INDONESIA HISTORY COLLECTIONS IN 1943
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
(With 21 Plates)
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Kepulauan terbesar di dunia terletak 13.000 mil dari New York, di belahan dunia. Hindia Timur, atau Indonesia, adalah rantai kepulauan berjumlah ribuan dan memperluas 3.000 mil di sepanjang Khatulistiwa dari ujung barat mereka di ujung utara Sumatra sampai batas timur mereka di New Guinea.
Sebagian besar daerah ini pulau besar dimiliki oleh Belanda, sampai disita oleh Jepang pada bulan-bulan awal 1942. Dua bagian dari pulau-pulau, utara dan timur Kalimantan Timur, berada di bawah kontrol, masing-masing, Raya dan Portugal.
Hindia terletak langsung di Khatulistiwa, yang membagi dua dua pulau terbesar, Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Pulau paling barat, Sumatera, terletak tepat di sebelah selatan Semenanjung Melayu, dari yang dipisahkan oleh Selat Malaka yang sempit. Kalimantan dan Sulawesi, pulau-pulau paling utara, mencapai dekat dengan Filipina, sementara Timor, di perbatasan selatan, hanya 400 mil di Laut Arafura dari Australia. Perbatasan timur wilayah Belanda memotong langsung utara dan selatan melalui pusat Nugini. Di luar itu berbohong bagian Australia dan Inggris pulau terakhir. Dengan demikian seluruh nusantara menempati laut antara Asia Tenggara dan Australia. Dahulu dianggap sebagai “penghalang Melayu” melindungi Australia dari agresi Jepang selatan, Hindia sekarang, sayangnya, merupakan garis musuh defensif terhadap Sekutu penaklukan utara. Dari sudut pandang strategis, karena itu, pulau-pulau yang sangat penting dalam perang Pasifik ini.
Dari timur ke barat Indonesia hampir 1.000 mil lebih luas dari Amerika Serikat; dari utara ke selatan itu meluas untuk jarak setara dengan yang dari perbatasan Kanada untuk Texas pusat. Luas tanah yang sebenarnya adalah kurang lebih sama seperti yang dari Amerika Serikat timur Mississippi – sekitar 750.000 mil persegi. Kalimantan adalah pulau ketiga terbesar di
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dunia, yang meliputi 290.000 mil persegi (setara Texas dan Oklahoma gabungan). Setengah Belanda dari New Guinea, dengan 150.000 nya mil persegi, dan Sumatera, dengan 160.000 mil persegi, California perkiraan dalam ukuran. Sulawesi, berukuran 70.000 mil persegi, adalah sebanding dengan New England ditambah New Jersey, dan Jawa, pulau besar yang tersisa, memiliki luas wilayah 50.000 mil persegi, hampir sama dengan New York State.
Tiga dari empat pulau besar Barat – Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Jawa – kebohongan di rak tanah Asia dan pernah berhubungan dengan daratan benua. Laut memisahkan mereka dari Asia sangat dangkal, dan sebagian besar pesisir mereka terdiri dari rawa pasang surut memperluas jauh di daratan. New Guinea dan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan istirahat di rak tanah Australia dan sebelumnya merupakan bagian dari Australia sendiri. Pulau-pulau utama Indonesia, bagaimanapun, termasuk Sulawesi, para Kepulauan Sunda Kecil, dan Maluku, naik dari laut dalam, dalam apa yang pernah menjadi selat lebar memisahkan Asia dari Australia.
Topografi Indonesia adalah salah satu kontras yang kuat. Dataran kering yang luas hanya terjadi di Jawa dan sebagian Sumatera. Di tempat lain dataran tingkat jarang dan terbatas di daerah, dan sebagian besar pulau-pulau terdiri dari baik perbukitan dan pegunungan terjal atau rawa basah. Dataran tinggi dan rawa keduanya berpakaian hutan lebat kecuali lereng bukit telah dibuka untuk budidaya dengan usaha manusia. Terutama, oleh karena itu, Hindia adalah wilayah rawa, pegunungan, dan hutan.
Lebih dari seratus gunung Bahasa Indonesia adalah gunung berapi aktif atau baru aktif. Dimanapun vulkanisme terjadi, populasi terpadat, karena abu vulkanik yang membuat tanah subur. Jawa, yang paling vulkanik dari semua pulau, memiliki konsentrasi terbesar penduduk; Kalimantan dan New Guinea, wilayah paling vulkanik, adalah yang paling jarang dihuni.
Berbaring sepanjang khatulistiwa, Hindia memiliki iklim panas dan lembab, tetapi suhu rata-rata menurun sekitar 1 ° Fahrenheit untuk setiap 300 meter dari ketinggian. Akibatnya, kabupaten pegunungan menawarkan bantuan dingin dari dataran rendah yang menindas. Penghuni di pantai Batavia, dimana suhu tahunan rata-rata adalah 80 °, menyambut setiap kesempatan untuk mengunjungi Handung. sebuah kota gunung dengan rata-rata tahunan hanya 73 °, Kelembaban tinggi membuat panas tropis semakin tidak nyaman.
Curah hujan lebat di hampir seluruh bagian pulau dan meningkat dengan ketinggian. Beberapa bagian pegunungan diberi minum dengan 12 kaki hujan per tahun. Meskipun suhu bervariasi hanya sedikit sepanjang tahun, angin monsoon menyebabkan perubahan musiman dalam curah hujan. Dalam sebagian
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The largest archipelago in the world lies 13,000 miles from New York, halfway around the globe. The East Indies, or Indonesia, are a chain of islands numbering in the thousands and extending 3,000 miles along the Equator from their western extremity at the northern tip of Sumatra to their eastern limit in New Guinea.
Most of this enormous insular area was owned by the Netherlands, until seized by the Japanese in the early months of 1942. Two parts of the islands, northern Borneo and eastern Timor, were under the control, respectively, of Great Britain and Portugal.
The Indies lie directly on the Equator, which bisects the two largest islands, Sumatra and Borneo. The westernmost island, Sumatra, is situated just south of the Malay Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Straits of Malacca. Borneo and Celebes, the northernmost islands, reach up close to the Philippines, while Timor, on the southern border, is only 400 miles across the Arafura Sea from Australia. The eastern border of Dutch territory cuts directly north and south through the center of New Guinea. Beyond it lie the Australian and British sections of the latter island. Thus the entire archipelago occupies the seas between southeastern Asia and Australia. Formerly regarded as “the Malay barrier” protecting Australia from Japanese aggression southward, the Indies now, unfortunately, represent an enemy defensive line against Allied reconquest northward. From a strategical viewpoint, therefore, the islands are of crucial importance in the present Pacific war.
From east to west Indonesia is almost 1,000 miles wider than the United States; from north to south it extends for a distance equivalent to that from the Canadian border to central Texas. Its actual land area is approximately the same as that of the United States east of the Mississippi–about 750,000 square miles. Borneo is the third largest island in
the world, covering 290,000 square miles (equaling Texas and Oklahoma combined). The Dutch half of New Guinea, with its 150,000 square miles, and Sumatra, with 160,000 square miles, approximate California in size. Celebes, measuring 70,000 square miles, is comparable to New England plus New Jersey; and Java, the remaining large island, has an area of 50,000 square miles, almost the same as New York State.
Three of the four large western islands–Sumatra, Borneo, and Java– lie on the Asiatic land shelf and were once connected with the continental mainland. The seas separating them from Asia are very shallow, and much of their coastland consists of tidal swamps extending far inland. New Guinea and adjacent islands rest on the Australian land shelf and formerly constituted a part of Australia itself. The central islands of Indonesia, however, including Celebes, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas, rise out of the deep ocean, in what was once a wide strait separating Asia from Australia.
The topography of Indonesia is one of strong contrasts. The only extensive dry flatlands occur in Java and parts of Sumatra. Elsewhere level plains are infrequent and restricted in area, and most of the islands consist of either rolling hills and steep mountains or soggy marshes. Highlands and swamps both are clothed in dense forest except where hillsides have been cleared for cultivation by human effort. Predominantly, therefore, the Indies are a region of swamps, mountains, and jungles.
Over a hundred of the Indonesian mountains are active or recently active volcanoes. Wherever volcanism occurs, population is densest, for volcanic ash makes fertile soil. Java, the most volcanic of all the islands, has the greatest concentration of population; Borneo and New Guinea, the least volcanic regions, are the most sparsely peopled.
Lying along the Equator, the Indies have a hot and moist climate; but the average temperature decreases about 1° Fahrenheit for each 300 feet of altitude. Consequently, the mountainous districts offer cool relief from the oppressive lowlands. Dwellers in coastal Batavia, where the mean annual temperature is 80°, welcome every opportunity to visit Handung. a mountain city with a yearly average of only 73°, The high humidity makes the tropical heat even more uncomfortable.
Rainfall is heavy in nearly all parts of the islands and increases with altitude. Some mountainous sections are drenched with 12 feet of rain annually. Although the temperature varies only slightly throughout the year, the monsoonal winds cause a seasonal change in rainfall. In most
of Indonesia, the west is thIndonesia, barat adalah “basah” hujan dan berlaku selama bulan-bulan musim dingin utara kami. Di bagian timur Indonesia, namun, musim dibalik, dan musim timur membawa sebagian besar curah hujan.
Sementara panas dan kelembaban menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan, penyakit lokal banyak adalah sumber bahaya konstan. Karena parasit penyakit selalu ada, hati-hati perlu bahwa air minum direbus dan semua sayur dan buah dikupas dan sebaiknya dimasak, untuk menghindari tipus, disentri, dan kolera. Lebih sulit untuk mencegah adalah malaria, kutukan pulau. Kelambu membantu dan sangat diperlukan, tetapi kina adalah yang terbaik pencegahan. Ini tidak perlu digunakan di setiap kabupaten, untuk beberapa bagian pulau-pulau secara alami bebas dari nyamuk pembawa malaria. Penyakit-penyakit tropis lebih menjijikkan seperti kaki gajah dan kusta mengklaim korban asli banyak tapi jarang menyerang kulit putih.
Layanan medis Belanda telah membuat kemajuan luar biasa dalam pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit dengan akibat bahwa banyak bagian Hindia, terutama Jawa dan Sumatera bagian, telah menjadi tempat yang cukup sehat dengan standar tropis. Penderitaan ditakuti tahun sebelumnya, seperti wabah dan demam blackwater, telah dikendalikan, dan wabah yang menghancurkan dari kolera, tifus, dan cacar tidak lagi terjadi. Tapi orang kulit putih masih harus melakukan kewaspadaan konstan pada apa yang dia makan dan minuman, menjalani inokulasi periodik, dan menjaga kina nya berguna untuk menjamin kesehatan yang baik di pulau-pulau. Kecerobohan membawa hukuman berat, sering mati. Hal ini benar terutama di distrik-distrik terpencil, di mana pelayanan kesehatan pemerintah belum diperpanjang kegiatannya, dan di mana perawatan medis tidak tersedia.
Mungkin jenis yang paling menjengkelkan dari kehidupan hewan adalah yang terkecil. Semut, rayap, laba-laba, kalajengking, dan sejumlah serangga ajaib di berbagai kawanan mereka di mana-mana, dan lalat dan nyamuk terutama adalah sahabat konstan dan tidak menyenangkan. Yang terakhir ini terutama merupakan hama menyebalkan, dan kebebasan dari serangan bertubi-tubi mereka mungkin adalah salah satu bantuan terbesar tunggal dalam mendapatkan merasa jauh dari Hindia. Perjalanan di kabupaten berhutan membawa pertemuan menyenangkan dengan lintah berlimpah, yang menghisap darah sampai bengkak ke ukuran cigaret.
Pulau-pulau barat memiliki jenis Asiatic binatang, seperti harimau, gajah, badak, sapi liar, dan orang utan, tetapi ini tidak hadir
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di bagian timur kepulauan, di mana fauna Australia mendominasi, termasuk berbagai jenis marsupial. Meskipun berbagai macam ular yang ditemukan di Hindia, dan beberapa macam, seperti kobra dan ular air tertentu, beracun, reptil yang paling berbahaya adalah buaya. Adalah bijaksana untuk memata-matai setiap aliran dengan sangat hati sebelum mandi, pencucian, atau mencoba sebuah persimpangan.
Populasi besar Hindia – sekitar 70,0000,000 berdasarkan perkiraan terakhir – terutama terkonsentrasi di satu pulau, Jawa. Di sini, di daerah setara dengan Negara Bagian New York, hidup lebih dari 40.000.000 orang, rata-rata lebih dari 800 per mil persegi. Ini adalah negara dihuni sebagian besar berpenduduk padat di dunia. Sumatera, hampir empat kali luas Jawa hanya memiliki 8.000.000 penduduk, sementara Kalimantan, pulau terbesar dari semua, sangat jarang dihuni oleh 2.500.000. Sulawesi, dengan 4.000.000, memiliki sebagian besar terkonsentrasi di utara ekstrim dan semenanjung barat daya. Bali, sebuah pulau kecil sebelah timur Jawa, mendukung populasi lebih dari satu juta, dan Lombok, berdekatan dengan itu, 600.000, tetapi Indonesia timur, termasuk New Guinea, adalah untuk sebagian besar tipis diselesaikan. Jadi, sementara jumlah penduduk besar, hanya beberapa bagian dari Hindia yang padat dihuni: Jawa, daerah tertentu di Sumatera, dua bagian terbatas dari Sulawesi, Bali, dan Lombok.
Jawa, dari sudut pandang penduduk, bukan hanya fenomena, yang merupakan masalah yang membingungkan. Orang Jawa memiliki dua kali lipat jumlah mereka dalam 60 tahun, dan tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda berkurangnya Kenaikan mereka. Dengan perang asli ditekan dan penyakit tidak lagi menghancurkan memeriksa sebelumnya adalah, pulau ini sangat hampir mencapai titik kejenuhan manusia. Belanda telah mencoba untuk meredakan ketegangan dengan mendorong dan subsidi emigrasi ke bagian lain dari Indonesia, terutama Sumatera. Tapi sementara emigran sedang dikapalkan oleh ratusan, orang Jawa meningkat ribuan. Masalah tetap belum terpecahkan.
Populasi putih Hindia, termasuk orang-orang berdarah campuran, sebelum perang saat ini hanya mencapai sekitar 250.000. Kelompok non-pribumi terbesar adalah Cina, dengan jumlah diperkirakan 1.200.000. Semua lain “Asiatik asing” bersama-sama, sebagian besar Arab dan Hindu, mencapai 115.000. Orang Jepang, kebetulan, yang kurang terwakili, dengan hanya beberapa ribu. Karena hal teknis hukum, mereka yang diklasifikasikan sebagai “orang Eropa.” Secara keseluruhan, kemudian, populasi non-Indonesia dari pulau-pulau relatif kecil, hanya sekitar 2 persen dari total.
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Plat 2Above: Kawah Bromo besar di Jawa Timur. Bromo dan Smeru di latar belakang adalah gunung suci dari dataran tinggi Tengger, yang sebelumnya dilemparkan pengorbanan manusia ke dalam gunung berapi merokok.
Bawah: Pemandangan di Bali.
e “wet” monsoon and prevails during the months of our northern winter. In parts of eastern Indonesia, however, the seasons are reversed, and the east monsoon brings most rainfall.
While heat and dampness cause discomfort, the numerous local diseases are a source of constant danger. Because of the ever present disease parasites, great care is necessary that drinking water be boiled and all vegetables and fruits peeled and preferably cooked, in order to avoid typhoid, dysentery, and cholera. More difficult to prevent is malaria, the curse of the island. Mosquito nets help and are indispensable, but quinine is the best preventative. It need not be used in every district, for several parts of the islands are naturally free of malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The more repulsive tropical diseases such as elephantiasis and leprosy claim many native victims but seldom attack whites.
The Dutch medical service has made amazing progress in disease prevention and control with the result that many parts of the Indies, particularly Java and sections of Sumatra, have become fairly healthy places by tropical standards. The dreaded afflictions of former years, such as plague and blackwater fever, have been brought under control, and devastating epidemics of cholera, typhoid, and smallpox no longer occur. But the white man must still exercise constant vigilance on what he eats and drinks, undergo periodic inoculations, and keep his quinine handy in order to insure good health in the islands. Carelessness carries heavy penalties, frequently death. This is especially true in the remoter districts, where the government health service has not yet extended its activities, and where medical care is not available.
Probably the most annoying kinds of animal life are the smallest ones. Ants, termites, spiders, scorpions, and a host of insects marvelous in their variety swarm everywhere, and flies and mosquitoes especially are constant and disagreeable companions. The latter particularly are infuriating pests, and freedom from their insistent attacks is perhaps the greatest single relief one feels in getting away from the Indies. Travel in forested districts brings unpleasant encounters with the abundant leeches, which suck blood until swollen to cigaret size.
The western islands have Asiatic types of animals, such as the tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, wild cattle, and orang-utan; but these are absent
in the eastern part of the archipelago, where Australian fauna predominates, including numerous kinds of marsupials. Although a wide variety of snakes are found in the Indies, and several kinds, such as cobras and certain water snakes, are poisonous, the most dangerous reptiles are the crocodiles. It is wise to reconnoitre every stream with extreme care before bathing, laundering, or attempting a crossing.
The enormous population of the Indies–about 70,0000,000 by the latest estimate–is concentrated mainly in one island, Java. Here, in an area equivalent to that of New York State, live over 40,000,000 people, an average of more than 800 per square mile. It is the mostly densely populated country in the world. Sumatra, almost four times the size of Java, has only 8,000,000 inhabitants; while Borneo, largest island of all, is very sparsely peopled by 2,500,000. Celebes, with 4,000,000, has most of these concentrated in the extreme northern and southwestern peninsulas. Bali, a small island east of Java, support a population of over a million, and Lombok, adjacent to it, 600,000; but eastern Indonesia, including New Guinea, is for the most part thinly settled. Thus, while the total population is large, only a few sections of the Indies are densely inhabited: Java, certain districts of Sumatra, two restricted parts of Celebes, Bali, and Lombok.
Java, from the viewpoint of population, is not only a phenomenon; it is a perplexing problem. The Javanese have doubled their numbers in 60 years, and show no signs of slackening their Increase. With native warfare suppressed and disease no longer the devastating check it formerly was, this island has very nearly reached the point of human saturation. The Dutch have tried to ease the strain by encouraging and subsidizing emigration to other parts of Indonesia, principally Sumatra. But while emigrants were being shipped off by hundreds, the Javanese were increasing by thousands. The problem remains unsolved.
The white population of the Indies, including persons of mixed blood, before the present war totaled only about 250,000. The largest non-native group were the Chinese, numbering approximately 1,200,000. All other “alien Asiatics” together, mostly Arabians and Hindus, totaled 115,000. The Japanese, incidentally, were poorly represented, with only a few thousand. Because of legal technicalities, they were classed as “Europeans.” In all, then, the non-Indonesian population of the islands was relatively small, only about 2 percent of the total.
Plate 2Above: The enormous Bromo crater in eastern Java. The Bromo and the Smeru in background are sacred mountains of the Tenggerese highlanders, who formerly hurled human sacrifices into the smoking volcano.
Below: Landscape in Bali.
Plate 3Above: Crocodile captured in Sibolga, Sumatra. Length 16 feet, weight 1,100 pounds.
Below: Orang-utan, Borneo. These great apes are found nowhere in the world except Sumatra and Borneo.
Plate 4Above: The Javanese are the champion breeders of the world and love their plentiful children. This photograph symbolizes an apparently insoluble population problem.
Below: Batak women and girls, Sumatra, showing the proto-Malay (Caucasoid) physical type.
Plate 5Above: Javanese girls in working clothes. The physical types show proto-Malay (Caucasoid) and deutero-Malay (Mongoloid) mixture.
Below: Native of Kupang, Timor, showing the Melanesian physical type, with Negroid features, and wooly hair. A half cylinder is used to fashion the pompon coiffure. Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.
Hindia adalah tanah air dari cabang Melayu Mongoloid, atau kuning, ras. Jenis Melayu, secara umum, ditandai dengan perawakan yang sangat pendek (5 kaki 2 atau 3 inci untuk pria), kulit coklat, rambut hitam lurus atau bergelombang, wajah datar dengan hidung lebar dan ketebalan bibir sedang, dan bertubuh ramping. Ada pertumbuhan sedikit rambut di wajah atau tubuh. Sebagian besar wilayah Indonesia, dengan pengecualian dari pulau-pulau timur ekstrim dan bagian terpencil tertentu di tempat lain, dihuni oleh masyarakat dari ras Melayu, yang juga menyebar sampai ke Filipina dan Semenanjung Melayu.
Dua subdivisi dari stok Melayu dapat dibedakan dalam pulau. Kabupaten interior, sebagian besar dataran tinggi, dari Jawa, Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Sulawesi, serta rantai pulau yang membentang dari Bali ke Timor, yang dihuni terutama oleh suku-suku dari jenis yang disebut proto-Melayu. Mereka mewakili imigrasi sebelumnya Melayu ke Indonesia dari Asia tenggara dan memiliki penampilan yang jauh lebih sedikit Mongoloid dari penduduk pesisir., Populasi pesisir pulau-pulau barat besar sebagian besar dari jenis Deutero-Melayu rasial. Mereka adalah keturunan bentuk pemukim kemudian Melayu di Indonesia dan menunjukkan ciri-ciri lebih Mongoloid. Perbedaan utama antara kedua subraces Melayu dapat diringkas sebagai berikut: proto-Melayu yang lebih pendek dan memiliki kulit yang lebih gelap, rambut bergelombang semakin terlihat, dan gempal fisik dari Deutero-Melayu, dan fitur wajahnya tidak memiliki mata Mongoloid karakteristik miring dengan di dalam kali lipat pada kelopak mata atas, serta tulang pipi menonjol dari Deutero-Melayu.
Alasan untuk ini divisi yang menarik adalah bahwa awalnya tenggara Asia, tanah air kuno dari Indonesia, dihuni oleh suku-suku yang outlier gelap dan jauh dari masyarakat Eropa. Proto-Melayu, dengan fitur Caucasoid mereka, menunjukkan bukti tentang hal ini keturunan “putih”. Mereka meninggalkan daratan Asia sebelum gerakan yang semakin meningkat dari masyarakat Mongoloid dari utara menyerbu Asia Tenggara, dan, dicampur dengan penduduk tua di sana, secara bertahap mengubah jenis ras dari Caucasoid gelap didominasi Mongoloid. Kedatangan kemudian di Hindia dari wilayah ini adalah semakin lebih Mongolized, dan keturunan hidup mereka tunjukkan di wajah mereka yang lebih luas, tulang pipi tinggi, tegak rambut, dan mata miring lagi. Orang Melayu kemudian mendorong yang sebelumnya kembali ke kabupaten interior, dimana tipe proto-Melayu masih berlaku, dan menduduki tanah pesisir sendiri.
Jauh sebelum ras Melayu menyebar ke dalam pulau, saham manusia lainnya telah menetap di sana. Yang paling awal dari ras kuno mungkin Australoid itu. Jejak jenis Australoid, dengan fitur kasar nya, alis beetling, dan tubuh berbulu, masih dapat dideteksi di Hindia,
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khususnya di pulau-pulau terdekat Australia, rumah yang sekarang ini ras kuno. Dua cabang dari ras bersifat Negro juga hidup di Indonesia di zaman prasejarah. Satu,, bukan tinggi cadang berbingkai, berambut lebat Melanesia atau Kelautan jenis bersifat Negro, kini telah menghilang dari sebagian besar pulau-pulau, tetapi di Timor-Flores zona suku-suku Indonesia timur tertentu masih relatif murni melestarikan ciri Melanesia. Pusat permukiman bersifat Negro Melanesia telah lama sejak pindah ke timur, di luar New Guinea, untuk Solomon, Hebrides Baru, Fijis, dan Kaledonia Baru. Jenis bersifat Negro lain, yang disebut Negrito atau kerdil Negro, masih bertahan di bagian timur Sumatera, Timor, Alor, dan pegunungan New Guinea. Lain Negrito kelompok ditemukan di Kepulauan Andaman, Malaya, dan Filipina. Salah satu jenis ras lebih kuno Hindia adalah, seperti Negrito, dwarfish dan rapuh. Jenis ini disebut Veddoid memiliki kulit coklat, rambut berombak, dan wajah prognathous dengan dagu surut. Tampaknya menjadi hibrida terhambat bahasa Melayu dan Australoid. Sisa-sisa umat Veddoid menghuni timur Sumatera rawa, sebagian Kalimantan dan Sulawesi, dan pulau-pulau tertentu di Indonesia Timur, terutama Seram. Masyarakat Veddoid lain ditemukan di Ceylon, Malaya, dan Filipina.
Sementara sebagian besar wilayah Indonesia dihuni oleh suku-suku dari ras Melayu, dengan sisa-sisa diselingi dengan sediaan kuno hanya disebutkan, bagian paling timur tidak pernah dicapai oleh migrasi Melayu utama. Di sini, di New Guinea dan pulau-pulau tetangga, saham Papua berlaku. Sepertinya hibrida dari Australoid dan Melanesia bersifat Negro, yang ditandai dengan tubuh kurus dan panjang berkaki, kulit gelap, dan wajah sempit dan sudut, dengan bibir tipis dan hidung yang panjang, yang terakhir sering penuh berdaging dan terhubung pada tip. Tubuh adalah berbulu, wajah sering berjenggot, dan keriting rambut kepala. Memang, papua berarti “berambut keriting” dalam bahasa Melayu. Di Maluku, antara Sulawesi dan Papua Nugini, campuran dari Papua dan proto-Melayu jenis telah menghasilkan hibrida yang disebut Alfur, dengan media untuk perawakan tinggi, fisik ramping, sedang untuk kulit coklat gelap, langsung ke rambut bergelombang, yang relatif berbulu tubuh, dan fitur yang bervariasi dari luas berwajah, norma berhidung pesek proto-Melayu ke konformasi Papua berwajah sempit, “Semit” berhidung.
Perbedaan ras yang jelas antara Indonesia bagian barat, yang hampir kokoh Melayu dalam populasi, dan pulau-pulau timur, dihuni oleh saham Papua, yang disejajarkan dengan kontras dalam temperamen manusia. Orang Melayu sangat tenang dan pendiam, sementara orang Papua yang bersemangat dan gencar. Yang pertama adalah apatis dan pensiun, yang mudah menguap yang terakhir
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dan agresif. Voyaging ke arah timur dari Jawa, orang dapat melihat perubahan karakter menjadi semakin lebih nyata, sama seperti ciri-ciri fisik secara bertahap bervariasi dari Melayu menuju Papua itu. Penduduk asli menjadi kurang terkendali, lebih keras, dan lebih banyak bicara, sampai di New Guinea “suasana manusia” mencapai hampir satu ekstrim berlawanan dari negeri orang Melayu tenang dan Jawa. Meskipun perbedaan temperamental menyertai pergeseran ras, itu mungkin tidak biologis, melainkan hasil dari pelatihan yang berbeda dan aturan perilaku.
Bangsa Melayu, secara umum, sangat ramah dan sopan, tidak hanya untuk satu sama lain, tetapi untuk orang asing juga. Orang Papua, di sisi lain, cenderung membuat kesan sebaliknya, dan memang mereka prevailingly kasar dengan cara dan tidak ramah, sering secara terbuka bermusuhan, orang luar. Suku-suku Melayu di pedalaman Kalimantan, Sulawesi, dan Sumatera, juga, masih curiga terhadap kulit putih, dan tidak memiliki kebaikan dari kelompok yang lebih maju. Tapi di antara sekitar 90 persen dari masyarakat Indonesia, salah satu menemukan sebuah keanggunan dan pesona mudah cara tak tertandingi di tempat lain di dunia. Ini berlaku untuk semua lapisan masyarakat, dan yang paling miskin Jawa, menerima orang asing di gubuk yang menyedihkan, bertindak dengan pria sopan alami dan mudah.
Keindahan tubuh berperawakan kecil, berkulit halus Melayu ditingkatkan oleh ketenangan yang paling mengesankan dan martabat. Gerakan yang tenang, tidak terburu-buru, dan anggun, dan bahkan percakapan mudah dan bersuara lembut. Ketenangan dan kedamaian kekal temperamen Melayu tidak menandakan mentalitas kusam, namun. Orang kulit putih cenderung membingungkan sibuk, dengan bisnis, secara kuat dengan pikiran yang tajam. Tapi siapa pun yang telah mengenal masyarakat Indonesia intim, yang berbicara bahasa mereka dan telah bekerja dan tinggal di antara mereka, tidak akan pernah menilai mereka rendah dalam kecerdasan. Semua bukti menunjukkan berisi jelas bahwa mereka, rata-rata, cukup sama dalam kapasitas mental untuk kulit putih atau ras lainnya. Apapun perbedaan yang ada adalah karena kesenjangan dalam pelatihan dan pendidikan.
Sejarah mencatat di Indonesia dimulai pada prasasti abad kelima Masehi Tersebar di atas batu ditemukan di Jawa dan Kalimantan menunjukkan bahwa saat ini pulau-pulau sedang dijajah oleh pedagang Hindu dan petualang dari India. Catatan-catatan paling awal terdiri dari pendek, referensi terputus untuk para penguasa Hindu negara kolonial di pantai barat dari pulau-pulau besar. Catatan perjalanan dari dua Buddhis Cina peziarah, Fa-Hsien dan I-Tsing, pada abad kelima dan ketujuh, mengatakan negara-negara Hindu mereka kunjungi di Jawa dan Sumatera. Pesisir populasi dari
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pulau-pulau sudah sebagian besar dikonversi ke agama Hindu, baik Brahman-isme atau Buddha, atau, lebih umum, kombinasi dari keduanya.
Setelah abad kedelapan, prasasti batu menjadi lebih banyak dan rinci, dan pada abad kesebelas ahli-ahli Taurat dan penyair dari kerajaan Jawa yang menulis sejarah dalam gaya narasi terhubung. Wisatawan India dan Cina sedang rekaman kesan-kesan mereka nusantara, dan komunikasi yang teratur dan perdagangan telah didirikan di seluruh Indonesia bagian barat. Negara-negara Hindu kecil secara bertahap yang bergabung menjadi dua kerajaan kuat: Sriwijaya di selatan Sumatera dan Singosari di Jawa Timur. Sriwijaya diperpanjang dunia yang sampai ke Semenanjung Melayu, dan bahkan terlibat dalam serangkaian perang dengan negara bagian selatan India dan Srilanka pada abad kesebelas dan ketigabelas. Singosari menjadi begitu kuat untuk menantang keunggulan dari Kubilai Khan di Timur selatan, dan pada 1294 tentara yang mengalahkan kekuatan invasi yang besar Cina yang mendarat di pantai Jawa.
Indonesia mencapai “usia emas” dalam abad keempat belas dan kelima belas, ketika setelah perjuangan panjang untuk supremasi kerajaan Jawa Modjopahit, penerus Singosari, Sriwijaya ditundukkan dan diperluas kekuasaannya atas sebagian besar Hindia, Filipina, dan tenggara Asia.
Peradaban Hindu-Jawa abad pertengahan telah meninggalkan kesan yang mendalam pada budaya sekarang Hindia. Reruntuhan kota-kota besar dan kompleks candi masih bisa dilihat di Sumatera dan Jawa, tetapi lebih penting dan abadi telah menjadi pengaruh Hindu pada organisasi sosial, teknologi, agama, dan bahasa. Huruf India Lama masih digunakan di beberapa bagian pulau. Orang-orang Hindu juga meninggalkan jejak mereka pada jenis fisik dari masyarakat Indonesia, tetapi ini benar terutama di distrik-distrik pantai Jawa dan Sumatra, dan terutama di kalangan kelas sosial yang lebih tinggi. Keluarga kerajaan negara-negara asli terutama menunjukkan keturunan India sebagian mereka di bertubuh lebih tinggi, kaki panjang, kepala sempit, dan fitur lebih halus dari jangka umum orang biasa.
Penurunan kekaisaran Modjopahit terjadi kebetulan dengan penyebaran agama Islam di bagian barat Indonesia. Islam, dibawa dari India ke Malaya dan Sumatra pada abad kedua belas dan ketiga belas, cepat diperluas selama pemerintah-pengikut Modjopahit di Sumatera dan Jawa bagian barat. Pemberontakan melawan tuan Hindu di Jawa Timur meningkat dalam tingkat dan kekerasan, sampai, akhir abad kelima belas, benteng terakhir dari rezim lama jatuh sebelum serangan pemberontak Islamisasi.
Agama Islam dengan demikian menggantikan Hindu sebagai agama dominan Hindia. Hanya dalam satu tempat, Pulau Bali, memiliki kultus tua selamat.
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Hari ini Bali adalah jenis barang museum, replika hidup pada abad keempat belas Jawa.
Kejatuhan Modjopahit juga menandai akhir dari apa pun kesatuan politik telah dicapai di pulau-pulau. Di tempat kerajaan tunggal dengan pemerintah-pengikut, sebagian besar kepulauan itu dibagi menjadi sejumlah kecil negara, semua Islam dalam agama, tapi terlibat dalam perang konstan dan satu intrik terhadap yang lain. Akibatnya, ketika orang Eropa pertama kali muncul di Hindia, mereka menemukan tidak ada daya yang kuat tunggal, tetapi hanya fragmen yang rusak dari kerajaan sebelumnya. Itu relatif mudah bagi pendatang baru, oleh karena itu, untuk menundukkan negara-negara lemah satu per satu atau, seperti sering terjadi, bersekutu dengan satu penguasa terhadap yang lain, akhirnya menaklukkan keduanya. Indonesia, terpecah belah, sehingga jatuh korban yang mudah ke desain imperialistik dari kulit putih, yang, memang, menghabiskan lebih banyak upaya dalam memerangi antara mereka sendiri daripada terhadap negara-negara asli.
Orang Portugis datang pertama, membangun diri mereka di Malaka, di Semenanjung Melayu, di 1510. Beroperasi dari basis dan berlayar di bawah arahan pilot Melayu yang mengenal lautan Hindia, mereka digantikan oleh 1521 dalam mendirikan pos perdagangan di Maluku atau di Spice Kepulauan Tidore, Ternate, dan Banda. Pada 1580 Portugal bersatu dengan Spanyol, dan Spanyol mengambil alih kepemilikan Portugis di Maluku, menambahkan mereka ke koloni Filipina.
Kekuatan laut Spanyol ditakdirkan oleh kekalahan Armada Besar di 1588, dan Inggris dan Belanda menjadi saingan untuk menguasai Hindia. Pada tahun 1650, Belanda master virtual dari pulau, dan perdagangan Inggris dibatasi untuk negara asli tertentu di Indonesia bagian barat dengan mana Inggris East India Company memiliki kontrak komersial. Orang Spanyol telah mundur ke Filipina, sedangkan Portugis diadakan hanya sisa wilayah mereka sebelumnya di bagian timur Timor.
Dari 1650-1910 Belanda metodis pergi tentang bisnis memperluas dan memperkuat kontrol mereka atas Hindia, sampai dengan tanggal terakhir semua hambatan asli terorganisir sudah teratasi. Kebijakan Belanda East India Company bukan untuk menggulingkan penguasa pribumi kecuali mereka keras kepala keras, melainkan untuk memerintah melalui mereka. Orang Belanda tertarik untuk hak perdagangan bukan tugas mengatur dan bersedia untuk memungkinkan penguasa apapun untuk tetap berkuasa dengan ketentuan bahwa ia diberi hak istimewa mereka komersial. Sistem pemerintahan tidak langsung melalui pangeran asli, seperti akan kita lihat, tetap menjadi unsur dominan dalam administrasi kolonial Belanda.
Meskipun keengganan mereka, bagaimanapun, orang Belanda terpaksa mengganggu lebih dan lebih dalam pemerintah daerah untuk menjamin monopoli mereka perdagangan. Ini tengkar meningkat dalam politik dan internal
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perang akhirnya merusak stabilitas keuangan Perusahaan India Timur, dan serangkaian kerugian perdagangan melemah lebih jauh. Akhirnya, perang dengan Inggris pada tahun 1780 dan 1795, yang terakhir memblokade perdagangan Jawa, disegel azab Perseroan; dan tahun 1798 itu dibubarkan, bangkrut.
Hampir tidak pernah Belanda mulai menata kembali administrasi kepulauan ketika, pada tahun 1806, Belanda sendiri diduduki oleh Perancis di bawah Napoleon. Untuk memastikan bahwa Hindia juga tidak seharusnya. jatuh ke Perancis, dan dengan persetujuan dan dorongan dari pengasingan Belanda Raja di Inggris, British Far Eastern pasukan merebut seluruh kepulauan pada tahun 1811.
Pendudukan Inggris berakhir tahun 1818, dan perjanjian 1824 didefinisikan wilayah Inggris dan Belanda di Asia selatan dan pulau-pulau. Belanda menyerahkan semua klaim ke Semenanjung Melayu, sedangkan Inggris pada gilirannya melepaskan kepemilikan beberapa mereka yang tersisa di Sumatera. Belanda adalah untuk memiliki tangan yang bebas dalam pulau-pulau, Inggris hak penuh di daratan Asia.
Ketika Belanda kembali ke Hindia pada 1818, mereka mulai segera pada tugas menciptakan ketertiban efisien untuk wilayah pulau mereka. Pekerjaan ini memakan waktu hampir seratus tahun, dan melibatkan mereka dalam rangkaian panjang perang lokal dan ekspedisi ke pelosok nusantara. Sepanjang abad kesembilan belas hampir setahun berlalu tanpa peperangan di beberapa bagian dari Hindia.
Orang Belanda menghadapi dua jenis situasi antara kelompok pribumi dengan siapa mereka harus berurusan. Distrik-distrik pesisir semua atau sebagian besar pulau-pulau didominasi oleh negara-negara asli, sementara daerah pedalaman, terutama di pulau-pulau besar, yang dihuni oleh independen, suku-suku yang terorganisir secara longgar, tanpa kekuatan yang mengatur terpusat. Dalam berurusan dengan para pangeran asli, Pemerintah Belanda mengikuti pola yang ditetapkan oleh Perusahaan India Timur tua. Di setiap negara bagian upaya yang dilakukan untuk menjaga kedaulatan memerintah dalam kekuasaan dan memerintah melalui dia. Hanya ketika seorang sultan atau radja terbukti berbahaya atau tidak kooperatif adalah cara-cara militer digunakan untuk menggulingkan dia dan baik menginstal pengganti cocok atau menempatkan wilayah di bawah pemerintahan langsung. Bahkan dalam hal yang terakhir, bagaimanapun, para kepala lebih rendah dari kabupaten dan desa biasanya dipertahankan dan dibayar gaji oleh Belanda. Di wilayah suku pedalaman, di mana tidak ada organisasi negara ada, pemerintahan langsung diperkenalkan segera setelah penggabungan suatu daerah ke dalam sistem kolonial. Di sini sekali lagi, sejauh mungkin, kepala suku pribumi tetap berkuasa atas umat mereka, yang diperlukan hanya untuk membuktikan kesetiaan mereka kepada pemerintahan baru.
Hingga tahun 1910 tenaga kerja panjang penaklukan dan organisasi itu hampir selesai, dan semua bagian dari Hindia berada di bawah kontrol Belanda. Selama 30 tahun setelah itu, perdamaian memerintah di pulau-pulau, sampai pada tahun 1941 perang di
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skala vaster dari sebelumnya menyapu atas mereka, meninggalkan Jepang berkuasa di seluruh wilayah seluruh dari Sumatra ke New Guinea.
DIVISI UTAMA DAN MASYARAKAT
Dalam membahas daerah primitif di dunia, adalah kebiasaan untuk merujuk pada kelompok sosial yang lebih besar sebagai suku. Secara keseluruhan, sekitar 130 terpisah India Timur suku bisa disebutkan, tapi banyak dari mereka yang begitu besar sehingga mereka lebih baik mungkin akan ditunjuk sebagai bangsa atau masyarakat. Dalam sinopsis berikut satu daerah utama dan masyarakat, angka populasi didasarkan pada sensus 1930 Hindia. Invasi Jepang mengganggu publikasi statistik rinci untuk 1940. Peta-peta terlampir menunjukkan lokasi dari berbagai pulau dan masyarakat yang disebutkan dalam teks.
Hindia dibagi secara geografis menjadi empat bagian utama:
Sunda Raya Kepulauan, termasuk Sumatera, Jawa, Kalimantan, dan Sulawesi.
The Lesser Sunda Islands, termasuk yang tersebar di timur dari Bali ke Timor.
Maluku, termasuk pulau-pulau yang tersebar dan kelompok pulau terletak di antara Sulawesi dan Timor di sebelah barat dan New Guinea di sebelah timur.
Belanda Baru Guinea.1
Sumatera -. Pulau, paling barat Hindia, memiliki luas sekitar 180.000 mil persegi, termasuk pulau-pulau yang berdekatan yang lebih kecil di lepas pantai timur dan barat. Sumatra adalah sekitar ukuran California dan kira-kira sama dalam bentuk. Bagian barat terdiri dari rantai pegunungan yang membentang dari satu ujung ke ujung. Satu danau yang besar, Toba, dan beberapa yang lebih kecil terletak pada lipatan pegunungan, dan beberapa lahan pertanian terbaik dari pulau itu ditemukan di lembah-lembah dataran tinggi dan dataran tinggi. Dua puluh lima vulkanik puncak pada berbagai tahapan kenaikan aktivitas sepanjang cordillera Sumatera besar. Gunung-gunung kerumunan para pesisir yang sempit di sisi barat pulau, tapi lereng timur mereka lebih bertahap, dan di sini mereka memberi jalan pertama untuk kaki bukit dan kemudian, khususnya di Sumatera bagian selatan, untuk membentang luas tanah rawa yang tak tertembus. Rawa membuat banyak bagian timur pulau itu hampir dihuni.
Jalan yang sangat baik menghubungkan kota-kota utama di Sumatera, dan adalah mungkin untuk melakukan perjalanan dengan Motorcar dari ujung utara ke ujung selatan. Hanya peregangan miskin di jalan raya utara-selatan hanya selatan pusat, di mana jalan baru-baru ini telah dibuka untuk lalu lintas normal. Tiga jalur kereta api tidak berhubungan adalah, atau tidak, dalam operasi. Satu meluasRACIAL STOCKS
The Indies are the homeland of the Malay branch of the Mongoloid, or yellow, race. The Malay type, in general, is characterized by very short stature (5 feet 2 or 3 inches for males), brown skin, straight or wavy black hair, a flat face with wide nose and lips of medium thickness, and a slender build. There is little growth of hair on face or body. Most of Indonesia, with the exception of the extreme eastern islands and certain isolated sections elsewhere, is inhabited by peoples of the Malay race, which also spreads up into the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula.
Two subdivisions of the Malay stock can be distinguished in the islands. The interior districts, mostly highlands, of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, as well as the chain of island stretching from Bali to Timor, are peopled mainly by tribes of the so-called proto-Malay type. They represent the earlier Malay immigration into Indonesia from southeastern Asia and have a much less Mongoloid appearance than the coastal dwellers., The seacoast population of the large western islands is mostly of the deutero-Malay racial type. They are descended form the later Malay settlers in Indonesia and show more Mongoloid traits. The principal differences between the two Malay subraces may be summarized as follows: the proto-Malay is shorter and has a darker skin, wavier hair, and stockier physique than the deutero-Malay, and his facial features lack the characteristic Mongoloid slanting eye with inside fold on the upper eyelid, as well as the prominent cheekbones of the deutero-Malay.
The reason for this interesting division is that originally southeastern Asia, the ancient homeland of the Indonesians, was inhabited by tribes who were dark and distant outliers of the European peoples. The proto-Malays, with their Caucasoid features, show evidence of this “white” ancestry. They left the Asiatic mainland before an ever increasing movement of Mongoloid peoples from the north invaded southeastern Asia, and, mixing with the old inhabitants there, gradually changed the racial type from dark Caucasoid to predominantly Mongoloid. The later arrivals in the Indies from this region were progressively more Mongolized, and their living descendants show this in their wider faces, higher cheekbones, straighter hair, and more slanting eyes. The later Malays pushed the earlier ones back into the interior districts, where the proto-Malay type still prevails, and occupied the coastal lands themselves.
Long before the Malay race spread down into the islands, other human stocks had settled there. The earliest of these archaic races was probably the Australoid. Traces of the Australoid type, with its coarse features, beetling brows, and hairy body, can still be detected in the Indies,
particularly in the islands nearest Australia, the present home of this ancient race. Two branches of the Negroid race also lived in Indonesia in prehistoric times. One, the rather tall, spare-framed, bushy-haired Melanesian or Oceanic Negroid type, has now disappeared from most of the islands; but in the Timor-Flores zone of eastern Indonesia certain tribes still preserve relatively pure Melanesian traits. The center of Melanesian Negroid habitation has long since moved eastward, beyond New Guinea, to the Solomons, the New Hebrides, the Fijis, and New Caledonia. The other Negroid type, the so-called Negrito or dwarf Negro, still survives in sections of eastern Sumatra, Timor, Alor, and the mountains of New Guinea. Other Negrito groups are found in the Andaman Islands, Malaya, and the Philippines. One more archaic racial type of the Indies is, like the Negrito, dwarfish and frail. This so-called Veddoid strain has brown skin, wavy hair, and a prognathous face with receding chin. It appears to be a stunted hybrid of Malay and Australoid. Remnants of the Veddoid race inhabit the east Sumatra swamplands, parts of Borneo and Celebes, and certain islands of eastern Indonesia, notably Ceram. Other Veddoid peoples are found in Ceylon, Malaya, and the Philippines.
While most of Indonesia is peopled by tribes of the Malay race, with interspersed remnants of the archaic stocks just mentioned, the most easterly sections were never reached by the main Malay migrations. Here, in New Guinea and neighboring islands, the Papuan stock prevails. It looks like a hybrid of Australoid and Melanesian Negroid, being characterized by a lanky and long-limbed body, dark skin, and a narrow and angular face, with thin lips and a long nose, the latter often full-fleshed and hooked at the tip. The body is hairy, the face frequently bearded, and the head hair frizzy. Indeed, papua means “frizzy-haired” in the Malay language. In the Moluccas, between Celebes and New Guinea, intermixture of the Papuan and proto-Malay types has produced the so-called Alfur hybrid, with medium to tall stature, slender physique, medium to dark brown skin, straight to wavy hair, a relatively hairy body, and features varying from the broad-faced, flat-nosed proto-Malay norm to the narrow-faced, “semitic”-nosed Papuan conformation.
The marked racial difference between western Indonesia, which is almost solidly Malay in population, and the eastern islands, inhabited by the Papuan stock, is paralleled by a contrast in human temperament. The Malays are very sedate and reserved, while the Papuans are excitable and vociferous. The former are phlegmatic and retiring, the latter volatile
and aggressive. Voyaging eastward from Java, one can see the change in character becoming progressively more marked, just as the physical traits gradually vary from the Malay toward the Papuan. The natives become less restrained, louder, and more loquacious, until in New Guinea the “human atmosphere” reaches almost an opposite extreme from the land of the serene Malays and Javanese. Although the temperamental difference accompanies a shift in race, it is probably not biologically determined, but rather a result of divergent training and rules of behavior.
The Malay peoples are, in general, remarkably friendly and polite, not only to one another, but to strangers as well. The Papuans, on the other hand, are likely to make a contrary impression, and indeed they are prevailingly rough in manner and unfriendly, often openly hostile, to outsiders. The Malay tribes of interior Borneo, Celebes, and Sumatra, also, are still suspicious of whites, and lack the cordiality of the more advanced groups. But among about 90 percent of the Indonesian peoples, one encounters an easy graciousness and charm of manner unsurpassed anywhere else in the world. This applies to all levels of society, and the poorest Javanese, receiving a stranger in his miserable hut, acts the courteous gentleman naturally and effortlessly.
The beauty of the small-boned, smooth-skinned Malay body is enhanced by a most impressive poise and dignity. Movements are calm, unhurried, and graceful, and even conversation is easy and soft-spoken. The quiet and repose of the Malay temperament do not signify a dull mentality, however. The white man is apt to confuse bustle with business, a forceful manner with a sharp mind. But anyone who has come to know the Indonesian people intimately, who speaks their language and has worked and lived among them, would never rate them low in intelligence. All unbiased evidence indicates clearly that they are, on the average, quite equal in mental capacity to whites or any other race. Whatever differences exist are due to inequalities in training and education.
The recorded history of Indonesia begins in the fifth century A.D. Scattered inscriptions on stone discovered in Java and Borneo indicate that at this time the islands were being colonized by Hindu traders and adventurers from India. These earliest records consist of short, disconnected references to the rulers of Hindu colonial states on the coasts of the large western islands. The travel notes of two Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hsien and I-Tsing, in the fifth and seventh centuries, tell of the Hindu states they visited in Java and Sumatra. The coastal populations of these
islands were already largely converted to Hindu religion, either Brahman-ism or Buddhism, or, more commonly, combinations of both.
After the eighth century, stone inscriptions become more plentiful and detailed, and by the eleventh century the scribes and poets of the Javanese royal courts were writing chronicles in connected narrative style. Indian and Chinese travelers were recording their impressions of the archipelago, and regular communication and trade had been established throughout western Indonesia. The small Hinduized states were gradually being merged into two powerful empires: Shrivijaya in southern Sumatra and Singosari in eastern Java. Shrivijaya extended its realm up into the Malay Peninsula, and even engaged in a series of wars with the states of southern India and Ceylon in the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Singosari became so strong as to challenge the preeminence of Kublai Khan in the southern Orient, and in 1294 its armies defeated a great Chinese invasion force that landed on the coast of Java.
Indonesia reached its “golden age” in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when after a long struggle for supremacy the Javanese empire of Modjopahit, successor to Singosari, subjugated Shrivijaya and extended its rule over most of the Indies, the Philippines, and southeastern Asia.
The medieval Hindu-Javanese civilization has left a deep impress on the present culture of the Indies. The ruins of great cities and temple complexes can still be seen in Sumatra and Java; but more important and lasting have been the Hindu influences on social organization, technology, religion, and language. Old Indian alphabets are still used in several parts of the islands. The Hindus have also left their mark on the physical type of the people of Indonesia, but this is true mainly in the coastal districts of Java and Sumatra, and principally among the higher social classes. The royal families of the native states especially show their partial Indian ancestry in taller stature, longer limbs, narrower heads, and finer features than the general run of common folk.
The decline of the Modjopahit empire occurred coincidentally with the spread of Mohammedanism over western Indonesia. Islam, brought from India to Malaya and Sumatra in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, swiftly expanded over the vassal principalities of Modjopahit in Sumatra and western Java. Rebellions against the Hinduist overlord in eastern Java increased in extent and violence, until, late in the fifteenth century, the last stronghold of the old regime fell before the attacks of the Islamized rebels.
Mohammedanism thus replaced Hinduism as the dominant religion of the Indies. In only one place, the island of Bali, has the old cult survived.
Today Bali is a kind of museum piece, a living replica of fourteenth-century Java.
The downfall of Modjopahit also marked the end of whatever political unity had been attained in the islands. In place of the single empire with its vassal principalities, most of the archipelago was split up into scores of petty states, all Mohammedan in religion, but engaged in constant war and intrigue one against another. Consequently, when Europeans first appeared in the Indies, they found there no single strong power, but merely the broken fragments of the former empire. It was relatively easy for the newcomers, therefore, to subjugate these weak states one by one or, as frequently happened, ally themselves with one ruler against another, eventually subjugating both. Indonesia, disunited, thus fell easy prey to the imperialistic designs of the whites, who, indeed, spent more effort in fighting among themselves than against the native states.
The Portuguese came in first, establishing themselves in Malacca, on the Malay Peninsula, in 1510. Operating out of this base and sailing under the direction of Malay pilots who knew the seas of the Indies, they succeeded by 1521 in setting up trading posts in the Moluccas or Spice Islands at Tidore, Ternate, and Banda. In 1580 Portugal was united with Spain, and the Spanish took over the Portuguese holdings in the Moluccas, adding them to the Philippine colonies.
Spain’s sea power was doomed by the defeat of the Great Armada in 1588, and the British and Dutch became rivals for control of the Indies. By 1650, the Dutch were virtual masters of the islands, and British trade was restricted to certain native states in western Indonesia with which the English East India Company had commercial contracts. The Spanish had retreated to the Philippines; the Portuguese held only a remnant of their former territory in the eastern half of Timor.
From 1650 to 1910 the Dutch methodically went about the business of extending and solidifying their control over the Indies, until by the latter date all organized native resistance had been overcome. The policy of the Netherlands East India Company was not to depose native rulers unless they were stubbornly intractable, but rather to rule through them. The Hollanders were interested in trading rights rather than governing duties and were willing to allow any potentate to stay in power provided that he granted them commercial privileges. This system of indirect rule through native princes, as we shall see, has remained a dominant element in Dutch colonial administration.
Despite their reluctance, however, the Netherlanders were forced to interfere more and more in local government in order to insure their monopoly of trade. This increasing embroilment in politics and internal
warfare eventually undermined the financial stability of the East India Company, and a series of trade losses weakened it even further. Finally, wars with England in 1780 and 1795, the latter blockading the Java trade, sealed the doom of the Company; and in 1798 it was dissolved, bankrupt.
Hardly had the Dutch begun to reorganize the administration of the islands when, in 1806, Holland itself was occupied by the French under Napoleon. To ensure that the Indies also should not. fall to France, and with the consent and encouragement of the exiled Dutch King in England, British Far Eastern forces seized the whole archipelago in 1811.
The British occupation ended in 1818, and a treaty of 1824 defined the territories of England and Holland in southern Asia and the islands. The Dutch surrendered all claims to the Malay Peninsula, while the British in turn relinquished their few remaining holdings in Sumatra. Holland was to have a free hand in the islands, Britain full rights on the Asiatic mainland.
When the Dutch returned to the Indies in 1818, they started immediately on the task of bringing efficient order to their island realm. The job took almost a hundred years, and involved them in a long series of local wars and expeditions to the far reaches of the archipelago. All through the nineteenth century hardly a year passed without warfare in some part of the Indies.
The Hollanders faced two types of situation among the native groups with whom they had to deal. The coastal districts of all or most of the islands were dominated by native states, while the interior regions, especially in the larger islands, were inhabited by independent, loosely organized tribes, with no centralized governing power. In its dealings with the native princes, the Netherlands Government followed the pattern set by the old East India Company. In every state an attempt was made to keep the reigning sovereign in power and to rule through him. Only when a sultan or radja proved treacherous or uncooperative were military means employed to depose him and either install a suitable substitute or put the territory under direct administration. Even in the latter event, however, the lesser chiefs of districts and villages were usually retained and paid salaries by the Dutch. In the interior tribal areas, where no state organization existed, direct rule was introduced immediately after incorporation of a region into the colonial system. Here again, as far as possible, the native chieftains were kept in power over their people, being required only to prove their loyalty to the new administration.
By 1910 the long labor of conquest and organization was virtually completed, and all parts of the Indies were under Dutch control. For 30 years thereafter, peace reigned in the islands, until in 1941 war on a
vaster scale than ever before swept over them, leaving the Japanese in power throughout the entire area from Sumatra to New Guinea.
MAIN DIVISIONS AND PEOPLES
In discussing primitive areas of the world, it is customary to refer to the larger social groupings as tribes. In all, about 130 separate East Indian tribes could be enumerated, but many of them are so large that they might better be designated as nations or peoples. In the following synopsis of the principal areas and peoples, the population figures are based upon the 1930 census of the Indies. The Japanese invasion interfered with the publication of detailed statistics for 1940. The accompanying maps show the locations of the various islands and peoples mentioned in the text.
The Indies are divided geographically into four main sections:
- The Greater Sunda Islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes.
- The Lesser Sunda Islands, including those extending east from Bali to Timor.
- The Moluccas, including the scattered islands and island groups lying between Celebes and Timor to the west and New Guinea to the east.
- Dutch New Guinea.1
Sumatra.–This island, westernmost of the Indies, has an area of about 180,000 square miles, including the smaller adjacent islands off the east and west coasts. Sumatra is approximately the size of California and roughly similar in shape. The western half consists of a mountain chain that runs from one end to the other. One great lake, Toba, and several smaller ones lie in the folds of the mountains, and some of the finest agricultural land of the island is found in the highland valleys and plateaus. Twenty-five volcanic peaks in various phases of activity rise along the great Sumatran cordillera. The mountains crowd the narrow coastland on the western side of the island, but their eastern slopes are more gradual, and here they give way first to foothills and then, especially in southern Sumatra, to vast stretches of impenetrable marshland. Swamps make much of the eastern half of the island virtually uninhabitable.
Excellent roads connect the main towns of Sumatra, and it is possible to travel by motorcar from the northern tip to the southern extremity. The only poor stretches on the north-south highway are just south of the center, where the road has only recently been opened to normal traffic. Three unconnected railway lines are, or were, in operation. One extends
sepanjang pantai timur laut dari ujung utara ke titik sekitar sepertiga dari jalan ke bawah pantai. Garis lain berjalan dari pelabuhan Emmahaven, di pantai barat, pedalaman untuk jarak pendek ke dataran tinggi. Sistem kereta api ketiga menghubungkan Palembang, Sumatra Selatan, dengan interior dan dengan pelabuhan Telokbetong di ujung selatan pulau. Tiga kota utama Sumatera – Medan, Padang, dan Palembang – berada, masing-masing, di pantai timur, pantai barat, dan kereta api selatan.
Populasi Sumatera dan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan total sekitar 8.000.000. Di pulau yang tepat, ada tujuh kelompok suku utama. Yang paling primitif adalah Kubu nomaden suku-suku di rawa timur dan tenggara. Mereka saham Veddoid, dan bersama-sama populasi mereka tidak melebihi 25.000. Pada tingkat “menengah” kebudayaan berdiri tiga proto-Melayu kompleks suku dari dataran tinggi interior. Paling selatan yang satunya adalah Redjang-Lampung kompleks, yang gabungan populasi total sekitar 500.000. Sebagian besar suku ini telah Mohammedanized, tapi budaya umum mereka masih mempertahankan unsur-unsur kuno. Batak dari Sumatera tengah hidup di negara yang tinggi berpusat pada danau besar Toba. Mereka total sepenuhnya 1.000.000. Sebelumnya kanibal, mereka masih terus untuk sebagian besar kebudayaan tradisional mereka, meskipun fakta bahwa ribuan dari mereka telah menjadi Kristen. Mereka tidak pernah menerima Islam, dan kebanyakan dari mereka tetap kafir dalam agama. Yang ketiga dari proto-Melayu masyarakat dataran tinggi Gayo adalah Alas-suku pedalaman Sumatra Utara, yang jumlah sekitar 50.000. Lebih terisolasi dari Batak, namun mereka telah dikonversi ke agama Islam. Dalam hal lain budaya mereka sangat primitif.
Tiga orang yang paling maju dari Sumatera adalah Deutero-Melayu Aceh dan Pesisir Melayu, dan proto-dan dicampur Deutero-Melayu Minangkabau. Orang Aceh fanatik Islam mendiami pantai-tanah utara Sumatera pada kedua sisi timur dan barat. Jumlah mereka sekitar 750.000. Mereka adalah penduduk asli terakhir yang ditundukkan oleh Belanda, setelah pergulatan mati-matian yang berlangsung 1873-1910. Mereka masih membenci orang Belanda dan termasuk di antara orang-orang sangat sedikit di Indonesia dari siapa ketidaksetiaan langsung bisa diharapkan. Orang Melayu Pesisir adalah kelompok pribumi terbesar di Sumatera, sebanyak 3.500.000. Wilayah mereka meliputi pesisir timur seluruh dari perbatasan Aceh ke Kabupaten Lampung di ujung selatan. Orang Melayu British Malaya, di seberang Selat Malaka, termasuk dalam kelompok umum yang sama seperti orang Melayu Sumatera. Jumlah besar yang terakhir telah menetap kesultanan-kesultanan pesisir Kalimantan dan bagian lain banyak dari Hindia. Mereka adalah yang paling luas dari semua rakyat Indonesia, dan bahasa mereka telah menjadi
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umum lingua franca di seluruh nusantara. Seperti Aceh, mereka adalah Islam, meskipun jauh lebih sedikit serius tentang agama mereka daripada fanatik Sumatera utara. Orang Minangkabau, tinggal di pusat dataran tinggi selatan Batak, jumlahnya sekitar 2.000.000. Mereka adalah orang giat, dengan budaya canggih yang tetap mempertahankan elemen-elemen kuno, seperti yang disebut “keluarga ibu,” di mana keturunan, warisan, dan suksesi untuk keadaan kepala suku mengikuti garis perempuan. Mereka adalah orang Islam, dan di antara para penghasut yang paling aktif untuk pemerintahan sendiri di Hindia.
Nias, Kepulauan Mentawei, dan Engano, pulau-pulau terpencil di lepas pantai barat Sumatera, dihuni oleh primitif proto-Melayu dengan jenis yang sangat kuno dari budaya. Kecuali untuk Niassans, yang sebagian dikristenkan, semua suku ini tetap kafir. Populasi Nias adalah sekitar 200.000; Mentawei, 10.000, dan Engano, 300. Para Enganese adalah salah satu suku beberapa Indonesia yang jumlahnya telah menurun sejak kontak pertama dengan kulit putih. Epidemi penyakit sengit impor telah menjadi penyebab utama penurunan tersebut.
Timur Sumatera pesisir dan pantai seberang Malaya adalah zona utama distribusi dari kelompok yang luar biasa dari maritim pengembara yang menghabiskan sebagian besar hidup mereka di perahu mereka. Disebut Laut Orang atau “Laut Gipsi,” mereka juga ditemui di bagian lain Hindia sejauh timur seperti Maluku. Populasi total di seluruh Indonesia mungkin tidak melebihi 10.000.
Java -. Meskipun adalah yang terkecil dari Greater Sunda Islands, Jawa, Madura dengan berdekatan, adalah bagian paling penting dari Hindia. Ini adalah jantung dari pulau-pulau, pusat pemerintahan, perdagangan populasi, dan. Wilayahnya seluas 50.000 mil persegi secara kasar setara dengan yang ada di New York State, tetapi penduduknya mencapai jumlah mengejutkan dari 40.000.000 pada tahun 1930, dan sekarang mungkin telah meningkat menjadi hampir 50.000.000.
Topografi Jawa sama dengan Sumatera. Bagian selatan merupakan rantai pegunungan yang berkelanjutan; bagian utara terdiri dari kaki bukit dan dataran. Tapi lembah-lembah yang lebih luas, dataran yang lebih luas, gunung lereng lebih bertahap, dan ada tanah kosong jauh lebih sedikit dari rawa di Sumatera. Akibatnya proporsi yang jauh lebih besar dari daerah tersebut berguna huni dan budidaya. Memang, Java adalah salah satu daerah yang paling subur dan produktif di seluruh dunia. Tanahnya sebagian besar asal vulkanik, dan 35 puncak gunung adalah gunung api di berbagai tahap kegiatan.
Sebuah jaringan yang sangat baik dari jalan raya dan rel kereta api mencakup pulau, dan hampir setiap bagian mudah diakses. Hanya di sudut barat daya dan ekstremitas timur jauh adalah perjalanan yang sulit, dan bahkan dalam
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Gambar. 3 – Masyarakat Jawa.
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distrik pusat-pusat utama penduduk dihubungkan oleh jalan. Batavia, ibukota dan kota terbesar Hindia, memiliki populasi lebih dari 450.000, dan sebagian besar kota-kota besar lainnya nusantara berlokasi di Jawa, di antaranya Surabaya, Semarang, Cirebon, dan Bandung.
Konsentrasi terbesar kelompok asing terjadi di pulau, di mana 80 persen dari seluruh populasi putih Hindia dan setengah dari Cina tinggal di 1940. Namun jumlah orang luar untuk pales tidak penting dalam menghadapi penduduk asli yang sangat besar. Kelompok pribumi terbesar adalah Jawa benar, yang mendiami hampir semua wilayah timur dan tengah, dan memperpanjang sepanjang pesisir barat laut. Mereka berjumlah hampir 27.000.000. Orang Sunda, yang diam di dataran tinggi barat daya Jawa, nomor 8.500.000. Orang Madura, yang tanah air adalah pulau Madura, telah tersebar di bagian besar pantai timur laut Jawa. Populasi mereka adalah sekitar 4.500.000. Dua suku yang sangat kecil lain hidup terpencil di bagian dataran tinggi terpencil di pulau itu: masyarakat Tengger, sebesar 10.000, di Jawa Timur, dan Baduy, sebuah 1.200 belaka, di bagian barat. Sedangkan tiga kelompok utama adalah Islam, kedua orang yang terisolasi masih mempertahankan sebuah agama kuno yang merupakan gabungan dari Hindu dan animisme primitif. Garis-garis perbedaan ras tidak sesuai dengan divisi suku di Jawa, tetapi di kabupaten pesisir jenis fisik dominan adalah Deutero-Melayu, sementara daerah pedalaman ditunjukkan dengan frekuensi jauh lebih tinggi dari saham proto-Melayu. Dengan demikian orang Jawa dan Madura benar milik terutama untuk jenis kemudian Melayu lebih Mongoloid, sedangkan Sunda, Tengger, dan Baduy memiliki frekuensi tinggi dari Caucasoid gelap ciri fisik sebelumnya Melayu.
Kalimantan -. Salah satu bagian yang paling maju Hindia, pulau yang sangat besar sangat jarang dihuni. Wilayahnya dari 290.000 mil persegi mendukung penduduk hanya 2.500.000. Dalam ukuran ini dapat disamakan dengan Texas dan Oklahoma digabungkan.
Sebagian besar pesisir di semua sisi terdiri dari luas, rawa tak tertembus yang memperpanjang jauh di daratan untuk kaki bukit dataran tinggi tengah. Interior yang berbukit-bukit dan di beberapa bagian pegunungan, tetapi ada beberapa puncak sangat tinggi dan tidak ada gunung api sama sekali. Tidak adanya rekening vulkanisme sebagian besar untuk infertilitas tanah. Spurs dari kisaran pusat memperpanjang hampir ke pantai laut di beberapa tempat, tetapi kontur umum perkiraan Kalimantan penampilan topi rendah dimahkotai dengan pinggiran lebar, yang terakhir mewakili tanah rawa basah yang berdering ketinggian sentral di semua sisi.
Daerah barat laut pesisir meliputi wilayah semi-tergantung negara bagian Sarawak dan Brunei, keduanya di bawah kontrol Inggris sampai invasi Jepang. Sarawak, jauh lebih besar, diperintah oleh Brooke
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Gambar. 4 -. Rakyat Kalimantan
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dinasti radjas Inggris, sedangkan kesultanan sedikit Brunei memiliki penguasa pribumi keturunan Melayu. Ekstremitas utara pulau, yang dikenal sebagai Britania Borneo Utara, adalah wilayah hanya di dunia masih dikelola oleh sebuah perusahaan charter, Utara Inggris Kalimantan Perusahaan. Untuk semua tujuan praktis, ketiga wilayah ini difungsikan sebagai koloni Inggris, di bawah yurisdiksi Komisi Tinggi Malaya. Sisanya tiga perempat pulau itu adalah wilayah Belanda.
Kereta api hanya di Kalimantan, kecuali swasta beberapa sepur sempit garis, berjalan untuk jarak sedikit di atas 100 mil di sepanjang pantai Britania Borneo Utara di sisi barat. Jalan juga hampir tidak ada di pulau ini. Ada beberapa peregangan jalan raya di bagian-bagian tertentu dari kabupaten pesisir, tapi mereka memperpanjang untuk jarak pendek saja, dan secara luas terputus satu dari yang lain. Rute utama dari perjalanan dan transportasi, oleh karena itu, terletak di sepanjang jaringan luas sungai dilayari. Satu-satunya kota ukuran yang cukup di seluruh pulau adalah Banjarmasin, di mulut Barito, “Mississippi Kalimantan,” di pantai tenggara.
Rakyat jatuh Borneo menjadi dua divisi besar: penduduk Deutero-Melayu pesisir, berjumlah sekitar 1.000.000, campuran Melayu, Jawa, Bugis, dan kelompok lainnya mengganggu dari tempat lain di Hindia, dan proto-Melayu pribumi, yang seringkali disatukan dengan nama “Dayak.” Ratusan band dan suku dapat dikelompokkan dalam enam kompleks suku, dalam setiap budaya yang serupa. Pada interior dalam mengembara band nomaden milik kompleks Punan, berjumlah sekitar 50.000 di semua. Mereka adalah pemburu dan pengumpul produk liar, dan beberapa dari mereka pernah menetap cukup lama untuk menanam tanaman atau membangun tempat tinggal permanen. Suku-suku Bahau tengah dan timur Borneo memiliki jumlah penduduk sekitar 300.000, dua suku utama menjadi Kayan dan Kenya. Ini adalah pembangun dari rumah panjang Kalimantan terkenal, ratusan meter panjangnya, satu saja dari yang dapat menampung kelompok subtribal keseluruhan. Kompleks Ngadju suku selatan Kalimantan, berjumlah sekitar 400.000, termasuk suku-suku seperti Danom Ot, Maanyan, Lawangan, dan Biadju. Tanah Dayak kompleks barat daya Kalimantan (Landak, Tayan, dll) memiliki jumlah penduduk sebesar 200.000, sedangkan Klamantan kelompok timur laut Kalimantan (Murut, Dusun, Milanau, dll), 300.000; Iban atau “Laut Dayak” dari Sarawak , 200.000. Semua suku-suku asli, dengan pengecualian dari Punan, diselesaikan petani, hidup terutama oleh penanaman padi kering, dengan anak perusahaan berburu dan memancing. Mereka semua berhala dalam agama, dalam budaya primitif umum, dan sebelumnya peringkat di antara para pemburu kepala yang paling terkenal di dunia.
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Celebes -. Pulau berbentuk aneh di sebelah timur Kalimantan memiliki luas wilayah 70.000 mil persegi dan populasi sekitar 4.000.000. Untuk sebagian besar, Sulawesi hanyalah sebuah massa pegunungan, liar jatuh bersama-sama dalam satu lansekap semua sudut yang curam dan profil bergerigi, di sini bahkan rawa-rawa pesisir yang kurang atau sangat sempit. Semua gunung berapi aktif atau baru aktif di pulau, 16 jumlahnya, terletak di ujung semenanjung utara dan di pulau-pulau yang berdekatan. Kecuali untuk daerah ini, bagian hanya benar-benar subur dan baik penduduk dari Sulawesi adalah semenanjung barat daya, yang tidak memiliki gunung berapi aktif tapi memang memiliki tanah vulkanik.
Tidak ada kereta api di Sulawesi, dan jalan raya sedikit kecuali di barat daya ekstrim dan bagian utara ekstrim, di mana jalan memancar dari dua kota yang layak dari nama, Makassar dan Menado. Di tempat lain peregangan singkat jalan telah dibangun di beberapa distrik, tetapi mereka tidak saling berhubungan. Tanpa sungai dilayari baik baik, perjalanan di pedalaman Sulawesi sangat sulit, dan harus dilakukan baik sedang terjadi atau kuda lebih jalan gunung yang sempit.
Ada tujuh kompleks suku di pulau itu. Para Toala, sebuah suku kecil tunggal, belum diselidiki sejak ditemukan sekitar 40 tahun lalu. Saat itu mereka berjumlah hanya sekitar 100, dan tinggal di gua-gua dan pondok kecil di sebuah lembah pegunungan terpencil di Sulawesi barat daya. Sebuah laporan pemerintah dari 1913 menyatakan bahwa kebanyakan dari mereka memiliki tahun yang bergerak turun dari retret dataran tinggi mereka dan tinggal di dekat sebuah pemukiman Bugis. Mereka Veddoid di saham, dan sangat primitif dalam budaya – “orang-orang gua” hanya benar yang pernah ditemukan di Hindia. Bagian tengah Sulawesi dan bagian bawah semenanjung utara dihuni oleh suku-suku Toraja (Palu, Napu, Poso, dll), penomoran 200.000. Selatan negara Toraja, di bagian atas dari semenanjung barat daya, tinggal masyarakat sadang, kadang-kadang disebut Toraja Selatan (Sadang, Seko, Rongkong, dll). Populasi mereka total 500.000. Semenanjung tenggara, dengan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan, adalah rumah dari Mori-Laki suku (Mori, Laki, Muna, dll), dengan jumlah penduduk 200.000. Semenanjung timur dan pulau-pulau tetangga yang dihuni oleh suku-suku Loinang (Loinang, Wana, Banggai, dll), dengan jumlah penduduk 200.000. Keempat kompleks suku memiliki budaya yang terkait. Tipe ras mereka adalah proto-Melayu, dengan unsur-unsur Veddoid muncul terutama di kalangan Loinang dan Mori-Laki kelompok. Sebuah strain Negrito terendam telah terdeteksi di beberapa suku Toraja Barat. Sebelumnya kepala pemburu, kelompok-kelompok interior primitif Sulawesi telah dikonversi dalam jumlah besar ke Kristen, meskipun sebagian besar masih tetap kafir.
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Gambar. 5 -. Rakyat Sulawesi
along the northeast coast from the northern tip to a point about one-third of the way down the coast. Another line runs from the port of Emmahaven, on the west coast, inland for a short distance into the highlands. The third railway system connects Palembang, in south Sumatra, with the interior and with the port of Telokbetong on the southern extremity of the island. The three main cities of Sumatra–Medan, Padang, and Palembang –are located, respectively, on the east coast, west coast, and southern railways.
The population of Sumatra and adjacent islands totals approximately 8,000,000. On the island proper, there are seven main tribal groups. The most primitive are the nomadic Kubu tribes of the eastern and southeastern marshlands. They are of Veddoid stock, and together their population does not exceed 25,000. On an “intermediate” level of culture stand the three proto-Malay tribal complexes of the interior highlands. The southernmost of these is the Redjang-Lampong complex, whose combined population totals about 500,000. Most of these tribes have been Mohammedanized, but their general culture still retains many ancient elements. The Batak of middle Sumatra live in the lofty country centering on the great lake of Toba. They total fully 1,000,000. Formerly cannibals, they still hold to most of their traditional culture, despite the fact that thousands of them have been converted to Christianity. They never accepted Islam, and most of them remain pagan in religion. The third of the proto-Malay highland peoples are the Gayo-Alas tribes of the interior of northern Sumatra, who number about 50,000. More isolated than the Batak, they have nevertheless been converted to Mohammedanism. In other respects their culture is quite primitive.
The three most advanced peoples of Sumatra are the deutero-Malay Atjehnese and Coastal Malays, and the mixed proto- and deutero-Malay Minangkabau. The fanatically Mohammedan Atjehnese inhabit the coast-land of northern Sumatra on both eastern and western sides. They number approximately 750,000. These were the last natives to be subjugated by the Dutch, after a desperate struggle lasting from 1873 to 1910. They still hate the Hollanders and are among the very few peoples in Indonesia from whom outright disloyalty could be expected. The Coastal Malays are the largest native group in Sumatra, totaling 3,500,000. Their territory covers the entire eastern coastland from the border of Atjeh to the Lampong Districts in the extreme south. The Malays of British Malaya, across the Malacca Straits, belong to the same general group as the Sumatra Malays. Great numbers of the latter have settled the coastal sultanates of Borneo and numerous other sections of the Indies. They are the most widespread of all the Indonesian peoples, and their language has become
the general lingua franca throughout the archipelago. Like the Atjehnese, they are Mohammedan, though much less serious about their religion than the north Sumatra fanatics. The Minangkabau, living in the central highlands south of the Batak, number about 2,000,000. They are an enterprising people, with an advanced culture that nevertheless retains many ancient elements, such as the so-called “mother family,” in which descent, inheritance, and succession to chieftainship follow the female line. They are Mohammedans, and among the most active agitators for self-government in the Indies.
Nias, the Mentawei Islands, and Engano, isolated islands off the west coast of Sumatra, are inhabited by primitive proto-Malays with very archaic types of culture. Except for the Niassans, who are partially Christianized, all these tribes remain pagan. The population of Nias is about 200,000; Mentawei, 10,000; and Engano, 300. The Enganese are among the few tribes of Indonesia whose numbers have declined since first contact with whites. Fierce epidemics of imported diseases have been the principal cause of the decrease.
The east Sumatra coastland and the opposite shore of Malaya are the primary zone of distribution of a remarkable group of maritime nomads who spend most of their lives in their boats. Called the Orang Laut or “Sea Gypsies,” they are also encountered in other parts of the Indies as far east as the Moluccas. Their total population in all of Indonesia probably does not exceed 10,000.
Java.–Although it is the smallest of the Greater Sunda Islands, Java, with adjacent Madura, is the most important part of the Indies. It is the heart of the islands, the center of government, trade, and population. Its area of 50,000 square miles is roughly equivalent to that of New York State; but its population reached the astounding total of 40,000,000 in 1930, and by now has probably increased to nearly 50,000,000.
The topography of Java is similar to that of Sumatra. The southern half is a continuous mountain chain; the northern half consists of foothills and plains. But the valleys are wider, the plains more extensive, the mountain slopes more gradual, and there is much less swampy wasteland than in Sumatra. Consequently a far greater proportion of the area is useful for habitation and cultivation. Indeed, Java is one of the most fertile and productive regions in the entire world. The soil is largely of volcanic origin, and 35 of the mountain peaks are volcanoes in various stages of activity.
An excellent network of highways and railroads covers the island, and virtually every section is easily accessible. Only in the southwestern corner and the far eastern extremity is travel difficult, and even in these
districts the principal centers of population are linked by roads. Batavia, capital and largest city of the Indies, has a population of over 450,000; and most of the other large cities of the archipelago are located in Java, among them Surabaya, Semarang, Cheribon, and Bandung.
The greatest concentration of foreign groups occurs in this island, where 80 percent of all the white population of the Indies and half of the Chinese lived in 1940. But the number of outsiders pales to insignificance in the face of the enormous native population. The largest indigenous group are the true Javanese, who inhabit nearly all of the eastern and central districts, and extend all along the northwestern coastland. They total almost 27,000,000. The Sundanese, who dwell in the highlands of southwestern Java, number 8,500,000. The Madurese, whose homeland is the island of Madura, have spread over large sections of the northeast coast of Java. Their population is approximately 4,500,000. Two other very small tribes live secluded in remote highland sections of the island: the Tenggerese, totaling 10,000, in eastern Java, and the Badui, a mere 1,200, in the western part. Whereas the three main groups are Mohammedan, these two isolated peoples still retain an ancient religion which is a composite of Hinduism and primitive animism. The lines of racial distinction do not coincide with tribal divisions in Java; but in the coastal districts the physical type is predominantly deutero-Malay, while the interior regions show a much higher frequency of the proto-Malay stock. Thus the true Javanese and Madurese belong mainly to the more Mongoloid later Malay type, while the Sundanese, Tenggerese, and Badui have a high frequency of the dark Caucasoid earlier Malay physical traits.
Borneo.–One of the least developed parts of the Indies, this enormous island is very sparsely inhabited. Its area of 290,000 square miles supports a population of only 2,500,000. In size it is comparable to Texas and Oklahoma combined.
Most of the coastland on all sides consists of vast, impenetrable swamps which extend far inland to the foothills of the central highlands. The interior is hilly and in some sections mountainous, but there are few really high peaks and no volcanoes at all. The absence of volcanism accounts in large part for the infertility of the soil. Spurs of the central range extend almost to the seacoast in a few places, but the general contours of Borneo approximate the appearance of a low-crowned hat with a wide brim, the latter representing the soggy marshland that rings the central elevation on all sides.
The northwestern coastal area comprises the territory of the semi-dependent states of Sarawak and Brunei, both under British control until the Japanese invasion. Sarawak, by far the larger, was ruled by the Brooke
dynasty of English radjas; while the little sultanate of Brunei had a native ruler of Malay ancestry. The northern extremity of the island, known as British North Borneo, was the only territory in the world still administered by a chartered company, the British North Borneo Company. For all practical purposes, all three of these regions functioned as British colonies, under the jurisdiction of the High Commissioner of Malaya. The remaining three-fourths of the island is Dutch territory.
The only railroad in Borneo, except for a few private narrow-gauge lines, runs for a distance of slightly over 100 miles along the coast of British North Borneo on the western side. Roads also are almost nonexistent in the island. There are a few stretches of highway in certain parts of the coastal districts, but they extend for short distances only, and are widely disconnected one from another. The principal routes of travel and transportation, therefore, lie along the vast network of navigable rivers. The only city of appreciable size in the entire island is Bandjermasin, at the mouth of the Barito, “the Mississippi of Borneo,” on the southeast coast.
The peoples of Borneo fall into two large divisions: the deutero-Malay coastal population, numbering about 1,000,000, a mixture of Malays, Javanese, Buginese, and other intrusive groups from elsewhere in the Indies; and the proto-Malay aborigines, who are often lumped together under the name “Dyak.” The hundreds of bands and tribes may be grouped in six tribal complexes, within each of which the culture is similar. In the deep interior wander bands of nomads belonging to the Punan complex, numbering in all about 50,000. They are hunters and gatherers of wild products, and few of them ever settle down long enough to plant crops or build permanent dwellings. The Bahau tribes of central and eastern Borneo have a total population of approximately 300,000, the two principal tribes being the Kayan and the Kenya. These are the builders of the famed Borneo longhouses, hundreds of feet in length, a single one of which may accommodate a whole subtribal group. The Ngadju tribal complex of south Borneo, numbering about 400,000, includes such tribes as the Ot Danom, Maanyan, Lawangan, and Biadju. The Land Dyak complex of southwestern Borneo (Landak, Tayan, etc.) has a total population of 200,000; the Klamantan group of northeastern Borneo (Murut, Dusun, Milanau, etc.), 300,000; the Iban or “Sea Dyak” of Sarawak, 200,000. All the aboriginal tribes, with exception of the Punan, are settled agriculturists, living mainly by the cultivation of dry rice, with subsidiary hunting and fishing. They are all pagan in religion, primitive in general culture, and formerly ranked among the most notorious head hunters in the world.
Celebes.–This strangely shaped island to the east of Borneo has an area of 70,000 square miles and a population of about 4,000,000. For the most part, Celebes is simply a mass of mountains, wildly tumbled together in a landscape all steep angles and jagged profiles; here even the coastal swamps are lacking or very narrow. All the active or recently active volcanoes in the island, 16 in number, are located at the tip of the northern peninsula and on the adjacent islands. Except for this area, the only really fertile and well-populated section of Celebes is the southwestern peninsula, which has no active volcanoes but does possess volcanic soil.
There are no railroads in Celebes, and few highways except in the extreme southwestern and extreme northern parts, where roads radiate from the only two cities worthy of the name, Macassar and Menado. Elsewhere short stretches of roadway have been built in a few districts, but they are not interconnected. With no good navigable rivers either, travel in the interior of Celebes is extremely arduous, and must be done either afoot or on horseback over narrow mountain trails.
There are seven tribal complexes in the island. The Toala, a single small tribe, have not been investigated since discovered some 40 years ago. At that time they numbered only about 100, and were living in caves and small huts in a remote mountain valley of southwestern Celebes. A government report of 1913 states that most of them had by that year moved down out of their highland retreat and were dwelling near a Buginese settlement. They are Veddoid in stock, and very primitive in culture–the only true “cave men” ever discovered in the Indies. The central part of Celebes and the lower section of the northern peninsula are inhabited by the Toradja tribes (Palu, Napu, Poso, etc.), numbering 200,000. South of the Toradja country, in the upper part of the southwestern peninsula, dwell the Sadang peoples, sometimes called Southern Toradja (Sadang, Seko, Rongkong, etc.). Their population totals 500,000. The southeastern peninsula, with adjacent islands, is the home of the Mori-Laki tribes (Mori, Laki, Muna, etc.), with a population of 200,000. The eastern peninsula and neighboring islands are inhabited by the Loinang tribes (Loinang, Wana, Banggai, etc.), with a population of 200,000. All four of these tribal complexes have related cultures. Their racial type is proto-Malay, with Veddoid elements appearing especially among the Loinang and Mori-Laki groups. A submerged Negrito strain has been detected in certain western Toradja tribes. Formerly head hunters, these primitive interior groups of Celebes have been converted in great numbers to Christianity, although the majority still remain pagan.
Plate 6Above: Native of Larantuka, Flores, in festive attire. The physical type shows a mixture of Melanesian Negroid and Papuan racial traits (e.g., the nose, though wide and flat, has a somewhat depressed and fleshy tip). Photograph by J. Kinst.
Below: Karo Batak girls, Sumatra, de-lousing each other’s hair. This is a common sight in the Indies. Photograph by E. E. Muhs.
Plate 7Above: Seti of central Ceram doing a war dance. The physical type is the so-called Alfur, the proto-Malay and Papuan hybrid characteristic of the Moluccas. Courtesy Bataviaasch Genootschap.
Below: Mentawei women fishing, showing leaf clothing. These people cannot weave, but make their garments of either bark cloth or leaves.
Plate 8Above: Dyak group, western Borneo, showing weapons and waist rings of brass and rattan worn by women.
Below: Bahau Dyak group, Borneo, showing distended ear lobes, and, center rear, panther-tooth ear ornaments which may be worn only by successful head hunters.
Plate 9Above: Balinese beauty.
Below: Balinese girls. In the center, an ikat (tie-dyed) sarong; the other sarongs are batik.
Bangsa paling maju di pulau itu adalah proto-Melayu suku kompleks Minahasa-Gorontalo di semenanjung utara dan Deutero-Melayu-Bugis Makassar di barat daya Sulawesi. Minahasa hampir seluruhnya Kristen dalam agama tetapi mempertahankan banyak budaya kuno mereka dalam bentuk lain. Suku-suku lain dari kompleks utara baik Islam (Gorontalo) atau kafir (Bolaang Mongondou, Sangir, Talaut). Jumlah total penduduk Minahasa-orang Gorontalo adalah 500.000. Para Makassar dan Bugis, penomoran 2.500.000, membentuk kelompok populasi terbesar, dan merupakan orang yang dominan dari pulau itu. Sebagian besar kabupaten pesisir dan banyak interior dulunya di bawah kekuasaan radjas mereka. Mereka Islam dalam agama.
The Lesser Sunda Islands – Dengan tanah seluas 35.000 mil persegi dan populasi 3.500.000 gabungan ini rantai kepulauan membentang ke arah timur di sepanjang perbatasan selatan Hindia dari Bali ke Timor.. Medan sepanjang hampir seluruhnya pegunungan, dengan 28 gunung berapi aktif atau baru aktif, 17 dari mereka di pulau Flores saja. Jalan raya baik melintasi bagian dari Bali dan Lombok, tetapi bagian besar hanya bisa diakses lewat jalur gunung. Di sebelah timur kita menemukan beberapa peregangan jalan adil di Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, dan Timor, tetapi Sawu, Roti, dan Alor-Solor Kepulauan memiliki jalan nyata hampir tidak ada. Memang, Bali timur distrik pedalaman semua pulau masih hampir sepenuhnya berkembang dan telah dikunjungi jarang oleh pihak luar. Kota-kota satunya bahkan ukuran moderat di Sunda Kecil adalah Singaradja dan Den Pasar di Bali, Mataram di Lombok, Ende di Flores, dan Kupang dan Dilly di Timor. Tak satu pun dari mencapai populasi 20.000.
Bali, sebuah pulau vulkanik gunung, adalah bagian yang paling subur dan paling padat diselesaikan dari Sunda Kecil, dengan jumlah penduduk 1.200.000, dan seluas 2.300 mil persegi. Dengan pengecualian beberapa ribu apa yang disebut Bali Aga, yang diam di desa-desa pedalaman terpencil dan masih mempertahankan banyak budaya pagan pra-Hindu pulau, semua orang Bali Hindu dalam agama. Bali, memang, adalah semacam barang museum, kelangsungan hidup hidup pada abad keempat belas Jawa. Banyak keluarga yang mulia dan tinggi kasta adalah keturunan dari pengungsi yang melarikan diri Jawa ketika kerajaan lama Modjopahit runtuh. Selain seperti Deutero-Melayu penambahan-penambahan, orang Bali termasuk dalam saham Caucasoid gelap proto-Melayu rasial.
Lombok, sebuah pulau, tinggi vulkanik dari 2.000 mil persegi dengan populasi 700.000, adalah rumah dari tiga kelompok budaya yang berbeda. Kabupaten pesisir barat ditempati oleh Bali, sedikit berbeda dari kerabat mereka di Selat Lombok. Sisa dari pulau ini dihuni oleh suku Sasak, orang Islam yang sebelumnya subjek
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Gambar. 6 -. Kepulauan dan masyarakat dari Sunda Kecil
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untuk pangeran Bali. Terselip di antara Sasak, namun, beberapa ribu Bodha, sebagian besar masih kafir dalam agama dan cukup primitif dalam budaya umum. Ketiga kelompok ini sebagian besar adalah proto-Melayu dalam huruf fisik, meskipun ciri-ciri Veddoid muncul di antara kedua Sasak dan Bodha.
Sumbawa adalah, sebagian pulau vulkanik pegunungan 5.000 mil persegi di daerah, dengan jumlah penduduk 300.000. Hal ini dibagi menjadi empat kesultanan: Sumbawa, Sanggau, Dompo, dan Bima, semua penduduk, dengan pengecualian Do kafir Donggo di pegunungan Bima, adalah Islam. Saham ras dominan adalah proto-Melayu.
Sumba, pulau non-vulkanik dari gunung yang rendah dan dataran tinggi, memiliki luas 5.500 mil persegi dan populasi proto-Melayu dari 100.000. Penduduk asli sebagian besar kafir.
Sawu dan Roti pulau-pulau kecil dengan dataran rendah pantai dan interior berbukit. Luas Sawu adalah 200 mil persegi, yaitu Roti, 650 mil persegi. Populasinya berjumlah 30.000 dan 60.000 masing-masing. Proto-Melayu penduduk termasuk sejumlah besar mualaf Kristen, meskipun paganisme mempertahankan cengkeramannya atas mayoritas.
Flores, sebuah pulau pegunungan dan sangat berapi, memiliki luas 5.600 mil persegi dan jumlah penduduk 500.000. Hal ini dibagi menjadi lima bagian suku: Manggarai, Ngada, Sika, Ende, dan Larantuka. Penduduk distrik barat terutama proto-Melayu dalam huruf fisik, tetapi bergerak ke arah timur seseorang menemukan campuran membingungkan saham rasial di mana proto-Melayu, Melanesia bersifat Negro, Papua, dan bahkan strain Australoid jelas terlihat. Lebar hidung, kulit gelap, dan mendominasi rambut kabur di kalangan masyarakat timur Flores. Meskipun kekristenan telah membuat beberapa terobosan dan banyak dari penduduk pantai mengaku Islam, sebagian besar Florenese adalah kafir.
Timor, terbesar dari Sunda Kecil, adalah, pegunungan non vulkanik pulau 9.000 mil persegi di daerah. Bagian timur dan daerah kantong kecil di pantai barat laut adalah wilayah Portugis. Tiga kelompok suku mendiami Timor: Kupangese, di ujung barat daya, sedangkan Atoni, di bagian barat dan tengah dari bagian Belanda, dan Belu, membentang dari pusat Belanda Timor timur selama sisa pulau itu, termasuk semua Timor Portugis . Wilayah Portugis adalah satu-satunya tempat di seluruh Indonesia, kecuali untuk beberapa daerah pedalaman terpencil, dimana Melayu tidak digunakan sebagai lingua franca. Berikut dialek bahasa Tetun Belu adalah bahasa perdagangan resmi. Komposisi ras penduduk Timor, yang totalnya mencapai 700.000, adalah yang paling campuran di Hindia. Selain elemen proto-dan Deutero-Melayu, Melanesia bersifat Negro, Papua, Negrito, dan jenis Australoid semua terjadi, di
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berbagai perbandingan di berbagai kabupaten. Hampir setiap saham rasial yang pernah hidup di Indonesia diwakili di pulau satu. Sebagian wajar penduduk asli telah dikristenkan atau mengislamisasi, tetapi sebagian besar orang Timor adalah kafir.
Para Alor-Solor Islands – Solor, Adonara, Lomblem, Pantar, dan Alor – memiliki daerah gabungan 2.000 mil persegi dan jumlah penduduk 150.000. Mereka adalah pegunungan, lima dari puncak gunung berapi yang aktif. Berikutnya ke New Guinea, ini mungkin pulau-pulau paling terkenal di Hindia keseluruhan. Sampai sekarang hampir tidak ada laporan yang tersedia tentang jiwa. Unsur-unsur utama adalah ras Melanesia bersifat Negro dan Papua, tetapi di Pantar tinggal tipe, luar biasa berat berjanggut yang mungkin kelangsungan hidup Australoid, sedangkan di timur Alor ada suku kerdil beberapa saham Negrito tampaknya murni.
Maluku -. Pulau-pulau menempati laut antara Sulawesi dan Timor di sebelah barat dan New Guinea di sebelah timur. Ada ratusan dari mereka, sebagian besar kecil, tapi mereka termasuk dua yang besar – Seram dan Halmahera – dan beberapa ukuran menengah. Luas lahan yang dikombinasikan dari semua Maluku adalah 35.000 mil persegi, dan populasi total adalah 425.000. Meskipun sebagian besar pulau-pulau yang bergunung-gunung, beberapa, seperti Aru kelompok, memiliki elevasi rendah sehingga mereka terutama terdiri dari rawa berkelanjutan. Jalan yang hampir tidak ada di Maluku, dan perjalanan interior dan transportasi sangat sulit. Akibatnya, kecuali di pulau-pulau besar, sebagian besar pemukiman asli terletak di pantai, dan komunikasi terutama dengan perahu. Setiap kelompok pulau utama memiliki minimal satu kota yang merupakan fokus perdagangan dan pelabuhan-of-panggilan untuk kapal uap. Tapi sebagian besar pusat-pusat komersial kecil dan tidak penting kecuali sebagai gateway untuk ekspor dan impor. Masyarakat hanya benar-benar perkotaan di seluruh Maluku Ambon, di Ambon Kepulauan selatan Seram. Ternate, di sebuah pulau dari nama yang sama barat Halmahera, Tidore, tepat di sebelah selatan Ternate di lain pulau kecil, dan Bandaneira, di Kepulauan Banda, tiga pusat sekunder yang penting telah menurun sangat sejak zaman keemasan perdagangan rempah-rempah, ketika Maluku, atau “Kepulauan Rempah-Rempah,” adalah wilayah komersial terkaya di Hindia. Sebagian besar pulau-pulau yang baik dekaden atau masih dalam keadaan primitif pembangunan. Namun demikian, Maluku memiliki signifikansi strategis penting, karena mereka menjaga laut terpendek dan jalur udara dari Australia utara ke Filipina dan Jepang. Belanda memiliki basis terbesar kedua angkatan laut mereka di Hindia di Amboina.
Wetar, di lepas pantai utara Timor Portugis, adalah sebuah pulau kecil terkenal dari 1.200 mil persegi dengan jumlah penduduk hanya 7.500. Medan yang berbukit-bukit dan tanah subur. Saham ras penduduk asli adalah campuran
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Gambar. 7 -. Kepulauan dan rakyat Maluku.
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proto-Melayu dan Papua. Suku-suku tertentu dilaporkan sangat suka berperang, yang diberikan kepada kepala berburu, dan memusuhi orang luar. Jadi terisolasi dan primitif ini pulau itu, kecuali orang Islam dan Kristen beberapa bahkan lebih sedikit, semua penduduk masih kafir.
Kisar, timur Wetar, adalah sebuah pulau kecil dari 50 mil persegi, yang, meskipun tanah yang kurang subur, mendukung populasi 9.000. Medan yang berbukit-bukit, dan hampir telanjang pohon. Penduduk asli adalah proto-Melayu saham, tetapi satu distrik dihuni oleh sekelompok sekitar 200 setengah-keturunan, produk dari kawin tentara dengan Kisarese lebih dari seratus tahun yang lalu, ketika sebuah Perusahaan India Timur benteng dipertahankan di pulau itu. Mereka memiliki nama Belanda dan tidak menikah dengan penduduk asli, tetapi mereka telah melupakan bahasa Belanda sama sekali. Sekitar 10 persen orang dari Kisar adalah orang Kristen.
Kepulauan Leti (Leti, Moa, dan Lakor), timur Kisar, memiliki area gabungan dari 350 mil persegi dan berpenduduk 15.000. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik dan relatif subur. Leti dan Moa yang berbukit, Lakor cukup datar. Proto-Melayu pribumi sekitar 50 persen Kristen.
Kepulauan Luang (Luang dan Sermata), berdekatan dengan kelompok Leti, adalah berbukit dan non-vulkanik, dengan luas 150 mil persegi dan berpenduduk 5.000. Sekitar setengah dari orang Luang mengaku Kristen, yang Sermatans masih kebanyakan kafir. Saham ras dominan adalah proto-Melayu.
Kepulauan Babar, enam jumlahnya, terletak sebelah timur dari Luang. Daerah gabungan mereka adalah 250 mil persegi; bahwa dari 220 mil pulau terbesar persegi. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik, dengan medan yang tinggi dan kasar. Penduduk asli sangat primitif hampir sepenuhnya kafir dan sebelumnya berlatih berburu kepala. Mereka adalah dari jenis yang disebut hibrida Alfur fisik, lintas proto-Melayu dan Papua. Sedangkan Kisar dan Leti dan Kepulauan Luang relatif “beradab,” Babar, seperti Wetar, tetap hampir tak tersentuh oleh pengaruh-pengaruh luar.
Kepulauan Roma (Roma dan Damar) berbohong utara Babar, dan bersama-sama memiliki luas 200 mil persegi. Keduanya pegunungan dan asal vulkanik. Salah satu puncak pada Damar masih aktif. Keadaan penduduk yang tipis dari 3.000 adalah sepenuhnya terisolasi, primitif dalam budaya, dan kafir dalam agama. Saham rasial Alfur hibrida.
Para Nila Islands (Nila, Teun, dan Serua) peregangan timur laut dari Damar ke perairan lepas Laut Banda. Masing-masing dari tiga pulau adalah sebuah gunung berapi aktif, dan di lereng ini tinggal sekitar 3.000 penduduk asli jenis Alfur fisik, hampir sepenuhnya terpisah dari dunia luar dan masih kafir. Luas total adalah sekitar 100 mil persegi.
Kepulauan Tanimbar, dengan luas 2.150 mil persegi, yang 66 jumlahnya, tetapi hanya tujuh yang berpenghuni. Salah satunya, Yamdena, adalah jauh
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yang terbesar, dan di pantai selatan terletak kota utama Saumlaki, reguler port-of-panggilan untuk kapal uap. Semua pulau-pulau non-vulkanik dan dataran rendah, ketinggian jarang melebihi 200 meter; kebanyakan dari wilayah tersebut terdiri dari rawa-rawa tak tertembus. Para 25.000 penduduk asli adalah dari jenis Alfur campuran, dengan dominan karakteristik Papua, termasuk kulit gelap dan rambut keriting. Mereka sangat primitif dan sebelumnya berjuang kejam di antara mereka sendiri, dengan kepala dan makan bagian tubuh musuh dibunuh. Mereka memiliki catatan panjang permusuhan dengan kulit putih juga, tapi karena tahun 1907, ketika Belanda diperkuat kepolisian di pulau-pulau, gangguan sudah diperiksa. Mereka masih mempertahankan budaya tradisional mereka dan sebagian besar kafir.
Kepulauan Kei, timur laut Tanimbar, di bawah pantai Nugini, memiliki luas 575 mil persegi didistribusikan melalui tiga pulau besar dan yang kecil tak terhitung banyaknya. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik. Kei besar, yang terbesar, sangat bergunung-gunung, tapi yang lain jauh lebih rendah, yang terbesar kedua, Nuhuroa, sebagian besar terdiri dari daerah rawa. Mereka semua berhutan lebat. Kota utama adalah Tual, pusat perdagangan dan pengiriman. Populasi adalah 30.000 Alfur dalam jenis fisik. Meski masih primitif dalam budaya umum, hanya sekitar sepertiga dari Keians tetap kafir. Sisanya sama-sama dibagi antara Islam dan Kristen. Sikap yang berlaku terhadap orang luar yang ramah, meskipun perang internal yang berdarah hanya baru-baru ini diperiksa oleh Belanda.
Kepulauan Am, jauh ke timur, terletak dekat dengan New Guinea. Jumlah mereka lebih dari seratus, tetapi hanya lima yang besar. Seluruh kelompok dekat-dikemas, dengan divisi air sempit antara bagian-bagiannya. Daerah ini datar dan rendah, sebagian besar terdiri dari rawa-rawa yang luas rusak oleh perbukitan rendah. Virgin hutan meliputi sebagian besar Aru. Luas 3.350 mil persegi mendukung populasi 20.000 saham Alfur campuran, mirip dengan Tanimbarese tersebut. Dobo, kota utama, dan teratur port-of-panggilan untuk kapal, adalah di pulau barat Wamar. Ini adalah salah satu dari sedikit tempat di Hindia dimana Jepang banyak sebelum 1941. Mereka bergerak terutama dalam bisnis mutiara memancing. Beberapa bagian Aru masih belum diselidiki, dan di pedalaman Wokam hidup suku-suku nomaden yang belum pernah dilihat oleh orang kulit putih dan yang jarang datang dalam kontak dengan penduduk asli lainnya. Para Arunese cukup primitif, dan sebagian besar pagan, tetapi ramah dan patuh. Bahkan di antara mereka sendiri mereka jarang larut dalam peperangan.
Kepulauan Watubela, enam jumlahnya, terletak barat laut dari. Kei. Hanya tiga dihuni, total penduduk menjadi 2.500. Daerah ini sekitar 150 mil persegi, dan medan sebagian besar terdiri dari perbukitan rendah. Kepulauan ini terisolasi dan tidak penting. Beberapa penduduk asli, tipe Alfur, mengaku Islam, tetapi mayoritas adalah kafir.
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Kepulauan Goram, utara Watubela, dengan luas sekitar 200 mil persegi, enam jumlahnya, tetapi hanya tiga yang berpenghuni. Mereka adalah berbukit-bukit dan berhutan lebat. Total populasi saham Alfur campuran adalah 6.000. Meskipun pulau-pulau ini adalah off rute pelayaran reguler, penduduk asli memiliki kontak yang cukup dengan pihak luar, dan Islam kini mengklaim hampir semua dari mereka. Belanda mengalami kesulitan banyak dengan pembajakan dan budak-merampok sini sampai bagian akhir abad kesembilan belas, tetapi dalam beberapa tahun terakhir kondisi sudah damai.
Kepulauan Ceramlaut, dari ujung tenggara Seram, angka 12, 6 di antaranya berpenghuni. Daerah ini adalah sekitar 100 mil persegi, penduduk, 6.000. Mereka adalah rendah, cluster karang subur. Sekitar 1.000 dari penduduk adalah asal asing, termasuk Cina, Arab, dan Indonesia dari bagian lain Hindia. Bajak laut sebelumnya merepotkan, penduduk asli hampir seluruhnya Islam.
Kepulauan Banda, di tengah Laut Banda selatan Seram, memiliki luas 100 mil persegi. Ke-11 pulau telah kehilangan populasi aborigin mereka dan sekarang dihuni oleh campuran Jawa, Bugis, Makassar, dan imigran lainnya, sebesar 6.000. Perbukitan dan gunung berapi, kelompok Banda sebelumnya merupakan pusat makmur budidaya rempah-rempah. Hari-hari kekayaan telah berlalu, dan suasana umum dekadensi melingkupi wilayah ini, meskipun fakta bahwa kota utama, Bandaneira, memiliki salah satu pelabuhan terbaik di Hindia, dan beberapa pulau-pulau memiliki jalan raya yang adil.
Kepulauan Ambon, pusat komersial dan administrasi Maluku, adalah kelompok empat terletak di lepas pantai barat daya Seram. Luas total adalah 500 mil persegi, Ambon, pulau utama, yang terdiri lebih dari 300 ini. Kepulauan ini asal vulkanik, dan meskipun aktivitas lama berakhir, sumber air panas dan tempat tidur belerang yang umum dan gempa bumi sering. Pegunungan melintasi seluruh kelompok. Kota Ambon, dengan 10.000 penduduk, adalah komunitas terbesar di Indonesia timur dan merupakan pangkalan angkatan laut kedua yang paling penting dari Belanda. Para 60.000 penduduk asli, saham Alfur campuran, sebagian besar Kristen, meskipun cukup banyak mengaku Islam, mereka telah di antara yang paling ramah dari seluruh rakyat Indonesia terhadap pemerintah Belanda. Kuat, cerdas, taat, dan berani, mereka dipasok sebagian besar pasukan tentara kolonial dan yang menonjol dalam pelayanan pemerintah ulama, guru, dan sebagai mandor pekerja asli. Perdagangan telah ditangani terutama oleh pihak luar: Eropa, Cina, Arab, dan imigran dari daerah lain di Indonesia, dan penduduk asing sangat besar. Di kota Ambon, misalnya, hidup pada tahun 1940 hampir 1.000 orang Eropa dan beberapa ratus orang Arab dan Cina.
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Seram, Maluku terbesar, memiliki luas 6.700 mil persegi. Pulau ini didominasi pegunungan tetapi non-vulkanik, dengan 3.055 meter puncak tinggi di pusat. Bagian timur, bagaimanapun, adalah baik berbukit atau sangat rendah dan rawa. Sebagian besar tanah tersebut padat berhutan. Sungai-sungai yang hampir tidak berguna untuk navigasi, dan tidak ada jalan, akibatnya perjalanan darat sepenuhnya melalui jalur belaka. Tidak ada kota-kota besar dan pelabuhan saja. Penduduk asli, penomoran 60.000, pada umumnya cukup primitif, meskipun fakta bahwa sekitar 12.000 mengaku Kristen dan 16.000 adalah Islam. Sebagian besar mualaf tinggal di daerah pantai, di mana campuran cukup dengan alien telah terjadi; tetapi interior liar masih hampir tak tersentuh oleh pengaruh budaya dari dunia luar. Orang gunung dari Seram Barat yang tinggi, bersemangat, berkulit gelap rakyat Papua dan Melanesia saham bersifat Negro. Mereka telah di antara para pemburu kepala paling ganas di Hindia, dan kegiatan mereka yang suka perang telah memberikan banyak kesulitan Belanda. Mereka dikenal sebagai Patasiwa Hitam. Wilayah tengah yang dihuni oleh suku-suku Alfur campuran, dari disposisi damai lagi: Putih Patasiwa, Patalima, dan Seti. Bukit-bukit dan rawa-rawa di bagian timur Seram melindungi orang Veddoid, para Bonfia, yang pemalu, unwarlike, dan sangat primitif dalam budaya.
Bum, sebelah barat Seram, adalah sebuah pulau berbentuk oval dengan luas 3.400 mil persegi. Hal ini sebagian besar massa non-vulkanik gunung, tetapi sebagian besar pantai yang datar dan berawa. Hanya satu sungai adalah dinavigasi untuk kapal kecil, dan tidak ada jalan. Populasi 20.000 dibagi antara Gebmelia pagan interior, terutama proto-Melayu saham, dan orang-orang campuran dari pesisir, Gebmasin, yang sebagian telah dikristenkan atau Mohammedanized. Sebagian besar Buru baru-baru ini telah dieksplorasi, tetapi penduduk asli yang damai.
Kepulauan Sula, terletak di antara Buru dan Sulawesi memiliki luas sekitar 5.000 mil persegi. Ada tiga pulau besar dan yang lebih kecil tak terhitung banyaknya. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik, perbukitan di bagian interior, dengan dataran rendah pantai berawa. Populasi 15.000 terutama proto-Melayu saham, dengan Papua terendam dan strain Veddoid. Sula adalah salah satu bagian paling terkenal dari Hindia, dan penduduk asli kafir cukup primitif, banyak dari mereka masih menjalani keberadaan nomaden.
Halmahera utara Maluku, adalah sebuah pulau berbentuk aneh sekali sekitar 200 mil panjang, dengan luas 6.500 mil persegi, termasuk pulau-pulau satelit yang lebih kecil. Keempat semenanjung panjang yang tinggi, rantai pegunungan berhutan lebat yang jatuh bersama-sama di tengah. Semenanjung utara adalah gunung berapi, dengan tiga puncak semiquiescent aktif dan dua; bagian lain non-vulkanik. Tanpa sungai dilayari baik, dan
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tidak adanya total jalan, perjalanan di pedalaman adalah sangat sulit. Sebagian besar Halmahera hampir tak berpenghuni, jumlah penduduk menjadi 50.000 atau rata-rata kurang dari delapan per mil persegi. Penduduk asli, banyak dari mereka nomaden, yaitu dari saham Alfur hibrida, dan sangat primitif dalam budaya. Mereka dikelompokkan di lebih dari 30 suku berbeda, sebagian besar yang telah sangat sedikit diteliti. Peradaban Barat telah hampir menyentuh pulau ini, kecuali untuk tenaga kerja dari beberapa misionaris, yang memperkirakan jumlah mereka bertobat pada hampir 10.000, mungkin berlebihan. Jumlah orang Islam tidak diketahui. Bagaimanapun, sebagian besar dari Halmaherans masih kafir dalam agama.
Ternate, lepas pantai barat Halmahera, adalah sebuah pulau kecil dihuni hampir seluruhnya oleh gunung berapi, tinggi aktif. Luas total adalah 25 mil persegi, sebagian besar padat berhutan. Kota utama, Ternate, merupakan pusat pengiriman, dengan pelabuhan yang baik. Populasi 10.000 pada dasarnya saham Alfur, tetapi campuran begitu banyak dengan pihak luar telah terjadi bahwa jenis asli telah dikaburkan. Ternate, di samping Ambon, adalah kota terbesar di Indonesia timur, dan dulunya adalah ibukota timur kesultanan yang paling kuat dari Makasar. Penduduk asli pulau ini sepenuhnya Islam.
Tidore, selatan Ternate mil, juga merupakan pulau kecil, pegunungan, tetapi gunung berapi yang tidak lagi aktif. Ini memiliki luas 25 mil persegi dan berpenduduk 15.000. Penduduk asli, awalnya saham Alfur, telah bercampur jauh dengan alien. Kota utama, Tidore, memiliki pelabuhan yang baik, dan dulunya adalah kursi dari kesultanan Ternate yang disaingi berkuasa. Tidorese ini adalah semua orang Islam.
Kepulauan Makian – Moti, Makian, Kayoa dan – terletak selatan Tidore. Mereka memiliki luas gabungan sekitar 50 mil persegi, dan populasi sekitar 10.000. Makian dibangun di sekitar gunung berapi aktif; pulau lainnya berasal dari gunung berapi, dan berbukit. Penduduk asli Alfur semuanya telah Mohammedanized.
Kepulauan Batjan, di lepas pantai barat daya Halmahera, jumlah sekitar 80, tapi hanya 3 yang ukuran besar. Luas total adalah 1.000 mil persegi, penduduk, 10.000. Kepulauan ini asal vulkanik, berbukit, dan ditutupi dengan hutan. Kesultanan Batjan sebelumnya agak kuat, tetapi hari ini wilayah ini tidak terlalu penting. Penduduk asli Alfur sebagian besar Islam, tetapi ada beberapa ratus orang Kristen.
Kepulauan Obi, selatan Batjan, adalah kelompok enam, tapi hanya satu yang besar. Luas total adalah 1.000 mil persegi. Kepulauan ini bergunung-gunung, non-vulkanik, dan padat berhutan. Penduduk asli telah hilang, dan sebagian besar penduduk saat ini adalah karakter “mengambang”, masuk ke hutan sementara ikan, menyelam untuk mutiara, potongan sagu, dan mengumpulkan
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produk. Perkiraan wajar jumlah pemukim relatif stabil tidak akan melampaui 2.000.
Bahasa DAN MENULIS
Semua bangsa di Hindia berbicara bahasa milik suatu saham linguistik tunggal, Melayu-Polinesia, dengan pengecualian suku utara Halmahera di Maluku dan Alor di Nusa Tenggara. Kelompok-kelompok ini memiliki bahasa yang umumnya disebut sebagai Papua, kategori di mana lidah-lidah Nugini juga jatuh. Mereka tidak pernah benar belajar atau diklasifikasikan, tetapi mereka jelas berbeda dengan bahasa Melayu-Polinesia. Bentuk yang terakhir salah satu keluarga bahasa yang paling luas di dunia, dengan ratusan cabang memperluas sepanjang jalan dari Madagaskar, di lepas pantai tenggara Afrika, melalui Hindia Timur dan Filipina ke Formosa di sebelah utara, naik melalui Semenanjung Melayu ke perbatasan Burma dan Siam, dan jelas di Pasifik dari Indonesia melalui Melanesia dan Mikronesia ke pos-pos yang jauh dari Hawaii dan Pulau Paskah.
Nilai dari bahasa bahasa Indonesia, meskipun hampir semua dari mereka termasuk dalam saham tunggal, saling dimengerti – kisaran variasi yang sebanding dengan yang di dalam bahasa Indo-Eropa dari Eropa. Namun masalah linguistik di Hindia ini disederhanakan oleh fakta bahwa ada semacam “Melayu dasar,” versi sederhana dari Sumatera Melayu, yang dipahami di sebagian besar pulau-pulau. Ini bahasa, yang dapat diperoleh dengan beberapa bulan praktek mantap, sangat diperlukan untuk komunikasi verbal dengan penduduk asli, hampir tidak ada satupun yang bisa berbahasa Inggris, Belanda, atau lidah non-Indonesia lainnya.
Meskipun lebih dari 90 persen penduduk asli buta huruf, menulis, diperkenalkan oleh orang Hindu, telah dikenal di pulau-pulau barat Hindia selama lebih dari seribu tahun. The Hindu yang diturunkan kuno script dengan cepat membagikan penggunaan tetapi masih bertahan di bagian Sumatra dan Sulawesi, di Bali, Flores, dan Sumbawa, dan bahkan sampai batas tertentu di Jawa. Huruf Arab, dan baru-baru Romawi, telah menggantikan jenis kuno menulis di sebagian besar daerah maju. Kertas sekarang digunakan umum, tetapi cara tradisional menulis adalah untuk menggaruk huruf pada permukaan mengkilap dari potongan bambu atau daun kelapa, yang kemudian diikat bersama-sama di buku. Akordeon-seperti buku yang terbuat dari potongan panjang kulit tipis dilipat bersama antara penutup kayu yang digunakan oleh orang Batak Sumatera.
Sebagian besar orang Indonesia adalah petani, dan beras adalah dengan segala rintangan andalan subsistensi asli. Metode yang lebih primitif dari budidaya
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adalah untuk menghapus dan membakar pertumbuhan alami dan tanaman biji-bijian dengan tongkat menggali tanah abu-dibuahi. Budidaya padi irigasi, baik pada dataran banjir atau di teras lereng bukit artifisial dibangun, terbatas pada daerah yang lebih maju, khususnya Jawa, Sumatera, Bali, dan barat daya Sulawesi. Sawah pertanian diperkenalkan ke Hindia di kemudian hari jauh dari sistem “bakar dan tanaman” dan belum menyebar ke daerah terpencil. Di mana pun diperkenalkan, hasil gabah meningkat dengan sangat hebat, dan populasi. naik dengan kecepatan yang menakjubkan. Sepanjang tahun sawah bertingkat di perbukitan, di dalam tanah vulkanik yang subur, adalah rahasia kemampuan Jawa untuk mendukung populasi yang sangat besar.
Pulau-pulau barat adalah wilayah utama padi nusantara. Beras belum pernah diperkenalkan, atau telah datang hanya baru-baru ini, di sebagian besar Indonesia timur dan di antara suku-suku yang sangat primitif tertentu dari wilayah barat. Ubi jalar dan talas, sayuran berbonggol, dan sagu, makan tapioka seperti yang dipukuli dan dicuci dari empulur sejenis pohon palem, adalah pokok di Nias, Mentawei, dan Engano, terisolasi pulau-pulau lepas pantai barat Sumatra, dan dalam Banggai, dari titik timur Sulawesi. Dua lainnya barat indonesian kelompok, Kubu nomaden Sumatera dan Punan Kalimantan, hidup dengan berburu dan mengumpulkan produk liar dari hutan. Di bagian timur Indonesia, beras diganti sebagai tanaman utama dengan baik jagung (jagung) atau sagu. Yang pertama mendominasi di Nusa Tenggara timur Lombok, sementara makan sagu adalah makanan pokok di sebagian besar Maluku. Jadi, dengan pengecualian kecil, kita dapat memetakan tiga daerah pertanian utama di Nusantara: daerah beras barat, bagian jagung pusat, dan timur sagu zona. f
Makanan nabati menonjol dalam pola makan orang Indonesia. Biasanya, bagaimanapun, mereka melengkapi beras, jagung, sagu atau piring dengan potongan-potongan daging dan ikan, terutama yang kedua. Memancing, memang, adalah sumber yang paling penting kedua makanan dalam perekonomian asli. Nets, garis, berbagai bendungan cerdik dan perangkap, dan obat Stupefying semua digunakan dalam penangkapan ikan.
Berburu memiliki tempat anak dalam kehidupan ekonomi asli kecuali di antara suku-suku nomaden dan semi-nomaden Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan beberapa pulau timur lebih besar. Babi hutan, rusa, monyet, dan unggas liar adalah jenis utama dari permainan. Masyarakat yang lebih maju memiliki senjata, tetapi antara suku-suku terpencil, di mana perburuan masih penting, tombak, busur dan panah, dan sumpitan dengan panah beracun yang digunakan. Juga, berbagai perangkap ikan indonesian cocok dengan yang digunakan untuk permainan. Noose-perangkap dan stasioner musim semi-tombak, yang beroperasi pada prinsip busur dan panah, cocok untuk hewan kecil, sedangkan untuk deadfalls yang lebih besar dan tombak ditangguhkan berat tertimbang bekerja.
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Hewan peliharaan termasuk anjing, kucing, ayam, babi, kerbau, sapi, kuda, kambing, dan domba. Hampir kelompok dapat ditemukan, bahkan primitif hutan pengembara, yang tidak memiliki anjing. Kucing tidak terlalu banyak, yang sangat disayangkan, untuk Hindia yang penuh dengan tikus dan tikus. Semua bangsa Indonesia, kecuali orang-orang liar berkeliaran hutan, menjaga ayam. Sampai 500 tahun yang lalu babi dibesarkan di hampir setiap bagian dari Nusantara. Sejak itu jumlah mereka telah terus menurun, dengan masing-masing untuk kemajuan Islam tabu babi membuat orang-orang menyingkirkan mereka. Sangat mudah untuk membedakan Islam dari desa-desa Kristen atau kafir oleh tidak adanya atau kehadiran babi.
Kerbau raksasa, atau kerbau, adalah pekerjaan pokok dan hewan draft pulau-pulau, dan meskipun impor unit mobil, sebagian besar transportasi berat masih dilakukan dengan gerobak kerbau. Hewan ini kadang-kadang disembelih dan dimakan, tapi ikan biasanya lebih suka daging, kecuali daging babi di non-Islam daerah. Buffalo hanya ditemukan di daerah lebih mudah diakses; mereka tidak pernah diperkenalkan ke pedalaman Kalimantan atau beberapa pulau timur. Sapi, baik berbagai India bongkok atau keturunan Eropa baru-baru ini diimpor, yang tidak terlalu banyak atau luas sebagai kerbau. Kuda-kuda dari pulau-pulau sangat kecil, tidak lebih besar dari kuda poni, dan rupanya pertama diimpor ke Hindia oleh umat Hindu. Mereka digunakan sebagai kemasan atau hewan berkuda dan di kota-kota untuk menarik sedikit roda dua sewa-gerbong di mana pengemudi dan penumpang naik kembali ke belakang. Kambing dibangkitkan di hampir semua pulau, terutama untuk daging dan pada tingkat lebih rendah untuk susu. Indonesia, seperti kebanyakan orang Timur, tidak peduli banyak untuk susu, mentega keju, atau. Domba pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh orang Eropa dan masih kurang penting dalam perekonomian asli.
Apapun cara kehidupan mereka, kebanyakan orang Indonesia adalah pekerja independen. Lebih dari 70 persen bekerja untuk diri mereka sendiri, sementara hanya 30 persen adalah penerima upah, umumnya dalam mempekerjakan perusahaan-perusahaan Eropa. Enam puluh persen adalah petani, pedagang 5 persen, persen ternak 3 pengibar, pemburu, atau nelayan, dan 1 persen pada profesi. Dengan demikian sebagian besar hidup dalam “perekonomian tertutup” dari komunitas asal mereka, yang hampir sepenuhnya mandiri, memproduksi semua yang mereka konsumsi, dengan sedikit tersisa untuk menjual uang tunai.
Orang Indonesia juga miskin, tidak hanya dalam uang, tetapi dalam makanan dan harta benda juga. Rumah mereka kebanyakan hanya bambu dan pondok ilalang, pakaian mereka sederhana dan sedikit. Makanan, terutama dalam kelebihan penduduk Jawa, tidak banyak, tapi untungnya mereka memerlukan sangat sedikit. Dua mangkuk nasi, dengan porsi kecil dari ikan dan sayuran di samping, cukup untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari. Adapun uang, pendapatan pajak statistik menunjukkan bahwa 95 persen dari penduduk asli yang diterima kurang dari $ 50 setahun, dan hanya 0,05 persen
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menerima lebih dari $ 450 setahun. Eropa, yang terdiri hanya 0,4 persen dari populasi, dibayar 50 persen dari penerimaan pajak penghasilan, sedangkan Asiatik asing, terutama Cina, yang merupakan 2 persen dari populasi, dibayar 30 persen.
The most advanced peoples of the island are the proto-Malay tribes of the Minahasa-Gorontalo complex in the northern peninsula and the deutero-Malay Macassarese-Buginese in southwestern Celebes. The Minahasa are almost entirely Christian in religion but retain much of their ancient culture in other respects. The other tribes of the northern complex are either Mohammedan (Gorontalo) or pagan (Bolaang Mongondou, Sangirese, Talaut). The total population of the Minahasa-Gorontalo peoples is 500,000. The Macassarese and Buginese, numbering 2,500,000, form the largest population group, and are the dominant people of the island. Most of the coastal districts and much of the interior were formerly under the rule of their radjas. They are Mohammedan in religion.
The Lesser Sunda Islands.–With a total land area of 35,000 square miles and a combined population of 3,500,000 this chain of islands extends eastward along the southern border of the Indies from Bali to Timor. The terrain throughout is almost entirely mountainous, with 28 active or recently active volcanoes, 17 of them in the island of Flores alone. Good highways traverse parts of Bali and Lombok, but large sections are accessible only by mountain trails. To the east one finds a few stretches of fair road in Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, and Timor; but Savu, Roti, and the Alor-Solor Islands have almost no real roads. Indeed, east of Bali the interior districts of all the islands are still almost completely undeveloped and have been visited only rarely by outsiders. The only towns of even moderate size in the Lesser Sundas are Singaradja and Den Pasar in Bali, Mataram in Lombok, Ende in Flores, and Kupang and Dilly in Timor. None of these attains a population of 20,000.
Bali, a volcanic, mountainous island, is the most fertile and most densely settled part of the Lesser Sundas, with a population of 1,200,000, and an area of 2,300 square miles. With the exception of a few thousand so-called Bali Aga, who dwell in remote interior villages and still retain much of the pagan pre-Hindu culture of the island, all the Balinese are Hinduist in religion. Bali, indeed, is a kind of museum piece, a living survival of fourteenth-century Java. Many of its noble and high-caste families are descended from refugees who fled Java when the old empire of Modjopahit collapsed. Aside from such deutero-Malay accretions, the Balinese belong to the dark Caucasoid proto-Malay racial stock.
Lombok, a high, volcanic island of 2,000 square miles with a population of 700,000, is the home of three different cultural groups. The western coastal districts are occupied by Balinese, little different from their relatives across the Lombok Straits. The remainder of the island is inhabited by the Sasak, a Mohammedan people who were formerly subject
to Balinese princes. Tucked in among the Sasak, however, are several thousand Bodha, still largely pagan in religion and quite primitive in general culture. All three of these groups are predominantly proto-Malay in physical type, although Veddoid traits appear among both Sasak and Bodha.
Sumbawa is a partially volcanic, mountainous island 5,000 square miles in area, with a population of 300,000. It is divided into four sultanates: Sumbawa, Sanggau, Dompo, and Bima; all the inhabitants, with the exception of the pagan Do Donggo in the mountains of Bima, are Mohammedan. The predominant racial stock is proto-Malay.
Sumba, a non-volcanic island of low mountains and plateaus, has an area of 5,500 square miles and a proto-Malay population of 100,000. The natives are mostly pagan.
Savu and Roti are small islands with low-lying coasts and hilly interiors. The area of Savu is 200 square miles; that of Roti, 650 square miles. Their populations total 30,000 and 60,000 respectively. The proto-Malay inhabitants include large numbers of Christian converts, although paganism retains its hold over the majority.
Flores, a mountainous and extremely volcanic island, has an area of 5,600 square miles and a population of 500,000. It is divided into five tribal sections: Manggarai, Ngada, Sika, Ende, and Larantuka. The inhabitants of the western districts are mainly proto-Malay in physical type; but moving toward the east one encounters a bewildering mixture of racial stocks in which proto-Malay, Melanesian Negroid, Papuan, and even Australoid strains are clearly apparent. Wide noses, dark skins, and fuzzy hair predominate among the people of eastern Flores. Although Christianity has made some inroads and many of the coastal dwellers profess Islam, the great majority of the Florenese are pagan.
Timor, largest of the Lesser Sundas, is a mountainous, non-volcanic island 9,000 square miles in area. The eastern half and a small enclave on the northwest coast are Portuguese territory. Three tribal groups inhabit Timor: the Kupangese, in the southwestern extremity; the Atoni, in the western and central parts of the Dutch section; and the Belu, extending from central Dutch Timor eastward over the remainder of the island, including all of Portuguese Timor. The Portuguese territory is the only place in the whole of Indonesia, except for a few remote interior regions, where Malay is not used as a lingua franca. Here the Tetum dialect of Belu is the official trade language. The racial composition of the Timorese population, which totals 700,000, is the most mixed in the Indies. In addition to proto- and deutero-Malay elements, Melanesian Negroid, Papuan, Negrito, and Australoid types all occur, in
varying proportions in different districts. Nearly every racial stock that ever lived in Indonesia is represented in this one island. A fair proportion of the natives have been Christianized or Islamized, but the great bulk of the Timorese are pagan.
The Alor-Solor Islands–Solor, Adonara, Lomblem, Pantar, and Alor– have a combined area of 2,000 square miles and a population of 150,000. They are mountainous, five of the peaks being active volcanoes. Next to New Guinea, these are probably the least-known islands in the entire Indies. Until very recently almost no reports were available concerning the inhabitants. The principal racial elements are Melanesian Negroid and Papuan; but in Pantar lives a remarkable, heavily bearded type that may be an Australoid survival, while in eastern Alor there are some dwarf tribes of apparently pure Negrito stock.
The Moluccas.–These islands occupy the seas between Celebes and Timor on the west and New Guinea on the east. There are hundreds of them, mostly small, but they include two large ones–Ceram and Halmahera–and several of intermediate size. The combined land area of all the Moluccas is 35,000 square miles, and their total population is 425,000. Although most of the islands are mountainous, some, such as the Aru group, have such low elevation that they consist mainly of continuous swampland. Roads are virtually nonexistent in the Moluccas, and interior travel and transportation are very difficult. Consequently, except in the larger islands, most of the native settlements are situated on the coasts, and communication is principally by boat. Each of the major island groups has at least one town which is the focus of trade and the port-of-call for steamships. But most of these commercial centers are small and insignificant except as gateways for export and import. The only truly urban community in the whole of the Moluccas is Amboina, in the Ambon Islands south of Ceram. Ternate, on an island of the same name west of Halmahera; Tidore, just south of Ternate on another small island; and Bandaneira, in the Banda Islands, are three secondary centers whose importance has declined greatly since the golden days of the spice trade, when the Moluccas, or “Spice Islands,” were the richest commercial region in the Indies. Most of the islands are either decadent or still in a primitive state of development. Nevertheless, the Moluccas are of vital strategical significance, for they guard the shortest sea and air lanes north from Australia to the Philippines and Japan. The Dutch had their second largest naval base in the Indies at Amboina.
Wetar, off the northern coast of Portuguese Timor, is a little-known island of 1,200 square miles with a population of only 7,500. The terrain is hilly and the soil infertile. The racial stock of the natives is a mixture
of proto-Malay and Papuan. Certain tribes are reported to be extremely warlike, given to head hunting, and hostile to outsiders. So isolated and primitive is this island that, except for a few Mohammedans and even fewer Christians, all the inhabitants are still pagan.
Kisar, east of Wetar, is a small island of 50 square miles, which, despite infertile soil, supports a population of 9,000. The terrain is hilly, and almost bare of trees. The natives are of proto-Malay stock, but one district is inhabited by a group of about 200 half-breeds, products of the mating of soldiers with Kisarese over a hundred years ago, when an East India Company fort was maintained on the island. They have Dutch names and do not intermarry with the natives, but they have forgotten the Dutch language entirely. About 10 percent of the people of Kisar are Christian.
The Leti Islands (Leti, Moa, and Lakor), east of Kisar, have a combined area of 350 square miles and a population of 15,000. They are non-volcanic and relatively infertile. Leti and Moa are hilly, Lakor quite flat. The proto-Malay natives are about 50 percent Christianized.
The Luang Islands (Luang and Sermata), adjacent to the Leti group, are hilly and non-volcanic, with an area of 150 square miles and a population of 5,000. About half of the Luang people profess Christianity; the Sermatans are still mostly pagan. The racial stock is predominantly proto-Malay.
The Babar Islands, six in number, lie east of Luang. Their combined area is 250 square miles; that of the largest island 220 square miles. They are non-volcanic, with a high and rugged terrain. The very primitive natives are almost completely pagan and formerly practiced head hunting. They are of the so-called Alfur hybrid physical type, a cross of proto-Malay and Papuan. Whereas Kisar and the Leti and Luang Islands are relatively “civilized,” Babar, like Wetar, has remained virtually untouched by outside influences.
The Roma Islands (Roma and Damar) lie north of Babar, and together have an area of 200 square miles. Both are mountainous and of volcanic origin. One of the peaks on Damar is still active. The sparse population of 3,000 is thoroughly isolated, primitive in culture, and pagan in religion. The racial stock is Alfur hybrid.
The Nila Islands (Nila, Teun, and Serua) stretch northeast of Damar into the open waters of the Banda Sea. Each of the three islands is an active volcano, and on the slopes of these dwell about 3,000 natives of Alfur physical type, almost completely secluded from the outside world and still pagan. The total area is about 100 square miles.
The Tanimbar Islands, with an area of 2,150 square miles, are 66 in number, but only seven are inhabited. One of them, Yamdena, is by far
the largest, and on its southern coast is situated the main town of Saumlaki, a regular port-of-call for steamships. All the islands are non-volcanic and low-lying, the elevation rarely exceeding 200 meters; much of the terrain consists of impenetrable swamps. The 25,000 natives are of the mixed Alfur type, with a preponderance of Papuan characteristics, including dark skin and frizzy hair. They are very primitive and formerly fought savagely among themselves, taking heads and eating parts of the bodies of slain enemies. They have a long record of hostility to whites also, but since 1907, when the Dutch strengthened the police force in the islands, disturbances have been checked. They still retain their traditional culture and are mostly pagan.
The Kei Islands, northeast of Tanimbar, under the coast of New Guinea, have an area of 575 square miles distributed over three large islands and innumerable small ones. They are non-volcanic. Great Kei, the largest, is extremely mountainous, but the others are much lower, the second largest one, Nuhuroa, consisting largely of swampland. They are all densely forested. The principal town is Tual, the center of trade and shipping. The population of 30,000 is Alfur in physical type. Although still primitive in general culture, only about one-third of the Keians remain pagan. The remainder are equally divided between Islam and Christianity. The prevailing attitude toward outsiders is friendly, although bloody internal warfare was only recently checked by the Dutch.
The Am Islands, far to the east, lie close to New Guinea. They number over a hundred, but only five are large. The entire group is close-packed, with narrow water divisions between its parts. The terrain is flat and low, consisting largely of extensive marshes broken by low hills. Virgin forest covers most of Aru. The area of 3,350 square miles supports a population of 20,000 of mixed Alfur stock, similar to the Tanimbarese. Dobo, the main town, and a regular port-of-call for ships, is on the western island of Wamar. This is one of the few places in the Indies where Japanese were numerous before 1941. They engaged principally in the pearl-fishing business. Some parts of Aru are still unexplored, and in interior Wokam live nomadic tribes who have never been seen by white men and who seldom come in contact with the other natives. The Arunese are quite primitive, and mostly pagan; but friendly and obedient. Even among themselves they have rarely indulged in warfare.
The Watubela Islands, six in number, lie northwest of. Kei. Only three are inhabited, the total population being 2,500. The area is about 150 square miles, and the terrain consists mostly of low hills. The islands are isolated and unimportant. A few of the natives, of Alfur type, profess Islam, but the majority are pagan.
The Goram Islands, north of Watubela, with an area of approximately 200 square miles, are six in number, but only three are inhabited. They are hilly and thickly wooded. The total population of mixed Alfur stock is 6,000. Although these islands are off the regular shipping routes, the natives have had considerable contact with outsiders, and Islam now claims nearly all of them. The Dutch had much difficulty with piracy and slave-raiding here until the latter part of the nineteenth century, but in recent years conditions have been peaceful.
The Ceramlaut Islands, off the southeastern tip of Ceram, number 12, 6 of them inhabited. The area is approximately 100 square miles; the population, 6,000. They are low, infertile coral clusters. About 1,000 of the inhabitants are of alien origin, including Chinese, Arabs, and Indonesians from other parts of the Indies. Formerly troublesome pirates, the natives are almost entirely Mohammedan.
The Banda Islands, in the center of the Banda Sea south of Ceram, have an area of 100 square miles. The 11 islands have lost their aboriginal population and are now inhabited by a mixture of Javanese, Buginese, Macassarese, and other immigrants, totaling 6,000. Hilly and volcanic, the Banda group was formerly a prosperous center of spice cultivation. The days of wealth have now passed, and a general atmosphere of decadence pervades the region, despite the fact that the principal town, Bandaneira, has one of the finest harbors in the Indies, and several of the islands have fair roadways.
The Ambon Islands, the commercial and administrative center of the Moluccas, are a group of four located off the southwest coast of Ceram. The total area is 500 square miles, Amboina, the main island, comprising over 300 of these. The islands are of volcanic origin, and although activity long ago ended, hot springs and sulfur beds are common and earthquakes frequent. Mountain ranges traverse the entire group. The city of Amboina, with 10,000 population, is the largest community in eastern Indonesia and was the second most important naval base of the Dutch. The 60,000 natives, of mixed Alfur stock, are mostly Christian, although a fair number profess Islam; they have been among the friendliest of all Indonesians toward the Netherlands Government. Strong, intelligent, obedient, and brave, they supplied a large proportion of the troops of the colonial army and were prominent in government clerical service, as teachers, and as foremen of native workers. Trade has been handled mainly by outsiders: Europeans, Chinese, Arabs, and immigrants from elsewhere in Indonesia; and the alien population is very large. In the city of Amboina, for instance, there lived in 1940 almost 1,000 Europeans and several hundred Arabs and Chinese.
Ceram, largest of the Moluccas, has an area of 6,700 square miles. The island is predominantly mountainous but non-volcanic, with a peak 3,055 meters high in the very center. The eastern part, however, is either hilly or very low and swampy. Most of the land is densely wooded. The rivers are almost useless for navigation, and there are no roads; consequently land travel is entirely by means of mere trails. There are no large towns and few harbors. The natives, numbering 60,000, are in general quite primitive, despite the fact that about 12,000 profess Christianity and 16,000 are Mohammedan. Most of these converts live in the coastal districts, where considerable intermixture with aliens has occurred; but the wild interior is still almost untouched by cultural influence from the outer world. The mountain people of western Ceram are tall, excitable, dark-skinned folk of Papuan and Melanesian Negroid stock. They have been among the most ferocious head hunters in the Indies, and their warlike activities have given the Dutch much trouble. They are known as Patasiwa Hitam. The central districts are inhabited by mixed Alfur tribes, of a more peaceable disposition: the Patasiwa Putih, Patalima, and Seti. The hills and marshes of eastern Ceram shelter a Veddoid people, the Bonfia, who are shy, unwarlike, and very primitive in culture.
Bum, west of Ceram, is an oval-shaped island with an area of 3,400 square miles. It is mostly a mass of non-volcanic mountains, but large parts of the coast are flat and marshy. Only one river is navigable for small boats, and there are no roads. The population of 20,000 is divided between the pagan Gebmelia of the interior, predominantly of proto-Malay stock, and the mixed folk of the coastland, the Gebmasin, who have been partially Christianized or Mohammedanized. Most of Buru has only recently been explored, but the natives are peaceable.
The Sula Islands, lying between Buru and Celebes have an area of about 5,000 square miles. There are three large islands and innumerable smaller ones. They are non-volcanic, hilly in the interior sections, with low-lying swampy coasts. The population of 15,000 is mainly of proto-Malay stock, with submerged Papuan and Veddoid strains. Sula is one of the least-known parts of the Indies; and the pagan natives are quite primitive, many of them still living a nomadic existence.
Halmahera, northernmost of the Moluccas, is a grotesquely shaped island about 200 miles long, with an area of 6,500 square miles, including smaller satellite islands. The four long peninsulas are high, densely forested mountain chains which tumble together in the center. The northern peninsula is volcanic, with three active and two semiquiescent peaks; the other sections are non-volcanic. With no good navigable rivers, and a
total absence of roads, travel in the interior is exceedingly arduous. Much of Halmahera is virtually uninhabited, the total population being 50,000 or an average of less than eight per square mile. The natives, many of them nomads, are of the hybrid Alfur stock, and extremely primitive in culture. They are grouped in more than 30 distinct tribes, most of which have been very little investigated. Western civilization has scarcely touched this island, except for the labor of a few missionaries, who estimate the number of their converts at almost 10,000, perhaps an exaggeration. The number of Mohammedans is not known. In any case, the great majority of the Halmaherans are still pagan in religion.
Ternate, off the west coast of Halmahera, is a small island occupied almost entirely by a lofty, active volcano. The total area is 25 square miles, most of it densely wooded. The principal town, Ternate, is a shipping center, with a fine harbor. The population of 10,000 is basically of Alfur stock, but so much intermixture with outsiders has occurred that the original type has been obscured. Ternate, next to Amboina, is the largest town of eastern Indonesia; and was formerly the capital of the most powerful sultanate east of Macassar. The natives of this island are entirely Mohammedan.
Tidore, a mile south of Ternate, is also a small, mountainous island, but its volcano is no longer active. It has an area of 25 square miles and a population of 15,000. The natives, originally of Alfur stock, have intermixed considerably with aliens. The main town, Tidore, has a good harbor, and was formerly the seat of a sultanate that rivaled Ternate in power. The Tidorese are all Mohammedans.
The Makian Islands–Moti, Makian, and Kayoa–lie south of Tidore. They have a combined area of about 50 square miles, and a population of about 10,000. Makian is built around an active volcano; the other islands are of volcanic origin, and hilly. The Alfur natives have all been Mohammedanized.
The Batjan Islands, off the southwest coast of Halmahera, number about 80, but only 3 are of large size. The total area is 1,000 square miles; the population, 10,000. The islands are of volcanic origin, hilly, and covered with forests. The sultanate of Batjan was formerly rather powerful, but today the region is of little importance. The Alfur natives are mostly Mohammedan, but there are a few hundred Christians.
The Obi Islands, south of Batjan, are a group of six, but only one is large. The total area is 1,000 square miles. The islands are mountainous, non-volcanic, and densely wooded. The aboriginal inhabitants have disappeared, and most of the population today is of a “floating” character, coming in temporarily to fish, dive for pearls, cut sago, and collect forest
products. A fair estimate of the number of relatively stable settlers would not exceed 2,000.
LANGUAGE AND WRITING
All the peoples of the Indies speak languages belonging to a single linguistic stock, the Malayo-Polynesian, with the exception of the tribes of northern Halmahera in the Moluccas and of Alor in the Lesser Sundas. These groups possess languages that are generally referred to as Papuan, a category in which the tongues of New Guinea also fall. They have never been properly studied or classified; but they are clearly different from the Malayo-Polynesian languages. The latter form one of the most widespread linguistic families in the world, with hundreds of branches extending all the way from Madagascar, off the southeast coast of Africa, through the East Indies and the Philippines to Formosa on the north, up through the Malay Peninsula to the borders of Burma and Siam, and clear across the Pacific from Indonesia through Melanesia and Micronesia to the distant outposts of Hawaii and Easter Island.
The scores of Indonesian languages, although nearly all of them belong to this single stock, are mutually incomprehensible–the range of variation being comparable to that within the Indo-European languages of Europe. But the linguistic problem in the Indies is simplified by the fact that there exists a kind of “basic Malay,” a simplified version of Sumatran Malay, which is understood throughout most of the islands. This language, which can be acquired by a few months of steady practice, is indispensable for verbal communication with natives, almost none of whom can speak English, Dutch, or any other non-Indonesian tongue.
Although over 90 percent of the natives are illiterate, writing, introduced by the Hindus, has been known in the western islands of the Indies for over a thousand years. The ancient Hindu-derived scripts are rapidly passing out of use but still survive in parts of Sumatra and Celebes, in Bali, Flores, and Sumbawa, and even to some extent in Java. The Arabic alphabet, and recently the Roman, have displaced this archaic type of writing in most of the advanced areas. Paper is now in general use, but the traditional way of writing is to scratch the letters on the shiny surface of bamboo strips or palm leaves, which are then tied together in books. Accordion-like books made of long strips of thin bark folded together between wooden covers are used by the Batak of Sumatra.
Most of the Indonesians are agriculturists, and rice is by all odds the mainstay of native subsistence. The more primitive method of cultivation
is to clear and burn the natural growth and plant the grains with digging sticks in the ash-fertilized soil. Irrigated rice cultivation, either on flooded flatlands or on artificially constructed hillside terraces, is limited to the more advanced areas, notably Java, Sumatra, Bali, and southwestern Celebes. Wet-rice agriculture was introduced into the Indies at a much later date than the “burn and plant” system and has not yet spread to the remoter regions. Wherever it is introduced, the yield of grain increases tremendously, and population. rises with miraculous speed. Year-round wet-rice cultivation on terraced hills, in fertile volcanic soil, is the secret of Java’s ability to support its enormous population.
The western islands are the main rice area of the archipelago. Rice has never been introduced, or has come in only recently, throughout most of eastern Indonesia and among certain very primitive tribes of the western region. Yams and taro, tuberous vegetables, and sago, a tapioca-like meal which is beaten and washed from the pith of a kind of palm tree, are the staples in Nias, Mentawei, and Engano, isolated islands off Sumatra’s west coast, and in Banggai, off the eastern point of Celebes. Two other western Indonesian groups, the nomadic Kubu of Sumatra and Punan of Borneo, subsist by hunting and collecting the wild products of the jungle. In eastern Indonesia, rice is replaced as the main crop by either maize (corn) or sago. The former predominates in the Lesser Sundas east of Lombok, while sago meal is the principal food throughout most of the Moluccas. Thus, with minor exceptions, one can map out three main agricultural regions in the archipelago: the western rice area, the central maize section, and the eastern sago zone. f
Vegetable food predominates in the diet of the Indonesians. Customarily, however, they supplement their rice, corn, or sago dishes with bits of meat and fish, principally the latter. Fishing, indeed, is the second most important source of food in native economy. Nets, lines, a wide variety of ingenious dams and traps, and stupefying drugs are all used in fishing.
Hunting holds a subsidiary place in native economic life except among the nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes of Sumatra, Borneo, and some of the larger eastern islands. Wild pigs, deer, monkeys, and wild fowl are the principal kinds of game. The more advanced peoples have guns; but among the remoter tribes, where hunting is still important, spears, the bow and arrow, and the blowpipe with poisoned darts are used. Also, the wide variety of Indonesian fish traps is matched by those used for game. Noose-traps and stationary spring-spears, operating on the principle of the bow and arrow, are suitable for small animals, while for larger ones deadfalls and heavily weighted suspended spears are employed.
Domesticated animals include dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, water buffalo, cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. Hardly a group can be found, even the primitive forest nomads, who do not have dogs. Cats are not nearly so numerous, which is unfortunate, for the Indies are infested with rats and mice. All Indonesian peoples, except the wandering savages of the jungle, keep chickens. Until 500 years ago pigs were raised in nearly every part of the archipelago. Since then their numbers have been continually decreasing, for with each advance of Islam the pork taboo makes the people get rid of them. It is easy to distinguish Mohammedan from Christian or pagan villages by the absence or presence of pigs.
The gigantic water buffalo, or carabao, is the principal work and draft animal of the islands, and despite the importation of motorcars, most of the heavy transport is still done by buffalo cart. These animals are sometimes slaughtered and eaten, but fish is generally preferred to meat, except for pork in non-Mohammedan areas. Buffalo are found only in the more accessible regions; they have never been introduced into interior Borneo or some of the eastern islands. Cattle, either the humpbacked Indian variety or recently imported European breeds, are not nearly so numerous or widespread as carabao. The horses of the islands are very small, not much bigger than ponies, and were apparently first imported into the Indies by Hindus. They are used as pack or riding animals and in towns to draw little two-wheeled hire-carriages in which driver and passenger ride back to back. Goats are raised in nearly all the islands, mainly for meat and to a lesser extent for milk. Indonesians, like most Orientals, do not care much for milk, butter, or cheese. Sheep were first introduced by Europeans and are still of minor importance in native economy.
Whatever their means of livelihood, most Indonesians are independent workers. Over 70 percent work for themselves, while only 30 percent are wage earners, generally in the employ of European companies. Sixty percent are farmers, 5 percent merchants, 3 percent cattle raisers, hunters, or fishermen, and 1 percent in the professions. Thus the great majority live in the “closed economy” of their native communities, which are almost entirely self-sufficient, producing all they consume, with little left over to sell for cash.
The Indonesians are also poor, not only in money, but in food and possessions as well. Their houses are mostly mere bamboo and thatch huts, their clothes simple and few. Food, especially in overpopulated Java, is not plentiful, but fortunately they require very little. Two bowls of rice, with small servings of fish and vegetables on the side, are sufficient for daily needs. As for money, income tax statistics show that 95 percent of the natives earned less than $50 a year; and only 0.05 percent
received over $450 a year. Europeans, comprising only 0.4 percent of the population, paid 50 percent of the income tax receipts; while alien Asiatics, mostly Chinese, constituting 2 percent of the population, paid 30 percent. These figures demonstrate clearly the general economic structure of the Indies: the natives work mostly to produce food for themselves; the foreigners work for money profits.
SETTLEMENTS AND HOUSING
The majority of the Indonesians live in small villages, but there are some exceptions. The Kubu of Sumatra, the Punan of Borneo, and some of the primitive tribes of the eastern islands have no set habitations, but wander constantly in small bands searching for food. Their camps are clusters of simple shelters made of sticks and leaves. The sea nomads, or Orang Laut, spend most of their lives in small boats with rude mat coverings over one section.
The other peoples of the Indies have fixed settlements that are more or less permanent. Where the “burn and plant” method of agriculture prevails, the soil is exhausted after a few years, and the people must move their houses to a fresh location. Also, since this type of cultivation is not very productive, a single settlement can never be large. Where irrigated rice is grown, however, the soil retains its fertility and yields abundantly year after year. In such regions the villages are permanent and often rather large. Inland Borneo and Java exemplify this contrast between wet- and dry-rice sections.
Throughout the archipelago housing is generally very simple. The usual building materials are bamboo and leaf or fiber thatch. In most of Indonesia the ground plan of the dwellings is rectangular; but some groups build their houses directly on the earth, while others raise them up on piles or stone platforms. The pile dwelling is the more ancient type and occurs in the remoter districts. Although most of the Indonesian houses are small, some tribes build enormous structures accommodating scores and even hundreds of people. The extreme development of the longhouse occurs in the interior districts of Borneo, where a single building may shelter an entire village population. Even more archaic house forms than the rectangular pile dwelling are encountered in some islands. These oval-shaped or round structures occur in a part of Nias, in Engano, in the Land Dyak section of western Borneo, in the Lesser Sunda islands of Timor, Flores, Lomblem, and Savu, and in the northern part of Halmahera in the Moluccas. Balinese houses differ from all others in Indonesia. A whole group of closely related families dwell within a walled enclosure, in a cluster of small, clay-sided, thatch-roofed structures.
Even today in regions where the government’s authority has not penetrated sufficiently to ensure internal peace, the native settlements are protected by ingenious fortifications. Formerly most villages had them. In flat country the clusters of houses are surrounded by earthen walls, sometimes with a dry moat on the outside, the entire breastwork being thickly planted with thorny bamboo very difficult to penetrate. Narrow passageways, easily blocked, are the only means of entrance. In mountain districts a village is preferably located on the top of a high hill and can be reached only by a narrow path, parts of it so steep that ladders must be used. In time of war these ladders can be pulled up. The set defenses are often supplemented by concealed pitfalls, trigger-spears, and hidden bamboo spikes, sometimes poisoned at the tip, which impede the progress of barefoot attackers. Under the peaceful conditions of the recent past, the ancient fortifications have been leveled in most regions, and most of the hilltop people have come down out of their lofty strongholds to lower land. Also, settlements formerly closely clustered for better defense have become more dispersed.
Stone architecture, flourishing in Java and Sumatra during the medieval Hindu period, is now a dead art except in Nias and among the Balinese, whose exquisite temples and shrines are among the wonders of the world. . In Nias, megalithic art of a pre-Hindu type reaches a peak which is truly astounding among a people otherwise so primitive. The massive walls, majestic stone stairways, bathing pools, and huge sculptured monuments of the Nias people, though not nearly so widely publicized as the great stone faces of Easter Island in the Pacific, are actually much more impressive. The Batak of Sumatra, the Minahasa of Celebes, and the Sumbanese of the Lesser Sunda Islands are the only other peoples of Indonesia who do stone sculpturing, principally in the form of mausoleums for dead chieftains.
The village pavilion, used for ceremonials and council meetings, is characteristic of Indonesia. Where no separate buildings are devoted to such purposes, as in parts of Borneo and Celebes, the chief’s home or his section of the longhouse includes a portion which serves as a communal meeting place. In some regions–notably Mentawei, parts of Borneo and Celebes, and most of eastern Indonesia–the council houses also function as the temples of pagan cults; while in other places the villages have separate temple buildings, formerly adorned with the skulls or scalps of slain enemies and human sacrifices. The community pavilion in many tribes is the men’s clubhouse, where they congregate in the daytime and sleep at night. Here guests are accommodated also.
In Mohammedan regions the mosque takes the place of the ancient pagan temple. Smaller communities have mosques constructed of wood, bamboo, and thatch; but in larger centers the Islamic church is often a large edifice, built in Byzantine style with cement walls and metal roof.
CLOTHING AND ADORNMENT
The daily dress of the Indonesians is as simple as most of their houses. Where weaving is known, or imported cloth available, the usual attire is a cotton blouse and batik sarong for women, and a shirt and sarong or trousers for men. Women drape over one shoulder a long strip of cloth which can be used to carry bundles and babies or as a head shawl. Men wear either cloth turbans or fezzes, a white fez being the mark of one who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca. The natives seldom wear shoes. The semi-Europeanized city dwellers are taking more and more to the white man’s style of dress, including shoes; but this occurs seldom among women. Indeed, it is almost literally true that the only native women who dress in European fashion are prostitutes. In rural districts, both men and women remove their blouses when working; in Bali and parts of Borneo women regularly go naked above the waist. While daily dress is simple, the festive garments of the Indonesians are very elaborate, made of the finest batik and specially woven cloth intricately brocaded with silk and gold thread.
A few remote tribes still have no knowledge of weaving and seldom come in contact with traders who sell imported textiles. These primitive groups make their garments of bark cloth, beaten out of the inner bark of certain trees. Even where woven textiles are in use, the natives often make their working clothes–kilts for women and loincloths for men– of this material. The most elaborate development of bark-cloth garments is found among the Toradja mountain tribes of Celebes. The women of a few isolated islands–Mentawei and Engano off the west coast of Sumatra, and Buru, Aru, and Ceram in the Moluccas–still wear leaf and plaited-fiber skirts occasionally.
Body ornaments include a wide variety of earrings and disks, head decorations, necklaces and neck pendants, arm and leg bracelets, belts and corselets, and miscellaneous jewelry such as finger rings, pins and brooches, buckles and buttons. The primitive tribes make their ornaments principally of flowers, feathers, wood, bone, and shell; metal decorations of gold, silver, brass, tin, and copper predominate in the more advanced regions. A general rule is that the most primitive and the most civilized peoples wear fewest ornaments; while those on “intermediate” levels of culture specialize in elaborate adornment.
Plate 10Above: Batak “hot dog” stand, Sumatra. The vendors are selling pieces of roasted dog meat in a marketplace.
Below: Entrance to a Batak village, Sumatra, showing earthen fortifications.
Photographs by E.E. Muhs.
Plate 11Above: Minangkabau longhouse, Sumatra. All Minangkabau buildings have graceful saddle-shaped roofs. Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.
Below: Toba Batak village, Sumatra, showing the sloping gables of the houses of this subtribe. Photograph by E. E. Muhs.
Plate 12Above: Balinese temple gateway with carved wooden doors.
Below: Houses in Nias with massive timbers, carved and painted gables, and hooded roofs. Sculptured stone monuments dedicated to ancestors, in foreground, on paved village plaza. Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.
Plate 13Above: Mentawei longhouse.
Below: One of the various types of Borneo longhouses.
The Indonesians also exercise their decorative fancy on the flesh of the body itself. Virtually every people in the islands pierce the ears for the insertion of rings or disks. The custom is declining among men of the more advanced groups, but it is almost universal among women. Generally, the extreme types of ear mutilation–greatly distended lobes and multiple incisions–are found among the more backward tribes. Filing of the front teeth–to points, down in an even line (in many cases to the gums), or with concave grooves on the outer surface–is a very general practice, and was formerly universal in the archipelago. In some places, as in Engano and among the Toradja of Celebes, teeth may be simply broken off or knocked out by the roots. The genital organs are another part of the body subjected to mutilation, including supercision, circumcision, and female incision. The latter two operations are practiced almost exclusively in Mohammedanized areas.
Tattooing, formerly a general custom in most of Indonesia, is still practiced widely in the more backward districts of nearly every island, excepting Java, Sumatra, Bali, and Lombok. Borneo is probably the greatest tattooing center in the world. Perhaps because tattooing is so general, body painting is rather rare. A variation on mere painting is employed by the western Toradja of Celebes, who stipple the face and hands with resin in dot-and-line designs. A substitute for tattooing in a few remote parts of Celebes, in Nias, and in some of the Moluccas is burning or cutting cicatrices in the flesh. Only three tribes–the Klamantan Milanau of Borneo, the Gorontalese of Celebes, and the Redjang of Sumatra–compress the heads of infants to give them an admired flatness of forehead and occiput. The natives of Kei, Babar, and Tanimbar in the Moluccas bleach their hair with lime. Nose mutilation is encountered nowhere in the islands west of New Guinea.
With the increasing displacement of hunting by agriculture and the decrease in native warfare, the importance of weapons has declined. Most Javanese, for instance, have no weapons except ornamental krisses kept as heirlooms, while in Borneo the old head-chopping ax is disappearing for lack of use. The most important weapons in the Indies are the sword, spear, blowgun, bow, and shield. Swords, spears, and shields are used throughout all the islands; but the blowgun is predominantly a western Indonesian weapon, while the bow is found mainly in the eastern part of the archipelago. Slings and clubs are rare, as are throwing sticks. Poisons made from tree sap are smeared on blowgun darts, and, in some
tribes, on arrows as well. The blowguns themselves are of wood or bamboo. The latter are easy to make, as bamboo is hollow; but the wooden pipes require careful workmanship. Some are made by lashing two grooved sticks together so that the longitudinal grooves combine to form a circular passage. The other method is to drill a hole down through a long piece of wood in the manner of a gunsmith boring a rifle. Iron tools are needed for making such blowguns.
TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION
The importation of motorcars and the extension of good roads are revolutionizing travel and transportation in Indonesia, but where roads have not been built the ancient methods survive. Buffalo carts and pack horses are used to a considerable extent, but most travel is on foot and most transportation by human porters, women as well as men. In the more remote districts, the principal carrying device is the back basket, with tumpline passing over the forehead or shoulder straps, or, for heavy loads, both. Porters in coastal regions use balance poles, which rest on the shoulders and have the load suspended from both ends.
The coastal peoples are expert seafarers, and before the coming of the steamship most of the water commerce was carried by their big sailing praus, with or without outriggers. The smaller boats are usually dugout canoes hewn from a single log and provided with outriggers. On inland lakes and rivers the boats are generally devoid of external floats. Nearly all the dugouts of the Indies have double outriggers supported by two booms passing across the vessel. Sometimes, to make them more seaworthy, the dugouts have their sides built up with planks attached to the log keel by lashing or wooden pegs.
Two manufacturing accomplishments are common to all groups in the islands: woodworking and the plaiting of mats and baskets. Pottery making is somewhat more limited in spread, and several groups, notably in the eastern Indies, appear never to have learned the technique. Indonesian pottery is generally poor in quality, scantily decorated, and un-glazed. The potter’s wheel is almost never used, the vessels being made by scooping and patting into shape a lump of clay.
The two arts of handicraft in which Indonesians excel are textile weaving and metal work. The latter is far more widespread than the former and apparently is much more ancient in the archipelago. Many tribes of Celebes and the eastern islands have never advanced beyond the bark-
cloth level of textile development, but very few peoples lack the knowledge of metal manufacture. Most of the iron is bought from traders in the form of bars, but some tribes mine and smelt local ore. A piston bellows with bamboo cylinders and wadded plungers is used in smelting and forging, and the product is tempered by plunging it red hot into cold water. Copper, brass, gold, and silver artifacts are made by beating or by the * lost-wax” method of molding.
Weavers work with two kinds of looms. The more primitive type has the warp threads tied at one end to a fixed horizontal stick and at the other to a bar which passes behind the small of the back of the weaver. The more complex looms have set frames. Textiles are decorated either by brocading with colored or gold or silver thread, or by dyeing. The locally made coloring materials are disappearing since the importation of aniline dyes. For simple cloths whole-dyed threads may be woven directly, but far more complicated methods are also used. They all come under the general heading of “resist dyeing,” in which certain parts of the cloth or thread are covered with wax, leaves, or fibers, so that when the dye is applied it does not color these places. In this way a design is produced. For multicolor dyeing, the sections already tinted are covered and a different color is applied to the remainder of the cloth. Ikat (“tie”) dyeing is done on the threads before weaving, and when these threads are woven, so carefully have the colors been applied that the desired design appears in the finished fabric. Plangi (“rainbow”) cloths are dyed by covering certain parts of the textile with leaves or other resistant substances, and then tying these sections into small bundles, so that when dipped they do not take the color. By successive tyings and dippings multicolor designs can be produced. Batik cloths are colored by smearing wax over the parts which are not to be tinted and then applying the dye. The wax is later removed by boiling. Here again, several colors can be produced on a single cloth by repeated waxing and dipping.
DRAMA, DANCING, AND MUSIC
The artistic talents of the Indonesians are not confined solely to handicrafts. In the so-called fine arts, their creative abilities appear to special advantage in dancing, music, and drama. The more primitive tribes use gongs and drums principally, although they have some rude wind and stringed instruments. The dancing of the interior tribes, like their music, is also rather simple, running largely to pantomime. The highest development of these arts is found in Java and Bali, where Indian influence has enriched the aboriginal patterns. The music of the great gamelan
orchestras is related to that of the backward tribes in much the same way that European symphonies are related to peasant folksongs. And the elaborate posturing dances and beautifully synchronized group performances of the Javanese and Balinese troupes offer a similar degree of comparison with the pantomimic animal and war dances of the jungle peoples as, in the Western tradition, the Russian ballet with folkdancing. In both instances, the old rhythms and motifs have contributed to the more sophisticated patterns, which are, indeed, lineal descendants of the ancient forms.
The gamelan orchestras have as their principal instruments copper-bowl xylophones, which carry the burden of the music; while the violins, flutes, clarinets, and trumpets embroider the basic pattern, and the big drums and gongs keep up a running undertone of complicated rhythms. Indonesian dancers move their feet very little, and most of the meaning of their performance is expressed by intricate, highly symbolic posturing with the body, arms, and hands. Similarly, while the face of the dancer remains an immobile and expressionless mask, the movements of the head and eyes are significant.
The dramatic art of the islands, which among the more remote tribes consists mainly of the pantomimic dances just mentioned and some religious pageant-like performances, also attains a peak of development in Java and Bali. The stories are largely derived from the Indian epic poems Mahabharata and Ramayana, but some of the dramas are based upon traditional native tales. Wayang is the generic term for drama, and there are several kinds of plays. One is performed by human actors, usually masked, who speak the lines. Another, and perhaps the most ancient kind, consists in the unrolling of a long scroll on which the scenes of the play are painted. A monologist recites the lines. All the other types of wayang are puppet shows, the figures being made of various kinds of material. Most popular of all is the shadow play with flat leather puppets manipulated from beneath the stage by thin stick attachments.
European and American music apparently has made little appeal to Indonesians; and they are frankly shocked by the Western bisexual, close-contact ballroom dancing. But the cinema has taken hold with them to the extent that it threatens the survival of the traditional drama wherever movie theaters have come in. “Westerns” and animated cartoons are their favorites.
SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION
The social organization of the Indonesian peoples shows three levels of development. The first is represented by the small proportion of natives
who live in the few modern cities: Batavia, Bandung, and Surabaya in Java; Medan and Palembang in Sumatra; Macassar and Menado in Celebes; and Bandjermasin and Pontianak in Borneo. Among these the traditional social groupings have been largely forgotten, and their type of community life is a product of Western influence.
The second level is that of the native states, still semi-independent, although geared in with the Dutch colonial administration. This type of organization is restricted to Java and the coastal regions of other islands, and came into Indonesia about 1,500 years ago as an imported Hindu element. Before that, the social system of the Indies had never developed beyond the tribal or village community stage. Like the modernized city organization, the native states represent a superimposition on the ancient tribal and village groupings; and even now only a minority of the people are directly concerned with these petty principalities. They are survivals of the Hindu imperialism that preceded the European version of the same thing.
Despite successive conquests, underneath the shifting alien dominations the native communities have gone their traditional ways relatively undisturbed. The third and deepest level of social organization, represented by the masses of the native Indonesians in their countless tribes and settlements, has been left essentially untouched by foreign governmental systems. This is actually and potentially the most important social stratum in the islands, for upon its firm foundation must rise the future democratic state of Indonesia, after the imperialistic superimpositions have been stripped away.
The tribal groupings, many of them so large that they might more appropriately be termed nations, are mostly nongovernmental units. They are cultural areas, within each of which the customs and language are the same and the people remember an ancient bond of relationship. But there are no central tribal governments, and the largest administrative units on the native level are clusters of villages which have combined to form districts, with district chiefs and councils. This is the typical stage of development in the more advanced areas, such as Java and most of Sumatra. In regions of simpler culture, as in the interior parts of Borneo and Celebes, each settlement is virtually independent, and district organization is absent.
Throughout the Indies, even in places where villages are grouped in district federations, the most important functional unit, socially and politically, is the community. The native communities are not only typically democratic; they are also to a high degree communalistic. The
chief and his assistants are chosen by vote of the villagers, although the offices tend to become hereditary. All or nearly all the adult males in the settlement have a voice in the direction of community affairs. Descendants of slaves, newcomers to the village, and persons of a traditionally inferior class may be either entirely disfranchised or given limited political privileges, but the prevailing tendency is democratic. The officials are subject to control in their decisions by the council, and they must never violate the adat, or traditional rules, of the community. With these checks on them, they have little chance to indulge any, inclinations toward dictatorship. Wherever despotism has developed in the Indies, it has been imported from outside. But even in such cases, the wiser administrators have generally refrained from much interference in the local communities, demanding only peace and taxes, and a limited amount of personal and military service.
The Indonesians lay great emphasis on genealogy and reckon relationships far beyond the immediate family. These extended systems of kinship are important functionally, for upon them are based marriage rules, regulations concerning place of residence, obligations of blood vengeance, and property laws. Some of the tribes stress descent in the female line, while others emphasize male descent. These unilateral schemes of social organization are confined mostly to Sumatra and certain parts of eastern Indonesia. Patrilineal descent is characteristic of most of the mountain peoples of Sumatra and the vast majority of groups in the eastern islands, from Bali to New Guinea. Matrilineal descent occurs only among the Minangkabau and one or two other tribes of Sumatra, and in restricted enclaves in some of the Lesser Sundas and Moluccas. In the whole central part of the archipelago, bilateral kinship systems are the rule–in Borneo, Celebes, and Java particularly–and here relationship is reckoned on both father’s and mother’s sides, as in America.
The rules governing marriage depend upon the manner of tracing descent. Among peoples with bilateral systems, choice of a spouse is restricted only by incest rules, which prohibit marriage with close relatives on either side of the family, usually extending to first cousins only. Where patrilineal kinship prevails, relatives on the father’s side are tabooed, sometimes to very distant degrees of relationship; while maternal kinsmen, even those closely linked by blood, may marry. The reverse rules apply in a matrilineal society.
In certain parts of Sumatra and in some areas of eastern Indonesia the patrilineal and matrilineal systems of reckoning kinship become vastly elaborated by the development of clans. Where this occurs in a patrilineal tribe, a person is forbidden to marry all members of the father’s clan, no
matter how distant the relationship may be. In groups with matrilineal clans the prohibition is applied to all members of the mother’s clan. The situation is similar to what would happen if we in America were to taboo marriages between all persons with the same surname. The idea behind these rules is that all persons with the same clan name are descended from a common ancestor, who founded the clan. The clan-marriage taboo is just as stringently enforced as incest regulations, and the penalty for transgression, as in the case of real incest, used to be death.
The mode of reckoning kinship influences the place of residence of a couple after marriage. Almost invariably, where descent is matrilineal, residence is matrilocal, that is, with the wife’s people; whereas, where the male blood tie is the test of relationship, residence is patrilocal, with the husband’s kinsmen. In areas where bilateral kinship prevails, usually a man and his wife may reside where they choose, but in many places this is not so. For instance, among the interior tribes of Borneo and Celebes, although relationship on both sides is reckoned equally, a married couple go to live in the village or longhouse of the wife. Some authorities believe that this is a survival of a former system of tracing descent in the female line only.
In certain respects the rules governing sex and marriage in Indonesia appear somewhat lax to Europeans and Americans. Premarital sexual relations, especially in the less civilized tribes, are not regarded as wicked, but rather as quite normal. If an unmarried girl becomes pregnant, however, the boy involved is usually required to marry her. Moreover, the period of freedom is short, as marriages generally occur soon after puberty, at the age of about 16 for girls and a year or two later for boys.
Once married, strict faithfulness is expected of a woman, although extramarital amours on the part of husbands are not considered to be so serious. According to traditional native law in many tribes, the punishment for adultery was death; in others, heavy fines were the rule. The Dutch have long since abolished the death penalty for this offense. Just as a husband’s adultery is more lightly regarded than a wife’s, so also can a man obtain a divorce more easily than a woman among most Indonesian peoples.
In nearly all tribes, a man may marry as many wives as he can support; and although Mohammedan canon law restricts the number of legal wives to four, it sets no limit on the number of concubines a man may have. Many of the native radjas and sultans support whole squads of concubines, in addition to their four status wives, and the offspring of the various women are ranked according to the position of their mothers in the royal household. But the great majority of Indonesians can afford
only one wife apiece. The factor of expense applies not only to mere support of the woman, but to her “purchase price” as well, for throughout most of the islands a man has to pay for his wife. The bride price usually varies according to the social rank of the girl’s family, which tends to keep the poor from marrying above their station. Although polygyny, possession of multiple wives, is relatively rare, despite its legality, divorce occurs very frequently. It is not uncommon for both men and women to marry and divorce several times in the course of their marital careers. Generally the first marriage is arranged by the parents, with or without consulting the desires of the prospective bride and groom, but subsequent unions are matters of personal choice.
PROPERTY, CLASS, AND CASTE
The democratic political functioning of the native communities in most of Indonesia is complemented by a prevailing communalism of property. Individual property is largely restricted to movable and personal articles, such as clothes and weapons. Houses are generally regarded as collective family property; and land belongs to the whole community. Exclusive private possession of land is an idea strange to most Indonesians. Each individual or family gets a share of the communal land, and such shares may not be sold because they are not the property of their holders. With the consent of the whole community, parcels of land may be leased, even to outsiders; but complete alienation is impossible. The Dutch wisely reinforced traditional law on this point by statutory enactments; and no one may buy land from Indonesians or native communities. The great plantations of the Indies, therefore, occupied leased land, and the companies paid rent to the native owners.
This ancient system of true communalism in land property has been undergoing steady alteration, and the tendency has been toward a kind of “permanent family leasehold.” This change has followed the spread of wet-rice agriculture, and the reason is that irrigated fields represent a capital investment in the form of ditches, sluice gates, dams, and terraces. Such improvements are inseparable from the land itself. But if a family which has obtained virtually permanent tenure of a parcel of land by such investment then moves away from the village, its holding reverts to the community. Absentee ownership is forbidden by the adat, or native traditional law.
In the same way that the primitive communalism of Indonesian villages has been modified in areas where improved methods of cultivation have introduced permanent capital investment in land, so also can a
correlation be noted between decline in the pure democracy of native society and the spread of “higher” culture. Social stratification tends to develop and become rigid in the more advanced areas. Where Hindu culture, for instance, never penetrated, there complete social democracy prevails; while on the borderline of civilization, so to speak, intermediate grades of stratification have developed, with distinctions of varying rigidity drawn between noble, common, and slave classes. Exclusive hereditary nobilities, linked in most cases with dynastic state governments and despotic systems of feudalism, exist, or did until recently, in all the more advanced regions. Even in areas where social stratification prevails, however, the great mass of natives are still untouched by imported ideas of superior and inferior classes of men. Forms of address and etiquette may vary for different ranks of society, but in daily life and community administration all stand pretty much on the same level. One exception must be made to the statement that Indonesian native society is fundamentally democratic. Slavery prevailed until recent years in nearly all parts of the islands, the slaves being mostly war captives or descendants of conquered peoples. The status was hereditary and usually involved no inhumane treatment; although in certain tribes slaves were occasionally used for human sacrifice.
Before the establishment of European rule, intermittent feuds between villages, divisions of tribes, and whole tribal groups kept the islands in a state of continual internal strife. Even today, in remote districts, native wars break out intermittently. Boundary disputes, revenge for injuries inflicted by members of another group, and, in some cases, the pressing need for more land to support increasing population are among the causes of hostilities. But above all, head hunting has been the principal impulse to warfare in the Indies.
In ancient times virtually all the peoples of Indonesia were head hunters, and the practice has not yet died out completely despite the strong efforts of the government to stop it. The reasons for this peculiar custom seem on the surface to be mainly desire for war prestige and revenge for previous raids. Also, in many tribes a youth is not considered a proper man or fully qualified for marriage until he has captured a head. But underlying these superficial reasons are the ideas of the Indonesians concerning the magical power of human heads. A community which has been suffering from epidemics, crop failures, or infertility of women and domestic animals, in trying to fathom the cause of this ill luck, may arrive at the characteristically Indonesian notion that the group is suffering from a
deficiency of magical power. One of the best direct means of getting the needed spiritual “juice” is to capture a new batch of heads from some other village, for magical energy is most richly concentrated in human heads. Feuds thus started may go on for generations, because a settlement which has lost a number of heads will explain subsequent misfortunes as consequences of this theft of vital energy, and will try to restore the “balance of heads” by making a return raid. Head hunting, therefore, is in one sense a grand and grisly game, with the score kept in heads; while in a deeper sense it is a serious religious duty, performed with pride for the spiritual benefit of a man’s own people.
Being such valuable objects, heads are also obtained for funeral feasts and other sacrificial ceremonies. They are the best of all possible offerings. Moreover, the ancestral ghosts, once head hunters themselves, are likely to withdraw their supernatural favors from their descendants if they do not perform the sacred duty of replenishing the magical stock of the group by capturing heads. The idea that the head is a very holy part of the body is widespread in Indonesia, even in regions where head hunting is a thing of the past. The greatest breach of etiquette is to touch another’s head without good reason. Many a white man has lost his life because he did not know how natives regard their heads.
Head hunting is linked with partial cannibalism in most areas where it occurs. The head snatchers eat bits of the flesh of their trophies, especially the brains, to invigorate themselves spiritually. Aside from this form of cannibalism, which is a kind of magical “communion” service, man eating is not condoned by any Indonesian tribe except, formerly, by the Batak of Sumatra. Even the Batak, however, seldom or never ate human beings except for specifically defined reasons: to inflict the utmost revenge on slain enemies, or to impose the most extreme kind of punishment imaginable upon criminals.
The great majority of Indonesians–about 90 percent–are nominally Mohammedans; approximately 2,500,000 profess Christianity; and the million Balinese are avowedly Hinduist in religion. But the kind of Mohammedanism, Christianity, and Hinduism practiced is hardly of the “pure” sort in any instance; the vital religions of the islands are the old ghost, spirit, and ancestor cults, which have persisted all through the centuries despite surface changes. The Javanese, for instance, are almost 100 percent Mohammedan; but their fundamental beliefs about spirits, life after death, magic, and the like are really pagan. The Javanese or
Balinese village has at the very basis of its religious system worship of the local spirits and of the ancestral ghosts of the community, for whom ancient altars serve as offering places.
The pagan substratum is the most important element in the whole superimposed system of religious beliefs and practices, and it gives the tone to the later layers. The great masses are heathen at heart, despite their superficial affiliation with the great world religions.
The true type of Indonesian religion, which still survives relatively untouched by outside influence in the interior districts of Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, and in many of the isolated smaller islands, rests basically upon beliefs and practices concerned with magic, spirits, and the ghosts of the dead. The magical concepts, as already mentioned, emerge in the headhunting complex. They imbue other aspects of religious life as well; for the people believe that a vast store of magical power permeates the universe, and that it can be “tapped” for human purposes by certain methods. Some persons are adept in getting at supernatural energy, and they can be hired to do this delicate and dangerous work. The purpose is usually a good one–healing the sick, helping the crops, and the like; but black magic may be used against enemies. Every tribe and village has its specialists in this field; but common folk also, by prescribed ritual incantations and actions, can turn magic to their uses. Whole communities may hold ceremonies calculated to get spiritual energy for the entire group, as among the Toradja of central Celebes. Here, at the high point of a week-long ceremony, the women of the village put themselves into a kind of trance, “send their souls” up to the sky, where the great spirits have a vast store of magical power, and draw upon this mighty source for the benefit of the whole community.
The belief in spirits is different from that in generalized magical force, and the activities connected with the spirit cult are more specific in their intention and formalization. This is because in this sphere the people know with what they have to deal, and the rituals can be “aimed” at a certain spirit or spirits. Also, the ideas concerning these supernatural beings are more concrete than in the case of magic. Every Indonesian people believes in the existence of hosts of spirits, widely variable in kind and power. Some are good, others bad; and the main purpose of the spirit cult is to obtain the aid of the former in combating the malevolent influence of the latter. There are earth, air, and water spirits, and a great number of celestial beings who appear as leaders of the lesser ones. The central Borneo tribes try to discover the will of the heavenly deities by observing the flight of birds, who are under the direction of the air spirits, the latter in turn following the orders of their superiors in the
celestial realm. The Batak of Sumatra believe that they can imprison certain kinds of spirits in little figurines of wood or stone, which are then set outside the village to protect the inhabitants from the hordes of evil creatures who prowl the earth. There are all sorts of sickness spirits; and in eastern Indonesia particularly, when an epidemic is raging the people make a little boat, lure the evil spirits of illness aboard it, and tow the “scapeboat” out to sea, where it is abandoned. Many localities have their own special spirits. Indonesians climbing a mountain may make offerings not only to the deities of the mountain itself, but also to the spirits of rocks and streams on the way up. Passing a headland known to house a supernatural being, Malay sailors will lie flat in their vessel, perfectly quiet, while the helmsman steers a gingerly course by the dread spot.
Powerful though the beliefs in magic and the spirits are, probably the most important cult in Indonesia has to do with the ghosts of the dead and the ancestors. In few other places in the world do funeral ceremonies involve so much time, energy, and sacrifice. In many tribes the dead receive not only one, but two and even three successive funerals, at each of which the bones of the deceased are exhumed or removed from their tombs for cleaning, blessing, and redisposal. The ways of disposing of mortal remains are extremely varied. In the island of Sumatra alone, for instance, the different tribes bury, cremate, entomb, abandon, conceal in caves, and seal in trees the bodies of their dead. Even within the same tribe, diverse methods of disposal may be employed, depending upon the age, rank, sex, and manner of death of the deceased.
This obsession with death and the dead reaches its culmination in the all-important ancestor cult. The ancestors have passed beyond, to the realm of the spirits, and, if kept satisfied, are in an excellent position to aid the living. Therefore they receive endless sacrifices, and the people dread offending them in any way. This, indeed, is a great reason for the conservatism of the Indonesians, as the ancestors are likely to be angered by any alteration in the ways they were used to on earth.
The ancestor cult is universal throughout the Indies, and is the most important single feature of native religion. Linked with it is a widespread use of spiritualistic seances for the purpose of getting in contact with the ghosts of the dead and discovering their will. The shaman, or medium, goes into a state of trance induced by such devices as incantations and wild dancing to the accompaniment of steady drum-beating, and gulping in great clouds of incense. While in the trance, the medium’s body becomes the host of an ancestral ghost, who speaks through the mouth of the shaman.
Plate 14Above: Man of Nias in ceremonial costume, including the warrior’s neck emblem and elaborate headgear. The poster is printed in the Nias language, which was never written until recently.
Below: Javanese couple, the man in semi-European style clothing.
Plate 15Above: Balinese dancers in performing costumes. The metal headresses are so finely worked that they look like starched lace.
Below: Minangkabau of Sumatra in ceremonial costume. These richly brocaded garments are heirlooms.
Plate 16Above: Mentawei girl with teeth filed to points.
Below: Toradia woman, Celebes, with resin stippling on her face.
Plate 17Above: Bahau Dyak, Borneo, showing distension of the ear lobes.
Below: Mentawei man, with bow and poisoned arrows.
The native Indonesian religions, then, are varying mixtures of paganism with later infusions of Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. “Conversion” merely means taking on new names for old things; and the supernatural beings, beliefs, and practices introduced from outside are simply added on and fitted into the ancient cults. Purely pagan tribes are still found in the islands off the west coast of Sumatra* in certain remote parts of the latter island itself, in central Borneo and Celebes, and in many of the islands between Java and New Guinea. Hinduism, mixed with pre-Hindu elements, survives only in Bali, although 600 years ago it was the universal religion of all Java and most of Sumatra. Mohammedanism, also by no means “pure,” has now spread over nearly all of Sumatra, Java, and the coastal districts of Borneo and Celebes. It is steadily making converts in the eastern islands, some of which–Lombok and Sumbawa, for instance–are almost completely Islamized.
Christianity has never been able to gain headway in Mohammedan areas. In Java, for instance, there are at most 200,000 Christians–probably not more than half of these natives–and this despite centuries of missionary effort. The Christian religion has found its best field among the pagan tribes, notably the Batak of Sumatra, the Toradja and Minahasa of Celebes, and the Ambonese of the Moluccas. The latter two groups are almost entirely “Christian.” Islam, however, seems to harden its followers against conversion, and throughout the history of missionary enterprise in the Indies the zones of Christianity and Mohammedanism have been mutually exclusive.
Unlike the Americans in the Philippines, who after expelling the Spanish immediately started a general reform of government, education, and social life, the Dutch have been extremely cautious about introducing changes in the administration of the Indies. They have retained as far as possible the traditional forms of government, tried scrupulously to avoid interference in native life, and until recently have done little to promote native education.
The old East India Company, a commercial body operating under the aegis of the Netherlands Government, actually was the colonial administration until its dissolution in 1798. It kept the native sultans in power, ruling through them, and demanding only a monopoly of trading rights and exploitation of natural resources. When the Company collapsed, the Government merely stepped into its place and operated in the time-honored manner, becoming in considerable degree a commercial organization itself. Around 1900 the Government gave up its business activities–with the
exception of a few enterprises and monopolies–and opened the Indies to exploitation by private companies, turning itself completely to the task of colonial administration. It pledged itself to a “liberal” policy of rule: on the one hand to keep native customs and institutions intact as far as possible, and on the other to extend education and participation in government to Indonesians as rapidly as possible. In the former, complete success was achieved, for it has always been the policy of the Dutch to refrain from interference in native life except when absolutely necessary. The latter aim, however, was never achieved, except very partially, with the result that only a very small proportion of the natives ever attended school and even fewer ever voted. Thus the main emphasis has been upon maintaining the status quo and only slowly opening educational and political privileges to the Indonesians. The whole policy is well termed one of extreme gradualism.
By Dutch definition the Indies were not a colony, but rather an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, like Holland itself, Surinam, and Curasao. The islands had their own government, to handle internal affairs, under the ‘guidance” of the mother country, and the latter controlled their relations with foreign states. Legislation concerning matters of broad and fundamental import for the Indies went through the parliament in Holland, while questions having only local application were handled by the governor-general and the organs of government in Batavia.
The governor-general, appointed by the Crown, was directly assisted by an advisory body of five, chosen by the Dutch ruler and cabinet, called the Council of the Indies, and by a cabinet of eight. The governor-general named six of the ministers; the Netherlands Crown and cabinet selected the ministers of war and the navy. The central government at Batavia had one other branch, potentially the most important of all. This was the parliament, or Volksraad, the “People’s Council.” Created in 1916 as a purely advisory body, it slowly gained in power, until, after 1929, it came to function almost as a true legislative assembly. Members could introduce bills on their own initiative, and the Volksraad could amend bills presented to it by the governor-general. The latter had to present every bill he advocated to the Volksraad for a vote. If a budget bill were not approved, the Netherlands parliament decided the issue; in case of disagreement on other ordinances the conflict was resolved by a royal decree. The governor-general, in case of emergency, might proclaim an executive order having the power of law immediately; but if the Volksraad at its next meeting questioned his action the Crown was called upon to arbitrate the dispute.
The partially democratic nature of this near-parliamentary body is further demonstrated by the way its members were chosen. The chairman
was appointed by the Crown and cabinet of the Netherlands. The remaining 60 members were partly elected and partly appointed by the governor-general in the following manner: of the 30 Indonesian delegates, 20 were elected and 10 appointed; of the 25 Europeans, 15 were elected and 10 appointed; and of the 5 “alien Asiatic” deputies, 3 were elected and 2 appointed. Thus 38 of the members were elected and 22 appointed. The term of office was 4 years. To ensure proportional sectional representation among the native members, the islands were divided into twelve electoral areas. If this had not been done, the Javanese, with two-thirds of the total Indonesian population, would have held nearly all the seats in the Volksraad. The method of election was indirect, only members of the various local councils–provincial, regency, and municipal–voting for delegates. These local councilmen in turn were partly appointed and partly elected by the people of their district, in most places voting by village units. The whole process was complex and cumbersome, but, according to the Dutch, it was designed to give all groups proper representation.
Outside the central government, there were three main systems of administration: the Civil Service, the native rulers, and various kinds of district councils.
The Civil Service consisted of several grades of officials. The highest were the governors of the eight main divisions of the Indies. Then came the residents, assistant residents, and controleurs, in charge of progressively smaller districts. Most of the officers thus far down the list were Dutchmen, although a minority were half-castes who had gone to school in Holland. The lower grades of the Service included thousands of native officials. Indeed, the entire staff had only about 30,000 European members as against 180,000 natives, most of the latter in such relatively minor capacities as clerks and messengers. Also, a large proportion of the “European” employees were half-castes in subordinate positions. Candidates for all posts from controleur upward were selected by an examining committee from graduates of high schools in Holland and the Indies. Successful applicants were sent to either Leiden or Utrecht University, where they were partially supported by government scholarships. The course took 5 years, and when the young “aspirant controleurs” were ready to leave for the Indies they had acquired a thorough knowledge of Indonesian history and law, the ethnology of the native peoples, and the languages of the archipelago. There is no doubt that the Dutch civil officers in the Indies were the best colonial administrators in the world, and the reason for this lay in the rigid standards of selection of candidates and in the admirable course of training they received.
The second type of regional administration was that of the native rulers, mostly hereditary in the higher ranks. The system of retaining the traditional governmental organization to the greatest possible degree had been characteristic of the Dutch ever since the days of the old East India Company. This method of colonial administration is called “indirect rule,” which is a precise term, for each of the native potentates had at his side a Dutch civil officer who “advised” him–in other words, actually “ruled through” him. Of the total area of Java, 7 percent was under the jurisdiction of 4 sultans, and most of the remainder of the island was divided into 70 “regencies,” each ruled by a hereditary native potentate. Outside Java, 60 percent of the dominions were ruled indirectly through local princes, mostly hereditary. In all the 340 native states and regencies the rulers merely went through the motions of administration, and their powers were entirely subordinated to those of the Indies government. The finances, especially, were strictly controlled, although the monetary allowances made to the princes were very liberal in most instances. Each ruler of a native state had under him district and assistant district chiefs, generally of the lesser nobility of the region. The lowest unit in the hierarchy of native regional government was the village community, ruled by a chief, sometimes hereditary and sometimes elective, who was assisted by certain other officials. Typically also, there were a village assembly, to which all adult males in good civil standing were eligible, and a council of elders, a kind of senate drawn from the assembly. These village communities were the main centers of Indonesian native government. Only a small proportion of the common folk ever had anything to do with either the higher native officials or the Dutch administrators. Their political horizon ended at the borders of their own community. The village governments ran in traditional grooves sanctified by usage extending back beyond memory; and the successive conquerors of the Indies have been satisfied to leave them alone, going on generation after generation in accordance with ancient customs and laws.
The third type of regional administration was a recent development, although the groundwork for it had been laid as far back as 1903, with the first “decentralization” law. The plan was to develop in every section of the Indies a complete local government to handle internal affairs. Each of the major administrative divisions–provinces, regencies, and municipalities–was to have not only its executive Civil Service staff and its native rulers, but also a council, partly appointed and partly elective. Tribal divisions were to be given a controlling voice in their own affairs by setting up tribal or “community” councils. The system, if carried through completely, would have worked out into a scheme similar to the
American federal type of government, with its State legislatures, county boards, and city councils. By 1941 the new decentralized plan was already in partial operation. Six provincial, 70 regency, 15 municipality, and 2 “community” or tribal councils had been established and were functioning. In most of these, about half of the members–European, native, and “alien Asiatic”–were appointed by the executive of the region; for the elective deputies only taxpayers, in general, were allowed to vote. Thus the franchise extended to only a minute proportion of the natives, but as the plan developed and as economic and educational standards rose, more and more of the Indonesians would have been brought within the voting group. Legislation passed by the various councils was subject to veto by the Dutch governor or other official in charge of the district; but an appeal could be made to the governor-general, who made the final decision.
The Dutch did little to open the minds of the Indonesian masses to broad world perspectives through education. Only 5 to 10 percent of the government expenditures were for education, as against 25 percent in the Philippines. The underlying philosophy seems to have been that too rapid education among the natives would have produced social disorganization and discontent, along with imposing a heavy drain on the government budget.
The system of schooling was organized on a dual basis, depending upon whether the Dutch or native language was used in teaching. Standard Malay was the language in most of the latter type of schools; but where knowledge of Malay had never penetrated, the local vernacular was the medium of instruction, and Malay was taught as a subject. The great bulk of the native pupils, about 1,700,000 out of 2,000,000, never got beyond the lowest unit, the village school, whose course covered three grades only. Education was neither compulsory nor free, although some scholarships were provided for poor but able students.
Above the primary level, which rose to six grades, Indonesian students had their choice of going on in the native-language school system to trade, agricultural, or normal secondary schools, or passing over into the white secondary school system by attending “link schools” where they learned the Dutch language. This sounds as though the Dutch segregated children by race in primary, though not in secondary, schools. This is not true, however, for the criterion of separation was language, not race, and Indonesian or Chinese children who spoke Dutch could enter the European primary schools along with the whites. For Chinese students, the type of
primary school attended depended upon what language they knew; although the majority went to special “Dutch-Chinese” schools, where Dutch was taught through the medium of Malay. In addition to public schools, private and missionary institutions were subsidized by the Government, and almost 20 percent of all pupils in the Indies attended these. They included nonsectarian private, Chinese private, Catholic and Protestant missionary, and Mohammedan parochial schools.
The highest education offered was that of the five colleges of Java: the technical institute at Bandung, and the schools of law, medicine, agriculture, and literature at Batavia. The Japanese war interrupted plans for uniting these institutions in a University of the Netherlands East Indies. An infinitesimal proportion of the natives who started in the primary school system ever attained university education; indeed, very few– about 15 percent–even got beyond the third elementary grade.
Every missionary group in the Indies operated under a license in which the area of activity was strictly delimited and the procedure minutely prescribed. These licenses were subject to immediate cancellation if the missionaries overstepped the bounds of their stated privileges, or if the government found that the natives were opposed to their presence. Some districts were virtually closed to missionaries, notably the strongly Mohammedan areas of Atjeh in Sumatra and Bantam in western Java, and the Hinduist island of Bali. Even where missionaries had been active for centuries, however, their efforts to convert the natives were largely unsuccessful. Undoubtedly the neutral attitude of the government was partly responsible for this, but the religious situation in Indonesia would have been unfavorable to Christianity in any case. Since 90 percent of the natives are Mohammedan, and Mohammedans the world over are notoriously hard to convert, the little success of the missionaries would be explainable even though the government had strongly encouraged them.
As mentioned above, largest results have been attained by the missions in previously pagan regions. Of approximately 2,000,000 Christians in the Indies (only 3 percent of the total population), 500,000 were in Sumatra, largely among the pagan Batak, and an equal number in Celebes, mostly in the non-Mohammedanized Toradja and Minahasa districts. Five percent of the Indonesians were still pagan in 1940, and the missionaries were competing with Islam–which spreads automatically, largely by way of intermarriage between Mohammedan traders and pagan women–to
get control of these virgin fields before they were irretrievably lost to the religion of Allah. Thus, even if it won most of the yet unexploited districts, the best the Christian church could hope for would be conversion of less than 10 percent of the native population of the Indies.
EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS
In 1940 there were almost 250,000 people classed as Europeans living in the Netherlands East Indies. A sizable proportion of these were persons with varying degrees of native blood, but sufficiently white to be included in the general European category. Dutch citizens composed the vast majority, totaling around 220,000. Germans numbered about 7,000; Japanese (for legal reasons classed as Europeans), 7,000; British, 2,500; Swiss, 800; Americans, 650; and Belgians, 625. Fully 200,000, or 80 percent, of the whites lived in Java; and of the 50,000 in the other islands, 30,000 were concentrated in Sumatra. The Europeans have tended to cluster in urban centers, and almost half of them in 1940 were found in seven cities. In Java these were: Batavia (40,000), Surabaya (30,000), Bandung (20,000), and Semarang (15,000); in Sumatra: Medan (4,000) and Padang (3,500); and in Celebes: Macassar (3,500). The number of Europeans and Americans in the Indies was formerly much smaller than in recent years. During East India Company control and throughout most of the nineteenth century, private businesses were not welcomed by the government, which monopolized nearly all the commercial enterprises. In 1870 there were only 35,000 whites in the islands; by 1900, after the government had relaxed its restrictions, the total had risen to 90,000; and the last 40 years increased this figure by almost 300 percent.
The white population fell into three main categories: the plantation operators and employees; the urban business and professional classes; and the government workers, including administrative and military personnel and teachers. The latter two composed about 80 percent of the total, and lived principally in the larger communities. Here living conditions were excellent, with fine houses, elegant clubs, a variety of entertainment facilities, and an abundance of cheap and pleasant native servants. Life in the back country–on plantations, in mission centers, oil fields, and government posts–was generally rather dull, the days running on routine, with little to do but work. The comforts of the cities–electricity, good roads, modern stores, and the rest–were lacking. Nearly all the whites lived in anticipation of the periodic furloughs in Europe, usually triennial;
and intended, when their days of service were over and their hoped-for fortunes accumulated, to retire on pensions to their home countries.
Much more numerous than the Europeans were the Chinese, totaling about 1,200,000, or almost 2 percent of the Indies population. In 1940 approximately one-third of them had been born in China; but among the remainder a large proportion were descendants of immigrants to the islands many generations ago. In every respect the Chinese occupied an intermediate status between Indonesians and whites. They were much more literate than the natives, over 50 percent of the men and about 15 percent of the women being able to read and write. Most of them were middle-class merchants, operating nearly all the retail businesses and a fair number of the small wholesale houses. The others were concentrated principally in the tobacco districts of northeastern Sumatra and the tin-mining islands of Banka and Billiton; in both areas they worked mostly as coolies. Half of the Chinese, 600,000, lived in Java; 500,000 in Sumatra, a little less than 100,000 in Borneo; and around 30,000 scattered over the other islands. Thus they were more evenly distributed than the Europeans.
The Chinese, however long their families may have lived in the islands, have kept themselves a separate group, retaining their own customs and preserving a lively interest in the home country. Since there have never been many Chinese women in the Indies, much intermarriage with natives has occurred. But the families, no matter how much Indonesian blood they may have absorbed, have remained Chinese in customs and sentiments. They have had their own temples, associations, and even schools; and have kept up the family and ancestor cult of China even though many generations separated them from the motherland.
In the past the Chinese were subjected to numerous discriminatory laws, being confined to “ghetto” sections of towns and required to obtain passes to travel outside. Hardly a trace of these legal disabilities survived in 1940. The Chinese had freedom of movement and residence; their legal status was carefully defined, with full consideration for their special requirements; there were Dutch-Chinese schools; and subsidies were granted to Chinese private schools. Where enough Chinese lived, they were given proportional representation in local and provincial councils; and in the Volksraad three to five seats were reserved for them. Since the Netherlands and China have been on the same side in the present world conflict, the loyalty of the Indonesian Chinese has suffered no split. They, with the half-castes, are bound to constitute an important middle-class element in the future reconstruction and reorganization of the Indies.
One of the most striking differences between British and Dutch colonies appeared in the treatment of half-castes. To the British, these people had an inferior status; and they seldom rose high in governmental or business positions, nor were they admitted to white clubs and social circles. In the Indies, however, they were classed as Europeans, met a minimum of discrimination in jobs, and were accepted everywhere as equals. Persons of mixed blood held some of the highest posts in government, and no impediment, social or legal, stood in the way of a Dutchman wishing to marry one of them. Nearly all of them spoke Dutch, for they attended the Dutch language schools. For the most part they occupied a middle-class status, working as minor officials, as school teachers, and in clerical positions. Some discrimination did exist, but their lot in the Dutch islands was better than in any other colonial area in the world.
Temperamentally, the mixed-blood people were much better balanced than their fellow Eurasians elsewhere in the Orient. They did not display the combination of servility and aggressiveness attributed to British half-castes, because their personalities were not warped by galling discriminations. They were a living disproof of the outmoded theory that mixed-bloods inherit the worst traits of both parental groups. On the contrary, they demonstrated clearly the truth that the bad reputation of half-castes in other parts of the world is due to their treatment and not to their biological heredity.
Miscegenation between Europeans and natives was more frequent in earlier times than recently, for it has declined as the number of white women in the islands has increased. Interracial matings were formerly encouraged by the Dutch authorities, for they saw in them a good means of cementing friendly relations between themselves and the Indonesian people through the creation of a mixed-blood intermediary group. The native ideas of sex in this part of the world are quite liberal, and a girl is not condemned, among most groups, for living with a white man. The attitudes of the Dutch and the Indonesians were well suited, therefore, and the production of half-castes went on smoothly generation after generation.
Despite a marked decrease in the frequency of miscegenation during recent decades, it persisted as a regular feature of white colonial life. Its two main centers were the army barracks and the plantations. Although subjected to a constant barrage of criticism, the army continued to allow Dutch soldiers in the islands to have their dusky mistresses, mostly on the ground that this temporary monogamous system reduced venereal infection. Unmarried white overseers on plantations employed native
housekeepers, and although not all of these became concubines of their masters, a fair proportion of them undoubtedly did. In addition to blood, mixture by way of concubinage, occasionally legal marriages occurred between Europeans and natives, but most of the half-caste population originated from extramarital unions.
The Dutch have done well to treat the children of mixed matings fairly. In them they have had a generally loyal intermediary group, appreciative of the consideration shown them. Except for the Chinese, the half-castes have been the only middle-class element in the whole Indies. In this intermediate position they have possessed an intimate knowledge of both Dutch and native society. When the Indies arise from the desolation of the present war, the intelligent, well-educated, temperamentally sound Eurasians will surely take their place among the leaders of the reconstruction.
EXPORT PRODUCTION AND TRADE
Indonesia has been the most profitable colonial possession of its size in the world. In an average recent year, 1938, British India, long famed for its richness, two and one-half times the size of the Indies and with a population six times as large, had only twice as much export and import trade. The amazing wealth of the archipelago can be attributed to three things: the fertility of the soil, augmented by little seasonal change and a wide range of crop possibilities; the mineral deposits in the subsoil; and the cheapness and tractability of the native labor supply.
The soil of the islands varies, but a large proportion is exceedingly productive, particularly in the volcanic areas. The volcanic ash is an excellent fertilizing agent, provided that it is seeped into the earth by sufficient rain, and Indonesia has plentiful rainfall. Crops can be grown 12 months in the year in most regions, for seasonal variations are slight. The islands are a natural hothouse, continually putting forth plant life in great abundance. Nearly every island includes land varying from steaming coastlands to very high mountains, while in between are hills and valleys of all intermediate elevations. Consequently the variety of crops is phenomenal. The greatest staple is rice, which flourishes at all levels and furnishes the principal food supply. The abundant rain and the numerous streams make irrigation possible in most of the archipelago. Maize, vegetables, and fruits are raised in considerable variety. Thus, despite its large population, Indonesia can feed itself. No greater testimony to the richness of the soil could be presented than the fact that the Javanese, packed more than 800 to the square mile, live almost entirely on the products of their own land.
In addition to the bountiful and continuous harvest for native consumption, the islands produced a vast store of crops for export. These exports made Holland one of the richest countries in the world.
The leading commercial crop during recent times was rubber, and for many years it was the main export commodity. Until 1940 the Indies were the second largest rubber-producing area in the world, being slightly surpassed by British Malaya; but in that year t}ie islands forged ahead, with 49 percent of the total world yield, as against 41 percent for Malaya. During normal years Indonesia supplied between 35 and 40 percent of all the rubber used in the world. Sumatra was the principal rubber-producing region of the islands; and here, especially on the east coast, vast plantations covered areas as large as many of our States. The trees were lined up with geometrical precision, so that, looking through a rubber plantation from any angle, the rows extended straight out as far as the eye could see, like the pillars of a great cathedral. Each tree had its little metal cup, and every morning a coolie would come and make a fresh diagonal slash in its bark to start the sap running.
Sugar ranked next to rubber among the commercial agricultural commodities of the Indies. Most of it was grown in Java, where it constituted the main export crop. Recently, however, sugar fell upon evil days, for the world markets were glutted and prices dropped close to the cost of production. Tea, in normal years, was almost as important a commercial crop as sugar. Copra, from which coconut oil is made, and palm oil were also supplied by the Indies in considerable quantity. The remaining principal agricultural commodities fell into two classes: those in which the Indies had a virtual world monopoly, and those which other areas produced in large quantities. To the former category belonged quinine, pepper, and kapok fiber, of which Indonesia supplied, respectively, 90, 85, and 75 percent of the world export total. To the latter class belonged coffee, and agave and sisal fiber, used for making twine.
The mineral wealth of the islands has hardly been tapped, and the vast hinterlands of Borneo and New Guinea hold promise of great future development. Even the abundant production of oil for two decades has scarcely begun to draw upon the abundant reserves in the subsoil. Although petroleum with its byproducts ranked next to rubber as the principal export of the Indies during the past 5 years, the archipelago supplied only 3 percent of the world’s total production, standing fifth among the oil-yielding countries. Tin was the second most important mineral export, and, while the amount of production varied from year to year, Indonesia consistently ranked next to Malaya, the world’s main source of this metal. Most of the tin came from government-owned locations in Banka, Billiton,
and Singkep, islands situated between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The government also operated coal and gold mines in western Sumatra, but the amounts produced were never large. Most of the coal was used within the islands for ships and railways. Bauxite, the aluminum ore, was increasing in production in 1940, when 230,000 tons were exported.
In addition to production for export, the Dutch drew profits from handling the trade and transportation of the Indies. A Dutch shipping company, the Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij, had a virtual monopoly of the extremely profitable interisland trade, and the railroads were owned by the government. But the big returns came from investments in plantation agriculture, mining and oil production, and commercial banking. Of the total 2 billion dollars of European and American capital invested in the Indies, the Dutch held three-fourths. The British share was almost 14 percent; Franco-Belgian companies had 5 percent; American investments accounted for 3 percent; and German and Japanese, 1 percent each.
The human stake of the big companies is the third of the reasons given above for the profitable nature of the Indies. The native labor supply was phenomenally cheap and tractable. Whether openly stated or not, the interest of the commercial corporations lay in keeping the working masses both cheap and docile. Lest this be taken as too severe an indictment, it must be stressed that there was no “plot” on the part of the business interests to “enslave the masses.” They pointed to the obvious fact that the majority of the Indonesians were quite contented with their way of life, and raised the question whether it might have been unwise, even cruel, to infect them with the devastating germ of ambition.
Certainly the system worked for many centuries, and was working when the islands fell to the invaders in 1942. Fully 70 percent of the Indonesians worked for themselves, mostly on little rice plots, from which they drew enough sustenance to keep themselves alive. The other 30 percent represented a good proportion of the profit-making capital of the Indies. They were the wage earners, laboring on the plantations and in the mines and oil fields for exceedingly low pay. Ten dollars a month was an excellent wage for a native worker; and on it he was able to keep well and even happy, because his wants were so modest. The great majority of them had a per capita income of less than $50 a year. By contrast, the bulk of European salaries fell between $2,000 and $80,000 a year; while the alien Asiatics, mostly Chinese, had incomes clustering in the range from $160 to $2,000.
Despite the fact that Indonesians received so small a share of the income, in the past 40 years they made marked progress as independent producers of agricultural commodities for export. In 1898 their share in this market
Plate 18Above: Balinese dancers, with gamelan orchestra.
Below: Mentawei dancers doing an animal pantomime.
Plate 19Above: Sadang burial caves, Celebes, chiseled in the face of a cliff. They have wooden doors and carved guardian images.
Below: Stone tombs, Sumba.
Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.
Plate 20Above: Palace of the Sultan if Siak, eastern Sumatra. Siak is one of the scores of native states which the Dutch ruled “indirectly,” retaining the hereditary princes in office.
Below: Catholic missionaries in the plaza of a central Flores village. The conical structures are fetish houses of the pagan ancestor cult. Photograph by Rev. R.N. Geldens.
Plate 21Above: Workers in a Javanese batik shop. Their skilled labor brings them a wage of about 20 cents a day.
Below: Street scene in Batavia, capital of the Indies, showing unique steam tramcars. Photographs by E.E. Muhs.
was only 10 percent of the total; in 1913, 24 percent; in 1930, 31 percent; and in 1937, 46 percent. Their principal product was rubber, of which they supplied 50 percent. As in all other types of commercial agriculture, however, most of the native plantations were small, and there were few Indonesian big businessmen. Some crops for export were grown almost exclusively by natives, such as pepper (100 percent), copra (98 percent), kapok (90 percent), tapioca (80 percent), and coffee (70 percent). Their share of the tea market was 15 percent; and of the tobacco sales, 8 percent. They had no part, except as laborers, in the production of sugar, palm oil, and quinine; and also no petroleum or tin investments. Much of the profits from native-grown products went to the export companies, mostly Dutch, for the Indonesians had no way of selling their goods on the world market and had to dispose of them through middlemen. Still, the striking rise in native commercial agriculture from nearly nothing 40 years ago to almost half of the total in 1937 is a good augury for the future of the Indonesians in this type of independent enterprise.
Industrialism was virtually nonexistent in the Indies. Probably the main reason was that the islands were so eminently suited to agricultural enterprise, and paid such handsome profits on this alone, that no strong stimulus to industrialization was ever felt. Statistics on occupations for 1938 show that 1,670,000 Indonesians were classified as industrial workers. But 670,000, or over 40 percent, were home producers, mostly women occupied in such handicrafts as spinning, weaving, sewing, and batik-printing. Another 840,000, or slightly more than 50 percent, were employed in very small plants, such as the sarong workshops of central Java. Only 120,000, or less than 10 percent, worked in large factories, including textile mills, oil refineries, sugar mills, armories, and automobile assembly plants. In 1939 the Dutch, foreseeing the strong probability of a German invasion of Holland, started an intensive program of industrial expansion in the Indies. Plans were drawn up for rapid construction of more oil refineries, textile mills, iron smelters, chemical plants, and armament works. The scheme was barely under way when the Japanese invaded the islands.
The Indies are a rich prize for any conqueror. Particularly is this so for Japan, with a dense population, an insufficient food supply, a high degree of industrialization, and a shortage of domestic minerals and other raw materials. Such a country needs a hinterland where there are no factories, but only fertile soil, abundant mineral deposits, and cheap labor inured to subservience. Indonesia is made to order on all these points. With the islands completely under her control, Japan would gain what she has lacked during the 50 years of her rise to power–namely, a balanced and
self-sufficient economy. Here are oil, coal, and metals; here are food and other agricultural products, such as rubber; and the lack of precisely these things has constituted Japan’s greatest weakness. Looking back from the vantage point of 1943, it now seems almost inevitable that the Japanese would pursue the course they have. The reason for the prevalent belief that they would not go after the Indies was that the archipelago lay at such a great distance that, despite its rich store of needed supplies, the difficulties of transportation to Japan over an enemy-threatened sea route would make the conquest unprofitable. This, indeed, is one of the most vulnerable points of Japan at present. On the 4,000 miles distance between Batavia and Tokyo may rest the fate of the Pacific war.
Most of the sources of information on the East Indies are in the Dutch language. Since few persons outside the Netherlands can read this language, and since only four or five of the largest American libraries possess adequate collections of Indonesian literature in Dutch, the following list of references is restricted to books in English. The present volume is based largely upon, and is in part an adaptation of, the author’s recent book The Ageless Indies (The John Day Co., New York, 1942).
Alder, W. F. 1923. Men of the inner jungle. London.
Banner, H. S. 1927. Romantic Java. London.
Baum, V. 1937. A tale of Bali. Garden City.
Beaufort, L. F. de. 1929. Science in the Netherlands East Indies. Amsterdam.
Bickmore, A. S. 1868. Travels in the East Indian Archipelago. London.
Bijlmer, H. T. 1929. Outlines of the anthropology of the Timor Archipelago. Weltevreden.
Bock, C. A. 1881. The head-hunters of Borneo. London.
Boeke, J. H. 1942. The structure of Netherlands Indian economy. New York.
Bousquet, G. H. 1940. A French view of the Netherlands Indies. New York.
Boyle, F. 1865. Adventures among the Dyaks of Borneo. London.
Broek, J. O. M. 1942. Economic development of the Netherlands East Indies. New York.
Brown, J. M. 1914. The Dutch East. London.
Campbell, D. M. 1915. Java: past and present. London.
Carpenter, F. G. 1943. Java and the East Indies. New York.
Cator, D. 1905. Everyday life among the head-hunters. London.
Cator, W. J. 1936. The economic position of the Chinese in the Netherlands Indies. Chicago.
Clune, F. 1942. Isles of Spice. New York.
Coenen Torchiana, H. A. van. 1921. Tropical Holland. Chicago.
Collins, G. E. P. 1937. East monsoon. London.
1937. Makassar sailing. London.
Coomaraswami, A. K. 1927. History of Indian and Indonesian art. London.
Couperus, L. 1924. Eastward. London.
Covarrubias, M. 1938. The Island of Bali. New York.
Day, C. 1904. The policy and administration of the Dutch in Java. New York.
Embree, E. R., Simon, M. S., and Mumford, W. B. 1934. Island India goes to school. Chicago.
Emerson, R. 1937. Malaysia: a study in direct and indirect rule. New York.
1942. The Netherlands Indies and the United States. New York.
Emerson, R., Mills, L. A., and Thompson, V. 1942. Government and nationalism in Southeast Asia. New York.
Evans, I. H. N. 1922. Among primitive peoples in Borneo. London.
1923. Studies in religion, folklore and custom in British North Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Cambridge.
Forbes, H. O. 1885. A naturalist’s wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago. London.
Furness, W. H. 1902. The home-life of Borneo head-hunters. Philadelphia.
Furnivall, J. S. 1939. Netherlands India: A study of plural economy. Cambridge.
Gelderen, J. van. 1939. The recent development of economic foreign policy in the Netherlands East Indies. New York.
Gomes, E. H. 1911. Seventeen years among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo. London.
Great Britain, Admiralty, Naval Intelligence Division, Geographical Section. 1920. A manual of Netherlands India. London.
Handbook of the Netherlands East Indies. 1930. Buitenzorg.
Hart, G. H. C. 1943. Towards economic democracy in the Netherlands Indies. New York.
Hiss, P. H. 1941. Bali. New York.
Holt, C. 1939. Dance quest in Celebes. London.
Hoop, A. N. J. T. A T. van der. 1932. Megalithic remains in South Sumatra. Zutphen.
Hose, C. 1900. In the heart of Borneo. London.
1926. Natural man, a record from Borneo. London.
1927. Fifty years of romance and research. London.
Hose, C. and McDougall, W. 1912. The pagan tribes of Borneo. London.
Hyma, A. 1942. The Dutch in the Far East. Ann Arbor.
Institute of Pacific Relations. 1943. War and peace in the Pacific. New York.
Josselin de Jong, J. P. B. de. 1937. Oirata, a Timorese settlement on Kisar. Amsterdam.
Kat Angelino, A. D. A. de. 1931. Colonial policy. The Hague.
Kaudern, W. 1925-1938. Ethnographical studies in Celebes. Goteborg.
Keith, A. M. 1940. Land below the wind. New York.
Kleen, T. A. 1936. The temple dances in Bali. Stockholm.
1937. Wayang (Javanese theatre). Stockholm.
Kleiweg de Zwaan, J. P. 1923. Physical anthropology in the Indian Archipelago and adjacent regions. Amsterdam.
Klerck, E. S. de. 1938. History of the Netherlands East Indies. Rotterdam.
Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardri jkskundig Genootschap. 1938. Atlas van Tropisch Nederland. Batavia.
Krom, N. J. 1927. Barabudur: archaeological description. The Hague.
KUNST, J. 1937. The music of Java. Amsterdam.
Loeb, E. M., and Heine-Geldern, R. 1935. Sumatra. Vienna.
Low, H. 1848. Sarawak. London.
Lumholtz, C. 1920. Through Central Borneo. New York.
McGuire, P. 1942. Westward the course! New York.
Marsden, W. 1783. The history of Sumatra. London.
Mjoberg, E. G. 1930. Forest life and adventures in the Malay Archipelago. London.
Moss, R. L. B. 1925. The life after death in Oceania and the Malay Archipelago. Oxford.
Nyessen, D. J. H. 1929. The races of Java. Weltevreden.
Perry, W. J. 1918. The megalithic culture of Indonesia. London.
Pleyte, C. M. 1901. Indonesian art. The Hague.
Ponder, H. W. 1934. Java pageant. London.
Powell, H. 1930. The last paradise. New York.
Raffles, T. S. 1817. The history of Java. London.
Roth, H. L. 1896. The natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. London.
Rutter, O. 1922. British North Borneo. London.
1929. The pagans of North Borneo. London.
St. John, H. 1883. The Indian Archipelago. London.
St. John, S. 1862. Life in the forests of the Far East. London.
Sarkar, H. B. 1934. Indian influences on the literature of Java and Bali. Calcutta.
Scheltema, J. F. 1912. Monumental Java. London.
Schnitger, F. M. 1938. Forgotten kingdoms in Sumatra. Leiden.
Schrieke, B. 1929. The effect of Western influence on native civilizations in the Malay Archipelago. Batavia.
Snouck Hurgronje, C. 1906. The Achehnese. Leiden.
Stutterheim, W. F. 1929. Indian influences in the lands of the Pacific. Weltevreden.
1929. A Javanese period in Sumatran history. Soerakarta.
Vandenbosch, A. 1941. The Dutch East Indies. Berkeley.
Walcott, A. S. 1914. Java and her neighbors. New York.
Wallace, A. R. 1872. The Malay Archipelago. London.
Wit, A. de. 1906. Java, facts and fancies. Philadelphia.
1923. Island-India. New Haven.
Zoete, B. de, and Spies, W. 1939. Dance and drama in Bali. New York.