in harmony and not try and influence others to change. I see so many stupid Chinese here in Canada that are so concerned with the White man’s opinion that they naturally turn to Christianity. It is truly sad.

Sody

you will probably never come back, but I am so offended with what you just said up there

http://www.ngw.nl/images/rykswap.gif

nice!

tangawizi

Dec 14 2006, 11:44 PM

QUOTE(purnomor @ Aug 31 2004, 09:33 PM) [snapback]399340[/snapback]


Panglima Polim Sri Moeda Perkasa Shah (centre), who had fought the Dutch in Koetaradja since 1873 and was a guerilla leader in Lhokseumawe area, surrendered to the Dutch Kapitein Hendricus Colijn (third from right) in Lhokseumawe in 6 September 1903, together with 150 of his men. He was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of
Nassau-Oranje Orde

Interesting fotos here, pur. Btw, do u know what was the Chinese mandarin doing in the group above (second from right)? Was he the ambassador from China?

QUOTE(purnomor @ Sep 1 2004, 02:15 AM) [snapback]399572[/snapback]



Kolonel Gotfried Coenraad Ernst van Daalen (1863-1930), Dutch colonel who devastate the Gayo-Alas area from February-July 1904, subjugating the highland tribes under Dutch rule. His method was known as
van-daal-isme (van-daal-ism).

Is that how the meaning of the word ‘Vandalism’ came about?

And the following were acts of vandalism by this van Daalen butcher?

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 15 2006, 12:22 AM

^ woahhhhhhh

Kopassus

Dec 15 2006, 02:20 AM

QUOTE(santoloco @ Dec 13 2006, 11:12 AM) [snapback]2566516[/snapback]


seems like the dutch has been a good time in indonesia.


Yes they have….thats why all the Indische Nederlanders desire to “Tempo Doeloe”, they all want to go back to the time that they live in a beautiful country with nice weather where they can suppres the inlanders…

QUOTE(Nusantara @ Aug 31 2004, 10:26 PM) [snapback]399990[/snapback]


That fu-king dutch troop did genocide to Achehnese Gayo civillian.

The way they won the war by killing all civillian related to Achehnese warrior.
I heard/read somewhere most this barbaric act done by fanatic Cristian Ambonese soldier and some of them also Javanse soldier which Indonesian who fought against dutch called them at that time “black dutch” since Ambonese is black/dark skin typical melanesian. They are more cruel than dutch itself.


Yes, they are all warcriminals.
Thanks Pur for all the pictures and info!

Bhaskara

Dec 15 2006, 03:42 AM

Wow, gr8 pics,pur!And rasibiduk, what a shame!I love those houses on Wastukencana. I wonder who owns them nowadays….

purnomor

Dec 16 2006, 07:12 PM

QUOTE(tangawizi @ Dec 14 2006, 11:44 PM) [snapback]2571605[/snapback]


Interesting fotos here, pur. Btw, do u know what was the Chinese mandarin doing in the group above (second from right)? Was he the ambassador from China?

Back in colonial times, the ethnic-Chinese, ethnic-Arab, and other immigrant communities in each Indonesian city was led by a government-appointed officer with honorary ranks of majoor, kapitein, or luitenant (the larger the community, the higher the rank) who functioned as liason officer between the community and the Dutch colonial government. This fellow with the mandarin uniform should be the local Chinese officer of Lhokseumawe who attended the surrender of Panglima Polim in his role as civic dignitary.

QUOTE

Is that how the meaning of the word ‘Vandalism’ came about?

No, “vandalism” came from the Roman Empire period after the name of a particularly destructive barbarian tribe the Vandals. The Dutch press made a pun out of the similarity between the word “vandalism” and the name van Daalen.

QUOTE

And the following were acts of vandalism by this van Daalen butcher?

Yeap, quite a nasty fellow, isn’t he?

bandung

Dec 16 2006, 08:12 PM

^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

purnomor

Dec 16 2006, 08:34 PM

^ That’s a strange thought, considering Indonesia expelled the Dutch government through war of independence, and later on we also expelled 200,000 Dutch settlers in 1957-1958.

I think it is Malaysians who love the British like a puppy loves its master.

XxRyoChanxX

Dec 17 2006, 02:43 AM

I don’t have nothing against the dutch..

tangawizi

Dec 17 2006, 02:49 AM

QUOTE(bandung @ Dec 17 2006, 04:12 AM) [snapback]2576088[/snapback]


^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

I think it’s more like Msian royalty instead who cavorted with the English colonials and tried to imitate their ways – love for horseracing, pre and post prandial cocktails, savoy tailor suits… do u recall your royalty like Tengku Rahman? The likes of him were seen celebrated by the Brits as brown englishmen..

That’s the trouble with the Msian identity crisis since way before colonial times when their ruling houses were running from persecution by the Indonesian ruling houses, they mimicked the Islamic missionaries came later, then the British ruling class. They have been paranoid abt the encroachment of the chinese. Instead of celebrating their common identity with Indonesians, they take pains to distinguish themselves from Indonesia particularly in the areas of wealth & prestige status, and take pleasure in dissing the minority Chinese as a race.

The colonial Englishmen no longer casts a shadow on their elite ruling houses, but the shadow of the Arabs are creeping up on the Msian ruling class big time. Where is the true and authentic Msian identity? Afraid there is none anymore. Their ruling classes are shadow people. Wayang Kulits themselves.

I hope u won’t flame me bandung…it’s juz a neutral observation.

Astromantic

Dec 17 2006, 03:58 AM

QUOTE(bandung @ Dec 17 2006, 02:12 AM) [snapback]2576088[/snapback]


^i thought you indonesians loved the dutch?

How can you say that we LOVE the Dutch people when they have been torturing us for 350 years? Think before you speak. By the way, I ain’t got no beef with Dutch people… after all I’ve lived there.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 05:57 AM

JOURNEY OF KERLEN FAMILY OF SEMARANG, A TYPICAL DUTCH SETTLER FAMILY IN INDONESIA


Johannes Godfried Kerlen (1850-1927) was born in Zuthpen, Netherlands. He arrived in Indonesia in 1870 as a lieutenant with the KNIL (Royal Netherlands Indies Army). He had a distinguished military career as army engineer, participating in the first and second Aceh invasions of 1873 and 1874, and spending most of the following decades fighting the rebellious Acehnese. He received knighthood with the title ridder 1e klasse in de orde van Nederlandsche Leeuw. He retired as a general, and died in Bandoeng in 1927 aged 77.

In 1878, JG Kerlen married half-Chinese daughter of a German settler, Charlotte Baumgarten. They had five children, Johannes (born 1883), Jopie (born 1884), Greta (born 1885), Milly (born 1886), and Charlotte (born 1887). Charlotte Baumgarten died in Medan soon after giving birth to her fifth child. Afterwards, Johannes Kerlen gave away his three daughters to an orphanage in Batavia, while keeping his two sons. He married again twice, with Hendrika Cornelia Polkijn who died in an 1888 malaria outbreak and Agnes Maria Naessens who died in 1900 due to miscarriage.

Johannes Godfried Kerlen Jr (1883-1940), the eldest son, was born in Bengkalis – Riau. He worked as sugar factory manager in Semarang – Central Java. There, he married daughter of a local Dutch settler, Caroline Juliana van Zanten in 1912. Here Johannes Kerlen Jr posed with his eldest son Hans in 1912.

Here, Johannes Kerlen Jr posed with Hans and newborn second son Ernst, in 1914.

Caroline Juliana van Zanten-Kerlen posing with Hans, Ernst, and newborn baby daughter Marijke in a 1915 letter sent to relatives back in the Netherlands.

Caroline van Zanten-Kerlen with Hans, Ernst, Marijke, and two neighbours’ children in front of their Semarang home in 1918.

Hans, Ernst, and Marijke posing with their mother and three cousins (children of Jopie Kerlen) in 1921.

Ernst, Marijke, and their two cousins in 1921.

Kerlen children playing with the family car

Johannes and Caroline Kerlen with teenage Ernst in 1930

DEL

Dec 17 2006, 06:11 AM

My Indonesian grandfather and Indonesian grandmother got a lot of old pictures like that. I never asked the real reason why they had to leave Indonesia, because i got the feeling it lays deep. I better study some Indonesian history more, since i am learning the language and want to go back to my roots. But i dont want to go to deep in it, because history sharpens up national feelings and hate. I don’t want that, because i am a man of the world and not of a country.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 06:17 AM


Proud grandparents Johannes and Caroline Kerlen with their daughter Marijke, and grandson Mark Lindo (Marijke’s son) in 1937

Comfortable interior of the Kerlen family house in Semarang

The Kerlen house compound, during colonial times on average the annual income of a white settler in Indonesia was 60 times the average income of a native and 10 times the average income of Foreign Orientals (Chinese and Arab settlers).

During World War II, the Kerlen family was imprisoned in Japanese concentration camp. After the war, the first son Hans Kerlen decided to stay in independent Indonesia. He lived in Bandung until he was expelled along with all Dutch citizens in 1956 by Sukarno, upon which he moved to South Africa where he died in 2003. The second son Ernst Kerlen and his wife Lydia de Leeuw emigrated to Australia, a popular destination for Dutch refugees fleeing Indonesian war of independence. Ernst died while in Netherlands in 1991. Marijke Kerlen moved with her family to Netherlands to escape the war of independence, where she died in 1995.

purnomor

Dec 17 2006, 06:45 AM

QUOTE(DEL @ Dec 17 2006, 06:11 AM) [snapback]2577436[/snapback]


My Indonesian grandfather and Indonesian grandmother got a lot of old pictures like that. I never asked the real reason why they had to leave Indonesia, because i got the feeling it lays deep. I better study some Indonesian history more, since i am learning the language and want to go back to my roots. But i dont want to go to deep in it, because history sharpens up national feelings and hate. I don’t want that, because i am a man of the world and not of a country.

Are they Europeans/Eurasians?

In Indonesia, the people has generally forgotten the past colonial injustices since the Dutch was expelled such a long time ago. Nowadays, most Indonesians view the Dutch just as a European country with no bitterness involved.

 

Read more

 1893-1895

Hendrik de Booij, herinneringen aan zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1893-1895

Inhoudsopgave:
1. Inleiding
2. Derde Atjeh oorlog 1884 -1896 (met noot: de krijgsverrichtingen van generaal Vetter en luitenant Colijn in Lombok in 1894)
3. Herinneringen Hendrik de Booy over zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog van 1893-1895
4. Vierde Atjeh oorlog 1898-1918

1. Inleiding

In het hoofdstuk 3  van deze website, heb ik verhaald  over de eerste en tweede Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1873-1879, daarbij heb ik de brieven van Chrétien Jean Gérard de Booy ( de oudste broer van mijn grootvader Hendrik de Booy) aan zijn ouders afgedrukt. Hij heeft deze Atjeh oorlog van nabij meegemaakt. Nu wil het dat mijn grootvader in de derde Atjeh oorlog  heeft meegevochten. De herinneringen van mijn grootvader over de periode van 1867 tot 1901 zijn door mij beschreven in hoofdstuk 1 van deze website. Ik heb daarbij gebruik gemaakt van de selecties, die mijn tante Dr E.P. de Booy (jongste dochter van mijn grootvader), heeft gemaakt uit de herinneringen en dagboeken van mijn grootvader. Bij nadere bestudering van deze herinneringen, die mijn grootvader heeft gebundeld in twee ingebonden exemplaren, blijkt dat mijn tante slechts enkele alinea’s heeft geselecteerd, die gaan over de tijd, dat mijn grootvader betrokken was bij de derde Atjeh oorlog in de periode 1893-1895. De reden waarom mijn tante deze periode zo summier heeft behandeld, is misschien gelegen in het feit, dat de tijdgeest omtrent ons koloniaal verleden en onze krijgsverrichtingen aan het eind van de 19e en begin 20ste eeuw sterk is veranderd. In de tijd van mijn grootvader werden de koloniale oorlogen als rechtvaardig beschouwd, terwijl men in het recente verleden door de vele publicaties en fotomateriaal anders is gaan denken over deze vroegere tijd. Ik ben echter van mening dat het goed is om dit in gedachte een uitgebreidere selectie te maken van de herinneringen van mijn grootvader in deze derde Atjeh oorlog. Evenals in het hoofdstuk 3, dat gaat over de oudste broer (Chrik) van mijn grootvader, zal ik een korte samenvatting geven van de historische gebeurtenissen, nu niet van de eerste en tweede, maar van de derde en de vierde Atjeh oorlogen, die geduurd hebben van 1884-1918, zodat men de herinneringen van mijn grootvader beter in deze tijd weet te plaatsen. In hoofdstuk 6 worden de krijgsverrichtingen in Atjeh van mijn grootvader (van mijn moeders kant) A.F.Gooszen beschreven. Het blijkt dat mijn twee grootvaders tegelijkertijd deel hebben genomen aan een expeditie in november 1893 naar de bovenloop van de Tamiang rivier aan de Oostkust van Sumatra. Ze werden beiden hiervoor  onderscheiden door de Minister van Marine met een ereteken.

2. Derde Atjeh oorlog 1884-1896

De oorlog tegen Atjeh kostte Nederland handen vol geld en het was door de twee gevoerde oorlogen niet gelukt om het Atjehse verzet te breken. Zo besloot de minister van oorlog Weitzel om een andere tactiek in Atjeh toe te passen.

Minister van Oorlog A.W.Ph. Weitzel

Allereerst wilde hij een troepen vermindering en een afsluiting van de vesting Kota Radja door middel van een zwaar versterkte linie. Hij wilde op zo’n manier de Atjehers op de knieën brengen. Op 20 augustus 1884 werd onder commando van kolonel H. Demmeni met de aanleg van de Geconcentreerde Linie begonnen.

De geconcentreerde linie om Kota Radja gebouwd  in 1884-1885

Zij bestond uit 16 bentengs, met een bezetting variërend van 60-160 man elk. Ze waren met Kota Radja verbonden door middel van telefoon en bereikbaar via een trambaan. Het gebied werd afgeschermd door een hoog ijzeren hek met wachthuisjes op palen. Deze verdedigingslinie moest  de Nederlandse troepen in Atjeh  beveiligen tegen infiltratie van Atjehse vrijheidsstrijders. De verdedigingslinie werd voltooid in maart 1885.

Officiers vrouwen gaan op theevisite bij een andere post van de geconcentreerde linie.

Ondertussen werd gezocht naar bondgenoten onder de Atjehse leiders die met Nederland willen samenwerken. Men ging de verdeel en heers politiek toepassen. Er heerste onder de elite van de Atjehers een duidelijke rivaliteit  In januari 1891 stierf Teungkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tirò, een van de belangrijkste verzetstrijders.

Teugkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tiro 1836-1891

Hij was de leider van de godsdienst partij. Hij verzond brieven waarin hierin hij de Atjehers opriep om de heilige oorlog volgens de regels van de godsdienst te voeren. Deze geven een goed beeld van hoe men dacht over het Nederlands gezag. (zie achteraan in dit hoofdstuk bij de herinneringen  van mijn grootvader de tekst van zo’n brief). Hij stierf in 1891 evenals panglima Polim, een andere machtige verzetsstrijder.  Er was een andere verzetsstrijder Teukoe Oemar, die na hun dood de kans zag een sultanzetel te verkrijgen. Hij koos daarbij de zijde van de Nederlanders.

De verzetstrijder Teukoe Oemar

In januari 1992 werd een nieuwe militaire gouverneur benoemd, het werd  kolonel C. Deijkerhoff (Later tot generaal benoemd). Hij stelde o.a. voor aan de Gouverneur-generaal Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk om Teukoe Oemar te voorzien van wapens. Pijnacker Hordijk stemde daarmee in en heeft zijn opvolger  Gouverneur-generaal Jhr. C.H.A. van Wijck te laten beloven, dat hij generaal Deijkerhoff de vrije hand zou geven om zijn plannen te kunnen uitvoeren.

Generaal-majoor  C. Deijkerhoff.

Links: Cornelis Pijnacker Hordijk, Gouverneur -generaal van 1888-1893. Rechts: Jhr Carel H.A. van der Wijck, Gouverneur-generaal van 1893-1899.

In juli en augustus 1893 is Teukoe Oemar militaire steun verleend gegeven in de strijd tegen de zich verzettende Atjehers in het Moekim gebied. Op 30 december werd hij zelfs aangesteld in Koeta Radja tot panglima prang besar, opperste krijgsheer van het gouvernement. Hij veranderde zijn naam in Teukoe Djohan Pahlawan, wat betekent Johan de Heldhaftige . Op 30 oktober veroverde hij zelfs Anagaloeng, het belangrijkste militaire steunpunt van de vallei. In april 1894 was de actie ten einde en het gehele gebied van de Moekims gezuiverd. Maar er kwam verzet tegen de plannen van Deijkerhoff en en wel door dr C. Snouck Hurgronje.

Links: Dr Christiaan Snouck Hurgronje (1857- 1936) was een Nederlandsarabist en islamoloog. Rechts: majoor J.B. van Heutsz

Hij pleitte voor een goed georganiseerde systematische spionnage in plaats van terreur als middel om het Nederlandse gezag te handhaven. Men moest niet met de Atjehers onderhandelen, zij zwichten alleen voor geweld. Hij raadde de regering aan deze moslimleiders “zeer gevoelig te slaan”. Deijkerhoff had door zijn succes in Atjeh echter het gelijk aan zijn zijde. Snouck wees op het gevaar, dat het monsterverbod met Teukoe Oemar  in hield. Hij stond daarbij niet alleen, ook majoor J. B. van Heutsz had soortgelijke denkbeelden. Dit blijkt uit een in 1893 van zijn hand verschenen brochure getiteld: “Over de onderwerping van Atjeh”.Van Heutsz beschouwde de Atjehers niet als oproerkraaiers, maar als vrijheidsstrijders. Volgens van Heutsz biograaf Witte had de brochure daarnaast nog een verborgen boodschap: ‘hier is van Heutsz, ik durf de Atjehers wel aan, benoem mij maar tot gouverneur van Atjeh’. (Het is hem later ook inderdaad gelukt. In mei 1898 werd hij benoemd als gouverneur van Atjeh)

Over de krijgsverrichtingen in 1893,  waar men grootvader direct bij betrokken was, staan interessante passages in het boek van W.J. Cohen Stuart,  De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 geschreven in 1937:

Het overlopen van Toekoe Oemar
Eenige maanden later had eene groote verandering plaats in de verhouding van Toekoe Oemar tot het Bestuur. De Regeering had gemeend, van den invloed en de voortvarendheid van dezen Atjeher voor het overwinnen van het verzet partij te kunnen trekken door hem aan onze zijde te brengen en blijkbaar had Oemar ook zijn voordeel daarin gezien; in Juli werd hij onze bondgenoot en de “Benkoelen” embarkeerde den 31 en dier maand van Rigaih, Gloempang en Lho Siddoh 137 personen, w.o. 42 vrouwen en kinderen, allen volgelingen van den Toekoe, ten overvoer naar Oeleë Lheuë; zij voerden mede 2 lilla’s, 60 geweren – w.o. 20 achterlaad – (3 Beaumont-geweren werden als afkomstig van de Marine herkend), 116 blanke wapenen, 3000 patronen voor het Beaumont-geweer, 10 kg buskruit, 1000 looden kogels; van de patronen waren sommige door Atjehers gevuld.

De strijd tegen de verzetsstrijder Nja Makam
Het Westelijk deel der Noordkust was meermalen het tooneel van beschieting van schepen en sloepen, vooral bij Koeala Gigieng en Pedropunt, dat aanleiding gaf tot tuchtiging der betrokken kampongs met granaatvuur; bij eene dergelijke gelegenheid werd de Adelborst 1e kl. G. den Berger gewond. Onze post te Sigli stond herhaaldelijk aan aanvallen bloot; de “Lombok”, van een zoeklicht voorzien, kon daardoor, bij het afslaan door de bezetting van nachtelijke aanvallen, goede diensten bewijzen; den 7en Mei wierp dit schip 46 granaten in de schuldige kampongs. Bloedig gevolg had de plotselinge aanval van een met klewang en rent jong gewapenden Atjeher op een detachement van 12 man van de “Lombok” dat aan den wal aan het schijfschieten was; de man wist dadelijk den officier en 2 man te verwonden en toen de Stuurman Prins hem te lijf ging, dezen een doodelijken steek toe te brengen, vóórdat hij afgemaakt werd. De strooptochten van het bendehoofd Nja Makam uitgebroed in het ons steeds vijandige Simpang-Olim, waren oorzaak van krijgsverrichtingen; waaraan de Zeemacht een belangrijk aandeel nam. In Januari 1893 ontving de Commandant van H.M.Raderstoomschip, Sindoro”, de Luitenant ter zee 1 e kl. W. Allirol, ter Oostkust van Atjeh in station, van den Nederlandschen Consul-Generaal te Penang bericht, dat Nja Makam zich Zuidwaarts had begeven en voornemens was, in de residentie Oostkust van Sumatra vijandelijkheden te plegen. De “Sindoro” stoomde dadelijk daarop naar de Tamiang-Rivier en zond eene gewapende sloep onder den Adelborst 1e kl. van Idsinga naar Seroeway om onzen post aldaar te waarschuwen. Ongeveer halverwege, bij Rantau-Pakam, werd de sloep beschoten; bij den terugkeer werd zij gesleept door het van pantserplaten voorziene gewestelijk stoomjacht “Langkat” , waarop de bemanning der sloep was overgegaan, zoodat de beschieting geene verliezen veroorzaakte. Den 25en verscheen Nja Makam’s bende op den rechteroever der rivier nabij ons etablissement Seroeway beschoot den pasar, waarvan het Maleische deel verbrandde en bezette de op den linkeroever gelegen Missisgit van het ons bevriende hoofd Radja Bandahara, welke zij plunderde en daarna in de vlammen deed opgaan

Cohen Stuart geeft vervolgens vele details  over de strijd tegen de troepen van Nja Makam. Ik begin weer met het citeren als blijkt, dat mijn grootvader van mijn moeder kant Luitenant ter zee 2e kl A.F. Gooszen  bij de gevechtshandelingen betrokken is.

Luitenant der zee 2e klasse A.F. Gooszen gaat met mee met de expeditie stroomopwaarts van de rivier Tamiang

Na deze voorvallen werd tot eene nieuwe expeditie besloten. H.M. stoomjacht “Koerier” werd met het oog op het bevaren der rivier gewapend met 4 kanonnen van 3,7 cm, een op den bak, een op de kampanje en twee op de brug; een kraaiennest voor 4 scherpschutters werd aan den fokkemast aangebracht, de kwetsbare punten werden met zware planken geblindeerd; ook bevestigde men voor het verbreken van versperringen een ijzeren schoen met kettingen aan den voorsteven en bracht door het lossen van steenkolen den diepgang tot 18 dm terug.

Den 30en, nadat des morgens ten l0u met hoog water de “Koerier” de ondiepte had gepasseerd, stoomde de geheele macht in alarmstelling de rivier op; de versterkingen bij Rantau-Pakam bleken niet bezet te zijn, doch bij Pasir Poetih stuitte men op twee versperringen, bestaande uit niboengstammen, hout en bamboe, door dwarslatten met pen en gat verbonden, en waartusschen zich een staaldraadtros van 50 mm bevond. De versperringen gingen op den rechteroever van één punt uit, maar aangezien de rivier aldaar een scherpe bocht maakt, maakten zij een hoek met elkander en hadden op den linkeroever een onderlingen afstand van ongeveer 25 m. Hier lagen een tweetal geschutstellingen, bovendien verkende men aan den overkant der ladang eenige versterkingen; uit al deze verdedigingswerken werd het vuur geopend toen de “Koerier”, aan het hoofd der flottille stoomende, ten 2u15m tot 250 à 300 m genaderd was. Dit vuur beantwoordende, stoomde de “Koerier”, den rechteroever houdende, zoo normaal mogelijk op de eerste versperring in; deze werd verbroken, doch door de vermindering in vaart gelukte het niet, de tweede stuk te varen; de Commandant van de “Koerier”, de Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. J. F. B. van Dijk, kreeg hierbij een schampschot in de zijde door een lilla-kogel, die tegen de bescherm plaat van het aan bakboordzijde op de brug staande kanon van 3,7 cm ricocheteerde; hij bleef echter het schip besturen. Het schip stoomde nu achteruit en daarna volle kracht vooruit op de tweede versperring in, die daarvoor bezweek; het voorschip liep echter hierbij aan den linkeroever in de modder en daar volle kracht achteruitslaan niet voldoende was om het schip achteruit tc krijgen, werd de bemanning naar het achterschip gezonden; zij kwam daardoor echter een oogenblik buiten de blindeering van planken, kooien en ijzeren platen, en kreeg door ‘s vijands vuur drie gewonden; het schip kwam vlot, en verdreef door vuur uit de gevechtsmars en aan het dek, de Atjehers uit de geschutstellingen aan den oever, waarna de officieren Mensert en Noordhoek Hegt met een klein detachement van de “Koerier” twee lilla’s daaruit haalden; de versperringen werden latere door de sloepen opgeruimd. Inmiddels waren, op een punt, ongeveer 500 m benedenstrooms van Pasir Poetih, de beide colonnes der Infanterie met een deel der landingsdivisie op den linkeroever geland en rukten door de ladang, die, pas aangelegd, een zeer moeilijk terrein bleek te zijn, tegen de meest Noordelijk gelegen versterking op; de tegenstand, hier door den vijand geboden, bezorgde aan de Infanterie een gesneuvelde en vier gewonden; uit de overige bentings vluchtte de vijand. Eene compagnie bleef in de genomen versterkingen achter om die den volgenden dag te slechten, daarna werd het overige der gelande troepen geëmbarkeerd en ten 7u30m bereikte de flotille Seroeway, waar den 31 en de gewonden per particulieren stoomer naar Deli werden geëvacueerd, de colonne van Pasir Poetih afgehaald en overigens gerust werd.

Den 2en des morgens ten 6u werd door de sloepen aangevangen met het overzetten der colonnes en den trein, en ten 7u45m werd de marsch aanvaard; de landingsdivisie werd, om haar een vermoeiende marsch te besparen, door de “Anna” en “Slamat” overgevoerd naar een punt, tegenover Oud-Seroeway gelegen, waar zij ten 8u30m aankwam en in afwachting van de komst der colonne, naar den rand der sawah oprukte, vanwaar de ligging van een viertal vijandelijke versterkingen op ongeveer 700 m afstand, werd waargenomen; weldra kwam nu ook de colonne, onder bevel van den Majoor Meuleman, die het voetpad langs de rivier had gevolgd, op het terrein aan, en nadat de landingsdivisie hare plaats in den hoofdtroep had ingenomen werd even vóór 9u op de sawah gedeboucheerd; de sterkte van den troep bestond op dit oogenblik uit 9 officieren en 307 minderen der Infanterie, aan wie toegevoegd waren 1 officier en 19 mariniers, Marine-landingsdivisie 5 officieren en 73 matrozen 8 mariniers, artillerie 1 officier en 24 minderen met 3 getrokken bronzen kanonnen van 8 cm en een Coehoorn-mortier. Nadat tot ongeveer 650 pas van de vijandelijke stelling voortgerukt was, terwijl eene sectie infanterie bij het landingspunt achtergelaten was om de ageerende troepenmacht in den rug te dekken en de verbinding met de vaartuigen te onderhouden, kwam ten ongeveer 9u15m de artillerie in batterij en richtte haar vuur met granaten en granaatkartetsen achtereenvolgens op de vijandelijke versterkingen, terwijl door den troep beurtelings pelotons-  en sectiesgewijze salvovuur werd afgegeven; men kreeg vuur niet alleen uit de bentings maar ook van een 200-tal Atjehers, die nabij de meest Noordelijk gelegen versterking eene schietstelling hadden ingenomen, waardoor de rechtervleugel onzer linie bedreigd werd; het detachement van Seroeway, met eene sectie infanterie versterkt, hiertegen afgezonden, slaagde erin, dat vuur tot zwijgen tebrengen.

Inmiddels had de Commandant der Landingsdivisie bevel ontvangen, om de bovengenoemde benting op den linkervleugel van ‘s vijands linie gelegen, te nemen. Zij rukte in vier tempo’s vooruit, op de halten salvo’s afgevend; door het zeer moeilijke terrein, eene sawah, met riet of zwaar hard gras ter hoogte van 1,5 m begroeid, waarvan bovendien de bodem glibberig was en vele kuilen en nagenoeg onbegaanbare galangans opleverde, kwam men slechts langzaam vooruit en leed reeds eenige verliezen; op ongeveer 200 pas van het doel werd daarom de order tot stormloopen tegen de Noord-Oostelijke face gegeven.Men kwam vóór eene omheining van aangepunte bamboe waarachter eene drooge gracht, gevuld met bamboedoerie, om het buitentalud te bereiken, moest eene tweede omheining van bamboe doorbroken worden; men trachtte nu, door kappen en snijden, openingen te maken. Het gelukte Commandant en Officieren op enkele plaatsen de borstwering te bereiken, doch de Commandant, de Luitenant ter zee 1 e kl. Mensert, werd door een schot in het hoofd zwaar gewond, zoodat hij het bevel aan den Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. C.W. Broers moest overgeven. Terzelfder tijd was het detachement van Seroeway, waarbij, zooals reeds vermeld, 20 man van het Korps Mariniers waren ingedeeld, na het vermeesteren der bovengenoemde schietstelling, tegen de Vester- en Zuiderfacen der benting opgerukt, en werd getracht, de poort der versterking te forceeren; hierbij sneuvelde de Korporaal der Mariniers Viergever, terwijl de Commandant van de troep, de 1 e Luitenant der Infanterie C. van der Schroeff, bij het beklimmen der borstwering doodelijk gewond werd.

Intusschen was tot steun dezer actie eene groep infanterie van eene der andere collones afgezonden geworden, en gelukte het aan eenige manschappen dezer groep, met den Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. A. F. Gooszen en 4 mariniers, in de binnenruimte der versterking te springen, op hetzelfde oogenblik, dat het forceeren der poort gelukte; hiermede was de versterking in ons bezit. Reeds bij het oprukken had de Landingsdivisie 6 gewonden gekregen, waaronder de Luitenant ter zee 2e kl. J. H. Zeeman; bij het stormen sneuvelden met inbegrip van de bij het detachement Seroeway ingedeelde mariniers, vier man en werden, behalve de Luitenant ter zee 1e kl. Mensert, drie man gewond. (…)

Nadat alle versterkingen genomen waren, stoomde de “Koerier” nog hooger de rivier op en verjoeg met eenige schoten uit de kanons van 3,7 cm de nog standhoudende Atjehers uit een versterkt huis in de kampong Loeboek Batil. De veroverde versterkingen werden voor den nacht door de Landmacht bezet en daags daarna geslecht. Nog in den namiddag van den 2en April werden de lijken der gesneuvelden de gewonden en de landingsdivisie door de “Koerier” en de sloepen naar Seroeway overgevoerd; aldaar was de Kapitein ter zee Stokhuyzen, Commandant der vereenigde scheepsmacht in de wateren van Atjeh, per stoomschip “Kinta” aangekomen; hij begaf zich, vergezeld van den Kapitein-Luitenant ter zee van den Pauvert, leider van het nautische gedeelte der expeditionnaire macht, per stoomsloep naar het gevechtsterrein; vandaar terugkeerende, kreeg de sloep door een geweerschot een lek, waarin den volgenden dag, door haar op eene droogte te zetten, kon worden voorzien. Den 3en werden de gewonden door de gewestelijke stoomjachten, onder geleide van eene stoombarkas, naar de reede vervoerd en had in den namiddag de plechtige ter aarde-bestelling der gesneuvelden plaats. Op den 5en keerden alle schepelingen naar hunne respectieve bodems terug, terwijl de “Koerier” met eene stoombarkas op de rivier bleef.

Nu aan Nja Makam’s aanhangers belangrijke verliezen waren toegebracht, was de toestand in het Tamiangsche aanmerkelijk verbeterd; niettemin werd voorloopig de aanwezigheid van een oorlogsvaartuig op de rivier noodig geacht; toen dan ook in Mei de “Koerier” naar Penang moest om te dokken, werd het Gouvernements-stoomschip  “Indragiri”, met een Marine-detachement aan boord, ter vervanging aangewezen. Verder werd de toegankelijkheid van de “Tamiang-Rivier bevorderd door de opname van de Panaga-geul en de bebakening der monding van de Soengei Ijoe, welke dieper was dan de Tamianggeul.

Hendrik de  Booij gaat als commandant van gewapende sloepen op patrouille om de bovenloop van de rivier Tamiang  te verkennen

In de tweede helft van October werd door de “Koerier” op last van den Commandant der Zeemacht de poging herhaald, om den bovenloop der rivier te verkennen. Begunstigd. door hoogen waterstand tengevolge van bandjirs, vertrok men den 28e van Seroeway, vergezeld van eene stoombarkas en met een detachement als bovengenoemd aan boord, en bereikte den volgenden dag Karang, ruim 5 km bovenstrooms van Koeala Simpang, waar men vuur kreeg uit eene benting van Radja Silang, welk vuur door het geschut tot zwijgen werd gebracht. Terwijl men zich voor de landing gereed maakte, kwam met de “Anna” de Kapitein van Polanen Petel van Seroeway aan, vergezeld van 10 man Infanterie; deze als dekking der ambulance aanwendende, rukte nu het landingsdetachement onder den Luitenant der Mariniers G. Faassen tegen de benting op, welke overhaast verlaten bleek te zijn; daags daarna werd zij verbrand. Verder opstoomen werd voor de “Koerier” niet raadzaam geacht, zoodat, nadat met de stoom barkas eenige verkenningen waren verricht en een bezoek was gebracht aan bet ons bevriende Tandjong Mandang,aan de SimpangKiri, de “Koerier” den 2e November met krabbend anker de rivier afzakte, daar het stoomen wegen de vele afdrijvende boomen te gevaarlijk was. Terwijl de “Koerier” nog te Koeala Sim pang vertoefde, kwam aldaar den 9en November de Gewestelijk Militair Commandant per “Alllla”, in prauwen eene halve compagnie Infanterie sleepende ; den volgenden dag werd de tocht vervolgd, waaraan door de gewapende stoombarkas en een 20-tal mariniers werd deelgenomen; men bereikte de Kampong Loeboek Sidoep, ongeveer 18 km boven Koeala Sim pang en deed haar in vlammen opgaan.

Inmiddels had de Oudst-aanwezend Zeeofficier ter Oostkust eene flottille gewapende sloepen van de “Merapi” en drie andere schepen samengesteld en voer daarmede den 9en de rivier op; men bereikte een punt nog bijna 20 km voorbij Loeboek Sidoep en bevond alles rustig; den 12e was men aan boord der schepen terug.

Nog werd door de Mariniers met de landingsdivisie van de “Koerier” deelgenomen aan een marsch van de Infanterie van Koeala Simpang uit, ter opsporing van eene in de nabijheid gesignaleerde, 200 man sterke, bende Atjehers; de vermoeiende marsch leverde geene ontmoeting met den vijand op. Intusschen had de “Sindoro”, waarvan brug en ketelkap van eene doelmatige blindeering waren voorzien geworden, terwijl met eigen middelen een kanon van 3,7 cm in den top van den fokkemast was geplaatst, den gen October met de “Koerier” een tocht op de Ara Koendoe-rivier gemaakt. Toen de rivier te bochtig werd voor de “Sindoro”, stoomde de “Koerier” verder op, voorafgegaan door de stoomsloep, en kwam men tot het eilandje Leboni. Op de hoogte van Blang-Ni gekomen, kreeg de stoomsloep uit een loopgraaf een salvo, dat echter niemand kwetste; toen de “Koerier” het vuur opende, vluchtte de vijand.

Einde citaten uit het boek van Cohen Stuart . De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915

Begin 1896 kwam een nieuwe commandant luitenant-kolonel F.W. Bisschoff van Heemskerk. Hij zag dat de politiek van Deijkerhoff steeds minder goed ging functioneren. De posten  van de linie werden steeds meer beschoten, vooral vanuit de gebieden buiten de linie, die met hulp van Teukoe Oemar waren gezuiverd. Deijkerhoff wilde geen patrouilles buiten de linie, dat moest worden gewaarborgd door Teukoe Oemar. Maar Bisschoff van Heemskerk gaf desondanks het bevel om eens per maand een demonstratieve patrouille te houden in het gebied buiten de linie. Op 7 maart 1896 was kapitein Blokland met 92 man op patrouille gegaan. Direct al werden zij onder vuur genomen. Na afloop telde men negen doden en 22 gewonden. Deijkerhoff verlangde van Teukoe Oemar, dat hij de orde in de buiten gebieden ging herstellen, maar deze eiste van Deijkerhoff meer wapens en munitie. Maar al spoedig bleek,dat hij van plan was over te lopen. Hij weigerde in eerste instantie de orders van Deijkerhoff op te volgen. Teukoe Oemar ging vervolgens over, dankbaar gebruik makend van de wapens, die hij van Deijkerhoff had gekregen, door de Nederlandse troepen aan te vallen. Het verraad was al lang van te voren door hem gepland. 29 maart werden de Nederlandse posten buiten de linie ingesloten. Zo ontstond er een totaal nieuwe situatie. Deijkerhoff had zichtbaar gefaald en werd ontslagen. Generaal Vetter * ) werd benoemd als regeringscommissaris. Er werd nu korte metten gemaakt en een groot offensief gestart, waarop Snouck Hurgronje steeds had aangedrongen. Wie ook mee deed aan dit offensief was luitenant-kolonel J.B. van Heutsz (die al driemaal in Atjeh had gediend). Eveneens was  luitenant H. Colijn van de partij. Op 5 april 1896 schreef Colijn in de Nederlander): ‘De geest onder de troep is uitstekend. Er heerst spannende geestdrift. En wanneer het aan ons en aan onze soldaten ligt, geen rijsthalmpje, ja geen grassprietje in het gebied der IV Moekims (Oemars kerngebied) zal ongeschonden blijven. Hij heeft het gewild, dat de oorlogsfakkel branden zou! Het zij zoo!’.
8 april 1896 begon een offensief, onder leiding van kolonel J.W. Stemfort, met colonne van duizend man met als doel om de belegerde posten te ontzetten. De Atjehers boden fel verzet. De vallei werd door de Nederlandse troepen bezet en vele posten van de Atjehers werden vernietigd, zo ook de geboorteplaats van Teukoe Oemar in mei 1896. Koningin Wilhelmina zond een telegram om de colonne, die onder commandant van van Heutsz stond, te feliciteren met de verovering van Lam Pisang op 24 mei. Daarna werd de kampong Lamasang met de grond gelijk gemaakt. Alle bomen gekapt en de grafheuvels afgegraven. Tijdens deze zware gevechten vielen vele doden aan beiden zijde. Colijn schrijft over deze ‘heldhaftige’ gebeurtenis in de Nederlander van 22 juli : ‘ De vallei van Lam Pisang bevat 30-tal welvarende dorpen (kampongs). In die vallei raast de rook: een 30-tal kampongs ging in vlammen op en zijn van dit aardsche schouwspel verdwenen. De geheele rijke vallei is één onafzienbare smeulende vlakte, talrijk goed gevulde voorraadschuren van Oemar – zoomede zijn eigen prachtige woning- deelden in het lot van al het overige’.  Zo kwam er een einde aan de derde Atjeh oorlog.

Dit betekende niet het einde, want er volgden nog vele oorlogen, niet alleen in Atjeh maar ook in andere gebieden van Nederlandsch Indië. Het onderstaande kaartje laat zien deze zogenaamde pacificaties van Indië.

 

Pacificatie van Indië door de Nederlanders

Generaal Vetter en luitenant Colijn, die deelnamen aan de derde Atjeh oorlog, hebben een paar jaar daarvoor in 1894 een belangrijke rol gespeeld bij de verovering van Lombok. Hieronder volgt een korte samenvatting van deze krijgsverrichting.

 

Links: Luitenant H. Colijn. Rechts: Generaal  J.A. Vetter.

Het ten oosten van Bali gelegen eiland Lombok is lang buiten de Nederlandse invloedsfeer gebleven. Het eiland werd bestuurd door 2 vorstenfamilies uit het oosten van Bali, het huis van Karangasem-Mataram. Het Balische vorstenbewind bestuurde zowel het eigen gebied op Bali als het gehele eiland Lombok. Eind 19e eeuw was dit geslacht van radja’s(vorsten) op het toppunt van hun macht. Zij bouwden paleizen en tempels op beide eilanden. Er bestonden spanningen tussen de oorspronkelijke moslimbevolking op Lombok, de Sasaks en de hindoeistische radja’s van Bali. Vooral het autocratische bewind van de Balische vorsten leidde tot opstanden op Lombok. Bestuur en belastingheffing waren in handen van deze vorsten. In de jaren negentig brak op Lombok een opstand uit tegen de op Lombok regerende Balinese vorsten. Vooral de vorst Anak Agoeng Madé was berucht om zijn wreedheden t.o.v. de plaatselijke bevolking, de Sasaks. Batavia werd door enkele Sasaks voormannen gevraagd om hulp tegen hun Balinese onderdrukkers en dan vooral hulp voor de strijd tegen de vorst Anak Agoeng Madé. In deze periode was het zo dat de Balinese radja van Lombok leenheer was van de vorsten op Bali en verschillende Balinese leenmannen kwamen vanuit Bali hun leenheer op Lombok te hulp. Een gecompliceerde situatie en dat dus midden in de niet zo succesvol verlopende eerste Atjeh pacificaties. Er ontstond een hele diskussie : wel ingrijpen of niet, of misschien toch wel….De nieuwe gouverneur-generaal van der Wijck hakte de knoop door : we doen het wel en dus landde in maart 1894 een expeditieleger o.l.v. generaal Vetter op de kust van Lombok.

Invasie op Lombok aan het strand bij Ampenan

Tijdens de opmars naar Mataram pleegde de Balinese vorst Anak Agoeng Madé, die de Sasaks bevolking het meest had onderdrukt, zelfmoord en dus was eigenlijk de directe aanleiding verdwenen. De verdere onderhandelingen met de Balinese radja van Lombok liepen ogenschijnlijk voorspoedig, want de overmacht van de Nederlandse koloniale troepen was natuurlijk overweldigend. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Radja van Lombok

Ook de uit Bali overgekomen hulptroepen wisten, dat zij militair t.o.v de Nederlanders niets voorstelden. Maar, zoals gebruikelijk in die dagen, moesten nog wel alle kosten van de invasie worden betaald. De kosten van deze expeditie werden geschat op één miljoen gulden : voor die tijd en natuurlijk speciaal voor de Balinese radja, een krankzinnig hoog bedrag. In de loop van de maand augustus was echter al een kwart bijeen gebracht. Generaal Vetter legerde in deze periode zijn troepen verdeeld over het eiland. En toen ging het mis. De Balische vorsten kregen het (terechte) vermoeden dat, na betaling van de opgelegde schatting, de Nederlanders wel eens niet zouden kunnen vertrekken en dat op zijn minst nieuwe eisen zouden worden gesteld. Langzamerhand brak het besef door dat het Sasakse verzoek om hulp alleen maar had gediend als aanleiding voor Batavia om eindelijk heel Lombok te ‘pacificeren’, ook zij wisten natuurlijk wat er in Atjeh gaande was. Men besloot zich tot het uiterste te verzetten .En dus gebeurde het dat plotseling op een nacht de Nederlandse troepen, zonder waarschuwing vooraf, werden aangevallen : er vielen bijna 100 doden (w.o. de Generaal-Majoor van der Ham) en ruim 250 gewonden : de grootste nederlaag die de Nederlandse koloniale troepen tot nu toe in de 19e eeuw hadden geleden.

Generaal-majoor P.P.M. van der Ham, gedood op Lombok 26 augustus 1894

Ook de reeds verkregen oorlogsschatting waren de Nederlanders weer kwijt. M.b.v. vers aangevoerde troepen werd Lombok, met meer dan grof geweld, gepacificeerd, want kostte wat het kost, het verraad van Lombok moest worden gebroken. De verwoestingen waren enorm : eerst werd alles tussen Ampenan en Mataram door de artillerie kapot geschoten en vervolgens werd dat wat er nog overbleef, nagenoeg met de grond gelijk gemaakt. Van zowel Ampenan als Mataram, bleef nauwelijks iets over. De verwoestingen waren zo grondig dat sommigen in de pers zich afvroegen “wat heeft het voor zin om alles zo te vernietigen, waarover men later gezag wil uitoefenen ?” Ook op Lombok werden de slachtoffers onder de bevolking nauwelijks geteld, want “het verzet moest worden gebroken”. Toch werd er nog geaarzeld om Tjakranegara, waar de radja woonde, aan te vallen. Men wachtte totdat er bijna 10.000 man waren : alles tussen Mataram en Tjakranegara werd omgehakt c.q. afgebroken : de artillerie wilde een vrij schootsveld hebben. De radja stuurde een smeekbrief, daarop werd, op direct bevel van G.G van der Wijck, door Generaal Vetter geantwoord met granaten. De radja betoogde dat hij niets wist van de nachtelijke aanval op de Nederlanders, hij had toch niet voor niets al zoveel geld betaald ? Het mocht allemaal niet baten. Tjakranegara werd massaal bestormd en veroverd, de radja wist te ontvluchten en gaf zich later over en werd verbannen naar Batavia.

De bestorming van Tjakranegara

De laatste overgebleven vorsten pleegden zelfmoord via een Perang Poepoetan: mannen, vrouwen en kinderen stortten zich in witte kleren op de verbaasd toekijkende en continu schietende Nederlanders. Een van de vele Poepoetans tijdens de pacificaties in de 19e eeuw. Tijdens de ‘akties’ werd door de Nederlanders op Lombok een grote buit veroverd : zilveren en gouden sieraden en wapens : de zogenaamde schatten van Lombok. De schatten van Lombok werden jarenlang tentoongesteld in het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam. Een gedeelte werd omgesmolten (!), pas in 1977 werd het grootste deel teruggeschonken aan Indonesië en een gedeelte bleef achter in Nederland en ligt nog steeds, naar men zegt, opgeslagen in de kluizen van de Nederlandse bank.

Uit de twee biografieën van Hendrik Colijn, die bij de invasie op Lombok heeft meegestreden, blijkt hoe men vroeger en tegenwoordig dacht over de oorlogen in Nederlandsch Indië. Het is interessant hoe de tijdgeest sterk is veranderd. Allereerst geef ik enkele citaten  uit de levensschets van Hendrik Colijn geschreven door Rullmann in 1933.  Hieruit blijkt hoe men in die tijd stond tegen over de krijgsverrichtingen van Colijn. De toon is, zoals we later zullen zien in de biografie van Herman Langeveld geschreven 65 jaar later in 1998  wel geheel anders dan die van Rullmann.

Rullmann pagina 12 “November 1894 werd hij geroepen deel te nemen aan de bekende Lombok-expeditie. Op den 18den van die maand, bij de bestorming van Tjakra Negara, onderging hij den vuurdoop. Zijn militaire bekwaamheden werden toen erkend met het ridderkruis 4e klasse van de Militaire Willemsorde, omdat zijn afdeeling van de Noordelijke troepen het eerst was doorgedrongen in de poeri van den vorst, gelijk de afdeeling van luitenant Van der Heyden bij de Zuidelijken.
In 1895 nam hij, op zijn verzoek overgeplaatst naar Atjeh, deel aan de krijgsverrichtingen in dat gewest. In datzelfde jaar noopte een ernstige ziekte hem naar Java terug te keeren. Maar na herstel daarvan vertrok hij met bekwamen spoed weer naar Atjeh en onderscheidde zich buitengewoon in de krijgsverrichtingen tegen Toekoe Oemar. Krijgsmakkers van Colijn uit die dagen hebben verklaard, dat hij een schitterend soldaat was, onverschrokken, koelbloedig, vasthoudend, onvermoeid, beslist, humaan tegenover den overwonnen en onderworpen inlander en goed voor zijn soldaten. Eens zag hij een gewonden soldaat in de wildernis halfdood liggen. Hij ging niet, gelijk de priester en de leviet, tegenover hem voorbij, maar kwam als de barmhartige Samaritaan tot hem, verbond zijn wonden, en droeg hem 2 uur ver naar het naastbij gelegen bivak ter verpleging. In 1925 heeft hij dien ouden strijdmakker nog eens ontmoet”..

De citaten uit de biografie van Colijn van Herman Langeveld in 1998 geven wel een heel ander beeld over Hendrik Colijn tijdens zijn krijgsverrichtingen in Lombok.

Langeveld p. 57-61:   “Colijn die ingedeeld was bij de derde compagnie, onder leiding van kapitein C.F. van den Ende schreef over deze zelfmoord het volgende aan zijn resp. zijn vrouw en ouders : 24 november 1894 ‘Ik heb er een gezien die, met een kind van ongeveer 1/2 jaar op den linkerarm, en een lange lans in de rechterhand op ons aanstormde. Een kogel van ons doodde moeder en kind.’ Dan volgt een onheilspellende zin, gevolgd door een volledige beschrijving van het onheil. ‘We mochten toen geen genade meer geven. Ik heb 9 vrouwen en 3 kinderen, die genade vroegen, op een hoop moeten zetten en ze zoo dood laten schieten. Het was onaangenaam werk, maar ‘t kon niet anders. De soldaten regen ze met genot aan hun bajonetten. ‘t Was een verschrikkelijk werk. Ik zal er maar over eindigen.’ (In een ander handschrift – zo goed als zeker dat van Colijns vrouw in de marge :”Hoe vreeselijk!”).

In de brief (17 december 1894) aan zijn ouders gaf Colijn een iets andere beschrijving van deze gruweldaden. ‘Zelfs jonge, schoone vrouwen met zuigelingen op den arm streden mee en wierpen uit de daken stukken lood op ons, terwijl anderen zelfs de lans hanteerden. Gelukkig stonden mijn dappere Amboneezen als een muur. Na den 8en aanval bleven nog eenige weinigen over, die genade vroegen, ik geloof 13. De soldaten keken mij vragend aan. Een 30-tal mijner manschappen was dood of gewond. Ik keerde mij naar achteren om een sigaar op te steken. Eenige hartverscheurende kreten klonken en toen ik mij weer omdraaide waren ook die 13 dood.
Hiervoor is reeds de grotere betrouwbaarheid van de brief aan zijn vrouw ten opzichte van die aan zijn ouders aangetoond, maar zelfs als deze laatste lezing de juiste is en Colijn geen expliciet bevel tot doden gegeven zou hebben, dan nog was hij als bevelvoerend officier ten volle verantwoordelijk voor het executeren van vrouwen en kinderen die om genade smeekten.

De vraag rijst hoe Colijn een dergelijke handelwijze voor zichzelf gerechtvaardigd heeft. In de geciteerde passages zit iets van een rechtvaardiging, namelijk daar waar Colijn vermeldt dat een dertigtal van zijn mannen gedood of gewond was. Het is natuurlijk een uiterst primitieve en harteloze redenering, maar iets dergelijks bleek ook toen Colijn, de balans van de gevechten opmakend, van tot honderd vijf door zijn compagnie gedode Baliërs, onder wie zestien vrouwen. ‘Ik verloor echter 1 officier, wiens vrouw in diepe droefheid eerstdaags de geboorte van een kleine tegemoet ziet’. (brief aan zijn ouders van 17 december 1894). Het heeft iets van tegen elkaar wegstrepen: één gedode officier met een vrouw die in verwachting is rechtvaardigt zestien gedode vrouwen.

Het vraagstuk heeft echter nog een andere dimensie. Bestond er voor Colijn geen tegenstelling tussen zijn christelijke levensovertuiging en de door hem gevolgde handelwijze? Leverde die geen conflict op met zijn door het christendom gevormde geweten? Daarvan blijkt in deze brieven niets, wat overigens niet wil zeggen dat het godsdienstig element er geheel in ontbreekt. Aan zijn vrouw schreef hij: ‘Danken we, mijn lieveling, den Heere onzen God voor zijne weldaden en zegeningen. Hij heeft ons in de ure des gevaars bewaard. Zij hij ons ook verder nu nabij!’ (brief van 23 november 1894).  En aan zijn ouders: ‘Ik gaf mijn leven in de hand van Hem, die alom regeert en ik dankte den Heere voor ‘t geluk, dat hij mij gegeven had in mijn vrouwtje.’(brief 17 december 1894). Maar van de genoemde tegenstelling lijkt Colijn zich in het geheel niet bewust geweest te zijn. Blijkbaar achtte hij de christelijke ethiek niet van toepassing op het terrein van de oorlog. Anders gezegd: in de oorlog was volgens Colijn alles geoorloofd. ‘[ ... ] in den oorlog kan men geen jonge juffrouwen gebruiken. Voor de ijzeren wet der noodzakelijkheid zwijgt alles’. (brief van 17 december)

Toch is de conclusie dat Colijn in ‘de oorlog’ alles geoorloofd achtte, waarschijnlijk te globaal, omdat daarbij geen onderscheid wordt gemaakt tussen koloniale oorlogen en oorlogen tussen westerse, zo men wil christelijke naties onderling. Vooropgesteld moet worden dat een dergelijk onderscheid in de uitlatingen van Colijn zelf niet voorkomt. Dat wil echter nog niet zeggen dat hetgeen rol heeft gespeeld, want het kan zeer wel onderdeel uitgemaakt hebben van de ‘unspoken assumptions’, de onuitgesproken veronderstellingen, van zijn tijd. In het algemeen werd de tijd van het moderne imperialisme gekenmerkt door westers of blank superioriteitsgevoel. Ook zonder dat er van geprononceerd rasdenken sprake hoefde te zijn, kon dit er gemakkelijk toe leiden dat het leven van een niet-blanke minder waard geacht werd dan dat van een blanke. Het moderne imperialisme als zodanig ging uit van een ‘recht’ dat Europa zou hebben om de Derde Wereld in bezit te nemen; als de inheemse bevolking zich daar dan tegen verzette, had zij haar ondergang aan zichzelf te wijten. Zonder dat dergelijke redeneringen bij Colijn aanwijsbaar zijn, hebben zij, waarschijnlijk eerder onbewust dan bewust, mede zijn optreden op Lombok bepaald. Een zijdelingse aanwijzing voor dit soort redeneringen in verband met de Lombokexpeditie is te vinden in het boek van Cool uit 1896, dat achterin wel een lijst van ‘Europese’ gesneuvelde officieren en minderen heeft, maar daarbij in een noot slechts vermeldt: ‘Over de opgave van de [gesneuvelde] niet-Europese mindere militairen kon niet beschikt worden.’. En dat gold dan nog de ‘eigen’ soldaten”.

Einde citaten uit de biografie van Colijn door Herman Langeveld

Colijn kreeg voor zijn heldendaden het ridderschap van de militaire Willemsorde 4e klasse.

Langeveld, pagina 78:  In zijn Atjeh-brieven in De Nederlander ging Colijn niet in op de vraag naar de rechtmatigheid van de Nederlandse oorlog tegen Atjeh; impliciet blijkt wel dat hij hier geen probleem zag. In een brief van juli 1896 aan Van der Veen, antirevolutionair als hijzelf, voelde hij zich gedrongen wel nadrukkelijk bij die vraag stil te staan. Hij achtte deze van beslissende betekenis. ‘Is de oorlog noodig en billijk, dan zij er ook oorlog, oorlog, oorlog! Men breke dan met elk half-systeem. Is de oorlog onbillijk, men verlate Atjeh!’ Colijn kwam nu tot de conclusie dat de Atjeh-oorlog  ‘in oorsprong rechtvaardig’ was. De antirevolutionaire pers, die blijkbaar nog steeds het tegendeel verkondigde dwaalde zijns inziens ‘grovelijk’, waarbij hij verwees naar het  dat van Kuyper afwijkende standpunt van Elout van Soeterwoude. Colijn had zich dus terdege verdiept in de geschiedenis van het antirevolutionaire standpunt inzake de Atjeh-oorlog, en dacht van mening te verschillen met de almachtige partijleider Kuyper. Het zou tot 1904 duren voor hij in de gelegenheid was Kuyper in een persoonlijk gesprek zijn zienswijze te ontvouwen.

3. Herinneringen van Hendrik de Booy over zijn deelname aan de derde Atjeh oorlog van 1893-1895

Luitenant ter Zee der 2e klasse Hendrik de Booy oud 26 jaar in Atjeh

In januari 1893 ontving onze Marine bericht dat het bekende bendehoofd Nja Makam ( later tijdens de vierde Atjeh oorlog zal hij sneuvelen) voornemens was vijandelijkheden te plegen in de residentie Oostkust van Sumatra en wel in het bijzonder bij de rivier van Tamiang waaraan onze post Seroeway gelegen was. Marine en Landmacht namen krachtige maatregelen om daartegen op te treden. Het werd een belangrijke onderneming. Wij hadden een aantal flottielje vaartuigen aan de kust waarvan verscheidene naar de rivier Tamiang kwamen voor het vormen van een divisie gewapende sloepen en een landingsdivisie onder bevel van den luitenant ter zee 1e klasse D. A. Mensert. De “Koerier” werd ook aangewezen,  gewapend met licht geschut. Het nautische deel van onze macht was in zijn geheel onder bevel van overste van den Pauvert. Er moesten versperringen in de rivier opgeruimd worden, bentengs worden veroverd en het geschiedde.

Benteng (vesting)

Ook de Landmacht gaf haar deel en vervulde haar taak. Over overste van den Pauvert, die zich voor deze gelegenheid had gewapend met een Japans zwaard van grote afmeting  was een verhaal in omloop dat hij, zich bevindende aan boord van de “Koerier” toen hem werd gerapporteerd “versperring vooruit”, de ontvangst van dit bericht erkende met de woorden: “dank U, waarschuw wanneer wij ‘m dwars hebben”. Wat er geschiedde, het staat alles beschreven in de Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 in 2 gedeelten door W. J. Cohen Stuart , dat ik leende van de heer Cox, directeur van het Historisch Scheepvaartkundig Museum ( Uit dit boek heb ik reeds de belangrijks passages betreffende de krijgsverrichtingen die mijn grootvader in 1893-1895 heeft meegemaakt geciteerd). Nja Makam en zijn volgelingen hadden een nederlaag geleden, maar een toestand van rust en veiligheid was niet bereikt. Uit het bovenstaande zal blijken waarom ik Mensert, mijn 1e officier aan boord “Matador”en “Panter” bij mijn opname in het hospitaal te Weltevreden daar aantrof. De verwonding welke hij ontving waarbij de kogel tot de hersenen doordrong betekende voor hem verlies van een oog. Hij ontving de hoge onderscheiding te worden benoemd tot Ridder van de Militaire Willemsorde.

Mijn bestemming was op 31 mei 1893 mij te bevinden aan boord van het ramtorenschip” Koning der Nederlanden”, Stationsschip van de Zeemacht op de kust van Atjeh, liggende ter reede van Olehleh. Hier bevond ik mij dus op de plaats waar in 1873 de eerste expeditie landde onder generaal Köhler, en nabij die waar generaal van Swieten landde voor de tweede expeditie in 1874.

Het landingshoofd Oleh-Leh en het strand in 1893

De Kraton was door ons genomen. De Missigit ((Moskee) werd door ons herbouwd. In 1884 kwam de geconcentreerde postenstelling tot stand. Het huis van Teukoe Ne Radja Moeda Setia, hoofd van de grote Moekim, die gedurende de 1ste en 2de expeditie onze zijde had gekozen en ons herhaaldelijk goede raad had gegeven zagen we dichtbij. Ook konden wij wijzen op de Atjeh tram. (…) Het zou niet lang meer duren namelijk minder dan 2 maanden na mijn komst als zou blijken of wederom zou blijken, dat Atjeh nog niet tot rust gekomen gebied geworden was. Op 20 juli 1893 namelijk was de stoomsloep van Hr Ms “Madura” nabij Diamant punt op brandwacht toen lichtsignalen onder de wal werden gezien. Met den dag zag men top van “Madura” de twee masten van een op het strand zittend stoomschip dat bleek te zijn de “Rayah Kongsie Atjeh” varende onder Nederlandsche vlag. Aan boord vond men een bloedbad, slechts twee van de europese machinisten, die zich hadden schuil gehouden, waren ontkomen. Tenslotte bleek, dat vijf Atjehers, die te Lhos Seumawè aan boord waren gekomen, nadat de controlerende politie-oppasser van boord was gegaan en die rentjongs (Atjehse kris)  in hun kussen verborgen hadden meegebracht gedurende de vaart den Engelschen kapitein, die op de brug lag te slapen, dodelijk verwond en den wachthebbende stuurman gedood hadden. Daarna hadden zij de bemanning en de passagiers, voor zo ver deze zich verzetten hetzelfde lot doen ondergaan en het schip den wal opgestuurd, zodat het ten 9.30 ‘s avonds even benoorden de Koela belas aan den grond liep. Daarna hadden zij met de drie sloepen de geldkist, de post , 2 Snider geweren en al wat zij geroofd hadden, benevens 4 Atjehers als gevangenen en 5 vrouwen aan wal gebracht. Toen de rovers tegen middernacht van boord waren gegaan, waren de machinisten te voorschijn gekomen en hadden enige vuurpijlen afgestoken. De bemanning van de “Madura”vond 24 lijken van passagiers en 12 gewonden; het bleek voorts dat 18 personen verdronken waren bij een poging om met de nog overgebleven sloep, die lek was, het schip te verlaten. De “Madura”nam maatregelen om het schip te bewaken en te beletten, dat het verder op den wal zou slaan, begroef de doden en verbonden de gewonden. Op de 25ste juli Juli sleepte de “Sindow” het schip vlot en werd het daarna met bewaking van de Marine aan boord onder geleide van het gouverments-stoomschip “Havik” naar Penang gebracht en overhandigd aan de eigenaars.(mijn grootvader heeft deze gebeurtenis geput uit het reeds genoemde  werk van de gepensioneerd kapitein ter zee, oud- Minister van Marine W.J.Cohen Stuart )

Op 17 november 1893 heeft kapitein ter zee F.J. Stokhuyzen het bevel over de Zeemacht in de wateren van Atjeh overgegeven aan den kapitein ter zee F.K. Engelbracht. Door  mijn plaatsing aan boord  “Batavia”heb ik van die overdracht niets gemerkt. Op 28 december 1893 heeft een zestal sloepen van “Merapi”en “Batavia op verzoek van het Binnenlandsch Bestuur de rivier  van Modjopahit opgevaren  waar de controleur van Idi werd aangetroffen, die met een bevolkings patrouille daarheen was opgerukt. Blijkbaar was enig machtsvertoon gewenst (..) In 1893 kwam op last van onze Regering het beroemde werk van Dr Snouck Hurgronje uit. De schrijver was van 1992-1893 in Atjeh teneinde over den politieke toestand van advies te dienen. Hij raadde nergens met den vijand te onderhandelen, hem alleen te slaan en nooit de gelegenheid geven zich te herstellen. Sinds een tiental jaren had het bendehoofd Teukoe Oemar het ons lastig gemaakt. Hij had door zijn persoonlijkheid op vele Atjehers invloed en hiervan wilde de toenmalige Gouverneur partij trekken door, na zijn onderwerping hem zijn vertrouwen schenken. Deze Teukoe werd Atjehs generaal in onze dienst, toegerust met onze wapens en voorzien van ons geld tot het onderhouden van een kleine legerafdeling. Een centraal , krachtig inlands gezag hebben wij in Atjeh nooit gekend. Oelemas hielden door hartstochtelijke zendbrieven den oorlogsgeest bij d bevolking wakker. Onder die oelamas ((godsdienstige leiders) was die in Atjeh steeds als autoriteit golden op het gebied van den godsdienst, die Teukoe werden genoemd was Tjèh Thanam di Tirò, een der ijverigste. Ik geef hier de vertaling van een van zijn zendbrieven.

“In handen te stellen van Teukoe Lamreng en Panglima II Moekins en Lamkapang en alle Moslims tot aan Lamthoes en Lampoelan. Laat deze op iedere plaats goed bekende brief niet verloren gaan. Wie hem doet verdwijnen wachte zich voor ongeluk Zo Allah wil!”
Lof zij Allah!
Van fakir, die op hulp hoopt van Allah, den Almachtige. Moge hij dezen brief doen geworden aan alle Moslimse broeders in de kampongs die door de Hollanders, de vervloekten, zijn overweldigd. Zo Allah de Verhevene wil en door zijn bestuur en Zijne kracht zullen deze en alle andere gelovigen nog overwonnen en wij Moslims door Hem ondersteund worden, zoals Allah, de Verhevene, heeft beloofd. En geopenbaard is het teeken der overwinning door het terugtrekken der ongelovigen. Hoevele sterke stellingen hebben de Moslims genomen, hoevele sterke wapenen reeds buitgemaakt. En om deze reden vermeerdert hunne volharding. De zekerheid dat de Moslims moedig zijn vermeerdert de vrees, de schuwheid en de kommer der ongelovigen en renegaten. Een duidelijk teken daarvan is, dat door paggers omgeven versterkingen willen maken en wachten plaatsen van Lam Bengkos tot aan Lambara, vandaar tot aan Geutapan Doea em Peukan Badas tot aan Koeala Tjangkool. Doch meer openbaar is het bewijs van hun kommer daar zij den vrede, van ons, Moslims, afvragen en Teukoe Basét opgedragen is geworden te verzoeken het geweervuur tussen Amagaloeng en Lambaro gedurende 15 dagen te staken. Allah! Allah! Gij lieden, onze broeders, die gevestigd zijt onder het bestuur der ongelovigen, wij zouden wensen, dat de ongelovigen en renegaten nog meer bevreesd werden. De Imam Mahdi heeft zich reeds in de Soedan en Egypte geopenbaard en hij beoorlogt die landen.(De mahdi is een persoon van wie in sommige
islamitische stromingen verwacht wordt dat hij volgens profetieën aan het einde van de tijden komt. De komst van de mahdi is het belangrijkste dat er op de dag des oordeels zal gebeuren).  Hoevele rijken hebben zich reeds aan hem onderworpen en hoevele millioenen ongelovigen en renegaten zijn reeds door de de krijgers van den Mahdi gedood. Aldus het is het ware en duidelijke bericht dat reeds alom bekend is te Mekka en te Constantinopel en in Engeland en dat ook voorkomt in de overleveringen en verhalen van de vrienden des Profeet en de uitspraken der schriftgeleerden. inderdaad zal een heilige uit één der kleinzonen, afstammelingen van den Profeet geboren worden ten tijde der verwarring in goddeloze landen, die de goddelijke wet verwerpen waar nieuwe ketterijen het hoofd opsteken. Die tijd is nu aangebroken. Allen die zich aan de zijde der gelovigen scharen, die onze broeders in de Godsdienst zijn, wilt toch den Godsdienst verheffen, het Goede doen en het Kwade nalaten en de ongelovigen bestrijden, zij zijn de vijanden van Allah, den Verhevene en  de vijanden van ons, Moslims. Ook worden door U bestraft de afvalligen met duidelijke tekenen en bewijzen, terwijl gij lieden moet overleggen en beraadslagen om den godsdienst bij de renegaten versterken door ongelovigen te doden, hunne goederen te roven, bij hun te plunderen, hen te beliegen en te bedriegen en te verschalken, zoveel als in uw vermogen is, opdat gijlieden werkelijk volgens de Islamietischen Godsdienst onze broeders wordt terwijl het U hiernamaals niet als zonden zal worden aangerekend. De ongelovigen, zoals Allah wil, overwonnen en verdreven worden, zoals de heer, de Verhevene. heeft beloofd. Twijfelt gij lieden niet, wie twijfelt is niet de broeder van de Moslims. Inderdaad van den afvallige staat geschreven: Zij dragen U een kwaad hart toe en door Allah en den Profeet is ons opgedragen hen te belagen en ons te bestendigen, terwijl wij zullen gesteund worden door de kracht des Profeets, onzen voorganger Mohammed denalwetende Profeet, aan wien en aan wiens vrienden Allah barmhartigheid schonk.
16 Rabiak Achin 1302  (Adòë Mòslöt)  Deze brief is geschreven na de concentratielinie werd ingesteld in 1884.

(Bij het lezen van deze brief zou men kunnen denken dat zij geschreven is door de tegenwoordige Jihadstrijders)

In het boek van mijn grootvader is een pas voor een vissersvaartuig dat hij voor 40 gulden kocht van de Atjeher Masiad, zie hieronder

Pas voor vissersvaartuig dat mijn grootvader van de Atjeher Masiad voor f 40 gulden had gekocht

Ik vervolg weer met passages uit het boek met de herinneringen van mijn grootvader:

Wanneer ik nu, na zovele jaren, terugdenk aan de omstandigheden waaronder wij leefden aan boord van een klein schip dat meestal ten anker lag voor de kust van het ons als regel vijandige Atjeh, dan moet ik constateren dat wij tevreden waren, in weerwil van de warmte in de kleine hut en de aanwezigheid van kakkerlakken, die zich des nachts te goed deden aan vocht dat zij vonden in de mondhoeken van den slapende zeeman. Soms moest zo een slapende man de kooi (het bed) voor vier uur verlaten en in dien tijd zorgdragen voor de veiligheid van de een honderd en vier mensen, waarvan de meerderheid slapende was en ieder zijn eigen dromen droomde en een minderheid, gewapende aan dek in wakende staat, een marinier met geladen geweer op de brug de wacht hield. En lag ons scheepje niet ver van een post van de Landmacht, die last ondervond van nachtelijke beschietingen door den vijand, dan gebeurde het dat op verzoek van de Commandant van die Post, het op zijn station voor anker liggende schip elk uur van de nacht een schot loste met een der kanonnen van 12 cm, op de kampong waartoe de mensen behoorden, die de nachtelijke beschietingen voerde. Ik denk nu aan de Post Sigli op de Noordkust. Wij brachten een bezoek aan deze Post en werden door de Commandant op de hoogte gesteld van de nachtelijke beschietingen door volk van de kampong Lho Soekoen, waarna de regeling tot stand kwam van de nachtelijke beschieting van elk uur een projectiel van 12 cm op de genoemde kampong. De post Sigli had een hoge, ijzeren uitkijktoren. Ik vroeg den commandant van de post Sigli mij toe te staan den toren te beklimmen, wat hij toestond maar, voegde hij er aan toe: “u moet het mij niet kwalijk nemen als ze op u schieten terwijl U naar boven klimt”. Een ijzeren trap voerde naar boven, boven was men beschut. Naar boven klimmende hoorde ik beneden mij een geluid, zoiets als ‘ klets’ van ijzer op ijzer, dat op mij de indruk maakte, dat ik was beschoten. Bij het afdalen heb ik het niet gehoord. Ik heb omtrent de nachtelijk paraatheid van ons schip nog niet medegedeeld, dat volgens een vaststaande regel de stoomsloep met een gewapende bemanning op brandwacht voer. Hoelang de brandwachtsloep uitbleef herinner ik mij niet meer. Wel herinner ik mij dat een lid der bemanning zorgde voor een zeer op prijs gestelde  kop koffie waarbij naar ik geloof een primus dienst deed. Ik zal nu nog herinneringen opschrijven zonder precies dat te vermelden maar wel met de wetenschap dat ze verband hebben met de “Batavia” en gebeurtenissen welke plaatsvonden in 1893 en wel een tweede tocht met gewapende sloepen naar de bovenloop van de rivier van Tamiang. Deze rivier heeft haar bestaan te danken aan twee andere machtige rivieren, de Simpang kanan en de Simpang kiri (kanan en kiri zijn maleise woorden en betekenen rechts en links). Na vereniging van die twee rivieren heet de rivier verder Tamiang en valt in Noordoostelijke richting stromende in de straat van Malakka. Ik heb reeds verteld dat wij – de Hollanders – den Atjehsen bendeleider der Nja Makan een ernstige nederlaag hadden bezorgd. Toch kon de streek waar hij zich ophield niet als kalm worden beschouwd zoals uit berichten bleek. De “Koerier” bevond zich nog daar in de bovenloop van de Tamiang rivier met haar flinke commandant luitenant ter zee 2e klasse J.F.B.van Dijk en op het zelfde schip  bevond zich ook de commandant van de gehele expeditie de overste H van den Pauvert, met zijn japanse slagzwaard.

 

De Koerier””  voor de expeditie Tamiang 1893 bevorderd en in staat gebracht tot krijgsverrichtingen. De beschermde marsen zijn voorzien van snelvuur kanonnen tot krijgsverrichtingen.

Nu werd weder een nieuwe sloepen flottielje gevormd met de bedoeling dat die gewenst zou blijken, aan den wal zou optreden. De “Batavia” zou gewapende sloepen leveren en niet alleen de “Batavia”, maar ook verscheidende andere schepen en ik zou commandant zijn van één van die sloepen. Verscheidende schepen leverden ook één of twee sloepen door en begeleid en gesleept door stoomsloepen en stoombarkassen verzamelden wij ons tot een sloepenmacht, waarvan ieder sloepscommandant zijn best had gedaan bemanning en commandant op de beste wijze doormiddel, van kooien (hangmatten compleet) te beschermen tegen geweervuur van den vijand.

Gewapende sloepen op de rivier Tamiang. De tocht vond plaats van  9 t/m 12 november 1893

Op mijn plaats achteruit had ik den indruk in Abrahams schoot te verkeren. Zo bereikten wij dan Seroeway op den eersten dag, een sterke Hollandse post aan de rechteroever van de rivier. Ik had in mijn hut aan boord  een briefje achtergelaten, waarop vermeld stond wat ik zou wensen dat met mijn eigendommen zou geschieden ingeval ik zou sneuvelen. In Seroeway sliepen wij aan den wal, wat niet et letterlijk moet worden opgevat daar slapen bijna onmogelijk werd gemaakt door de talloze muskieten, die zich verheugden in onze aanwezigheid. Den volgende dag vervolgden wij onze tocht. De stemming was best. Zo waren wij nu op die machtige stroom tussen twee dichte oerwouden. Soms liet ik, als  gelegenheid ons te beschieten mij voor den vijand gunstig scheen  mijn bemanning gereed zijn om te vuren van achter hun kooien. Maar van een beschieting door den vijand bleek niets en ook wij deden niets. Wij passeren een benting en stelden vast, dat het een verlaten vijandelijke benting was vlak bij de rivier waarin wij nog een oude lilla vonden, welke wij in de rivier wierpen en waarin een vermagerd katje in de benting werd aangetroffen, dat wij een naam gaven ( naam is ergens in die 66 jaren blijven hangen) en meenamen bevorderden tot kat van de “Batavia”. Eindelijk bereikten wij de “Koerier”een mooi gezicht die Hollandse vlag op die machtige rivier.(…) Ik herinner mij van het bezoek aan de “Koerier”slechts dat ik, na de overste van den Pauvert met zijn Japanse slagzwaard eerbiedig te hebben begroet een zittende houding te hebben aangenomen, onmiddellijk in een diepe slaap viel, waaruit ik eerst ontwaakte toen men mij mededeelde dat onze gewapende sloepenmacht nog hoger op moest. De “:Koerier” kon niet hoger op wegens haar diepgang en nu zouden wij een kijkje gaan nemen (..) Wij gingen dus verder de rivier op en zagen toen plotseling na het passeren van een bocht een grote hoeveelheid mensen, die zich op een plek bevonden waar geen bomen stonden. Deze mensen waren Atjehers , die geen vijandige houding aannamen. Ik schat het aantal op iets minder dan honderd. Hadden wij vertegenwoordigers van ons Binnenlandsch Bestuur bij ons en kwamen deze in gesprek met  een  aantal van deze Atjehers? Ik heb den indruk behouden dat wij niet voldoende voorzichtig ware. maar er gebeurde niets. De volgende dag vertrokken wij met onze gewapende sloepen voorstrooms naar de schepen, ieder naar zijn eigen schip, wat mij betreft de “Batavia “. En ons katje van die Atjehse benting voelde zich ‘senang’ onder de  hollandse vlag.

Aantekeningen 1893 van Hendrik de Booy van de expeditie Tamiang rivier:

Wij waren vijf dagen en nachten (met muskieten) afwezig geweest en hadden het een vermoeiende tocht gevonden. Nu konden wij weder genieten van de gemakken welke ons goede scheepje de  “Batavia” ons kon bieden. Zo iets als wat wij in die vijf dagen hadden doorleefd, het was niet zo bijzonder belangrijk maar het was toch een avontuur en zulke avonturen zijn, nu wij geen oostindiesche koloniën beheren dan – (tijdelijk) Nieuw Guinea, niet langer in ons bereik en dat is een gemis en doet ons gevoelen dat wij, wat onze positie onder de naties betreft, zijn gedaald tot van landen als Zwitserland, Denemarken en dergelijke. Maar wij kunnen ons troosten met het feit dat denkbeelden welke behoren bij den tijd waarin wij leven bezig zijn zich te voltrekken en alle naties zullen ondervinden. Later ontving ik een onderscheidingsteken, het ereteken voor krijgsverrichtingen met de gesp Tamiang 1893, ook al waren die krijgsverrichtingen niet belangrijk, toch denk ik gaarne aan dien tijd terug.

Bij mijn komst aan boord van de “Batavia”had onze Commandant mij opgedragen eenmaal in de week te oefenen met het kanon van 18 cm dat op het voorschip stond. In verband met deze opdracht begaf ik mij op zekeren voormiddag naar het voorschip waar het kanon van 18 cm A mij met zijn bemanning van 10 man afwachtte. De exercitie met dit kanon doorlopende, viel het mij op dat bij het vele baksen ( het geschut in de gewenste positie stellen) waarbij verscheidene kampongs schijnbaar onder vuur werden genomen mijn bemanning de zwaarte van het kanon als een groot beletsel ondervond tegen een snel veranderen van vuurrichting. Er werd veel gezucht en weinig vriendelijke namen werden het kanon gegeven terwijl niet de aanwezige lichaamskrachten genoeg werden gebruikt. Ik zeide, dat, al was ik met de bemanning de mening toegedaan dat het kanon een pestbuil is, dit daarvoor niet verantwoordelijk is, zijnde het als zodanig geboren. Beter dan op het kanon te schelden ware het daarom alle kracht aan te wenden. Het baksen ging daarna beter en toen enige weken later den Commandant een oefening kwam bij wonen ging alles best en zeide na afloop. dat hij de oefening met genoegen had bijgewoond.(…)

In maart 1894 werd ik over geplaatst a/b van Hr. Ms. Ramtorenschip “Koning der Nederlanden”. Nadat Kapitein ter zee Stokhuyzen op 17 november 1893 het commando over de “Koning” en de in de wateren van Atjeh aanwezige Nederlandse scheepsmacht had overgegeven aan Kapitein ter zee F.K. Engelbrecht had het niet lang geduurd of deze had op het schip waarop wij dienden zijn stempel gedrukt. Het duurde ook niet lang of ik had een naam bedacht, die goed bij hem paste. Deze naam was “Radja Brul”, een naam waaronder hij weldra op onze gehele vloot bekend was, en die hij tot zijn dood behield, ja zelfs daarna. Hij was de door allen erkende “radja” op het schip dat “Koning” heette en de toevoeging Brul hield verband met zijn alle scheepsruimten doordringende stem. Bij de overdracht aan hem van het commando over een van onze grote schepen met een bemanning van 300 man zeide hij: “Ik heb van mijn voorganger gehoord, dat gij niet een gemakkelijke bemanning zijt en ook aan de wal wel eens aanleiding geeft tot klachten. Welnu, ik waarschuw u, als daarvan iets blijkt, zal ik u in veertien dagen zó tam maken, dat gij gort komt eten uit mijn hand.” Wat hij tot de bemanning zeide werd zeer bewonderd.

Ik persoonlijk herinner mij, in de vroege morgen de wacht hebbende, aan dek geluid te horen van een menselijke stem, komende uit het achterschip, een geluid, aanzwellende tot een geluid dat het best kan worden vergeleken, al heb ik het nog nooit gehoord, met het geluid van de ontwakende leeuw, de koning der dieren. Dan een hofmeester van Europees ras, doodsbleek, die aan dek verschijnt, bedreigd wordende door die menselijke stem met het indraaien met een schroef in, ja waarin, ik weet het niet. Wij noemden zulk een vertoning “réveil du lion” en zorgden er voor een der torens van ons schip tussen onze commandant en ons te hebben als, na de doodsbleke hofmeester, de commandant op het halfdek verscheen. Het gebeurde wel eens, dat ik, op snippenjacht lang in de tropenzon gelopen hebbende, met een paar dagen koorts aan boord terug kwam en dan geen dienst kon doen. Ik was toen 26 jaar. Toen, nadat zo iets had plaats gehad, ik weer onderweg was met het voornemen snippen te schieten en op een afstand van zowat honderd meter van het schip was, hoorde ik mijn naam en, omkijkende, zag ik Radja Brul, staande op het achterschip, die mij toeriep: “denk eraan de Booy, je lichaam hoort niet aan je zelf maar aan het schip. En ik heb: “Jawel commandant” geroepen. Velen aan boord zullen zijn stem gehoord en verstaan en begrepen hebben wat hij zeide. Dat elke opvarende de plicht had mede te werken tot de goede naam van het schip, waarop hij dient en zodoende tot de goede naam van onze marine, was een gedachte die onze commandant gemeengoed wenste en die ook tegenover de Atjeher moest worden geëerbiedigd.

Als er te Kota Radja iets bijzonders gebeurde als de benoeming van een nieuwe, met ons bevriende Radja van Edi, waartoe de generaal Deijkerhoff ons uitnodigde, dan trok ik zelf mijn  mooie bullen aan, lange jas met sabel en epauletten en ging er heen met de tram want in de gouverneurswoning was dan iets te zien, vele Hoofd – en andere Officieren en bevriende Atjehse  hoofden vooral den nieuw te benoemen Radja van Edi  en ook  den sluwen Teukoe Oemar en wij vergaten dan tijdelijk dat wij (de Marine) het getikte blaadje, dat de Gouverneur  ons geregeld toezond, misschien onverdiend, altijd bestempelde met den naam Blauwe Leugen. Wij oordeelden misschien ten onrechte , dat de toestand van rust en veiligheid daarin al te gunstig werd geschilderd.

Inhuldiging van de nieuwe Radja van Edi. V.l.n r Radja van Edi , x,  Generaal Deijkerhoff (met tafeltje met glazen voor hem), x ,x,Overste Siekens commandant dan 2e van links van de witte pilaar er achter zittende Teukoe Oemar, geheel rechts zittend Luitenant ter zee H. de Booy

Op 19 juli 1894 kwam een eind aan een periode van mijn dienst tijd bij de Marine waaraan ik gaarne terugdenk. Behalve met het gewone clubje bezocht ik ook enige kampongs in de geconcentreerde stelling met Alfred Boissevain (later na het huwelijk van mijn grootvader met Hilda Boissevain zijn zwager) dien ik op het instituut had leren kennen als adelborst van het jongste jaar. Met dit afscheid op 19 juli 1894  van een periode waaraan ik met genoegen terugdenk ben ik te vlug geweest. Immers werd ik op dien datum geplaatst aan boord van H.M. “Benkoelen” welk schip ik eerst op 18 oktober 1895 zou verlaten na 1 jaar en 3 maanden en er is geen reden waarom ik niet met genoegen ook aan dien tijd terugdenk.

De tijd dat mijn grootvader op het schip de “Benkoelen” heeft doorgebracht aan de kustwateren van Atjeh heeft hij weinig krijgsverrichtingen moet doen. Ik laat nog enkele passages uit deze tijd volgen.

H.M. “Benkoelen “, bemanning 77 Europeanen 28 inlanders

Wij doorzochten veel zeilprauwen die beantwoorden aan de voorschriften van de Scheepvaartregeling, waren in station aan Noord – en Oostkust, ik bezocht met een stoombarkas een in het binnenland gevestigde militaire post van het N.I. leger. Volgens mijn herinnering was de `Benkoelen” gedurende den tijd van een jaar en ongeveer drie maanden, de duur van mijn verblijf aan boord vaak aan de westkust, ook aan de Noordkust soms op de rede van Oelee Lheue voor het voorgeschreven bezoek aan het hoofdstation en ook geruimen tijd bezig aan de opname van het eiland Simaloer, een groot eiland aan de Westkust. Ik kan mij echter niet herinneren, wanneer wij aan de Noordkust gestationeerd waren wanneer aan de Westkust waar wij vele malen met de landingsdivisie den wal opgingen ook schijf te schieten en wanneer  wij het eiland Simaloer opnamen.

De landingsdivisie van H.M. “Benkoelen”op Poeloe Rajah, Westkust van Atjeh

De landingsdivisie van H.M. ” Benkoelen”versterkt door een deel van de bezetting van de post Lho Theumawe oefenden aan de wal 1895 Geheel links staat ergens luitenant ter zee H. de Booy

Een  gebeurtenis vol spanning was het omslaan van onze vlet in de branding, de landing op een eiland van de bemanning van inbegrip van onze dokter v.d. Sande.  Verder mag niet onvermeld blijven dat de “Benkoelen” werkzaam aan de Westkust, even op een koraal rif stootte . Alles samen genomen, is het voor ons, koloniale mogendheid , een groot verlies, dat wij dit werk zo radicaal hebben moeten opgeven (..)

Hospitaal Pantei Perak bij Kota Radja

De photo hierachter (zie bovenstaande foto) stelt het grote militair hospitaal Pantei Perak bij Kota Radja voor waar ik enigen tijd met koorts verpleegd werd. De photo toont vooral den langen middenweg die vertakkingen heeft naar zijwegen rechts en links waaraan de kamers van de verpleegden zich bevinden. Achteruit die kamer keek men op het uitgebreide terrein van de geconcentreerde postenlinie vanwaar geluid van geschutvuur kwam en vooral in de avond van Vrijdag het geluid van godsdienstoefening in de kampongs. Op gewone avonden vaak het gegil van Atjehers. ‘s Avonds langs de middenweg dwangarbeiders die gestorven patiënten naar het lijkhuis brengen. In het hospitaal een Hoofdofficier van gezondheid ontmoet die (misschien) Rutgers van der Loeff heet en die zegt dat “de Booij “een goed ras is. Ik vind in het hospitaal ook ter Cock , de officier van administratie van de “Flores”, die met zijn sloepen langzij “Benkoelen” liggende zware brandwonden heeft gekregen door onachtzaamheid van onze machine kamer, die niet heeft gewaarschuwd dat er zou worden gebreind, waardoor ter Cock dit breinwater, dat naar ik meen 40 graden celcius heeft, over zich heeft gekregen. Voornamelijk armen en benen getroffen..

Werpen van mortier te Lhos Theumawe 1895

Ten anker liggende voor de kust van Atjeh bevindt zich gedurende den nacht steeds een gewapende marinier op de brug. Zijn Beamont geweer is geladen en draagt een sabelbajonet. Wij weten wat wij van den Atjeher kunnen verwachten op een donkeren nacht. Als hij wordt afgelost ontlaadt de afgeloste zijn geweer en neemt de sabelbajonet af. Nu was dat afnemen van de sabelbajonet door den afgeloste marinier wat onhandig geschied want de sabelbajonet viel in zee en wat erger is voor een bekwaam, goed oppassend marinier, vader van driekinderen in Holland, drukt deze zijn gevoelens uit wijzende naar de plek waar zijn sabelbajonet in de zee verdween: “daar leit het pestijzer”. Ik maakte dadelijk het plan er over te schrijven aan des mariniers hoogste chef in de wateren van Atjeh doch voor dien brief als briefschrijven te nemen (zonder zijn medeweten) den marinier Middendorp “capitain d’armes “aan boord. H.M. “Benkoelen”, een man, beantwoordend , wat zijn karaktertrekken betreft, aan de strengste eisen welke het Korps voorschrijft.

De marinier Middendop, “capitaine d’armes “aan boord H.M. “Benkoelen”op de kust van Atjeh. Hij schreef (zonder zijn medeweten ) een brief met een klacht aan zijn hoogste chef (zie tekst)

Bekendheid met wat er omgaat in het hoofd van den Marinier stelde mij in staat aan dien brief de vereiste vorm een inhoud te geven, ook wanneer dit hoofd staat voor de beoordeling van andere moeilijkheden van het verhinderen van het opschuiven van de stropdas. Hoe die brief luidde, er zijn sedert zestig jaren verlopen en mijn herinneringenvermogen is ontoereikend. Wel herinner ik mij dat een man, die later mijn schoonbroeder werd, dien brief las en gedurende een tijdelijke aanwezigheid aan boord van H.M. ” Koning der Nederlanden” mij zeide dat hij er met genoegen van had kennis genomen. Die man was de luitenant ter zee 2 e klasse Abraham van Stockum.( een volle neef van Hendrik de Booy). Wat zou de ontvanger van den brief,  luitenant G. Faassen doen.. Wat hij deed had ik niet verwacht. Hij schreef aan de Commandant van d e “Benkoelen” van Rossum. Wat hij schreef weet ik niet en wist ik zestig jaren geleden ook niet. De heer van Rossum, commandant van H.M.”Benkoelen” bezat verscheidene  lofwaardige eigenschappen doch hield niet van zulk soort aardigheden. Wat zou hij doen. Misschien had hij het briefje van G. Faassen, dat waarschijnlijk niet geheel vrij van een geestigheid zal zijn geweest op een dergelijke wijze hebben kunnen beantwoorden maar hij deed het best wat hij kon doen “niet”  en liep een week rond met de gelaatsuitdrukking welke lezer van het leven van Koningin Victoria bekend is, die van “we are not amused”.

Daar mijn doel is het opschrijven van herinneringen mag ik geen herinneringen verzwijgen tenzij dit gewenst is. Op en neer wandelen op het half dek met onze commandant (luitenant ter zee 1e klasse J.P. van Rossum en sprekend over koetjes en kalfjes, zeide hij plotseling,  de Booy zeide hij  onze tweede Machinist wil bevorderd worden tot een hogere rang. Volgens de  bepalingen moet hij daarvoor examen afleggen en heb ik besloten U te  belasten met het afnemen van dat examen. Het gaat om  Natuurkunde, wel te weten de beginselen. En wanneer zal dit examen worden afgenomen, vroeg ik “Morgen “antwoordde de  Commandant. De marine is vol verassing.. Het ene ogenblik ben je de gast van een rijke Arabier het volgende sla ik om met een sloep; wat mij altijd treft als ik thuis kom in het ouderlijk huis te Haarlem dat de kruidenier van Veen terwijl ik in grillige lijnen den aardbol heb omcirkeld nog altijd bezig is met het afwegen van een of ander vocht zoals stroop of het afmeten van iets anders als ik uit  de tram, die mij naar huis brengt, hem met de hand groet, want ik ken dien man. Vaak heeft mijn Moeder mij opgedragen, toen ik nog een jongetje was, iets bij Veen te kopen,. maar deze verrassing gaat te ver. Als de Commandant mij in kennis brengt met deze benoeming herinner ik mij niets van de beginselen van Natuurkunde.  Er zal dus een leerboek nodig zijn om het geheugen op te frissen. veel meer dan iemand die her examen afneemt gevoel ik mij als iemand die examen aflegt. Maar ik had dien nacht de Hondenwacht en friste met een leerboek dat ik vond het vroeger geleerde op. Den volgende morgen zat ik met den machinist en de Commandant aan een tafeltje aan dek. De machinist kwam door zijn examen en ik door het mijne.
Mijn tijd dienende in de wateren van Atjeh liep ten einde. Op 18 october 1895 werd ik overgeplaatst in de rol van  H.M “Gedeh”, het wachtschip in de haven van Tandjong Priok. Op 2 november melde ik mij aan boord van dit schip na een voorspoedige reis met de Westboot van de K.P.M. Ik nam afscheid van de “Benkoelen” en van mijn vrienden te Oleë Lheuë. In mijn atjehsen tijd had ik veel gelezen in het boek van Snouck Hurgronje en had ik getracht met behulp van de atjehse taal te leren. De gedachte was bij mij opgekomen afscheid te nemen van de  Marine en in dienst te komen bij het Binnenlands Bestuur. Toen het feit dat ik hierover ernstig nadacht en er over sprak met een assistent resident ter ore kwam van mijn ouderen vriend Frits Bauduin, schreef deze mij verscheidende brieven, minstens drie, waarin hij ten sterkste afraadt het plan dat ik heb, uit te voeren onder aanvoering van de grote nadelen en er aan verbonden waartoe dan ook behoort dat ik ten slotte dan zal trouwen met de “snaar” ,die zo trouw voor mij gezorgd heeft.  Hij wijst ook op de nadelen verbonden aan het op mijn leeftijd in dienst komen als controleur. Intussen, begrijpende dat ik bij de overgang naar het binnenlands bestuur zou moeten kunnen  beschikken over de kennis welke door aanstaande controleurs gedurende een studie van een aantal jaren te Leiden is verkregen of over een deel ervan, ben ik begonnen met het lezen van maleise hikajats in arabiesch schrift. Wij ontvingen op het Instituut van de Marine reeds onderricht in die richting van den heer Derx.  Het was mijn plan te Batavia te wenden tot een heer, die Margadant heette en die zonder twijfel bereid zou zijn mijn kennis in het lezen van hikajats te onderzoeken en beoordelen. (Later in Batavia heeft de heer Margadant zijn vaardigheid in het lezen van maleise hikajats in arabisch schrift niet voldoende gevonden wat mijn grootvader niet verwonderde)

H. de Booy in de kleding van een atjees hoofd (oeloebalang)

Op den dag van vertrek besteeg ik de Westboot, aan boord waarvan groet drukte heerste. Er waren vele militairen aan boord en daarbij behorende vrouwen en kinderen. Op het grootluik zat een figuur, dien ik dadelijk herkende als een Atjeher. Hij was met een dun touwtje verbonden aan een politieoppasser, een inlander, die rustig sliep. Vrouwen van militairen brachten den gevangen Atjeher seroetos (inlandse cigaretten) dat hij dankbaar ontving. Ik vroeg hem in de Atjehse taal van waar hij kwam en hij vertelde mij dat hij kwam van de kampong Lho Soekoen bij Sigli; dat Atjehers de boot van het binnenlandsch bestuur, die onder de brug lag in de hollandse benting Sigli hadden geroofd en dat een atjehs oeloebalang de dader had aangewezen en uitgeleverd, echter werd de boot, naar ik meen, een stoomsloep, niet uitgeleverd en ontkende deze atjeher dat hij had deelgenomen aan de roof, maar oeloebalangs zijn en toen volgde een woord, dat waarschijnlijk vertaald in de hollandse taal “smeerlappen” betekent. Sigli is de ons welbekende post, welks militair commandant ons een bezoek bracht en met onze commandant een afspraak maakte welke inhield dat hij hulp nodig hebbende die vuurpijlen zou tonen. Hij zou, het was avond, na terugkomst op zijn Post, ook vuurpijlen omhoog schieten, maar deze zouden dienen om te zien, dat die vuurpijlen goed zichtbaar waren, niet als een verzoek om hulp. De Commandant van Sigli verzocht onzen Commandant de bemanning een extra oorlam te geven schenken en dit verzoek willigde onzen Commandant in.

Extra oorlam bij de gelegenheid van het bezoek van de Commandant van Sigli

Daarna vertrok hij. Wij lichten daarna het anker en gingen onder stoom naar onze plaats door onze commandant opgegeven. Ik had de wacht en onder stoom zijnde stond ik op de brug. Toen zag ik drie vuurpijlen omhoog gaan boven Sigli, wat ik den Commandant rapporteerde, die mij mededeelde dat deze vuurpijlen geen andere betekenis hadden, dan dat ze gezien waren wat wij nog door het oplaten  van een vuurpijl bevestigden.

De Atjeher van het groot luik zeide te behoren tot de kampong Lko Soekoen van waar Sigli vaak beschoten werd en die wij dan beschoten met granaten. Na aankomst in Tandjong Priok gingen al die militairen en ook de Atjeher  van het grootluik van boord. Enige dagen, misschien een week later, te Tandjong Priok geland zijnde met de bedoeling naar Batavia te gaan zag ik een troepje dwangarbeiders op de gebruikelijke wijze  onder geleide  van een inheemse politieoppasser gekleed in een tenue dat hem het voorkomen geeft van een gekleed aapje. Een dun touw omgeeft zijn gehele troepje. De twee einden zijn aan elkaar geknoopt en dan heeft de politieoppasser het in de hand. Een van de dwangarbeiders steekt een arm  in de hoogte . Ik herken hem, al is zijn lange haar geknipt, den Atjeher aan boord van de Westboot. Ik vraag hen naar het oordeel van het binnenlands bestuur en hij zegt mij dat hij 20 jaar dwangarbeid heeft gekregen. Ik herinner mij dat hij er “soesah tehat”aan toevoegde. Toen kwam het troepje in beweging, ik denk naar de pakketboot die een lange reis zal maken naar een plaats in het oosten van ons eilandenrijk. Er waren vele mensen, een van die mensen scheen mij toe ietwat verbaasd te zijn over mijn spreken met een dwangarbeider.. Het was een ambtenaar van het BB een resident of assistent-resident.

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Voor de expeditie naar de Tamiang rivier van 5-12 november 1893 heeft Hendrik de Booij van de Minister van Marine Jjhr H.W. van der Wijck een oorkonde  gekregen dd 30 november 1894

:
Oorkonde voor Hendrik de Booij, Luitenant ter Zee der 2e Klasse, . ( De naam van de Booij wordt nu terecht met een lange ij geschreven). De tekst van deze oorkonde luidt: De Minister van  Marine,  Gezien het Koninklijk Besluit van den 19 Februari 1869 no 13 waarbij een eerteken is ingesteld voor hen, die deelgenomen hebben aan belangrijke krijgsbedrijven, verklaart dat de Luitenant ter Zee der 2e klasse H. de Booij gerechtigd is tot het dragen van het voormeld eereteken met gesp, hebbende hij als Luitenant ter Zee der 2e Klasse deelgenomen aan de expeditie naar de Tamiang-rivier ( Oostkust van Sumatra) 1893.  ‘s-Gravenhage den 30 november 1894. De Minister voornoemd  Van der Wijck

Opmerkelijk genoeg  bestaat er een direct verband tussen mijn twee grootvaders, voordat mijn ouders geboren waren. Wat wil namelijk het geval. Zoals we al hebben kunnen lezen waren zij aan boord van de gewapende sloepen, die een verkenningsexpeditie uitvoerden op de bovenloop van de Rivier Tamiang aan de Oostkust van Atjeh. Zowel mijn grootvader Gooszen als mijn grootvader de Booij krijgen  voor deze krijgsverrichtingen een ereteken van de Minister van Marine. Uit de oorkonde, die daarbij werd vergezeld gaat heeft de zelfde tekst voor beide grootsvaders, uiteraard waren de namen van hen op de oorkonde verschillend. De dagtekening was ook het zelfde: 30 november 1994.  De oorkonde was getekend door  Jhr  H.M. van der Wijck, de Minister van Marine.

Oorkonde voor Antonie Frederik Gooszen, Luitenant ter Zee 2e klasse. De tekst van deze oorkonde is identiek aan die van Antonie Frederik Gooszen. Uiteraard verschilt de naam die bij de oorkonde is ingevuld

4. Vierde Atjeh oorlog 1898-1918

De vierde Atjeh oorlog duurde van 1998-1918. Mijn grootvader is reeds, zoals we al gezien hebben in 1895 uit Atjeh vertrokken Hij is in begin 1900 weer naar Indië teruggekeerd. Hier werd hij benoemd als adjudant van de Gouverneur-generaal W. Rooseboom

.

Willem Rooseboom ,Gouverneur-generaal 1899-1904. Mevrouw Rooseboom-Pit

Door deze functie was hij indirect op een bepaalde manier betrokken bij deze vierde Atjeh oorlog. Rooseboom was van huis uit een beroepsmilitair.  Bij zijn ontslag uit de militaire dienst in 1899 werd hij bevorderd tot luitenant-generaal. Roosebooms ontslag hing samen met zijn benoeming tot gouverneur-generaal van Nederlandsch-Indië. Men mag aannemen, dat deze benoeming het werk is geweest van de minister van Koloniën J.Th. Cremer, die Rooseboom uit de tijd van diens kamerlidmaatschap goed kende. Dat de keuze op een militair viel – voor het eerst in bijna zestig jaar na het overlijden van gouverneur-generaal D.J. de Eerens in 1840 – was op zichzelf niet zo verwonderlijk. De gebrekkige staat van de Indische defensie baarde bij het opdringen van Japan en het verlies van de Philippijnen door Spanje aan de Verenigde Staten grote zorgen. Rooseboom leek de geschikte man om Indië in een betere staat van tegenweer te brengen bij een onverhoopte aanval van een buitenlandse vijand. In de Indische pers vond Roosebooms benoeming echter geen onverdeeld gunstig onthaal, vanwege zijn onbekendheid met Indië waarvoor hij in het verleden nooit enige belangstelling had getoond. Hij volgde in oktober 1899 de Gouverneur-generaal Jhr C.H.A. van der Wijck op. Hij steunde van Heutsz met volle overtuiging in zijn strijd tegen de Atjehers om het Nederlands gezag te vestigen. Als gouverneur-generaal, heeft Rooseboom niet geheel aan de verwachtingen ten opzichte van de door hem te ondernemen reorganisatie van de Indische defensie beantwoord. Met de minister van Koloniën lag hij dikwijls overhoop. Zo bood Rooseboom in december 1903 zijn ontslag aan, omdat hij door gewapend ingrijpen een einde wilde maken aan de in het rijkje Tabanan op Bali bestaande weduwen verbranding, terwijl minister Idenburg van een dergelijk ingrijpen niet wilde weten.

Willem Frederik Idenburg , Minister van Oorlog

Het conflict kon worden bijgelegd doordat de raja van Tabanan zich in het begin van 1904 naar de wensen van de Ned.-Indische regering schikte.(Zoals we later zullen zien, bij de memoires van mijn oom James Marnix de Booy, is het plan van Rooseboom toch uitgevoerd in 1906 toen Bali werd veroverd. Mijn oom heeft als zeeofficier meegedaan met deze verovering). Op 1 oktober 1904 gaf Rooseboom het bestuur over aan zijn opvolger, de pacificator van Atjeh, J.B. van Heutsz.

Hendrik de Booij adjudant van de Gouverneur-generaal van Nederlandsch Indië V.r.n.l: H. de Booij, zijn vrouw Hilda, Holle, vrouw van de Gouverneur Generaal Rooseboom-Pit,, Gouverneur-generaal Rooseboom, Regent van Bandoeng, Nederburg, De Lannoy, assistent resident Maurenborcher.

De tuchtiging van de opstandige Atjehers, aan het einde van de derde Atjeh oorlog heeft een onbeschrijfelijke verwoesting aangericht. Groot Atjeh was vrijwel geheel ontvolkt, de bevolking was weggetrokken naar andere gebieden zoals Malakka . Hoe diep de moraal van de troepen was gezonken laat een passage uit het boek van Paul van ‘t Veer over de Atjeh oorlog zien:

pagina 232: “De mate van verwildering wordt treffend geïllustreerd door een trofee die in 1897 op de achtergalerij van het militair hospitaal te Koetaradja was tentoongesteld. Het was een grote stopfles gevuld met alkohol waarin het opgezwollen hoofd dreef van teukoe Nja Makan. ( over deze man verhaalt mijn grootvader in zijn herinneringen). Deze verzetsleider was in juli 1896 ernstig ziek aangetroffen in kampong Lamnga even buiten de linie. Hij werd op een tandoe gelegd en met zijn gezin naar de colonnecommandant overste Soeters gebracht. Die liet hem van de tandoe gooien en ter plaatse doodschieten. In aanwezigheid van Makans vrouwen en kinderen werd zijn hoofd afgehakt. Kolonel Stemfoort liet het als trofee tentoonstellen. Een niet teerhartige ooggetuige schreef: ‘Deze en soortgelijke barbaarsheden hebben de onderwerping en pacificatie van Atjeh niet in de hand gewerkt, tegendeel, zij hebben ons duizenden en duizenden onverzoenlijke vijanden bezorgd.’  (Later kreeg deze Stemfoort de Militaire Willemsorde 3e klasse).

Generaal van Heutsz was de leider van de Pedir expeditie in 1989. Uit Selimoen en Sigli vertrokken twee collones van 75-100 man. Snouck Hurgronje was ook weer van  de partij en had een groot aandeel, samen met van Heutsz, gehad om de voorbereiding van deze expeditie. Hun grootste tegenstander was niet minder dan de Teukoe Oemar, die we al eerder hebben leren kennen.

Bivakfoto Pedir expeditie  olv. generaal van Heutsz. Hij zit achter de tafel links op een stoel. De man uiterst links in de witte jas is Snouck Hurgronje

Op 10 februari 1899 viel het leger het kamp van Teukoe Oemar binnen. Hij had er echter lucht van gekregen en trok op tijd weg en viel met zijn mannen de plaats Meulaboh aan. Er waren nog maar weinig mensen op deze post achter gebleven. Maar van Heutsz had toch rond de post een hinderlaag gelegd met in zijn achterhoofd de gedachte : “Je kunt maar nooit weten”. Er ontstond een heftige strijd. De troepen van Oemar raakten in paniek, maar ook de troepen van van Heutsz onder leiding van Verbrugh moesten zich terugtrekken.  De volgende ochtend bleek dat onder de gesneuvelden Teukoe Oemar zelf  en verscheidene van de bekendste panglima’s.

Commandant J. J. Verbrugh

De volgende expeditie, die geleid werd door van Heutsz, is in 1901 tegen de bergstelling Batoe Iliq. In 1880 heeft Generaal van der  Heijden tot driemaal tevergeefs  geprobeerd deze vesting te veroveren. Nu lukt het wel met verlies van 5 doden en 27 gewonden en71 doden aan de kant van de Atjehers.

Van Heutsz bij de aanval op Batè Ilië op 3 februari 1901. Geheel links staat een afdeling infanterie voor dekking van de staf. Achter Van Heutsz v.l.n.r. kolonel Van Dussen, majoor Doorman, kapitein Spruijt, achter de kapitein luitenant Schutstal van Woudenberg en de controleur (inlandse bestuurder) Frijling

Bivak Tripa. De expeditie nam de familie van Panglima Polim in gijzeling en dwong hierdoor Panglima Polim zich over te geven. Colijn omcirkeld.

Door al deze militaire acties werd het verzet van vele feodale hoofden en hun legertjes gebroken. De sultan van Kota Radja en zijn volgelingen waren in 1874 uit hun stad verdreven en gaven zich na een kwart eeuw over op 10 februari 1903. Even later door Panglima Polim, die een grote  rol heeft gespeeld in de guerrilla strijd tegen het Nederlandse gezag.

Panglima Polim, de verzetsstrijder die zich in 1903 overgaf aan het Nederlands gezag

Top of Form

Pang Polim, the resistance fighter who in 1903 surrendered to the Dutch authority


The time of Heutsz from 1899 to 1909

were the ten years of all Aceh bloodiest wars.

 

The climax was the expedition of 8 February to 23 July 1904,

 

which was led by captain GCE Van Dalen. His right hand was 2nd Lt. Christopher. He accompanied Daalen of the journey through the Atlas Gajo and areas in the south of Aceh. In the five months in 2092 Acehnese were slain by 26 killing the forces of Van Dalen. Yet there but actually ten days fierce fighting
Again let me van ‘t Veer in his book Aceh war on this expedition From Daalen the word. On page 270 we read:


“The villagers had themselves with shock and stabbing weapons and some old-fashioned muzzle loading rifles entrenched behind earthworks with thorn bushes.

 

They were in no way match for the military police with their modern repeating rifles. The attackers were able to kampong model drawing, got the signal Attacks and stormed the earthworks.

That was always a perilous moment, the only one, and it lasted only briefly. soon as the soldiers on shore stood, they stopped systematically down everything what is behind it was.

Sometimes it took the shooting fifteen minutes or half an hour , sometimes it took a few hours before the village was conquered and the entire population killed. In one case lasted for a quarter past nine in the morning till a quarter past four in the afternoon.

Never give anyone surrendering. Never thought Van Daalen to another tactics than the total eradication. Prisoners he could not make. What had he to them should do Who’d they have to monitor or drains? T

ime for sieges wanted or he could not take. He was in a hurry. He wanted to set examples. His tactic was complete surrender or complete death. It was a massacre unprecedented, of which the photos sixty years later without disqualification can view.

From Daalen was not at all embarrassed about his performance, rather proud of his success, he made lieutenant Neeb after the assaults the piles of corpses photographed, the triumphant military police next.
The right hand of Van Daalen on asset boss still in cruelty. From Daalen wrote in his report that Christopher always first started shooting and finished last and here, Van Daalen hate, that do not shoot, but that Christopher had already started before he, Van Daalen, had given the order.

 

After the command “cease Vuuren ‘shot Christopher with his men still go through .. Also van’ t Veer know some examples of the occurrence of these Lieutenant Christopher to recover:


Page 266:

 “The division that Christopher under his command had himself may compose Ambonese, Menadonese and Javanese veterans,

 

was no ordinary trooper. It was the column mat Jan, ‘the tiger column, whose troops as extra-ornament a red scarf wearing. When one of the old brigade commanders on those days speaks, writes Zentgraaff, “he raises his hands defensively briefly, he wants nothing more to say.”

 

An example of Christoffels performance style from another source: He had to put an end to the breakup of the tram, one of the most common acts of resistance. He checked overnight kampong houses along the road.

 

Was the man absent, was at the door a cross drawn with chalk. early the next morning were ticked houses again checked. Could the man in the opinion of Christopher no good explanation for his nightly absence, he was immediately shot dead. “
Especially these activities he became the most decorated officer of the KN.IL: Military Order of William 3rd and 4th class, Knight Dutch Lion etc.

 

The whole expedition is recorded in the book: The journey of Commander Of Daalen by Gajo, and Alas- and Batak. 8 February to 23 July 1904 by J.C.J. Kempees first Lute of Art. and fungeerend Adjutant of the Colonne Commander. Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer in 1905, 265 pp. 28 photos of J.Neeb (to be purchased for 350 euros at the antiquarian Gemilang)

De tijd van van Heutsz van 1899 tot 1909 waren de tien bloedigste jaren van alle Atjeh oorlogen. Het toppunt was wel  de expeditie van 8 februari  tot 23 juli 1904, die onder leiding stond van overste G.C.E. Van Dalen. Zijn  rechterhand was 2e luitenant Christoffel. Hij vergezelde van Daalen op de tocht door de Gajo en Atlas gebieden in het zuiden van Atjeh. In de vijf maanden werden 2092 Atjehers gedood tegen 26 doden van de troepen van Van Dalen. Toch werd er maar eigenlijk een tiental  dagen heftig gevochten

Ook hier laat ik van ‘t Veer in zijn boek Atjeh oorlog over deze expeditie van Van Daalen aan het woord. Op pagina 270 lezen we:

“De  dorpelingen hadden zich met slag- en steekwapens en wat ouderwetse tromplaadgeweren verschanst achter aarden wallen met doornstruiken. Zij waren in geen enkel opzicht partij voor de marechaussees met hun moderne repeteergeweren. De aanvallers konden zich voor   de kampong model opstellen, kregen het signaal Aanvallen en bestormden de aarden wallen. Dat was altijd een hachelijk moment, het enige, en het duurde slechts kort. Zodra de soldaten op de wal stonden, schoten zij systematisch alles neer wat zich daarachter bevond. Soms duurde de schietpartij een kwartier of een half uur, soms duurde het een paar uur eer de kampong veroverd was en de complete bevolking afgemaakt. In één enkel geval duurde het van kwart over negen’s morgens tot kwart over vier ‘s middags. Nimmer gaf iemand zich over. Nimmer dacht Van Daalen aan een andere tactiek dan de totale uitroeiing. Gevangenen kon hij niet maken. Wat had hij met hen moeten doen? Wie had hen moeten bewaken of afvoeren? Tijd voor belegeringen wilde of kon hij niet nemen. Hij had haast. Hij wilde voorbeelden stellen. Zijn tactiek was complete overgave of complete dood. Het werd een moordpartij zonder weerga, waarvan men de foto’s zestig jaar na dato niet zonder ontzetting kan bekijken. Van Daalen was allerminst beschaamd over zijn optreden, veeleer trots op zijn succes, hij liet luitenant Neeb na afloop van de bestormingen de stapels lijken fotograferen, de triomfantelijke marechaussees ernaast.

De rechterhand van Van Daalen overtroef zijn baas nog in wreedheid. Van Daalen schreef in zijn verslag, dat Christoffel altijd als eerste begon te schieten en als laatste eindigde en hier had Van Daalen een hekel aan, niet aan dat schieten, maar dat Christoffel al begon voordat hij, Van Daalen, het bevel had gegeven. Na het bevel ‘staakt het vuuren’ schoot Christoffel met zijn mannen nog altijd even door..Ook van ‘t Veer weet enkele staaltjes van het optreden van deze luitenant Christoffel te verhalen:

Pagina 266: “De divisie die Christoffel onder zijn commando zelf had mogen samenstellen uit Ambonese, Menadonese en Javaanse veteranen, was dan ook geen gewone marechaussee. Het was ‘de colonne mat jan,’ de tijgercolonne, waarvan de manschappen als extra-ornament een rode halsdoek droegen. Als men een van de oude brigadecommandanten over die dagen spreekt, schrijft Zentgraaff, ‘heft hij afwerend de handen even op; hij wil er niets meer van zeggen.’ Een voorbeeld van Christoffels manier van optreden uit andere bron: Hij moest een eind maken aan het opbreken van de trambaan, een der meest voorkomende verzetsdaden. Hij controleerde ‘s nachts de kamponghuizen langs de baan. Was de man afwezig, dan werd op de deur met krijt een kruis getekend. De volgende ochtend vroeg werden de aangekruiste huizen weer nagelopen. Kon de man naar het oordeel van Christoffel geen goede verklaring geven van zijn nachtelijke afwezigheid, dan werd hij meteen doodgeschoten”.

Vooral deze activiteiten werd hij de meest gedecoreerde officier van het KN.I.L.: Militaire Willemsorde 3e en 4e klasse, Ridder Nederlandse Leeuw etc. De hele expeditie is vastgelegd in het boek: De tocht van Overste Van Daalen door de Gajo-, en Alas- en Bataklanden. 8 februari tot 23 Juli 1904 door J.C.J. Kempees 1e Luit der Art. en fungeerend Adjudant van de Colonne Commandant. Uitgegeven te Amsterdam door J.C. Dalmeijer in  1905, 265 pp 28 foto’s van J.Neeb (aan te schaffen voor 350 euro’s bij het antiquariaat Gemilang)

.

Links: Overste Van Daalen. Rechts: zijn rechterhand Luitenant Christoffel

Left: Commander Of Daalen. Right: his right Lieutenant Christopher

De kampong Koeto Reh in de Alas landen in Atjeh op 11 juni 1904 veroverd door een marechaussee colonne onder commando van overste Van Daalen. Geheel links staande: overste Van Daalen. Foto genomen door J. Neeb

The kampong Koeto Reh in Alas countries in Aceh on 11 June 1904 conquered by a military police convoy under the command of captain Van Daalen. Far left standing: Commander Of Daalen. Photo taken by J. Neeb

Massagraf in de kampong Koeto Reh

MassGrave inthe kampongKoetoReh

 

 

1892 (16 March).

2c / 3c stat card used from Indonesia. Atjeh – Netherlands. Via Penang (20 March). + arrival on front. Fine + scarce.[ 536460]

Bid Info: Price: $ 650.00

Breast Badge, silver (Dutch hallmarked, sword), named on reverse to “3t. B. / F. Lammel / E.F. / te / Atjeh”, with original suspension ring and ribbon with 30 bars (BALI1846, BALI1848, BALI1849, BORNEO18501854, BONI1859, BORNEO18591863, GUINEA18691870, DELI 1872, ATJEH 18731874, ATJEH 18731876, ATJEH 18731880, SAMALANGAN 1877, ATJEH 18961900, DJAMBI 19011904, KORINTJI 1903, GAJO en ALASLANDEN 1904, KLEINE SOENDEN EILANDEN 1905 – 1909, ATJEH 19061910, N.GUINEA 190715, ATJEH 191114, TIMOR 191117, W.AFD.BORNEO 191214, CERAM 1915, W.KUST ATJEH 19251927, ATJEH 18731885, TIMOR 1942, “ZUIDCELEBES” 19051908, ATJEH 19011905, “MIDDENSUMATRA” 19031907, TAMIANG 1893) and halfsized miniature in silver with 2 bars (MIDDENSUMATRA 19031907, 14 SEPT.27OCT. BALI 1906). Superb collector’s presentation in excellent condition, of high rarity! I RR!

La Galerie Numismatique Orders and Medals auction XVII

Nederland – Atjeh- of Kraton medaille 1873-1874 (MMW47, Bax51), ingesteld in 1874 – VZ Portret Willem III n.r. / KZ Atjeh binnen lauwer- en eikenkrans – verguld bronzen miniatuur 13,5 mm met blauw lint – PR

Nederland – Kruis voor Krijgsverrichtingen (MMW41/42, Bax50) – Vierarmig kruis met medaillon Willem III, met gespen ‘Atjeh 1873-74′ en ’14 Sept. 27 Oct. Bali 1906′ (voor een expeditie van de gesp Kleine Soenda-Eilanden 1905-1909) – Berlin-zilveren miniatu

Munten- en Postzegel Organisatie Numismatic Auction on

Closing: May 23 – May 26, 2012

Bid Info: Price: € 25.00

Indonesien; Sultana Atjeh, Tadj Al-Alam 1641-1675, Gold-Coupang
(1/4 Mas) o.J., beiderseits arab. Schrift SELTEN[Mitch. 3083, Millies 138 vz]

Mutsuhito. 1867-1912, Ni-Bu Ban Kin o.J. (3,0 g; 223 fein); dazu Indien – Travancore. Fanam o. J. 0,31 g) und Sumatra – Sultanat Atjeh. 1 Mas o. J. (19. Jh; 0,61 g). Fr. 22, 1400, 16. 3 St. G O L D vz

1875, Ganzsachenkarte 5 cent lila König Wilhelm III, entwertet mit „VELDPOSTK. ATJEH No.1 10.11.1875” und Punktstempel „66” auf Wertstempel, außerdem Handstempel „SPECIMEN” als portofreie Feldpost nach Batavia, Ankunftstempel „WELTEVREDEN 21.11.1875”, reiner Bedarf. Catalog Price 200,00

INDIA HOLANDESA. 1899 (July 24). 12½c. grey postal stationery envelope used to Havre, France; up-rated with 1870-88 12½c. slate grey tied by ´Kotia Radja´ squared circle datestamp in black. Octagonal French Paquebot datestamp ´Ligne N-Paq.Fr.No.8´ on front (Aug 4) and reverse with arrival cds (Aug 30). Scott 10.

1893. Kotaradja – local stat env. addressed to Military.[ 529007]

 

 

1893. Loembed Nonegko – Krota Pradja. 5c stat with 6 diff cds + transits incl box name town. VF.[ 528982]

 

1893

The KPM ship Reael at Atjeh in 1893

 

 

1894

Dutch Marine at atjeh in 1894

Weh Island Atjeh in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Kroeng Atjeh of Kotaradja in 1894

 

Simeleu island west coast atjeh in 1894

 

The Landing devisi at Atjeh by Hr MS Benkoelen in 1894

 

 

 

 

 

1896

Finally!The solutionto the Acehquestion in1896

Eindelijk! De oplossing van het Atjeh-Vraagstuk in 1896

1897

The caricature Of Deputy Mrs Col Cs at Atjeh  in 1897

 

1898

DEI KNIL Cavalary at Atjeh in 1898

Read more

Mijn Nederlands Indie

Colijn

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

 


• Colijn
And yes, the later Prime Minister here in this hall of fame should not be missed.

Colijn was adjutant of Van Heutsz and pulled himself out with his men. Colijn was responsible for the capture of the women and children of Panglima Polem. Panglima Polem was thus forced to abandon his opposition.

During his trips he turned but if something horrible had to be executed and then stuck a cigar

Colijn wrote a letter to his wife, asking for: “I have seen a woman with a child of about 1/2 years in the left arm, and a long spear in his right hand on our storming. A bullet killed our mother and child. We could then give no more grace. I have 9 women and 3 children, who asked for mercy, to have put a lot, and so dead drop. It was unpleasant work, but it could not be otherwise. The soldiers rain them with pleasure to their bayonets. It was a terrible job. I will just about finish. ” His wife wrote in the margin: “How awful!”

….. Shocking that Colijn (a second lieutenant in the infantry) one hundred years ago in the tropics could learn a cigar, only to discover that his troops elated twelve or thirteen women and children were slain and …… man who later became Prime Minister and received course something like the Military Order of William.

Our late Prime Minister was later also to pacify been to Lombok, but not in Bali.

Colijn’s great merit was, according to Van Heutsz, writing thick reports, which nobody understood anything and just assumed everything would be as it Colijn suggested because Colijn was “very conscientious” and moreover Reformed. When Van Heutsz and Colijn, after leave in the Netherlands, returned to India, Van Heutsz Colijn on Sunday and Monday. What he has done on Sundays in Aceh, tells the story not


  • Colijn

En ja, de latere Minister-President mag hier in deze eregalerij natuurlijk niet ontbreken.

Colijn was adjudant van Van Heutsz en trok er ook zelf op uit met zijn mannen. Colijn was verantwoordelijk voor de gevangenneming van de vrouwen en kinderen van Panglima Polem. Panglima Polem werd zo gedwongen zijn verzet te staken.

Tijdens zijn tochten draaide hij zich maar om als er iets gruwelijks uitgevoerd moest worden en stak daarna een sigaar op

Colijn schreef een brief aan zijn vrouw, waarin o.m. : ‘Ik heb er een vrouw gezien die, met een kind van ongeveer 1/2 jaar op den linkerarm, en een lange lans in de rechterhand op ons aanstormde. Een kogel van ons doodde moeder en kind. We mochten toen geen genade meer geven. Ik heb 9 vrouwen en 3 kinderen, die genade vroegen, op een hoop moeten zetten, en zoo dood laten schieten. Het was onaangenaam werk, maar ‘t kon niet anders. De soldaten regen ze met genot aan hun bajonetten. ‘t Was een verschrikkelijk werk. Ik zal er maar over eindigen.’ Zijn vrouw schreef in de marge: ‘Hoe vreeselijk!!’

…..schokkend dat Colijn (een tweede luitenant van de infanterie) honderd jaar geleden in de tropen een sigaar kon opsteken, om vervolgens te ontdekken dat zijn soldaten opgetogen twaalf of dertien vrouwen en kinderen hadden gedood……en die man werd later Minister-President en ontving uiteraard ook zo iets als de Militaire Willemsorde.

Onze latere Minister-President is later ook nog aan het pacificeren geweest op Lombok , maar niet op Bali.

Colijns grote verdienste was, volgens Van Heutsz, het schrijven van dikke rapporten, waar niemand iets van begreep en maar aannam dat het allemaal goed zou zijn, zoals Colijn het voorstelde, want Colijn was ‘zeer plichtsgetrouw‘ en bovendien Gereformeerd. Toen Van Heutsz en Colijn, na verlof in Nederland, terug gingen naar Indië vertrok Van Heutsz op zondag en Colijn op maandag. Wat hij zondag’s in Atjeh heeft gedaan, vertelt de geschiedenis niet….

 

Top of Form

All you need to do for a Military Order of William?

The Military Order of William, for courage, Policy and Trouw was never issued to natives.
Natives received a medal for courage and loyalty, they were deemed not to enter Policy.

Colijn had the following awards:
• Knight fourth class Military William Order, August 1895, whatever it may be ……
• Endowed with the honorary saber participants for their bravery, 1900, whatever it may be ……
• Knight third class Military William Order, 1902, notes: by promoting
• Knight Order of the Dutch Lion, 1905
• Grand Cross Order of the Dutch Lion, December 23 1,936

Let us once again just browse on the internet and in my books: through this link and this book I have compiled a chronological summary of Colijns career course with emphasis on its activities and serving the Dutch East Indies, and of course with comments and photos:

Of course it is my choice to only certain aspects of Colijns career stories …………..
- Was in his youth also Driekus and Hein called
and pseudonyms and aliases
- Dixie, notes: pseudonym in the Dutch East Indies
birth place and date
- Burgerveen (N. H.), note: avg. Haarlemmermeer, June 22, 1869
death date and place
- Ilmenau (Dld.), Sept. 18. 1944, notes: heart attack
- Dutch East Indies, from 25 October 1893 to October 1,909
- London, circa 1920-1922
relevant foreign travel
- Journey through Siberia to China and the Dutch East Indies, from sept. 1913 to 23 feb. 1,914
philosophy
- Chr. separated church
- Reformed

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

military career


- Training in the instruction battalion in Kampen, 24 Febr. 1886-1890
- Corporal third regiment of infantry in Bergen op Zoom, from November 1886-1888
- Sergeant third regiment of infantry in Bergen op Zoom, from 1888 to 1890
- Main course instruction battalion camps from 1890 to August 1892
officer ranks
- Second lieutenant of infantry, of 15 December 1892-1896
- First lieutenant of infantry, from 1896 to August 20, 1901
- Captain of Infantry, from 21 aug. 1901-1907
- Major of infantry titular, 1907
career
- Auxiliary teacher (volunteer) to New Vennep, from 1 October 1884 to Febr. 1,886
- Second lieutenant of infantry KNIL, of 15 December 1892-1896
- First lieutenant of infantry KNIL, from 1896 to June 1897
- Military commander and civil governor to Pulu Weh (Aceh, DEI), from June 1897 to November 1,897
- Military commander and civil governor to Lamb Djamoe (Aceh, DEI), from November 1897 to November 1,898
- Civil governor departments Indrapoeri and Selimoen (Aceh, DEI), from November 1898 to May 1899
- Officer-civil governor of Tapa Tuan (Aceh, DEI), from May 1899 to Sept. 1,901
- From Heutsz adjutant Governor of Aceh, on Sept. 4. 1901-1904
- Adjutant Governor-General Van Heutz from 1904-1907
- Advisor for administrative affairs of foreign possessions, from October 1904 to October 1,909
- Member of the House of Representatives, for constituency Sneek, from November 9 1909 tot January 4 1,911
- Minister of War, of January 4 1911 tot 29 August 1913
- Minister of Marine ad interim, of 14 May 1912 tot 29 August 1913
- Director Batavian Petroleum Company, of 9 May. 1914 tot April 1 1,922
etc etc
- Minister of Colonies ad interim, of 4 aug. 1925-26 Sept. 1,925
- Minister of Colonies of 26 May 1933 tot 24 June 1937
other positions
- Military correspondent and employee ‘The Standard’, circa 1904-1909
- Director Netherlands Indies Land Syndicate, from June 1910 to January 1,911
- Vice-Chairman State Committee for the defense of the Netherlands East Indies

from May 1912 to June 1913


- Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, 1926

 

 

 


- His father was a farmer in Haarlemmermeer
- In 1894 compagnies commander in Lombok
- In 1902 temporary commander and lieutenant governor to Lhok Seumane (east coast of Aceh)
- In 1904, charged with safeguarding the passage at the northern tip of Sumatra
- From 1904 responsible for overseeing the heads of the Gajo and Alaslanden
- In 1906 functions in Sumatra and New Guinea
- Voerde in 1924 a tax on bicycles
- Has passed in 1931 for the post of Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies
- Personification of the bezuiningspolitiek (“Adaptation”) of the Thirties
- Wild on May 13, 1940 the Dutch people speak over the radio, but he was banned by General Winkelman
publications
- “Rock and the Free University” (1905)
- “Der Fathers inheritance” (1922)
- “For the preservation of property” (1925)
- “Colonial issues of today and tomorrow” (1928)
- “The Father Ghetrouwe Lands” (1933)
- “General Van Heutz: Créateur the Valeurs” (1935)
- “Dispereert not … Commemorative speech about JP Coen” (1937)
Well, then I have certainly a much larger portion omitted

 

Wat moet je allemaal doen voor een Militaire Willemsorde ?
De Militaire Willemsorde, voor Moed, Beleid en Trouw werd nooit uitgereikt aan inlanders.
Inlanders kregen een medaille voor Moed en Trouw, zij werden geacht geen Beleid te voeren.

Colijn had de volgende onderscheidingen :

  • Ridder vierde klasse Militaire Willems Orde, aug. 1895, wat het ook zijn mag……
  • Begiftigd met de ere-sabel voor betoonde dapperheid, 1900, wat het ook zijn mag……
  • Ridder derde klasse Militaire Willems Orde, 1902, toelichting: bij bevordering
  • Ridder Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, 1905
  • Grootkruis Orde van de Nederlandse Leeuw, 23 dec. 1936Laten we maar weer eens even neuzen op het internet en in mijn boeken : via deze link en dit boekheb ik een chronologische samenvatting samengesteld van Colijns carriere met natuurlijk de nadruk op zijn bezigheden in en t.b.v. Nederlands-Indië en dat natuurlijk voorzien van commentaar en foto’s :Uiteraard is het mijn keuze om alleen over bepaalde aspekten uit Colijns loopbaan te verhalen…………..
-    Werd in zijn jeugd ook wel Driekus en Hein genoemd

pseudoniemen en bij- en schuilnamen

-    Dixie, toelichting: pseudoniem in Ned.-Indië

geboorteplaats en -datum

-    Burgerveen (N.H.), toelichting: gem. Haarlemmermeer, 22 juni 1869

overlijdensplaats en -datum

-    Ilmenau (Dld.), 18 sept. 1944, toelichting: hartaanval
-    Ned.-Indië, van 25 okt. 1893 tot okt. 1909
-    Londen, omstreeks 1920 tot 1922

relevante buitenlandse reizen

-    reis via Siberië naar China en Ned.-Indië, van sept. 1913 tot 23 febr. 1914

levensbeschouwing

-    Chr. afgescheiden kerk
-    Gereformeerd

militaire carriere

-    opleiding bij het instructiebataljon te Kampen, van 24 febr. 1886 tot 1890

 

-    korporaal derde regiment der infanterie te Bergen op Zoom, van nov. 1886 tot 1888

 

-    sergeant derde regiment der infanterie te Bergen op Zoom, van 1888 tot 1890

 

-    hoofdcursus instructiebataljon te Kampen, van 1890 tot aug. 1892

officiersrangen

-    tweede luitenant der infanterie, van 15 dec. 1892 tot 1896

 

-    eerste luitenant der infanterie, van 1896 tot 20 aug. 1901

 

-    kapitein der infanterie, van 21 aug. 1901 tot 1907

 

-    majoor der infanterie titulair, 1907

loopbaan

-    hulp-onderwijzer (volontair) te Nieuw-Vennep, van 1 okt. 1884 tot febr. 1886

 

-    tweede luitenant der infanterie K.N.I.L., van 15 dec. 1892 tot 1896

 

-    eerste luitenant der infanterie K.N.I.L., van 1896 tot juni 1897

 

-    militair commandant en burgerlijk gezaghebber te Poeloe Weh (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van juni 1897 tot nov. 1897

 

-    militair commandant en burgerlijk gezaghebber te Lam Djamoe (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van nov. 1897 tot nov. 1898

 

-    civiel gezaghebber afdelingen Indrapoeri en Selimoen (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van nov. 1898 tot mei 1899

 

-    officier-civiel gezaghebber van Tapa Toean (Atjeh, Ned.-Indië), van mei 1899 tot sept. 1901

 

-    adjudant Gouverneur Van Heutsz van Atjeh, van 4 sept. 1901 tot 1904

 

-    adjudant Gouverneur-Generaal Van Heutz, van 1904 tot 1907

 

-    adviseur voor bestuurszaken der buiten-bezittingen, van okt. 1904 tot okt. 1909

 

-    lid Tweede Kamer der Staten-Generaal, voor kiesdistrict Sneek, van 9 nov. 1909 tot 4 jan. 1911

 

-    minister van Oorlog, van 4 jan. 1911 tot 29 aug. 1913

 

-    minister van Marine ad interim, van 14 mei 1912 tot 29 aug. 1913

 

-    directeur Bataafsche Petroleum Maatschappij, van 9 mrt. 1914 tot 1 apr. 1922

enz enz

-    minister van Koloniën ad interim, van 4 aug. 1925 tot 26 sept. 1925

 

-    minister van Koloniën van 26 mei 1933 tot 24 juni 1937

nevenfuncties

-    correspondent en militair medewerker “De Standaard”, omstreeks 1904 tot 1909

 

-    directeur Nederlandsch-Indisch Land Syndicaat, van juni 1910 tot jan. 1911

 

-    ondervoorzitter Staatscommissie inzake de verdediging van Nederlandsch-Indisch van mei 1912 tot juni 1913

 

-    Gouverneur-Generaal van Ned.-Indië, 1926

 

-    Zijn vader was boer in de Haarlemmermeer

 

-    In 1894 compagnies-commandant te Lombok

 

-    In 1902 tijdelijk commandant en gezaghebber te Lhok Seumane (oostkust Atjeh)

 

-    In 1904 belast met het vrijwaren van de doorvaart bij de noordpunt van Sumatra

 

-    Vanaf 1904 belast met het toezicht op de hoofden van de Gajo- en Alaslanden

 

-    In 1906 functies op Sumatra en Nieuw-Guinea

 

-    Voerde in 1924 een belasting op rijwielen in

 

-    Werd in 1931 gepasseerd voor de functie van Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlandsch-Indie

 

-    Verpersoonlijking van de bezuiningspolitiek (“Aanpassing”) van de jaren dertig

 

-    Wilde op 13 mei 1940 het Nederlandse volk via de radio toespreken, maar dit werd hem door generaal Winkelman verboden

publicaties

-    “Indie en de Vrije Universiteit” (1905)

 

-    “Der Vaderen erfdeel” (1922)

 

-    “Om de bewaring van het pand” (1925)

 

-    “Koloniale vraagstukken van heden en morgen” (1928)

 

-    “Het Vaderlandt Ghetrouwe” (1933)

 

-    “Generaal Van Heutz: Createur de Valeurs” (1935)

 

-    “Dispereert niet…Herdenkingsrede over J.P. Coen” (1937)

Nou, en dan heb ik nog zeker een veel groter deel weggelaten…………….

Colijn op Lombok

Top of Form

Colijn on Lombok

As a young lieutenant in 1893 by the Chief Kampen Course delivered Colijn went to the Dutch East Indies. It was in the days when there really was fought, and dangerous expeditions deep into the interior, took place.
In November 1894 he was called to take part in the famous Lombok expedition. On the 18th of that month, at the storming of Tjakra Negara, he underwent the baptism of fire. His military abilities were recognized with the Knight’s Cross 4th class of the Military Order of William, since his department of the Northern troops was first penetrated the Puri of the prince, as the division of Lieutenant Van der Heyden the Confederates *


In 1895,

he, at his request, transferred to Aceh, part in the military operations in that region. In the same year a serious illness forced him to return to Java. But after recovery thereof he left with due speed back to Aceh and distinguished himself exceedingly in the military operations against Toekoe Umar.
Get Mates of Colijn from those days have stated that he was a brilliant soldier, fearless, cool-headed, tenacious, tireless, definitely, humane towards the vanquished and subjected native and good for his soldiers.
Once he saw a wounded soldier in the wilderness half dead. He did not, like the priest and the Levite, opposite him over, but as the good Samaritan came to him and bandaged his wounds, and bore him two hours far Representing the closest camp to nursing.

 

In 1925

 he that old comrade again met.
On one of his posts he spread among his men “the good news”. And then they were taking more times a piece of cheese from him. A sergeant, who also have a piece of cheese pleased, pretending …. and asked him seemingly heilbegeerig to “the good news”. Colijn had by him immediately and said: A “glad tidings” you can get, but you get no piece of cheese.

Als jong luitenantje in 1893 door den Hoofdcursus te Kampen afgeleverd, ging Colijn naar Nederlandsch-Indie. ‘t Was in de dagen, dat er nog werkelijk gevochten werd, en gevaarlijke expedities, diep de binnenlanden in, plaats hadden.
In November 1894 werd hij geroepen deel te nemen aan de bekende Lombok-expeditie. Op den 18den van die maand, bij de bestorming van TJakra Negara, onderging hij den vuurdoop. Zijn militaire bekwaamheden werden toen erkend met het ridderkruis 4e klasse van de Militaire Willemsorde, omdat zijn afdeeling van de Noordelijke troepen het eerst was doorgedrongen in de poeri van den vorst, gelijk de afdeeling van luitenant Van der Heyden bij de Zuidelijken*
In 1895 nam hij, op zijn verzoek overgeplaatst naar Atjeh, deel aan de kriJgsverrichtingen in dat gewest. In datzelfde jaar noopte een ernstige ziekte hem naar Java terug te keeren. Maar na herstel daarvan vertrok hij met bekwamen spoed weer naar AtJeh en onderscheidde zich buitengewoon in de kriJgsverrichtingen tegen Toekoe Oemar.
Krijgsmakkers van Colijn uit die dagen hebben verklaard, dat hij een schitterend soldaat was, onverschrokken, koelbloedig, vasthoudend, onvermoeid, beslist, humaan tegenover den overwonnen en onderworpen inlander en goed voor zijn soldaten.
Eens zag hij een gewonden soldaat in de wildernis halfdood liggen. Hij ging niet, gelijk de priester en de leviet, tegenover hem voorbij, maar kwam als de barmhartige Samaritaan tot hem, verbond zijn wonden, en droeg hem 2 uur ver naar het naastbij gelegen bivak ter verpleging. In 1925 heeft hij dien ouden strijdmakker nog eens ontmoet.
Op een zijner posten verspreidde hij onder zijn manschappen “de blijde boodschap“. En dan kregen ze daarbij meermalen een stukje kaas van hem. Een sergeant, die ook wel een stukje kaas lustte, deed alsof…. en vroeg hem schijnbaar heilbegeerig om een “de blijde boodschap“. Colijn had hem aanstonds door en zei : Een “de blijde boodschap” kan je krijgen, maar je krijgt geen stukje kaas.

Een nog zeer jonge Colijn is te zien op deze foto gemaakt in het bivak Tripa op Atjeh:

A very young Colijn is seen in this photo taken at the bivouac Tripa in Aceh

Colijn was the man who “a decisive blow inflicted on the Acehnese resistance”, in current Dutch: Colijn took the family of Panglima Polem hostage and forced this Panglima Polem to surrender. Today we this reprehensible method that absolutely no longer be tolerated by the UN tribunal in The Hague ………

What quotes from my Tjoetnjadin page about the Aceh National Heroes during the Dutch war of aggression against Aceh:

Now all the forces were concentrated on arresting Polem.
On the 24th January 1903 overtook the Lieutenant Christopher shelter of the great resistance leader, with books, letters and preciosa fell into our hands. Polem escaped narrowly.
On the night of 21 to 22 May of the same year were Major Van der Maaten, Polem’s mother, his wives, Potjoet Boeleuën and some relatives in our hands.
In June d.a.v. Colijn captain knew the hands on Polem’s first wife, Tengkoe Ra’ana.
Thereafter him some heavy losses inflicted so he finally the 6th of September 1903 the head in the lap and put himself, his intention already expressed before the execution, with 150 followers Lho * Seumawe came register

Colijn was de man die “een beslissende slag toebracht aan het Atjehse verzet“, in huidig Nederlands: Colijn nam de familie van Panglima Polem in gijzeling en dwong hierdoor Panglima Polem zich over te geven. Tegenwoordig zouden we dit een afkeuringswaardige methode vinden die absoluut niet meer getolereerd zou worden volgens het VN tribunaal in Scheveningen………

Wat citaten uit mijn Tjoetnjadin pagina over de Atjehse Nationale Helden tijdens de Nederlandse agressie oorlog tegen Atjeh:

Nu werden alle krachten geconcentreerd op het arresteeren van Polem.
Den 24sten Januari 1903 overviel de Onderluitenant Christoffel een schuilplaats van den grooten verzetsleider, waarbij boeken, brieven en preciosa in onze handen vielen. Polem ontkwam op het nippertje.
In den nacht van 21 op 22 Mei van hetzelfde jaar vielen Majoor Van der Maaten, Polem’s moeder, een zijner vrouwen, Potjoet Boeleuën en eenige familieleden in onze handen.
In Juni d.a.v. wist kapitein Colijn de hand te leggen op Polem’s eerste echtgenoote, Tengkoe Ra’ana.
Daarna werden hem nog eenige zware verliezen toegebrachte zoodat hij eindelijk den 6den September 1903 het hoofd in de schoot legde en zich, aan zijn reeds te voren geuit voornemen gevolg gevend, met 150 volgelingen te Lho* Seumawé kwam melden.

Panglima Polem zit links van Colijn

Panglima Polem is left of Colijn

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

:

Another picture of the house: the surrender of Panglima Polem to Colijn:

Nog een foto voor het huis : de overgave van Panglima Polem aan Colijn

Top of Form

The second officer from the right is the future Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Colijn

According to many Colijn looks like he daily surrendering Panglima Polems receives, he seems to do nothing ….

The significance of the surrender of Panglima Polem was stretching knew nature. By submission of this sagihoofd was the Aceh War actually decided. Numerous gang heads came in the following months reporting and many refugees, whose number is estimated at 2000, returned to their villages.

From Panglima Polem can be testified that his word of allegiance to the Dutch Government in the most loyal manner has kept its obligations to the Geumpenie always as a man of honor is fulfilled.

 

The powerful political leader of yesteryear now sits quietly to the XXII Moekims, where he Geumpenie as a key driver has served.

Ais orthodox Muslim, he scrupulously the law and the commandments. In the whole population of Aceh, he enjoys a certain reverence, not only “for the sake of old memories”, but also to his righteous way of life.
We saw how an old and reputable for its stiffness Atjehsch head was bowed humbly on his hand.
Panglima Polem makes a boy and vieven impression. That old Aceh Serbian head said to us: “Panglima Polem is older than I am, but he will always remain young to see, because he’s a saint.”
It is unfortunate that the condition of his eyes is very bad and he gradually approaching blindness.

His knowledge of the area is huge! We heard how a young officer told him a record-patrol of five days in the Pedirsche. It was as if the shadow of a smile on Polem’s face slipped and behind his thick glasses with eyes flashing he said: You had previously trek in three days to make, when the bed of such and such aloer (brook) was followed. “

Teukoe Panglima Polem Sri Moeda Perkasa Mohamad Daud was endowed in 1928 in the Knight’s Cross of Orange-Nassau-order. In 1929 he received from His Excellency, the Governor-General, a precious golden betel leaf as a gift and in 1932 he was the satisfaction of the Government expressed for the way he has also worked on the return to their homes in the February of that year OeIeë-Gle (Samalanga) pulled people. ‘

The second officer from the right is the future Prime Minister of the Netherlands, Colijn

Original info

Volgens velen kijkt Colijn net alsof hij dagelijks zich overgevende Panglima Polems ontvangt, het lijkt hem niets te doen….
De beteekenis van de overgave van Panglima Polem was van vérstrekkenden aard. Door de onderwerping van dit sagihoofd was de Atjehoorlog eigenlijk beslist. Tal van bendehoofden kwamen zich in de volgende maanden melden en vele uitgewekenen, welker getal wel op 2000 wordt geschat, keerden naar hun dorpen terug.

Van Panglima Polem kan worden getuigd, dat hij zijn woord van trouw aan het Nederlandsche Gouvernement op de meest loyale wijze heeft gehouden en zijn verplichtingen tegenover de Geumpenie steeds als man van eer is nagekomen. De machtige politieke aanvoerder van weleer zetelt thans rustig m de XXII Moekims, waar hij de Geumpenie als bestuurder zeer belangrijke diensten heeft bewezen.

Ais orthodox islamiet houdt hij nauwgezet de wet en de geboden. Bij de bevolking van geheel Atjeh geniet hij een zekere vereering, niet alleen “for the sake of old memories”, maar ook om zijn rechtschapen levenswandel.
Wij zagen eens hoe een oud en om zijn stugheid bekend staand Atjehsch hoofd zich ootmoedig over zijn hand boog.
Panglima Polem maakt nog een jongen en vieven indruk. Dat oude Atjehsche hoofd verklaarde ons : “Panglima Polem is ouder dan ik ben, maar hij zal er altijd jong uit blijven zien, want hij is een heilige”.
Het is jammer, dat de toestand zijner oogen zeer slecht is en hij langzamerhand de blindheid nadert.

Zijn terreinkennis is enorm! Wij hoorden hoe een jong officier hem vertelde van een record-patrouille van vijf dagen in het Pedirsche. Het was of de schaduw van een glimlach over Polem’s gelaat gleed en achter zijn dikke brilleglazen met de oogen knipperend sprak hij: U had dien tocht in drie dagen kunnen maken, wanneer u de bedding van die en die aloer (beek) had gevolgd.”

Teukoe Panglima Polem Sri Moeda Perkasa Mohamad Daoed werd in 1928 begiftigd met het ridderkruis der Oranje-Nassau-orde. In 1929 ontving hij van Zijne Excellentie, den Gouverneur-Generaal, een kostbaar gouden sirih-blad ten geschenke en in 1932 werd hem de tevredenheid der Regeering betuigd voor de wijze, waarop hij heeft medegewerkt aan den terugkeer naar hun woonplaatsen van de in Februari van dat jaar uit OeIéë-Glé (Samalanga) weggetrokken lieden. ‘

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

 

 

1900

Atjeh arm bracelets  collections in 1900

 

 

 

The Atjeh Jewellary collections in 1900

The Atjeh beatlle nut (kapur sirih) collections in 1900

Kain Tenun Sarong plakat(doek) of atjeh in 1900

Young atjeh women in 1900

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Two pictures of  KNIL ceremony during Queen day  at Blangkajeren Atjeh in 1900

 

 

 

 

 

1901

But back to Colijn:

In 1901,

Colijn adjutant From Heutsz, this was not without a struggle. From Heutsz had originally objected to Colijn: “From Colijn I know only that he prayed, but not that he can fight. Fighters And I need”
When Van Heutsz more information about Colijn had received was: “Now I see that you work with prayer unites, I can use”
Colijn to 1909 From Heutsz faithfully served. Colijn on its part had yet some drawbacks: dancing and cards did not Colijn and Van Heutsz well, especially during the tour (a euphemism for a military expedition)
Of these objections Heutsz waved away immediately and spoke the famous words: “It was not my intention to encourage you in choosing to wear due skill in dancing or card game”

One of the tasks of Colijn was the “political reorganization of the outer possessions” or the final establishment of the Dutch authority in areas where until that time actually rare Dutch came.

The country was first “pacified” (by Christopher to) and then the board “reorganized” by Colijn.
Maar terug naar Colijn:

In 1901 werd Colijn adjudant van Van Heutsz, dit ging niet zonder slag of stoot. Van Heutsz had aanvankelijk bezwaar tegen Colijn : “Van Colijn weet ik alleen dat hij bidt, maar niet dat hij ook vechten kan. En vechters heb ik nodig”
Toen Van Heutsz wat meer informatie over Colijn had gekregen, was het: “Nu ik zie dat ge het werken met het bidden vereenigt, kan ik u gebruiken”
Colijn heeft tot 1909 trouw Van Heutsz gediend. Colijn had van zijn kant toch ook enige bezwaren: dansen en kaarten deed Colijn niet en Van Heutsz wel, vooral tijdens de excursies (een eufemisme voor een militaire tocht)
Van Heutsz wuifde deze bezwaren meteen weg en sprak de historische woorden: “Het lag niet in mijn voornemen u voor bevordering bij keuze voor te dragen wegens bedrevenheid in dans of kaartspel”

Een van de taken van Colijn werd de “staatkundige reorganisatie van de buitenbezittingen” oftewel het definitief vestigen van het Nederlands gezag in gebieden waar tot op dat moment eigenlijk zelden Nederlanders kwamen.

Het land werd eerst “gepacificeerd” (door o.m. Christoffel) en vervolgens werd het bestuur “gereorganiseerd” door Colijn.

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

1905


Tjoet Nja Dhien and Pang Laot after her capture.
Tjoet Nja Dhien continued guerilla warfare in West Aceh area, assited by Pang Laot. Years of living in the jungle caused her to go blind and she also suffered rheumatism, yet she refused to surrender.

On 16 October 1905,

 Pang Laot, unable to let Tjoet Nja Dhien suffered anymore, led a Dutch Marechausse squad under Luitenant Van Vuuren to her hideout. She was arrested and exiled to West Java, where she died in 1908.

 

1903


After 30 years of endless warfare without prospect of winning, Acehnese guerilla leaders started to surrender.

On 5 January 1903,

Sultan Mohammad Daoed, now 33 years old, surrendered in Sigli after living in the jungle for 30 years!


Sultan Mohammad Daoed swore oath of loyalty to the portrait of Queen Wilhelmina in Atjeh governor’s office on February 1903.


Sultan Mohammad Daoed on January 1903 after his surrender in Sigli, Pidie. He abdicate from the throne, and acknowledged the suzerainity of Queen Wilhelmina over his former sultanate of Atjeh. He spend his days under Dutch house-arrest in Koetaradja and died there in 1928.


Panglima Polim Sri Moeda Perkasa Shah (centre), who had fought the Dutch in Koetaradja since 1873 and was a guerilla leader in Lhokseumawe area, surrendered to the Dutch Kapitein Hendricus Colijn (third from right) in Lhokseumawe in 6 September 1903, together with 150 of his men.

 

 

 

 

1906

AcehPeaceorThePeoplemagazine coverin 1906

Vrede Atjeh of  Het Volk magazine cover  in 1906

Christopher with the long stick, on tour, as it was called

Christoffel met de lange stok, op excursie, zoals dat toen genoemd werd

In 1907,

this was described as follows:

“No war, but termination of any war, no correction of foreign tribes, but the submission to a regular state of all, under the Dutch flag standing peoples of the archipelago, in the public interest, which is the goal”

You just raises, the country is now under Dutch rule, because there’s ever been a Dutchman, and so we have the moral sovereignty of this country, because we are much more developed. Then go to those nations with violence explain why they now stand among civilized Dutch rule …….. and it is in their own interest!

Colijn with family for his house with nameplate in Buitenzorg


In 1907 werd dit als volgt omschreven:

“Geen oorlog, maar beeindiging van allen oorlog, geen tuchtiging van vreemde volksstammen, maar de onderwerping aan een geregelde toestand van alle, onder Nederlandse vlag staande volkeren van den archipel, in het algemeen belang, dat is het doel”

Je roept gewoon, het land staat vanaf nu onder Nederlands bestuur, want er is ooit wel eens een Nederlander geweest en dus hebben wij over dit land de morele soevereiniteit, want wij zijn immers veel ontwikkelder. Vervolgens ga je het die volken met geweld uitleggen waarom ze vanaf nu onder beschaafd Nederlands bestuur staan……..en dat in hun eigen belang!

Colijn met familie voor zijn huis met naambordje in Buitenzorg:

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

1908

The Atjeg women asking Young man to dance 8in 1908

1908

De groep van Van Daalen na de verovering van de kampong Koeto Reh. Achter rotsblok overste Van Daalen. Foto J. Neeb

The group of Van Daalen after the conquest of the kampong Koeto Reh. Behind boulder captain Van Daalen. Photo J. Neeb
In mid 1908, Van Daalen succeeded by the then Lieutenant-Colonel HNA Swart. From Daalen 1910 was appointed commander of the army in the Dutch East Indies. From Daalen left the military service in 1914.

Medio 1908 werd Van Daalen opgevolgd door de toenmalige Luitenant-kolonel H.N.A. Swart. Van Daalen werd 1910 werd benoemd tot commandant van het leger in Ned.-Indië. Van Daalen verliet de militaire dienst in 1914.

 

 

 

1908

Luitenant-kolonel H.N.A. Swart, ‘pacificator’ van Atjeh

Lieutenant-Colonel H.N.A. Swart, “pacifier” of Aceh
From 1908-1918 Swart acted as governor of Aceh. His pacification of Aceh involves many bloody battles. In the Gayo highlands were still under Dutch estimates 5-6000 Acehnese, who were willing to fight to the death they were animated by the Teungku Di Tiro, the sons and grandsons of Teungku Tjèh Thaman di Tiro. (About this resistance fighter I have already written) .. The trooper pulled the rough highlands and gave chase. Exhausted by the constant raids saw some opposition leaders Atjeese no alternative but to surrender. Lieutenant H. J. Schmidt was commissioned in 1909 to devote themselves entirely to disable the last Teungku Di Tiro, located in the mountains near Tangse had entrenched.

Van 1908 tot 1918 trad Swart op als gouverneur van Atjeh. Zijn pacificatie van Atjeh gaat gepaard met vele bloedige veldslagen. In de Gajo-hooglanden waren volgens Nederlandse schattingen nog vijf tot zesduizend Atjehers, die bereid waren  zich dood te vechten Ze werden bezield door de Teungkoe Di Tiro, de zonen en de kleinzonen van Teungkoe Tjèh Thaman di Tiro. (Over deze verzetstrijder heb ik al eerder geschreven).. De marechaussee trok de ruwe hooglanden in en zette de achtervolging in. Uitgeput door de voortdurende klopjachten zagen sommige Atjeese verzetsleiders geen andere uitweg dan zich over te geven.  Luitenant H.J. Schmidt kreeg in 1909 de opdracht zich geheel te wijden aan het uitschakelen van de laatste Teungkoe Di Tiro, die zich in de bergen in de omgeving van Tangsé hadden verschanst.

 

1910

Commandant H.J. Schmidt

Top of Form

Commander H.J. Schmidt
They were considered the most dangerous opponents of Dutch rule. Schmidt left with two brigades. He tried everywhere to obtain information (Schmidt spoke fluent Achinese), but nobody said a word about the whereabouts of the Di Tiro’s.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 In May 1910,

he finally figured out where a shelter was and managed to kill him. In 1911 Schmidt knew more relatives of

 

 

the Di Tiro’s killing.

 

 Thus came to an end the pacification of Aceh. (Later Schmidt chamberlain of Queen Wilhelmina, with the exclusive task as a financial watchdog Prince Henry to shadows and for new loans to save).

 

 In 1918

Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired. On August 12, 1918 appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

This concludes the summary of the fourth Aceh war of the period 1989-1918.
Reached the end of this chapter on the third and fourth Aceh war, I would make the following comments. It is good to read the text keeping in mind that at the time of the Aceh wars in the Fatherland this war was perceived as legitimate. So it is understandable that the soldiers have received high awards and even by Queen Wilhelmina were congratulated for their military operations.

To this spirit a good example, I quote the beginning of the book of Lieutenant-General Jan van Swieten, the truth about our branch in Aceh. He has during the second Aceh war a very important role, as we have seen in the memories of my uncle Chrik de Booy.
“Colonial powers can rarely langdurigen in a state of calm delight. Surrounded by nations in moral content, social development are still relatively low and the right of ownership is not high concept, they are by provocatien, not infrequently by deeds from violence, – as men and beach robbery on hull types and expiration of commercial vessels, armed raids, constant disputes wrapped, leading to hostilities skip, and finally, in order to avoid repetition, force the borders to move and the area extending ‘
Currently, Dutch soldiers in the area of ​​Uruzgan in Afghanistan at war with the Taliban guerrilla forces. Through the media we are told that there is again much Talibans by our troops are slain. But I wonder whether, why we only get messages about the killed Taliban fighters and nothing to hear about casualties among civilians, wounded and prisoners .. Our Prime Minister Jan Peter Balkenende said he is proud of what we take in Uruzgan. Just as the Aceh war, this war mission by our parliament approved and considered as a legitimate struggle. It might sometimes happen that the spirit of this war as will change as the Aceh war. Time will tell.
Used Literature
Cohen Stuart., W. J. (1937) The Dutch Navy from 1889 to 1915 in two parts. Hague-Algemeene National Printing
Croo, M. H. Du (1943) General Swart pacifier of Aceh. Issue N.V. Letter Nypels Maastricht
Kempees, J.C.J. (1905) The journey of Commander Of Daalen by Gajo, and Alas and Batak. Published in Amsterdam by J. C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld, Herman (1998) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944, part one 1869-1944. Publisher Balance. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep., Jelte (1996) Aceh, Aceh!. Publishing the Prom Baarn. ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullman, Dr. J. C. (1933) Dr. H. Colijn. Leiden, A.W.Sijthoff ‘s Publishing Company N.V.
Spring, Paul van ‘t (1969) The Aceh War. Amsterdam. Publishing the Arbeiderspers
Too much information on the Internet about Aceh and Lombok found and used.

 

Zij werden beschouwd als de gevaarlijkste tegenstanders van het Nederlandse gezag.  Schmidt vertrok met twee brigades. Hij probeerde overal inlichtingen in te winnen (Schmidt sprak vloeiend Atjees), maar niemand zei een woord over de verblijfplaats van de Di Tiro’s. In mei 1910 kwam hij er eindelijk achter waar zich een schuilplaats bevond en wist hem te doden. In 1911 wist Schmidt nog meer familieleden van de Di Tiro’s te doden. Zo kwam er een einde aan de pacificatie van Atjeh. (Later werd Schmidt kamerheer van Koningin Wilhelmina, met de exclusieve opdracht om als een soort financiële waakhond Prins Hendrik te schaduwen en voor nieuwe leningen te behoeden). In 1918 werd Swart in de rang van luitenant -generaal gepensioneerd. Op 12 augustus 1918 benoemd tot vice-president van de Raad van Indië tot 1922. Hij kreeg voor zijn krijgsverrichtingen de Militaire Willemsorde 2e klasse..Pm

Hiermee eindigt de samenvatting van de vierde Atjeh oorlog van de periode 1989-1918.

Aan het eind gekomen van dit hoofdstuk over de derde en  vierde Atjeh oorlog, zou ik nog het volgende willen opmerken. Het is goed de tekst te lezen met in het achterhoofd, dat ten tijde van deze Atjeh oorlogen in het Vaderland deze oorlog als legitiem werd ervaren. Zo is het te begrijpen dat de betrokken militairen zeer hoge onderscheidingen hebben kregen en zelfs door Koningin Wilhelmina werden gefeliciteerd voor hun krijgsverrichtingen. Om van deze tijdgeest een goed voorbeeld te geven citeer ik het begin van het boek van luitenant-generaal Jan van Swieten, De waarheid over onze vestiging in Atjeh. Hij heeft tijdens de tweede Atjeh oorlog een zeer belangrijke rol gespeeld, zoals we hebben gezien bij de herinneringen van mijn oom Chrik de Booy.

“Koloniale mogendheden kunnen zich zelden in een langdurigen staat van rust verheugen. Omringd door volken, die in zedelijk gehalte, in maatschappelijke ontwikkeling nog vrij laag staan en van het recht van eigendom geen hoog begrip hebben, zijn zij door provocatien, niet zelden door daden van geweld, – zooals menschen- en strandroof, overrompelingen en afloopen van handelsvaartuigen, gewapende rooftochten, voortdurend in geschillen gewikkeld, die tot vijandelijkheden overslaan, en ten slotte, ten einde herhaling te voorkomen, dwingen de landsgrenzen te verplaatsen en het gebied uit te breiden”

Momenteel zijn Nederlandse militairen in het gebied van Uruzgan in Afghanistan in oorlog gewikkeld met de Taliban guerrilla troepen. Door de media worden we verteld, dat er weer zoveel Talibans door onze troepen zijn gedood. Wel vraag ik mij of, waarom we alleen berichten krijgen over het aantal gedode Taliban-strijders en niets te horen krijgen over slachtoffers onder burgers, gewonden en gevangenen..Onze premier Jan Peter Balkenende zegt dat hij trots is op wat we in Uruzgan ondernemen.  Net zoals de Atjeh oorlog wordt deze oorlogsmissie door onze volksvertegenwoordiging goed gekeurd en als een legitieme strijd beschouwd. Het zou misschien wel eens kunnen gebeuren, dat de tijdgeest over deze oorlog net zo zal veranderen als met de Atjeh oorlog is gebeurd. De tijd zal het leren.

Gebruikte Literatuur

Cohen Stuart., W.J. (1937) De Nederlandsche Zeemacht van 1889-1915 in twee delen. ‘s Gravenhage -Algemeene Landdrukkerij
Croo, M. H. Du ( 1943) Generaal Swart pacificator van Atjeh. Uitgave N.V. Letter -Nypels Maastricht
Kempees , J.C.J. (1905) De tocht van Overste Van Daalen door de Gajo-, en Alas- en Bataklanden. Uitgegeven te Amsterdam door J.C. Dalmeijer
Langeveld, Herman (1998) Hendrikus Colijn 1869-1944, deel een 1869-1944. Uitgeverij Balans. ISBN 90 5018 5061
Rep, Jelte( 1996) Atjeh, Atjeh!. Uitgeverij de Prom Baarn. ISBN 90 6801 5618 4
Rullmann, Dr J.C. (1933) Dr H. Colijn. Leiden, A.W.Sijthoff’s Uitgeversmaatschappij N.V.
Veer, Paul van ‘t  (1969) De Atjeh-oorlog. Amsterdam. Uitgeverij de Arbeiderspers

Ook op internet veel informatie  over Atjeh en Lombok gevonden en gebruikt.

 

 

1913

Goldsmith atjeh in 1913

Source: CVNL search memory of the Netherlands

 

In 1914

Colijn wrote a brochure on the occasion of the opening of the Hague Peace Palace (!)the ordinary power imperialism was no longer justified, the cultural imperialism is a calling of a higher order

Under cultural imperialism understood Colijn (and many were to agree with) the desire to own knowledge and power serviceable to the culture of other nations, which, left to itself, prey remain in a state of disorder, injustice and profound ignorance which prevented them the blessings of Western civilization to acquire.

 

One has the primitive peoples to educate such there degree of social, political and economic development that they are able to administer its own affairs in accordance with the generally accepted principles in civilized states.

 

 

Netherlands has callings in the East Indian archipelago. (But there is still a venomous tail :) by the possession of the insular territory to the Motherland more than a privilege, it is an economic issue life (and that’s the natural order)

Because also in 1914

 Colijn in the oil, as it was called, he was director of the BPM who had major interests in Sumatra. After this period he was financially independent. Contemporaries thought then that he had compromised and not as an independent politician could occur especially not Dutch Indies.

Colijn was also the man who ordered the bombing of the Seven Provinces to as the mutiny on the ship to suppress.

On the said Colijn, insolent parliamentary questions from Mr. Rustam Effendi:
1. Will the Government explain why it was passed to limit the right to attend meetings of various political unions in Indonesia and why they are a series of other measures have been taken to further the freedom of press and assembly for the Indian population limit?
2. Will the Government inform the reasons that on the night of August 1 jl led to the arrest in Batavia Ir Soekarno?
3. If the Government does not consider that the above measures by the free expression of the Indonesian population is more oppressed?
4. Are these measures relating to the trials of the crew of the Seven Provinces?
5. Is the Government prepared to take measures which immediately above repressions be undone?

Colijn was the same in his office as Minister of Colonies replied:
1. Since the Indian Government the foregoing necessary
2. Since the Indian Government a thing necessary
3. No
4. Unknown
No

On this very curt reply from the Government showed Tribune is outraged:

At the most trivial vraagjes civil MPs is extensively and completely to the form answer to a representative of 50 million people, who groan under the yoke of imperialism eight Dutch Colijn not even need to answer

 

 

In 1914 schreef Colijn een brochure ter gelegenheid van de opening van het Haagse Vredespaleis(!):

het ordinaire machtsimperialisme was niet langer gerechtvaardigd, het cultuurimperialisme is echter een roeping van een hogere orde

 

 
Onder cultuurimperialisme verstond Colijn (en velen waren het hier mee eens) het streven om eigen kennis en macht dienstbaar te maken aan de beschaving van andere volken, die, aan zich zelve overgelaten, ten prooi blijven aan een toestand van wanorde, ongerechtigheid en verregaande onkunde die hen verhinderd de zegeningen der Westerse beschaving te verwerven. Men moet de primitieve volkeren opvoeden tot zoodanigen graad van sociale, politieke en economische ontwikkeling dat zij in staat zijn haar eigen zaken te beheeren met inachtneming van de in beschaafde staten algemeen aanvaarde beginselen. Nederland heeft deze roeping in den Oost-indischen archipel. (maar er komt nog een venijnig staartje bij:) het bezit van het insulair gebiedsdeel is voor het Moederland meer dan een voorrecht, het is een economische levenskwestie (en daar draait het natuurlijk om)

Want eveneens In 1914 ging Colijn in de olie, zoals dat toen heette, hij werd directeur bij de BPM die grote belangen had op Sumatra. Na deze periode was hij financieel onafhankelijk. Tijdgenoten vonden toen al dat hij zich had gecompromiteerd en niet meer als onafhankelijk politicus kon optreden en dan vooral niet over Nederlands Indie.

Colijn was ook de man die de opdracht gaf tot het bombarderen van de Zeven Provincien om zo de muiterij op dit schip de kop in te drukken.

Op de, aldus Colijn, onbeschaamde Kamervragen van den Heer Roestam Effendi:

  1. Wil de Regeering mededelen waarom zij is overgegaan tot het beperken van de vergaderrechten van verschillende politieke vereenigingen in Indonesie en waarom zij een reeks andere maatregelen heeft genomen die verder de vrijheid van drukpers en vergadering voor de Indische bevolking beperken?
  2. Wil de Regeering de redenen meedelen die in de nacht van 1 augustus j.l. geleid hebben tot de arrestatie in Batavia van Ir Soekarno ?
  3. Is de Regeering niet van mening dat door bovengenoemde maatregelen de vrije meningsuiting voor de Indonesische bevolking nog meer wordt onderdrukt?
  4. Staan deze maatregelen in verband met de processen tegen de bemanning van de Zeven Provincien?
  5. Is de Regeering bereid die maatregelen te treffen waardoor onverwijld bovenvermelde repressies worden ongedaan gemaakt?

werd door dezelfde Colijn in zijn funktie van Minister van Kolonien geantwoord:

  1. Omdat de Indische Regeering een en ander nodig acht
  2. Omdat de Indische Regeering een en ander nodig acht
  3. Neen
  4. Onbekend

Neen

Over dit zeer kort aangebonden antwoord van de regering toonde De Tribune zich zeer verontwaardigd:

Op de meest onbenullige vraagjes van burgerlijke kamerleden wordt uitvoerig en volkomen naar den vorm geantwoord, aan een vertegenwoordiger van 50 millioen menschen, die zuchten onder het juk van het Hollandse imperialisme acht Colijn het niet eens nodig een antwoord te geven (…………)

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

  1.  

 

 

 

 

 

1918

In 1918  Swart in the rank of lieutenant general retired.

 

On August 12, 1918

appointed vice-president of the Council of the Indies to 1922. He received his military operations for the Military Order of William 2nd class .. Pm

 

The end of atjeh war,the meeting between Panglima Polim and Zgeneral van Heutz

1920

 

Drinks at the inauguration of a new bridge. For this occasion, senior military guests at the military police of Blangkedjerèn. The marks on the collar of the policemen are “blood fingers” called

Borrel bij de inwijding van een nieuwe brug. Voor deze gelegenheid zijn hoge militairen te gast bij de marechaussees van Blangkedjerèn. De kentekenen op de kraag van de marechaussees worden ‘bloedvingers’ genoemd.

 

 

 

1926

KNIL at atjeh in 1926

Marsose at blangkajeren atjeh in 1926

 

Blangkajeren  Atjeh 1926

Blangkajeren Aceh 1926
Festive inauguration of a Model T Ford. The priest pours holy water in the radiator of the car while the present policemen watch. Ford has put together after he disassembled state by carriers on a footpath through the mountains to the tangsi is charged. The man in the white left of the Ford is the mechanic. Guitar Music and beer will be the party complete. The newly captured elephant may on the photo.

Feestelijke inwijding van een T-Ford. De pastoor giet wijwater in de radiator van de auto terwijl de aanwezige marechaussees toekijken. De Ford is in elkaar gezet nadat hij in gedemonteerde staat door dragers over een voetpad door de bergen naar de tangsi is gebracht. De man in het wit links van de Ford is de monteur. Gitaarmuziek en bier zullen het feestje completeren. Ook het pas gevangen olifantje mag op de foto.

 

1927

KNIL officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1927

1928

Panglima  Polim  was given the post raja of Sigli by the Dutch. In 1928, Panglima Polim received the cross of Nassau-Oranje Orde


Old Panglima Polim, raja of Sigli, wearing medal of The House of Orange in 1938, one year before his death.

1931

KNIl officer at blangkajeren atjeh in 1931

1932

I end it with a poem from 1932 that the career of Colijn beautifully summarizes:

Colijn, Colijn, you man of warships
You broker in verse Javanenbloed
you murderer, your nature is finely ground
your God and Lord is good

Colijn, Colijn, guardian of the golden
You speculator in money and man meat
you hypocrite: “Forgive us our debts”
you are filled with fear revolution

Colijn, Colijn, you man of vigilantes
you that the blood in our bodies pinched
you that the mutineers would want to slaughter
You grins and gnuift at ‘t blow of the whip

You smell like oil, rubber and gasoline
you pretending peace, love and so
man you were a dumb money machine
who opposes you beating with batons down

  1.  

Ik eindig maar met een gedicht uit 1932 dat de carriere van Colijn zeer fraai samenvat :

Colijn, Colijn, jij man van oorlogsschepen
jij makelaar in vers Javanenbloed
jij moordenaar, jouw aard is fijn geslepen
jouw God en Heer is goed

Colijn, Colijn, beschermer van de gulden
jij spekulant in geld en menschenvlees
jij huichelaar: “vergeef ons onze schulden”
jij bent vervuld van revolutievrees

Colijn, Colijn, jij man van burgerwachten
jij die het bloed uit onze lijven neep
jij die de muiters wel zou willen slachten
jij grijnst en gnuift bij ‘t knallen van de zweep

jij ruikt naar olie, rubber en benzine
jij huichelt vrede, liefde en zo meer
de mens werd jou een stomme geldmachine
wie zich verzet sla jij met knuppels neer

 Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

1938

de ‘oude’ Panglima Polem met de afgeknot-kegelvormige koepiah en het Nederlandse ridderkruis (1938)

Top of Form

the ‘old’ Panglima Polem with the frusto-conical koepiah and Dutch Knight’s Cross (1938)

“Small in stature as he is, he makes no impression imposanten and the amiable old gentleman with his very weak eyes behind the thick glasses was little more about that battle ones, fiery leader of resistance fighters reminiscent ‘

The son of the ‘old’ Panglima Polem (see photo above), the ‘young’ Panglima Polem, in February 1942 gave the starting signal for a general uprising against the Dutch. In the night of 7 to 8 March 1942, all connections from Kota Radja destroyed. On March 11 began the flight of the Dutch from Aceh. In the following night the Japanese attacked inside.

After WWII, the Dutch have not been back in Aceh and the Acehnese ruled ‘self’. In this “social revolution” period was bloody dispel all oeleëbalangs in the eyes of many Acehnese too much on the basis of the Dutch had been. Entire families were massacred in these days. The power of the oeleëbalangs was a definite end.

Already in 1953 a revolt broke out again when the central government in Jakarta, Aceh added to the Land of North Sumatra, until 1959, the situation was back to normal: Aceh was a ‘separate’ autonomous area.

In 1976 proclaimed the grandson of Chik Di Tiro, Hasan di Tiro Teungku, the independence of the Islamic state of Aceh. The ASNLF ie the Aceh Sumatra National Liberation Front – ASNLF, protests still from time to time for the Dutch embassy. (see ASNLF link)

De zoon van de ‘oude’ Panglima Polem (zie bovenstaande foto), de ‘jonge’ Panglima Polem, gaf in februari 1942 het startsein voor een algehele opstand tegen de Nederlanders. In de nacht van 7 op 8 maart 1942 werden alle verbindingen vanuit Kota Radja vernield. Op 11 maart begon de vlucht van de Nederlanders uit Atjeh. In de daaropvolgende nacht vielen de Japanners binnen.

Na WOII zijn de Nederlanders niet meer teruggeweest in Atjeh en bestuurden de Atjehers ‘zichzelf’. In deze ‘sociale revolutie‘ periode werd bloedig afgerekend met alle oeléëbalangs die in de ogen van veel Atjehers te veel op de hand van de Nederlanders waren geweest. Hele families zijn in deze dagen uitgemoord. Aan de macht van de oeléëbalangs was definitief een einde gekomen.

Al in 1953 brak weer een opstand uit toen het centrale gezag in Jakarta Atjeh voegde bij de Deelstaat Noord-Sumatra, pas in 1959 werd de situatie weer wat genormaliseerd : Atjeh werd een ‘apart’ gebied met autonome rechten.

In 1976 proclameerde de achterkleinzoon van Chik Di Tiro, Teungku Hasan Di Tiro, de onafhankelijkheid van de islamitische staat Atjeh. Het ASNLF oftewel het Acheh Sumatra National Liberation Front – ASNLF, protesteert nog steeds van tijd tot tijd voor de Nederlandse ambassade. (zie de ASNLF link)

Source

http://home.iae.nl/users/arcengel/NedIndie/colijn.htm

 

 

1941

1.THE MILITARY SENCORED KUTARAJA ACEH AND MEDAN 1941

 

kabandjahe

 

Dai Nippon Occupation Aceh

 1942-1945

Atjeh ster in rood op 2 cent Moehammadijah, vrijwel pracht ex. (iets tropisch), cat.w. 90

Corinphila veilingen 211 Part II

Closing: Oct 6 – Oct 8, 2011

Bid Info: Price: € 45.00

 

 

 

 

 

July,21th.1942

1942 (July 17), censored cover from Medan to Koetaradja (J.S.C.A. 2SS3. Bulterman 22a), a 7½¢ letter sheet with Aceh Star overprint, thin star type, with stamp imprint tied by “Si() 17.7.15″ cds, along with Meden 23.7.15 transit, plus brown censor tape across top and violet boxed handstamp, forwarded to Koetaradja. Fresh and Very Fine, rare.
Estimate $2,500 – 3,500.

Dainippon occupation Koetaradja

Briefkaart Japanse bezetting met ovaal handstempel 75 sen,

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1943

January,17th.1943

 

1943, card from Sipirok to Atjeh (Bulterman 136), a clean 3½¢ Tapanoeli Japanese Flag postal card, cancelled by Sipirok 18.1.7.10 cds, violet boxed chop, fresh and Very Fine.
Estimate $1,000 – 1,500.

 

 

 

 

 

February,2nd.1943

DEI Military Postcard used during Dai Nippon Occupation Aceh, the dutch briefcard  overprint handwritten in dai Nippon languagua postcard send from  CDS showa katakana Tapaktuasn  3.2.18 to Koetaradja Atjeh.

 

 

 

 

 

 

April,5th.1943

Postally used  sencored Dai Nippon overprint hinomaru of Tapanoeli on DEI Karbouw 31/2 cent [postal stationer sent from CDS Sipirok  18,4,5k to Meulaboh (Atjeh)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 August,24th.1943

24.8.1943

Fragment Dai nippon acheh star overprint used at Koetaraja(now bandar Aceh)

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

December 1943

Money order send from CDS showa 18.12.30(30.12.1943) to Sigli used Dai Nippon Overprint Dai Nippon laya 2602 on Malaya Perak stamps 2x10 cent

 

 

 

 

 

 

1944

1944, registered cover from Tapatoean to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 11S61), franked with pair Netherlands Indies 20c definitive with printed 1-line "Sumatra" overprint, Medan censor's handstamp alongside. Cover wrinkled and worn, about Fine.
Estimate $2,000 - 3,000

 

 

 

 

1944, registered cover from Seaulimeuni to Nagoya, Japan (J.S.C.A. 11S66), a large-size adversity cover made from a Dutch receipt form, franked with Netherlands Indies 10c block of 4 with 1-line Sumatra overprint, faint violet Sumatra censor's handstamp at left and several Japanese-language Senlimeuni cds's ("Surimun" in Japanese). Cover worn (as expected), about Fine.
Estimate $2,000 - 3,000

 

 

 

 

 

1934, wrapper used from CDS Koetaradja 19.11.7  Atjeh (J.S.C.A. 13S1) to sabang , franked with unoverprinted Netherlands Indies 1c definitive tied by Sumatra town cancel; publisher's purple handstamp below, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 - 3,000

 

 

 

 

1944, post card from Atjeh to Koeteradja (J.S.C.A. 2S44), franked with Netherlands Indies 3½c with Atjeh star over tapaktoan print, violet Koeteradja censor's handstamp at right, Fine to Very Fine.
Estimate $2,000 - 3,000.

 

 

Aceh during Indonesian Independent  revolution and War

1045

1946

1947

 

 

 

1947

A6tjeh local NRI Banknote in 1947

UANG ORIDA (Oeang Republik Indonesia Daerah Atjeh), 1947-1948

 

 

 

1949

Op 27 augustus 1949 overhandigde luitenant-kolonel Palmer van den Broek aan de Legercommandant het vaandel van het Korps Marechaussee van Atjeh en Onderhorigheden

Atjeh ceramic collections

Found at Lhokseumawe,Qingpai vessel during Yuan dynasty

Isa “4Arwah” dan Sabil

BY: Rahim_Fiksi

Februari 19, 2010

Pada kesempatan kali ini, saya akan meresensi atau lebih tepatnya mengulas sebuah teluran pikiran anak manusia yang lahir ke dunia. Telur itu akhirnya menetas dengan selamat sentosa, dan menjelma menjadi sesuatu yang disebut karya fiksi, berjudul “Sabil”.

Saya mendapatkan Sabil langsung dari penulisnya. Sabil ditulis secara runut dan sensasional oleh Muhammad Isa alias Sayf Ahmad Isa. Pertama kali ditawari Sabil, saya berasumsi bahwa ini seperti novel anak muda kebanyakan. Yakni tentang Rangga ‘sholeh’ mencari Cinta yang ‘sholehah’. Atau apa pun itu yang berwujud teenlit islami. Sah-sah saja sih. Malah saya termasuk yang minat juga. Tapi kali ini saya keliru. Sabil bukan apa yang saya duga.

Saya bertanya pada Isa: ”Ini novel tentang apa?”
Isa berkata: “Perang Ajteh”.

Saya mengucek mata. Saya tidak salah lihat kan? Hari gini ngomongin perang aceh? Emang ada yang lirik ? Betapa semangat di dada saya memburu. Apa ini semacam jawaban dari doa-doa saya. Apa ini pula semacam pertanda dari tetes air mata saya yang jatuh beberapa kurun waktu ini. Sebelum Isa memberikan Sabil, saya sempat terdiam lama dalam perenungan saya melalui buku yang saya baca.

 Buku itu berjudul :”Pesan-Pesan Menggugah”. Buku ini sangat menyentuh, dan sungguh merupakan penyembuh bagi jiwa yang futur. Di dalamnya ada kisah orang-orang yang menikmati jihad.

Betapa mereka telah mencium aroma surga dari padang pasir yang tandus, padahal istana adalah tempat biasa mereka berteduh. Mereka membaui kasturi dari darah yang tercecer. Kilatan pedang syuhada adalah kunci dari terbukanya surga yang mengalir dibawahnya sungai-sungai. Subhanallah! Sungguh di luar logika.

Tapi saya percaya, gemuruh itu ada. Dan takkan sia-sia. Entah energi seperti apa yang mengaliri mereka. Satu yang pasti: Saya sangat iri! Sangat! Saya ingin mengecapnya. Yakni bau darah yang berubah menjadi kesturi. Padang tandus yang senyaman kasur sutera. Dan adakah obat yang membuat saya terasuki ?? Air mata saya jatuh ke bumi. Jatuh begitu saja….

Maha Kuasa ALLAH atas apa yang DIA rancang. Sabil menghampiri. Maka Sabil adalah apa yang kamu baca berikut ini.

Kisah Perang Aceh yang sudah tertelan waktu dan dilupakan. Padahal perang ini meledak luar biasa, dimana disana kita akan merabai para ibu yang melepaskan anaknya pergi berjihad.

Suami yang gugur menjadi syuhada. Dan pasangan yang tak pernah dipasangkan di dunia, tapi menunggu di akhirat. Uniknya, meski novel ini bernuansa trailer menegangkan dan ’berat’, kamu jangan takut merasa digurui.

Sabil tidak hanya tentang pasukan berkuda dan teriakan-teriakan Jihad, justru melalui Sabil saya mengenal cinta sejati serupa nikmat yang tidak terlupakan seumur hidup. Malam-malam romantis yang membuat dahan-dahan dan rembulan akan cemburu. Subhanallah. Jihad, sejarah perang aceh dan romantisme dibungkus dalam satu paket.

Kita pun akan tau bahwa Perang Aceh dekat dengan Kekhilafahan. Ini tak lagi terbantahkan. Betapa ungkapan ’Serambi Mekkah’ bukanlah sebutan yang disematkan begitu saja tanpa goresan tinta emas di masa lalu.

Ya, memang sudah saatnya kita mengetahui jati diri, setidaknya kisah di negeri sendiri. Sudah tiba masanya kita tidak lagi sibuk dengan diri sendiri. Jihad menanti, kawan. Persiapkan diri! Insyaallah, Allah akan menuntun. Dan pada akhirnya…… SABIL hadir ke hadapan kamu! Enjoy!

Teuku Nanta duduk tegak di punggung kudanya yang berwarna hitam.

 

Ia ada di Pantai Ceureumen, tepat di tempat di mana ia berada kemarin, dan beberapa hari sebelumnya. Firdaus tegak di sisinya, menunggang kuda pula.
“Bagaimana, Tuanku?” Tanya Firdaus.
Teuku Nanta diam sejenak dan memandang mata Firdaus lekat-lekat lantas tersenyum, “Kita berperang dengan Belanda.”
Firdaus pun tersenyum lebar, “Benarkah?”


“Surat Belanda yang terakhir hari ini tak perlu dibalas. Belanda menuntut Aceh untuk menyerahkan kedaulatannya dengan batas waktu sampai besok jam delapan pagi. Kita cukup mengibarkan bendera putih jika kita menyetujui tuntutan mereka.

Tapi tentu saja jawaban kita tidak. Jika sampai besok jam delapan pagi kita tak mengibarkan bendera putih di pantai maka Belanda menyatakan perang secara resmi dengan kita.”
“Sebuah perang resmi rupanya!” Firdaus memandang ke tengah lautan.
“Ulama-ulama dan uleebalang Aceh sungguh ksatria,” lanjut Teuku Nanta, “mereka pun semuanya memilih melawan.

Aku bangga melihat mereka. Saat ini mereka sedang mempersiapkan pasukan tempur yang mereka bawa.”
“Aceh berperang pula dengan Belanda ternyata,” Firdaus tersenyum terus. Ia masih tak menyangka.
“Sepertinya kau senang sekali?”
“Kita harus sambut tantangan ini dengan gembira, Tuanku.”
“Tentu saja. Berani mereka menginjakkan kaki di tanah Aceh akan hilanglah nyawa mereka satu-satunya,”

Teuku Nanta dan Firdaus tertawa terbahak-bahak.
“Sebenarnya dari semenjak kemarin aku merasa ada sesuatu yang aku lupa,” Teuku Nanta memijit-mijit keningnya dengan telunjuk dan ibu jarinya, “Tapi aku tak berhasil mengingatnya.”

“Apa yang lupa, Tuanku?”
Ia terdiam dan menyilangkan tangannya di depan dadanya. Tiba-tiba matanya melotot, mulutnya menganga.

Ekspresinya yang biasa ketika ia mengingat sesuatu.
“Hei Sinyak, kau kan hendak menikah? Pernikahanmu besok, tapi kita belum melakukan persiapan apapun.”
“Ah perkara itu janganlah dipikirkan, Tuanku.”
“Bagaimana kau bisa bilang jangan dipikirkan?”
“Aku sendiri telah memutuskan akhirnya, dan aku memohon kepada Tuanku untuk mengantarkanku ke sana,” sahut Firdaus, “Aku ingin menyatakannya di sana.”
“Apa maksudmu? Apa keputusanmu?”

Teuku Nanta tak mengerti. “Tapi baiklah, marilah berangkat. Aku akan menemanimu,” Teuku Nanta mengalihkan komando. Ia dan Firdaus menjalankan kudanya perlahan. Mereka berdua meninggalkan pantai.

 Sampailah mereka di depan gerbang Dalam. Sepanjang perjalanan mereka melihat orang-orang sedang bersiap-siap untuk berperang. Di sana mereka bertemu dengan kereta kuda Teuku Nanta yang baru saja tiba dari Lampadang dengan membawa Mak dan Cut Nyak.
“Hei itu mereka,” ujar Teuku Nanta.

Kereta kuda itu berhenti di hadapannya. Cut Nyak dan Mak turun dari sana. Ketika melihat mereka, Teuku Nanta dan Firdaus turun dari kuda. Mereka berbalas salam. Firdaus mencium tangan ibunya.
“Kita akan berperang dengan Belanda,” Teuku Nanta memberi tahu mereka. Tak tahu mengapa ia tersenyum ketika mengatakan hal itu. Cut Nyak mengangguk dan tersenyum pula kepadanya. Ia teguh.

 Mak memandang dengan sayang kepada puteranya.
“Mak, aku akan ke rumah Haji Zainal. Aku telah memutuskan. Tolong ridhoi aku,” kata Firdaus. Ia mencium tangan ibunya lagi dan memeluknya. Matanya mulai basah. Ia berbisik kepada ibunya. “Ridhoi aku menikah dengan Ainon Mardliah.”
“Ainon Mardliah perempuan baik budi. Menikahlah kau dengannya,” bisik Mak. Pipinya berlinangan air mata. “Mak rela. Pergilah kau bersamanya, sebab tak lama lagi, Mak pun menyusul pula.”
“Terima kasih, Mak,” Firdaus melepaskan pelukannya. “Mari, Tuanku.”

Mereka berdua naik lagi ke punggung kuda dan berlari cepat ke Lampadang. Mereka bergegas menuju rumah Haji Zainal. Putri Haji Zainal, Siti Maryam Jamilah, adalah calon isteri Firdaus.
Akhirnya sampailah mereka berdua di muka halaman rumah Haji Zainal. Mereka melihat rumah itu telah dirias dan dipersiapkan untuk menjalani sebuah perayaan pernikahan. Firdaus memandang segala hal yang ada di hadapannya itu dengan getir. Teuku Nanta pun tak kalah risaunya.

Apa yang akan dikatakan Haji Zainal nanti, kata hatinya.
“Tuanku, aku memohon kali ini akulah yang akan bicara dengan Haji Zainal,” kata Firdaus.
“Baiklah.”
Mereka berdua turun dari kuda dan menaiki tangga depan rumah itu serta mengucap salam. Orang-orang sedang sibuk mendekor ruangan. Haji Zainal sedang mengawasi mereka bekerja. Ia menjawab salam dan mempersilakan mereka masuk.
“Aku bahagia sekali mendapatkan kunjungan agung ini,” ujar Haji Zainal. Ia agak terkejut juga melihat Firdaus dan Teuku Nanta tiba-tiba datang. “Mari silakan duduk.”
“Kedatanganku kemari adalah untuk memberitahu sesuatu kepada Teungku Haji dan Siti Maryam,” Firdaus memulai. Kalimatnya datar.

 

Ia memaksakan diri terlihat biasa. Teuku Nanta diam saja. “Hari ini Belanda telah menyatakan perang kepada Aceh.”
Haji Zainal bengong. Matanya melotot. Ia menggeleng. Apa yang diucapkan Firdaus membuatnya terkejut setengah mati, sampai ia tak bisa berkata apa-apa.

 Ia tersandar lemas di kursi, seakan tulang punggungnya tak mampu menopang tubuhnya lagi.
“Aku memohon maaf sedalam-dalamnya, bukan aku bermaksud menimpakan aib dan cela kepada Teungku Haji sekelurga, aku bermaksud membatalkan pernikahanku dengan Maryam,” Firdaus menunduk. “Demi Allah aku mohon maaf.”
Napas Haji Zainal berubah cepat. Jantungnya berdegup kencang.

Ia memandang kosong ke depan, lantas menutup mukanya dengan kedua telapak tangannya. Sesal di dadanya menghunjam jauh ke bumi. Melesat cepat menuju langit. Matanya berkaca-kaca, dadanya sempit dan sesak. Apa yang terjadi membuatnya kecewa, namun apa lagi yang hendak dikata?
“Aku mohon untuk bertemu dengan Maryam, Teungku Haji,” pinta Firdaus, “ada yang ingin kubicarakan dengannya.”
Haji Zainal bangkit dengan lesu dan memanggil puterinya dari kamarnya. Keluarlah Siti Maryam dan duduk pula di ruang tamu.

Ketika melihat calon isterinya itu, sebenarnya Firdaus tak sanggup bicara lagi. Tapi ia harus. Ia harus mengatakan segala-galanya.
“Sebelumnya Aduen mohon maaf kepadamu, Maryam. Belanda telah menyatakan perang dengan Aceh tadi pagi. Aduen tak bisa menikahimu karena Aduen harus berangkat berperang.


Mata Siti Maryam mulai basah. Bibirnya gemetar. Tangannya menggenggam dadanya yang penuh. Akhirnya air matanya berlinang.
“Demi Allah Aduen mencintaimu. Aduen ingin sekali menikahimu. Tapi negeri kita lebih membutuhkan Aduen, dan Aduen tak bisa lari darinya. Maafkan Aduen. Maafkan!!” Melihat Siti Maryam menangis sesenggukan serupa itu, Firdaus tak tahan juga. Matanya pun sudah tidak bisa lagi membendung cairan hangat itu dan basahlah sudah wajahnya dibasuh air mata. Ia menutup wajahnya dengan tangannya. Ah, akhirnya ia menangis. Akhirnya ia menangis juga.

Telah sesak bumi oleh tangis. Telah penuh ia oleh air mata. Dengan sabar ia memandang tiap tetesnya berderai. Sebab manusia pasti menangis. Karena manusia harus menangis.
Dua pecinta itu menangis terisak-isak. Mereka menyadari betapa manis dan sucinya cinta mereka, namun mereka tak bisa menyatukannya. Ada hal lain yang lebih besar yang harus mereka cintai lebih dahulu, Aceh.

 Langit menangis bersama-sama mereka. Alam lara. Bumi mengharap kebesaran jiwa.
Siti Maryam berusaha mengendalikan dirinya. Ia menghapus air matanya dan berusaha tersenyum, padahal pipinya basah tak terkira.
“Tak apa-apa, Aduen,” ia masih terisak. “Aceh membutuhkanmu lebih dari pada aku. Belalah negeri ini. Lawanlah penjajah. Aku pun mencintaimu!”
Mendengar apa yang dikatakan Siti Maryam, terhunjamlah sudah semangat Firdaus lebih dalam lagi di dasar sanubarinya. “Terima Kasih.”
“Jangan risaukan apapun. Berjuanglah dengan tenang. Aku ikhlas menerima semuanya. Aku rela menerima keputusanmu,” ujar Siti Maryam lagi. “Aku ingin memberikan sesuatu untukmu.”
“Benarkah?” Firdaus penasaran.
“Dengarkanlah,

Nibak maté di rumoh inong
Bahlé beu keunong seunjata kaphé
Nibak maté di ateuh tilam
Bahlé lam seuh prang syahid meu gulé.

Firdaus tersenyum memandang Siti Maryam. Hatinya mekar berbunga-bunga mendengar apa yang dikatakan calon isteri yang tak akan pernah dinikahinya itu.
“Kau pandai sekali bersyair.”
“Ini bukan syairku. Ini syair Teungku Cik Pante Kulu. Aku mendengarnya dibacakan di meunasah.”
“Sungguh indah,” ujar Firdaus. “Hari ini aku bertemu Teungku Kulu di Banda Aceh. Syair-syair Perang Sabil karyanya dibacakan di tengah-tengah para prajurit. Banyak orang menyalinnya. Kami akan berperang bersama.”
“Tolong sampaikan salamku padanya. Aku salah seorang penggemar syairnya.”
“Insya Allah.” []

Footnote:

 1. Isa “4 Arwah” adalah nama panggilan saya untuk Sayf Ahmad Isa. Diambil dari nickname jadulnya Isa : Djenderal 4 Arwah. (Hahh… Si isa mah, arwah-arwahan segala!). Selamat menyelami energi jihad yang coba ditularkan Isa sejak pertama kali kamu menyentuh “sabil”.
2. Isa menerima kritik dan saran dari teman-teman semua (kritik membangun adalah batu-bata bagi seorang penulis. So, ditunggu yaaakkk ^_^)
3. Semoga Allah menguatkan kita dalam jalan perjuangan. aminnnnn<
a

 

THE KNIL EXPEDITION ACEH WAR COLLECTIONS 1898-1901

 

 

The Mysteri Of Vintage Java Kingdom special import Ceramic from euro(Mengungkap misteri keramik antik pesanan khusus Keraton solo)

source

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/07/the-mysteri-of-vintage-java-kingdom-special-import-ceramic-from-euromengungkap-misteri-keramik-antik-pesanan-khusus-keraton-solo/

Hallo all collectors from all over the world especially from Indonesia. I have just found at Solo middle java the vintage special import ceramic from euro with ilustration of the java princess and javanese kawi script cally graphy who know who was the princess, may be Princess Pakubuwono Xi or Princess of Mangkuneraan ?

Look the picture below carrefully from right side

 Photo: keramik lama era hindia belanda dari keraton surakarta atau mangkunegaran,ditemukabn disolo

left side

Photo: close up profil permaisuri keraton surakarta atau mangkunegaraan(?) mohon identifikasi bagi yang mengenalnya,terima kasih

closeup the princess profile

compare with princess PB X profile in 1900

compare with Gusti raden ayu Nurul below same or not ?

 photo

Tempo Doeloe #44 – Princess Gusti Nurul

scan of old postcard,

Sorry for the poor quality, this card is probably used for making a bigger portrait. My guess is that this card is from the Yogyakarta area but I’m not sure. The date is unknown and the written text at the back side is hard to read but could be: R.A. Siti Suhardijah…

Update: thanks to Widy or Dee the mystery is solved, it’s princess Gusti Nurul… :-)“The beautiful Princess Nurul (1921-present) was unique for her days. She kept our traditional values but yet she was also very modern and rebellious. She rode horses, played tennis and swam. Yet she was also the best dancer in the palace. So much so that in 1936 Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands requested the young Princess to dance at the wedding of Princess Juliana and Prince Bernard. Of everything that she was known of, she was famously known as the princess who turned down marriage proposals from the country’s most powerful men. A princess who stayed single in her 30s… well, in her days that was unheard of. Romantic? I think more than anything else, she was strong willed. Very.”

 

closed up the janavese czalligraphy

Thanks very much for help me

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA Collections

Para kolektor Indonesia khususnya yang memahami sejarah kerataon di solo, harap berme or not?

kenan membantu saya,

Photo: close up profil permaisuri keraton surakarta atau mangkunegaraan(?) mohon identifikasi bagi yang mengenalnya,terima kasih

siapah permaisuri yang profilenya tertera diatas kermaik antik pesnan khusus kerajaan dari eropa diatas? dan

apakah artinya kaligrafi dalam bahasa kawi tersebut diatas,mungkin susatu peingatan kghusus, sebelum ini saya juag menemukan piring besar dengan kaligrafi bahasa kawi yaitu peringatan 100 hari meninggalnya permaisuri Sulatan Pakubuwono X

Terima kasih atas bantuanya untuk mengungkap misteri keramik perinagtan ini.

Harap waspada saat ini banyak tiruan palsu yang dibuat,dan keramik ini orisinil asli lihat ilustrasinya sanga5t halus begitu juga dengan warna keemasannya yang sangat indah,kaligrafinya sangat halus,bukan tehnik sablon tetapi transger sistem 6yang cangih

seluruh keramik ini koleksi dr Iwan suwnady,MHA

Semoga informasi ini berhguna untuk mengungkap sejarah keraton Jawa(Mataram khususnya)

Copyrigy @ 2012

Diabetic Type 2 Communication Forum,Forum komunikasi Dibetes tipe 2 :Diabetic Type 2 And Related Info

Forum Komunikasi Diabetes Tipe 2

Diabetic type 2 Communication Forum

Editor

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Siapa Saja yang berhubungan dengan Diabetes Tipe 2 dapat memanfaatkan forum komunikasi ini secara gratis untuk saling memberikan informasi, baik para profesional medis maupun para pasien

This Forum Special for Medical Professional and Dibetic Patiens and relarted disease communication to exchznge information freely

Editor

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Komunikasi Dan Konsultasi gratis  klik

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/05/diabetic-type-communication-forumforum-komunikasi-dibetes-tipe-2-diabetic-type-2-and-related-info/

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The Study report Of Diabetic Type 2

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

copyright@2012

This Study dedicated To

my wife, sons and my brother ,lso for all Diavetic Type 2 community in all over the world,specially( khususnya) Indonesia.

Introductions

Indonesian version

Seseorang dengan diabetes tipe 2 dapat menggunakan latihan untuk membantu mengendalikan kadar gula darah mereka dan memberikan energi otot mereka perlu untuk berfungsi sepanjang hari.

Dengan mempertahankan diet sehat dan olahraga yang cukup, seseorang dengan diabetes tipe 2 NON Insulin dependend diabetes melittus (NIDDM) mungkin dapat menjaga gula darah mereka dalam rentang non-diabetes normal tanpa pengobatan.

Original info

A person with type 2 diabetes can use exercise to help control their blood sugar levels and provide energy their muscles need to function throughout the day.

By maintaining a healthy diet and sufficient exercise, a person with type 2 diabetes NON Insulin Dependend diabetes melittus(NIDDM) may be able to keep their blood sugar in the normal non-diabetic range without medication.

STUDI KEPUSTAKAAN

Diabetes tipe 2

Definisi

Diabetes tipe 2 adalah penyakit (kronis) seumur hidup di mana ada gula tingkat tinggi (glukosa) dalam darah.

Diabetes tipe 2 adalah bentuk paling umum diabetes.

Alternatif Nama Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes – tipe 2;

Diabetes onset(Timbul)

saat dewasa Penyebab, kejadian, dan faktor risiko Diabetes disebabkan oleh masalah dalam cara tubuh Anda membuat atau menggunakan insulin. Insulin dibutuhkan untuk memindahkan gula darah (glukosa) ke dalam sel, di mana disimpan dan kemudian digunakan untuk energi.

Pathogenesis

Pada diabetes tipe 2, lemak, hati, dan sel-sel otot tidak merespon dengan benar terhadap insulin. Hal ini disebut resistensi insulin.

Akibatnya, gula darah tidak masuk ke sel-sel ini untuk disimpan untuk energi. Bila gula tidak dapat memasuki sel, gula tingkat tinggi membangun dalam darah. Hal ini disebut hiperglikemia.

Diabetes tipe 2 biasanya terjadi perlahan-lahan dari waktu ke waktu. Kebanyakan orang dengan penyakit kelebihan berat badan ketika mereka didiagnosis. Peningkatan lemak membuat lebih sulit bagi tubuh Anda untuk menggunakan insulin cara yang benar.

Diabetes tipe 2 juga dapat mengembangkan pada orang yang tipis. Ini lebih umum pada orang tua.

Riwayat keluarga dan gen memainkan peran besar pada diabetes tipe 2.

Kegiatan tingkat rendah, pola makan yang buruk, dan berat badan berlebih di sekitar pinggang meningkatkan risiko Anda.

Lihat juga: diabetes tipe 2 untuk daftar faktor risiko. Gejala Sering kali, orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 tidak menunjukkan gejala pada awalnya.

Mereka mungkin tidak memiliki gejala selama bertahun-tahun. Gejala-gejala awal diabetes meliputi:

• Kandung kemih, ginjal, kulit, atau infeksi lain yang lebih sering atau menyembuhkan perlahan • Kelelahan • Kelaparan • Meningkatnya rasa haus • Peningkatan buang air kecil Gejala pertama mungkin juga: • kabur visi • Disfungsi ereksi • Nyeri atau mati rasa pada kaki atau tangan

Tanda dan tes Dokter mungkin menduga bahwa Anda memiliki diabetes jika kadar gula darah Anda lebih tinggi dari 200 mg / dL.

Untuk memastikan diagnosa, satu atau lebih dari tes berikut harus dilakukan. Tes darah Diabetes : • kadar glukosa darah puasa –

diabetes didiagnosis jika lebih tinggi dari 126 mg / dL dua kali • Uji Hemoglobin A1c o Normal: Kurang dari 5,7% o Pra-diabetes: 5,7% – 6,4% o Diabetes: 6,5% atau lebih tinggi Sedamg 6,5-9 Bukurk lebih dari 9

Fakta Uji Hemoglobin A1c

The A1c AccuBase Kit Test adalah tes yang sangat akurat (kurang dari 1,0% CV) mampu mendeteksi varian hemoglobin abnormal dan / atau diam seperti S hemoglobin, dan C dan F dan lebih dari 850 lainnya.

Setiap sampel disaring lebih dulu karena keberadaan hemoglobin abnormal dan / atau kinetika eritrosit terganggu (usia normal atau volume sel darah merah) Contoh, anemia (yang palsu dapat menurunkan nilai A1C). Individu dengan diabetes yang berlangsung lama dapat hadir dengan kondisi yang disebut kekurangan eritropoietin (EPO) .

Kekurangan EPO dan / atau anemia dianggap kondisi serius yang memerlukan intervensi medis yang tepat. DEK dapat mempengaruhi jawaban A1c dan setiap sampel harus diskrining untuk kehadiran DEK.

Perkiraan melaporkan bahwa lebih dari 650.000 orang Amerika Hitam dengan diabetes yang tahu untuk memiliki Trait Sickle Cell (Hb “S, C atau F”) “Jangan tertipu oleh klaim akurasi ketika metode A1c dan / atau perangkat monitoring pakai memiliki CV ( koefisien variasi) lebih besar dari 2,0% atau tidak dapat mendeteksi hemoglobin abnormal “.

“Sebuah metode A1c dan / atau perangkat monitoring dengan CV sebesar 7,0% bisa berarti bahwa jika tingkat A1C Anda yang sebenarnya adalah 6,5% itu bisa dilaporkan di mana saja dari 5,0% menjadi 8,0% memberikan informasi palsu terapi dan / atau menyesatkan,” belum lagi dampak dari hemoglobin abnormal pada nilai A1c bahwa metode tertentu atau perangkat tidak mampu mendeteksi. Setiap sampel A1c AccuBase dianalisis dengan prosedur HPLC-IE dengan hasil Kromatogram dicetak seperti yang ditunjukkan di bawah ini. Staf laboratorium tersedia untuk membahas kromatogram individu dengan dokter Anda dan / atau tenaga medis.

The A1c AccuBase Test Kit adalah non-puasa, tongkat jari, mail-in test, dianggap tes A1C yang paling akurat dan tepat yang tersedia.

Tes ini dianggap sensitif dan cukup spesifik untuk mendeteksi diabetes (kurang dari 2,0% CV). CV berada di bawah 1,0%. CV menunjukkan tingkat akurasi diulang dibandingkan dengan nilai laboratorium diketahui A1c. CV rendah adalah tes yang lebih akurat A1c.

The A1c AccuBase Metode pengujian Kit adalah NGSP bersertifikat (nilai direferensikan ke DCCT). The A1c AccuBase Kit Uji tidak memerlukan waktu pengeringan, sampel dapat dikumpulkan dan dikirimkan dalam beberapa menit. Kit ini dilengkapi dengan pasien botol ID positif dan tabung kapiler plastik / perangkat. Metode analisis gangguan gratis. Sampel yang stabil selama 30 hari un-didinginkan.

Setiap hasil tes dilengkapi dengan perhitungan Glukosa Darah mean berdasarkan Persamaan MBG DCCT:% A1c X 31,7-66,1 = MBG di mg / dl. Hasil tes biasanya tersedia dalam 5 sampai 7 hari mailing bentuk.

Penanganan khusus dapat diatur untuk menyediakan, hari berikutnya, hasil sehari dua hari atau tiga. Ideal untuk diabetes rahasia (rata-rata glukosa darah) skrining, program penjangkauan dan jalur klinis .

Grafik pertama menunjukkan kromatogram normal dengan tidak hadir hemoglobin varian dan tingkat A1C yang normal.

The Kromatogram pada grafik kedua menunjukkan tingkat yang sangat tinggi dari F hemoglobin (25,6%). Tingkat peningkatan Hb F menghasilkan nilai A1c sub-normal 3,2%. Normal berkisar dari uji A1C (4,2% – 6,0%). Kecuali Anda telah disaring untuk varian hemoglobin Anda tidak akan tahu Anda membawa varian persisten turun-temurun, atau menyadari dampaknya terkait pada tingkat A1C Anda.

Peningkatan kadar Hemoglobin F dapat mewakili peningkatan risiko SIDS pada bayi, dan dapat mewakili sebagai asosiasi dalam berbagai jenis leukemia dan / atau tumor padat.

Ibu yang merokok atau telah terkena pencemaran lingkungan selama kehamilan mungkin memiliki tingkat yang jauh lebih tinggi dari Hb F pada bayi yang dapat meningkatkan risiko SIDS pada bayi baru lahir. AccuBase A1c Kit Uji Diselesaikan untuk digunakan OTC oleh FDA (tidak ada resep yang diperlukan di sebagian besar negara). Pasien dapat menerima salinan hasil tes.

Pelaporan elektronik kepada organisasi managed care kesehatan / penyedia tersedia. The AccuBase A1cTest Kit menggunakan “standar emas” HPLC-IE atau BA metodologi untuk mengumpulkan dan menganalisis sampel A1c di lokasi situs alternatif seperti rumah, kantor dokter dan / atau klinik • tes toleransi glukosa oral – diabetes didiagnosis jika kadar glukosa lebih tinggi dari 200 mg / dL setelah 2 jam Skrining diabetes dianjurkan untuk: • Kegemukan anak yang memiliki faktor risiko lain untuk diabetes, dimulai pada usia 10 dan diulang setiap 2 tahun • Kegemukan dewasa (BMI lebih besar dari 25) yang memiliki faktor risiko lain • Dewasa di atas usia 45 setiap 3 tahun Anda harus melihat dokter anda setiap 3 bulan. Pada kunjungan ini, Anda dapat mengharapkan dokter untuk: • Periksa tekanan darah Anda • Periksa kulit dan tulang pada kaki dan kaki • Periksa apakah kaki menjadi mati rasa • Periksa bagian belakang mata dengan alat khusus yang disebut terang ophthalmoscope Tes berikut akan membantu Anda dan dokter Anda memantau diabetes Anda dan mencegah masalah: • Apakah tekanan darah Anda diperiksa setidaknya setiap tahun (darah tujuan tekanan harus 130/80 mm / Hg atau lebih rendah). • Memiliki hemoglobin A1c Anda uji (HbA1c) setiap 6 bulan jika diabetes Anda terkontrol dengan baik, jika tidak setiap 3 bulan. • Apakah kolesterol dan trigliserida diperiksa tahunan (mencapai tingkat LDL di bawah 70-100 mg / dL). • Dapatkan tes tahunan untuk memastikan ginjal Anda bekerja dengan baik (mikroalbuminuria dan serum kreatinin). • Kunjungi dokter mata Anda setidaknya sekali setahun, atau lebih sering jika Anda memiliki tanda-tanda penyakit mata diabetes. • Lihat dokter gigi setiap 6 bulan untuk membersihkan gigi menyeluruh dan ujian. Pastikan dokter gigi dan ahli kesehatan tahu bahwa Anda memiliki diabetes.

Pengobatan

Tujuan pengobatan

pada awalnya adalah untuk menurunkan kadar glukosa darah tinggi.

Jangka panjang Tujuan pengobatan adalah untuk mencegah masalah dari diabetes.

Pengobatan utama untuk diabetes tipe 2 adalah olahraga dan diet. tes baru adalah Aggregasi Thrombosit(hemostasis tes untuk menentukan apakah anda hiper atau normal aggresasi): ADP 1 normal 0-15, ADP 2 normal 11-35, ADP 5 normal 25- 68 dan ADP 10 normal 49-84 (tes ini agak mahal sekitar Rp 300.000) Platelet Function Testing: Light Transmission Aggregometry [LTA] ________________________________________

english version

Introduction

Platelet function testing is difficult, time consuming and prone to a wide-variety of problems due to pre-analytical variables.

Before undertaking any tests of platelet function – consider: Variable Interpretation Clinical History & examination. Some syndromes [e.g. Hermansky Pudlak syndrome, Cheddiak Higashi syndrome, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Velocardiofacial Syndrome (VCFS), Noonan syndrome, MYH9-related disorders] are associated with abnormal platelet function and you may get some idea of the diagnosis from the clinical history and examination. Drug History There are a large number of drugs and especially food substances that can interfere with platelet function. Full Blood Count (FBC) and Blood Film 1. Consider pseudothrombocytopenia often due to cold reacting platelet agglutinins or to platelet satellitism.

Approximately 0.1% of the healthy population show EDTA-induced pseudothrombocytopenia and it is important to exclude this before undertaking more extensive tests of platelet function. Similar findings have also been reported with the use of both citrate and heparin as anticoagulants.

A blood film may identify platelet clumps and provide a clue to the diagnosis. 2. Mean Platelet Volume [MPV – reference range 7-10fL]: the MPV is an often ignored parameter of the FBC but can provide important insights into the causes of a low platelet count. – It can also in some cases give a clue to the diagnosis e.g. the hereditary macrothrombocytopenias, Bernard Soulier Syndrome [BSS] – In individuals with an elevated MPV, an immunological-based platelet count may provide a more accurate and often significantly higher platelet count. -

The MPV can be an indication of platelet turnover – an increased MPV indicating accelerated platelet clearance as in ITP or gestational thrombocytopenia. -

The MPV may be reduced in cases of Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome and in some cases of bone marrow failure. 3. An examination of the blood film and platelet morphology can be useful in both establishing a diagnosis of pseudothrombocytopenia but also in establishing a primary platelet problem e.g. Gray Platelet Syndrome.

In some cases of thrombocytopenia e.g. May Hegglin anomaly – the blood film may show the presence of Döhle bodies [light blue-gray, oval, basophilic, leukocyte inclusions located in the peripheral cytoplasm of neutrophils.] Pengujian Fungsi Trombosit : Cahaya Transmisi Aggregometry [LTA] ________________________________________

Pengantar

Pengujian fungsi platelet(thrombosit) sulit, memakan waktu dan rentan terhadap berbagai-masalah akibat pra-analitis variabel.

Sebelum melakukan apapun tes fungsi platelet – dipertimbangkan: Variabel Interpretasi Klinis Sejarah & pemeriksaan. Beberapa sindrom [misalnya Hermansky Pudlak sindrom, Cheddiak Higashi sindrom, Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome, Syndrome Velocardiofacial (VCFs), sindrom Noonan, MYH9 yang berhubungan dengan gangguan] yang berhubungan dengan fungsi trombosit yang abnormal dan Anda mungkin mendapatkan beberapa ide diagnosis dari sejarah klinis dan pemeriksaan.

Sejarah Obat Ada sejumlah besar obat dan terutama zat makanan yang dapat mengganggu fungsi trombosit. Darah penuh Count (FBC) dan Film Darah 1. Pertimbangkan pseudothrombocytopenia sering karena dingin agglutinins platelet bereaksi atau satellitism trombosit.

Sekitar 0,1% dari populasi menunjukkan pseudothrombocytopenia sehat EDTA-diinduksi dan penting untuk mengecualikan ini sebelum melakukan tes lebih luas dari fungsi platelet.

Temuan serupa juga telah dilaporkan dengan penggunaan kedua sitrat dan heparin sebagai antikoagulan. Sebuah film darah dapat mengidentifikasi gumpalan trombosit dan memberikan petunjuk untuk diagnosis. 2.

Volume rata-rata trombosit [MPV - referensi kisaran 7-10fL]: MPV adalah parameter sering diabaikan dari FBC tetapi dapat memberikan wawasan ke dalam penyebab dari jumlah platelet yang rendah. –

Hal ini dapat juga dalam beberapa kasus memberikan petunjuk untuk diagnosis misalnya yang turun-temurun macrothrombocytopenias, Bernard Soulier Syndrome [BSS] –

Pada individu dengan MPV ditinggikan, hitungan imunologi berbasis trombosit dapat memberikan jumlah trombosit lebih akurat dan sering lebih tinggi secara signifikan. –

The MPV bisa menjadi indikasi omset platelet – sebuah MPV meningkat menunjukkan izin trombosit dipercepat seperti di ITP atau trombositopenia kehamilan. –

The MPV dapat dikurangi dalam kasus Wiskott-Aldrich Syndrome dan dalam beberapa kasus kegagalan sumsum tulang.

3. Pemeriksaan film darah dan morfologi trombosit dapat berguna di kedua membangun diagnosis pseudothrombocytopenia tetapi juga dalam membangun misalnya masalah utama platelet Gray trombosit Syndrome. Dalam beberapa kasus trombositopenia misalnya Mei Hegglin anomali – film darah dapat menunjukkan adanya badan DOHLE [. Cahaya biru-abu-abu, oval, basofilik, inklusi leukosit terletak di sitoplasma perifer neutrofil]

english version

Principles of Light Transmission [Born] Aggregometry

Platelet aggregation testing measures the ability of various agonists to platelets to induce in vitro activation and platelet-to-platelet activation.

Classically Born aggregometry uses platelet rich plasma [PRP] but whole blood aggregometry can be also used. In the Born aggregometer, PRP is stirred in a cuvette at 37°C and the cuvette sits between a light course and a photocell.

When an agonist is added the platelets aggregate and absorb less light and so the transmission increases and this is detected by the photocell.

You can also see the principles of Born aggregometry as an animation on this site [http://www.platelet-research.org/3/aggregometry.htm] Light

Transmission Aggregometry:

Variable Variable Explanation Pre-Analytical Variables Drugs which can interfere with platelet function include aspirin and anti-inflammatory drugs, specific anti-platelet drugs including clopidogrel and imidazole. However, there are numerous other drugs whose primary role is not to inhibit platelet function but nevertheless can do so e.g. antibiotics, anti-depressants, beta-blockers etc – Click HERE for a list of drugs etc that may affect platelet function tests. Food stuffs – A high fat diet can lead to the presence of chylomicra in the plasma and interfere with light transmission in aggregation testing. -

Others include garlic, turmeric and caffeine. Platelet count: In individuals with very high or low platelet counts, it may be necessary to adjust the platelet count to achieve a count in the region of 200-400 x 109/L.

For very high counts the count can be adjusted with PPP. Platelet counts below 200 x 109/L can give rise to diminished aggregation responses. Although it seems logical to undertake additional centrifugation in such cases to increase the platelet count, in practice this can lead to activation of platelets and is not recommended.

Temperature: Blood samples for platelet aggregation testing should be stored at room temperature. pH: Platelet aggregation should be carried out at physiological pH.

Fibrinogen Concentration:

Platelets will only aggregate (although they may agglutinate) if fibrinogen is present and so it is important to check fibrinogen levels before undertaking platelet aggregation testing.

Anticoagulant: Current guidelines suggest that samples for platelet aggregation testing should be collected into citrate.

However, more recent data suggests that heparin , but not citrate, preserves platelet responses for up to 24 h as determined by a range of techniques Preparation of Platelet Rich Plasma [PRP] Platelets are very sensitive and can be readily activated during the preparation of PRP. Anticoagulant:

Venous blood with minimal venous occlusion, is collected into 3.2%/0.109M citrate in a ratio of 1:9 [1 part anticoagulant to 9 parts blood.] Whole blood samples should be processed within 4 hours of collection.

Blood samples for platelet aggregation testing should be stored at room temperature – cooling platelets can lead to activation. Transport samples to the laboratory at room temperature. PRP is prepared by centrifugation at 20°C for 10-15 minutes at 150-200g.

The PRP is carefully removed and placed into a stoppered plastic tube. PRP should be stored at room temperature. PPP can be prepared by further centrifugation of the remaining plasma at 2700g for 15 minutes. Agonists Addition of a platelet agonist to the PRP leads to platelet activation, a change in their shape from discoid to spiny spheres which is associated with a transient increase in optical density.

The only exceptions to this are epinephrine in which there is no shape change and ristocetin which causes platelet agglutination rather than aggregation i.e. there is no binding of fibrinogen.

There are two types of agonists: Strong Agonists e.g. Collagen, thrombin, TxA2: These directly induce platelet aggregation, TxA2 synthesis and platelet granule secretion. Weak Agonists e.g. ADP & epinephrine:

These induce platelet aggregation without inducing secretion. Platelet secretion can sometimes follow aggregation induced by a weak agonist, when the synthesis of endogenous TxA2 is triggered by the close platelet-to-platelet contact that occurs during platelet aggregation.

Strong agonists, when used at low concentrations, may act like weak agonists, but weak agonists even at high concentrations will not act as strong agonists. With some weak agonists [ADP and adrenaline] at critical concentrations, the platelet aggregation curve has a biphasic appearance: an initial wave of aggregation (primary wave), followed by a secondary wave of aggregation, which is usually irreversible [see illustration below.]

Secondary wave aggregation may not occur and the primary wave may disaggregate. At higher agonist concentrations (except with epinephrine) the two waves of aggregation combine and only a single wave is seen and the biphasic waveform is absent.

The aggregation response to an agonist is amplified by the production of TxA2 from membrane phospholipids and by the secretion of ADP from the dense granules. ADP and TxA2 are agonists, which, by interacting with their specific receptors, amplify the aggregation response of the platelet.

Transmisi cahaya Aggregometry: Variable Variabel Penjelasan Pra-Analytical

Variabel Obat yang dapat mengganggu fungsi trombosit meliputi obat aspirin dan anti-inflamasi, spesifik obat anti-platelet termasuk clopidogrel dan imidazol.

Namun, ada banyak obat lain peran utamanya adalah bukan untuk menghambat fungsi trombosit namun demikian dapat melakukannya misalnya antibiotik, anti-depressants, beta-blocker

obat yang dapat mempengaruhi tes fungsi platelet. Bahan makanan -

Diet tinggi lemak dapat menyebabkan kehadiran chylomicra dalam plasma dan mengganggu transmisi cahaya dalam pengujian agregasi. – Lainnya termasuk bawang putih, kunyit dan kafein. Platelet count: (perhitungan Thrombosit)

Pada individu dengan jumlah trombosit yang sangat tinggi atau rendah, mungkin perlu untuk menyesuaikan jumlah trombosit untuk mencapai hitungan di wilayah 200-400 x 109 / L.

Untuk jumlah yang sangat tinggi menghitung dapat disesuaikan dengan PPP. Jumlah trombosit di bawah 200 109 L x / dapat menimbulkan respon agregasi berkurang.

Meskipun tampaknya logis untuk melakukan sentrifugasi tambahan dalam kasus tersebut untuk meningkatkan jumlah trombosit, dalam praktek ini dapat menyebabkan aktivasi trombosit dan tidak dianjurkan. Suhu: Sampel darah untuk pengujian agregasi platelet harus disimpan pada suhu kamar. pH: agregasi trombosit harus dilakukan pada pH fisiologis.

Konsentrasi fibrinogen: Trombosit hanya akan agregat (meskipun mereka mungkin mengaglutinasi) jika fibrinogen hadir dan sehingga sangat penting untuk memeriksa tingkat fibrinogen sebelum melakukan pengujian agregasi platelet. Antikoagulan:

Pedoman saat ini menunjukkan bahwa sampel untuk pengujian agregasi platelet harus dikumpulkan ke sitrat. Namun, data yang lebih baru menunjukkan bahwa heparin, tetapi tidak sitrat, menjaga respon trombosit sampai 24 jam sebagaimana ditentukan oleh berbagai teknik Persiapan Plasma Kaya trombosit [PRP] Trombosit sangat sensitif dan dapat dengan mudah diaktifkan selama persiapan PRP. Antikoagulan:

vena darah dengan oklusi vena minimal, yang dikumpulkan ke 3,2% / sitrat 0.109M dalam rasio 1:9 [1 bagian antikoagulan untuk 9 bagian darah.]

Seluruh sampel darah harus diproses dalam waktu 4 jam dari koleksi. Sampel darah untuk pengujian agregasi platelet harus disimpan pada suhu kamar – trombosit pendinginan dapat menyebabkan aktivasi. Transportasi sampel ke laboratorium pada suhu kamar.

PRP disiapkan oleh sentrifugasi pada 20 ° C selama 10-15 menit pada 150-200g. PRP ini dengan hati-hati dihapus dan ditempatkan dalam tabung plastik tutup. PRP harus disimpan pada suhu kamar. PPP dapat dibuat dengan sentrifugasi lebih lanjut dari plasma yang tersisa pada 2700g selama 15 menit. Agonis

Penambahan suatu agonis trombosit untuk PRP mengarah ke aktivasi trombosit, perubahan dalam bentuk mereka dari diskoid ke bola berduri yang dikaitkan dengan peningkatan transien dalam densitas optik. Satu-satunya pengecualian untuk ini adalah epinephrine yang tidak ada perubahan bentuk dan ristocetin yang menyebabkan aglutinasi platelet daripada agregasi yaitu tidak ada pengikatan fibrinogen.

Ada dua jenis agonis: Kuat Agonis mis Kolagen, trombin, TXA2: Ini secara langsung menginduksi agregasi platelet, TXA2 sintesis dan sekresi granul trombosit. Lemah Agonis mis ADP & epinefrin: Ini menginduksi agregasi platelet tanpa mendorong sekresi.

Sekresi platelet(thrombosit) terkadang dapat mengikuti agregasi disebabkan oleh agonis lemah, ketika sintesis TXA2 endogen dipicu oleh kontak platelet-to-platelet dekat yang terjadi selama agregasi platelet. Agonis yang kuat, bila digunakan pada konsentrasi rendah, dapat bertindak seperti agonis lemah, tetapi agonis lemah bahkan pada konsentrasi tinggi tidak akan bertindak sebagai agonis yang kuat. Dengan beberapa agonis lemah [ADP dan adrenalin] pada konsentrasi kritis, kurva agregasi platelet memiliki penampilan biphasic: [.

Lihat ilustrasi di bawah ini] gelombang awal agregasi (gelombang primer), diikuti oleh gelombang sekunder agregasi, yang biasanya ireversibel agregasi gelombang sekunder tidak mungkin terjadi dan gelombang primer mungkin memisahkan. Pada konsentrasi agonis yang lebih tinggi (kecuali dengan epinefrin) dua gelombang agregasi menggabungkan dan hanya gelombang tunggal terlihat dan gelombang biphasic tidak ada.

Tanggapan agregasi untuk agonis yang diperkuat oleh produksi TXA2 dari fosfolipid membran dan oleh sekresi ADP dari butiran padat. ADP dan TXA2 adalah agonis, yang, dengan berinteraksi dengan reseptor khusus mereka, memperkuat respon agregasi platelet.

english version

Commonly used Agonists in Light Transmission Aggregometry

Commonly used agonists, their working concentration and mode of action are listed below. In practice many laboratories use a number of agonists and various dilutions but vary the actual agonists or agonist concentration depending upon the results of initial tests and the suspected abnormality. Not all laboratories necessarily use the concentrations shown below e.g. some labs may use collagen at 5μg/mL rather than 4μg/mL.

It is useful to consider the role of these various agonists by looking at an image of a platelet and the various receptors that are activated by the agonists discussed below and how these interact with the platelet.

This LINK takes you to an image that you may find useful to consider with the table below and this REFERENCE is to a paper that summarises the traces seen with various agonists.

Umumnya digunakan Agonis di Aggregometry Transmisi Cahaya Agonis umum digunakan, konsentrasi kerja dan cara kerja yang tercantum di bawah ini. Dalam prakteknya banyak laboratorium menggunakan sejumlah agonis dan pengenceran berbagai tapi bervariasi agonis aktual atau konsentrasi agonis tergantung pada hasil tes awal dan kelainan yang dicurigai.

Tidak semua laboratorium tentu menggunakan konsentrasi yang ditunjukkan di bawah misalnya beberapa laboratorium dapat menggunakan kolagen di 5μg/mL daripada 4μg/mL.

Hal ini berguna untuk mempertimbangkan peran tersebut agonis berbagai dengan melihat gambar trombosit dan reseptor berbagai yang diaktifkan oleh agonis dibahas di bawah ini dan bagaimana berinteraksi dengan platelet ini. LINK ini akan membawa Anda ke gambar yang Anda mungkin menemukan berguna untuk mempertimbangkan dengan tabel di bawah ini dan REFERENSI ini adalah sebuah makalah yang merangkum jejak dilihat dengan berbagai agonis.

Agonist Working Concentration Comment ADP Low dose: 1, 2.5, 5μM High dose: 10μM Dosis rendah: 1, 2,5, 5μM Dosis tinggi: 10ìm ADP binds to the ADP receptor on the surface of platelets.

Initial binding results in the release of intracellular calcium and a change in the shape of the platelet leading to the primary wave of aggregation.

The secondary wave reflects the release of ADP from platelet storage granules. Low dose ADP induces only primary aggregation and the effect is reversible. ADP and arachadonic acid are considered mild platelet agonists.

ADP binds to two G-protein coupled receptors: P2Y1 and P2Y12. Binding of ADP to the P2Y1 receptor induces shape change and initiates primary wave platelet aggregation through calcium mobilisation.

The P2Y12 receptor is considered to be the major ADP receptor and responsible for full platelet aggregation through the inhibition of adenyl cyclase. The P2Y12 receptor is also the target for clopidogrel.

With both ADP and Arachadonic acid – this second wave of aggregation is inhibited by aspirin and NSAID’s.

ADP mengikat ke reseptor ADP pada permukaan trombosit. Awal mengikat hasil dalam pelepasan kalsium intraseluler dan perubahan dalam bentuk platelet (thrombosit) menyebabkan gelombang utama agregasi.

Gelombang sekunder mencerminkan pelepasan ADP dari butiran penyimpanan trombosit. ADP dosis rendah hanya menginduksi agregasi primer dan efeknya reversibel. ADP dan asam arachadonic dianggap agonis trombosit ringan. ADP mengikat dua G-protein reseptor coupled: P2Y1 dan P2Y12.

Pengikatan ADP ke reseptor P2Y1 menginduksi perubahan bentuk dan memulai agregasi platelet gelombang primer melalui mobilisasi kalsium.

Reseptor P2Y12 dianggap reseptor ADP utama dan bertanggung jawab atas agregasi platelet penuh melalui penghambatan adenilat adenyl. Reseptor P2Y12 juga merupakan target untuk clopidogrel.

Dengan kedua ADP dan asam arachadonic – ini gelombang kedua agregasi dihambat oleh aspirin dan

NSAID Collagen 1, 4μg/mL Collagen binds to the GpVI and GpIa/IIa receptors inducing granule release, TXA2 generation and then sustained GPIIb-IIIa activation.

The GpIa/IIa receptor is involved in platelet adhesion. The GpVI receptor is involved in platelet signalling and TXA2 generation.

A lag phase is seen with collagen following addition of the agonist to the PRP and usually

3) tidak dibutuhkan oleh mayoritas pasien. APL merupakan faktor risiko yang spesifik untuk kegagalan terapi warfarin, sehingga INR terapetik pasien harus dipertahankan.

“Ada bukti peningkatan risiko APS rekuren, oleh karena itu pemberian warfarin yang tidak perlu atau dalam jangka waktu lama harus dipertimbangkan kembali, terutama setelah tromboemboli vena (VTE) pertama” jelas Ward.

Terapi Low molecular weight-heparin (LMVH) bisa diberikan dan terbukti bermanfaat untuk pasien APS yang gagal dengan warfarin.

Sedangkan antikoagulan oral atau penghambat trombin belum diketahui efikasinya. Pada intinya, manajemen tromboemboli arteri pada APS yang terbaik belum ditemukan.

Namun di awal terapi bisa diberikan kombinasi antikoagulan dan antiplatelet. Untuk mencegah keguguran berulang atau masalah obstetrik lainnya pada wanita dengan APL, bisa diberikan profilaksis heparin plus aspirin secara rutin, namun dasar ilmiahnya juga masih terbatas.

Dipaparkan Lee Lai Heng dari Departemen Hematologi, Singapore General Hospital, LMVH dikombinasikan dengan aspirin cukup efektif seperti halnya UFH plus aspirin dalam mencegah keguguran berulang akibat APS.

Pasien yang tidak tengah menjalani terapi antikoagulan, harus diberi aspirin sebelum konsepsi, dilanjutkan pemberian LMWH atau heparin ketika terjadi kehamilan.

Pasien yang menjalani terapi warfarin dalam waktu lama untuk trombosis yang dialami sebelumnya, harus dipertimbangkan dengan serius sebelum di-switch ke LMWH sebelum konsepsi untuk melihat efek teratogenik warfarin. Jika pasien akan mulai terapi dengan LMWH setelah konsepsi, sebaiknya dilakukan di usia kehamilan 6 minggu.

“Selama terapi harus dilakukan monitoring untuk mendeteksi masalah yang mungkin timbul seperti komplikasi pendarahan akibat trombositopenia terkait penggunaan heparin,” jelas Lee.

Untuk memastikan kelahiran yang aman, terapi antikoagula harus dihentikann 24 jam sebelum kelahiran dengan operasi. Setelah kelahiran, baik warfarin maupun LMWH dikonjugasi dengan stoking kompresi elastis harus dilanjutkan sebagai profilkasis

VTE maternal pada periode post-partum.

Profilaksi Fetal Loss Syndrome dengan kalsium nadroparin

Dijelaskan DR. dr. Djumhana Atmakusuma,

dari Divisi Hematologi dan Trombosis, Departemen Penyakit Dalam FKUI/RSCM, gangguan koagulasi , sebagai konsekuensi penyakit autoimun, menjadi penyebab utama keguguran berulang.

Angkanya mencapai 50-60% jika dibandingkan penyebab lain seperti abnormalitas kromosom (10%), gangguan anatomi (10%), dan masalah hormon (15-20%).

Gangguan koagulasi atau pembekuan darah yang menyebabkan keguguran, amat luas. Bisa disebabkan APS, trombositopenia, trombofilia, defisiensi antitrombin III (AT III), protein C dan Protein S, atau karena hipofibrinolisis, resistensi APC, dan faktor V leiden.

The American College of Chest Physician (APCC) tahun 2001

merekomendasikan terapi LMWH seperti enoxaparin, sebagai profilaksis antikoagulan dalam mencegah risiko keguguran berulang.

Alternatif lain adalah pemberian kalsium nadroparin yang merupakan kelompok antikoagulan parenteral.

Kalsium nadroparin selama ini digunakan untuk mencegah dan menangani VTE. Apakah ia cukup efektif dan aman untuk fetal loss syndrome?

Penelitian pernah dilakukan dengan melihat data pemberian kalsium nadroparin pada perempuan hamil di salah satu rumah sakit di Jakarta, antara tahun 2000-2004. Ada 648 (dari 731) subyek penelitian, yang mendapat terapi dan bisa dievaluasi. 77, 32% subyek memiliki gejala gangguan sirkulasi dan penyakit autoimun.

Dari seluruh subyek, 49% memiliki riwayat aborsi spontan, 6% memiliki riwayat IUFD, 2% memilki riwayat kematian perinatal dan lainnya.

Dari 648 pasien, 239 (73%) tangah hamil saat kunjungan pertama, 126 (20%) hamil setelah beberapa kali kunjungan, dan 283 (45%) dalam kondisi masih hamil.

Hasil tes laboratorium menujukkan pasien-pasien ini mengalami trombositosis (1,8%), hiperagregasi platelet (45,5%), hiperkoagulasi (56%), hiperfibrinogenemia (19,3%), defisiensi protein C (14,7%), defisiensi protein S (36,5%), dan defisiensi AT III (18,6%). Uji antibodi antifosfolipid (APL) menunjukkan ACA IgG moderat pada 2,7% (tes 1), tinggi pada 0,3% (tes 1), ACA IgM moderat pada 5,6% (tes 1), 5,9% (tes 2), dan 4% (tes 3).

Sedangkan ACA IgG tinggi ditemukan pada 2,4% (tes 1), 2,2% (tes 2), dan 4% (tes 3). Ada 234 subyek yang menerima profilaksis suntikan kalsium nadroparin, kebanyakan dikombinasi dengan aspirin dosis rendah. 181 bisa di-follow up dan sebanyak 166 subyek bisa melahirkan bayi dan 14 orang mengalami keguguran.

Efek samping selama terapi adalah gatal di seluruh tubuh (10 orang), gatal di bekas suntikann (43 orang) dan purpura (1 orang) .

Di luar pemberia kalsium nadroparin, ada 12 pasien yang menerima enoxapoarin dan 6 orang riteraoi dengan UFH. APS katastropik Di awal sempat disinggung tentang APS katastropik (CAPS) yang bisa berdampak kematian. Dijelaskan Dr. Inho Kim dari Seoul National University Hospital, Korea Selatan, APS katastropik dilaporkan kurang dari 1% dari prevalensi APS. CAPS didefinisikan sebagai kondisi yang dikarakteristikkan dengan kejadian penyumbatan vaskular yang multipel, biasanya menyerang pembuluh-pembuluh darah mikro dan hasil uji lab menunjukkan adanya antibodi antifosfolipid.

Dulu tingkat kematian akibat CAPS mencapai 50%, meskipu saat ini sudah turun hingga “hanya” 20%.

Turunnya angka kematian akibat CAPS disebabkan peningkatan terapi dengan antikoagulan, kortikosteroid, dan pergantian plasma.

Salah satu studi tentang CAPS menunjukkan bahwa tingkat kesembuhan tertinggi (77,8%) diperoleh melalui terapi kombinasi antikoagulan, kortikosterpid, dan peragntian plasma ini.

Konsensus internasional pun merekpomendasikan kombinasi 3 terapi ini sebagai terapi lini pertama CAPS. Saat ini penggunaan imunoglobulin intravena (IVIG) belum banyak dipraktikkan untuk CAPS.

Terapi kombinasi antikoagulan+ kortikosteroid+ IVIG tidak menunjukkan tambahan manfaat (recovery 69%) dibandingkan kombinasi antikoagulan, kortikosterpid, dan peragntian plasma (77,8%).

Namun penggunaan IVIG bisa digunakan jika tidak ada terapi penggantian plasma. Hanya penggunaannya harus hati-hati pada pasien usia lanjut yang komorbid dengan diabetes, hipertensi atau hiperkolesterolemia.(Ana/Bali)

Method Platelet aggregometry is performed as follows: metode Aggregometry trombosit dilakukan sebagai berikut Step 1 Platelet aggregometry is performed at 37°C. 2 The aggregometer is calibrated by: –

A cuvette containing PRP which equates to 0% light transmission – A second cuvette containing PPP which equates to 100% light transmission. 3 Platelets will only aggregate if they are activated (with an agonist) and in contact with each other – so they must be stirred whilst testing is taking place.

Absence of stirring will lead to an absence of, at least a significant reduction in, aggregation. A check for spontaneous platelet aggregation [SPT] is made. SPA is rare in healthy individuals but seen in some cases of VWD,

in some patients with diabetes, in some lipid disorders and in a variety of other disorders] should be made in all patients by placing undiluted PRP in the aggregometer and stirring for 15 minutes. In cases of SPA, dilution of the PRP may abolish this and if the platelet count remains >200 x 109/L then aggregation testing can proceed.

Trombosit hanya akan agregat jika mereka diaktifkan (dengan agonis an) dan kontak dengan satu sama lain – sehingga mereka harus diaduk sementara pengujian berlangsung.

Tidak adanya pengadukan akan mengakibatkan tidak adanya, setidaknya penurunan yang signifikan dalam, agregasi.

Sebuah cek untuk agregasi platelet spontan [SPT] dibuat. SPA jarang terjadi pada orang sehat, tetapi dilihat dalam beberapa kasus VWD, pada beberapa pasien dengan diabetes, dalam beberapa gangguan lipid dan berbagai gangguan lain harus] dibuat pada semua pasien dengan menempatkan PRP murni di aggregometer dan diaduk selama 15 menit .

Dalam kasus SPA, cairan PRP dapat menghapus ini dan jika jumlah trombosit tetap> 200 x 109 / L maka pengujian agregasi dapat melanjutkan

4 In general – 270μL of PRP is added to the aggregometry cuvette and warmed at 37°C until a steady baseline is achieved. 30μL of the agonist is added the response recorded.

The tests are repeated using a panel of agonists. Secara umum – 270μL

dari PRP ditambahkan ke kuvet aggregometry dan dihangatkan pada 37 ° C sampai dasar stabil tercapai. 30μL agonis tersebut akan ditambahkan respon direkam. Tes diulang dengan menggunakan sebuah panel agonis

The following aggregation trace shows the events in classic biphasic aggregation:

Jejak agregasi berikut menunjukkan peristiwa di agregasi biphasic klasik 1. Baseline

2. Addition of agonist – this results in a change in platelet change and hence a drop in the baseline absorbance

3. Primary wave aggregation

4. Release of nucleotides 5. Secondary wave aggregation

dasar

2. Penambahan agonis – ini menghasilkan perubahan dalam perubahan trombosit dan karenanya penurunan absorbansi dasar

3. Primer gelombang agregasi

4. Pelepasan nukleotida

5. Sekunder gelombang agregasi

Adrenaline and low dose ADP

classically give a biphasic aggregation curve whereas with a number of other agonists only a single wave is seen and it is not possible to distinguish the primary wave from the secondary wave.

Adrenalin dan dosis rendah ADP klasik memberikan kurva agregasi biphasic s

edangkan dengan sejumlah agonis lain hanya gelombang tunggal terlihat dan tidak mungkin untuk membedakan gelombang primer dari gelombang sekunder.

Interpretation

Calculating the slope or the rate of aggregation Look at the image below: interpretasi

Menghitung kemiringan atau tingkat agregasi Lihatlah gambar di bawah ini Historically, percentage [%] maximal aggregation has been reported when analysing aggregation curves.

To calculate the % maximal aggregation, the distance between the baseline [0% aggregation - platelet rich plasma] and platelet poor plasma [100% aggregation] [Y] is divided by the maximal aggregation [X]. S

o in the example above if the Y = 100mm and X = 87mm then percentage maximal aggregation = X/Y = 87%

. Secara historis,

persentase [%] agregasi maksimal telah dilaporkan ketika menganalisis kurva agregasi. Untuk menghitung agregasi% maksimal, jarak antara baseline [agregasi 0% - plasma kaya platelet] dan plasma miskin trombosit [100% agregasi] [Y] dibagi oleh agregasi maksimal [X]. Jadi, dalam contoh di atas jika Y = 100mm dan X = 87mm maka persentase agregasi maksimal = X / Y = 87%

To calculate the slope [and this forms the basis of the VWF:RCo functional assay]:

1. Draw a line at a tangent to the aggregation curve.

2. Determine how many millimetres [mm] the chart recorder records in 1 minute.

3. Measure in mm from the point where the tangent intersects the baseline to the distance equal to 1 minute.

4. Draw a line perpendicular to the baseline from the ‘1 minute’ point to the intersect point of the tangent.

5. Measure the distance [in mm] covered from the baseline to the intersect point [X]. 6. Derive the maximal height of the aggregation [100% aggregation or maximal aggregation] from the y-axis [Y]. Divide X/Y to calculate the slope or rate of aggregation.

In the example above, if X = 23mm and Y = 97mm, the slope is X/Y = 0.24

Untuk menghitung lereng [dan ini membentuk dasar dari VWF: RCo uji fungsional]: 1. Menarik garis di bersinggungan dengan kurva agregasi. 2. Tentukan berapa banyak milimeter [mm] catatan perekam grafik dalam 1 menit. 3. Mengukur dalam mm dari titik di mana garis singgungnya memotong baseline untuk jarak yang sama dengan 1 menit. 4. Gambarkan garis tegak lurus ke baseline dari titik menit ’1 ‘ke titik berpotongan garis singgungnya. 5. Ukur jarak [di mm] tertutup dari baseline ke titik berpotongan [X]. 6. Turunkan ketinggian maksimal agregasi [agregasi 100% atau agregasi maksimal] dari sumbu y [Y]. Bagilah X / Y untuk menghitung kemiringan atau tingkat agregasi. Dalam contoh di atas, jika X = 23mm dan 97mm Y =, kemiringan adalah X / Y = 0,2

4 Interpretation of Platelet Aggregation Traces

The interpretation of platelet aggregation traces can be difficult. The attached file [click HERE] provides a summary of the abnormalities that may be identified by platelet aggregation testing.

Common aggregation traces that you are likely to encounter in an an exam-type setting are: – Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia [or afibrinogenaemia] – Bernard-Soulier Syndrome [or Von Willebrand Disease] – Storage Pool Disorder [or release defect] –

The effects of Aspirin [or an aspirin-like defect] – The effects of Aspirin Clopidogrel Representative traces for some disorders and shown below and others are covered in the data interpretation section.

In each case the control is shown in blue and the patient in red. 1. In the patient shown below, the only abnormality is a lack of agglutination with ristocetin. Possible diagnoses are therefore, Von Willebrand Disease or Bernard Soulier Syndrome. Interpretasi Jejak Agregasi trombosit Penafsiran jejak agregasi platelet bisa sulit.

File terlampir [klik DI SINI] menyediakan ringkasan dari kelainan-kelainan yang dapat diidentifikasi dengan tes agregasi trombosit.

Jejak agregasi umum bahwa Anda mungkin menghadapi dalam suasana ujian-jenis adalah: – Glanzmann ini Thrombasthenia [atau afibrinogenaemia] – Bernard-Soulier Syndrome [atau Von Willebrand Penyakit]

- Penyimpanan Renang Disorder [atau cacat release] –

Efek Aspirin [atau cacat aspirin-seperti] – Efek dari Clopidogrel Aspirin Perwakilan jejak untuk beberapa gangguan dan ditampilkan di bawah ini dan lain-lain akan dibahas dalam bagian interpretasi data.

Dalam setiap kasus kontrol ditampilkan dalam warna biru dan pasien dalam merah. 1. Pada pasien yang ditunjukkan di bawah, kelainan satunya adalah kurangnya aglutinasi dengan ristocetin.

Kemungkinan diagnosis karena itu, Von Willebrand Penyakit atau Bernard Soulier Syndrome

2. This is the converse of the patient shown above and the only agglutination [and this is not complete] is seen with the ristocetin.

There is no aggregation with ADP, adrenaline or collagen. Possible diagnoses include Glanzmann’s thrombasthenia or afibrinogenaemia.

Remember, platelet agglutination with ristocetin occurs independently of fibrinogen.

In the traces shown below it is clear that only partial agglutination is seen with ristocetin emphasising that for aggregation to occur, binding of fibrinogen to the GpIIb/IIIa receptor is necessary.

2. Ini adalah kebalikan dari pasien yang ditunjukkan di atas dan aglutinasi satunya [dan ini tidak lengkap] terlihat dengan ristocetin tersebut.

Tidak ada agregasi dengan ADP, adrenalin atau kolagen.

Diagnosis mungkin termasuk Glanzmann ini thrombasthenia atau afibrinogenaemia. Ingat, aglutinasi platelet dengan ristocetin terjadi secara independen dari fibrinogen.

Dalam jejak ditunjukkan di bawah ini jelas bahwa hanya aglutinasi parsial terlihat dengan ristocetin menekankan bahwa untuk agregasi terjadi, pengikatan fibrinogen ke reseptor GpIIb / IIIa diperlukan.

3. In this patient reversible, first wave aggregation is seen with ADP, adrenaline and collagen and only partial agglutination with ristocetin.

The picture is clearly different from the two traces above 1) or 2): the results suggest a failure of granule release and and is consistent with either platelet storage pool disorder or a defect in nucleotide release.

3. Pada pasien ini reversibel, agregasi gelombang pertama terlihat dengan ADP, adrenalin dan kolagen dan hanya aglutinasi parsial dengan ristocetin.

Gambar jelas berbeda dari dua jejak di atas 1) atau 2): hasil menunjukkan kegagalan pelepasan granul dan dan konsisten dengan baik gangguan kolam penyimpanan trombosit atau cacat dalam rilis nukleotida

4. Its useful to summarise the ‘commonly’ described abnormalities seen with light transmission aggregometry although in practice many of these are extremely rare.

The table below summarises these:

Tes ini berguna untuk merangkum kelainan ‘umum’ dijelaskan dilihat dengan aggregometry transmisi cahaya meskipun dalam prakteknya banyak di antaranya sangat langka.

Tabel di bawah ini merangkum ini

Disorder Characteristic

Findings on LTA Glanzmann’s Thrombasthenia OR afibrinogenaemia Absent or markedly impaired aggregation to all agonists except ristocetin. Ristocetin-induced agglutination shows only primary wave – aggregation cannot occur because fibrinogen cannot bind.

Afibrinogenaemia gives similar results.

Absen atau gangguan nyata agregasi

untuk semua agonis kecuali ristocetin. Ristocetin-diinduksi aglutinasi hanya menunjukkan gelombang primer – agregasi tidak bisa terjadi karena fibrinogen tidak dapat mengikat.

Afibrinogenaemia memberikan hasil yang sama Bernard Soulier Syndrome OR Von Willebrand Disease

Absent or markedly reduced platelet agglutination with ristocetin. Absen atau nyata mengurangi trombosit aglutinasi dengan ristocetin S

torage Pool Disorder OR Platelet Release Defect Primary aggregation only with ADP, adrenaline and collagen and only partial agglutination with ristocetin suggesting a failure of granule release or a deficiency of platelet granules .

Primer agregasi hanya dengan ADP, adrenalin dan kolagen dan hanya aglutinasi parsial dengan ristocetin menunjukkan kegagalan pelepasan granul atau butiran kekurangan trombosit Aspirin [or defects in the COX pathway] Absent aggregation to arachadonic acid.

Primary wave aggregation only with ADP. Decreased or absent aggregation with collagen.

Absen agregasi untuk asam arachadonic. Gelombang primer agregasi hanya dengan ADP. Penurunan atau tidak ada agregasi dengan kolagen Clopidogrel

Absent aggregation with ADP 2B VWD/Platelet-type [pseudo]VWD Aggregation with low dose ristocetin e.g. 0.5 mg/mL. What test next? On the basis of an abnormal platelet aggregation trace, you should establish if this fits in with any recognisable disorder. All abnormal results should be repeated and you may wish to undertake flow cytometry and nucleotide studies. Genetic testing can be of value in some cases. Don’t forget to establish a family pedigree – some of the rare platelet disorders are commoner in consanguineous relationships.

Apa tes berikutnya?

Atas dasar suatu jejak agregasi platelet normal, Anda harus menentukan apakah ini cocok dengan gangguan dikenali.

Semua hasil yang abnormal harus diulang dan Anda mungkin ingin melakukan cytometry aliran dan studi nukleotida.

Pengujian genetik dapat menjadi nilai dalam beberapa kasus. Jangan lupa untuk membuat silsilah keluarga – beberapa gangguan trombosit langka biasa dalam hubungan kerabat Data Interpretation

Interpretation Exercises. Comments

1. You can also see the principles of Light Transmission Aggregometry on this site [http://www.platelet-research.org/3/aggregometry.htm].

References

1. Remuzzi, G., et al., Platelet hyperaggregability and the nephrotic syndrome. Thromb Res, 1979. 16(3-4): p. 345-54. 2. Lages, B. and H.J. Weiss, Biphasic aggregation responses to ADP and epinephrine in some storage pool deficient platelets: relationship to the role of endogenous ADP in platelet aggregation and secretion.

Thromb Haemost, 1980. 43(2): p. 147-53. 3. Guidelines on platelet function testing. The British Society for Haematology BCSH Haemostasis and Thrombosis Task Force. 4. Lages, B. and H.J. Weiss, Heterogeneous defects of platelet secretion and responses to weak agonists in patients with bleeding disorders. Br J Haematol, 1988. 68(1): p. 53-62. 5. Hardisty, R.M., Disorders of platelet secretion. Baillieres Clin Haematol, 1989. 2(3): p. 673-94. 6. Michelson, A.D., Flow cytometry: a clinical test of platelet function. Blood, 1996. 87(12): p. 4925-36. 7. Rao, A.K., Congenital disorders of platelet function: disorders of signal transduction and secretion. Am J Med Sci, 1998. 316(2): p. 69-76. 8. Rodgers, G.M., Overview of platelet physiology and laboratory evaluation of platelet function. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 1999. 42(2): p. 349-59. 9. Shapiro, A.D., Platelet function disorders. Haemophilia, 2000. 6 Suppl 1: p. 120-7. 10. Kottke-Marchant, K. and G. Corcoran, The laboratory diagnosis of platelet disorders. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2002. 126(2): p. 133-46. 11. Handin, R.I., Inherited platelet disorders. Hematology Am Soc Hematol Educ Program, 2005: p. 396-402. 12. Harrison, P., Platelet function analysis. Blood Rev, 2005. 19(2): p. 111-23. 13. Bolton-Maggs, P.H., et al., A review of inherited platelet disorders with guidelines for their management on behalf of the UKHCDO. Br J Haematol, 2006. 135(5): p. 603-33. 14. Hayward, C.P., Diagnostic approach to platelet function disorders. Transfus Apher Sci, 2008. 38(1): p. 65-76. 15. Harrison, P. and A. Mumford, Screening tests of platelet function: update on their appropriate uses for diagnostic testing. Semin Thromb Hemost, 2009. 35(2): p. 150-7. 16. Mezzano, D., T. Quiroga, and J. Pereira, The level of laboratory testing required for diagnosis or exclusion of a platelet function disorder using platelet aggregation and secretion assays. Semin Thromb Hemost, 2009. 35(2): p. 242-54. 17. Zhou L, Schmaier AH. Platelet aggregation testing in platelet-rich plasma: description of procedures with the aim to develop standards in the field. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005 Feb;123(2):172-83. 18. Simon D, Kunicki T, Nugent D. Platelet function defects. Haemophilia. 2008 Nov;14(6):1240-9. 19. Truss, N.J., Armstrong, P.C., Liverani, E., Vojnovic, I. & Warner, T.D. (2009) Heparin but not citrate anticoagulation of blood preserves platelet function for prolonged periods. J Thromb Haemost, 7, 1897-1905. 20. Quiroga et al BJH 2009 21. Nurden A, Nurden P. Advances in our understanding of the molecular basis of disorders of platelet function. J Thromb Haemost 2011;9 Suppl 1:76-91. Data Interpretasi Klik DI SINI untuk pergi ke Latihan Interpretasi data. Komentar 1. Anda juga dapat melihat prinsip-prinsip Aggregometry Transmisi Cahaya di situs ini [http://www.platelet-research.org/3/aggregometry.htm]. Referensi 1. Remuzzi, G., et al., Hyperaggregability trombosit dan sindrom nefrotik. Thromb Res, 1979. 16 (3-4): p. 345-54. 2. Lages, B. dan HJ Weiss, respon agregasi Biphasic ke ADP dan epinefrin dalam beberapa trombosit storage pool kekurangan: hubungan peran ADP endogen dalam agregasi platelet dan sekresi. Thromb Haemost, 1980. 43 (2): p. 147-53. 3. Pedoman pengujian fungsi platelet. Masyarakat Inggris untuk Haemostasis BCSH Hematologi dan Angkatan Trombosis Tugas. 4. Lages, B. dan HJ Weiss, cacat heterogen sekresi platelet dan tanggapan terhadap agonis lemah pada pasien dengan gangguan perdarahan. Br J Haematol, 1988. 68 (1): p. 53-62. 5. Hardisty, R.M., Gangguan sekresi platelet. Baillieres Clin Haematol, 1989. 2 (3): p. 673-94. 6. Michelson, AD, Arus cytometry: tes klinis fungsi platelet. Darah, 1996. 87 (12): p. 4925-36. 7. Rao, AK, gangguan kongenital fungsi trombosit: gangguan transduksi sinyal dan sekresi. Am J Med Sci, 1998. 316 (2): p. 69-76. 8. Rodgers, GM, Ikhtisar fisiologi trombosit dan evaluasi laboratorium fungsi platelet. Clin Obstet Gynecol, 1999. 42 (2): p. 349-59. 9. Shapiro, M, gangguan fungsi trombosit. Hemofilia, 2000. 6 Suppl 1: p. 120-7. 10. Kottke-Marchant, K. dan G. Corcoran, Diagnosis laboratorium kelainan trombosit. Arch Pathol Lab Med, 2002. 126 (2): p. 133-46. 11. Handin, R.I., warisan gangguan trombosit. Hematologi Am Soc Hematol Educ Program, 2005: p. 396-402. 12. Harrison, P., analisis fungsi trombosit. Darah Rev, 2005. 19 (2): p. 111-23. 13. Bolton-Maggs, PH, et al, Sebuah tinjauan gangguan trombosit diwariskan dengan pedoman untuk manajemen mereka atas nama UKHCDO.. Br J Haematol, 2006. 135 (5): p. 603-33. 14. Hayward, CP, pendekatan Diagnostik gangguan fungsi trombosit. Transfus Apher Sci, 2008. 38 (1): p. 65-76. 15. Harrison, P. dan A. Mumford, Screening tes fungsi platelet: update pada penggunaan yang sesuai untuk tes diagnostik. Semin Thromb Hemost, 2009. 35 (2): p. 150-7. 16. Mezzano, D., T. Quiroga, dan J. Pereira, Tingkat pengujian laboratorium diperlukan untuk diagnosis atau pengecualian dari gangguan fungsi trombosit menggunakan agregasi platelet dan tes sekresi. Semin Thromb Hemost, 2009. 35 (2): p. 242-54. 17. Zhou L, Schmaier AH. Agregasi platelet pengujian di platelet-kaya plasma: deskripsi prosedur dengan tujuan untuk mengembangkan standar di lapangan. Am J Clin Pathol. 2005 Feb, 123 (2) :172-83. 18. Simon D, Kunicki T, Nugent D. cacat fungsi trombosit. Hemofilia. 2.008 November, 14 (6) :1240-9. 19. Truss, NJ, Armstrong, PC, Liverani, E., Vojnovic, I. & Warner, TD (2009) Heparin tetapi tidak sitrat antikoagulasi darah mempertahankan fungsi trombosit untuk waktu yang lama. J Thromb Haemost, 7, 1.897-1.905. 20. Quiroga et al BJH 2.009 21. Nurden A, Nurden P. Kemajuan dalam pemahaman kita tentang dasar molekul dari gangguan fungsi trombosit. J Thromb Haemost 2011; 9 Suppl 1:76-91. BELAJAR KETERAMPILAN-KETERAMPILAN Anda harus belajar keterampilan diabetes manajemen dasar. Mereka akan membantu mencegah masalah dan kebutuhan untuk perawatan medis. Keterampilan ini meliputi: • Bagaimana menguji dan merekam glukosa darah Anda (Lihat: pemantauan glukosa darah) • Apa yang harus makan dan kapan • Bagaimana untuk mengambil obat, jika diperlukan • Bagaimana mengenali dan mengobati gula darah rendah dan tinggi • Bagaimana menangani hari sakit • Dimana dapat membeli persediaan diabetes dan bagaimana menyimpannya Ini mungkin membutuhkan beberapa bulan untuk mempelajari keterampilan dasar. Selalu terus belajar tentang diabetes, komplikasi, dan bagaimana mengontrol dan hidup dengan penyakit. Tetap up-to-date pada penelitian baru dan perawatan. MENGELOLA GULA DARAH ANDA Pengujian diri berarti bahwa Anda memeriksa gula darah Anda di rumah sendiri. Memeriksa kadar gula darah Anda di rumah dan menuliskan hasilnya akan memberitahu Anda seberapa baik Anda mengelola diabetes Anda. Perangkat yang disebut glucometer bisa memberi Anda membaca gula darah yang tepat. Ada berbagai jenis perangkat. Biasanya, Anda menusuk jari Anda dengan jarum kecil yang disebut lanset. Ini akan memberikan Anda setetes kecil darah. Anda menempatkan darah pada strip tes dan menempatkan strip ke dalam perangkat. Hasil yang diberikan dalam 30 – 45 detik. Sebuah perawatan kesehatan atau pendidik diabetes akan membantu mengatur jadwal di rumah pengujian untuk Anda. Dokter akan membantu Anda menetapkan tujuan darah gula. • Kebanyakan orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 hanya perlu memeriksa gula darah mereka sekali atau dua kali sehari. • Jika kadar gula darah Anda berada di bawah kontrol, Anda mungkin hanya perlu memeriksa mereka beberapa kali seminggu. • Anda dapat menguji diri sendiri ketika Anda bangun tidur, sebelum makan, dan sebelum tidur. • Anda mungkin perlu menguji lebih sering ketika Anda sakit atau sedang stres. Hasil tes dapat digunakan untuk mengubah makanan Anda, aktivitas, atau obat-obatan untuk menjaga kadar gula darah dalam kisaran yang tepat. Pengujian dapat mengidentifikasi kadar gula darah tinggi dan rendah sebelum Anda memiliki masalah serius. Mencatat gula darah Anda untuk diri sendiri dan penyedia layanan kesehatan Anda. Ini akan membantu jika Anda mengalami kesulitan mengelola diabetes. DIET DAN PENGENDALIAN BERAT Bekerja sama dengan dokter, perawat, dan ahli diet untuk mengetahui berapa banyak lemak, protein, dan karbohidrat yang Anda butuhkan dalam diet Anda. Rencana makan Anda harus sesuai dengan gaya hidup sehari-hari dan kebiasaan, dan harus mencoba untuk memasukkan makanan yang Anda sukai. Mengelola berat badan dan makan makanan yang seimbang adalah penting. Beberapa orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 dapat berhenti memakai obat setelah kehilangan berat badan (meskipun mereka masih memiliki diabetes). Lihat juga: • Diabetes diet • Ngemil bila Anda memiliki diabetes Pasien sangat gemuk yang diabetes tidak dikelola dengan baik dengan diet dan obat-obatan dapat mempertimbangkan bariatrik (berat badan) operasi. Lihat: • operasi pintas lambung • Laparoskopi gastric banding KEGIATAN FISIK REGULER Olahraga teratur adalah penting bagi semua orang. Hal ini bahkan lebih penting Anda memiliki diabetes. Latihan di mana jantung Anda berdetak lebih cepat dan Anda bernapas lebih cepat membantu menurunkan tingkat gula darah Anda tanpa pengobatan. Hal ini juga membakar kalori ekstra dan lemak sehingga Anda dapat mengelola berat badan Anda. Olahraga dapat membantu kesehatan Anda dengan meningkatkan aliran darah dan tekanan darah. Olahraga juga meningkatkan tingkat energi tubuh, menurunkan ketegangan, dan meningkatkan kemampuan Anda untuk menangani stres. Tanyakan pada dokter Anda sebelum memulai program latihan. Orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 harus mengambil langkah khusus sebelum, selama, dan setelah aktivitas fisik yang intensif atau berolahraga. Lihat juga: Diabetes dan olahraga PENGOBATAN UNTUK MENGOBATI DIABETES Jika diet dan olahraga tidak membantu menjaga gula darah pada tingkat normal atau mendekati normal, dokter mungkin meresepkan obat. Karena obat ini membantu menurunkan kadar gula darah dengan cara yang berbeda, dokter Anda mungkin telah mengambil lebih dari satu obat. Beberapa jenis yang paling umum dari obat tercantum di bawah ini. Mereka diminum atau injeksi. • Alpha-glukosidase inhibitor (seperti acarbose) • Biguanides (Metformin) • injeksi obat-obatan (termasuk exenatide, mitiglinide, pramlintide, sitagliptin saxagliptin, dan) • meglitinides (termasuk repaglinide dan Nateglinide) • Sulfonylureas (seperti glimepiride, glyburide, dan tolazamide) • thiazolidinediones (seperti rosiglitazone dan pioglitazone). (Rosiglitazone dapat meningkatkan risiko gangguan jantung Bicarakan dengan dokter Anda..) Obat ini dapat diberikan dengan insulin, atau insulin dapat digunakan sendiri. Anda mungkin perlu insulin jika Anda terus memiliki kontrol glukosa darah yang buruk. Ini harus disuntikkan di bawah kulit menggunakan jarum suntik insulin atau perangkat pena. Hal ini tidak dapat diambil melalui mulut. Lihat juga: Diabetes tipe 1 Tidak diketahui apakah obat hiperglikemia diminum aman untuk digunakan dalam kehamilan. Wanita yang memiliki diabetes tipe 2 dan hamil dapat beralih ke insulin selama kehamilan dan saat menyusui. MENCEGAH KOMPLIKASI Dokter mungkin meresepkan obat atau perawatan lain untuk mengurangi peluang Anda untuk mengembangkan penyakit mata, penyakit ginjal, dan kondisi lain yang lebih sering terjadi pada penderita diabetes. Lihat juga: • Diabetes – mencegah serangan jantung dan stroke Konsultasi dengan dokter ahli Jantung • Komplikasi jangka panjang diabetes PERAWATAN KAKI Orang dengan diabetes lebih mungkin untuk memiliki masalah kaki. Diabetes dapat merusak saraf, yang berarti Anda mungkin tidak merasa cedera pada kaki sampai Anda mendapatkan sakit besar atau infeksi. Diabetes juga dapat merusak pembuluh darah. Diabetes juga menurunkan kemampuan tubuh untuk melawan infeksi. Infeksi kecil dapat dengan cepat memburuk dan menyebabkan kematian kulit dan jaringan lain. Untuk mencegah cedera pada kaki Anda, memeriksa dan merawat kaki Anda setiap hari. Lihat juga: Diabetes kaki Dukungan Grup Untuk informasi lebih lanjut, lihat sumber diabetes. Harapan (prognosis) Setelah bertahun-tahun, diabetes dapat menyebabkan masalah serius dengan mata, ginjal, saraf, jantung, pembuluh darah, atau daerah lain dalam tubuh Anda. Jika Anda memiliki diabetes, risiko serangan jantung adalah sama dengan seseorang yang sudah mengalami serangan jantung. Baik wanita maupun pria dengan diabetes memiliki risiko. Anda mungkin tidak memiliki tanda-tanda normal dari serangan jantung. Jika Anda mengontrol gula darah dan tekanan darah, Anda dapat mengurangi risiko kematian, stroke, gagal jantung, dan masalah diabetes lainnya. Beberapa orang dengan diabetes tipe 2 tidak lagi membutuhkan obat jika mereka menurunkan berat badan dan menjadi lebih aktif. Ketika mereka mencapai berat badan ideal mereka, insulin tubuh mereka dan diet yang sehat dapat mengendalikan kadar gula darah mereka. Komplikasi Setelah bertahun-tahun, diabetes dapat menyebabkan masalah serius: • Anda bisa memiliki masalah mata, termasuk kesulitan untuk melihat (terutama pada malam hari), dan sensitivitas cahaya. Anda bisa menjadi buta. • Kaki dan kulit dapat mengembangkan luka dan infeksi. Setelah lama, kaki atau kaki mungkin perlu dihapus. Infeksi juga dapat menyebabkan nyeri dan gatal-gatal di bagian lain dari tubuh. • Diabetes dapat membuat lebih sulit untuk mengontrol tekanan darah dan kolesterol. Hal ini dapat menyebabkan serangan jantung, storke, dan masalah lainnya. Hal ini dapat menjadi lebih sulit untuk darah mengalir ke kaki dan kaki. • Saraf dalam tubuh Anda dapat rusak, menyebabkan nyeri, kesemutan, dan hilangnya perasaan. • Karena kerusakan saraf, Anda bisa memiliki masalah mencerna makanan yang Anda makan. Anda bisa merasakan kelemahan atau kesulitan pergi ke kamar mandi. Kerusakan saraf dapat membuat lebih sulit bagi pria untuk memiliki ereksi. • gula darah tinggi dan masalah lainnya dapat menyebabkan kerusakan ginjal. Ginjal tidak dapat bekerja dengan baik, dan mereka bahkan dapat berfungsi lagi. Infeksi pada kulit, saluran kelamin wanita, dan saluran kemih juga lebih umum. Untuk mencegah masalah dari diabetes, kunjungi dokter anda atau pendidik diabetes setidaknya empat kali setahun. Bicara tentang masalah yang Anda mengalami. Apa Hubungan antara Trigliserida dan Diabetes? Trigliserida ini telah disebut sebagai “lemak jelek” tapi itu lebih merupakan respons emosional dari satu yang kukuh berakar pada fakta ilmiah. Namun hubungannya dengan diabetes tidak bisa diabaikan. Kolesterol telah diidentifikasi sebagai faktor risiko penyakit jantung. Ada iklan yang tak terhitung jumlahnya dan outlet informasi yang mengkonfirmasi masalah yang berhubungan dengan diet yang tidak terkontrol. Demikian juga ada pil dan pilihan makanan yang dipromosikan sebagai bagian dari solusi. Konsumen mendapatkan hasil yang bervariasi tergantung pada genetik dan tahap di mana kondisi ini ditangkap. Program latihan juga direkomendasikan sebagai bagian dari proses hidup sehat. Pertanyaannya tetap, apakah semua intervensi ini telah efektif atau apakah mereka hanya cara bagi instansi periklanan untuk membuat lebih banyak uang. • Kumpulan lemak yang dapat menyebabkan kerusakan: Dengan konsensus, trigliserida adalah bundel kecil lemak yang ditemukan dalam aliran darah. Mereka meningkat jumlahnya setelah kita mengkonsumsi makanan. Tubuh akan memproduksi lemak-lemak dari makanan yang kita makan terutama jika mereka lemak di alam. Diperkirakan bahwa 90% dari seluruh kandungan lemak non-daging tanpa lemak terdiri dari trigliserida. Oleh karena itu kebiasaan belanja dari kelompok risiko harus mencerminkan bahaya. • Trigliserida tidak universal buruk: Diet yang seimbang harus mengandung semua elemen yang relevan. Telah diperkirakan bahwa trigliserida memiliki proporsi 99% dari semua lemak yang tersimpan dalam tubuh manusia. Anda mendapatkan sumber energi jangka panjang dari deposito ini lemak. Mereka benar-benar disimpan dalam lebih padat daripada protein dari otot atau bahkan pati. Insulin diperlukan untuk membentuk lemak. Antara makan dan semalam, trigliserida diubah menjadi energi. Kadar insulin puasa dan rendah akan memicu reaksi ini. Sel-sel lemak memiliki kapasitas penyimpanan yang sangat tinggi dan ini dapat menyebabkan obesitas pada situasi tertentu. Jika Anda sedang menjalani puasa luas atau sama sekali tidak ada insulin dalam tubuh maka hati akan mengkonversi produk pemecahan lemak menjadi keton. • komplikasi kesehatan dan manifestasi mereka: Hal ini sering terjadi rendahnya tingkat HDL atau kolesterol baik dikaitkan dengan tingkat tinggi trigliserida. Ini kemudian didiagnosis sebagai dislipidemia diabetik. Ini adalah kombinasi dari faktor-faktor yang dapat menempatkan hidup pasien dalam bahaya. Pasien dalam situasi ini akan memiliki kelompok kecil, padat dan akhirnya berbahaya dari LDL atau kolesterol berbahaya. Format yang terakhir ini tidak diinginkan berdasarkan sifat aterogenik nya. Akhirnya orang tersebut akan mengembangkan obesitas sentral. Ini adalah salah satu fitur mendefinisikan sindrom metabolik. • Sekitar 80% dari semua penderita diabetes tipe 2 akan memiliki kondisi ini. Akhirnya orang tersebut meninggal lebih cepat akibat penyakit jantung. • Menetapkan tolok ukur untuk orang yang sehat: Sangat penting bahwa Anda memiliki beberapa tujuan pada seberapa banyak trigliserida yang Anda akan merekam pada skala standar. Ini merupakan indikator yang mendasari kondisi sehat. Oleh karena itu Anda akan berada dalam posisi untuk menerapkan strategi pencegahan bila diperlukan untuk melakukannya. Tingkat normal trigliserida adalah 150 mg / dl. Angka batas adalah antara 150 dan 199. Tingginya adalah antara 200 dan 499 sedangkan apa pun lebih dari 500 adalah hal yang mendesak. Keadaan puasa normal akan memiliki tingkat membaca antara 100 dan 150 mg / dl. Setelah makan yang normal angkanya akan meningkat menjadi 300. Pasien dengan diabetes tipe 2 akan mengalami peningkatan kadar di kedua saat baik puasa dan maupun sesuah makan. Sebelum tes lipid panel, Anda harus memiliki beberapa puasa semalam setidaknya selama 12 jam. Demikian juga tidak dianjurkan untuk mengambil alkohol minimal 24 jam sebelum tes. • Mengelola tingkat trigliserida dalam tubuh Anda: Hal ini untuk keuntungan Anda bahwa Anda menjaga kadar zat ini relatif rendah. Pasien dengan diabetes tipe 2 memiliki faktor risiko tinggi dan perlu bekerja sedikit yang ekstra untuk memastikan bahwa tingkat mereka 150 mg / dl atau bahkan lebih rendah. Ini akan membantu mereka mengurangi kemungkinan terkena penyakit kardiovaskular. Beberapa orang dalam kategori ini telah melakukan tingkat yang lebih dari 400. Setelah Anda mulai memukul tanda 1000 maka Anda akan menderita lesi kulit atau xanthomas, kehilangan memori, pankreas dan sakit perut. Intervensi diperlukan pada tahap ini untuk menyelamatkan hidup Anda. Tips diet diabetic type 2 Tips for Eating Well with Diabetes Knowing what to eat with type 2 diabetes is the best way to feel in control and feel better. This first lesson in your quick-start guide gives an overview of the five simple key things to know: 1. Eating the Right Balanced Mix of Foods 2. Portions: How to Fill Your Plate 3. Calories Needed to Lose Weight 4. How Food Choices Can Lower Blood Sugar 5. Easy Ways to Count Carbs Type 2 Diabetes Diet Plan by American Diabetes Association Posted on December 18th, 2007 by DietMan Diet diabetes tipe 2: Dengan lebih dari 14,6 juta orang Amerika menderita diabetes, telah menjadi masalah kesehatan utama di Amerika Serikat saat ini. Diet Diabetes Tipe 2 perlu dibarengi dengan gaya hidup sehat dalam rangka untuk menempatkan cek pada diabetes tipe 2. Diet diabetes Tipe 2 bersama dengan olahraga teratur, dapat membantu signifikan dalam mengendalikan gula darah Anda dan mengelola diabetes Anda. Dengan mengurangi asupan kalori dan termasuk latihan rutin Anda, Anda dapat membuat tubuh Anda lebih sensitif terhadap insulin nya. Idealnya, Anda harus mengikuti rencana diet yang mengurangi asupan gula sederhana dan karbohidrat olahan. Diet kaya karbohidrat serat dan kompleks direkomendasikan untuk pasien diabetes tipe 2. Karbohidrat kompleks yang ditemukan dalam buah-buahan, biji-bijian, dan sayuran dipecah sangat lambat akibat yang pelepasan glukosa dalam aliran darah diperlambat. Sebaliknya, karbohidrat sederhana dipecah dalam tidak ada waktu yang mengarah ke peningkatan pesat dalam tingkat gula darah. Pasien diabetes tipe 2 dapat mencakup lebih sedikit lemak jenuh dalam makanan mereka. Diabetes rencana diet: Sebuah rencana diet diabetes harus diikuti hanya setelah berkonsultasi seorang dokter ahli. Dokter Anda juga akan mempertimbangkan masalah kesehatan lainnya, jika ada, sebelum resep Anda rencana diet diabetes. Original info Type 2 diabetes diet: With more than 14.6 million Americans suffering from diabetes, it has become a major health concern in the United States today. Type 2 diabetes diet needs to be coupled with a healthy lifestyle in order to put a check on type 2 diabetes. Type 2 diabetes diet along with regular exercise, can be of significant help in controlling your blood sugar and managing your diabetes. By reducing your calorie intake and including exercise in your routine, you can make your body more sensitive to its insulin. Ideally, you need to follow a diet plan that reduces your intake of simple sugars and refined carbohydrates. A diet rich in fiber and complex carbohydrates is recommended for type 2 diabetes patients. Complex carbohydrates found in fruits, whole grains, and vegetables are broken down very slowly as a result of which the release of glucose in the bloodstream is slowed down. On the contrary, simple carbohydrates are broken down within no time leading to a rapid rise in the blood sugar levels. Type 2 diabetic patients can include less saturated fat in their diet. Diabetes diet plan: A diabetes diet plan should be followed only after consulting an expert physician. Your doctor will also take into account any other health problems, if any, before prescribing you a diabetes diet plan. Diet yang direkomendasikan oleh American Diabetes Association: Diet yang direkomendasikan oleh American Diabetes Association adalah semua tentang membuat pilihan makanan sehat. Diet meletakkan lebih menekankan pada buah-buahan, non – sayuran bertepung (wortel, bayam, kacang hijau, brokoli), kacang kering, dan lentil. Anda dapat memilih untuk makan makanan gandum bukan produk gandum olahan dan juga termasuk beras merah dalam diet Anda. Diet yang disarankan oleh American Diabetes Association dapat membantu Anda mengelola diabetes Anda secara efektif asalkan Anda menonton ukuran porsi saat makan. Bahkan makanan sehat, jika dimakan dalam jumlah besar, dapat meningkatkan berat badan Anda membuat manajemen diabetes lebih sulit. Original info Diet recommended by American Diabetes Association: The diet recommended by American Diabetes Association is all about making healthy food choices. The diet lays more emphasis on fruits, non – starchy vegetables (carrots, spinach, green beans, broccoli), dried beans, and lentils. You may choose to eat whole grain foods instead of processed grain products and also include brown rice in your diet. The diet recommended by American Diabetes Association can help you manage your diabetes effectively provided that you watch the portion sizes while eating. Even healthy foods, if eaten in large quantities, can increase your weight making diabetes management more difficult. An Excellent Type 2 Diabetes Diet program Rencana makan sehat Diabetes Tipe 2 adalah hanya untuk mereka yang memiliki tipe yang paling khas dari diabetes, tipe 2. Hal ini terjadi ketika tubuh Anda tidak dapat mengembangkan insulin yang cukup, yang penting untuk membantu Anda menyerap glukosa dalam sel sampai kembali atau keperluan energi. Apa yang menghentikan insulin dari fungsi ini seringkali dibangun lemak, itu sebabnya rencana diet mutlak diperlukan untuk membantu Anda mengendalikan penyakit dan kemudian menghentikannya dari semakin buruk. Maka persis bagaimana seharusnya setiap orang memulai / nya nya 2 rencana diabetes makan agar benar-benar akan menghasilkan efek? 1. Mencatat segala macam hal yang terutama mengkonsumsi dan minum. Tanpa diragukan lagi, kebenaran menyakitkan, tetapi banyak kali orang harus telah mengungkap semua dari mereka dan menghadapi mereka sehingga kami dapat melampaui semua masalah ini. Membuat daftar hanya apa yang Anda sering makan pasti akan membuat Anda menemukan bahwa kita satu-satunya yang dapat tetap mengontrol kesehatan kita sendiri dan kesehatan dan kita dapat melestarikan atau merusaknya. (Menyembuhkan diabetes tipe 2) 2. Temukan produk yang lebih sehat. Sekarang ada tentu akan menjadi pengganti bahkan jika pada awalnya, mereka mungkin tampak tidak mudah untuk menemukan. Misalnya, sangat sangat mudah untuk hanya memindahkan dari roti normal untuk roti gandum! Apa yang perlu Anda lakukan adalah memiliki sedikit kesabaran pada eksplorasi tentang alternatif signifikan lebih sehat yang akan memberikan kesehatan yang lebih baik dalam jangka panjang. 3. Hilangkan Praktik Negatif resep diet diabetes Gula pemanis soda bersama-sama dengan minuman dapat dengan mudah menyebabkan kondisi lebih buruk, jadi tinggal dengan air dan teh sehat. Ketika Anda minum soda terlalu banyak, hal ini dapat meningkatkan gula darah, yang tidak akan menstabilkan perkembangan insulin darah. Demikian juga, daripada makan junk food serta makanan cepat saji, kenapa tidak mencoba buah dan sayuran sebagai camilan? Anda juga bisa mencoba popcorn bebas lemak. Berkaitan dengan saus, Anda juga dapat mencoba mustard bukan mayones terlalu banyak. Mencoba mengatakan pelayaran bon untuk produk makanan goreng hanya karena benar-benar diisi dengan lemak dan kalori. Anda mungkin dapat mencoba memanggang, mengukus, panas sekali, atau panfrying menggunakan sedikit minyak zaitun sebagai pengganti. Tak bisakah kau melihat bahwa ada begitu banyak pilihan? Perlu diingat bahwa tidak ada diet mudah. Jika ingin melihat hasil yang baik, maka Anda benar-benar perlu melalui diet diabetes tipe 2 yang sulit. Original info Type 2 Diabetes Healthy eating plan is just for those who have the most typical type of diabetes, Type 2. This happens when your body cannot develop enough insulin, that is important to help you absorb glucose in the cells for back up or energy purposes. What stops insulin from functioning is oftentimes built up fat, that is why a diet plan is definitely needed to help you control the illness and then stop it from getting worse. And so exactly how should everyone start up her / his 2 diabetes meal plan in order that it’ll really yield effects? 1. Take note of all kinds of things you mainly consume and drink. Without a doubt, the truth hurts, but many times people have to have uncover all of them and face them so that we’re able to go beyond all these issues. Creating listing just what you frequently eat will definitely make you discover that we’re the only ones who can keep control of our own health and wellness and we can conserve it or wreck it. (cure for type 2 diabetes) 2. Discover more healthy products. Now there will certainly be substitutes even if in the beginning, they might seem not easy to discover. For instance, it is very very easy to just move from normal bread to whole wheat bread! What you need to do is to have a little patience on exploring regarding significantly more healthy alternatives which will give you a better health in the long run. 3. Eliminate Negative Practices for the diabetes diet recipes Sugar sweetened sodas together with drinks can easily cause the condition even worse, so stay with waters and healthful teas. When you drink too much soda, this could increase the blood sugar, which will not stabilize the blood insulin development. Likewise, rather than of eating junk food as well as fast food, why not try fruits and vegetables as snacks? You could likewise try fat free popcorn. Relating to sauces, you can also try mustard instead of too much mayo. Attempt saying bon voyage to fried food products simply because these are really stuffed with fats and calories. You possibly can try grilling, steaming, broiling, or panfrying using a bit of olive oil as a substitute. Cannot you see that there are so many choices? Keep in mind that there is no effortless diet. If you’d like see the good results, then you really need to go through a difficult type 2 diabetes diet. Resource: EzineArticles.Com Respon klinis: Kombinasi obat dan manajemen diet dapat memiliki hasil positif. Pertama-tama Anda harus bertujuan untuk pengendalian glukosa. Sebuah resep khas akan mencakup Statin seperti Zocor, Lipitor, Pravachol, Zetia, Crestor dan Vytorin. Obat-obat ini dimaksudkan untuk menurunkan kadar kolesterol Anda secara umum. Pasien diabetes tipe 2 mungkin memerlukan terapi kombinasi untuk mencapai tingkat yang aman dari trigliserida. Anda juga harus memikirkan cara-cara menurunkan kadar LDL Anda. Kadang-kadang dokter akan merekomendasikan serangkaian fibrate seperti gemfibrozil Lopid, Trico fenofibrate dan asam nikotinat atau niasin. Hal ini juga dianjurkan untuk memasukkan minyak ikan dalam diet Anda. Setelah menyadari bahaya yang dapat timbul dari trigliserida dalam kaitannya dengan diabetes, Anda harus datang dengan perubahan gaya hidup praktis yang akan membantu Anda menghindari fase berbahaya. Dalam beberapa kasus Anda mungkin harus membatasi asupan lemak Anda sepenuhnya. Masalahnya adalah bahwa langkah ini dapat menyebabkan Anda mengambil karbohidrat bahkan lebih dan karena itu meningkatkan tingkat trigliserida dalam aliran darah Anda. Beberapa buku merekomendasikan lemak substitusi sehat seperti minyak zaitun dan lemak tak jenuh tunggal lainnya. Tidak meningkatkan asupan produk tepung gula atau putih. Asupan Alkohol harus disimpan ke minimum. Ambil minyak ikan seperti tuna, sarden, salmon, makarel dan ikan. Mereka mengandung asam lemak omega-3 yang dikenal untuk mengurangi trigliserida. Kelainan genetik seperti hipotiroidisme dapat menggabungkan dengan penyakit untuk memperburuk situasi. Mengambil obat-obatan seperti steroid, pil KB dan Tamoxifen juga bisa menimbulkan masalah. Anda beresiko jika Anda menderita penyakit ginjal, gagal hati dan tekanan darah tinggi Original Info Type 2 diabetes Definition Type 2 diabetes is a lifelong (chronic) disease in which there are high levels of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes. Alternative Names Noninsulin-dependent diabetes; Diabetes – type 2; Adult-onset diabetes Causes, incidence, and risk factors Diabetes is caused by a problem in the way your body makes or uses insulin. Insulin is needed to move blood sugar (glucose) into cells, where it is stored and later used for energy. When you have type 2 diabetes, your fat, liver, and muscle cells do not respond correctly to insulin. This is called insulin resistance. As a result, blood sugar does not get into these cells to be stored for energy. When sugar cannot enter cells, high levels of sugar build up in the blood. This is called hyperglycemia. Type 2 diabetes usually occurs slowly over time. Most people with the disease are overweight when they are diagnosed. Increased fat makes it harder for your body to use insulin the correct way. Type 2 diabetes can also develop in people who are thin. This is more common in the elderly. Family history and genes play a large role in type 2 diabetes. Low activity level, poor diet, and excess body weight around the waist increase your risk. See also: Type 2 diabetes for a list of risk factors. Symptoms Often, people with type 2 diabetes have no symptoms at first. They may not have symptoms for many years. The early symptoms of diabetes may include: • Bladder, kidney, skin, or other infections that are more frequent or heal slowly • Fatigue • Hunger • Increased thirst • Increased urination The first symptom may also be: • Blurred vision • Erectile dysfunction • Pain or numbness in the feet or hands Signs and tests Your health care provider may suspect that you have diabetes if your blood sugar level is higher than 200 mg/dL. To confirm the diagnosis, one or more of the following tests must be done. Diabetes blood tests: • Fasting blood glucose level — diabetes is diagnosed if it is higher than 126 mg/dL two times • Hemoglobin A1c test — o Normal: Less than 5.7% o Pre-diabetes: 5.7% – 6.4% o Diabetes: 6.5% or higher Read more Hemoglobin A1c Test – facts The AccuBase A1c Test Kit is a highly accurate test (CV’s less than 1.0%) capable of detecting abnormal and/or silent hemoglobin variants such as hemoglobin S, and C and F and over 850 others. Each sample is first screened for presence of abnormal hemoglobins and/or disturbed erythrocyte kinetics (abnormal age or volume of red blood cells) Example; anemia (which can falsely lower the A1c value). Individuals with long-standing diabetes may present with a condition called erythropoietin (EPO) deficiency. EPO deficiency and/or anemia are considered serious conditions requiring appropriate medical intervention. DEK can adversely affect the A1c answer and each sample should be screened for the presence of DEK. Estimates report that over 650,000 Black Americans with diabetes are know to have the Sickle Cell Trait (Hb “S, C or F”) “Don’t be fooled by claims of accuracy when an A1c method and/or disposable monitoring device has CV’s (coefficient of variation) greater than 2.0% or can not detect an abnormal hemoglobin”. “An A1c method and/or monitoring device with a CV of 7.0 % could mean that if your actual A1c level was 6.5% it could be reported anywhere from 5.0% to 8.0% providing false and/or misleading therapeutic information,” not to mention the impact of an abnormal hemoglobin on the A1c value that the particular method or device is incapable of detecting. Each AccuBase A1c sample is analyzed by an HPLC-IE procedure with resulting printed Chromatogram as shown below. The laboratory staff is available to discuss individual chromatograms with your physician and/or medical personnel. The AccuBase A1c Test Kit is a non-fasting, finger stick, mail-in test, considered the most accurate and precise A1c test available. The test is considered sensitive and specific enough to detect diabetes (less than 2.0% CV’s). CV’s are under 1.0%. CV’s indicate the level of repeated accuracy compared to a known laboratory A1c value. The lower the CV’s the more accurate the A1c test. The AccuBase A1c Test Kit method is NGSP certified (values referenced to the DCCT). The AccuBase A1c Test Kit does not require any drying time, samples can be collected and mailed within minutes. The kit comes complete with patient positive ID vials and plastic capillary tubes/device. The analytical method is interference free. Samples are stable for 30 day un-refrigerated. Each test result comes with a Mean Blood Glucose calculation based on the DCCT MBG Equation: % A1c X 31.7 – 66.1 = MBG in mg/dl. Test results are typically available within 5 to 7 days form mailing. Special handling can be arranged to provide, next-day, two-day or three day results. Ideal for confidential diabetes (mean blood glucose) screening, outreach programs and clinical trails. The first graph demonstrates a normal chromatogram with no hemoglobin variants present and a normal A1c level. The Chromatogram on the second graph demonstrates an highly elevated level of hemoglobin F (25.6%). This elevated level of Hb F resulted in a sub-normal A1c value of 3.2%. Normal range of A1c assay (4.2% – 6.0%). Unless you have been screened for hemoglobin variants you would not know you carry the hereditary persistent variant, or be aware of its associated impact on your A1c level. Increased levels of Hemoglobin F may represent an increased risk for SIDS in infants, and may represent as association in various types of leukemia and/or solid tumors. Mothers that smoke or have been exposed to environmental pollution during pregnancy may have a much higher level of Hb F in the baby which may increase the risk of SIDS in the newborn. AccuBase A1c Test Kit Cleared for OTC use by the FDA (no prescription needed in most states). Patients can receive a copy of the test results. Electronic reporting to managed care health organizations/providers is available. The AccuBase A1cTest Kit uses the “gold standard” HPLC-IE or BA methodology to collect and analyze A1c samples in alternate site locations such as the home, physicians office and/or clinic • Oral glucose tolerance test — diabetes is diagnosed if glucose level is higher than 200 mg/dL after 2 hours Diabetes screening is recommended for: • Overweight children who have other risk factors for diabetes, starting at age 10 and repeated every 2 years • Overweight adults (BMI greater than 25) who have other risk factors • Adults over age 45 every 3 years You should see your health care provider every 3 months. At these visits, you can expect your health care provider to: • Check your blood pressure • Check the skin and bones on your feet and legs • Check to see if your feet are becoming numb • Examine the back part of the eye with a special lighted instrument called an ophthalmoscope The following tests will help you and your doctor monitor your diabetes and prevent problems: • Have your blood pressure checked at least every year (blood pressure goals should be 130/80 mm/Hg or lower). • Have your hemoglobin A1c test (HbA1c) every 6 months if your diabetes is well controlled; otherwise every 3 months. • Have your cholesterol and triglyceride levels checked yearly (aim for LDL levels below 70-100 mg/dL). • Get yearly tests to make sure your kidneys are working well (microalbuminuria and serum creatinine). • Visit your eye doctor at least once a year, or more often if you have signs of diabetic eye disease. • See the dentist every 6 months for a thorough dental cleaning and exam. Make sure your dentist and hygienist know that you have diabetes. Treatment The goal of treatment at first is to lower high blood glucose levels. The long-term goals of treatment are to prevent problems from diabetes. The main treatment for type 2 diabetes is exercise and diet. LEARN THESE SKILLS You should learn basic diabetes management skills. They will help prevent problems and the need for medical care. These skills include: • How to test and record your blood glucose (See: Blood glucose monitoring) • What to eat and when • How to take medications, if needed • How to recognize and treat low and high blood sugar • How to handle sick days • Where to buy diabetes supplies and how to store them It may take several months to learn the basic skills. Always keep learning about diabetes, its complications, and how to control and live with the disease. Stay up-to-date on new research and treatments. MANAGING YOUR BLOOD SUGAR Self testing means that you check your blood sugar at home yourself. Checking your blood sugar levels at home and writing down the results will tell you how well you are managing your diabetes. A device called a glucometer can give you an exact blood sugar reading. There are different types of devices. Usually, you prick your finger with a small needle called a lancet. This gives you a tiny drop of blood. You place the blood on a test strip and put the strip into the device. Results are given in 30 – 45 seconds. A health care provider or diabetes educator will help set up an at-home testing schedule for you. Your doctor will help you set your blood sugar goals. • Most people with type 2 diabetes only need to check their blood sugar once or twice a day. • If your blood sugar levels are under control, you may only need to check them a few times a week. • You may test yourself when you wake up, before meals, and at bedtime. • You may need to test more often when you are sick or under stress. The results of the test can be used to change your meals, activity, or medications to keep your blood sugar levels in the right range. Testing can identify high and low blood sugar levels before you have serious problems. Keep a record of your blood sugar for yourself and your health care provider. This will help if you are having trouble managing your diabetes. DIET AND WEIGHT CONTROL Work closely with your doctor, nurse, and dietitian to learn how much fat, protein, and carbohydrates you need in your diet. Your meal plans should fit your daily lifestyle and habits, and should try to include foods that you like. Managing your weight and eating a well-balanced diet are important. Some people with type 2 diabetes can stop taking medications after losing weight (although they still have diabetes). See also: • Diabetes diet • Snacking when you have diabetes Very overweight patients whose diabetes is not well managed with diet and medicine may consider bariatric (weight loss) surgery. See: • Gastric bypass surgery • Laparoscopic gastric banding REGULAR PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Regular exercise is important for everyone. It is even more important you have diabetes. Exercise in which your heart beats faster and you breathe faster helps lower your blood sugar level without medication. It also burns extra calories and fat so you can manage your weight. Exercise can help your health by improving blood flow and blood pressure. Exercise also increases the body’s energy level, lowers tension, and improves your ability to handle stress. Ask your health care provider before starting any exercise program. People with type 2 diabetes must take special steps before, during, and after intense physical activity or exercise. See also: Diabetes and exercise MEDICATIONS TO TREAT DIABETES If diet and exercise do not help keep your blood sugar at normal or near-normal levels, your doctor may prescribe medication. Since these drugs help lower your blood sugar levels in different ways, your doctor may have you take more than one drug. Some of the most common types of medication are listed below. They are taken by mouth or injection. • Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors (such as acarbose) • Biguanides (Metformin) • Injectable medicines (including exenatide, mitiglinide, pramlintide, sitagliptin, and saxagliptin) • Meglitinides (including repaglinide and nateglinide) • Sulfonylureas (like glimepiride, glyburide, and tolazamide) • Thiazolidinediones (such as rosiglitazone and pioglitazone). (Rosiglitazone may increase the risk of heart problems. Talk to your doctor.) These drugs may be given with insulin, or insulin may be used alone. You may need insulin if you continue to have poor blood glucose control. It must be injected under the skin using a syringe or insulin pen device. It cannot be taken by mouth. See also: Type 1 diabetes It is not known whether hyperglycemia medications taken by mouth are safe for use in pregnancy. Women who have type 2 diabetes and become pregnant may be switched to insulin during their pregnancy and while breast-feeding. PREVENTING COMPLICATIONS Your doctor may prescribe medications or other treatments to reduce your chances of developing eye disease, kidney disease, and other conditions that are more common in people with diabetes. See also: • Diabetes — preventing heart attack and stroke • Long-term complications of diabetes FOOT CARE People with diabetes are more likely to have foot problems. Diabetes can damage nerves, which means you may not feel an injury to the foot until you get a large sore or infection. Diabetes can also damage blood vessels. Diabetes also decreases the body’s ability to fight infection. Small infections can quickly get worse and cause the death of skin and other tissues. To prevent injury to your feet, check and care for your feet every day. See also: Diabetes foot care Support Groups For more information, see diabetes resources. Expectations (prognosis) After many years, diabetes can lead to serious problems with your eyes, kidneys, nerves, heart, blood vessels, or other areas in your body. If you have diabetes, your risk of a heart attack is the same as that of someone who has already had a heart attack. Both women and men with diabetes are at risk. You may not even have the normal signs of a heart attack. If you control your blood sugar and blood pressure, you can reduce your risk of death, stroke, heart failure, and other diabetes problems. Some people with type 2 diabetes no longer need medicine if they lose weight and become more active. When they reach their ideal weight, their body’s own insulin and a healthy diet can control their blood sugar levels. Complications After many years, diabetes can lead to serious problems: • You could have eye problems, including trouble seeing (especially at night), and light sensitivity. You could become blind. • Your feet and skin can develop sores and infections. After a long time, your foot or leg may need to be removed. Infection can also cause pain and itching in other parts of the body. • Diabetes may make it harder to control your blood pressure and cholesterol. This can lead to a heart attack, storke, and other problems. It can become harder for blood to flow to your legs and feet. • Nerves in your body can get damaged, causing pain, tingling, and a loss of feeling. • Because of nerve damage, you could have problems digesting the food you eat. You could feel weakness or have trouble going to the bathroom. Nerve damage can make it harder for men to have an erection. • High blood sugar and other problems can lead to kidney damage. Your kidneys may not work as well, and they may even stop working. Infections of the skin, female genital tract, and urinary tract are also more common. To prevent problems from diabetes, visit your health care provider or diabetes educator at least four times a year. Talk about any problems you are having. Calling your health care provider Call 911 right away if you have: • Chest pain or pressure • Fainting or unconsciousness • Seizure • Shortness of breath These symptoms can quickly get worse and become emergency conditions (such as convulsions or hypoglycemic coma). Call your doctor if you have: • Numbness, tingling, or pain in your feet or legs • Problems with your eyesight • Sores or infections on your feet • Symptoms of high blood sugar (being very thirsty, having blurry vision, having dry skin, feeling weak or tired, needing to urinate a lot) • Symptoms of low blood sugar (feeling weak or tired, trembling, sweating, feeling irritable, having trouble thinking clearly, fast heartbeat, double or blurry vision, feeling uneasy) Prevention You can help prevent type 2 diabetes by keeping a healthy body weight and an active lifestyle. Stay up-to-date with all your vaccinations and get a flu shot every year. References American Diabetes Association. Standards of medical care in diabetes–2011. Diabetes Care. 2011;34 Suppl 1:S11-S61. Eisenbarth GS, Polonsky KS, Buse JB. Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kronenberg HM, Melmed S, Polonsky KS, Larsen PR. Kronenberg: Williams Textbook of Endocrinology. 11th ed. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2008:chap 31. Pignone M, Alberts MJ, colwell JA, Cushman M, Inzucchi SE, Mukherjee D, et al. Aspirin for primary prevention of cardiovascular events in people with diabetes: a position statement of the American Diabetes Association, a scientific statement of the American Heart Association, and an expert consensus document of the American College of Cardiology Foundation. Circulation. 2010;121:2694-2701. Buchwald H, Estok R, Fahrbach K, Banel D, Jensen MD, Pories WJ, Bantle JP, Sledge I. Weight and type 2 diabetes after bariatric surgery: systematic review and meta-analysis. Am J Med. 2009 Mar;122(3):248-256.e5. Review. PubMed PMID: 19272486. ACCORD Study Group, Gerstein HC, Miller ME, Genuth S, Ismail-Beigi F, Buse JB, et al. Long-term effects of intensive glucose lowering on cardiovascular outcomes. N Engl J Med. 2011;364:818-828. Alemzadeh R, Ali O. Diabetes Mellitus. In: Kliegman R, ed. 19th ed. Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics. Philadelphia, Pa: Saunders Elsevier; 2011: chap 583. Review Date: 6/28/2011 Diabetic Diva ~ What is the Relationship between Triglycerides and Diabetes? The triglyceride has been referred to as the “ugly fat” but that is more of an emotional response than one that is firmly anchored in scientific fact. Nonetheless its association with diabetes cannot be ignored. Cholesterol has already been identified as a risk factor for heart disease. There are countless adverts and information outlets which confirm the problems that are associated with an uncontrolled diet. Likewise there are pills and food choices which are promoted as part of the solution. Consumers get variable results depending on their genetic makeup and the stage at which the condition is arrested. Exercise programs are also recommended as part of a healthy living process. The question remains as to whether all these interventions have been effective or whether they are simply a way for the advertizing agencies to make even more money. • Bundles of fat that can cause havoc: By consensus, triglycerides are small bundles of fat which are found in the blood stream. They increase in number after we consume food. The body will manufacture these fats from the foods which we eat especially if they are fatty in nature. It has been estimated that 90% of all the fat content in non-lean meat consists of triglyceride. Therefore the shopping habits of the risk groups have to reflect this imminent danger. • Triglycerides are not universally bad: A balanced diet should contain all the relevant elements. It has been estimated that triglyceride have a proportion of 99% of all the fat stored within the human body. You get long term energy sources from these fatty deposits. They are actually stored in a denser from than muscle protein or even starch. Insulin is required in order to form fat. Between meals and overnight, the triglycerides are converted into energy. Fasting and low insulin levels will trigger this reaction. The fat cells have a very high storage capacity and this can lead to obesity in certain situations. If you are undergoing extensive fasting or there is absolutely no insulin in the body then the liver will convert the fat breakdown products into ketones. • The health complications and their manifestations: It is often the case the low levels of HDL or good cholesterol is associated with high levels of triglyceride. This is then diagnosed as diabetic dyslipidemia. This is a combination of factors that can place the life of the patient in danger. Patients in this situation will have small, dense and ultimately harmful clusters of LDL or harmful cholesterol. The latter format is undesirable by virtue of its atherogenic properties. Eventually the person will develop central obesity. This is one of the defining features of the metabolic syndrome. • Around 80% of all the people with type 2 diabetes will have this condition. Eventually the person will die prematurely from heart disease. • Setting the benchmarks for a healthy person: It is imperative that you have some goals on how much triglyceride which you are going to record on the standard scale. This is an indicator of underlying healthy conditions. Therefore you will be in a position to implement a preventative strategy when required to do so. The normal levels of triglycerides are 150 mg/dl. The borderline figure is between 150 and 199. The high level is between 200 and 499 while anything over 500 is a matter of urgency. The normal fasting state will have levels reading between 100 and 150 mg/dl. After a normal meal the figure will rise to 300. Patients with type 2 diabetes will have elevated levels in both the fasting and even state. Prior to the lipid panel test, you should have some overnight fasting for at least 12 hours. Likewise it is not advisable to take alcohol at least 24 hours prior to the test. • Managing the level of triglyceride in your body: It is to your advantage that you keep the levels of this substance relatively low. Patients with type 2 diabetes have high risk factors and need to work that bit extra to ensure that their levels are 150 mg/dl or even lower. This will help them reduce the possibility of developing cardiovascular diseases. Some people in this category have carried levels that are well over 400. Once you start hitting the 1000 mark then you will suffer skin lesions or xanthomas, memory loss, pancreatic and abdominal pain. Intervention is required at this stage in order to save your life. • The clinical response: A combination of medication and diet management can have positive results. First of all you have to aim for glucose control. A typical prescription will include Statins such as Zocor, Lipitor, Pravachol, Zetia, Crestor and Vytorin. These medications are meant to lower your cholesterol levels in general. Type 2 diabetes patients may require combination therapy in order to reach the safe levels of triglycerides. You also have to think of ways of lowering your LDL levels. Sometimes the clinician will recommend a series of Fibrates such as Lopid gemfibrozil, Trico fenofibrate and Nicotinic acid or niacin. It is also advisable to include fish oil in your diet. Having recognized the dangers that can arise from triglycerides in relation to diabetes, you should come up with practical lifestyle changes that will help you avoid the dangerous phases. In some instances you may have to restrict your fat intake completely. The problem is that this step can cause you to take even more carbohydrates and therefore increase the level of triglyceride in your bloodstream. Some books recommend substitution healthy fats such as olive oil and other monounsaturated fats. Do not increase your intake of sugar or white flour products. Alcohol intake should be kept to a minimum. Take oily fish such as tuna, sardines, salmon, mackerel and anchovies. They contain omega-3 fatty acids which are known to reduce triglycerides. Genetic disorders such as hypothyroidism can combine with diseases in order to exacerbate the situation. Taking drugs such as steroids, birth control pills and Tamoxifen can also be problematic. You are at risk if you suffer from kidney disease, liver failure and high blood pressure. The writer of this article is a blogger of ayurvedic health care tips. BEWARE ALWAYS NO STARCHY FOOD All food that you eat turns to sugar in your body. Carbohydrate-containing foods alter your sugar levels more than any other type of food. Carbohydrates are found in starchy or sugary foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. Simple carbohydrates are broken down quickly by the body to be used as energy. Simple carbohydrates are found naturally in foods such as fruits, milk, and milk products. They are also found in processed and refined sugars such as candy, table sugar, syrups, and soft drinks. The majority of carbohydrate intake should come from complex carbohydrates (starches) and naturally occurring sugars rather than processed or refined sugars. All food that you eat turns to sugar in your body. Carbohydrate-containing foods alter your sugar levels more than any other type of food. Carbohydrates are found in starchy or sugary foods, such as bread, rice, pasta, cereal, potatoes, peas, corn, fruit, fruit juice, milk, yogurt, cookies, candy, soda, and other sweets. Exercises Food and insulin release Insulin is a hormone secreted by the pancreas in response to increased glucose levels in the blood. Glucose test . Monitor blood glucose – series Part one Set up the meter according to the specific directions that come with your meter. Get the supplies ready, including a new test strip and disposable lancet. Place the lancet into the lancing device. Rabu, 02 Mei 2012 PELATIHAN NASIONAL EDUKATOR DIABETES INDONESIA Jakarta, 21 April 2012 Menteri Kesehatan, diwakili oleh Direktur Jenderal Pengendalian Penyakit dan Penyehatan Lingkungan (PP dan PL), Prof. dr. Tjandra Yoga Aditama, Sp.P(K), MARS, DTM&H, DTCE membuka secara resmi Pelatihan Nasional Edukator Diabetes Indonesia yang ke 10 yang diselenggarakan oleh Perhimpunan Edukator Diabetes Indonesia (PEDI) di Jakarta (20/4/12). Kementerian Kesehatan menyambut baik pelatihan ini, karena 4 hal, yang pertama Diabetes Mellitus (DM) merupakan masalah kesehatan penting di Indonesia, sebab DM merupakan penyebab kematian ke 6, prevalensi DM perkotaan 5,7%, dan prevalensi Toleransi Glukosa Terganggu 10,2%. Alasan kedua karena pengendalian DM haruslah merupakan continum care, dimana edukasi merupakan salah satu faktor amat penting. Kemudian para mereka yang sudah dilatih akan langsung dapat menangani pasien DM dan keluarganya sehingga mereka dapat tetap sehat, bugar dan mandiri. Sedangkan yang terakhir adalah pelatihan ini merupakan bentuk nyata partisipasi aktif masyarakat kesehatan untuk bersama pemerintah menanggulangi masalah kesehatan di Indonesia, dalam hal ini Diabetes Mellitus. Pelatihan berlangsung selama 3 hari dan diikuti lebih dari 200 peserta, terdiri dari dokter, perawat, diietesien, dan petugas lain. Pelatihan sudah berjalan 10 tahun dan mempunyai 3 tingkatan yaitu dasar, lanjut dan berkelanjutan. Metode pelatihan dalam bentuk : teori, loka karya, serta simulasi. Berita ini disiarkan oleh Pusat Komunikasi Publik, Sekretariat Jenderal Kementerian Kesehatan RI. welcome Dear iwansuwandy, Welcome to Diabetic Living Online! Congratulations on taking control now — we’re glad you’re here! We have the information to help you make the best choices for your health. You can live well with diabetes. Get immediate access and must-have information: •More than 1,000 delicious recipes guaranteed by the Better Homes and Gardens® Test Kitchen. •Practical and clear answers to your questions about carb counting, weight loss, diabetes meal plans, medications, and much more! •FREE recipes and tips delivered to your in-box each week. •FREE quick-start diabetes education course on What to Eat with Diabetes. •Great deals on Diabetic Living Magazine subscriptions. Be sure to find our page on Facebook and join our community of people with diabetes for support, information, and day-to-day tips on living well with diabetes. Here’s to our good health, Martha Miller Johnson Editor of Diabetic Living®, wife, mother, friend, PWD type 1 PATHOGENESIS OF DIABETIC NEUUOROPATHY Nerve Complications Elevated blood sugars can damage the peripheral nerves. Symptoms of neuropathy include: • pain, numbness, and tingling of hands and feet • muscle weakness such as trouble climbing stairs • nausea and vomiting • dizziness and lightheadedness Elevated levels of blood sugar can injure the blood vessels supplying the peripheral nerves, irritating and damaging them in the process. Such accumulated nerve damage is called diabetic neuropathy. Better blood glucose control can help restore healthy nerve function. Nerve Disease The nervous system includes our brain (central nervous system) and all of the nerves going from the brain to the rest of the body (peripheral nervous system). The nervous system is always at work. Sometimes – when we move or feel something – we are aware of it. But much happens automatically, including the control of our heart rate, the movement of food through the stomach and intestines and regulation of our blood pressure. Your health care provider can determine that your symptoms are related to diabetes and not to some other condition. The best way to improve all forms of diabetic neuropathy is to control your blood sugar levels. There are two categories of diabetic neuropathy: • Sensory and motor neuropathy • Autonomic neuropathy Symptoms of neuropathy include: • Pain, numbness, and tingling of hands and feet • Muscle weakness such as foot drop, double vision, trouble climbing stairs and getting out of a chair • Stomach symptoms including bloating, nausea, vomiting of undigested food many hours after a meal, feeling full without eating much food. This is also referred to as gastroparesis. • Bowel trouble such as episodes of diarrhea especially at night • Difficulty with bladder emptying • Sexual dysfunction • Dizziness and lightheadedness from a very fast heart rate and trouble keeping the blood pressure high enough when sitting or standing up. What is the treatment? Before any treatment can be decided upon, you need to report any of these symptoms to your health provider. Your provider needs to make sure that the symptoms are due to diabetic neuropathy and not something else. Near normal blood sugar control will usually improve all forms of diabetic neuropathy. Pain medications should be used as needed. Your provider may refer you to an doctor for specialized treatment and evaluation. Foot Complications Taking good care of your feet prevents serious complications. • Get regular foot exams that test for any nerve damage • Wash, dry and inspect your feet each day • Wear shoes and socks that fit • Control your blood glucose Foot problems are caused by neuropathy, poor circulation or a combination of both. The loss of feeling that comes with neuropathy is especially dangerous, as you may not be aware of cuts, blisters and bruises. The loss of sensation can change the way you walk or can damage bones and joints. Delays in treatment can lead to serious problems. Poor blood circulation means that less oxygen and fewer white blood cells that fight infection can get to a wound. It also means that antibiotic treatments that travel through the bloodstream are not as effective because they cannot get to the tissue in proper concentrations. Foot problems Foot problems include: • Changes in sensation from severe pain to numbness • Increased likelihood of infection (bacterial and fungal) • Slow wound healing • Deformation of the joints (Charcot joints, hammertoes, bunions, fallen arches) Recommendations: • If you have foot problems, consult a doctor right away. Early diagnosis can make a dramatic difference. Treatment for infection includes antibiotics and regular wound dressing. • Impaired circulation sometimes can be helped by blood vessel bypass. This procedure also may help heal wounds and ulcers in combination with skin or tissue growth factors. • Unfortunately, in advanced cases of poor circulation and uncontrolled infection, amputation may be necessary, usually just a toe or part of a bone is removed. In the most severe cases, it may necessary to remove part of the foot or leg. It is important to: • Get regular foot exams that test for any nerve damage • Not go barefoot • Not use sharp objects or over-the-counter chemical treatments such as corn/wart removers • Not use excessively hot water, electric blankets or heating pads, hot water bottles • Not smoke • Wash, dry and inspect your feet each day • Check between your toes • Wear shoes and socks that fit • Make sure there is nothing sharp or irritating in your shoes • Report corns and calluses and injuries that don’t heal to your medical provider • Cut toenails straight across and not too close to the quick; this will help prevent ingrown nails and associated infections • Control your blood glucose Eye Complications Eye problems range from minor changes to significant visual loss. Complications include: • Retinopathy • Cataracts • Macular edema • Glaucoma People with diabetes are at risk of eye problems, ranging from minor changes with no effect on vision to significant visual loss. With regular screening and eye exams by an eye doctor (ophthalmologist), and with stable and near normal blood glucose control, most of the serious complications can be avoided or successfully treated. Vision complications Putting off an eye exam is very risky. Usually there are few or no symptoms at the time the damage is occurring. Exams will reveal the problem and allow your eye doctor to treat it. Treatment can slow down the progression and maintain vision even in those who have developed significant eye complications. Eye complications include: • Retinopathy • Cataracts • Macular edema • Glaucoma Healthy eyes require that you: • Control your blood sugar • Control your blood pressure • Control your cholesterol • Don’t smoke and avoid second hand smoke • Use Ultra-violet protected eye glasses • See your ophthalmologist regularly and get retinal exams and eye pressure checked Symptoms of eye emergencies: • Loss of vision, • Holes in vision, • Showers of sparking white lights, • Black curtains over vision, • Spots of fuzzy print, hazy vision, If you have symptoms of any of the eye emergencies, seek medical care or contact your eye doctor immediately Self-assessment Quiz Self assessment quizzes are available for topics covered in this website. To find out how much you have learned about Diabetes Complications, take our self assessment quiz when you have completed this section. The quiz is multiple choice. Please choose the single best answer to each question. At the end of the quiz, your score will display. If your score is over 70% correct, you are doing very well. If your score is less than 70%, you can return to this section and review the information Quizzes Take quizzes! Test your knowledge about diabetes management, treatment, complications, and more. You may want to see how much you have learned using this website. Below are a series of self assessment quizzes. The questions cover the most important teaching points in each section. If you have trouble with a quiz, you may want to go back and review the section in the website. Read each section of the site and then take one of our self-assessment quizzes to test your new skills! • Coping With Your Emotions • Facts About Diabetes • Diabetes and Alcohol • Diabetes Complications • Diabetes and Exercise • Insulin Pumps • Managing Your Weight • Traveling with Diabetes • Understanding Carbohydrates • Understanding Fats and Oils • Understanding Food • Understanding Protein • Monitoring Your Type 1 Diabetes • Self-management Solutions for Type 1 Diabetes • Sick Days for Type 1 Diabetes • Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes • Monitoring Your Type 2 Diabetes • Self-management Solutions for Type 2 Diabetes • Sick Days for Type 2 Diabetes • Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes • Treatment of Type 2 Diabetes – Insulin Therapy Diabetes and Exercise Take the Diabetes and Exercise quiz. Test your knowledge about how exercise can help people with diabetes. The benefits of exercise include: Improved insulin sensitivity Lowered risk of heart disease Reduced stress and enhanced quality of life All of the above All of the answers are correct. Aerobic exercise, including brisk walking, swimming and cycling, has a long list of health benefits. Other benefits include reduced body fat, preserved bone mass and improved circulation. Managing Your Weight Take the Managing Your Weight quiz. Test your knowledge about tips and techniques for managing your weight. If you are overweight or obese, the health benefits of losing weight through diet and exercise include: Improved sensitivity to the action of insulin and improved blood sugar levels Lowered risk of developing heart disease, like heart attacks and stroke Prevention or delaying of serious health conditions, like breathing problems, joint and bone disorders All of the above. All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is “All of the above”. While weight loss may prevent or delay serious health conditions, weight loss also lowers your risk for heart disease, decreases insulin resistance and improves blood sugar levels. Understanding Carbohydrates Take the Understanding Carbohydrates quiz. Test your knowledge about carbohydrates. Carbohydrates are found in which foods? Starch, fruit, milk, starchy vegetables Cheese, steak, chicken Olive oil, butter and fish Starch, fruit, milk, and starchy vegetables contain carbohydrate. Cheese, steak, chicken, and fish are types of protein, while olive oil and butter are types of fat. Understanding Food Take the Understanding Food quiz. Test your knowledge about food. What are the 3 primary sources of nutrition in a balanced diet? Carbohydrate, protein and fat Carbohydrate, protein and alcohol Fat, protein and leafy vegetables Carbohydrate, protein and fat are the 3 primary sources of nutrition in a balanced diet. While alcohol has calories, it is not one of the 3 main sources of nutrition in the diet. Leafy vegetables also have some carbohydrates, but they do not supply all of your daily carbohydrate requirements. Monitoring Your Type 1 Diabetes Take the Monitoring Your Type 1 Diabetes quiz. Test your knowledge about monitoring type 1 diabetes. Monitoring your blood glucose will: Ensure that your blood glucose levels stay normal Give you the feedback you need to keep your blood glucose in target range Not be necessary, as long as you eat right Monitoring alone does not change the blood glucose level, but the only way to know if you are keeping your blood glucose levels in the target range is to monitor your blood glucose. While it is important to eat a healthy diet, diet alone may not be sufficient. Monitoring your blood glucose will give you the feedback you need. Monitoring Your Type 2 Diabetes Take the Monitoring Your Type 2 Diabetes quiz. Test your knowledge about monitoring type 2 diabetes. Monitoring your blood glucose will: Ensure that your blood glucose levels stay normal Give you the feedback you need to keep your blood glucose in target range Not be necessary, as long as you eat right Monitoring alone does not change the blood sugar level, but it does help you know if your treatment plan is successful. The only way to find out if you are keeping your blood sugar levels in the target range is to monitor your blood sugar. Self-management Solutions for Type 1 Diabetes Take the Self-management Solutions for Type 1 Diabetes quiz. Test your knowledge about self-management solutions for type 1 diabetes. When your blood sugar is not well controlled, it is helpful to: Monitor your blood sugar at different times of the day such as before and after meals, bedtime, middle of the night, and whenever feeling low Keep a logbook of your blood sugar test results, food, activity/exercise and medication doses Discuss the problem with your medical provider All of the above All of the above All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is “All of the above”. When your blood sugar is not well controlled, it is useful to monitor your blood sugar more frequently throughout the day including overnight. Also, keep a logbook of your blood sugar results, exercise/activity, the carbohydrate content of the food, and the insulin dose. You can review the log book with your medical provider to problem solve why you are having difficulty controlling your blood sugar. Self-management Solutions for Type 2 Diabetes Take the Self-management Solutions for Type 2 Diabetes quiz. Test your knowledge about self-management solutions for type 2 diabetes. When your blood sugar is not well controlled, it is helpful to: Monitor your blood sugar at different times during the day Keep a logbook of your blood sugar test results, food, exercise and medication doses Discuss the problem with your medical provider All of the above All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is “All of the above”. When your blood sugar is not well controlled, it is useful to monitor your blood sugar more frequently and at different times of the day. Also, keep a logbook of your blood sugar results, exercise/activity, the carbohydrate content of the food, and medication doses (including insulin). You can review the log book with your medical provider to problem solve why you are having difficulty controlling your blood sugar. Diabetic Neurophaty treatment Research Front Maps Research front maps are diagrammatic representations of the core papers comprising each front. They are selected from the current Research Front set that are relevant to the featured special topic. The title for this Research Front Map is “DIABETIC NEUROPATHIC PAIN TREATMENT,” containing 30 core papers. Source dates: 1999-February 28, 2009 (first bimonthly period 2009). Each circle represents a highly cited paper whose bibliographic information is displayed when the user clicks on the circle. The solid lines between circles represent the strongest co-citation links for each paper (that is, indicating that the papers are frequently cited together); weaker links are indicated by dashed lines. Papers close to each other on the map are generally more highly co-cited. The most recent paper(s) are indicated in pink. Annotations may have been added to this map which represent the main research themes. These appear as labels attached to specific regions on the maps. Note: For best results use the “landscape orientation” option when printing this page. Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes Take the Treatment of Type 1 Diabetes quiz. Test your knowledge about type 1 diabetes treatment. The ultimate goal of insulin therapy is to mimic normal insulin levels. True False If you have type 1 diabetes, your body is no longer producing enough insulin. We try to mimic normal insulin levels with insulin injections or infusion through an insulin pump. Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes Take the Treatment quiz. Test your knowledge about diabetes treatment. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is treated with: Lifestyle changes – a healthy diet, adequate activity/exercise and, as needed, losing weight Pills that help return the blood sugar (plasma glucose) to the normal range Pills that increase the secretion of insulin from the pancreas Insulin All of the above All of the answers are correct. However, the best answer is “All of the above”. There are many different treatments for type 2 diabetes mellitus. Every treatment regimen starts with lifestyle changes – a healthy diet, adequate activity/exercise, and, as needed, losing weight. If lifestyle changes are not sufficient to control the blood sugar, then medications are added. Usually the first medication to be added is Metformin (a biguanide). It helps to return the blood sugar (plasma glucose) back to the normal, non-diabetic range. Other medications, including insulin, may be added to the metformin and lifestyle therapy. There is not a single treatment plan that is best for everyone. Talk with your provider about the best treatment plan for you. Metformin (a biguanide) Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors Diabetic blood circulation in foot People with diabetes are at risk for blood vessel injury, which may be severe enough to cause tissue damage in the legs and feet. The type one Isulin dependend diabetis mellitus A person with diabetes constantly manages their blood’s sugar (glucose) levels. After a blood sample is taken and tested, it is determined whether the glucose levels are low or high. If glucose levels are too low carbohydrates are ingested.� If glucose in the blood is too high, the appropriate amount of insulin is administered into the body such as through an insulin pump REFERENCES A.D.A.M., Inc. is accredited by URAC, also known as the American Accreditation HealthCare Commission (www.urac.org). URAC’s accreditation program is the first of its kind, requiring compliance with 53 standards of quality and accountability, verified by independent audit. A.D.A.M. is among the first to achieve this important distinction for online health information and services. Learn more about A.D.A.M.’s editorial reviewers. A.D.A.M. is also a founding member of Hi-Ethics (www.hiethics.com) and subscribes to the principles of the Health on the Net Foundation (www.hon.ch). The information provided herein should not be used during any medical emergency or for the diagnosis or treatment of any medical condition. A licensed physician should be consulted for diagnosis and treatment of any and all medical conditions. Call 911 for all medical emergencies. Links to other sites are provided for information only — they do not constitute endorsements of those other sites. Copyright 2003 A.D.A.M., Inc. Any duplication or distribution of the information contained herein is strictly prohibited. Recognition of Any Warning Symptoms for Diabetic Neuropathy By Hendra Excel Recognition of any warning symptoms for DIABETIC NEUROPATHY happen to be for serious great importance given that that will lose him or her can get daily life switching or violent strikes. Diabetic neuropathy is certainly because of any the wall surfaces within the problematic veins who supply any phobia being more powerful. The decreases the option within the phobia that will run impulses back in the brain. Sorbitol at the same time methods together with gathers during the Schwann debris inducing deeper sensors conduction disadvantages. One can find several different types of neuropathies which can mode utilizing diabetes; polynueropathies together with mononeuropathies. When the warning symptoms seem to be would depend what precisely phobia components happen to be infected. Any warning symptoms may vary among the consumers as well as being impacted by the sum of hurt finished into the phobia. Many other warning symptoms consist of some sort of soreness problems, a good eliminating or simply blasting impression, or simply becoming like your story own frigid your feet. When the neuropathy progresses any warning symptoms consist of drunken sensations for problems, impression, environment, vibration, together with two-point discrimination. In order to remedy polyneuropathy is certainly thru direction within the diabetes again. Mononeuropathies happen to be remoted gatherings the fact that change simple phobia. Any warning symptoms for this style of neuropathy happen to be wholly impacted by which unfortunately a sensor is certainly infected. They’ll change any coulometer sensors which unfortunately lead to annoyance, total eye problems together with some sort of failing to safely move a person’s eye in any focus. Most of the victims of diabetes, irrespective of whether model 1 or simply model a pair of, have to pay attention to any warning symptoms for diabetic neuropathy. The sooner it is actually sent to the interest within the victims of diabetes health-related service providers the sooner it really is monitored thru adequate standard of living opportunities that will be devoted to eating routine, activity, together with adequate health related direction. Diabetic Neuropathy Remedy? The actual DIABETIC NEUROPATHY is actually neural harm to entire body extremities, your toes as well as fingers for instance, in addition neural harm to internal organs, digestive system and also the center for instance . Here Are the Actual Diabetic Neuropathy Treatments *The remedy with regard to diabetic neuropathy very first choice would be to manage the actual blood sugar amounts therefore you will find not really inconsistent levels as well as levels. Administration consists of diet plan as well as physical exercise, in addition medicine in the event that recommended. * In order to avoid heartburn, physicians claim that diabetes sufferers ought to consume lower foods as well as restrict body fat as well as meals full of dietary fiber. Additionally bloodstream stress medicines probably will advantage the actual diabetic as well. An average lotion is actually capsaicin lotion. The Actual Diabetic Neuropathy Details 1 most unfortunate problems associated with diabetes may be the neural harm already been brought on by diabetes. The actual diabetes neuropathy may cause moderate uneasiness for many people, while with regard to other people this particular condition is actually disabling as well as sometimes crucial. Here Are the Actual Diabetic Neuropathy Signs and Symptoms The actual DIABETIC NEUROPATHY signs and symptoms tend to be based on the kind as well as which anxiety which obtained impacted. The actual signs and symptoms consist of muscle mass coordination difficulties, heartburn, weak point, numbness, discomfort or even tingling (usually within the ft or even fingers), nausea or vomiting as well as bladder difficulties. It might curiosity you to definitely realize that extended blood sugar levels extreme conditions blood sugar levels that is possibly excessive or even as well reduced with regard to too much time could cause numerous problems, which can result in the diabetic coma. REFRENCES Core Papers ________________________________________ Label: Dworkin-2003 Title: Advances in neuropathic pain – Diagnosis, mechanisms, and treatment recommendations Journal: ARCH NEUROL, 60 (11): 1524-1534 NOV 2003 Citations: 274 Authors: Dworkin, RH;Backonja, M;Rowbotham, MC;Allen, RR;Argoff, CR;Bennett, GJ;Bushnell, MC;Farrar, JT;Galer, BS;Haythornthwaite, JA;Hewitt, DJ;Loeser, JD;Max, MB;Saltarelli, M;Schmader, KE;Stein, C;Thompson, D;Turk, DC;Wallace, MS;Watkins, LR;Weinstein, SM Addresses: Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Dept Anesthesiol, 601 Elmwood Ave,Box 604, Rochester, NY 14642 USA Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Dept Anesthesiol, Rochester, NY 14642 USA [Back to Map] Label: Dworkin-2003 Title: Pregabalin for the treatment of postherpetic neuralgia – A randomized, placebo-controlled trial Journal: NEUROLOGY, 60 (8): 1274-1283 APR 22 2003 Citations: 171 Authors: Dworkin, RH;Corbin, AE;Young, JP;Sharma, U;LaMoreaux, L;Bockbrader, H;Garofalo, EA;Poole, RM Addresses: Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, 601 Elmwood Ave,Box 604, Rochester, NY 14642 USA Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Rochester, NY 14642 USA Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA [Back to Map] Label: Ballantyne-2003 Title: Opioid therapy for chronic pain Journal: N ENGL J MED, 349 (20): 1943-1953 NOV 13 2003 Citations: 162 Authors: Ballantyne, JC;Mao, JR Addresses: Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Anesthesia & Crit Care, Pain Ctr, 15 Parkman St,WACC 333, Boston, MA 02114 USA Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Dept Anesthesia & Crit Care, Pain Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA [Back to Map] Label: Goldstein-2005 Title: Duloxetine vs. placebo in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy Journal: PAIN, 116 (1-2): 109-118 JUL 2005 Citations: 144 Authors: Goldstein, DJ;Lu, YL;Detke, MJ;Lee, TC;Iyengar, S Addresses: Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA McLean Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Belmont, MA 02178 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA USA [Back to Map] Label: Finnerup-2005 Title: Algorithm for neuropathic pain treatment: An evidence based proposal Journal: PAIN, 118 (3): 289-305 DEC 5 2005 Citations: 143 Authors: Finnerup, NB;Otto, M;McQuay, HJ;Jensen, TS;Sindrup, SH Addresses: Aarhus Univ Hosp, Danish Pain Res Ctr, Dept Neurol, Aarhus Sygehus, Norrebrogade 44, Aarhus 8000, Denmark Aarhus Univ Hosp, Danish Pain Res Ctr, Dept Neurol, Aarhus Sygehus, Aarhus 8000, Denmark Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, Odense 5000, Denmark Churchill Hosp, Pain Relief Unit, Oxford OX3 7LJ, England [Back to Map] Label: Gilron-2005 Title: Morphine, gabapentin, or their combination for neuropathic pain Journal: N ENGL J MED, 352 (13): 1324-1334 MAR 31 2005 Citations: 142 Authors: Gilron, I;Bailey, JM;Tu, DS;Holden, RR;Weaver, DF;Houlden, RL Addresses: Queens Univ, Dept Anesthesiol, 76 Stuart St, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Queens Univ, Dept Anesthesiol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Queens Univ, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Queens Univ, Dept Math & Stat, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Queens Univ, Dept Epidemiol & Community Hlth, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Queens Univ, Dept Psychol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Queens Univ, Dept Med, Div Endocrinol, Kingston, ON K7L 2V7, Canada Dalhousie Univ, Dept Med, Div Neurol, Halifax, NS, Canada Dalhousie Univ, Dept Chem, Halifax, NS, Canada [Back to Map] Label: Rosenstock-2004 Title: Pregabalin for the treatment of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy: a double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Journal: PAIN, 110 (3): 628-638 AUG 2004 Citations: 141 Authors: Rosenstock, J;Michael, TB;LaMoreaux, L;Sharma, U Addresses: Dallas Diabet & Endo Res Ctr, 7777 Forest Lane,C618, Dallas, TX 75230 USA Dallas Diabet & Endo Res Ctr, Dallas, TX 75230 USA Palm Beach Neurol Ctr, Palm Beach Gardens, FL USA Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA [Back to Map] Label: Rowbotham-2003 Title: Oral opioid therapy for chronic peripheral and central neuropathic pain Journal: N ENGL J MED, 348 (13): 1223-1232 MAR 27 2003 Citations: 127 Authors: Rowbotham, MC;Twilling, L;Davies, PS;Reisner, L;Taylor, K;Mohr, D Addresses: Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Med, Pain Clin, Res Ctr,Dept Neurol, 1701 Divisadero St,Ste 480, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Med, Pain Clin, Res Ctr,Dept Neurol, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Med, Dept Anesthesia, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA Univ Calif San Francisco, Sch Pharm, San Francisco, CA 94115 USA [Back to Map] Label: Arnold-2004 Title: A double-blind, multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the treatment of fibromyalgia patients with or without major depressive disorder Journal: ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 50 (9): 2974-2984 SEP 2004 Citations: 122 Authors: Arnold, LM;Lu, YL;Crofford, LJ;Wohlreich, M;Detke, MJ;Iyengar, S;Goldstein, DJ;Duloxetine Fibromyalgia Trial Grp Addresses: Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Med Arts Bldg,Suite 8200,222 Piedmont Ave, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA Eli Lilly & Co, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indianapolis, IN USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA McLean Hosp, Belmont, MA 02178 USA PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN USA [Back to Map] Label: Kalso-2004 Title: Opioids in chronic non-cancer pain: systematic review of efficacy and safety Journal: PAIN, 112 (3): 372-380 DEC 2004 Citations: 122 Authors: Kalso, E;Edwards, JE;Moore, RA;McQuay, HJ Addresses: Univ Helsinki, Pain Clin, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care Med, Cent Hosp, POB 340, FIN-00029 HUS, Finland Univ Helsinki, Pain Clin, Dept Anaesthesia & Intens Care Med, Cent Hosp, FIN-00029 HUS, Finland Univ Oxford, Oxford Radcliffe Hosp, Pain Res & Nuffield Dept Anaesthet, Oxford OX3 7LJ, England [Back to Map] Label: Goldenberg-2004 Title: Management of fibromyalgia syndrome Journal: JAMA-J AM MED ASSN, 292 (19): 2388-2395 NOV 17 2004 Citations: 119 Authors: Goldenberg, DL;Burckhardt, C;Crofford, L Addresses: Newton Wellesley Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, 2000 Washington St, Newton, MA 02462 USA Newton Wellesley Hosp, Dept Rheumatol, Newton, MA 02462 USA Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Dept Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA Oregon Hlth & Sci Univ, Sch Nursing, Portland, OR USA Univ Michigan, Sch Med, Dept Internal Med, Div Rheumatol, Ann Arbor, MI USA [Back to Map] Label: Lesser-2004 Title: Pregabalin relieves symptoms of painful diabetic neuropathy – A randomized controlled trial Journal: NEUROLOGY, 63 (11): 2104-2110 DEC 14 2004 Citations: 117 Authors: Lesser, H;Sharma, U;LaMoreaux, L;Poole, RM Addresses: 1415 Portland Ave,Suite 480, Rochester, NY 14621 USA Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Rochester, NY USA Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA Pfizer Global Res & Dev, New London, CT USA [Back to Map] Label: Crofford-2005 Title: Pregabalin for the treatment of fibromyalgia syndrome – Results of a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Journal: ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 52 (4): 1264-1273 APR 2005 Citations: 110 Authors: Crofford, LJ;Rowbotham, MC;Mease, PJ;Russell, IJ;Dworkin, RH;Corbin, AE;Young, JP;LaMoreaux, LK;Martin, SA;Sharma, U;Pregabalin 1008-15 Study Grp Addresses: Kentucky Clin, Room J-503,740 S Limestone St, Lexington, KY 40539 USA Kentucky Clin, Lexington, KY 40539 USA Univ Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI 48109 USA Univ Calif San Francisco, San Francisco, CA 94143 USA Rheumatol Associates, Seattle, WA USA Swedish Med Ctr, Seattle, WA USA Univ Texas, Ctr Hlth Sci, San Antonio, TX USA Univ Rochester, Sch Med & Dent, Rochester, NY USA Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA [Back to Map] Label: Sabatowski-2004 Title: Pregabalin reduces pain and improves sleep and mood disturbances in patients with post-herpetic neuralgia: results of a randomised, placebo-controlled clinical trial Journal: PAIN, 109 (1-2): 26-35 MAY 2004 Citations: 108 Authors: Sabatowski, R;Galvez, R;Cherry, DA;Jacquot, F;Vincent, E;Maisonobe, P;Versavel, M;1008-045 Study Grp Addresses: Univ Cologne, Anasthesiol Klin, Dept Anaesthesiol, D-50924 Cologne, Germany Univ Cologne, Anasthesiol Klin, Dept Anaesthesiol, D-50924 Cologne, Germany Univ Hosp Virgen Nieves, Pain Clin, Granada, Spain Flinders Med Ctr, Bedford Pk, SA, Australia Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Fresnes, France [Back to Map] Label: Goldstein-2004 Title: Duloxetine in the treatment of depression – A double-blind-placebo-controlled comparison with paroxetine Journal: J CLIN PSYCHOPHARMACOL, 24 (4): 389-399 AUG 2004 Citations: 107 Authors: Goldstein, DJ;Lu, YL;Detke, MJ;Wiltse, C;Mallinckrodt, C;Demitrack, MA Addresses: Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Pharmacol & Toxicol, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA McLean Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Belmont, MA 02178 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA Neuronet Inc, Malvern, PA USA [Back to Map] Label: Freynhagen-2005 Title: Efficacy of pregabalin in neuropathic pain evaluated in a 12-week, randomised, double-blind, multicentre, placebo-controlled trial of flexible- and fixed-dose regimens Journal: PAIN, 115 (3): 254-263 JUN 2005 Citations: 97 Authors: Freynhagen, R;Strojek, K;Griesing, T;Whalen, E;Balkenohl, M Addresses: Univ Klinikum Dusseldorf, Anasthesiol Klin, Moorenstr 5, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany Univ Klinikum Dusseldorf, Anasthesiol Klin, D-40225 Dusseldorf, Germany Dept Internal Dis Diabetol & Nephrol, Zabrze, Poland Pfizer Inc, New York, NY USA Pfizer Global Pharamceut, Freiburg, Germany [Back to Map] Label: Detke-2004 Title: Duloxetine in the acute and long-term treatment of major depressive disorder: a placebo- and paroxetine-controlled trial Journal: EUR NEUROPSYCHOPHARMACOL, 14 (6): 457-470 DEC 2004 Citations: 89 Authors: Detke, MJ;Wiltse, CG;Mallinckrodt, CH;McNamara, RK;Demitrack, MA;Bitter, I Addresses: Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Indianapolis, IN 46202 USA McLean Hosp, Dept Psychiat, Belmont, MA 02178 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat, Boston, MA 02115 USA Neuronet Inc, Malvern, PA USA Semmelweis Univ Med, Dept Psychiat & Psychotherapy, H-1085 Budapest, Hungary [Back to Map] Label: Richter-2005 Title: Relief of painful diabetic peripheral neuropathy with pregabalin: A randomized, placebo-controlled trial Journal: J PAIN, 6 (4): 253-260 APR 2005 Citations: 83 Authors: Richter, RW;Portenoy, R;Sharma, U;Lamoreaux, L;Bockbrader, H;Knapp, LE Addresses: Beth Israel Med Ctr, Dept Pain Med & Palliat Care, 1st Ave 16th St, New York, NY 10003 USA Beth Israel Med Ctr, Dept Pain Med & Palliat Care, New York, NY 10003 USA St Johns Hosp, Dept Neurol, Tulsa, OK USA Pfizer Global Res & Dev, Ann Arbor, MI USA [Back to Map] Label: Raskin-2005 Title: A double-blind, randomized multicenter trial comparing duloxetine with placebo in the management of diabetic peripheral neuropathic pain Journal: PAIN MED, 6 (5): 346-356 SEP-OCT 2005 Citations: 78 Authors: Raskin, J;Pritchett, YL;Wang, FJ;D’Souza, DN;Waninger, AL;Iyengar, S;Wernicke, JF Addresses: Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, 3650 Danforth Ave, Toronto, ON MIN 2E8, Canada Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, Toronto, ON MIN 2E8, Canada Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Corp Ctr, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA [Back to Map] Label: Eisenberg-2005 Title: Efficacy and safety of opioid agonists in the treatment of neuropathic pain of nonmalignant origin – Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials Journal: JAMA-J AM MED ASSN, 293 (24): 3043-3052 JUN 22 2005 Citations: 75 Authors: Eisenberg, E;McNicol, ED;Carr, DB Addresses: Rambam Med Ctr, Pain Relief Unit, POB 9602, IL-31096 Haifa, Israel Rambam Med Ctr, Pain Relief Unit, IL-31096 Haifa, Israel Technion Israel Inst Technol, Haifa Pain Res Grp, Haifa, Israel Tufts New England Med Ctr, Dept Anesthesia, Boston, MA USA Tufts New England Med Ctr, Dept Pharm, Boston, MA USA Tufts New England Med Ctr, Div Clin Care Res, Boston, MA USA Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA [Back to Map] Label: Arnold-2005 Title: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial of duloxetine in the treatment of women with fibromyalgia with or without major depressive disorder Journal: PAIN, 119 (1-3): 5-15 DEC 15 2005 Citations: 68 Authors: Arnold, LM;Rosen, A;Pritchett, YL;D’Souza, DN;Goldstein, DJ;Iyengar, S;Wernicke, JF Addresses: Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Womens Hlth Res Program, Dept Psychiat, 222 Piedmont Ave,Suite 8200, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Womens Hlth Res Program, Dept Psychiat, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN USA Indiana Univ, Sch Med, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA PRN Consulting, Indianapolis, IN 46204 USA [Back to Map] Label: Furlan-2006 Title: Opioids for chronic noncancer pain: a meta-analysis of effectiveness and side effects Journal: CAN MED ASSN J, 174 (11): 1589-1594 MAY 23 2006 Citations: 63 Authors: Furlan, AD;Sandoval, JA;Mailis-Gagnon, A;Tunks, E Addresses: Toronto Western Hosp, Comprehens Pain Program, 399 Bathurst St,Rm 4F811, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada Toronto Western Hosp, Comprehens Pain Program, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada Univ Toronto, Ctr Study Pain, Toronto, ON, Canada Univ Toronto, Inst Work & Hlth, Toronto, ON, Canada Toronto Western Hosp, Krembil Neurosci Ctr, Toronto, ON M5T 2S8, Canada McMaster Univ, Chedoke Rehabil Ctr, Hamilton Hlth Sci Hosp, Hamilton, ON, Canada [Back to Map] Label: Attal-2006 Title: EFNS guidelines on pharmacological treatment of neuropathic pain Journal: EUR J NEUROLOGY, 13 (11): 1153-1169 NOV 2006 Citations: 50 Authors: Attal, N;Cruccu, G;Haanpaa, M;Hansson, P;Jensen, TS;Nurmikko, T;Sampaio, C;Sindrup, S;Wiffen, P Addresses: Hop Ambroise Pare, Ctr Evaluat & Traitement Douleur, EFNS Panel Neuropath Pain, Boulogne, France Hop Ambroise Pare, Ctr Evaluat & Traitement Douleur, EFNS Panel Neuropath Pain, Boulogne, France Hop Ambroise Pare, Ctr Evaluat & Traitement Douleur, INSERM, U792, Boulogne, France Univ Versailles St Quentin, Boulogne, France Univ Versailles St Quentin, Boulogne, France Univ Roma La Sapienza, Dept Neurol Sci, Rome, Italy Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Anaesthesiol, Pain Clin, Helsinki, Finland Helsinki Univ Hosp, Dept Neurosurg, Pain Clin, Helsinki, Finland Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Dept Mol Med, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Surg Sect Clin Pain Res, Stockholm, Sweden Univ Hosp, Karolinska Inst, Pain Ctr, Dept Neurosurg, Stockholm, Sweden Aarhus Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark Aarhus Univ Hosp, Danish Pain Res Ctr, DK-8000 Aarhus, Denmark Univ Liverpool, Pain Res Inst, Div Neurol Sci, Sch Clin Sci, Liverpool L69 3BX, Merseyside, England Univ Lisbon, Inst Farmacol & Terapeut Geral, Lisbon Sch Med, P-1699 Lisbon, Portugal Odense Univ Hosp, Dept Neurol, DK-5000 Odense, Denmark Cochrane Pain & Palliat Care Review Grp, Oxford, England [Back to Map] Label: Brannan-2005 Title: Duloxetine 60 mg once-daily in the treatment of painful physical symptoms in patients with major depressive disorder Journal: J PSYCHIAT RES, 39 (1): 43-53 JAN 2005 Citations: 50 Authors: Brannan, SK;Mallinckrodt, CH;Brown, EB;Wohlreich, MM;Watkin, JG;Schatzberg, AF Addresses: Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Cyberon, Houston, TX 77058 USA Stanford Univ, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA [Back to Map] Label: Martell-2007 Title: Systematic review: Opioid treatment for chronic back pain: Prevalence, efficacy, and association with addiction Journal: ANN INTERN MED, 146 (2): 116-127 JAN 16 2007 Citations: 46 Authors: Martell, BA;O’Connor, PG;Kerns, RD;Becker, WC;Morales, KH;Kosten, TR;Fiellin, DA Addresses: Yale Univ, Sch Med, 333 Cedar St,POB 208025, New Haven, CT 06520 USA Yale Univ, Sch Med, New Haven, CT 06520 USA VA Connecticut Hlth Care Syst, West Haven, CT USA Univ Penn, Sch Med, Philadelphia, PA 19104 USA [Back to Map] Label: Ballantyne-2007 Title: Opioid dependence and addiction during opioid treatment of chronic pain Journal: PAIN, 129 (3): 235-255 JUN 2007 Citations: 32 Authors: Ballantyne, JC;LaForge, KS Addresses: Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Div Pain Med, Pain Ctr, 15 Parkman St,WACC 333, Boston, MA 02114 USA Massachusetts Gen Hosp, Div Pain Med, Pain Ctr, Boston, MA 02114 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA Univ Helsinki, Finnish Genome Ctr, FIN-00014 Helsinki, Finland [Back to Map] Label: Ives-2006 Title: Predictors of opioid misuse in patients with chronic pain: a prospective cohort study Journal: BMC HEALTH SERV RES, 6: art. no.-46 APR 4 2006 Citations: 29 Authors: Ives, TJ;Chelminski, PR;Hammett-Stabler, CA;Malone, RM;Perhac, JS;Potisek, NM;Shilliday, BB;DeWalt, DA;Pignone, MP Addresses: Univ N Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Med, Div Gen Internal Med, Chapel Hill, NC 27599 USA Univ N Carolina, Sch Pharm, Div Pharmacotherapy & Expt Therapeut, Chapel Hill, NC USA Univ N Carolina, Sch Med, Dept Pathol & Lab Med, Chapel Hill, NC USA Univ N Carolina Hlth Syst, Ctr Excellence Chron Illness Care, Chapel Hill, NC USA [Back to Map] Label: Arnold-2007 Title: Gabapentin in the treatment of fibromyalgia – A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, multicenter trial Journal: ARTHRITIS RHEUM, 56 (4): 1336-1344 APR 2007 Citations: 28 Authors: Arnold, LM;Goldenberg, DL;Stanford, SB;Lalonde, JK;Sandhu, HS;Keck, PE;Welge, JA;Bishop, F;Stanford, KE;Hess, EV;Hudson, JI Addresses: Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Med Arts Bldg,222 Piedmont Ave,Suite 8200, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA Univ Cincinnati, Coll Med, Cincinnati, OH 45219 USA Newton Wellesley Hosp, Newton, MA USA Tufts Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02111 USA McLean Hosp, Belmont, MA 02178 USA Harvard Univ, Sch Med, Boston, MA 02115 USA [Back to Map] Label: Vinik-2007 Title: Lamotrigine for treatment of pain associated with diabetic neuropathy: Results of two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled studies Journal: PAIN, 128 (1-2): 169-179 MAR 2007 Citations: 28 Authors: Vinik, AI;Tuchman, M;Safirstein, B;Corder, C;Kirby, L;Wilks, K;Quessy, S;Blum, D;Grainger, J;White, J;Silver, M Addresses: Eastern Virginia Med Sch, Inst Diabet, 855 W Brandleton, Norfolk, VA 23510 USA Eastern Virginia Med Sch, Inst Diabet, Norfolk, VA 23510 USA Palm Beach Neurol Ctr, Palm Beach Gardens, FL USA Baumel Eisner Neuromed Inst, Bay Harbor, FL USA COR Clin Res, Oklahoma City, OK USA Pivotal Res Ctr, Peoria, AZ USA IMR, Towson, MD USA GlaxoSmithKline Inc, Res Triangle Pk, NC USA [Back to Map] Label: Raskin-2007 Title: Efficacy of duloxetine on cognition, depression, and pain in elderly patients with major depressive disorder: An 8-week, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial Journal: AMER J PSYCHIAT, 164 (6): 900-909 JUN 2007 Citations: 17 Authors: Raskin, J;Wiltse, CG;Siegal, A;Sheikh, J;Xu, J;Dinkel, JJ;Rotz, BT;Mohs, RC Addresses: Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, 3650 Danforth Ave, Toronto, ON M1N 2E8, Canada Eli Lilly Canada, Lilly Res Labs, Toronto, ON M1N 2E8, Canada Eli Lilly & Co, Lilly Res Labs, Indianapolis, IN 46285 USA Geriatr & Adult Psychiat LLC, Hamden, CT USA Stanford Univ, Sch Med, Dept Psychiat & Behav Sci, Stanford, CA 94305 USA [Back to Map] KEYWORDS: NEUROPATHIC PAIN TREATMENT; RANDOMIZED MULTICENTER TRIAL COMPARING DULOXETINE; DIABETIC PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHIC PAIN; CENTRAL NEUROPATHIC PAIN; NEUROPATHIC PAIN EVALUATED. [5770: (2002-2008_6) (CLI-NEU: ST Diabetes)]

The Ming Dinasty Kungfu Style Cup Which Found In Indonesia

source

 http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/01/the-ming-dinasty-kungfu-design-decoration-cup-which-found-in-indonesia/

Copyrighy @ Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA 2012 

Photo: koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup

Hallo Teman-teman Kolekstor Keramik dan Pecinta oleh raga silat Wushu dan Kungfu , saya baru saja menemukan mangkuk kecil untuk minum arak dari Dinasti ming akhir(Ming Wanli) biru putih.

Ternyata oleh raga Kungfu sudah ada sejak abak ke-empat belas tersebut dan sudah diminati di indonesia, mangkuk ini merupakan bukti,

Saya sudah mengupload i facebook saya ilustrasi dibawah ini dengan harapan mendapat info lebih lanjut.

  • the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks
    Photo: the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks
    •  
  • Iwan Suwandy was at Vietnam and 2 other places.
    See All Stories
  • koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup
    Photo: koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup
    • Iwan Suwandy please look the closeup of this Kungfu cup above, I am waiting for all my friend comment

Bagi yang memiliki keramik dengan dekorasi sperti ini harap berkenan menguploadnya buat saya jadi bahan yang melengkapi penelitian sudi banding gerakan Kungfu tempo dulu dengan saat ini.

Terima kasih atas komentar,saran dan info dari teman-teman

Jakarta November 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

english version

machinal  translate

Hello Friends and Lovers by Pottery Collector sport Wushu martial arts and martial arts, I’ve just discovered a small bowl to drink wine from the late Ming dynasty (Ming Wanli) blue and white.

Apparently the sport of martial arts has been around since abak all fourteen and already popular in Indonesia, this bowl is a testament,

I’ve uploaded my facebook i illustrated below with the hope of getting more info.

Photo: the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks

the closeup illustration of my collections Sun Kungfu cup design, who have the same added please upload for my research, thanks

Photo: koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup

collection ming dynasty bowl with painting my kungfu movements found in western Java, for those who have the same hope you have the same laporkan.If please report design, I have just research about this amizing cup

Iwan Suwandy please look the closeup of this Kungfu cup above, I am waiting for all my friend comment
For those who have ceramic décor is just as pleasing please upload it for me so material that complements willing comparative study of martial arts movements of the past with the present.

Thanks for the comments, suggestions and info from friends

Jakarta, November 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

Studi banding

Comparative study

Old Kungfu style from Ming era on small cup

Photo: the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks

the sma kungfu style now llok below

 

for young generation please look the Kungsu Boy Style cartoon below

The complet report of svompareative study will uplad in E-Book CD-ROM which limited private edition by Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

the end @ copyright 2012

The Legend Singer History Collections:”Enrico Caruso The Singer With Golden Voice “

Sumber Info

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/10/27/the-legend-singer-history-collectionsenrico-caruso-golden-voice-singer/

Pengantar

Para pecinta musik tentunya masih ingat dengan penyanyi suara emas bariton almarhum Pavaroti, dan bagi yang senior penyanyi legendari bersuar emas Mario Lanza yang saya sudah pernah menulis artikel tentar penyannyi ini lengkap dengan kolekis piringhitam(Record player) yang saya miliki.

Sebenarnya masih ada seorang penyanyi legendari yang memiliki sura emas yang bagi generasi muda banyak tidak diketahui yaitu

introduction

The music lovers surely remember the golden voice baritone singer Pavaroti deceased, and for the senior gold bersuar legendary singer Mario Lanza I’ve written this article tentar penyannyi complete with kolekis piringhitam (record player) that I have.

Actually there are a legendary singer who has gold sura for many young people do not know that

Enrieco Caruso yang berasal dari negara yang yang sama dengan Mario Lansa yaitu Italia.

Sudah lama saya mencari informasi dan koleksi yang terkait dengannya, barulah hari ini saya menemukan sebuah majalah berbahasa Belanda yang lama tenta penyanyi tersebut.

Untuk pecinta musik Internasional dan khususnya Indonesia saya akan menterjemahkan infomasi tersebut kedalam bahasa Indonesia dan bahasa Inggris, serta melakukan penellitian lebih lanjut dari beberapa sumber yang ada agar seluruh pecinta musik di dunia khususnya penyanyi bariton mengenalnya dan menginggatnya lebih baik.

Selamat menikmati karya tulis ini

Enrieco Caruso from the same country with Mario Lansa namely Italy.

I’ve been looking for information and collections associated with it, then today I found an old Dutch-language magazine tenta singer.

For music lovers and especially International Indonesia infomasi I will translate it into Indonesian language and English, as well as doing further penellitian from several sources that there will be music lovers all over the world especially baritones and menginggatnya know him better.

Enjoy this paper

Jakarta Oktober 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Terjemahan Artikel

Zo was  Het Leven  van Enrico Caruso  De Zanger  Met De Gouden Stem

sorry the tyranslation  only for the  premium member

Maaf terjemahan hanya untuk anggota Premium saja

Untuk membaca Informasi Lebih Lengkap silahkan klik sumber data

 

Caruso, Enrico - Golden Voice Of Enrico Caruso Volume 3 DB Cover Art

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Golden Voice Of Enrico Caruso Volume 3 album by Enrico Caruso was released Oct 01, 2010 on the Hallmark label. Golden Voice Of Enrico Caruso Volume 3 CD music contains a single disc with 9 songs.

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Untitled

Caruso received the highest ever paid opera fee of 15.000 $ for a single performance in Mexico-City in 1919, which would match with roundabout 195.000 $ of today!!! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 87.184.125.61 (talk) 14:02, 19 February 2010 (UTC)

Birthdate

Enrico Caruso is probably born on February 25 and not 27, as given in many reference books (See: allmusic.com) – Puck 13:08, 13 Feb 2005 (UTC)

None of the sources I have seen ever give the “sources” of either February 25th or 27th. Neither does allmusic.com. What is the reason to believe Feb 25th and not 27th?

Enrico Caruso, originally Errico, was born Febr. 25th 1873 and baptazied the following day Febr. 26th in the church next to his birthplace.

Franco Bastiano Voice agent —Preceding unsigned comment added by 87.184.97.92 (talk) 10:37, 6 May 2010 (UTC)

The officials of Naples confirm that Enrico Caruso was born on february 25th 1873 an baptized the following day. The ENRICO CARUSO MUSEUM OF AMERICA in Brooklyn is in possession of a copy of Carusos parochial record. There clearly can be seen that he was baptized on february 26th 1873. So it is impossible that he was born february 27th. Get in touch with Cavaliere Ufficiale Aldo Mancusi — Pres. Founder and Curator of the Enrico Caruso Museum of America. Franco Bastiano — Preceding unsigned comment added by 87.184.59.125 (talk) 19:30, 22 July 2011 (UTC)
This no longer in dispute. Look at the article. It states the facts as you have indicated. Markhh (talk) 02:52, 23 July 2011 (UTC)

[edit] Earthquake

Would it be relevant to mention that he performed in San Francisco the night before and became a survivor of the great quake?

[edit] Improvement

I am starting an improvement drive for this article. I will nominate it for collaboration of the week.

Capitalistroadster 10:38, 13 September 2005 (UTC)

To that end, let me add 2 things: he opened at the Met 17 times, a record only broken by Domingo, & he was the first recording artist (on wax, no less!). Trekphiler 19:34, 8 December 2005 (UTC)
      • easy record that: Caruso died with 48, Domingo is 75 not 68. Caruso sang 863 times at the Met within 17 years, Domingo 631 times within 43 years. By the way Domingo suffers from a Caruso-Neurosis. He will never reach the greatest tenor and singer of all times. Xavier Madrid —Preceding unsigned comment added by 87.184.83.88 (talk) 10:50, 25 July 2009 (UTC)

Caruso was the first opera tenor who appeared in a large stadium. That was when he sang Radames in Aida on 2nd November 1919 in the bullfight arena of Mexico-city in front of 25.000!!! people. The success was of that kind that the world press turned upside down and the excitement held on half the night. So Caruso sang in a stadium long before the so called three tenors did. And what they offered was rather mediocre. JDT


Seeing as how his career started in 1894, some seven years after commercial recording began, it’s unlikely that he could possibly be “the first recording artist”. In fact, he first recorded in 1902, which much postdates all sorts of artists. Is there a Billy Murray article?24.22.172.6006:12, 10 December 2005 (UTC)
Yes, Billy Murray (singer). — Infrogmation 16:25, 3 September 2006 (UTC)

[edit] Unsourced quotes

These 2 quotes were recently added – anyoen have a source?

  • He was initially reluctant to become a professional singer. When asked why he replied that he knew many tenors and they were all starving.
I have read numerous books and articles on Caruso and never heard this even as a legend or rumor. –Bluejay Young (talk) 07:11, 5 February 2010 (UTC)
Pure nonsense. Caruso did not want to be anything else but an operasinger from that moment at sixteen when he took lessons with Guglielmo Vergine renowned neapolitan teacher. –87.184.45.21 (talk) 06:08 14 May 2010
  • He was a collegue and friend of the Irish tenor John McCormack. One day when they met by chance in a shop he asked McCormack “How is the greatest tenor in the world today?” McCormack replied that he must be referring to himself.

-AKeen 20:07, 16 April 2006 (UTC)

I know a different story about this subject. Apparently, it was McCormack who asked Caruso “How is the greatest tenor in the world today?”, and Caruso answered with a question: “Since when have you retired?” –MPM43 (talk) 05:01, 25 April 2009 (UTC)

Or “Since when did you become a baritone?” –Bluejay Young (talk) 07:11, 5 February 2010 (UTC)

[edit] Haunting in Oklahoma

http://www.ghouli.com/GHOSTSTORY/HauntedOklahoma.htm

Enrico Caruso is said to haunt the Brady Theater in Tulsa, OK

  • * * * * *

the page linked above has disappeared, and defaults to another page related to ghosts, but not to Caruso.

our local legend is that Caruso performed at the Tulsa Municipal Auditorium (still standing, known as the Brady Theater, or, more fondly, the Old Lady on Brady). Afterwards, J. Paul Getty asked Caruso if he had ever seen an oil well. apparently, the weather was quite bitter, and Caruso caught cold, leading to the illness that sent him home to his deathbed. the link above may have referred to some people’s belief that the ghost of Caruso may haunt the old theater. 63.165.44.53 (talk) 15:12, 9 March 2008 (UTC)

[edit] Trivia

Certain recordings of his were predominantly used in Woody Allen’s Match Point, an Academy Award-nominated thriller starring Scarlett Johansson and Jonathan Rhys Meyers.

I think this footnote to the main article belongs more properly in Trivia. Orbicle 09:27, 16 July 2006 (UTC)

Why did you put Daily Rotten? It’s not a reliable source! —Jack 23:27, 3 Feb 2007 (UTC)

[edit] high notes??

I consider it impossible that “Caruso must have had problems with very high notes”!
- The high C (“do di petto”) is the trademark of every single opera piece, usually the highest dramatic moment in the developement of the story. Not a “very high note”, therefore, but simply what a tenor is expected to achieve.
- Caruso has been the most famous tenor in history…the supposedly incapability of yielding a good high C would have no doubt condemned him to eternal oblivion.
- Instead: he had an incredibly versatile voice, powerful and flexible, and I have personally heard many of his recordings with a full, powerful “do di petto” that did not show any incertaincy.
- I think the distortion to B might have been because of other constraints, or for technical reasons. And the choice of doing one falsetto (in an opera that I don’t know, so I’m guessing) could be an artistical decision.

According to this source [[1]] it seems he may have had trouble with high notes early in his career, but that he resolved them around the time he gained fame. –Chapuisat 21:24, 7 September 2007 (UTC)

Caruso had a certain high C. His distortion to b was so perfect on rare nights when his voice was not in top form which happens to every singer, that almost nobody could tell the difference. Those who heard him say that his singing was in every way overwhelming and to compare to the dimensions of an organ. By the way Domingo never had a certain high c.


      • You obviously are no expert and never really listend to his roundabout 260 recordings. All of them are available.My grandfather heard Caruso twice as Radames in Aida at the MET. That role asks for 26 high B’s and a handful of high C’s. It was one of Carusos most successful parts. My grandfather was so overwhelmed, that he could not sleep all night after hearing Caruso. He said: I thought I had dreamt and therefore I went once more to hear him in this role within a month. He told me that Carusos high C’s were clarionlike and not to compare to any other singer. He never forgot those performances all his life.

Jan de Turovski opera voice agent


—Preceding unsigned comment added by 87.184.89.237 (talk) 14:23, 31 July 2009 (UTC)

[edit] Wow!

Nothing about the time the Teatro Nacional in Cuba was bombed during Caruso’s performance? Murderbike (talk) 22:36, 24 November 2007 (UTC)

Caruso arrived two days after the incident to make his debut. The rest is a fairytale. Jan de Turovski —Preceding unsigned comment added by 87.184.45.21 (talk) 14:21, 13 May 2011 (UTC)

 

[edit] Jussi Björling less robust and golden-toned than Caruso?

The statement that Jussi Björling’s voice was “less robust and golden-toned than Caruso’s” seems very POV to me. Could somebody explain this to me? Jussi’s recording sure sound pretty robust and golden-toned to me… —Preceding unsigned comment added by 217.151.192.10 (talk) 13:21, 6 January 2008 (UTC)

The comparation of Caruso and Björling was always a product of anglosaxon audiences, among them his widow, who wanted, as many others, stablish Björling as “only of principal Caruso’s heir”. Latin audiences, even admiring Jussi for all his qualities, generaly thought that nothing more different than the singing of those tenors, most of all in the inerpretative field. Björling was a great failure as an interpreter of italian opera and Caruso one of its greatest ones. With this only point, the comparation falls. –MPM43 (talk) 05:26, 25 April 2009 (UTC)

[edit] Martha by Flotow

He first sang in this opera in 1906. How often did he appear in it afterwards? I’m asking because we say in the Martha article that it was popular till around the turn of the 20th century. That would fit if Caruso and others didn’t sing it much past 1906. But Caruso didn’t die till 1921. — JackofOz (talk) 23:14, 20 June 2008 (UTC)

That info is or should be in Pierre Key’s book. If I remember right, he did quite a few Marthas. (And woops, that was me, sometime in May 09 — –Bluejay Young (talk) 19:52, 30 May 2009 (UTC))
Thanks. I don’t know Key’s book, but if anyone has access to it, they might advise the details. — JackofOz (talk) 21:31, 30 May 2009 (UTC)
Caruso sang Martha throughout his career at the Met. 41 performances from 1906 to 1920. Martha continued to be performed at the Met through the 1920s. See the Met Opera Database for details. A 1906 review in the database suggests that the 1906 revival constituted a return to favor for the opera which had previously fallen out of the repertoire. Markhh (talk) 22:41, 30 May 2009 (UTC)
Belated thanks. — Jack of Oz (Speak!) 12:07, 10 December 2009 (UTC)
And here’s Pierre Key’s entire book online for future reference. Enrico Caruso, A Biography by Pierre KeyBluejay Young (talk) 19:39, 5 September 2011 (UTC)

[edit] Did he ever sing Verdi’s Requiem?

He doesn’t appear to have recorded any of it, but I’d be interested to know if he ever sang in it. — JackofOz (talk) 11:05, 8 July 2008 (UTC)

Caruso recorded the “Ingemisco” from the Verdi Requiem on 7 January 1915. —Preceding unsigned comment added by 70.134.85.172 (talk) 06:44, 11 August 2008 (UTC)

Excellent, thanks. Can you tell me where you got that info from – because I couldn’t find it anywhere. — JackofOz (talk) 05:03, 14 August 2008 (UTC)
See yahoo music which has a sample part of complete caruso:

The Complete Caruso: Including The Original Victor Talking Machine Co. Master Recordings … http://music.yahoo.com/track/29836451 /s/ Lil Caruso, “and he sings to the people” , EF 76.194.81.120 (talk) 12:49, 19 August 2008 (UTC)

Thank you. I must get a copy of it. — JackofOz (talk) 05:15, 20 August 2008 (UTC)

[edit] Incidental information

Suggest that this vague catchall category be deleted and the information moved into the main article where appropriate. Markhh (talk) 04:06, 19 May 2009 (UTC)

[edit] Introduction

Suggest this article seems top heavy and out of balance. The intro seems far too long for the length of the total article. It should only summarize the main points of interest. Consider shortening intro and adding the other content to the main article. Markhh (talk) 04:43, 20 May 2009 (UTC)

its ok, as long as intro has full content
many articles r like that on wikipedia totally lowly! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 64.107.1.187 (talk) 21:41, 13 June 2009 (UTC)
interesting article Photo Standalone 2 — No Title

Chicago Daily Tribune (1872-1963); Sep 4, 1921; Chicago Tribune (1849 – 1986) pg. C8

204, thanx for restoring what vandal markhh removed! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 192.148.105.4 (talk) 00:15, 23 June 2009 (UTC)

[edit] NPOV

This article needs some good housekeeping when it comes to non-verifiable, subjective statements. Phrases like “tremendous international renown”, “extraordinary voice”, and “unequaled richness” do not belong in an encyclopedia. Toscaesque (talk) 21:29, 27 July 2009 (UTC)

 

Yah?Well why don’t you clean out all that language? Stop leaving it to everyone else to do! —Preceding unsigned comment added by 76.89.66.135 (talk) 03:12, 20 November 2009 (UTC)

I’m removing the tag, which has now been there four months. The claim is not an NPOV issue anyway. Few would disagree on the substance of the claims or say they are an effort to bias the encyclopedia. Rather it is a matter of encyclopedic language and tone. – Wikidemon (talk) 19:05, 27 November 2009 (UTC)

 

[edit] Black Hand

No mention of the threats to his life (or voice by poisoning him with lye)? –MartinezMD (talk) 01:04, 26 February 2010 (UTC)

[edit] Online sources

Enrico Caruso at archive.org

Dorothy Caruso’s biography used to be on archive.org also, but apparently someone renewed the copyright. I have PDFs from when it was free, if anyone is interested. –Bluejay Young (talk) 19:42, 5 September 2011 (UTC)

thSelesesai @ hak cipta 2012

The End @ Copyrigght 2012

Mesjid Islam Haram esh Sharif dan El Aqsa Di Yerusalem

Koleksi Sejarah

Mesjid Islam Haram esh Sharif dan  El Aqsa   Di Yerusalem

The History OF Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Israel Photo

Oleh

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Khusus Untuk teman-Teman Muslim Indonesia

 sumber info Wiki

Bagi Umat Islam Indonesia yang belum pernah ke Jerusalem tentunya ingin mengetahui sejarah dari  mesjid  Islam Haram Esdh Sjarif dan El Aqsa di kota suci tersebut

 

Stepping on to the Temple Mount (in Arabic Haram esh-Sharif  the “Noble Sanctuary”), the site of Solomon’s Temple and the Second Temple.
Now the site of both the El-Aqsa Mosque and the Dome of the Rock.
[antiquity-strewn area in front of the Museum of Islamic Art]
2006-032
[The Temple Mount is a vast esplanade constructed atop huge archways. Beneath the deck of the mount are mostly unaccessible catacombs and the rock outcropping believed to be the site of where: Abraham was asked to sacrifice Isaac, the site of the Holy of Holies of Solomon's Temple and later where Muhammad left the Earth on his Night Journey (the one and only possible reference to Jerusalem in the Koran, and then, not by name).] 
The El-Aqsa mosque itself was “closed to all non-Muslims, on this day,
pending negotiations between the Palestinian and Israeli authorities.”  Damn politics!
2006-033
[Shown here are four of the seven facade bays of entry. Twice in history, this building was razed to the ground by earthquakes.  It's present form dates to the 11th Century.] 
So we head across the Temple Mount to the Dome of the Rock.
2006-034
[One of the first and greatest achievements of Islamic architecture. Built in 688-691, The Dome of the Rock has become more a shrine and a symbol of the city than a mosque.  The dome was originally made of copper, but is now covered with gold leaf, thanks to King Hussein of Jordan.  Beneath the dome, the drum is decorated with verses from the Koran telling of the Night Journey.  Leading up to the dome in all directions are eight sets of stairs topped by a set of archways. Each set of stairs and archways (called qanatir) are unique in size and length and date from different periods.  Some column capitals were recycled from Roman-era buildings.] 
Joan and one of the Qanatirs leading up to the main entrance of the Dome.
This Qanatir is unique in that it’s stairs are carved out of the stone of the platform.
2006-035 
The place is HUGE!   But, “closed to all non-Muslims, on this day,
pending negotiations between the Palestinian and Israeli authorities.”  Politics, damn!
2006-036 
The top band of mosaics contains passages from the Koran.
2006-037 
Everywhere on the grounds are little buildings.  This one is a public water fountain.  Behind the fountain can be seen the Cotton Merchant’s Gate, thru which non-Muslims are not allowed to pass (although it is the best way to get into the Jerusalem market).  We didn’t know the Muslim password for the day, so we were turned away and had to walk 35-minutes to the non-Muslim passage.
2006-038
[The Sabil of Qaitbey fountain was built on the order of the Mameluke sultan Qaitbey (1468-1498).  It has a carved stone dome, the only one of its kind in Israel.] 
Dome of the Prophet, a qanatir, Ashrafiyya Madrasa (Islamic Religious School) and minaret in the background.  From this minaret (one of four on the Temple Mount), the call to prayer can be heard five times daily throughout the entire Old City
(thanks to Bogen pre-amps, amps and dome-horned speakers).
2006-039 
Nowhere a sign of hostility.  People couldn’t have been nicer.
2006-040 
Another archway.
2006-041 
Another worshipper.
2006-042 
Untuk melihat informasi yang lengkap silahkan klik
 
 

Temple Mount

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Temple Mount
הַר הַבַּיִת, Har haBáyith
الحرم الشريف, al-Haram ash-Sharīf,
Temple mount.JPG
Elevation 740 m (2,428 ft)
Location
Temple Mount is located in Jerusalem

Temple Mount

Jerusalem

Range Judean
Coordinates 31°46′40.7″N 35°14′8.9″E / 31.777972°N 35.235806°E / 31.777972; 35.235806Coordinates: 31°46′40.7″N 35°14′8.9″E / 31.777972°N 35.235806°E / 31.777972; 35.235806
Geology
Type Limestone[1]

The Temple Mount, known in Hebrew (and in Judaism) as Har haBáyith (Hebrew: הַר הַבַּיִת‎) and in Arabic (and in Islam) as the Haram Ash-Sharif (Arabic: الحرم القدسي الشريف‎, al-haram al-qudsī ash-sharīf, Noble Sanctuary), is one of the most important religious sites in the Old City of Jerusalem.[citation needed] It has been used as a religious site for thousands of years. At least four religions are known to have used the Temple Mount: Judaism, Islam, Christianity, and Roman paganism.

Biblical scholars have often identified it with two biblical mountains of uncertain location: Mount Moriah where the binding of Isaac took place, and Mount Zion where the original Jebusite fortress stood; however, both interpretations are disputed.

Judaism regards the Temple Mount as the place where God chose the Divine Presence to rest (Isa 8:18); according to the rabbinic sages whose debates produced the Talmud, it was from here the world expanded into its present form and where God gathered the dust used to create the first man, Adam. The site is the location of Abraham’s binding of Isaac, and of two Jewish Temples. According to the Bible the site should function as the center of all national life—a governmental, judicial and, of course, religious center (Deut 12:5-26; 14:23-25; 15:20; 16:2-16; 17:8-10; 26: 2; 31: 11; Isa 2: 2-5; Oba 1:21; Psa 48). During the Second Temple Period it functioned also as an economical center. From that location the word of God will come out to all nations, and that is the site where all prayers are focused. According to Jewish tradition and scripture (2 Chronicles 3:1-2), the first temple was built by Solomon the son of David in 957 BCE and destroyed by the Babylonians in 586 BCE. The second was constructed under the auspices of Zerubbabel in 516 BCE and destroyed by the Roman Empire in 70 CE. Jewish tradition maintains it is here the Third and final Temple will also be built. The location is the holiest site in Judaism and is the place Jews turn towards during prayer. Due to its extreme sanctity, many Jews will not walk on the Mount itself, to avoid unintentionally entering the area where the Holy of Holies stood, since according to Rabbinical law, some aspect of the Divine Presence is still present at the site.[2] It was from the Holy of Holies that the High Priest communicated directly with God.

Among Sunni Muslims, the Mount is widely considered to be the third holiest site in Islam. Revered as the Noble Sanctuary (Bait-ul-Muqaddas) and the location of Muhammad‘s journey to Jerusalem and ascent to heaven, the site is also associated with Jewish biblical prophets who are also venerated in Islam.[citation needed] After the Muslim conquest of Jerusalem in 637 CE, Umayyad Caliphs commissioned the construction of the al-Aqsa Mosque and Dome of the Rock on the site.[3] The Dome was completed in 692 CE, making it one of the oldest extant Islamic structures in the world, after the Kaabah. The Al Aqsa Mosque rests on the far southern side of the Mount, facing Mecca. The Dome of the Rock currently sits in the middle, occupying or close to the area where the Bible mandates the Holy Temple be rebuilt.[4]

In light of the dual claims of both Judaism and Islam, it is one of the most contested religious sites in the world. Since the Crusades, the Muslim community of Jerusalem has managed the site as a Waqf, without interruption.[5] As part of the Old City, controlled by Israel since 1967, both Israel and the Palestinian Authority claim sovereignty over the site, which remains a major focal point of the Arab-Israeli conflict.[6] In an attempt to keep the status quo, the Israeli government enforces a controversial ban on prayer by non-Muslim visitors.

Contents

 [hide

[edit] Location and dimensions

Model of Jerusalem in the Late 2nd Temple Period. Note that the large flat expanse was a base for the temple located there

The Temple Mount forms the northern portion of a very narrow spur of hill that slopes sharply from north to south. Rising above the Kidron Valley to the east and Tyropoeon Valley to the west,[7] its peak reaches a height of 740 m (2,428 ft) above sea level.[8] In around 19 BCE, Herod the Great extended the Mount’s natural plateau by enclosing the area with four massive retaining walls and filling the voids. This artificial expansion resulted in a large flat expanse which today forms the eastern section of the Old City of Jerusalem. The trapezium shaped platform measures 488 m along the west, 470 m along the east, 315 m along the north and 280 m along the south, giving a total area of approximately 150,000 m2 (37 acres).[9] The northern wall of the Mount, together with the northern section of the western wall, is hidden behind residential buildings. The southern section of the western flank is revealed and contains what is known as the Western Wall. The retaining walls on these two sides descend many meters below ground level. A northern portion of the western wall may be seen from within the Western Wall Tunnel, which was excavated through buildings adjacent to the platform. On the southern and eastern sides the walls are visible almost to their full height. The platform itself is separated from the rest of the Old City by the Tyropoeon Valley, though this once deep valley is now largely hidden beneath later deposits, and is imperceptible in places. The platform can be reached via Bridge Street – a street in the Muslim Quarter at the level of the platform, actually sitting on a monumental bridge; the bridge is no longer externally visible due to the change in ground level, but it may be seen from beneath via the Western Wall Tunnel.

[edit] History

[edit] Israelite period

The hill is believed to have been inhabited since the 4th millennium BCE.

Assuming colocation with the biblical Mount Zion, its southern section would have been walled at the beginning of the 2nd millennium BCE, in around 1850 BCE, by Canaanites who established a settlement there (or in the vicinity) named Jebus.

Biblical scholars have also identified it with Mount Moriah where the binding of Isaac took place. According to the Hebrew Bible, Mount Moriah was originally a threshing-floor owned by Araunah, a Jebusite. The prophet Gad suggested the area to King David as a fitting place for the erection of an altar to YHWH, since it was there a destroying angel was standing when God stopped a great plague in Jerusalem.[10] David then bought the property from Araunah, for fifty pieces of silver, and erected the altar. YHWH instructed David to build a sanctuary on the site, outside the city walls on the northern edge of the hill. The building was to replace the Tabernacle, and serve as the Temple of the Israelites in Jerusalem.[11] The Temple Mount is an important part of Biblical archaeology.

[edit] Achaemenid Persian, Hasmonean periods, and Herod’s expansion

A stone (2.43×1 m) with Hebrew inscription “To the Trumpeting Place” excavated by Benjamin Mazar at the southern foot of the Temple Mount is believed to be a part of the Second Temple

Much of the Mount’s early history is synonymous with events pertaining to the Temple itself. After the destruction of Solomon’s Temple by Nebuchadnezzar II, construction of the Second Temple began under Cyrus in around 538 BCE, and completed in 516 BCE. Evidence of a Hasmonean expansion of the Temple Mount has been recovered by archaeologist Leen Ritmeyer. Around 19 BCE, Herod the Great further expanded the Mount and rebuilt the temple. The ambitious project, which involved the employment of 10,000 workers,[12] more than doubled the size of Temple Mount to approximately 36 acres (150,000 m2). Herod leveled the area by cutting away rock on the northwest side and raising the sloping ground to the south. He achieved this by constructing huge buttress walls and vaults, filling the necessary sections with earth and rubble.[13] A basilica (the Royal Stoa) was constructed on the southern end of the expanded platform, which provided a focus for the city’s commercial and legal transactions, and which was provided with separate access to the city below via the Robinson’s Arch overpass.[14] In addition to restoration of the Temple, its courtyards, and porticoes, Herod also built Antonia Fortress abutting the northwestern corner of the Temple Mount, and a rainwater reservoir, Birket Israel, in the northeast. As a result of the First Jewish-Roman War, the fortress was destroyed by Roman emperor Vespasian, in 70 CE, under the command of his son and imperial heir, Titus.

[edit] Middle Roman period

Stones from the walls of the Temple Mount thrown onto the street by Roman soldiers in 70 CE

The city of Aelia Capitolina was built in 130 CE by the Roman emperor Hadrian, and occupied by a Roman colony on the site of Jerusalem, which was still in ruins from the First Jewish Revolt in 70 CE.

Aelia came from Hadrian’s nomen gentile, Aelius, while Capitolina meant that the new city was dedicated to Jupiter Capitolinus, to whom a temple was built on the site of the former second Jewish temple, the Temple Mount.[15]

Hadrian had intended the construction of the new city as a gift to the Jews, but since he had constructed a giant statue of himself in front of the Temple of Jupiter and the Temple of Jupiter had a huge statue of Jupiter inside of it, there were now two enormous graven images on the Temple Mount. It was also the normal practice of the adherents of the Hellenic religion to sacrifice pigs before their deities. In addition to this, Hadrian issued a decree prohibiting the practice of circumcision. These three factors, the graven images, the sacrifice of pigs before the altar, and the prohibition of circumcision, constituted for non-Hellenized radical Zealot Jews a new abomination of desolation, and thus Bar Kochba launched the Third Jewish Revolt. After the Third Jewish Revolt failed, all Jews were forbidden on pain of death from entering the city.

[edit] Late Roman period

About 325 it is believed that Constantine‘s mother, St. Helena, built a small church on the Mount in the 4th century, calling it the Church of St. Cyrus and St. John, later on enlarged and called the Church of the Holy Wisdom. The church was later destroyed and on its ruins the Dome of the Rock was built.[16] Since it is known that Helena ordered the Temple of Venus to the west of the Temple Mount to be torn down to construct the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, presumably she also ordered the Temple of Jupiter on the Temple Mount to be torn down to construct the Church of St. Cyrus and St. John.

In 363, Emperor Julian, on his way to engage Persia, stopped at the ruins of the Second Temple in Jerusalem. Julian granted the Jews permission to begin rebuilding the Temple.[17] To Christians, the destroyed Temple was a symbol of Christianity’s triumph over Judaism, and Julian, was an opponent of Christianity.[17] Rebuilding work began, but was ended by the Galilee earthquake of 363.[17][18]

There are records of Jews continuing to offer sacrifices on the Foundation Stone after the destruction of the Temple and into the Byzantine period.[17]

[edit] Byzantine period

Archaeological evidence in the form of an elaborate mosaic floor similar to the one in the Church of the Nativity in Bethlehem and multiple fragments of an elaborate marble Templon (chancel screen) prove that an elaborate Byzantine church or monastery or other public building stood on the Temple Mount in Byzantine times, presumably the aforementioned Holy Wisdom Church.[19]

[edit] Sassanid vassal state period

See Jewish revolt against Heraclius
See also Byzantine-Sassanid War of 602-628
In 610, the Sassanid Empire drove the Byzantine Empire out of the Middle East, giving the Jews control of Jerusalem for the first time in centuries. The Jews in Palestine were allowed to set up a vassal state under the Sassanid Empire called the Sassanid Jewish Commonewealth which lasted for five years. Jewish rabbis ordered the restart of animal sacrifice for the first time since the time of Second Temple and started to reconstruct the Jewish Temple. Shortly before the Byzantines took the area back five years later in 615, the Persians gave control to the Christian population, who tore down the partially built Jewish Temple edifice and turned it into a garbage dump,[20] which is what it was when the Caliph Omar took the city in the 630s.

[edit] Arabic period

Southwest qanatir of the Haram al Sharif

A model of the Haram-al-Sharif made in 1879 by Conrad Schlick. The model can be seen in the Bijbels Museum in Amsterdam

Upon the capture of Jerusalem by the victorious Caliph Omar, Omar immediately headed to the Temple Mount with his advisor, Ka’ab al-Ahbar, a formerly Jewish rabbi who had converted to Islam, in order to find the holy site of the “Furthest Mosque” or Al Masjid al Aqsa which was mentioned in the Quran and specified in the Hadiths of being in Jerusalem.Ka’ab al-Ahbar suggested to Caliph Omar to build the Dome of the Rock monument on the site that Ka’ab believed to be the Biblical Holy of the Holies, arguing that this site is where Mohammad ascended to heaven during the Isra and Mi’raj miracle. The actual construction of the Muslim monuments at the southeast corner, facing Mecca, near which the al-Aqsa Mosque were built 78 years later. The original building is now known to have been wooden and to have been constructed on the site of a Byzantine public building with an elaborate mosaic floor. (The Persian conquest that immediately preceded the Arab conquest makes it uncertain who destroyed the building.)[19]

In 691 an octagonal Islamic building topped by a dome was built by the Caliph Abd al-Malik around the rock, for a myriad of political, dynastic and religious reasons, built on local and Koranic traditions articulating the site’s holiness, a process in which textual and architectural narratives reinforced one another.[21] The shrine became known as the Dome of the Rock (Qubbat as-Sakhra قبة الصخرة). The dome itself was covered in gold in 1920. In 715 the Umayyads led by the Caliph al-Walid I, rebuilt the Temple’s nearby Chanuyot into a mosque (see illustrations and detailed drawing) which they named al-Masjid al-Aqsa المسجد الأقصى, the al-Aqsa Mosque or in translation “the furthest mosque”, corresponding to the Islamic belief of Muhammad’s miraculous nocturnal journey as recounted in the Qur’an and hadith. The term al-Haram al-Sharif الحرم الشريف (the Noble Sanctuary) refers to the whole area that surrounds that Rock as was called later by the Mamluks and Ottomans.[22]

For Muslims, the importance of the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque makes Jerusalem the third-holiest city, after Mecca and Medina. The mosque and shrine are currently administered by a Waqf (an Islamic trust). The various inscriptions on the Dome walls and the artistic decorations imply on symbolic eschatological significance of the structure.

From the Arabic Conquest to the Crusades there seems to have been good relations between the Arab rulers and the Jewish minority. A Jewish synagogue was built on the Temple Mount. Its location has not been established, but it was destroyed by the Crusaders when they took the city and massacred the Jews and Muslims in 1099.

[edit] Ottoman period

Following the Ottoman conquest of Palestine in 1516, the Ottoman authorities continued the policy of prohibiting non-Muslims from setting foot on the Temple Mount until the early 19th-century, when non-Muslims were again permitted to visit the site.[17]

In 1867, a team from the Royal Engineers, led by Lieutenant Charles Warren and financed by the Palestine Exploration Fund (P.E.F.), discovered a series of underground tunnels near the Temple Mount. Warren secretly excavated some tunnels near the Temple Mount walls and was the first one to document their lower courses. Warren also conducted some small scale excavations inside the Temple Mount, by removing rubble that blocked passages leading from the Double Gate chamber.

[edit] British Mandate period

Between 1922 and 1924, the Dome of the Rock was restored by the Islamic Higher Council.[23]

[edit] Jordanian period

Jordan undertook two renovations of the Dome of the Rock, replacing the leaking, wooden dome with an aluminum dome in 1952, and, when the new dome leaked, carrying out a second restoration between 1959 and 1964.[23]

Neither Israeli Arabs nor Israeli Jews could visit their holy places in the Jordanian territories during this period.[24][25]

[edit] Israeli period

During the 1967 Six-Day War Israel captured the Temple Mount together with all of East Jerusalem and the West Bank from Jordan, who had controlled it since 1948. The Chief Rabbi of the Israeli Defense Forces, Shlomo Goren, led the soldiers in religious celebrations on the Temple Mount and at the Western Wall. The Israeli Chief Rabbinate also declared a religious holiday on the anniversary, called “Yom Yerushalayim” (Jerusalem Day), which also became a national holiday that commemorates the reunification of the city. Many Jews saw the capture of Jerusalem and the Temple Mount as a miraculous liberation of biblical-messianic proportion.[citation needed]

A few days after the war was over 200,000 Jews flocked to the Western Wall in the first mass Jewish pilgrimage near the mount since the destruction of Temple in 69 CE. However, the Israeli government subsequently left the Islamic waqf in control of the site. The site has become a flash-point between Israel and the Muslim world.

On October 8, 1990, Israeli forces patrolling the site blocked worshipers from accessing it. A tear gas canister was accidentally detonated among the female worshipers, which caused events to escalate.[26] Rocks were eventually thrown, while security forces fired rounds that ended up killing 20 people and injured around 140 more. An Israeli enquiry found Israeli forces at fault, but it also concluded that charges could not be brought against any particular individuals.[27]

Between 1992 and 1994, the Jordanian government undertook the unprecedented step of gilding the dome of the Dome of the Rock, covering it with 5000 gold plates, and restoring and reinforcing the structure. The Salah Eddin minbar was also restored. The project was paid for by King Hussein personally, at a cost of $8 million.[23]

The Second Palestinian Intifada is often cited as being sparked by a visit made to the Temple Mount by Israeli opposition leader Ariel Sharon. He toured the site, together with a Likud party delegation and a large number of Israeli riot police, on September 28, 2000. The visit was seen as a provocative gesture by many Palestinians, who gathered around the site. Demonstrations soon turned violent, with both rubber bullets and tear gas being used. This event is often cited as one of the catalysts of the Second Intifada.[28]

Also in this period, Palestinian authorities have begun excavations at the Temple Mount, damaging the structural integrity of the site; see below.

[edit] Management and access

Sign in Hebrew and English outside the Temple Mount stating what the Torah says about entering the area

An Islamic Waqf has managed the Temple Mount continuously since the Muslim reconquest of the Kingdom of Jerusalem in 1187. On June 7, 1967, soon after Israel had taken control of the area during the Six-Day War, Prime Minister Levi Eshkol assured that “no harm whatsoever shall come to the places sacred to all religions”. Together with the extension of Israeli jurisdiction and administration over east Jerusalem, the Knesset passed the Preservation of the Holy Places Law,[29] ensuring protection of the Holy Places against desecration, as well as freedom of access thereto.[30] Israel agreed to leave administration of the site in the hands of the Waqf.

Although freedom of access was enshrined in the law, as a security measure, the Israeli government currently enforces a ban on non-Muslim prayer on the site. Non-Muslims who are observed praying on the site are subject to expulsion by the police.[31] At various times, when there is fear of Arab rioting upon the mount resulting in throwing stones from above towards the Western Wall Plaza, Israel has prevented Muslim men under 45 from praying in the compound, citing these concerns.[32] Sometimes such restrictions have coincided with Friday prayers during the Islamic holy month of Ramadan.[33] Normally, West Bank Palestinians are allowed access to Jerusalem only during Islamic holidays, with access usually restricted to men over 35 and women of any age eligible for permits to enter the city.[34] Palestinian residents of Jerusalem, which because of Israel’s annexation of Jerusalem, hold Israeli permanent residency cards, and Israeli Arabs, are permitted unrestricted access to the Temple Mount.

[edit] Current features

An additional flat platform was built above the portion of the hill rising above the general level of the top of the Temple Mount, and this upper platform is the location of the Dome of the Rock; the rock in question is the bedrock at the peak of the hill, just breaching the floor level of the upper platform. Beneath the rock is a natural cave known as the Well of Souls, originally accessible only by a narrow hole in the rock itself, Crusaders hacked open an entrance to the cave from the south, by which it can now be entered. There is also a smaller domed building on the upper platform, slightly to the east of the Dome of the Rock, known as the Dome of the Chain — traditionally the location where a chain once rose to heaven. Several stairways rise to the upper platform from the lower; that at the northwest corner is believed by some archaeologists be part of a much wider monumental staircase, mostly hidden or destroyed, and dating from the Second Temple era.

The al-Kas ablution fountain for Muslim worshipers on the southern portion of the lower platform.

The lower platform – which constitutes most of the surface of the Temple Mount – has at its southern end the al-Aqsa Mosque, which takes up most of the width of the Mount. Gardens take up the eastern and most of the northern side of the platform; the far north of the platform houses an Islamic school.[35] The lower platform also houses a fountain (known as al-Kas), originally supplied with water via a long narrow aqueduct leading from pools at Bethlehem (colloquially known as Solomon’s Pools), but now supplied from Jerusalem’s water mains. There are several cisterns embedded in the lower platform, designed to collect rain water as a water supply. These have various forms and structures, seemingly built in different periods by different architects, ranging from vaulted chambers built in the gap between the bedrock and the platform, to chambers cut into the bedrock itself. Of these, the most notable are (numbering traditionally follows Wilson’s scheme[36]):

  • Cistern 1 (located under the northern side of the upper platform). There is a speculation that it had a function connected with the altar of the Second Temple (and possibly of the earlier Temple),[37] or with the bronze sea.
  • Cistern 5 (located under the south eastern corner of the upper platform) — a long and narrow chamber, with a strange anti-clockwise curved section at its north western corner, and containing within it a doorway currently blocked by earth. The cistern’s position and design is such that there has been speculation it had a function connected with the altar of the Second Temple (and possibly of the earlier Temple), or with the bronze sea. Charles Warren thought that the altar of burnt offerings was located at the north western end.[38]
  • Cistern 8 (located just north of the al-Aqsa Mosque) — known as the Great Sea, a large rock hewn cavern, the roof supported by pillars carved from the rock; the chamber is particularly cave-like and atmospheric,[39] and its maximum water capacity is several hundred thousand gallons.
  • Cistern 9 (located just south of cistern 8, and directly under the al-Aqsa Mosque) — known as the Well of the Leaf due to its leaf-shaped plan, also rock hewn.
  • Cistern 11 (located east of cistern 9) — a set of vaulted rooms forming a plan shaped like the letter E. Probably the largest cistern, it has the potential to house over 700,000 gallons of water.
  • Cistern 16/17 (located at the centre of the far northern end of the Temple Mount). Despite the currently narrow entrances, this cistern (17 and 16 are the same cistern) is a large vaulted chamber, which Warren described as looking like the inside of the cathedral at Cordoba (which was previously a mosque). Warren believed that it was almost certainly built for some other purpose, and was only adapted into a cistern at a later date; he suggested that it might have been part of a general vault supporting the northern side of the platform, in which case substantially more of the chamber exists than is used for a cistern.

The eastern set of Hulda gates.

Robinson’s Arch, situated on the southwestern flank, once supported a staircase that led to the Mount.

The walls of the platform contain several gateways, all currently blocked. In the east wall is the Golden Gate, through which legend states the Jewish Messiah would enter Jerusalem. On the southern face are the Hulda Gates — the triple gate (which has three arches) and the double gate (which has two arches, and is partly obscured by a Crusader building); these were the entrance and exit (respectively) to the Temple Mount from Ophel (the oldest part of Jerusalem), and the main access to the Mount for ordinary Jews. In the western face, near the southern corner, is the Barclay’s Gate – only half visible due to a building on the northern side. Also in the western face, hidden by later construction but visible via the recent Western Wall Tunnels, and only rediscovered by Warren, is Warren’s Gate; the function of these western gates is obscure, but many Jews view Warren’s Gate as particularly holy, due to its location due west of the Dome of the Rock. Traditional belief considers the Dome of the Rock to have earlier been the location at which the Holy of Holies was placed; numerous alternative opinions exist, based on study and calculations, such as those of Tuvia Sagiv.[40]

Warren was able to investigate the inside of these gates. Warren’s Gate and the Golden Gate simply head towards the centre of the Mount, fairly quickly giving access to the surface by steps.[41] Barclay’s Gate is similar, but abruptly turns south as it does so; the reason for this is currently unknown. The double and triple gates (the Huldah Gates) are more substantial; heading into the Mount for some distance they each finally have steps rising to the surface just north of the al-Aqsa Mosque.[42] The passageway for each is vaulted, and has two aisles (in the case of the triple gate, a third aisle exists for a brief distance beyond the gate); the eastern aisle of the double gates and western of the triple gates reach the surface, the other aisles terminating some way before the steps – Warren believed that one aisle of each original passage was extended when the al-Aqsa Mosque blocked the original surface exits.

East of and joined to the triple gate passageway is a large vaulted area, supporting the southeastern corner of the Temple Mount platform – which is substantially above the bedrock at this point – the vaulted chambers here are popularly referred to as King Solomon’s Stables.[43] They were used as stables by the Crusaders, but were built by Herod the Great – along with the platform they were built to support. In the process of investigating Cistern 10, Warren discovered tunnels that lay under the Triple Gate passageway.[44] These passages lead in erratic directions, some leading beyond the southern edge of the Temple Mount (they are at a depth below the base of the walls); their purpose is currently unknown – as is whether they predate the Temple Mount – a situation not helped by the fact that apart from Warren’s expedition no one else is known to have visited them.

The existing four minarets include three near the Western Wall and one near the northern wall. The first minaret was constructed on the southwest corner of the Temple Mount in 1278. The second was built in 1297 by order of a Mameluk king, the third by a governor of Jerusalem in 1329, and the last in 1367.

[edit] Alterations to antiquities and damage to existing structures

Due to the extreme political sensitivity of the site, no real archaeological excavations have even been conducted on the Temple Mount itself. Protests commonly occur whenever archaeologists conduct projects near the Mount. Aside from visual observation of surface features, most other archaeological knowledge of the site comes from the 19th century survey carried out by Charles Wilson and Charles Warren and others. This sensitivity has not prevented the Muslim Waqf from destroying archeological evidence on a number of occasions.[45][46][47][48]

After the Six-Day War of 1967, Israeli archeologists began a series of excavations near the site at the southern wall that uncovered finds from the Second Temple period through Roman, Umayyad and Crusader times.[49] Over the period 1970–88, a number of tunnels were excavated in the vicinity, including one that passed to the west of the Mount and became known as the Western Wall Tunnel, which was opened to the public in 1996.[50][51] The same year the Waqf began construction of a new mosque in the structures known since Crusader times as Solomon’s Stables. Many Israelis regarded this as a radical change of the status quo, which should not have been undertaken without first consulting the Israeli government. The project was done without attention to the possibility of disturbing historically significant archaeological material, with stone and ancient artifacts treated without regard to their preservation.[52]

In October 1999, the Islamic Waqf, and the Islamic Movement conducted an illegal[citation needed] dig which inflicted much archaeological damage. The earth from this operation, which has archeological wealth relevant to Jewish, Christian and Muslim history, was removed by heavy machinery and unceremoniously dumped by trucks into the nearby Kidron Valley. Although the archeological finds in the earth are already not in situ, this soil still contains great archeological potential. No archeological excavation was ever conducted on the Temple Mount, and this soil was the only archeological information that has ever been available to anyone. For this reason Israeli archaeologists Dr. Gabriel Barkay and Zachi Zweig established a unique project for sifting all the earth in this dump: the Temple Mount Antiquities Salvage Operation. Among finds uncovered in rubble removed from the Temple Mount were:

  • The imprint of a seal thought to have belonged to a priestly Jewish family mentioned in the Old Testament’s Book of Jeremiah.
  • More than 4300 coins from various periods. Many of them are from the Jewish revolt that preceded the destruction of the Second Temple by Roman legions in 70 CE emblazoned with the words “Freedom of Zion”
  • Arrowheads shot by Babylonian archers 2,500 years ago, and others launched by Roman siege machinery 500 years later.
  • Unique floor slabs of the ‘opus sectile‘ technique that were used to pave the Temple Mount courts. This is also mentioned in Josephus accounts and the Babylonian Talmud.

In late 2002, a bulge of about 700 mm was reported in the southern retaining wall part of the Temple Mount. A Jordanian team of engineers recommended replacing or resetting most of the stones in the affected area.[53] In February 2004, the eastern wall of the Mount was damaged by an earthquake. The damage threatened to topple sections of the wall into the area known as Solomon’s Stables.[54] A few days later, a portion of retaining wall, supporting the earthen ramp that led from the Western Wall plaza to the Gate of the Moors on the Temple Mount, collapsed.[55] In 2007 the Israel Antiquities Authority started work on the construction of a temporary wooden pedestrian pathway to replace the Mugrabi Gate ramp after a landslide in 2005 made it unsafe and in danger of collapse.[56] The works sparked condemnation from Arab leaders.[57]

In July 2007 the Muslim religious trust which administers the Mount began digging a 400-metre-long, 1.5-metre-deep trench[58] from the northern side of the Temple Mount compound to the Dome of the Rock[59] in order to replace 40-year-old[60] electric cables in the area. Israeli archaeologists accused the waqf of a deliberate act of cultural vandalism.[59]

Southern Wall of Temple Mount, southwestern corner.

Israelis allege that Palestinians are deliberately removing significant amounts of archaeological evidence about the Jewish past of the site and claim to have found significant artifacts in the fill removed by bulldozers and trucks from the Temple Mount. Muslims allege that the Israelis are deliberately damaging the remains of Islamic-era buildings found in their excavations.[61] Since the Waqf is granted almost full autonomy on the Islamic holy sites, Israeli archaeologists have been prevented from inspecting the area; although they have conducted several excavations around the Temple Mount.

[edit] Religious attitudes

This section needs additional citations for verification. (December 2009)

[edit] In Judaism

Presumed to be The Foundation Stone, or a large part of it

Jewish connection and veneration to the site arguably stems from the fact that it contains the Foundation Stone which, according to the rabbis of the Talmud, was the spot from where the world was created and expanded into its current form.[62][63] It was subsequently the Holy of Holies of the Temple, the Most Holy Place in Judaism.[17] Jewish tradition names it as the location for a number of important events which occurred in the Bible, including the Binding of Isaac, Jacob‘s dream, and the prayer of Isaac and Rebekah.[64] Similarly, when the Bible recounts that King David purchased a threshing floor owned by Araunah the Jebusite,[65] tradition locates it as being on this mount. An early Jewish text, the Genesis Rabba, states that this site is one of three about which the nations of the world cannot taunt Israel and say “you have stolen them,” since it was purchased “for its full price” by David.[66] David wanted to construct a sanctuary there, but this was left to his son Solomon, who completed the task in c. 950 BCE with the construction of the First Temple.

In 1217, Spanish Rabbi Judah al-Harizi found the sight of the Muslim structures on the mount profoundly disturbing. “What torment to see our holy courts converted into an alien temple!” he wrote.[67]

Due to religious restrictions on entering the most sacred areas of the Temple Mount (see following section), the Western Wall, a retaining wall for the Temple Mount and remnant of the Second Temple structure, is considered by some rabbinical authorities the holiest accessible site for Jews to pray. Jewish texts record that the Mount will be the site of the Third Temple, which will be rebuilt with the coming of the Jewish Messiah.

[edit] Jewish religious law concerning entry to the site

During Temple times, entry to the Mount was limited by a complex set of purity laws. Maimonides wrote that it was only permitted to enter the site to fulfill a religious precept. After the destruction of the Temple there was discussion as to whether the site, bereft of the Temple, still maintained its holiness or not. Jewish codifiers accepted the opinion of Maimonides who ruled that the holiness of the Temple sanctified the site for eternity and consequently the restrictions on entry to the site are still currently in force.[17] While secular Jews ascend freely, the question of whether ascending is permitted is a matter some debate among religious authorities, with a majority holding that it is permitted to ascend to the Temple Mount, but not to step on the site of the inner courtyards of the ancient Temple.[17] The question then becomes whether the site can be ascertained accurately.[17] A second complex legal debate centers around the precise divine punishment for stepping onto these forbidden spots.

There is debate over whether reports that Maimonides himself ascended the Mount are reliable.[68] One such report[69] claims he did so on Thursday, October 21, 1165, during the Crusader period. Some early scholars however, claim that entry onto certain areas of the Mount are permitted. It appears that Radbaz also entered the Mount and advised others how to do this. He permits entry from all the gates into the 135×135 cubits of the Women’s Courtyard in the east, since the biblical prohibition only applies to the 187×135 cubits of the Temple in the west.[70] There are also Christian and Islamic sources which indicate that Jews accessed the site,[71] but these visits may have been made under duress.[72]

1978 sign warning against entry to the Mount

[edit] Opinions of contemporary rabbis concerning entry to the site

In August 1967 after Israel’s capture of the Mount, the Chief Rabbis of Israel, Isser Yehuda Unterman and Yitzhak Nissim, together with other leading rabbis, asserted that “For generations we have warned against and refrained from entering any part of the Temple Mount.”[73] A recent study of this rabbinical ruling suggests that it was both “unprecedented” and possibly prompted by governmental pressure on the rabbis, as well as “brilliant” in preventing Muslim-Jewish friction on the Mount.[17][74]

Rabbinical consensus in the post-1967 period in the Religious Zionist stream of Orthodox Judaism held that it is forbidden for Jews to enter any part of the Temple Mount,[75] and in January 2005 a declaration was signed confirming the 1967 decision.[76]

Nearly all Haredi rabbis are also of the opinion that the Mount is off limits to Jews and non-Jews alike.[77] Their opinions against entering the Temple Mount are based on the danger of entering the hallowed area of the Temple courtyard and the impossibility of fulfilling the ritual requirement of cleansing oneself with the ashes of a red heifer.[78][79] The boundaries of the areas which are completely forbidden, while having large portions in common, are delineated differently by various rabbinic authorities.

However, there is a growing body of Modern Orthodox and national religious rabbis who encourage visits to certain parts of the Mount, which they believe are permitted according to most medieval rabbinical authorities.[17] These rabbis include: Shlomo Goren (former Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Chaim David Halevi (former Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv and Yaffo); Dov Lior (Rabbi of Kiryat Arba); Yosef Elboim; Yisrael Ariel; She’ar Yashuv Cohen (Chief Rabbi of Haifa); Yuval Sherlo (rosh yeshiva of the hesder yeshiva of Petah Tikva); Meir Kahane. One of them, Shlomo Goren, states that it is possible that Jews are even allowed to enter the heart of the Dome of the Rock, according to Jewish Law of Conquest.[80] These authorities demand an attitude of veneration on the part of Jews ascending the Temple Mount, ablution in a mikveh prior to the ascent, and the wearing of non-leather shoes.[17] Some rabbinic authorities are now of the opinion that it is imperative for Jews to ascend in order to halt the ongoing process of Islamization of the Temple Mount. Maimonides, perhaps the greatest codifier of Jewish Law, wrote in Laws of the Chosen House ch 7 Law 15 “One may bring a dead body in to the (lower sanctified areas of the) Temple Mount and there is no need to say that the ritually impure (from the dead) may enter there, because the dead body itself can enter”. One who is ritually impure through direct or in-direct contact of the dead cannot walk in the higher sanctified areas. For those who are visibly Jewish, they have no choice, but to follow this peripheral route as it has become unofficially part of the status quo on the Mount. Many of these recent opinions rely on archaeological evidence.[17]

The law committee of the Masorti movement in Israel has issued two responsa (a body of written decisions and rulings given by legal scholars) on the subject, both holding that Jews may visit the permitted sections of the Temple Mount. One responsa allows such visits, another encourages them.

[edit] In Islam

Facade of the Al-Aqsa Mosque

In Islam, the Mount is called al-haram al-qudsī ash-sharīf, meaning the Noble Sanctuary. Muslims view the site as being one of the earliest and most noteworthy places of worship of God. For a few years in the early stages of Islam, Muhammad instructed his followers to face the Mount during prayer, as the Jews did.

The site is also important as being the site of the “Farthest Mosque” (mentioned in the Qur’an as the location of Muhammad’s miraculous Night Journey) to heaven.:

“Exalted is He who took His Servant by night from al-Masjid al-Haram (the Sacred Mosque) to al-Masjid al-Aqsa (the Further Mosque), whose surroundings We have blessed, to show him of Our signs. Indeed, He is the Hearing, the Seeing.” Quran 17:1 [81]

The hadith, a collection of the sayings of the Prophet Mohammad, confirm that the location of the Al-Aqsa mosque is indeed in Jerusalem:

“When the people of Quraish did not believe me (i.e. the story of my Night Journey), I stood up in Al-Hijr and Allah displayed Jerusalem in front of me, and I began describing Jerusalem to them while I was looking at it.” Sahih Bukhari: Volume 5, Book 58, Number 226. [82]

Muslim interpretations of the Qur’an agree that the Mount is the site of a Temple built by Sulayman, considered a prophet in Islam, that was later destroyed.[83]

After the construction, Muslims believe, the temple was used for the worship of one God by many prophets of Islam, including Jesus.[84][85][86] Other Muslim scholars have used the Torah (called Tawrat in Arabic) to expand on the details of the temple.[87]

[edit] In Christianity

The Mount has significance in Christianity due to the role the Temple played in the life of Jesus. During the Crusades, the Dome of the Rock was given to the Augustinians, who turned it into a church, and the Al-Aqsa Mosque became the royal palace of Baldwin I of Jerusalem in 1104. The Knights Templar, who believed the Dome of the Rock was the site of the Temple of Solomon, gave it the name “Templum Domini” and set up their headquarters in the Al-Aqsa Mosque adjacent to the Dome for much of the 12th century.

Though some Christians believe that the Temple will be reconstructed before, or concurrent with, the Second Coming of Jesus (also see dispensationalism), the Temple Mount is largely unimportant to the beliefs and worship of most Christians. To wit, the New Testament recounts a story of a Samaritan woman asking Jesus about the appropriate place to worship, Jerusalem or the Samaritan holy place at Mt. Gerazim, to which Jesus replies, “Woman, believe me, the hour is coming when neither on this mountain nor in Jerusalem will you worship the Father. You worship what you do not know; we worship what we know, for salvation is from the Jews. But the hour is coming, and is now here, when the true worshipers will worship the Father in spirit and in truth, for the Father is seeking such people to worship him. God is spirit, and those who worship him must worship in spirit and truth.”(John 4:21-24)

The place is of some importance to Eastern Christians because there was a fully consecrated church on that spot during the Byzantine period. According to Eastern Church canons, once a church has been fully consecrated, it cannot ever serve as anything other than a church. Of course, this is just one example of the thousands of churches that were either destroyed, or converted to mosques, during the long decline of the Eastern Roman Empire. The most notable example is the Hagia Sophia in Istanbul.

[edit] Recent events

March 2005
Allah inscription: The word “Allah“, in approximately a foot-tall Arabic script, was found newly carved into the ancient stones, an act viewed by Jews as vandalism. The carving was attributed to a team of Jordanian engineers and Palestinian laborers in charge of strengthening that section of the wall. The discovery caused outrage among Israeli archaeologists and many Jews were angered by the inscription at Judaism’s holiest site.[88]
October 2006
Synagogue proposal: Uri Ariel, a member of the Knesset from the National Union party (a right wing opposition party) ascended to the mount,[89] and said that he is preparing a plan where a synagogue will be built on the mount. His proposed synagogue would not be built instead of the mosques but in a separate area in accordance with rulings of ‘prominent rabbis.’ He said he believed that this will be correcting a historical injustice and that it is an opportunity for the Muslim world to prove that it is tolerant to all faiths.[90]
October 2006
Minaret proposal: Plans are mooted to build a new minaret on the mount, the first of its kind for 600 years.[91] King Abdullah II of Jordan announced a competition to design a fifth minaret for the walls of the Temple Mount complex. He said it would “reflect the Islamic significance and sanctity of the mosque”. The scheme, estimated to cost $300,000, is for a seven-sided tower – after the seven-pointed Hashemite star – and at 42 metres (138 ft), it would be 3.5 metres (11 ft) taller than the next-largest minaret. The minaret would be constructed on the eastern wall of the Temple Mount near the Golden Gate.
February 2007
Mugrabi Gate ramp reconstruction: Repairs to an earthen ramp leading to the Mugrabi Gate sparked Arab protests.
May 2007
Right-wing Jews ascend the Mount: A group of right-wing Religious Zionist rabbis entered the Temple Mount.[92] This elicited widespread criticism from other religious Jews and from secular Israelis, accusing the rabbis of provoking the Arabs. An editorial in the newspaper Haaretz accused the rabbis of ‘knowingly and irresponsibly bringing a burning torch closer to the most flammable hill in the Middle East,’ and noted that rabbinical consensus in both the Haredi and the Religious Zionist worlds forbids Jews from entering the Temple Mount.[93] On May 16, Rabbi Avraham Shapiro, former Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel and rosh yeshiva of the Mercaz HaRav yeshiva, reiterated his opinion that it is forbidden for Jews to enter the Temple Mount.[94] The Litvish Haredi newspaper Yated Ne’eman, which is controlled by leading Litvish Haredi rabbis including Rabbi Yosef Sholom Eliashiv and Rabbi Nissim Karelitz, accused the rabbis of transgressing a decree punishable by ‘death through the hands of heaven.’[79]
July 2007
Temple Mount cable replacement: The Waqf began digging a ditch from the northern side of the Temple Mount compound to the Dome of the Rock as a prelude to infrastructure work in the area. Although the dig was approved by the police, it generated protests from archaeologists.
October 2009
Clashes: Palestinian protesters gathered at the site after rumours that an extreme Israeli group would harm the site, which the Israeli government denied.[95] Israeli police assembled at the Temple Mount complex to disperse Palestinian protesters who were throwing stones at them. The police used stun grenades on the protesters, of which 15 were later arrested, including the Palestinian President’s adviser on Jerusalem affairs.[96][97] 18 Palestinians and 3 police officers were injured.[98]
July 2010
A public opinion poll in Israel showed that 50% of Israelis believe that the Temple should be rebuilt. The poll was conducted by channel 99, the government owned Knesset channel, in advance of the 9th day of the Hebrew month of Av on which Jews commemorate the destruction of both the first and second Temples that both stood at this site.[99]
July 2010
Knesset Member Danny Danon visited the Temple Mount in accordance with rabbinical views of Jewish Law on the 9th of the Hebrew Month of Av, which commemorates the destruction of both the First and Second Temples in Jerusalem. The Knesset Member condemned the conditions imposed by Muslims upon religious Jews at the site and vowed to work to better conditions.[citation needed]

[edit] Panorama

Panorama of the Temple Mount, seen from the Mount of Olives

[edit] See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Temple Mount

[edit] References

  1. ^ New Jerusalem Finds Point to the Temple Mount
  2. ^ Maimonides, Mishneh Torah, Avoda (Divine Service): The laws of the Temple in Jerusalem, chapter 14, rule 16
  3. ^ Nicolle, David (1994). Yarmuk AD 636: The Muslim Conquest of Syria. Osprey Publishing.
  4. ^ Rizwi Faizer (1998). “The Shape of the Holy: Early Islamic Jerusalem”. Rizwi’s Bibliography for Medieval Islam. Archived from the original on 2002-02-10. http://web.archive.org/web/20020210164811/http://us.geocities.com/rfaizer/reviews/book9.html
  5. ^ Haram al-Sharif, ArchNet
  6. ^ Israeli Police Storm Disputed Jerusalem Holy Site
  7. ^ Gonen (2003), pp. 9-11
  8. ^ Lundquist (2007), p. 103
  9. ^ Finkelstein, Horbury, Davies & Sturdy (1999), p. 43
  10. ^ II Sam. xxiv. 16 et seq.; I Chron. xxi. 15 et seq.
  11. ^ “Moriah”. Easton’s Bible Dictionary. http://www.ccel.org/ccel/easton/ebd2.html?term=Moriah. Retrieved July 14, 2008. 
  12. ^ Gonen (2003), p. 69
  13. ^ Negev (2005), p. 265
  14. ^ Mazar (1975), pp. 124-126, 132
  15. ^ Encyclopædia Britannica 11th Edition
  16. ^ Wilkinson, Jerusalem Pilgrims Before the Crusades, p. 204
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l m “Entering the Temple Mount – in Halacha and Jewish History,” Gedalia Meyer and Henoch Messner, PDF available at [1], VOl 10, Summer 2010, Hakirah.
  18. ^ See “Julian and the Jews 361-363 CE” and “Julian the Apostate and the Holy Temple”.
  19. ^ a b Was the Aksa Mosque built over the remains of a Byzantine church?[dead link], By ETGAR LEFKOVITS, Jerusalem Post, November 16, 2008]
  20. ^ Karmi, Ghada (1997). Jerusalem Today: What Future for the Peace Process?. Garnet & Ithaca Press. p. 116. ISBN 0-86372-226-1
  21. ^ The Dome of the Rock as Palimpsest, Necipoglu, Muqarnas 2008
  22. ^ Oleg Grabar, The Haram ak-Sharif: An essay in interpretation, BRIIFS vol. 2 no 2 (Autumn 2000).</ref name=MeyerMessner>”Entering the Temple Mount – in Halacha and Jewish History,” Gedalia Meyer and Henoch Messner, PDF available at [2], VOl 10, Summer 2010, Hakirah.
  23. ^ a b c “Hashemite Restorations of the Islamic Holy Places in Jerusalem”, Jordanian government website.
  24. ^ Martin Gilbert, Jerusalem in the Twentieth Century (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1996, p254.
  25. ^ Israeli, Raphael (2002). “Introduction: Everyday Life in Divided Jerusalem”. Jerusalem Divided: The Armistice Regime, 1947–1967. Jerusalem: Routledge. p. 23. ISBN 0-7146-5266-0
  26. ^ “RECONSTRUCTION OF EVENTS (REVISED) AL-HARAM AL-SHARIF, JERUSALEM MONDAY, 8 OCTOBER 1990″. UN. October 8, 1990. http://unispal.un.org/UNISPAL.NSF/0/C6AA06BDFB5B5453052566DB0055512F. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  27. ^ “Judge Blames Israeli Police In Killing Of Palestinians”. Sun Sentinel. July 19, 1991. http://articles.sun-sentinel.com/1991-07-19/news/9101260807_1_criminal-charges-killings-ezra-kama. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  28. ^ “2000: ‘Provocative’ mosque visit sparks riots”. BBC. April 12, 2012. http://news.bbc.co.uk/onthisday/hi/dates/stories/september/28/newsid_3687000/3687762.stm. Retrieved April 12, 2012. 
  29. ^ Preservation of the Holy Places Law, 1967.
  30. ^ Jerusalem – The Legal and Political Background, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Government of Israel.
  31. ^ Nadav Shragai, Three Jews expelled from Temple Mount for praying.
  32. ^Heavy security around al-Aqsa,” Al Jazeera English, October 5, 2009.
  33. ^PROTECTION OF CIVILIANS 16 – 29 SEPTEMBER 2009“, UNITED NATIONS Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs occupied Palestinian territory.
  34. ^ http://news.yahoo.com/palestinians-flock-jerusalem-israeli-restrictions-eased-152403694.html
  35. ^ Photograph of the northern wall area
  36. ^ Wilson’s map of the features under the Temple Mount
  37. ^ Kaufman, Asher (May 23, 1991). “The Temple Site” (Abstract). The Jerusalem Post: p. 13. http://pqasb.pqarchiver.com/jpost/access/99716364.html?dids=99716364:99716364&FMT=ABS&FMTS=ABS:FT&date=May+12%2C+1991&author=Asher+Kaufman&pub=Jerusalem+Post&edition=&startpage=13&desc=THE+TEMPLE+SITE. Retrieved March 4, 2007. “The most important findings of the superposition of the Second Temple on the Temple area are that the Dome of the Rock was not built on the site of the Temple, and that the Temple was taper-shaped on the western side, a form hitherto unknown to the scholars.” 
  38. ^ “Researcher says found location of the Holy Temple”. Ynetnews. February 9, 2007. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3362927,00.html. Retrieved March 4, 2007. “Archaeology Professor Joseph Patrich uncovered a large water cistern that points, in his opinion, to the exact location of the altar and sanctuary on the Temple Mount. According to his findings, the rock on which the Dome of the Rock is built is outside the confines of the Temple.” 
  39. ^ Under the Temple Mount
  40. ^ Tuvia Sagiv, Determination of the location of the Temple
  41. ^ Photograph of the inside of the Golden Gate
  42. ^ image of the double gate passage
  43. ^ Photograph of King Solomon’s Stables
  44. ^ Photograph of one of the chambers under the Triple Gate passageway
  45. ^ See “The Washington Post, Opinion Columns, July 17, 2000 Protect the Temple Mount by Hershel Shanks
  46. ^ Policeman Assaulted Trying to Stop Illegal Temple Mount Dig – Jewish World – Israel News – Arutz Sheva
  47. ^ Jerusalem’s Temple Mount Flap
  48. ^ Waqf Temple Mount excavation raises archaeologists’ protests – Haaretz – Israel News
  49. ^ Jacqueline Schaalje, Special: The Temple Mount in Jerusalem.
  50. ^ Violent clashes at key Jerusalem mosque on ‘day of anger’, timesonline, accessdate=5 May 2009
  51. ^ Mayor halts Temple Mount dig, BBC, accessdate = 5 May 2009
  52. ^ Temple Mount destruction stirred archaeologist to action, February 8, 2005 | by Michael McCormack, Baptist Press [3]
  53. ^ Esther Hecht, Battle of the Bulge
  54. ^ Jerusalem Post
  55. ^ On-the-Spot Report from the Kotel Women´s Section Construction
  56. ^ Fendel, Hillel (February 7, 2007). “Jerusalem Arabs Riot, Kassams Fired, After Old City Excavations”. Arutz Sheva. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/news.php3?id=121064. Retrieved February 7, 2007. 
  57. ^ Weiss, Efrat (February 7, 2007). “Syria slams Jerusalem works”. Yedioth Ahronoth. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3362024,00.html. Retrieved February 7, 2007. “Israeli excavation works near the al-Aqsa mosque in the holy city of Jerusalem have led to a dangerous rise in Middle East tensions and could derail revival of Arab-Israeli peace talks… what Israel is doing in its practices and attacks against our sacred Muslim sites in Jerusalem and al-Aqsa is a blatant violation that is not acceptable under any pretext” 
  58. ^ Fendel, Hillel (September 9, 2007). “Silence in the Face of Continued Temple Mount Destruction”. Arutz Sheva. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/123622. Retrieved 2007-09-07. 
  59. ^ a b Rapoport, Meron (July 7, 2007). “Waqf Temple Mount excavation raises archaeologists’ protests”. Haaretz. http://www.haaretz.com/hasen/spages/880761.html. Retrieved 2007-07-11. 
  60. ^ Teible, Amy (August 31, 2007). “Jerusalem Holy Site Dig Questioned”. The Guardian. http://www.guardian.co.uk/worldlatest/story/0,,-6887208,00.html. Retrieved 2007-09-07. [dead link]
  61. ^ Al-Ahram: “Revoking the death warrant”
  62. ^ Babylonian Talmud Yoma 54b
  63. ^ http://www.torah.org/features/israelmatters/eye.html#
  64. ^ Toledot 25:21
  65. ^ 2 Samuel 24:18–25
  66. ^ Genesis Rabba 79.7: “And he bought the parcel of ground, where he had spread his tent…for a hundred pieces of money.” Rav Yudan son of Shimon said: ‘This is one of the three places where the non-Jews cannot deceive the Jewish People by saying that they stole it from them, and these are the places: Ma’arat HaMachpela, the Temple and Joseph’s burial place. Ma’arat HaMachpela because it is written: ‘And Abraham hearkened unto Ephron; and Abraham weighed to Ephron the silver,’ (Genesis, 23:16); the Temple because it is written: ‘So David gave to Ornan for the place,’ (I Chronicles, 21:26); and Joseph’s burial place because it is written: ‘And he bought the parcel of ground…Jacob bought Shechem.’ (Genesis, 33:19).” See also: Kook, Abraham Issac, Moadei Hare’iya, pp. 413–415.
  67. ^ Karen Armstrong (29 April 1997). Jerusalem: one city, three faiths. Ballantine Books. p. 229. http://books.google.com/books?id=v5_ZAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 25 May 2011. 
  68. ^ Sefer ha-Charedim Mitzvat Tshuva, Chapter 3; Shu”t Minchas Yitzchok, vol. 6
  69. ^ Hebrew language site
  70. ^ Shaarei Teshuvah, Orach Chaim 561:1; cf. Teshuvoth Radbaz 691
  71. ^ Moshe Sharon. “Islam on the Temple Mount” Biblical Archaeology Review July/August 2006. p. 36–47, 68. “Immediately after its construction, five Jewish families from Jerusalem were employed to clean the Dome of the Rock and to prepare wicks for its lamps”
  72. ^ The Kaf hachaim (Orach Chaim 94:1:4 citing Radvaz Vol. 2; Ch. 648) mentions a case of a Jew who was forced onto the Temple Mount.
  73. ^ Lapidoth, Ruth E.; Moshe Hirsch (1994). The Jerusalem Question and Its Resolution: Selected Documents. Jerusalem: Martinus Nijhoff. p. 542. ISBN 0-7923-2893-0
  74. ^ Hassner, Ron E., “War on Sacred Grounds,” Cornell University Press (2009), pp.113-133
  75. ^ Rabbis who support this opinion include: Mordechai Eliyahu, former Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel; Zalman Baruch Melamed, rosh yeshiva of the Beit El yeshiva; Eliezer Waldenberg, former rabbinical judge in the Rabbinical Supreme Court of the State of Israel; Avraham Yitzchak Kook, Chief Rabbi of Palestine (Mikdash-Build (Vol. I, No. 26)); Avigdor Nebenzahl, Rabbi of the Old City of Jerusalem.
  76. ^ These rabbis include: Rabbis Yona Metzger (Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Shlomo Amar (Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Ovadia Yosef (spiritual leader of Sefardi Haredi Judaism and of the Shas party, and former Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Eliyahu Bakshi-Doron (former Sefardi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Shmuel Rabinowitz (rabbi of the Western Wall); Avraham Shapiro (former Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel); Shlomo Aviner (rosh yeshiva of Ateret Cohanim); Yisrael Meir Lau (former Ashkenazi Chief Rabbi of Israel and current Chief Rabbi of Tel Aviv). Source: Leading rabbis rule Temple Mount is off-limits to Jews
  77. ^ These rabbis include: Yaakov Yisrael Kanievsky (Thoughts on the 28th of Iyar – Yom Yerushalayim); Yosef Sholom Eliashiv (Rabbi Eliashiv: Don’t go to Temple Mount)
  78. ^ Yoel Cohen, The political role of the Israeli Chief Rabbinate in the Temple Mount question
  79. ^ a b Yated Ne’eman article
  80. ^ Haaretz
  81. ^ http://www.qurandislam.com/coran/trans/?currSura=17&currAya=1&currTrans=tafsir_en_sahih
  82. ^ http://haditsbukharionline.blogspot.ca/2010/11/merits-of-helpers-in-madinah-ansaar.html
  83. ^ “The Farthest Mosque must refer to the site of the Solomon’s Temple in Jerusalem on the hill of Moriah, at or near which stands the Dome of the Rock… it was a sacred place to both Jews and Christians… The chief dates in connection with the Temple in Jerusalem are: It was finished by Solomon about 1004 BCE; destroyed by the Babylonians under Nebuchadnezzar about 586 BCE; rebuilt under Ezra and Nehemiah about 515 BCE; turned into a heathen idol temple by one of Alexander the Great‘s successors, Antiochus Epiphanes, 167 BCE; restored by Herod, 17 BCE to 29; and completely razed to the ground by the Emperor Titus in 70. These ups and downs are among the greater signs in religious history.” (Yusuf Ali, Commentary on the Koran, 2168.
  84. ^ “The city of Jerusalem was chosen at the command of Allah by Prophet David in the tenth century BCE. After him his son Prophet Solomon built a mosque in Jerusalem according to the revelation that he received from Allah. For several centuries this mosque was used for the worship of Allah by many Prophets and Messengers of Allah. It was destroyed by the Babylonians in the year 586 BCE., but it was soon rebuilt and was rededicated to the worship of Allah in 516 BCE. It continued afterwards for several centuries until the time of Prophet Jesus. After he departed this world, it was destroyed by the Romans in the year 70 CE.” (Siddiqi, Dr. Muzammil. Status of Al-Aqsa Mosque, IslamOnline, May 21, 2007. Retrieved July 12, 2007.)
  85. ^ “Early Muslims regarded the building and destruction of the Temple of Solomon as a major historical and religious event, and accounts of the Temple are offered by many of the early Muslim historians and geographers (including Ibn Qutayba, Ibn al-Faqih, Mas’udi, Muhallabi, and Biruni). Fantastic tales of Solomon’s construction of the Temple also appear in the Qisas al-anbiya’, the medieval compendia of Muslim legends about the pre-Islamic prophets.” (Kramer, Martin. The Temples of Jerusalem in Islam, Israel Ministry of Foreign Affairs, September 18, 2000. Retrieved November 21, 2007.)
    • “While there is no scientific evidence that Solomon’s Temple existed, all believers in any of the Abrahamic faiths perforce must accept that it did.” (Khalidi, Rashid. Transforming the Face of the Holy City: Political Messages in the Built Topography of Jerusalem, Bir Zeit University, November 12, 1998.)
  86. ^ A Brief Guide to al-Haram al-Sharif, a booklet published in 1925 (and earlier) by the “Supreme Moslem Council”, a body established by the British government to administer waqfs and headed by Hajj Amin al-Husayni during the British Mandate period, states on page 4: “The site is one of the oldest in the world. Its sanctity dates from the earliest (perhaps from pre-historic) times. Its identity with the site of Solomon’s Temple is beyond dispute. This, too, is the spot, according to universal belief, on which ‘David built there an altar unto the Lord, and offered burnt offerings and peace offerings.’(2 Samuel 24:25)”
  87. ^
    • “The Rock was in the time of Solomon the son of David 12 cubits high and there was a dome over it…It is written in the Tawrat [Bible]: ‘Be happy Jerusalem,’ which is Bayt al-Maqdis and the Rock which is called Haykal.” al-Wasati, Fada’il al Bayt al-Muqaddas, ed. Izhak Hasson (Jerusalem, 1979) pp. 72ff.
  88. ^ “Arabs Vandalize Judaism’s Holiest Site”. Arutz Sheva. March 31, 2005. http://www.israelnationalnews.com/News/News.aspx/79391. Retrieved July 11, 2007. 
  89. ^ Rightist MK Ariel visits Temple Mount as thousands throng Wall
  90. ^ Wagner, Matthew (October 10, 2006). Rabbis split on Temple Mount synagogue plan. The Jerusalem Post.
  91. ^ The Times, October 14, 2006
  92. ^ Ynetnews
  93. ^ Haaretz
  94. ^ Sela, Neta (May 16, 2007). “Rabbi Shapira forbids visiting temple Mount”. Ynet. http://www.ynetnews.com/articles/0,7340,L-3400750,00.html. Retrieved May 17, 2007. 
  95. ^ Kyzer, Liel (October 25, 2009). Israel Police battle Arab rioters on Temple Mount; PA official arrested. Haaretz.
  96. ^ Arrests at holy site in Jerusalem. BBC News. October 25, 2009.
  97. ^ Jerusalem holy site stormed. The Straits Times. October 25, 2009.
  98. ^ Clashes erupt at Aqsa compound. Al Jazeera. October 25, 2009.
  99. ^ Israel National News 15 July, 2010

[edit] Bibliography

Books

 

Israeli Police, taking five.  (remember them)
2006-043 
Dome of the Chain.  Stands at the approximate center of the Temple Mount (or, the center of the world, according to one story).  The 13th-century interior tiling surpasses even that of the Dome of the Rock.  But, on this day it was being used by lots of shrouded ladies and little children, so we didn’t venture “inside” to have a look-see.
2006-044 
Looking east from the Dome of the Chain towards the Mount of Olives.
The Russian Orthodox Church at Gethsemane.  (lower left)
2006-045 
Looking north to some more arches.
2006-046 
Guess what?
2006-047 
Guess Who?
2006-048

 

Koleksi Perang Vietnam Yang Dahsyat Tahun 1970

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DVWC SHOWROOM

sumber

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/10/25/koleksi-perang-vietnam-yang-dahsyat-tahun-1970/

 

 Perang Vietnam dan Dokumen Sejarah Pos 1969-1975

THE VIETNAM WAR 1.970

C.VIETNAM WAR

1.970..

. Kelompok Tentara Australia di Nui Dat di Phuoc Tuy provinsi awiting dukungan helikopter untuk Operasi Puckapunyal sekitar tahun 1970, selama Perang Vietnam. Sumber: The Daily Telegraph

COMBAT MEDIC VIETNAM WAR 1.970

Viet Nam Perang Protes, 1970 UCSF fakultas, mahasiswa, dan staf protes invasi AS Kamboja, Mei 1970.

Vietnam War

Iconic image … Australian soldiers group at Nui Dat in Phuoc Tuy province awiting helicopter support for Operation Puckapunyal circa 1970, during the Vietnam War. Source: The Daily Telegraph

                   

The Vietnam War Document

       and

 

    

Postal History

       1969-1975

 

Part

THE VIETNAM WAR 1970

Vietnam War - Map

C.VIETNAM  WAR 1970

 

COMBAT MEDIC VIETNAM WAR 1970

 
 
 The connection between the war in Vietnam and Iraq.  Combat Medic Vietnam 1970.  More than 2 million Vietnamese people died in the attack on Vietnam by the US.  Estimates of deaths are between 2 million and 4 million people.  Photo: Mike Hastie Vietnam Veteran
  
Viet Nam War Protest, 1970
UCSF faculty, students, and staff protest the US invasion of Cambodia, May 1970.

 Information From David J.Graham

I was a member of MACV Advisory Team 14 on Phu Quoc for about 6 months in 1970, before being moved to MAVC HQ Tan Son Nhut under Col Thornton Ireland.

I have been trying to locate or find out the fate of certain of my team members, particularly one SSG John Shaffrey who was reassigned to a Dog Unit near Pleiku in 1971.

Is there anywhere you can suggest searching? Or perhaps do you know of a site with more info or photos?

Finally, I want to thank you for posting the picture above.

It is the only trace I can find of Team 14 on the web (so far!)

I would also be interested in hearing from any other members of Team 14, MACV PMG 1971, The 41st MP Detachment, St Louis 1971 or The 291st MP Co, Redstone Arsenal 1969.

Thanks again!

Informasi Dari David J.Graham

Saya adalah anggota Tim Penasehat MACV 14 di Phu Quoc selama sekitar 6 bulan pada tahun 1970, sebelum dipindahkan ke MAVC HQ Tan Son Nhut di bawah Kolonel Thornton Irlandia.

Saya telah mencoba untuk mencari atau mengetahui nasib tertentu anggota tim saya, terutama yang SSG John Shaffrey yang ditugaskan ke Satuan Anjing dekat Pleiku pada tahun 1971.

Apakah ada di mana saja Anda dapat menyarankan mencari? Atau mungkin Anda tahu dari sebuah situs dengan info lebih lanjut atau foto?

Akhirnya,Saya ingin mengucapkan terima kasih untuk posting gambar di atas.

Ini adalah satu-satunya jejak saya dapat menemukan Tim 14 di web (sejauh ini!)

Saya juga akan tertarik untuk mendengar dari setiap anggota lain dari Tim 14, MACV PMG 1971, The Detasemen MP 41, St Louis 1971 atau MP 291 co, Redstone Arsenal 1969. Terima kasih lagi!

Januari 1970

(A) 1 Januari 1970 Operasi Cuu Long

—————————————- —————————————-

Setelah mengakhiri Operasi QUYET THANG, yang ARVN IV Korps meluncurkan kampanye Corps-lebar baru di IV CTZ bernama Operasi CUU PANJANG.

The 1st ARVN Divisi Operasi dimulai SON LAM 249 dan 250 di Quang Tri Propinsi.

The 41 ARVN Resimen dari Divisi 22d dimulai Operasi NGUYEN HUE/41/1 di Provinsi Binh Dinh.

Anggota Resimen ARVN 5th menemukan delapan mayat, ternyata warga sipil yang tewas sekitar satu minggu sebelumnya. Semua korban telah tangan terikat di belakang punggung mereka dan sebagian besar memiliki tengkorak retak.

Dua jam setelah gencatan senjata berakhir Tahun Baru, sebuah elemen dari Brigade 1, Divisi Infanteri ke-25 melibatkan 50 musuh 10 km sebelah barat laut dari Go Dau Ha di Provinsi Tay Ninh. Hasil adalah 16 musuh tewas dan tidak ada korban yang ramah. __________________

(B) Trinh Duc info:

“Awal tahun 1970 saya disergap bersama dengan delapan orang lain dalam kliring hutan. Sembilan dari kita berjalan file tunggal di seluruh sayuran diajukan bahwa desa telah diukir dari hutan, dalam perjalanan dari satu dusun ke yang lain, itu adalah berawan ninght.

Bulan sebagian ditutupi dan tidak ada yang bisa melihat banyak. Aku tahu aku harus mengambil jalur di sekitar kliring, menjaga ke hutan, tapi saya berada di terlalu banyak terburu-buru.

Menjelang tengah clearinh yang ada rumpun pisang sebagai trees.Just aku menarik bahkan dengan mereka.

Saya menyadari ada beberapa bentuk di trees.They melihat saya di persis sama cepat, dan instictively saya rata dengan tanah. Tepat pada saat itu tambang Claymore api dari di jalan di belakang saya, instan explotions.the besar mereka berhenti aku merangkak kembali di sepanjang jalan tepat di atas mana mereka telah pergi.

Seperti yang saya merangkak saya merasa beberapa mayat, kemudian menggeliat turun di sudut kanan toard hutan. Penembakan yang terjadi di sekitar. ” g=”At least two bullets hit my backpack before I got to the tree line>” j=”Setidaknya dua peluru menghantam ransel saya sebelum saya sampai ke garis pohon> “>Setidaknya dua peluru menghantam ransel saya sebelum saya sampai ke garis pohon>

Aku harus meninggalkan mayat ada di lapangan. Aku terus berfikir bagaimana demoralisasi itu akan untuk petani. “

 January 1970

(a)January 1, 1970

 Operation Cuu Long

  • After terminating Operation QUYET THANG, the ARVN IV Corps launches a new Corps-wide campaign in IV CTZ named Operation CUU LONG.
  • The 1st ARVN Division begins Operations LAM SON 249 and 250 in Quang Tri Province.
  • The 41st ARVN Regiment of the 22d Division begins Operation NGUYEN HUE/41/1 in Binh Dinh Province.
  • Members of the 5th ARVN Regiment find eight bodies, apparently civilians who had been killed approximately one week earlier. All victims had hands tied behind their backs and most had fractured skulls.
  • Two hours after the New Year truce ends, an element of the 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division engages 50 enemy 10 km northwest of Go Dau Ha in Tay Ninh Province. Results are 16 enemy killed and no friendly casualties.

__________________

 (b)Trinh Duc info:

“Early in 1970 I was ambushed along with eight others in jungle clearing. The nine of us were walking single file across a vegetable filed that the Villagers had carved out of the jungle, on our way from one hamlet to another ,It was a cloudy ninght. The moon was partially covered over and no one could see much. I knew I should have taken the line around the clearing,keeping to the jungle,but I was in too much of a hurry.Toward the middle of the clearinh there was a clump of banana trees.Just as I pulled even with them. I realized there were some  shapes in the trees.They saw me at exactly the same instant,and instictively I flattened to the ground. Just at that moment claymore mines fire off on the path behind me,huge explotions.the instant they stopped I crawled back along the path right over where they had gone off. As i crawled I felt some of the bodies,then squirmed off at a right angle toard the jungle. Firing was going on all around. At least two bullets hit my backpack before I got to the tree line>I had to leave the bodies there in the field. I kept thingking how demoralizing it would be for the peasant.”

(3) 2 Januari 1970

————————————————– ——————————

Zona ARVN 44 Taktis khusus dimulai Operasi CUU LONG/44/01 di Chau Doc Provinsi.

The 2nd ARVN Divisi Operasi dimulai QUYET THANG 45, 54 dan 63 di Tin Quang Ngai Quang dan Provinsi. Sipil penebang sengaja perjalanan musuh Claymore mine 3 km sebelah barat daya dari Hoi An di Provinsi Quang Nam. Tujuh warga sipil tewas dan 21 terluka.

Sebuah elemen dari Divisi Marinir 1 mengamati 25 musuh dengan senjata bergerak ke barat 15 km sebelah barat daya dari An Hoa di Quang Nam Province.

Artileri dipecat dalam reaksi, menewaskan 20. AS infanteri komandan kompi yang dibebastugaskan dari jabatannya setelah sappers musuh menyelinap melalui posisi malam defensif unit yang menewaskan 8 orang dan melukai 5.

__________________

 (3)January 2, 1970


  • The 44th ARVN Special Tactical Zone begins Operation CUU LONG/44/01 in Chau Doc Province.
  • The 2nd ARVN Division begins Operations QUYET THANG 45, 54 and 63 in Quang Tin and Quang Ngai Provinces.
  • Civilian woodcutters accidentally trip enemy claymore mine 3 km southwest of Hoi An in Quang Nam Province. Seven civilians are killed and 21 wounded.
  • An elements of the 1st Marine Division observes 25 enemy with weapons moving west 15 km southwest of An Hoa in Quang Nam Province. Artillery is fired in reaction, killing 20.
  • US infantry company commander is relieved of his command after enemy sappers slipped through his unit’s night defensive positions killing 8 and wounding 5.

__________________

(4) Jan.4th.1970

Operasi Cliff Dweller

————————————————– ——————————

Brigade 1, Divisi Infanteri ke-25 dengan 4-9 Inf, 3-22 Inf dan Co A, 2-34 Arm dimulai Operasi CLIFF Dweller IV untuk membersihkan lereng Nui Ba Den digunakan oleh musuh sebagai area pementasan untuk serangan terhadap Tay Ninh Kota.

Brigade 1, Divisi Infanteri ke-4 dimulai Operasi THRUST WAYNE di utara Provinsi Binh Dinh.

Operasi WAYNE BREAKER berakhir. Operasi dimulai 18 Oktober 69 di daerah Khe An bawah kontrol dari Brigade 1, Divisi Infanteri ke-4.

Hasil adalah 154 musuh tewas, 7 ditahan, 1 US KIA dan 9 US WIA. Sebuah serangan mortir VC di sebuah kamp pengungsi dekat An Hoa, Quang Nam Province membunuh 12 warga sipil dan 72 luka lainnya

. __________________

(4)Jan.4th.1970

Operation Cliff  Dweller

 

  • The 1st Brigade, 25th Infantry Division with 4-9 Inf, 3-22 Inf and Co A, 2-34 Arm begins Operation CLIFF DWELLER IV to clear the slopes of Nui Ba Den used by the enemy as a staging area for attacks on Tay Ninh City.
  • The 1st Brigade, 4th Infantry Division begins Operation WAYNE THRUST in northern Binh Dinh Province.
  • Operation WAYNE BREAKER terminates. Operation was initiated 18 Oct 69 in the An Khe area under control of the 1st Brigade, 4th Infantry Division. Results are 154 enemy killed, 7 detained, 1 US KIA and 9 US WIA.
  • A VC mortar attack on a refugee camp near An Hoa, Quang Nam Province kills 12 civilians and wounds 72 others.

__________________

(5) 6 Januari 1970

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ROK Kavaleri Resimen (Buruk Bagus CRid) dimulai Operasi DOK 7Q SU RI di Provinsi Binh Dinh.

ROK 26 Resimen (Buruk Bagus CRid) dimulai Operasi JANG BI 1 di Provinsi Binh Dinh.

Sebuah elemen dari Marinir 7 di posisi defensif malam 10 km sebelah tenggara dari An Hoa di Quang Nam Province menerima lebih dari 200 putaran mortir 82mm dan serangan darat oleh jumlah yang tidak diketahui musuh.

Marinir membalas tembakan dengan senjata organik dan artileri pendukung. Sappers menembus perimeter dan jijik.

Hasil adalah 39 musuh tewas, 13 US KIA dan 63 US WIA.

Sebuah kekuatan musuh ukuran tidak diketahui bergerak oleh unsur-unsur dari Brigade 1, 1st Kavaleri Divisi 12 km sebelah timur laut dari Tay Ninh Kota dengan dukungan dari helikopter tempur dan Wings 3d dan 35 Fighter Taktis. Hasil adalah 37 musuh tewas, 1 US KIA dan 6 US WIA.
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(5)January 6, 1970


  • The ROK Cavalry Regiment (CRID) begins Operation DOK SU RI 7Q in Binh Dinh Province.
  • The ROK 26th Regiment (CRID) begins Operation JANG BI 1 in Binh Dinh Province.
  • An element of the 7th Marines in night defensive positions 10 miles southeast of An Hoa in Quang Nam Province receives more than 200 rounds of 82mm mortar and a ground attack by unknown number of enemy. The Marines return fire with organic weapons and supporting artillery. Sappers penetrate the perimeter and are repulsed. Results are 39 enemy killed, 13 US KIA and 63 US WIA.
  • An enemy force of unknown size is engaged by elements of the 1st Brigade, 1st Cavalry Division 12 km northeast of Tay Ninh City with support from helicopter gunships and the 3d and 35th Tactical Fighter Wings. Results are 37 enemy killed, 1 US KIA and 6 US WIA.

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(6)January, 10(6) 10 Januari 1970
Sampul pos gratis dari The Airforce VNAF dengan gambar  pesawat temput  dan penutup roket, mengirim dari “KBC 4652 LDPT” VNAF 4 Divisi Phong Dinh, untuk Dinh Vu Jadi 332-1 “3319 KBC” pusat Cam Ranh Pelatihan Naval dengan CDS Quan Buu 1970/01/10. dan merah KBC 4652 lingkaran ganda dicap.

1971-aut)th 1970

The Airforce VNAF free postal airoplane and rocket cover,  send from “KBC 4652 LDPT”VNAF 4th Division Phong Dinh, to Dinh Vu So 332-1 “KBC 3319” Cam Ranh Naval Training center with CDS Quan Buu 10.1.1970. and red KBC 4652 double circle stamped . At the top of cover handwritten “ Thu Ta The Ve Bien Nhatrang mien Cac nay”(what the meaning ?).

 _____________________________________________________________ (Gratis udara-roket VNAF 4th Air Divisi penutup, postally digunakan dengan merah KBC 4652 dan Black Quan Buu dicap 1972/10/01 dari KBC 4652 (Phong Dinh Angkatan Udara) LDPT (?) Ke CTTT chong Thu literaly berarti Building Gouverment, Tao Tac harfiah berarti Building & Construc-tion, CTTT berarti Corps of Engineers, Ve Bien Nha Trang mien Cac Truong, Dinh Vu sro 332-1 (?), KBC 3319 (Naval Training center Cam Rahn) .

Sisi belakang penutup pensil ditulis Nhan Ngay (tiba) 17,01-1970. satu minggu setelah tanggal pos auth dicap), dan surat fron jenis pengirim yang sama untuk “Huyen Trin Qui” dari Phong Dinh 1970/02/20.

 

Inside the letter in Vietnamese language:

   

              Con Tho ngay 31.12.69

                                                Chu Ngen

Hom nay tap nhan dtuoc Tho Qui, tep Lay Lam Ngung, Vi Qui dta chon dtuoc nganh Hai Phoa theo tap nghi thi Qui se La chanh thuc La nguoi lungcua dai duong.

Vi qui Se dti tau bien Luc Qui nang Khoa nganh hai Phai Xem xen, voi nganh Bom dtau cua nganh H.Q.vey,Khi Ban dtuoc dti tau Bien Bau se dtuoc dti tat ca cac tinh cua V,N.

Tap lat tiet La dta mot Phen tinh nguyen dti nganh Xa thu, De Lau nguoi hung o Giang Nghung tap o toai nguyen dtuoc, vi tap dta La RQ ma o dtuoc tren Trei Anh Ban dtuoc, nhung Ban dti hoi Pkao Eoi Chung Cuoi o co vo dto vi no so Ban thut Sap Nha dto Q suen tap cang quen luc qui dti co gei Lai cho thieu Ba lo noi o?———.

Can dtoi voi tap thi o co nhung noi o co thi o dtuoc ngoi nhung nguo: Qui biet Ra con tiet nhiem nhung tap dtem tu choi vi  tap ho mat cam ve van dte am uong vay le lat ra nhung au o tap cung xen xen voi ban ma thu.

Con phep thi Bi cap roi tai du ky roi nen o duoc ve cuoi thu tep cung chuc qui dtuoc nhiem mai mang ve  suc khoc nan nay tap cung nhu qui au tet tai dton vi cung nhu noel vua roi nhung C.T.cung Vui vui dto ban.

Thoi tap xin tau dtung biet va mong tho qui dtien neu Ban co dti dtan coi tap o mai ta dta chi cu.

                                                            Thau ly

                                    Tap luc nay ngheo quc qui vi

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(Free  airmail –rocket VNAF 4th Air Division  cover, postally used with red KBC 4652 and Black Quan Buu stamped 10.1.1972  from KBC 4652(Phong Dinh Air Force)  L.D.P.T (?)  to CTTT Chong Thu literaly mean Gouverment Building,Tao Tac literally mean Building & Construc-tion, CTTT means Corps of Engineers , Ve Bien Nha Trang mien Cac Truong, Dinh Vu Sro 332-1(?),KBC 3319(Naval Training center Cam Rahn).

Huyen Trin Qui penutup adalah koleksi terbaik untuk menunjukkan karena banyak variasi selama perang 1969 sampai

The back side of the cover pencil written nhan ngay (arrive) 17.01-1970. one week after postal date stamped auth), and the type letter fron the same sender to “Huyen Trin Qui” from Phong Dinh 20.2.1970. Huyen Trin Qui covers were the best collection for showed because many variations during the war 1969 until 1971-aut)

read more click

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/driwan-vietnam-war-cybermsueumthe-vietnam-war-1970/

untuk melihat koleksi yang lengkap silahkan klik

 http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2011/04/06/driwan-vietnam-war-cybermsueumthe-vietnam-war-1970/