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The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

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3.5.DISCUSS

Based on the above findings it can be concluded motif artwork Chinese kingdoms found in Indonesia as follows

Berdasarkan hasil temuan tersebut diatas dapat disimpulkan motif karya seni kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia sebagai berikut

 

.3.5.1. RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

1.) motif Taoism

1.)      

Xian (Taoism)

This article is about Daoist immortals. For other uses, see Xian (disambiguation). Xian (Chinese: //; pinyin: xiān; Wade–Giles: hsien) is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as:

  • “spiritually immortal; transcendent; super-human; celestial being” (in Daoist/Taoist philosophy and cosmology)
  • “physically immortal; immortal person; immortalist; saint” (in Daoist religion and pantheon)
  • “alchemist; one who seeks the elixir of life; one who practices longevity techniques” or by extension “(alchemical, dietary, qigong) methods for attaining immortality” (in Chinese alchemy)
  • “wizard; magician; shaman” (in Chinese mythology)
  • “genie; elf, fairy; nymph” (in popular Chinese literature, 仙境 xian jing is “fairyland”, Faerie)
  • “sage living high in the mountains; mountain-man; hermit; recluse” (folk etymology for the character )
  • “immortal (talent); accomplished person; celestial (beauty); marvelous; extraordinary” (metaphorical modifier)

Xian semantically developed from meaning spiritual “immortality; enlightenment”, to physical “immortality; longevity” involving methods such as alchemy, breath meditation, and T’ai chi ch’uan, and eventually to legendary and figurative “immortality”.

The xian archetype is described by Victor H. Mair.

They are immune to heat and cold, untouched by the elements, and can fly, mounting upward with a fluttering motion. They dwell apart from the chaotic world of man, subsist on air and dew, are not anxious like ordinary people, and have the smooth skin and innocent faces of children. The transcendents live an effortless existence that is best described as spontaneous. They recall the ancient Indian ascetics and holy men known as ṛṣi who possessed similar traits.1994:376

The word xian[edit]

The most famous Chinese compound of xiān is Bāxiān (八仙 “the Eight Immortals“). Other common words include xiānrén (仙人 sennin in Japanese, “immortal person; transcendent”, see Xiānrén Dòng), xiānrénzhăng (仙人掌 “immortal’s palm; cactus“), xiānnǚ (仙女 “immortal woman; female celestial; angel”), and shénxiān (神仙 “gods and immortals; divine immortal”). Besides humans, xiān can also refer to supernatural animals. The mythological húlijīng 狐狸精 (lit. “fox spirit”) “fox fairy; vixen; witch; enchantress” has an alternate name of húxiān 狐仙 (lit. “fox immortal”).

The etymology of xiān remains uncertain. The circa 200 CE Shiming, a Chinese dictionary that provided word-pun “etymologies”, defines xiān () as “to get old and not die,” and explains it as someone who qiān ( “moves into”) the mountains.”

Edward H. Schafer (1966:204) defined xian as “transcendent, sylph (a being who, through alchemical, gymnastic and other disciplines, has achieved a refined and perhaps immortal body, able to fly like a bird beyond the trammels of the base material world into the realms of aether, and nourish himself on air and dew.)” Schafer noted xian was cognate to xian “soar up”, qian “remove”, and xianxian 僊僊 “a flapping dance movement”; and compared Chinese yuren 羽人 “feathered man; xian” with English peri “a fairy or supernatural being in Persian mythology” (Persian pari from par “feather; wing”).

Two linguistic hypotheses for the etymology of xian involve the Arabic language and Sino-Tibetan languages. Wu and Davis (1935:224) suggested the source was jinn, or jinnigenie” (from Arabic جني jinnī). “The marvelous powers of the Hsien are so like those of the jinni of the Arabian Nights that one wonders whether the Arabic word, jinn, may not be derived from the Chinese Hsien.” Axel Schuessler’s etymological dictionary (2007:527) suggests a Sino-Tibetan connection between xiān (Old Chinese *san or *sen) “‘An immortal’ … men and women who attain supernatural abilities; after death they become immortals and deities who can fly through the air” and Tibetan gšen < g-syen “shaman, one who has supernatural abilities, incl[uding] travel through the air”.

The character and its variants[edit]

The word xiān is written with three characters , , or , which combine the logographic “radicalrén ( or “person; human”) with two “phonetic” elements (see Chinese character classification). The oldest recorded xiān character has a xiān (“rise up; ascend”) phonetic supposedly because immortals could “ascend into the heavens”. (Compare qiān “move; transfer; change” combining this phonetic and the motion radical.) The usual modern xiān character , and its rare variant , have a shān ( “mountain”) phonetic. For a character analysis, Schipper (1993:164) interprets “‘the human being of the mountain,’ or alternatively, ‘human mountain.’ The two explanations are appropriate to these beings: they haunt the holy mountains, while also embodying nature.”

The Shijing (220/3) contains the oldest occurrence of the character , reduplicated as xiānxiān (僊僊 “dance lightly; hop about; jump around”), and rhymed with qiān (). “But when they have drunk too much, Their deportment becomes light and frivolous—They leave their seats, and [] go elsewhere, They keep [僊僊] dancing and capering.” (tr. James Legge)[1] Needham and Wang (1956:134) suggest xian was cognate with wu “shamanic” dancing. Paper (1995:55) writes, “the function of the term xian in a line describing dancing may be to denote the height of the leaps. Since, “to live for a long time” has no etymological relation to xian, it may be a later accretion.”

The 121 CE Shuowen Jiezi, the first important dictionary of Chinese characters, does not enter except in the definition for 偓佺 (Wo Quan “name of an ancient immortal”). It defines as “live long and move away” and as “appearance of a person on a mountaintop”.

Textual references[edit]

This section chronologically reviews how Chinese texts describe xian “immortals; transcendents”. While the early Zhuangzi, Chuci, and Liezi texts allegorically used xian immortals and magic islands to describe spiritual immortality, later ones like the Shenxian zhuan and Baopuzi took immortality literally and described esoteric Chinese alchemical techniques for physical longevity. On one the hand, neidan (內丹 “internal alchemy”) techniques included taixi (胎息 “embryo respiration”) breath control, meditation, visualization, sexual training, and Tao Yin exercises (which later evolved into Qigong and T’ai chi ch’uan). On the other hand, waidan (外丹 “external alchemy”) techniques for immortality included alchemical recipes, magic plants, rare minerals, herbal medicines, drugs, and dietetic techniques like inedia.

The earliest representations of Chinese immortals, dating from the Han Dynasty, portray them flying with feathery wings (the word yuren 羽人 “feathered person” later meant “Daoist”) or riding dragons. In Chinese art, xian are often pictured with symbols of immortality including the dragon, crane, fox, white deer, pine tree, peach, and mushroom.

 

 

Xian riding dragons[1]

 

Paintings of xian by Soga Shōhaku 曾我蕭白, ca. 1760.

Besides the following major Chinese texts, many others use both graphic variants of xian. Xian () occurs in the Chunqiu Fanlu, Fengsu Tongyi, Qian fu lun, Fayan, and Shenjian; xian () occurs in the Caizhong langji, Fengsu Tongyi, Guanzi, and Shenjian.

Zhuangzi[edit]

Two circa 3rd century BCE “Outer Chapters” of the Zhuangzi (莊子 “[Book of] Master Zhuang”) use the archaic character xian . Chapter 11 has a parable about “Cloud Chief” ()  and “Big Concealment” (鴻濛) that uses the Shijing compound xianxian (“dance; jump”):

Big Concealment said, “If you confuse the constant strands of Heaven and violate the true form of things, then Dark Heaven will reach no fulfillment. Instead, the beasts will scatter from their herds, the birds will cry all night, disaster will come to the grass and trees, misfortune will reach even to the insects. Ah, this is the fault of men who ‘govern’!”
“Then what should I do?” said Cloud Chief.
“Ah,” said Big Concealment, “you are too far gone! [
僊僊] Up, up, stir yourself and be off!”
Cloud Chief said, “Heavenly Master, it has been hard indeed for me to meet with you—I beg one word of instruction!”
“Well, then—mind‑nourishment!” said Big Concealment. “You have only to rest in inaction and things will transform themselves. Smash your form and body, spit out hearing and eyesight, forget you are a thing among other things, and you may join in great unity with the deep and boundless. Undo the mind, slough off spirit, be blank and soulless, and the ten thousand things one by one will return to the root—return to the root and not know why. Dark and undifferentiated chaos—to the end of life none will depart from it. But if you try to know it, you have already departed from it. Do not ask what its name is, do not try to observe its form. Things will live naturally end of themselves.”
Cloud Chief said, “The Heavenly Master has favored me with this Virtue, instructed me in this Silence. All my life I have been looking for it, and now at last I have it!” He bowed his head twice, stood up, took his leave, and went away. (11, tr. Burton Watson 1968:122-3)

Chapter 12 uses xian when mythical Emperor Yao describes a shengren ( “sagely person”).

The true sage is a quail at rest, a little fledgling at its meal, a bird in flight who leaves no trail behind. When the world has the Way, he joins in the chorus with all other things. When the world is without the Way, he nurses his Virtue and retires in leisure. And after a thousand years, should he weary of the world, he will leave it and [] ascend to [] the immortals, riding on those white clouds all the way up to the village of God. (12, tr. Watson 1968:130)

Without using the word xian, several Zhuangzi passages employ xian imagery, like flying in the clouds, to describe individuals with superhuman powers. For example, Chapter 1, within the circa 3rd century BCE “Inner Chapters”, has two portrayals. First is this description of Liezi (below).

Lieh Tzu could ride the wind and go soaring around with cool and breezy skill, but after fifteen days he came back to earth. As far as the search for good fortune went, he didn’t fret and worry. He escaped the trouble of walking, but he still had to depend on something to get around. If he had only mounted on the truth of Heaven and Earth, ridden the changes of the six breaths, and thus wandered through the boundless, then what would he have had to depend on? Therefore I say, the Perfect Man has no self; the Holy Man has no merit; the Sage has no fame. (1, tr. Watson 1968:32)

Second is this description of a shenren (神人 “divine person”).

He said that there is a Holy Man living on faraway [姑射] Ku-she Mountain, with skin like ice or snow, and gentle and shy like a young girl. He doesn’t eat the five grains, but sucks the wind, drinks the dew, climbs up on the clouds and mist, rides a flying dragon, and wanders beyond the four seas. By concentrating his spirit, he can protect creatures from sickness and plague and make the harvest plentiful. (1, tr. Watson 1968:33)

The authors of the Zhuangzi had a lyrical view of life and death, seeing them as complimentary aspects of natural changes. This is antithetical to the physical immortality (changshengbulao 長生不老 “live forever and never age”) sought by later Daoist alchemists. Consider this famous passage about accepting death.

Chuang Tzu’s wife died. When Hui Tzu went to convey his condolences, he found Chuang Tzu sitting with his legs sprawled out, pounding on a tub and singing. “You lived with her, she brought up your children and grew old,” said Hui Tzu. “It should be enough simply not to weep at her death. But pounding on a tub and singing—this is going too far, isn’t it?” Chuang Tzu said, “You’re wrong. When she first died, do you think I didn’t grieve like anyone else? But I looked back to her beginning and the time before she was born. Not only the time before she was born, but the time before she had a body. Not only the time before she had a body, but the time before she had a spirit. In the midst of the jumble of wonder and mystery a change took place and she had a spirit. Another change and she had a body. Another change and she was born. Now there’s been another change and she’s dead. It’s just like the progression of the four seasons, spring, summer, fall, winter.”
“Now she’s going to lie down peacefully in a vast room. If I were to follow after her bawling and sobbing, it would show that I don’t understand anything about fate. So I stopped. (18, tr. Watson 1968:191–2)

Alan Fox explains this anecdote about Zhuangzi’s wife.

Many conclusions can be reached on the basis of this story, but it seems that death is regarded as a natural part of the ebb and flow of transformations which constitute the movement of Dao. To grieve over death, or to fear one’s own death, for that matter, is to arbitrarily evaluate what is inevitable. Of course, this reading is somewhat ironic given the fact that much of the subsequent Daoist tradition comes to seek longevity and immortality, and bases some of their basic models on the Zhuangzi. (1995:100)

Chuci[edit]

 

 

The supposed “footprint of a xian“, a little pond in Guangzhou’s Temple of the Five Immortals

The 3rd-2nd century BCE Chuci (楚辭 “Lyrics of Chu”) anthology of poems uses xian once and xian twice, reflecting the disparate origins of the text. These three contexts mention the legendary Daoist xian immortals Chi Song (赤松Red Pine“, see Kohn 1993:142–4) and Wang Qiao (王僑, or Zi Qiao 子僑). In later Daoist hagiography, Chi Song was Lord of Rain under Shennong, the legendary inventor of agriculture; and Wang Qiao was a son of King Ling of Zhou (r. 571–545 BCE), who flew away on a giant white bird, became an immortal and was never again seen.

The “Yuan You” (遠遊 “Far-off Journey”) poem describes a spiritual journey into the realms of gods and immortals, frequently referring to Daoist myths and techniques.

My spirit darted forth and did not return to me,
And my body, left tenantless, grew withered and lifeless.
Then I looked into myself to strengthen my resolution,
And sought to learn from where the primal spirit issues.
In emptiness and silence I found serenity;
In tranquil inaction I gained true satisfaction.
I heard how once Red Pine had washed the world’s dust off:
I would model myself on the pattern he had left me.
I honoured the wondrous powers of the [
真人] Pure Ones,
And those of past ages who had become [
] Immortals.
They departed in the flux of change and vanished from men’s sight,
Leaving a famous name that endures after them. (tr. Hawkes 1985:194)

The “Xi shi” (惜誓 “Sorrow for Troth Betrayed”) resembles the “Yuan You“, and both reflect Daoist ideas from the Han period. “Though unoriginal in theme,” says Hawkes (1985:239), “its description of air travel, written in a pre-aeroplane age, is exhilarating and rather impressive.”

We gazed down of the Middle Land [China] with its myriad people
As we rested on the whirlwind, drifting about at random.
In this way we came at last to the moor of Shao-yuan:
There, with the other blessed ones, were Red Pine and Wang Qiao.
The two Masters held zithers tuned in perfect concord:
I sang the Qing Shang air to their playing.
In tranquil calm and quiet enjoyment,
Gently I floated, inhaling all the essences.
But then I thought that this immortal life of [
] the blessed,
Was not worth the sacrifice of my home-returning. (tr. Hawkes 1985:240)

The “Ai shi ming” (哀時命 “Alas That My Lot Was Not Cast”) describes a celestial journey similar to the previous two.

Far and forlorn, with no hope of return:
Sadly I gaze in the distance, over the empty plain.
Below, I fish in the valley streamlet;
Above, I seek out [
] holy hermits.
I enter into friendship with Red Pine;
I join Wang Qiao as his companion. We send the Xiao Yang in front to guide us;
The White Tiger runs back and forth in attendance.
Floating on the cloud and mist, we enter the dim height of heaven;
Riding on the white deer we sport and take our pleasure. tr. Hawkes 1985:266)

The “Li Sao” (離騷 “On Encountering Trouble”), the most famous Chuci poem, is usually interpreted as describing ecstatic flights and trance techniques of Chinese shamans. The above three poems are variations describing Daoist xian.

Some other Chuci poems refer to immortals with synonyms of xian. For instance, “Shou zhi” (守志 “Maintaining Resolution), uses zhenren (真人 “true person”, tr. “Pure Ones” above in “Yuan You“), which Wang Yi’s commentary glosses as zhen xianren (真仙人 “true immortal person”).

I visited Fu Yue, bestriding a dragon,
Joined in marriage with the Weaving Maiden,
Lifted up Heaven’s Net to capture evil,
Drew the Bow of Heaven to shoot at wickedness,
Followed the [
真人] Immortals fluttering through the sky,
Ate of the Primal Essence to prolong my life. (tr. Hawkes 1985:318)

Liezi[edit]

The Liezi (列子 “[Book of] Master Lie”), which Louis Komjathy (2004:36) says “was probably compiled in the 3rd century CE (while containing earlier textual layers)”, uses xian four times, always in the compound xiansheng (仙聖 “immortal sage”).

Nearly half of Chapter 2 (“The Yellow Emperor“) comes from the Zhuangzi, including this recounting of the above fable about Mount Gushe (姑射, or Guye, or Miao Gushe 藐姑射).

The Ku-ye mountains stand on a chain of islands where the Yellow River enters the sea. Upon the mountains there lives a Divine Man, who inhales the wind and drinks the dew, and does not eat the five grains. His mind is like a bottomless spring, his body is like a virgin’s. He knows neither intimacy nor love, yet [仙聖] immortals and sages serve him as ministers. He inspires no awe, he is never angry, yet the eager and diligent act as his messengers. He is without kindness and bounty, but others have enough by themselves; he does not store and save, but he himself never lacks. The Yin and Yang are always in tune, the sun and moon always shine, the four seasons are always regular, wind and rain are always temperate, breeding is always timely, the harvest is always rich, and there are no plagues to ravage the land, no early deaths to afflict men, animals have no diseases, and ghosts have no uncanny echoes. (tr. Graham 1960:35)

Chapter 5 uses xiansheng three times in a conversation set between legendary rulers Tang () of the Shang Dynasty and Ji () of the Xia Dynasty.

T’ang asked again: ‘Are there large things and small, long and short, similar and different?’
—’To the East of the Gulf of Chih-li, who knows how many thousands and millions of miles, there is a deep ravine, a valley truly without bottom; and its bottomless underneath is named “The Entry to the Void”. The waters of the eight corners and the nine regions, the stream of the Milky Way, all pour into it, but it neither shrinks nor grows. Within it there are five mountains, called Tai-yü, Yüan-chiao, Fang-hu, Ying-chou and P’eng-Iai. These mountains are thirty thousand miles high, and as many miles round; the tablelands on their summits extend for nine thousand miles. It is seventy thousand miles from one mountain to the next, but they are considered close neighbours. The towers and terraces upon them are all gold and jade, the beasts and birds are all unsullied white; trees of pearl and garnet always grow densely, flowering and bearing fruit which is always luscious, and those who eat of it never grow old and die. The men who dwell there are all of the race of [
仙聖] immortal sages, who fly, too many to be counted, to and from one mountain to another in a day and a night. Yet the bases of the five mountains used to rest on nothing; they were always rising and falling, going and returning, with the ebb and flow of the tide, and never for a moment stood firm. The [仙聖] immortals found this troublesome, and complained about it to God. God was afraid that they would drift to the far West and he would lose the home of his sages. So he commanded Yü-ch’iang to make fifteen [] giant turtles carry the five mountains on their lifted heads, taking turns in three watches, each sixty thousand years long; and for the first time the mountains stood firm and did not move.
‘But there was a giant from the kingdom of the Dragon Earl, who came to the place of the five mountains in no more than a few strides. In one throw he hooked six of the turtles in a bunch, hurried back to his country carrying them together on his back, and scorched their bones to tell fortunes by the cracks. Thereupon two of the mountains, Tai-yü and Yüan-chiao, drifted to the far North and sank in the great sea; the [
仙聖] immortals who were carried away numbered many millions. God was very angry, and reduced by degrees the size of the Dragon Earl’s kingdom and the height of his subjects. At the time of Fu-hsi and Shen-nung, the people of this country were still several hundred feet high.’ (tr. Graham 1960:97–8)

Penglai Mountain became the most famous of these five mythical peaks where the elixir of life supposedly grew, and is known as Horai in Japanese legends. The first emperor Qin Shi Huang sent his court alchemist Xu Fu on expeditions to find these plants of immortality, but he never returned (although by some accounts, he discovered Japan).

Holmes Welch (1957:88–97) analyzed the beginnings of Daoism, sometime around the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, from four separate streams: philosophical Daoism (Laozi, Zhuangzi, Liezi), a “hygiene school” that cultivated longevity through breathing exercises and yoga, Chinese alchemy and Five Elements philosophy, and those who sought Penglai and elixirs of “immortality”. This is what he concludes about xian.

It is my own opinion, therefore, that though the word hsien, or Immortal, is used by Chuang Tzu and Lieh Tzu, and though they attributed to their idealized individual the magic powers that were attributed to the hsien in later times, nonetheless the hsien ideal was something they did not believe in—either that it was possible or that it was good. The magic powers are allegories and hyperboles for the natural powers that come from identification with Tao. Spiritualized Man, P’eng-lai, and the rest are features of a genre which is meant to entertain, disturb, and exalt us, not to be taken as literal hagiography. Then and later, the philosophical Taoists were distinguished from all other schools of Taoism by their rejection of the pursuit of immortality. As we shall see, their books came to be adopted as scriptural authority by those who did practice magic and seek to become immortal. But it was their misunderstanding of philosophical Taoism that was the reason they adopted it. (Welch 1957:95)

Shenxian zhuan[edit]

 

 

An immortal riding a tortoise. A Han Dynasty painting

The Shenxian zhuan (神仙傳 Biographies of Spirit Immortals”) is a hagiography of xian. Although it was traditionally attributed to Ge Hong (283–343 CE), Komjathy (2004:43) says, “The received versions of the text contain some 100-odd hagiographies, most of which date from 6th-8th centuries at the earliest.”

According to the Shenxian zhuan, there are four schools of immortality:

(—“Pneumas”): Breath control and meditation. Those who belong to this school can

“…blow on water and it will flow against its own current for several paces; blow on fire, and it will be extinguished; blow at tigers or wolves, and they will crouch down and not be able to move; blow at serpents, and they will coil up and be unable to flee. If someone is wounded by a weapon, blow on the wound, and the bleeding will stop. If you hear of someone who has suffered a poisonous insect bite, even if you are not in his presence, you can, from a distance, blow and say in incantation over your own hand (males on the left hand, females on the right), and the person will at once be healed even if more than a hundred li away. And if you yourself are struck by a sudden illness, you have merely to swallow pneumas in three series of nine, and you will immediately recover.
But the most essential thing [among such arts] is fetal breathing. Those who obtain [the technique of] fetal breathing become able to breathe without using their nose or mouth, as if in the womb, and this is the culmination of the way [of pneumatic cultivation].” (Campany 2002:21)

Fàn (—“Diet”): Ingestion of herbal compounds and abstention from the Sān Shī Fàn (三尸—“Three-Corpses food”)—Meats (raw fish, pork, dog, leeks, and scallions) and grains. The Shenxian zhuan uses this story to illustrate the importance of bigu “grain avoidance”:

“During the reign of Emperor Cheng of the Han, hunters in the Zhongnan Mountains saw a person who wore no clothes, his body covered with black hair. Upon seeing this person, the hunters wanted to pursue and capture him, but the person leapt over gullies and valleys as if in flight, and so could not be overtaken. [But after being surrounded and captured, it was discovered this person was a 200 plus year old woman, who had once been a concubine of Qin Emperor Ziying. When he had surrendered to the ‘invaders of the east’, she fled into the mountains where she learned to subside on ‘the resin and nuts of pines’ from an old man. Afterwards, this diet ‘enabled [her] to feel neither hunger nor thirst; in winter [she] was not cold, in summer [she] was not hot.’]
The hunters took the woman back in. They offered her grain to eat. When she first smelled the stink of grain, she vomited, and only after several days could she tolerate it. After little more than two years of this [diet], her body hair fell out; she turned old and died. Had she not been caught by men, she would have become a transcendent.” (Campany 2002:22–23)

Fángzhōng Zhī Shù (房中之—“Arts of the Bedchamber”): Sexual yoga. (Campany 2002:30–31) According to a discourse between the Yellow Emperor and the immortaless Sùnǚ (素女—“Plain Girl”), one of the three daughters of Hsi Wang Mu,

“The sexual behaviors between a man and woman are identical to how the universe itself came into creation. Like Heaven and Earth, the male and female share a parallel relationship in attaining an immortal existence. They both must learn how to engage and develop their natural sexual instincts and behaviors; otherwise the only result is decay and traumatic discord of their physical lives. However, if they engage in the utmost joys of sensuality and apply the principles of yin and yang to their sexual activity, their health, vigor, and joy of love will bear them the fruits of longevity and immortality. (Hsi 2002:99–100)

The White Tigress Manual, a treatise on female sexual yoga, states,

“A female can completely restore her youthfulness and attain immortality if she refrains from allowing just one or two men in her life from stealing and destroying her [sexual] essence, which will only serve in aging her at a rapid rate and bring about an early death. However, if she can acquire the sexual essence of a thousand males through absorption, she will acquire the great benefits of youthfulness and immortality.” (Hsi 2001:48)

Dān (—”Alchemy“, literally “Cinnabar“): Elixir of Immortality.(Campany 2002:31)

Baopuzi[edit]

The 4th century CE Baopuzi (抱朴子 “[Book of] Master Embracing Simplicity”), which was written by Ge Hong, gives some highly detailed descriptions of xian.

The text lists three classes of immortals:

Tiānxiān (天仙—“Celestial Immortal”): The highest level.

Dìxiān (地仙—“Earth Immortal”): The middle level.

Shījiě xiān (尸解仙—”Escaped-by-means-of-a-stimulated-corpse-simulacrum Immortal”, literally “Corpse Untie Immortal”): The lowest level. This is considered the lowest form of immortality since a person must first “fake” their own death by substituting a bewitched object like a bamboo pole, sword, talisman or a shoe for their corpse or slipping a type of Death certificate into the coffin of a newly departed paternal grandfather, thus having their name and “allotted life span” deleted from the ledgers kept by the Sīmìng (司命—”Director of allotted life spans”, literally “Controller of Fate”). Hagiographies and folktales abound of people who seemingly die in one province, but are seen alive in another. Mortals who choose this route must cut off all ties with family and friends, move to a distant province, and enact the Ling bao tai xuan yin sheng zhi fu (靈寳太玄隂生之符—“Numinous Treasure Talisman of the Grand Mystery for Living in Hiding”) to protect themselves from heavenly retribution. (Campany 2002:52–60)

However, this is not a true form of immortality. For each misdeed a person commits, the Director of allotted life spans subtracts days and sometimes years from their allotted life span. This method allows a person to live out the entirety of their allotted lifespan (whether it be 30, 80, 400, etc.) and avoid the agents of death. But the body still has to be transformed into an immortal one, hence the phrase Xiānsǐ hòutuō (先死後脱—“The ‘death’ is apparent, [but] the sloughing off of the body’s mortality remains to be done.”)

Sometimes the Shījiě are employed by heaven to act as celestial peace keepers. Therefore, they have no need for hiding from retribution since they are empowered by heaven to perform their duties. There are three levels of heavenly Shījiě:

Dìxià zhǔ (地下主—“Agents Beneath the Earth”): Are in charge of keeping the peace within the Chinese underworld. They are eligible for promotion to earthbound immortality after 280 years of faithful service.

Dìshàng zhǔzhě (地上主者—”Agents Above the Earth”): Are given magic talismans which prolong their lives (but not indefinitely) and allow them to heal the sick and exorcize demons and evil spirits from the earth. This level was not eligible for promotion to earthbound immortality.

Zhìdì jūn (制地君—”Lords Who Control the Earth”): A heavenly decree ordered them to “disperse all subordinate junior demons, whether high or low [in rank], that have cause afflictions and injury owing to blows or offenses against the Motion of the Year, the Original Destiny, Great Year, the Kings of the Soil or the establishing or breaking influences of the chronograms of the tome. Annihilate them all.” This level was also not eligible for promotion to immortality.

These titles were usually given to humans who had either not proven themselves worthy of or were not fated to become immortals. One such famous agent was Fei Changfang, who was eventually murdered by evil spirits because he lost his book of magic talismans. However, some immortals are written to have used this method in order to escape execution. (Campany 2002:52–60)

Ge Hong wrote in his book The Master Who Embraces Simplicity,

The [immortals] Dark Girl and Plain Girl compared sexual activity as the intermingling of fire [yang/male] and water [yin/female], claiming that water and fire can kill people but can also regenerate their life, depending on whether or not they know the correct methods of sexual activity according to their nature. These arts are based on the theory that the more females a man copulates with, the greater benefit he will derive from the act. Men who are ignorant of this art, copulating with only one or two females during their life, will only suffice to bring about their untimely and early death. (Hsi 2001:48)

Zhong Lü Chuan Dao Ji[edit]

 

 

Hé (和) and Hé (合), the two “Immortals of Harmony and Unity”, associated with happy marriage, depicted in Changchun Temple, a Taoist temple in Wuhan

The Zhong Lü Chuan Dao Ji (鐘呂傳道集/钟吕传道集 “Anthology of the Transmission of the Dao from Zhong[li Quan] to Lü [Dongbin]”) is associated with Zhongli Quan (2nd century CE?) and Lü Dongbin (9th century CE), two of the legendary Eight Immortals. It is part of the so-called “Zhong-Lü” (鍾呂) textual tradition of internal alchemy (neidan). Komjathy (2004:57) describes it as, “Probably dating from the late Tang (618–906), the text is in question-and-answer format, containing a dialogue between Lü and his teacher Zhongli on aspects of alchemical terminology and methods.”

The Zhong Lü Chuan Dao Ji lists five classes of immortals:

Guǐxiān (鬼仙—”Ghost Immortal”): A person who cultivates too much yin energy. These immortals are likened to Vampires because they drain the life essence of the living, much like the fox spirit. Ghost immortals do not leave the realm of ghosts.

Rénxiān (人仙—Human Immortal”): Humans have an equal balance of yin and yang energies, so they have the potential of becoming either a ghost or immortal. Although they continue to hunger and thirst and require clothing and shelter like a normal human, these immortals do not suffer from aging or sickness. Human immortals do not leave the realm of humans. There are many sub-classes of human immortals, as discussed above under Shījiě xiān.

Dìxiān (地仙—“Earth Immortal”): When the yin is transformed into the pure yang, a true immortal body will emerge that does not need food, drink, clothing or shelter and is not affected by hot or cold temperatures. Earth immortals do not leave the realm of earth. These immortals are forced to stay on earth until they shed their human form.

Shénxiān (神仙—”Spirit Immortal”): The immortal body of the earthbound class will eventually change into vapor through further practice. They have supernatural powers and can take on the shape of any object. These immortals must remain on earth acquiring merit by teaching mankind about the Tao. Spirit immortals do not leave the realm of spirits. Once enough merit is accumulated, they are called to heaven by a celestial decree.

Tiānxiān (天仙—“Celestial Immortal”): Spirit immortals who are summoned to heaven are given the minor office of water realm judge. Over time, they are promoted to oversee the earth realm and finally become administrators of the celestial realm. These immortals have the power to travel back and forth between the earthly and celestial realms

a.The Natural World

Tao Phillosophy

Taoist philosophy is closely related to the meaning of a single word: the Chinese word “Tao.”

Every language, culture, and religion has words that convey more than one simple idea. Even though such words often have several layers of meaning, there is never any confusion as to what is being said.

Ask a dozen people, for example, to explain the word “heaven” — as likely as not, you’ll hear a dozen different definitions or descriptions. The same is true of the word “Tao,” which is often translated as “way” or “path.”

The Tao

Although there are many definitions of Tao, this one word communicates an entire philosophy, an outlook on the fundamental nature of life and the universe.

The word Tao is nothing less than an expression of the profound unity of the universe and of the path human beings must take to join, rather than disturb, that unity.

What is this path, and how do we find it? The path begins with an understanding of the origin of the universe. “Knowing the ancient beginning is the essence of the way,” stated the ancient Chinese sage Lao Tzu, the author of the Tao Te Ching.

Known in English as The Book of the Way, this poetic masterpiece was written approximately 2,500 years ago. As well as being a matchless work of literature, it takes its place in history as the first written record of Taoist philosophy.

The Interdependence of All Things

Early Taoist philosophy was profoundly influenced by observations of nature. Taoist philosophers determined that everything has its complementary opposite. More than this, they saw that everything can only be understood by comparing it to its opposite.

Day is only day in relation to night, cold only cold in relation to heat, and soft only soft in relation to hard. Looking deeper still, they realized that these relationships are in a constant state of flux: Day flows gradually into night and back again.

All things, then, are interdependent. By observing the processes of nature, the Taoists say, we can come to some understanding about the meaning of our lives and about our place in the world. These concepts are the cornerstone of Taoist philosophy.

Taoist philosophers also noticed that what happens in nature is effortless. This does not mean that there is no struggle, but that events occur without premeditation.

Consider the life of a plant. The seed falls onto the ground. If the soil is fertile, and if it receives warmth, light, and water, it may emerge as a seedling. It does not require instruction to know how to take nourishment in through its roots or how to photosynthesize light and unfold into a mature plant.

Given the knowledge it contains, the plant is complete within its own nature. The Taoist asks: why should life be different for people? Why not allow situations to unfold as they may rather than trying to manipulate others and orchestrate events?

This belief in Taoist philosophy is known as the doctrine of doing-by-not-doing, and it lies at the heart of Taoist practice. It is the message of the following portion of Verse 29 of the Tao Te Ching:

Do you think you can take

over the universe

and improve it?

I do not believe it can be done.

The universe is sacred.

You cannot improve it.

If you try to change it,

you will ruin it.

If you try to hold it,

you will lose it.

Nature is complete without us, this verse tells us. We must recognize this fact and begin to participate with nature as a partner in the universal scheme.

Our mission, according to Taoist philosophy, is to return to a natural way of life, unencumbered by complicated social institutions and intellectual ideas. Doing so, Taoism suggests, will return us to a state of natural grace — Tao.

This contact with what is innately pure will, in turn, strengthen our spirit, the source of which is nature.

Continue reading to discover more about Tao, the path, and finding the way — all central components of Taoist philosophy.

 

b. The Moving Spirit

Move Energy Through Your Body, Move Your Life

Move Energy Through Your Body, Move Your Life.
by
Master Khaleghl Quinn

“The way you move is the way you live”. –The ancient Taoist philosophers

Movement characterizes life. To participate in life we must have movement in some dimension of our being. One who is paralyzed can move eyes and thoughts and the imagination. There is electrical movement in the nervous system. Pulse shows the heart is working. Breath moves in and out of the nostrils. This is how we determine life when there is no other apparent movement. Participation in any type of exercise shows a will to be engaged in life. I highly recommend the Chi Walking our Light Force Group practitioner Hazel Wood. Hazel Wood teaches so wonderfully!

Experience the uniqueness of being the transformer and transformed, receptive and active, yin and yang, simultaneously with my Chi-Cybernetics program. It provides a simple way to move yet offers refined motor movement that emulates natural ecologies in nature such as showers of light, fountains and the emanating ripples of energy from tossing pebbles in the lake. Over time these movements translate into rivers of healing, inner peace, and a stream of inspiration that may be tapped at any time. Skype sessions are available.

Ideally one does conscious movement three times a day starting with more vigorous in the morning, something soothing for the heart at noon such as golf, walking in green areas, and something unwinding in evening such as flowing movement that generates a mild, yet deep aerobic effect, and healthy rotation and stretching of the joints. Dance. Watch as a student performs Qigong movements in a session with Master Quinn. Move in the way you want to live and watch your life follow. You are the conductor!

http://thelightforcegroup.com/dr-quinns-blog/key-practice-2-move-energy-through-your-body-move-your-life/

Tao, Art of Flow – by John A. Salat

 

An Inspirational Journey Through Intimate Wisdom.

Personal Growth – Zen Prose – Spiritual Psychology – Eastern Philosophy

- Experience deeper dimensions of a powerful being.

- Allow your spirit to Flow effortlessly and timelessly.

- Pleasantly watch miracles pour daily through your life.

Steer your life towards radical new levels using innovative tools. Receive rich insights that actively transform your health, your career, and your relationships. John Salat’s personal experience freshly reveals this ancient knowledge to you with an intimate, artful Flow. His poetic, expressive, and meditative writing leads you through a warm spiritual journey of touching invisible, conscious streams. He explores Tao through an insightful personal story that unravels ancient secrets and leads you to explore a step by step series of guided contemplations in a fresh, new way.

For thousands of years, the organic knowledge of Tao (meaning “path”) has guided souls through an endless, serendipitous Flow. This living wisdom is energy that moves freely without our interference, because the world’s natural course carries this intelligence fluently with life’s balances of changing cycles. The mysterious philosophy of Tao is often sought from China’s Lao-Tzu’s writings of Tao Te Ching. This book, however, journeys beyond traditional writings by immersing you deep within your primordial awareness to reveal universal insights and inspiration for living in today’s contemporary world.

You will be touching everyday life situations responsibly through exploring a series of distinctions, open inquiries with warm reflective moments. This wisdom profoundly ignites while discovering your ways to hold this conscious path wide open. Through the natural course-ways, the soul begins powerfully to liberate and honor what it really needs. Accepting these magical synchronicities creates more than just meaningful coincidence; it taps intimately with having extraordinary experiences.

When pioneering human consciousness, we form as social innovators, visionaries and spiritual evolutionist. Whether you’re a coach, C.E.O, teacher or leader, this book profoundly opens fresh insights of laying these new foundations for your life. With this groundwork, the soul can expand having rich deep experiences, instead of letting these idle expressions rest quietly beneath our complex lives. Opportunities will further draw the soul inspirationally to touch life from a whole new world experience.

John Salat is a certified transformational leader, Chi Master, licensed architect, and signed musician. His meditative mediums are featured in many publications and broadcasted on both radio and television. He teaches weekly classes on effective communication skills, Tai Chi, Qigong, meditation, healing and Reiki. His clients include well-known actors, producers, writers, politicians and health practitioners. John Salat has traveled extensively throughout China and lives with his family in Southern California.

c. Cycles Of Change

The Seven Pillars of Tao

The origin of the cosmos
Is the eternal mother;
To grasp the mother is to know the child;
To know the child is to hold fast to the mother.
Then life becomes secure

 

By Lilian Too

The Seven Pillars of Tao

The origin of the cosmos
Is the eternal mother;
To grasp the mother is to know the child;
To know the child is to hold fast to the mother.
Then life becomes secure.

 

The term “mother” in Taoism is the formless aspect of the Tao, which can be viewed as the cosmic spiritual dimension. The term “child” refers to the worldly form we take. Both mother and child make up the multitude of shifting forms, and understanding one implies a comprehension of the true nature of the other and vice versa.
To neglect the mother is to cling only to material things and become obsessively attached to superficial forms and appearances. Perception of life becomes very shallow and unsatisfying. It leads to a life that can be meaningless.
To neglect the child is to despise the material world and focus only on the intangibles. Again this leads to a life that in the end is also meaningless.
For life to have meaning, we need to understand and appreciate both the formless world of the Cosmos (the mother energy) as well as the material world that comprises material things, forms and great abundance (the child energy). All of this is summarized in the 7 PILLARS OF TAO and only by appreciating these pillars of life and the origins of life can one control and steer one’s DESTINY towards a happy and meaningful life.

 

The 7 Pillars of Tao

  1. 1.   Concept of the 5 Elements: Everything in the universe can be categorized as one of the five elements. Taoism looks towards the “scientific” rather than the “divine” to explain the cycle of changes that characterize the natural and cosmic environments. In Chinese these five forces are called wu xing and this has roughly been translated as the five elements. The five elements are describes as metal, which signifies strength, wood, which signifies growth; water, which signifies flow, fire, which signifies ambition and earth which signifies the nurturing of the matriarch. Everything in the Universe falls into one of these five categories. Effective feng shui practice like Taoism is dependent on a profound understanding of the five elements and how they interact.
  2. 2.   Concept of Yin and Yang: Represents the polarity of forces: without one the other cannot exist. Taoism explains that the existence of all things is ONE manifesting two complimentary forms. Everything in the Cosmos comprises shifting forms that have life through the interaction of the polar forces of yin and yang. These forces or energies should be clearly recognized as two sides of the same coin, so that what is perceived at any single moment is merely one perception of the same thing. For example, yin and yang manifests as the sunless and sunny side of the same mountain.
  3. 3.   Concept of Non-Duality: Spiritual and material dimensions are one and the same. This is the first fundamental concept of the Tao. It is seamless, intangible and void so that everything that our senses perceive in the here and now are actually the same thing. This concept is similar to the Buddhist view of Emptiness, which states that form is void and void is form. To fully grasp the concept of non-duality, one needs to practice meditating on stillness and understanding this basic tenet of Taoism requires many hours of silent contemplation.
  4. 4.   Concept of Continuing Change: Nothing stays permanently the same, ever. Not even for a second. This fundamental truth lies at the very core of existence. Yet this dynamic, this constant flurry of activity does not lead to chaos, so that the ever changing remains forever unchanged! This seems like a contradiction in terms, but understanding this, you would begin to understand the way of the TAO and complete understanding of the TAO requires a fully qualified spiritual Master.
  5. 5.   Concept of Three Treasures: The semen, the breath and the spirit make up the three treasures. A deeper practice of the TAO requires an appreciation of the three treasures of existence and each of these treasures is said to have a cosmic counterpart making a total of six interacting treasures. The creation, nourishment and interplay of the six treasures contain the key to unlocking awesome “magical” abilities inherent within mankind’s potential. This prepares the way to the final achievement of the source.
  6. 6.   Concept of Aiming at the Lesser Goal: Because the ultimate goal is so difficult (return to the SOURCE) you do it step-by-step. Many Taoists are therefore happy to aim at the lesser goal, which is to attain increasingly profound realizations or intuitive insights into the true nature of existence. These realizations are almost always accompanied by sensations of intense bliss. Realizations of the “truth” bring a deepening of wisdom and generate feelings of joy and peace with the world.
  7. 7.   Concept of Returning to the Source: The ultimate goal of Taoist practice takes us into the realm of life after death, back to the source, which can mean different things to different practitioners. One definition is the attainment of Immortality, which we can suppose to be some spiritual type being who lives in a spiritual realm. Legend of course describes the Paradise of the Queen of the West, a seemingly inaccessible part of Earth, which is described as a place where everything is available in abundance. Another perhaps more profound definition of the source is that it is a goal so high it transcends all other goals conceived by man since beginningless time. Mere words cannot describe the indescribable state of returning back to the SOURCE of our true nature. It is so splendid, and it encompasses an immortality that is far beyond the power of all conception by mere mortals.
d. Heaven and Earth

Taoist philosophy forms the basis of Chinese culture.  I have been reading the writings of China’s greatest philosophers for over 45 years. There words are profound and subtle, and provide all the secrets of life, death, existence and non-existence, success and failure, heaven and hell, and health and disease.  I have compiled the key thoughts of some of these great masters, for myself and for you. This first compilaton is from the great early Taoist masters who contributed to the very foundation of Chinese culture and philosophy. These masters were all adepts at Life Cultivation, the art of radiant health and longevity. By carefully studying and meditating upon their words, you can glean the deep truths of  Tao, Yin and Yang, and the Three Treasures.

The Words of Zhou Jing

Jing, Qi and Shen activate the human being.  If they are not depleted they will work intrinsically to produce the substances needed to remain youthful.  The ancients have stated, “Heaven has three treasures — the sun, moon and stars.  Mankind has three treasures — Jing, Qi and Shen

e. Ritual

Overview About the Tao Religious Ritual Ceremony
 
To note, in the Taoist religion we are many religious rituals that we can implement in our daily lives, such as:
* Prayer Day Ceremony Greatness deities (Ri Ji Xian Shen Yi Shi Qing Dian)
At the time of the greatness of deities held ritual / ceremony in taokwan-taokwan/klenteng-klenteng. Used in this ceremony a large incense for ceremonial leaders and all the people of each using a small incense.
* Prayer Ceremony Wedding People Tao (Dao Jiao Shi Yi Jie Hun)
At this time the religious wedding ceremony can be held Tao is officially in some taokwan / temple.
* Prayer Ceremony Early Start Doing activities that Very Important (Falun Gong Kai Cheng Yi Shi)
In the Taoist religion, there is a kind of ritual to initiate an activity that is very important include: Launching a taokwan / temples, building dedication, prayers for peace and other countries. This ritual usually begins with a prayer to the Almighty God (Thien Kung)
* Moving Prayer Ceremony (Nuan Wu Yi Shi)
This ceremony is a rite of blessing for the new people who moved house, so that residents get warmth, fortune, health and protection of the Lord (Thien Kung) and deities.
* Ceremony Dao Yin / Initiation (Dao Yin Yi Shi)
Tao religion because that is thousands of years old certainly has a lot of flow. This flows naturally give rise to a variety of colleges that have their own rules. Dao Yin ceremony usually done as a way of initiation reception in one of the universities Taoist religion.
* New Prayer Ceremony Sites (Kai Guang Yi Shi)
Kai Guang ceremony performed when there are people who inaugurated the temple altar for prayer.
* Ceremony Cleaning House (Wu Xi Qu Yi Xie Shi)
In human life can not be denied that a lot of strange events that befall. Such as the presence of residents who often encounter interference from another dimension that can not be explained logically. To overcome this, Wu Xi ritual is performed.
* Ceremony antidote Annual Bala (Bao Yun Yi Shi)
Hua tribe in trust, the fate of mankind every year it’s always changing. We do not know whether that will be passed this year will be good or bad. Therefore in every Lunar New Year, temples held a ceremony rod reinforcements.
* Ceremony Reconciling Marrieds (He he Yi Shi)
This ceremony is a ceremony to reconcile marital relationship in order to create a less harmonious marital relationship back good so that peace can be created household.
* Apply for Extension of Age Ceremony (Yan Shou Yi Shi)
Yan Shou’s ceremony include unique ceremony performed in Taoist ritual, perhaps because religion is about 5000 years old. The ceremony is performed to invoke the extended life to the Almighty God and deities in an effort to help someone who is very ill to be cured and live longer.
* Ceremony pleading child (Qiu Shi Zi Yi)
Descent is an important thing in human life. The ceremony is held to invoke the child for married couples who have difficulty having children.
* Less than a month baby celebration ceremony (Man Yue Yi Shi)
Man Yue is a thanksgiving ritual performed by Taoists when even a month old baby
* The recognition ceremony foster child god (Guo Fang Yi Shi)
Guo Fang / Kwee Pang is the term that we often hear in the Hua tribe. Children who are sickly or have poor luck usually circumvented by kwee pang (raised pups to others). But the Taoist religion should kwee lap child right to the deities, as deities will be able to protect and keep the child rather than humans.
* Ceremony insert the corpse into the coffin (Ru Yi Lian Shi)
* Delivery ceremony the spirits of people who died (Chao Du Yi Shi)
This ritual is a prayer ceremony to usher in the spirit of the recently deceased, usually done at night ‘flower’, the night before the burial. All the children and grandchildren participate in this ritual.
* Went to the burial ceremony (Chu Shi Yi Bin)
* Funeral casket drop (Xia Zang Yi Shi)
* Ceremony Sowing Abu body (Sa Gu Hui Yi Shi)
For the corpse was not buried, but burned, the ashes are sown in the crystal clear sea so that our children and grandchildren get a good brightness and hockey.
* Ceremony move graves (Zang Yi Qian Shi)
Move the graves or tombs to dismantle the remnants of burned body is that sometimes can not be avoided in this modern era such as taxable evicted. The ceremony is also usually done if the family know that the graves of his ancestors did not get a good hong sui so moved to a nicer suinya hong.
* Ceremony sublimation spirits (Lien Hun Yi Jie Du Shi)
Life and death is normal / natural. There are times when the spirits of our loved ones having problems in there nature.
The ceremony was in the Taoist religion is an ancient ritual that is done with the aim of helping spirits who experience unfavorable circumstances there applied to God in order to be helped to be given a good place.
That is some ritual ceremonies in the Taoist religion which we can use our lives for the better.

 

Original info

 

Untuk diketahui, dalam agama Tao kita terdapat banyak upacara ritual keagamaan yang bisa kita implementasikan dalam kehidupan kita sehari-hari, diantaranya adalah :

* Upacara Doa Hari Kebesaran Dewa-Dewi (Shen Xian Ji Ri Qing Dian Yi Shi)

Pada saat hari kebesaran Dewa-Dewi diadakan ritual/upacara di taokwan-taokwan/klenteng-klenteng. Dalam upacara ini biasa digunakan satu hio besar untuk pemimpin upacara dan seluruh umat masing-masing menggunakan satu hio kecil.

* Upacara Doa Pernikahan Umat Tao (Dao Jiao Jie Hun Yi Shi)

Pada saat ini upacara pernikahan secara agama Tao sudah dapat dilaksanakan secara resmi di beberapa taokwan/kelenteng.

* Upacara Doa Awal Mulai Melakukan Kegiatan yang Sangat Penting (Gong Cheng Kai Gong Yi Shi)

Dalam agama Tao, ada semacam ritual untuk mengawali suatu kegiatan yang sangat penting antara lain : Peresmian sebuah taokwan/kelenteng, peresmian gedung, doa bersama untuk kedamaian negara dan lain-lain. Biasanya ritual ini dimulai dengan sembahyang kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa (Thien Kung)

* Upacara Doa Pindah Rumah (Nuan Wu Yi Shi)

Upacara ini adalah ritual pemberkatan untuk umat yang pindah rumah baru, agar penghuni rumah mendapatkan kehangatan, rejeki, kesehatan dan perlindungan dari Tuhan (Thien Kung) dan Dewa-Dewi.

* Upacara Dao Yin/Inisiasi (Dao Yin Yi Shi)

Agama Tao karena umurnya yang sudah ribuan tahun tentu saja mempunyai banyak aliran. Aliran-aliran ini tentu saja menimbulkan berbagai perguruan yang mempunyai aturan sendiri-sendiri. Upacara Dao Yin biasa dilakukan sebagai cara inisiasi penerimaan di salah satu perguruan-perguruan agama Tao.

* Upacara Peresmian Tempat Sembahyang Baru (Kai Guang Yi Shi)

Upacara Kai Guang dilakukan bila ada umat kelenteng yang meresmikan altar untuk sembahyang.

* Upacara Pembersihan Rumah (Xi Wu Qu Xie Yi Shi)

Dalam kehidupan manusia memang tidak bisa dipungkiri bahwa banyak kejadian-kejadian aneh yang menimpa. Seperti misalnya adanya penghuni rumah yang sering mengalami gangguan dari dimensi lain yang tidak bisa dijelaskan secara logika. Untuk mengatasi hal ini, ritual Xi Wu inilah yang dilakukan.

* Upacara Penangkal Bala Tahunan (Bao Yun Yi Shi)

Dalam kepercayaan suku Hua, nasib manusia setiap tahun itu selalu berubah-ubah. Kita tidak tahu apakah tahun yang akan dilalui ini akan baik atau buruk. Oleh karena itu di setiap pergantian tahun Imlek, kelenteng-kelenteng mengadakan suatu upacara penangkal bala.

* Upacara Merukunkan Suami-Istri (He he Yi Shi)

Upacara ini adalah upacara untuk merukunkan kembali hubungan suami istri yang kurang harmonis agar tercipta kembali hubungan suami istri yang baik sehingga ketentraman rumah tangga dapat tercipta.

* Upacara Memohon Perpanjangan Umur (Yan Shou Yi Shi)

Upacara Yan Shou ini termasuk upacara unik yang dilakukan dalam ritual agama Tao, mungkin karena agama ini sudah berumur sekitar 5000 tahun. Upacara ini dilakukan untuk memohon perpanjangan umur kepada Tuhan Yang Maha Esa dan Dewa-Dewi sebagai usaha untuk menolong seseorang yang sedang sakit keras untuk dapat sembuh dan berumur lebih panjang.

* Upacara memohon anak (Qiu Zi Yi Shi)

Keturunan merupakan suatu hal penting dalam kehidupan manusia. Upacara ini dilaksanakan untuk memohon anak bagi pasangan suami istri yang sulit mendapatkan anak.

* Upacara syukuran bayi genap sebulan (Man Yue Yi Shi)

Man Yue adalah ritual syukuran yang dilakukan oleh umat Tao ketika bayinya genap berumur satu bulan

* Upacara pengakuan anak angkat dewa (Guo Fang Yi Shi)

Guo Fang/Kwee Pang adalah istilah yang sering kita dengar dalam suku Hua. Anak-anak yang sakit-sakitan atau yang mempunyai nasib kurang baik biasanya disiasati dengan kwee pang(diangkat anakkan kepada orang lain). Tapi dalam agama Tao sebaiknya anak di kwee pang kan kepada Dewa-Dewi, karena Dewa-Dewi akan lebih bisa melindungi dan menjaga anak tersebut daripada manusia.

* Upacara memasukkan jenazah ke dalam peti (Ru Lian Yi Shi)

* Upacara pengantaran arwah orang yang baru meninggal (Chao Du Yi Shi)

Ritual ini adalah upacara doa untuk mengantarkan arwah orang yang baru meninggal, biasanya dilakukan pada malam ‘kembang’, malam sebelum dikuburkan. Semua anak dan cucu ikut dalam ritual ini.

* Upacara berangkat ke penguburan (Chu Bin Yi Shi)

* Upacara penguburan penurunan peti (Xia Zang Yi Shi)

* Upacara Penaburan Abu Jenazah (Sa Gu Hui Yi Shi)

Bagi jenazah yang tidak dikubur namun dibakar, abu jenazah ditabur di laut yang jernih agar anak cucu mendapatkan kecerahan dan hoki yang bagus.

* Upacara pindah kuburan (Qian Zang Yi Shi)

Memindahkan kuburan atau membongkar kuburan untuk dibakar sisa-sisa jenazahnya merupakan hal yang kadang tidak bisa dihindari pada jaman modern ini seperti kena gusur misalnya. Upacara ini juga biasa dilakukan apabila keluarga yang ditinggalkan mengetahui kalau kuburan nenek moyangnya tidak mendapat hong sui yang bagus sehingga dipindahkan ke tempat yang hong suinya lebih bagus.

* Upacara sublimasi arwah (Lien Hun Du Jie Yi Shi)

Kehidupan dan kematian merupakan hal yang wajar/alamiah. Ada kalanya arwah orang yang kita cintai mengalami kendala di alam sana.

Upacara ini dalam agama Tao adalah sebuah ritual kuno yang dilakukan dengan tujuan menolong arwah yang mengalami keadaan kurang baik disana dimohonkan kepada Dewa agar dapat ditolong untuk diberikan tempat yang baik.

Itulah beberapa ritual upacara dalam agama Tao yang dapat kita gunakan agar kehidupan kita menjadi lebih baik lagi.

f. The mystical Power Of Calligraphy

 

g.Secret Practices

h.The Realm Of The Immortal

 

 

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

3.5.DISCUSS

Based on the above findings it can be concluded motif artwork Chinese kingdoms found in Indonesia as follows

Berdasarkan hasil temuan tersebut diatas dapat disimpulkan motif karya seni kerajaan Tiongkok yang ditemukan di Indonesia sebagai berikut

 

.3.5.1. RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

1.)     motif Taoism

Xian (Taoism)

This article is about Daoist immortals. For other uses, see Xian (disambiguation). Xian (Chinese: //; pinyin: xiān; Wade–Giles: hsien) is a Chinese word for an enlightened person, translatable in English as:

  • “spiritually immortal; transcendent; super-human; celestial being” (in Daoist/Taoist philosophy and cosmology)
  • “physically immortal; immortal person; immortalist; saint” (in Daoist religion and pantheon)
  • “alchemist; one who seeks the elixir of life; one who practices longevity techniques” or by extension “(alchemical, dietary, qigong) methods for attaining immortality” (in Chinese alchemy)
  • “wizard; magician; shaman” (in Chinese mythology)
  • “genie; elf, fairy; nymph” (in popular Chinese literature, 仙境 xian jing is “fairyland”, Faerie)
  • “sage living high in the mountains; mountain-man; hermit; recluse” (folk etymology for the character )
  • “immortal (talent); accomplished person; celestial (beauty); marvelous; extraordinary” (metaphorical modifier)

Xian semantically developed from meaning spiritual “immortality; enlightenment”, to physical “immortality; longevity” involving methods such as alchemy, breath meditation, and T’ai chi ch’uan, and eventually to legendary and figurative “immortality”.

The xian archetype is described by Victor H. Mair.

They are immune to heat and cold, untouched by the elements, and can fly, mounting upward with a fluttering motion. They dwell apart from the chaotic world of man, subsist on air and dew, are not anxious like ordinary people, and have the smooth skin and innocent faces of children. The transcendents live an effortless existence that is best described as spontaneous. They recall the ancient Indian ascetics and holy men known as ṛṣi who possessed similar traits.1994:376

The word xian[edit]

The most famous Chinese compound of xiān is Bāxiān (八仙 “the Eight Immortals“). Other common words include xiānrén (仙人 sennin in Japanese, “immortal person; transcendent”, see Xiānrén Dòng), xiānrénzhăng (仙人掌 “immortal’s palm; cactus“), xiānnǚ (仙女 “immortal woman; female celestial; angel”), and shénxiān (神仙 “gods and immortals; divine immortal”). Besides humans, xiān can also refer to supernatural animals. The mythological húlijīng 狐狸精 (lit. “fox spirit”) “fox fairy; vixen; witch; enchantress” has an alternate name of húxiān 狐仙 (lit. “fox immortal”).

The etymology of xiān remains uncertain. The circa 200 CE Shiming, a Chinese dictionary that provided word-pun “etymologies”, defines xiān () as “to get old and not die,” and explains it as someone who qiān ( “moves into”) the mountains.”

Edward H. Schafer (1966:204) defined xian as “transcendent, sylph (a being who, through alchemical, gymnastic and other disciplines, has achieved a refined and perhaps immortal body, able to fly like a bird beyond the trammels of the base material world into the realms of aether, and nourish himself on air and dew.)” Schafer noted xian was cognate to xian “soar up”, qian “remove”, and xianxian 僊僊 “a flapping dance movement”; and compared Chinese yuren 羽人 “feathered man; xian” with English peri “a fairy or supernatural being in Persian mythology” (Persian pari from par “feather; wing”).

Two linguistic hypotheses for the etymology of xian involve the Arabic language and Sino-Tibetan languages. Wu and Davis (1935:224) suggested the source was jinn, or jinnigenie” (from Arabic جني jinnī). “The marvelous powers of the Hsien are so like those of the jinni of the Arabian Nights that one wonders whether the Arabic word, jinn, may not be derived from the Chinese Hsien.” Axel Schuessler’s etymological dictionary (2007:527) suggests a Sino-Tibetan connection between xiān (Old Chinese *san or *sen) “‘An immortal’ … men and women who attain supernatural abilities; after death they become immortals and deities who can fly through the air” and Tibetan gšen < g-syen “shaman, one who has supernatural abilities, incl[uding] travel through the air”.

The character and its variants[edit]

The word xiān is written with three characters , , or , which combine the logographic “radicalrén ( or “person; human”) with two “phonetic” elements (see Chinese character classification). The oldest recorded xiān character has a xiān (“rise up; ascend”) phonetic supposedly because immortals could “ascend into the heavens”. (Compare qiān “move; transfer; change” combining this phonetic and the motion radical.) The usual modern xiān character , and its rare variant , have a shān ( “mountain”) phonetic. For a character analysis, Schipper (1993:164) interprets “‘the human being of the mountain,’ or alternatively, ‘human mountain.’ The two explanations are appropriate to these beings: they haunt the holy mountains, while also embodying nature.”

The Shijing (220/3) contains the oldest occurrence of the character , reduplicated as xiānxiān (僊僊 “dance lightly; hop about; jump around”), and rhymed with qiān (). “But when they have drunk too much, Their deportment becomes light and frivolous—They leave their seats, and [] go elsewhere, They keep [僊僊] dancing and capering.” (tr. James Legge)[1] Needham and Wang (1956:134) suggest xian was cognate with wu “shamanic” dancing. Paper (1995:55) writes, “the function of the term xian in a line describing dancing may be to denote the height of the leaps. Since, “to live for a long time” has no etymological relation to xian, it may be a later accretion.”

The 121 CE Shuowen Jiezi, the first important dictionary of Chinese characters, does not enter except in the definition for 偓佺 (Wo Quan “name of an ancient immortal”). It defines as “live long and move away” and as “appearance of a person on a mountaintop”.

Textual references[edit]

This section chronologically reviews how Chinese texts describe xian “immortals; transcendents”. While the early Zhuangzi, Chuci, and Liezi texts allegorically used xian immortals and magic islands to describe spiritual immortality, later ones like the Shenxian zhuan and Baopuzi took immortality literally and described esoteric Chinese alchemical techniques for physical longevity. On one the hand, neidan (內丹 “internal alchemy”) techniques included taixi (胎息 “embryo respiration”) breath control, meditation, visualization, sexual training, and Tao Yin exercises (which later evolved into Qigong and T’ai chi ch’uan). On the other hand, waidan (外丹 “external alchemy”) techniques for immortality included alchemical recipes, magic plants, rare minerals, herbal medicines, drugs, and dietetic techniques like inedia.

The earliest representations of Chinese immortals, dating from the Han Dynasty, portray them flying with feathery wings (the word yuren 羽人 “feathered person” later meant “Daoist”) or riding dragons. In Chinese art, xian are often pictured with symbols of immortality including the dragon, crane, fox, white deer, pine tree, peach, and mushroom.

 

 

Xian riding dragons[1]

 

Paintings of xian by Soga Shōhaku 曾我蕭白, ca. 1760.

Besides the following major Chinese texts, many others use both graphic variants of xian. Xian () occurs in the Chunqiu Fanlu, Fengsu Tongyi, Qian fu lun, Fayan, and Shenjian; xian () occurs in the Caizhong langji, Fengsu Tongyi, Guanzi, and Shenjian.

Zhuangzi[edit]

Two circa 3rd century BCE “Outer Chapters” of the Zhuangzi (莊子 “[Book of] Master Zhuang”) use the archaic character xian . Chapter 11 has a parable about “Cloud Chief” ()  and “Big Concealment” (鴻濛) that uses the Shijing compound xianxian (“dance; jump”):

Big Concealment said, “If you confuse the constant strands of Heaven and violate the true form of things, then Dark Heaven will reach no fulfillment. Instead, the beasts will scatter from their herds, the birds will cry all night, disaster will come to the grass and trees, misfortune will reach even to the insects. Ah, this is the fault of men who ‘govern’!”
“Then what should I do?” said Cloud Chief.
“Ah,” said Big Concealment, “you are too far gone! [
僊僊] Up, up, stir yourself and be off!”
Cloud Chief said, “Heavenly Master, it has been hard indeed for me to meet with you—I beg one word of instruction!”
“Well, then—mind‑nourishment!” said Big Concealment. “You have only to rest in inaction and things will transform themselves. Smash your form and body, spit out hearing and eyesight, forget you are a thing among other things, and you may join in great unity with the deep and boundless. Undo the mind, slough off spirit, be blank and soulless, and the ten thousand things one by one will return to the root—return to the root and not know why. Dark and undifferentiated chaos—to the end of life none will depart from it. But if you try to know it, you have already departed from it. Do not ask what its name is, do not try to observe its form. Things will live naturally end of themselves.”
Cloud Chief said, “The Heavenly Master has favored me with this Virtue, instructed me in this Silence. All my life I have been looking for it, and now at last I have it!” He bowed his head twice, stood up, took his leave, and went away. (11, tr. Burton Watson 1968:122-3)

Chapter 12 uses xian when mythical Emperor Yao describes a shengren ( “sagely person”).

The true sage is a quail at rest, a little fledgling at its meal, a bird in flight who leaves no trail behind. When the world has the Way, he joins in the chorus with all other things. When the world is without the Way, he nurses his Virtue and retires in leisure. And after a thousand years, should he weary of the world, he will leave it and [] ascend to [] the immortals, riding on those white clouds all the way up to the village of God. (12, tr. Watson 1968:130)

Without using the word xian, several Zhuangzi passages employ xian imagery, like flying in the clouds, to describe individuals with superhuman powers. For example, Chapter 1, within the circa 3rd century BCE “Inner Chapters”, has two portrayals. First is this description of Liezi (below).

Lieh Tzu could ride the wind and go soaring around with cool and breezy skill, but after fifteen days he came back to earth. As far as the search for good fortune went, he didn’t fret and worry. He escaped the trouble of walking, but he still had to depend on something to get around. If he had only mounted on the truth of Heaven and Earth, ridden the changes of the six breaths, and thus wandered through the boundless, then what would he have had to depend on? Therefore I say, the Perfect Man has no self; the Holy Man has no merit; the Sage has no fame. (1, tr. Watson 1968:32)

Second is this description of a shenren (神人 “divine person”).

He said that there is a Holy Man living on faraway [姑射] Ku-she Mountain, with skin like ice or snow, and gentle and shy like a young girl. He doesn’t eat the five grains, but sucks the wind, drinks the dew, climbs up on the clouds and mist, rides a flying dragon, and wanders beyond the four seas. By concentrating his spirit, he can protect creatures from sickness and plague and make the harvest plentiful. (1, tr. Watson 1968:33)

The authors of the Zhuangzi had a lyrical view of life and death, seeing them as complimentary aspects of natural changes. This is antithetical to the physical immortality (changshengbulao 長生不老 “live forever and never age”) sought by later Daoist alchemists. Consider this famous passage about accepting death.

Chuang Tzu’s wife died. When Hui Tzu went to convey his condolences, he found Chuang Tzu sitting with his legs sprawled out, pounding on a tub and singing. “You lived with her, she brought up your children and grew old,” said Hui Tzu. “It should be enough simply not to weep at her death. But pounding on a tub and singing—this is going too far, isn’t it?” Chuang Tzu said, “You’re wrong. When she first died, do you think I didn’t grieve like anyone else? But I looked back to her beginning and the time before she was born. Not only the time before she was born, but the time before she had a body. Not only the time before she had a body, but the time before she had a spirit. In the midst of the jumble of wonder and mystery a change took place and she had a spirit. Another change and she had a body. Another change and she was born. Now there’s been another change and she’s dead. It’s just like the progression of the four seasons, spring, summer, fall, winter.”
“Now she’s going to lie down peacefully in a vast room. If I were to follow after her bawling and sobbing, it would show that I don’t understand anything about fate. So I stopped. (18, tr. Watson 1968:191–2)

Alan Fox explains this anecdote about Zhuangzi’s wife.

Many conclusions can be reached on the basis of this story, but it seems that death is regarded as a natural part of the ebb and flow of transformations which constitute the movement of Dao. To grieve over death, or to fear one’s own death, for that matter, is to arbitrarily evaluate what is inevitable. Of course, this reading is somewhat ironic given the fact that much of the subsequent Daoist tradition comes to seek longevity and immortality, and bases some of their basic models on the Zhuangzi. (1995:100)

Chuci[edit]

 

 

The supposed “footprint of a xian“, a little pond in Guangzhou’s Temple of the Five Immortals

The 3rd-2nd century BCE Chuci (楚辭 “Lyrics of Chu”) anthology of poems uses xian once and xian twice, reflecting the disparate origins of the text. These three contexts mention the legendary Daoist xian immortals Chi Song (赤松Red Pine“, see Kohn 1993:142–4) and Wang Qiao (王僑, or Zi Qiao 子僑). In later Daoist hagiography, Chi Song was Lord of Rain under Shennong, the legendary inventor of agriculture; and Wang Qiao was a son of King Ling of Zhou (r. 571–545 BCE), who flew away on a giant white bird, became an immortal and was never again seen.

The “Yuan You” (遠遊 “Far-off Journey”) poem describes a spiritual journey into the realms of gods and immortals, frequently referring to Daoist myths and techniques.

My spirit darted forth and did not return to me,
And my body, left tenantless, grew withered and lifeless.
Then I looked into myself to strengthen my resolution,
And sought to learn from where the primal spirit issues.
In emptiness and silence I found serenity;
In tranquil inaction I gained true satisfaction.
I heard how once Red Pine had washed the world’s dust off:
I would model myself on the pattern he had left me.
I honoured the wondrous powers of the [
真人] Pure Ones,
And those of past ages who had become [
] Immortals.
They departed in the flux of change and vanished from men’s sight,
Leaving a famous name that endures after them. (tr. Hawkes 1985:194)

The “Xi shi” (惜誓 “Sorrow for Troth Betrayed”) resembles the “Yuan You“, and both reflect Daoist ideas from the Han period. “Though unoriginal in theme,” says Hawkes (1985:239), “its description of air travel, written in a pre-aeroplane age, is exhilarating and rather impressive.”

We gazed down of the Middle Land [China] with its myriad people
As we rested on the whirlwind, drifting about at random.
In this way we came at last to the moor of Shao-yuan:
There, with the other blessed ones, were Red Pine and Wang Qiao.
The two Masters held zithers tuned in perfect concord:
I sang the Qing Shang air to their playing.
In tranquil calm and quiet enjoyment,
Gently I floated, inhaling all the essences.
But then I thought that this immortal life of [
] the blessed,
Was not worth the sacrifice of my home-returning. (tr. Hawkes 1985:240)

The “Ai shi ming” (哀時命 “Alas That My Lot Was Not Cast”) describes a celestial journey similar to the previous two.

Far and forlorn, with no hope of return:
Sadly I gaze in the distance, over the empty plain.
Below, I fish in the valley streamlet;
Above, I seek out [
] holy hermits.
I enter into friendship with Red Pine;
I join Wang Qiao as his companion. We send the Xiao Yang in front to guide us;
The White Tiger runs back and forth in attendance.
Floating on the cloud and mist, we enter the dim height of heaven;
Riding on the white deer we sport and take our pleasure. tr. Hawkes 1985:266)

The “Li Sao” (離騷 “On Encountering Trouble”), the most famous Chuci poem, is usually interpreted as describing ecstatic flights and trance techniques of Chinese shamans. The above three poems are variations describing Daoist xian.

Some other Chuci poems refer to immortals with synonyms of xian. For instance, “Shou zhi” (守志 “Maintaining Resolution), uses zhenren (真人 “true person”, tr. “Pure Ones” above in “Yuan You“), which Wang Yi’s commentary glosses as zhen xianren (真仙人 “true immortal person”).

I visited Fu Yue, bestriding a dragon,
Joined in marriage with the Weaving Maiden,
Lifted up Heaven’s Net to capture evil,
Drew the Bow of Heaven to shoot at wickedness,
Followed the [
真人] Immortals fluttering through the sky,
Ate of the Primal Essence to prolong my life. (tr. Hawkes 1985:318)

Liezi[edit]

The Liezi (列子 “[Book of] Master Lie”), which Louis Komjathy (2004:36) says “was probably compiled in the 3rd century CE (while containing earlier textual layers)”, uses xian four times, always in the compound xiansheng (仙聖 “immortal sage”).

Nearly half of Chapter 2 (“The Yellow Emperor“) comes from the Zhuangzi, including this recounting of the above fable about Mount Gushe (姑射, or Guye, or Miao Gushe 藐姑射).

The Ku-ye mountains stand on a chain of islands where the Yellow River enters the sea. Upon the mountains there lives a Divine Man, who inhales the wind and drinks the dew, and does not eat the five grains. His mind is like a bottomless spring, his body is like a virgin’s. He knows neither intimacy nor love, yet [仙聖] immortals and sages serve him as ministers. He inspires no awe, he is never angry, yet the eager and diligent act as his messengers. He is without kindness and bounty, but others have enough by themselves; he does not store and save, but he himself never lacks. The Yin and Yang are always in tune, the sun and moon always shine, the four seasons are always regular, wind and rain are always temperate, breeding is always timely, the harvest is always rich, and there are no plagues to ravage the land, no early deaths to afflict men, animals have no diseases, and ghosts have no uncanny echoes. (tr. Graham 1960:35)

Chapter 5 uses xiansheng three times in a conversation set between legendary rulers Tang () of the Shang Dynasty and Ji () of the Xia Dynasty.

T’ang asked again: ‘Are there large things and small, long and short, similar and different?’
—’To the East of the Gulf of Chih-li, who knows how many thousands and millions of miles, there is a deep ravine, a valley truly without bottom; and its bottomless underneath is named “The Entry to the Void”. The waters of the eight corners and the nine regions, the stream of the Milky Way, all pour into it, but it neither shrinks nor grows. Within it there are five mountains, called Tai-yü, Yüan-chiao, Fang-hu, Ying-chou and P’eng-Iai. These mountains are thirty thousand miles high, and as many miles round; the tablelands on their summits extend for nine thousand miles. It is seventy thousand miles from one mountain to the next, but they are considered close neighbours. The towers and terraces upon them are all gold and jade, the beasts and birds are all unsullied white; trees of pearl and garnet always grow densely, flowering and bearing fruit which is always luscious, and those who eat of it never grow old and die. The men who dwell there are all of the race of [
仙聖] immortal sages, who fly, too many to be counted, to and from one mountain to another in a day and a night. Yet the bases of the five mountains used to rest on nothing; they were always rising and falling, going and returning, with the ebb and flow of the tide, and never for a moment stood firm. The [仙聖] immortals found this troublesome, and complained about it to God. God was afraid that they would drift to the far West and he would lose the home of his sages. So he commanded Yü-ch’iang to make fifteen [] giant turtles carry the five mountains on their lifted heads, taking turns in three watches, each sixty thousand years long; and for the first time the mountains stood firm and did not move.
‘But there was a giant from the kingdom of the Dragon Earl, who came to the place of the five mountains in no more than a few strides. In one throw he hooked six of the turtles in a bunch, hurried back to his country carrying them together on his back, and scorched their bones to tell fortunes by the cracks. Thereupon two of the mountains, Tai-yü and Yüan-chiao, drifted to the far North and sank in the great sea; the [
仙聖] immortals who were carried away numbered many millions. God was very angry, and reduced by degrees the size of the Dragon Earl’s kingdom and the height of his subjects. At the time of Fu-hsi and Shen-nung, the people of this country were still several hundred feet high.’ (tr. Graham 1960:97–8)

Penglai Mountain became the most famous of these five mythical peaks where the elixir of life supposedly grew, and is known as Horai in Japanese legends. The first emperor Qin Shi Huang sent his court alchemist Xu Fu on expeditions to find these plants of immortality, but he never returned (although by some accounts, he discovered Japan).

Holmes Welch (1957:88–97) analyzed the beginnings of Daoism, sometime around the 4th-3rd centuries BCE, from four separate streams: philosophical Daoism (Laozi, Zhuangzi, Liezi), a “hygiene school” that cultivated longevity through breathing exercises and yoga, Chinese alchemy and Five Elements philosophy, and those who sought Penglai and elixirs of “immortality”. This is what he concludes about xian.

It is my own opinion, therefore, that though the word hsien, or Immortal, is used by Chuang Tzu and Lieh Tzu, and though they attributed to their idealized individual the magic powers that were attributed to the hsien in later times, nonetheless the hsien ideal was something they did not believe in—either that it was possible or that it was good. The magic powers are allegories and hyperboles for the natural powers that come from identification with Tao. Spiritualized Man, P’eng-lai, and the rest are features of a genre which is meant to entertain, disturb, and exalt us, not to be taken as literal hagiography. Then and later, the philosophical Taoists were distinguished from all other schools of Taoism by their rejection of the pursuit of immortality. As we shall see, their books came to be adopted as scriptural authority by those who did practice magic and seek to become immortal. But it was their misunderstanding of philosophical Taoism that was the reason they adopted it. (Welch 1957:95)

Shenxian zhuan[edit]

 

 

An immortal riding a tortoise. A Han Dynasty painting

The Shenxian zhuan (神仙傳 Biographies of Spirit Immortals”) is a hagiography of xian. Although it was traditionally attributed to Ge Hong (283–343 CE), Komjathy (2004:43) says, “The received versions of the text contain some 100-odd hagiographies, most of which date from 6th-8th centuries at the earliest.”

According to the Shenxian zhuan, there are four schools of immortality:

(—“Pneumas”): Breath control and meditation. Those who belong to this school can

“…blow on water and it will flow against its own current for several paces; blow on fire, and it will be extinguished; blow at tigers or wolves, and they will crouch down and not be able to move; blow at serpents, and they will coil up and be unable to flee. If someone is wounded by a weapon, blow on the wound, and the bleeding will stop. If you hear of someone who has suffered a poisonous insect bite, even if you are not in his presence, you can, from a distance, blow and say in incantation over your own hand (males on the left hand, females on the right), and the person will at once be healed even if more than a hundred li away. And if you yourself are struck by a sudden illness, you have merely to swallow pneumas in three series of nine, and you will immediately recover.
But the most essential thing [among such arts] is fetal breathing. Those who obtain [the technique of] fetal breathing become able to breathe without using their nose or mouth, as if in the womb, and this is the culmination of the way [of pneumatic cultivation].” (Campany 2002:21)

Fàn (—“Diet”): Ingestion of herbal compounds and abstention from the Sān Shī Fàn (三尸—“Three-Corpses food”)—Meats (raw fish, pork, dog, leeks, and scallions) and grains. The Shenxian zhuan uses this story to illustrate the importance of bigu “grain avoidance”:

“During the reign of Emperor Cheng of the Han, hunters in the Zhongnan Mountains saw a person who wore no clothes, his body covered with black hair. Upon seeing this person, the hunters wanted to pursue and capture him, but the person leapt over gullies and valleys as if in flight, and so could not be overtaken. [But after being surrounded and captured, it was discovered this person was a 200 plus year old woman, who had once been a concubine of Qin Emperor Ziying. When he had surrendered to the ‘invaders of the east’, she fled into the mountains where she learned to subside on ‘the resin and nuts of pines’ from an old man. Afterwards, this diet ‘enabled [her] to feel neither hunger nor thirst; in winter [she] was not cold, in summer [she] was not hot.’]
The hunters took the woman back in. They offered her grain to eat. When she first smelled the stink of grain, she vomited, and only after several days could she tolerate it. After little more than two years of this [diet], her body hair fell out; she turned old and died. Had she not been caught by men, she would have become a transcendent.” (Campany 2002:22–23)

Fángzhōng Zhī Shù (房中之—“Arts of the Bedchamber”): Sexual yoga. (Campany 2002:30–31) According to a discourse between the Yellow Emperor and the immortaless Sùnǚ (素女—“Plain Girl”), one of the three daughters of Hsi Wang Mu,

“The sexual behaviors between a man and woman are identical to how the universe itself came into creation. Like Heaven and Earth, the male and female share a parallel relationship in attaining an immortal existence. They both must learn how to engage and develop their natural sexual instincts and behaviors; otherwise the only result is decay and traumatic discord of their physical lives. However, if they engage in the utmost joys of sensuality and apply the principles of yin and yang to their sexual activity, their health, vigor, and joy of love will bear them the fruits of longevity and immortality. (Hsi 2002:99–100)

The White Tigress Manual, a treatise on female sexual yoga, states,

“A female can completely restore her youthfulness and attain immortality if she refrains from allowing just one or two men in her life from stealing and destroying her [sexual] essence, which will only serve in aging her at a rapid rate and bring about an early death. However, if she can acquire the sexual essence of a thousand males through absorption, she will acquire the great benefits of youthfulness and immortality.” (Hsi 2001:48)

Dān (—”Alchemy“, literally “Cinnabar“): Elixir of Immortality.(Campany 2002:31)

Baopuzi[edit]

The 4th century CE Baopuzi (抱朴子 “[Book of] Master Embracing Simplicity”), which was written by Ge Hong, gives some highly detailed descriptions of xian.

The text lists three classes of immortals:

Tiānxiān (天仙—“Celestial Immortal”): The highest level.

Dìxiān (地仙—“Earth Immortal”): The middle level.

Shījiě xiān (尸解仙—”Escaped-by-means-of-a-stimulated-corpse-simulacrum Immortal”, literally “Corpse Untie Immortal”): The lowest level. This is considered the lowest form of immortality since a person must first “fake” their own death by substituting a bewitched object like a bamboo pole, sword, talisman or a shoe for their corpse or slipping a type of Death certificate into the coffin of a newly departed paternal grandfather, thus having their name and “allotted life span” deleted from the ledgers kept by the Sīmìng (司命—”Director of allotted life spans”, literally “Controller of Fate”). Hagiographies and folktales abound of people who seemingly die in one province, but are seen alive in another. Mortals who choose this route must cut off all ties with family and friends, move to a distant province, and enact the Ling bao tai xuan yin sheng zhi fu (靈寳太玄隂生之符—“Numinous Treasure Talisman of the Grand Mystery for Living in Hiding”) to protect themselves from heavenly retribution. (Campany 2002:52–60)

However, this is not a true form of immortality. For each misdeed a person commits, the Director of allotted life spans subtracts days and sometimes years from their allotted life span. This method allows a person to live out the entirety of their allotted lifespan (whether it be 30, 80, 400, etc.) and avoid the agents of death. But the body still has to be transformed into an immortal one, hence the phrase Xiānsǐ hòutuō (先死後脱—“The ‘death’ is apparent, [but] the sloughing off of the body’s mortality remains to be done.”)

Sometimes the Shījiě are employed by heaven to act as celestial peace keepers. Therefore, they have no need for hiding from retribution since they are empowered by heaven to perform their duties. There are three levels of heavenly Shījiě:

Dìxià zhǔ (地下主—“Agents Beneath the Earth”): Are in charge of keeping the peace within the Chinese underworld. They are eligible for promotion to earthbound immortality after 280 years of faithful service.

Dìshàng zhǔzhě (地上主者—”Agents Above the Earth”): Are given magic talismans which prolong their lives (but not indefinitely) and allow them to heal the sick and exorcize demons and evil spirits from the earth. This level was not eligible for promotion to earthbound immortality.

Zhìdì jūn (制地君—”Lords Who Control the Earth”): A heavenly decree ordered them to “disperse all subordinate junior demons, whether high or low [in rank], that have cause afflictions and injury owing to blows or offenses against the Motion of the Year, the Original Destiny, Great Year, the Kings of the Soil or the establishing or breaking influences of the chronograms of the tome. Annihilate them all.” This level was also not eligible for promotion to immortality.

These titles were usually given to humans who had either not proven themselves worthy of or were not fated to become immortals. One such famous agent was Fei Changfang, who was eventually murdered by evil spirits because he lost his book of magic talismans. However, some immortals are written to have used this method in order to escape execution. (Campany 2002:52–60)

Ge Hong wrote in his book The Master Who Embraces Simplicity,

The [immortals] Dark Girl and Plain Girl compared sexual activity as the intermingling of fire [yang/male] and water [yin/female], claiming that water and fire can kill people but can also regenerate their life, depending on whether or not they know the correct methods of sexual activity according to their nature. These arts are based on the theory that the more females a man copulates with, the greater benefit he will derive from the act. Men who are ignorant of this art, copulating with only one or two females during their life, will only suffice to bring about their untimely and early death. (Hsi 2001:48)

Zhong Lü Chuan Dao Ji[edit]

 

 

Hé (和) and Hé (合), the two “Immortals of Harmony and Unity”, associated with happy marriage, depicted in Changchun Temple, a Taoist temple in Wuhan

The Zhong Lü Chuan Dao Ji (鐘呂傳道集/钟吕传道集 “Anthology of the Transmission of the Dao from Zhong[li Quan] to Lü [Dongbin]”) is associated with Zhongli Quan (2nd century CE?) and Lü Dongbin (9th century CE), two of the legendary Eight Immortals. It is part of the so-called “Zhong-Lü” (鍾呂) textual tradition of internal alchemy (neidan). Komjathy (2004:57) describes it as, “Probably dating from the late Tang (618–906), the text is in question-and-answer format, containing a dialogue between Lü and his teacher Zhongli on aspects of alchemical terminology and methods.”

The Zhong Lü Chuan Dao Ji lists five classes of immortals:

Guǐxiān (鬼仙—”Ghost Immortal”): A person who cultivates too much yin energy. These immortals are likened to Vampires because they drain the life essence of the living, much like the fox spirit. Ghost immortals do not leave the realm of ghosts.

Rénxiān (人仙—Human Immortal”): Humans have an equal balance of yin and yang energies, so they have the potential of becoming either a ghost or immortal. Although they continue to hunger and thirst and require clothing and shelter like a normal human, these immortals do not suffer from aging or sickness. Human immortals do not leave the realm of humans. There are many sub-classes of human immortals, as discussed above under Shījiě xiān.

Dìxiān (地仙—“Earth Immortal”): When the yin is transformed into the pure yang, a true immortal body will emerge that does not need food, drink, clothing or shelter and is not affected by hot or cold temperatures. Earth immortals do not leave the realm of earth. These immortals are forced to stay on earth until they shed their human form.

Shénxiān (神仙—”Spirit Immortal”): The immortal body of the earthbound class will eventually change into vapor through further practice. They have supernatural powers and can take on the shape of any object. These immortals must remain on earth acquiring merit by teaching mankind about the Tao. Spirit immortals do not leave the realm of spirits. Once enough merit is accumulated, they are called to heaven by a celestial decree.

Tiānxiān (天仙—“Celestial Immortal”): Spirit immortals who are summoned to heaven are given the minor office of water realm judge. Over time, they are promoted to oversee the earth realm and finally become administrators of the celestial realm. These immortals have the power to travel back and forth between the earthly and celestial realms.

2). Buddhist motifs

(1 )Motif Eight Budhist Emblem and eight Treasure emblem

Eight Buddhist Emblems:

Originally rooted in Buddhism, in the Ming and Qing dynasties they were often combined with the Eight Precious Objects and the Eight Immortals’ Implements as general auspicious symbols for decorative purposes. They are the Lotus (purity), Wheel of the Law (Buddhist doctrine), Canopy or Parasol (protection and spiritual power), Paired Fish (freedom from restraint), Conch Shell (far-reaching sound of the Buddha’s teaching), Victory Standard (victory of the Buddha’s teachings and victory over all hindrances), Endless Knot (infinite wisdom and compassion of the Buddha), and Vase (elixir of life and container of treasures representing the granting of all wishes).

 

 
Lotus Wheel of Law Canopy or Parasol (protection and spiritual power) Paired Fish
Lotus Wheel of Law Canopy or Parasol Paired Fish
Conch Shell Victory Standard Endless Knot Vase
Conch Shell Victory Standard Endless Knot Vase

 

 

 

Ming Wanli Buddhist emblem motif Kendi

 

Early Ming Bowl  with eight Buddish Emblem from left  mistic knot, canopy symbol, wheel symbol

And Two Fish symbol of wealth

 

 

 

Ming saucer with  Vudhist emblem  and chysanthenum flower motif Canopy Symbols

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

 

 

Eight Treasures:

 Emblems of success, status and wealth, originating in the implements used in the scholar’s studio, they therefore symbolize success in studies and officialdom. The most common Eight Treasures are double lozenges (victory), the wish-granting pearl, stone chimes (celebration; illustrated), a pair of scrolls (culture), an Artemisia leaf (protection), two books (wisdom), interlocked copper coins (wealth) and a pair of rhinoceros horns (victory). Additional emblems include the coral branch (longevity and official promotion), a silver ingot (wealth) and the wish-granting scepter (ruyi).

       

Double Lozenges

Wish-Granting Pearls

Stone Chimes

Pair of Scrolls

       

Artemisia Leaf

Two Books

Interlocked Copper Coins

Rhinoceros Horns


Double Lozenges Wish-Granting Pearls Stone Chimes Pair of Scrolls
Double Lozenges Wish-Granting Pearls Stone Chimes Pair of Scrolls
Artemisia Leaf Two Books Interlocked Copper Coins Rhinoceros Horns
Artemisia Leaf Two Books Interlocked Copper Coins

 

 

Late ming crane symbol motif and one of eight tresusure symbol  book motif wisdom  plate

(2)Motif Tai Chi

Yin Tang

 

 

 

What is Tai Chi?

Meditation in Motion

Today in the Western world the term “tai chi” has become recognised first and foremost as an exercise to promote health and longevity, usually practiced early in the morning by individuals or groups of middle-aged and elderly people. It is categorised by slow movements grouped into a set of martial forms, performed in what seems to be a meditative state. This is, in fact, a simplistic view of what is really a very complex art, steeped in Chinese history and tradition and encompassing several aspects such as martial arts, medical concepts, Chinese philosophy including Taoism, Confucianism, Buddhism, and applicable not only to individual health and as a method of self-defence, but also to social and moral conduct, business management and marketing, and, importantly, to family cohesion.

The Meaning of Tai Chi

Attempts at translating the words Tai Chi, or Tai Ji (太極), are unlikely to convey the true meaning, and the term has already become commonly used in the Western world. However, an explanation of its history and concepts can perhaps enlighten those who are unfamiliar with the term.

As mentioned, for most Western people, Tai Chi is usually understood as a set of exercises or forms practiced in slow motion to enhance health and maintain youthfulness. It is often written as Tai Chi Chuan, or Tai Ji Quan (太極拳), the last character, chuan, often translated as “fist” and leading to the assumption that Tai Chi Chuan is some form of Chinese Boxing. A more precise understanding would be to take chuan to be a suffix that adds the notion of physical activity.

Tai Chi itself is a term found originally in ancient Chinese philosophy that eventually became associated with an evolving system of principles and exercises aimed at extending the length and quality of life through the study and practice of Nature and its relevance to human life. Later, this was applied to military strategy and martial arts.

The Emperor Sage Fu Hsi, or Fu Xi (伏羲), who lived around 2,400BC, is attributed as the creator of the Tai Chi symbol (see picture) and the Ba Gua (八卦) “eight trigrams” symbols. Fu Hsi studied the cyclical changes of Nature and attempted to arrange knowledge of these cycles into an organised system. The Tai Chi symbol is, as it were, a statement about the reality of Nature, a reality as a continuous flow of cyclic change and blending. The circle represents the fullness of reality, within the circle are the principles of Yin (), represented by the dark area, and Yang (),the light area. These two areas complement each other in shape yet are opposite in shade. Each contains some of the other, as seen in the two small circles. The shape of each area also conveys the notion that each flows into the other.

The Ba Gua symbol (below) consists of eight arrangements of three solid or broken lines, often arranged around the Tai Chi symbol. Each symbol represents the major phases of cycles of Nature: heaven, earth, wind, water, mountain, thunder, fire and lake. These were further expanded, such as the heavenly cycle consisting of sun, moon, star, day, night, morning, evening, wind, thunder, rain and cloud phases; and the earthly cycle consisting of mountain, river, lake, swamp, fire, water, tree, flower and grass phases. These are symbolised by various combinations of the eight trigrams into pairs to form 64 hexagrams. The I Ching, or Yi Jing (易經), known also as The Book of Changes, is a collection of principles used to interpret Nature through the trigrams and hexagrams.

 

 

Tai Chi and Taoism

Taoism (pronounced. Daoism) is an inherently Chinese philosophy primarily characterised in the ancient works of Lao Zi (老子) and Zhuang Zi (莊子). ( It should not be confused with Taoism the religion which was a later development of practices and strange rituals loosely based on Taoist philosophy.)

The Taoist understanding of Tai Chi is derived from the I Ching (pronounced ee jing).

Sometimes translated as ‘the grand ultimate’, it means the never changing, the one, the all. Nothing lies outside of it and nothing contains all of it. Often represented by a dot “.”,

Tai Chi generates the two forces of Yin and Yang. The word Tao, or Dao (), is usually translated as the ‘Way’ or ‘Path’. All Nature is created from the Tao and when the Yin and Yang forces are balanced and in harmony together, this also represents Tao. Everything in existence possesses the complementary elements of Yin and Yang, positive and negative, active and passive, etc. Tai Chi itself is created when Wu Chi (無極), a state of ‘nothingness’, moves. This is really an ancient Chinese perception of the creation of the universe. From nothingness, or non-being, movement begets the beginning of creation, the development of the dual forces of Yin and Yang, that constantly cycle, providing an unending process of creation.

The way of the Tao lies in stillness, Nature responds spontaneously and harmoniously, not deliberately. In application, the natural way of Tai Chi is only to defend oneself with a force much smaller than that used by an opponent. Tai Chi is not intended to injure or cause pain. Only from being relaxed can a Tai Chi practitioner achieve this. The Taoist concept of action without action (無為,無不為) or from a state of nothingness, one can react, epitomises the importance of Taoist philosophy in the application of Tai Chi. This is also expressed by how the Tai Chi practitioner can obtain good health through relaxation, balance, proper breathing and good posture

 Fr Iwan Chinese Imperial Tai Chi motif ceramic(will upload later)

Compare with Literatures

 

Jiajing jar with floral scrolls and Taoist 8 diagrams

Yin Yang Motif ceramic

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork found In Indonesia ( continiu )

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffice  

 

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

3)Motif Holy Mother Kwan Yin(im)

 

Yuan Kwan Yin(im) figure Statue

4 ) Holy  Tao  Ancetors  and Buddish Figure  Motif

 

Tao God

Taoist Deities / Gods  
The Three Pure Ones ( 三 清 )The Jade Emperor (玉 皇 大 帝, Yu Huang Da Di)

Avalokitesvara – The Ones Who Regards The World Sounds ( 觀 世 音 菩 薩, Kuan Shih Yin Pu Sa )

CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE THE UNIVERSAL DOOR OF GUANSHI YIN BODHISATTVA  (THE BODHISATTVA WHO CONTEMPLATES THE SOUNDS OF THE WORLD)

Jiang Tai Gong, ( Jiang Tai Gong, 姜 太 公 )

Taoist Master Zhang, ( Zhang Tian Shi, 張 天 師)

The Queen of Heaven (天 后 聖 母, Tian Hou Sheng Mu)

The Supreme Lord of the Dark Heaven ( 玄 天 上 帝, Xuan Tian Shang Ti ) 

Imperial Sovereign Wen Chang ( 文 昌 帝 君, Wen Chang Di Jun )

The Door Gods ( 門 神, Men Shen )

The Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven (九 天 玄 女, Jiu Tian Xuan Nu )

The Great Spirits of The Earth (福 德 正 神, Fu De Zheng Shen)

The Thunder God ( 雷 公, Lei Gong )

Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva ( Di Zang Wang Pu Sa, 地 藏 王 普 薩 )

Liu Ren Xian Shi (六壬仙師 )

Lord Guan Ti ( 關 帝 聖 君 )

Goddess of the Northern Star ( Dou Mu Yuan Jun, 斗 母 元 君 ) 

The Eight Immortals

The Chief of the Eight Immortals, 鐘离權

Zhang GuoLao, 張果老

Lu Dong Bin, 呂洞

Cao Guo Jiu, 曹國舅

Li TieGuai, 李铁拐

Han  XiangZi, 韓湘子

Lan Caihe, 藍采和

He Xian Gu, 何仙姑

Er Lang Shen, 二郎神

The Three Pure Ones ( 三 清 )

                       

The Three Pure Ones are the highest Deities in Taoism. “The Three Pure Ones” transcend the entire hierarchy of Taoist deities. In the middle is the ultimate highest deity of Taoism, the Primordial Heavenly Worthy. To your right is the Spiritual Treasure Heavenly Worthy, and to your left is the Supreme Way Heavenly Worthy.  

“The Three Pure Ones” is the avatar of Taoism. AVATAR is a word that is commonly heard but rarely understood. In English, the word has come to mean “an embodiment, a bodily manifestation of the Divine.” The void or great emptiness in the beginning, is called “Wu Chi”, or primordial chaos, at this state the Tao is a disperse form or “Chi” when reunited it is transformed into a divine being. This divine being is Tai Shang Lao Zun or Supreme Patriarch Lao Zi.
He then transforms the “One” which is Primordial Heavenly Worthy or Reverend Yuan Shi of Yu Qing. He holds a flaming divine pearl which represent the creation of the Universe, however at this stage the Universe is in a chaotic stage.

Eventually later he forms another divine being, Spiritual Heavenly Worthy or Reverend Ling Bao of Shang Qing. At this point of time there are two forces called the “Yin” and “Yang” represented as “Tai Chi” myriads things can be formed by these forces. Therefore Spiritual Heavenly Worthy or Reverend Ling Bao of Shang Qing holds a “Ru Yi”, a wish fulfilling ornament.
Finally when all things are created Tai Shang Lao Zun descend and sits on the right, he holds a mystical fan, symbolizing the completion of the Universe, and the way of Tao can be spread, and living beings can seek salvation.  

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The Jade Emperor (玉 皇 大 帝, Yu Huang Da Di)

The Jade Emperor is the supreme ruler of Heavens, the hades and the protector of mankind according to Chinese folklore religion and the highest ranking deity of the Taoist pantheon.

From the ninth century onwards, he was the patron deity of the Chinese imperial family. The Jade Emperor presides over Heaven and Earth just as the earthly emperors once ruled over China.

Based on one account the Jade Emperor was originally the crown prince of the kingdom of Majestic Heavenly Lights and Ornaments. At birth he emitted a bright light that filled the entire kingdom. When he was young, he was benevolent, intelligent and wise. He devoted his entire childhood to helping the needy (the poor and suffering, the deserted and single, the hungry and disabled). Furthermore, he showed respect and benevolence to both men and creatures. After his father died, he ascended the throne. He made sure that everyone in his kingdom found peace and contentment, after that he told his ministers that he wished to cultivate Dao in a mountain cave and cultivate. After 1,750 trials, each trial lasting for 120,976 years, he attained Immortality. After another a hundred million years of cultivation, he finally became the Jade Emperor.

The Jade Emperor is usually depicted seated on a throne in imperial robes, his flat-topped crown embedded with strings of pearls that dangle from the front. He holds a short, flat tablet in clasped in both hands before his chest.
He looks very majestic with his flowing beard.

His birthday is celebrated on the ninth day of the Lunar New Year commonly known as “Tian Gong Dan” (天 公 誕 Festival of the Heavenly God). It is an important festival to the Taoists and Chinese community. Taoist temples throughout the world held gathering and prayers together to worship him. To beseech him to grant peace, prosperity, protection from calamities for the entire year, favorable weather conditions, and abundant harvest.   

Most people are not aware that the Jade Emperor is the protector of the Buddha dharma in Buddhism. He’s called Lord Sakra or Indra or in the Shurangama Mantra (楞 嚴 咒) his name is recited as “Namo Yin Two La Ye” (南 無 因 陀 羅 耶).

According to Buddhist text he resides in “Trayastrimsa Heaven” as in Sanksrit and means “Heaven of the Thirty-three’. The Lord of the Heaven of the Thirty-three resides above our heads. There are eight heavens in the east, eight in the west, eight in the north, and eight in the south, making thirty-two; the thirty-third is located in the center of the others and is at the peak of Mount Sumeru.

‘Trayastrimsa, “Heaven of the Thirty-Three”, is not thirty-third in a vertical arrangement of heavens. Vertically it occupies the second position among eighteen heavens. Its name is taken from the fact that it is the central one among a group of heavens located on the same plane, with eight heavens on each of its four sides.

The lord of the central heaven, the thirty-third, is named Sakra or Indra, and in Buddhism he is a protector of the Buddha’s Dharma.
The Heaven of the Thirty-Three is eighty thousand yojanas high, and its city, the City of Good View, is made of the seven precious materials and is sixty thousand yojanas high. In the center of that city is Sakra’s palace, which is made of the most exquisite and valuable gems.

In the past at the time of Kashyapa Buddha, Sakra was a very ordinary and a poor woman who saw a temple in ruins and vowed to restore it. Soliciting friends and relatives, she gradually gathered a group of thirty-two women. She herself was the thirty-third. Each of the thirty-three gave as much support as she could muster and with their collective effort they repaired the ruined temple. When each one died she ascended to the heavens and became ruler of her own heaven. The heaven in which Sakra, the former leader of the women, lives, is called the Trayastrimsa Heaven….

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Avalokitesvara – The Ones Who Regards The World Sounds
( 觀 世 音 菩 薩, Kuan Shih Yin Pu Sa )

 

                                           Avalokitesvara

There are numerous tales about Guan Yin one of it possibly Taoist in origin, describes Guan Yin as the daughter of King Miao Chung. He and his wife were childless and as his age was nearing fifty it was a matter of great concern for him that he leaves an heir to his throne. Sacrifices and prayers were offered to the gods and eventually answered. His queen gave birth in three consecutive years to three daughters namely; Miao Ssu, Miao Yin and Miao Shan.

As there was no son the king decided to settle the heir to the throne by marrying his daughters to men of ability and the one whom is worthy and would succeed him. The two elder daughters were married but the youngest daughter Miao Shan refused. As she devotes herself to attain enlightenment.

She persuaded his father to allow her to retire to a nunnery for her cultivation. She was given the toughest and the most menial jobs on the King’s order to discourage her cultivating. Despite undergoing all these hardship she patiently overcome it with persistence, her compassion moves heaven. Even gods and animals conspired to help her. Eventually, when the king found out he was furious and ordered the nunnery to be burned. Miao Shan with the Heaven’s help extinguished the fire, with a heavy storm. She was later executed and her soul descends into Hell which was soon transformed into paradise. An edict was sent up to Heaven saying ”There must be justice both in Heaven and Hell, if you do not send this saint back to earth there will no longer be a Hell but only a Heaven”

After resurrecting her she was transported by Amitabha Buddha (Buddha of the Western Paradise) to the island, of Pu To Mountain (near Ningpo in CheJiang Province) where she spent nine years perfecting herself.

She started helping these in distress, curing people of their diseases, bestowing sons to these barren, rescuing these shipwreck victims and other acts of benevolence.

The legend says that due to the bad karma created by the King he was eventually struck with an incurable illness which could only be cured by the hand and the eye of the “Never angry one”. Guan Yin volunteered to give her hand and eyes to help her father. These parts immediately effected a cure. The King then discovered that he owed his daughter his life, full of remorse he left his kingdom to his chief minister and become a convert to Buddhism.

This legend is one of the many variations, collectively they are known as Miao Shan legends.

Based on a Buddhist account Guan Yin origin is a male deity called Avalokitesvara. He is an enlighten Buddha called “Right Dharma Thus Come One”                      ( 正 法 明 如 來 佛 ). Because of his Great Compassion he had manifest as a Bodhisattva to save all living beings.

According to the Chapter 25; The Universal Door of Guan Shi Yin Bodhisattva, he can manifest in numerous forms to help and convert living beings, he is the embodiment of the Buddha’s Compassion. His compassionate decision is to vow to stay a bodhisattva instead of becoming a buddha, because bodhisattvas can more effectively help other beings become enlightened.

Because of his compassion, Avalokitesvara has vowed not to become a buddha and enter into nirvana until after all sentient beings are saved from the nearly endless round of suffering in samsara.  Instead, he has committed to continued existence so that he can help suffering beings.  Avalokitesvara is not the only bodhisattva who has made this vow.   However, he embodies the compassionate motivation which led all bodhisattvas to the vow.  Thus, valuing the bodhisattva vow leads to valuing Avalokitesvara and everything he signifies. 

 

AVALOKITESVARA PROTECTS AGAINST THE EIGHT FEARS

 

  1. Saved from fire

  2. Saved from wind or storm

  3. Saved from attack of snakes or bandits

  4. Saved from attack of tigers

  5. Saved from attack of elephant or captivity

  6. Saved from attack of evil spirits or demons

  7. Saved from drowning

  8. Saved from falling off a cliff

     

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CHAPTER TWENTY-FIVE
THE UNIVERSAL DOOR OF GUANSHI YIN BODHISATTVA
(THE BODHISATTVA WHO CONTEMPLATES THE SOUNDS OF THE WORLD)

AT THAT TIME Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva rose from his seat, uncovered his right shoulder, placed his palms together, and facing the Buddha, said, “World Honored One, for what reason is the Bodhisattva Guanshiyin called ‘Guanshiyin’?”
The Buddha told Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva, “Good man, if any of the limitless hundreds of thousands of myriads of kotis of living beings who are undergoing all kinds of suffering hear of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva and recite his name single-mindedly, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva will immediately hear their voices and rescue them.
“If a person who upholds the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva enters a great fire, the fire will not burn him, all because of this Bodliisattva’s awesome spiritual power.
“If a person being tossed about in the great sea calls out the Bodhisattva’s name, he will find a shallow place.
“If the hundreds of thousands of myriads of kotis of beings who seek gold, silver, lapis lazuli, mother-of-pearl, carnelian, coral, amber, pearls, and so forth enter the great sea, an evil wind may toss their boats into the territory of the rakshasa ghosts. But if among them there is even one person who calls out the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, they will all be saved from the difficulty of the rakshasas. For this reason, he is called Guanshiyin.
“Further, if a person who is about to be harmed calls out the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, the knives and staves of the attackers will break into pieces and he will be saved.
“If yakshas and rakshasas enough to fill the three thousand great thousand world system come to torment a person, if they hear him call out the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, all those evil ghosts will not even be able to stare at that person with their evil eyes, how much the less harm him.
“If a person, whether guilty or not, who has been put in stocks or bound with chains calls out the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, his fetters will break apart and he will immediately be freed.

“If bandits enough to fill the three thousand great thousand world system infest a dangerous road on which a merchant chief in charge of costly jewels is leading a group of merchants, but among the merchants there is even a single person who says, ‘Good men, do not be afraid! You should all single-mindedly recite the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva. This Bodhisattva bestows fearlessness upon living beings. If you recite his name, you shall surely be saved from these robbers,’ and if upon hearing that, the merchants all cry out together, ‘Namo Guanshiyin Bodhisattva,’ then they will immediately be saved because they recited his name.
“Inexhaustible Intention! The awesome spiritual power of the Bodhisattva Mahasattva Guanshiyin is as lofty and sublime as that!
“If living beings who have much sexual desire constantly and reverently recite the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, they will be separated from desire.
“If those who have much hatred constantly and reverently recite the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, they will be separated from hatred.
“If those who are very stupid constantly and reverently recite the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, they will be separated from stupidity.
“Inexhaustible Intention, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva has great awesome spiritual powers such as these and confers great benefits. Therefore living beings should always be mindful of him.
“If women who seek sons bow and make offerings to Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, they will give birth to blessed, virtuous, and wise sons. If they seek daughters, they will give birth to upright and handsome daughters who have planted roots of virtue in previous lives and who are regarded and respected by all.
“Inexhaustible Intention! Guanshiyin Bodhisattva has powers such as these. If there are living beings who reverently bow to Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, they will be blessed and their efforts will not be in vain.
“Therefore living beings should all receive and uphold the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva.

“Inexhaustible Intention! If a person were to receive and uphold the names of Bodhisattvas in number as the grains of sand in sixty-two kotis of Ganges Rivers, and in addition were to exhaustively make offerings to them of food, drink, clothing, bedding, and medicine, what do you think—would that good man’s or good woman’s merit and virtue be great or not?”

 
Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva replied, “Very great, World Honored One.”
The Buddha said, “If another person were to receive and uphold the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva and bow and make offerings but once, that person’s blessings would be equal to and not different from the other person’s. They could not be exhausted in hundreds of thousands of myriads of kotis of eons.
“Inexhaustible Intention, one who receives and upholds the name of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva obtains the benefit of blessings and virtues as limitless and boundless as those.”
Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva said to the Buddha, “World Honored One, how does Guanshiyin Bodhisattva roam through this Saha world? How does he speak the Dharma for living beings? How does he carry out this work with the power of expedients?”
The Buddha told Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva, “Good man, if living beings in this land must be saved by means of someone in the body of a Buddha, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva will manifest it the body of a Buddha and speak Dharma for them.
“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a Pratyekabuddha, he will manifest in the body of a Pratyekabuddha and speak Dharma for them.
“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a Hearer, he will manifest in the body of a Hearer and speak Dharma for them.
“If they must be saved by someone in the body of the Brahma King, he will manifest in the body of the Brahma King and speak Dharma for them.
“If they must be saved by someone in the body of Shakra, he will manifest in the body of Shakra and speak Dharma for them.
“If they must be saved by someone in the body of the God of Sovereignty, he will manifest in the body of the God of Sovereignty and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of the Great God of Sovereignty, he will manifest in the body of the Great God of Sovereignty and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a great heavenly general, he will manifest in the body of a great heavenly general and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of Vaishravana, he will manifest in the body of Vaishravana and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a minor king, he will manifest in the body of a minor king and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of an Elder, he will manifest in the body of an Elder and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a layman, he will manifest in the body of a layman and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a minister of state, he will manifest in the body of a minister of state and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a Brahman, he will manifest in the body of a Brahman and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a Bhikshu, Bhikshuni, Upasaka, or Upasika, he will manifest in the body of a Bhikshu, Bhikshuni, Upasaka, or Upasika and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of the wife of an Elder, of a layman, of a minister of state, or of a Brahman, he will manifest in a wife’s body and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a pure youth or a pure maiden, he will manifest in the body of a pure youth or pure maiden and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a heavenly dragon, yaksha, gandharva, asura, garuda, kinnara, mahoraga, human, or nonhuman, and so forth, he will manifest in such a body and speak Dharma for them.

“If they must be saved by someone in the body of a Vajra-wielding spirit, he will manifest in the body of a Vajra-wielding spirit and speak Dharma for them.

“Inexhaustible Intention! Guanshiyin Bodhisattva has accomplished merit and virtue such as this and, in all manner of forms, roams throughout the land, saving and liberating living beings.

“Therefore you should all single-mindedly make offerings to Guanshiyin Bodhisattva. Guanshiyin Bodhisattva Mahasattva can, in the midst of fear, crisis, and hardship, bestow fearlessness. That is why in this Saha world all call him the “Bestower of Fearlessness.”

Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva said to the Buddha, “World Honored One, I shall now make an offering to Guanshiyin Bodhisattva.” He then removed his necklace of pearls, its value in the hundreds of thousands of ounces of gold, and offered it to the Bodhisattva, saying, “Humane One, accept this Dharma offering, this necklace of precious pearls.”

Guanshiyin Bodhisattva refused to accept it.
Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva again said to Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, “Humane One, out of pity for us, accept this necklace.”
The Buddha then told Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, “You should take pity on Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva and the fourfold assembly, as well as the gods, dragons, yakshas, gandharvas, asuras, garudas, kinnaras, mahoragas, humans, nonhumans, and so forth, and accept this necklace.”
Then, out of pity for the fourfold assembly, the gods, dragons, humans, nonhumans, and so forth, Guanshiyin Bodhisattva accepted the necklace. He divided it into two parts: one part he offered to Shakyamuni Buddha and the other to the stupa of Many Jewels Buddha.
“Inexhaustible Intention, such is the self-mastery and spiritual power of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, who roams throughout the Saha world.”
At that time, Inexhaustible Intention Bodhisattva used verses to ask this question:

World Honored One, complete with wondrous marks,
I now ask again,
Why is this disciple of the Buddha Called Guanshiyin?

The Honored One of Perfect, Wondrous Marks,
With verses answered Inexhaustible Intention:
Listen to the practice of Guanyin,
Who skillfully responds in all places.

With vast vows, as deep as the sea,
Throughout inconceivable eons,
He has served many thousands of
kotis of Buddhas,
And has made great, pure vows.

I shall now tell you in brief,
That for those who hear his name or see him,
And who are mindful of his name unceasingly,
He can extinguish the suffering of all realms of existence.

If someone is the victim of another’s harmful intent,
And is pushed into a pit of fire,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The pit of fire will turn into a pool.
If someone is being tossed about in the great sea,
And is surrounded by the dangers of dragons, fish, and ghosts,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The waves will not drown him.

If someone is on the peak of Mount Sumeru,
And another person tries to push him off,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
He will stand firm as the sun in space.

If someone is pursued by evil people,
Who want to throw him off a VajraMountain,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
Not a single hair on his body will be harmed.

If someone is surrounded by vicious bandits,
Who threaten him with knives,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The bandits will all give rise to compassion.

If someone is in trouble with the law,
And on the verge of being executed,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The knives will break into pieces.

If someone is imprisoned, shackled, or chained,
Or if his hands and feet are in stocks,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
His bonds will open and he will be free.

If someone is about to be harmed, By mantras, spells, or poison,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The harm will all return to the sender.

If someone meets with evil rakshasas,
Poisonous dragons, or ghosts,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
They will then not dare to harm him.

If someone is surrounded by vicious beasts,
With fearsome fangs and claws,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The beasts will quickly run far away.

Poisonous snakes and scorpions,
Have blazing lethal vapors,
But if one evokes the strength of Guanyin,
At the sound of one’s voice, they will disperse.

Clouds of roaring thunder and lightning
May send down hail or great floods of rain,
But if one evokes the strength of Guanyin,
The clouds will immediately scatter.

Living beings are beset with hardships,
And oppressed by limitless sufferings.
The power of Guanyin’s wondrous wisdom
Can rescue the world from suffering.

Complete with the power of spiritual penetrations,
Vastly cultivating wisdom and expedient means,
Going throughout countries in the ten directions,
He manifests everywhere in all places.

The various evil destinies,
Those of the hells, ghosts, and animals,
And the pain of birth, old age, sickness, and death
Are all gradually wiped away.

True Contemplator, Pure Contemplator,
Contemplator with Vast, Great Wisdom,
Compassionate Contemplator, Kind Contemplator,
May we constantly behold you with reverence!

Undefiled pure light,
The sun of wisdom that breaks through the darkness
Is able to quell calamities of wind and fire
As it shines on all worlds.

Compassionate substance: the thunder of precepts.
Kind intent: a wondrous great cloud.
He rains down sweet dew and Dharma rain,
Which extinguish the flames of affliction.

In the midst of contention, when faced with lawsuits,
Or when someone is terrified on the battlefield,
If he evokes the strength of Guanyin,
All his many enemies will scatter and leave.
Wondrous your sound, Contemplator of the World’s Sounds
A pure sound, a sound like the sea tide,
A sound beyond all worldly sounds,
We shall always bear it in mind.

In thought after thought we have no doubt:
Guanshiyin is pure and sagely.
In times of suffering, agony, danger, and death,
He is our refuge and protector.

Complete with all merit and virtue,
His kind eyes watching living beings,
He is endowed with massive blessings, limitless as the sea.
Therefore we should reverently worship him.

At that time the Bodhisattva Guardian of the Earth rose from his seat and said to the Buddha, “World Honored One, if there are those who hear this chapter of Guanshiyin Bodhisattva, who learn about the self-mastery of his deeds and the power of his spiritual penetrations as shown in this Universal Door, you should know that the merit and virtue of such people will not be small.”

When the Buddha had spoken the “Universal Door Chapter,” eighty-four thousand living beings in the assembly all brought forth the resolve for anuttarasamyaksambodhi.

Today there are three celebrations observed by both Taoist and Buddhist that her birthday was on the nineteenth day of the second lunar month, the date of her achievement of immortality was the nineteenth day of the sixth lunar month and date of her attaining enlightenment (Nirvana) was the nineteenth day of the ninth lunar month.   

 

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Jiang Tai Gong, ( Jiang Tai Gong, 姜 太 公 )

The God in Charge of Granting Titles to Gods

 

Life History of Real Jiang Taigong

Jiang Taigong, native of Donghai in Zhou Dynasty, was said to be a descendant of Emperor Yandi of remote ages. One of his forefathers had been a holding high position during the reign of Emperor Shun. Later, because of his achievement in helping Yu the Great to harness rivers, he was granted the fief of Lu (west of today’s Nanyang City in Henan Province) and addressed as Marquis of Lu. Jiang Taigong was also called Lu Shang or Lu Wang. To show him respect, later generations called him Jiang Ziya. In ancient times “zi” was an honorific title for men.

King Wen way on the journey to seek talents and met Jiang ZIya by chance. Jiang Ziya was a learned man and always wanted an opportunity to put his talents into practice. However under the reign of King Zhou, the last ruler of Shang Dynasty, he was unable to serve him as King Zhou was a tyrant.

Most of his life was spent in obscurity and poverty. He only was able to use his abilities when he was seventy years old. Jiang had heard that King Wen, chief of Zhou clan in the late Shang dynasty, was amiable and easy to approach, respecting the elder and loving children, placing those able and virtuous people in important positions. Thus Jiang moved to Wenshui. Building a hut near Panxi, he made a living by fishing, while waiting for the important post to be conferred by King Wen that would enable him to use his wisdom in assisting King Wen. Despite waiting for the wise ruler for a long time, Jiang hair turned grey and his hope seems futile.  However as destined one day he heard the sound of horses and people’s voices coming from afar. A delicate featured man dressed up as a King approached him. When told the distinguished visitor was the King Wen of Zhou, who was eagerly seeking talents, he felt very happy and finally was appointed the Prime Minister!

He carried out political and military reforms. Domestically, he emphasizes on developing production; externally, he deployed forces to conquer small neighboring clans to expand territories and weaken the Shang Dynasty.  
With his assistance King Wen defeated Quanrong, conquered Shang Dynasty’s Chongguo, and moved the capital from Qishan to Fengcheng. The territory of Zhou gradually increase and stretched from Mi (today’s Lingtai in Gansu Province) in the west of Yu (Around todays Qinyang County in Henan Province) in the east. Then Zhou territory further expanded to the valley of Yangtze, Hanshui and Rushui rivers. Its political, economic and military strength greatly surpassed the Shang Dynasty, paving the way for the founding of the Zhou Dynasty.

Unfortunately, King Wen died before he fulfilled his ambition of overthrowing the Shang. His son Ji Fa, historically known as King Wu, succeeded to the throne.    
With the assistance of Jiang, he sent troops to fight King Zhou of Shang, and carried out his father’s plan to establish the Zhou Dynasty. The regime is called Western Zhou in history. Due to his merits in overthrowing the Shang Dynasty, Jiang was granted the area of Qi (the central and eastern parts of today’s Shandong Province) as his fief, and regarded as the founder of Qi.

Jiang Taigong in Legend 

There are numerous legend about Jiang Taigong. One account said that his parents died when he was a child and he followed his aunt to Zhaoge, the capital of Shang. At the age of twelve he started working as a butcher because his aunt’s  family needed his help. But he failed at his job and wandered away from Zhaoge, until he met King Wen and found success.

One legend said Jiang fished for three days and three nights without catching anything. Later someone taught him the way of angling. Following the advice, Jiang finally caught a carp. Upon opening it’s belly, he found a cloth roll with characters reading “Lu Wang (namely Jiang Taigong) will be granted the area of Qi as his fief”.

Based on another legend King Wen dreamed of the Heavenly Emperor calling him “Chang (King Wen was named Ji Chang), I am going to grant you a good mentor and assistant. His name is Wang”. He then saw Jiang taigong beside the Heavenly Emperor. It was the same night Jiang Taigong had the same dream. Soon afterwards when meeting Jiang, King Wen asked. “Is Wang your name?”
“Yes,” replied Jiang, smiling. “It seems that I had seen you somewhere,” said King Wen. After Jiang told him the exact date he had the same dream with King Wen, he took Jiang and offered him an important position.

This legend is the most popular among all. Jiang Taigong was originally a famous general of King Wen and a respected figure. He was even believed ton have become a supernatural being. So anyone who wants to drive evil spirits out of his house would put on the wall a poster with characters reading. “Jiang Taigong is here. All evil spirits keep off.”

Jiang Taigong is depicted as an elderly man with white beard and hair, dressed up in imperial robe, one hand holding a flag (flag denotes his power to control or dispatch armies) and the other hand holds a sword.

Jiang Taigong famous quote, ”Jiang Taigong is here. Other gods withdraw and keep off”. Thus declared Jiang Taigong at a platform after he granted titles to other gods. “Since I had offered a title to them, I should at least place myself above them”, he declared.

From then onwards, when people were building a new house, they would paste up a banner reading “Jiang Taigong is here, hundred affairs are not forbidden as taboo”, (姜太公在此, 百事無禁忌) this would prevent evil spirits from occupying the building.

 

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Taoist Master Zhang, ( Zhang Tian Shi, 張 天 師)

 

Master Zhang, whose full name was Zhang Ling, or Zhang DaoLing (34-156), was the founder of the Five Pecks of Rice Sect of Taoism during the Eastern Han Dynasty.  A native of Fengxian County, Jiangsu Province, he studied in the Imperial College and well versed in the Five Classics. He practiced meditation in Heming Mountain in today’s Dayi County, Sichuan Province in the reign of Emperor Shundi (r.125-144). In 141, he wrote twenty-four Taoist texts and institutionalized Taoism, which was called the Five Pecks of Rice Sect, calling himself Occult Master of Great Purity. Its believers had to pay five pecks of rice as contribution to support his institution. It emphasized repenting one’s mistakes and have faith in Taoists canons. It propagated its doctrine by praying and drawing charms, and gave treatment with blessed holy water or incantations.

Legends of Master Zhang

Many legends are told about him. One said that Zhang DaoLing was the eight descendants of Zhang Liang, a high official of the Han Dynasty, he was a tall man, with extraordinary appearance characterized by full forehead, red hair, green eyes, straight nose and square mouth, bushy eyebrows and big ears. All this features, plus his beard, gave the impression that he looked like an immortal priest. In the tenth year of the Jianwu period under the reign of the Emperor Guangwu of the Eastern Han Dynasty, he was born in the Tianmu Mountain.

Before he was born his mother dreamed about a tall immortal wearing a gold crown and embroidered robe descending from the Big Dipper to her room. He gave her a scented plant, and suddenly vanished. She awakened to find her quilt, clothes and the entire room was lingered with an extraordinary fragrance that last for a month. Then she became pregnant. On the day when she was in labour, the courtyards was permeated in colored clouds, and the room was bright with red beams. The fragrance again fills the air. Daoling was able to walk as soon as he was born.

He was extremely intelligent as he had knowledge and can memorize the entire Dao De Jing, astronomy, geography and mystic diagrams at the age of seven. He passed the second degree Imperial examination, as became the magistrate of Jingzhou. Albeit an official he was determined to practice meditation. Before long he tender his resignation and lived in seclusion in Beimang Mountain. It was said that one day a white tiger bought scriptures in it’s mouth to him. Emperor He Di appointed him as Imperial tutor to the crown prince, and conferred on him the title Marquis of Jixian. He was invited to take up the official position, three times, but he always refused. In A.D. 90, he went to Long He Mountain in Jiangxi Province where he tried alchemy – to make pills of Immortality and delivered sermons for about thirty years, his disciples totaling more than three thousand.   

Master Zhang was well known for curing people with Talismans, blessed holy water, and delivered people from danger and disaster.

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The Queen of Heaven (天 后 聖 母, Tian Hou Sheng Mu)

The Queen of Heaven is also known Ma Zu. Originally named Lin Muo Niang; was born in 960 AD, on the 23rd day of the 3rd month in the Song Dynasty. She was born in a village along PuTian, Fujian’s Province.

Based on the book “Gods of Ancient China”, the day she was born, the land was covered by a purple streak, perfumed scent filled every household, and a golden halo appeared above the Lin house, within which emitted a red glow. One month after her birth she had not cried. So her parents called her Lin Muo Niang (Muo is the Chinese character meaning silence).

She was very filial to her parents, intelligent and loved to help people in adversity. She was a good swimmer and had gone fishing since childhood with her elder brother. She often rowed a boat during a vicious storm to save people in distress at the risk of her life. Her heroic deeds gained attention far and wide.

Ten centuries ago on a stormy day she came to aid an overturned merchant ship. She managed to rescue only nine of the ten people on board. The one left was tossed away by a huge wave. Disregarding her own safety, she swam and managed to save the last victim, however she herself drowned due to exhaustion.

Reluctant to accept that she had died, people preferred to assume that she had become a goddess. According to the legend, somebody saw the Goddess in imperial garments soared to the Heavens. To commemorate her people of Pu Tian, her hometown, built a temple dedicated to her.

After her death, the Goddess was said to become more miraculous. On one occasion, a violent storm was raging over the seas and overturned a few fishing boats. All the fishermen fell into the sea. At that moment a streak of light was seen among the dark clouds, the Goddess was seen descending from Heaven, she then miraculously set all the overturned boats and pulled the fishermen into the boats. And then suddenly the wind subsided, the waves calmed down and the sky cleared. All the people were saved.

Emperor of various dynasties glamorized the Goddess. During a period of eight hundred years, on forty occasions they granted her titles which, when placed together, ran to sixty Chinese characters, including “State Protecting Sage”, “Protector of the State and People” and “Goddess of Heaven”.    

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The Supreme Lord of the Dark Heaven

( 玄 天 上 帝, Xuan Tian Shang Ti )   

 

Xuan Tian Shang Ti, was originally a butcher, he had killed a lot as days passed he felt remorse for his sins and repents by giving up butchery and retired to a remote mountain for cultivation of the Tao. One day while he was assisting a woman in labor, while cleaning the woman’s blood stained clothes along a river, the words “Xuan Tian Shang Di” (玄 天 上 帝) appeared before him. The woman in labor turns out to be Guan Yin manifestation. To redeem his sins, he dug out his own stomach and intestines and washes it in the river. The river turns into dark murky water then after a while it changes the water into clear pure water.
Unfortunately he loses the stomach and intestines while he was washing it in the river. The Jade Emperor was moved by his sincerity and determination to clear his sins; hence he became an Immortal known as “Xuan Tian Shang Ti”.

After he becomes an immortal his stomach and intestines after absorbing the world essences it was transformed into a demonic turtle and snake harming people. No one could subdue them. Eventually Xuan Tian Shang Ti returns back to earth to subdue them and use them as his transportation or disciples.

Xuan Tian Shang Ti is portrayed as a warrior in imperial robes, the left hand holds the “three mountain mudra” while the right hand holds a prominent sword. He is usually seated on a throne with the right stepping on the snake and left leg extended stepping on the turtle. His face is red with long flowing black beards, looks very stern with bulging pair of eyes. His birthday is celebrated on the third day of third lunar month.

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Imperial Sovereign Wen Chang

( 文 昌 帝 君, Wen Chang Di Jun )

                                                   

The popular Chinese Taoist god of literature and writing, invoked by scholars to assists them in their works. He is especially venerated by people who require help with their entrance examinations for an official career.
In reality, Wen-chang is a constellation of six stars in the vicinity of the Great Bear. It is said that when these stars are bright, literature flourishes. He visits the Earth frequently in human shape. Taoists texts mention seventeen separate existences of the stellar deity on Earth
 

In addition to the ancestors of whose worship it really consists, Taoism has in its pantheon the specialized gods worshipped by the scholars. The chief of these is Wen Chang, the God of Literature. The account of him (which varies in several particulars in different Chinese works) relates that he was a man by the name of Chang Ya, who was born during the T’ang dynasty in the kingdom of Yeh (now known as ZheJiang Province), and went to live at Tzŭ T’ung in Szechuan, where his intelligence raised him to the position of President of the Board of Ceremonies. Another account refers to him as Chang Ya Tzŭ, the Soul or Spirit of Tzŭ T’ung, and states that he held office in the Chin dynasty (A.D. 265–316), and was killed in a fight. Another again states that under the Sung dynasty (A.D. Page 105960–1280), in the third year (A.D. 1000) of the reign-period Hsien P’ing of the Emperor Chun Tsung, he repressed the revolt of Wang Chun at Ch’ing Tu in Szechuan. General Lei Yu-chung caused to be shot into the besieged town arrows to which notices were attached inviting the inhabitants to surrender. Suddenly a man mounted a ladder, and pointing to the rebels cried in a loud voice: “The Spirit of Tzŭ T’ung has sent me to inform you that the town will fall into the hands of the enemy on the twentieth day of the ninth moon, and not a single person will escape death.” Attempts to strike down this prophet of evil were in vain, for he had already disappeared. The town was captured on the day indicated. The general, as a reward, caused the temple of Tzŭ T’ung’s Spirit to be repaired, and sacrifices offered to it.
 

The object of worship nowadays in the temples dedicated to Wen Chang is Tzŭ T’ung Ti Chun, the God of Tzŭ T’ung. Various emperors at various times bestowed upon Wen Chang honorific titles, until ultimately, in the Yuan, or Mongol, dynasty, in the reign Yen Yu, in A.D. 1314, the title was conferred on him of Supporter of the Yuan Dynasty, Diffuser of Renovating Influences, Ssŭ-lu of Wen Chang, God and Lord. He was thus apotheosized, and took his place among the gods of China.
 

Thus the God of Literature, Wen Chang Di Jun, duly installed in the Chinese pantheon, and sacrifices were offered to him in the temples dedicated to him. But scholars, especially those about to enter for the public competitive examinations, worshipped as the God of Literature, or as his palace or abode (Wen Chang), the star K’uei in the Great Bear, or Dipper, or Bushel—the latter name derived from its resemblance in shape to the measure used by the Chinese and called tou. The term K’uei was more generally applied to the four stars forming the body or square part of the Dipper, the three forming the tail or handle being called Shao or Piao. How all this came about is the next story.
 

A scholar, as famous for his literary skill as his facial deformities, had been admitted as first academician at the metropolitan examinations. It was the custom that the Emperor should give with his own hand a rose of gold to the fortunate candidate. This scholar, whose name was Chung K’uei, presented himself according to custom to receive the reward which was rightfully due to him. At the sight of his repulsive face the Emperor refused the golden rose. In despair the miserable rejected one went and threw himself into the sea. At the moment when he was being choked by the waters a mysterious fish or monster called ao raised him on its back and brought him to the surface. K’uei ascended to Heaven and became arbiter of the destinies of men of letters. His abode was said to be the star K’uei, a name given by the Chinese to the sixteen stars of the constellation or ‘mansion’ of Andromeda and Pisces. The scholars quite soon began to worship K’uei as the God of Literature, and to represent it on a column in the temples. Then sacrifices were offered to it. This star or constellation was regarded as the palace of the god. The legend gave rise to an expression frequently used in Chinese of one who comes out first in an examination, namely, tu chan ao, “to stand alone on the sea-monster’s head.” It is especially to be noted that though the two K’ue’s have the same sound they are represented by different characters, and that the two constellations are not the same, but are situated in widely different parts of the heavens.
 

Images of Wen Chang portray him as an official or as a scholar. He is always seen holding an auspicious scepter “Ru Yi” or a register book. Usually accompanied by his two faithful attendants, namely Tien Lung (Deaf Celestial) and Di Ya (Mute Terrestial). His birthday is celebrated on the third day of second lunar month.   

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The Door Gods ( 門 神, Men Shen )

 

The Door gods are the earliest gods worshipped by the Chinese. They are regarded as the Spiritual Guardians of the Entrance. An altar is usually placed besides the entrance, where offerings are given daily.  
According to the legend the Door gods were formerly imperial generals, Qin Shu Bao and Wei Chi Gong. They were both assigned to protect Emperor Tai Zong ( 太 宗 皇 帝 ) , from ghosts and demons during the Tang dynasty.  It was believed that the Emperor had nightmares whenever he sleeps during the night. He would always be pursuit by ghosts or demons in his dream, it could be his karma manifesting to him as he had killed numerous people before he was enthroned as the Emperor. His siblings were also killed.

Whenever the two generals stood guard outside his room entrance, he would be able to sleep soundly without any nightmares. It was believed that ghosts and demons dare not enter the emperor’s room whenever the two generals are present.

As the two generals are mortals, the Emperor Tai Zhong feared that the generals would suffer from fatigue having to keep watch over him every night. Hence, he ordered portraits of the imperial generals to be hung on each side of the door.

They wear warrior robes, have gentle dispositions and are usually shown as standing. Qin Shu Bao holds a slender club, whereas Wei Chi Gong holds a mace.

The portraits of the Door Gods are usually changed just before Chinese New Year. Worn out portraits does not have the ability to keep away evil spirits and to protect the house. 

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The Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven

(九 天 玄 女, Jiu Tian Xuan Nu )

 

The Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven is a female deity. She had been the teacher of the ancient Yellow Emperor. When the Yellow Emperor had been fighting the rebel Ch`i You, the Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven descended and bestowed the Yellow Emperor with the military register for dispatching, with a seal and sword. She made a drum that was made out of cow skin with eighty sides, which the Yellow Emperor used to defeat Ch`i You.

During the period of spring and autumn, the Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven transformed herself into the Jade Lady of Nan Shan. She helped the Yueh State send a punitive expedition against the Wu State, and taught the army to be equipped with six thousand highly qualified soldiers. Afterwards, she departed without bidding farewell, and soared to the sky. On the Nan Shan mountain, the king of the Yueh State built a temple in commemoration of her. The temple is named the Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven.

The Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven has a disciple whose name was Pai-Yun Tong-chun. He received all the dharma-methods from the Mysterious Lady, and later was able to be elevated to heaven to be in charge of the Taoist books that belong to the Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven.

She is depicted as a fair rosy complexion lady, usually brandishing a sword in her right hand while the left hand holds a gourd. The Taoist gourd is a symbol of immortality, healing (contains golden elixir), longevity and good fortune.

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The Great Spirits of The Earth

(福 德 正 神, Fu De Zheng Shen)

 

The great spirits of the earth possess great spiritual powers that not many spirits can match! Why! There is several aspect of the earth; it is wide and extensive, it supports and nourishes all living beings, it receives the great rain, it produces grass and trees, it holds all planted seeds, it produces medicines, it is impartial and it holds many treasures.
  

All the lands through out the world receives his protection; all the grasses, woods, stones, sands, paddy fields, hemp, bamboo, reeds, grains, rice, gems, and oil come forth from the ground because of his power. He can even prevent plagues ghosts from spreading epidemics; furthermore he’s the greatest wealth deity on earth! The image on the left is the sculpture of the great spirits of the earth. He’s always depicted as an elderly man with a white beard usually smiling and maintaining a benevolent expression. He holds an auspicious wish fulfilling object called “Ru Yi” 「如意」.While the other hand on the right holds several gold ingots.  He is also called “The Upright Spirit of Fortune and Wealth” (福德正神) when worshipped in temples and homes; while in a cemetery, he is called “Hou Tu” (后土)

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The Thunder God ( 雷 公, Lei Gong )

 

It is believed that a bolt of lightning erupting in the midst of the dark universe disrupts the primordial chaos. Hence at the beginning of time, chaos is altered into order by lightning. Thunder and lightning are worshipped by the primitive because it is one of the greatest forces in the Universe that is feared by man.

In mythology, the Thunder god is in charge of thunder. He is portrayed as having a green face and body, he resemble a bird like creature his face has a beak. Holds a hammer and chisel, when struck together lightning bolts are released.
He could punish on behalf of Heaven, could strike a vicious person, such as unfillial sons or daughter, able to distinguish between good and evil, and uphold justice.  In Buddhism he is a Dharma protector.

It is believed his feature derives from the Garuda, a mystical bird-like creature who was the messenger or vehicle of the Hindu god Lord Vishnu. He bears a close resemblance to the Garuda as expounded in Hindu text and Buddhist sutra’s as one of the “Eight class of mystical beings” (天 龍 八 部, Tian Long Ba Bu ).

The Garuda is the arch enemy of the snake, dragon or “naga”, which he feeds on them. Historically, from classical Indian mythology, Garuda is the king of birds.
Slightly fierce, with one face in the form of an eagle, round eyes and a curved beak, Adorned with gold necklaces and bracelets, the lower body is covered with feathers and large wings are unfurled behind. Standing on legs of two talons above coiled snake.

If you were to make a comparative study of the features of the Thunder god and Garuda based on these pictures, you will discover that there is a close resemblance in terms of the features.

                                    Lord Vishnu and the Garuda

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Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva ( Di Zang Wang Pu Sa, 地 藏 王 普 薩 )

                                   

 

Di Zhang may be represented in sitting or standing posture. He always has a kind and benevolent feature and carries either, or both, his symbols of the Cintamani or “Wish-fulfilling Jewel’ and the “Ringed-Staff”, which is also called the Khakkhara. This ringed staff is often carried by Buddhist monks in their travels so that the sounds caused by the jingling rings can warn small animals and insects of their approach lest they be trod upon and killed. It is also sometimes called the alarm-staff.

In the much treasured picture of Di Zhang Pu Sa, which is found in many Buddhist homes and temples, he is seen seated upon a lotus throne. His hands holds the precious flaming pearl which has vast magical powers beyond description. He wears the robe of a Northern Buddhist monk and on his head is the “Five-leaves crown, where the representation of a Dhyani-Buddha can be seen on each of the leaves”.
 

Whenever you have the urge to pray to this Bodhisattva for any help, visualize him a few seconds as you silently recite, “NAMO DI ZHANG WANG PUSA” . Di Zhang Pu Sa is very responsive to sincere prayers of faith and he may yet grant you your wish, if it is not too unselfish or unreasonable. All may pray to him with this simple invocation and, due to, your past karmic links with him may yet make you into another ardent Ti Tsang devotee again in this lifetime.

The standing posture of Di Zhang is particularly popular in Japan where he is known as Jizo Bosatsu. It represents the readiness of Jizo to respond immediately to the calls of help made by those who have faith in his saving powers. Standing upon a lotus, he holds his precious flaming jewel with his left hand while the ringed staff is held with the right, ever ready to force open the gates of Hell with the staff and to dispel the darkness of the infernal realm with his luminous gem.

Di Zhang is at times depicted accompanied by a dog, which also has a significant meaning. On the death of his mother, the Bodhisattva, not as “Sacred Girl’, hastened into the underworld with the view of comforting her and to seek favorable treatment for her. However, he could not find her but later discovered that she had already taken rebirth as a female dog. Upon his return to earth Di Zhang soon traced and adopted the animal, which then became his companion on his pilgrimages.
Another popular depiction of him is in this standing or ‘activity-form’ which has his left hand holding an alms bowl against his navel, while his right hand forms the mudra (hand-sign) of “giving consolation and peace to all living beings”.

Di Zhang Pu Sa has many emanations and he has manifested in countless forms to save beings at different times and places. In the Chinese Buddhist Pantheon his is the only figure in the form of a monk. This is to indicate that Mahayana Buddhism is suitable for both the monks and the laity.
Di Zhang’s compassion is not practiced exclusively for the benefit of the beings of the hell realm, he also gives blessings to those of the world who seek his help and he is a comforter of the poor, oppressed, sick, hungry, and those who are troubled by spirits and nightmares. Those who have firm faith in him can easily receive his protection. With faith one needs to recite any of these simple prayers:
“NAMO DI ZHANG WANG P’USA’ or
“NAMO KSITIGARBHA BODHISATTVA”.

Images of the Buddhas and Bodhisattvas are recognized by the symbols that they are associated with. Each of these symbols has a particular meaning which most people are unaware of. For example, the KHAKKHARA, or Ringed Staff, which Di Zhang holds, is not only meant to warn small and crawling creatures of his approach so as to avoid stepping on them but also to inform people of his presence through the jingling caused by the rings. Often a traveling monk on a pilgrimage has to stop at homes to seek alms and since he does not wish to speak unnecessarily, he usually announces his arrival by shaking his sounding staff.

The Khakkhara is often a wooden staff capped with metal loops or crotchets and rings, which are four, six or twelve in number. The Four-ringed staff is carried by a monk who has perceived the Four Noble Truths of Suffering, the Cause of Suffering, the Cessation of Suffering, and the Path leading to the Cessation of Suffering. The Six-ringed staff belongs to a Bodhisattva who is constantly practicing the Six Paramitas, while the Twelve-ringed staff is held by a Pratyeka Buddha who has realized the Twelve-fold Links of Causation.

As a result of Di Zhang P’usa having made this promise to Sakyamuni Buddha: “I will fulfill your instructions to continue to relieve beings from their states of suffering and lead them to Salvation. I shall strive to work hard until the next Buddha, Maitreya Buddha, comes to the world “. He is also adored as the “Master of the Six Worlds of Desire,” thus there are depictions of him being surrounded by a Bodhisattva, an Asura, a Man, an Animal (horse or ox), a Preta, and a Demon holding a pitchfork, which symbolizes the six different forms he assumes in the six realms to save the beings there.

In the Chapter 12: The Benefits of Seeing and Hearing of the Di Zhang Sutra, Sakyamuni Buddha gave this advice for the benefit of all human beings:
“Listen to me carefully and I shall tell you in detail. If virtuous ones of the future see the Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva’s image, hear the Ksitigarbha Sutra, recite this Sutra, make offerings to Ksitigrabha, pay homage to him, they will receive these benefits:

1. They will be protected by devas and dragons.
2. Their ability to do good will be increased.
3. Opportunities for doing good will increase.
4. They will strive to attain Buddhahood.
5. They will enjoy sufficiency of food and clothing.
6. They will be free from diseases.
7. Floods and fire will not affect them.
8. Robbers will not trouble them.
9. They will be respected and admired by people.
10. Spirits and devas will protect and assist them.
11. Females shall be reborn as males.
12. The females will become daughters of noble and exalted families.
13. They will be reborn with good complexion.
14. They will be reborn in the heavens for many lives.
15. They will be reborn as kings or rulers of countries.
16. They will have wisdom to recollect their past lives.
17. They will be successful in all their aspirations.
18. They will enjoy happy family relationships.
19. Disasters will not affect them.
20. Their bad karma will be removed.
21. Wherever they go, they are safe.
22. They shall always have peaceful dreams.
23. Their deceased relatives shall be free from sufferings.
24. They will be reborn with happiness.
25. They will be praised by divine beings.
26. They will be intelligent and skilful.
27. They will have compassion for others.
28. They will finally attain Buddhahood.

The birthday of Di Zhang Pu Sa falls on the 30th day of the 7th moon of the Chinese lunar calendar. All over the world Buddhist temples offer prayers to Di Zhang Pu Sa during the 7th lunar month for the benefit of the dead.
Di Zhang’s popularity among the Chinese and Japanese Buddhists is second only to Kuan Shih Yin Pu Sa as he takes upon himself the fearful and difficult task of bringing relief and consolation to the suffering beings of hell.

Liu Ren Xian Shi (六壬仙師 ).

 

A renowned Taoist master during the Tang dynasty originates from ChangAn Province China. His actual name is Lee Shun Feng (李淳風). This Taoist Sect is also known as Shun Feng Tao (淳風道) named after the founder of this Sect. At a young age he had learning disabilities, both his parents were very concern. They invited a Taoist master to view his physiognomy.

Physiognomy, which claims to find correspondences between bodily features and psychological characteristics, often makes use of such supposed similarities. The Taoist master revealed that based on the physiognomy of the child, his learning disabilities are only temporarily. He has the features of a great sage and shall lead living beings to salvations.

After the Taoist master gave the prediction, later at the age of six he can master all the Chinese classics, literatures and even memorize every single word after reading once! He was so brilliant that not anyone can match him at that age. Due to his past karma or affinity with the Taoist master he met him again at the age of twelve and requested the Taoist master to take him as a disciple. However the Taoist master refused as he was told to fulfill his obligations to his parents. In China we place great emphasis in filial piety and repaying the kindness of parents. The Taoist master promised him that when the time is ripe he shall appear again to offer him the discipleship. He didn’t have to wait long as both his parents deceased when he was nineteenth years old.
 

He followed the Taoist Master and learned Taoist alchemy, spiritual cultivations, meditations, divination, and art of war. With the wisdom and power he possessed he begins helping numerous people, everywhere relieving them of their hardship and suffering. Her was later canonized as a deity and the founder of Taoist sect Shun Feng Tao ( 淳 風 道 ).

Lord Guan Ti ( 關 帝 聖 君 )

Zhou Chang ( 周 倉 )              Guan Ti ( 關 帝 )                  Guan Ping ( 關 平 )

 

Guan Ti or Guan Yun Chang was born in Shan Xi province during the Three Kingdom (220 – 260 AD). He led a simple life and made his living as a young man by selling bean-curds, thus he is worship by bean-curd sellers as their patron god today. He has an excellent memory power that he had the ability to recite word for word the entire Classics after reading it for once.
 

Therefore students taking examinations usually pray to him to bless them success. He is also worshipped as the God of Literature by scholars. Some idols of Guan Ti can be found seated while holding a book.

He was known for his righteous, and justice which got Guan Yu into trouble when he interfered with a licentious and corrupt magistrate who forced a poor lady to become his concubine. The magistrate was slayed by Guan Yu. He had to flee for his life and escape to the mountain to seek refuge. As he was on his journey to the neighboring province he stops by a stream to have a wash; when to his surprise he noticed a great changed in his appearance! His facial complexion had changed from pale white to reddish tint which saved him to disguise himself and was able to walk through the sentries who was guarding the mountain pass.

When he reached Chu-Chou of the Szechuan Province he be, befriends Zhang Fei and Liu Bei who shared his noble ideals and virtues. They took the oath of brotherhood in a peach orchard, and sworn as “brothers”. Chang Fei was a butcher, became the youngest brother. He was a man of fiery temper who had an unyielding sense of justice and was well known for his immense appetite both for food and adventure. He had a black face which was full of whiskers and his formidable height of seven feet tall; very few would dare cross his path. His great love and loyalty to Guan Yu has won him a place of honor he is always seen standing beside Kuan Yu in all depictions.

Liu Bei, the elder brother who came from a distinguished but impoverished family with imperial linkage, was known to be a man of honor.  Guan Yu, a powerful figure of more than eight feet tall, possessed an enigmatic personality and integrity that won him respect of all whom he met.

Together the three sworn brothers set out and became involved in military pursuits, They displayed great military prowess and fought many battles which is recorded in details in the famous novels of “The Three Kingdoms”.  Based on the recorded history of his life Guan Yu had many occasions display his nobility, uprightness, integrity, loyalty and bravery. Despite living at a time of great distress and chaos during the Han Dynasty, he would never be tempted to acquire wealth, fame and power as he remain faithful to his oath that he had taken with his brothers at the peach orchard; “ To be loyal to each other in life and united in death”.

In the year 219 A.D. he was captured by Sun Chuan and executed. It was recorded that on the night of his death, his spirit appeared before a Buddhist monk, to seek refuge to the Buddha dharma. Based on a Buddhist account, Guan Yu manifest before the Tripitaka Master Chi Tsai, the founder of Tien Tai Buddhism, with a retinue of spiritual beings. After receiving the teachings Guan Yu requested the Five precepts and took refuge in the Buddha dharma. He vowed that he would be a dharma protector to the Buddha Dharma. Hence, his idol is usually found in the hall of most Buddhist temples. He had earned his place in both the Taoist and Buddhist  pantheon of deities. 

Goddess of the Northern Star

( Dou Mu Yuan Jun, 斗 母 元 君 ) 

Goddess of the Northern Star ( 斗 母 元 君 ) 

Tou Mu, the Bushel Mother, or Goddess of the North Star, are worshipped by both Buddhists and Taoists. From a Taoist perspective she is a stellar divinity, her full name being Jiu Lin Tai Miao Bai Yu Gui Tai Zu Guang Jin Jing Zu Mu Yuan Jun (九 靈 太 妙 白 玉 貴 台 祖 光 金 精 祖 母 元 君 ). She is also called Du Mu Yuan Jun ( 斗 母 元 君 ).

As told in the scriptures, Madame Zi Guang went to the imperial garden for sight seeing. She was captivated by the hot spring water next to the lotus pool and took a bath there, miraculously nine lotus buds appeared and after a while the lotus blossomed and came out nine infants. After these nine children grown up, the eldest son Gou Cheng Xing ( 勾 城 星 ) became one of the heavenly gods, named North Star (Zi Wei Da Di, 紫 微 大 帝 ). The rest of the brothers were Tang Lang ( 貪 狼 ), Ju Men ( 巨门 ), Lu Cun ( 路存),  Wen Qu ( 文 曲 ), Lian Zhen         ( 廉 貞 ), Wu Qu ( 武 曲 ) and Po Jun ( 破 君 ) are the group of stars known as the Big Dipper Seven Stars.

After giving birth to nine sons Madame Zi Guang was honoured with the title Big Dipper True Holy Virtue Heavenly Queen ( 北 斗 九 真 聖 德 天 后 ).

There is another legend that states The King of Chou Yue, in the north, married her on hearing of her many virtues. They had nine sons. Yuan-shih T’ien Jun        ( 元 始 天 君 ) came to earth to invite her, her husband, and nine sons to enjoy the delights of Heaven.

The Big Dipper Seven Stars are in charge of the fate of human and earthly fate in the universe. Every star controls the earthly fate for a period of 20 years. The division of 3 yuan and 9 yun (三 云 九 運 ) of Feng shui originated from this theory.

For these who offend the Grand Duke or Tai Sui ( 太 歲 ) for the year of the Dog 2006, should pray to Tai Sui. However there is another alternative besides praying to Tai Sui, you can also pray to Goddess of the Northern Star or Dou Mu to relieve you of any difficulty, danger and bad luck. Those affected sign are Ox, Ram, Dog, Rat, Dragon and Monkey for this year 2006.

The reason is because the Goddess of the Northern Star is the mother of Nine Stars her power is inconceivable as she oversee the welfare of all beings.

She is depicted with 3 eyes on her forehead, 4 heads on shoulders, a head with 4 faces, 8 arms 2 palms clasp together, the other 6 arms holding a sun, moon, precious bell, bow and arrow, a seal of authority and halberd.  She bears a close resemblance to the Buddhist deity Marichi, Goddess of Dawn. Her features and the dharma implements she’s holding are almost identical.

Marichi, Goddess of the Dawn

 

Marichi, (Tibetan Buddhism : o zer chen ma, English: the One Having Light Rays), Goddess of the Dawn. Marichi is a red-coloured female yidam associated with the sun and with dawn.

Her mantra is traditionally used as protection by travelers. She has three faces, eight arms and two legs. She holds the powerful Tantric tools (in her right hands) of vajra (at the heart in the mudra of teaching), the vajra ax, the arrow, the mudra of generosity (holding a sewing needle. In her left hands: the mudra of teaching hold the stem of a healing plant, a bow, a thread, and loop with hook drawn along by seven white boars.

The goddess Marichi is the manifestation of the twenty-one forms of Tara and has the special power to avert bandits, robbers, and thieves. She is a most sublime goddess who is the ally of beings who are bereft of companionship and support and who are subject to the coercion of others more powerful than they.

The Eight Immortals

The Chinese character 仙, which signify immortal, is composed of 人 man and 山 a mountain. It denotes the superior class of human spirits, who, having been deified, dwell in remote mountains devoid of human inhabitants. They are imbued with the power of being visible and invisible at pleasure, of raising the dead, of changing stones they touch into gold, and of effecting at pleasure various other wonderful transmutations. The Eight Immortals or Ba Xian (八仙), are legendary beings of the Taoist sect, said to have lived at various times and attained immortality through their cultivation of Tao’s or nature secret.
Their eminent position has been attained by cultivation, to which eight, including one female (He Xian Gu, 何仙姑) have risen higher than other.

The Chief of the Eight Immortals
Zhong LiQuan, 鐘离權

 

In Taoism, he is known as Zheng Yang Ju Shi, 正陽袓師. Literally, the True Yang First Master. He is the Chief of the Eight Immortals, is said to have lived during the Han dynasty and have possessed the secrets of the elixir of life, and the power of transmutation. He is also known as Zhongli of Han (漢鐘離) because he was born in the Han Dynasty. He is usually depicted as a fat man exposing his bare belly, always grasping his emblem, a fan, which has the magical ability of reviving the dead. 

Zhang GuoLao, 張果老

 

Elder Zhang Guo, lived during the 7th and 8th century AD is a hermit who had spiritual powers of magic, i.e. rendering himself invisible, He is accompanied by a white mule, which carried him immense distances and when not, required was transformed into a paper mule, folded up and put away in his pouch. When he wished to resume his travels, he sprinkles some water upon the paper mule revived it and the mule will appear at once. He generally rode his mule backwards. His emblem is the “Yugu” (魚故), a kind of musical instrument in the shape of bamboo tube or drum with two rods to beat it.

Lu Dong Bin, 呂洞

 

He is the most widely known among the group of deities known as the Eight Immortals and hence considered by some to be the de facto leader. He was born during the Tang Dynasty (AD750). A scholar and ascetic who learnt the secrets of Taoism from Zhong LiQuan, the Chief of the Eight Immortals, and attained immortality at the age 50. He is the patron saint of barbers and is also worshipped by the sick. He is generally depicted wearing a scholar clothes and head gear, holds in his right hand a Taoist fly whisk, and his emblem, a sword, which is slung across his back. He is well known of slaying and getting rids of various forms of evil on earth for more than 400 years.

Cao Guo Jiu, 曹國舅

 

He was born during the Song Dynasty (AD930-999) as the son of a military commander by the name Cao Bin 曹彬, that happens to be the brother of Empress Cao Hou 曹后. He is depicted dressed in official robes, a court headdress and he holds a pair of castanets, which is his emblem. The castanets are said to be derived from the court tablets, authorizing free access to the Imperial palace, to which he was entitled due to his birth. 

Li TieGuai, 李铁拐

 

He was born during the Western Zhou period, and was originally named Li Yüan. He studied with Lao Tzu (founder of Taoism) and Goddess Hsi Wang Mu. He is said to have devoted 40 years to the practice of meditation and cultivation of Taoist esoteric practice.

Before becoming an immortal, he had a pleasant disposition. However, on one occasion his spirit traveled to celestial realm. He instructs his disciple to wait seven days for his spirit to return; but after six days the student had to return to attend his sick mother, so he cremated his body assuming that he had deceased.

Upon returning, Li was forced to enter the only body available, the corpse of a homeless beggar who had died of starvation; who unfortunately had “a long and pointed head, blackened face, woolly and disheveled beard and hair, huge eyes, and a lame leg.” His emblem is the pilgrim’s gourd which identifies him as one of the Eight Immortals, and his iron crutch.

Han  XiangZi, 韓湘子

 

He is the nephew of Han Yu 韓愈, a famous scholar and statesman who lived during the Tang Dynasty (AD820). He is the disciple of Lu DongBin, he became an immortal when he fell into a supernatural peach tree. He has the ability of making flowers grow and blossom instantaneously. His emblem is the flute, and he is the patron of musicians. He wanders around, playing his flute, enticing birds and beast of prey by the sweet melodious sound of his flute. 

Lan Caihe, 藍采和

 

He was from Tang Dynasty. His behavior was out of norm and known for its bizarreness. He wore only shorts and thin shirts in winter, and thick jacket and long pants in summer. He walked with one foot bare and another with shoe.
His distinctive emblem is a flower-basket, often carried slung on a hoe over his shoulder. The basket contains various flora associated with ideas of longevity.

He Xian Gu, 何仙姑

 

Lived during the 7th century AD, she is the daughter of a shopkeeper of LingLing 零陵, Hunan province in the Tang Dynasty. According to one account at the age of thirteen, she often went to the mountains to collect medicinal herbs. One day, she encountered the Immortal Lu DongBin who gave her a peach and told her, “You shall become an immortal is you eat it”. She did as he said, and miraculously she, never felt hungry or thirsty, can float and jumped from one cliff to another gathering medicinal herbs to help the sick. In addition, she could predict people’s fortune.  Her emblem is the lotus, which she carries in her hand. And at times she is also depicted holding a fly whisk on the other hand.

 

Er Lang Shen, 二郎神

 

Erlang Shen (二郎神), named Yang Jian (杨戬), is a Chinese God with a third true-seeing eye in the middle of his forehead.  According to the “Story about Li Bing and his son in harnessing the rivers”, After being appointed governor of Sichuan by King Zhao of the State of Qin. Li Bing diverts water from the two rivers of Chengdu to irrigate thousand hectares of farmlands. His son ErLang helps him to build water control systems to prevent flood. Based on a historical record says, “The Erlang Temple of Guan-Kou in Sichuan was established to commemorate LiBing’s merits in opening up wells, building bridges, irrigation of the agricultural lands, developing the Guanxian area and Chengdu plain, and increasing agricultural production.
 

Here is another legend about ErLang with his seven friends vanquishing an evil dragon. On their journey ErLang and his seven friends approached a thatched cottage by a river near the county town of Guanxian, they heard someone crying inside. They entered and found an elderly woman wailing for her youngest grandson who was to be taken away as a sacrificial offering for the river god-an evil dragon. Astonished, ErLang seek his father advice on how to capture the monster. LiBing taught him a strategy, on the sacrificial procession ErLang holding his three-pointed and double-edged sword in hand, went into the River God Temple with his seven friends, and hid themselves behind the altar.
 

After a while, the dragon descends with a gust of strong wind and torrential rain into the temple to snatch the sacrifice. ErLang and his mates jumped out immediately and fight it. Defeated the dragon flee out of the temple. As planned by LiBing the villagers beat their drums and gongs to emit loud sounds to petrify the dragon. This scared the dragon who fled into the river. ErLang and his mates pursued the dragon by diving into the river. The dragon was finally captured.
 

The old woman who had been grievously crying for her grandson gave ErLang a chain to express her gratitude for saving his grandson. ErLang tied the dragon to a stone post of the Vanquishing Dragon Temple and had it detained in a deep pool. From that day onwards, the area was free from flood.     
ErLang is depicted carrying a three-pointed and double edge-sword and has a Celestial Hound that follows him around.

Back to top

s

The Three Pure Ones ( )

The Jade Emperor ( , Yu Huang Da Di)

Avalokitesvara

 – The Ones Who Regards The World Sounds
(
, Kuan Shih Yin Pu Sa )

Jiang Tai Gong, ( Jiang Tai Gong, )

The God in Charge of Granting Titles to Gods

Taoist Master Zhang, ( Zhang Tian Shi, )

 

The Queen of Heaven ( , Tian Hou Sheng Mu)

The Supreme Lord of the Dark Heaven

( , Xuan Tian Shang Ti )

Imperial Sovereign Wen Chang

( , Wen Chang Di Jun )

The Mysterious Lady of the Ninth Heaven

( , Jiu Tian Xuan Nu )

The Great Spirits of The Earth

( , Fu De Zheng Shen)

The Thunder God ( , Lei Gong )

Ksitigarbha Bodhisattva ( Di Zang Wang Pu Sa, )

Liu Ren Xian Shi (六壬仙師 ).

Goddess of the Northern Star

( Dou Mu Yuan Jun, )

The Chief of the Eight Immortals
Zhong LiQuan, 鐘离權

Zhang GuoLao, 張果老

Er Lang Shen, 二郎神

All The figures above still not yet Found By dr Iwan ,The illustration and information will  upload when the collections were exist.

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia (continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

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RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

RELIGIOUS MOTIVES

3)Motif Holy Mother Kwan Yin(im)

 

Yuan Kwan Yin(im) figure Statue

Kui Xing the god of scientice

 

Kui Xing

 
 

Rubbing of Kui Xing stele (with the 鰲 ao turtle and a 斗 ladle) at Stele Forest Museum in Xi’an.

Kui Xing (Chinese: 魁星; pinyin: kuí xīng; Wade–Giles: K’uei Hsing), originally called 奎星 (also kuí xīng), also known as 大魁夫子 “Great Master Kui” or 大魁星君 “Great Kui the Star Prince”, is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.

The name ‘Kui Xing’ literally means “Chief Star(s)”, and anciently referred to the ‘spoon’ of the Big Dipper. The Chun Qiu Yun Dou Shu defines the ‘Kui Xing’ as “The four stars in the first section of the dipper”. The ‘handle’ was referred to as the 杓 shao, or ladle/spoon. Kui Xing’s original name, 奎星, is the original name of the star in the Big Dipper located furthest from the ‘handle’ – Dubhe.

Contents

 Folk Beliefs

 

Folk Beliefs

 

Kui Xing, holding a ladle and standing on an ao (depicted as a fish), on Xiao Family Temple in Xinwupu, Yangxin County, Hubei

In Daoist tradition, Kui Xing is said to have been “bent and hunchbacked, as if he were an actual calligraphy character”, and came to be viewed as a saint of human fortune, particularly with regard to imperial examinations. Late Ming Dynasty scholar Gu Yan-Wu, often referred to as Gu Ting-Lin, wrote of Kui Xing in his Record of Historical Knowledge: “The date of the beginning of modern people’s veneration of Kui Xing is unknown. Since Kui (奎) was taken to be the master of composition, therefore the people established shrines to venerate him. Being unable to sculpt an image of the star (奎), his name was thus changed to [the homophonous character] 魁. Again being unable to directly construct an image of 魁, the character was split into its constituent radicals [鬼 Gui – Ghost/Spirit and 斗 Dou – Ladle/Gourd] and illustrated as such.” Gu’s statement suggests the name change was a creative measure designed to facilitate Kui Xing’s veneration.

As his form developed, people depicted Kui Xing’s right foot standing on a character 鰲 (ao), a giant turtle, in reference to a traditional saying, 獨佔鰲頭, “to stand lonely on the ao’s head”, meaning coming in first in examinations[1]), his left foot support a ladle, a writing brush in his hand, and his body full of vigor and life. Stylized calligraphy of Confucian adages often compose his torso.

Artists have also depicted the ao on which Kui Xing stands as a giant fish (see the image of a temple in Xinwupu, Hubei), or as a realistic-looking turtle (e.g., the statue near Bijiacheng – the “Brush-rest wall” – in Changde, Hu

KUI-XING

Also known as K’UEI-HSING, KURI-HSING
Picture of KUI-XING

One of WEN-CHANG‘s servants, he’s the starry-eyed God of Official Documents and Paperwork.

KUI-XING was once a mortal in the academic world — a highly-talented student but also extremely ugly. In fact he was a typical nerd. But after having fallen off a cliff, he was rescued from certain death by a dragon and given the job of Literary Affairs Minister.

Now he stands next to WEN-CHANG in the night sky, and oversees official paperwork, publications and Post-It notes. No memo is small enough to escape his scrutiny. We presume by now he is also the God of Fax Machines and Email.

KUI-XING is often depicted standing on the head of a turtle waving a Chinese brush in the air. Never having received a communication from Heaven,

please compare with  Mr NH KOH collections below

compare with

(a) Christy collections

 
MING Dynasty, 1368-1644 (China)
Title : A FIGURE OF KUI XING 

Date :
 
Category : Sculptures
Medium :
: Lacquered and gold painted bronze
 
 
 
MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie's,London 

MING Dynasty,A FIGURE OF KUI XING,Christie’s,London
 
 
Estimate : 300 GBP – 500 GBP

(b)kui xing ceramic , Lady Lever art Galery Collections

Accession no: LL 61
Object type: Ceramic
Name: Figure of K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing)
Materials: Porcelain with overglaze enamel decoration in famille verte style
Place made: Jingdezhen, China
Date made: Qing Dynasty, Kangxi (1662-1722 AD)
Measurements: H. 32 cm

Description: K’uei Hsing (Kui Xing) is a character in Chinese mythology, the god of examinations, and an associate or servant of the god of literature, Wen Chang.
Standing on a fish-dragon’s head, he holds up a writing brush in his right hand. He is said to have been an historical figure, a poor but brilliant student called Zhong Kui who passed the imperial examinations with high honours. However, because he was ugly, he was not allowed to enter government service. In despair, he drowned himself but was carried by a fish-dragon up to heaven where he became a star (‘Xing’ in Chinese) of the Great Bear constellation (known in China as the Palace of Literary Genius).

Provenance
Bought from Frank Partridge, 29 July 1915, gifted to the Lady Lever Art Gallery, 1922. Partridge to A. J. H. Howard, 9 August, 1915, Partridge Papers.

Literature
R. L. Hobson, Chinese Porcelain and Wedgwood Pottery with Other Works of Ceramic Art, London: B. T. Batsford, Ltd., 1928, No. 340.

(c)NH KOH collectiona “Kuixing”

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 Kuixing

 

The demon-faced like figure in the below picture is the God of Literature/Examiniation, Kui Xing.  He is usually depicted holding in one hand a brush and the other, a cake of ink.  He is widely worshipped by those who are seeking office or success in public examination.

 

In below figurine, he is depicted with one foot on the head of  a big turtle.  This is related to the auspicious message on imperial examination success: du zhan ao tou (独占螯头), literally  it can be translated as (du zhan) standing alone, (ao tou) on the head of the turtle. 

In ancient China, the top 3 candidates in the metroplitan examination are given an audience with the emperor.   During the audience, the top candidate would stand alone on one of the steps leading to the throne.  On that step is curved a turtle-like creature.  That is how the phrase “du zhan ao tou” originated.

 

 MOTIF PROTECTION SYMBOL
1) Kuang Kong or Kuan Ti


 Dr Iwan Found The Kuan ti embroidery

(illustration not upload)

4)  Chinese God of Doors

not yet found theis collection

5) Four Heavenly Kings

 

The Four Heavenly Kings are the guardian gods who watch over the four cardinal directions of the world. They are known collectively as “Feng Tiáo Yǔ Shùn” in Chinese, which means “good climate”. Each character in this mnemonic reflects the symbolic object carried by a Heavenly King. “Feng” is homonymous to the Chinese word for “sharp edge”, hence one of the Kings carries a sword. “Tiáo” sounds similar to “tune”, and so another King holds a musical instrument. “Yǔ ” means “rain”, and the corresponding symbol is an umbrella. The word “Shùn” is matched with a crimson dragon. The Four Heavenly Kings are the protectors of the world and fighters of evil. They each command a legion of supernatural creatures to protect the Dharma. Contributions made to the Four Heavenly Kings will protect us from evil and misfortunes. Businesses will run smoothly. For the sick or disadvantaged, the tide will turn for the better.

  Four Heavenly Kings (Deva Kings)

 

  

 

 

.

 
 
 

Four Heavenly Kings are very popular among those who practice feng shui, especially those who reside in Hong Kong. In Hong Kong, even the four most popular singing idols were nicknamed after them to provide powerful protection for the entertainment business in Hong Kong in the nineties.

 Their names alone create incredible aura and auspiciousness to the surrounding. In Buddhism, they are known as guardians against the wicked and evil.

Their main duty is to protect the heaven from havoc and their images are popular in main shrines of all temples. Their presence would powerfully kill off negative chi, harmful evil spirits and bad influences.

 

One can choose to place them two figurines on each side of the living hall or in four cardinal directions to protect you from any danger and harm from any direction. Feng Shui Masters in Hong Kong especially like to recommend their presence in the living hall facing the maindoor to protect against any harmful people, robbery and mishaps.

What Four Heavenly Kings symbolizes and how to place the object?
The Four Heavenly Kings were four Indian brothers and later worshipped as protecting deities of Buddhist sanctuaries. Their presence in your surrouding will cure any wicked energy coming your way. For those who feels there is evil energy in the surroundings, their presence will provide you with relief. All negative forces will stay under control with their presence.

Their supernatural powers are being produced by their four powerful weapons which could change climates and trumble the earth:


North Heavenly King (Mo-Li Shou) guards the north. He has a black face and he carries along an evil eating creature and sometimes a snake to kill devils. He sometimes also carry a pearl on his hand.

Mo Li Shou

 

East Heavenly King (Mo Li Ch’ing) guards the east. He has a white face with ferocious expression. He carries a magic sword. He is able to produce black wind that produces tens of thousands of spears to turn evil spirits into dust.

 Mo Li Ching or chung

campere with

 Photo: Guardian Plate Mo Li Ching  easr king of heaven motif collection Driwan

Dr Iwan found the plate of Mo Li Ching

South Heavenly King (Mo-Li Hung) guards the south. He has a red face and holds a magical umbrella. This umbrella can produce thunderstorms and earthquakes during battle with demons.


Mo Li Hung

 

West Heavenly King (Mo-Li Hai) guards the west. He has a blue face and carries a chinese magical “pi-pah” (musical instrument like a guitar) where the sounds of it could put evil spirits and harmful forces to rest.


Mo Li Hai

They can be placed in different places:
1. They can be placed at their four respective sectors of your living room to promote positive thinking. This would enhance the character and attitude of your family members to help them in their pursuits.
2. They can be placed to face the main entrance (looking outwards) to ward off evil spirits and harmful forces and killing breathe.
3. They can be placed surrounding a Buddha image or in front of the Buddha to activate their potency in bringing the support you need for protection purposes.
4. Their images can also be placed to protect precious items/treasures to ward off burgalary and thefts.
5. If there are killing forces coming your way, place them facing the killing forces such as straight path directly leading towards you, bad energy coming from construction sites, graveyard etc.

 

Source

http://www.fengshuibestbuy.com/HH4001-fourheavenlykings.html

 

 

 

North (Mo Li Shou)

 

, West) Mo Li Hai),

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

the East (Mo Ling Ching)

 

the South (Mo Li Hung)

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia ( continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffice  

(2)Motif Figure Eight Immortal(delapan dewa)

Motif eight immortal

Dr Iwan Collection Eight Immortal Motif

Driwan found one eight immortal de  La Tsai Ho and three other eight immortal  white cup

 

eight  immortal  right  Lan tsai Ho and  Zhong Gi chuan left  Lie to kei and Zhnag guo Lao   painting

Early Qing Kangxi Figure eight immortal   zhong Gi chuan Saucers

Other Collections(not upload)

 

Compare from literature

  8 Immortals “Drunken” Boxing   

source

 Chue Pa Hsien   (Tsui Pa-Hsien)   (Zuibaxianquan)

“Iron Crutch Li “       The name of Li Tie-guai in traditional Chinese format.          Incense Burner with Li Tieguai (Detail)

Immortal Li Tie Kuai  

                (Li Tieh Kuai)  (Tie Guaili) (Tit Gwi Li) (Li Tie Kwai)

*******************************************************

Strongman Wino – “The Stomping Immortal”

Immortals    Siang Chung Li  

               (Han Chong Li)  (Chung Li Ch’uan)  (Han Zhongli) 

               (Han Chung Li)   (Hsiang Chung Li)

*******************************************************

Old Scholar Hermit

Immortal    Chuang Kuo Lao 

(Chang Kuo Lao) (Chuang Kuo Chiu) (Zhang Guolao) (Cheung Guo Lo)

*******************************************************

Poet, Playboy, Martial Arts Empty Hands & Weapons Master

Immortal Li Tung Ping 

                 (Li Tung Pin)  (Lu Dongbin)  (Lui Dong Bin)

*******************************************************

Intelligent, clairvoyant friend of Li Tung Ping

Immortal Han Yang Chie 

            (Han Hsiang Tzu) (Han Xianzi)  (Han Xiang Ci) (Han Sing Tu)

*******************************************************

Nobleman “The Acrobatic Immortal”

Immortal   Chao Kuo Chui  

                  (Tsao Kuo Chui)  (Cao Guojiu)   (Cho Quat Kau)

*******************************************************

Youthful Tomboy “The Flexible Immortal”   

    Lan Chai He    

    (Lan Ts’ai Ho)

                        (Lan Zai Hou) (Lan Caihe) (Lam Choy Wah)

*******************************************************

Beautiful Girl “The Female Immortal”

Immortal  He’ Shiang Ku (He Hsiang Ku)

                     (Ho Hsien Ku)   (Ho Xian Ku)   (He Xiangu)   (Ho Sen-Ku)

 

8) Eight god (god of immortality or eight immortal)
(1) Chung Li Chuan with fan symbol, god of longevity and provide energy that never stops (end)

 

 

 

Chung-li Chuan, also spelled as Zhungli Quan, is said to be to the chief of powerful Taoist collective immortals –

 THE EIGHT IMMORTALS.

He is also said to be the most ancient of all the Eight Immortals, although some Taoist scholars and priest would argue that it’s actually Lu Dongbin, also spelled as Lu Dongpin.

Chung-li Chuan is believed to have been born during the Han Dyansty, and he is usually depicted as a fat man with big, rounded, bared stomach or belly. His magical implement is a feather fan, which he uses to bestow the blessing of good health. It is also said that he is able to revive the people who are seriously ill to good health by using his feather fan. On top of that, by using his fan he is also able to revive people who’ve died, the only pre-requisite for him to perform this magic is that he has to be absolutely sure that the dead person really deserves to be alive again and that he as a living person he is able to become a blessing to others. Furthermore, his fan is said to be able to change bad luck into good luck.

It is also written in religious texts that when Chung-li Chuan was born, the room where he was born was magically filled with beams of light. It was also said that his parents believed that he was an old soul because he continued to cry for seven days and night, as if complaining about his mortality.

There is a Taoist temple in Taiwan that is dedicated to the Eight Immortals, specifically to Immortal Chung-li Chuan. One devotee shared with me a story about how her daughter who was seriously ill was restored back to health when she prayed to Chung-li Chuan. As a sign of thanksgiving, the woman would always bring a colorful feather fan as an offering Chung-li Chuan every feast day of the Eight Immortals.

 (2) Chang Kuo-Lao with dengan symbols give descendants bamboo tube (prevents sterile)

 Chinese Immortal Chang Kuo Lao Print

 

(3) Pin Dong Lu (Lu Tung Pin) with a sword and a thermos fly symbol popped disease

 

 

 

Lu Tung Pin is one of the most popular of the Eight Immortals (The Eight Immortals themselves are Taoist folk heros drawn from a cross section of society that represent the eight different conditions of life: youth, old age, poverty, wealth, nobility, the populance, the masculine, and the feminine. Their personalities and exploits are revealed in myths and ledgends, they have acheived popularity as individuals and it is not unusual to find an altar in a temple dedicated to one of them.)

Lu Tung Pin is venerated for two reasons. Firstly because he is associated with medicine and the elixir of life. He knows the formula for the elixir of life and his potions and charms can heal the sick. Lu Tung Pin is also the doctor of the poor.

 

As a young man Lu Tung Pin met up with a fire dragon who gave him a sword. This sword was called Chan-yao Kuai, the Demon-Slayer which allows him to have control over evil spirits destroying, capturing or taming them if he is invoked correctly; but to Lu Tung Pin this sword was not a weapon for killing enemies but a symbol for conquering passion, aggression, and ignorance.

Lu Tung Pin considered compasion to be the essential means of attaining perfection.

As a young man Lu Tung Pin travelled towards the capital and along the way met the immortal Chung Li-ch’uan, who was warming up some wine. After drinking some of the wine Lu fell asleep and dreamt that he was a wealthy and powerful official who lived the rich life for fifty years until a crime caused his family to be banished and exterminated. When Lu awoke he found that only a few moments had passed but the dream brought him to his senses and he decided to forgo the life of an official and follow Chung Li-ch’uan into the mountains. There Lu learned the secrets of alchemy and the art of swordsmanship. He transformed the methods of Outer Alchemy (wai-dan) into those of Inner Alchemy (nei-dan).

 

 

Lu Tung Pin from a 19th Century wood cut

(4) Guo Chiu Tsao (Tsao kuo-chiu) with the symbol for music bestows blessings to those who seek power

 Cao Guo Jui or Tsao Kuo Chiu - Taoist deitiy known as one of The Eight Immortals or Pa Hsien

This is Tsao Kuo Chiu, who is a patron saint of theatrical profession. Richly decorated in polychrome enamels, Tsao Kuo Chiu is one of the 8 Immortals.

I have never seen a theatrical monkey at the base, but he is a nice addition to this very unique 19th century Chinese figurine. He is without flaw, no chips, cracks, hairlines, etc. Marked China on the bottom, he measures 7.5 inches(illustration not upload) 

Tieh Kuai)  (Tie Guaili) (Tit Gwi Li) (Li Tie Kwai)

 li tie guai ( li tieh kuai ) taoist deity known as one of the eight immortals or pa hsien stock photo

(5) Lie Tieh Guai (Li Tieh Kuai) with the symbol of bottle gourd, most power  of Delan gods bestowed wisdom

 

(6) Xian Tzu Han (Han Hsing-tzu) with flutes, restoring energy

 

 

 

One of the Eight Immortals, Philosopher Han Xiang (韓湘子 in pinyin: hán xiāng zi) or Han Xiang Zi, in Wade-Giles as Han Hsiang Tzu, was born Han Xiang during the Tang Dynasty, and his courtesy name is Qingfu (清夫 qīng fū). He is said to be the nephew or grandnephew of Han Yu, a prominent statesman of Tang Court. Han Xiang studied Daoism under Lü Dongbin. Once at a banquet by Han Yu, Han Xiang tried to persuade Han Yu to give up a life of officialdom and to study magic with him. But Han Yu was adamant that Han Xiang should dedicate his life to Confucianism instead of Daoism, so Han Xiang demonstrated the power of the Dao by pouring out cup after cup of wine from the gourd without end.

Because his flute gives life, Han became a protector of flautists

 

 Lan Cai He or Lan Tsai Ho -Taoist deitiy known as one of The Eight Immortals or Pa Hsien

 

Lan Cai He or Lan Tsai Ho -Taoist deitiy known as one of The Eight Immortals or Pa Hsien

Photographer: Louise Batalla Duran

Lan Tsai-Ho is the mountebank of the Chinese Eight Immortals. She poses as a wandering singer, denouncing this fleeting life and its delusive pleasures1. The basket of flowers she carries is full of plants associated with longevity—chrysanthemums, plum blossoms, pine, bamboo, etc. Lan Tsai-Ho is sometimes represented as a woman and sometimes as a young, male child; she may also be presented as a hermaphrodite.

She is often drunk, or pretends to be, and gathers a group of followers while singing and capering through towns. When she has money, she usually throws it on the ground for poor. In the summer she wears thick clothing and a coat, and in the winter she makes her bed in the snow. Truly a foolish woman.

Lan Tsai-Ho dates from the Tang Dynasty (1766–1122 BC). She is said to have obtained immortality by bathing the boils and sores of a beggar, who is believed to have been Li-Tieguai (another of the Eight Immortals) in disguise.

It is believed that one can communicate with the gods by using Lan Tsai-Ho’s basket of flowers.

The Eight Immortal Atributes

Eight Immortals’ Attributes: Each attribute is associated with one of the Eight Daoist Immortals and together signify their omnipresent power. The attributes are the fan of Zhong Liquan, the sword of Lu Dongbin, the bamboo musical instrument of Zhang Guolao, the castanets of Cao Guojiu, the double gourd of Li Tieguai, the flute of Han Xiangzi, the flower basket of Lan Caihe, and the lotus of He Xiangu.
Fan Sword Bamboo Musical Instrument Castanets
Fan Sword Bamboo Instrument Castanets
Double Gourd Flute Flower Basket Lotus
Double Gourd Flute Flower Basket Lotus

 The Eight Immortal Force

 

The Eight Directions, the Eight Forces

 

Eight Chinese Immortals

These Immortals are from a silk and paper screen that was hand painted…. it is one of the most colorful depictions i have seen

 

Eight Immortal In Enamel and Silver

source  article by Susan ( 2007)

The eight figures on this bracelet are known in Chinese mythology as the Eight Immortals or Baxian. Popular figures, the Immortals are not gods.

They are humans who, after many lifetimes of spiritual practice, meditation and sacrifice transcended to an immortal form. They live on a magical mountain where there it is forever summer and pain does not exist.

There  the rice bowls are never empty, and magical fruits heal and raise the dead…

 0000

The legends of the Immortals originally emerged from Taoist practice in the Tang and Song Dynasty.

By the 18th and 19thc they had become part of a broader folk culture. The Baxian appear in all types of Chinese art …from sculpture to silver. Used as symbols of longevity and immortality they frequently decorate children’s clothing and hats. Since they each have special powers and fully evolved personalities, they may appear singly or in various  combinations. From left to right on the bracelet:

 1

Han Xiangzi:

 playing his flute, easily recognizable as inspiration to musicians he is known also as a philosoper, his flute has the power to give life.

Li Tieguai:

 the earliest and first of the group to attain immortality, he carries an iron crutch and his other symbol, the gourd, is on his shoulder. He offers comfort to the sick and support to their caretakers.

Lan Caihe:

one of the youngest, a florist, he reminds people that life is fleeting.

He Xiangu:

 the only woman, she always carrys the lotus blossom which symbolizes purity  and marital bliss.

 2

Lu Dongbin:

 the scholar, also has power to heal, the sword over his head can drive out disease and evil.

Zhang Guolao:

 one of the elders of the group, he is known as a teacher and powerful alchemist, he carries a musical instrument,
made of a bamboo with two iron rods with hooks

Zhongi Quan:

 the leader of the group, and former soldier, he is easy to recognize with his large bare belly, he has the power to
revive the dead

Cao Guojiu:

 the youngest of the group, guardian of actors, once a member of a royal family, wears court robes and carries the
castanets or a pair of jade court tablets, which have the power to purify.

 

This bracelet is interesting for me for several reasons, the form, (repousse with enamel) is uncommon, and the the subject matter (the Immortals) is uncommon in bracelets. That all leads me to conclude that this was a custom order….and not for made for export.

The images and the symbols on the bracelet may be very exotic to western eyes…but when you understand the story behind the images…all humans wish for the same things…health, success for their children, long life, a happy marriage.

Eight Immortal motif Wine Cup

 
Title : ‘FAMILLE-ROSE’ ‘EIGHT IMMORTALS’ WINE CUPS,
 
 
 
 
 
 
YONGZHENG PERIOD,'FAMILLE-ROSE' 'EIGHT IMMORTALS' WINE CUPS, (2),Sotheby's,London

YONGZHENG PERIOD,’FAMILLE-ROSE’ ‘EIGHT IMMORTALS’ WINE CUPS,

 © The Frick Collection

 TWO FINE AND VERY RARE FAMILLE VERTE WINE CUPS

Famillie vert eight immortal wine cup

eight immortal bowl(illustration not upload)

The God Of Longevity Shoe-Lau

The below Shou Lao medallions at  the bottom of large character bowl on which there are four painted cartouches on the exterior, each depicting two of the Eight Immortals. These cartouches are separated by repeated shou (longevity) characters. The medallion offered here feature Shou Lao, the god of longevity, seen riding a crane above crested waves. 

 

This RARE and much south after character type of bowl depicts Shou Lao, the God of longevity, riding a crane above crested waves in the well. The exterior decoration feature four medallions, each depicting two of the Eight Immortals, surrounded by repeated shou (longevity) characters.  This repeated use of the the shou character  is known as Bai Shou Tu in Chinese, meaning the ‘Picture of One Hundred shou characters’ and is very common in Chinese traditional work of art. These bowls are traditionally an excellent gift as they provide wishes for long life. The Eight Immortals are the favorite pantheon in Daoism.

 

Motif  Figure   Eight Immortals

TAO RELIGIOUS FIGUR MOTIVES

(3)

The Three Star King FUK LUK Sou

 Figure

Dr Iwan Collection

Photo: calender plate with Fu Luk Sau  symbols longevity  one of the three star king gogggest collection Dr Iwan

 

  Calendar plate with motif  Luk  star king longevity

Other Collections

(not  Upload later)

Compare literatures

Three wise men are named three gods, Fuk Luk Sau or Fu Lu Shou – Fu Star, Lu Star and Shou Star. They are the popular deities of wealth, Prosperity, and Longevity.

(illustration not upload)

How to Place Three Gods:
Fu Lu Shou should be placed side by side in one row – Fuk is on your left side, Luk is in the center and Shou is on your right side when you look at them. They can be displayed on the table in your living room or dining area facing inside (not directly facing the main door if facing outside). The level of table can’t be too low. In addition, don’t display them under the beam or facing to toilet.

 

Fu Lu Shou” ( or Fuk Luk Sau) is the Three Star Gods.  The Star of Fu is the God of Happiness/Fortune.  

He carries a Ru-Yu (or Scepter).  The Star of Lu is the God of  Wealth and Social Status.  He carries a small boy.  The Star of Shou is the God of Longevity.  He carries a staff and an immortal peach. 

The pictures of “Fu Lu Shou” are extremely popular and are frequently seen in Chinese homes.  Displaying the images of “Fu Lu Shou” in the home, especially facing the main door, is believed to transform incoming “Chi” (or energy) into auspicious energy.  They can also be placed in an elevated place  in the dining room or living room.  The best place for them is a side board in the dining room, as this ensures there will always be plenty of food on the table, something that symbolizes prosperity.

(Motif) longevity Symbol
God of Longevity LAU

 Three Star Gods Fuk-Luk-Sau

 Dr Iwan Collections

 

Motif Symbol Love and marriage

 God marriages Chieh Lin

 

  • The Chinese God of Marriage is believed to be residing on the moon. On the first full moon of the Lunar year, which is on Chap Goh Meh, young ladies would throw sweet oranges into a body of water (river or the sea).
  •  
  • This custom supposedly originates from the island of Penang and it is still practiced till this modern day. The ritual is believed to be an act of obtaining blessing from the God of Marriage, so that the lady’s wish of getting a good husband is fulfilled. The oranges chosen for that special ritual must be ripe and sweet as that would reflect the wealth and social status of the future husband. Each lady is entitled to throw just one orange into a body of water, be it a river or the sea.
  • Bathing in the water that has been energized by the full moon can improve relationship luck. How to get moon-energized water? Simple. Place a basin of water under the moonlight for many hours. Add 7 types of flowers into that moon-activated bath water, utter positive affirmations before taking the moon bath. It helps to clear negative chi that affects your relationships.
  • In feng shui, the full moon is a powerful symbol and source of Yin energy. The Chinese God of Marriage known as Chieh Lin resides on the moon. Therefore, it is a brilliant idea to display a picture or a painting of the full moon in your home if you intend to activate romance luck. This painting should be put in the South West corner of the home / room. The South West sector signifies romance and marriage. Other than a painting of the full moon, one may also display a painting of mandarin ducks (in pair) or display a pair of mandarin ducks carved out of rose quartz (for best effect) at the South West corner.
  • Driwan Not yet found this motif collection In Indonesia(who have it please report)

The Chinese Imperial ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia (Continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffice 

 

The Chinese traditional Motif

1) Human Figure

 (1)Human Figure Motif

Human Kungfu Figure

Photo: koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup

Hallo Teman-teman Kolekstor Keramik dan Pecinta oleh raga silat Wushu dan Kungfu , saya baru saja menemukan mangkuk kecil untuk minum arak dari Dinasti ming akhir(Ming Wanli) biru putih.

Ternyata oleh raga Kungfu sudah ada sejak abak ke-empat belas tersebut dan sudah diminati di indonesia, mangkuk ini merupakan bukti,

Saya sudah mengupload i facebook saya ilustrasi dibawah ini dengan harapan mendapat info lebih lanjut.

  • the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks
    Photo: the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks
     
    •  
       
  •  

    Iwan Suwandy was at Vietnam and 2 other places.
    See All Stories
  • koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup
    Photo: koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup
     
    •  
      Iwan Suwandy please look the closeup of this Kungfu cup above, I am waiting for all my friend comment

Bagi yang memiliki keramik dengan dekorasi sperti ini harap berkenan menguploadnya buat saya jadi bahan yang melengkapi penelitian sudi banding gerakan Kungfu tempo dulu dengan saat ini.

Terima kasih atas komentar,saran dan info dari teman-teman

Jakarta November 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

english version

machinal  translate

Hello Friends and Lovers by Pottery Collector sport Wushu martial arts and martial arts, I’ve just discovered a small bowl to drink wine from the late Ming dynasty (Ming Wanli) blue and white.

Apparently the sport of martial arts has been around since abak all fourteen and already popular in Indonesia, this bowl is a testament,

I’ve uploaded my facebook i illustrated below with the hope of getting more info.

Photo: the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks

the closeup illustration of my collections Sun Kungfu cup design, who have the same added please upload for my research, thanks

Photo: koleksi mangkuk dinasti ming dengan lukisan gerakan kungfu saya temukan di jawa barat, bagi yang memiliki yang sama harap laporkan.If you have the same design please report,I have just research about this amizing cup

collection ming dynasty bowl with painting my kungfu movements found in western Java, for those who have the same hope you have the same laporkan.If please report design, I have just research about this amizing cup

Iwan Suwandy please look the closeup of this Kungfu cup above, I am waiting for all my friend comment
For those who have ceramic décor is just as pleasing please upload it for me so material that complements willing comparative study of martial arts movements of the past with the present.

Thanks for the comments, suggestions and info from friends

Jakarta, November 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy, MHA

 
Studi banding

Comparative study

Old Kungfu style from Ming era on small cup

Photo: the closeup illustration of my collections Ming Kungfu design cup,who have the same please upload for added my research,thanks

the sma kungfu style now llok below

 

The Chinese traditional Motif

5)(2) Baby And Kid Figure 

Ming Baby figure motif statue(illustration not upload)

The Chinese traditional Motif

5)(3) Chinese Man Figure

Other Chinese Man figure collections(illustration not upload)

The Chinese traditional Motif

5)(5) Chinese Women Figure

5)(6) Non Chinese Figure

Other Chinese Women figur collections(illustration not upload)

Qing landscape with euro  figure  and chinese man salute

Very rare euro figure

3.5.3

 Geometric Motif

This traditional motif were known in Indonesia as the motif which cannot identified the pattern of design  and only seen as the round geometric design motif..

This motifs only can understood by the specialist scholar in Chinese symbolic of Chinese traditional artworks like

a.The Moving Spirit

History of Chinese Funerary Ceramics 

The Neolithic Period   Jar   Late Yangshao period – Banshan type  c.2500 – 2000 BC   earthenware, pigments   Gift to the National Collection of Asian Art from Dr TT Tsui LLD JP, of the Tsui Art Foundation, HK, through the National Gallery of Australia Foundation 1995    

The Neolithic Period
c.10000 to 1500 BC

Much of our knowledge of Chinese cultural history is based on material found in ancient burial sites. The extensive array of objects which have been unearthed from tombs and graves provide a fascinating insight into life in ancient China. Some of the earliest evidence of civilisation in China dates from the Neolithic period.

There were two predominating cultures during this time: the Yangshao culture based in the central plain region and the Longshan culture centred around northern Shantung and the eastern seaboard. The excavation of burial sites reveal that even then death was accompanied by ritual. Bodies were buried with food containers and other possessions, presumably to assist the smooth passage of the dead to the next world.

Since the first unearthing in 1922 of neolithic artefacts at a cemetery site near Lanzhou, evidence of Yangshao culture has been found throughout an extensive area in central and northwest China including the provinces of Shaanxi, Henan and Hebei. Later remains have been found in the northwest provinces of Gansu and Qinghai.

The Yangshao culture is divided into 3 phases – Maijiayao (c.3,000–2,500 BC), Banshan (2500–2000 BC) and Machang (2200–1500 BC). Artefacts from each neolithic era are usually identified by the type of decoration found on the objects.

Shang Dynasty – Zhou dynasty
c.16th to 11th centuries BC – c.1050 to 221 BC 

By the Shang Dynasty there were well ordered rituals associated with burial, and belief in the power of gods and spirits played an important cultural role. Excavations of burial chambers have uncovered a wealth of funerary goods including bronze vessels, jade ornaments, weapons and most importantly, human sacrifices, often on a large scale. People and animals were often buried alive with the deceased emperor – battle chariots with their horses and human drivers have been discovered buried with their masters.

It is now better understood that the zoomorphic designs found on the magnificent metal vessels and ornaments and the intricate carvings on precious stones relate to Shang practices of consulting oracles, and their beliefs in auspicious signs and symbols. Before making important decisions such as when to plant crops or go into battle or even for more trivial matters such as whether the king would enjoy the day, the oracles would be read. The four cardinal points had great importance and were associated with the Ruler of the Four Quarters and the Eastern and Western Mothers. The sun and the dragon were allied with the east and the moon and the tiger with the west. South was often represented by the ‘red bird’ or phoenix while north was the direction of death.

In subsequent dynasties death rituals followed similar patterns until the time of the great Chinese philosopher, Confucius (551–479 BC), whose teachings would have a fundamental influence on all future Chinese religious and philosophical beliefs. Human sacrifices were greatly frowned upon by Confucius who promoted humanity as a moral virtue. However, the deeply held beliefs that ancestral spirits needed worldly trappings to ensure their comfort in the next life led people to craft figurative substitutes in the form of life-like sculptures which were buried in the tombs. Called mingqi, ‘spirit wares’, their manufacture eventually became a full-scale industry overseen by the government

 

Because of this the decorative artsDecorative Art are actually quite powerful, determining where the scenes in your life take place. Just imagine a movie. The setting determines the action, and it is quite easy to tell in most movies where the bad guy lives, or when two people enter a romantic room. The subtle details of a scene will often set the stage for how interactions will take place.

Decorating is an art that involves not only visual elements, but also texture, aroma, and even the ineffable feeling of ambiance. As such it is actually quite a complex undertaking. It is also a powerful skill which allows you to control the energy of interactions within a space, coloring the thoughts and perceptions of the people, and how they behave when relating to one another. For these reasons the decorative arts are actually one of the most important and potent disciplines in the creative world

b.. Cycles Of Change

c,The wheel of Law

Many of this geometric motif used on Chinese  old ceramic to export to the islamic area including Indonesia becau the Islamic forbidden to keep the God, human and animal creatures motif .

 Driwan Geometric motif  Late Ming Bowl Collections

Other Driwan Geometric Motif collections ( illustration not  Up Load)

The Chinese Imperial ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia (continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

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THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

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3.5.4

 CALLIGRAPHY ART MOTIF

3.5.4 1)

 Chinese Characters Calligraphy

3.5.3 1)

(1)
Chinese Poem Calligraphy

the poem on plate number 2697 is the first four lines of a related but later poem called “Return to Chibi” that was written by a later Ming Dynasty poet.

The first four lines of the later poem, as they appear on plate number 2697 are as follows:

 

五百年來续此游, Five Hundred years on, the journey continues,

水光依旧接天浮 , Glittering water still meets the floating sky in the far horizon,

徘徊今夜东山月, Loitering tonight under the moon (2)  of the Eastern Mountain,

恍惚当年壬戌秋 , The sentiment seemingly as if it was in the autumn of 1082. (3)

The complete poem has another four lines which, in English translates approximately to:

 

Have a friend to catch fishes, down Red Cliff.

Nobody is to carry wine, out of sandbar of yellow.

Now myself, the riverside and thousands of mountains, all in silence.

A lonely crane is crossing the water, just above the little boat. (4) 

these poets met one another and wrote poems back and forth??):

 

 Li Po, Tu Fu, and Su Tung-po!

在山上飲酒
山花兒開在我們的臉上。
三重,你和我都迷失在酒。
我喝醉了,我的朋友,昏昏欲睡。上升和去。
隨著黎明琵琶,回來,如果你願意,並留

Drinking in the Mountains

Mountain flowers open in our faces.
You and I are triply lost in wine.
I’m drunk, my friend, sleepy. Rise and go.
With your dawn lute, return, if you wish, and stay.

 

~Li Po

 

山東杜甫
你問我怎麼花我的時間
我偎依著樹幹
聽秋風
在松樹白天和黑夜。
山東酒不能讓我醉了。
當地詩人生了我。
我的想法仍然和你在一起,
溫江一樣,無休止地流淌

To Tu Fu from Shantung

You ask how I spend my time–
I nestle against a tree trunk
and listen to autumn winds
in the pines all night and day.

Shantung wine can’t get me drunk.
The local poets bore me.
My thoughts remain with you,
like the Wen River, endlessly flowing.
~Li Po

 

Bio: Li Bai‘s (Aka Li Po) birthplace is Chu, Kazakhstan. Another candidate is Suiye in Central Asia (near modern-day Tokmok, Kyrgyzstan). However his family had originally dwelt in what is now southeastern Gansu, and later moved to Jiangyou, near modern Chengdu in Sichuan province, when he was five years old. At the age of ten, his formal education started. Among various schools of classical Chinese philosophies, Taoism was the deepest influence, as demonstrated by his compositions. In 720, he was interviewed by Governor Su Ting, who considered him a genius. From: Poemhunter.com

滿月
上述塔 – 一個孤獨的兩倍大小的月亮。
晚上在冰冷的河水通過填充的家園,
它在波浪散射不安分的黃金。
墊子上,令人眼前一亮比絲綢紗布豐富。
空峰,沉默:在稀疏的星星,
尚未有缺陷的,它漂移。松樹和肉桂
蔓延在我的舊花園。 。 。所有的光,
所有萬英里一次在它的光!

Full Moon

Above the tower — a lone, twice-sized moon.
On the cold river passing night-filled homes,
It scatters restless gold across the waves.
On mats, it shines richer than silken gauze.

Empty peaks, silence: among sparse stars,
Not yet flawed, it drifts. Pine and cinnamon
Spreading in my old garden . . . All light,
All ten thousand miles at once in its light!

~Tu Fu

Bio: Most of what is known of Du Fu’s (Aka Tu Fu) life comes from his own poems. His paternal grandfather was Du Shenyan, a noted politician and poet during the reign of Empress Wu.

He was born in 712 in Gong county, near Luoyang, Henan province…In the autumn of 744 he met Li Bai (Li Po) for the first time, and the two poets formed a somewhat one-sided friendship: Du Fu was by some years the younger, while Li Bai was already a poetic star. We have twelve poems to or about Li Bai from the younger poet, but only one in the other direction.

 They met again only once, in 745. From: Poemhunter.com

 

追憶
什麼可以比喻我們地球上的生命?
一群鵝,
在雪地上下車。
有時留下了他們的流逝的痕跡

 

Remembrance

To what can our life on earth be likened?
To a flock of geese,
alighting on the snow.
Sometimes leaving a trace of their passage.

~Su Tung-po

Thoughts of Li Po from the World’s End

Here at the world’s end the cold winds are beginning to blow. What messages
have you for me, my master? When will the poor wandering goose arrive? The
rivers and lakes are swollen with autumn’s waters. Art detests a too successful
life; and the hungry goblins await you with welcoming jaws. You had better have
a word with the ghost of that other wronged poet. Drop some verses into the
Mi-lo as an offering to him!

  

COMMISSION Received By The Author From HIS HIGHNESS, LE, CHUNG-WANG (Faithful Prince)
COMMANDER-IN-CHIEF OF THE TI-PING FORCES. &c
A Translation will be found immediately after the Title page

 

 ceramic decoration text pattern characteristics(illustration Not Upload)

flower text pattern the small lid altar (cover after with old red sandalwood base

Ceramic painting many of which are decorated with patterns in which one of the special ornamentation text pattern porcelain decorated.

Text, the non-pattern but text as decorative, writing to patchwork like pattern turned into the picture of the pattern of decorative porcelain decoration of this text, we usually call text pattern.

I visit someone, Guangdong Province, a senior high porcelain large collectors appear a writing poetry Tang Dynasty Changsha Kiln underglaze red ewer, which also confirms the in Connoisseurship books introduced, the Text decorative patterns on porcelain was first seen in the Changsha Kiln in the Tang Dynasty(http://www.best-news.us/). usually the author in the major museums to visit the high ancient class ceramic, the most common of the Song Dynasty Cizhou Jizhou have book text decoration in ceramics on these words, also reflects the awareness of life of the people and social background. impact by the drama in the Yuan Dynasty, porcelain written text is even more surprising.

Ming porcelain Connoisseur often hair seen some Arabic, Sanskrit, Tibetan. These text decoration, either to see the practical dishes, often appear in worship with incense and then the the text decoration decorative ceramic material selection and atmosphere Islam has close ties with the Ming emperor(Favorites News Qing Dynasty Emperor Kangxi, writing entire the ancient prose as << Look at Several >> << the Ode >> classics most prevalent and so the picture depicted on porcelain, can be described as illustrated. Ceramic at this time, in the collection to the most common than the blue and white text pattern ‘million’ herringbone ‘swastika’ (Sanskrit), while the late Qing Dynasty Fencai Ci about Tongzhi years to the alum ‘life’ herringbone most widely used.

Porcelain text with its rich themes and a variety of fonts decorative, has become a senior expert in the ceramics the Connoisseur sector where subdivision types.

3.5.5

 1) (2)

The Mark Of Chinese artwork  and coin

Mark Of Chinese Ware 

Imperial Kiln MarkFrom Literature (not upload)

Hung Wu , Yung Lo  , Hung Chih .hong zhi,chende mark on ceramic still not found  in Indonesia by the reseacherer

Ta Ming Hsuante Nie Hao

Artifact Cup dragon five clown

Extreme rare imperial Hsuan dragon five clown ‘s bigger cup.maybe as the given to Sumatra Sultan bring by Admiral Cheng Ho

Imperial Wanli cup with dynasty mint mark (uncommon)
veryrare Imperial dragon five clown Wanli dynasty tea cup

Artifact Hsuante dragon 5 clown plate

Ming Imperial Chrysanthenum

Original Ming  Hsuan De Nien hao Markmark

Ming tsuante Nien hao  mark

The Original Ming Xuante Nien Hao Mark saucer

Original Hsuante Nien Hao,only found four  artifact

Unidentified  mark ming  of the base on cover box

The Hsuante below  were made during Wan Li Era  please look the type of script

Imperial Ceng Hua saucer  mintmark(very rare)

Ta ming Cheng Hua four character at  saucer

Compare found from shipwreck

Ref. 29. Another reign mark which reads as: Da Ming Chenhua Nian Zhi or, Made during Chenghua reign of the great Ming dynasty (1465-1487).  These characters are however painted in the well of a bowl in similar manners as the Xuande reign mark in Ref. 14.(illutration Not upload) 

 Compare from  literatures

Ref. 4 This four character reign mark excludes the first two characters ‘Da Ming’ in the previous mark.  It says: Chenghua Nian Zao or, “Made during the Chenghua reign”.  The fourth character is written as ‘Zao’

Comparative studies Nien Hao Imperial Ming Mark Found In Indonesia with Gotheberg Literatures report(sorry illustration not upload)

Ming Dynasty (1368-1644)
 Not yet found Hongwu 1368-1398
 Not yet found Yongle 1403-1424
 Dr Iwan Collection

 

 

 

 

(3)

 

Artifact Hsuante dragon 5 clown plate

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Original Ming Xuante Nien Hao Mark saucer

Original Hsuante Nien Hao,only found four  artifact

 

 

 

 

Repro wanly era

Xuande 1426-1435The Xuande mark is said to have been written by the famous calligrapher Shendu, since the official mark of Xuande is following his hand writing. Found repro dueng wan Li,different in Ta,Ming and Hsuande  .dan colour look below
 Cup Dr Iwan Collection Compare literatures’ Cup Ming imperial Ceng Hua

 

 

Chenghua 1465-1487It is thought that during the Chenghua period there were only one calligrapher writing all marks on all official porcelains. I am not sure we can assume that, regardless of what the mark looks like. In the early 1990’s I discussed this with Liu Xinyuan head of the excavations in Jingdezhen at this time, while spending some time studying their finds. He told the reason why the Chenghua mark looks like it does – in his opinion – was because the original mark was written by the emperor while he was quite young, and his handwriting was not so good. Whatever the case is, the Chenghua mark is inelegant, thick, often imbalanced and immature. Some common characteristics of the Chenghua porcelain mark by whatever hand but true to the period: 1)  First character “Great” – the beginning of the second stroke seldom extends much beyond the first stroke, looking stubby, but when it occasionally does the beginning is fat; third and final stroke ends thickly.2)  
2) Third character “Cheng” – the third stroke descending is not curved but straight and vertical.
3) Fifth character “Nian” – the character is unusually squat and square.
4) Last (sixth) character “Zhi” – the ninth stroke does not extend beyond the standing knife (li-dao) radical.
5) The final “tails” on most characters (e.g. last stroke of “cheng”, third stroke of “hua”) are abrupt and sharp, like fish hooks.
6) The surrounds when square are thick with ink at each right angle.
7) The mark in general is faintly obscured, as if covered with a thin haze
.
 Not yet found Hongzhi 1488-1505
 Not yet found Zhengde 1506-1521
  Jiajing 1522-1566
  736. Fu Gui Jia Qi – ‘Excellent Wares for the Wealthy Nobility’ or ‘Beautiful Vessel for the Rch and Honorable’. An auspicious inscription on folk wares, mostly seen on blue-and-white porcelain made in Jingdezhen in the Jiajing and Wanli reigns of the Ming dynasty and also seen on wares with gilt designs produced in the Jiajing reign. Chakra or, the flaming wheel-design on the inside. Estimated date C. 1600 according to some sources but probably Jiajing. Coll: Musée Antoine Lécuyer of Saint-Quentin (Aisne), France.Click here to see large picture

 

Not yet found

Longqing 1567-1572
 

 

Dr Iwan collection Cup

 

 

 

Compare Literatures

 

Wanli 1573-1620
   
  Chongzhen 1628-1644

 

Nien Hao Qing Dinasty (ilustration Not upload)

 4) Mark And Symbols on Ceramic

(illustration from literatures not upload)

The Jiajing period also saw the emergence of blue and white wares manufactured in Zhangzhou region. 

Many different marks can be found on Chinese porcelain.

Imperial Nien Hao

 Best known are the Imperial marks that occur on pieces for the court and related institutions since the early Ming period (1368–1644).

 

They usually consist of six characters

(sometimes four)

 in two rows that read from right to left and from top to bottom.

The first two characters indicate the dynasty (for instance Da Ming, the great Ming dynasty(illustration Not Upload)

2010371 Imperial reign mark: Da Qing Kang xi nian zhi. (Made during the Kangxi period of the Great Qing dynasty).

2010371 Imperial reign mark: Da Qing Kang xi nian zhi. (Made during the Kangxi period of the Great Qing dynasty).

Other character marks

(using 1 to 10 characters; over 2500 different marks are known) and seal marks may have many different meanings: a wish for good luck, a date, a quality comparison (for instance, the character yu means ‘jade’, an owner or factory, a recommendation, or an indication for use by a specific person or in a specific setting.

Furthermore, emblems or symbols are used as marks: a lotus flower, a heron (the ‘stork’ on Kraak porcelain), a hare, a plum blossom, a bat, etc. They symbolise happiness, prosperity, a long life and other good wishes. The ‘Eight Buddhist’ and the ‘Eight Daoist’ symbols have a similar meaning, as do the ‘Eight Precious Objects’.

Individual potter’s marks are very rare on Jingdezhen porcelain, but they occur much more frequently on Dehua (blanc de chine) and Yixing pieces. Marks are usually found on the bottom of a piece, sometimes on the edge, or in the centre.

2010817  Single character mark: Yu, (Jade, (Yuan to Qing)), underglaze blue.

2010817 Single character mark: Yu, (Jade, (Yuan to Qing)), underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010947 Single character mark: Qing, Celebrate, congratulate, good luck (Ming and Qing), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010947 Single character mark: Qing, Celebrate, congratulate, good luck (Ming and Qing), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010819 Single character mark: Qiu, (Autumn, harvest time, (Qing)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010819 Single character mark: Qiu, (Autumn, harvest time, (Qing)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201099P General four-character mark: Qi zhen ru yu, (As rare and precious as jade, (Qing)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

201099P General four-character mark: Qi zhen ru yu, (As rare and precious as jade, (Qing)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201099L Four-character mark featuring Zhi: Cheng hua nian zhi, (Made during the Chenghua reign (1465-1487)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

201099L Four-character mark featuring Zhi: Cheng hua nian zhi, (Made during the Chenghua reign (1465-1487)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010168 Six-character mark: Da Ming Xuan de nian zhi, (Made during the Xuande reign of the Great Ming dynasty (1426-1435)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010168 Six-character mark: Da Ming Xuan de nian zhi, (Made during the Xuande reign of the Great Ming dynasty (1426-1435)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010C75 Six-character mark: Da Ming Cheng hua nian zhi, (Made during the Chenghua reign of the Great Ming dynasty (1465-1487)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010C75 Six-character mark: Da Ming Cheng hua nian zhi, (Made during the Chenghua reign of the Great Ming dynasty (1465-1487)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010856 Six-character mark: Qi Yu bao ding zhi zhen, (Precious object of rare jade among treasured vessels), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010856 Six-character mark: Qi Yu bao ding zhi zhen, (Precious object of rare jade among treasured vessels), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201022 Six-character mark: Da Ming Cheng hua nian zhi, (Prepared during the Chenghua reign of the Great Ming Dynasty (1465-1487)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

201022 Six-character mark: Da Ming Cheng hua nian zhi, (Prepared during the Chenghua reign of the Great Ming Dynasty (1465-1487)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201090 Six-character mark  "Qi yu bao ding zhi zhen, (Precious object of rare jade among treasured vessels (Kangxi)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.

201090 Six-character mark “Qi yu bao ding zhi zhen, (Precious object of rare jade among treasured vessels (Kangxi)), in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010743 Symbol mark, Artemesia leaf, in overglaze iron-red, in a double circle in underglaze blue.

2010743 Symbol mark, Artemesia leaf, in overglaze iron-red, in a double circle in underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010C7 Symbol mark: Artemesia leaf, underglaze blue.

2010C7 Symbol mark: Artemesia leaf, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010462 Symbol mark: Swastika in a lozenge, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010462 Symbol mark: Swastika in a lozenge, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201092 Symbol mark: Ding incense burner, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

201092 Symbol mark: Ding incense burner, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201093 Symbol mark: Flower, the symbol for purity, in a double circle, underglaze blue,

201093 Symbol mark: Flower, the symbol for purity, in a double circle, underglaze blue,
 
 

 

2010942 Symbol mark: Sacred Fungus, the symbol of longevity, immortality, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010942 Symbol mark: Sacred Fungus, the symbol of longevity, immortality, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2011340 Symbol mark: Lotus. Symbol of purity and one of the eight Buddhist Emblems, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2011340 Symbol mark: Lotus. Symbol of purity and one of the eight Buddhist Emblems, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010555 Symbol mark: Mandarin mark of honour, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010555 Symbol mark: Mandarin mark of honour, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010C85 Symbol mark: Conch shell, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010C85 Symbol mark: Conch shell, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010111 Symbol mark: The Éndless Knot, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010111 Symbol mark: The Éndless Knot, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 
2010973 Symbol mark: Moon hare, symbol of lovers reunion, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010973 Symbol mark: Moon hare, symbol of lovers reunion, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010454 Symbol mark: Hare, symbol of  intelligence and longevity, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010454 Symbol mark: Hare, symbol of intelligence and longevity, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010108 Symbol mark: Pair of fish, one of the eight Buddhist Emblems and symbol of marital bliss, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010108 Symbol mark: Pair of fish, one of the eight Buddhist Emblems and symbol of marital bliss, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2011138A Symbol mark: Chinese bee, symbol of industry and prosperity, underglaze blue.

2011138A Symbol mark: Chinese bee, symbol of industry and prosperity, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010461 Symbol mark: Lotus, symbol of purity and one of the eight Buddhist Emblems, in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010461 Symbol mark: Lotus, symbol of purity and one of the eight Buddhist Emblems, in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010259 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010259 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010742 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010742 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010189A Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010189A Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

201094 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

201094 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010151 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010151 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010622 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010622 Square shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.
 
 

 

2010783 Shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue.

2010783 Shop mark in a double circle, underglaze blue

Please look other type of Chinese calligraphy mark at

Driwan CD_ROM

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

Ming De Hua Horse Motif saucer

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

The Chinese Imperial Ceramic Artwork Found In Indonesia (continiu)

THE ART MOTIF OF CHINA IMPERIAL CERAMIC FOUND IN INDONESIA

PART THREE

PART III. STUDIES RESULTS

 

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy , MHA

Private Limited E-Book In CD-Rom Edition

Special For Senior Reseacher And Collectors

Copyright @ 2013

THIS THE SAMPLE OF Dr Iwan Limited E-Book In CD-Rom with unedited non complete info illustration, the complete CD-Rom exist but only for premium member please subscribe via comment with your email address and private information same as  your ID-Card

 

Driwancybermuseum Homeoffice 

3.5.5 1) (3)

 Arabic Islamic Charaters Caligraphy

 

the only one artifact found f a Chengde  Ming Dynasti blue white plate white with Arabic calligraphy

La Ila Ilalah Mohammad Rasullah

Means

There is no god other than Allah Muhammad prophet of  Allah

Tiada Tuhan Selain Allah Muhammad God Phrophet

 During the Zhengde period, some blue and white porcelains with Islamic influence such as Arabic scripts were produced.  Some speculated that it was because emperor Zhengde was converted to Muslim faith.  However, the more probable  reason could be the influence of the powerful eunuchs , many of whom were Muslims

Saucers with Underglaze blue decoration 9n the center an Arabic description Ming Dynasty ,Zhengde Mark and Period (1506-21)

3.5.5 1) (4)

Chinese characters Art Calligraphy motif

Qing calligraphy Shou

Lucky Shou loglife and happ1ness calligraphy

Late Ming Chinese Happines Shou Calligraphy Bowl and Plate

d marriage

3) calligraphy double happiness (Double Happiness)

 

Eight Divided   late qing CarsonesaucLateng Vase Double Hapiness calligraphy shou motifer with Double Happiness Chinese shou calligraphy and chrysanthemum flower(illustration not upload)

 

Eight Divided   late qing blue and white  with Double Happiness Chinese shou calligraphy and chrysanthemum flower(illustration not upload

Late qing vase with double hapinness shou calligraphy

3.5.5 1) (5)

Sansekrit Hindu Character calligraphy

Dr Iwan found  three palte 1 bigger, two middle, and small artifact. Of  Om –God  in sansekrit hindu caharter.(illustration not upload)

Interlacing floral scrolls with Sanskrit characters. It shows  typical calligraphic style of execution of the motif

3.5.5 1) (6)

  JaJavanese and other Indonesian native character Calligraphy

Chinese Imperial ceramic with javanese calligraphy Not yet found, but Dr Iwan foud  one plate and one cover bowl with Javanese charater means

Peringatan 10000 hari meninggalnya Ratu Kenvaca (permasuri hemangkubuwono Vii( , ibu daru Ratu Mas Permaisuri sultan Solo Pakubuwono le  sepuluh (X(

Itu buatan Petrus Regout Mast rich bergambar Ratu Kencana,permaisuri HB VII dan ibunda dari Ratu Mas permaisuri PB X,set piring dipesan utk peringatan 1000 hari meninggalnya Ratu Kencana.terdiri dari dinner set komplit dibagikan pada seluruh kerabat dan undangan.nuwun ,panji java salatiga 085726853098

(Panji salatiga info)

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/11/07/the-mysteri-of-vintage-java-kingdom-special-import-ceramic-from-euromengungkap-misteri-keramik-antik-pesanan-khusus-keraton-solo/

 

The same calligraphy also on the bigger dutch maastrich plate in Blue white colour(illustration not upload)