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Indonesia History Collections In 1943

INDONESIA  HISTORY COLLECTIONS IN 1943

Plate 1--Balinese beauty
Plate 1–Balinese beauty

TRANSLATE bY

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

(With 21 Plates)

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Kepulauan terbesar di dunia terletak 13.000 mil dari New York, di belahan dunia. Hindia Timur, atau Indonesia, adalah rantai kepulauan berjumlah ribuan dan memperluas 3.000 mil di sepanjang Khatulistiwa dari ujung barat mereka di ujung utara Sumatra sampai batas timur mereka di New Guinea.

Sebagian besar daerah ini pulau besar dimiliki oleh Belanda, sampai disita oleh Jepang pada bulan-bulan awal 1942. Dua bagian dari pulau-pulau, utara dan timur Kalimantan Timur, berada di bawah kontrol, masing-masing, Raya dan Portugal.

Hindia terletak langsung di Khatulistiwa, yang membagi dua dua pulau terbesar, Sumatera dan Kalimantan. Pulau paling barat, Sumatera, terletak tepat di sebelah selatan Semenanjung Melayu, dari yang dipisahkan oleh Selat Malaka yang sempit. Kalimantan dan Sulawesi, pulau-pulau paling utara, mencapai dekat dengan Filipina, sementara Timor, di perbatasan selatan, hanya 400 mil di Laut Arafura dari Australia. Perbatasan timur wilayah Belanda memotong langsung utara dan selatan melalui pusat Nugini. Di luar itu berbohong bagian Australia dan Inggris pulau terakhir. Dengan demikian seluruh nusantara menempati laut antara Asia Tenggara dan Australia. Dahulu dianggap sebagai “penghalang Melayu” melindungi Australia dari agresi Jepang selatan, Hindia sekarang, sayangnya, merupakan garis musuh defensif terhadap Sekutu penaklukan utara. Dari sudut pandang strategis, karena itu, pulau-pulau yang sangat penting dalam perang Pasifik ini.

Dari timur ke barat Indonesia hampir 1.000 mil lebih luas dari Amerika Serikat; dari utara ke selatan itu meluas untuk jarak setara dengan yang dari perbatasan Kanada untuk Texas pusat. Luas tanah yang sebenarnya adalah kurang lebih sama seperti yang dari Amerika Serikat timur Mississippi – sekitar 750.000 mil persegi. Kalimantan adalah pulau ketiga terbesar di

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dunia, yang meliputi 290.000 mil persegi (setara Texas dan Oklahoma gabungan). Setengah Belanda dari New Guinea, dengan 150.000 nya mil persegi, dan Sumatera, dengan 160.000 mil persegi, California perkiraan dalam ukuran. Sulawesi, berukuran 70.000 mil persegi, adalah sebanding dengan New England ditambah New Jersey, dan Jawa, pulau besar yang tersisa, memiliki luas wilayah 50.000 mil persegi, hampir sama dengan New York State.

Tiga dari empat pulau besar Barat – Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Jawa – kebohongan di rak tanah Asia dan pernah berhubungan dengan daratan benua. Laut memisahkan mereka dari Asia sangat dangkal, dan sebagian besar pesisir mereka terdiri dari rawa pasang surut memperluas jauh di daratan. New Guinea dan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan istirahat di rak tanah Australia dan sebelumnya merupakan bagian dari Australia sendiri. Pulau-pulau utama Indonesia, bagaimanapun, termasuk Sulawesi, para Kepulauan Sunda Kecil, dan Maluku, naik dari laut dalam, dalam apa yang pernah menjadi selat lebar memisahkan Asia dari Australia.

Topografi Indonesia adalah salah satu kontras yang kuat. Dataran kering yang luas hanya terjadi di Jawa dan sebagian Sumatera. Di tempat lain dataran tingkat jarang dan terbatas di daerah, dan sebagian besar pulau-pulau terdiri dari baik perbukitan dan pegunungan terjal atau rawa basah. Dataran tinggi dan rawa keduanya berpakaian hutan lebat kecuali lereng bukit telah dibuka untuk budidaya dengan usaha manusia. Terutama, oleh karena itu, Hindia adalah wilayah rawa, pegunungan, dan hutan.

Lebih dari seratus gunung Bahasa Indonesia adalah gunung berapi aktif atau baru aktif. Dimanapun vulkanisme terjadi, populasi terpadat, karena abu vulkanik yang membuat tanah subur. Jawa, yang paling vulkanik dari semua pulau, memiliki konsentrasi terbesar penduduk; Kalimantan dan New Guinea, wilayah paling vulkanik, adalah yang paling jarang dihuni.

IKLIM
Berbaring sepanjang khatulistiwa, Hindia memiliki iklim panas dan lembab, tetapi suhu rata-rata menurun sekitar 1 ° Fahrenheit untuk setiap 300 meter dari ketinggian. Akibatnya, kabupaten pegunungan menawarkan bantuan dingin dari dataran rendah yang menindas. Penghuni di pantai Batavia, dimana suhu tahunan rata-rata adalah 80 °, menyambut setiap kesempatan untuk mengunjungi Handung. sebuah kota gunung dengan rata-rata tahunan hanya 73 °, Kelembaban tinggi membuat panas tropis semakin tidak nyaman.

Curah hujan lebat di hampir seluruh bagian pulau dan meningkat dengan ketinggian. Beberapa bagian pegunungan diberi minum dengan 12 kaki hujan per tahun. Meskipun suhu bervariasi hanya sedikit sepanjang tahun, angin monsoon menyebabkan perubahan musiman dalam curah hujan. Dalam sebagian

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GEOGRAPHY

The largest archipelago in the world lies 13,000 miles from New York, halfway around the globe. The East Indies, or Indonesia, are a chain of islands numbering in the thousands and extending 3,000 miles along the Equator from their western extremity at the northern tip of Sumatra to their eastern limit in New Guinea.

Most of this enormous insular area was owned by the Netherlands, until seized by the Japanese in the early months of 1942. Two parts of the islands, northern Borneo and eastern Timor, were under the control, respectively, of Great Britain and Portugal.

The Indies lie directly on the Equator, which bisects the two largest islands, Sumatra and Borneo. The westernmost island, Sumatra, is situated just south of the Malay Peninsula, from which it is separated by the narrow Straits of Malacca. Borneo and Celebes, the northernmost islands, reach up close to the Philippines, while Timor, on the southern border, is only 400 miles across the Arafura Sea from Australia. The eastern border of Dutch territory cuts directly north and south through the center of New Guinea. Beyond it lie the Australian and British sections of the latter island. Thus the entire archipelago occupies the seas between southeastern Asia and Australia. Formerly regarded as “the Malay barrier” protecting Australia from Japanese aggression southward, the Indies now, unfortunately, represent an enemy defensive line against Allied reconquest northward. From a strategical viewpoint, therefore, the islands are of crucial importance in the present Pacific war.

From east to west Indonesia is almost 1,000 miles wider than the United States; from north to south it extends for a distance equivalent to that from the Canadian border to central Texas. Its actual land area is approximately the same as that of the United States east of the Mississippi–about 750,000 square miles. Borneo is the third largest island in

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the world, covering 290,000 square miles (equaling Texas and Oklahoma combined). The Dutch half of New Guinea, with its 150,000 square miles, and Sumatra, with 160,000 square miles, approximate California in size. Celebes, measuring 70,000 square miles, is comparable to New England plus New Jersey; and Java, the remaining large island, has an area of 50,000 square miles, almost the same as New York State.

Three of the four large western islands–Sumatra, Borneo, and Java– lie on the Asiatic land shelf and were once connected with the continental mainland. The seas separating them from Asia are very shallow, and much of their coastland consists of tidal swamps extending far inland. New Guinea and adjacent islands rest on the Australian land shelf and formerly constituted a part of Australia itself. The central islands of Indonesia, however, including Celebes, the Lesser Sunda Islands, and the Moluccas, rise out of the deep ocean, in what was once a wide strait separating Asia from Australia.

The topography of Indonesia is one of strong contrasts. The only extensive dry flatlands occur in Java and parts of Sumatra. Elsewhere level plains are infrequent and restricted in area, and most of the islands consist of either rolling hills and steep mountains or soggy marshes. Highlands and swamps both are clothed in dense forest except where hillsides have been cleared for cultivation by human effort. Predominantly, therefore, the Indies are a region of swamps, mountains, and jungles.

Over a hundred of the Indonesian mountains are active or recently active volcanoes. Wherever volcanism occurs, population is densest, for volcanic ash makes fertile soil. Java, the most volcanic of all the islands, has the greatest concentration of population; Borneo and New Guinea, the least volcanic regions, are the most sparsely peopled.

CLIMATE

Lying along the Equator, the Indies have a hot and moist climate; but the average temperature decreases about 1° Fahrenheit for each 300 feet of altitude. Consequently, the mountainous districts offer cool relief from the oppressive lowlands. Dwellers in coastal Batavia, where the mean annual temperature is 80°, welcome every opportunity to visit Handung. a mountain city with a yearly average of only 73°, The high humidity makes the tropical heat even more uncomfortable.

Rainfall is heavy in nearly all parts of the islands and increases with altitude. Some mountainous sections are drenched with 12 feet of rain annually. Although the temperature varies only slightly throughout the year, the monsoonal winds cause a seasonal change in rainfall. In most

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Fig. 1--The East Indies
Fig. 1.–The East Indies

 


 

of Indonesia, the west is thIndonesia, barat adalah “basah” hujan dan berlaku selama bulan-bulan musim dingin utara kami. Di bagian timur Indonesia, namun, musim dibalik, dan musim timur membawa sebagian besar curah hujan.

PENYAKIT
Sementara panas dan kelembaban menyebabkan ketidaknyamanan, penyakit lokal banyak adalah sumber bahaya konstan. Karena parasit penyakit selalu ada, hati-hati perlu bahwa air minum direbus dan semua sayur dan buah dikupas dan sebaiknya dimasak, untuk menghindari tipus, disentri, dan kolera. Lebih sulit untuk mencegah adalah malaria, kutukan pulau. Kelambu membantu dan sangat diperlukan, tetapi kina adalah yang terbaik pencegahan. Ini tidak perlu digunakan di setiap kabupaten, untuk beberapa bagian pulau-pulau secara alami bebas dari nyamuk pembawa malaria. Penyakit-penyakit tropis lebih menjijikkan seperti kaki gajah dan kusta mengklaim korban asli banyak tapi jarang menyerang kulit putih.

Layanan medis Belanda telah membuat kemajuan luar biasa dalam pencegahan dan pengendalian penyakit dengan akibat bahwa banyak bagian Hindia, terutama Jawa dan Sumatera bagian, telah menjadi tempat yang cukup sehat dengan standar tropis. Penderitaan ditakuti tahun sebelumnya, seperti wabah dan demam blackwater, telah dikendalikan, dan wabah yang menghancurkan dari kolera, tifus, dan cacar tidak lagi terjadi. Tapi orang kulit putih masih harus melakukan kewaspadaan konstan pada apa yang dia makan dan minuman, menjalani inokulasi periodik, dan menjaga kina nya berguna untuk menjamin kesehatan yang baik di pulau-pulau. Kecerobohan membawa hukuman berat, sering mati. Hal ini benar terutama di distrik-distrik terpencil, di mana pelayanan kesehatan pemerintah belum diperpanjang kegiatannya, dan di mana perawatan medis tidak tersedia.

HEWAN HIDUP
Mungkin jenis yang paling menjengkelkan dari kehidupan hewan adalah yang terkecil. Semut, rayap, laba-laba, kalajengking, dan sejumlah serangga ajaib di berbagai kawanan mereka di mana-mana, dan lalat dan nyamuk terutama adalah sahabat konstan dan tidak menyenangkan. Yang terakhir ini terutama merupakan hama menyebalkan, dan kebebasan dari serangan bertubi-tubi mereka mungkin adalah salah satu bantuan terbesar tunggal dalam mendapatkan merasa jauh dari Hindia. Perjalanan di kabupaten berhutan membawa pertemuan menyenangkan dengan lintah berlimpah, yang menghisap darah sampai bengkak ke ukuran cigaret.

Pulau-pulau barat memiliki jenis Asiatic binatang, seperti harimau, gajah, badak, sapi liar, dan orang utan, tetapi ini tidak hadir

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di bagian timur kepulauan, di mana fauna Australia mendominasi, termasuk berbagai jenis marsupial. Meskipun berbagai macam ular yang ditemukan di Hindia, dan beberapa macam, seperti kobra dan ular air tertentu, beracun, reptil yang paling berbahaya adalah buaya. Adalah bijaksana untuk memata-matai setiap aliran dengan sangat hati sebelum mandi, pencucian, atau mencoba sebuah persimpangan.

POPULASI
Populasi besar Hindia – sekitar 70,0000,000 berdasarkan perkiraan terakhir – terutama terkonsentrasi di satu pulau, Jawa. Di sini, di daerah setara dengan Negara Bagian New York, hidup lebih dari 40.000.000 orang, rata-rata lebih dari 800 per mil persegi. Ini adalah negara dihuni sebagian besar berpenduduk padat di dunia. Sumatera, hampir empat kali luas Jawa hanya memiliki 8.000.000 penduduk, sementara Kalimantan, pulau terbesar dari semua, sangat jarang dihuni oleh 2.500.000. Sulawesi, dengan 4.000.000, memiliki sebagian besar terkonsentrasi di utara ekstrim dan semenanjung barat daya. Bali, sebuah pulau kecil sebelah timur Jawa, mendukung populasi lebih dari satu juta, dan Lombok, berdekatan dengan itu, 600.000, tetapi Indonesia timur, termasuk New Guinea, adalah untuk sebagian besar tipis diselesaikan. Jadi, sementara jumlah penduduk besar, hanya beberapa bagian dari Hindia yang padat dihuni: Jawa, daerah tertentu di Sumatera, dua bagian terbatas dari Sulawesi, Bali, dan Lombok.

Jawa, dari sudut pandang penduduk, bukan hanya fenomena, yang merupakan masalah yang membingungkan. Orang Jawa memiliki dua kali lipat jumlah mereka dalam 60 tahun, dan tidak menunjukkan tanda-tanda berkurangnya Kenaikan mereka. Dengan perang asli ditekan dan penyakit tidak lagi menghancurkan memeriksa sebelumnya adalah, pulau ini sangat hampir mencapai titik kejenuhan manusia. Belanda telah mencoba untuk meredakan ketegangan dengan mendorong dan subsidi emigrasi ke bagian lain dari Indonesia, terutama Sumatera. Tapi sementara emigran sedang dikapalkan oleh ratusan, orang Jawa meningkat ribuan. Masalah tetap belum terpecahkan.

Populasi putih Hindia, termasuk orang-orang berdarah campuran, sebelum perang saat ini hanya mencapai sekitar 250.000. Kelompok non-pribumi terbesar adalah Cina, dengan jumlah diperkirakan 1.200.000. Semua lain “Asiatik asing” bersama-sama, sebagian besar Arab dan Hindu, mencapai 115.000. Orang Jepang, kebetulan, yang kurang terwakili, dengan hanya beberapa ribu. Karena hal teknis hukum, mereka yang diklasifikasikan sebagai “orang Eropa.” Secara keseluruhan, kemudian, populasi non-Indonesia dari pulau-pulau relatif kecil, hanya sekitar 2 persen dari total.

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Plat 2Above: Kawah Bromo besar di Jawa Timur. Bromo dan Smeru di latar belakang adalah gunung suci dari dataran tinggi Tengger, yang sebelumnya dilemparkan pengorbanan manusia ke dalam gunung berapi merokok.

Bawah: Pemandangan di Bali.

 
 

e “wet” monsoon and prevails during the months of our northern winter. In parts of eastern Indonesia, however, the seasons are reversed, and the east monsoon brings most rainfall.

DISEASE

While heat and dampness cause discomfort, the numerous local diseases are a source of constant danger. Because of the ever present disease parasites, great care is necessary that drinking water be boiled and all vegetables and fruits peeled and preferably cooked, in order to avoid typhoid, dysentery, and cholera. More difficult to prevent is malaria, the curse of the island. Mosquito nets help and are indispensable, but quinine is the best preventative. It need not be used in every district, for several parts of the islands are naturally free of malaria-carrying mosquitoes. The more repulsive tropical diseases such as elephantiasis and leprosy claim many native victims but seldom attack whites.

The Dutch medical service has made amazing progress in disease prevention and control with the result that many parts of the Indies, particularly Java and sections of Sumatra, have become fairly healthy places by tropical standards. The dreaded afflictions of former years, such as plague and blackwater fever, have been brought under control, and devastating epidemics of cholera, typhoid, and smallpox no longer occur. But the white man must still exercise constant vigilance on what he eats and drinks, undergo periodic inoculations, and keep his quinine handy in order to insure good health in the islands. Carelessness carries heavy penalties, frequently death. This is especially true in the remoter districts, where the government health service has not yet extended its activities, and where medical care is not available.

ANIMAL LIFE

Probably the most annoying kinds of animal life are the smallest ones. Ants, termites, spiders, scorpions, and a host of insects marvelous in their variety swarm everywhere, and flies and mosquitoes especially are constant and disagreeable companions. The latter particularly are infuriating pests, and freedom from their insistent attacks is perhaps the greatest single relief one feels in getting away from the Indies. Travel in forested districts brings unpleasant encounters with the abundant leeches, which suck blood until swollen to cigaret size.

The western islands have Asiatic types of animals, such as the tiger, elephant, rhinoceros, wild cattle, and orang-utan; but these are absent

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in the eastern part of the archipelago, where Australian fauna predominates, including numerous kinds of marsupials. Although a wide variety of snakes are found in the Indies, and several kinds, such as cobras and certain water snakes, are poisonous, the most dangerous reptiles are the crocodiles. It is wise to reconnoitre every stream with extreme care before bathing, laundering, or attempting a crossing.

POPULATION

The enormous population of the Indies–about 70,0000,000 by the latest estimate–is concentrated mainly in one island, Java. Here, in an area equivalent to that of New York State, live over 40,000,000 people, an average of more than 800 per square mile. It is the mostly densely populated country in the world. Sumatra, almost four times the size of Java, has only 8,000,000 inhabitants; while Borneo, largest island of all, is very sparsely peopled by 2,500,000. Celebes, with 4,000,000, has most of these concentrated in the extreme northern and southwestern peninsulas. Bali, a small island east of Java, support a population of over a million, and Lombok, adjacent to it, 600,000; but eastern Indonesia, including New Guinea, is for the most part thinly settled. Thus, while the total population is large, only a few sections of the Indies are densely inhabited: Java, certain districts of Sumatra, two restricted parts of Celebes, Bali, and Lombok.

Java, from the viewpoint of population, is not only a phenomenon; it is a perplexing problem. The Javanese have doubled their numbers in 60 years, and show no signs of slackening their Increase. With native warfare suppressed and disease no longer the devastating check it formerly was, this island has very nearly reached the point of human saturation. The Dutch have tried to ease the strain by encouraging and subsidizing emigration to other parts of Indonesia, principally Sumatra. But while emigrants were being shipped off by hundreds, the Javanese were increasing by thousands. The problem remains unsolved.

The white population of the Indies, including persons of mixed blood, before the present war totaled only about 250,000. The largest non-native group were the Chinese, numbering approximately 1,200,000. All other “alien Asiatics” together, mostly Arabians and Hindus, totaled 115,000. The Japanese, incidentally, were poorly represented, with only a few thousand. Because of legal technicalities, they were classed as “Europeans.” In all, then, the non-Indonesian population of the islands was relatively small, only about 2 percent of the total.

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Plate 2

Plate 2Above: The enormous Bromo crater in eastern Java. The Bromo and the Smeru in background are sacred mountains of the Tenggerese highlanders, who formerly hurled human sacrifices into the smoking volcano.

Below: Landscape in Bali.

Plate 2

 


Plate 3

Plate 3Above: Crocodile captured in Sibolga, Sumatra. Length 16 feet, weight 1,100 pounds.

Below: Orang-utan, Borneo. These great apes are found nowhere in the world except Sumatra and Borneo.

Plate 3

 


Plate 4

Plate 4Above: The Javanese are the champion breeders of the world and love their plentiful children. This photograph symbolizes an apparently insoluble population problem.

Below: Batak women and girls, Sumatra, showing the proto-Malay (Caucasoid) physical type.

Plate 4

 


Plate 5

Plate 5Above: Javanese girls in working clothes. The physical types show proto-Malay (Caucasoid) and deutero-Malay (Mongoloid) mixture.

Below: Native of Kupang, Timor, showing the Melanesian physical type, with Negroid features, and wooly hair. A half cylinder is used to fashion the pompon coiffure. Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.

Plate 5

 


 

RAS ETHNIK
Hindia adalah tanah air dari cabang Melayu Mongoloid, atau kuning, ras. Jenis Melayu, secara umum, ditandai dengan perawakan yang sangat pendek (5 kaki 2 atau 3 inci untuk pria), kulit coklat, rambut hitam lurus atau bergelombang, wajah datar dengan hidung lebar dan ketebalan bibir sedang, dan bertubuh ramping. Ada pertumbuhan sedikit rambut di wajah atau tubuh. Sebagian besar wilayah Indonesia, dengan pengecualian dari pulau-pulau timur ekstrim dan bagian terpencil tertentu di tempat lain, dihuni oleh masyarakat dari ras Melayu, yang juga menyebar sampai ke Filipina dan Semenanjung Melayu.

Dua subdivisi dari stok Melayu dapat dibedakan dalam pulau. Kabupaten interior, sebagian besar dataran tinggi, dari Jawa, Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan Sulawesi, serta rantai pulau yang membentang dari Bali ke Timor, yang dihuni terutama oleh suku-suku dari jenis yang disebut proto-Melayu. Mereka mewakili imigrasi sebelumnya Melayu ke Indonesia dari Asia tenggara dan memiliki penampilan yang jauh lebih sedikit Mongoloid dari penduduk pesisir., Populasi pesisir pulau-pulau barat besar sebagian besar dari jenis Deutero-Melayu rasial. Mereka adalah keturunan bentuk pemukim kemudian Melayu di Indonesia dan menunjukkan ciri-ciri lebih Mongoloid. Perbedaan utama antara kedua subraces Melayu dapat diringkas sebagai berikut: proto-Melayu yang lebih pendek dan memiliki kulit yang lebih gelap, rambut bergelombang semakin terlihat, dan gempal fisik dari Deutero-Melayu, dan fitur wajahnya tidak memiliki mata Mongoloid karakteristik miring dengan di dalam kali lipat pada kelopak mata atas, serta tulang pipi menonjol dari Deutero-Melayu.

Alasan untuk ini divisi yang menarik adalah bahwa awalnya tenggara Asia, tanah air kuno dari Indonesia, dihuni oleh suku-suku yang outlier gelap dan jauh dari masyarakat Eropa. Proto-Melayu, dengan fitur Caucasoid mereka, menunjukkan bukti tentang hal ini keturunan “putih”. Mereka meninggalkan daratan Asia sebelum gerakan yang semakin meningkat dari masyarakat Mongoloid dari utara menyerbu Asia Tenggara, dan, dicampur dengan penduduk tua di sana, secara bertahap mengubah jenis ras dari Caucasoid gelap didominasi Mongoloid. Kedatangan kemudian di Hindia dari wilayah ini adalah semakin lebih Mongolized, dan keturunan hidup mereka tunjukkan di wajah mereka yang lebih luas, tulang pipi tinggi, tegak rambut, dan mata miring lagi. Orang Melayu kemudian mendorong yang sebelumnya kembali ke kabupaten interior, dimana tipe proto-Melayu masih berlaku, dan menduduki tanah pesisir sendiri.

Jauh sebelum ras Melayu menyebar ke dalam pulau, saham manusia lainnya telah menetap di sana. Yang paling awal dari ras kuno mungkin Australoid itu. Jejak jenis Australoid, dengan fitur kasar nya, alis beetling, dan tubuh berbulu, masih dapat dideteksi di Hindia,

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khususnya di pulau-pulau terdekat Australia, rumah yang sekarang ini ras kuno. Dua cabang dari ras bersifat Negro juga hidup di Indonesia di zaman prasejarah. Satu,, bukan tinggi cadang berbingkai, berambut lebat Melanesia atau Kelautan jenis bersifat Negro, kini telah menghilang dari sebagian besar pulau-pulau, tetapi di Timor-Flores zona suku-suku Indonesia timur tertentu masih relatif murni melestarikan ciri Melanesia. Pusat permukiman bersifat Negro Melanesia telah lama sejak pindah ke timur, di luar New Guinea, untuk Solomon, Hebrides Baru, Fijis, dan Kaledonia Baru. Jenis bersifat Negro lain, yang disebut Negrito atau kerdil Negro, masih bertahan di bagian timur Sumatera, Timor, Alor, dan pegunungan New Guinea. Lain Negrito kelompok ditemukan di Kepulauan Andaman, Malaya, dan Filipina. Salah satu jenis ras lebih kuno Hindia adalah, seperti Negrito, dwarfish dan rapuh. Jenis ini disebut Veddoid memiliki kulit coklat, rambut berombak, dan wajah prognathous dengan dagu surut. Tampaknya menjadi hibrida terhambat bahasa Melayu dan Australoid. Sisa-sisa umat Veddoid menghuni timur Sumatera rawa, sebagian Kalimantan dan Sulawesi, dan pulau-pulau tertentu di Indonesia Timur, terutama Seram. Masyarakat Veddoid lain ditemukan di Ceylon, Malaya, dan Filipina.

Sementara sebagian besar wilayah Indonesia dihuni oleh suku-suku dari ras Melayu, dengan sisa-sisa diselingi dengan sediaan kuno hanya disebutkan, bagian paling timur tidak pernah dicapai oleh migrasi Melayu utama. Di sini, di New Guinea dan pulau-pulau tetangga, saham Papua berlaku. Sepertinya hibrida dari Australoid dan Melanesia bersifat Negro, yang ditandai dengan tubuh kurus dan panjang berkaki, kulit gelap, dan wajah sempit dan sudut, dengan bibir tipis dan hidung yang panjang, yang terakhir sering penuh berdaging dan terhubung pada tip. Tubuh adalah berbulu, wajah sering berjenggot, dan keriting rambut kepala. Memang, papua berarti “berambut keriting” dalam bahasa Melayu. Di Maluku, antara Sulawesi dan Papua Nugini, campuran dari Papua dan proto-Melayu jenis telah menghasilkan hibrida yang disebut Alfur, dengan media untuk perawakan tinggi, fisik ramping, sedang untuk kulit coklat gelap, langsung ke rambut bergelombang, yang relatif berbulu tubuh, dan fitur yang bervariasi dari luas berwajah, norma berhidung pesek proto-Melayu ke konformasi Papua berwajah sempit, “Semit” berhidung.

Temperamental KUALITAS
Perbedaan ras yang jelas antara Indonesia bagian barat, yang hampir kokoh Melayu dalam populasi, dan pulau-pulau timur, dihuni oleh saham Papua, yang disejajarkan dengan kontras dalam temperamen manusia. Orang Melayu sangat tenang dan pendiam, sementara orang Papua yang bersemangat dan gencar. Yang pertama adalah apatis dan pensiun, yang mudah menguap yang terakhir

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dan agresif. Voyaging ke arah timur dari Jawa, orang dapat melihat perubahan karakter menjadi semakin lebih nyata, sama seperti ciri-ciri fisik secara bertahap bervariasi dari Melayu menuju Papua itu. Penduduk asli menjadi kurang terkendali, lebih keras, dan lebih banyak bicara, sampai di New Guinea “suasana manusia” mencapai hampir satu ekstrim berlawanan dari negeri orang Melayu tenang dan Jawa. Meskipun perbedaan temperamental menyertai pergeseran ras, itu mungkin tidak biologis, melainkan hasil dari pelatihan yang berbeda dan aturan perilaku.

Bangsa Melayu, secara umum, sangat ramah dan sopan, tidak hanya untuk satu sama lain, tetapi untuk orang asing juga. Orang Papua, di sisi lain, cenderung membuat kesan sebaliknya, dan memang mereka prevailingly kasar dengan cara dan tidak ramah, sering secara terbuka bermusuhan, orang luar. Suku-suku Melayu di pedalaman Kalimantan, Sulawesi, dan Sumatera, juga, masih curiga terhadap kulit putih, dan tidak memiliki kebaikan dari kelompok yang lebih maju. Tapi di antara sekitar 90 persen dari masyarakat Indonesia, salah satu menemukan sebuah keanggunan dan pesona mudah cara tak tertandingi di tempat lain di dunia. Ini berlaku untuk semua lapisan masyarakat, dan yang paling miskin Jawa, menerima orang asing di gubuk yang menyedihkan, bertindak dengan pria sopan alami dan mudah.

Keindahan tubuh berperawakan kecil, berkulit halus Melayu ditingkatkan oleh ketenangan yang paling mengesankan dan martabat. Gerakan yang tenang, tidak terburu-buru, dan anggun, dan bahkan percakapan mudah dan bersuara lembut. Ketenangan dan kedamaian kekal temperamen Melayu tidak menandakan mentalitas kusam, namun. Orang kulit putih cenderung membingungkan sibuk, dengan bisnis, secara kuat dengan pikiran yang tajam. Tapi siapa pun yang telah mengenal masyarakat Indonesia intim, yang berbicara bahasa mereka dan telah bekerja dan tinggal di antara mereka, tidak akan pernah menilai mereka rendah dalam kecerdasan. Semua bukti menunjukkan berisi jelas bahwa mereka, rata-rata, cukup sama dalam kapasitas mental untuk kulit putih atau ras lainnya. Apapun perbedaan yang ada adalah karena kesenjangan dalam pelatihan dan pendidikan.

SEJARAH
Sejarah mencatat di Indonesia dimulai pada prasasti abad kelima Masehi Tersebar di atas batu ditemukan di Jawa dan Kalimantan menunjukkan bahwa saat ini pulau-pulau sedang dijajah oleh pedagang Hindu dan petualang dari India. Catatan-catatan paling awal terdiri dari pendek, referensi terputus untuk para penguasa Hindu negara kolonial di pantai barat dari pulau-pulau besar. Catatan perjalanan dari dua Buddhis Cina peziarah, Fa-Hsien dan I-Tsing, pada abad kelima dan ketujuh, mengatakan negara-negara Hindu mereka kunjungi di Jawa dan Sumatera. Pesisir populasi dari

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pulau-pulau sudah sebagian besar dikonversi ke agama Hindu, baik Brahman-isme atau Buddha, atau, lebih umum, kombinasi dari keduanya.

Setelah abad kedelapan, prasasti batu menjadi lebih banyak dan rinci, dan pada abad kesebelas ahli-ahli Taurat dan penyair dari kerajaan Jawa yang menulis sejarah dalam gaya narasi terhubung. Wisatawan India dan Cina sedang rekaman kesan-kesan mereka nusantara, dan komunikasi yang teratur dan perdagangan telah didirikan di seluruh Indonesia bagian barat. Negara-negara Hindu kecil secara bertahap yang bergabung menjadi dua kerajaan kuat: Sriwijaya di selatan Sumatera dan Singosari di Jawa Timur. Sriwijaya diperpanjang dunia yang sampai ke Semenanjung Melayu, dan bahkan terlibat dalam serangkaian perang dengan negara bagian selatan India dan Srilanka pada abad kesebelas dan ketigabelas. Singosari menjadi begitu kuat untuk menantang keunggulan dari Kubilai Khan di Timur selatan, dan pada 1294 tentara yang mengalahkan kekuatan invasi yang besar Cina yang mendarat di pantai Jawa.

Indonesia mencapai “usia emas” dalam abad keempat belas dan kelima belas, ketika setelah perjuangan panjang untuk supremasi kerajaan Jawa Modjopahit, penerus Singosari, Sriwijaya ditundukkan dan diperluas kekuasaannya atas sebagian besar Hindia, Filipina, dan tenggara Asia.

Peradaban Hindu-Jawa abad pertengahan telah meninggalkan kesan yang mendalam pada budaya sekarang Hindia. Reruntuhan kota-kota besar dan kompleks candi masih bisa dilihat di Sumatera dan Jawa, tetapi lebih penting dan abadi telah menjadi pengaruh Hindu pada organisasi sosial, teknologi, agama, dan bahasa. Huruf India Lama masih digunakan di beberapa bagian pulau. Orang-orang Hindu juga meninggalkan jejak mereka pada jenis fisik dari masyarakat Indonesia, tetapi ini benar terutama di distrik-distrik pantai Jawa dan Sumatra, dan terutama di kalangan kelas sosial yang lebih tinggi. Keluarga kerajaan negara-negara asli terutama menunjukkan keturunan India sebagian mereka di bertubuh lebih tinggi, kaki panjang, kepala sempit, dan fitur lebih halus dari jangka umum orang biasa.

Penurunan kekaisaran Modjopahit terjadi kebetulan dengan penyebaran agama Islam di bagian barat Indonesia. Islam, dibawa dari India ke Malaya dan Sumatra pada abad kedua belas dan ketiga belas, cepat diperluas selama pemerintah-pengikut Modjopahit di Sumatera dan Jawa bagian barat. Pemberontakan melawan tuan Hindu di Jawa Timur meningkat dalam tingkat dan kekerasan, sampai, akhir abad kelima belas, benteng terakhir dari rezim lama jatuh sebelum serangan pemberontak Islamisasi.

Agama Islam dengan demikian menggantikan Hindu sebagai agama dominan Hindia. Hanya dalam satu tempat, Pulau Bali, memiliki kultus tua selamat.

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Hari ini Bali adalah jenis barang museum, replika hidup pada abad keempat belas Jawa.

Kejatuhan Modjopahit juga menandai akhir dari apa pun kesatuan politik telah dicapai di pulau-pulau. Di tempat kerajaan tunggal dengan pemerintah-pengikut, sebagian besar kepulauan itu dibagi menjadi sejumlah kecil negara, semua Islam dalam agama, tapi terlibat dalam perang konstan dan satu intrik terhadap yang lain. Akibatnya, ketika orang Eropa pertama kali muncul di Hindia, mereka menemukan tidak ada daya yang kuat tunggal, tetapi hanya fragmen yang rusak dari kerajaan sebelumnya. Itu relatif mudah bagi pendatang baru, oleh karena itu, untuk menundukkan negara-negara lemah satu per satu atau, seperti sering terjadi, bersekutu dengan satu penguasa terhadap yang lain, akhirnya menaklukkan keduanya. Indonesia, terpecah belah, sehingga jatuh korban yang mudah ke desain imperialistik dari kulit putih, yang, memang, menghabiskan lebih banyak upaya dalam memerangi antara mereka sendiri daripada terhadap negara-negara asli.

Orang Portugis datang pertama, membangun diri mereka di Malaka, di Semenanjung Melayu, di 1510. Beroperasi dari basis dan berlayar di bawah arahan pilot Melayu yang mengenal lautan Hindia, mereka digantikan oleh 1521 dalam mendirikan pos perdagangan di Maluku atau di Spice Kepulauan Tidore, Ternate, dan Banda. Pada 1580 Portugal bersatu dengan Spanyol, dan Spanyol mengambil alih kepemilikan Portugis di Maluku, menambahkan mereka ke koloni Filipina.

Kekuatan laut Spanyol ditakdirkan oleh kekalahan Armada Besar di 1588, dan Inggris dan Belanda menjadi saingan untuk menguasai Hindia. Pada tahun 1650, Belanda master virtual dari pulau, dan perdagangan Inggris dibatasi untuk negara asli tertentu di Indonesia bagian barat dengan mana Inggris East India Company memiliki kontrak komersial. Orang Spanyol telah mundur ke Filipina, sedangkan Portugis diadakan hanya sisa wilayah mereka sebelumnya di bagian timur Timor.

Dari 1650-1910 Belanda metodis pergi tentang bisnis memperluas dan memperkuat kontrol mereka atas Hindia, sampai dengan tanggal terakhir semua hambatan asli terorganisir sudah teratasi. Kebijakan Belanda East India Company bukan untuk menggulingkan penguasa pribumi kecuali mereka keras kepala keras, melainkan untuk memerintah melalui mereka. Orang Belanda tertarik untuk hak perdagangan bukan tugas mengatur dan bersedia untuk memungkinkan penguasa apapun untuk tetap berkuasa dengan ketentuan bahwa ia diberi hak istimewa mereka komersial. Sistem pemerintahan tidak langsung melalui pangeran asli, seperti akan kita lihat, tetap menjadi unsur dominan dalam administrasi kolonial Belanda.

Meskipun keengganan mereka, bagaimanapun, orang Belanda terpaksa mengganggu lebih dan lebih dalam pemerintah daerah untuk menjamin monopoli mereka perdagangan. Ini tengkar meningkat dalam politik dan internal

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perang akhirnya merusak stabilitas keuangan Perusahaan India Timur, dan serangkaian kerugian perdagangan melemah lebih jauh. Akhirnya, perang dengan Inggris pada tahun 1780 dan 1795, yang terakhir memblokade perdagangan Jawa, disegel azab Perseroan; dan tahun 1798 itu dibubarkan, bangkrut.

Hampir tidak pernah Belanda mulai menata kembali administrasi kepulauan ketika, pada tahun 1806, Belanda sendiri diduduki oleh Perancis di bawah Napoleon. Untuk memastikan bahwa Hindia juga tidak seharusnya. jatuh ke Perancis, dan dengan persetujuan dan dorongan dari pengasingan Belanda Raja di Inggris, British Far Eastern pasukan merebut seluruh kepulauan pada tahun 1811.

Pendudukan Inggris berakhir tahun 1818, dan perjanjian 1824 didefinisikan wilayah Inggris dan Belanda di Asia selatan dan pulau-pulau. Belanda menyerahkan semua klaim ke Semenanjung Melayu, sedangkan Inggris pada gilirannya melepaskan kepemilikan beberapa mereka yang tersisa di Sumatera. Belanda adalah untuk memiliki tangan yang bebas dalam pulau-pulau, Inggris hak penuh di daratan Asia.

Ketika Belanda kembali ke Hindia pada 1818, mereka mulai segera pada tugas menciptakan ketertiban efisien untuk wilayah pulau mereka. Pekerjaan ini memakan waktu hampir seratus tahun, dan melibatkan mereka dalam rangkaian panjang perang lokal dan ekspedisi ke pelosok nusantara. Sepanjang abad kesembilan belas hampir setahun berlalu tanpa peperangan di beberapa bagian dari Hindia.

Orang Belanda menghadapi dua jenis situasi antara kelompok pribumi dengan siapa mereka harus berurusan. Distrik-distrik pesisir semua atau sebagian besar pulau-pulau didominasi oleh negara-negara asli, sementara daerah pedalaman, terutama di pulau-pulau besar, yang dihuni oleh independen, suku-suku yang terorganisir secara longgar, tanpa kekuatan yang mengatur terpusat. Dalam berurusan dengan para pangeran asli, Pemerintah Belanda mengikuti pola yang ditetapkan oleh Perusahaan India Timur tua. Di setiap negara bagian upaya yang dilakukan untuk menjaga kedaulatan memerintah dalam kekuasaan dan memerintah melalui dia. Hanya ketika seorang sultan atau radja terbukti berbahaya atau tidak kooperatif adalah cara-cara militer digunakan untuk menggulingkan dia dan baik menginstal pengganti cocok atau menempatkan wilayah di bawah pemerintahan langsung. Bahkan dalam hal yang terakhir, bagaimanapun, para kepala lebih rendah dari kabupaten dan desa biasanya dipertahankan dan dibayar gaji oleh Belanda. Di wilayah suku pedalaman, di mana tidak ada organisasi negara ada, pemerintahan langsung diperkenalkan segera setelah penggabungan suatu daerah ke dalam sistem kolonial. Di sini sekali lagi, sejauh mungkin, kepala suku pribumi tetap berkuasa atas umat mereka, yang diperlukan hanya untuk membuktikan kesetiaan mereka kepada pemerintahan baru.

Hingga tahun 1910 tenaga kerja panjang penaklukan dan organisasi itu hampir selesai, dan semua bagian dari Hindia berada di bawah kontrol Belanda. Selama 30 tahun setelah itu, perdamaian memerintah di pulau-pulau, sampai pada tahun 1941 perang di

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skala vaster dari sebelumnya menyapu atas mereka, meninggalkan Jepang berkuasa di seluruh wilayah seluruh dari Sumatra ke New Guinea.

DIVISI UTAMA DAN MASYARAKAT
Dalam membahas daerah primitif di dunia, adalah kebiasaan untuk merujuk pada kelompok sosial yang lebih besar sebagai suku. Secara keseluruhan, sekitar 130 terpisah India Timur suku bisa disebutkan, tapi banyak dari mereka yang begitu besar sehingga mereka lebih baik mungkin akan ditunjuk sebagai bangsa atau masyarakat. Dalam sinopsis berikut satu daerah utama dan masyarakat, angka populasi didasarkan pada sensus 1930 Hindia. Invasi Jepang mengganggu publikasi statistik rinci untuk 1940. Peta-peta terlampir menunjukkan lokasi dari berbagai pulau dan masyarakat yang disebutkan dalam teks.

Hindia dibagi secara geografis menjadi empat bagian utama:

Sunda Raya Kepulauan, termasuk Sumatera, Jawa, Kalimantan, dan Sulawesi.
The Lesser Sunda Islands, termasuk yang tersebar di timur dari Bali ke Timor.
Maluku, termasuk pulau-pulau yang tersebar dan kelompok pulau terletak di antara Sulawesi dan Timor di sebelah barat dan New Guinea di sebelah timur.
Belanda Baru Guinea.1
Sumatera -. Pulau, paling barat Hindia, memiliki luas sekitar 180.000 mil persegi, termasuk pulau-pulau yang berdekatan yang lebih kecil di lepas pantai timur dan barat. Sumatra adalah sekitar ukuran California dan kira-kira sama dalam bentuk. Bagian barat terdiri dari rantai pegunungan yang membentang dari satu ujung ke ujung. Satu danau yang besar, Toba, dan beberapa yang lebih kecil terletak pada lipatan pegunungan, dan beberapa lahan pertanian terbaik dari pulau itu ditemukan di lembah-lembah dataran tinggi dan dataran tinggi. Dua puluh lima vulkanik puncak pada berbagai tahapan kenaikan aktivitas sepanjang cordillera Sumatera besar. Gunung-gunung kerumunan para pesisir yang sempit di sisi barat pulau, tapi lereng timur mereka lebih bertahap, dan di sini mereka memberi jalan pertama untuk kaki bukit dan kemudian, khususnya di Sumatera bagian selatan, untuk membentang luas tanah rawa yang tak tertembus. Rawa membuat banyak bagian timur pulau itu hampir dihuni.

Jalan yang sangat baik menghubungkan kota-kota utama di Sumatera, dan adalah mungkin untuk melakukan perjalanan dengan Motorcar dari ujung utara ke ujung selatan. Hanya peregangan miskin di jalan raya utara-selatan hanya selatan pusat, di mana jalan baru-baru ini telah dibuka untuk lalu lintas normal. Tiga jalur kereta api tidak berhubungan adalah, atau tidak, dalam operasi. Satu meluas

 RACIAL STOCKS

The Indies are the homeland of the Malay branch of the Mongoloid, or yellow, race. The Malay type, in general, is characterized by very short stature (5 feet 2 or 3 inches for males), brown skin, straight or wavy black hair, a flat face with wide nose and lips of medium thickness, and a slender build. There is little growth of hair on face or body. Most of Indonesia, with the exception of the extreme eastern islands and certain isolated sections elsewhere, is inhabited by peoples of the Malay race, which also spreads up into the Philippines and the Malay Peninsula.

Two subdivisions of the Malay stock can be distinguished in the islands. The interior districts, mostly highlands, of Java, Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, as well as the chain of island stretching from Bali to Timor, are peopled mainly by tribes of the so-called proto-Malay type. They represent the earlier Malay immigration into Indonesia from southeastern Asia and have a much less Mongoloid appearance than the coastal dwellers., The seacoast population of the large western islands is mostly of the deutero-Malay racial type. They are descended form the later Malay settlers in Indonesia and show more Mongoloid traits. The principal differences between the two Malay subraces may be summarized as follows: the proto-Malay is shorter and has a darker skin, wavier hair, and stockier physique than the deutero-Malay, and his facial features lack the characteristic Mongoloid slanting eye with inside fold on the upper eyelid, as well as the prominent cheekbones of the deutero-Malay.

The reason for this interesting division is that originally southeastern Asia, the ancient homeland of the Indonesians, was inhabited by tribes who were dark and distant outliers of the European peoples. The proto-Malays, with their Caucasoid features, show evidence of this “white” ancestry. They left the Asiatic mainland before an ever increasing movement of Mongoloid peoples from the north invaded southeastern Asia, and, mixing with the old inhabitants there, gradually changed the racial type from dark Caucasoid to predominantly Mongoloid. The later arrivals in the Indies from this region were progressively more Mongolized, and their living descendants show this in their wider faces, higher cheekbones, straighter hair, and more slanting eyes. The later Malays pushed the earlier ones back into the interior districts, where the proto-Malay type still prevails, and occupied the coastal lands themselves.

Long before the Malay race spread down into the islands, other human stocks had settled there. The earliest of these archaic races was probably the Australoid. Traces of the Australoid type, with its coarse features, beetling brows, and hairy body, can still be detected in the Indies,

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particularly in the islands nearest Australia, the present home of this ancient race. Two branches of the Negroid race also lived in Indonesia in prehistoric times. One, the rather tall, spare-framed, bushy-haired Melanesian or Oceanic Negroid type, has now disappeared from most of the islands; but in the Timor-Flores zone of eastern Indonesia certain tribes still preserve relatively pure Melanesian traits. The center of Melanesian Negroid habitation has long since moved eastward, beyond New Guinea, to the Solomons, the New Hebrides, the Fijis, and New Caledonia. The other Negroid type, the so-called Negrito or dwarf Negro, still survives in sections of eastern Sumatra, Timor, Alor, and the mountains of New Guinea. Other Negrito groups are found in the Andaman Islands, Malaya, and the Philippines. One more archaic racial type of the Indies is, like the Negrito, dwarfish and frail. This so-called Veddoid strain has brown skin, wavy hair, and a prognathous face with receding chin. It appears to be a stunted hybrid of Malay and Australoid. Remnants of the Veddoid race inhabit the east Sumatra swamplands, parts of Borneo and Celebes, and certain islands of eastern Indonesia, notably Ceram. Other Veddoid peoples are found in Ceylon, Malaya, and the Philippines.

While most of Indonesia is peopled by tribes of the Malay race, with interspersed remnants of the archaic stocks just mentioned, the most easterly sections were never reached by the main Malay migrations. Here, in New Guinea and neighboring islands, the Papuan stock prevails. It looks like a hybrid of Australoid and Melanesian Negroid, being characterized by a lanky and long-limbed body, dark skin, and a narrow and angular face, with thin lips and a long nose, the latter often full-fleshed and hooked at the tip. The body is hairy, the face frequently bearded, and the head hair frizzy. Indeed, papua means “frizzy-haired” in the Malay language. In the Moluccas, between Celebes and New Guinea, intermixture of the Papuan and proto-Malay types has produced the so-called Alfur hybrid, with medium to tall stature, slender physique, medium to dark brown skin, straight to wavy hair, a relatively hairy body, and features varying from the broad-faced, flat-nosed proto-Malay norm to the narrow-faced, “semitic”-nosed Papuan conformation.

TEMPERAMENTAL QUALITIES

The marked racial difference between western Indonesia, which is almost solidly Malay in population, and the eastern islands, inhabited by the Papuan stock, is paralleled by a contrast in human temperament. The Malays are very sedate and reserved, while the Papuans are excitable and vociferous. The former are phlegmatic and retiring, the latter volatile

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and aggressive. Voyaging eastward from Java, one can see the change in character becoming progressively more marked, just as the physical traits gradually vary from the Malay toward the Papuan. The natives become less restrained, louder, and more loquacious, until in New Guinea the “human atmosphere” reaches almost an opposite extreme from the land of the serene Malays and Javanese. Although the temperamental difference accompanies a shift in race, it is probably not biologically determined, but rather a result of divergent training and rules of behavior.

The Malay peoples are, in general, remarkably friendly and polite, not only to one another, but to strangers as well. The Papuans, on the other hand, are likely to make a contrary impression, and indeed they are prevailingly rough in manner and unfriendly, often openly hostile, to outsiders. The Malay tribes of interior Borneo, Celebes, and Sumatra, also, are still suspicious of whites, and lack the cordiality of the more advanced groups. But among about 90 percent of the Indonesian peoples, one encounters an easy graciousness and charm of manner unsurpassed anywhere else in the world. This applies to all levels of society, and the poorest Javanese, receiving a stranger in his miserable hut, acts the courteous gentleman naturally and effortlessly.

The beauty of the small-boned, smooth-skinned Malay body is enhanced by a most impressive poise and dignity. Movements are calm, unhurried, and graceful, and even conversation is easy and soft-spoken. The quiet and repose of the Malay temperament do not signify a dull mentality, however. The white man is apt to confuse bustle with business, a forceful manner with a sharp mind. But anyone who has come to know the Indonesian people intimately, who speaks their language and has worked and lived among them, would never rate them low in intelligence. All unbiased evidence indicates clearly that they are, on the average, quite equal in mental capacity to whites or any other race. Whatever differences exist are due to inequalities in training and education.

HISTORY

The recorded history of Indonesia begins in the fifth century A.D. Scattered inscriptions on stone discovered in Java and Borneo indicate that at this time the islands were being colonized by Hindu traders and adventurers from India. These earliest records consist of short, disconnected references to the rulers of Hindu colonial states on the coasts of the large western islands. The travel notes of two Chinese Buddhist pilgrims, Fa-Hsien and I-Tsing, in the fifth and seventh centuries, tell of the Hindu states they visited in Java and Sumatra. The coastal populations of these

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islands were already largely converted to Hindu religion, either Brahman-ism or Buddhism, or, more commonly, combinations of both.

After the eighth century, stone inscriptions become more plentiful and detailed, and by the eleventh century the scribes and poets of the Javanese royal courts were writing chronicles in connected narrative style. Indian and Chinese travelers were recording their impressions of the archipelago, and regular communication and trade had been established throughout western Indonesia. The small Hinduized states were gradually being merged into two powerful empires: Shrivijaya in southern Sumatra and Singosari in eastern Java. Shrivijaya extended its realm up into the Malay Peninsula, and even engaged in a series of wars with the states of southern India and Ceylon in the eleventh and thirteenth centuries. Singosari became so strong as to challenge the preeminence of Kublai Khan in the southern Orient, and in 1294 its armies defeated a great Chinese invasion force that landed on the coast of Java.

Indonesia reached its “golden age” in the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, when after a long struggle for supremacy the Javanese empire of Modjopahit, successor to Singosari, subjugated Shrivijaya and extended its rule over most of the Indies, the Philippines, and southeastern Asia.

The medieval Hindu-Javanese civilization has left a deep impress on the present culture of the Indies. The ruins of great cities and temple complexes can still be seen in Sumatra and Java; but more important and lasting have been the Hindu influences on social organization, technology, religion, and language. Old Indian alphabets are still used in several parts of the islands. The Hindus have also left their mark on the physical type of the people of Indonesia, but this is true mainly in the coastal districts of Java and Sumatra, and principally among the higher social classes. The royal families of the native states especially show their partial Indian ancestry in taller stature, longer limbs, narrower heads, and finer features than the general run of common folk.

The decline of the Modjopahit empire occurred coincidentally with the spread of Mohammedanism over western Indonesia. Islam, brought from India to Malaya and Sumatra in the twelfth and thirteenth centuries, swiftly expanded over the vassal principalities of Modjopahit in Sumatra and western Java. Rebellions against the Hinduist overlord in eastern Java increased in extent and violence, until, late in the fifteenth century, the last stronghold of the old regime fell before the attacks of the Islamized rebels.

Mohammedanism thus replaced Hinduism as the dominant religion of the Indies. In only one place, the island of Bali, has the old cult survived.

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Today Bali is a kind of museum piece, a living replica of fourteenth-century Java.

The downfall of Modjopahit also marked the end of whatever political unity had been attained in the islands. In place of the single empire with its vassal principalities, most of the archipelago was split up into scores of petty states, all Mohammedan in religion, but engaged in constant war and intrigue one against another. Consequently, when Europeans first appeared in the Indies, they found there no single strong power, but merely the broken fragments of the former empire. It was relatively easy for the newcomers, therefore, to subjugate these weak states one by one or, as frequently happened, ally themselves with one ruler against another, eventually subjugating both. Indonesia, disunited, thus fell easy prey to the imperialistic designs of the whites, who, indeed, spent more effort in fighting among themselves than against the native states.

The Portuguese came in first, establishing themselves in Malacca, on the Malay Peninsula, in 1510. Operating out of this base and sailing under the direction of Malay pilots who knew the seas of the Indies, they succeeded by 1521 in setting up trading posts in the Moluccas or Spice Islands at Tidore, Ternate, and Banda. In 1580 Portugal was united with Spain, and the Spanish took over the Portuguese holdings in the Moluccas, adding them to the Philippine colonies.

Spain’s sea power was doomed by the defeat of the Great Armada in 1588, and the British and Dutch became rivals for control of the Indies. By 1650, the Dutch were virtual masters of the islands, and British trade was restricted to certain native states in western Indonesia with which the English East India Company had commercial contracts. The Spanish had retreated to the Philippines; the Portuguese held only a remnant of their former territory in the eastern half of Timor.

From 1650 to 1910 the Dutch methodically went about the business of extending and solidifying their control over the Indies, until by the latter date all organized native resistance had been overcome. The policy of the Netherlands East India Company was not to depose native rulers unless they were stubbornly intractable, but rather to rule through them. The Hollanders were interested in trading rights rather than governing duties and were willing to allow any potentate to stay in power provided that he granted them commercial privileges. This system of indirect rule through native princes, as we shall see, has remained a dominant element in Dutch colonial administration.

Despite their reluctance, however, the Netherlanders were forced to interfere more and more in local government in order to insure their monopoly of trade. This increasing embroilment in politics and internal

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warfare eventually undermined the financial stability of the East India Company, and a series of trade losses weakened it even further. Finally, wars with England in 1780 and 1795, the latter blockading the Java trade, sealed the doom of the Company; and in 1798 it was dissolved, bankrupt.

Hardly had the Dutch begun to reorganize the administration of the islands when, in 1806, Holland itself was occupied by the French under Napoleon. To ensure that the Indies also should not. fall to France, and with the consent and encouragement of the exiled Dutch King in England, British Far Eastern forces seized the whole archipelago in 1811.

The British occupation ended in 1818, and a treaty of 1824 defined the territories of England and Holland in southern Asia and the islands. The Dutch surrendered all claims to the Malay Peninsula, while the British in turn relinquished their few remaining holdings in Sumatra. Holland was to have a free hand in the islands, Britain full rights on the Asiatic mainland.

When the Dutch returned to the Indies in 1818, they started immediately on the task of bringing efficient order to their island realm. The job took almost a hundred years, and involved them in a long series of local wars and expeditions to the far reaches of the archipelago. All through the nineteenth century hardly a year passed without warfare in some part of the Indies.

The Hollanders faced two types of situation among the native groups with whom they had to deal. The coastal districts of all or most of the islands were dominated by native states, while the interior regions, especially in the larger islands, were inhabited by independent, loosely organized tribes, with no centralized governing power. In its dealings with the native princes, the Netherlands Government followed the pattern set by the old East India Company. In every state an attempt was made to keep the reigning sovereign in power and to rule through him. Only when a sultan or radja proved treacherous or uncooperative were military means employed to depose him and either install a suitable substitute or put the territory under direct administration. Even in the latter event, however, the lesser chiefs of districts and villages were usually retained and paid salaries by the Dutch. In the interior tribal areas, where no state organization existed, direct rule was introduced immediately after incorporation of a region into the colonial system. Here again, as far as possible, the native chieftains were kept in power over their people, being required only to prove their loyalty to the new administration.

By 1910 the long labor of conquest and organization was virtually completed, and all parts of the Indies were under Dutch control. For 30 years thereafter, peace reigned in the islands, until in 1941 war on a

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vaster scale than ever before swept over them, leaving the Japanese in power throughout the entire area from Sumatra to New Guinea.

MAIN DIVISIONS AND PEOPLES

In discussing primitive areas of the world, it is customary to refer to the larger social groupings as tribes. In all, about 130 separate East Indian tribes could be enumerated, but many of them are so large that they might better be designated as nations or peoples. In the following synopsis of the principal areas and peoples, the population figures are based upon the 1930 census of the Indies. The Japanese invasion interfered with the publication of detailed statistics for 1940. The accompanying maps show the locations of the various islands and peoples mentioned in the text.

The Indies are divided geographically into four main sections:

  1. The Greater Sunda Islands, including Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and Celebes.
  2. The Lesser Sunda Islands, including those extending east from Bali to Timor.
  3. The Moluccas, including the scattered islands and island groups lying between Celebes and Timor to the west and New Guinea to the east.
  4. Dutch New Guinea.1

Sumatra.–This island, westernmost of the Indies, has an area of about 180,000 square miles, including the smaller adjacent islands off the east and west coasts. Sumatra is approximately the size of California and roughly similar in shape. The western half consists of a mountain chain that runs from one end to the other. One great lake, Toba, and several smaller ones lie in the folds of the mountains, and some of the finest agricultural land of the island is found in the highland valleys and plateaus. Twenty-five volcanic peaks in various phases of activity rise along the great Sumatran cordillera. The mountains crowd the narrow coastland on the western side of the island, but their eastern slopes are more gradual, and here they give way first to foothills and then, especially in southern Sumatra, to vast stretches of impenetrable marshland. Swamps make much of the eastern half of the island virtually uninhabitable.

Excellent roads connect the main towns of Sumatra, and it is possible to travel by motorcar from the northern tip to the southern extremity. The only poor stretches on the north-south highway are just south of the center, where the road has only recently been opened to normal traffic. Three unconnected railway lines are, or were, in operation. One extends

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sepanjang pantai timur laut dari ujung utara ke titik sekitar sepertiga dari jalan ke bawah pantai. Garis lain berjalan dari pelabuhan Emmahaven, di pantai barat, pedalaman untuk jarak pendek ke dataran tinggi. Sistem kereta api ketiga menghubungkan Palembang, Sumatra Selatan, dengan interior dan dengan pelabuhan Telokbetong di ujung selatan pulau. Tiga kota utama Sumatera – Medan, Padang, dan Palembang – berada, masing-masing, di pantai timur, pantai barat, dan kereta api selatan.

Populasi Sumatera dan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan total sekitar 8.000.000. Di pulau yang tepat, ada tujuh kelompok suku utama. Yang paling primitif adalah Kubu nomaden suku-suku di rawa timur dan tenggara. Mereka saham Veddoid, dan bersama-sama populasi mereka tidak melebihi 25.000. Pada tingkat “menengah” kebudayaan berdiri tiga proto-Melayu kompleks suku dari dataran tinggi interior. Paling selatan yang satunya adalah Redjang-Lampung kompleks, yang gabungan populasi total sekitar 500.000. Sebagian besar suku ini telah Mohammedanized, tapi budaya umum mereka masih mempertahankan unsur-unsur kuno. Batak dari Sumatera tengah hidup di negara yang tinggi berpusat pada danau besar Toba. Mereka total sepenuhnya 1.000.000. Sebelumnya kanibal, mereka masih terus untuk sebagian besar kebudayaan tradisional mereka, meskipun fakta bahwa ribuan dari mereka telah menjadi Kristen. Mereka tidak pernah menerima Islam, dan kebanyakan dari mereka tetap kafir dalam agama. Yang ketiga dari proto-Melayu masyarakat dataran tinggi Gayo adalah Alas-suku pedalaman Sumatra Utara, yang jumlah sekitar 50.000. Lebih terisolasi dari Batak, namun mereka telah dikonversi ke agama Islam. Dalam hal lain budaya mereka sangat primitif.

Tiga orang yang paling maju dari Sumatera adalah Deutero-Melayu Aceh dan Pesisir Melayu, dan proto-dan dicampur Deutero-Melayu Minangkabau. Orang Aceh fanatik Islam mendiami pantai-tanah utara Sumatera pada kedua sisi timur dan barat. Jumlah mereka sekitar 750.000. Mereka adalah penduduk asli terakhir yang ditundukkan oleh Belanda, setelah pergulatan mati-matian yang berlangsung 1873-1910. Mereka masih membenci orang Belanda dan termasuk di antara orang-orang sangat sedikit di Indonesia dari siapa ketidaksetiaan langsung bisa diharapkan. Orang Melayu Pesisir adalah kelompok pribumi terbesar di Sumatera, sebanyak 3.500.000. Wilayah mereka meliputi pesisir timur seluruh dari perbatasan Aceh ke Kabupaten Lampung di ujung selatan. Orang Melayu British Malaya, di seberang Selat Malaka, termasuk dalam kelompok umum yang sama seperti orang Melayu Sumatera. Jumlah besar yang terakhir telah menetap kesultanan-kesultanan pesisir Kalimantan dan bagian lain banyak dari Hindia. Mereka adalah yang paling luas dari semua rakyat Indonesia, dan bahasa mereka telah menjadi

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umum lingua franca di seluruh nusantara. Seperti Aceh, mereka adalah Islam, meskipun jauh lebih sedikit serius tentang agama mereka daripada fanatik Sumatera utara. Orang Minangkabau, tinggal di pusat dataran tinggi selatan Batak, jumlahnya sekitar 2.000.000. Mereka adalah orang giat, dengan budaya canggih yang tetap mempertahankan elemen-elemen kuno, seperti yang disebut “keluarga ibu,” di mana keturunan, warisan, dan suksesi untuk keadaan kepala suku mengikuti garis perempuan. Mereka adalah orang Islam, dan di antara para penghasut yang paling aktif untuk pemerintahan sendiri di Hindia.

Nias, Kepulauan Mentawei, dan Engano, pulau-pulau terpencil di lepas pantai barat Sumatera, dihuni oleh primitif proto-Melayu dengan jenis yang sangat kuno dari budaya. Kecuali untuk Niassans, yang sebagian dikristenkan, semua suku ini tetap kafir. Populasi Nias adalah sekitar 200.000; Mentawei, 10.000, dan Engano, 300. Para Enganese adalah salah satu suku beberapa Indonesia yang jumlahnya telah menurun sejak kontak pertama dengan kulit putih. Epidemi penyakit sengit impor telah menjadi penyebab utama penurunan tersebut.

Timur Sumatera pesisir dan pantai seberang Malaya adalah zona utama distribusi dari kelompok yang luar biasa dari maritim pengembara yang menghabiskan sebagian besar hidup mereka di perahu mereka. Disebut Laut Orang atau “Laut Gipsi,” mereka juga ditemui di bagian lain Hindia sejauh timur seperti Maluku. Populasi total di seluruh Indonesia mungkin tidak melebihi 10.000.

Java -. Meskipun adalah yang terkecil dari Greater Sunda Islands, Jawa, Madura dengan berdekatan, adalah bagian paling penting dari Hindia. Ini adalah jantung dari pulau-pulau, pusat pemerintahan, perdagangan populasi, dan. Wilayahnya seluas 50.000 mil persegi secara kasar setara dengan yang ada di New York State, tetapi penduduknya mencapai jumlah mengejutkan dari 40.000.000 pada tahun 1930, dan sekarang mungkin telah meningkat menjadi hampir 50.000.000.

Topografi Jawa sama dengan Sumatera. Bagian selatan merupakan rantai pegunungan yang berkelanjutan; bagian utara terdiri dari kaki bukit dan dataran. Tapi lembah-lembah yang lebih luas, dataran yang lebih luas, gunung lereng lebih bertahap, dan ada tanah kosong jauh lebih sedikit dari rawa di Sumatera. Akibatnya proporsi yang jauh lebih besar dari daerah tersebut berguna huni dan budidaya. Memang, Java adalah salah satu daerah yang paling subur dan produktif di seluruh dunia. Tanahnya sebagian besar asal vulkanik, dan 35 puncak gunung adalah gunung api di berbagai tahap kegiatan.

Sebuah jaringan yang sangat baik dari jalan raya dan rel kereta api mencakup pulau, dan hampir setiap bagian mudah diakses. Hanya di sudut barat daya dan ekstremitas timur jauh adalah perjalanan yang sulit, dan bahkan dalam

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Gambar. 3 – Masyarakat Jawa.

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distrik pusat-pusat utama penduduk dihubungkan oleh jalan. Batavia, ibukota dan kota terbesar Hindia, memiliki populasi lebih dari 450.000, dan sebagian besar kota-kota besar lainnya nusantara berlokasi di Jawa, di antaranya Surabaya, Semarang, Cirebon, dan Bandung.

Konsentrasi terbesar kelompok asing terjadi di pulau, di mana 80 persen dari seluruh populasi putih Hindia dan setengah dari Cina tinggal di 1940. Namun jumlah orang luar untuk pales tidak penting dalam menghadapi penduduk asli yang sangat besar. Kelompok pribumi terbesar adalah Jawa benar, yang mendiami hampir semua wilayah timur dan tengah, dan memperpanjang sepanjang pesisir barat laut. Mereka berjumlah hampir 27.000.000. Orang Sunda, yang diam di dataran tinggi barat daya Jawa, nomor 8.500.000. Orang Madura, yang tanah air adalah pulau Madura, telah tersebar di bagian besar pantai timur laut Jawa. Populasi mereka adalah sekitar 4.500.000. Dua suku yang sangat kecil lain hidup terpencil di bagian dataran tinggi terpencil di pulau itu: masyarakat Tengger, sebesar 10.000, di Jawa Timur, dan Baduy, sebuah 1.200 belaka, di bagian barat. Sedangkan tiga kelompok utama adalah Islam, kedua orang yang terisolasi masih mempertahankan sebuah agama kuno yang merupakan gabungan dari Hindu dan animisme primitif. Garis-garis perbedaan ras tidak sesuai dengan divisi suku di Jawa, tetapi di kabupaten pesisir jenis fisik dominan adalah Deutero-Melayu, sementara daerah pedalaman ditunjukkan dengan frekuensi jauh lebih tinggi dari saham proto-Melayu. Dengan demikian orang Jawa dan Madura benar milik terutama untuk jenis kemudian Melayu lebih Mongoloid, sedangkan Sunda, Tengger, dan Baduy memiliki frekuensi tinggi dari Caucasoid gelap ciri fisik sebelumnya Melayu.

Kalimantan -. Salah satu bagian yang paling maju Hindia, pulau yang sangat besar sangat jarang dihuni. Wilayahnya dari 290.000 mil persegi mendukung penduduk hanya 2.500.000. Dalam ukuran ini dapat disamakan dengan Texas dan Oklahoma digabungkan.

Sebagian besar pesisir di semua sisi terdiri dari luas, rawa tak tertembus yang memperpanjang jauh di daratan untuk kaki bukit dataran tinggi tengah. Interior yang berbukit-bukit dan di beberapa bagian pegunungan, tetapi ada beberapa puncak sangat tinggi dan tidak ada gunung api sama sekali. Tidak adanya rekening vulkanisme sebagian besar untuk infertilitas tanah. Spurs dari kisaran pusat memperpanjang hampir ke pantai laut di beberapa tempat, tetapi kontur umum perkiraan Kalimantan penampilan topi rendah dimahkotai dengan pinggiran lebar, yang terakhir mewakili tanah rawa basah yang berdering ketinggian sentral di semua sisi.

Daerah barat laut pesisir meliputi wilayah semi-tergantung negara bagian Sarawak dan Brunei, keduanya di bawah kontrol Inggris sampai invasi Jepang. Sarawak, jauh lebih besar, diperintah oleh Brooke

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Gambar. 4 -. Rakyat Kalimantan

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dinasti radjas Inggris, sedangkan kesultanan sedikit Brunei memiliki penguasa pribumi keturunan Melayu. Ekstremitas utara pulau, yang dikenal sebagai Britania Borneo Utara, adalah wilayah hanya di dunia masih dikelola oleh sebuah perusahaan charter, Utara Inggris Kalimantan Perusahaan. Untuk semua tujuan praktis, ketiga wilayah ini difungsikan sebagai koloni Inggris, di bawah yurisdiksi Komisi Tinggi Malaya. Sisanya tiga perempat pulau itu adalah wilayah Belanda.

Kereta api hanya di Kalimantan, kecuali swasta beberapa sepur sempit garis, berjalan untuk jarak sedikit di atas 100 mil di sepanjang pantai Britania Borneo Utara di sisi barat. Jalan juga hampir tidak ada di pulau ini. Ada beberapa peregangan jalan raya di bagian-bagian tertentu dari kabupaten pesisir, tapi mereka memperpanjang untuk jarak pendek saja, dan secara luas terputus satu dari yang lain. Rute utama dari perjalanan dan transportasi, oleh karena itu, terletak di sepanjang jaringan luas sungai dilayari. Satu-satunya kota ukuran yang cukup di seluruh pulau adalah Banjarmasin, di mulut Barito, “Mississippi Kalimantan,” di pantai tenggara.

Rakyat jatuh Borneo menjadi dua divisi besar: penduduk Deutero-Melayu pesisir, berjumlah sekitar 1.000.000, campuran Melayu, Jawa, Bugis, dan kelompok lainnya mengganggu dari tempat lain di Hindia, dan proto-Melayu pribumi, yang seringkali disatukan dengan nama “Dayak.” Ratusan band dan suku dapat dikelompokkan dalam enam kompleks suku, dalam setiap budaya yang serupa. Pada interior dalam mengembara band nomaden milik kompleks Punan, berjumlah sekitar 50.000 di semua. Mereka adalah pemburu dan pengumpul produk liar, dan beberapa dari mereka pernah menetap cukup lama untuk menanam tanaman atau membangun tempat tinggal permanen. Suku-suku Bahau tengah dan timur Borneo memiliki jumlah penduduk sekitar 300.000, dua suku utama menjadi Kayan dan Kenya. Ini adalah pembangun dari rumah panjang Kalimantan terkenal, ratusan meter panjangnya, satu saja dari yang dapat menampung kelompok subtribal keseluruhan. Kompleks Ngadju suku selatan Kalimantan, berjumlah sekitar 400.000, termasuk suku-suku seperti Danom Ot, Maanyan, Lawangan, dan Biadju. Tanah Dayak kompleks barat daya Kalimantan (Landak, Tayan, dll) memiliki jumlah penduduk sebesar 200.000, sedangkan Klamantan kelompok timur laut Kalimantan (Murut, Dusun, Milanau, dll), 300.000; Iban atau “Laut Dayak” dari Sarawak , 200.000. Semua suku-suku asli, dengan pengecualian dari Punan, diselesaikan petani, hidup terutama oleh penanaman padi kering, dengan anak perusahaan berburu dan memancing. Mereka semua berhala dalam agama, dalam budaya primitif umum, dan sebelumnya peringkat di antara para pemburu kepala yang paling terkenal di dunia.

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Celebes -. Pulau berbentuk aneh di sebelah timur Kalimantan memiliki luas wilayah 70.000 mil persegi dan populasi sekitar 4.000.000. Untuk sebagian besar, Sulawesi hanyalah sebuah massa pegunungan, liar jatuh bersama-sama dalam satu lansekap semua sudut yang curam dan profil bergerigi, di sini bahkan rawa-rawa pesisir yang kurang atau sangat sempit. Semua gunung berapi aktif atau baru aktif di pulau, 16 jumlahnya, terletak di ujung semenanjung utara dan di pulau-pulau yang berdekatan. Kecuali untuk daerah ini, bagian hanya benar-benar subur dan baik penduduk dari Sulawesi adalah semenanjung barat daya, yang tidak memiliki gunung berapi aktif tapi memang memiliki tanah vulkanik.

Tidak ada kereta api di Sulawesi, dan jalan raya sedikit kecuali di barat daya ekstrim dan bagian utara ekstrim, di mana jalan memancar dari dua kota yang layak dari nama, Makassar dan Menado. Di tempat lain peregangan singkat jalan telah dibangun di beberapa distrik, tetapi mereka tidak saling berhubungan. Tanpa sungai dilayari baik baik, perjalanan di pedalaman Sulawesi sangat sulit, dan harus dilakukan baik sedang terjadi atau kuda lebih jalan gunung yang sempit.

Ada tujuh kompleks suku di pulau itu. Para Toala, sebuah suku kecil tunggal, belum diselidiki sejak ditemukan sekitar 40 tahun lalu. Saat itu mereka berjumlah hanya sekitar 100, dan tinggal di gua-gua dan pondok kecil di sebuah lembah pegunungan terpencil di Sulawesi barat daya. Sebuah laporan pemerintah dari 1913 menyatakan bahwa kebanyakan dari mereka memiliki tahun yang bergerak turun dari retret dataran tinggi mereka dan tinggal di dekat sebuah pemukiman Bugis. Mereka Veddoid di saham, dan sangat primitif dalam budaya – “orang-orang gua” hanya benar yang pernah ditemukan di Hindia. Bagian tengah Sulawesi dan bagian bawah semenanjung utara dihuni oleh suku-suku Toraja (Palu, Napu, Poso, dll), penomoran 200.000. Selatan negara Toraja, di bagian atas dari semenanjung barat daya, tinggal masyarakat sadang, kadang-kadang disebut Toraja Selatan (Sadang, Seko, Rongkong, dll). Populasi mereka total 500.000. Semenanjung tenggara, dengan pulau-pulau yang berdekatan, adalah rumah dari Mori-Laki suku (Mori, Laki, Muna, dll), dengan jumlah penduduk 200.000. Semenanjung timur dan pulau-pulau tetangga yang dihuni oleh suku-suku Loinang (Loinang, Wana, Banggai, dll), dengan jumlah penduduk 200.000. Keempat kompleks suku memiliki budaya yang terkait. Tipe ras mereka adalah proto-Melayu, dengan unsur-unsur Veddoid muncul terutama di kalangan Loinang dan Mori-Laki kelompok. Sebuah strain Negrito terendam telah terdeteksi di beberapa suku Toraja Barat. Sebelumnya kepala pemburu, kelompok-kelompok interior primitif Sulawesi telah dikonversi dalam jumlah besar ke Kristen, meskipun sebagian besar masih tetap kafir.

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Gambar. 5 -. Rakyat Sulawesi

 


Fig. 2--Peoples of Sumatra
Fig. 2.–Peoples of Sumatra

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along the northeast coast from the northern tip to a point about one-third of the way down the coast. Another line runs from the port of Emmahaven, on the west coast, inland for a short distance into the highlands. The third railway system connects Palembang, in south Sumatra, with the interior and with the port of Telokbetong on the southern extremity of the island. The three main cities of Sumatra–Medan, Padang, and Palembang –are located, respectively, on the east coast, west coast, and southern railways.

The population of Sumatra and adjacent islands totals approximately 8,000,000. On the island proper, there are seven main tribal groups. The most primitive are the nomadic Kubu tribes of the eastern and southeastern marshlands. They are of Veddoid stock, and together their population does not exceed 25,000. On an “intermediate” level of culture stand the three proto-Malay tribal complexes of the interior highlands. The southernmost of these is the Redjang-Lampong complex, whose combined population totals about 500,000. Most of these tribes have been Mohammedanized, but their general culture still retains many ancient elements. The Batak of middle Sumatra live in the lofty country centering on the great lake of Toba. They total fully 1,000,000. Formerly cannibals, they still hold to most of their traditional culture, despite the fact that thousands of them have been converted to Christianity. They never accepted Islam, and most of them remain pagan in religion. The third of the proto-Malay highland peoples are the Gayo-Alas tribes of the interior of northern Sumatra, who number about 50,000. More isolated than the Batak, they have nevertheless been converted to Mohammedanism. In other respects their culture is quite primitive.

The three most advanced peoples of Sumatra are the deutero-Malay Atjehnese and Coastal Malays, and the mixed proto- and deutero-Malay Minangkabau. The fanatically Mohammedan Atjehnese inhabit the coast-land of northern Sumatra on both eastern and western sides. They number approximately 750,000. These were the last natives to be subjugated by the Dutch, after a desperate struggle lasting from 1873 to 1910. They still hate the Hollanders and are among the very few peoples in Indonesia from whom outright disloyalty could be expected. The Coastal Malays are the largest native group in Sumatra, totaling 3,500,000. Their territory covers the entire eastern coastland from the border of Atjeh to the Lampong Districts in the extreme south. The Malays of British Malaya, across the Malacca Straits, belong to the same general group as the Sumatra Malays. Great numbers of the latter have settled the coastal sultanates of Borneo and numerous other sections of the Indies. They are the most widespread of all the Indonesian peoples, and their language has become

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the general lingua franca throughout the archipelago. Like the Atjehnese, they are Mohammedan, though much less serious about their religion than the north Sumatra fanatics. The Minangkabau, living in the central highlands south of the Batak, number about 2,000,000. They are an enterprising people, with an advanced culture that nevertheless retains many ancient elements, such as the so-called “mother family,” in which descent, inheritance, and succession to chieftainship follow the female line. They are Mohammedans, and among the most active agitators for self-government in the Indies.

Nias, the Mentawei Islands, and Engano, isolated islands off the west coast of Sumatra, are inhabited by primitive proto-Malays with very archaic types of culture. Except for the Niassans, who are partially Christianized, all these tribes remain pagan. The population of Nias is about 200,000; Mentawei, 10,000; and Engano, 300. The Enganese are among the few tribes of Indonesia whose numbers have declined since first contact with whites. Fierce epidemics of imported diseases have been the principal cause of the decrease.

The east Sumatra coastland and the opposite shore of Malaya are the primary zone of distribution of a remarkable group of maritime nomads who spend most of their lives in their boats. Called the Orang Laut or “Sea Gypsies,” they are also encountered in other parts of the Indies as far east as the Moluccas. Their total population in all of Indonesia probably does not exceed 10,000.

Java.–Although it is the smallest of the Greater Sunda Islands, Java, with adjacent Madura, is the most important part of the Indies. It is the heart of the islands, the center of government, trade, and population. Its area of 50,000 square miles is roughly equivalent to that of New York State; but its population reached the astounding total of 40,000,000 in 1930, and by now has probably increased to nearly 50,000,000.

The topography of Java is similar to that of Sumatra. The southern half is a continuous mountain chain; the northern half consists of foothills and plains. But the valleys are wider, the plains more extensive, the mountain slopes more gradual, and there is much less swampy wasteland than in Sumatra. Consequently a far greater proportion of the area is useful for habitation and cultivation. Indeed, Java is one of the most fertile and productive regions in the entire world. The soil is largely of volcanic origin, and 35 of the mountain peaks are volcanoes in various stages of activity.

An excellent network of highways and railroads covers the island, and virtually every section is easily accessible. Only in the southwestern corner and the far eastern extremity is travel difficult, and even in these

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Fig. 3--Peoples of Java
Fig. 3.–Peoples of Java

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districts the principal centers of population are linked by roads. Batavia, capital and largest city of the Indies, has a population of over 450,000; and most of the other large cities of the archipelago are located in Java, among them Surabaya, Semarang, Cheribon, and Bandung.

The greatest concentration of foreign groups occurs in this island, where 80 percent of all the white population of the Indies and half of the Chinese lived in 1940. But the number of outsiders pales to insignificance in the face of the enormous native population. The largest indigenous group are the true Javanese, who inhabit nearly all of the eastern and central districts, and extend all along the northwestern coastland. They total almost 27,000,000. The Sundanese, who dwell in the highlands of southwestern Java, number 8,500,000. The Madurese, whose homeland is the island of Madura, have spread over large sections of the northeast coast of Java. Their population is approximately 4,500,000. Two other very small tribes live secluded in remote highland sections of the island: the Tenggerese, totaling 10,000, in eastern Java, and the Badui, a mere 1,200, in the western part. Whereas the three main groups are Mohammedan, these two isolated peoples still retain an ancient religion which is a composite of Hinduism and primitive animism. The lines of racial distinction do not coincide with tribal divisions in Java; but in the coastal districts the physical type is predominantly deutero-Malay, while the interior regions show a much higher frequency of the proto-Malay stock. Thus the true Javanese and Madurese belong mainly to the more Mongoloid later Malay type, while the Sundanese, Tenggerese, and Badui have a high frequency of the dark Caucasoid earlier Malay physical traits.

Borneo.–One of the least developed parts of the Indies, this enormous island is very sparsely inhabited. Its area of 290,000 square miles supports a population of only 2,500,000. In size it is comparable to Texas and Oklahoma combined.

Most of the coastland on all sides consists of vast, impenetrable swamps which extend far inland to the foothills of the central highlands. The interior is hilly and in some sections mountainous, but there are few really high peaks and no volcanoes at all. The absence of volcanism accounts in large part for the infertility of the soil. Spurs of the central range extend almost to the seacoast in a few places, but the general contours of Borneo approximate the appearance of a low-crowned hat with a wide brim, the latter representing the soggy marshland that rings the central elevation on all sides.

The northwestern coastal area comprises the territory of the semi-dependent states of Sarawak and Brunei, both under British control until the Japanese invasion. Sarawak, by far the larger, was ruled by the Brooke

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Fig. 4--Peoples of Borneo
Fig. 4.–Peoples of Borneo

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dynasty of English radjas; while the little sultanate of Brunei had a native ruler of Malay ancestry. The northern extremity of the island, known as British North Borneo, was the only territory in the world still administered by a chartered company, the British North Borneo Company. For all practical purposes, all three of these regions functioned as British colonies, under the jurisdiction of the High Commissioner of Malaya. The remaining three-fourths of the island is Dutch territory.

The only railroad in Borneo, except for a few private narrow-gauge lines, runs for a distance of slightly over 100 miles along the coast of British North Borneo on the western side. Roads also are almost nonexistent in the island. There are a few stretches of highway in certain parts of the coastal districts, but they extend for short distances only, and are widely disconnected one from another. The principal routes of travel and transportation, therefore, lie along the vast network of navigable rivers. The only city of appreciable size in the entire island is Bandjermasin, at the mouth of the Barito, “the Mississippi of Borneo,” on the southeast coast.

The peoples of Borneo fall into two large divisions: the deutero-Malay coastal population, numbering about 1,000,000, a mixture of Malays, Javanese, Buginese, and other intrusive groups from elsewhere in the Indies; and the proto-Malay aborigines, who are often lumped together under the name “Dyak.” The hundreds of bands and tribes may be grouped in six tribal complexes, within each of which the culture is similar. In the deep interior wander bands of nomads belonging to the Punan complex, numbering in all about 50,000. They are hunters and gatherers of wild products, and few of them ever settle down long enough to plant crops or build permanent dwellings. The Bahau tribes of central and eastern Borneo have a total population of approximately 300,000, the two principal tribes being the Kayan and the Kenya. These are the builders of the famed Borneo longhouses, hundreds of feet in length, a single one of which may accommodate a whole subtribal group. The Ngadju tribal complex of south Borneo, numbering about 400,000, includes such tribes as the Ot Danom, Maanyan, Lawangan, and Biadju. The Land Dyak complex of southwestern Borneo (Landak, Tayan, etc.) has a total population of 200,000; the Klamantan group of northeastern Borneo (Murut, Dusun, Milanau, etc.), 300,000; the Iban or “Sea Dyak” of Sarawak, 200,000. All the aboriginal tribes, with exception of the Punan, are settled agriculturists, living mainly by the cultivation of dry rice, with subsidiary hunting and fishing. They are all pagan in religion, primitive in general culture, and formerly ranked among the most notorious head hunters in the world.

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Celebes.–This strangely shaped island to the east of Borneo has an area of 70,000 square miles and a population of about 4,000,000. For the most part, Celebes is simply a mass of mountains, wildly tumbled together in a landscape all steep angles and jagged profiles; here even the coastal swamps are lacking or very narrow. All the active or recently active volcanoes in the island, 16 in number, are located at the tip of the northern peninsula and on the adjacent islands. Except for this area, the only really fertile and well-populated section of Celebes is the southwestern peninsula, which has no active volcanoes but does possess volcanic soil.

There are no railroads in Celebes, and few highways except in the extreme southwestern and extreme northern parts, where roads radiate from the only two cities worthy of the name, Macassar and Menado. Elsewhere short stretches of roadway have been built in a few districts, but they are not interconnected. With no good navigable rivers either, travel in the interior of Celebes is extremely arduous, and must be done either afoot or on horseback over narrow mountain trails.

There are seven tribal complexes in the island. The Toala, a single small tribe, have not been investigated since discovered some 40 years ago. At that time they numbered only about 100, and were living in caves and small huts in a remote mountain valley of southwestern Celebes. A government report of 1913 states that most of them had by that year moved down out of their highland retreat and were dwelling near a Buginese settlement. They are Veddoid in stock, and very primitive in culture–the only true “cave men” ever discovered in the Indies. The central part of Celebes and the lower section of the northern peninsula are inhabited by the Toradja tribes (Palu, Napu, Poso, etc.), numbering 200,000. South of the Toradja country, in the upper part of the southwestern peninsula, dwell the Sadang peoples, sometimes called Southern Toradja (Sadang, Seko, Rongkong, etc.). Their population totals 500,000. The southeastern peninsula, with adjacent islands, is the home of the Mori-Laki tribes (Mori, Laki, Muna, etc.), with a population of 200,000. The eastern peninsula and neighboring islands are inhabited by the Loinang tribes (Loinang, Wana, Banggai, etc.), with a population of 200,000. All four of these tribal complexes have related cultures. Their racial type is proto-Malay, with Veddoid elements appearing especially among the Loinang and Mori-Laki groups. A submerged Negrito strain has been detected in certain western Toradja tribes. Formerly head hunters, these primitive interior groups of Celebes have been converted in great numbers to Christianity, although the majority still remain pagan.

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Fig. 5--Peoples of Celebes
Fig. 5.–Peoples of Celebes

 


Plate 6

Plate 6Above: Native of Larantuka, Flores, in festive attire. The physical type shows a mixture of Melanesian Negroid and Papuan racial traits (e.g., the nose, though wide and flat, has a somewhat depressed and fleshy tip). Photograph by J. Kinst.

Below: Karo Batak girls, Sumatra, de-lousing each other’s hair. This is a common sight in the Indies. Photograph by E. E. Muhs.

Plate 6

 


Plate 7

Plate 7Above: Seti of central Ceram doing a war dance. The physical type is the so-called Alfur, the proto-Malay and Papuan hybrid characteristic of the Moluccas. Courtesy Bataviaasch Genootschap.

Below: Mentawei women fishing, showing leaf clothing. These people cannot weave, but make their garments of either bark cloth or leaves.

Plate 7

 


Plate 8

Plate 8Above: Dyak group, western Borneo, showing weapons and waist rings of brass and rattan worn by women.

Below: Bahau Dyak group, Borneo, showing distended ear lobes, and, center rear, panther-tooth ear ornaments which may be worn only by successful head hunters.

Plate 8

 


Plate 9

Plate 9Above: Balinese beauty.

Below: Balinese girls. In the center, an ikat (tie-dyed) sarong; the other sarongs are batik.

Plate 9

 


Bangsa paling maju di pulau itu adalah proto-Melayu suku kompleks Minahasa-Gorontalo di semenanjung utara dan Deutero-Melayu-Bugis Makassar di barat daya Sulawesi. Minahasa hampir seluruhnya Kristen dalam agama tetapi mempertahankan banyak budaya kuno mereka dalam bentuk lain. Suku-suku lain dari kompleks utara baik Islam (Gorontalo) atau kafir (Bolaang Mongondou, Sangir, Talaut). Jumlah total penduduk Minahasa-orang Gorontalo adalah 500.000. Para Makassar dan Bugis, penomoran 2.500.000, membentuk kelompok populasi terbesar, dan merupakan orang yang dominan dari pulau itu. Sebagian besar kabupaten pesisir dan banyak interior dulunya di bawah kekuasaan radjas mereka. Mereka Islam dalam agama.

The Lesser Sunda Islands – Dengan tanah seluas 35.000 mil persegi dan populasi 3.500.000 gabungan ini rantai kepulauan membentang ke arah timur di sepanjang perbatasan selatan Hindia dari Bali ke Timor.. Medan sepanjang hampir seluruhnya pegunungan, dengan 28 gunung berapi aktif atau baru aktif, 17 dari mereka di pulau Flores saja. Jalan raya baik melintasi bagian dari Bali dan Lombok, tetapi bagian besar hanya bisa diakses lewat jalur gunung. Di sebelah timur kita menemukan beberapa peregangan jalan adil di Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, dan Timor, tetapi Sawu, Roti, dan Alor-Solor Kepulauan memiliki jalan nyata hampir tidak ada. Memang, Bali timur distrik pedalaman semua pulau masih hampir sepenuhnya berkembang dan telah dikunjungi jarang oleh pihak luar. Kota-kota satunya bahkan ukuran moderat di Sunda Kecil adalah Singaradja dan Den Pasar di Bali, Mataram di Lombok, Ende di Flores, dan Kupang dan Dilly di Timor. Tak satu pun dari mencapai populasi 20.000.

Bali, sebuah pulau vulkanik gunung, adalah bagian yang paling subur dan paling padat diselesaikan dari Sunda Kecil, dengan jumlah penduduk 1.200.000, dan seluas 2.300 mil persegi. Dengan pengecualian beberapa ribu apa yang disebut Bali Aga, yang diam di desa-desa pedalaman terpencil dan masih mempertahankan banyak budaya pagan pra-Hindu pulau, semua orang Bali Hindu dalam agama. Bali, memang, adalah semacam barang museum, kelangsungan hidup hidup pada abad keempat belas Jawa. Banyak keluarga yang mulia dan tinggi kasta adalah keturunan dari pengungsi yang melarikan diri Jawa ketika kerajaan lama Modjopahit runtuh. Selain seperti Deutero-Melayu penambahan-penambahan, orang Bali termasuk dalam saham Caucasoid gelap proto-Melayu rasial.

Lombok, sebuah pulau, tinggi vulkanik dari 2.000 mil persegi dengan populasi 700.000, adalah rumah dari tiga kelompok budaya yang berbeda. Kabupaten pesisir barat ditempati oleh Bali, sedikit berbeda dari kerabat mereka di Selat Lombok. Sisa dari pulau ini dihuni oleh suku Sasak, orang Islam yang sebelumnya subjek

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Gambar. 6 -. Kepulauan dan masyarakat dari Sunda Kecil

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untuk pangeran Bali. Terselip di antara Sasak, namun, beberapa ribu Bodha, sebagian besar masih kafir dalam agama dan cukup primitif dalam budaya umum. Ketiga kelompok ini sebagian besar adalah proto-Melayu dalam huruf fisik, meskipun ciri-ciri Veddoid muncul di antara kedua Sasak dan Bodha.

Sumbawa adalah, sebagian pulau vulkanik pegunungan 5.000 mil persegi di daerah, dengan jumlah penduduk 300.000. Hal ini dibagi menjadi empat kesultanan: Sumbawa, Sanggau, Dompo, dan Bima, semua penduduk, dengan pengecualian Do kafir Donggo di pegunungan Bima, adalah Islam. Saham ras dominan adalah proto-Melayu.

Sumba, pulau non-vulkanik dari gunung yang rendah dan dataran tinggi, memiliki luas 5.500 mil persegi dan populasi proto-Melayu dari 100.000. Penduduk asli sebagian besar kafir.

Sawu dan Roti pulau-pulau kecil dengan dataran rendah pantai dan interior berbukit. Luas Sawu adalah 200 mil persegi, yaitu Roti, 650 mil persegi. Populasinya berjumlah 30.000 dan 60.000 masing-masing. Proto-Melayu penduduk termasuk sejumlah besar mualaf Kristen, meskipun paganisme mempertahankan cengkeramannya atas mayoritas.

Flores, sebuah pulau pegunungan dan sangat berapi, memiliki luas 5.600 mil persegi dan jumlah penduduk 500.000. Hal ini dibagi menjadi lima bagian suku: Manggarai, Ngada, Sika, Ende, dan Larantuka. Penduduk distrik barat terutama proto-Melayu dalam huruf fisik, tetapi bergerak ke arah timur seseorang menemukan campuran membingungkan saham rasial di mana proto-Melayu, Melanesia bersifat Negro, Papua, dan bahkan strain Australoid jelas terlihat. Lebar hidung, kulit gelap, dan mendominasi rambut kabur di kalangan masyarakat timur Flores. Meskipun kekristenan telah membuat beberapa terobosan dan banyak dari penduduk pantai mengaku Islam, sebagian besar Florenese adalah kafir.

Timor, terbesar dari Sunda Kecil, adalah, pegunungan non vulkanik pulau 9.000 mil persegi di daerah. Bagian timur dan daerah kantong kecil di pantai barat laut adalah wilayah Portugis. Tiga kelompok suku mendiami Timor: Kupangese, di ujung barat daya, sedangkan Atoni, di bagian barat dan tengah dari bagian Belanda, dan Belu, membentang dari pusat Belanda Timor timur selama sisa pulau itu, termasuk semua Timor Portugis . Wilayah Portugis adalah satu-satunya tempat di seluruh Indonesia, kecuali untuk beberapa daerah pedalaman terpencil, dimana Melayu tidak digunakan sebagai lingua franca. Berikut dialek bahasa Tetun Belu adalah bahasa perdagangan resmi. Komposisi ras penduduk Timor, yang totalnya mencapai 700.000, adalah yang paling campuran di Hindia. Selain elemen proto-dan Deutero-Melayu, Melanesia bersifat Negro, Papua, Negrito, dan jenis Australoid semua terjadi, di

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berbagai perbandingan di berbagai kabupaten. Hampir setiap saham rasial yang pernah hidup di Indonesia diwakili di pulau satu. Sebagian wajar penduduk asli telah dikristenkan atau mengislamisasi, tetapi sebagian besar orang Timor adalah kafir.

Para Alor-Solor Islands – Solor, Adonara, Lomblem, Pantar, dan Alor – memiliki daerah gabungan 2.000 mil persegi dan jumlah penduduk 150.000. Mereka adalah pegunungan, lima dari puncak gunung berapi yang aktif. Berikutnya ke New Guinea, ini mungkin pulau-pulau paling terkenal di Hindia keseluruhan. Sampai sekarang hampir tidak ada laporan yang tersedia tentang jiwa. Unsur-unsur utama adalah ras Melanesia bersifat Negro dan Papua, tetapi di Pantar tinggal tipe, luar biasa berat berjanggut yang mungkin kelangsungan hidup Australoid, sedangkan di timur Alor ada suku kerdil beberapa saham Negrito tampaknya murni.

Maluku -. Pulau-pulau menempati laut antara Sulawesi dan Timor di sebelah barat dan New Guinea di sebelah timur. Ada ratusan dari mereka, sebagian besar kecil, tapi mereka termasuk dua yang besar – Seram dan Halmahera – dan beberapa ukuran menengah. Luas lahan yang dikombinasikan dari semua Maluku adalah 35.000 mil persegi, dan populasi total adalah 425.000. Meskipun sebagian besar pulau-pulau yang bergunung-gunung, beberapa, seperti Aru kelompok, memiliki elevasi rendah sehingga mereka terutama terdiri dari rawa berkelanjutan. Jalan yang hampir tidak ada di Maluku, dan perjalanan interior dan transportasi sangat sulit. Akibatnya, kecuali di pulau-pulau besar, sebagian besar pemukiman asli terletak di pantai, dan komunikasi terutama dengan perahu. Setiap kelompok pulau utama memiliki minimal satu kota yang merupakan fokus perdagangan dan pelabuhan-of-panggilan untuk kapal uap. Tapi sebagian besar pusat-pusat komersial kecil dan tidak penting kecuali sebagai gateway untuk ekspor dan impor. Masyarakat hanya benar-benar perkotaan di seluruh Maluku Ambon, di Ambon Kepulauan selatan Seram. Ternate, di sebuah pulau dari nama yang sama barat Halmahera, Tidore, tepat di sebelah selatan Ternate di lain pulau kecil, dan Bandaneira, di Kepulauan Banda, tiga pusat sekunder yang penting telah menurun sangat sejak zaman keemasan perdagangan rempah-rempah, ketika Maluku, atau “Kepulauan Rempah-Rempah,” adalah wilayah komersial terkaya di Hindia. Sebagian besar pulau-pulau yang baik dekaden atau masih dalam keadaan primitif pembangunan. Namun demikian, Maluku memiliki signifikansi strategis penting, karena mereka menjaga laut terpendek dan jalur udara dari Australia utara ke Filipina dan Jepang. Belanda memiliki basis terbesar kedua angkatan laut mereka di Hindia di Amboina.

Wetar, di lepas pantai utara Timor Portugis, adalah sebuah pulau kecil terkenal dari 1.200 mil persegi dengan jumlah penduduk hanya 7.500. Medan yang berbukit-bukit dan tanah subur. Saham ras penduduk asli adalah campuran

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Gambar. 7 -. Kepulauan dan rakyat Maluku.

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proto-Melayu dan Papua. Suku-suku tertentu dilaporkan sangat suka berperang, yang diberikan kepada kepala berburu, dan memusuhi orang luar. Jadi terisolasi dan primitif ini pulau itu, kecuali orang Islam dan Kristen beberapa bahkan lebih sedikit, semua penduduk masih kafir.

Kisar, timur Wetar, adalah sebuah pulau kecil dari 50 mil persegi, yang, meskipun tanah yang kurang subur, mendukung populasi 9.000. Medan yang berbukit-bukit, dan hampir telanjang pohon. Penduduk asli adalah proto-Melayu saham, tetapi satu distrik dihuni oleh sekelompok sekitar 200 setengah-keturunan, produk dari kawin tentara dengan Kisarese lebih dari seratus tahun yang lalu, ketika sebuah Perusahaan India Timur benteng dipertahankan di pulau itu. Mereka memiliki nama Belanda dan tidak menikah dengan penduduk asli, tetapi mereka telah melupakan bahasa Belanda sama sekali. Sekitar 10 persen orang dari Kisar adalah orang Kristen.

Kepulauan Leti (Leti, Moa, dan Lakor), timur Kisar, memiliki area gabungan dari 350 mil persegi dan berpenduduk 15.000. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik dan relatif subur. Leti dan Moa yang berbukit, Lakor cukup datar. Proto-Melayu pribumi sekitar 50 persen Kristen.

Kepulauan Luang (Luang dan Sermata), berdekatan dengan kelompok Leti, adalah berbukit dan non-vulkanik, dengan luas 150 mil persegi dan berpenduduk 5.000. Sekitar setengah dari orang Luang mengaku Kristen, yang Sermatans masih kebanyakan kafir. Saham ras dominan adalah proto-Melayu.

Kepulauan Babar, enam jumlahnya, terletak sebelah timur dari Luang. Daerah gabungan mereka adalah 250 mil persegi; bahwa dari 220 mil pulau terbesar persegi. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik, dengan medan yang tinggi dan kasar. Penduduk asli sangat primitif hampir sepenuhnya kafir dan sebelumnya berlatih berburu kepala. Mereka adalah dari jenis yang disebut hibrida Alfur fisik, lintas proto-Melayu dan Papua. Sedangkan Kisar dan Leti dan Kepulauan Luang relatif “beradab,” Babar, seperti Wetar, tetap hampir tak tersentuh oleh pengaruh-pengaruh luar.

Kepulauan Roma (Roma dan Damar) berbohong utara Babar, dan bersama-sama memiliki luas 200 mil persegi. Keduanya pegunungan dan asal vulkanik. Salah satu puncak pada Damar masih aktif. Keadaan penduduk yang tipis dari 3.000 adalah sepenuhnya terisolasi, primitif dalam budaya, dan kafir dalam agama. Saham rasial Alfur hibrida.

Para Nila Islands (Nila, Teun, dan Serua) peregangan timur laut dari Damar ke perairan lepas Laut Banda. Masing-masing dari tiga pulau adalah sebuah gunung berapi aktif, dan di lereng ini tinggal sekitar 3.000 penduduk asli jenis Alfur fisik, hampir sepenuhnya terpisah dari dunia luar dan masih kafir. Luas total adalah sekitar 100 mil persegi.

Kepulauan Tanimbar, dengan luas 2.150 mil persegi, yang 66 jumlahnya, tetapi hanya tujuh yang berpenghuni. Salah satunya, Yamdena, adalah jauh

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yang terbesar, dan di pantai selatan terletak kota utama Saumlaki, reguler port-of-panggilan untuk kapal uap. Semua pulau-pulau non-vulkanik dan dataran rendah, ketinggian jarang melebihi 200 meter; kebanyakan dari wilayah tersebut terdiri dari rawa-rawa tak tertembus. Para 25.000 penduduk asli adalah dari jenis Alfur campuran, dengan dominan karakteristik Papua, termasuk kulit gelap dan rambut keriting. Mereka sangat primitif dan sebelumnya berjuang kejam di antara mereka sendiri, dengan kepala dan makan bagian tubuh musuh dibunuh. Mereka memiliki catatan panjang permusuhan dengan kulit putih juga, tapi karena tahun 1907, ketika Belanda diperkuat kepolisian di pulau-pulau, gangguan sudah diperiksa. Mereka masih mempertahankan budaya tradisional mereka dan sebagian besar kafir.

Kepulauan Kei, timur laut Tanimbar, di bawah pantai Nugini, memiliki luas 575 mil persegi didistribusikan melalui tiga pulau besar dan yang kecil tak terhitung banyaknya. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik. Kei besar, yang terbesar, sangat bergunung-gunung, tapi yang lain jauh lebih rendah, yang terbesar kedua, Nuhuroa, sebagian besar terdiri dari daerah rawa. Mereka semua berhutan lebat. Kota utama adalah Tual, pusat perdagangan dan pengiriman. Populasi adalah 30.000 Alfur dalam jenis fisik. Meski masih primitif dalam budaya umum, hanya sekitar sepertiga dari Keians tetap kafir. Sisanya sama-sama dibagi antara Islam dan Kristen. Sikap yang berlaku terhadap orang luar yang ramah, meskipun perang internal yang berdarah hanya baru-baru ini diperiksa oleh Belanda.

Kepulauan Am, jauh ke timur, terletak dekat dengan New Guinea. Jumlah mereka lebih dari seratus, tetapi hanya lima yang besar. Seluruh kelompok dekat-dikemas, dengan divisi air sempit antara bagian-bagiannya. Daerah ini datar dan rendah, sebagian besar terdiri dari rawa-rawa yang luas rusak oleh perbukitan rendah. Virgin hutan meliputi sebagian besar Aru. Luas 3.350 mil persegi mendukung populasi 20.000 saham Alfur campuran, mirip dengan Tanimbarese tersebut. Dobo, kota utama, dan teratur port-of-panggilan untuk kapal, adalah di pulau barat Wamar. Ini adalah salah satu dari sedikit tempat di Hindia dimana Jepang banyak sebelum 1941. Mereka bergerak terutama dalam bisnis mutiara memancing. Beberapa bagian Aru masih belum diselidiki, dan di pedalaman Wokam hidup suku-suku nomaden yang belum pernah dilihat oleh orang kulit putih dan yang jarang datang dalam kontak dengan penduduk asli lainnya. Para Arunese cukup primitif, dan sebagian besar pagan, tetapi ramah dan patuh. Bahkan di antara mereka sendiri mereka jarang larut dalam peperangan.

Kepulauan Watubela, enam jumlahnya, terletak barat laut dari. Kei. Hanya tiga dihuni, total penduduk menjadi 2.500. Daerah ini sekitar 150 mil persegi, dan medan sebagian besar terdiri dari perbukitan rendah. Kepulauan ini terisolasi dan tidak penting. Beberapa penduduk asli, tipe Alfur, mengaku Islam, tetapi mayoritas adalah kafir.

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Kepulauan Goram, utara Watubela, dengan luas sekitar 200 mil persegi, enam jumlahnya, tetapi hanya tiga yang berpenghuni. Mereka adalah berbukit-bukit dan berhutan lebat. Total populasi saham Alfur campuran adalah 6.000. Meskipun pulau-pulau ini adalah off rute pelayaran reguler, penduduk asli memiliki kontak yang cukup dengan pihak luar, dan Islam kini mengklaim hampir semua dari mereka. Belanda mengalami kesulitan banyak dengan pembajakan dan budak-merampok sini sampai bagian akhir abad kesembilan belas, tetapi dalam beberapa tahun terakhir kondisi sudah damai.

Kepulauan Ceramlaut, dari ujung tenggara Seram, angka 12, 6 di antaranya berpenghuni. Daerah ini adalah sekitar 100 mil persegi, penduduk, 6.000. Mereka adalah rendah, cluster karang subur. Sekitar 1.000 dari penduduk adalah asal asing, termasuk Cina, Arab, dan Indonesia dari bagian lain Hindia. Bajak laut sebelumnya merepotkan, penduduk asli hampir seluruhnya Islam.

Kepulauan Banda, di tengah Laut Banda selatan Seram, memiliki luas 100 mil persegi. Ke-11 pulau telah kehilangan populasi aborigin mereka dan sekarang dihuni oleh campuran Jawa, Bugis, Makassar, dan imigran lainnya, sebesar 6.000. Perbukitan dan gunung berapi, kelompok Banda sebelumnya merupakan pusat makmur budidaya rempah-rempah. Hari-hari kekayaan telah berlalu, dan suasana umum dekadensi melingkupi wilayah ini, meskipun fakta bahwa kota utama, Bandaneira, memiliki salah satu pelabuhan terbaik di Hindia, dan beberapa pulau-pulau memiliki jalan raya yang adil.

Kepulauan Ambon, pusat komersial dan administrasi Maluku, adalah kelompok empat terletak di lepas pantai barat daya Seram. Luas total adalah 500 mil persegi, Ambon, pulau utama, yang terdiri lebih dari 300 ini. Kepulauan ini asal vulkanik, dan meskipun aktivitas lama berakhir, sumber air panas dan tempat tidur belerang yang umum dan gempa bumi sering. Pegunungan melintasi seluruh kelompok. Kota Ambon, dengan 10.000 penduduk, adalah komunitas terbesar di Indonesia timur dan merupakan pangkalan angkatan laut kedua yang paling penting dari Belanda. Para 60.000 penduduk asli, saham Alfur campuran, sebagian besar Kristen, meskipun cukup banyak mengaku Islam, mereka telah di antara yang paling ramah dari seluruh rakyat Indonesia terhadap pemerintah Belanda. Kuat, cerdas, taat, dan berani, mereka dipasok sebagian besar pasukan tentara kolonial dan yang menonjol dalam pelayanan pemerintah ulama, guru, dan sebagai mandor pekerja asli. Perdagangan telah ditangani terutama oleh pihak luar: Eropa, Cina, Arab, dan imigran dari daerah lain di Indonesia, dan penduduk asing sangat besar. Di kota Ambon, misalnya, hidup pada tahun 1940 hampir 1.000 orang Eropa dan beberapa ratus orang Arab dan Cina.

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Seram, Maluku terbesar, memiliki luas 6.700 mil persegi. Pulau ini didominasi pegunungan tetapi non-vulkanik, dengan 3.055 meter puncak tinggi di pusat. Bagian timur, bagaimanapun, adalah baik berbukit atau sangat rendah dan rawa. Sebagian besar tanah tersebut padat berhutan. Sungai-sungai yang hampir tidak berguna untuk navigasi, dan tidak ada jalan, akibatnya perjalanan darat sepenuhnya melalui jalur belaka. Tidak ada kota-kota besar dan pelabuhan saja. Penduduk asli, penomoran 60.000, pada umumnya cukup primitif, meskipun fakta bahwa sekitar 12.000 mengaku Kristen dan 16.000 adalah Islam. Sebagian besar mualaf tinggal di daerah pantai, di mana campuran cukup dengan alien telah terjadi; tetapi interior liar masih hampir tak tersentuh oleh pengaruh budaya dari dunia luar. Orang gunung dari Seram Barat yang tinggi, bersemangat, berkulit gelap rakyat Papua dan Melanesia saham bersifat Negro. Mereka telah di antara para pemburu kepala paling ganas di Hindia, dan kegiatan mereka yang suka perang telah memberikan banyak kesulitan Belanda. Mereka dikenal sebagai Patasiwa Hitam. Wilayah tengah yang dihuni oleh suku-suku Alfur campuran, dari disposisi damai lagi: Putih Patasiwa, Patalima, dan Seti. Bukit-bukit dan rawa-rawa di bagian timur Seram melindungi orang Veddoid, para Bonfia, yang pemalu, unwarlike, dan sangat primitif dalam budaya.

Bum, sebelah barat Seram, adalah sebuah pulau berbentuk oval dengan luas 3.400 mil persegi. Hal ini sebagian besar massa non-vulkanik gunung, tetapi sebagian besar pantai yang datar dan berawa. Hanya satu sungai adalah dinavigasi untuk kapal kecil, dan tidak ada jalan. Populasi 20.000 dibagi antara Gebmelia pagan interior, terutama proto-Melayu saham, dan orang-orang campuran dari pesisir, Gebmasin, yang sebagian telah dikristenkan atau Mohammedanized. Sebagian besar Buru baru-baru ini telah dieksplorasi, tetapi penduduk asli yang damai.

Kepulauan Sula, terletak di antara Buru dan Sulawesi memiliki luas sekitar 5.000 mil persegi. Ada tiga pulau besar dan yang lebih kecil tak terhitung banyaknya. Mereka adalah non-vulkanik, perbukitan di bagian interior, dengan dataran rendah pantai berawa. Populasi 15.000 terutama proto-Melayu saham, dengan Papua terendam dan strain Veddoid. Sula adalah salah satu bagian paling terkenal dari Hindia, dan penduduk asli kafir cukup primitif, banyak dari mereka masih menjalani keberadaan nomaden.

Halmahera utara Maluku, adalah sebuah pulau berbentuk aneh sekali sekitar 200 mil panjang, dengan luas 6.500 mil persegi, termasuk pulau-pulau satelit yang lebih kecil. Keempat semenanjung panjang yang tinggi, rantai pegunungan berhutan lebat yang jatuh bersama-sama di tengah. Semenanjung utara adalah gunung berapi, dengan tiga puncak semiquiescent aktif dan dua; bagian lain non-vulkanik. Tanpa sungai dilayari baik, dan

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tidak adanya total jalan, perjalanan di pedalaman adalah sangat sulit. Sebagian besar Halmahera hampir tak berpenghuni, jumlah penduduk menjadi 50.000 atau rata-rata kurang dari delapan per mil persegi. Penduduk asli, banyak dari mereka nomaden, yaitu dari saham Alfur hibrida, dan sangat primitif dalam budaya. Mereka dikelompokkan di lebih dari 30 suku berbeda, sebagian besar yang telah sangat sedikit diteliti. Peradaban Barat telah hampir menyentuh pulau ini, kecuali untuk tenaga kerja dari beberapa misionaris, yang memperkirakan jumlah mereka bertobat pada hampir 10.000, mungkin berlebihan. Jumlah orang Islam tidak diketahui. Bagaimanapun, sebagian besar dari Halmaherans masih kafir dalam agama.

Ternate, lepas pantai barat Halmahera, adalah sebuah pulau kecil dihuni hampir seluruhnya oleh gunung berapi, tinggi aktif. Luas total adalah 25 mil persegi, sebagian besar padat berhutan. Kota utama, Ternate, merupakan pusat pengiriman, dengan pelabuhan yang baik. Populasi 10.000 pada dasarnya saham Alfur, tetapi campuran begitu banyak dengan pihak luar telah terjadi bahwa jenis asli telah dikaburkan. Ternate, di samping Ambon, adalah kota terbesar di Indonesia timur, dan dulunya adalah ibukota timur kesultanan yang paling kuat dari Makasar. Penduduk asli pulau ini sepenuhnya Islam.

Tidore, selatan Ternate mil, juga merupakan pulau kecil, pegunungan, tetapi gunung berapi yang tidak lagi aktif. Ini memiliki luas 25 mil persegi dan berpenduduk 15.000. Penduduk asli, awalnya saham Alfur, telah bercampur jauh dengan alien. Kota utama, Tidore, memiliki pelabuhan yang baik, dan dulunya adalah kursi dari kesultanan Ternate yang disaingi berkuasa. Tidorese ini adalah semua orang Islam.

Kepulauan Makian – Moti, Makian, Kayoa dan – terletak selatan Tidore. Mereka memiliki luas gabungan sekitar 50 mil persegi, dan populasi sekitar 10.000. Makian dibangun di sekitar gunung berapi aktif; pulau lainnya berasal dari gunung berapi, dan berbukit. Penduduk asli Alfur semuanya telah Mohammedanized.

Kepulauan Batjan, di lepas pantai barat daya Halmahera, jumlah sekitar 80, tapi hanya 3 yang ukuran besar. Luas total adalah 1.000 mil persegi, penduduk, 10.000. Kepulauan ini asal vulkanik, berbukit, dan ditutupi dengan hutan. Kesultanan Batjan sebelumnya agak kuat, tetapi hari ini wilayah ini tidak terlalu penting. Penduduk asli Alfur sebagian besar Islam, tetapi ada beberapa ratus orang Kristen.

Kepulauan Obi, selatan Batjan, adalah kelompok enam, tapi hanya satu yang besar. Luas total adalah 1.000 mil persegi. Kepulauan ini bergunung-gunung, non-vulkanik, dan padat berhutan. Penduduk asli telah hilang, dan sebagian besar penduduk saat ini adalah karakter “mengambang”, masuk ke hutan sementara ikan, menyelam untuk mutiara, potongan sagu, dan mengumpulkan

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produk. Perkiraan wajar jumlah pemukim relatif stabil tidak akan melampaui 2.000.

Bahasa DAN MENULIS
Semua bangsa di Hindia berbicara bahasa milik suatu saham linguistik tunggal, Melayu-Polinesia, dengan pengecualian suku utara Halmahera di Maluku dan Alor di Nusa Tenggara. Kelompok-kelompok ini memiliki bahasa yang umumnya disebut sebagai Papua, kategori di mana lidah-lidah Nugini juga jatuh. Mereka tidak pernah benar belajar atau diklasifikasikan, tetapi mereka jelas berbeda dengan bahasa Melayu-Polinesia. Bentuk yang terakhir salah satu keluarga bahasa yang paling luas di dunia, dengan ratusan cabang memperluas sepanjang jalan dari Madagaskar, di lepas pantai tenggara Afrika, melalui Hindia Timur dan Filipina ke Formosa di sebelah utara, naik melalui Semenanjung Melayu ke perbatasan Burma dan Siam, dan jelas di Pasifik dari Indonesia melalui Melanesia dan Mikronesia ke pos-pos yang jauh dari Hawaii dan Pulau Paskah.

Nilai dari bahasa bahasa Indonesia, meskipun hampir semua dari mereka termasuk dalam saham tunggal, saling dimengerti – kisaran variasi yang sebanding dengan yang di dalam bahasa Indo-Eropa dari Eropa. Namun masalah linguistik di Hindia ini disederhanakan oleh fakta bahwa ada semacam “Melayu dasar,” versi sederhana dari Sumatera Melayu, yang dipahami di sebagian besar pulau-pulau. Ini bahasa, yang dapat diperoleh dengan beberapa bulan praktek mantap, sangat diperlukan untuk komunikasi verbal dengan penduduk asli, hampir tidak ada satupun yang bisa berbahasa Inggris, Belanda, atau lidah non-Indonesia lainnya.

Meskipun lebih dari 90 persen penduduk asli buta huruf, menulis, diperkenalkan oleh orang Hindu, telah dikenal di pulau-pulau barat Hindia selama lebih dari seribu tahun. The Hindu yang diturunkan kuno script dengan cepat membagikan penggunaan tetapi masih bertahan di bagian Sumatra dan Sulawesi, di Bali, Flores, dan Sumbawa, dan bahkan sampai batas tertentu di Jawa. Huruf Arab, dan baru-baru Romawi, telah menggantikan jenis kuno menulis di sebagian besar daerah maju. Kertas sekarang digunakan umum, tetapi cara tradisional menulis adalah untuk menggaruk huruf pada permukaan mengkilap dari potongan bambu atau daun kelapa, yang kemudian diikat bersama-sama di buku. Akordeon-seperti buku yang terbuat dari potongan panjang kulit tipis dilipat bersama antara penutup kayu yang digunakan oleh orang Batak Sumatera.

EKONOMI ORGANISASI
Sebagian besar orang Indonesia adalah petani, dan beras adalah dengan segala rintangan andalan subsistensi asli. Metode yang lebih primitif dari budidaya

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adalah untuk menghapus dan membakar pertumbuhan alami dan tanaman biji-bijian dengan tongkat menggali tanah abu-dibuahi. Budidaya padi irigasi, baik pada dataran banjir atau di teras lereng bukit artifisial dibangun, terbatas pada daerah yang lebih maju, khususnya Jawa, Sumatera, Bali, dan barat daya Sulawesi. Sawah pertanian diperkenalkan ke Hindia di kemudian hari jauh dari sistem “bakar dan tanaman” dan belum menyebar ke daerah terpencil. Di mana pun diperkenalkan, hasil gabah meningkat dengan sangat hebat, dan populasi. naik dengan kecepatan yang menakjubkan. Sepanjang tahun sawah bertingkat di perbukitan, di dalam tanah vulkanik yang subur, adalah rahasia kemampuan Jawa untuk mendukung populasi yang sangat besar.

Pulau-pulau barat adalah wilayah utama padi nusantara. Beras belum pernah diperkenalkan, atau telah datang hanya baru-baru ini, di sebagian besar Indonesia timur dan di antara suku-suku yang sangat primitif tertentu dari wilayah barat. Ubi jalar dan talas, sayuran berbonggol, dan sagu, makan tapioka seperti yang dipukuli dan dicuci dari empulur sejenis pohon palem, adalah pokok di Nias, Mentawei, dan Engano, terisolasi pulau-pulau lepas pantai barat Sumatra, dan dalam Banggai, dari titik timur Sulawesi. Dua lainnya barat indonesian kelompok, Kubu nomaden Sumatera dan Punan Kalimantan, hidup dengan berburu dan mengumpulkan produk liar dari hutan. Di bagian timur Indonesia, beras diganti sebagai tanaman utama dengan baik jagung (jagung) atau sagu. Yang pertama mendominasi di Nusa Tenggara timur Lombok, sementara makan sagu adalah makanan pokok di sebagian besar Maluku. Jadi, dengan pengecualian kecil, kita dapat memetakan tiga daerah pertanian utama di Nusantara: daerah beras barat, bagian jagung pusat, dan timur sagu zona. f

Makanan nabati menonjol dalam pola makan orang Indonesia. Biasanya, bagaimanapun, mereka melengkapi beras, jagung, sagu atau piring dengan potongan-potongan daging dan ikan, terutama yang kedua. Memancing, memang, adalah sumber yang paling penting kedua makanan dalam perekonomian asli. Nets, garis, berbagai bendungan cerdik dan perangkap, dan obat Stupefying semua digunakan dalam penangkapan ikan.

Berburu memiliki tempat anak dalam kehidupan ekonomi asli kecuali di antara suku-suku nomaden dan semi-nomaden Sumatera, Kalimantan, dan beberapa pulau timur lebih besar. Babi hutan, rusa, monyet, dan unggas liar adalah jenis utama dari permainan. Masyarakat yang lebih maju memiliki senjata, tetapi antara suku-suku terpencil, di mana perburuan masih penting, tombak, busur dan panah, dan sumpitan dengan panah beracun yang digunakan. Juga, berbagai perangkap ikan indonesian cocok dengan yang digunakan untuk permainan. Noose-perangkap dan stasioner musim semi-tombak, yang beroperasi pada prinsip busur dan panah, cocok untuk hewan kecil, sedangkan untuk deadfalls yang lebih besar dan tombak ditangguhkan berat tertimbang bekerja.

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Hewan peliharaan termasuk anjing, kucing, ayam, babi, kerbau, sapi, kuda, kambing, dan domba. Hampir kelompok dapat ditemukan, bahkan primitif hutan pengembara, yang tidak memiliki anjing. Kucing tidak terlalu banyak, yang sangat disayangkan, untuk Hindia yang penuh dengan tikus dan tikus. Semua bangsa Indonesia, kecuali orang-orang liar berkeliaran hutan, menjaga ayam. Sampai 500 tahun yang lalu babi dibesarkan di hampir setiap bagian dari Nusantara. Sejak itu jumlah mereka telah terus menurun, dengan masing-masing untuk kemajuan Islam tabu babi membuat orang-orang menyingkirkan mereka. Sangat mudah untuk membedakan Islam dari desa-desa Kristen atau kafir oleh tidak adanya atau kehadiran babi.

Kerbau raksasa, atau kerbau, adalah pekerjaan pokok dan hewan draft pulau-pulau, dan meskipun impor unit mobil, sebagian besar transportasi berat masih dilakukan dengan gerobak kerbau. Hewan ini kadang-kadang disembelih dan dimakan, tapi ikan biasanya lebih suka daging, kecuali daging babi di non-Islam daerah. Buffalo hanya ditemukan di daerah lebih mudah diakses; mereka tidak pernah diperkenalkan ke pedalaman Kalimantan atau beberapa pulau timur. Sapi, baik berbagai India bongkok atau keturunan Eropa baru-baru ini diimpor, yang tidak terlalu banyak atau luas sebagai kerbau. Kuda-kuda dari pulau-pulau sangat kecil, tidak lebih besar dari kuda poni, dan rupanya pertama diimpor ke Hindia oleh umat Hindu. Mereka digunakan sebagai kemasan atau hewan berkuda dan di kota-kota untuk menarik sedikit roda dua sewa-gerbong di mana pengemudi dan penumpang naik kembali ke belakang. Kambing dibangkitkan di hampir semua pulau, terutama untuk daging dan pada tingkat lebih rendah untuk susu. Indonesia, seperti kebanyakan orang Timur, tidak peduli banyak untuk susu, mentega keju, atau. Domba pertama kali diperkenalkan oleh orang Eropa dan masih kurang penting dalam perekonomian asli.

Apapun cara kehidupan mereka, kebanyakan orang Indonesia adalah pekerja independen. Lebih dari 70 persen bekerja untuk diri mereka sendiri, sementara hanya 30 persen adalah penerima upah, umumnya dalam mempekerjakan perusahaan-perusahaan Eropa. Enam puluh persen adalah petani, pedagang 5 persen, persen ternak 3 pengibar, pemburu, atau nelayan, dan 1 persen pada profesi. Dengan demikian sebagian besar hidup dalam “perekonomian tertutup” dari komunitas asal mereka, yang hampir sepenuhnya mandiri, memproduksi semua yang mereka konsumsi, dengan sedikit tersisa untuk menjual uang tunai.

Orang Indonesia juga miskin, tidak hanya dalam uang, tetapi dalam makanan dan harta benda juga. Rumah mereka kebanyakan hanya bambu dan pondok ilalang, pakaian mereka sederhana dan sedikit. Makanan, terutama dalam kelebihan penduduk Jawa, tidak banyak, tapi untungnya mereka memerlukan sangat sedikit. Dua mangkuk nasi, dengan porsi kecil dari ikan dan sayuran di samping, cukup untuk kebutuhan sehari-hari. Adapun uang, pendapatan pajak statistik menunjukkan bahwa 95 persen dari penduduk asli yang diterima kurang dari $ 50 setahun, dan hanya 0,05 persen

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menerima lebih dari $ 450 setahun. Eropa, yang terdiri hanya 0,4 persen dari populasi, dibayar 50 persen dari penerimaan pajak penghasilan, sedangkan Asiatik asing, terutama Cina, yang merupakan 2 persen dari populasi, dibayar 30 persen.

 

The most advanced peoples of the island are the proto-Malay tribes of the Minahasa-Gorontalo complex in the northern peninsula and the deutero-Malay Macassarese-Buginese in southwestern Celebes. The Minahasa are almost entirely Christian in religion but retain much of their ancient culture in other respects. The other tribes of the northern complex are either Mohammedan (Gorontalo) or pagan (Bolaang Mongondou, Sangirese, Talaut). The total population of the Minahasa-Gorontalo peoples is 500,000. The Macassarese and Buginese, numbering 2,500,000, form the largest population group, and are the dominant people of the island. Most of the coastal districts and much of the interior were formerly under the rule of their radjas. They are Mohammedan in religion.

The Lesser Sunda Islands.–With a total land area of 35,000 square miles and a combined population of 3,500,000 this chain of islands extends eastward along the southern border of the Indies from Bali to Timor. The terrain throughout is almost entirely mountainous, with 28 active or recently active volcanoes, 17 of them in the island of Flores alone. Good highways traverse parts of Bali and Lombok, but large sections are accessible only by mountain trails. To the east one finds a few stretches of fair road in Sumbawa, Sumba, Flores, and Timor; but Savu, Roti, and the Alor-Solor Islands have almost no real roads. Indeed, east of Bali the interior districts of all the islands are still almost completely undeveloped and have been visited only rarely by outsiders. The only towns of even moderate size in the Lesser Sundas are Singaradja and Den Pasar in Bali, Mataram in Lombok, Ende in Flores, and Kupang and Dilly in Timor. None of these attains a population of 20,000.

Bali, a volcanic, mountainous island, is the most fertile and most densely settled part of the Lesser Sundas, with a population of 1,200,000, and an area of 2,300 square miles. With the exception of a few thousand so-called Bali Aga, who dwell in remote interior villages and still retain much of the pagan pre-Hindu culture of the island, all the Balinese are Hinduist in religion. Bali, indeed, is a kind of museum piece, a living survival of fourteenth-century Java. Many of its noble and high-caste families are descended from refugees who fled Java when the old empire of Modjopahit collapsed. Aside from such deutero-Malay accretions, the Balinese belong to the dark Caucasoid proto-Malay racial stock.

Lombok, a high, volcanic island of 2,000 square miles with a population of 700,000, is the home of three different cultural groups. The western coastal districts are occupied by Balinese, little different from their relatives across the Lombok Straits. The remainder of the island is inhabited by the Sasak, a Mohammedan people who were formerly subject

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Fig. 6.--Islands and peoples of the Lesser Sundas.
Fig. 6.–Islands and peoples of the Lesser Sundas

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to Balinese princes. Tucked in among the Sasak, however, are several thousand Bodha, still largely pagan in religion and quite primitive in general culture. All three of these groups are predominantly proto-Malay in physical type, although Veddoid traits appear among both Sasak and Bodha.

Sumbawa is a partially volcanic, mountainous island 5,000 square miles in area, with a population of 300,000. It is divided into four sultanates: Sumbawa, Sanggau, Dompo, and Bima; all the inhabitants, with the exception of the pagan Do Donggo in the mountains of Bima, are Mohammedan. The predominant racial stock is proto-Malay.

Sumba, a non-volcanic island of low mountains and plateaus, has an area of 5,500 square miles and a proto-Malay population of 100,000. The natives are mostly pagan.

Savu and Roti are small islands with low-lying coasts and hilly interiors. The area of Savu is 200 square miles; that of Roti, 650 square miles. Their populations total 30,000 and 60,000 respectively. The proto-Malay inhabitants include large numbers of Christian converts, although paganism retains its hold over the majority.

Flores, a mountainous and extremely volcanic island, has an area of 5,600 square miles and a population of 500,000. It is divided into five tribal sections: Manggarai, Ngada, Sika, Ende, and Larantuka. The inhabitants of the western districts are mainly proto-Malay in physical type; but moving toward the east one encounters a bewildering mixture of racial stocks in which proto-Malay, Melanesian Negroid, Papuan, and even Australoid strains are clearly apparent. Wide noses, dark skins, and fuzzy hair predominate among the people of eastern Flores. Although Christianity has made some inroads and many of the coastal dwellers profess Islam, the great majority of the Florenese are pagan.

Timor, largest of the Lesser Sundas, is a mountainous, non-volcanic island 9,000 square miles in area. The eastern half and a small enclave on the northwest coast are Portuguese territory. Three tribal groups inhabit Timor: the Kupangese, in the southwestern extremity; the Atoni, in the western and central parts of the Dutch section; and the Belu, extending from central Dutch Timor eastward over the remainder of the island, including all of Portuguese Timor. The Portuguese territory is the only place in the whole of Indonesia, except for a few remote interior regions, where Malay is not used as a lingua franca. Here the Tetum dialect of Belu is the official trade language. The racial composition of the Timorese population, which totals 700,000, is the most mixed in the Indies. In addition to proto- and deutero-Malay elements, Melanesian Negroid, Papuan, Negrito, and Australoid types all occur, in

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varying proportions in different districts. Nearly every racial stock that ever lived in Indonesia is represented in this one island. A fair proportion of the natives have been Christianized or Islamized, but the great bulk of the Timorese are pagan.

The Alor-Solor Islands–Solor, Adonara, Lomblem, Pantar, and Alor– have a combined area of 2,000 square miles and a population of 150,000. They are mountainous, five of the peaks being active volcanoes. Next to New Guinea, these are probably the least-known islands in the entire Indies. Until very recently almost no reports were available concerning the inhabitants. The principal racial elements are Melanesian Negroid and Papuan; but in Pantar lives a remarkable, heavily bearded type that may be an Australoid survival, while in eastern Alor there are some dwarf tribes of apparently pure Negrito stock.

The Moluccas.–These islands occupy the seas between Celebes and Timor on the west and New Guinea on the east. There are hundreds of them, mostly small, but they include two large ones–Ceram and Halmahera–and several of intermediate size. The combined land area of all the Moluccas is 35,000 square miles, and their total population is 425,000. Although most of the islands are mountainous, some, such as the Aru group, have such low elevation that they consist mainly of continuous swampland. Roads are virtually nonexistent in the Moluccas, and interior travel and transportation are very difficult. Consequently, except in the larger islands, most of the native settlements are situated on the coasts, and communication is principally by boat. Each of the major island groups has at least one town which is the focus of trade and the port-of-call for steamships. But most of these commercial centers are small and insignificant except as gateways for export and import. The only truly urban community in the whole of the Moluccas is Amboina, in the Ambon Islands south of Ceram. Ternate, on an island of the same name west of Halmahera; Tidore, just south of Ternate on another small island; and Bandaneira, in the Banda Islands, are three secondary centers whose importance has declined greatly since the golden days of the spice trade, when the Moluccas, or “Spice Islands,” were the richest commercial region in the Indies. Most of the islands are either decadent or still in a primitive state of development. Nevertheless, the Moluccas are of vital strategical significance, for they guard the shortest sea and air lanes north from Australia to the Philippines and Japan. The Dutch had their second largest naval base in the Indies at Amboina.

Wetar, off the northern coast of Portuguese Timor, is a little-known island of 1,200 square miles with a population of only 7,500. The terrain is hilly and the soil infertile. The racial stock of the natives is a mixture

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Fig. 7.--Islands and peoples of the Moluccas.
Fig. 7.–Islands and peoples of the Moluccas.

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of proto-Malay and Papuan. Certain tribes are reported to be extremely warlike, given to head hunting, and hostile to outsiders. So isolated and primitive is this island that, except for a few Mohammedans and even fewer Christians, all the inhabitants are still pagan.

Kisar, east of Wetar, is a small island of 50 square miles, which, despite infertile soil, supports a population of 9,000. The terrain is hilly, and almost bare of trees. The natives are of proto-Malay stock, but one district is inhabited by a group of about 200 half-breeds, products of the mating of soldiers with Kisarese over a hundred years ago, when an East India Company fort was maintained on the island. They have Dutch names and do not intermarry with the natives, but they have forgotten the Dutch language entirely. About 10 percent of the people of Kisar are Christian.

The Leti Islands (Leti, Moa, and Lakor), east of Kisar, have a combined area of 350 square miles and a population of 15,000. They are non-volcanic and relatively infertile. Leti and Moa are hilly, Lakor quite flat. The proto-Malay natives are about 50 percent Christianized.

The Luang Islands (Luang and Sermata), adjacent to the Leti group, are hilly and non-volcanic, with an area of 150 square miles and a population of 5,000. About half of the Luang people profess Christianity; the Sermatans are still mostly pagan. The racial stock is predominantly proto-Malay.

The Babar Islands, six in number, lie east of Luang. Their combined area is 250 square miles; that of the largest island 220 square miles. They are non-volcanic, with a high and rugged terrain. The very primitive natives are almost completely pagan and formerly practiced head hunting. They are of the so-called Alfur hybrid physical type, a cross of proto-Malay and Papuan. Whereas Kisar and the Leti and Luang Islands are relatively “civilized,” Babar, like Wetar, has remained virtually untouched by outside influences.

The Roma Islands (Roma and Damar) lie north of Babar, and together have an area of 200 square miles. Both are mountainous and of volcanic origin. One of the peaks on Damar is still active. The sparse population of 3,000 is thoroughly isolated, primitive in culture, and pagan in religion. The racial stock is Alfur hybrid.

The Nila Islands (Nila, Teun, and Serua) stretch northeast of Damar into the open waters of the Banda Sea. Each of the three islands is an active volcano, and on the slopes of these dwell about 3,000 natives of Alfur physical type, almost completely secluded from the outside world and still pagan. The total area is about 100 square miles.

The Tanimbar Islands, with an area of 2,150 square miles, are 66 in number, but only seven are inhabited. One of them, Yamdena, is by far

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the largest, and on its southern coast is situated the main town of Saumlaki, a regular port-of-call for steamships. All the islands are non-volcanic and low-lying, the elevation rarely exceeding 200 meters; much of the terrain consists of impenetrable swamps. The 25,000 natives are of the mixed Alfur type, with a preponderance of Papuan characteristics, including dark skin and frizzy hair. They are very primitive and formerly fought savagely among themselves, taking heads and eating parts of the bodies of slain enemies. They have a long record of hostility to whites also, but since 1907, when the Dutch strengthened the police force in the islands, disturbances have been checked. They still retain their traditional culture and are mostly pagan.

The Kei Islands, northeast of Tanimbar, under the coast of New Guinea, have an area of 575 square miles distributed over three large islands and innumerable small ones. They are non-volcanic. Great Kei, the largest, is extremely mountainous, but the others are much lower, the second largest one, Nuhuroa, consisting largely of swampland. They are all densely forested. The principal town is Tual, the center of trade and shipping. The population of 30,000 is Alfur in physical type. Although still primitive in general culture, only about one-third of the Keians remain pagan. The remainder are equally divided between Islam and Christianity. The prevailing attitude toward outsiders is friendly, although bloody internal warfare was only recently checked by the Dutch.

The Am Islands, far to the east, lie close to New Guinea. They number over a hundred, but only five are large. The entire group is close-packed, with narrow water divisions between its parts. The terrain is flat and low, consisting largely of extensive marshes broken by low hills. Virgin forest covers most of Aru. The area of 3,350 square miles supports a population of 20,000 of mixed Alfur stock, similar to the Tanimbarese. Dobo, the main town, and a regular port-of-call for ships, is on the western island of Wamar. This is one of the few places in the Indies where Japanese were numerous before 1941. They engaged principally in the pearl-fishing business. Some parts of Aru are still unexplored, and in interior Wokam live nomadic tribes who have never been seen by white men and who seldom come in contact with the other natives. The Arunese are quite primitive, and mostly pagan; but friendly and obedient. Even among themselves they have rarely indulged in warfare.

The Watubela Islands, six in number, lie northwest of. Kei. Only three are inhabited, the total population being 2,500. The area is about 150 square miles, and the terrain consists mostly of low hills. The islands are isolated and unimportant. A few of the natives, of Alfur type, profess Islam, but the majority are pagan.

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The Goram Islands, north of Watubela, with an area of approximately 200 square miles, are six in number, but only three are inhabited. They are hilly and thickly wooded. The total population of mixed Alfur stock is 6,000. Although these islands are off the regular shipping routes, the natives have had considerable contact with outsiders, and Islam now claims nearly all of them. The Dutch had much difficulty with piracy and slave-raiding here until the latter part of the nineteenth century, but in recent years conditions have been peaceful.

The Ceramlaut Islands, off the southeastern tip of Ceram, number 12, 6 of them inhabited. The area is approximately 100 square miles; the population, 6,000. They are low, infertile coral clusters. About 1,000 of the inhabitants are of alien origin, including Chinese, Arabs, and Indonesians from other parts of the Indies. Formerly troublesome pirates, the natives are almost entirely Mohammedan.

The Banda Islands, in the center of the Banda Sea south of Ceram, have an area of 100 square miles. The 11 islands have lost their aboriginal population and are now inhabited by a mixture of Javanese, Buginese, Macassarese, and other immigrants, totaling 6,000. Hilly and volcanic, the Banda group was formerly a prosperous center of spice cultivation. The days of wealth have now passed, and a general atmosphere of decadence pervades the region, despite the fact that the principal town, Bandaneira, has one of the finest harbors in the Indies, and several of the islands have fair roadways.

The Ambon Islands, the commercial and administrative center of the Moluccas, are a group of four located off the southwest coast of Ceram. The total area is 500 square miles, Amboina, the main island, comprising over 300 of these. The islands are of volcanic origin, and although activity long ago ended, hot springs and sulfur beds are common and earthquakes frequent. Mountain ranges traverse the entire group. The city of Amboina, with 10,000 population, is the largest community in eastern Indonesia and was the second most important naval base of the Dutch. The 60,000 natives, of mixed Alfur stock, are mostly Christian, although a fair number profess Islam; they have been among the friendliest of all Indonesians toward the Netherlands Government. Strong, intelligent, obedient, and brave, they supplied a large proportion of the troops of the colonial army and were prominent in government clerical service, as teachers, and as foremen of native workers. Trade has been handled mainly by outsiders: Europeans, Chinese, Arabs, and immigrants from elsewhere in Indonesia; and the alien population is very large. In the city of Amboina, for instance, there lived in 1940 almost 1,000 Europeans and several hundred Arabs and Chinese.

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Ceram, largest of the Moluccas, has an area of 6,700 square miles. The island is predominantly mountainous but non-volcanic, with a peak 3,055 meters high in the very center. The eastern part, however, is either hilly or very low and swampy. Most of the land is densely wooded. The rivers are almost useless for navigation, and there are no roads; consequently land travel is entirely by means of mere trails. There are no large towns and few harbors. The natives, numbering 60,000, are in general quite primitive, despite the fact that about 12,000 profess Christianity and 16,000 are Mohammedan. Most of these converts live in the coastal districts, where considerable intermixture with aliens has occurred; but the wild interior is still almost untouched by cultural influence from the outer world. The mountain people of western Ceram are tall, excitable, dark-skinned folk of Papuan and Melanesian Negroid stock. They have been among the most ferocious head hunters in the Indies, and their warlike activities have given the Dutch much trouble. They are known as Patasiwa Hitam. The central districts are inhabited by mixed Alfur tribes, of a more peaceable disposition: the Patasiwa Putih, Patalima, and Seti. The hills and marshes of eastern Ceram shelter a Veddoid people, the Bonfia, who are shy, unwarlike, and very primitive in culture.

Bum, west of Ceram, is an oval-shaped island with an area of 3,400 square miles. It is mostly a mass of non-volcanic mountains, but large parts of the coast are flat and marshy. Only one river is navigable for small boats, and there are no roads. The population of 20,000 is divided between the pagan Gebmelia of the interior, predominantly of proto-Malay stock, and the mixed folk of the coastland, the Gebmasin, who have been partially Christianized or Mohammedanized. Most of Buru has only recently been explored, but the natives are peaceable.

The Sula Islands, lying between Buru and Celebes have an area of about 5,000 square miles. There are three large islands and innumerable smaller ones. They are non-volcanic, hilly in the interior sections, with low-lying swampy coasts. The population of 15,000 is mainly of proto-Malay stock, with submerged Papuan and Veddoid strains. Sula is one of the least-known parts of the Indies; and the pagan natives are quite primitive, many of them still living a nomadic existence.

Halmahera, northernmost of the Moluccas, is a grotesquely shaped island about 200 miles long, with an area of 6,500 square miles, including smaller satellite islands. The four long peninsulas are high, densely forested mountain chains which tumble together in the center. The northern peninsula is volcanic, with three active and two semiquiescent peaks; the other sections are non-volcanic. With no good navigable rivers, and a

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total absence of roads, travel in the interior is exceedingly arduous. Much of Halmahera is virtually uninhabited, the total population being 50,000 or an average of less than eight per square mile. The natives, many of them nomads, are of the hybrid Alfur stock, and extremely primitive in culture. They are grouped in more than 30 distinct tribes, most of which have been very little investigated. Western civilization has scarcely touched this island, except for the labor of a few missionaries, who estimate the number of their converts at almost 10,000, perhaps an exaggeration. The number of Mohammedans is not known. In any case, the great majority of the Halmaherans are still pagan in religion.

Ternate, off the west coast of Halmahera, is a small island occupied almost entirely by a lofty, active volcano. The total area is 25 square miles, most of it densely wooded. The principal town, Ternate, is a shipping center, with a fine harbor. The population of 10,000 is basically of Alfur stock, but so much intermixture with outsiders has occurred that the original type has been obscured. Ternate, next to Amboina, is the largest town of eastern Indonesia; and was formerly the capital of the most powerful sultanate east of Macassar. The natives of this island are entirely Mohammedan.

Tidore, a mile south of Ternate, is also a small, mountainous island, but its volcano is no longer active. It has an area of 25 square miles and a population of 15,000. The natives, originally of Alfur stock, have intermixed considerably with aliens. The main town, Tidore, has a good harbor, and was formerly the seat of a sultanate that rivaled Ternate in power. The Tidorese are all Mohammedans.

The Makian Islands–Moti, Makian, and Kayoa–lie south of Tidore. They have a combined area of about 50 square miles, and a population of about 10,000. Makian is built around an active volcano; the other islands are of volcanic origin, and hilly. The Alfur natives have all been Mohammedanized.

The Batjan Islands, off the southwest coast of Halmahera, number about 80, but only 3 are of large size. The total area is 1,000 square miles; the population, 10,000. The islands are of volcanic origin, hilly, and covered with forests. The sultanate of Batjan was formerly rather powerful, but today the region is of little importance. The Alfur natives are mostly Mohammedan, but there are a few hundred Christians.

The Obi Islands, south of Batjan, are a group of six, but only one is large. The total area is 1,000 square miles. The islands are mountainous, non-volcanic, and densely wooded. The aboriginal inhabitants have disappeared, and most of the population today is of a “floating” character, coming in temporarily to fish, dive for pearls, cut sago, and collect forest

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products. A fair estimate of the number of relatively stable settlers would not exceed 2,000.

LANGUAGE AND WRITING

All the peoples of the Indies speak languages belonging to a single linguistic stock, the Malayo-Polynesian, with the exception of the tribes of northern Halmahera in the Moluccas and of Alor in the Lesser Sundas. These groups possess languages that are generally referred to as Papuan, a category in which the tongues of New Guinea also fall. They have never been properly studied or classified; but they are clearly different from the Malayo-Polynesian languages. The latter form one of the most widespread linguistic families in the world, with hundreds of branches extending all the way from Madagascar, off the southeast coast of Africa, through the East Indies and the Philippines to Formosa on the north, up through the Malay Peninsula to the borders of Burma and Siam, and clear across the Pacific from Indonesia through Melanesia and Micronesia to the distant outposts of Hawaii and Easter Island.

The scores of Indonesian languages, although nearly all of them belong to this single stock, are mutually incomprehensible–the range of variation being comparable to that within the Indo-European languages of Europe. But the linguistic problem in the Indies is simplified by the fact that there exists a kind of “basic Malay,” a simplified version of Sumatran Malay, which is understood throughout most of the islands. This language, which can be acquired by a few months of steady practice, is indispensable for verbal communication with natives, almost none of whom can speak English, Dutch, or any other non-Indonesian tongue.

Although over 90 percent of the natives are illiterate, writing, introduced by the Hindus, has been known in the western islands of the Indies for over a thousand years. The ancient Hindu-derived scripts are rapidly passing out of use but still survive in parts of Sumatra and Celebes, in Bali, Flores, and Sumbawa, and even to some extent in Java. The Arabic alphabet, and recently the Roman, have displaced this archaic type of writing in most of the advanced areas. Paper is now in general use, but the traditional way of writing is to scratch the letters on the shiny surface of bamboo strips or palm leaves, which are then tied together in books. Accordion-like books made of long strips of thin bark folded together between wooden covers are used by the Batak of Sumatra.

ECONOMIC ORGANIZATION

Most of the Indonesians are agriculturists, and rice is by all odds the mainstay of native subsistence. The more primitive method of cultivation

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is to clear and burn the natural growth and plant the grains with digging sticks in the ash-fertilized soil. Irrigated rice cultivation, either on flooded flatlands or on artificially constructed hillside terraces, is limited to the more advanced areas, notably Java, Sumatra, Bali, and southwestern Celebes. Wet-rice agriculture was introduced into the Indies at a much later date than the “burn and plant” system and has not yet spread to the remoter regions. Wherever it is introduced, the yield of grain increases tremendously, and population. rises with miraculous speed. Year-round wet-rice cultivation on terraced hills, in fertile volcanic soil, is the secret of Java’s ability to support its enormous population.

The western islands are the main rice area of the archipelago. Rice has never been introduced, or has come in only recently, throughout most of eastern Indonesia and among certain very primitive tribes of the western region. Yams and taro, tuberous vegetables, and sago, a tapioca-like meal which is beaten and washed from the pith of a kind of palm tree, are the staples in Nias, Mentawei, and Engano, isolated islands off Sumatra’s west coast, and in Banggai, off the eastern point of Celebes. Two other western Indonesian groups, the nomadic Kubu of Sumatra and Punan of Borneo, subsist by hunting and collecting the wild products of the jungle. In eastern Indonesia, rice is replaced as the main crop by either maize (corn) or sago. The former predominates in the Lesser Sundas east of Lombok, while sago meal is the principal food throughout most of the Moluccas. Thus, with minor exceptions, one can map out three main agricultural regions in the archipelago: the western rice area, the central maize section, and the eastern sago zone. f

Vegetable food predominates in the diet of the Indonesians. Customarily, however, they supplement their rice, corn, or sago dishes with bits of meat and fish, principally the latter. Fishing, indeed, is the second most important source of food in native economy. Nets, lines, a wide variety of ingenious dams and traps, and stupefying drugs are all used in fishing.

Hunting holds a subsidiary place in native economic life except among the nomadic and semi-nomadic tribes of Sumatra, Borneo, and some of the larger eastern islands. Wild pigs, deer, monkeys, and wild fowl are the principal kinds of game. The more advanced peoples have guns; but among the remoter tribes, where hunting is still important, spears, the bow and arrow, and the blowpipe with poisoned darts are used. Also, the wide variety of Indonesian fish traps is matched by those used for game. Noose-traps and stationary spring-spears, operating on the principle of the bow and arrow, are suitable for small animals, while for larger ones deadfalls and heavily weighted suspended spears are employed.

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Domesticated animals include dogs, cats, chickens, pigs, water buffalo, cattle, horses, goats, and sheep. Hardly a group can be found, even the primitive forest nomads, who do not have dogs. Cats are not nearly so numerous, which is unfortunate, for the Indies are infested with rats and mice. All Indonesian peoples, except the wandering savages of the jungle, keep chickens. Until 500 years ago pigs were raised in nearly every part of the archipelago. Since then their numbers have been continually decreasing, for with each advance of Islam the pork taboo makes the people get rid of them. It is easy to distinguish Mohammedan from Christian or pagan villages by the absence or presence of pigs.

The gigantic water buffalo, or carabao, is the principal work and draft animal of the islands, and despite the importation of motorcars, most of the heavy transport is still done by buffalo cart. These animals are sometimes slaughtered and eaten, but fish is generally preferred to meat, except for pork in non-Mohammedan areas. Buffalo are found only in the more accessible regions; they have never been introduced into interior Borneo or some of the eastern islands. Cattle, either the humpbacked Indian variety or recently imported European breeds, are not nearly so numerous or widespread as carabao. The horses of the islands are very small, not much bigger than ponies, and were apparently first imported into the Indies by Hindus. They are used as pack or riding animals and in towns to draw little two-wheeled hire-carriages in which driver and passenger ride back to back. Goats are raised in nearly all the islands, mainly for meat and to a lesser extent for milk. Indonesians, like most Orientals, do not care much for milk, butter, or cheese. Sheep were first introduced by Europeans and are still of minor importance in native economy.

Whatever their means of livelihood, most Indonesians are independent workers. Over 70 percent work for themselves, while only 30 percent are wage earners, generally in the employ of European companies. Sixty percent are farmers, 5 percent merchants, 3 percent cattle raisers, hunters, or fishermen, and 1 percent in the professions. Thus the great majority live in the “closed economy” of their native communities, which are almost entirely self-sufficient, producing all they consume, with little left over to sell for cash.

The Indonesians are also poor, not only in money, but in food and possessions as well. Their houses are mostly mere bamboo and thatch huts, their clothes simple and few. Food, especially in overpopulated Java, is not plentiful, but fortunately they require very little. Two bowls of rice, with small servings of fish and vegetables on the side, are sufficient for daily needs. As for money, income tax statistics show that 95 percent of the natives earned less than $50 a year; and only 0.05 percent

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received over $450 a year. Europeans, comprising only 0.4 percent of the population, paid 50 percent of the income tax receipts; while alien Asiatics, mostly Chinese, constituting 2 percent of the population, paid 30 percent. These figures demonstrate clearly the general economic structure of the Indies: the natives work mostly to produce food for themselves; the foreigners work for money profits.

SETTLEMENTS AND HOUSING

The majority of the Indonesians live in small villages, but there are some exceptions. The Kubu of Sumatra, the Punan of Borneo, and some of the primitive tribes of the eastern islands have no set habitations, but wander constantly in small bands searching for food. Their camps are clusters of simple shelters made of sticks and leaves. The sea nomads, or Orang Laut, spend most of their lives in small boats with rude mat coverings over one section.

The other peoples of the Indies have fixed settlements that are more or less permanent. Where the “burn and plant” method of agriculture prevails, the soil is exhausted after a few years, and the people must move their houses to a fresh location. Also, since this type of cultivation is not very productive, a single settlement can never be large. Where irrigated rice is grown, however, the soil retains its fertility and yields abundantly year after year. In such regions the villages are permanent and often rather large. Inland Borneo and Java exemplify this contrast between wet- and dry-rice sections.

Throughout the archipelago housing is generally very simple. The usual building materials are bamboo and leaf or fiber thatch. In most of Indonesia the ground plan of the dwellings is rectangular; but some groups build their houses directly on the earth, while others raise them up on piles or stone platforms. The pile dwelling is the more ancient type and occurs in the remoter districts. Although most of the Indonesian houses are small, some tribes build enormous structures accommodating scores and even hundreds of people. The extreme development of the longhouse occurs in the interior districts of Borneo, where a single building may shelter an entire village population. Even more archaic house forms than the rectangular pile dwelling are encountered in some islands. These oval-shaped or round structures occur in a part of Nias, in Engano, in the Land Dyak section of western Borneo, in the Lesser Sunda islands of Timor, Flores, Lomblem, and Savu, and in the northern part of Halmahera in the Moluccas. Balinese houses differ from all others in Indonesia. A whole group of closely related families dwell within a walled enclosure, in a cluster of small, clay-sided, thatch-roofed structures.

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Even today in regions where the government’s authority has not penetrated sufficiently to ensure internal peace, the native settlements are protected by ingenious fortifications. Formerly most villages had them. In flat country the clusters of houses are surrounded by earthen walls, sometimes with a dry moat on the outside, the entire breastwork being thickly planted with thorny bamboo very difficult to penetrate. Narrow passageways, easily blocked, are the only means of entrance. In mountain districts a village is preferably located on the top of a high hill and can be reached only by a narrow path, parts of it so steep that ladders must be used. In time of war these ladders can be pulled up. The set defenses are often supplemented by concealed pitfalls, trigger-spears, and hidden bamboo spikes, sometimes poisoned at the tip, which impede the progress of barefoot attackers. Under the peaceful conditions of the recent past, the ancient fortifications have been leveled in most regions, and most of the hilltop people have come down out of their lofty strongholds to lower land. Also, settlements formerly closely clustered for better defense have become more dispersed.

Stone architecture, flourishing in Java and Sumatra during the medieval Hindu period, is now a dead art except in Nias and among the Balinese, whose exquisite temples and shrines are among the wonders of the world. . In Nias, megalithic art of a pre-Hindu type reaches a peak which is truly astounding among a people otherwise so primitive. The massive walls, majestic stone stairways, bathing pools, and huge sculptured monuments of the Nias people, though not nearly so widely publicized as the great stone faces of Easter Island in the Pacific, are actually much more impressive. The Batak of Sumatra, the Minahasa of Celebes, and the Sumbanese of the Lesser Sunda Islands are the only other peoples of Indonesia who do stone sculpturing, principally in the form of mausoleums for dead chieftains.

The village pavilion, used for ceremonials and council meetings, is characteristic of Indonesia. Where no separate buildings are devoted to such purposes, as in parts of Borneo and Celebes, the chief’s home or his section of the longhouse includes a portion which serves as a communal meeting place. In some regions–notably Mentawei, parts of Borneo and Celebes, and most of eastern Indonesia–the council houses also function as the temples of pagan cults; while in other places the villages have separate temple buildings, formerly adorned with the skulls or scalps of slain enemies and human sacrifices. The community pavilion in many tribes is the men’s clubhouse, where they congregate in the daytime and sleep at night. Here guests are accommodated also.

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In Mohammedan regions the mosque takes the place of the ancient pagan temple. Smaller communities have mosques constructed of wood, bamboo, and thatch; but in larger centers the Islamic church is often a large edifice, built in Byzantine style with cement walls and metal roof.

CLOTHING AND ADORNMENT

The daily dress of the Indonesians is as simple as most of their houses. Where weaving is known, or imported cloth available, the usual attire is a cotton blouse and batik sarong for women, and a shirt and sarong or trousers for men. Women drape over one shoulder a long strip of cloth which can be used to carry bundles and babies or as a head shawl. Men wear either cloth turbans or fezzes, a white fez being the mark of one who has made the pilgrimage to Mecca. The natives seldom wear shoes. The semi-Europeanized city dwellers are taking more and more to the white man’s style of dress, including shoes; but this occurs seldom among women. Indeed, it is almost literally true that the only native women who dress in European fashion are prostitutes. In rural districts, both men and women remove their blouses when working; in Bali and parts of Borneo women regularly go naked above the waist. While daily dress is simple, the festive garments of the Indonesians are very elaborate, made of the finest batik and specially woven cloth intricately brocaded with silk and gold thread.

A few remote tribes still have no knowledge of weaving and seldom come in contact with traders who sell imported textiles. These primitive groups make their garments of bark cloth, beaten out of the inner bark of certain trees. Even where woven textiles are in use, the natives often make their working clothes–kilts for women and loincloths for men– of this material. The most elaborate development of bark-cloth garments is found among the Toradja mountain tribes of Celebes. The women of a few isolated islands–Mentawei and Engano off the west coast of Sumatra, and Buru, Aru, and Ceram in the Moluccas–still wear leaf and plaited-fiber skirts occasionally.

Body ornaments include a wide variety of earrings and disks, head decorations, necklaces and neck pendants, arm and leg bracelets, belts and corselets, and miscellaneous jewelry such as finger rings, pins and brooches, buckles and buttons. The primitive tribes make their ornaments principally of flowers, feathers, wood, bone, and shell; metal decorations of gold, silver, brass, tin, and copper predominate in the more advanced regions. A general rule is that the most primitive and the most civilized peoples wear fewest ornaments; while those on “intermediate” levels of culture specialize in elaborate adornment.

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Plate 10

Plate 10Above: Batak “hot dog” stand, Sumatra. The vendors are selling pieces of roasted dog meat in a marketplace.

Below: Entrance to a Batak village, Sumatra, showing earthen fortifications.

Photographs by E.E. Muhs.

Plate 10

 


Plate 11

Plate 11Above: Minangkabau longhouse, Sumatra. All Minangkabau buildings have graceful saddle-shaped roofs. Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.

Below: Toba Batak village, Sumatra, showing the sloping gables of the houses of this subtribe. Photograph by E. E. Muhs.

Plate 11

 


Plate 12

Plate 12Above: Balinese temple gateway with carved wooden doors.

Below: Houses in Nias with massive timbers, carved and painted gables, and hooded roofs. Sculptured stone monuments dedicated to ancestors, in foreground, on paved village plaza. Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.

Plate 12

 


Plate 13

Plate 13Above: Mentawei longhouse.

Below: One of the various types of Borneo longhouses.

Plate 13

 


The Indonesians also exercise their decorative fancy on the flesh of the body itself. Virtually every people in the islands pierce the ears for the insertion of rings or disks. The custom is declining among men of the more advanced groups, but it is almost universal among women. Generally, the extreme types of ear mutilation–greatly distended lobes and multiple incisions–are found among the more backward tribes. Filing of the front teeth–to points, down in an even line (in many cases to the gums), or with concave grooves on the outer surface–is a very general practice, and was formerly universal in the archipelago. In some places, as in Engano and among the Toradja of Celebes, teeth may be simply broken off or knocked out by the roots. The genital organs are another part of the body subjected to mutilation, including supercision, circumcision, and female incision. The latter two operations are practiced almost exclusively in Mohammedanized areas.

Tattooing, formerly a general custom in most of Indonesia, is still practiced widely in the more backward districts of nearly every island, excepting Java, Sumatra, Bali, and Lombok. Borneo is probably the greatest tattooing center in the world. Perhaps because tattooing is so general, body painting is rather rare. A variation on mere painting is employed by the western Toradja of Celebes, who stipple the face and hands with resin in dot-and-line designs. A substitute for tattooing in a few remote parts of Celebes, in Nias, and in some of the Moluccas is burning or cutting cicatrices in the flesh. Only three tribes–the Klamantan Milanau of Borneo, the Gorontalese of Celebes, and the Redjang of Sumatra–compress the heads of infants to give them an admired flatness of forehead and occiput. The natives of Kei, Babar, and Tanimbar in the Moluccas bleach their hair with lime. Nose mutilation is encountered nowhere in the islands west of New Guinea.

WEAPONS

With the increasing displacement of hunting by agriculture and the decrease in native warfare, the importance of weapons has declined. Most Javanese, for instance, have no weapons except ornamental krisses kept as heirlooms, while in Borneo the old head-chopping ax is disappearing for lack of use. The most important weapons in the Indies are the sword, spear, blowgun, bow, and shield. Swords, spears, and shields are used throughout all the islands; but the blowgun is predominantly a western Indonesian weapon, while the bow is found mainly in the eastern part of the archipelago. Slings and clubs are rare, as are throwing sticks. Poisons made from tree sap are smeared on blowgun darts, and, in some

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tribes, on arrows as well. The blowguns themselves are of wood or bamboo. The latter are easy to make, as bamboo is hollow; but the wooden pipes require careful workmanship. Some are made by lashing two grooved sticks together so that the longitudinal grooves combine to form a circular passage. The other method is to drill a hole down through a long piece of wood in the manner of a gunsmith boring a rifle. Iron tools are needed for making such blowguns.

TRAVEL AND TRANSPORTATION

The importation of motorcars and the extension of good roads are revolutionizing travel and transportation in Indonesia, but where roads have not been built the ancient methods survive. Buffalo carts and pack horses are used to a considerable extent, but most travel is on foot and most transportation by human porters, women as well as men. In the more remote districts, the principal carrying device is the back basket, with tumpline passing over the forehead or shoulder straps, or, for heavy loads, both. Porters in coastal regions use balance poles, which rest on the shoulders and have the load suspended from both ends.

The coastal peoples are expert seafarers, and before the coming of the steamship most of the water commerce was carried by their big sailing praus, with or without outriggers. The smaller boats are usually dugout canoes hewn from a single log and provided with outriggers. On inland lakes and rivers the boats are generally devoid of external floats. Nearly all the dugouts of the Indies have double outriggers supported by two booms passing across the vessel. Sometimes, to make them more seaworthy, the dugouts have their sides built up with planks attached to the log keel by lashing or wooden pegs.

HANDICRAFTS

Two manufacturing accomplishments are common to all groups in the islands: woodworking and the plaiting of mats and baskets. Pottery making is somewhat more limited in spread, and several groups, notably in the eastern Indies, appear never to have learned the technique. Indonesian pottery is generally poor in quality, scantily decorated, and un-glazed. The potter’s wheel is almost never used, the vessels being made by scooping and patting into shape a lump of clay.

The two arts of handicraft in which Indonesians excel are textile weaving and metal work. The latter is far more widespread than the former and apparently is much more ancient in the archipelago. Many tribes of Celebes and the eastern islands have never advanced beyond the bark-

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cloth level of textile development, but very few peoples lack the knowledge of metal manufacture. Most of the iron is bought from traders in the form of bars, but some tribes mine and smelt local ore. A piston bellows with bamboo cylinders and wadded plungers is used in smelting and forging, and the product is tempered by plunging it red hot into cold water. Copper, brass, gold, and silver artifacts are made by beating or by the * lost-wax” method of molding.

Weavers work with two kinds of looms. The more primitive type has the warp threads tied at one end to a fixed horizontal stick and at the other to a bar which passes behind the small of the back of the weaver. The more complex looms have set frames. Textiles are decorated either by brocading with colored or gold or silver thread, or by dyeing. The locally made coloring materials are disappearing since the importation of aniline dyes. For simple cloths whole-dyed threads may be woven directly, but far more complicated methods are also used. They all come under the general heading of “resist dyeing,” in which certain parts of the cloth or thread are covered with wax, leaves, or fibers, so that when the dye is applied it does not color these places. In this way a design is produced. For multicolor dyeing, the sections already tinted are covered and a different color is applied to the remainder of the cloth. Ikat (“tie”) dyeing is done on the threads before weaving, and when these threads are woven, so carefully have the colors been applied that the desired design appears in the finished fabric. Plangi (“rainbow”) cloths are dyed by covering certain parts of the textile with leaves or other resistant substances, and then tying these sections into small bundles, so that when dipped they do not take the color. By successive tyings and dippings multicolor designs can be produced. Batik cloths are colored by smearing wax over the parts which are not to be tinted and then applying the dye. The wax is later removed by boiling. Here again, several colors can be produced on a single cloth by repeated waxing and dipping.

DRAMA, DANCING, AND MUSIC

The artistic talents of the Indonesians are not confined solely to handicrafts. In the so-called fine arts, their creative abilities appear to special advantage in dancing, music, and drama. The more primitive tribes use gongs and drums principally, although they have some rude wind and stringed instruments. The dancing of the interior tribes, like their music, is also rather simple, running largely to pantomime. The highest development of these arts is found in Java and Bali, where Indian influence has enriched the aboriginal patterns. The music of the great gamelan

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orchestras is related to that of the backward tribes in much the same way that European symphonies are related to peasant folksongs. And the elaborate posturing dances and beautifully synchronized group performances of the Javanese and Balinese troupes offer a similar degree of comparison with the pantomimic animal and war dances of the jungle peoples as, in the Western tradition, the Russian ballet with folkdancing. In both instances, the old rhythms and motifs have contributed to the more sophisticated patterns, which are, indeed, lineal descendants of the ancient forms.

The gamelan orchestras have as their principal instruments copper-bowl xylophones, which carry the burden of the music; while the violins, flutes, clarinets, and trumpets embroider the basic pattern, and the big drums and gongs keep up a running undertone of complicated rhythms. Indonesian dancers move their feet very little, and most of the meaning of their performance is expressed by intricate, highly symbolic posturing with the body, arms, and hands. Similarly, while the face of the dancer remains an immobile and expressionless mask, the movements of the head and eyes are significant.

The dramatic art of the islands, which among the more remote tribes consists mainly of the pantomimic dances just mentioned and some religious pageant-like performances, also attains a peak of development in Java and Bali. The stories are largely derived from the Indian epic poems Mahabharata and Ramayana, but some of the dramas are based upon traditional native tales. Wayang is the generic term for drama, and there are several kinds of plays. One is performed by human actors, usually masked, who speak the lines. Another, and perhaps the most ancient kind, consists in the unrolling of a long scroll on which the scenes of the play are painted. A monologist recites the lines. All the other types of wayang are puppet shows, the figures being made of various kinds of material. Most popular of all is the shadow play with flat leather puppets manipulated from beneath the stage by thin stick attachments.

European and American music apparently has made little appeal to Indonesians; and they are frankly shocked by the Western bisexual, close-contact ballroom dancing. But the cinema has taken hold with them to the extent that it threatens the survival of the traditional drama wherever movie theaters have come in. “Westerns” and animated cartoons are their favorites.

SOCIAL AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATION

The social organization of the Indonesian peoples shows three levels of development. The first is represented by the small proportion of natives

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who live in the few modern cities: Batavia, Bandung, and Surabaya in Java; Medan and Palembang in Sumatra; Macassar and Menado in Celebes; and Bandjermasin and Pontianak in Borneo. Among these the traditional social groupings have been largely forgotten, and their type of community life is a product of Western influence.

The second level is that of the native states, still semi-independent, although geared in with the Dutch colonial administration. This type of organization is restricted to Java and the coastal regions of other islands, and came into Indonesia about 1,500 years ago as an imported Hindu element. Before that, the social system of the Indies had never developed beyond the tribal or village community stage. Like the modernized city organization, the native states represent a superimposition on the ancient tribal and village groupings; and even now only a minority of the people are directly concerned with these petty principalities. They are survivals of the Hindu imperialism that preceded the European version of the same thing.

Despite successive conquests, underneath the shifting alien dominations the native communities have gone their traditional ways relatively undisturbed. The third and deepest level of social organization, represented by the masses of the native Indonesians in their countless tribes and settlements, has been left essentially untouched by foreign governmental systems. This is actually and potentially the most important social stratum in the islands, for upon its firm foundation must rise the future democratic state of Indonesia, after the imperialistic superimpositions have been stripped away.

The tribal groupings, many of them so large that they might more appropriately be termed nations, are mostly nongovernmental units. They are cultural areas, within each of which the customs and language are the same and the people remember an ancient bond of relationship. But there are no central tribal governments, and the largest administrative units on the native level are clusters of villages which have combined to form districts, with district chiefs and councils. This is the typical stage of development in the more advanced areas, such as Java and most of Sumatra. In regions of simpler culture, as in the interior parts of Borneo and Celebes, each settlement is virtually independent, and district organization is absent.

Throughout the Indies, even in places where villages are grouped in district federations, the most important functional unit, socially and politically, is the community. The native communities are not only typically democratic; they are also to a high degree communalistic. The

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chief and his assistants are chosen by vote of the villagers, although the offices tend to become hereditary. All or nearly all the adult males in the settlement have a voice in the direction of community affairs. Descendants of slaves, newcomers to the village, and persons of a traditionally inferior class may be either entirely disfranchised or given limited political privileges, but the prevailing tendency is democratic. The officials are subject to control in their decisions by the council, and they must never violate the adat, or traditional rules, of the community. With these checks on them, they have little chance to indulge any, inclinations toward dictatorship. Wherever despotism has developed in the Indies, it has been imported from outside. But even in such cases, the wiser administrators have generally refrained from much interference in the local communities, demanding only peace and taxes, and a limited amount of personal and military service.

The Indonesians lay great emphasis on genealogy and reckon relationships far beyond the immediate family. These extended systems of kinship are important functionally, for upon them are based marriage rules, regulations concerning place of residence, obligations of blood vengeance, and property laws. Some of the tribes stress descent in the female line, while others emphasize male descent. These unilateral schemes of social organization are confined mostly to Sumatra and certain parts of eastern Indonesia. Patrilineal descent is characteristic of most of the mountain peoples of Sumatra and the vast majority of groups in the eastern islands, from Bali to New Guinea. Matrilineal descent occurs only among the Minangkabau and one or two other tribes of Sumatra, and in restricted enclaves in some of the Lesser Sundas and Moluccas. In the whole central part of the archipelago, bilateral kinship systems are the rule–in Borneo, Celebes, and Java particularly–and here relationship is reckoned on both father’s and mother’s sides, as in America.

The rules governing marriage depend upon the manner of tracing descent. Among peoples with bilateral systems, choice of a spouse is restricted only by incest rules, which prohibit marriage with close relatives on either side of the family, usually extending to first cousins only. Where patrilineal kinship prevails, relatives on the father’s side are tabooed, sometimes to very distant degrees of relationship; while maternal kinsmen, even those closely linked by blood, may marry. The reverse rules apply in a matrilineal society.

In certain parts of Sumatra and in some areas of eastern Indonesia the patrilineal and matrilineal systems of reckoning kinship become vastly elaborated by the development of clans. Where this occurs in a patrilineal tribe, a person is forbidden to marry all members of the father’s clan, no

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matter how distant the relationship may be. In groups with matrilineal clans the prohibition is applied to all members of the mother’s clan. The situation is similar to what would happen if we in America were to taboo marriages between all persons with the same surname. The idea behind these rules is that all persons with the same clan name are descended from a common ancestor, who founded the clan. The clan-marriage taboo is just as stringently enforced as incest regulations, and the penalty for transgression, as in the case of real incest, used to be death.

The mode of reckoning kinship influences the place of residence of a couple after marriage. Almost invariably, where descent is matrilineal, residence is matrilocal, that is, with the wife’s people; whereas, where the male blood tie is the test of relationship, residence is patrilocal, with the husband’s kinsmen. In areas where bilateral kinship prevails, usually a man and his wife may reside where they choose, but in many places this is not so. For instance, among the interior tribes of Borneo and Celebes, although relationship on both sides is reckoned equally, a married couple go to live in the village or longhouse of the wife. Some authorities believe that this is a survival of a former system of tracing descent in the female line only.

In certain respects the rules governing sex and marriage in Indonesia appear somewhat lax to Europeans and Americans. Premarital sexual relations, especially in the less civilized tribes, are not regarded as wicked, but rather as quite normal. If an unmarried girl becomes pregnant, however, the boy involved is usually required to marry her. Moreover, the period of freedom is short, as marriages generally occur soon after puberty, at the age of about 16 for girls and a year or two later for boys.

Once married, strict faithfulness is expected of a woman, although extramarital amours on the part of husbands are not considered to be so serious. According to traditional native law in many tribes, the punishment for adultery was death; in others, heavy fines were the rule. The Dutch have long since abolished the death penalty for this offense. Just as a husband’s adultery is more lightly regarded than a wife’s, so also can a man obtain a divorce more easily than a woman among most Indonesian peoples.

In nearly all tribes, a man may marry as many wives as he can support; and although Mohammedan canon law restricts the number of legal wives to four, it sets no limit on the number of concubines a man may have. Many of the native radjas and sultans support whole squads of concubines, in addition to their four status wives, and the offspring of the various women are ranked according to the position of their mothers in the royal household. But the great majority of Indonesians can afford

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only one wife apiece. The factor of expense applies not only to mere support of the woman, but to her “purchase price” as well, for throughout most of the islands a man has to pay for his wife. The bride price usually varies according to the social rank of the girl’s family, which tends to keep the poor from marrying above their station. Although polygyny, possession of multiple wives, is relatively rare, despite its legality, divorce occurs very frequently. It is not uncommon for both men and women to marry and divorce several times in the course of their marital careers. Generally the first marriage is arranged by the parents, with or without consulting the desires of the prospective bride and groom, but subsequent unions are matters of personal choice.

PROPERTY, CLASS, AND CASTE

The democratic political functioning of the native communities in most of Indonesia is complemented by a prevailing communalism of property. Individual property is largely restricted to movable and personal articles, such as clothes and weapons. Houses are generally regarded as collective family property; and land belongs to the whole community. Exclusive private possession of land is an idea strange to most Indonesians. Each individual or family gets a share of the communal land, and such shares may not be sold because they are not the property of their holders. With the consent of the whole community, parcels of land may be leased, even to outsiders; but complete alienation is impossible. The Dutch wisely reinforced traditional law on this point by statutory enactments; and no one may buy land from Indonesians or native communities. The great plantations of the Indies, therefore, occupied leased land, and the companies paid rent to the native owners.

This ancient system of true communalism in land property has been undergoing steady alteration, and the tendency has been toward a kind of “permanent family leasehold.” This change has followed the spread of wet-rice agriculture, and the reason is that irrigated fields represent a capital investment in the form of ditches, sluice gates, dams, and terraces. Such improvements are inseparable from the land itself. But if a family which has obtained virtually permanent tenure of a parcel of land by such investment then moves away from the village, its holding reverts to the community. Absentee ownership is forbidden by the adat, or native traditional law.

In the same way that the primitive communalism of Indonesian villages has been modified in areas where improved methods of cultivation have introduced permanent capital investment in land, so also can a

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correlation be noted between decline in the pure democracy of native society and the spread of “higher” culture. Social stratification tends to develop and become rigid in the more advanced areas. Where Hindu culture, for instance, never penetrated, there complete social democracy prevails; while on the borderline of civilization, so to speak, intermediate grades of stratification have developed, with distinctions of varying rigidity drawn between noble, common, and slave classes. Exclusive hereditary nobilities, linked in most cases with dynastic state governments and despotic systems of feudalism, exist, or did until recently, in all the more advanced regions. Even in areas where social stratification prevails, however, the great mass of natives are still untouched by imported ideas of superior and inferior classes of men. Forms of address and etiquette may vary for different ranks of society, but in daily life and community administration all stand pretty much on the same level. One exception must be made to the statement that Indonesian native society is fundamentally democratic. Slavery prevailed until recent years in nearly all parts of the islands, the slaves being mostly war captives or descendants of conquered peoples. The status was hereditary and usually involved no inhumane treatment; although in certain tribes slaves were occasionally used for human sacrifice.

NATIVE WARFARE

Before the establishment of European rule, intermittent feuds between villages, divisions of tribes, and whole tribal groups kept the islands in a state of continual internal strife. Even today, in remote districts, native wars break out intermittently. Boundary disputes, revenge for injuries inflicted by members of another group, and, in some cases, the pressing need for more land to support increasing population are among the causes of hostilities. But above all, head hunting has been the principal impulse to warfare in the Indies.

In ancient times virtually all the peoples of Indonesia were head hunters, and the practice has not yet died out completely despite the strong efforts of the government to stop it. The reasons for this peculiar custom seem on the surface to be mainly desire for war prestige and revenge for previous raids. Also, in many tribes a youth is not considered a proper man or fully qualified for marriage until he has captured a head. But underlying these superficial reasons are the ideas of the Indonesians concerning the magical power of human heads. A community which has been suffering from epidemics, crop failures, or infertility of women and domestic animals, in trying to fathom the cause of this ill luck, may arrive at the characteristically Indonesian notion that the group is suffering from a

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deficiency of magical power. One of the best direct means of getting the needed spiritual “juice” is to capture a new batch of heads from some other village, for magical energy is most richly concentrated in human heads. Feuds thus started may go on for generations, because a settlement which has lost a number of heads will explain subsequent misfortunes as consequences of this theft of vital energy, and will try to restore the “balance of heads” by making a return raid. Head hunting, therefore, is in one sense a grand and grisly game, with the score kept in heads; while in a deeper sense it is a serious religious duty, performed with pride for the spiritual benefit of a man’s own people.

Being such valuable objects, heads are also obtained for funeral feasts and other sacrificial ceremonies. They are the best of all possible offerings. Moreover, the ancestral ghosts, once head hunters themselves, are likely to withdraw their supernatural favors from their descendants if they do not perform the sacred duty of replenishing the magical stock of the group by capturing heads. The idea that the head is a very holy part of the body is widespread in Indonesia, even in regions where head hunting is a thing of the past. The greatest breach of etiquette is to touch another’s head without good reason. Many a white man has lost his life because he did not know how natives regard their heads.

Head hunting is linked with partial cannibalism in most areas where it occurs. The head snatchers eat bits of the flesh of their trophies, especially the brains, to invigorate themselves spiritually. Aside from this form of cannibalism, which is a kind of magical “communion” service, man eating is not condoned by any Indonesian tribe except, formerly, by the Batak of Sumatra. Even the Batak, however, seldom or never ate human beings except for specifically defined reasons: to inflict the utmost revenge on slain enemies, or to impose the most extreme kind of punishment imaginable upon criminals.

RELIGION

The great majority of Indonesians–about 90 percent–are nominally Mohammedans; approximately 2,500,000 profess Christianity; and the million Balinese are avowedly Hinduist in religion. But the kind of Mohammedanism, Christianity, and Hinduism practiced is hardly of the “pure” sort in any instance; the vital religions of the islands are the old ghost, spirit, and ancestor cults, which have persisted all through the centuries despite surface changes. The Javanese, for instance, are almost 100 percent Mohammedan; but their fundamental beliefs about spirits, life after death, magic, and the like are really pagan. The Javanese or

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Balinese village has at the very basis of its religious system worship of the local spirits and of the ancestral ghosts of the community, for whom ancient altars serve as offering places.

The pagan substratum is the most important element in the whole superimposed system of religious beliefs and practices, and it gives the tone to the later layers. The great masses are heathen at heart, despite their superficial affiliation with the great world religions.

The true type of Indonesian religion, which still survives relatively untouched by outside influence in the interior districts of Sumatra, Borneo, and Celebes, and in many of the isolated smaller islands, rests basically upon beliefs and practices concerned with magic, spirits, and the ghosts of the dead. The magical concepts, as already mentioned, emerge in the headhunting complex. They imbue other aspects of religious life as well; for the people believe that a vast store of magical power permeates the universe, and that it can be “tapped” for human purposes by certain methods. Some persons are adept in getting at supernatural energy, and they can be hired to do this delicate and dangerous work. The purpose is usually a good one–healing the sick, helping the crops, and the like; but black magic may be used against enemies. Every tribe and village has its specialists in this field; but common folk also, by prescribed ritual incantations and actions, can turn magic to their uses. Whole communities may hold ceremonies calculated to get spiritual energy for the entire group, as among the Toradja of central Celebes. Here, at the high point of a week-long ceremony, the women of the village put themselves into a kind of trance, “send their souls” up to the sky, where the great spirits have a vast store of magical power, and draw upon this mighty source for the benefit of the whole community.

The belief in spirits is different from that in generalized magical force, and the activities connected with the spirit cult are more specific in their intention and formalization. This is because in this sphere the people know with what they have to deal, and the rituals can be “aimed” at a certain spirit or spirits. Also, the ideas concerning these supernatural beings are more concrete than in the case of magic. Every Indonesian people believes in the existence of hosts of spirits, widely variable in kind and power. Some are good, others bad; and the main purpose of the spirit cult is to obtain the aid of the former in combating the malevolent influence of the latter. There are earth, air, and water spirits, and a great number of celestial beings who appear as leaders of the lesser ones. The central Borneo tribes try to discover the will of the heavenly deities by observing the flight of birds, who are under the direction of the air spirits, the latter in turn following the orders of their superiors in the

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celestial realm. The Batak of Sumatra believe that they can imprison certain kinds of spirits in little figurines of wood or stone, which are then set outside the village to protect the inhabitants from the hordes of evil creatures who prowl the earth. There are all sorts of sickness spirits; and in eastern Indonesia particularly, when an epidemic is raging the people make a little boat, lure the evil spirits of illness aboard it, and tow the “scapeboat” out to sea, where it is abandoned. Many localities have their own special spirits. Indonesians climbing a mountain may make offerings not only to the deities of the mountain itself, but also to the spirits of rocks and streams on the way up. Passing a headland known to house a supernatural being, Malay sailors will lie flat in their vessel, perfectly quiet, while the helmsman steers a gingerly course by the dread spot.

Powerful though the beliefs in magic and the spirits are, probably the most important cult in Indonesia has to do with the ghosts of the dead and the ancestors. In few other places in the world do funeral ceremonies involve so much time, energy, and sacrifice. In many tribes the dead receive not only one, but two and even three successive funerals, at each of which the bones of the deceased are exhumed or removed from their tombs for cleaning, blessing, and redisposal. The ways of disposing of mortal remains are extremely varied. In the island of Sumatra alone, for instance, the different tribes bury, cremate, entomb, abandon, conceal in caves, and seal in trees the bodies of their dead. Even within the same tribe, diverse methods of disposal may be employed, depending upon the age, rank, sex, and manner of death of the deceased.

This obsession with death and the dead reaches its culmination in the all-important ancestor cult. The ancestors have passed beyond, to the realm of the spirits, and, if kept satisfied, are in an excellent position to aid the living. Therefore they receive endless sacrifices, and the people dread offending them in any way. This, indeed, is a great reason for the conservatism of the Indonesians, as the ancestors are likely to be angered by any alteration in the ways they were used to on earth.

The ancestor cult is universal throughout the Indies, and is the most important single feature of native religion. Linked with it is a widespread use of spiritualistic seances for the purpose of getting in contact with the ghosts of the dead and discovering their will. The shaman, or medium, goes into a state of trance induced by such devices as incantations and wild dancing to the accompaniment of steady drum-beating, and gulping in great clouds of incense. While in the trance, the medium’s body becomes the host of an ancestral ghost, who speaks through the mouth of the shaman.

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Plate 14

Plate 14Above: Man of Nias in ceremonial costume, including the warrior’s neck emblem and elaborate headgear. The poster is printed in the Nias language, which was never written until recently.

Below: Javanese couple, the man in semi-European style clothing.

Plate 14


Plate 15

Plate 15Above: Balinese dancers in performing costumes. The metal headresses are so finely worked that they look like starched lace.

Below: Minangkabau of Sumatra in ceremonial costume. These richly brocaded garments are heirlooms.

Plate 15


Plate 16

Plate 16Above: Mentawei girl with teeth filed to points.

Below: Toradia woman, Celebes, with resin stippling on her face.

Plate 16


Plate `7

Plate 17Above: Bahau Dyak, Borneo, showing distension of the ear lobes.

Below: Mentawei man, with bow and poisoned arrows.

Plate 17


The native Indonesian religions, then, are varying mixtures of paganism with later infusions of Hinduism, Islam, and Christianity. “Conversion” merely means taking on new names for old things; and the supernatural beings, beliefs, and practices introduced from outside are simply added on and fitted into the ancient cults. Purely pagan tribes are still found in the islands off the west coast of Sumatra* in certain remote parts of the latter island itself, in central Borneo and Celebes, and in many of the islands between Java and New Guinea. Hinduism, mixed with pre-Hindu elements, survives only in Bali, although 600 years ago it was the universal religion of all Java and most of Sumatra. Mohammedanism, also by no means “pure,” has now spread over nearly all of Sumatra, Java, and the coastal districts of Borneo and Celebes. It is steadily making converts in the eastern islands, some of which–Lombok and Sumbawa, for instance–are almost completely Islamized.

Christianity has never been able to gain headway in Mohammedan areas. In Java, for instance, there are at most 200,000 Christians–probably not more than half of these natives–and this despite centuries of missionary effort. The Christian religion has found its best field among the pagan tribes, notably the Batak of Sumatra, the Toradja and Minahasa of Celebes, and the Ambonese of the Moluccas. The latter two groups are almost entirely “Christian.” Islam, however, seems to harden its followers against conversion, and throughout the history of missionary enterprise in the Indies the zones of Christianity and Mohammedanism have been mutually exclusive.

DUTCH ADMINISTRATION

Unlike the Americans in the Philippines, who after expelling the Spanish immediately started a general reform of government, education, and social life, the Dutch have been extremely cautious about introducing changes in the administration of the Indies. They have retained as far as possible the traditional forms of government, tried scrupulously to avoid interference in native life, and until recently have done little to promote native education.

The old East India Company, a commercial body operating under the aegis of the Netherlands Government, actually was the colonial administration until its dissolution in 1798. It kept the native sultans in power, ruling through them, and demanding only a monopoly of trading rights and exploitation of natural resources. When the Company collapsed, the Government merely stepped into its place and operated in the time-honored manner, becoming in considerable degree a commercial organization itself. Around 1900 the Government gave up its business activities–with the

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exception of a few enterprises and monopolies–and opened the Indies to exploitation by private companies, turning itself completely to the task of colonial administration. It pledged itself to a “liberal” policy of rule: on the one hand to keep native customs and institutions intact as far as possible, and on the other to extend education and participation in government to Indonesians as rapidly as possible. In the former, complete success was achieved, for it has always been the policy of the Dutch to refrain from interference in native life except when absolutely necessary. The latter aim, however, was never achieved, except very partially, with the result that only a very small proportion of the natives ever attended school and even fewer ever voted. Thus the main emphasis has been upon maintaining the status quo and only slowly opening educational and political privileges to the Indonesians. The whole policy is well termed one of extreme gradualism.

By Dutch definition the Indies were not a colony, but rather an integral part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, like Holland itself, Surinam, and Curasao. The islands had their own government, to handle internal affairs, under the ‘guidance” of the mother country, and the latter controlled their relations with foreign states. Legislation concerning matters of broad and fundamental import for the Indies went through the parliament in Holland, while questions having only local application were handled by the governor-general and the organs of government in Batavia.

The governor-general, appointed by the Crown, was directly assisted by an advisory body of five, chosen by the Dutch ruler and cabinet, called the Council of the Indies, and by a cabinet of eight. The governor-general named six of the ministers; the Netherlands Crown and cabinet selected the ministers of war and the navy. The central government at Batavia had one other branch, potentially the most important of all. This was the parliament, or Volksraad, the “People’s Council.” Created in 1916 as a purely advisory body, it slowly gained in power, until, after 1929, it came to function almost as a true legislative assembly. Members could introduce bills on their own initiative, and the Volksraad could amend bills presented to it by the governor-general. The latter had to present every bill he advocated to the Volksraad for a vote. If a budget bill were not approved, the Netherlands parliament decided the issue; in case of disagreement on other ordinances the conflict was resolved by a royal decree. The governor-general, in case of emergency, might proclaim an executive order having the power of law immediately; but if the Volksraad at its next meeting questioned his action the Crown was called upon to arbitrate the dispute.

The partially democratic nature of this near-parliamentary body is further demonstrated by the way its members were chosen. The chairman

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was appointed by the Crown and cabinet of the Netherlands. The remaining 60 members were partly elected and partly appointed by the governor-general in the following manner: of the 30 Indonesian delegates, 20 were elected and 10 appointed; of the 25 Europeans, 15 were elected and 10 appointed; and of the 5 “alien Asiatic” deputies, 3 were elected and 2 appointed. Thus 38 of the members were elected and 22 appointed. The term of office was 4 years. To ensure proportional sectional representation among the native members, the islands were divided into twelve electoral areas. If this had not been done, the Javanese, with two-thirds of the total Indonesian population, would have held nearly all the seats in the Volksraad. The method of election was indirect, only members of the various local councils–provincial, regency, and municipal–voting for delegates. These local councilmen in turn were partly appointed and partly elected by the people of their district, in most places voting by village units. The whole process was complex and cumbersome, but, according to the Dutch, it was designed to give all groups proper representation.

Outside the central government, there were three main systems of administration: the Civil Service, the native rulers, and various kinds of district councils.

The Civil Service consisted of several grades of officials. The highest were the governors of the eight main divisions of the Indies. Then came the residents, assistant residents, and controleurs, in charge of progressively smaller districts. Most of the officers thus far down the list were Dutchmen, although a minority were half-castes who had gone to school in Holland. The lower grades of the Service included thousands of native officials. Indeed, the entire staff had only about 30,000 European members as against 180,000 natives, most of the latter in such relatively minor capacities as clerks and messengers. Also, a large proportion of the “European” employees were half-castes in subordinate positions. Candidates for all posts from controleur upward were selected by an examining committee from graduates of high schools in Holland and the Indies. Successful applicants were sent to either Leiden or Utrecht University, where they were partially supported by government scholarships. The course took 5 years, and when the young “aspirant controleurs” were ready to leave for the Indies they had acquired a thorough knowledge of Indonesian history and law, the ethnology of the native peoples, and the languages of the archipelago. There is no doubt that the Dutch civil officers in the Indies were the best colonial administrators in the world, and the reason for this lay in the rigid standards of selection of candidates and in the admirable course of training they received.

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The second type of regional administration was that of the native rulers, mostly hereditary in the higher ranks. The system of retaining the traditional governmental organization to the greatest possible degree had been characteristic of the Dutch ever since the days of the old East India Company. This method of colonial administration is called “indirect rule,” which is a precise term, for each of the native potentates had at his side a Dutch civil officer who “advised” him–in other words, actually “ruled through” him. Of the total area of Java, 7 percent was under the jurisdiction of 4 sultans, and most of the remainder of the island was divided into 70 “regencies,” each ruled by a hereditary native potentate. Outside Java, 60 percent of the dominions were ruled indirectly through local princes, mostly hereditary. In all the 340 native states and regencies the rulers merely went through the motions of administration, and their powers were entirely subordinated to those of the Indies government. The finances, especially, were strictly controlled, although the monetary allowances made to the princes were very liberal in most instances. Each ruler of a native state had under him district and assistant district chiefs, generally of the lesser nobility of the region. The lowest unit in the hierarchy of native regional government was the village community, ruled by a chief, sometimes hereditary and sometimes elective, who was assisted by certain other officials. Typically also, there were a village assembly, to which all adult males in good civil standing were eligible, and a council of elders, a kind of senate drawn from the assembly. These village communities were the main centers of Indonesian native government. Only a small proportion of the common folk ever had anything to do with either the higher native officials or the Dutch administrators. Their political horizon ended at the borders of their own community. The village governments ran in traditional grooves sanctified by usage extending back beyond memory; and the successive conquerors of the Indies have been satisfied to leave them alone, going on generation after generation in accordance with ancient customs and laws.

The third type of regional administration was a recent development, although the groundwork for it had been laid as far back as 1903, with the first “decentralization” law. The plan was to develop in every section of the Indies a complete local government to handle internal affairs. Each of the major administrative divisions–provinces, regencies, and municipalities–was to have not only its executive Civil Service staff and its native rulers, but also a council, partly appointed and partly elective. Tribal divisions were to be given a controlling voice in their own affairs by setting up tribal or “community” councils. The system, if carried through completely, would have worked out into a scheme similar to the

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American federal type of government, with its State legislatures, county boards, and city councils. By 1941 the new decentralized plan was already in partial operation. Six provincial, 70 regency, 15 municipality, and 2 “community” or tribal councils had been established and were functioning. In most of these, about half of the members–European, native, and “alien Asiatic”–were appointed by the executive of the region; for the elective deputies only taxpayers, in general, were allowed to vote. Thus the franchise extended to only a minute proportion of the natives, but as the plan developed and as economic and educational standards rose, more and more of the Indonesians would have been brought within the voting group. Legislation passed by the various councils was subject to veto by the Dutch governor or other official in charge of the district; but an appeal could be made to the governor-general, who made the final decision.

EDUCATION

The Dutch did little to open the minds of the Indonesian masses to broad world perspectives through education. Only 5 to 10 percent of the government expenditures were for education, as against 25 percent in the Philippines. The underlying philosophy seems to have been that too rapid education among the natives would have produced social disorganization and discontent, along with imposing a heavy drain on the government budget.

The system of schooling was organized on a dual basis, depending upon whether the Dutch or native language was used in teaching. Standard Malay was the language in most of the latter type of schools; but where knowledge of Malay had never penetrated, the local vernacular was the medium of instruction, and Malay was taught as a subject. The great bulk of the native pupils, about 1,700,000 out of 2,000,000, never got beyond the lowest unit, the village school, whose course covered three grades only. Education was neither compulsory nor free, although some scholarships were provided for poor but able students.

Above the primary level, which rose to six grades, Indonesian students had their choice of going on in the native-language school system to trade, agricultural, or normal secondary schools, or passing over into the white secondary school system by attending “link schools” where they learned the Dutch language. This sounds as though the Dutch segregated children by race in primary, though not in secondary, schools. This is not true, however, for the criterion of separation was language, not race, and Indonesian or Chinese children who spoke Dutch could enter the European primary schools along with the whites. For Chinese students, the type of

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primary school attended depended upon what language they knew; although the majority went to special “Dutch-Chinese” schools, where Dutch was taught through the medium of Malay. In addition to public schools, private and missionary institutions were subsidized by the Government, and almost 20 percent of all pupils in the Indies attended these. They included nonsectarian private, Chinese private, Catholic and Protestant missionary, and Mohammedan parochial schools.

The highest education offered was that of the five colleges of Java: the technical institute at Bandung, and the schools of law, medicine, agriculture, and literature at Batavia. The Japanese war interrupted plans for uniting these institutions in a University of the Netherlands East Indies. An infinitesimal proportion of the natives who started in the primary school system ever attained university education; indeed, very few– about 15 percent–even got beyond the third elementary grade.

MISSIONARY ACTIVITY

Every missionary group in the Indies operated under a license in which the area of activity was strictly delimited and the procedure minutely prescribed. These licenses were subject to immediate cancellation if the missionaries overstepped the bounds of their stated privileges, or if the government found that the natives were opposed to their presence. Some districts were virtually closed to missionaries, notably the strongly Mohammedan areas of Atjeh in Sumatra and Bantam in western Java, and the Hinduist island of Bali. Even where missionaries had been active for centuries, however, their efforts to convert the natives were largely unsuccessful. Undoubtedly the neutral attitude of the government was partly responsible for this, but the religious situation in Indonesia would have been unfavorable to Christianity in any case. Since 90 percent of the natives are Mohammedan, and Mohammedans the world over are notoriously hard to convert, the little success of the missionaries would be explainable even though the government had strongly encouraged them.

As mentioned above, largest results have been attained by the missions in previously pagan regions. Of approximately 2,000,000 Christians in the Indies (only 3 percent of the total population), 500,000 were in Sumatra, largely among the pagan Batak, and an equal number in Celebes, mostly in the non-Mohammedanized Toradja and Minahasa districts. Five percent of the Indonesians were still pagan in 1940, and the missionaries were competing with Islam–which spreads automatically, largely by way of intermarriage between Mohammedan traders and pagan women–to

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get control of these virgin fields before they were irretrievably lost to the religion of Allah. Thus, even if it won most of the yet unexploited districts, the best the Christian church could hope for would be conversion of less than 10 percent of the native population of the Indies.

EUROPEANS AND AMERICANS

In 1940 there were almost 250,000 people classed as Europeans living in the Netherlands East Indies. A sizable proportion of these were persons with varying degrees of native blood, but sufficiently white to be included in the general European category. Dutch citizens composed the vast majority, totaling around 220,000. Germans numbered about 7,000; Japanese (for legal reasons classed as Europeans), 7,000; British, 2,500; Swiss, 800; Americans, 650; and Belgians, 625. Fully 200,000, or 80 percent, of the whites lived in Java; and of the 50,000 in the other islands, 30,000 were concentrated in Sumatra. The Europeans have tended to cluster in urban centers, and almost half of them in 1940 were found in seven cities. In Java these were: Batavia (40,000), Surabaya (30,000), Bandung (20,000), and Semarang (15,000); in Sumatra: Medan (4,000) and Padang (3,500); and in Celebes: Macassar (3,500). The number of Europeans and Americans in the Indies was formerly much smaller than in recent years. During East India Company control and throughout most of the nineteenth century, private businesses were not welcomed by the government, which monopolized nearly all the commercial enterprises. In 1870 there were only 35,000 whites in the islands; by 1900, after the government had relaxed its restrictions, the total had risen to 90,000; and the last 40 years increased this figure by almost 300 percent.

The white population fell into three main categories: the plantation operators and employees; the urban business and professional classes; and the government workers, including administrative and military personnel and teachers. The latter two composed about 80 percent of the total, and lived principally in the larger communities. Here living conditions were excellent, with fine houses, elegant clubs, a variety of entertainment facilities, and an abundance of cheap and pleasant native servants. Life in the back country–on plantations, in mission centers, oil fields, and government posts–was generally rather dull, the days running on routine, with little to do but work. The comforts of the cities–electricity, good roads, modern stores, and the rest–were lacking. Nearly all the whites lived in anticipation of the periodic furloughs in Europe, usually triennial;

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and intended, when their days of service were over and their hoped-for fortunes accumulated, to retire on pensions to their home countries.

THE CHINESE

Much more numerous than the Europeans were the Chinese, totaling about 1,200,000, or almost 2 percent of the Indies population. In 1940 approximately one-third of them had been born in China; but among the remainder a large proportion were descendants of immigrants to the islands many generations ago. In every respect the Chinese occupied an intermediate status between Indonesians and whites. They were much more literate than the natives, over 50 percent of the men and about 15 percent of the women being able to read and write. Most of them were middle-class merchants, operating nearly all the retail businesses and a fair number of the small wholesale houses. The others were concentrated principally in the tobacco districts of northeastern Sumatra and the tin-mining islands of Banka and Billiton; in both areas they worked mostly as coolies. Half of the Chinese, 600,000, lived in Java; 500,000 in Sumatra, a little less than 100,000 in Borneo; and around 30,000 scattered over the other islands. Thus they were more evenly distributed than the Europeans.

The Chinese, however long their families may have lived in the islands, have kept themselves a separate group, retaining their own customs and preserving a lively interest in the home country. Since there have never been many Chinese women in the Indies, much intermarriage with natives has occurred. But the families, no matter how much Indonesian blood they may have absorbed, have remained Chinese in customs and sentiments. They have had their own temples, associations, and even schools; and have kept up the family and ancestor cult of China even though many generations separated them from the motherland.

In the past the Chinese were subjected to numerous discriminatory laws, being confined to “ghetto” sections of towns and required to obtain passes to travel outside. Hardly a trace of these legal disabilities survived in 1940. The Chinese had freedom of movement and residence; their legal status was carefully defined, with full consideration for their special requirements; there were Dutch-Chinese schools; and subsidies were granted to Chinese private schools. Where enough Chinese lived, they were given proportional representation in local and provincial councils; and in the Volksraad three to five seats were reserved for them. Since the Netherlands and China have been on the same side in the present world conflict, the loyalty of the Indonesian Chinese has suffered no split. They, with the half-castes, are bound to constitute an important middle-class element in the future reconstruction and reorganization of the Indies.

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THE HALF-CASTES

One of the most striking differences between British and Dutch colonies appeared in the treatment of half-castes. To the British, these people had an inferior status; and they seldom rose high in governmental or business positions, nor were they admitted to white clubs and social circles. In the Indies, however, they were classed as Europeans, met a minimum of discrimination in jobs, and were accepted everywhere as equals. Persons of mixed blood held some of the highest posts in government, and no impediment, social or legal, stood in the way of a Dutchman wishing to marry one of them. Nearly all of them spoke Dutch, for they attended the Dutch language schools. For the most part they occupied a middle-class status, working as minor officials, as school teachers, and in clerical positions. Some discrimination did exist, but their lot in the Dutch islands was better than in any other colonial area in the world.

Temperamentally, the mixed-blood people were much better balanced than their fellow Eurasians elsewhere in the Orient. They did not display the combination of servility and aggressiveness attributed to British half-castes, because their personalities were not warped by galling discriminations. They were a living disproof of the outmoded theory that mixed-bloods inherit the worst traits of both parental groups. On the contrary, they demonstrated clearly the truth that the bad reputation of half-castes in other parts of the world is due to their treatment and not to their biological heredity.

Miscegenation between Europeans and natives was more frequent in earlier times than recently, for it has declined as the number of white women in the islands has increased. Interracial matings were formerly encouraged by the Dutch authorities, for they saw in them a good means of cementing friendly relations between themselves and the Indonesian people through the creation of a mixed-blood intermediary group. The native ideas of sex in this part of the world are quite liberal, and a girl is not condemned, among most groups, for living with a white man. The attitudes of the Dutch and the Indonesians were well suited, therefore, and the production of half-castes went on smoothly generation after generation.

Despite a marked decrease in the frequency of miscegenation during recent decades, it persisted as a regular feature of white colonial life. Its two main centers were the army barracks and the plantations. Although subjected to a constant barrage of criticism, the army continued to allow Dutch soldiers in the islands to have their dusky mistresses, mostly on the ground that this temporary monogamous system reduced venereal infection. Unmarried white overseers on plantations employed native

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housekeepers, and although not all of these became concubines of their masters, a fair proportion of them undoubtedly did. In addition to blood, mixture by way of concubinage, occasionally legal marriages occurred between Europeans and natives, but most of the half-caste population originated from extramarital unions.

The Dutch have done well to treat the children of mixed matings fairly. In them they have had a generally loyal intermediary group, appreciative of the consideration shown them. Except for the Chinese, the half-castes have been the only middle-class element in the whole Indies. In this intermediate position they have possessed an intimate knowledge of both Dutch and native society. When the Indies arise from the desolation of the present war, the intelligent, well-educated, temperamentally sound Eurasians will surely take their place among the leaders of the reconstruction.

EXPORT PRODUCTION AND TRADE

Indonesia has been the most profitable colonial possession of its size in the world. In an average recent year, 1938, British India, long famed for its richness, two and one-half times the size of the Indies and with a population six times as large, had only twice as much export and import trade. The amazing wealth of the archipelago can be attributed to three things: the fertility of the soil, augmented by little seasonal change and a wide range of crop possibilities; the mineral deposits in the subsoil; and the cheapness and tractability of the native labor supply.

The soil of the islands varies, but a large proportion is exceedingly productive, particularly in the volcanic areas. The volcanic ash is an excellent fertilizing agent, provided that it is seeped into the earth by sufficient rain, and Indonesia has plentiful rainfall. Crops can be grown 12 months in the year in most regions, for seasonal variations are slight. The islands are a natural hothouse, continually putting forth plant life in great abundance. Nearly every island includes land varying from steaming coastlands to very high mountains, while in between are hills and valleys of all intermediate elevations. Consequently the variety of crops is phenomenal. The greatest staple is rice, which flourishes at all levels and furnishes the principal food supply. The abundant rain and the numerous streams make irrigation possible in most of the archipelago. Maize, vegetables, and fruits are raised in considerable variety. Thus, despite its large population, Indonesia can feed itself. No greater testimony to the richness of the soil could be presented than the fact that the Javanese, packed more than 800 to the square mile, live almost entirely on the products of their own land.

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In addition to the bountiful and continuous harvest for native consumption, the islands produced a vast store of crops for export. These exports made Holland one of the richest countries in the world.

The leading commercial crop during recent times was rubber, and for many years it was the main export commodity. Until 1940 the Indies were the second largest rubber-producing area in the world, being slightly surpassed by British Malaya; but in that year t}ie islands forged ahead, with 49 percent of the total world yield, as against 41 percent for Malaya. During normal years Indonesia supplied between 35 and 40 percent of all the rubber used in the world. Sumatra was the principal rubber-producing region of the islands; and here, especially on the east coast, vast plantations covered areas as large as many of our States. The trees were lined up with geometrical precision, so that, looking through a rubber plantation from any angle, the rows extended straight out as far as the eye could see, like the pillars of a great cathedral. Each tree had its little metal cup, and every morning a coolie would come and make a fresh diagonal slash in its bark to start the sap running.

Sugar ranked next to rubber among the commercial agricultural commodities of the Indies. Most of it was grown in Java, where it constituted the main export crop. Recently, however, sugar fell upon evil days, for the world markets were glutted and prices dropped close to the cost of production. Tea, in normal years, was almost as important a commercial crop as sugar. Copra, from which coconut oil is made, and palm oil were also supplied by the Indies in considerable quantity. The remaining principal agricultural commodities fell into two classes: those in which the Indies had a virtual world monopoly, and those which other areas produced in large quantities. To the former category belonged quinine, pepper, and kapok fiber, of which Indonesia supplied, respectively, 90, 85, and 75 percent of the world export total. To the latter class belonged coffee, and agave and sisal fiber, used for making twine.

The mineral wealth of the islands has hardly been tapped, and the vast hinterlands of Borneo and New Guinea hold promise of great future development. Even the abundant production of oil for two decades has scarcely begun to draw upon the abundant reserves in the subsoil. Although petroleum with its byproducts ranked next to rubber as the principal export of the Indies during the past 5 years, the archipelago supplied only 3 percent of the world’s total production, standing fifth among the oil-yielding countries. Tin was the second most important mineral export, and, while the amount of production varied from year to year, Indonesia consistently ranked next to Malaya, the world’s main source of this metal. Most of the tin came from government-owned locations in Banka, Billiton,

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and Singkep, islands situated between Sumatra and the Malay Peninsula. The government also operated coal and gold mines in western Sumatra, but the amounts produced were never large. Most of the coal was used within the islands for ships and railways. Bauxite, the aluminum ore, was increasing in production in 1940, when 230,000 tons were exported.

In addition to production for export, the Dutch drew profits from handling the trade and transportation of the Indies. A Dutch shipping company, the Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij, had a virtual monopoly of the extremely profitable interisland trade, and the railroads were owned by the government. But the big returns came from investments in plantation agriculture, mining and oil production, and commercial banking. Of the total 2 billion dollars of European and American capital invested in the Indies, the Dutch held three-fourths. The British share was almost 14 percent; Franco-Belgian companies had 5 percent; American investments accounted for 3 percent; and German and Japanese, 1 percent each.

The human stake of the big companies is the third of the reasons given above for the profitable nature of the Indies. The native labor supply was phenomenally cheap and tractable. Whether openly stated or not, the interest of the commercial corporations lay in keeping the working masses both cheap and docile. Lest this be taken as too severe an indictment, it must be stressed that there was no “plot” on the part of the business interests to “enslave the masses.” They pointed to the obvious fact that the majority of the Indonesians were quite contented with their way of life, and raised the question whether it might have been unwise, even cruel, to infect them with the devastating germ of ambition.

Certainly the system worked for many centuries, and was working when the islands fell to the invaders in 1942. Fully 70 percent of the Indonesians worked for themselves, mostly on little rice plots, from which they drew enough sustenance to keep themselves alive. The other 30 percent represented a good proportion of the profit-making capital of the Indies. They were the wage earners, laboring on the plantations and in the mines and oil fields for exceedingly low pay. Ten dollars a month was an excellent wage for a native worker; and on it he was able to keep well and even happy, because his wants were so modest. The great majority of them had a per capita income of less than $50 a year. By contrast, the bulk of European salaries fell between $2,000 and $80,000 a year; while the alien Asiatics, mostly Chinese, had incomes clustering in the range from $160 to $2,000.

Despite the fact that Indonesians received so small a share of the income, in the past 40 years they made marked progress as independent producers of agricultural commodities for export. In 1898 their share in this market

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Plate 18

Plate 18Above: Balinese dancers, with gamelan orchestra.

Below: Mentawei dancers doing an animal pantomime.

Plate 18

 


Plate 19

Plate 19Above: Sadang burial caves, Celebes, chiseled in the face of a cliff. They have wooden doors and carved guardian images.

Below: Stone tombs, Sumba.

Courtesy Netherlands Information Bureau.

Plate 19

 


Plate 20

Plate 20Above: Palace of the Sultan if Siak, eastern Sumatra. Siak is one of the scores of native states which the Dutch ruled “indirectly,” retaining the hereditary princes in office.

Below: Catholic missionaries in the plaza of a central Flores village. The conical structures are fetish houses of the pagan ancestor cult. Photograph by Rev. R.N. Geldens.

Plate 20

 


Plate 21

Plate 21Above: Workers in a Javanese batik shop. Their skilled labor brings them a wage of about 20 cents a day.

Below: Street scene in Batavia, capital of the Indies, showing unique steam tramcars. Photographs by E.E. Muhs.

Plate 21

 


was only 10 percent of the total; in 1913, 24 percent; in 1930, 31 percent; and in 1937, 46 percent. Their principal product was rubber, of which they supplied 50 percent. As in all other types of commercial agriculture, however, most of the native plantations were small, and there were few Indonesian big businessmen. Some crops for export were grown almost exclusively by natives, such as pepper (100 percent), copra (98 percent), kapok (90 percent), tapioca (80 percent), and coffee (70 percent). Their share of the tea market was 15 percent; and of the tobacco sales, 8 percent. They had no part, except as laborers, in the production of sugar, palm oil, and quinine; and also no petroleum or tin investments. Much of the profits from native-grown products went to the export companies, mostly Dutch, for the Indonesians had no way of selling their goods on the world market and had to dispose of them through middlemen. Still, the striking rise in native commercial agriculture from nearly nothing 40 years ago to almost half of the total in 1937 is a good augury for the future of the Indonesians in this type of independent enterprise.

Industrialism was virtually nonexistent in the Indies. Probably the main reason was that the islands were so eminently suited to agricultural enterprise, and paid such handsome profits on this alone, that no strong stimulus to industrialization was ever felt. Statistics on occupations for 1938 show that 1,670,000 Indonesians were classified as industrial workers. But 670,000, or over 40 percent, were home producers, mostly women occupied in such handicrafts as spinning, weaving, sewing, and batik-printing. Another 840,000, or slightly more than 50 percent, were employed in very small plants, such as the sarong workshops of central Java. Only 120,000, or less than 10 percent, worked in large factories, including textile mills, oil refineries, sugar mills, armories, and automobile assembly plants. In 1939 the Dutch, foreseeing the strong probability of a German invasion of Holland, started an intensive program of industrial expansion in the Indies. Plans were drawn up for rapid construction of more oil refineries, textile mills, iron smelters, chemical plants, and armament works. The scheme was barely under way when the Japanese invaded the islands.

The Indies are a rich prize for any conqueror. Particularly is this so for Japan, with a dense population, an insufficient food supply, a high degree of industrialization, and a shortage of domestic minerals and other raw materials. Such a country needs a hinterland where there are no factories, but only fertile soil, abundant mineral deposits, and cheap labor inured to subservience. Indonesia is made to order on all these points. With the islands completely under her control, Japan would gain what she has lacked during the 50 years of her rise to power–namely, a balanced and

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self-sufficient economy. Here are oil, coal, and metals; here are food and other agricultural products, such as rubber; and the lack of precisely these things has constituted Japan’s greatest weakness. Looking back from the vantage point of 1943, it now seems almost inevitable that the Japanese would pursue the course they have. The reason for the prevalent belief that they would not go after the Indies was that the archipelago lay at such a great distance that, despite its rich store of needed supplies, the difficulties of transportation to Japan over an enemy-threatened sea route would make the conquest unprofitable. This, indeed, is one of the most vulnerable points of Japan at present. On the 4,000 miles distance between Batavia and Tokyo may rest the fate of the Pacific war.


 

SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY

Most of the sources of information on the East Indies are in the Dutch language. Since few persons outside the Netherlands can read this language, and since only four or five of the largest American libraries possess adequate collections of Indonesian literature in Dutch, the following list of references is restricted to books in English. The present volume is based largely upon, and is in part an adaptation of, the author’s recent book The Ageless Indies (The John Day Co., New York, 1942).

Alder, W. F. 1923. Men of the inner jungle. London.

Banner, H. S. 1927. Romantic Java. London.

Baum, V. 1937. A tale of Bali. Garden City.

Beaufort, L. F. de. 1929. Science in the Netherlands East Indies. Amsterdam.

Bickmore, A. S. 1868. Travels in the East Indian Archipelago. London.

Bijlmer, H. T. 1929. Outlines of the anthropology of the Timor Archipelago. Weltevreden.

Bock, C. A. 1881. The head-hunters of Borneo. London.

Boeke, J. H. 1942. The structure of Netherlands Indian economy. New York.

Bousquet, G. H. 1940. A French view of the Netherlands Indies. New York.

Boyle, F. 1865. Adventures among the Dyaks of Borneo. London.

Broek, J. O. M. 1942. Economic development of the Netherlands East Indies. New York.

Brown, J. M. 1914. The Dutch East. London.

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Campbell, D. M. 1915. Java: past and present. London.

Carpenter, F. G. 1943. Java and the East Indies. New York.

Cator, D. 1905. Everyday life among the head-hunters. London.

Cator, W. J. 1936. The economic position of the Chinese in the Netherlands Indies. Chicago.

Clune, F. 1942. Isles of Spice. New York.

Coenen Torchiana, H. A. van. 1921. Tropical Holland. Chicago.

Collins, G. E. P. 1937. East monsoon. London.
          1937. Makassar sailing. London.

Coomaraswami, A. K. 1927. History of Indian and Indonesian art. London.

Couperus, L. 1924. Eastward. London.

Covarrubias, M. 1938. The Island of Bali. New York.

Day, C. 1904. The policy and administration of the Dutch in Java. New York.

Embree, E. R., Simon, M. S., and Mumford, W. B. 1934. Island India goes to school. Chicago.

Emerson, R. 1937. Malaysia: a study in direct and indirect rule. New York.
          1942. The Netherlands Indies and the United States. New York.

Emerson, R., Mills, L. A., and Thompson, V. 1942. Government and nationalism in Southeast Asia. New York.

Evans, I. H. N. 1922. Among primitive peoples in Borneo. London.
          1923. Studies in religion, folklore and custom in British North Borneo and the Malay Peninsula. Cambridge.

Forbes, H. O. 1885. A naturalist’s wanderings in the Eastern Archipelago. London.

Furness, W. H. 1902. The home-life of Borneo head-hunters. Philadelphia.

Furnivall, J. S. 1939. Netherlands India: A study of plural economy. Cambridge.

Gelderen, J. van. 1939. The recent development of economic foreign policy in the Netherlands East Indies. New York.

Gomes, E. H. 1911. Seventeen years among the Sea Dyaks of Borneo. London.

Great Britain, Admiralty, Naval Intelligence Division, Geographical Section. 1920. A manual of Netherlands India. London.

–63–


Handbook of the Netherlands East Indies. 1930. Buitenzorg.

Hart, G. H. C. 1943. Towards economic democracy in the Netherlands Indies. New York.

Hiss, P. H. 1941. Bali. New York.

Holt, C. 1939. Dance quest in Celebes. London.

Hoop, A. N. J. T. A T. van der. 1932. Megalithic remains in South Sumatra. Zutphen.

Hose, C. 1900. In the heart of Borneo. London.
          1926. Natural man, a record from Borneo. London.
          1927. Fifty years of romance and research. London.

Hose, C. and McDougall, W. 1912. The pagan tribes of Borneo. London.

Hyma, A. 1942. The Dutch in the Far East. Ann Arbor.

Institute of Pacific Relations. 1943. War and peace in the Pacific. New York.

Josselin de Jong, J. P. B. de. 1937. Oirata, a Timorese settlement on Kisar. Amsterdam.

Kat Angelino, A. D. A. de. 1931. Colonial policy. The Hague.

Kaudern, W. 1925-1938. Ethnographical studies in Celebes. Goteborg.

Keith, A. M. 1940. Land below the wind. New York.

Kleen, T. A. 1936. The temple dances in Bali. Stockholm.
          1937. Wayang (Javanese theatre). Stockholm.

Kleiweg de Zwaan, J. P. 1923. Physical anthropology in the Indian Archipelago and adjacent regions. Amsterdam.

Klerck, E. S. de. 1938. History of the Netherlands East Indies. Rotterdam.

Koninklijk Nederlandsch Aardri jkskundig Genootschap. 1938. Atlas van Tropisch Nederland. Batavia.

Krom, N. J. 1927. Barabudur: archaeological description. The Hague.

KUNST, J. 1937. The music of Java. Amsterdam.

Loeb, E. M., and Heine-Geldern, R. 1935. Sumatra. Vienna.

Low, H. 1848. Sarawak. London.

Lumholtz, C. 1920. Through Central Borneo. New York.

–64–


McGuire, P. 1942. Westward the course! New York.

Marsden, W. 1783. The history of Sumatra. London.

Mjoberg, E. G. 1930. Forest life and adventures in the Malay Archipelago. London.

Moss, R. L. B. 1925. The life after death in Oceania and the Malay Archipelago. Oxford.

Nyessen, D. J. H. 1929. The races of Java. Weltevreden.

Perry, W. J. 1918. The megalithic culture of Indonesia. London.

Pleyte, C. M. 1901. Indonesian art. The Hague.

Ponder, H. W. 1934. Java pageant. London.

Powell, H. 1930. The last paradise. New York.

Raffles, T. S. 1817. The history of Java. London.

Roth, H. L. 1896. The natives of Sarawak and British North Borneo. London.

Rutter, O. 1922. British North Borneo. London.
          1929. The pagans of North Borneo. London.

St. John, H. 1883. The Indian Archipelago. London.

St. John, S. 1862. Life in the forests of the Far East. London.

Sarkar, H. B. 1934. Indian influences on the literature of Java and Bali. Calcutta.

Scheltema, J. F. 1912. Monumental Java. London.

Schnitger, F. M. 1938. Forgotten kingdoms in Sumatra. Leiden.

Schrieke, B. 1929. The effect of Western influence on native civilizations in the Malay Archipelago. Batavia.

Snouck Hurgronje, C. 1906. The Achehnese. Leiden.

Stutterheim, W. F. 1929. Indian influences in the lands of the Pacific. Weltevreden.
          1929. A Javanese period in Sumatran history. Soerakarta.

Vandenbosch, A. 1941. The Dutch East Indies. Berkeley.

Walcott, A. S. 1914. Java and her neighbors. New York.

–65–


Wallace, A. R. 1872. The Malay Archipelago. London.

Wit, A. de. 1906. Java, facts and fancies. Philadelphia.
          1923. Island-India. New Haven.

Zoete, B. de, and Spies, W. 1939. Dance and drama in Bali. New York.

–66–

SOURCE:

ISLANDS AND PEOPLES OF THE INDIES

By RAYMOND KENNEDY

Associate Professor of Sociology
Yale University

The Dai Nippon Prisoner Of War In Indonesia Drawing painting sketch collections 1942-1945

THIS THE PART OF CD-ROM DAI NIPPON OCCUPATIONS INDONESIA 1942-1945, THIS PAINTING FROM THE  DEI DAI NIPPON PRISONER OF WAR,WITH SEEN THIS PAINTING WE WILL KNOW THE SITUATIONS OF POW CAMP,THIS ONLY A PART OF COLLECTIONS THE COMPLETE COLLECTIONS EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

DEI Camp Drawing

Collections

1942-1945

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

copyright@2012

 

 

 

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bangkong semarang camp

BANJOE BIROE MIDDLE JAVA CAMP

The adventure Of Captain Ivan Smirnoff as the part Of Dai nippon Occupation Indonesia in 1943

THIS IS THE PART OF DAI NIPPON OCCUPATION JAVA IN 1943,THE COMPLETE INFO EXIST IN CD-ROM BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT TO GE THE AMIZING STORY WITH FULL ILLUSTRATIONS

 

The Adventures of Captain Smirnoff ‘The Flight of the diamonds’

Ivan Smirnoff

CREATED BY

DR iWAN SUWANDY,mha

copyright2012

Capt Smirnoff in U.S.

Capt Ivan Smiroff of The netherland East Indies Air Forces in the U.S. to haved bullet removed from his body in order to be sure of being able to find his way while flying, he told the newsman at press conference in San Fransisco Last week

Captain Smiroff said the steel bullet recieved when shot by the Japanese in March 1942 threw off his plane compass.

His plane was carrying a load of evacuoes from Java when the enemy fifghter shot it down near Broome in Nothern Australia.

On Board were diamonds valued in the neighborhood $21.000.000.which were lost but later discovered.

Since then Smiroff has flown 600 hours with The American Air Transport Command based in Australia.

He praised the work of the work transport planes in war operations, saying without them the Pacific war would not been successfully carried out.

He pointed out the jungle and the lack of roads permitted only transport plane to convey material and troops.

He remarked that unfortunately the transport pilot had no glory , only work.

“The Japs know they are Hecked”he declared Captain Smirnoff . who was famed as an airlined pilot and air racer before the war,pointed out that where as at the time of the Pearl Harbor. The allies were completely unorganized , they now were on offensive

CAPTAIN IVAN SMIRNOFF
RUSSIA’S 4TH HIGHEST ACE IN WWI
NATURALISED DUTCH CITIZEN
CAPTAIN OF A CRASHED DC-3 DAKOTA

 

Captain Ivan Vasielivich “Turc” Smirnoff was born at dawn on 30 January 1895 on a small farm near Vladimir, about 120 miles west of Moscow.

Ivan Smirnoff was Russia’s fourth highest Ace in World War I. He was credited with shooting down 11 German aircraft. He was highly decorated as follows:-

- Croix de Guerre
- Cross of St. George (when he was foot soldier)
- White Eagle of Siberia
- Order of St. Anna
- Order of St. George (equivalent to our Victoria Cross)
- Order of St. Stanislaus

Ivan was naturalised as a Dutch citizen. In early 1942, Captain Smirnoff had flown his DC-3 Dakota transport aircraft between Java and Australia evacuating Royal Netherlands Indies Airlines office and ground staff, along with civilians and service personnel.

On 3 March 1942, Dutch Dakota DC-3 PK-AFV of the KNILM (Netherlands East Indies KLM) piloted by Captain Ivan Smirnoff, left Bandung in Java headed for Australia with a plane load of evacuees and a box of diamonds worth approximately £300,000. They managed to escape Java just 3 days before the Japanese took the Bandung area. They were attacked by three Japanese Zeros about 80 kms north of Broome. Captain Smirnoff was wounded several times in his arms and hip. Smirnoff managed to put the Dakota into a steep spiral dive with the Zeros in pursuit and made a forced landing on the beach. The box of diamonds went missing after the crash.

Full details of the above crash
and the loss of the diamonds

 

Ivan Smirnoff eventually died in a Catholic clinic on the Spanish Island of Majorca on 23 October 1959.

The National Archives’ ANGAM Database shows the following records held regarding Smirnoff:-

SMIRNOFF Tivan – Nationality: Dutch – Arrived Perth per Dutch Air Force Plane 13 March 19421942 to
1942PP246/4DUTCH/SMIRNOFF T

  Captain in the US 317th Troop Carrier Group

For the first few months the aircraft and crews belonging to KLM/KNILM were busy ferrying supplies from Archerfield, Brisbane, Queensland to US bases in Northern Australia.
 
The crew members were Te Roller, Hulsebos, Dirk Rap, Peter Deenik, Van Dijk, Jan Van Balkom, Iwan Smirnoff, Van Messel, Dunlop, Frans Van Breemen and Rijers.

 

But, in May 1942
 came the end. Their aircraft (two DC2, two DC3, three DC5 and four Lockheed-14) needed maintenance and spare parts which only the Americans could supply.

 

One day when Ivan drove to the airfield he found all the machines in their hangars and the director waiting for the pilots. He told that it was no longer possible for a civil company (KLM/KNILM) to get a licence to bring out spares from the USA.
 
The director explained that although KNILM operated their aircraft under charter to the U.S. military, General MacArthur had been reluctant to allow so many valuable aircraft to remain in civilian hands. As a result, KNILM were coerced into selling their aircraft to the USAAF.
 
This coercion took the form of a suspension of logistical support such as the impounding of one hundred cases of spare parts. To prevent the fleet being grounded KNILM had now arranged for its sale to the American Army Command.

 

Surviving documents suggest that all of the KNILM aircraft were to have been sold to the Australian government for a token £5 each, but the transaction was apparently overruled in favour of a sale to the USAAF. This purchase is reputed to have cost Uncle Sam $530,000.00 for ten aircraft (one Lockheed-14 had been written off).

 

Nicholas Dijkstra, a friend of Ivan Smirnoff, explains:

 

“KNILM management negotiated a handover of the aircraft to the US Air Force. Our crews, based in Sydney and Brisbane, were very upset about this decision. It meant that a useful service came to a sudden end, whilst the future of the crew members remained uncertain. Still, in my opinion this was not the reason that five(*)aircraft of KLM/KNILM flew a few days later under the Sydney Harbour Bridge.

 

 

On a beautiful Sunday in the month of May 1942, two US ‘Kittyhawks’ had flown under the Sydney Harbour Bridge.
 
I was in Elizabeth Bay at the time, or near there, and saw them. Traffic on the bridge came to a full stop and people were excited. The following day it was the main item of conversation – everybody thought that it was a great stunt. Nobody had done that before!

 

A couple of days later on 14 May, when the aircraft of KLM and KNILM were being prepared for the final flight to Wagga Wagga, we were also talking about the ‘Kittyhawk Stunt’.
 
 We were to make a short flight over Sydney for a final check of the aircraft. Some people of the ground staff suggested that it would be nice to come along for the short flight, so at the end close to fifty people, ground staff personnel, waiters and waitresses from the restaurant at the airport as well as kitchenstaff, were taken on board ready for take off.

 

Then one of the pilots suggested that we could do better than the two US Kittyhawks and fly some of the aircraft in formation under the Sydney Harbour Bridge. A KLM radio-operator, Joe Muller (he had previously been shot down at Carnot Bay, WA, with KLM Captain Ivan Smirnoff in the DC3 PK-AFV) was asked to go to the control tower to ask permission to fly under the bridge. Watching from the tarmac we could see Joe Muller talking to the personnel in the control tower
 
. After a few minutes he came out to the walkway alongside the tower, Joe Muller looked in our direction and then raised his thumb in what we took to be the ‘OK’ signal. And off we went…

 

The five(*)aircraft took off and eventually took up formation approaching the bridge from the Sydney Heads.
 
Still in formation we flew under the bridge, pulled up, made a wide turn and then flew in single line again under the bridge and then returned to Kingsford Smith Airport.

 

After we landed and taxied to the ramp, there was hell to pay! Anybody with some kind of authority was there. It then became clear that Joe Muller had not asked for permission to fly under the bridge.
 
 He explained to us that his thumbs-up signal only meant that the aircraft looked fine! The authorities did not have much to nail us down with, but we heard later that an order had been issued, forbidding to fly under the bridge and that anyone doing so, would be fined one hundred pounds ($200) for every person aboard.”

 

(*) According to Nicholas Dijkstra there were five machines and he flew with Captain Jan van Bal
At least (according to other sources) the machines flying under the bridge were:

 

DC2, PK-AFK, piloted by Captain Frans Van Breemen
DC3, PK-ALW “Wielewaal” piloted by Captain Peter Deenik
DC5, PK-ADC, piloted by Captain Dirk Rab with John Gyzemyteras Flight Engineer

 

 

….”What about us?” growled Ivan. “You selling us, too?”
Ivan persisted: “I am with you to build things up, not to knock them down. Can you suggest some other way?”
The director was sorry, but he couldn’t.

 

It was dreadful to think of KLM machines in the hands of the Yanks. It was dreadful to contemplate the prospect of sitting idle, month after month, waiting for the war to end. The Yanks were in dire need of pilots but when Ivan asked for a job the young captain in charge took one look at him and said, dryly: “Thanks, Pop, I guess we’ll get by and not trouble you.”

 

Ivan lived well now, he had grown ‘fat and flourishing’. In fact he had grown so much that he burst out of all his clothes and had to search the Sydney shops to find seventeen-and-a-half-inch collars.

 

During most of 1942 the Japanese still thought they were going to win the whole Pacific region, and they found Port Moresby on New Guineato be vital to fulfil that goal. The Allied, on the other hand, had not yet understood how important it really was to defend the very same area.

 

The first real victory against the Japs in the Pacific Ocean was carried out mostly by Australian troops. From 25 August to 7 September 1942 the Australians defeated the Japanese at Milne Bay about 350 km south-east of Port Moresby. This victorybecame an important turnpoint in WWII, it showed to everyone that the Japs could be beaten, and therefore the morale was now extensively increasing everywhere.

 

General MacArthur had had his HQ well of the way in Melbourne, but when things eventually started to look better, he moved his HQ to Brisbane. And when the Japs were defeated on New Guinea, he moved his HQ further on, to Port Moresby.

 

….Finally, on 20 January 1943 Ivan was gazetted Captain (First Pilot) in the 39th Troop Carrier Squadron, 317th Troop Carrier Group(which later that year (30 September) moved their headquarters from Townsville to Port Moresby) for operational flying duty. His appointment was made by General Kenny, Chief of Staff. It was an honour – there were only four First Pilots named. Now Ivan had joined the Americans.

 

 
Ivan Smirnoff

 

But Ivan had to learn about some US flight rules that appeared silly to him. One of the regulations laid down, that unless the weather (In Opinion Of Ground Control) were 100% good, the trip was cancelled. The experienced pilots went wild over this too-cautious rule.

 

Ivan just refused to accept it and soon after was preparing to leave when ground control signalled:
“Trip off, weather tricky.”
“Nonsense!” he roared down the airfield intercom. “Put me on to the fellah in charge here.”
When he was put through he blew up the airfield commander good and proper.
The commander listened patiently then said:
“I get your point, Captain; just the same, you can’t fly.”
“Like hell I can’t!” bellowed Ivan. “Who is the guy that gives you your orders?”
“Senior Colonel, Divisional Command.” He was given the name of a base a hundred miles away.

 

To the switchboard operator Ivan roared: “Get me Divisional Command,” and when, an hour later, the call came through, insisted on getting on to the senior colonel and putting a politer version of his case.

 

“I sure admire your spirit,” said the colonel, “all the same, you can’t fly.”
“Colonel,” growled Ivan, almost crushing the receiver in his hands,
“I know that an order is an order. All the same I am now obliged to send a report to the General in charge of your Air Force.”
“You do just that,” said the colonel, and hung up.

 

Ivan composed a blistering report and organized a girl typist to “English” it for him.

 

He never got an answer but in 3 days’ time a directive “from the Old Man himself” went out to all airport commands. “This man Smirnoff,” it said, “he’s Dutch. Let him fly whenever he says, disregard regulation in his case.”

 

So Ivan was becoming a legend in yet another country, and the ground staffs, at every base, turned out cheerfully in all weathers to give him the best servicing the could. They knew that if Captain Smirnoff said he was going up, he damn’ well would.

 

Months later Ivan was told that his letter had been circulating in “the highest circles” and that MacArthur had yelled with laughter and said: “Get me some more of those damn’ Dutch, I could do with them.”

 

 
The corner of Annerley Road and Laurier Street in Brisbane, Queensland.

 

….Margot was now living in Brisbane, close to the Brisbane River, in another furnished flat at the corner of Annerley Road and Laurier Street, so that Ivan could sleep at home between his arduous journeys to Port Moresby on New Guinea. There were only 5 kilometres to drive from Archerfield Airport to Annerley Road and Margot.

 

She had never worked harder in her life – the younger Dutch pilots, unhappy in the local “hotels”, looked upon the Smirnoff home as Netherlands territory. The Australian climate agreed with her, she felt better, and there were experienced doctors at hand who saw to it she suffered no more pain than was absolutely unavoidable.

 

 

 

When Ivan first flew to Port Moresby there was nothing there at all – not a hut, not a yard of tarmac, not a telephone.

 

MacArthur fixed that. He had the complete airfield – stores, canteens, sick bays, offices, landing strips and all – built in just 3 days. “Those Yanks, they do an amazing job,” said Ivan. Only a month after the first airfield was completed Port Moresby was surrounded by not less than 7 airfields.

 

Ivan ferried tools, building materials, jeeps, ammunition, bacon and eggs, and medical stores from Brisbane to Port Moresby in a series of bewildering priorities that he could never fathom. On one of his very earliest flights he took a complete plant for making Coca-Cola!

 

On the return flights to Brisbane Ivan took sick and wounded. Once he evacuated the whole hospital, all down with malaria – patients, doctors, nurses, everybody.

 

He also carried back Japanese prisoners for interrogation. This was a horrible task; nearly all the prisoners were sick, suffering from dysentery.

 

En route to Port Moresby Ivan gladly took on additional observation and spotting duties, mostly reporting movements of Jap destroyers and submarines. They soon learned that the Great Barrier Reef was favourite ‘parking lots’ for captains of the enemy submarines. They were easy to spot from high altitudes, and easy to destroy afterwards.

 

There were 2100 kilometres to fly between Brisbane and Port Moresby, and they normally made an intermediate stop at Townsville both ways. This service was maintained every 24 hours. After a 24 hour round trip to Port Moresby each crew member had a day off.

 

 

Enlarge

 

To the right you see a detail from Ivan’s personal briefcase, which he carried on his missions to Port Moresby on New Guinea. Below in the ID-window the following can be read:

 

This case and contents are the property of the U.S. Army Air Corps. Click on the picture to enlarge…

 

At the same time, when Ivan was busy at the US 317th Troop Carrier Group, KLM had managed to build up new activities. In August 1942 they had opened a service to Ciudad Trujillo in Peru and now, one year later, by August 1943, they were running a service of Lockheed-14′s from Miami in USA. The Dutch Air Force had been given a base at Jackson, Mississippi, where the Netherlands flag flew supreme – the only foreign flag, other than those flown at embassies – with permission to wave over United States territory. Ivan now realized that by hook or by crook he must get himself to America.

 

the transport of the diamonds from Java to WA during WWII, the bombing of Broome, the Dakota crash and survival of half the passengers. Fascinating history. The second part deals with the court case, when three men were charged with stealing the diamonds. Fascinating depiction of the life led by those men in outback Australia in the 1940s

REFERENCE BOOKS

“The Hidden Chapters – Untold Stories of Australians at War in the Pacific”
by Robert Piper

Please look another info from magazine below

“As The third Year Begin”

And try to read the small words, the complete info exist in CD-ROM

An article in the “Knickerbocker Weekly – Free Netherlands-’of 21 February 1944 the flight of Captain Smirnoff, March 3, 1942.
For general information about the “Knickerbocker Weekly ‘, read the introduction to the thesis of Charlotte Cook,”

The Knickerbocker Weekly and the Netherlands Information Bureau

 

 

 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Dutch and Australian of Dai Nippon POW built Railway in Burma during WWII

Dutch and Australian of Dai Nippon POW built Railway in Burma during WWII

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI IPPON BANGSA ASING bELANDA DAN USTRALIA DIKIRIM KE BURMA UNTUK MEMBANGUNG JALAN KERETA API SAAT PERANG DUNIA KEDUA

CREATED BY

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

THIS IS THE PART OF LIMITED E-BOOK IN CD-ROM

:DIA NIPPON OCCUPATION INDONESIA”

INTRODUCTION

I HAVE FOUND THAT TWO VERY INTERESTING COLLECTION IN CONNECTION WITH THE EX KNIL POW DUTCH GOVERNMENT SENT DAI NIPPON INDONESIA TO BUILD THE BURMA ROAD Railway API RIVER BRIDGE INCLUDING there Kwai

EXPLORATION IN GOOGLE STORY THAT I FIND INTERESTING HOW TWO WAY FROM INDONESIA those prisoners TO BURMA.

PLEASE MY COMMENTS AND ADDITIONAL INFORMATION FROM THE DAI NIPPON POW FAMILY IN BURMA TO THIS STORY SO FULL AND ATTRACT MORE

IF YOU WANT TO HAVE THE FULL CD-ROM through the following COMMENT PLEASE REGISTER TO BECOME A PREMIUM MEMBER.

JAKARTA JULY 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy, MHA

 SAYA TELAH MENEMUKAN DUA KOLEKSI YANG SANGAT MENARIK YANG BERHUBUNGAN DENGAN TAWANAN PERANG EX KNIL BELANDA YANG DIKIRIM PEMERINTAH DAI NIPPON INDONESIA KE BURMA UNTUK MEMBANGUN JALAN KERATA API DISANA TERMASUK JEMBATAN SUNGAI KWAI

PADA EKSPLORASI GOOGLE SAYA MENEMUKAN DUA KISAH YANG MENARIK BAGAIMANA PERJALANAN PARA TAWANAN TERSEBUT DARI INDONESIA KE BURMA.

SAYA HARAP KOMENTAR DAN TAMBAHAN INFORMASI DARI PARA KELUARGA TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI BURMA AGAR KISAH INI JADI LEBIH LENGKAP DAN MENARIK

BILA ANDA INGIN MEMILIKI CD-ROM YANG LENGKAP SILAHKAN MENDAFTAR LIWAT COMMENT UNTUK MENJADI ANGGOTA PREMIUM.

JAKARTA JULY 2012

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

4 January 1943

POW (Tawanan Perang ) menumpang Kapal  di Tanjong Priok, Jawa (Januari 1943)

 Kapal Neraka  ke Singapura (Januari 1943)

Dai Nippon  mengirim tawanan perang Belanda bangsa barat dengan kereta api di seluruh Jawa, dari Malang ke Batavia. Untuk waktu yang singkat mereka dikurung di barak mantan Batalyon Infantri KNIL ke-10, yang disebut Camp Sepeda oleh para tahanan Inggris dan Australia.

 Dari kamp transit mereka dibawa ke pelabuhan terdekat Tanjong Priok, di mana mereka naik ke kapal Singapura yang terikat Harugiku Maru. [1]

Felix Bakker menceritakan perjalanan mereka:

Minggu pertama Januari 1943,

 seribu orang dari perkemahan kami, [Samethini] di antara mereka, diangkut ke Batavia (Jakarta) di kereta yang ditumpangi-up.

Satu minggu kemudian kami berdesakan, 1.100 pria, menjadi sebuah kapal barang Jepang tua, tidak tahu di mana Jepang yang akan membawa kita.

 Kami dikemas jauh di dalam kapal, seperti ikan haring dalam kaleng bisa. Menetas di atas kami adalah hari terbuka dan malam, sehingga kami menderita panas yang hebat dari matahari di siang hari.

 Saat hujan keras, para pelaut Jepang menaruh terpal di atas palka terbuka. Kami punya sangat sedikit makanan dan minuman, dan dengan segera itu bisa mencekik di sana.

Kondisi di memegang sebuah hellship menuju Singapura

(Januari 1943)

 

Perhatikan menetas terbuka atas, cocok description.Illustration Bakker oleh Belanda POW WF BrinksSource: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon

Sumber: Geheugen van Nederland / Museon ini

Yang disebut toilet kecil, ruang kayu di sepanjang pagar kapal. Untuk sampai di sana, kami harus memanjat tangga baja yang sangat curam dan panjang.

Sesampai di sana, kita sering harus menunggu dalam antrian untuk waktu yang lama. Jika ada terlalu banyak sejalan, menurut penjaga, dia akan menggunakan gagang senapan untuk mengalahkan mereka kembali menuruni tangga.

Selain itu, banyak tahanan turun dengan disentri. Pasien tidak dapat memanjat tangga, dan melakukan segala tempat mereka. Kami harus membersihkan kekacauan karena penyakit ini menular. Banyak yang tidak bisa tidur karena takut kapal akan ditenggelamkan oleh Sekutu pada malam hari.

 Banyak dari kita merasa mental dan fisik rusak segera, terutama mereka dengan keluarga tertinggal. Singkatnya, itu adalah penderitaan.

Lalu, suatu malam (saya tidak akan pernah melupakan ini selama saya tinggal), sesuatu yang sangat indah terjadi.

Laut tenang, malam itu jelas, dan kita bahkan bisa melihat beberapa bintang dari lubang neraka gelap kita. Tiba-tiba kami mendengar suara indah dari musik yang indah dimainkan pada akordeon.

Kami langsung tahu itu Han Samethini. Dia duduk di atas menetas dengan komandan transportasi Belanda di sampingnya, dan beberapa sedikit Jepang yang lebih jauh.

Kami mendengar kemudian bahwa kapten Jepang telah memberi izin baginya untuk bermain musik(arkodeon). Malam itu Han Samethini memainkan bintang turun dari langit. Strauss, Mozart, Brahms. Itu luar biasa.

 

Kapal, penuh sesak dengan lebih dari seribu tahanan perang, benar-benar diam. Bahkan orang sakit berhenti mengeluh. Tapi sekitar saya, saya bisa mendengar tangisan kuat pria, dan jujur saja, saya menumpahkan beberapa air mata juga.

Mendengarkan musik surgawi ini dari waktu lain dan dunia, kami berbelok semua pikiran kita untuk orang yang kita cintai, yang dipisahkan semakin jauh dari kami dengan setiap pergantian sekrup kapal.

 Han Samethini pasti berpikir keluarganya juga,

karena ia bermain arkodeon dengan perasaan yang sangat kuat tersebut. Saya tidak tahu berapa lama ia bermain. Tak lama cukup bagi kami.

Kami bertepuk tangan, bukan hanya karena kekaguman tetapi lebih dari itu karena rasa syukur. Dalam tengah situasi mengerikan, Han Samethini digunakan bakat diberkati musiknya malam itu tak terlupakan, untuk tidak hanya melupakan penderitaan selama beberapa saat, tetapi untuk memberi kita kekuatan untuk menghadapi masa depan yang sangat berbahaya. [2]

original info

POWs boarding a transport in Tanjong Priok, Java (January 1943)

 

Hell Ship to Singapore (J

January 1943)

The Japanese shipped the Dutch POWs west by rail across Java, from Malang to Batavia.  For a brief time they were confined in the former barracks of the KNIL 10th Infantry Battalion, called Bicycle Camp by the British and Australian prisoners.  From this transit camp they were taken to the nearby port of Tanjong Priok, where they boarded the Singapore-bound vessel Harugiku Maru. [1]  Felix Bakker recounts their journey:

The first week of January 1943,

 a thousand men from our camp, [Samethini] among them, were transported to Batavia (Jakarta) in a boarded-up train.

 

One week later we were crammed, 1,100 men, into an old Japanese freighter, not knowing where the Japs were going to bring us. We were packed deep inside the ship, like herrings in a tin can. The hatches above us were open day and night, so we suffered the intense heat of the sun during the day.

 When it rained hard, the Japanese sailors put a tarp over the open hatch. We got very little food and drink, and pretty soon it got suffocating down there.

 

 

Conditions in the hold of a hellship bound for Singapore (January, 1943)
Note the open hatches above, matching Bakker’s description.Illustration by Dutch POW W.F. Brinks
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon

Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon 

The so-called toilets were small, wooden spaces along ship’s railing. To get there, we had to climb a very steep and long steel ladder. Once there, we often had to wait in line for a long time. If there were too many in line, according to the guard, he would use the butt of his rifle to beat them back down the ladder.

 

On top of that, many prisoners came down with dysentery. Those patients were unable to climb the ladder, and did everything where they were. We had to clean the mess because the illness is contagious. Many could not sleep for fear the ship would be torpedoed by the Allies during the night.

 Many of us felt mentally and physically broken soon, especially those with families left behind. In a word, it was misery.


Then, one evening (I will never forget this as long as I live), something incredibly beautiful happened.

The sea was calm, the evening was clear, and we could even see some stars from our dark hellhole. Suddenly we heard the wonderful sounds of beautiful music played on an accordion.

 

We knew right away it was Han Samethini. He sat on top of the hatch with the Dutch transport commander next to him, and some Japanese a bit further away.

 

We heard later that the Japanese captain had given permission for him to play. That night Han Samethini played the stars down from the sky. Strauss, Mozart, Brahms. It was overwhelming.

 

The ship, crammed with over a thousand prisoners of war, was totally silent. Even the sick stopped moaning. But around me I could hear strong men weeping, and to be honest, I shed some tears as well. Listening to this heavenly music from another time and world, we turned all our thoughts to our loved ones, who were being separated farther and farther from us with each turn of the ship’s screws.

 

 Han Samethini must have thought of his family too, as he played with such intense feeling. I don’t know how long he played. It was not long enough for us.

 

We applauded, not only because of admiration but even more so out of gratitude. In this midst of this horrible situation, Han Samethini used his blessed musical talent that unforgettable night, to not only forget the misery for a few moments, but to give us strength to face the very perilous future. [2]


______________________

Footnotes

 

Source: wrecksite.eu

 

Source: japansekrijgsgevangenkampen.nl

 

  [1] The Harugiku Maru (ex-KPM Van Waerwijck) departed Tanjong Priok on January 15 and arrived in Singapore on the 18th. 

 The POWs in this transport were designated Java Party 9. Ship’s identity established by the Java Party 9 roll, which lists Samethini’s name, cross referenced with the Dutch source above.

The latter states that most of these POWs came from Kampong Makassar, a prison camp about 6 km south of Batavia.  Felix Bakker comments, “Han Samethini and Joop Postma were [with us] all the way from Malang [to] Batavia (barracks of the KNIL 10th Infantry Battalion)….We were never in Kampong Makassar.  I am sure of it.  I knew Batavia my whole boyhood.”  Bakker, personal e-mail to author (April 25, 2012).

Frank Samethini also transited through Bicycle Camp, arriving there several months earlier (October 1942) with a group of POWs from Surabaya.  He recounts his experiences in Chapter 6 of his memoir.

[2] Bakker, personal e-mail to Margie Samethini-Bellamy (September 2006). Translated by Margie.

 

Changi (January 1943)

 

Selarang Barracks, Changi POW Camp
Source: New Zealand Electronic Text Centre

Setelah tiga hari kesengsaraan di dalam palka hellship itu, Han dan rekan-rekannya muncul ke dalam terang dan berbaris menuruni tangga kapal. Hari berikutnya mereka naik truk yang membawa mereka ke kamp transit berikutnya. Felix Bakker melanjutkan:

Ternyata tujuan kami adalah Singapura. Kami turun di sana dan ditempatkan di kamp Changi, di mana kita bergabung sebagian besar 70.000 tentara Inggris, Australia, dan India ditangkap pada musim gugur Singapura. [1]

Frank Samethini juga telah ditransfer ke Changi. Kelompoknya dari tawanan perang Belanda telah tiba pada bulan November 1942, dikirim ke bagian (Australia Imperial Forces) AIF. Tak lama setelah kontingen Han tiba, Frank mendapat kabar bahwa adiknya berada di sekitarnya. Dia segera pergi untuk menemukannya:

Han Adikku dilaporkan terlihat di daerah rumah sakit Changi. Dalam perjalanan saya di sana, perawatan yang baik diambil untuk menghormati para penjaga Sikh dengan cara yang benar. Menyebut diri mereka “Free Indian”, mereka telah pergi ke musuh. Banyak rata-rata mereka, lebih buruk dari tentara Jepang ketika datang untuk mencari alasan untuk bashing kami.

 Sebuah kapel berdiri lebih bawah jalan, pintunya terbuka. Di dalam, orang Australia pada sebuah tangga, memperbaiki jendela kaca berwarna, mengatakan, “Howdie” tanpa mendongak dari pekerjaannya. Tanpa berpikir, saya duduk di depan altar kecil dan menekuk kepala saya. Tapi kata-kata tidak akan datang.

Apakah saya masih percaya? Kemudian semua sumur ke atas, memancar sebagainya ke dalam doa kekerasan. Sesaat kemudian saya keluar lagi, merasa lebih lega. Han tidak di rumah sakit dan, berkat Tuhan, juga tidak dalam plot yang semakin meningkat dari gundukan tanah yang baru digali. Kembali di kamp saya, Han berjalan untuk menemui saya di pintu gerbang, dan semuanya baik-baik. [2]

“Plot yang semakin meningkat dari gundukan tanah yang baru digali”
Pemakaman RAMC kapten di Changi kamp kuburan (Oktober 1942)
Sumber: http://www.fepow-community.org.uk

tawanan perang Inggris  di Changi
Pria dari Lancashire Utara Loyal Resimen (Oktober 1942)
Sumber: http://www.fepow-community.org.uk
Secara singkat bersatu kembali, yang Samethinis berangkat pada suatu pencarian yang tidak biasa:
Han, wizard pada akordeon, karena ia dikenal, adalah keinginan untuk mencoba tangannya lagi di keyboard piano. Belum menyentuh satu tahun keledai. Kami menemukan petugas yang bertanggung jawab dari hiburan, olahraga kumis bela diri sengit, mengawasi drama Shakespeare dilakukan di teater terbuka. Pertama dilakukan usaha untuk mengabaikan kita, tapi kita menanam diri tepat di depannya.

“Ya?” dengan hina di matanya untuk dua orang asing yang berani mengganggu mendengarkan-Nya. Kami memberitahunya.

“Ya, tentu saja, itu piano ada di panggung. Tapi tidak untuk amatir, terima kasih Namun, ada satu lagi di gereja yang dapat dibuat tersedia di beberapa waktu atau lainnya.. Tapi pikiran, semua ini musik swing. Kami tidak mengijinkan jazz di gereja. ” [3]
Nasihat luhur Perwira Inggris tidak hanya hanya gagal mencegah Han, memancing dia ke mencuri pertunjukan:

Tidak ingin membuang-buang kata lain pada pembangun kekaisaran, kita kembali ke bagian kami, yang kebetulan perbatasan dengan alasan hiburan.

Han mengambil kotak “pemerasan” lama dari hook, menerima sebatang rokok yang dibuat khusus dari salah satu anak laki-laki yang mengantisipasi apa yang akan terjadi. “Bank Bonnie Loch Lomond” diikuti dengan “Ketika Mata Irlandia Apakah Tersenyum” dan “Beautiful Dreamer.” Ketika ia sampai ke “Tipperary,” semua orang di teater terbuka telah berjalan keluar pada Bard untuk bergabung dengan kami dalam bernyanyi besar-lagu, yang dipimpin oleh amatir. [4]

19 Januari 1943

Java Garis bagian di Changi

Tahanan transit dari Jawa ke Kereta Api Birma berkumpul di sini.
Ilustrasi oleh British POW Charles Thrale
Sumber: Review FEPOW Bulanan

Frank adalah untuk tetap di Changi sampai April 1943, namun Han dan kelompoknya dikirim ke utara pada awal Februari. [5] Bakker berhubungan:

Kami tidak tinggal sangat lama, sepuluh hari kemudian kami sedang dalam perjalanan ke Thailand dengan kereta api. Han Samethini termasuk di antara tawanan perang Belanda di transportasi ini. [6]

Mengendarai garis Singapura-Bangkok rel up panjang Semenanjung Malaya, mereka mendekati base camp selatan Kereta Api Birma, outlier dari sebuah domain dari kesulitan dan kebiadaban yang mengungguli apa pun Jepang telah ditimpakan pada mereka sejauh ini.

 

Singapura dan bagian selatan Kereta Api Birma

original info

After three days of misery in the hellship’s hold, Han and his comrades emerged into the light and marched down the gangplank. The following day they boarded trucks that took them to their next transit camp. Felix Bakker continues:

It turned out our destination was Singapore. We disembarked there and were housed in the Changi camp, where we joined most of the 70,000 British, Australian, and Indian troops captured at the fall of Singapore. [1]

Frank Samethini too had been transferred to Changi. His group of Dutch POWs had arrived in November 1942, being sent to the AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) section. Shortly after Han’s contingent arrived, Frank got word that his brother was in the vicinity. He went at once to find him:

My brother Han is reported seen in the hospital area of Changi. On my way there, good care is taken to salute the Sikh guards in the correct manner. Calling themselves “Free Indians”, they have gone over to the enemy. A mean lot they are, worse than the Japs when it comes to finding an excuse for bashing us up.

 A chapel stands further down the road, its door open. Inside, an Aussie on a stepladder, repairing the stained-glass window, says, “Howdie” without looking up from his work. On an impulse, I take a seat before the small altar and bend my head. But words will not come.

Do I still believe? Then it all wells up, gushing forth into violent prayer. A moment later I am outside again, feeling much relieved. Han is not in the hospital and, thanks to the Lord, also not in the ever growing plot of mounds of freshly dug soil. Back in my camp, Han runs to meet me at the gate, and all is well. [2]

 

 

“The ever growing plot of mounds of freshly dug soil”
Funeral of RAMC captain in Changi camp cemetery (October 1942)
Source: http://www.fepow-community.org.uk

 

British POWs at Changi
Men of the Loyal North Lancashire Regiment (October 1942)
Source: http://www.fepow-community.org.uk
Briefly reunited, the Samethinis set off on an unusual quest:
Han, the wizard on the accordion, as he is known, is craving to try his hand again on the keyboard of a piano. Hasn’t touched one in donkey years. We find the officer in charge of entertainment, sporting a fierce martial moustache, supervising a Shakespearean play performed in the open air theatre. First an attempt is made to ignore us, but we plant ourselves right in front of him.

“Yes?” with contempt in his eyes for the two foreigners who dare to interrupt his listening. We tell him.

“Yes, of course, that’s a piano there on the stage. But not for amateurs, thank you. However, there’s another one in the church which could be made available at some time or other. But mind, none of this swing music. We do not permit jazz in church.” [3]
The British officer’s lofty admonition not only only failed to deter Han, it provoked him into stealing the show:

Not wishing to waste another word on the empire builder, we return to our section, which happens to border on the entertainment grounds.

Han takes the old “squeeze box” from the hook, accepting a tailor-made cigarette from one of the boys who anticipates what is coming. “Bonnie Banks of Loch Lomond” is followed by “When Irish Eyes Are Smiling” and “Beautiful Dreamer.” When he gets to “Tipperary,” everyone in the open air theatre has walked out on the Bard to join us in the great sing-song, led by the amateur. [4]

19 January 1943

 

 

The Java Lines section at Changi

Prisoners transiting from Java to the Burma Railway were assembled here.
Illustration by British POW Charles Thrale
Source: FEPOW Monthly Review


Frank was to remain at Changi until April 1943, but Han and his group were sent north at the beginning of February.
[5]  Bakker relates:

We did not stay very long, as ten days later we were on our way to Thailand by train. Han Samethini was among the Dutch POWs in this transport. [6]


Riding the Singapore-Bangkok rail line up the length of the Malay Peninsula, they approached the southernmost base camps of the Burma Railway, outliers of a domain of hardship and savagery that were to surpass anything the Japanese had inflicted on them so far.

 

Singapore and the southern portion of the Burma Railway
(Click map to enlarge)


___________________

Footnotes

[1] Felix Bakker, personal e-mail to Margie Samethini-Bellamy (September 2006)

[2] The Sky Looked Down, Chapter 6: Destination Railroad

[3] Ibid.

[4] Ibid.

[5] According to records kept at the Thailand-Burma Railway Centre (see images below), Samethini arrived in Changi on January 19 and departed on February 2.  Andrew Snow, a researcher at the TBRC, comments: “On page 55 Java Party 9 Roll it shows Samethini H S/N 49816 with a red dash after his name.  The red dash in the Java Party 9 code shows that 625 men left Singapore for Thailand on 02/02/1943.  The Java Party 9 arrival date is shown as

19/01/1943.” 

 in 19.January 1943

via Red Cross Australia and  society Tokyo Japan

 

m #c922. WW2: Tasmania to Australian POW in Java, Fwd to Thailand POW Camp, 1943, Dual Censored. May 1943 stampless printed POW cover to Australian at POW camp in Java, Australian violet censor handstamp and Japanese magenta censor handstamp. Manuscript “ovl 19/1/43″ indicating internment in Thailand. Manuscript “received 22 Oct 44″ and “written 7 May 43″ on reverse. Scarce dated inward usage to Thailand.very long journey cover almost one years

The Dai Nippon Thai–Burma Railway

History Collections

1942 to 1943

Created by

Dr Iwan suwandy.MHA

 Kereta Api Kematian (Januari 1943)
 

“Kami berdesakan, tiga puluh lima orang, dalam kompartemen baja”

Ilustrasi oleh Charles Thrale
Sumber: Review Fepow Bulanan

Perjalanan dari Singapura ke ujung selatan Kereta Api Birma waktu hampir seminggu. Felix Bakker lagi memakan narasi:

Kami berdesakan, tiga puluh lima orang, dalam kompartemen baja. Pintu disimpan terbuka, dengan tali membentang di antara mereka, sehingga kita bisa berpegang pada tali ketika “pergi ke toilet.” Setelah beberapa hari, disentri meletus lagi dengan semua penderitaan tersebut.

Pasien harus diadakan rapat atau mereka akan jatuh dari kereta karena kelemahan mereka. Pada siang hari itu panas mendidih pada mereka wagon baja, dan pada malam hari kita membeku.

 Dalam situasi hampir tidak mungkin untuk tidur, kami harus mencoba yang duduk dan menarik lutut ke atas. Untuk orang-orang tinggi di antara kita ini adalah lebih buruk daripada mereka yang lebih pendek dan lebih kenyal. Saya tidak termasuk di antara kedua.

Ban Pong stasiun kereta api, Thailand
Sumber: Australia War Memorial (P00761.029)

Dua kali di siang hari kereta api akan berhenti, dan dari gerobak masing-masing dua orang diizinkan untuk mendapatkan barel kecil air dan satu lagi bubur beras. Hanya itu yang kami punya untuk makanan dan air per hari.

Jika salah satu orang sakit mencoba untuk meninggalkan gerobak untuk batal, tentara Jepang akan memukulnya kembali ke kereta dengan popor senapan mereka. Seperti pada kapal, kondisi di dalam kereta menjadi hampir tak tertahankan.

Ini perjalanan kereta waktu lima hari lima malam, sampai kami tiba di Ban Pong, Thailand. Ada kami berdesakan dalam truk jadi kami tidak bisa rontok, meskipun kita hampir tidak bisa berdiri untuk kurang tidur.

 Kami harus berjalan kaki dari Kanchanaburi ke kamp Chungkai. Ini benar-benar lebih mirip sleepwalking, tetapi popor senapan dari penjaga kami memastikan kami terus mengejutkan pada.

Di kamp itu sudah beberapa ribu tahanan perang Inggris, yang telah membangun barak bambu dan yang telah mulai bekerja pada rel kereta api. Setelah apel, yang berlangsung lebih dari satu jam sementara Jepang terus menghitung kita berulang-ulang, akhirnya kami bisa pergi ke barak kami, di mana kebanyakan dari kita hanya pingsan karena kurang tidur.

Setelah beberapa hari di Chungkai, kelompok kami dari 500 tawanan perang Belanda harus pindah ke negara ke kamp kerja paksa pertama kami, tetapi tidak sebelum kami harus mendengarkan pidato oleh komandan kamp Jap. I, dan kebanyakan dari kita, tidak ingat banyak tentang omong kosong itu selain:

“Anda harus dihormati dan merasa terhormat bahwa Anda membantu untuk melakukan suatu proyek besar di bawah kepemimpinan Jepang, dan karena itu Anda akan harus bekerja keras untuk mendapatkan kehormatan ini.”

Yah, kita mempelajari kebenaran bahwa pernyataan terakhir. Kami berjalan, garis panjang pria, di jalan berpasir kecil yang segera menjadi jejak hutan. Perjalanan memakan waktu tiga hari.

 Banyak jatuh sakit disentri, malaria, dan kaki terluka. Pada sore hari di hari ketiga, kami dihentikan di sebuah tempat terbuka di hutan di sepanjang Sungai Kwai.

Di satu sisi, dekat sungai,

 tiga besar, tenda baru untuk komandan kamp Jepang dan para penjaga Korea.

Di sisi lain, di dekat tepi hutan, berdiri tua, usang, tenda kotor yang merupakan tenda rumah sakit untuk sakit parah. Semua orang harus menemukan tempat di dekat semak-semak atau di bawah pohon di tepi kamp.

Para Thaiâ “Kereta Api Birma. 1942-1943.

Kereta Api Thailand-Burma
1942-1943
Proyek ini menghasilkan kerugian besar hidup Tahanan Sekutu Perang (POW) dan pekerja paksa Asia yang digunakan untuk membangun itu.

 Sebuah diperkirakan 13.000 tawanan perang dan 80.000 buruh Asia meninggal karena penyakit, kelaparan sakit, dan kebrutalan di tangan Tentara Jepang

Pembangunan Jalan Kereta api  Burma-Thailand tahun 1943

Baca lebih lanjut tentang kereta api bangunan di Thailand oleh POW

  
John Allen

Responden: John Allen, lahir 1917

Pewawancara: Frank Heimans,
            untuk The Hills Shire Council

Tanggal Wawancara: 22 Juni 2010

Transkripsi: Glenys Murray Juli 2010

 Itu adalah fakta yang diketahui pada masa itu bahwa jika Anda bisa menjawab, tidak peduli apa pertanyaan, seorang Jepang bertanya. Jika Anda bisa menjawab langsung itu adalah OK, tetapi jika Anda ragu-ragu itu bohong. Itulah cara mereka menyimpulkan semuanya.

Mereka dikirim untuk Australia menjaga bebek mereka ingin melihatnya. Para kolonel Jepang menanyakan apa yang terjadi dengan bebek. Dia tidak mendapatkan telur yang ia terbiasa.

 Dia mengatakan “Saya tidak tahu aku akan pergi dan meminta bebek” Dia mengatakan “semua benar pergi”.

Jepang Rail Truk, Burma-Thailand Kereta Api, 1945
 
Oh well kita lakukan segala macam hal lucu di sana.

Aku dipromosikan menjadi kopral hari perang dimulai dan aku beres dengan sekitar tiga puluh cowok. Tugas kami adalah untuk turun ke tempat jembatan telah hanyut atau tertiup pergi untuk mengangkut barang dari satu sisi ke sisi lain di sungai.

 Di situlah saya menghabiskan enam bulan. Kami tidak hidup terlalu buruk di sana. Kami pencuri segala yang kami bisa mendapatkan tangan kami pada.

Hampir semua makanan itu bergerak. Ketika perang selesai, kita terbangun suatu pagi. Kami tahu ada sesuatu yang tidak beres.

 Hal itu tidak benar karena penduduk setempat terus mengatakan kepada kita bahwa Amerika ada di sana. Kami tidak pernah melihat satu tapi mereka mengklaim Amerika ada di sana.

 Para penjaga sedang membuat emplacements senjata kamp bulat kecil kami di sana. Kami bertanya-tanya apa yang terjadi di sini.

Mereka berbaris kami dan menempatkan kami pada sebuah truk kereta api dan jauh kami pergi. Itu adalah truk ternak kami masuk Kami berhenti tiga atau empat kali.

Kami tidak tahu di mana kami akan pergi. Mereka akhirnya berhenti dan saya berada di gerbong terakhir jika Anda suka tetapi itu hanya hal yang mengambang ternak.

Salah satu bab turun untuk buang air dan saat itulah seorang penjaga Jepang berjalan di tikungan dan melihat dia. Dia baru saja hendak mengetuk dia lebih dengan gagang senapan dan seorang Amerika berjalan bulat dan melihatnya dan ia meratakan Jap. Saat itulah kami menemukan perang berakhir.

Mereka kemudian mengumumkan bahwa perang itu selesai. Kami memiliki kamp di sana tempat kami menginap sampai kami baik-baik saja.

Itu adalah semacam lucu up selesai. Aku ada di sana untuk sementara waktu. Saya lakukan memasak pada masa itu. Mereka memiliki landasan Saya kira sekitar satu kilometer dari kamp.

Mereka pesawat kecil datang. Anda tidak bisa mendarat yang besar. Mereka adalah lima pesawat penumpang dan mereka datang dan mengambil bab yang sakit untuk membawa mereka keluar.

Mereka telah saya di luar sana dengan semacam dapur buatan sendiri. Untuk memberi mereka secangkir teh.

Kadang-kadang mereka akan di luar sana pada pukul sembilan pagi hari dan mereka tidak akan dijemput sampai pukul tiga sore. Di sanalah aku menghabiskan dua hari terakhir.

Akhirnya kereta membawa kami turun ke Port Swettenham dan menempatkan kita pada perahu pulang.

  
Burma-Thailand POW Mess Parade, 1943
 
 

 

Bagaimana orang Jepang memperlakukan Australia meskipun?

Nah Jepang sendiri mereka tidak terlalu buruk. Tapi tentara Jepang mereka memiliki satu bintang umum, mereka memiliki dua bintang dan kemudian mereka memiliki tiga bintang.

Nah tiga bintang bisa mengetuk neraka keluar dari dua bintang jika ia ingin. Dia unggul. Kami menemukan bahwa tentara Jepang mereka robot lebih atau kurang.

Mereka melakukan apa yang mereka diperintahkan. Apa yang kami lakukan telah penjaga Korea dan mereka anjing mutlak. Kesenangan mereka yang terbesar adalah untuk melihat seberapa banyak rasa sakit mereka bisa menyebabkan.

Kami berdua menjaga kamp kami banyak waktu. Mereka dibaptis BB dan BBC, bajingan anak dan cobber bajingan anak itulah yang dimaksud. Mereka menyebabkan banyak rasa sakit dan penderitaan sepanjang garis.

 Ketika kami tiba di base camp ini setelah baris itu selesai. Salah satu bab di unit dia memiliki sedikit pengalaman tentang perawatan gigi sebelum ia pergi.

Mereka memiliki beberapa peralatan medis yang telah disampaikan di sana oleh Palang Merah. Dia mulai naik sedikit dari proyek gigi karena tidak ada yang melihat seorang dokter gigi selama tiga tahun.

 Dia muncul dan tidak lama dimulai dari pada datang salah satu bajingan anak masuk Dia harus mendapatkan giginya diperbaiki. Dia menolak untuk melakukannya dan selesai sampai mendapatkan bersembunyi untuk tidak melakukannya.

Dia mengatakan “semua yang tepat yang akan ia melakukannya”. Jadi dia pergi ke kakus disentri dan diisi jarum suntik keluar dari itu. Itulah yang disuntikkan ke dalam mulutnya ketika dia pergi untuk melakukan pekerjaan. Kami tidak pernah melihatnya lagi. Saya akan mengatakan tanpa keraguan ia disentri dengan tegas.

Apa yang Anda makan selama itu?

Kami makan nasi dan satu-satunya yang kami miliki dengan nasi adalah cabai. Kami memiliki sedikit cabe kering merah. Kami punya banyak dari mereka dan beras dan tepung tapioka.

Ransum adalah secangkir nasi tiga kali sehari. Di pagi hari itu direbus sampai seperti bubur a. Dua lainnya makanan itu dimasak dalam bentuk gabah. Kami merebus cabai dan tuangkan sedikit jus cabai di atasnya.

Selama bertahun-tahun yang kita makan tiga pannikins penuh beras sehari sebagian besar dingin waktu.

Saya dapat memberitahu Anda itu tidak terlalu selera. Saya tidak makan nasi hari ini.

  
Trestle jembatan, Thailand 1945
 
Sekarang ceritakan tentang pekerjaan Anda dalam membangun Jalan Kereta Api Thailand-Burma apa yang Anda benar-benar berpartisipasi dalam?

Yah semua kita miliki adalah memilih dan sekop. Itu alat kami.

Tugas kami adalah untuk memotong melalui bukit-bukit untuk membuat … negara yang cukup berbukit di sana.

 Kami akan memotong bukit-bukit atau mengisi bawah di mana kami harus membangun jembatan kereta api.

 Mereka dibangun dari pepohonan setempat. Mereka memotong pohon ke bawah. Mereka memiliki suatu alat yang mereka gunakan untuk menempatkan mereka dalam tumpukan dan mengusir mereka turun dengan driver tumpukan dan meletakkan topi di atas mereka.

 Kadang-kadang mereka harus pergi lagi lantai itu yang curam, yang tinggi.

Sebagian besar waktu kami lakukan jembatan, mereka sedikit lelucon benar-benar karena mereka tidak punya cara untuk senyawa ing pendekatan.

Mereka harus mengisi mana jembatan dimulai enam atau delapan kaki dalam. Mereka hanya bisa mengisinya dengan kotoran kita digali dari tempat lain.

Mereka akan mengisi mereka dan ketika mereka menempatkan mereka di mana kereta api dimulai mereka sudah tenggelam sedikit. Pendekatan ke jembatan ini akan jauh di bawah jembatan itu sendiri. Mereka sampai di sana.

Kami membuat trik cepat di Jepang. Mereka tidak tahu bahwa kami melakukannya. Untuk membangun jembatan ini kami harus memiliki perancah tentu saja Anda sadari.

Kemudian setelah mereka selesai kita harus menarik perancah bawah. Semua perancah dilemparkan di sisi atas jembatan. Anda mendapatkan banyak dari musim hujan di sana, musim hujan.

Ketika musim hujan datang membentuk bendungan. Tekanan balik itu dicuci jembatan bendungan pergi. Mereka melepaskan hal-hal yang kami miliki di sana melepaskan, tidak bisa menahan air kembali. Ini akan membangun dan jauh ia pergi jembatan dan semua. Itulah yang terjadi dengan banyak jembatan kita dibangun.

Di mana yang benar-benar terletak di Burma atau Thailand? Mana saja kau?

Ia pergi dari suatu tempat yang bernama Thanbyuzayat menjadi Thailand. Saya tidak bisa memikirkan tempat di mana ia selesai. Ini akan menjadi beberapa ratus kilometer panjang setidaknya.

Apakah Anda terutama di daerah satu atau apakah Anda bergerak di sekitar banyak?

Kami memulai di dasar dua puluh kilometer di Thanbyuzayat dan kami menghabiskan di kamp 105. Itu setengah jalan ke atas. Tim-tim lainnya lebih jauh.

  
Membangun Jalan Kereta api Burma-Thailand , 1943


 
Apa yang akan hari-hari biasa Anda menjadi seperti sebagai tawanan perang di bawah Jepang?

Hal yang sama setiap hari. Ketika kami pertama kali pergi ke sana kita digunakan untuk mendapatkan setiap hari kesepuluh dari melakukan apa yang kita ingin lakukan.

 
 Tak lama sebelum itu dipotong keluar. Kami punya banyak sakit bahwa kita bekerja tujuh hari seminggu, berhenti periode selesai. Kadang-kadang kami pergi sebelum siang hari untuk pergi ke pekerjaan dan tiba di rumah pukul sepuluh atau sebelas malam.

 Kami harus berjalan begitu sialan jauh untuk sampai ke pekerjaan. Itu adalah hal yang sama setiap hari. Hari demi hari melakukan jembatan atau melakukan stek yang pernah kami lakukan.

Berapa lama adalah berjalan kaki ke tempat kerja yang sebenarnya dari mana Anda tinggal?

Anda mungkin harus berjalan dua puluh kilometer. Jika Anda bekerja di dekat kamp Anda Anda memiliki satu dekat. Kamp kami harus dua arah. Awal itu akan menjadi hanya beberapa ratus meter. Pada saat Anda siap untuk memindahkannya Anda telah melakukan dua puluh atau dua puluh lima kilometer setiap sisi.

Sekarang yang tahanan Australia lainnya perang bahwa kita mungkin telah mendengar tentang Anda bertemu di sana?

Tak satu pun dari setiap catatan besar, saya tahu yang aneh sedikit. Ada beberapa di distrik sini lama. Mereka semua mati sekarang. Walter Johnson ada di sini, Roy Gembala ada di sini, Gordon McKnight ada di sini, Norm Malone yang ada di sini.

  
Weary Dunlop pada tahun 1945
 
Dunlop Jadi Weary (Sir Earnest Edward Dunlop) adalah dokter di unit Anda?

Yeah, well dia tidak perlu terlalu dikhawatirkan dengan saya. Saya mendapat cukup penjahat pada satu tahap tetapi sebagian besar waktu saya bisa mendapatkan sekitar.

Saya tidak punya dekat sebagai penyakit sebanyak banyak dari mereka karena saya lebih muda dan sehat seperti banteng ketika saya bergabung. Ada orang lain selamat sama baiknya dengan saya. Aku memang punya sedikit keuntungan.

Saya adalah salah satu yang dipilih untuk membawa tim turun untuk mengangkut barang-barang itu di selokan ketika jembatan terpesona. Kami thieved cukup barang-barang di sana.

 Kami tinggal cukup baik. -Hal semacam ini membantu tanpa keraguan.

Jadi berapa banyak pria di unit Anda selamat perang?

Saya tidak tahu. Ada 495 dari memori awalnya. Aku akan mengatakan jika setengah dari mereka selamat itu akan menjadi maksimal. Saya tidak tahu, tidak punya cara untuk mengetahui.

Jadi berapa lama kau benar-benar menjadi tawanan perang?

Tiga setengah tahun.

Itu luar biasa?

Istri saya … saya terdaftar sebagai hilang diyakini tewas. Dia tidak tahu aku masih hidup selama tiga setengah tahun. Dia diberitahu bila perang dimulai bahwa saya hilang diyakini tewas.

  
Tawanan perang dan “pribumi” bekerja di jalan Kereta api Burma-Thailand 
 
Sekarang katakan hari itu bahwa Anda bertemu keluarga Anda lagi ketika Anda kembali dari perang? Apa itu seperti bagi Anda?

Ketika kami pulang kami keluar dari perahu dan mereka membawa kami dengan bus hingga Moorebank yang akan bergabung dengan keluarga kita.

Para chap yang hidup di jalan ia mengambil istri dan kiddies bawah untuk menemui saya di sana. Ketika bus berhenti, mereka akan memiliki daftar yang di atasnya.

Ada chap biasa berdiri di bagian belakang bus dan memanggil nama-nama dengan mikrofon yang yang berikutnya turun dari bus. Ada cukup banyak keluarga sana seperti yang Anda sadari.

Para chap yang keluar sebelum aku, Ernie Noble, ia jauh lebih tua dari saya dan cukup lemah. Mereka menyebut namanya keluar tapi dia punya banyak masalah turun dari bus.

Mereka menyebut nama saya sebelum dia turun dari bus. Ketika ia keluar pikiran istri saya yang saya turun. Dia memiliki sedikit kejutan ketika saya diikuti.

Dia melakukan mengenali Anda bukan?

Nah saya dikenali ketika aku turun. Dia hanya menyebut nama dan semua dia bisa melihat apakah ini pria tua sedikit keluar dari bus. Dia tidak tahu apa yang akan terlihat seperti.

Itu cerita yang bagus. Begitu sulit bagi Anda untuk menyesuaikan diri dengan kehidupan normal lagi di Australia?

Tidak juga, ada tidak benar-benar. Saya tidak berpikir aku punya masalah besar. Kami menghabiskan bulan akan keluar masuk rumah sakit terkutuk.

Aku berada di Rumah Sakit Yarralla cukup lama. Saya memiliki semua gigi dihapus dan saya harus amandel saya dibawa keluar sementara aku ada di sana.

Saya pergi bekerja mengendarai truk untuk chap ada untuk sementara waktu. Lalu suatu malam saya punya ketukan di pintu di rumah dan sekelompok petani di sana.

 Mereka bertanya apakah saya menempatkan sebuah truk di jalan ke troli buah mereka ke pasar dan mereka akan menjamin untuk memberikan saya pekerjaan mereka jika saya melakukannya. Yang saya lakukan, yang pada tahun 1948.

Saya telah digunakan untuk memberikan layanan yang saya harus berikan sebelum perang. Itulah layanan hanya saya kenal. Itu adalah cara yang saya bekerja.

Tetapi pelayanan yang mereka dapatkan selama perang, itu bukan pelayanan sama sekali. Jika carrier lelah suatu malam, ia meninggalkan buah di sana sampai besok malam. Dia tidak peduli.

Peta Kereta Api Birma
(Klik untuk perbesar)
Sumber: perthone.com

Untungnya angin musim kering masih di sana selama beberapa bulan lagi. Apel memiliki semua orang keluar pagi berikutnya sebelum siang hari. Untuk sarapan kami mendapat semangkuk kecil bubur nasi. Dokter kami telah membuat beberapa orang sakit jauh dari kelompok kerja.

Hal ini tidak dihargai oleh Jepang, yang menendang sejumlah orang-orang ini terhadap rincian tenaga kerja. Ketika dokter memprotes keras, empat penjaga pergi ke arahnya dengan tongkat sampai dia jatuh pingsan ke tanah.

 Setelah beberapa jam para penjaga melemparkan air di wajahnya dan membuatnya bisa diseret ke nya “tenda rumah sakit.” Dengan cara ini tentara Jepang menjelaskan bagaimana mereka akan menjalankan sesuatu.

Kereta api yang akan bekerja di sekitar 6 kilometer dari kamp. Satu detail memotong berbagai petak di hutan oleh menggergaji pohon dan hacking pergi sikat.

Kelompok-kelompok lain mulai pekerjaan pondasi awal untuk rel kereta api. Pekerjaan itu dilakukan dengan tangan, dengan cangkul dan sekop. Keranjang anyaman digunakan untuk membuang tanah di mana ia dibutuhkan.

 Setiap orang harus bergerak satu meter kubik tanah. Ini diukur sangat tepat oleh Jepang pada akhir hari dengan bagian selesai kereta api.

 Hanya ketika pengukuran itu benar bisa rincian tenaga kerja kembali ke perkemahan. Jika tidak, kami harus tetap bekerja oleh cahaya obor. Hal ini terjadi lebih dan lebih, dengan semakin meningkatnya jumlah orang jatuh sakit. Itu adalah tenaga kerja yang sangat berat di bawah matahari panas sekali.

Air di kantin kami segera pergi, dan air untuk minum teh dibawa oleh dua orang sekali sehari, dari sungai 6 kilometer. Orang-orang juga membawa bubur nasi untuk makan siang.

Kami punya sepuluh menit untuk makan bubur dan teh minuman, dan kemudian kembali bekerja. Jika hal-hal tidak berjalan cukup cepat, atau jika kita tidak bekerja cukup keras, menurut Jepang, kami akan dipukuli dengan tongkat bambu, sekop, atau popor senapan.

Untuk pertama kalinya dalam hidup saya, saya belajar apa yang benar-benar haus berarti: mulut dan tenggorokan kering sebagai gabus, bibir bengkak, visi memberikan kran dingin, air jernih, sebanyak yang Anda inginkan.

 

 

Ilustrasi oleh Francess Richardson
Gambar milik mantan British POW Len Baynes

 

 

“Green Neraka”
Sumber: Geheugen van Nederland / Museon ini

 

Karena kondisi kerja paksa tanpa ampun, tidak cukup makanan (tiga mangkuk bubur, dan malam hari kadang-kadang sup labu), dan kurang tidur karena nyamuk dan diare, jumlah sakit parah meningkat setiap hari.

Ada disentri, malaria, dan kaki terluka parah oleh borok tropis karena banyak dari kita tidak memiliki sepatu lagi dan bekerja dengan kaki telanjang. Sekarang setiap hari orang sekarat. Tidak ada yang lolos penyakit menular seperti disentri. Saya juga mengalami pertarungan pertama menyakitkan saya dengan itu.

Malam-malam yang terburuk ketika kram memaksa Anda untuk merangkak di kegelapan ke kakus di tepi hutan.

Kakus adalah parit hingga tiga meter dengan batang bambu diletakkan di. Di antara wajah-wajah, aku melihat ayahmu [Samethini] pada apel pasien disentri. Meskipun permohonannya, dokter kami tidak menerima obat.

Nama Thailand untuk kamp situs adalah Nombredai, yang kita segera berubah menjadi “Nonparadise.” Ini adalah neraka lebih dari apa pun. Namun itu akan mendapatkan jauh lebih buruk kemudian, di kamp kerja paksa hulu di pegunungan hutan berbatu, di musim hujan.

Kami mendapat istirahat beberapa hari setelah menyelesaikan bagian kita dari rel kereta api, dan kemudian kami berbaris ke kamp kerja berikutnya. Saya tidak tahu nama yang kamp kerja berikutnya. Kami tidak tinggal lama di sana, tetapi kemudian lagi, bekerja pada rute kereta api, bergerak tanggul bumi dan bangunan.

 

 

Sumber: BBC

 

Di kamp berikutnya, yang disebut Wampo, kami bekerja pada bagian berbatu jembatan kereta api. Ini adalah proyek besar, sebagai jembatan dua bagian akan dibangun di bawah dan terhadap batuan menggantung di atas sungai.

Sejauh yang saya ingat, kami adalah tenaga kerja dari 2.000 tawanan perang Sekutu: sekitar 600 warga Australia, 700 Inggris, dan 450 Belanda. Ada juga sekitar 100 pekerja Thailand, yang gajah menyeret pohon yang ditebang, yang akan digunakan di jembatan, dari hutan ke sungai. Tiga POW kamp kerja paksa yang dilakukan pada bank pasir di tikungan sungai. Angin musim hujan belum tiba. Untuk pertama kalinya kami memiliki tenda untuk bivouacs.

Benar-benar tidak cukup dari mereka, karena kami harus berbaring sangat dekat bersama-sama. Tapi karena kita bekerja dalam shift, ada ruang hampir tidak cukup untuk semua orang.

Inggris dan Australia yang rinci untuk membangun jembatan, dan kami Belanda dan beberapa ratus orang Inggris mendapat tugas hacking pergi batu besar, sehingga kereta api bisa melanjutkan ke arah jembatan. Pembangun jembatan bekerja sepanjang hari di siang hari. Tapi kita pemotong batu bekerja dalam tiga shift, siang dan malam.

Pergeseran pertama, dengan berpasangan, harus membuat lubang 1,2 meter manual, menggunakan pahat dan palu. Tujuannya adalah untuk setiap pasangan untuk membuat dua lubang, satu lubang sehingga setiap manusia.

Dynamite kemudian meledak di lubang itu. Pergeseran kedua harus membersihkan puing-puing – bongkahan batu, batu, dan kerikil – menekannya gunung dengan sekop, atau menggunakan jack baja untuk batu-batu besar.

 Begitu mereka selesai, pergeseran ketiga muncul untuk membuat lubang dengan palu dan pahat. Begitulah selanjutnya, siang dan malam. Setelah gelap, kami bekerja dengan lampu obor disebut hellfires. Pada siang hari itu searingly panas di batu-batu. Haus itu sangat buruk, terutama ketika kita melihat sungai mengalir di bawah ini.

 

 

Selatan pendekatan terhadap jembatan kereta api di Wampo Selatan.

Perhatikan pemotongan besar-besaran di tebing di atas jembatan.
Sumber: Australia War Memorial (AWM122325)

 

Sketsa Wampo Selatan oleh Belanda POW A.G. Muller
Lihat dari utara
Sumber: Geheugen van Nederland / Museon ini

Sebuah bagian dari jembatan Wampo hari ini
Sumber: picasaweb.google.com

 

Di sini juga, kami diganggu dan dipukuli dengan alasan apapun, atau tanpa alasan. Kami punya beras sedikit lebih dari di kamp-kamp sebelumnya, dan ada tawanan perang sakit parah lebih sedikit. Tapi jadwal kerja malam-dan-hari itu adalah pembunuh, dan fragmen batu tajam merobek-robek kaki kita karena kebanyakan dari kita tidak punya sepatu kiri untuk dipakai.

 Kami harus tetap bekerja pada kaki yang sakit dan luka-up. Setelah beberapa saat, Anda kehilangan hitungan jam, hari, malam. Tidak ada pikiran yang lebih, hanya bekerja, makan, tidur, bekerja, makan, tidur.

Kurang tidur membawa sebagian dari kita mengucapkan kelelahan. Karena itu, malaria dan disentri datang kembali dengan kekuatan, dan cedera kaki menjadi semakin buruk dan buruk. Butuh waktu sekitar empat minggu untuk memotong batu dari ketinggian 15 meter dan 100 meter panjang berkeping-keping. Setelah itu kami harus mengangkat batang pohon, dimaksudkan untuk bagian akhir dari jembatan, dari sungai ke bebatuan.

Ketika jembatan itu akhirnya selesai, dan ikatan silang kayu dan rel bisa direbahkan, kami berbaris ke kamp berikutnya tanpa istirahat.

Hanya sakit parah tetap tinggal. Banyak dari mereka terluka parah kaki. Mereka diangkut ke dasar / rumah sakit kamp Chungkai. Henri Samethini pasti di antara mereka, karena dia sakit, dengan kaki terluka, dan karena aku melihatnya lama kemudian dalam Chungkai. [1]

1) SOLDIER BELANDA DI KAMP Moulmein DIKIRIM ATAS DAI NIPPON Moulmein CAR POW VIA KURIR KE ISTRI kepada istrinya VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
Dia mengatakan bahwa dia berada dalam kesehatan dewa dan bertanya tentang anak-anaknya. Istrinya tinggal di Surabaya, Selama Pendudukan Dai Nippon warga negara Indonesia yang meriah Expatriat didnot dimasukkan ke dalam kamp POW.
Lihatlah dua koleksi yang sangat langka:
(1) Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Kartu dikirim ke Batavia (Jakarta)
(2) Istrinya Dai Nippon Jawa ID yang dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah Dai Nippon Militer di Soerabia.

 

Moulmein POW Camp

 

Moulmein POW Kartu

Depan POW kartu

 

 

 

 

 DAI NIPPON BELANDA POW Moulmein

Writter telah menemukan beberapa sejarah pos langka, kotak memorabilia dan dokumen memorabilia yang terkait dengan jembatan pada kwai sungai dan tawanan perang Dai Nippon perkemahan di Burma Moulmein (sekarang Myamar) yang pekerjaan POW untuk dibangun yang terkenal jembatan

Penulis telah menemukan beberapa koleksi memorabilia Yang terkait di masa mendatang Mencari Google Artikel tawanan perang di Moulmein Burma Yang dipaksa bekerja membangun Jembatan Kwai sungai,

Ada juga tawanan Yang BERHASIL Pulang Ke Indonesia, Masih menyimpan Kotak Tembakau Yang dibawanya Ke Kamp Tawanan di Moulmein, inofrmasi perjalannya Ke Birma bahasa Dari Tjimahi ditoreh PADA Kotak kaleng Tembakau tersebut Mencari Google Artikel Baru tempat singgah dalam perjalan bahasa Dari Dan Ke disajikan Sesudah perkemahan tersebut.

Rangoon (Yangoon saat ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, meupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang” b=”tahun 1942 berangkat dari POW Tjimahi ke batavai(Jakarta), selanjutnya ke Penang–>Rangoon (Yangoon saat ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, meupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang” c=”Tahun 1942 berangkat bahasa Dari POW Tjimahi Ke batavai (Jakarta), Selanjutnya Ke Penang-> Rangoon (Yangoon saat inisial) Burma (Myamar) -> Moulmein POW Camp Birma Dan Lengkap tangalnya, Bernama Coegen, meupakan penemuan Luar Biasa KARENA sangat jarang tawanan perang “>Tahun 1942 berangkat bahasa Dari POW Tjimahi Ke batavai (Jakarta), Selanjutnya Ke Penang-> Rangoon (Yangoon saat inisial) Burma (Myamar) -> Moulmein POW Camp Birma Dan Lengkap tangalnya, Bernama Coegen, meupakan penemuan Luar Biasa KARENA sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut disajikan Sesudah dlam keadaan Hidup Ke Indonesia Masih menyimpan Kotak Tembakau Yang dibawanya Ke Kamp Tawanan di Moulmein

Biside yang menemukan iD dari theDai Nippon ‘s Moulmein POW ID sebelum dia tertangkap dan dikirim ke kamp tawanan perang, ia bekerja di eksplorasi gas minyak di Plaju, Sumatera Selatan, juga ditemukan surat dari kamp Moulmein ke Batavia untuk istrinya, dan istrinya Dai nippon ID Card.

Selain ITU juga ditemui Kartu ID Mr Romeijn pegawai perminyakan Belanda BPM Plaju Yang ditawan Dai nippon

 

, Dan di bawa Ke Kamp tawanan perang Dai Nippon Di Burma, lihatlah surat Yang dikirmnya bahasa Dari Camp tersebut bahasa Dari Burma kepadza isterinya di surabaya liwat batavia (Jakarta) surat POW Kartu bahasa Dari kamp Moulmein Birma kepada Isterinya di Indonesia

 

* Dai Nippon Moulmein (sekarang Myanmar) Kartu dikirim ke istrinya melalui Batavia (sekarang Jakarta)

Serta KTP pendudukan jepang Atas Nama isterinya,,

Selain sejarah pos dan ID, penulis juga menemukan satu kotak tembakau mengesankan dengan scrip menorehkan rute dari Indonesia, melalui jakarta untuk ranggon (sekarang Yangoon ata setidaknya ia datang ke Dai Nippon Moulmein prisenor kamp perang di Burma (sekarang Myanmar) ia bergerak dari tasikmalaya Jawa Barat kamp, ke Batavia pada tahun 1942, ke Penang dan setidaknya ke Burma (sekarang Myanmar) pada tahun 1942, nama tawanan perang Coghen (Belanda timur indie tentara)

Rangoon (Yangoon saat” b=”Ditemukan juga kotak tembakau milik tawanan perang bangsa belanda Coghen , yang menoreh kotak kaleng tembakau tersebut dengan tempat singgah dalam perjalan dari dan kembali ke camp tersebut.tahun 1942 berangkat dari POW Tjimahi ke batavai(Jakarta), selanjutnya ke Penang–>Rangoon (Yangoon saat” c=”Ditemukan juga Kotak Tembakau Milik tawanan perang kata bangsa belanda Coghen, Yang Menoreh Kotak kaleng Tembakau tersebut Mencari Google Artikel Baru tempat singgah dalam perjalan bahasa Dari Dan Ke disajikan Sesudah kamp tersebut.tahun 1942 berangkat bahasa Dari POW Tjimahi Ke batavai (Jakarta), Selanjutnya Ke Penang-> Rangoon (Yangoon saat “>Ditemukan juga Kotak Tembakau Milik tawanan perang kata bangsa belanda Coghen, Yang Menoreh Kotak kaleng Tembakau tersebut Mencari Google Artikel Baru tempat singgah dalam perjalan bahasa Dari Dan Ke disajikan Sesudah kamp tersebut.tahun 1942 berangkat bahasa Dari POW Tjimahi Ke batavai (Jakarta), Selanjutnya Ke Penang-> Rangoon (Yangoon saat Moulmein POW Camp Burma dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, merupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut kembali dlam keadaan hidup ke Indonesia.” b=”ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, merupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut kembali dlam keadaan hidup ke Indonesia.” c=”Suami) Burma (Myamar) -> Moulmein POW Camp Birma Dan Lengkap tangalnya, Bernama Coegen, merupakan penemuan Luar Biasa KARENA sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut disajikan Sesudah dlam keadaan Hidup Ke Indonesia.         “>Suami) Burma (Myamar) -> Moulmein POW Camp Birma Dan Lengkap tangalnya, Bernama Coegen, merupakan penemuan Luar Biasa KARENA sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut disajikan Sesudah dlam keadaan Hidup Ke Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

1.The MR H.COEGEN’S BOX TEMBAKAU YANG MENYELURUH DARI KAMP NIPPON DAI POW DI BURMA MOLMEIN, DENGAN INFO SCRTECH TUJUAN NYA TEH DAN TANGGAL. ia membawa OLEH DAI NIPPON DENGAN TEMAN NYA DARI TJIMAHI (CAMP MILITER, DEKAT BANDUNG, SEKOLAH traning MILITER) UNTUK

 BATAVIA (JAKARTA) 11-10-42,

 untuk Penang-3-11-42

Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>” b=”—> Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>” c=”-> Yangon (sekarang Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42 ->  “>-> Yangon (sekarang Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42 ->

 Moulmein Camp, di mana ia dan pekerjaan temannya untuk membangun Brige yhe di sungai Kwai 1n 1942. Mungkin ia bertemu dengan prosioner lain dari perang dari Plaju Bapak Romein, kartu nya POW wassend tahun 1943 ke Batavia (Jakrta) untuk istrinya di Surahaya.

INI HANYA KOLEKSI Memorable SUDAH PERNAH LAPORAN, silahkan copy donnot, ilustrasi ini milik Dr suwandy Iwan collctions swasta @ copyright 2010.

* Frontside

Backside Bapak Coegen POW Moulmein Dai nippon kamp Birma tobaccobox Dr @ hak cipta iwan suwandy 2010

SHOWCASE: ATAS BURMA DN RARE POW KAMP CARD
(1) MR ROMEYN, BELANDA Plaju BPM PETUGAS ID, WHO WAS TANGKAP BAY Dain NIPPON DAN DIKIRIM SEBAGAI tawanan perang AT DAI BURMA KAMP Moulmein NIPPON

 

(2) BELANDA BPM Plaju OFICER AT CAMP Moulmein DIKIRIM ATAS DAI NIPPON Moulmein CAR POW VIA KURIR KE ISTRI kepada istrinya VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)

 

 

Dia mengatakan bahwa dia berada dalam kesehatan dewa dan bertanya tentang anak-anaknya. Istrinya tinggal di Surabaya, Selama Pendudukan Dai Nippon warga negara Indonesia yang meriah Expatriat didnot dimasukkan ke dalam kamp POW

Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Kartu dikirim ke Batavia (Jakarta)
(2) Istrinya Dai Nippon Jawa ID yang dikeluarkan oleh pemerintah Dai Nippon Militer di Soerabia.

 

Dainippon Burma POW istri ID

 
 
 

original info

 

The Death Railway (January 1943)

 

“We were crammed, thirty-five men, in steel compartments”

Illustration by Charles Thrale
Source: Fepow Monthly Review


The journey from Singapore to the southern end of the Burma Railway took nearly a week. Felix Bakker again takes up the narrative:

We were crammed, thirty-five men, in steel compartments. The doors were kept ajar, with a rope stretched between them, so that we could hold on to the rope when “going to the toilet.” After a few days, dysentery erupted again with all its misery.

 

Those patients had to be held tightly or they would fall out of the train due to their weakness. During the day it was boiling hot in those steel wagons, and at night we froze.

 

 Under those circumstances it was almost impossible to sleep; we had to try that sitting down and pulling our knees up. For the tall guys among us this was even worse than for those who  were shorter and more supple. I was not among the latter.

 

 

Ban Pong railway station, Thailand
Source: Australian War Memorial (P00761.029)

 

Twice during daylight the train would stop, and from each wagon two men were allowed to get a small barrel of water and another one of rice gruel. That was all we got for food and water per day.

If one of the sick men tried to leave the wagons to void, the Japs would beat him back into the train with their rifle butts. As on the ship, conditions inside the train became almost intolerable.

This train trip took five days and five nights, until we arrived at Ban Pong, Thailand. There we were crammed into trucks so we could not fall out, even though we could barely stand for lack of sleep.

 We had to walk from Kanchanaburi to Chungkai camp. It was really more like sleepwalking, but the rifle butts of our guards made sure we kept staggering on.

In the camp were already a few thousand British POWs, who had built bamboo barracks and who had started working on the railroad. After roll call, which lasted longer than an hour while the Japanese kept counting us over and over, we could finally go to our barracks, where most of us simply collapsed from lack of sleep.

After a few days in Chungkai, our group of 500 Dutch POWs had to move up country to our first labor camp, but not before we had to listen to a speech by the Jap camp commander. I, and most of us, don’t remember much about his nonsense other than:

“You should be honored and feel privileged that you are helping to undertake such a great project under Japanese leadership, and therefore you shall have to work hard to earn this honor.”

Well, we learned the truth of that last statement. We walked, a long line of men, on a small sandy road which soon became a jungle trail. The walk took three days.

 Many fell ill with dysentery, malaria, and injured feet. In the late afternoon of the third day, we halted in a clearing in the forest along the River Kwai.

On one side, near the river,

 were three large, new tents for the Japanese camp commander and the Korean guards.

On the other side, near the edge of the forest, stood an old, threadbare, grubby tent which was the hospital tent for the gravely ill. Everybody else had to find a spot near the bushes or under the trees at the edges of the camp.

 

 

 

 

 

The Thaiâ “Burma Railway. 1942 to 1943.

 

The project resulted in a huge loss of life of the Allied Prisoners of War (POWs) and Asian forced labourers that were used to construct it.

 An estimated 13,000 POWs and 80,000 Asian labourers died of disease, sickness, starvation and brutality at the hands of the Japanese Army

 

 

Building the Burma-Thailand railway, 1943

Read more about building railway at Thailand by POW

 

John Allen

Part Two

Interviewee: John Allen, born 1917

Interviewer: Frank Heimans,
            for The Hills Shire Council

Date of Interview: 22 June, 2010

Transcription: Glenys Murray, July 2010

 It was a well known fact in those days that if you could answer, it didn’t matter what the question, a Japanese asked you. If you could answer straight away it was OK but if you hesitated it was a lie. That was the way they summed things up. They sent for the Australian looking after the ducks they wanted to see him. The Japanese colonel asked him what had happened to the ducks. He wasn’t getting the eggs that he was used to. He said “I don’t know I’ll go and ask the ducks” He said “all right go on”.

 

Japanese Rail Trucks, Burma-Thailand Railway, 1945

Oh well we did all sorts of funny things there.

I was promoted to corporal the day the war started and I was sorted out with about thirty blokes. Our job was to go down to where the bridges had been washed away or blown away to ferry the stuff from one side to the other across the creek. That’s where I spent six months. We weren’t living too bad there. We were thieving everything we could get our hands on. Nearly all food was moving. When the war finished, we woke up one morning. We knew there was something going wrong. It wasn’t right because the locals kept telling us that the Americans were there. We never saw one but they claimed the Americans were there. The guards were making gun emplacements round our little camp there. We wondered what was going on here.

They lined us up and put us on a railway truck and away we went. It was a cattle truck we were in. We stopped three or four times.

We had no idea where we were going. They finally came to a stop and I was in the last carriage if you like but it was just a cattle float thing. One of the chaps got down to relieve himself and as he did a Japanese guard walked round the corner and saw him. He was just about to knock him over with a rifle butt and an American walked round and saw it and he flattened the Jap. That’s when we found out the war was over.

They announced then that the war was finished. We had a camp there where we stayed till we were alright.

It was a funny sort of a finish up. I was there for a while. I was doing the cooking in those days. They had an airstrip I suppose about a kilometre away from the camp.

They had little aeroplanes come. You couldn’t land a big one. They were five passenger aeroplanes and they came in and picked up the chaps who were sick to take them out.

They had me out there with some sort of homemade kitchen. To give them a cup of tea. Sometimes they’d be out there at nine o’clock in the morning and they wouldn’t get picked up till three o’clock in the afternoon. That’s where I spent the last two days.

Finally a train took us down to Port Swettenham and put us on a boat to come home.

 

Burma-Thailand POW Mess Parade, 1943

 

 

How did the Japanese treat the Australians though?

Well the Japanese themselves they weren’t too bad. But the Japanese army they had the one star general, they had the two stars and then they had the three stars.

Well the three stars could knock hell out of the two stars if he wanted to. He was superior. We found that the Japanese soldiers they were more or less robots.

They did what they were told. What we did have were Korean guards and they were absolute dogs. Their greatest pleasure was to see how much pain they could cause. We had two of them guarding our camp a lot of the time. They were christened the BB and the BBC, the boy bastard and the boy bastard’s cobber that’s what it referred to. They caused a lot of pain and suffering along the line.

 When we got to this base camp after the line was finished. One of the chaps in the unit he had a bit of experience on dental work before he went. They had some medical supplies that had been delivered there by the Red Cross. He started up a little bit of a dental project because no one had seen a dentist for three years.

 He turned up and no sooner started up than in came one of the boy bastards came in. He had to get his teeth fixed up. He refused to do it and finished up getting a hiding for not doing it. He said “all right that’d he’d do it”. So he went over to the dysentery latrines and filled a syringe up out of that. That’s what injected into his mouth when he went to do the work. We never saw him again. I would say without a doubt he had dysentery in no uncertain terms.

 

What were you fed all that time?

We were fed rice and the only thing that we had with rice was chilies. We had the little red dried chilies. We had plenty of them and rice and tapioca flour.

The ration was a mug of rice three times a day. In the morning it was boiled up like a porridge. The other two meals it was cooked in a grain form. We’d boil the chilies up and pour a little bit of chili juice over it.

For years that was our meal three pannikins full of rice a day most of the time cold.

I can tell you it wasn’t very appetizing. I don’t eat rice today.

 

Trestle bridge, Thailand 1945

Now tell me about your work in building the Thai-Burma Railway what did you actually participate in?

Well all we had was a pick and shovel. That was our tools.

Our job was to cut through the hills to make… fairly hilly country over there.

 We’d cut through the hills or fill up down below where we had to build the railway bridges.

 

 They were built out of the local trees. They cut the trees down. They had an apparatus that they used to put them in piles and drive them down with the pile driver and put a cap on top of them.

 Sometimes they had to go another storey it was that steep, that high.

Most of the time we were doing the bridges, they were a bit of a joke really because they had no way of compound ing the approaches.

They had to fill up where the bridge started six or eight foot deep. They could only fill it up with the dirt we dug out of another spot. They’d fill them up and when they put them where the railway started they’d already sunk a bit. The approach to the bridges would be this much below the bridge itself. They got there.

We pulled a fast trick on the Japanese. They didn’t know that we were doing it. To build these bridges we had to have scaffolding of course you realise.

Then after those were finished we had to pull the scaffolding down. All the scaffolding was thrown on the top side of the bridge. You get a lot of rainy seasons over there, the monsoons.

When the monsoons come it forms a dam. The pressure behind it washed the dam bridges away. They let go the stuff we had in there let go, it couldn’t hold the water back. It would build up and away she’d go bridge and all. That’s what happened to a lot of the bridges we built.

Where was that actually located in Burma or Thailand? Where were you?

It went from a place called Thanbyuzayat up into Thailand. I can’t think of the place where it finished. It would have been a couple of hundred kilometres long at least.

Were you mainly in the one area or did you move around a lot?

We started off in the twenty kilometre base at Thanbyuzayat and we finished off at the 105 camp. That was half way up. The other teams were further along.

 

Building the Burma-Thailand railway, 1943

What would your typical day have been like as a prisoner of war under the Japanese?

It was the same every day. When we first went there we used to get every tenth day off to do what we wanted to do.

 

 It wasn’t long before that was cut out. We had that many sick that we worked seven days a week, period finish stop. Sometimes we’d leave before daylight to go out to the job and arrive home at ten or eleven o’clock at night.

 We had to walk so damn far to get to the work. It was the same thing every day. Day after day doing the bridges or doing the cuttings which ever we had to do.

How long was the walk to the actual work site from where you were living?

You may have to walk twenty kilometres. If you were working near your camp you had a close one. The camp we had to go both ways. The start of it would be only a couple of hundred yards. By the time you were ready to move it you’d done twenty or twenty five kilometres each side.

Now which other Australian prisoners of war that we might have heard about did you meet there?

None of any great note, I know a few odd ones. There was a few in the district here a long time ago. They’re all dead now. Walter Johnson was here, Roy Shepherd was here, Gordon McKnight was here, Norm Malone who was here.

 

Weary Dunlop in 1945

So Weary Dunlop (Sir Earnest Edward Dunlop) was your doctor in your unit?

Yeah, well he didn’t have much to worry about with me. I got pretty crook at one stage but most of the time I was able to get about.

I didn’t have near as much sickness as a lot of them because I was younger and fit as a bull when I joined up. There were others survived just as good as me. I did have a little bit of an advantage.

I was one selected to take the team down to ferry the stuff across the gutters when the bridge was blown away. We thieved enough stuff there.

 We were living pretty well. These sort of things helped without a doubt.

So how many men in your unit survived the war?

I don’t know. There were four hundred and ninety five from memory originally. I would say if half of them survived it would be a maximum. I don’t know, had no way of knowing.

So how long were you actually a prisoner of war?

Three and a half years.

That’s amazing?

My wife… I was listed as missing believed killed. She didn’t know I was alive for three and a half years. She was notified when the war started that I was missing believed killed.

 

POWs and “natives” working on the Burma-Thailand railway

Now tell me that day that you met your family again when you came back from the war? What was that like for you?

When we came home we got out of the boat and they took us by bus up to Moorebank to be joined with our families.

The chap that lived up the road he took my wife and kiddies down to meet me down there. When the bus pulled up, they’d have a list of who was on it.

There was a chap used to stand at the back of the bus and call out the names with a microphone of who was the next one getting off the bus. There were quite a lot of families there as you realise. The chap who was getting out before me, Ernie Noble, he was a lot older than me and pretty feeble. They called his name out but he had a lot of trouble getting off the bus.

They called my name out before he was off the bus. When he got out my wife thought that was me getting off. She had a bit of a surprise when I followed.

She did recognise you did she?

Well I was recognizable when I got off. He just called the name and all she could see was this little old bloke getting out of the bus. She had no idea what I’d look like.

That’s a good story. So was it difficult for you to adjust to normal life again in Australia?

Not really, no not really. I don’t think I had any great problems. We spent months going backwards and forwards to the damned hospital.

I was in Yarralla Hospital for quite a while. I had all my teeth removed and I had my tonsils taken out while I was there.

I went to work driving a truck for a chap there for a while. Then one night I had a knock on the door at home and a group of farmers there. They asked me would I put a truck on the road to cart their fruit to market and they’d guarantee to give me their work if I’d do so. Which I did, that was in 1948.

I’d been used to giving the service I had to give before the war. That was the only service I knew. It was the way that I worked. But the service that they got during the war, it wasn’t service at all. If the carrier was tired one night, he’d leave the fruit there till tomorrow night. He didn’t care.

 

 

Map of the Burma Railway
(Click to Enlarge)
Source: perthone.com

 

Luckily the dry monsoon was still there for a few more months. Roll call had everybody out next morning before daylight. For breakfast we got a small bowl of rice gruel. Our doctor had kept some sick men away from the labor groups.

This was not appreciated by the Japs, who kicked a number of these men towards the labor details. When the doctor protested vehemently, four guards went at him with sticks until he fell unconscious to the ground.

 After a few hours the guards threw water on his face and allowed him to be dragged off to his “hospital tent.” This way the Japs made it clear how they would run things.

The railroad to be worked on was about 6 kilometers from camp. One detail cut a wide swath through the forest by sawing down trees and hacking away the brush.

Other groups started the initial foundation work for the railroad. The work was done by hand, with picks and shovels. Woven baskets were used to dump the soil where it was needed.

 Each man had to move one cubic meter of soil. This was measured very precisely by the Japs at the end of the day by the finished section of railroad.

 Only when the measurement was correct could the labor details return to camp. If not, we had to keep working by torch light. This happened more and more, as increasing numbers of men fell ill. It was very heavy labor under the broiling sun.

The water in our canteens was soon gone, and water for tea was brought by two men once a day, from the river 6 kilometers away. Those men also brought the rice gruel for lunch.

We got ten minutes to eat gruel and drink tea, and then it was back to work. If things did not go fast enough, or if we did not work hard enough, according to the Japs, we would get beaten with bamboo sticks, shovels, or rifle butts.

For the first time in my life, I learned what thirst really meant: mouth and throat dry as a cork, swollen lips, visions of faucets giving cool, clear water, as much as you wished.

 

 

Illustration by Francess Richardson
Image courtesy of former British POW Len Baynes

 

 

“Green Hell”
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon

 

Due to the merciless slave labor conditions, not enough food (three bowls of gruel, and at night sometimes pumpkin soup), and lack of sleep on account of mosquitoes and diarrhea, the number of seriously ill rose daily.

There was dysentery, malaria, and feet badly injured by tropical ulcers because many of us did not have shoes anymore and worked with bare feet. Now every day people were dying. Nobody escaped contagious illnesses like dysentery. I also suffered my first painful bout with that.

The nights were worst when the cramps forced you to crawl in pitch darkness to the latrines at the edge of the forest.

The latrines were ditches up to three meters deep with bamboo trunks laid across. Among familiar faces, I saw your father [Samethini] at a roll call of dysentery patients. In spite of his pleading, our doctor did not receive any medications.

The Thai name for the camp site was Nombredai, which we immediately changed to “Nonparadise.” It was hell more than anything else. And yet it would get much worse later, in the labor camps upstream in the rocky jungle mountains, in the rainy season.

We got a few days rest after finishing our part of the railroad, and then we marched to the next labor camp. I don’t know the name of that next labor camp. We did not stay there long, but went on again, working on the route of the railroad, moving earth and building embankments.

 

 

Source: BBC

 

At the next camp, called Wampo, we worked on the rocky parts of the railway bridges. This was a huge project, as the two-part bridge was to be built underneath and against the rocks hanging over the river.

As far as I remember, we were a labor force of 2,000 Allied POWs: about 600 Australians, 700 British, and 450 Dutch. There were also about 100 Thai workers, whose elephants dragged the felled trees, to be used in the bridges, from the forest to the river. The three POW labor camps were situated on sand banks in the river bend. The rainy monsoon had not arrived yet. For the first time we had tents for bivouacs.

Really not enough of them, as we had to lie down very close together. But because we worked in shifts, there was barely enough room for everyone.

The British and Australians were detailed to build the bridges, and we Dutch and a few hundred Brits got the task of hacking away the huge rock, so the railroad could proceed towards the bridges. The bridge builders worked all day during daylight. But we rock cutters worked in three shifts, day and night.

The first shift, by twos, had to make holes 1.2 meters deep manually, using chisel and hammer. The goal was for each pair to make two holes, so one hole per man.

Dynamite was then exploded in those holes. The second shift had to clear away the debris – chunks of rock, stones, and gravel – pushing it down the mountainside with shovels, or using steel jacks for the large rocks.

 As soon as they were finished, the third shift showed up to makes holes with hammer and chisel. And so it went, day and night. After dark, we worked by torch lights called hellfires. During the day it was searingly hot on those rocks. The thirst was very bad, especially when we saw the river streaming below.

 

 

Southern approach to the railway viaduct at Wampo South.

Note the massive cutting in the bluff above the bridge.
Source: Australian War Memorial (AWM122325)

 

Sketch of Wampo South by Dutch POW A.G. Muller
View from the north
Source: Geheugen van Nederland / The Museon

A section of the Wampo viaduct today
Source: picasaweb.google.com

 

Here also, we were harassed and beaten for any reason, or no reason. We got a little more rice than in the previous camps, and there were fewer gravely ill POWs. But the night-and-day work schedule was a killer, and the sharp stone fragments tore up our feet because most of us had no shoes left to wear.

 We had to keep working on those sore and cut-up feet. After a while, you lost count of hours, days, nights. No more thoughts, only work, eat, sleep, work, eat, sleep.

The lack of sleep brought most of us to utter exhaustion. Because of this, malaria and dysentery came back in force, and the foot injuries got worse and worse. It took about four weeks to cut that rock of 15 meters height and 100 meters long to pieces. Afterwards we had to hoist tree trunks, meant for the final sections of the bridges, from the river to the rocks.

When the bridges were finally completed, and the wooden cross ties and the rails could be laid down, we were marched to the next camp without a break.

Only the gravely ill stayed behind. Many of them had seriously injured feet. They were transported to the base/hospital camp Chungkai. Henri Samethini must have been among them, as he was ill, with injured feet, and because I saw him much later in Chungkai. [1]

1) DUTCH SOLDIER AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)
He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp.
Look at two very rare collections :
(1) Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.

 

Moulmein POW Camp

 

Moulmein POW Card

Front of POW card

 

 

 

 

 DAI NIPPON DUTCH POW MOULMEIN

The writter had found some rare postal history, box memorabilia  and memorabilia document related with the bridge on the river kwai and POW  of Dai Nippon camp at Moulmein Burma(now Myamar) which the POW work to built that famous bridge

Penulis telah menemukan beberapa koleksi memorabilia yang terkait dengan tawanan  perang di Moulmein Burma yang dipaksa bekerja membangun jembatan river Kwai,

Ada  juga tawanan yang berhasil pulang ke Indonesia ,masih menyimpan kotak tembakau yang dibawanya ke Kamp Tawanan di moulmein ,inofrmasi perjalannya ke Burma dari Tjimahi ditoreh pada kotak kaleng tembakau tersebut dengan tempat singgah dalam perjalan dari dan kembali ke camp tersebut.

tahun 1942 berangkat dari POW Tjimahi ke batavai(Jakarta), selanjutnya ke Penang–>Rangoon (Yangoon saat ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma  dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, meupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut kembali dlam keadaan hidup ke Indonesia masih menyimpan kotak tembakau yang dibawanya ke Kamp Tawanan di moulmein

Biside that found the iD of theDai Nippon ‘s  Moulmein POW ID before he had caught and sent to the POW camp,he work at Gas oil exploration at Plaju,South Sumatra, Also found his letter from moulmein camp to Batavia for his wife,and his wife Dai nippon ID Card.

Selain itu juga ditemui  kartu ID Mr Romeijn pegawai perminyakan Belanda BPM Plaju yang ditawan Dai nippon

 

, dan di bawa ke Kamp tawanan perang Dai Nippon Di Burma ,lihatlah surat yang dikirmnya dari Camp tersebut dari Burma kepadza isterinya di surabaya liwat batavia(Jakarta) surat POW Card dari camp Moulmein Burma kepada Isterinya di Indonesia

 

*Dai Nippon Moulmein (now myanmar) Card sent to his wife via Batavia(now jakarta)

serta

KTP pendudukan Jepang atas nama isterinya,,

Beside the postal history and ID, The author also found one memorable tobacco box with Incised scrip the route from Indonesia,via penang to ranggon (now Yangoon ata least he  came to The Dai Nippon moulmein prisenor of war camp at Burma (now Myanmar) he move from tasikmalaya west java camp,to Batavia in 1942, to Penang  and at least to Burma (now myanmar) in 1942, the name of prisoner of war Coghen (Dutch east indie army)

 

Ditemukan juga kotak tembakau 

milik tawanan perang bangsa  belanda Coghen , yang   menoreh kotak kaleng tembakau tersebut dengan tempat singgah dalam perjalan dari dan kembali ke camp tersebut.tahun 1942 berangkat dari POW Tjimahi ke batavai(Jakarta), selanjutnya ke Penang–>Rangoon (Yangoon saat ini) Burma (Myamar)—->Moulmein POW Camp Burma  dan lengkap tangalnya ,bernama Coegen, merupakan penemuan luar biasa karena sangat jarang tawanan perang tersebut kembali dlam keadaan hidup ke Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

1.THE MR H.COEGEN ‘S TOBACCO BOX

 WHO SURVIVE FROM THE DAI NIPPON POW CAMP AT MOLMEIN BURMA, WITH HIS SCRTECH INFO TEH DESTINATION AND DATE. hE BRING BY THE DAI NIPPON WITH HIS FRIEND FROM TJIMAHI (MILITARY CAMP,NEAR BANDUNG,MILITARY TRANING SCHOOL) TO

 BATAVIA(JAKARTA)11-10-42 ,

 the to Penang-3-11-42

—> Rangoon(now Yangoon) Burma 9-11-42—>

 Moulmein Camp , where he and his friend work to build yhe brige on the river Kwai 1n 1942. May be he met the other prosioner of war from Plaju Mr Romein, his POW card wassend in 1943 to Batavia(Jakrta) for his wife in Surahaya.

THIS THE ONLY MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS HAD EVER REPORT , please donnot copy, this illustration belong to Dr Iwan suwandy private collctions@copyright 2010.

*frontside

Backside of Mr Coegen POW Moulmein Dai nippon camp Burma tobaccobox@copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2010

SHOWCASE :THE RARE DN BURMA POW CAMP CARD
(1) MR ROMEYN ,DUTCH PLAJU BPM OFFICER ID ,WHO WAS CAPTURE BAY DAIN NIPPON AND SENT AS PRISONER OF WAR AT DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN  CAMP BURMA

 

(2) DUTCH BPM PLAJU OFICER  AT MOULMEIN CAMP SENT THE DAI NIPPON MOULMEIN POW CAR VIA COURIER TO HIS WIFE TO HIS WIFE VIA BATAVIA (JAKARTA)

 

 

He told that he was in god health and asking about his children. His wife stayed at Soerabaja, During Dai Nippon Occupation the Indonesian citizen who merried expatriat didnot put in the POW camp

Dai Nippon Moulmein POW Card sent to Batavia(Jakarta)
(2) His wife Dai Nippon Java ID issued by Dai Nippon Military government at Soerabia.

 

DaiNippon Burma POW’s  wife ID

 the end

 

 

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Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

Pengantar

Saya baru saja menemukan buku tentang Tan Malaka yang berjudul Dari Penjara Ke Penjara ,buku ini juga telah diterjemahkan kedalam bahasa jepang,

Untuk mengenal lebih lanjut tentang sejarah buku ini dan juga tentang Tan Malaka silahkan membaca hasil penelitian oleh dr Iwan di Bawah Ini

Jakarta Juli 2012

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

Ringkasan

Image of the title page of: Tan Malaka (1947). Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara. vol 1, 3rd ed. Djakarta: Widjaya.

This is Tan Malaka’s autobiography, which was published in three volumes.

May 31, 2011 at 7:39 am

sejauh ini, saya tidak pernah mendengan tentang “memoar dari penjara ke penjara”. Sebab, buku “dari penjara ke penjara” itu sendiri pada dasarnya memoar dari Tan Malaka (karena dia berupa catatan harian yang ditulis oleh Tan Malaka selama masa pergerakannya 

 

 
 

 

 
 

Introduction

 

Selain Madilog, Tan Malaka  menulis beberapa buku, seperti

 Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Tan Malaka adalah orang yang dikagumi karena kecerdasannya. Ia menggagas pemikiran Madilog (Matrealisme Dialektika dan Logika). Selain Madilog, ia menulis beberapa buku, seperti Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara dan Gerpolek. Bahkan, ia adalah orang pertama yang mendeklarasikan Partai Republik Indoneisa di Bangkok. Selama masa hidupnya, Tan Malaka banyak sekali diasingkan dari negeri Indonesia.
Saat pengasingan, Tan Malaka hijrah ke Moskow, Berlin, dan Belanda.

 Meskipun berada di luar Indonesia, Tan Malaka tidak penah berhenti mempejuangkan kemerdekaan.

Ia menulis banyak artikel dan melakukan berbagai propaganda politik melalui media luar negeri. 

Tan Malaka meninggal pada 1949. Harry A Poeze, sejarawan asal Belanda, menyebutkan bahwa ia mati ditembak TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, Kediri.

Dari Penjara Ke Penjara Bagian Satu

by Tan Malaka

Buku sejarah hidup Tan Malaka, Bapak Republik Indonesia yang ditulis secara pribadi ketika beliau berada dalam Penjara di tanah airnya sendiri. Buku ini terdiri dari Tiga jilid, dimana jilid pertama ditulis oleh beliau ketika berada di Penjara Magelang. Hampir sebagian hidup Tan Malaka dihabiskannya di dalam penjara, akibat aktifitas politiknya yang anti kolonialisme.

Namun pada kenyataannya, Tan Malaka tidak hanya dipenjarakan oleh Pemerintah kolonial, tp juga oleh pemerintahan bangsanya sendiri yang berbeda posisi politik dengan Tan Malaka.

Jilid pertama ini mengisahkan kehidupan beliau disekitar masa pemenjaraan oleh pemerintah Hindia Belanda dan pemerintah Filipina

 

 

 

Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Ditulis tahun 1946-1947 di penjara Ponorogo. Berisi tentang riwayat hidup (otobiografi). Ia menguraikan perjalanannya dari suatu negara ke negara lain untuk menghindar dari kejaran agen-agen kolonial. Ia juga memaparkan pandangan tentang kepercayaan, filsafat dan tentang negara. Dari buku inilah kebanyakan para pemerhati mendapat gambaran kehidupan Tan Malaka yang revolusioner.

 

 

Selama dalam tahanan Ariel mengaku banyak mengisi masa dengan membaca buku2 falsafah, dan sesekali menulis. Salah satu buku yang dibaca adalah karya Tan Melaka, tokoh nasional yang pernah menulis buku Dari Pendjara Ke Pendjara.

Ariel menolak komen saat ditanya soal kekasihnya Luna Maya yang mula kembali aktif berlakon drama, begitu juga saat ditanya kemungkinan dirinya mencipta lagu atau duet dengan Luna.

Ariel mengaku bosan di penjara, kerana itu dirinya banyak mengisi kegiatan dengan membaca dan menulis, harus ada yang dikerjakan.

Tan Malaka menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya dalam pembuangan di luar Indonesia, dan secara tak henti-hentinya terancam dengan penahanan oleh penguasa Belanda dan sekutu-sekutu mereka. Walaupun secara jelas disingkirkan, Tan Malaka dapat memainkan peran intelektual penting dalam membangun jaringan gerakan komunis internasional untuk gerakan anti penjajahan di Asia Tenggara. Ia dinyatakan sebagai “Pahlawan revolusi nasional” melalui ketetapan parlemen dalam sebuah undang-undang tahun 1963.

Semua karya Tan Malaka dan permasalahannya didasari oleh kondisi Indonesia. Terutama rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya. Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang teoritis dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dia cetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat Naar de Republiek Indonesia.

Jika membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran (Gerpolek-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan ditemukan benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesia-an serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsisten yang jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangannya.

Tan Malaka dalam fiksi

Dengan julukan Patjar Merah Indonesia Tan Malaka merupakan tokoh utama beberapa roman picisan yang terbit di Medan. Roman-roman tersebut mengisahkan petualangan Patjar Merah, seorang aktivis politik yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Tanah Air-nya, Indonesia, dari kolonialisme Belanda. Karena kegiatannya itu, ia harus melarikan diri dari Indonesia dan menjadi buruan polisi rahasia internasional.

Salah satu roman Patjar Merah yang terkenal adalah roman karangan Matu Mona yang berjudul Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Nama Pacar Merah sendiri berasal dari karya Baronesse Orczy yang berjudul Scarlet Pimpernel, yang berkisah tentang pahlawan Revolusi Prancis.

Dalam cerita-cerita tersebut selain Tan Malaka muncul juga tokoh-tokoh PKI dan PARI lainnya, yaitu Muso (sebagai Paul Mussotte), Alimin (Ivan Alminsky), Semaun (Semounoff), Darsono (Darsnoff), Djamaluddin Tamin (Djalumin) dan Soebakat (Soe Beng Kiat).

Kisah-kisah fiksi ini turut memperkuat legenda Tan Malaka di Indonesia, terutama di Sumatera.

Beberapa judul kisah Patjar Merah:
Matu Mona. Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Medan (1938)
Matu Mona. Rol Patjar Merah Indonesia cs. Medan (1938)
Emnast. Tan Malaka di Medan. Medan (1940)
Tiga kali Patjar Merah Datang Membela (1940)
Patjar Merah Kembali ke Tanah Air (1940)

Buku
Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara
Menuju Republik Indonesia
Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara, autobiografi
Madilog
Gerpolek

(Sumber: http://id.wikipedia.org)

 

 

 

Biography

Tan Malaka

 

 

Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka atau Ibrahim gelar Datuk Tan Malaka (lahir di Nagari Pandam Gadang, Suliki, Sumatera Barat, 2 Juni 1897 – meninggal di Desa Selopanggung, Kediri, Jawa Timur, 21 Februari 1949 pada umur 51 tahun)[1] adalah Bapak Republik Indonesia,[2] seorang aktivis pejuang kemerdekaan Indonesia, seorang pemimpin sosialis, dan politisi yang mendirikan Partai Murba. Pejuang yang militan, radikal, dan revolusioner ini banyak melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran yang berbobot dan berperan besar dalam sejarah perjuangan kemerdekaan Indonesia. Dengan perjuangan yang gigih maka ia dikenal sebagai tokoh revolusioner yang legendaris.

Dia kukuh mengkritik terhadap pemerintah kolonial Hindia-Belanda maupun pemerintahan republik di bawah Soekarno pasca-revolusi kemerdekaan Indonesia. Walaupun berpandangan sosialis, ia juga sering terlibat konflik dengan Partai Komunis Indonesia (PKI).

Tan Malaka menghabiskan sebagian besar hidupnya dalam pembuangan di luar Indonesia, dan secara tak henti-hentinya terancam dengan penahanan oleh penguasa Belanda dan sekutu-sekutu mereka. Walaupun secara jelas disingkirkan,

 

Tan Malaka dapat memainkan peran intelektual penting dalam membangun jaringan gerakan sosialis internasional untuk gerakan anti penjajahan di Asia Tenggara. Ia dinyatakan sebagai pahlawan nasional melalui Ketetapan Presiden RI No. 53 tanggal 23 Maret 1963.[3]

Tan Malaka juga seorang pendiri partai PARI dan Murba, berasal dari Sarekat Islam (SI) Jakarta dan Semarang. Ia dibesarkan dalam suasana semangatnya gerakan modernis Islam Kaoem Moeda di Sumatera Barat.

Tokoh ini diduga kuat sebagai orang di belakang peristiwa penculikan Sutan Sjahrir bulan Juni 1946 oleh sekelompok orang tak dikenal di Surakarta sebagai akibat perbedaan pandangan perjuangan dalam menghadapi Belanda.[4] [sunting] Riwayat

         Tahun 1897, Tan Malaka lahir di Suliki, Sumatera Barat. Dia lahir di tengah-tengah lingkungan Minangkabau, dari pasangan Rasad Caniago dan Sinah Simabur.

         Saat berumur 16 tahun, 1913, setelah tamat Kweekschool Bukit Tinggi, atas bantuan gurunya dengan pinjaman biaya dari Engkufonds, meneruskan pelajarannya ke

 

 

 

Karena cerdas, saat berumur 16 tahun, ia dikirim ke Negeri Belanda

         Rijks Kweekschool di Haarlem, Belanda.

Tahun 1919

         ia kembali ke Indonesia dan bekerja sebagai guru disebuah perkebunan di Deli. Ketimpangan sosial yang dilihatnya di lingkungan perkebunan, antara kaum buruh dan tuan tanah menimbulkan semangat radikal pada diri Tan Malaka muda.

Tahun 1921,

          ia pergi ke Semarang dan bertemu dengan Semaun dan mulai terjun ke kancah politik

         Saat kongres PKI 24-25 Desember 1921, Tan Malaka di undang dalam acara tersebut.

         Januari 1922

         ia ditangkap dan dibuang ke Kupang.

         Pada Maret 1922

         Tan Malaka diusir dari Indonesia dan mengembara ke Berlin, Moskwa dan Belanda.

         Mewakili Indonesia dalam Kongres Komunis Internasional (Komintern) IV, kemudian diangkat sebagai Wakil Komintern di Asia dan berkedudukan di Kanton.

         Tahun 1924,

         diangkat sebagai Ketua Biro Buruh Lalu Lintas dalam sebuah Konferensi Pan-Pasifik yang diselenggarakan oleh utusan-utusan Komintern dan Provintern.

         Tahun 1924, menerbitkan buku “Naar de Republiek Indonesia” (Menuju Republik Indonesia) yang berisi konsep tentang negara Indonesia yang tengah diperjuangkan. Lebih dulu dari pleidoi Mohammad Hatta didepan pengadilan Belanda di Den Haag yang berjudul “Indonesia Vrije” (Indonesia Merdeka) (1928) atau tulisan Soekarno yang berjudul “Menuju Indonesia Merdeka” (1933)

         Tahun 1925,

          masuk Filipina dengan nama Elias Fuentes dan berhasil menghubungi salah seorang sahabat Semaun di sana, selanjutnya mendorong didirikannya Partai Komunis Filipina.

         Tahun 1926,

          masuk Singapura dengan nama Hasan Gozali, bertemu dengan Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim yang berhasil meloloskan diri dari Indonesia.

         Tahun 1927,

         bersama Subakat, Sugono, dan Djamaluddin Tamim mendirikan PARI (Partai Republik Indonesia).

         Tahun 1932,

          berhasil masuk Hongkong dengan nama Ong Soong Lee, kemudian tertangkap oleh Polisi Rahasia Inggris. Setelah lebih kurang 2 ½ bulan ditahan dalam penjara Hongkong, Tan Malaka mendapat keputusan dikeluarkan ke Shanghai.

         Tahun 1936,

         mendirikan dan mengajar pada School for Foreign Languages di Amoy, Cina.

         Tahun 1937,

          Tan Malaka masuk Burma kemudian ke Singapura, bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Singapura.

         Tahun 1942,

         Tan Malaka masuk Penang menuju Medan, Padang, dan akhirnya tiba di Jakarta.

         Tahun 1943

         , menulis buku dan menyusun kekuatan bawah tanah (ilegal), dengan menjadi buruh (romusha) pada tambang batu bara di Bayah (Banten) dengan nama Husein.

         Tahun 1945,

         mendorong para pemuda yang bekerja di bawah tanah pada masa pendudukan Jepang (Sukarni, Chairul Saleh, Adam Malik, Pandu Kartawiguna, Maruto, dan lain-lain) untuk mencetuskan revolusi yang kemudian terjadi dengan Proklamasi Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

         Tahun 1946,

          menjadi promotor Persatuan Perjuangan yang mengikatkan persatuan antara sejumlah 141 organisasi terdiri dari pimpinan partai, serikat-serikat buruh, pemuda, wanita, tentara, dan laskar.

         Tahun 1947,

          menentang politik Perundingan Linggarjati.

         Tahun 1948,

         menentang politik Perundingan Renville. Mendirikan Partai Murba dan Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi.

         21 Februari 1949,

          Tan Malaka mati terbunuh di Kediri, Jawa Timur.[1]

Perjuangan

Pada tahun 1921

 Tan Malaka telah terjun ke dalam gelanggang politik. Dengan semangat yang berkobar dari sebuah gubuk miskin, Tan Malaka banyak mengumpulkan pemuda-pemuda komunis. Pemuda cerdas ini banyak juga berdiskusi dengan Semaun (wakil ISDV) mengenai pergerakan revolusioner dalam pemerintahan Hindia Belanda. Selain itu juga merencanakan suatu pengorganisasian dalam bentuk pendidikan bagi anggota-anggota PKI dan SI (Sarekat Islam) untuk menyusun suatu sistem tentang kursus-kursus kader serta ajaran-ajaran komunis, gerakan-gerakan aksi komunis, keahlian berbicara, jurnalistik dan keahlian memimpin rakyat. Namun pemerintahan Belanda melarang pembentukan kursus-kursus semacam itu sehingga mengambil tindakan tegas bagi pesertanya.

Melihat hal itu Tan Malaka mempunyai niat untuk mendirikan sekolah-sekolah sebagai anak-anak anggota SI untuk penciptaan kader-kader baru. Juga dengan alasan pertama: memberi banyak jalan (kepada para murid) untuk mendapatkan mata pencaharian di dunia kapitalis (berhitung, menulis, membaca, ilmu bumi, bahasa Belanda, Melayu, Jawa dan lain-lain); kedua, memberikan kebebasan kepada murid untuk mengikuti kegemaran mereka dalam bentuk perkumpulan-perkumpulan; ketiga, untuk memperbaiki nasib kaum miskin. Untuk mendirikan sekolah itu, ruang rapat SI Semarang diubah menjadi sekolah. Dan sekolah itu bertumbuh sangat cepat hingga sekolah itu semakin lama semakin besar.

 

Perjuangan Tan Malaka tidaklah hanya sebatas pada usaha mencerdaskan rakyat Indonesia pada saat itu, tapi juga pada gerakan-gerakan dalam melawan ketidakadilan seperti yang dilakukan para buruh terhadap pemerintahan Hindia Belanda lewat VSTP dan aksi-aksi pemogokan, disertai selebaran-selebaran sebagai alat propaganda yang ditujukan kepada rakyat agar rakyat dapat melihat adanya ketidakadilan yang diterima oleh kaum buruh.

Seperti dikatakan Tan Malaka pada pidatonya di depan para buruh “Semua gerakan buruh untuk mengeluarkan suatu pemogokan umum sebagai pernyataan simpati, apabila nanti menglami kegagalan maka pegawai yang akan diberhentikan akan didorongnya untuk berjuang dengan gigih dalam pergerakan revolusioner”.

Pergulatan Tan Malaka dengan partai komunis di dunia sangatlah jelas. Ia tidak hanya mempunyai hak untuk memberi usul-usul dan dan mengadakan kritik tetapi juga hak untuk mengucapkan vetonya atas aksi-aksi yang dilakukan partai komunis di daerah kerjanya. Tan Malaka juga harus mengadakan pengawasan supaya anggaran dasar, program dan taktik dari Komintern (Komunis Internasional) dan Profintern seperti yang telah ditentukan di kongres-kongres Moskwa diikuti oleh kaum komunis dunia. Dengan demikian tanggung-jawabnya sebagai wakil Komintern lebih berat dari keanggotaannya di PKI.

Sebagai seorang pemimpin yang masih sangat muda ia meletakkan tanggung jawab yang sangat berat pada pundaknya. Tan Malaka dan sebagian kawan-kawannya memisahkan diri dan kemudian memutuskan hubungan dengan PKI, Sardjono-Alimin-Musso.

Pemberontakan 1926 yang direkayasa dari Keputusan Prambanan yang berakibat bunuh diri bagi perjuangan nasional rakyat Indonesia melawan penjajah waktu itu. Pemberontakan 1926 hanya merupakan gejolak kerusuhan dan keributan kecil di beberapa daerah di Indonesia. Maka dengan mudah dalam waktu singkat pihak penjajah Belanda dapat mengakhirinya. Akibatnya ribuan pejuang politik ditangkap dan ditahan. Ada yang disiksa, ada yang dibunuh dan banyak yang dibuang ke Boven Digoel, Irian Jaya. Peristiwa ini dijadikan dalih oleh Belanda untuk menangkap, menahan dan membuang setiap orang yang melawan mereka, sekalipun bukan PKI. Maka perjaungan nasional mendapat pukulan yang sangat berat dan mengalami kemunduran besar serta lumpuh selama bertahun-tahun.

Tan Malaka yang berada di luar negeri pada waktu itu, berkumpul dengan beberapa temannya di Bangkok. Di ibu kota Thailand itu, bersama Soebakat dan Djamaludddin Tamin, Juni 1927 Tan Malaka memproklamasikan berdirinya Partai Republik Indonesia (PARI). Dua tahun sebelumnya Tan Malaka telah menulis “Menuju Republik Indonesia“. Itu ditunjukkan kepada para pejuang intelektual di Indonesia dan di negeri Belanda. Terbitnya buku itu pertama kali di Kowloon, Hong Kong, April 1925.

Prof. Mohammad Yamin, dalam karya tulisnya “Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia” memberi komentar: “Tak ubahnya daripada Jefferson Washington merancangkan Republik Amerika Serikat sebelum kemerdekaannya tercapai atau Rizal Bonifacio meramalkan Philippina sebelum revolusi Philippina pecah….”

Pahlawan
Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun. Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu.

Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi Republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Sutan Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai MURBA, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta.

Pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya di tengah-tengah perjuangan bersama Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Tapi akhirnya misteri tersebut terungkap juga dari penuturan Harry A. Poeze, seorang Sejarawan Belanda yang menyebutkan bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak mati pada tanggal 21 Februari 1949 atas perintah Letda Soekotjo dari Batalyon Sikatan, Divisi Brawijaya[1].

Direktur Penerbitan Institut Kerajaan Belanda untuk Studi Karibia dan Asia Tenggara atau KITLV, Harry A Poeze kembali merilis hasil penelitiannya, bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak pasukan TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, tepatnya di Desa Selopanggung, Kecamatan Semen, Kabupaten Kediri pada 21 Februari 1949.

Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Soekarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional.

Madilog

Madilog merupakan istilah baru dalam cara berpikir, dengan menghubungkan ilmu bukti serta mengembangkan dengan jalan dan metode yang sesuai dengan akar dan urat kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan dunia. Bukti adalah fakta dan fakta adalah lantainya ilmu bukti. Bagi filsafat, idealisme yang pokok dan pertama adalah budi (mind), kesatuan, pikiran dan penginderaan. Filsafat materialisme menganggap alam, benda dan realita nyata obyektif sekeliling sebagai yang ada, yang pokok dan yang pertama.

Bagi Madilog (Materialisme, Dialektika, Logika) yang pokok dan pertama adalah bukti, walau belum dapat diterangkan secara rasional dan logika tapi jika fakta sebagai landasan ilmu bukti itu ada secara konkrit, sekalipun ilmu pengetahuan secara rasional belum dapat menjelaskannya dan belum dapat menjawab apa, mengapa dan bagaimana.

Semua karya Tan Malaka dan permasalahannya didasari oleh kondisi Indonesia. Terutama rakyat Indonesia, situasi dan kondisi nusantara serta kebudayaan, sejarah lalu diakhiri dengan bagaimana mengarahkan pemecahan masalahnya. Cara tradisi nyata bangsa Indonesia dengan latar belakang sejarahnya bukanlah cara berpikir yang teoritis dan untuk mencapai Republik Indonesia sudah dia cetuskan sejak tahun 1925 lewat Naar de Republiek Indonesia.

Jika membaca karya-karya Tan Malaka yang meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan, kenegaraan, politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran (Gerpolek-Gerilya-Politik dan Ekonomi, 1948), maka akan ditemukan benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesia-an serta benang merah kemandirian, sikap konsisten yang jelas dalam gagasan-gagasan serta perjuangannya.

Pahlawan

Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946 yang didahului dengan penangkapan dan penahanan Tan Malaka bersama pimpinan Persatuan Perjuangan, di dalam penjara tanpa pernah diadili selama dua setengah tahun. Setelah meletus pemberontakan FDR/PKI di Madiun, September 1948 dengan pimpinan Musso dan Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka dikeluarkan begitu saja dari penjara akibat peristiwa itu.

Di luar, setelah mengevaluasi situasi yang amat parah bagi Republik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati 1947 dan Renville 1948, yang merupakan buah dari hasil diplomasi Sutan Syahrir dan Perdana Menteri Amir Syarifuddin, Tan Malaka merintis pembentukan Partai Murba, 7 November 1948 di Yogyakarta.

Pada tahun 1949 tepatnya bulan Februari Tan Malaka hilang tak tentu rimbanya, mati tak tentu kuburnya di tengah-tengah perjuangan bersama Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi di Pethok, Kediri, Jawa Timur. Tapi akhirnya misteri tersebut terungkap juga dari penuturan Harry A. Poeze, seorang Sejarawan Belanda yang menyebutkan bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak mati pada tanggal 21 Februari 1949 atas perintah Letda Soekotjo dari Batalyon Sikatan, Divisi Brawijaya[1].

Direktur Penerbitan Institut Kerajaan Belanda untuk Studi Karibia dan Asia Tenggara atau KITLV, Harry A Poeze kembali merilis hasil penelitiannya, bahwa Tan Malaka ditembak pasukan TNI di lereng Gunung Wilis, tepatnya di Desa Selopanggung, Kecamatan Semen, Kabupaten Kediri pada 21 Februari 1949.

Namun berdasarkan keputusan Presiden RI No. 53, yang ditandatangani Presiden Soekarno 28 Maret 1963 menetapkan bahwa Tan Malaka adalah seorang pahlawan kemerdekaan Nasional.

Tan Malaka dalam fiksi

 

 

Sampul Majalah Tempo dengan Tan Malaka

Dengan julukan Patjar Merah Indonesia Tan Malaka merupakan tokoh utama beberapa roman picisan yang terbit di Medan.

Roman-roman tersebut mengisahkan petualangan Patjar Merah, seorang aktivis politik yang memperjuangkan kemerdekaan Tanah Air-nya, Indonesia, dari kolonialisme Belanda. Karena kegiatannya itu, ia harus melarikan diri dari Indonesia dan menjadi buruan polisi rahasia internasional.

Salah satu roman Patjar Merah yang terkenal adalah roman karangan Matu Mona yang berjudul Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Nama Pacar Merah sendiri berasal dari karya Baronesse Orczy yang berjudul Scarlet Pimpernel, yang berkisah tentang pahlawan Revolusi Prancis.

Dalam cerita-cerita tersebut selain Tan Malaka muncul juga tokoh-tokoh PKI dan PARI lainnya, yaitu Muso (sebagai Paul Mussotte), Alimin (Ivan Alminsky), Semaun (Semounoff), Darsono (Darsnoff), Djamaluddin Tamin (Djalumin) dan Soebakat (Soe Beng Kiat).

Kisah-kisah fiksi ini turut memperkuat legenda Tan Malaka di Indonesia, terutama di Sumatera.

Beberapa judul kisah Patjar Merah:

         Matu Mona. Spionnage-Dienst (Patjar Merah Indonesia). Medan (1938)

         Matu Mona. Rol Patjar Merah Indonesia cs. Medan (1938)

         Emnast. Tan Malaka di Medan. Medan (1940)

         Tiga kali Patjar Merah Datang Membela (1940)

         Patjar Merah Kembali ke Tanah Air (1940)

Fakta-fakta Tan Malaka [5]

         Perjalanan Tan Malaka sepanjang 89.000 km, setara 2 kali keliling bumi. Dia mengunjungi dua benua dan sekurang-kurangnya ke 11 Negara.

         Bahasa Yang Dikuasai : Minang, Indonesia, Belanda, Rusia, Jerman, Inggris, Mandarin, Tagalog.

         Nama Samaran : Elias Fuentes, Estahislau Rivera, Alisio Rivera (Filipina); Hasan Gozali (Singapura), Ossorio (Shanghai), Ong Song Lee (13 varian, Hongkong), Tan Ming Sion (Burma), Legas Hussein, Ramli Hussein, Ilyas Hussein (Indonesia), Cheung Kun Tat, Howard Lee (Cina).

         Teman Dekat Wanita : Syarifah Nawawi (Bukittinggi), Fenny Struyvenberg (Belanda), Nona Carmen (Filipina), Paramita Rahayu A. (Jakarta) dan A.P. Toa Chi (Cina)

         Penjara : Filipina (1937), Hongkong (1932), 11 Penjara di Jawa (1922, 1946-1948)

        

 

Tan Malaka

(lengkapnya Sutan Ibrahim Gelar Datuk Tan Malaka) lahir di Suluki, Nagari Pandan Gadang, Sumatera Barat dengan nama Ibrahim. Menurut Harry A. Peoze, tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka secara tepat tidak diketahui. Pada waktu itu belum ada register (daftar) penduduk bagi orang Indonesia.

Peoze menemukan data tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka yang berbeda: 1893, 1894, 1895, 2 Juni 1896, 2 Juni 1897, dan 1897. Ia sendiri mengatakan bahwa ia dilahirkan pada tahun 1994, tanggal 14 Oktober 1894, dan pada tahun 1896. Poeze cenderung untuk menganggap tahun 1897 sebagai tahun kelahiran Tan Malaka yang paling tepat; melihat fakta bahwa pada tahun 1903 ia mengikuti pendidikan di sekolah rendah. Maka, dapatlah ditarik kesimpulan bahwa ketika itu ia berusia kurang lebih 6 tahun.

Tan Malaka menyatakan bahwa keluarganya beragama Islam dan beradat asli Minangkabau. Ia lahir dalam kultur yang peduli terhadap pendidikan dan memiliki tradisi keagamaan yang kuat. Keluarganya adalah tergolong taat kepada agama Islam

Tan Malaka memiliki beberapa nama dalam perjalanan hidupnya baik di dalam maupun luar negeri dengan alasan, karena nama Tan Malaka sudah dikenal di seluruh Sumatera dan pemerintah Belanda, nama tersebut tidak dapat mengadakan perjalanan dan juga untuk menyembunyikan identitas.

Ketika memasuki Manila dan Hongkong (1927) Tan Malaka merubah namanya menjadi Elias Fuente. Bernama Oong Soong Lee ketika memasuki Hongkong dari Sanghai (1932), Ramli Husein saat kembali ke Indonesia dari Singapura melalui Penang terus ke Medan, Padang dan Jakarta (1942). Ketika berada di Bayah (Banten), Jawa Barat sebagai pekerja yang membantu romusha di masa revolusi, ia menggunakan nama Ilyas Husein. Namanya yang lain Cheng Kun, Tat, Elisoe, dan Howard Law.Extille adakalanya ditambah dengan Kiang Mai. Ketika menulis karangan untuk pers Komunis, harian Njali yang terbit di Batavia sejak bulan September 1925 sampai Mei 1926. Ia menggunakan, Haji Hasan dalam beberapa surat-surat yang ditulis buat kawan-kawannya, dan nama Nadir. Tan Malaka menyamar sebagai Tan Ho Seng, ketika belajar dan bekerja sebagai guru bahasa di Nanyang Chinese Normal School, Singapura.

Adapun riwayat hidup Tan Malaka secara urutan waktu, sebagai berikut:

1897 Tan Malaka lahir, bermain dan sekolah di Kweekschool.

1913 Setelah tamat Kweekschool Bukit Tinggi, atas bantuan gurunya dengan pinjaman biaya dari Engkufonds, meneruskan pelajarannya ke Rijks Kkweekschool di Haarlem, Nederland. Selain menuntut ilmu di sekolah, beliau sudah aktif mempelajari keadaan masyarakat Eropa sejak meletus dan selesainya Perang Dunia ke-1 (1914-1918) serta pecah dan selesainya Revolusi Sosial di Rusia (Oktober 1917) yang bersambung dengan mulai berdiri dan mengumandangnya suara Internasionale III.

1918 Atas permintaan Ki Hadjar Dewantara yang mendatangi Tan Malaka bersama Dr. Gunawan di Nederland, mewakili Indische Vereeniging, dalam Kongres Pemuda Indonesia dan Pelajar Indologie di Deventer, memberikan prae-advies tentang pergerakan Nasional.

1919 Kembali ke Indonesia dan bekerja sebagai guru sekolah untuk anak-anak kaum buruh perkebunan Senembah, di Sumatera Timur.

1921 Terjun dalam lapangan pendidikan rakyat yang didirikan oleh Serikat Islam Semarang, dan VSTP (Serikat Buruh Kereta Api) yang dipimpin oleh Semaun di Semarang.

- Tan Malaka menjadi penganjur utama tentang pentingnya persatuan antara kaum Komunis dan Islam dalam menentang kolonialisme/imperialisme. Hal ini dikemukakan dalam sebuah rapat SI di Semarang bersama dengan Semaun.

- Tan Malaka menjadi Wakil Ketua Serikat Buruh Pelikan (Tambang) Cepu yang didirikan oleh Semaun.

- Dalam Kongres PKI dipilih menjadi ketua, mewakili Semaun yang sedang berada di luar negeri (Moskow), di dalam Kongres beliau berpidato tentang pentingnya Persatuan Islam-Komunis dan memperingatkan bahayanya politik ‘pecah & adu’ (devide et impera) yang di kala itu sedang digunakan oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda untuk melumpuhkan gerakan-gerakan rakyat Indonesia. Ide Tan Malaka tersebut mendapat dukungan penuh dari seorang tokoh SI, Kyai Tubagus Hadikusumo.

1922 Tan Malaka mewakili Vaksentral-Revolusioner pemimpin pemogokan kaum buruh penggadaian (PPPB) di Jogjakarta dan mengatur solidaritas serta aksi yang dilancarkan oleh serikat buruh anggota Vaksentral-Revolusioner (VSTP., Pelabuhan, Pelikan, Gula, dan lainnya).

- Tanggal 2 Maret ia ditangkap dan dibuang ke Kupang (Timur), kemudian dalam bulan itu juga mendapat externing ke Eropa (Nederland). Tan Malaka ditangkap dan diasingkan pemerintah kolonial ke luar negeri. Dari Belanda, ia pergi ke Moskow (Uni Sovyet) melalui Polandia. Ia dikejar-kejar intel dan spionase kolonial Belanda, Inggris, Jepang, Amerika Serikat, Perancis, rezim nasionalis Kumintang. Di mata mereka, Tan Malaka adalah buronan politik “kaliber kakap.”

- Berbicara dalam Perayaan 1 Mei yang diselenggarkan oleh kaum buruh dan Partai Komunis Holland (CPH), kemudian dipilih sebagai calon dalam pemilihan umum parlemen.

- Menuju Jerman dan terjun langsung di tengah-tengah rakyat Jerman yang masih dalam keadaan penderitaan hidup karena harus menanggung seluruh hutang perang Serikat yang dibebankan kepada rakyat Jerman sebagai negeri kalah perang (Perang Dunia ke-1, tahun 1914-1918).

- Mewakili Indonesia dalam Kongres Komunis Internasional (Komintern) IV, kemudian diangkat sebagai Wakil Komintern di Asia dan berkedudukan di Canton, di mana daerahnya meliputi Seksi-seksi Partai Komunis yang sudah ada atau akan didirikan di daerah ‘Selatan’ yang oleh Tan Malaka disebut ASLIA ialah: Burma, Siam, Annam, Filipina, Malaya dan Indonesia.

- Berhasil bertemu dengan Dr. Sun Yat Sen, Presiden Republik Tiongkok pertama yang daerahnya waktu itu baru meliputi Tiongkok Selatan berpusat di Yenan.

1924 Diangkat sebagai Ketua Biro Buruh Lalu Lintas dalam sebuah Konferensi Pan-Fasifik yang diselenggarakan oleh utusan-utusan Komintern dan Provintern (Serikat Sekerja Internasional Merah) yang dikunjungi oleh utusan-utusan dari Tiongkok Utara & Selatan, Indonesia dan Filipina.

- Memimpin Majalah berbahasa Inggris The Dawn (Fajar) sebagai suara dari Biro tersebut.

1925 Masuk Filipina dengan nama Elias Fuentes dan berhasil menghubungi salah seorang sahabat Semaun di sana, selanjutnya mendorong didirikannya Partai Komunis Filipina.

1926 Masuk Singapura dengan nama Hasan Gozali, bertemu dengan Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim yang berhasil meloloskan diri dari Indonesia.

1927 Bersama Subakat, Sugono dan Djamaluddin Tamim mendirikan PARI (Partai Republik Indonesia) untuk meluncurkan kembali langkah-langkah menyusun kekuatan Partai Komunis di Indonesia yang lumpuh akibat pemberontakan Madiun pada akhir tahun 1926.

- Masuk lagi ke Filipina tetapi tertangkap oleh Dinas Rahasia Amerika, di mana dalam perkara tersebut Tan Malaka dibela oleh parlemen dan presiden pertama Republik Filipina, Manuel Quezon. hakim Filipina atas permintaan pemerintah Amerika memutuskan mengeluarkan Tan Malaka dari Filipina ke Amoy.

1932 Berhasil masuk Hongkong dengan nama Ong Soong Lee, kemudian tertangkap oleh Polisi Rahasia Inggris. Setelah lebih kurang 2 ½ bulan ditahan dalam penjara Hongkong, Tan Malaka mendapat keputusan dikeluarkan ke Syanghai.

1936 Mendirikan dan mengajar pada School for Foreign Languages di Amoy, Cina.

1937 Ketika Jepang mulai mengarahkan serangannya menuju Amoy, Tan Malaka masuk Burma kemudian ke Singapura, bekerja sebagai guru bahasa Inggris di Sekolah Menengah Tinggi Singapura.

1942 Setelah mengalami pertempuran-pertempuran di sekitar Benteng Seletar antara tentara Jepang dan Inggris di Singapura, Tan Malaka masuk Penang menuju Medan, Padang dan akhirnya tiba di Jakarta.

1943 Menulis buku dan menyusun kekuatan di bawah tanah (ilegal) dengan merupakan dirinya sebagai buruh (roomusha) pada tambang batu bara di Bayah (Banten) dengan nama Husein, mengikuti jalannya tempo untuk dicetuskannya kelahiran Republik Indonesia Merdeka melalui revolusi.

1945 Pendorong para pemuda yang bekerja di bawah tanah di waktu pendudukan Jepang (Sukarni, Chairul Saleh, Adam Malik, Pandu Kartawiguna, Maruto, dan lain-lain) untuk mencetuskan revolusi yang kemudian terjadi dengan Proklamasi Republik Indonesia pada tanggal 17 Agustus 1945.

1946 Promotor Persatuan Perjuangan yang mengikatkan persatuan antara sejumlah 141 organisasi terdiri dari pimpinan partai, serikat-serikat buruh, pemuda, wanita, tentara, laskar dan lain-lain, di atas dasar program revolusi yang dikenal dengan nama 7 Pasal Minimum Program, menolak politik kompromi dengan imperialis Belanda yang dimulai dengan politik 1 November dan 3 November 1945.

1947 Menentang politik kompromi Linggarjati tahun 1947.

1948 Menentang politik kompromi Renville tahun 1948.

- Pendiri Partai Murba yang melanjutkan Program Persatuan Perjuangan.

- Pendiri Gerilya Pembela Proklamasi (GPP) yang berpusat di Jawa Timur.

1949 Tangggal 19 Februari hilang karena diciderai (ditembak mati dan jenazahnya dilempar ke sungai Brantas) di Kediri, Jawa Timur, di saat beliau sedang memimpin revolusi melawan agresi Belanda, di saat itu pula para pemimpin pemerintahan pusat di Jogja sudah banyak yang ditangkap dan ditawan Belanda.Tan Malaka mati terbunuh di hadapan senapan sekelompok tentara republik sendiri atas perintah gubernur militer Jawa Timur.

Karya-karya Tan Malaka

Tan Malaka termasuk penulis yang cukup produktif dalam menuangkan alam pikirannya. Berikut ini adalah karya-karyanya:

  1. Materialisme-Dialektika-Logika (Madilog)

Tebal kitab ini, 462 halaman, yang ditulis di Rajawati, dekat pabrik sepatu Kalibata, Cililitan, Jakarta dengan waktu yang dipakai lebih kurang 8 bulan, dari 15 Juli 1942 sampai 30 Maret 1943 (berhenti 15 hari), 720 jam. Jadi, menurut Tan Malaka, kira-kira 3 jam sehari. Dalam seminggu empat hari ia pergunakan untuk menulis, yaitu dari pukul 6 sampai pukul 12. Setelah itu berjalan-jalan di desa. Tiga kali seminggu ke perpustakaan di Gambir dengan berjalan kaki yang memakan waktu 4 jam.

Kitab ini ditulisnya dengan tulisan tangan dengan hurup kecil supaya aman dari mata polisi dan tongkat kempetai Jepang. Tidak ada catatan bahan referensi, karena buku-bukunya telantar cerai berai dan lapuk atau hilang di berbagai tempat atau negara, – walaupun demikian menjelang habis Madilog ditulis, ia berjumpa dengan beberapa buku tentang logika dalam bahasa Belanda, Inggris, Jerman dan Spanyol- sehingga ia mengandalkan ingatan Tan Malaka; jembatan keledai (ezelbruggetje).

Maksud penulisan Madilog menurut Tan Malaka, adalah pertama sebagai cara berpikir. Bukanlah suatu Weltanschauung atau pandangan dunia; walaupun, menurutnya, hubungan antara cara berpikir dan pandangan dunia atau filsafat adalah seperti tangga dengan rumah. Rapat sekali. Dari cara orang berpikir, dapat diduga filsafatnya dan dari filsafatnya dapat diketahui dengan cara dan metode apa sehingga sampai ke filsafat itu.

Kedua, Madilog juga diharapkannya sebagai bacaan penghubung kepada filsafat proletar Barat. Karena, menurutnya, otak proletar Indonesia tak bisa mencernakan paham yang berurat dan tumbuh pada masyarakat Barat yang berbeda sekali dengan masyarakat Indonesia dalam iklim, sejarah, keadaan jiwa dan cita-citanya.

Ketiga, untuk mengupas dan mengobati penyakit penjajahan, keterbelakangan dan kolonialisme, Tan Malaka menyajikan landasan pandangan yang beralaskan pada materialisme, dialektika dan logika. yang dituangkannya dalam sebuah buku Madilog. Dari sinilah kemudian, Tan Malaka memandang realitas lokal, nasional dan internasional dalam aneka lini kehidupan, termasuk di dalamnya keberadaan agama yang ia masukkan ke dalam kelompok kepercayaan.

Karya terbesar dari Tan Malaka ini diniatkannya sebagai upaya untuk merombak sistem berpikir bangsa Indonesia, dari pola berpikir yang penuh dengan mistik kepada satu cara berpikir yang rasional. Tanpa perombakan cara berpikir, sulit rasanya bangsa Indonesia untuk maju dan mewujudkan masyarakat Indonesia yang merdeka dan sosialistik. MADILOG sebagai konsep berpikir yang memadukan ketiga unsurnya, yaitu MAterialisme, DIalektika dan LOGika, merupakan kesatuan dan tidak boleh dipecah-pecah.

  1. Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

Ditulis tahun 1946-1947 di penjara Ponorogo. Berisi tentang riwayat hidup (otobiografi). Ia menguraikan perjalanannya dari suatu negara ke negara lain untuk menghindar dari kejaran agen-agen kolonial. Ia juga memaparkan pandangan tentang kepercayaan, filsafat dan tentang negara. Dari buku inilah kebanyakan para pemerhati mendapat gambaran kehidupan Tan Malaka yang revolusioner.

  1. Gerpolek (Gerilya Politik Ekonomi)

Ditulis di penjara Madiun 1948. Berisi tentang ajarannya dalam melakukan gerilya politik maupun ekonomi. Uraian tentang cara bergerilya dalam politik dengan strategi militer, maupun dengan penguatan ekonomi dengan merebut seluruh kekayaan asing. Keduanya menjadi satu dan saling menguatkan.

4. Sovyet atau Parlemen

Ditulis tahun 1921 di Semarang. Berisi tentang uraian sistem pemerintahan yang dikenal saat itu seperti sistem parlemen di Inggris mulai abad ke-12, juga di Perancis, Jerman dan lain-lain. Intinya menurut Tan Malaka, parlemen dengan sistem perwakilan yang dikenalnya hanya akan menjadi perkakas dari yang memerintah. Bersamaan dengan mulai menguatnya kapitalisme dengan ujung imperialisme, parlemen pada akhirnya hanyalah alat dari kapitalisme. Kemudian dengan tegas Tan Malaka membedakan parlemen dengan sovyet (Dewan Rakyat) yang menurutnya parlemen adalah alat untuk mengekalkan perburuhan dan kapitalisme, sedangkan sovyet (Dewan Rakyat) adalah alat sementara guna menghilangkan pengaruh kapitalisme (modal) untuk mendatangkan sosialisme.

  1. Toendoek Kepada Kekoesaan, Tetapi Tidak Toendoek Kepada Kebenaran

Ditulis di Berlin tahun 1922. Berisi tentang pembelaannya ketika ditangkap di Bandung tanggal 13 Februari 1922 dengan tuduhan mengganggu ketertiban umum, membuat keonaran dan yang terberat adalah adalah usaha menggerakkan rakyat untuk mengadakan pemberontakan guna mengusir penjajah Belanda dari bumi Indonesia. Ia menyatakan bahwa tuduhan itu tidak benar dan penguasa kolonial hanya berusaha untuk mematikan aktivitas pergerakan nasional saat itu.

  1. Goetji Wasiat Kaoem Militer

Ditulis tahun 1924 di Saigon. Diterbitkan dengan nama Sumendap dan Daniel, tetapi menurut Poeze mungkin ditulis Tan Malaka.

  1. Indonesiai ejo mesto na proboezjdajoesjtsjemsja vostoke

Diterbitkan di Moskow tahun 1924. Pada brosur ini tertulis Sukindat, tetapi menurut Poeze mungkin ditulis Tan Malaka. Poeze mengatakan, brosur ini berisi tentang thesis bagi keadaan sosial dan ekonomi serta tuntutan untuk berorganisasi yang mengembangkan strategi dan taktik untuk diterapkan di Indonesia.

  1. Naar de Republiek Indonesia (Menuju Republik Indonesia)

Diterbitkan di Canton, April 1925. Berisi tentang uraiannya akan kondisi dunia, pertentangan dua sistem antara kapitalisme dan komunisme yang diyakininya akan dimenangkan oleh komunisme. Dilanjutkan dengan dengan situasi di Indonesia di mana penjajah Belanda melakukan penjajahan dengan biadab, namun Tan Malaka yakin suatu saat penjajah akan kalah apabila semua organisasi perjuangan yang ada terutama PKI, dapat menyusun tujuan revolusionernya.

  1. Massa Actie

Ditulis di Singapura tahun 1926. Secara umum brosur ini berisi tuntutan bagaimana melakukan sebuah revolusi di Indonesia. Sebuah revolusi terutama di Jawa dan Sumatera adalah sesuatu yang tak dapat dihindarkan. Baginya tidak ada sikap yang netral, yang ada adalah berpihak pada penjajah Belanda atau rakyat terjajah Indonesia. Dari sini kemudian baru Tan Malaka beralih pada bagaimana menjalankan revolusi yang benar, dan massa aksi bukan putch, tidak bisa dicapai oleh pemberontakan atau kudeta secara anarkis.

  1. Manifesto PARI (Manifesto Bangkok)

Ditulis di Bangkok 1927. Berisi uraian tentang perlunya membentuk partai baru dan menamakannya PARI (Paratai Republik Indonesia) yang dibentuk semata-mata untuk kepentingan Indonesia serta akan memberikan yang terbaik untuk itu. Manifesto ini mengoreksi kesalahan PKI, yaitu pemberontakan 1926/1927 yang menyebabkan hancurnya partai dan mereka tidak bermaksud memunculkan partai ini lagi, karena beranggapan tidak mungkin jika mendirikan partai-partai yang telah melakukan cukup kesalahan. Kemudian manifesto juga menyatakan pemutusan dengan Internasionale (Comintren) yang menurutnya tidak akan baik di Indonesia. Dengan mengambil contoh dari Jerman, Italia, Bulgaria dan China dinyatakannya kepemimpinan Moscow gagal untuk negeri lain. Seluruh Internasionale Ketiga (Comintern) dibangun demi kepentingan Rusia dan terutama pemimpin-pemimpin komunis dari Timur cenderung akan terjebak kepada ketaatan buta dan kehilangan kemandirian mereka, akibatnya mereka akan kehilangan hubungan dengan rakyat mereka sendiri yang tentunya berlainan dengan suasana kejiwaan rakyat Rusia.

  1. Lokal dan Nasional Aksi di Indonesia

Diterbitkan di Singapura 1926. Menurut Poeze, brosur ini diterbitkan dalam bagian yang terpisah, secara rahasia disebabkan dengan cara menyalinnya dengan mesin ketik. Bagian pertama dikenal juga dengan judul “Soerat Rahasia boeat lokal aksi di Minangkabau”, 20 September 1926.

  1. SI Semarang dan Onderwijs

Ditulis di Semarang tahun 1921 pada saat Tan Malaka berusaha merumuskan tujuan pendidikan dari sekolah Serikat Islam yang mulai dibangunnya (dikenal juga dengan sekolah Tan Malaka). Berisi pokok-pokok pikiran yang akan dikembangkan/diajarkan dalam sekolahnya.

  1. Asia Bergabung (Gabungan Aslia)

Ditulis tahun 1943. Menurut Poeze hanya selesai separuh.

  1. Semangat Moeda

Ditulis di Manila tahun 1926, namun oleh Tan Malaka dikatakan di Tokyo sebagai tempat penerbitannya.

15. Politik

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 24 November 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan antara Godam (simbolisasi kaum buruh), Pacul (petani), Toke (pedagang), Den Mas (ningrat) dan Mr. Apal (wakil kaum intelektual). Menguraikan tentang bagaimana caranya merdeka, maksud dan tujuan kemerdekaan, serta bagaimana mengisi kemerdekaan itu dan yang tak kalah penting adalah Indonesia Merdeka harus berdasarkan sosialisme.

16. Rentjana Ekonomi

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 28 November 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan dengan simbolisasi yang sama seperti yang ada dalam politik. Menguraikan tentang rencana pembangunan ekonomi, yang menurutnya ekonomi sosialislah yang dapat membawa kemakmuran bagi Indonesia kelak.

  1. Moeslihat

Ditulis di Surabaya pada tanggal 2 Desember 1945. Berisi tentang percakapan dengan simbolisasi yang sama seperti yang ada dalam politik. Menguraikan tentang strategi dan taktik dalam perjuangan untuk membawa Indonesia ke arah kemerdekaan.

  1. Manifesto PARI (Manifesto Jakarta)

Ditulis di Jakarta tahun 1945. Menguraikan tentang pertentangan sistem yang ada di dunia, antara kapitalisme dengan komunisme yang menurutnya akan dimenangkan oleh komunisme serta penolakan atas percobaan pendirian Republik Indonesia yang kapitalis dan membatalkan semua upaya dari luar untuk menjajah kembali Indonesia dengan cara apa pun.

  1. Thesis

Ditulis tahun 1946 di Lawu. Berisi tentang ajarannya mengenai pembentukan negara sosialistis. Uraian tentang perjuangan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia seratus persen. Juga pembelaannya terhadap tuduhan Trotsky yang selalu dituduhkan kepadanya, berkenaan dengan pemberontakan PKI 1926 yang gagal dan oleh pihak PKI kegagalan itu selalu dialamatkan kepada Tan Malaka sebagai orang yang menyabotnya.

  1. Koehandel Di Kaliurang (Perdagangan Sapi di Kaliurang)

Ditulis tanggal 16 April 1948 dengan nama samaran Dasuki. Berisi tentang penolakan terhadap perjuangan diplomasi yang tidak berprinsip, yang dilakukan oleh pemerintah saat itu. Perjuangan lewat diplomasi hanya akan merugikan Indonesia dan menjual Indonesia kepada kaum kapital asing, oleh karena itu perundingan harus dibatalkan atau dihandel dan mempersiapkan kaum MURBA untuk berjuang.

  1. Surat Kepada Partai Rakyat

Ditulis 31 Juli 1948 di penjara Magelang sebagai sambutan tertulis dalam pembentukan Kongres Partai Rakyat tanggal 10-11-12 Agustus 1948. berisi tentang bagaimana mengorganisasikan Partai Rakyat agar menjadi partai yang memperhatikan dan memperjuangkan rakyat MURBA.

  1. Proklamasi 17-8-1945, Isi dan Pelaksanaannya

Pidato tertulis pada Kongres Rakyat Indonesia Desember 1948. Berisi tentang penolakan perundingan yang dilakukan Indonesia saat itu dan persiapan perang kemerdekaan dalam menghadapi agresi militer Belanda.

  1. Uraian Mendadak

Merupakan salinan tertulis dari pidato yang diucapkan di depan Kongres peleburan tiga partai (Partai Rakyat, Partai Buruh, dan Partai Rakyat Jelata) menjadi Partai Murba. Berisi tentang reorganisasi partai dan uraian untuk tetap mempertahankan Republik Proklamasi 17 Agustus 1945.

Karya-karya tulis Tan Malaka meliputi semua bidang kemasyarakatan dan kenegaraan-politik, ekonomi, sosial, kebudayaan sampai kemiliteran, terlihat benang putih keilmiahan dan ke-Indonesiaan, serta benang merah orsinalitas, kemandirian, kekonsekuenan, dan konsistensi yang direnda jelas dalam gagasan-gagasannya dan perjuangan implementasinya dalam rumusan konsepsional dan penjabaran operasionalnya.

Setting Sosial Politik Tan Malaka

Latar kehidupan Tan Malaka berada dalam ruang dan waktu dengan sosiopolitikkultural yang melingkupinya. Paling tidak, ada tiga situasi dan kondisi penting yang mewarnai pandangan serta perjalanan hidup Tan Malaka yaitu, keadaan internasional, Minangkabau dan alam pikir Barat.

Pertama. Keadaan internasional. Menurut Tan Malaka:

Tahun 1918, terjadi perjanjian Versailles. Pada waktu itu dunia sedang gemuruh. Satu negara besar dan baru dalam di segala-gala timbul, ialah Sovyet Rusia. Pada jaman itu saya masih muda, masih belajar di Eropa Barat. Dalam usia Sturm und Drang periode itu, dalam usia sedang bergelora itu saya dilondong topan yang bertiup dari Eropa Timur itu. Dunia Barat sendiri pada masa itu seakan-akan mengikuti Sovyet Rusia. Dari dunia Eropa Timur itulah saya mendapatkan semua ilham dan petunjuk yang saya rasa perlu buat perjuangan politik, ekonomi dan sosial kita.

Di bidang politik di Eropa, terjadi dampak pergolakan politik Pascaperang Dunia I di Eropa pada umumnya dan di Belanda pada khususnya. Revolusi Oktober 1917 di Rusia yang disusul oleh gerakan revolusioner kaum sosial-demokrat Belanda yang dipimpin oleh Troestra memberi inspirasi kepada unsur-unsur progresif Indonesia yang tergabung dalam ISDV untuk menuntut pemerintahan sendiri dan perwakilan hak-hak yang luas.

Di bidang ekonomi, Perang Dunia I mengakibatkan kemacetan pengangkutan hasil perkebunan sehingga pengusaha perkebunan mengurangi produksinya sehingga berakibat rakyat banyak kehilangan pekerjaan dan pendapatan. Penderitaan rakyat bertambah besar lebih-lebih karena gubernemen membebankan pajak yang lebih berat kepada rakyat.

Perkembangan politik kolonial Belanda adalah politik kolonial konservatif (1800-1848), cultuurstelsel (1830-1870), permulaan politik kolonial liberal (1850-1870) dan politik ethis (1900), yakni edukasi, irigasi dan emigrasi.Tan Malaka lahir pada akhir abad ke-19, ketika diberlakukannya politik etis Belanda. Politik etis ini merupakan politik balas budi bangsa Belanda kepada Hindia Belanda oleh keuntungan yang diperolehnya selama dasawarsa-dasawarsa yang lalu. Kebijakan politik ini adalah terbukanya kesempatan yang makin luas di kalangan pribumi untuk memperoleh pendidikan modern ala Belanda. Pendidikan ini juga untuk memenuhi kebutuhan atas tenaga-tenaga terdidik untuk birokrasi. Dari sinilah munculnya beberapa intelektual muda yang bersentuhan dengan pemikiran Barat, termasuk tentang nasionalisme.

Kedua, alam Minangkabau. Secara sosiologis, nagari -kesatuan masyarakat lokal dalam masyarakat Minangkabau- merupakan konsep kosmologis yang di dalamnya terkandung kehidupan religius yang bersifat kontemplatif transenden. Secara holistik, dalam nagari tidak saja diurus masalah teknis pemerintahan, malahan sampai pada hal-hal yang bersifat transenden seperti kehidupan surau. Surau pada jaman dahulu merupakan kelengkapan suku dan tempat berkumpulnya anak-anak muda serta remaja dalam upaya menimba ilmu pengetahuan. Surau sekaligus juga digunakan sebagai tidur bersama, membahas berbagai ilmu agama, dan juga dimanfaatkan sebagai tempat penyelesaian berbagai permasalahan yang dihadapi oleh suku melalui musyawarah bersama yang merupakan inti demokrasi kultural nagari.

Daerah Minangkabau pada permulaan abad ini mengenal tiga paham yang pada umumnya berpengaruh pada diri penduduknya. Ketiga paham itu adalah paham Islam, adat dan kolonialisme serta berbagai implikasi yang dikandungnya. Ketiganya mempunyai pendukung walaupun para pendukung ini juga terpengaruh oleh ketiganya. Bentrokan paham, negosiasi dan saling memanfaatkan dari interaksi pendukung tersebut sering terjadi.

Daerah Minangkabau merupakan daerah terbuka dari lalu lintas dunia internasional untuk melakukan aktivitas politik, ekonomi, agama dan budaya. Sifat pragmatis dari sebagian penduduk cepat mengambil manfaat dari perkembangan yang berlaku. Kemudian dalam mengambil manfaat dari administrasi perdagangan, administrasi pemerintahan dan juga dalam bidang pendidikan.

Bukit Tinggi menjadi pusat pendidikan se-Sumatera. Sekolah Raja, yaitu sekolah guru berbahasa Belanda (Kweekschool) yang berada di kota itu merupakan tempat melatih pada tingkat menengah anak-anak Indonesia dari seluruh Sumatera. Sekolah ini adalah tempat penampungan bagi anak-anak kalangan bangsawan dan orang-orang besar lainnya di pulau tersebut.

Merantau merupakan bagian dari tradisi Minangkabau. Kedudukan perantau begitu mulia dalam masyarakat. Pergi merantau, menurut visi falsafah Minangkabau dapat membuka mata untuk mengenal dunia luar yang luas, di mana mereka akan mendapatkan hal-hal baru yang nanti akan dibawanya pulang. Merantau, bukanlah semata mencari uang atau harta, melainkan juga menuntut ilmu atau mengaji. Berdasarkan batasan ini, menurut Alfian, Tan Malaka adalah seorang perantau, baik fisik maupun mental (pemikiran).

Rantau pertama yang dialami Tan Malaka ialah ketika dia meninggalkan desa tempat lahirnya pergi menuntut ilmu ke “Sekolah Raja” di Bukit Tinggi. Walaupun masih berada di alam Minangkabau, tapi alam asalnya adalah Nagari Pandan Gadang. Sewaktu dia tamat belajar di Bukit Tinggi, ia diberi gelar Datuk Tan Malaka oleh kaum atau sukunya, sebagai kepala adat mereka. Ini berkait erat dengan ilmu yang diperolehnya di rantau. Tidak lama sesudah itu, dia pergi lagi melanjutkan studinya ke negeri Belanda, perantauan yang amat jauh bagi anak muda yang baru berumur 16 tahun. Ruang lingkup alamnya lambat laun berubah dari Nagari Pandan Gadang yang kecil meluas menjadi Minangkabau dan kemudian Indonesia. Modal ini dikembangkan Tan Malaka untuk memahami dan menginterpretasikan permasalahan-permasalahan masyarakat Indonesia.

Visi adat dan falsafah Minangkabau dari merantau untuk mengontraskan atau membandingkan dunia rantaunya dengan realitas alam asalnya, sehingga dapat melihat mana yang baik dan yang buruk dari keduanya. Hal ini mengundang orang berpikir kritis dan dialektis. Oleh karena itu kontradiksi atau konflik dianggap wajar, terutama karena suasana tersebut akan selalu dapat diintegrasikan atau diselesaikan secara memuaskan atau harmonis melalui proses pemilihan mana yang baik dan buruk dengan akal, yaitu kemampuan berpikir secara rasionil. Dengan demikian, visi itu mendorong orang untuk berpikir secara kritis, dinamis atau dialektis. Cara berpikir demikian dengan sendirinya menolak dogmatisme atau parokhialisme. Karena menolak dogmatisme, maka dengan sendirinya menghendaki kebebasan berpikir.

Dalam perantauan, mental Tan Malaka berhasil melepaskan diri dari keterikatan terhadap salah satu dari berbagai corak nilai yang hidup dan berkembang dalam masyarakat dan berhasil melahirkan pemikiran-pemikiran baru yang bercorak lain, berbobot dan orisinal. Ini karena mempunyai idealisme untuk membangun manusia dan masyarakat Indonesia baru, menghargai kebebasan berpikir dan memiliki sikap kritis yang tajam serta mempunyai kepercayaan kepada diri sendiri yang kuat sehingga mendorong untuk memiliki keberanian mengembangkan pemikiran sendiri.

Ketiga, alam pikir Barat. Pada usia sekitar 23 tahun, Tan Malaka mengalami pergulatan batin dan pikiran tentang agama yang bekaitan dengan mistik. Dalam satu suratnya Tan Malaka menulis untuk salah seorang temannya, Dick: “…aku pun masih mencari-cari, atau yang lebih tepat, masih menyelidiki. Aku sudah memilih arah pokok dalam kehidupan sosial dan agama, bila yang belakangan ini dapat kusebut demikian. Pertanyaan berikut kini sedang mendapat perhatianku: ‘Yang disebut kejadian di luar hukum alam (gaib) itu, apakah memang benar-benar ada?’ aku hidup di tengah bangsa yang gemar akan mistik. Hari ini atau lusa aku akan berjumpa dengan ahli mistik…”

Tan Malaka memberikan penilaian terhadap agama dan pilihannya marxisme: “…gereja itu, Dick, benar-benar suatu organisai ekonomi…gereja Katolik kupandang sebagai eksploitasi kapitalistis yang paling rendah, karena nama tuhan dipakai.

…tentang Islam lebih baik kita diam saja. Dalam agama itu pun ajaran lebih penting daripada praktik. Setiap praktik kebanyakan masih diarahkan pada pemilihan harta benda, tercapainya kedudukan yang lebih baik, atau kekayaan.

….kulihat dengan kepalaku sendiri apakah artinya mistik Islam. Berhari-hari kuserahkan diriku kepada suatu bimbingan. Kesimpulan akhirnya adalah sebagai berikut: mistik itu mungkin sekali omong kosong saja, atau penipuan, atau kedua-duanya sekaligus. Ah, aku sungguh muak melihat penipuan itu di manapun agama menyelinap di dalam masyarakat! Bukannya aku menolak kebajikan itu sendiri yang juga menjadi tujuan, misalnya Islam. Tetapi itu berlaku pada jaman dulu sekali ketika Muhammad sendiri masih hidup sangat sederhana…

… Jadi, kebajikan dan perdamaian itu kupandang hanya mungkin dapat tercapai melalui revolusi. Begitulah seorang Marxis yang materialistis sesungguhnya mempunyai latar belakang yang idealistis…”

Kelak pada perkembangan kehidupannya Tan Malaka memiliki pandangan bahwa Islam memiliki kekuatan revolusioner dan dapat menjadi alat untuk melawan kolonialisme dan imperialisme dengan melakukan pembelaan dan menganjurkan PKI untuk bekerja dengan terhadap Serikat Islam.Di bidang agama perhatiannya besar sekali pada soal-soal mistik: tetapi di bidang sosial ia sudah memilih gagasan komunisme.

Kepergiannya ke negeri Belanda bisa disebut sebagai jendela awal perkenalannya pada dunia luar. Berkenalanlah dirinya dengan paham sosialisme dan menjadikannya berkenalan dengan pemikiran Nietzche dan karya-karya Th. C. Arlyle, yang membuatnya berada dalam semangat dan paham revolusioner. Tan Malaka menyerap secara kritis alam pikir Hegel, Lenin, Karl Marx, Engels dan Charles Darwin. Ini ditandai dengan banyaknya rujukan kepada tokoh-tokoh tersebut sebagai kerangka acuan pemikirannya, terutama dalam bukunya, Madilog.

Selanjutnya adalah persentuhan pemikiran Tan Malaka dengan berbagai kalangan sampai para aktivis, pemikir dan tokoh dunia Barat. Dengan didukung modal minat, semangat dan kecerdasan yang dimilikinya untuk belajar; jaringan pergaulan, berorganisasi ditambah kemampuan penguasaan bahasa yang banyak, menjadi bekal perjuangannya di dalam maupun luar negeri. Menurut pengakuan Tan Malaka, ia menguasai berbagai bahasa seperti, Belanda, Jerman, Inggris, Melayu, Jawa, Perancis, Tagalog, Siam, dan sedikit bahasa Cina. Dari kemampuan bahasa ini, Tan Malaka mendirikan sekolah bahasa di Amoy, School for Foreigen Languages yang berkembang pesat kemajuannya

Dari sebagian tulisannya, basis pandangan tentang realitas, Tan Malaka memilih menggunakan materialisme dan rasionalisme dan paham komunisme sebagai ideologi perjuangan politik, meski Tan Malaka melakukan penafsiran ulang demi penyesuaian situasi dan kondisi Indonesia. Alam pikir Barat berperan dalam perjalanan kehidupan Tan Malaka. Alam dan kerangka pikir Barat diselami, akan tetapi dalam penggunaannya disaring secara kritis dan dinamis.

Dari latar keadaan internasional, adat Minangkabau dan alam pikir Barat, tidaklah aneh jika dia dijuluki nasionalis, sosialis dan komunis yang beragama Islam. Berikut beberapa komentar atas sosok Tan Malaka:

Pokoknya di dalam sekujur tubuhnya mengalir sederas-derasnya, darah anti-Imperialisme, anti-Kolonialisme, sedang setiap denyut jantungnya membersihkan nafas perjuangan kemerdekaan Tanah Air dan Bangsanya.

Saya kenal almarhum Tan Malaka. Saya baca semua ia punya tulisan-tulisan. Saya berbicara dengan beliau berjam-jam, dan selalu di dalam pembicaraan-pembicaraan saya dengan almarhum Tan Malaka ini, kecuali tampak bahwa Tan Malaka adalah pecinta tanah air dan bangsa Indonesia, ia adalah sosialis sepenuh-penuhnya.

Tan Malaka adalah tokoh yang mewakili komunis di Timur Jauh. Ia adalah pemimpin komunis yang paling berhasil dan berpengalaman.

Perjalanan hidup Tan Malaka, pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional Republik Indonesia ini, seringkali diwarnai kegulitaan dalam kesejarahannya. Seperti kepastian kapan Tan Malaka lahir dan kematiannya yang tragis; tidak ada kuburan Tan Malaka, rencana penyerahan kepemimpinan nasional dari Bung Karno kepada Tan Malaka, pandangan terhadap Tan Malaka hendak melakukan kudeta terhadap Soekarno-Hatta dan perpecahan di kalangan kader PKI hingga kematian Tan Malaka penuh teka-teki dan mengenaskan. 
Redaksi : Seniman Kehidupan

Tautan : http://www.pmii-ciputat.or.id/alumni/kolom-alumni/158-riwayat-tan-malaka.html 

Tags :
Biografi Tan Malaka, sejarah tan malaka, kisah tan malaka, seniman kehidupan, tan malaka

 

         Senin, 09 Mei 2011

         Tan Malaka Memikirkan Indonesia (2)

         Ditulis ulang : Muhammad Ilham

        

          

         Madilog adalah cara berpikir Tan yang menautkan ilmu bukti melalui penyesuaian dengan akar kebudayaan Indonesia sebagai bagian dari kebudayaan mondial.

          

          Tidak sepenuhnya memang Tan menyelisihi filsafat materialisme yang sebatas menganggap materi dan kenyataan menampak (fisikiah) sebagai yang ada dan utama; namun dalam Madilog, Tan menekankan bukti (meliputi budi, kesatuan, pikiran, dan inderawi) sebagai yang utama. Bukti merupakan fakta. Adapun fakta menjadi fondasinya ilmu bukti.

          

         Melalui Madilog, Tan bukan cuma memikirkan realita Indonesia pada masa hidupnya. Namun layaknya seorang futuris, ia membenturkan kontemplasi filsafatnya ini untuk masa depan Indonesia.

          

         Dan gagasan dalam Madilog-nya menerap dan jalin-menjalin sebagai sebuah pola yang konsisten dan konsekwen (ilmiah dan Indonesia sentris) melalui karya-karya lainnya yang secara holistik memikirkan berbagai permasalahahan Indonesia berikut implementasinya. Maka boleh dibilang pemikirannya tidak lekang dimakan jaman. Avonturisasi politiknya di mancanegara selalu licin. Tapi ironis, di tanah airnya sendiri Tan justru tetap bergerak secara klandestin.

          

         Tak banyak diketahui dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah bahwa Tan-lah yang menggerakkan massa untuk menggelar rapat raksasa di Lapangan Ikada pada 19 September 1945. Soekarno mengagumi pemikiran Tan yang banyak menginspirasi perjuangan Revolusi Kemerdekaan.

Dalam salah satu artikel Kisruh Ahli Waris Obor Revolusi yang dimuat Majalah Tempo edisi khusus Tan Malaka (2008), disebutkan begitu kagumnya dengan pemikiran Tan Malaka, Soekarno pernah membuat sebuah testamen ahli waris revolusi untuk Tan jika terjadi sesuatu pada diri Soekarno – Hatta.

          

         Ketika masa Revolusi Kemerdekaan, Tan lebih memilih jalannya sendiri membentuk Persatuan Perjuangan (PP) pada 1 Januari 1946 untuk mengambil alih kekuasaan dari tangan sekutu. Namun niatnya disalahartikan sebagai sebentuk jalan mengkudeta Soekarno – Hatta.

          

          Tan dibui, berpindah-pindah di penjara Jawa Tengah dan Jawa Timur hingga lepas pada September 1948 sejalan dengan tuntasnya naskah Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara yang ia tulis. Sebagai responsnya atas situasi politik Indonesia akibat Perjanjian Linggajati (1947) dan Renville (1948), Tan merintis Partai Murba pada November 1948. Tan –lagi-lagi– dituding mengkudeta pemerintah. Pada 21 Februari 1949 akhirnya Tan tewas di tangan orang sebangsanya sendiri dan di tanah airnya sendiri. Sejatinya, sejarah tentang seorang tokoh pendiri bangsa lazimnya menyampaikan pesan-pesan moral dan edukasi untuk generasi sesudahnya. Tapi bukanlah sejarah namanya jika kepentingan atas masa lalu sarat juga dengan kepentingan-kepentingan politis yang memungkinkan citra tokoh itu untuk dibelokkan, dikaburkan, bahkan dihilangkan. Asa hidup di alam kemerdekaan berupa keterbukaan dan kejujuran mengungkapkan masa lalu pun kadang terhadang oleh narasi-narasi besar (grand narratives [baca: negara]). Sebagaimana hal itu didapati dari sepinya jejak pemikiran Tan Malaka dalam buku-buku pelajaran sejarah seputar gagasannya mewujudkan republik ini. Sebagai sosok pejuang sekaligus pemikir yang lain dari keumuman eksponen pergerakan nasional, jalan hidup Tan yang asing dan banyak mengasing itu pun membuat Matu Mona mengiaskan dalam karya Patjar Merah Indonesia­-nya dengan julukan mysteryman. Senyata dengan jejak kehidupannya yang asing dan banyak mengasing. Dan dalam penulisan sejarah Indonesia modern, memori kolektif masyarakat Indonesia –khususnya siswa-siswa sekolah– terhadap sosok Tan Malaka tidaklah sebagus dibandingkan terhadap Soekarno, Hatta, dan Sjahrir. Konteks bagus itu pun tak lebih hanya sebatas mengenal nama, kedudukan, dan momen seputar sang tokoh.

        

          

         Napak Tilas periodesasi kiprah Tan Malaka (sumber : tempo.com)/perbesar : klik gambar

        
Jejak pemikiran para tokoh pendiri bangsa sebagai hal yang lebih hakiki untuk diteladani justru menguap dalam teks-teks pelajaran sejarah yang diproduksi untuk kepentingan pendidikan nasional. Meski begitu, dalam wacana sejarah selama beberapa dasawarsa terakhir ada pergeseran nilai terkait subjek, perspektif, dan pendekatan masa lalu yang menjauhi narasi-narasi besar. Pergeseran itu dimaklumi juga terjadi karena ketidakpuasan terhadap narasi besar dalam mengendalikan dan memproduksi teks-teks sejarah. Ketika teks tidak berbunyi sebab ada yang ter/di-sembunyikan, maka medium seni visual (seperti fotografi, film, dan teater) menjadi alternatif menggali hakikat dan pemahaman masa lalu melalui pendekatan
subaltern (Nordholt & Steijlen [2007]; rujuk juga Nordholt, Purwanto, & Saptari [2007]). Jelas ini menjadi penting sebagai sebentuk penyi(ng)kapan terhadap narasi besar dalam menarasikan masa lalu, yang mana salah satunya menyangkut citra tokoh semisal Tan Malaka ini.

Setidaknya patut disyukuri adanya ikhtiar menempatkan Tan Malaka berdasarkan sejarah dalam konteksnya (historicizing history), selain melalui teater juga film sebagai alternatif yang baik untuk membangunkan masyarakat dari amnesia sejarah. Saya tidak ada hasrat berlebih untuk terlalu menyoalkan masih ditemukan kelemahan historical mindedness dalam film karya kawan-kawan dari Institut Kesenian Jakarta tersebut. Tapi dengan menyisipkan beberapa perkataan yang lekat dengan cerminan jiwa dan pemikiran Tan Malaka dalam mengecam taklid buta dan fanatisme sempit terhadap ideologi atau kepercayaan apapun dalam fragmen-fragmen film tersebut, telah menyambung lidah “bapak republik” itu untuk mengedukasi mental dan sikap rakyat Indonesia yang hidup pada alam kekinian. Misalnya perkataan Tan (adalah pola pikir madilognya [rujuk juga perkataan ini dalam Alfian. 1977]) di hadapan anak-anak kecil yang diajari berhitung: “Akuilah dengan hati bersih bahwa kalian dapat belajar dari orang Barat. tapi jangan sekali-kali kalian meniru dari orang Barat. Kalian harus menjadi murid-murid dari Timur yang cerdas…

Secara generis, perkataan itu sebetulnya akan terus patut dan layak dipakai kapanpun sebagai pandangan dan kedudukan bangsa Indonesia untuk menilai, menghadapi, dan terlibat dalam kumparan masalah nasional dan dunia. Tidak terjerembab dalam banalitas hubungan kebudayaan Barat dan Timur serta punya prinsip dalam menghadapi benturan peradaban antarkedua kutub tersebut. Relasi ideal antara Barat dan Timur memang menjadi salah satu pokok pemikiran Tan Malaka. Seperti halnya juga Sutan Sjahrir atau Sutan Takdir Alisjahbana, Tan Malaka –seperti halnya Sjahrir– agaknya gelisah juga dengan tabiat dan sikap kaum bumiputra yang mana satu pihak begitu mengagungkan adiluhungnya dominasi Barat secara taklid sehingga tanpa disadarinya merendahkan diri sendiri sebagai seorang Indonesia. Pihak lain terpenjara dalam kekolotan alam pikiran Timur yang masih dikuasai mitos dan menolak sama sekali segala hal berbau Barat sebagai yang dinilai sesat dan menyesatkan. Permasalahan itu pun kini masih hadir dalam wajah baru, tapi esensinya tak banyak berubah jika menyelami dalam-dalam perkataan Tan Malaka tersebut. Sejarah yang memihak untuk Tan Malaka jelas melebihi apresiasi pemerintah yang pada 1963 sebatas memberinya gelar pahlawan kemerdekaan nasional. Menghadirkan kembali gagasan-gagasan jenialnya tentang Indonesia, tentunya jauh lebih penting melebihi gelar kepahlawanan. Pemikirannya yang mengajarkan: anti-dogmatisme, berpikir kritis, anti-kekerasan sebagai siasatnya melawan kezaliman dan kebodohan pada masa hidupnya, am

Bibliografi

 

 

Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara

         Parlemen atau Soviet (1920)

         SI Semarang dan Onderwijs (1921)

         Dasar Pendidikan (1921)

         Naar de Republiek Indonesia (Menuju Republik Indonesia) (1924)

         Semangat Muda (1925)

         Massa Actie (1926)

         Pari dan Nasionalisten (1927)

         Pari dan PKI (1927)

         Pari International (1927)

         Manifesto Bangkok(1927)

         Aslia Bergabung (1943)

         Muslihat (1945)

         Rencana Ekonomi Berjuang (1945)

         Politik (1945)

         Manifesto Jakarta (1945)

         Thesis (1946)

         Pidato Purwokerto (1946)

         Pidato Solo (1946)

         Madilog (1948)

         Islam dalam Tinjauan Madilog (1948)

         Gerpolek (1948)

         Pidato Kediri (1948)

         Pandangan Hidup (1948)

         Kuhandel di Kaliurang (1948)

         Proklamasi 17-8-45 Isi dan Pelaksanaanya (1948)

         Dari Pendjara ke Pendjara (1970)

[sunting] Referensi

  1. 1.     ^ a b c “Misteri Kematian Tan Malaka Terungkap”, Kompas, diakses Juli 2007
  2. 2.     ^ Muhammad Yamin, Tan Malaka Bapak Republik Indonesia: Riwajat Politik Seorang Pengandjoer Revolusioner jang Berfikir, Berdjoeang dan Menderita Membentoek Negara Republik Indonesia, Djakarta: Berita Indonesia, 1946
  3. 3.     ^ M. Yuanda Zara, Peristiwa 3 Juli 1946: Menguak Kudeta Pertama dalam Sejarah Indonesia, MedPress, 2009
  4. 4.     ^ lihat Soejatno dan Anderson B 1974. Revolution and social tensions in Surakarta 1945-1950. Indonesia 17:99-111 (dengan dua rujukan lainnya di catatan kaki).
  5. 5.     ^ Majalah Tempo Edisi Khusus Tan Malaka, 7 Agustus 2008

[sunting] Bacaan lanjutan

         Castle, James W. Diplomasi and Perdjuangan Tan Malaka Contra Sjahrir: Kegelisahan Kepada Revolusi. , 1972.

         Hery, Yunior H. Tan Malaka Dibunuh!: Meneropong Krisis Politik, 1945-1949. Yogyakarta: Resist Book, 2007.

         Mrazek, Rudolf. Semesta Tan Malaka. Yogyakarta: Bigraf Pub, 1994.

         Poeze, Harry A. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia. Jakarta: KITLV-Jakarta, 2008.

         Poeze, Harry A, and Hersri Setiawan. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia: Jil. 2. Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia, 2009.

         Poeze, Harry A, and Hersri Setiawan. Tan Malaka, Gerakan Kiri, Dan Revolusi Indonesia: Jil. 3. Jakarta: Yayasan Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2010.

         Poeze, Harry A. Tan Malaka: Pergulatan Menuju Republik. Jakarta: Pustaka Utama Grafiti, 1999.

         Yamin, Muhammad. Tan Malaka: Bapak Republik Indonesia. Djawa Timur: Moerba Berdjoeang, 1946.

         Zulkifli, Arif. Tan Malaka. Jakarta: Kepustakaan Populer Gramedia (KPG), 2010.

[sunting] Pranala luar

 

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       (Indonesia) “Arsip Tulisan Tan Malaka dalam Bahasa Inggris”

       (Indonesia) Tan Malaka (1897-1949)

       (Indonesia) Manifesto Djakarta

       (Indonesia) Petualangan Pacar Merah Indonesia

       (Indonesia) Kisruh Ahli Waris Obor Revolusi

       (Indonesia) Gerilya Dua Sekawan

       (Indonesia) “seniman-kehidupan.blogspot.com ‘Tan Malaka’”

 

The Indonesian Music Jazz History Collections

The Indonesian Music Jazz

History Collections

 

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy.MHA

Copyright@ s013

THIS THE PART OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM

“The Indonesian Music Record History Collections”

This sample not full illustrated,the complete CD exist but only for Premium Member ,please subscribed via comment.

 

 

 

Introductions

JAZZ

First,

jazz is important thing/genre for musician, if you can play jazz you can play anything, find as many jazz song as you can get, listen to that song carefully, feel it in your heart, feel the beat, feel the tempo, feel the note, listen to that song, take what they play, and try to improvisation the song with your skill.

Second,

 you must know the basic chord for jazz, like Maj7, m7, Dom7, Maj, min, and also you must memorize the 12 major scales, and chord arpeggios, its really useful for playing jazz you know, you can’t play anything, if you can’t play the basic right?

 

Third,

 you must know the chord progression, like circle of fourth, circle of fifth, and the others, its really useful for making jazz songs, with chord progression you can made a nice song, or nice rhytem melodic.

Fourth,

 buy a songbook that have the chord, tone, and also the chord progression, it will help you to play the song, play with low tempo, then try a mid tempo, and try a fast tempo if you can:P

Fifth,

find a software for computer that contains the tone, and the chords sounds, and try to improvise the song with yourself, try the scales, the arpeggios, the chords, and the others.

Sixth,

learn Chord inversion, Pentatonic scales of your favourites chords, blues scales, melodic minor scales, harmonic minor scales, minor scales, major scales, and the modes.

Seventh,

made a jazz band! you couldn’t go forward if there is no friend to ask right? ask many people about the teoric, and practice.

Good luck

 for the exercise!!!, remember, practice not make perfect

The Indonesian Music Jazz Collections

 

History

The History of Jazz Music in Indonesia

in the 30′s.

Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the 30′s.

Brought by

Jazz  musicians from the Philippines in 1930

who are looking for a job in Jakarta with playing music.

Not only transferring jazz, they also introduced a wind instrument, such as trumpet, saxophone, the music lovers in Jakarta. They play Latin jazz rhythms, such as boleros, rhumba, samba and more.

The names of the musicians who still remember is

 Soleano, Garcia, Pablo, Baial, Torio, Barnarto and Samboyan.


 
read more about The Jazz  musicians from the Philippines in 1930

The Philippines Jazz Dance Bands of the 1930s

 

 

 

The new jazz messengers in the Philippines were the dance bands, which performed the “de cajon” or stock arrangements. The brass and horn sections’ harmony was in block, closed-chord position and was often audibly predictable. Among the very popular Swing bands of the 1930s, the Shanghai Swing Masters, the Pete Aristorenas Orchestra, the Cesar Velasco Band, the Tirso Cruz Orchestra at the Manila Hotel, the Mabuhay Band (also overseen by Tirso Cruz), and the Mesio Regalado Orchestra were among the more prominent names that flourished.

These big bands would provide dance music in the Swing style for Manila’s high-class society and for major provincial capitals where fiestas and other social events would take place year- round. It kept the jazz musicians busy and gainfully employed which gave them an opportunity to travel around the country and eventually overseas, where the pay was much higher.

In fact, many of the jazz musicians after discovering other foreign capitals where jazz was appreciated, would decide to have long extended contracts living a more prominent way of life as compared to the economic limitations back home. But home being close to their hearts, these foreign-based Filipino jazz musicians would periodically visit their motherland to update locals with their latest musical wares.

Read more anout

The popular Jazz Band in 1930

 

 

 

Duke Elinton band

For the first time in the Czech Republic, the Duke Ellington Orchestra will perform their stylized magic.

 

The first-class artistic ensemble interprets the wonderful jazzy music of Duke Ellington, the legendary jazz composer, big band leader and pianist. Duke Ellington was one of the most important figures in the genre of Jazz music and the Duke Ellington Orchestra is known for doing the man proud.

So if you feel like kicking up your jazz feet and experiencing a night of atmospheric music, go have a listen to the Duke Ellington Orchestra performing at Lucerna Hall in Prague. Tickets available at http://www.ticketpro.cz

 

 

Count Basie orchestra

 

Count Basie Orchestra
Directed by Grover Mitchell

 

GROVER MITCHELL

Photo: Armond Bagdasarian

 

***1999 GRAMMY WINNER***
(Best Large Jazz Ensemble Performance)

And winner of :

* Total of 17 Grammy Awards
* 2 Grammy Hall of Fame Awards
* 9 DownBeat Readers and Critics Poll Awards

The swing revival currently going gangbusters in clubs and ballrooms across the nation is generating a new audience for swing music, both contemporary and classic. These new-found fans, sensing something big is to be found behind the music of Big Bad Voodoo Daddy and other favorites of the current scene, have started to seek out the originals, the roots of the music. Inevitably, their search leads them to the Count Basie Orchestra.

Something similar happened in the 1980s, when the era’s young lions introduced a new audience to the hard-bop era heroes they emulated. Today’s swing bands – Royal Crown Revue, Squirrel Nut Zippers, Cherry Poppin’ Daddies – are sending new fans to Benny Goodman, Cab Calloway, Louis Jordan and beyond to the birth of swing and Basie. After all, it was in the Basie bands of the ’30s, in front of the dance floor at Kansas City’s Reno Club, that the jazz rhythm section blossomed and what came to be forever known as “Basie swing” developed.

The reemerging popularity of swing in all its forms is just one of the factors in the recent ascendancy of the Count Basie Orchestra. Another is the strength of the ensemble itself. After back-to back-Grammy awards for 1997 and 1998, the Basie band, directed during the last four years by Grover Mitchell, is crackling with musical vibrancy. With drummer Butch Miles back at the center of the rhythm section, the band has roared through a 1999 itinerary that lists multiple trips to Europe, two weeks in Japan and stops in such exotic locations as Istanbul and Brazil. But the orchestra is most busy here in the U.S. with performances in towns running the gamut from Baltimore, New York, Detroit, Chicago and Atlanta to Fort Wayne, Lubbock, Savannah, Worster and Morgantown.

Maybe that’s one reason the orchestra sounds so good on this latest recording Swing Shift. Another is the first-rate writing of Allyn Ferguson and Bob Ojeda. Ferguson is the noted arranger whose pen was central in Sarah Vaughan’s 1981 meeting with the Basie Orchestra’s horn section as well as last year’s Grammy Award-winning Count Plays Duke. His seven new compositions and three standard arrangements embody the classic sound of Basie swing yet reflect the harmonic depth that Ferguson has brought to his writing since his days with Stan Kenton – full of color, contrast and what can only be called artistry in rhythm.

This theme of modernism within the tradition (no contradiction in today’s Basie band) is continued by Ojeda, one of the group’s trumpeters who has written for everyone from Lionel Hampton to George Benson. While Ojeda’s pieces glisten with sleek harmonic touches and rhythmic shifts, they nonetheless read as authentic pages from the Basie omnibus, both in their spirit and the crafted spaces they arrange for soloists.

Add to this mix Grover Mitchell, a leader with deep roots in the orchestra’s history and long associations with its founder. A lyrical lead trombonist and soloist in the tradition of Tommy Dorsey, Lawrence Brown and Jack Teagarden, Mitchell worked with Duke Ellington and Lionel Hampton briefly before joining Basie in 1962. Absent from the band in the ’70s, Mitchell returned in 1980, remaining until Basie’s death in 1984. Of the three directors who have been at the helm since Basie’s passing (Thad Jones and Frank Foster were the others), Mitchell seems best able to project the Basie spirit, to both his band members and audiences. “I knew from the moment I joined this band I was going to lead it someday,” he says. “I can’t tell you why, but I knew it was my destiny.”

Under Mitchell, the band has returned to its hallmarks: swing, precision, and above all, a focus on the ensemble. The current aggregation has its share of great soloists, but Mitchell has stressed the totality of sound and interplay among musicians. He is aided in this endeavor by the remarkable continuity of personnel that continues to connect past to the present in the band. There are five permanent members in the current band who played under Count Basie’s personal leadership: trombonist Bill Hughes, who joined in 1956, John Williams, Butch Miles, Kenny Hing and Clarence Banks. They are part of the musical DNA that is replicating the Basie spirit for present and future members who never played under Basie himself.

This “guarding of the flame” is the same mission that has driven Count Basie Enterprises, the administrative operation behind the Basie Orchestra which has guided its growth and protected its integrity in the post-Basie years. “Our role has been to keep the Basie band a living, breathing, growing orchestra,” says Aaron Woodward III, CEO of Basie Enterprises and an uncompromising purist regarding all matters concerning Count Basie. “Above all, we want to keep the music true to the Basie way.”

Today, the Basie band is bringing generations of fans together as never before. Young audiences who’ve heard their favorite neo-swing band play “One O’clock Jump,” now sit or dance side-by-side with veteran fans who’ve spent a lifetime cherishing Basie’s 1937 recording of the same tune. This multi-generational appeal is what sets the Basie band apart from the current crop of swing bands. Swing music is not a fad, and it is no passing fancy with the Basie Orchestra. Rather, it is a living art form with an esteemed tradition and a history that spans most of our waning century.

The Count Basie Orchestra continues to build new fans the old fashioned way – by hitting the road, meeting its audiences and playing its music, night after night. It has managed to fuse contemporary sensibilities with its own traditions, in part because it is a genuine “working band” with the esprit de corps that comes from facing its listeners nightly – not a rehearsal unit playing for the recreation of its members or a studio unit that comes together occasionally to make a record. The Basie band is that rarest of all musical ensembles today: a full-time touring jazz orchestra. Night in and night out, they let audiences experience firsthand that miraculous combination of power and grace that only exists when 19 jazz musicians stand shoulder to shoulder and call themselves a big band.

 

Jazz in the 1930s was widely heard on radio as popular music. Besides the usual Duke Ellington and Count Basie hits, local talents abounded, like singer Ding Yalong, who “crooned” in the style of Bing Crosby, then a vocalist in Paul Whiteman’s Orchestra. Radio music in the 1930s had outstanding locally-bred musicians perform live while broadcasting featured instrumentalists like pianists Joe Climaco, Rafael Artigas, and Ariston Avelino. This was a way of informing the listening public that Filipinos were learning rapidly from their foreign counterparts.

Another venue in the 1930s where jazz was predominantly heard was the Ugoy-ugoy Cabaret. This dance hall was dimly lit and the music was non-stop. The taxi dancers were paid by a number of minutes indicated by a whistle, which had nothing to do with the music because the music was continuous. Located in a town in the province of Laguna, ugoy-ugoy, a Tagalog that means “swing” in English. This is probably where the late composer, Miguel “Mike” Velarde, was inspired to name one of his compositions “Ugoy-ugoy Blues”, which became a hit in the early 1930s.

 

 

 

Top left Photo:

 

The Filipino Band jazzes it up big time at the Saratoga Hotel-Restaurant, Chicago, Illinois, earning $1,000.00 a month in the early 1930s. Courtesy of John Silva Collection.

 

 

 

 

 

Bottom right Photo:

 

 Nemesio Regalado introduced the Tonette wind instrument to the Philippines in 1937.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


In addition to playing in Jakarta, such as

 

the Hotel Des Indes

 

 

 (now Ambassador Merlin Plaza)

and

 

the Hotel Der Nederlander

 

 

 

(so the government offices),

they also play in other cities, such as

 

the Hotel Savoy Homann – Bandung

and

 

 in Hotel Oranje (Yamato) – Surabaya.

In 1948
 
approximately 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that contains the local musicians. One is the famous Dutch musician

 

Jose Cleber

Jozef Cleber or too often simply written Jos Cleber (born in Maastricht, June 2, 1916 – died in Hilversum, The Netherlands, May 21, 1999 at age 82 years) is a musician (conductor) a Dutch national who arrived in Indonesia in 1949 in cooperation with the Dutch Government and Indonesia in order to develop the music in Indonesia

Family
He was the youngest of eight children Josephus Gerardus Cleber, an organist and choral conductor, his mother Anna Maria Bastian. He was born a Catholic family.

 In 1939

he was married to Elisa Magdelijns (1917-2007), had a daughter (Yvonne Charlotte).

 

But in 1951

 then divorced and married again in 1951 was also in Jakarta with

Johanna Dirkje de Bruijn (born 1923)

who met at Radio Batavia (Jakarta) and had a daughter also (Karian).

 Music education
He has a tremendous musical talent, and learned music from his father. After completing secondary school, he entered the School of Music Up (muzieklyceum), and continued studying violin and piano at the conservatory in the city of Luik (Belgium). He also studied jazz music, and admirers of

 

 

Duke Elington,

and are advised to learn the saxophone and clarinet, but the trombone is a musical choice (which is said to correspond with his trombone mouthpiece).

Experience the music
At the age of 15 years (1931)
 He has played at Stedelijk Maastrichtsch Orchestra (orchestra city) as a viola player. Then he played on

 

Paul Godwin orchestra,

and

then at the time of military service in 1939 at

 

 the Tonhalle Orchester Zürich play.

After World War II ended
 he returned to Holland and worked as a trombone player and a violin

 

 in ‘Tuschinski-Theater’

under the leadership of musician Max Tak, and the assistance he has worked as a musician in the orchestra Pop trombonis leaders Avro Elzard Kuhlman (AVRO = Algemeene Vereeniging Radio Omroep / Radio Broadcasting The Netherlands).

Later in 1942

 

 He worked as trombonis the Concertgebouw-Orchestra (an orchestra at the Concert Hall of Amsterdam’s famous until now).

 

 

Besides, he also learned the conductor, the science of harmony and kontrapun Baaren composer Kees van Amsterdam.

Then he met with

 

Theo Uden Masman, a dance orchestra leader in Hilversum.

 

 Not long after he joined

 

 

 the Metropolitan Orchestra leader

Dolf van Linden

as a trombone player and aransir between 1945-1948.

 

He also joined the band and Decca Selecta Swing Combo. [1]
Music career trip to Indonesia since
Off to Indonesia 1948

In the month of June 1948
 He went to Indonsia.
After his return to Holland in 1952,
in 1962
 He and his wife (Joke) and son (Karian) to South Africa.

However, in 1964

 he returned to Holland (Hilversum).
 Year 1981
 his retirement (age 65), and died in Hilversum in 1999 (at age 83 years).
 Jos Cleber history in song Indonesia Raya

In 1948
The Dutch government sent an

orchestra leader

 

 

 Yvon Baarspul

 

Philharmoni

coming from the Netherlands about 46 people, but then declined

 

read more about Yvon Baarspul

Radio Philharmonic Orchestra 1948-1950

In 1947,

the idea to give the radio orchestra of Batavia a professional status arose in The Hague and Jakarta simultaneously. At the instigation of the Colonial Office the conductor Yvon Baarspul was approached to form an up to par symphony orchestra over there, that should be able to play an extensive repertoire.

Added to the NIROM-orchestra that was already in existence, this ensemble would ultimately count approximately 63 members. The musicians (most of them were male) were offered a contract for two years, while the Dutch government sponsored the initiative. Because in those days, it was still long before ‘the East’ could be called a safe place, one might remark that this was a risky business. Anyway, in those turbulent years there was a great need for cultural relaxation ‘overseas’.

The result:

 

 

On 5 June 1948,

 

27 candidates left Rotterdam on the M.S Garoet to the Dutch East Indies.

Another group of 12 musicians followed a little later by plane.

 

The violinist Herman v.d. Vegt

was released from his occupation for one year to assist Baarspul in the function of leader of the orchestra.

The members of the orchestra who came from the Netherlands were lodged in Hotel Chaulan, at a walking distance from the radio on King’s Square. A year later, the wives and children came over. In those times, a new quarter was being built on the edge of Batavia, and this was where most people were lodged eventually.

The rehearsals started soon in the big studio of the recently renamed ‘Radio Broadcasting Organisation of the Transition Period’ (ROIO). Vice-president Mohammed Atta became the patron of this new orchestra.

On 30 August 1948

the inaugural concert took place in a sold out hall

 (the so-called Garden Hall)

 

in the Tjikini zoo of Batavia.

(now Taman Ismael Marzuki Garden-TIM)

 

 

 

 

 

 

Read more info about Tjikini Zoo

 

This old zoo in the former Batavia was obviously very popular with small children. Besides large and dangerous animals, there was a lot of small stuff, you should give even to eat. And if you had been there and it was very hot, you could always go to Tjikini pool next to the zoo. But that there is also no longer

 

The zoo no longer exists, no longer. He was moved to Jakarta Selatan(south Jakarta) Cilandak and there become Kebun Binatang Ragunan Zoo.

Whether this hippo is still alive I do not know. Not very likely. This picture is from 1958 and I do not know how old these animals can be. What I do know is that every time that I saw I was wide open mouth or sleep or appetite ayam pang corridor. (Chicken roaster)

 

1957,

 my wife is with our firstborn to look at the elephant, remarkable animal, what with that terrible long nose? For such a large animal but he has a small mouth, but still …. better but at a safe distance.

But there was more in that old Kebon Binatang Cikini, a cinema, I am for the first time in my life been to the movies.

1938,

I was ten years and was with two friends(sobats) by my father for the party brought to the film. “Tom Saywer” was called.

The story I can not remember, but there was an angry Indian in those with a life-size Golok (native daggers)Tom chased.

Tom fled into a cave and climbed the wall to a ledge he can not go. Then comes that Indian look with recurring Golok between his teeth and a few nasty green eyes closer and closer. Palpitations, almost, just a meters …. and then … tolol Giel jatuh pingsan, fainted and only in the taxi home again added.

The last time I was in that movie theater in 1955 from the Cikini hospital Raden Saleh. I had just visited my wife, who received follow-up after the birth of our firstborn.

The film was called “Them” and went about ants as big as buffaloes. Mutants by atomic radiation during nuclear tests in the desert of Alamagordo. Bukan main say(abismal lover) , people and animals were eaten and the cracking of the bones sounded like Mercon in Tahun Baru Tiong Hoa.(Chinese lunar new year)

Slept poorly that night. And dese crazy, I know all there, but namanya cinema, I can not remember. If anyone knows that yet, please leave a message on this website, I would really like to know. Also a picture of that cinema is very welcome.

Source”

Pak Giel

More than 1000 people were in the audience. On the program: Works by Bach, Geraerdts and Brahms with assistance of the oratorium choir.

In the two years that the orchestra existed a number of members formed chamber music ensembles. There were, for instance, two string quartets that came into being. The “Radio Philharmonic Brass quintet” performed with the pianists Frans Szabo and Douda Poliakine and there were numerous recitals and solo-performances. The orchestra went on tour several times:

· September ’49

 to Semarang, Surabaya and Bali on

 the M.S. Ophir (the ship served as a hotel as well).
· November ’49 to Singapore by plane to do 5 concerts in the ‘Victoria memorial Hall’ and a youth concert in ‘Happy World’, a big tent.
· The end of ’49, two concerts in Pladjoe, near Palembang.

From the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra a chamber orchestra was also formed, which was under the leadership of conductor Frits Hinze and which mainly played at the local theatre. In the mean time, the Cosmopolitan orchestra, under the guidance of Jos Cléber, provided for the lighter repertoire. At the same time, the interest of the Indonesian and Chinese side increased.

The management of ROIO, that had been able to establish this new symphony orchestra with strong support from the government, supposed that it would serve the cultural purpose of this institution best not by keeping the orchestra conscientiously within the privacy of the walls of the studio, but by taking care that the concerts were broadcast from the concert hall as much as possible. As a rule, the concerts would be recorded to be broadcast later from the various relay stations in the country, amongst others those of Semarang, Surabaya, Bandung and Makassar. Apart from the ‘Garden Hall’, the concerts also took place

in the ‘Willemskerk’,

 Portuguese Church 1 430x557 Portuguese Church

 The Portuguese ‘Buitenkerk’, the theatre and

 in ‘Concordia’ in Batavia.

read mote about Portugeus Church batavia

Portuguese Church

 
If you travel to the old city of Jakarta, sempatkanlah stop by the Zion Church. The church is located at the corner of Prince Street and Jalan Mangga Dua White Rose, in West Jakarta area. In the past, the Church Zion Church known as the Portuguese (Portugeesche Buitenkerk). In those days, there are two churches, known as the Portuguese Church, First Church of Zion, called “Portuguese Church Outside the City” (outside the fortress city of Batavia) and the second “Portuguese Church in Town” (located in the fortress city of Batavia). However, the latter church was burned down in 1808 AD, while still standing upright Zion Church with all its glory until now.


Portuguese Church 1 430x557 Portuguese Church

 

Portuguese Church or Church of Zion are still used as places of worship. According to history, Zion Church was completed in 1695 AD and inaugurated on Sunday, October 23, 1695 AD, with the blessing by the Reverend Theodore ZAS. The full blessing of the church’s story neatly written in Dutch on the notice board, which until now can still be seen on the walls of the church.

Physical construction of a church that has a magnificent architecture takes approximately two years. Laying the first stone made by Pieter van Hoorn in the year October 19, 1693 AD Zion Church is known for the robustness of the building and still have the same furniture since its inception. This church suffered only two times the renovation, which in 1920 and 1978. In fact, it is said the church building suffered no cracks at all, despite the huge earthquake which spread to Australia, Sri Lanka, and the Philippines, caused by the eruption of Krakatoa in August 1883 AD This church building is protected by the government as a historic building by the Governor of DKI Jakarta Decree No. CB/11/1/12/1972.

Portuguese Church 4 430x322 Portuguese Church

Zion Church was built on an area of 6725 square meters with building area of 32 X 24 meters which is supported by the main pillar of six and are built with a foundation block of a round rod 10 000. This church building can accommodate at least 1000 the congregation. However, now, shrinking the churchyard after being displaced Prince Jayakarta Road widening and road Mangga Dua, each five meters.

As the name implies, Portuguese Church is a church relic of the Portuguese who had landed in the archipelago since the 16th century. However, mention of the word “Portuguese” as the name of the church have its own story. Perhaps, before the Church of Zion stand, where it stood a chapel (small church) Catholics in the year 1675 AD The chapel was founded by the Portuguese to the slaves who came from Bengal, Malabar, Koromandel, and Sri Lanka. The slaves were brought to the archipelago (including the Batavia) and employed for the sake of commerce and households. In general, they are Catholic and speak Portuguese.

Portuguese Church 2 Portuguese Church

Since VOC Batavia and seize control of Portuguese rule, East India Company built the fort city of Batavia Batavia as a barrier region and areas outside it. In addition, the VOC also brought slaves from around the Portuguese archipelago to the city of Batavia (in the castle) to build urban infrastructure. No exception Portuguese slaves who live around Catholic Chapel-which incidentally is outside the castle of Batavia, was also brought into the City. Since then (1628 AD), a former Portuguese slave is flooding the central region and the outskirts of Batavia.

Zion Church is actually a church built in place of the Catholic Chapel (Portuguese) before, as the release of the Portuguese slave residing on the edge and center of the City of Batavia. Terms of slave liberation is they have to switch religion (the Protestant) and use the Dutch language. The slaves who had been free is what is known as the Mardjiker. In a long time, the Church of Zion has been used by the Mardjiker hereditary, while the elite officials Batavia (VOC) worship in downtown. However, when the church burned in downtown Batavia, the VOC communities, officials, and the family moved worship to the Church of Zion, which lies on the edge of town. Over time this church eventually became the property of the elite Dutch Batavia. The Mardjiker was expelled from the church, but the elite Dutch / VOC already overdo mention this church as Portugeesche Buitenkerk aka Portuguese Church.

Portuguese Church 3 430x218 Portuguese Church

After Indonesian independence, the former church of the Mardjiker is administered under the auspices of the Protestant Churches of Western Indonesia (GPIB). In 1957, when the trial Synod GPIB, Portuguese Church decided to change its name to GPIB Zion Church. By the surrounding community, the church is known as the Zion Church. Zion or Zion comes from the name of a hill in the Palestinian areas and is a symbol of salvation for the nation of ancient Israel.

Zion Church has a unique characteristic, if viewed from the style and form of architecture, and furniture that have. The particular architecture stand out in every detail of the building. It can be seen, the church building to form one long room with three wooden ceilings the same height and curved like a keg. Since 2006, the church which included the type of the church hall (hall church) is also enhanced by the church floor tiles composed of gray granite, glazed entrance, and additional space measuring 6×18 meters around the church.

Design and construction of a church that looked diarsiteki Mr. E. Ewout Verhagen from Rotterdam, it certainly will add to the impression of awe, at once fascinated. Look at the durability and robustness of the church that have survived for hundreds of years. Apparently, this robustness is supported by the construction of a building wall constructed from bricks bonded by a mixture of sand and heat-resistant sugar.

In addition to architectural uniqueness, the furniture of the church also served with its own nuances. Upon entering the church door, for example, immediately posted four chandelier (chandelier), a large candle with a reflector (reflective light) shield-shaped bersimbol City of Batavia. Fourth chandelier is dependent on the corners of the room, since over 300 years ago.

Right in the middle of the room, stands a baroque pulpit work of H. Bruyn (1695 AD). This pulpit supported two pole roll and a large canopy hoods that resembled a crown. Making octagonal pulpit carved with a blend of China, Europe, and India is said to have cost about 260 ringgit. Compare the cost of construction of the church who spend around 3,000 ringgit. Ornaments on the bottom side also gave its own style in the pulpit. Travelers who observe the details of this pulpit will find a complete angel ornaments shaped head with wings painted in colors similar to human skin.

In addition to Pulpit, just to the right (if the tourists facing the altar from the front door), there are several rows of chairs and benches carved from dark wood (ebony). The chairs are often used for meetings of this church have a somewhat unique engraving. In the middle of the back of the chair for example, etched into a holy book that is open and on either side there are two little angels picture. If the tourist gaze into one wall of the church, it will be posted an inscribed stone in the Dutch language, which means: “The first stone church was laid October 19, 1693 by Pieter van Horn.”

In addition, on the upper floor, the back, the travelers also can see the inflatable organ musical instruments (organ), parents who are still well preserved. Old organ which is the daughter of Reverend John Maurits grant Moors in the 17th century can still be used. Tourists can also see an iron wheel on the left side of the organ. Fibrous rubber wheel serves to fill the wind that blew the pipe-organ pipe tone when keys are pressed. Once the wheel is rotated by human power (two people), but since 1982 was replaced by electricity. The organ is supported by four slender pillars was last used on October 8, 2000.

Around the neighborhood church, precisely in the foyer of the church, there are 11 graves in the official Dutch Batavia kumpeni first. Among those officials tomb is the tomb of the Governor-General Zwaardecroon (1718-1725 AD), tomb of the primary surgeon named Frederick Ribalt Batavia City (died in 1735 AD) and his son Francois Ribalt (1695 AD), as well as a sailor, named Commissioner General SH Frijkenius.

Zion Church is located on the corner of Prince Jayakarta and Jalan Mangga Dua Raya, West Jakarta, DKI Jakarta, Indonesia. Zion Church is relatively easy to reach tourists, because it is about 300 meters to the City Railway Station (Station Beos City) and 200 meters from the Mangga Dua shopping complex. From Beos City Station, visitors simply walk away or hire a rickshaw heading towards Jalan Mangga Dua and stop down the road, the place where the church is located.

Zion Church is now equipped with facilities such as 8 air conditioner (AC), parking lots, and buildings commonly known by the name of the manse. Manse is a special house built behind the church for the employees and the priest in charge of the church.

A series of 7 concerts, dedicated to Dutch composers, took place in the big hall of the Radio Broadcasting Company of Jakarta. The composition and editorship were in the hands of the oboist Victor Swillens. These concerts were also broadcast by the radio stations of Semarang and Surabaya.

The two valedictory concerts of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra

 in June 1950

made mention of the performance of the 9th symphony of Ludwig van Beethoven, with assistance of Batavia’s mixed choir. On this occasion Yvon Baarspul was knighted as “Ridder in de Orde van Oranje-Nassau”.

The voyage back was made on

the M.S. “Johan van Oldebarnevelt”

on 21 July 1950.

They arrived in Amsterdam on 17 August. Some of the members of the orchestra returned later to form

 

 

 

 the “Orchestra Radio Jakarta”, under the leadership of Henk te Strake,

 which remained in existence until 1953.


Yvon Baarspul

 

Director of the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra in Batavia / Jakarta

 

Bataviaas Staforkest          

 

Batviaas Staff Orchestra o.l.v. Nico Gerharz ± 1915


The orchestra being overseas.

Long time, the music loving public depending on ad hoc ensembles, which needs to evolve into an orchestra.

The tournerende buitelandse opera companies often have their own band names that possibly supplemented by local forces or good amateurs.

The music-staff in Batavia emerged with the advent of a real conductor Nico Gerharz symphonic orchestra  that include 20 strings and horns full occupancy standard program could handle. It gave regular symphony concerts with or without soloists.

From 1904-1916

came the orchestra flourished and even went on tour to major cities in Java.

The Käthe Haasse when young, mother of Hella Haasse, the famous writer, performed concerts at that time of Beethoven, Grieg and Paul Seelig.

These gifted professional pianist also composed songs for choral polyphony. Immediately after the Japanese occupation, there were a few concerts in the theater, by the so-called Station Orchestra. (AFRIB) by the Allied Forces Radio broadcast in Batavia.


The later NIROM Radio Orchestra,

the result of smaller formations could, at the initiative of

Theo van der Bijl and Picklertrio

conquer a permanent place in listeners around the archipelago by support channels to let them hear. Fritz Hinze was the first conductor of the orchestra led format.


Locally formed smaller amateur orchestras in places like Surabaya (Vincent Loo) Malang, Makassar, Medan and Bandung.

For the court orchestra of the Sultan were Yokyakarta

 

artist Walter Spies

 

Walter Spies with Angelica Archipenko circa 1930

Walter Spies (15 September 1895 – 19 January 1942)

 was a Russian-born German primitivist painter. In 1923 he came to Java, living first in Yogyakarta and then in Ubud, Bali starting in 1927.

He is often credited with attracting the attention of Western cultural figures to Balinese culture and art in the 1930s and he influenced the direction of Balinese art and drama.

In 1937,

 Spies built what he described as a “mountain hut” at Iseh in Karangasem. Adored by the Balinese, Spies was the co-founder of the Pita Maha artists cooperative, through which he shaped the development of modern Balinese art and established the Westerner’s image of Bali that still exists today

 

Spies was the first to arrive, settling in Ubud in 1927.

The son of a German diplomat, he spent his formative years in Russia and traveled widely, living in Java before settling in Bali. He lived a heady, bohemian existence in those early Ubud days — it was the beginning of the West’s love affair with Bali, drawing luminaries such as Noel Coward, Charlie Chaplin, Vicky Baum, Miguel Covarrubias and Margaret Mead.

As a painter, Spies was profoundly influenced by Bali’s culture and landscape.

 One can see evidence of this in the following works, the first, Das Karussel, painted in 1922 before his travels to Bali, the second and third after his arrival there:

 

 

 

Spies’ life took a tragic turn after a decade of artistic productivity and growing fame.

His openly homosexual lifestyle attracted the disapproval of the Dutch colonial government and led to his imprisonment for “indecent behavior” during much of 1939.

Not long thereafter came the start of World War II and the German invasion of Holland. The Dutch-Indies government arrested all Germans, sending Spies to a prison camp in Sumatra.

From there, Spies was placed on a transport ship to Ceylon, a voyage that ended his life when the ship sank under bombardment by the Japanese

 

and

 

Paul Seelig

muzicus attracted.

Paul Seelig (1876 – 1945)          

Among the musicians in Indonesia there were also a few composers who left behind a voluminous oeuvre. The most important one among them was Paul Seelig, about whom there will be more later on. To just mention a few names: Constant van de Wall, Hector Marinus, Theo Smit Sibenga en Emile Hullebroek.

In Europe, there were also a number of composers who were inspired by eastern music and the gamelan: Claude Debussy, Maurice Ravel, Francis Poulenc, Colin McPhee and Peter Schat.  </P

 

Paul Johan Seelig

(1976-1945)

On June 13, 1945

 Mr. Cornelis died on Java. He was a talented composer, whose work has remained virtually unknown in the Netherlands until today: Paul John Seelig, born in Breda, 1876.

The course of his life is an absorbing story that for the most part takes place in the Far East. He had an all-round musical education in Germany for the most part and studied with prominent teachers. He studied the piano, the cello, orchestration and theory.

In 1888,

he was 2nd conductor of the Stadttheater in Essen. In the mean time, he was often travelling through countries such as Japan, Palestine, Turkey, Romania, Hungary and the Netherlands.

In 1900,

 Seelig comes back to the Dutch East Indies and becomes the conductor of

the court orchestra of the Susuhunan of Surakarta.

During the following 8 years in Solo,

 a penetrating study is made of eastern music.

After the death of his father, he settles in Bandung,

to take on the leadership of the publishing business (Matatani) and music- and instrument shop his father had founded. However, the wanderings have not yet finished.

Music and dramatic society “Braga” in 1910 with,

 amongst others, Paul Seelig on cello.

Publication Seelig / Matatani

 

 

Muziek en toneelvereniging “Braga” in 1910 met o.a. Paul Seelig cello

 

 

 

 In 1911

he leaves for Siam (Thailand). There he becomes

conductor and musical advisor of the Royal Orchestra of Bangkok.

 At that time, he noted down a large number of Siamese folk-melodies and he also composed the national anthem of Siam.

 

A large collection of songs, recorded from

native singers of Central Java,

would also appear in print afterwards.

The compositions of Seelig display an intriguing combination of eastern and western elements, the structure always betraying the craftsman.

Much of his voluminous, practically undated oeuvre has, apart from the Indies themselves, also been performed in Germany, France, Austria, America and Japan, but strangely enough hardly ever in our country.

After about 1930

 he has composed little more, because he was preoccupied with the publishing- and music business in Surabaya, Bandung (Bragaweg), Batavia and Semarang.

Most of his work has been indexed by his grandson and can also partly be found in the music libraries in this country.

Seelig has become famous mainly because of the so-called Pantun, a Malaysian variant of the Portuguese Moresco, which was accompanied by the plucked instrument, the krontjong. At the time, his piano concerto has been performed in the Indies several times with an orchestra by the pianist Käthe Haasse, the mother of writer Hella Haasse.

The musical score of this work that, like so many of his compositions, had been fancied lost because of the war, has been recovered recently. People are trying to put new life into it, among other things, by way of the computer. The orchestral score must still be worked out with the help of very concise notes.

Finally, the Radio Philharmonic Orchestra composed of local musicians and Hungarian and Dutch forces.

 After 1950,

 there remained a small band in Jakarta led by Henk te Strake

 

in 1952

to return to the Netherlands.
Some of these musicians (who later settled in Yogyakarta) is the forerunner of educators musicians in Indonesia

since 1952
School of Music with the establishment of Indonesia (SMIND),

 

and

 

 

Argo Records – RG-2 – P.1952. Side A. 2-A1 Kebiar 8’49

 

in 1961
transformed into the Academy of Music Indonesia (AMI) in Yogyakarta, which is now named
Indonesian Arts Institute (ISI) since 1984.

 

Read more info

 

Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI” another component, was born in 1961 evolved from the School of Music Indonesia (SMIND) that was built in 1952

Institut Seni Indonesia Yogyakarta

is known as the ISI is an institution of higher learning the art of status of public universities that have the authority to provide education to the highest level.

 

 ISI

was established on the basis of Presidential Decree No. 39/1984 dated May 30, 1984 and inaugurated by the Minister of Education and Culture Prof. Dr. Nugroho Notosusanto on July 23, 1984.

Although relatively young age as an institute, but the universities which is a component of the ISI has long existed and has been a long time to take part in the development of the country of art and generate a lot of artists and professionals who are scattered in various functions, professions and expertise, both within as well as abroad. ISI was formed by the fusion of three higher education pre-existing art, namely the College of Arts Indonesia “ASRI”, Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI”, and the Academy of Dance Indonesia “ASTI“.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

ASRI

 

College of Arts Indonesia “ASRI”

as the oldest of its components have been around since early 1950 as a result of the efforts of artists who were then gathered in Yogyakarta. Indonesia has a tradition of high art will be able to maintain and develop kemapuannya. Thus was born the Indonesian Academy of Fine Arts (ASRI) that originated from academy status and obtain a new shape in 1968 as a high school that gave him the authority to open an undergraduate degree.

AMI

 

Academy of Music Indonesia “AMI”

another component, was born in 1961 evolved from the School of Music Indonesia (SMIND) that was built in 1952; and the Academy of Dance Indonesia “ASTI” was born in 1963; a continuation of the Conservatory of Dance Indonesia (KONRI) which born a little way behind, namely in 1961

ASTI

As with ASRI,

the establishment of AMI and ASTI is also due to the strong encouragement of Indonesia art and culture lovers for mengmbangkan what they have. Although long before that arts education has traditionally been there, but to increase both vertical and horizontal necessary institutions of formal education and modern art

In early 1973,

the trial of the leaders STSRI “ASRI”, AMI, ASTI and several other arts academy with officials from the Ministry of education and Culture, agreed to establish an institution of higher education are more wide-ranging artistic and greater authority in both the field art and in terms of the provisions of higher education

 

Back to Jos Cleber informations

Then Jos Cleber a classic pop musicians such as Mantovani, working as an orchestra leader Cosmpolitan in Jakarta, because the players made up of various races (kosmospolitan).

 The players there are from Russia (Nicolai Varvolomeyeff), Hungary (George Setet, Henry Tordasi), Philippines (Pablo, Sambayon), Indonesia (Sardi,

 

Ismail Marzuki .,

 Iskandar

(father of

diah Iskandar).
While in Indonesia he had a lot of attention to the art of gamelan.
 I

ndonesia Raya Jos Cleber filmed version of

the Symphony M Jusuf Ronodipuro,

 

 

 that when it became the Head of Studio RRI Jakarta,

in 1950

 

 requested that Jos Cleber (at that time he was 34 years old) make arrangements Indonesia Raya, having successfully worked on the arrangement of songs, Indonesia, among others, Under the Full Moon Light, and Jasmine series.

Jusuf Ronodipuro describes Indonesia Raya, how songs are born and created, as well as explaining the meaning of the song. Cleber commented that he captures the nuances Marseillasse (French national anthem) in Indonesia Raya.

 

Composed by Jos Cleber was recorded at Studio RRI Jakarta on
beginning in 1951

by involving all the musicians of the orchestra cosmopolitan, recorded with a tape recorder that new Philips owned RRI at that time.

Then in 1997
re-recorded with a digital technique in Australia by Victoria Philharmony led Adie MS.

Bung Karno comments above arrangement Jos Cleber
Jusuf Ronodipuro Jos Cleber then invited to meet President Soekarno to Merdeka Palace to play the tape.
Bung Karno directly criticized the composition Cleber. According to Jusuf, Bung Karno said, “Indonesia Raya is like our Red and White Flag.
No need to be given more lace. “[2]

 


Orkes Studio Jakarta dalam dunia musik periode 1948-1950

.

Top of Form

Djakarta Studio Orchestra
One of the orchestra is in Jakarta Indonesia in the early days of independence, led by

 

 

 Soetedjo.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Sutedjo  also the leader of angkasa sound  orchestra

The other two are Philarmonisch Radio Orchestra and

the Orchestra Cosmopolitan led by Jos Cleber.

Jakarta Studio Orchestra in the music world has duty to the period 1948-1950 is not light, which is trying to modernize the art keroncong to fit the era.

Despite facing various obstacles, OSD always tries to give consideration between Western and Eastern music, Hawaian and Malay, as well as jazz and keroncong. Soetedjo OSD lead since the first time established until July 1, 1950.

Cleber’s Jakarta studio  Orchestra cosmopolitan

music game to accommodate California.

 Of new bands springing up like

 The Progressive Trio, Iskandar’s Sextet and Octet who plays jazz and the Old Timers who plays Dixieland repertoire.

read more about

M Jusuf Ronodipuro

original in native java language

Muhammad Jusuf Ronodipuro utawa Joesoef Ronodipoero

 (Salatiga, Jawa Tengah, 30 September 1919Jakarta Kidul, 27 Januari 2008) iku misuwur minangka salah sawijining perintis RRI.

Saliyané iku dhèwèké uga naté dadi Duta Besar Indonesia. Ronodipuro tau dadi Duta Besar ing Uruguay, Argentina, lan Chili. Jusuf Ronodipuro gegarwa karo Siti Fatima Rassat nganti séda lan pinaringan telung putra: Dharmawan, Irawan lan Fatmi.

Panjenengané séda ing RSAD Gatot Soebroto déning komplikasi stroke lan kanker paru-paru: Ronodipuro misuwur olèhé ngrokok sing nganthi kaya sepur. Banjur panjenengané disarèkaké ing Taman Makam Pahlawan Kalibata, Jakarta Kidul ing tanggal 28 Januari 2008. Nalikané séda ora olèh kawigatèn akèh amerga mbarengi sédané lan panyaréyan Pak Harto.

Ronodipuro iku dianggep sawijining pahlawan Indonesia.

Panjenengané sing biyen bisa kelakon nggiyaraké Proklamasi Kamardikan 1945 lumantar radio menyang bangsa-bangsa saindhenging jagad. Ronodipuro uga sing ngrintis anané Radio Republik Indonesia (RRI) nganti saiki iki.

Menawa Dina Radio dipéngeti saben tanggal 11 September, iku amarga dina iku tanggaleYusuf Ronodipuro sakanca sejawaté miwiti ngedegake RRI ing tanggal 11 September 1945

Jaman pendhudhukan Jepang

Ing taun 1942,

Hindia-Walanda dibedhah déning Tentara Dai Nippon lan Tentara KNIL nungkul kasoran. Wiwit iku Hindia-Walanda dibroki Jepang lan Walanda ditendhang metu. Yusuf Ronodipuro dhéwé wiwit taun 1943 dadi wartawan radio militèr Jepang ing Jakarta, sing diarani Hoso Kyoku. Radio kuwi pemimpiné wong Jepang, yaiku Letkol Tomo Bachi, wakilé wong Indonesia anama Utoyo Ramlan. Déné pemimpin redaksiné Bahtar Loebis, kangmasé sastrawan dan wartawan Mochtar Loebis. Mochtar Loebis dhéwé nalika semana dipercaya mligi kanggo siaran mancanegara.

Tekané dina kamardikané bangsa Indonesia wis trontong-trontong. Jepang dibom atom déning Amérika Sarékat, sepisanan Hiroshima ing tanggal 6 Agustus 1945, banjur kasusul tanggal 9 Agustus 1945 Nagasaki uga dibesmi.

Jepang banjur nungkul marang Sekutu, nanging pawarta wigati iki durung tekan ing Indonesia, jalaran nalika semana arang-arang sing ngrungokaké radio.

Ronodipuro dhéwé senadyan nyambut gawé nèng radio Jepang, ya durung ngerti pawarta kuwi. Ujug-ujug siaran luar negeriné Hoso Kyoku ditutup embuh kena apa. Mochtar Loebis sing dipercaya nangani bab pawarta manca kuwi banjur mbisiki jaré Jepang wis nungkul marang Sekutu. Merga jejibahané dadi wartawan, PakYusuf banjur menyang Menteng 31, papan ngumpule para pejuwang mudha.

Nèng kono wis ana rapat wigati sing dipimpin Sukarni. Kabèh wis ngerti yèn Jepang nungkul, mbokmenawa saka Adam Malik sing dadi wartawan Domei. Pas Yusuf teka kabèh padha seneng. Sukarni kandha, jaré kaum mudha arep ngrebut Radio Jepang. Yusuf sing ngerti Hoso Kyoku diajak rembugan kepriyé carané ngrebut. Kamangka wektu kuwi Radio Jepang dijaga rapet banget déning Kempetai, pulisi militèr Jepang sing kejem banget.

 Proklamasi Kamardikan Républik Indonésia

Jemuwah ésuk jam 10.00 tanggal 17 Agustus 1945,

Proklamasi Kamardikan klakon diwacakaké déning Bung Karno ing Dalan Pegangsaan Timur 56. Ronodipuro dhéwé kala semana ora ngerti, sebab wong-wong ing Hoso Kyoku wiwit dina Rebo sadurungé wis ora entuk mlebu utawa metu manèh. Kabèh ana njero. Dumadakan ana wong teka, jenengé Syahrudin, nggolèki Yusuf karo menehaké kitir salembar. Layang cekak aos kuwi saka Adam Malik isiné tèks proklamasi.

Ronodipuro isih bingung, kepriyé carané teka Syahrudin bisa mlebu gedhong radio sing saiki ing Dalan Medan Merdeka Barat 4-5, kamangka wong Kempetai jaga kupeng. Bareng arep nyiaraké, Yusuf Ronodipuro bingung manèh, amarga panggonan siaran kabèh dijaga Kempetai. Tujuné kélingan yèn studio siaran luar negeri wis ora kanggo. Nanging, piyé carané wong pemancare ora ana. Yusuf banjur takon bagéyan teknis, ya nemu akal jempolan. Kabel sing kanggo menyang pemancar dalam negeri dicopoti, disambung karo pemancar luar negeri. Nanging ing studio katoné ya kaya siaran biyasa, amarga swarané ya isih kaya adat sabené. Kamangka wis ora dipancaraké.

Bareng wis tumata, jam 19.00,

 Yusuf Ronodipuro sing umuré ngancik 26 taun, banjur nyiaraké Proklamasi liwat siaran luar negeri. Kira-kira nganti 20 menit, lan ambal-ambalan, uga diterjemahaké menyang basa Inggris. Kuwi tegesé radio-radio BBC London, Radio Amerika, Singapura, lan sapituruté bisa nangkep kabèh, dadi wusana sadonya ngerti Indonesia wis Proklamasi Kamardikané.

Usaha Ronodipuro kuwi wekasané dikonangi déning Tentara Dai Nippon. Mbokmenawa siarané ketangkep radio ing Jepang. Mula, Kempetai dadi nesu banget. Angger kapapag wong Indonesia ing Hoso Kyoku, kabèh dipala. Ronodipuro ditendhang, diidak-idak, lan mèh dibabat samurai. Sikilé diidak nganti dhengkulé dheglok lakuné.

Sawisé iku Ronodipuro ngedegaké Radio Suara Indonesia Merdeka mawa barang-barang bekas.

Tanggal 25 Agustus

Bung Karno diaturi supaya pidato. Iki pidatoné Bung Karno kang sepisanan sasuwéné dadi Présidèn. Bung Hatta pidato

tanggal 29 Agustus.

Nalika semana ing daérah-daérah radio Jepang isih akèh sing siaran.

Ing daérah pancèn ora dijaga rapet kaya Jakarta. Sing njaga mung siji loro, iku merga Kempetainé wis kaya ora nduwé daya sawisé Jepang nungkul.

Mula Yusuf Ronodipuro matur marang Abdurahman Saleh, supaya radio-radio daérah mau beciké ngadani sesambungan siaran kanggo perjuwangan. Gagasané ditampa lan ing

10 September

pimpinan radio-radio daérah, saka Sala, Yogyakarta, Bandung, Semarang, lan liya-liyané bisa kumpul rembugan. Kabèh nyarujuki, njaluk marang pamaréntah Jepang supaya masrahaké radio-radioné ing Indonésia. Jepang ora gelem, amerga miturut rencana arep diserahaké marang Sekutu.

Tanggal 11 September

rapat manèh, nyarujuki madege Radio Republik Indonesia, lan uga sepisan maneh njaluk marang pemerintah Jepang supaya masrahaké radio-radio ing daérah. Merga tetep ora gelem, kepeksa banjur dirudapeksa, radio-radio direbut. Wong Jepangé dhéwé wis padha wedi, dadi wis kaya ora ana alangan. Yusuf Ronodipuro dhéwé banjur kapatah minangka Kepala RRI, déné Abdurahman Saleh mélu ngadegaké Angkatan Udara RI. Mula asmané saiki dilestarèkaké dadi jeneng lapangan terbang ing Malang.

Sekutu sing menang Perang Donya II kuwi banjur teka. Nalika semana sawisé Rapat Akbar Ikada, kaum mudha ngrebut kantor-kantoré wong Jepang dadi darbéné Republik, klebu Hoso Kyoku. Nalika Walanda ndomplèng Sekutu arep ngrebut bali Indonesia lumantar

Agresi I ing taun 1946,

 RRI dikuwasani Walanda, lan Yusuf Ronodipuro banjur dicekel lan dipenjara ing

 21 Juli 1947.

 Kedaulatan Indonesia ing taun 1949

Sawisé Walanda ngakoni kedaulatan Indonésia ing

taun 1949,

 Yusuf Ronodipuro lenggah manèh dadi Kepala RRI Serikat.

 Sabanjuré Yusuf Ronodipuro dipercaya ngayahi manéka warna jejibahan utawa tanggung jawab ing negara manca, klebu dadi duta besar utawa utusan menyang PBB.

 Sumber

       (jv) Winarto. 2005. “M. Yusuf Ronodipuro Bapak RRI. Dipala Jepang Nganti Dheglok Marga Nggiyarake Proklamasi” ing Damar Jati 2005:4 kaca 26-27, 36.

Year 1945 – 1950

Famous jazz band in 1945 – 1950 in Surabaya member

 

 Jack Lemmers (known as Jack Lesmana, Indra’s father) on bass / guitar,

 

 Bubi Chen (piano), Teddy Chen, Jopy Chen (bass), Maryono (saxophone), Berges ( piano), Oei Leng Boen (guitar), Didi Pattirane (guitar), Mario Diaz (drums) and Benny Hainem (clarinet).


When RRI Jakarta handed back to Indonesia,

 

Jusuf Ronodipuro

doing some renovation. Orchestra on the third Philarmonisch Radio Orchestra, Djakarta Studio Orchestra, and the Cosmopolitan Orchestra – will be retained but leadership is replaced. Ismail Marzuki was appointed as leader of the OSD bam.

Although the sense of hearing is already less than perfect, Jusuf still “forcing” Marzuki to led the orchestra that aspires to “advance the art-noise Indonesia” is.

OSD leadership handover is like a meeting between the “books with mas”. What is arranged Soetedjo continued Ismail Marzuki.

They stand shoulder to shoulder to bring the art of music and sound art to one goal: the music is understood by all the people of Indonesia.

Soetedjo “betrays an array of experts who have been musicians will understand the meaning and significance of training and discipline,” while Ismail was “forging of which is Dear to popularize the songs into the society … the society entertaining.”

Soetedjo maing himself referred to as “the only one who knew arrangeur Indonesia, which could rapidly-tjekatan been working” and “an artist-music-conscious organizations.”

But Ismail Marzuki OSD lead only for three months, then conductor submitted to a sebelurnnya Sjaiful Bahri known as orchestra players Puspa Delima. Sjaiful by Ismail Marzuki considered “fully gifted”.

 OSD advances under Sjaiful Bahri did not escape the influence of Dutch musicians such as Jos Cleber Diessevelt and Tom, who also had to educate Ismail Marzuki song arranging and orchestration. After the death Sjaiful Bahri, Cleber Diessevelt returned to the Netherlands, acting as a writer Ismail Marzuki keroncong arrangements for OSD

In 1955,

Bill Saragih form a group of Riders Jazz.

He played the piano, vibes and flute.

 Other members are Didi Chia (piano), Paul Hutabarat (vocals), Tobias Herman (bass) and Yuse (drums).

The next edition of the member Hanny Joseph (drums), Sutrisno (tenor saxophone), Lopis Thys (bass) and

 Bob Tutupoly (vocals).

The names of jazz musicians in Surabaya in the 50 – 60s

 Karamoy Eddy (guitar), Joop Talahahu (tenor sax), Leo Massenggani, Benny Pablo, Dolf (saxophone), John Lepel (bass), Alexander (guitar and piano) and Sadikin Zuchra (guitar and piano).

 

In the,, history “RHYTHM for 10 years one of the orchestra who has taken a special place in my heart which alone is,, RHYTHM SPECIAL TRIO / Quartet” led by Nick Mamahit, as long as there is no orchestra alone which can give more numerous kapada satisfaction and kesengan but also the difficulty in recording their lagu2 Mamahit besides Nick.

Nick Mamahit

name can not be separated by the establishment RHYTHM 10 years ago. Which begins in a recording studio (garage) small-sized 2×3 M. didjalan H. Agus Salim 65 (now N0.119) and didjalan Besuki 23, Nick et al his friends : Dick Abel (guitar, saxophone), Dick v / d Capellen (bass) and Max v. Preformance (drums) has made its own history with the establishment,, Special Rhythm Trio / Quartet “. They are pioneers in a new style  which show the songs ..

 The term which they use are,, progressief “.

Surely such the song

s style  which can not be so alone accepted by crowded peoples . Having experienced various hurdles and criticism from other artists as well as an duran2 then made a little spin songs  which many may also be accepted by chalajak who crowded bertjorak ie,, commercieel progessief “which means, that they play like what is embodied in their hearts (progressief) , but also not to forget and ignore common sense, or which may be accepted by fans of vinyl records.

Just remember back to lagu2 with,, Special Rhythm Trio “(progessief) al: Angin Mamiri , etc. Ole2 Bandung. which did not get a warm welcome and which is difficult to sold . Besides, there are also songs with new stles together, Rhythm Quartet “(commercieel progessief) which is,, tophit” then al: Lenggang Djakarta, dream last night, and Action Kutjing.Memang ………… Senjum uncompromising art.

Although the opinion and hearing the song was just something kind and quality, if the buyer does not like ………… then he too would not bought it

Recording with Nick Mamahit’s songs  not as easy as with others orchestra. Each player is an expert on their own and the songs  which must also be able to change their,, accentueer “spirit of their own with no one among them depending on their own, while in addition,, recording engineer” should also be able menjelami their spirit.

There is not a song   which can be recorded at night, on the contrary if they are really , in the mood “at least 2 pieces of many songs which can be inserted tape.

After,, the old gang “broke up in 1954,  

associated with the departure of Dick v / d v Capellen and Max. Dick preformance into the land of Abel to the Netherlands and Singapore, then Nick Mamahit own abode in Indonesia and the establishment of a new orchestra which can replace or menjamai,, Special Trio / Quartet “last, while the bauyers  very cold reception.

Then two years later in 1956, 

 Nick formed a trio with Risakotta Bart (drums) and Espehana (bass) who serve lagu2 of instrumental and the outcome  is longplay,, Sarinande “.
What a welcome from buyers and fans of the LPs and abroad on the outward appearance,, Sarinande “Mamahit prove that Nick has successfully captured the hearts of fans of vinyl records and views of,, in terms commercieel” succesnja achieve anyway.
And ……………… 5 years after,, Sarinande “longplay which then made the second by a,, SPECIAL RHYTHM” caption :,, ………… miss NICK Mamahit “.

The period of the recording, Sarinande “with,, miss” is 5 years (1956-1961).

 many problems , but just know that this is,, specifiek “Nick. heard as a contradiction or conflict, but precisely because,, specifiek “which is tjiri  specific  from Nick, it was just a matter of time granted.

Because of these styles coupled with the principles and perseverance which his property own , little give in the course and many other teman2 RHYTHM boost in driving the company which originally was,, hobby “, but then become a necessity in serving the arts.

Young musicians

 in Jakarta sprung up in 70 – 80.

INTERVIEW WITH Sudibyo Pr.
A History of Jazz in Indonesia Note

Fatherly figure was actually initially wanted him to be a musician, but not accomplished. Would end up just listening to it.

 

Although only one of jazz music lovers, but from his experience will be full of footage and historical development of jazz music in Indonesia.

 

Familiar with jazz music since the days of Indonesia’s independence war in the 1940s until he was much involved and the man behind the screen a variety of jazz events in Indonesia, especially in London.

With the support of many thousands of documentation about jazz and jazz albums in his home, now he is planning to publish a book of jazz music.

 

From a glance at the Radio interview with WartaJazz Bikima FM Yogyakarta, Indonesia has revealed that there is a jazz group in 1922. Surely it would be more satisfied if we wait for the book can be published and the important thing is probably what can be described in the book he may be a reflection of us all about the emergence of jazz music in Indonesia.

Jazz News (WJ): reportedly is preparing to launch a book about jazz music?

Sudibyo Pr (SP): Now working on a book, a new approximately 90% complete.

WJ: What motivated you to write a book of jazz?

SP: Actually, in an effort to communicate and socialize jazz music. Since most jazz books here mostly in English and not many books about jazz in Bahasa Indonesia. And of course my own as a jazz lover, want to try to share my experience to better communicate to new generations.

WJ: Do you really see that jazz is not popular in the community in Indonesia?

SP: I think it’s still a lot of the wrong image, wrong understanding. We as a true jazz lovers are also willing to raise the status of jazz as an art.

But until now I still understand that the situation in Indonesia is still so. In the United States alone that jazz before 1950 is actually somewhat neglected community as well.

 

After receiving the European jazz seriously, Americans are just beginning. And what was in Indonesia I think is still reasonable and it is one effort. It has never been a single published book entitled Jazz Indonesia, whose contents are only telling musicians or anyone who ever played jazz.

 

With some mixture of jazz and biographies of the characters. In addition, the book might be a little jazz my other guide book of nature is history.

WJ: I wonder what is written in the book?

SP: The first time about starting with what is jazz, all kinds of misconceptions and try to straighten our understanding. Especially knowing that jazz is very different from other music.

 

For as we look at jazz music with European musical glasses then always be missed. So does jazz have to approach the other way and may not exist in other music.

In the book I describe it, especially compared with European music. European music is music composition. Something that is built and the music should be played like what is written.

 

So if people like to paint pictures to paint. If jazz, to the contrary, he would express himself as well as the main priority is performance rather than composition.

 

Whether it’s jazz or not, after playing the new people know that it’s jazz or not. So if you like this game if you play jazz and it’s not like jazz.

 

 If the classical music, I play the score was able to say I play classical music and jazz that is later used to play, we hear first.

 

Actual composition was made by the musicians themselves when he was playing. Composition used here only as a basis for improvisation and melody build itself.

WJ: What is it that makes the impression of jazz music in our society is difficult to understand, a music class?

SP: If jazz music really can be difficult to understand as well. If up to now there is the impression that jazz is only for the upper class, was in Indonesia since the beginning of jazz music played on a five-star hotels.

 

 Because at the time it was difficult to ask clubs or a small café to showcase jazz music. Of their commercial aspect they did not dare. They think that jazz is still too foreign, and also happens to be the manager of these hotels as well as jazz lovers and also a lot of friends there so we finally started playing jazz in there.

 

Because hotels are five-star hotel, so that came mostly from upper middle class. This gives the impression that they make an exclusive group.

 

Perhaps it is true, but that eksklusifme jazz that’s more in terms of artistic rather than in terms of prestige.

 

Actually, they are for the love of jazz music and match the specific groups to form a group. Indeed, until now most are still a lot of jazz played in the major hotels and many have not played in other places though now little by little has been started (played in other places too-red).

WJ: And in the past, anything that you try to promote jazz music?

SP: We previously did not hold in hotels, but on campus. In the beginning was simple.

 

At that time the only source of jazz from the radio and there are several local musicians. Entertainment while students at the time when there is gathering together every week.

 

There we can drive around music, dance and always invite some jazz musicians. After that show they play. I often also bring some jazz recordings, finally my friends who love jazz and the other remains might come home we’re late.

 

At that time I ventured to hold a concert at the ITB LPs are played every full moon on the basketball court. I also love sober explanation according to my knowledge by recording from vinyl records and turntables powered by 50 watt amplifier that it was a great time. Finally nice enough, 2 hours with jazz music and after that we play dance music. Originally the case.

WJ: What exactly is the main activity of the Pak Dibyo it? Is jazz columnist? Or something else?

SP: When I was a lot of activity. But my profession is the architect, former professor of ITB, but indeed from the days of my students are active in promoting jazz, introducing jazz at the time not many people are familiar with jazz music, music that is still considered a lunatic. Although ultimately had an impact too.

WJ: First you study in?

SP: I went to the ITB which I then proceed to study in Britain and America.

WJ: In the book, is there any sort of how to enjoy jazz music?

SP: There are several things to consider, the first is the familiar elements of jazz music are the elements that make music that could be called jazz.

 

The second part is the identifier of each element of jazz music and a little bit about the structure of jazz music. Next is the history of jazz music, from the birth of jazz music.

 

Then was the development of style-style, because that person is known to jazz it was a lot of his style. It also indicates that very fast jazz music in its development, which in a century has been remarkable progress.

 

If the era of classical music from another era to era take hundreds of years. A lot of people that listen to jazz now be confused. Many in the jazz style.

 

Especially if the person did not know him. I hereby attempt to discriminate between one style with another style. There are funny stories, first time there are no bands that put on a musical instrument drum while wearing only a jazz group only. So that there are people who call the instrument is jazz. If anyone says that the band had a jazz band that means it has a drum.

WJ: What is the history of jazz in Indonesia is also specifically mentioned in the book?

SP: Yes, at the end. According to the data that I got that jazz was first played in Indonesia is about the year 1922.

 

So actually the first jazz recording ever produced in America was in 1917.

 

Since then the record began to spread across the world. Actually there is a musician from the Netherlands after a long time in America, he is also a saxophone player, came to Indonesia with his friends and make a band.

 

At that time regarded as the first jazz band in Indonesia. And I’ve noticed over the history of the game it was the Indo-Dutch almost 80% while the natives probably very few who play jazz music.

 

Indeed, if their names are read Dutch but judging by the name of the person is actually one of Jember, Banyuwangi and so on.

 

Why so? I have not found the right reasons but it should be investigated as well.

There are also a source that says about the year 1925 – 1927 many Filipinos into Jakarta and most of them are musicians. It also had an impact. Still some left, if in London there is still a musician whose name is Pablo Benny, Benny Corda, including the head of the radio orchestra in London, Sambayong it was the Filipinos who are jazz musicians who came to Indonesia in 1925.

WJ: Actually its development center in?

SP: Jakarta, Bandung, Bogor, Surabaya and Makassar. Originally used jazz played by a military group that usually they play to the top of his Dutch and Indonesian people, including his right to equal by the Dutch.

 

In the past they played in Societet, while the people of Indonesia can enter the building can be calculated, and even jazz had entered the palace.

 

We’ll see, at the time of the Dutch people who already have grammaphon Indonesia’s who?

 

Perhaps the Sultan alone. Anyway people of Indonesia on the social position like that of course they want to be aligned with the Dutch, who prefer to join the party events, dance with the Dutch.

 

In the United States was at that time jazz was still at an early stage, ie as much as a musical entertainment, as keadaanya not until now that some people considered as one of the jazz art form.

WJ: In those days, if there is a native who played jazz music?

SP: There is. In the report that I got it menebutkan that indigenous jazz musicians from Indonesia Aceh was the first time.

WJ: Is it true that some of our freedom fighters of the Army or its participating student play jazz to entertain the Netherlands?

SP: That’s not the Army their students, but individuals only. Incidentally I am also of the TP and there are some friends of Yogyakarta is also one of the union leaders that we are familiar with the name calling Pung mas.

 

He’s a musician too, and many of my friends at school who moved to Jakarta Yogyakarta about the year 1948.

 

There had with my friend from Ambon named Rudi Wayrata (live Lempuyangan, Yogya) and theists Matulesi, Edi Laluyan of Manado later formed the band in Jakarta.

 

At the time the band plays songs Hawain and pop songs, even though it in some style Hawain have started a little guitar solo in the direction of jazz music.

 

So they leave Yogyakarta to Jakarta. At one time mas Pung and I have an idea, why do we make the arrangements of vocal-group jazz arranger.

 

So that at the time, because mas Pung is also a fairly reliable aransir, has begun to make arrangements that are now possible such as Manhattan Transfer iringannya although still modest.

 

Playing in the studio until RRI (then still under the Dutch) and found by Jos Cleber (a Dutch orchestra leader).

 

 When he saw us play he remarked, “you are actually having an excellent vocal group, it helps me swatch cuman a jazz accompaniment is right”.

 

Eventually found by a trio (piano: Doddy Hughes; Drum: Boetje Pesolima; Bass: Dick Van Der Capellen) and offered to entertain the Dutch army.

 

So if what we did when it was known by friends in Yogya even later considered traitors. Then also appeared with Nick Mamahit.

WJ: In addition to names such as

Jack Lesmana,

Bubi Chen

and others, would anyone important jazz figures in Indonesia in addition to or before genarasi them?

SP: It depends from where we started. If we start from the beginning of the Republic of Indonesia may be familiar, even though they had died, among others Boetje Pesolima, Dick Van Der Capellen, Tjok Sin Soe (prior to 1950 has been played), Sigar Lucky Brothers (but since there is the assumption that jazz is not have a future in Indonesia they go to California) also Nick Mamahit (he ever get a formal education in the Netherlands),

Iskandar (Diah Iskandar ‘s father )

 he is a saxophone player and aransir already quite advanced, although the game has not been commensurate with aransemenya (the arrangements very well sung by someone else and never brought in a jazz festival in the U.S.).

In addition Etto Lattumeten he made famous Dixieland band The Old Timer in Jakarta. At the beginning of independence there was also a pianist who is both Marihut Hutabarat, who was called ‘George Shearing was Indonesia’.

 

He is a Bachelor of Law who died in an accident. And he’s the best after Nick Mamahit. Only then entered his generation Bill Saragih, Paul Hutabarat, Eddie Billy, Bing Crosby. Bing Crosby is actually a great singer and a jazz guitarist, even though more people know him as a comedian than a jazz player.

 

In the first independence war era, including Bing Crosby from one of three famous singer in Indonesia

 

 

 

 (Sam Saimun

and Mantovani).

Additional ‘Bing’ in his name because he was a great admirer of Bing Crosby.

WJ: Does the book also has an appreciation of your own to the development of jazz music in Indonesia today?

SP: There was little comment about it. There may also be some criticism about the jazz festival.

 

Regarding the development of jazz music here is actually from Indonesia’s population of more than 200 million, is still too little for his jazz players.

 

So if we look from a variety of events organized jazz will return to the name-that’s all, not many new names.

 

The process is still slow. Perhaps it happened views of the history of popular music in the 1930s where the music is jazz.

 

Because jazz at the time it was easy to dance and rhythm accompaniment for young children will easily access.

 

But after the 1960s jazz more and more complex and complicated that many teens getting away. While the outside of jazz music going on teenage trends that began to roll and swell the rock n roll.

 

Finally, many teens who fled. In the past, we can one record from the United States alone has been a bone of contention and busy to listen to the radio.

 

There is also admiration arose because many jazz musicians in Indonesia in the past, only learn from the radio broadcasts that make them a creative and great musicians, for example; Jack Lesmana and so on.

Now we are so many sources even exceptional. There’s MTV, pop subculture that many teens suck there.

 

So if there’s even a jazz happy teens teen said “odd”. Although in every era, teenagers are always called by certain pulses.

 

Given the positive fusion exists too. There are beat into jazz fusion, so there is concern and teenagers became interested in jazz rock in the hope they would be interested also in the jazz music itself, but some are not. It could also serve as a bridge early.

 

Same thing now with people like Kenny G, initially people think that Kenny G is also a jazz player. But it’s also a good start, because teenagers started pleased with instrumental music. Usually the “hero” his solo vocalist, with a hearing Kenny G is a saxophone player, maybe they’ll find another sax player.

 

Appreciation is always through specific pathways. 1960 may be the bossa nova and more people get into music like jazz.

WJ: When about this book can be published?

SP: Then, depending on the publisher and actually still need sponsors. In the book I also also analyzes the history of each instrument. At the same time I also gave the albums a choice of many jazz musicians.

WJ: What was initially met with figures of jazz lovers or in HPMJI (Association of Jazz Music Enthusiasts Indonesia)?

SP: At the time, jazz was already crowded. Increased local players in Bandung, while that in Jakarta at the USIS once every 2 weeks performing jazz.

 

Then they’ve asked me to organize a jazz gig in London and a successful event.

 

After that, they often ask for my help to find a musician if there are events in the USIS. My first assignment here and there looking for musicians and set up some programs.

Finally I got involved also with HPMJI and jazz players whose relationship is close enough.

 

 

 

Bubi Chen was not yet known.

 

 I just had a friend in Surabaya are familiar with the Bubi. So the next time it comes Tony Scott, Jack Lesmana in Surabaya said that there was a Chinese who can play the blues and bebop.

 

 

 

At first did not believe it. After Bubi Chen invited to the house at that time was young, about age 24 years, getting out of bed and was wearing a sarong. So Bubi play, Tony Scott direct speech, “This man must play with me”.

 

 

Read more about bubi chen

Bubi Chen veteran Jazz musician dies

 

TRIBUNNEWS.COM, JAKARTA – sad news re-covered world of Indonesian music. Bubi Chen, jazz musician who was born in Surabaya, today is Thursday (2/16/2012) reportedly died at the age of 74 years. Bubi died in Semarang at around 18:50 pm last.
News of the death Bubi Chen is a bustling media social networking Twitter.

 

 

Here’s a tweet from @ anandasukarlan account owner.
@ anandasukarlan: TLH Bubi Chen’s death, the great jazz Indonesia pk. 18:50 in Semarang. R.I.P. Tlg ya tweeps RT.

 

 


Bubi Chen was born in Surabaya, East Java, February 9, 1938 was a jazz musician Indonesia.


Bubi Chen is scheduled to be present in the arena of the great jazz party’s annual Java Jazz from 2, 3 and 4 March through Djarum event SuperMild Java Jazz 2012.


Originally Bubi will be featured at this event along with other jazz musicians, among others, country and Dewa  Budjana Dwiki Dharmawan


WJ: According to some sources, you are also involved in the project Indonesian All Stars album was produced and when it appeared in the Berlin Jazz Festival in 1967?

SP: It was the first to say there are jazz group from Indonesia “Go International”. If you think about the story at first is

 

 

 

Tony Scott’s

 

 

 

visit in Indonesia.

 

Here he was playing with Bubi Chen, and Jack Lesmana Maryono until eventually they become a thick friend and as a teacher.

 

 Because Tony Scott is one of a clarinet player, who at that time say the progressive game. He had played with

 

 

Charlie Parker,

 

 

 

 

Billie Holiday  jazz singer and so on.

 

But for one thing he had to leave Indonesia, so he was not too long here. Tony Scott also happened to be good friends with

 

 

a German jazz critic Joachim Berendt.

Berendt him a message to Indonesia if the do not forget to contact

 

 

Jack Lesmana.

 

Berendt to Jakarta and then introduced to

 

 

the mas Yos (red-Suyoso Karsono).

Actually he is a Jack father -in-law on wakti Lesmana where he had a record company (Rhythm Records).

 

After their dialogue on the possibility to send group of Indonesia. That upon the recommendation of Tony Scott.

 

Finally they made some recordings in Jakarta and then sent to Germany to be played on some radio station there as warming up. Once it was established Indonesian All Stars.

 

Because they constantly practicing for 2 months, finally they were all in Jakarta moved  to stay in his house Mas Yos.

 

This is due at the time Jack Lesmana and Bubi Chen is still in Surabaya. And also went to Europe.

Indeed, according to their plans to tour in Europe with a peak to participate in

 

 

 

 

the Berlin Jazz Festival.

 

But they were hit by disasters. After the tour a success, when he got in Berlin, Maryono fell ill.

 

So the festival’s Indonesian All Stars does not appear, but the Bubi himself to play.

 

So the next time the committee was there to choose International All Stars band in which the members chosen from various countries and Bubi was selected as the accompanist.

Since then, the name Bubi began to be known by jazz critics. And Downbeat magazine in late 1967 issue of the name has been started called “the best in Asia” and “one of the best in the world”.

WJ: Given the economic and political conditions in our country in 1967 about the same as we are experiencing right now, why they seemed to have a ‘power struggle’ high?

SP: That when I look at Jack and Bubi it shows the game is best in their years of suffering and difficulty. Their games are very inspiring.


Among them Ireng Maulana (guitar), Perry Pattiselano (bass), Embong Raharjo (saxophone), Luluk Purwanto (violin), Oele Pattiselano (guitar), Jackie Pattiselano (drums), Benny Likumahuwa (trombone and bass), Bambang Nugroho (piano ), Elfa Secioria (piano).

Several other young musicians to learn rock and fusion, but still within the framework of jazz. They are Yopie Item (guitar), Karim Suweileh (drums), Wimpy Tanasale (bass), Abadi Soesman (keyboard), Candra Darusman (keyboards), John WH (guitar) and others.

Mid-80s,

Fariz RM name appears. He further categorizes his music as new age. However, some compositions breathe pop jazz, latin and even. Indra, Donny Suhendra, Pre B. Dharma, Dwiki Darmawan, Gilang Ramadan Krakatau formed, and this group eventually transformed into Java Jazz, by replacing some of the personnel.

90s up to now,

 a lot of jazz musicians and groups are formed. Brought jazz music is no longer mainstream, but the distillation of a variety of music such as fusion, acid, pop, rock and more. Call it SimakDialog, Dewa Budjana, Balawan and Rock Ethnic Fusion, Bali Lounge, Andien, Syaharani, Tompi, Bertha, Maliq & D’essentials and much more.

Usually a lot of jazz musicians popping up in Jakarta, Bandung, Surabaya and Bali. This is due to currents flowing jazz more jazz gigs there by (JakJazz, Java Jazz Festival, Victoria Jazz Festival), jazz music schools, recording studios and a cafe featuring jazz. Which also contributed to a “stream” jazz flows into Indonesia is the Peter F. Gontha, a Jamz owner and founder of the initiators of the Java Jazz Festival.

Music Jazz Record Collections

THE Indonesian Vintage music JAZZ record COLLECTIONS

Alpha

 

in the 30′s.

Jazz music first entered Indonesia in the 30′s. Brought by musicians from the Philippines who are looking for a job in Jakarta with playing music.

The names of the musicians

 Soleano, Garcia, Pablo, Baial, Torio, Barnarto and Samboyan.

In 1948
 
approximately 60 musicians Dutch came to Indonesia to form a symphony orchestra that contains the local musicians.

One is the famous Dutch musician Cleber Jose.

Cleber’s Jakarta Studio Orchestra music game to accommodate California.

 The Progressive Trio, Iskandar’s Sextet and Octet who plays jazz and the Old Timers who plays Dixieland repertoire.

Year 1945 – 1950

 Jack Lemmers (known as Jack Lesmana, Indra’s father) on bass / guitar,

 

 

Bubi Chen (piano),

Teddy Chen, Jopy Chen (bass), Maryono (saxophone), Berges (piano), Oei Leng Boen (guitar), Didi

 

 

 

In 1955,

Bill Saragih form a group of Riders Jazz. He played the piano, vibes and flute.

 Other members are Didi Chia (piano), Paul Hutabarat (vocals), Tobias Herman (bass) and Yuse (drums).

The next edition of the member Hanny Joseph (drums), Sutrisno (tenor saxophone), Lopis Thys (bass) and Bob Tutupoly (vocals).

The names of jazz musicians in Surabaya  in the 50 – 60s

 Karamoy Eddy (guitar), Joop Talahahu (tenor sax), Leo Massenggani, Benny Pablo, Dolf (saxophone), John Lepel (bass), Alexander (guitar and piano) and Sadikin Zuchra (guitar and piano).

 

 

Feb 21, ’08 7:29 PM
for everyone

 

Rindu ……… Nick Mamahit & Trio
Rindu … Nick Mamahit & Trio

oleh Sujoso Karsono

(,,Mas Jos” utk. teman2nja)


Young musicians in Jakarta in 70 – 80.

Ireng Maulana (guitar), Perry Pattiselano (bass), Embong Raharjo (saxophone), Luluk Purwanto (violin), Oele Pattiselano (guitar), Jackie Pattiselano (drums), Benny Likumahuwa (trombone and bass), Bambang Nugroho (piano), Elfa Secioria (piano). Several other young musicians to learn rock and fusion, but still within the framework of jazz. They are Yopie Item (guitar), Karim Suweileh (drums), Wimpy Tanasale (bass), Abadi Soesman (keyboard), Candra Darusman (keyboards), John WH (guitar) and others.

 

Mid-80s,

 Fariz RM

Indra, Donny Suhendra, Pre B. Dharma, Dwiki Darmawan, Gilang Ramadan Krakatau formed, and this group eventually transformed into Java Jazz,

90s up to now,

 SimakDialog, Dewa Budjana, Balawan and Rock Ethnic Fusion, Bali Lounge, Andien, Syaharani, Tompi, Bertha, Maliq & D’essentials
Peter F. Gontha, a Jamz owner and founder of the initiators of the Java Jazz Festival

the end @ copyright @ 2912

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java Part One 1942 history collections

THIS THE SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM WITHOUT ILLUSTRATION, THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATIONS AND FULL INFO EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE VIA COMMENT

The Dai Nippon Occupation Java 

Part one

1942

 Based On Dr Iwan’s Postal and Archives History Collections

 

Created By

 

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited E-BOOK IN CD-ROM Edition

Special For Serious Collectors and Premium Member

 one of the best Dr Iwan Dai nippon archives collections is the Diary of Mr martooadmojo during he work at Djoerangsapi city east Java from august 1942 until 1844, and at the cover of the diary there were the list of Dai nippon officer who work there

119.MB,Martoadmodjo B. handwritten Diary about his work at Japanese logistic stations at Djoerang Koeda Village ‘

Bondowoso,

Basoeki Ressort  east Java

which thrown away after his pass away in 1990 ,faound and became Dr Iwan collections, never publish)

At the cover of diary had written the name of Dai Nippon officer at Nippon Djoerangsapi ken

(I hove the family of this DN officer will glad to know their family there,please send comment and more info about them)

1. The city post office dai nippon djoerangsapi Inoue and Shiroga
2. Egami Djoerangsapi telephone office and Gado.
3. Tela factory Semboda Yasuda and Yamamoto
4.Tanaman cotton Kentjong M.Nishin
KK Djoerangsapi 5.Takashinaya sida: Mori
6.agen Genpi Djoerangsapi KK: Mori and Futama
Chokin 7.Yokohama Ginko (bank) Fujimoto, Fujii, and Hayashida
8.Osaka Seima KK: Nishiike
SH 9.CO Wadoeng: Maeda
10.CO landed: H.Takari
11.Kapas Sampelan: Mitsui and Mura
12.Rikuyu Jimusho Djoerangsapi: Nakashi, Oguri, Sitsuka, Ari Izumi (Suzuki), Kogo, Yamamoto, Fujimora, Tsubakibaru, Nakaki, Matsuyama, Mayama, Satoh and Matsuda
13.PETA: Saito Mataan

 

1.January 1942

 

 

JAPANESE PRISONERS,

captured on Bataan, being led blindfolded to headquarters for questioning.

 On 1 January 1942

 the Japanese entered Manila and the U.S, troops withdrew toward Bataan.

Army supplies were either moved to Bataan and Corregidor or destroyed.

The remaining forces on Bataan, including some 15,000 U.S. troops, totaled about 80,000 men. The food, housing, and sanitation problems were greatly increased by the presence of over 20,000 civilian refugees. All troops were placed on half-rations.

 

 

japanese soldiers using boats for transports (malaya 1942

 

 

Combining amphibious encirclement with frontal assault, General Yamashita was able to force the stubborn British defenders back time after time

 

japanese soldiers of the 5th division trying to move a truck stuck in the mud (malaya 1942)

 

until by 10 January

General Yamashita  stood at the gates of Kuala Lumpur, on the west coast of Malaya, which his 5th Division captured the next day.

 

heavily camouflaged Toyota KB Truck and a type 97 tankette moving on a poorly pavemented road of malaya (1942)

 

art work showing tanks of the japanese army 6th Tank Regiment commanded by tank commander Colonel Kawamura attacking the british in malaya 1942

 

japanese soldier using a Type 97 light machine gun above a transport truck (malaya 1942)

 

Type 11 37 mm Infantry Gun crew on a hiden position (malaya 1942)

 

 

 His eastern column meanwhile had advanced to within 100 miles of Singapore. By the middle of the month, he had united his  two columns and was preparing to attack the single line the gallant defenders had formed before the plain which constitutes the southern tip of the peninsula.28

primarily to show whether one could be drawn “which would leave the Supreme Commander with enough power to improve the situation and still not give him power to destroy national interests or to exploit one theater without due consideration to another.”16

The task was a difficult one and the results were not entirely satisfactory, the British Chiefs objecting on the ground that the limitations placed on the commander were too heavy. It was sent to the Allied planners, therefore, for further study and a revised draft was prepared. This one, with slight modifications, proved acceptable and was finally approved, though with some reluctance, by all the governments involved

on 10 January 1942.17

The new command Wavell was to head was to be known as ABDACOM, for the initials of the national forces involved (American, British, Dutch, and Australian) and included Burma, Malaya, the Netherlands Indies, and the Philippines. The inclusion of the Philippines in Wavell’s command was a formal gesture and one Wavell himself wished to avoid.18 Significantly, neither China nor Australia was included in the ABDA area. (Map 2) As much for political as military reasons the former was organized as a separate theater commanded by Chiang Kai-shek, but independent of Allied control.

 The Australians, though they protested their omission from the discussions in Washington and their lack of representation in the Combined Chiefs of Staff, accepted the terms of the directive and permitted their troops in the ABDA area to become a part of Wavell’s command. USAFIA (U.S. Army Forces in Australia), however, was not included in the new command on the ground that its primary responsibility was to MacArthur and its main task to support the defense of the Philippines. Soon after Wavell assumed command, when it became apparent that only limited aid could be sent to the Philippines, the mission of USAFIA was broadened to include the support of operations in the ABDA area. And the northwest portion of Australia was also added to ABDACOM at General Wavell’s request.19

The staff of the new command, it was understood, would represent all the nations concerned. The American and British Chiefs of Staff did not attempt to name Wavell’s staff, but they did seek to guard against the preponderance of one nationality in his headquarters. Thus, they stipulated that his deputy and the commander of the naval forces would be Americans, and that a British officer would command the air forces and a Dutch officer the ground forces.

The problem of protecting the interests of each nation represented in ABDACOM without unduly restricting the commander was resolved by limiting Wavell’s authority to the “effective coordination of forces.” He was given command of all forces “afloat, ashore,

MAP 2: The ABDACOM Area

and in the air,” but was permitted to exercise that control only through subordinate commanders whom he could not relieve and who had the right to appeal to their governments if they considered their orders and national interests to be in conflict. Though he could assign missions to his forces, form task forces for specific operations, and appoint their commanders, he was prohibited from altering the tactical organization of the national forces in his command, using their supplies, or controlling their communications with the home government. And in matters of logistics and administration he could exercise only the most general control.

The severe limitations placed on General Wavell’s authority were in marked contrast to the heavy responsibilities laid upon him by the chiefs in Washington. Not only was he given the task of maintaining “as many key positions as possible” under the strategic objectives already outlined (that is, to hold the Malay Barrier, Burma, and Australia), a formidable enough undertaking in itself, but he was also enjoined “to take the offensive at the earliest opportunity and ultimately to conduct an all-out offensive against Japan.” “The first essential,” the Chiefs told him, “is to gain general air superiority at the earliest possible moment.” With the lesson of the first Japanese successes still fresh in mind, they cautioned Wavell against dispersing his air forces or using them in piecemeal fashion.20

These instructions, with their emphasis on offensive operations, were probably motivated by an understandable reluctance in Washington to dedicate a command to defensive action, but there was a clear realization that the forces in the theater were then and for some time would be hard pressed even to hold their own. And even as these instructions were being written the enemy was moving swiftly and in force toward those “key positions” Wavell was to hold.

Having established the ABDA area and appointed General Wavell its commander, the American and British staffs in Washington had still to settle the problem of reinforcements to the Southwest Pacific, for it was obvious with each passing day that the situation there was rapidly worsening. This problem brought the assembled planners up against the hard fact, which was to plague them throughout the war, that there were not enough ships to do all the jobs required. They had earlier in the conference agreed ‘that American troops would be sent to Iceland and northern Ireland, and that landings might be made in North Africa later in the year. The shipping requirements for these operations alone were so great that the North Atlantic sailings were approved only on the understanding that they would be discontinued “if other considerations intervened.”21 The necessity for speeding up the schedule of reinforcements to the Southwest Pacific created an additional and immediate demand for the ships already allocated to the North Atlantic projects and led to a re-examination of the entire shipping shortage.

The debate over Atlantic versus Pacific priority on shipping was precipitated

(ibid American Army In WW II)

 

On the 10th of January 1942,

the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies.

The newspapers brought us a lot of bad news. My father had long ago advised me to read some of the articles I liked from the Malanger and the Javabode starting since I was almost eleven years old, so now I could read all the bad news in the papers when I was at our

Sumber Sewu, plantation home near the East Java city of Malang during the weekends.

Now and then we saw Japanese planes flying over Java. I found it all strange and very unreal. The only Japanese I knew where those living in Malang; they were always very polite and friendly towards us. But from now on Japan was our enemy

.(true story By Elma)

 

January,11th.1942

 

by Admiral Stark,

who, on 11 January, a day after

 

General Wavell arrived in Batavia with General Ter Poorten

 

 but before he assumed command, reviewed the critical situation in the Far East and raised the question of diverting ships from the less critical North Atlantic route to the Pacific.

In this he had the support of General Marshall and Admiral King, but the British, in the belief that Singapore would hold and anxious for the Americans to relieve then in Iceland and Ireland, sought other ways to find the ships.

The matter was finally referred to the shipping experts who reported the next day that by delaying the North Atlantic sailings one month, which would have the effect also of delaying the proposed North African operation, and by reducing lend-lease shipments to the Soviet Union, it would be possible to send aircraft, gasoline, artillery, and about 22,000 men across the Pacific on 20 January and an additional 23,300 British troops shortly after.

 The Chiefs accepted this solution, as did the President and Prime Minister when Mr. Hopkins assured them that ships would be found to keep supplies moving to the Soviet Union.22 The minimum force principle for allocation of resources to the Pacific had now been stretched so far as to justify the postponement of troop movements to Iceland and northern Ireland and, in part at least,

 

 the delay of the North African landings. In the days to come it. was to be stretched even further.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Japanese  landings in British territory at

 Singapore

 

on 15 February 1942

In the campaign, which concluded with the fall of Singapore on 15 February 1942, Yamashita’s 30,000 front-line soldiers and 200 tanks fought against a poorly equiped force with no armored force, Yamashita’s force captured 130,000 British, Indian and Australian troops, the largest surrender of British-led personnel in history

 

 

 

 

officer of the 5th infantry division sergeant saito leading his man (singapore, 1942)

 

 

 

The Japanese Campaign and Victory 8 December 1941 – 15 February 1942: Lieutenant-General Percival and his party carry the Union Jack on their way to surrender Singapore to the Japanese.

 

 

 

 

The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942

 

west borneo

 

Singkawang

Read more info

The Invasion of British Borneo in 1942

The following article is taken from the British Official History book:
The War Against Japan – Volume I – The Loss of Singapore (Chapter XIII) by Major-General S. Woodburn Kirby,
the Japanese Monograph No.26: Borneo Operations 1941-1945, USAFFE 1958 and
from numerous additional information kindly provided by
Allan Alsleben, Henry Klom, Tim Hayes, Coen van Galen, Pierre-Emmanuel Bernaudin and Graham Donaldson.

The Invasion of British Borneo 1942

In 1863 Great Britain granted recognition of Sarawak as an independent and sovereign country. However, this was not what Sir James Brooke, 1st Rajah of Sarawak, desired. He tried several times to gain Protectorate Status of Sarawak from Great Britain. For he knew that in time of war, Sarawak would not be able to defend itself without the help of one of the Great Powers of the time. Sadly, this proved to be true during the Chinese Uprising of 1857. Sarawak was nearly defenceless until the rather late arrival of a British Fleet from Singapore. It was during this time that Sir James Brooke began to think seriously about offering Sarawak to the United States as a colony.

Several years prior to 1863, Sir James sent a letter to then U.S. President James Polk. In this letter he offered Sarawak to the United States. The only pre-condition was that he be allowed to remain in power. Sadly, this letter was never read by President Polk.

The United States, then pre-occupied with the looming Civil War between North and South, never seriously considered Sir James’ offer. It was not until 1863 that President Abraham Lincoln replied to the letter sent almost 4 years earlier by Sir James. President Lincoln politely declined Sir James’s offer. Sir James then offered Sarawak to the Dutch, Belgians, Italians, French, and finally the Portuguese. The only serious offer came from Belgium. However, the King of the Belgians set too many strict preconditions which did not suit Sir James Brooke. With the exception of Belgium, the other nations being pre-occupied with their own issues in the region did not wish to expand their already over-stretched resources by taking in Sarawak. As a result, Sir James Brooke was “forced” into the arms of Great Britain, a nation whose respect he had yet to earn.

In 1888, Great Britain, after refusing to offer protection to Sarawak for so many years suddenly offered it. However, it was not granted in the protection of the interests of Sarawak, but in the interest of the British Empire. Apparently, Great Britain suddenly became aware that another European Power could easily take Sarawak for themselves. This is the reason why the British finally offered Sarawak protection. Under the 1888 agreement, negotiated by Sir Charles Anthony Brooke, 2nd Rajah of Sarawak, all the foreign affairs of Sarawak were to the responsibility of British Government. Internal affairs remained the responsibility of the Brooke Rajahs.

In accordance with this 1888 Agreement, Great Britain despatched troops and material to bolster the defences of Sarawak during the 1930s. During the late 1930s the Royal Air Force based 205th RAF Squadron at Kuching. This was a seaplane squadron consisting of Walrus Flying Boats. However, this was withdrawn in 1941 and returned to Singapore.

Realizing that war was imminent, the Brooke Government, under Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, conducted preliminary work to establish airstrips at selected locations throughout the country.

These airstrips would be located at Kuching, Oya, Mukah, Bintulu, and Miri. By 1938 work was completed on all the airstrips except Bintulu, which was discontinued in October 1938 due to financial reasons.

 On 26 September 1938, the Kuching Airstrip was opened. It was situated at the 7th Mile (Bukit Stabar) and measured 700 meters long by 300 meters wide.

However, despite the modern air facilities available, the RAF stationed no aircraft in Sarawak during 1941. In addition, the Royal Navy withdrew from Sarawak, and the British Protectorates of Labuan and North Borneo in 1940.

With no air or sea forces stationed in or around Sarawak, the British government encouraged the Brooke Regime to adopt a “scorched earth policy” in the event of a Japanese attack.

The Singapore Conference of October 1940 further presented the dismal defence situation of Sarawak by stating that without command of the sea or air, it would be pointless to defend Sarawak and the other British colonies in the area. An alternative plan was proposed by Air Vice-Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham which suggested that 200 RAF and Royal Dutch Aircraft be used to defend the territories of Sarawak, Labuan, Brunei, and British North Borneo. Brooke-Popham stated that this should be sufficient to defend the territories against any Japanese attack. His request for such an outrageous amount of aircraft was declined by the British and Dutch governments on the grounds that they were simply not available.

Later, it was proposed to develop a Denial Scheme. Returning to the “scorched-earth” policy mentioned earlier, Denial Schemes were in place to destroy the oil installations at Miri and Lutong. In addition, the Bukit Sabir Airfield (11 km south of Kuching, the capital of Sarawak), was to be held as long as possible, then would be destroyed.

 

The prelude to the war

The island of Borneo is a land of primeval jungle. The coasts are fringed with mangrove and swamp, and over nine-tenths of the interior is covered with thick evergreen forests.

In 1941 the population was small – that of the whole island was estimated at less than three million – and there were less than a dozen settlements large enough to be called towns. There were few roads and only one short railway; communication was by the many waterways or by narrow jungle paths. Much of the interior was unexplored, or very inadequately known. It was rich in oil and other raw materials.

The island was partly Dutch and partly British. British Borneo lay along its northern seaboard and comprised the two states of British North Borneo and Sarawak, the small protected State of Brunei, and the Crown Colony of Labuan Island.

Borneo occupies a position of great strategic importance in the south-west Pacific. It lies across the main sea routes from the north to Malaya and Sumatra on the one hand, and Celebes and Java on the other. Strongly held, it could have been one of the main bastions in the defence of the Malay barrier, but neither the Dutch nor the British had the necessary resources to defend it. The available forces had to be concentrated further south for the defence of Singapore and Java, and all that could be spared for Borneo and the outlying Dutch islands were small detachments at important points which it was hoped might prove a deterrent to attack.

To gain control of the oilfields, to guard the flank of their advance on Malaya and to facilitate their eventual attack on Sumatra and western Java, the Japanese decided, as a subsidiary operation to their Malayan campaign, to seize British Borneo. This operation was launched by Southern Army eight days after the initial attack on Malaya.

The oilfields in British Borneo lay in two groups: one at Miri close to the northern boundary of Sarawak, and the other thirty-two miles north, at Seria in the State of Brunei. The crude oil was pumped from both fields to a refinery at Lutong on the coast, from which loading lines ran out to sea.

Landings were possible all along the thirty miles of beach between Miri and Lutong and there was, with the forces available, no possibility of defending the oilfields against determined attacks. Plans had therefore been made for the destruction of the oil installations. Sir Robert Brooke-Popham, Commander-in-Chief Far East, decided it would be prudent to honor the 1888 defence agreement with Sarawak. Consequently, in late 1940, he ordered the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to proceed to Kuching (British North Borneo).

In December 1940

a company of 2/15th Punjab was sent to Miri for the protection of the demolition parties, and

in May 1941

the rest of 2/15th Punjab was sent there to provide a garrison. This lone battalion consisted of approximately 1,050 soldiers under the command of Major C.M. Lane. For the defence of Sarawak region, it was deployed as follows:

At Miri was deployed a force of 2 officers, and 98 other ranks:
• 1 Infantry Company from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
• 6″ Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery Battery
• 1 Platoon of Royal Engineers
These troops were entrusted with the destruction of Miri Oil Fields. It was to be known as the Miri Detachment.

At Kuching was deployed a force of 1 officer, and 52 other ranks:
• 6 Platoons of infantry from 2/15 Punjab Regiment
These troops were to conduct a delaying action at the Bukit Stabar Airfield outside of Kuching. They were to be known as the Kuching Detachment. The other troops from the 2/15 Punjab were to be deployed piecemeal at the other airfield and oil facilities in Sarawak.

In addition, the Brooke Government mobilized the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 troops who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen trained in the art of jungle warfare led by the European Civil Servants of the Brooke Regime. British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane who commanded the battalion was placed in charge of all forces in Sarawak, which included the native Volunteer Corps, Coastal Marine Service, the armed police and a body of native troops known as the Sarawak Rangers. Collectively, this force of 2,565 troops was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

In August 1941

 a partial denial scheme, which reduced the output of oil by seventy per cent, was put into effect. It was also decided that no attempt should be made to defend British North Borneo, Brunei or Labuan, and

 

 the Governor of North Borneo, Mr. Robert Smith,

 was informed that the Volunteers and police were to be used solely for the maintenance of internal security. It was however decided to defend Kuching because of its airfield, and because its occupation by the enemy would give access to the important Dutch airfield at Singkawang II, sixty miles to the southwest and only some 350 miles from Singapore.

Order of Battle for British forces
Sarawak, December 1941

Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane (commander)

2nd Battalion of 15th Punjab Regiment

heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery

detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers)

Sarawak Rangers

Coastal Marine Service

plus other native troops

The country between Kuching and the sea is roadless, but is intersected by a number of winding waterways which flow through mangrove swamps to the sea. There are two main approaches to the town: the first by the Sarawak River, which is navigable by vessels up to sixteen foot draught; and the second by the Santubong River, which will take vessels up to twelve foot draught. The roads from Kuching run east to Pending, north-west to Matang, and south to Serian a distance of forty miles from Kuching. The airfield lay seven miles south of the town on the Serian road. At the airfield a road branched off to the west; after crossing the Sarawak River at Batu Kitang, where there was a vehicular ferry, it terminated at Krokong fifteen miles short of the Dutch frontier.

There were two plans of defence that were proposed- Plan A and Plan B.
Plan A called for a mobile defence. The objective was to hold the Bukit Stabar Airfield as long as possible. Further delaying actions were also to be conducted so as to allow for the proper execution of the denial schemes. If enemy resistance was such that it could not be delayed, then the airfield would be destroyed and the entire force would retreat into the mountains and jungles in small parties and fight as a guerrilla force for as long as possible. Unfortunately, at

the Anglo-Dutch Military Conference

during September 1941 held in Kuching,

it was pointed out that Plan A could not be carried out if the Japanese landed 3,000 to 5,000 men with air and sea support. J.L. Noakes, the defeatist Sarawak Secretary for Defence, had continued to argue the inadequacy of SARFOR and that it had no hope against the Japanese if they landed in force. His idea was to take a ‘wait and see’ attitude and continue to appeal to Singapore for more troops and equipment. In the event that this was not forthcoming, Sarawak should surrender so as to prevent any bloodshed. Rajah Sir Charles Vyner Brooke, was completely against this defeatist talk and vehemently argued that Sarawak should put up a fight, a fight to maintain the honor of the Brooke Raj. At the end it was decided that the town could not be defended against the weight of attack which was to be expected, and the plan was reluctantly changed to one of static defence of the airfield.

During late November 1941, Lieutenant-General A.E. Percival, GOC Malaya Command, took a 2-day tour of Sarawak to assess the adequacy of its defence preparations. He summarized the situation as follows: “Nobody could pretend that this was a satisfactory situation, but at least it would make the enemy deploy a larger force to capture Sarawak than would have been necessary if it had not been defended at all and that, I think, is the true way to look at it…the best I could do was to promise to send them a few anti-aircraft guns and too tell them of the arrival of Prince of Wales and Repulse, which were due at Singapore in a few days…not that I expected anit-aircraft guns to be of much practical value. But I felt that the moral effect of their presence there would more than counterbalance some slight dispersion of force”.

As a result of Percival’s assessment of Sarawak’s defences, an alternative plan of action was proposed, Plan B. This was based on static defence. All available troops and supplies were to be concentrated within a 5.5 kilometer perimeter of the Bukit Stabar Airfield to ensure that its destruction was not interfered with. The rationale for Plan B was presented by Brooke-Popham as follows: “The only place which it was decided to hold was Kuching, the reason for this being not only that there was a modern airfield at this location, but that its occupation by the enemy might give access to the Dutch airfields in Borneo, furthermore, it would also give the enemy access to Singapore. Being only some 350 miles from said place”.

Further orders were issued by Vyner Brooke that all the Civil Servants not assigned to the Sarawak Rangers were to remain at their posts. No thought must be given to the abandonment of the native population by any European officer of the Brooke Raj.

The Brooke Government which had already heard of

the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor (on 7 December 1941)

quickly ordered the complete and total destruction of the oil fields and airfields at Miri and Seria. Orders for the demolition of the refinery at Lutong and the denial of the oilwells reached the officer commanding at Miri

on the morning of the 8th December,

 and by the evening of the same day the task was completed. On the following day the landing ground there was made unfit for use, and on the 13th the Punjabis and the oil officials left by sea for Kuching. The destruction of the oilfields had been completed none too soon.

 

 

 

 

(Japanese troops advancing through Malaya)

 

Throughout much of World War II,  British Malaya, North Borneo and Sarawak were under Japanese occupation.

The Japanese Empire commenced the Pacific War with the invasion of Kota Bahru in Kelantan

on 8 December 1941 at 00:25,

 about 90 minutes before the Attack on Pearl Harbor in Hawaii at 07:48 on 7 December Hawaii time, or 01:48 on 8 December Malayan time.

 

They then invaded the island of Borneo in mid December 1941, landing on the west coast near Miri in Sarawak; invasion was completed by 23 January 1942 when they landed at Balikpapan in Dutch Borneo on the east coast. During the occupation an estimated 100,000 people were killed.

 

Defence in Sarawak and North Borneo

The main objectives were the oilfields at Miri in Sarawak region and Seria in Brunei. The oil was refined at Tutong near Miri. Despite rich oil supplies, the Sarawak region had no air or sea forces to defend it.

 

Only in late 1940 did Air Chief Marshal Sir Robert Brooke-Popham order the 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment, a heavy 6-inch gun battery from the Hong Kong-Singapore Royal Artillery, and a detachment of 35th Fortress Company (Royal Engineers) to be positioned at Kuching. They numbered about 1,050 men. In addition, the Brooke White Rajah government also organised the Sarawak Rangers. This force consisted of 1,515 men who were primarily Iban and Dyak tribesmen. Altogether these forces were commanded by British Lieutenant Colonel C.M. Lane and was known as “SARFOR” (Sarawak Force).

 

After having heard of the attack on Pearl Harbor, on 8 December 1941, the Brooke government instructed that the oilfields at Miri and Seria and refinery at Lutong be quickly demolished.

 

Japanese landing and the battle

The main Japanese force, led by Major General Kiyotake Kawaguchi, consisted of units from Canton, southern China:

  • 35th Infantry Brigade Headquarters
  • 124th Infantry Regiment from Japanese 18th Division
  • 2nd Yokosuka Naval Landing Force
  • 4th Naval Construction Unit
  • 1 platoon of the 12th Engineer Regiment
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Signal Unit
  • 1 unit from the 18th Division Medical Unit
  • 4th Field Hospital, 18th Division
  • 1 unit from the 11th Water Supply and Purification Unit

 

 

(The Japanese landing off the west coast of British North Borneo, 1942)

 

On 13 December 1941,

 the Japanese invasion convoy left Cam Ranh Bay in French Indochina, with an escort of the cruiser Yura (Rear-Admiral Shintaro Hashimoto) with the destroyers of the 12th Destroyer Division, Murakumo, Shinonome, Shirakumo and Usugumo, submarine-chaser Ch 7 and the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru. Ten transport ships carried the Japanese 35th Infantry Brigade HQ under the command of Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi. The Support Force consisted of Rear-Admiral Takeo Kurita with the cruisers Kumano and Suzuya and the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri.

 

The Japanese forces intended to capture Miri and Seria, while the rest would capture Kuching and nearby airfields. The convoy proceeded without being detected and,

at dawn on 15 December 1941,

 two landing units secured Miri and Seria with only very little resistance from British forces. A few hours later, Lutong was captured as well.

 

Meanwhile, on 31 December 1941,

the force under Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe moved northward to occupy Brunei, Labuan Island, and Jesselton (now called Kota Kinabalu). On 18 January 1942, using small fishing boats, the Japanese landed at Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo.

The North Borneo Armed Constabulary, with only 650 men, hardly provided any resistance to slow down the Japanese invasion.

 

After securing the oilfields, on 22 December,

 the main Japanese forces moved westwards to Kuching. The Japanese airforce bombed Singkawang airfield to prevent a Dutch attack. After a battle between the Japanese fleet and a Dutch submarine, the fleet approached

the mouth of the Santubong river on 23 December.

The convoy arrived off Cape Sipang and the troops in twenty transport ships, commanded by Colonel Akinosuke Oka, landed at 04:00, 24 December. Although 2nd Battalion, 15th Punjab Regiment resisted the attack, they soon became out-numbered and retreated up the river. By the afternoon, Kuching was in the hands of Japanese forces.

 

At about 16:40 on 25 December,

 the Japanese troops successfully captured Kuching airfield. The Punjab regiment retreated through the jungle to the Singkawang area. After Singkawang was secured as well on 29 December, the rest of the British and Dutch troops retreated further into the jungle southward trying to reach Sampit and Pangkalanbun, where a Dutch airfield at Kotawaringin was located. South and central Kalimantan were taken by the Japanese Navy following attacks from east and west. After ten weeks in the jungle-covered mountains, the Allied troops surrendered on 1 April 1942. Lastly, Sarawak fell into the hands of The Empire of Sun.

 

 

(Hinomaru Yosegaki – Japanese WWII Good Luck Flag)

 

 

  The map of the Dutch East Indies 1941-1942

 

 

On 1 January 1942,

 two infantry platoons commanded by a company commander landed on Labuan Island, capturing the British Resident, Hugh Humphrey who later recalled: “I was repeatedly hit by a Japanese officer with his sword (in its scabbard) and exhibited for 24 hours to the public in an improvised cage, on the grounds that, before the Japanese arrived, I had sabotaged the war effort of the Imperial Japanese Forces by destroying stocks of aviation fuel on the island”. [1] On 8 January, Kawaguchi proceeded to Jesselton and having occupied that town and Beaufort, where he disarmed the small police unit. Using ten small fishing boats, two infantry companies (minus two platoons), commanded by Lieutenant Colonel Watanabe, captured Sandakan, the seat of government of British North Borneo, and rescued the 600 interned Japanese citizens.

 On the morning of the 19th January,

 the Governor Robert Smith surrendered the State and, refusing to carry on the administration under Japanese control, was interned with his staff. This unit then captured Tawau and Lahad Datu on the 24th and 31st respectively. This time they freed a further 1,500 Japanese citizens. The Japanese forces suffered no combat casualties during this operations.

 

The convoy which left Miri

on the 22nd of December

 was escorted by the cruiser Yura, the destroyers Murakumo, Shirakumo and Usugumo, the minesweepers W 3 and W 6 and the aircraft depot ship Kamikawa Maru. Covering Force was consisted of cruisers Kinu, Kumano and Suzuya, with the destroyers Fubuki and Sagiri.

West of Covering Force was the 2nd Division of the 7th Cruiser Squadron (Mikuma and Mogami) with destroyer Hatsuyuki. It was sighted and reported to Air Headquarters, Far East, by Dutch reconnaissance aircraft on the morning of the 23rd, when it was about 150 miles from Kuching.

At 11.40 that morning

twenty-four Japanese aircraft bombed Singkawang II airfield, so damaging the runways that a Dutch striking force which had been ordered to attack the convoy was unable to take off with a bomb load.

 Despite the critical situation the Dutch authorities urged the transfer of their aircraft to Sumatra.

 Air Headquarters, Far East, agreed

 and during the afternoon of the 24th

 the aircraft were flown to Palembang.

The convoy did not however escape unscathed.

On the evening of the 23rd

 it was first attacked by Dutch submarine K-XIV (Lt.Cdr. C.A.J. van Well Groeneveld) sank two enemy ships and damaged two others,

and the following night of 23/24 December 1942

 another Dutch submarine K-XVI (Lt.Cdr. L.J. Jarman) torpedoed the IJN destroyer Sagiri (1,750 tons) near Kuching, Sarawak.

Their own torpedoes caught on fire and the ship simply blew up, killing immediately 121 officers and men.

The IJN destroyer Shirakumo and minesweeper W 3 rescued 120 survivors. The K-XVI was herself sunk by Japanese submarine I-66 (Cdr. Yoshitome) on her way back to Soerabaja.

Five Bristol Blenheims of 34th (B) RAF Squadron from Singapore, at almost extreme range, bombed the ships at anchor the same evening, but did little damage.

The convoy was seen at 6 p.m. on the 23rd

approaching the mouth of the Santubong River. Two hours later Colonel Lane received orders from Singapore to destroy the airfield.

 It was too late to change back to mobile defence and, as there seemed to him no point in attempting to defend a useless airfield, he asked General Percival for permission to withdraw as soon as possible into Dutch north-west Borneo.

While awaiting a reply Lane concentrated his battalion at the airfield, with forward detachments in the Pending area east of the town and on the roads to the north of it, 18-pounder gun and 3-inch mortar detachments covering the river approaches, and a Punjabi gunboat platoon, working with the Sarawak Rangers and the Coastal Marine Service, patrolling north of Kuching.

The convoy proceeded westward, arriving at a point, east of Cape Sipang

at 0300 on the 24th. At 0120,

the IJN transport Nichiran Maru with Colonel Akinosuke Oka arrived at the prearranged anchorage off the mouth of the Santubong River.

 At 0400,

the unit aboard the IJN transport Nichiran Maru, commanded by Colonel A. Oka, completed its transfer to landing barges and proceeding west of Cape Sipang.

At about 9 a.m.

 twenty enemy landing craft were observed approaching the shore.

The small Punjabi gunboat platoon, hopelessly outnumbered, withdrew up the river without loss.

 At 11 a.m.

as they neared the town the landing craft were engaged by the gun and mortar detachments, who sank four before themselves being surrounded and killed. During the afternoon three more craft were sunk by gunfire, but the remainder were able to land their troops on both sides of the river,

and by 4.30 p.m.

 the town was in Japanese hands.

Meanwhile Lane had been instructed by Percival to hold the Japanese for as long as possible and then act in the best interests of west Borneo as a whole.

Since the capture of the town threatened to cut off the forward troops, Lane ordered them to withdraw to the airfield.

The Japanese followed up

and before dark

made contact with the airfield defences.

Throughout the night

sporadic firing went on as they felt their way round the perimeter.

 Major-General Kawaguchi received a report from his intelligence officer that there was approximately 400-500 British troops in the vicinity of the Kuching airfield.

December,25th.1941

As Christmas Day dawned,

firing temporarily ceased and advantage was taken of the lull to send the hospital detachment with the women and children on ahead into Dutch Borneo.

During the morning

 the Japanese encircling movement continued, and a company was sent to hold the ferry crossing at Batu Kitang so as to keep the road clear for escape.

A general withdrawal into Dutch Borneo was ordered to start at dusk, but heavy firing was heard to the north of Batu Kitang shortly after noon and, fearing that his line of retreat would be cut, Lane decided on immediate withdrawal.

The enemy, reinforced by the 2nd Yokosuka SNLF, soon aware of his intention, launched a full-scale attack on the two Punjabi companies forming the rearguard.

Of these two companies only one platoon succeeded in rejoining the main body. The remainder, totaling four British officers and some 230 Indian troops, were cut off and either killed or captured.

 At about 1640 on the 25th,

the Japanese troops completely secured the Kuching airfield. The Japanese losses during this operation (including those at sea) were about 100 killed and 100 wounded. The rest of the battalion reached Batu Kitang without loss to find the village deserted and the ferry unattended.

They had great difficulty in crossing the river, but by dark all except the covering force were over. Most of the transport had to be left behind.

. From the 26th

‘Sarfor’ ceased to exist as a combined Indian and State Force, and the Punjabis, much reduced in strength, carried on alone

 

 December,27th.1941

Following the capture of Kuching airfield, the Detachment commander ordered Colonel Oka to secure the strategic area around Kuching with the main force of the 124th Infantry Regiment, while he with one infantry battalion (excluding two companies)

 left Kuching on the 27th and returned back to Miri.

The main body made its way to Krokong. There the road ended, and the remaining vehicles and heavy equipment had to be abandoned. There, too, the Sarawak State Forces, in view of their agreement to serve only in Sarawak, were released to return to their homes

 

 

December,31st.1941

Renewed Japanese attacks threatened to cut off the covering force, but it managed to make good its escape to the southward, and after a march of about sixty miles through dense jungle with little food or water

 rejoined the battalion at Singkawang II airfield on the 31st.

.

On the morning of the 27th

the column crossed the border into Dutch Borneo and two days later arrived at Singkawang II airfield where there was a garrison of 750 Dutch troops.

 

It was realized at Headquarters, Malaya Command, that the Punjabis would be urgently in need of food and ammunition.

On the 30th December

 

 

And

 then Japanese troops landing Tarakan,

They managed to get through barbed wire, to destroy all machine-gun nests and killing almost all Dutch commanding officers with knives.

They soon captured the first and second row of barracks.

At daybreak the Dutch garrison commander, Lieutenant Colonel S. de Waal, discovered that front line is weak and that all further resistance would be useless.

 

 He dispatched a messenger, under a flag of truce, with an offer to surrender.

 

Colonel Kyohei Yamamoto, commander of the Right Wing Unit, immediately wired the commander of the Sakaguchi Detachment, informing him of the enemy’s surrender.

 

After the Dutch troops finally surrendered, the 2nd Kure Special Naval Landing Force advanced rapidly to the Tarakan airfield and occupied it

by the morning of January 12th.

 

 During this advance the unit was bombed by Dutch bombers from Samarinda II airfield and 18 Japanese soldiers were killed. At 1200 hours one infantry company dispatched from the Right Wing Unit also

Japanese troops occupied the village of Djoewata

 with a Dutch coastal battery located there at the north end of the island.

 

 

During this first fightings Japanese managed to capture a group of about 30 KNIL soldiers. When this group refused to tell them how to get to the main city of the island, they were all stabbed to death with Japanese rifles. Only one men survived this massacre. He managed to drag himself to a hospital where he recovered. The Left Wing Unit Operations, Tarakan Island, January 1942

The Left Wing Unit landed at the prearranged point at 0300

On January, the 11th

1942

and advanced west into the jungle toward the rear of the Dutch coastal battery which it was supposed to destroy. Due to the dense jungle and the steep terrain, the unit was able to advance only 100 meters per hour. After losing its way several times, the unit finally came out in the rear of the Dutch coastal battery around 1700 on the 12th. The Sakaguchi Detachment Headquarters had lost track of the movements of the Left Wing Unit and there had been no report from the officer who was sent out to contact the unit.

 Therefore, at midnight on the 11th, Lieutenant Colonel Namekata from the artillery unit was ordered to land with one infantry company with the mission of capturing the Dutch coastal battery, which was the main objective of the Left Wing Unit. At approximately 0200 on the 12th Lieutenant Colonel Namekata’s unit landed at the same point as had the Left Wing unit, proceeded along the coast and by daybreka reached a position in front of the battery. Initially, it was planned that the Detachment Headquarters was to land in the same area as the Right Wing Unit, immediately after the area was secured and than proceed by land to city of Tarakan. However, because Right Wing Unit had lost it way the Headquarter could not land as scheduled. On the 12th, upon learning of the Dutch forces to surrender, the Headquarter arranged with the Navy to land on Tarakan Island.

On the 12th,

 the following message was received by the Naval Forces: “Although the enemy has offered to surrender, it is feared that the coastal battery located at the south end of the island is not aware of this and it would be dangerous to proceed to the Tarakan pier, therefore held up your sailing”. In spite of this message, the warning was ignored and the movement went on as planned. When the six minesweepers entered the bay, they were fired on by the Dutch coastal battery and two minsweepers W 13 and W 14 were hit by 4.7 inch grenades and sank with most of its crew.

This were Japanese only naval losses in this action.

 The naval commander later promised amnesty for the guncrews and based on this promise the Dutch Island Commander managed to persuade the guncrews to surrender. The Japanese Army Commander on the other hand was to brutal to have the prisoners turned over to him. So he ordered to tie the men into small groups of three. Some time later they were thrown into the water where all 219 Dutch soldiers drowned.

The commander of the Sakaguchi Detachment,

 

 

 Major-General Shizuo Sakaguchi,

 left his ship at about noon on the 12th and landed at

 

 

 

 

 

 

the mouth of Amal RiverTarakan

 

 

 

 

 arriving at the office of the British Petroleum Manufacturor at sunset.

On the morning of 13th, he accepted the enemy commander and formally accepted his surrender. Mopping-up the island was completed on the 13th. On the 14th, the entire Sakaguchi Detachment boarded the ships and left the island. Their new objective was Balikpapan All prisoners of war were executed by the Japanese in retaliation for the destruction of the oil installations; an event that was repeated later in Balikpapan. The Japanese soldier on guard on Tarakan Island, 1942. The photo was taken shortly after the Japanese occupied the island

a Dutch possession, fell on

January 12th 1942

after a brief but vicious struggle, the Japanese killing most of the Dutch officers at close quarters with knives. Tarakan in hand,

Battle of Tarakan

Part of World War II Date

11 January 1942

Location Tarakan Island, Netherlands East Indies Result Decisive Japanese Victory Combatants Empire of Japan Kingdom of the Netherlands Commanders Major General Shizuo Sakaguchi Lieutenant Colonel S. de Waal Strength Over 6,600 Over 1,300 Casualties 255 killed All killed in battle or executed after surrendering

156: Tarakan Island – Dortmund Amateur Wargamers – Best of Show award

the Japanese commander, General Sakaguchi, prepared to move against his next objective, Balikpapan.

He sent two captured Dutch officers as envoys to Lt. Colonel C. van den Hoogenband, the Balikpapan garrison commander.

They delivered a written ultimatum demanding surrender.

The message included a warning:

When the Balikpapan garrison destroys the natural resources and oil installations at Balikpapan and the surrounding country, all commanding officers, their Dutch soldiers and other Dutchmen related to them will be killed without exception. [2]

Undaunted, Hoogenband ordered the oil facilities to be put to the torch. Samethini took part in this operation, the resulting fires and explosions sending thick pillars of black smoke into the sky.

 

 

 

General Sakaguchi’s ultimatum

 

 

Smoke rises from burning oil facilities at Balikpapan (January 1942)Photo Source: Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

 

 

Lt. August Deibel of 2-VLG-V with his Buffalo (serial B-3110) at RAF Kallang, early 1942.

 He shot down

 

 two Nakajima Ki-27 fighters

on 12 January

before being wounded and having to bail out himself.[N 8][23]

read more about Dai Nippon fighter  Nakijama Ki-27

 

While manufacturing the Nakajima Ki-27 fighter under license,in 1942

 

Manshu undertook redesing of this aircraft as an advanced trainer.

The aircraft was built as the Ki-79 a single-seat trainer powered by a 510 hp Hitachi Ha-13a,and the two-seat Ki-79 b with Hitachi Ha 23.

 By 1943

they were becoming available in quantity,with both models equpping the Sendai and Tachiarai Army Flying Schools and the Tokorozawa Army Aviation Maintenance School.

The Ki-79 b model was supplied to the Army Air Academy as well as the Tokyo,Otsu and Oita Army Boys Flying Schools,set up for high scool studens to interest them in becoming pilots for the same 2 Koren aircraft on Kamikaze missions.

Other Ki-79 a and Ki-79 b trainers that been sent to Singapore.Java,the lower Philippines and elsewhere in the Japanese occupied zones for additional training of green pilots.

In Java and Sumatra local Indonesian forces took over the Japanese arms in theit areas and offered select Japanese pilots the opportunity to help train insurgents in the use Japanese fighters.

While the Americans destroyed similar aircraft when they found in Japan,the Russians left them on the airfields in the occupied Manchuria,where they were soon picked up by the Red Army air Force.

When the Peoples Liberation Army was officially formed in July 1946 the 2 Koren trainers became the first standart Trainers of the PLAAF,the air force of the communits army

 

 

 

 

 

January,12th.1942

the battle of manado

 

 

commander of the 1st Yokosuka SNLF paratroopers during the japanese invasion of the dutch east indies, in january 1942 during

the battle of manado January 1942

 commander Horiuchi was tasked to conquer the Longoan airfield, 09:00 hours

January 12th, 1942,

334 Japanese paratroopers were dropped on and around the airfield, Having heard the dropping dutch commander Captain van den Berg ordered the two remaining Overvalwagens (armoured car) to attack the airfield. Although the Japanese paratroopers suffered heavy casualties, they succeeded to capture the Langoan airfield. Enraged by the heavy losses, the Japanese executed a large number of KNIL POW’s

 

japanese navy paratroopers attacking the dutch troops in Longoan airfield (january 1942)

 

 

 

The idea of a Supreme Allied War Council came up early in the conference. It quickly became apparent that the World War I model would hardly meet the requirements of a global war, and action was deferred until the more urgent problems were disposed of.

January,13th.1942

Finally, on the 13th, the British returned to the subject of the organization of the alliance.

By this time the ABDA command had been created and Admiral Sir Dudley Pound suggested that the same pattern be followed on a global scale.

This was entirely agreeable to the Americans, as was the British suggestion to avoid confusion between Allied and national activities by adopting a standard nomenclature. Joint was to be used for interservice collaboration of one nation; combined, for collaboration between two or more nations.24

One further matter remained to be settled — the location of the Allied command post. The British, naturawanted it in London; the Americans, in Washington. There had been some consideration earlier in the conference of a dual system operating out of both capitals, but this idea was quickly discarded

 

The Americans did not favor this solution. Though they did not object to Sir John Dill’s appointment and even preferred him to anyone else, they felt that British representation in Washington should be limited to the level of the Chiefs of Staff. The assignment of a high-ranking British officer in Washington with access to the President would, they believed, create many problems. The proposal also seemed to them to suggest the dual command post concept. To General Marshall, “there could be no question of having any duplication of the Combined Chiefs of Staff organization in Washington and London.” Though he had no objection to parallel subordinate committees, “there could be,” he asserted, “only one Combined Chiefs of Staff who would give broad directions on the allocation of materiel.”25

The final details for U.S.-British collaboration were settled at the last meeting of the conference.

 

By the 13th January 1941

 it had been virtually decided that the headquarters of the alliance would be in Washington. The British therefore proposed to leave in the American capital Field Marshal Sir John Dill to represent Mr. Churchill on the highest levels, and the heads of the Joint Staff Mission, the organization established after the ABC-1 meetings in March 1940, to represent the Chiefs of Staff. Similarly, the Americans were to designate their own officials to represent the President and the Chiefs of Staff in London.

 

On the evening of the 13th  January 1941

the Americans prepared a draft of the arrangements already agreed upon, which with some modifications was accepted by the British and became the basis for the organization of the Combined Chiefs of Staff during the war.26 As defined by the conferees,

the Combined Chiefs of Staff consisted of the British Chiefs of Staff or their representatives in Washington, and the U.S. Chiefs, who, in the accepted terminology, were designated as the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff. The Combined chiefs were to sit in Washington only and to meet weekly, or more often if necessary.

They were to have a secretariat to maintain their records and prepare and distribute their papers, and a staff of planners designated the Combined Staff Planners (consisting of the chief American planners and their British opposite numbers). This latter group was “to make such studies, draft such plans, and perform such other work” as directed by the Chiefs.

The authority granted to the Combined Chiefs was broad. They were to “develop and submit recommendations” for the ABDA area and for the other areas “in which the United Nations may decide to act in concert . . . modified as necessary to meet the particular circumstances.”

 

To perform these functions, they were given responsibility for recommending to their political superiors “a broad program” of the requirements for implementing strategic decisions and for preparing general directives establishing policy governing the distribution of the weapons of war. Such weapons and war equipment were to be allocated “in accordance

with strategical needs” through appropriate groups in Washington and London under the authority of the Combined Chiefs. Finally, the Combined Chiefs were given responsibility to settle the broad issues of priority for overseas military movements.

The combined organization established at the ARCADIA Conference, though it stemmed in large measure from the efforts to meet the crisis in the Southwest Pacific, was patterned on the ABC-1 arrangements and on British practice. Under the former, an effective and well-manned British Joint Staff Mission had been established in Washington, and it was this body that provided the basis for a Combined Chiefs of Staff organization in the American capital.

British experience with committee organization provided the other key to the combined system established at ARCADIA. Thus, the Combined Chiefs were responsible to the President and Prime Minister in much the same way as the British Chiefs were already responsible to Churchill in his dual capacity as Prime Minister and Minister of Defense.27

And the organization of the U.S. Joint Chiefs of Staff that emerged during the months after the ARCADIA Conference was shaped in large degree by the necessity for providing American counterparts to the highly developed system of committees and secretariats under the British Chiefs and the War Cabinet.

January,14th.1942

The conference scored one other major achievement before its close on 14 January. Last on the agenda the British had submitted before the meeting was an item calling for the establishment of “joint machinery” for collaboration.

Just what the British had in mind was not clear, but in preparation for the coming discussion the Americans studied the matter and decided they would seek as their solution to the problem of collaboration the establishment of a Supreme Allied War Council, patterned on the World War I model, and of two committees to support the council — a Military Joint Planning Committee and a Joint Supply Committee.23

 

 

 

 

 

GENERAL TER POORTEN Greets General Wavell (left) on his arrival at Batavia.

 Now, in the first week of January, the 16th

 Army, which had been given the 38th Division to accelerate its drive into the Indies, completed its preparations for the advance. At Davao in the southern Philippines it organized two task forces, one to take the important oil center of Tarakan in northern Borneo, and the other Menado in the Celebes.

 Both left Davao at the same time, 9 January 1942.

The first landed at Tarakan on 11 January and, after overcoming slight resistance from the Dutch defenders aided by American B-17′s based near Surabaya, took that town the same day. The second force, reinforced by about 330 naval paratroopers and supported by the seaplane tenders Chitose and Mizuho and three heavy cruisers, took Menado at the same time.

The seizure of these two points completed the Japanese control of

 

 the Celebes Sea

 

And

 the northern approaches to Makassar Strait.

 Through that strait lay one of the routes to Java.30

 

 

 

JANUARY 1942

amazing story of Louis Rapmund.

 

Louis Rapmund

During one of my many late night internet searches I found his name in two obscure articles published in a New Guinea journal in the late 1940s. Rapmund was a Dutch NEI (Netherlands East Indies) officer who worked in western New Guinea facilitating the recovery of Indian, Papuan, and Dutch nationals who had been held by the Japanese. Rapmund assisted Nellist and Rounsaville Teams (of the Alamo Scouts) on their famous mission to liberate a Dutch governor and his family, along with 40 Javanese and twelve French civilians from an internee camp at Cape Oransbari

 

 

Last photo of the Rapmund Family – Madang 1940

“The last time I saw my father was in 1942 in Java,” said Louise. “He was literally running out the back door of our house as the Japanese were coming in the front door.

They were looking for him. This has helped heal a wound in my soul that festered for over sixty years. I loved my father. He was a wonderful man.”

Over the next week Louise gathered what photos she could find of her father and sent them to me for the ASA Photo Archive.

As the photos attest, Louis Rapmund was a striking figure; a handsome young man struck down in the prime of his life in a brutal war. But now thanks to modern technology, the undying love of a daughter, and the generosity of a total stranger, the words he penned a lifetime ago have helped bring others a little closer.

 

 

Louise & husband

 

in the first week of January 1942

Japanese Forces  opened the second phase.

 

The objectives of this phase of the plan included the seizure of the Bismarck Archipelago and Malay Peninsula; the capture of Singapore; and, in preparation for the final assault on Java, heart of the Indies, the acquisition of air and naval bases in southern Sumatra, Dutch Borneo, the Celebes, Amboina, and Timor.

 

 The occupation of Java itself and of northern Sumatra was scheduled for the third phase, after which the Japanese would complete their operations in Burma and consolidate their position in the conquered area.

 

 

 

 

 

 

So rapidly had their forces moved and so light had been resistance that even before the end of the year Japanese commanders in the field were urging their superiors in Tokyo to speed the timetable of conquest

 

 

January,1st.1942

 

JAPANESE PRISONERS,

 captured on Bataan, being led blindfolded to headquarters for questioning. On 1 January 1942 the Japanese entered Manila and the U.S, troops withdrew toward Bataan. Army supplies were either moved to Bataan and Corregidor or destroyed. The remaining forces on Bataan, including some 15,000 U.S. troops, totaled about 80,000 men. The food, housing, and sanitation problems were greatly increased by the presence of over 20,000 civilian refugees. All troops were placed on half-rations

On January 2th, 1942

 

, the Philippine capital of Manila was occupied by the japanese

January,5th,1942

The postal used cover with DEI Kon 10 cent stamps send from CDS Madioen 5.1.42 to Batavia center had sencored red Chop and the c0ver open by sencored ,closed with DEI Official geopend door censor flap

It was at this juncture, on 10 January,

 that General Wavell reached Batavia, capital of the Netherlands Indies, located on the northwest coast of Java. Already there or soon to arrive were his deputy, General Brett, and the commanders of his ground and naval force, Lt. Gen. H. ter Poorten and Admiral Hart. In the absence of Air Marshal Sir Richard E. C. Peirse, General Brereton was appointed deputy commander of the air forces. On the 15th, General Wavell formally assumed command of the ABDA area (ABDACOM) with headquarters at Lembang, inland from the capital and about ten miles north of Bandoeng.31 (Chart 2)

From the start it was apparent that the defense of the ABDA area, even in the unlikely event that the promised reinforcements arrived in time, had little chance of success. Already the Japanese had taken Hong Kong, isolated the Philippines, landed in Borneo and the Celebes, and were making rapid progress down the Malay Peninsula.

 To oppose their advance Wavell had, in addition to the British forces fighting a losing battle in Malaya and the American forces in the Philippines, two Dutch divisions in Java and small Dutch garrisons elsewhere in the Indies; a naval force — including the U.S. Asiatic Fleet — of heavy and 8 light cruisers, 23 destroyers, and 36 submarines; and an air force of 4 fighter and 6 bomber squadrons, including the remnants of the Far East Air Force, plus 250 more planes in Burma and Malaya. With these meager forces General Wavell could only try to hold back the Japanese tide while waiting for reinforcements which never came.32

The urgent need for reinforcements was only one of Wavell’s problems. Keeping the peace within his own small international headquarters, unraveling the confused command relationships between his forces, and reconciling conflicting national interests and strategic concepts were others almost as serious. Even so minor a matter as the location of the headquarters could not be settled amicably and it was only after he had overridden the strong objections of his naval commanders that Wavell established his headquarters at Lembang.33

The relationship between Wavell and MacArthur, though it created no difficulties, illustrated the confused situation in ABDACOM. In addition to the task of holding the Malay Barrier, Wavell had also been instructed to re-establish communications with Luzon and to support the Philippine garrison. Before assuming command, he objected to this assignment and proposed that the islands be excluded from the ABDA area. President Roosevelt, without consulting his military advisers, approved this suggestion to avoid any delay in Wavell’s assumption of command. When General Marshall learned of this action he saw

 

 

CHART 2–ORGANIZATION OF ABDACOM, JANUARY-FEBRUARY 1942

 

ABDA COMMAND meeting with General Wavell for the first time. Seated around the table, from left: Admirals Layton, Helfrich, and Hart, General ter Poorten, Colonel Kengen, Royal Netherlands Army (at head of table), and Generals Wavell, Brett, and Brereton.

that it might well have an adverse effect upon morale in the Philippines and was contrary to the ABDA agreement. An important reason for the establishment of Wavell’s command had been the desire to co-ordinate the efforts of the Allies in the Far East, and the United States had allocated to the defense of ABDA aircraft which had been under MacArthur’s command or sent out originally for his use. With King’s support, therefore, Marshall recommended to the President that he rescind his earlier message. The President saw the point immediately, and Wavell was told the day after he assumed command that the Philippines would remain in his area.34

The establishment of the ABDA area made necessary also a reshuffling of the U.S. Army commands already in existence in the Southwest Pacific and Southeast Asia. Although MacArthur was assured by the War Department that the establishment of ABDACOM would not alter his position or affect his forces, he actually lost a part of his command. The U.S. Army Forces in Australia were then a part of USAFFE (U.S. Army Forces, Far East) and under MacArthur’s direction. Now he was told that these forces would be formed into a separate command on a level with USAFFE and placed under General Brereton, who had been selected because of his “intimate knowledge of your situation and needs.” The reason for this move was that the Japanese advance into the Indies had made control by MacArthur of the forces in Australia and the Netherlands

Indies impractical. But, he was assured, “when satisfactory communications with the Philippines have once been reestablished your resumption of actual command of all American Army forces in the Far East will be easily accomplished.”35

Other than the paper changes in command, the establishment of ABDACOM had no effect on operations in the Philippines. MacArthur reported formally by radio to his new superior and sent representatives from Mindanao to Java to solicit what aid they could, but the relationship between the two headquarters was never more than nominal.

General Brereton’s assignment as air commander in the ABDA area, pending the arrival of Air Marshal Pierse, complicated an already confusing situation. Brereton was also commander of U.S. Army Forces in Australia (USAFIA), a post General Brett had held before him, and in this capacity also came under Wavell’s control. But this control was only partial, for, as the War Department explained to Brereton, “U.S. troops in Australian territory come under the control of General Wavell only when specifically allotted for service in the ABDA area.”36

The physical difficulties of exercising command simultaneously over USAFIA, a logistical and administrative headquarters in Australia, and over ABDAIR, an operational headquarters in Java, as well as the conflicting missions of the two, made it imperative to clarify Brereton’s status. On the 16th, therefore, a day after he assumed command, General Wavell, at Brereton’s request, asked Marshall to relieve Brereton of his responsibilities in Australia so that he could concentrate on the full-time job of directing his air forces. This was quickly done, and General Barnes, who had in effect been directing the activities of USAFIA since the 12th, was authorized to assume command of base facilities in Australia.37

Barnes himself seems to have been somewhat confused about his status and responsibilities for he was never formally designated as a commander of USAFIA and Brereton continued to receive messages addressed to him with that title. Moreover, when Brereton had difficulty getting logistical support from Australia that he wanted, he complained to the War Department, which promptly informed Barnes that he was to provide that support as best he could. At the same time, the War Department made it clear to Barnes that he was not under Brereton’s but Wavell’s command, and that General Brett, as Wavell’s deputy, could issue orders to him. So far as the War Department was concerned this ended the matter, but General Barnes, even at the end of January, was apparently not clear on his relationship to ABDACOM “in general” and to General Brett “in particular regarding troops and supplies in Australia.”38

Not only was there confusion over command in the ABDA area, but national commanders differed with one another and with the Supreme Commander over the conduct of operations and the allocation of resources. To the American, Dutch, and Australian officers, it seemed that General Wavell was devoting far too much attention, as well as a disproportionate share of Allied resources, to the defense of Malaya, Singapore, and Burma, an attitude that seemed to them to reflect British rather than Allied interests. The American commanders, Admiral Hart and General Brereton, free from any territorial interest in the area, wished to protect the lines of communication and air and naval bases along the Malay Barrier, which they believed essential links in defensive structure of the Southwest Pacific and the starting points for offensive operations. The Dutch desired above all else to concentrate Allied resources on the defense of their territories. And the Australians, concerned over the defense of the homeland, continually pressed for a greater share of the theater’s resources on the east. If General Wavell made any effort to reconcile these views, the records do not show it. Despite the representations of the national commanders to their governments — in Washington Brett’s were refuted by the Army planners, as was his proposal to break up the new theater — Wavell continued to act on the assumption that the security of the Netherlands Indies and Australia depended on the defense of Malaya and Singapore.39

These difficulties were brought out sharply in the discussion of naval reinforcements. Most of the British and Dutch vessels in the area were assigned to convoy duty, leaving only the U.S. Asiatic Fleet, based on Surabaya, free for operations. The Dutch, whose naval forces were under the operational control of the British, were none too happy over this assignment, preferring to employ their vessels in the defense of Dutch territory. Their irritation was further increased by the British announcement of the transfer of some of their cruisers and destroyers to the Indian Ocean and American refusal to provide naval reinforcements for convoy duty. Ultimately the Australians were persuaded to send additional vessels into the area, but the damage had been done and the Dutch resentment persisted.40

The Dutch were displeased also with the way naval operations were being conducted. Admiral Hart, they felt, had his forces too far back and was showing more concern over Darwin and the supply routes to Australia than over the progress of the enemy through Makassar Strait and the Molucca Sea. They were disappointed, too, over their failure to gain command of the naval elements in ABDA. Their interests, they felt, were predominant and their knowledge of the area greater than that of the Americans. This attitude, which Dutch naval officers made little effort to conceal, added to Hart’s already considerable burdens and complicated his task enormously.

By the end of January, relations between Admiral Hart and the Dutch naval commander had become so strained that they could no longer be ignored. It was then that General Wavell suggested to the Prime Minister that Hart

 

be relieved on account of his age and that a Dutch officer, or, if the United States would send naval reinforcements to the ABDA area, a younger American be given command. The suggestion was passed on to Washington and finally to Hart himself who replied that he did not consider himself too old to discharge his duties and did not wish to be relieved. Though both Admirals King and Stark supported the Asiatic Fleet commander, the President decided to adopt Wavell’s suggestion. His decision was influenced largely by the fact that the United States had refused to send naval reinforcements to the area and by the hope that the Dutch would assume a more active role in the naval defense of ABDA. There was never any feeling, Admirals King and Stark later recalled, that Hart had proved unfit or that he was too old to exercise command. After the President had made his decision Hart had no recourse but to step down, which he did on the 5th by asking to be relieved on account of ill health, a course Admiral Stark had recommended to him. Six days later the Secretary of the Navy ordered him home.41 His place was taken by Vice Adm. Conrad E. L. Helfrich, Dutch naval commander.

ADMIRALS HELFRICH AND HART

With the relief of Admiral Hart, ABDACOM lost its last American force commander. Air Marshall Pierse had taken over from General Brereton on 28 January, as originally intended, and the Dutch continued to command the ground forces. The U.S. Chiefs, anxious to secure direction of one of the major elements in ABDACOM in the interests of “homeland support,” put forward Brett’s name as commander of the Allied air forces. Both the President and the Prime Minister supported the nomination, but Brett seems to have had larger ambitions and argued that such a “drastic change” would be unsettling. The matter was dropped.42

While the Allies sought to solve the problem of command and bring reinforcements into the area, the Japanese continued to advance almost without interruption. In Malaya General Yamashita forced the British back from line after line until on 27 January Lt. Gen. A. E. Percival, the British commander in Malaya, withdrew his forces to Singapore. The causeway connecting the fortress to the mainland was blown on 31 January. Only the waters of Johore Strait lay between Yamashita and his goal. For a week, while the Singapore garrison

desperately prepared its defenses, Japanese aircraft and artillery paved the way for the final assault.

 

The loss of Singapore was a major blow to the Allied cause in the Far East and a disaster of the first magnitude for the British who had long regarded it as an impregnable fortress and the key to the defense of Australia, New Zealand, and India. Fortunately, the British estimate of the importance of Singapore to the security of the Dominions proved incorrect, but that did not lessen the immediate shock or minimize the seriousness of the blow to the British Far Eastern Fleet, which had already suffered the loss of the Prince of Wales and Repulse. With its base gone, the British Navy now had to retire to Sydney in Australia and to Ceylon, and when Ceylon was threatened briefly in April, to the east coast of Africa.

For ABDACOM, which had been established only a month before, the fall of Singapore was a crushing blow. In anticipation of this disaster, General Wavell had warned the Chiefs of Staff on the 13th that a drastic change in plans might soon be necessary. It was doubtful, he wrote, that Sumatra, obviously the next Japanese objective, could be held, and if it were not, then Java would fall. Though he told the Chiefs he intended to continue his present plans for the defense of Java “until situation enforces changes,” it was apparent by the 15th that he had no real hope for success, a view that was reinforced by his recommendation to divert reinforcements, two Australian divisions, already en route from the Middle East to Java, to Australia or Burma, preferably the latter.44

The Dutch took violent exception to Wavell’s estimate. They insisted that Java must be defended, regardless of the fate of Sumatra. To them and to the Netherlands Government-in-exile Java had an even greater political, moral, and sentimental significance than Singapore had for the British. Wavell’s proposal seemed to them an abandonment by their Allies and confirmed their worst fears that ABDACOM was a device to use Allied resources for the defense of Singapore and of British interests in the Far East.

Unpalatable as it was to the Dutch, Wavell’s estimate had to be accepted for not only was Singapore about to fall into Japanese hands, but Java was clearly threatened from three directions — the South China Sea, Makassar Strait, and Molucca Sea. Following up the Borneo

landings of late December and early January, the Japanese, moving by water through Makassar Strait, had landed at Balikpapan


Gen.-Maj. H. ter Poorten (rechts) met General Sir Archibald P. Wavell (midden), opperbevelhebber van Abdacom, te Batavia, 22 jan.1942

 

 on the January,24th.1942

 The landings had been made only after a battle with U.S. naval forces — their first of the war — in which the American destroyers won a tactical victory but failed to stop the enemy. The Japanese took Balikpapan easily but failed to capture the oil refineries there. These, the Dutch had already gutted.

. Only a day before, another Japanese force had sailed through the Molucca Sea to land at Makassar on the southwest tip of Celebes Island, facing Makassar Strait. By 10 February that strait and the north shore of the Java Sea were under Japanese control.

The Molucca Sea approach to the Malay Barrier fell into Japanese hands as a result of amphibious hops and naval-air engagements in which the Allies fought a desperate but losing battle. From Menado, which they had taken

 on 11 January,

 the Japanese moved on to Kendari

 

 

On January 22th.1942

the Balikpapan ‘s Dai Nippon invasion force was sighted heading south through the Makassar Strait.

The Dutch air force attacked the convoy continuously during daylight, but its antiquated Martin B-10 bombers inflicted little damage. In the predawn hours of the 24th the Japanese landed 5,500 soldiers in two separate groups. The bulk of Sakaguchi’s 56th Regimental Group came ashore north of town. A detached battalion, the Surprise Attack Unit commanded by Major Kaneuchi, landed south of Balikpapan. Guided by Indonesian fifth columnists, the latter force proceeded to the village of Banubaru, cutting off the Dutch line of retreat. Having learned from hard experience at Tarakan, where Dutch coastal artillery had sunk two warships, the Japanese were avoiding the big guns defending Balikpapan.

In the event, the Dutch did not attempt to hold their positions. Hoogenband had received orders to withdraw inland after completing sabotage operations. He led an infantry column out of town, along the road to Banubaru. The Dutch ran into the advancing main body of Kaneuchi’s Surprise Attack Unit, and the Japanese promptly gave battle. Han fought as part of a machine gun crew, feeding the ammunition belt into the weapon as the gunner mowed down the leading edge of the oncoming enemy. The KNIL troops were defeated and the Dutch force broke up. With no other alternatives but death or capture, Samethini joined a group of survivors heading north into the jungle towards their only hope of escape, the airfield at Samarinda. [3]

on the January, 24th,1942

 the same day they landed at Balikpapan. Amboina Island was occupied a week later by a strong force which overcame the small Dutch and Australian garrison with little difficulty. By the end of the month the Japanese controlled the Molucca Sea and were in position to cut the line between Java and Australia and to breach the east flank of the Malay Barrier.

On the western flank of the barrier, the Japanese had early secured the South China Sea approaches and

Offshore it had been a different story.

At approximately 20.00 hours (8 pm) on the 24th,

 American destroyers of Des Div 59 attacked the invasion convoy, sinking four troop transports and an escort vessel. The next day two more transports were claimed, one by Dutch and American bombers, the other by a Dutch submarine. This was the largest naval action since the start of the Pacific War, but the brief Allied tactical victory could not change the outcome of events on land.

Over the next several days, Han and his companions hacked their way through a tangled wilderness teeming with malarial mosquitoes. Pursued and repeatedly attacked, they reached Samarinda and boarded a plane for Java. As the transport winged over Borneo’s deep green forests and muddy brown rivers, Han might have gazed out the window and reflected on this land of opportunity that had so suddenly become a place of death and defeat. But he was not a man to dwell on regrets. Surely Anna and Margie were alive and waiting for him in Surabaya. That mattered more than anything. [4]

On that day, they took their captives to the nearby sea shore:

Even eight patients from the local hospital were among the group of 78 victims marched to a beach near the old Klandasan Fortress. Two of the victims were then beheaded on the beach, the other 76 forced into the sea…all were shot one by one, their bodies left to drift with the tide. [5]

 

 

The only way out: Samarinda II airfield, Borneo
(Allied air recce photo taken in 1944)

 

 

Australian troops of 2/3 Machine Gun Battalion
at Arinem (Western Java) in January 1942

 

a group of american tanks captured by the japanese army in the phillipines and used by the japanese during the battle of corregidor and in the invasion of Burma

Burma was to have been seized in two phases and its occupation completed only after operations to the south were over.

But early in January

the schedule had been speeded up and before the end of the month the 15th Army had pushed across the Thai-Burma border and seized

 

Dai Nippon in  Moulmein 1942

Look

 

dutvh POW at Moulmein camp

 

japanese infantry using a type 89 Grenade Discharger against british troops in burma 1942

 

 

officer of the japanese army 56th infantry Division carrying the regimental flag (burma 1944)

read more

 

                                 The Sword and the Cross

                               Two of the dramatic photographs in Pacific Fury illustrating

                                   the cruelty and the compassion of the Pacific conflict

Eyewitnesses in Pacific Fury: Alexander Roberts as an RAAF pilot and, bearded, as air liaison officer with the Chindits in Burma; Catherine ‘Kay’ Cotterman, prisoner of the Japanese in Manila; and William ‘Bill’ Macauley, prisoner of the Japanese in Hong Kong

 

On the 20th January 1942

came messages from the President and Chief of Staff, addressing Wainwright as commander in the Philippines and telling him of his promotion to lieutenant general. No confusion was possible. “Upon the departure of General MacArthur,” wrote Marshall, “you become commander of U.S. forces in the Philippines.”55 Beebe had no choice but to turn over the messages to Wainwright, who, next morning, formally assumed command of U.S. Forces in the Philippines (USFIP), the name of his new headquarters, and designated Beebe his chief of staff. Like MacArthur, he commanded the naval forces as well as those of the Army, and was therefore a joint commander.56

 

 

January,21st,.1942

It was only when MacArthur learned of Wainwright’s assumption of command on the 21st that he informed the War Department of his own arrangements.

 

japanese officers interrogating american general Jonathan Mayhew Wainwright IV (bataan 1942)

 

To Marshall these seemed unsatisfactory for a variety of reasons, and he told the President so. Wainwright, he felt, should continue in command. The President accepted this advice and MacArthur was advised that unless he had strenuous objections, Wainwright would retain his new post.57 MacArthur made no objections. He understood thoroughly Marshall’s difficulties; he said, and would accommodate himself to the arrangements already made. “Heartily in accord with Wainwright’s promotion to lieutenant general,” he radioed, “His assignment to Philippine command is appropriate.”58

 

 

 

american POWs being searchead by japanese guard (bataan 1942)

 

Thus ended the uncertainty and confusion. Wainwright was now confirmed as the commander of all forces in the Philippine Islands with the large authority and heavy responsibilities formerly possessed by General MacArthur. But he was not independent of his former commander, for MacArthur, though not yet officially appointed to his new office, had acquired even greater responsibilities than before and command over an area stretching from Melbourne to Manila

group shotunder fire

 

japanese soldiers advancing under heavy fire of british troops during the invasion of burma (1942)

 

type 92 heavy machine gun crew in the mountains of burma

 

January,23th 1942

 

OFFICERS OF THE WAR PLANS DIVISION, 23 January 1942.

on the 25th January

 

The women and children were sent on by road to Pontianak on the coast, whence they escaped by ship on the 25th January,

only four days before the Japanese occupied the town. Lane placed his battalion under Dutch command for the defence of the airfield and the surrounding area.

There followed a breathing space while the Japanese prepared for their next advance, though clashes took place between patrols near the border.


The Japanese troops in Singkawang, 1942.
The man with the moustache on the right is Major-General Kiyotake Kawaguchi
.

 

Han arrived in Java at the end of January.

Making his way to Surabaya, he searched at once for Anna and Margie. To his great worry, they were not at his mother’s house and he was unable to find them. He then fell ill with malaria contracted during the forced march in Borneo. The disease evolved the dangerous complication called blackwater fever, and he was sent to a hospital. [6]

The report of Balikpapan’s loss added to the litany of woes announced by the radio broadcasts on Java. Frank Samethini heard the news at Fort Menari, near Surabaya, where he’d been posted since the outbreak of the war:

Weeks pass without a shot being fired by us at the fort. But the radio tells of defeat, of bitter defeat by the ridiculed little men, the former smiling, bowing and hissing barbers, merchants of inferior goods made in Japan. There are also numerous reports of bravery from other sectors of our forces, but the closing message of the bulletin is always the same: battle lost, we retreat before the swarming ants….[7]

The day before Balikpapan’s fall the Japanese overran Kendari on the island of Celebes, capturing the finest air base in the East Indies.

I am reading a letter from Lisa while on duty in the listening post (“Darling, do you want it to be a boy or a girl?”), when suddenly a sound from a great distance enters the earphones.

Growing louder and louder, it seems to come from every direction. No, wait, from high in the invisible vault above the cloud banks it comes! In a flash I recognise it with a sudden, racing heart: approaching aircraft. Can’t be ours, we haven’t got that many!

 My thumb sinks the alarm button while I reach for her letter fluttering to the floor. My field glasses show the Jap airplanes up as silver-winged, transparent dragonflies, three flights of five bombers in each squadron, moving slowly across the sky, too high for the black and white popping blossoms of our ack-ack.

 What little is left of our fighter planes whiningly soar upwards to meet their fate. The dragonflies move on southwards – southwards! But that is Surabaya! Fear clutches my throat. My God! Almost immediately I hear the dull boom of exploding bombs in a muffled staccato that pierces through my heart. Where, oh God, have they fallen? [8]

 

(ibid Hans Semethini)

The Japanese planned to attack the airfield from the north, and also from the west by a force landed on the coast. This attack was held up by bad weather for nearly a week, but on the 24th January five companies advanced along the road from the Dutch border, and

 

 by the 25th had reached a village two and a half miles north-east of the airfield. Having destroyed the stores and barracks, the defenders launched an attack

Meanwhile three Japanese companies had left Kuching in small craft during the night of the 25th

 

on the 26th which was repulsed.

That evening a counter-attack succeeded in turning their flank and

early on the 27th

 the order was given to evacuate the airfield. A Dutch tank was used to hold a crossroads for a while. During the withdrawal two Punjabi platoons were surrounded but, refusing to surrender, they fought on under their Indian officer until late in the afternoon.

 It was only when their ammunition was expended and the enemy was attacking in overwhelming numbers that the gallant little party laid down its arms. Japanese reports have since given their casualties at the hands of these two platoons as between 400 and 500 killed or wounded.

Of the seventy Punjabis engaged only three escaped. The remainder were never seen again; there is evidence to show that they were brutally put to death by the infuriated Japanese.

On the evening of the 27th January

the remnants of the Punjabis crossed the Sungei Sambas and took up a position on the high ground at Ledo, fifteen miles south-west of the airfield.

and by daybreak on the 27th

 had landed at Pemangkat due west of the airfield. Striking north-east and south and meeting with little opposition, they quickly captured the coastal villages and moved towards Bengkajang, thus threatening to surround the Allied force at Ledo.

After the fighting at Singkawang II airfield the British-Dutch forces retreated to Sanggau. There this force was split and the Dutch troops went to Sintang, while the British-Indian troops went to Nanga Pinoh.

On the 29th,

after a series of rearguard actions, the Punjabis withdrew to Ngabang and two days later to Nanga Pinoh.

 By this time further resistance was useless,

.

 

2.February 1942

During the frequent Japanese air raids of February 1942,

they took refuge in a bomb shelter in the front yard. This was a dugout reinforced with sandbags, built by Emma’s neighbors from across the street. At times they had to remain in the shelter for up to eight hours.

 

February,1st.1942

the Japanese occupied the Pontianak town

February,2nd.1942

 

 

Surabaya  Starting boombardement in February 1942

In Surabaya, Elisabeth was visiting a friend of her mother’s. She recalls:

The sirens started with a horrible noise and we thought they were just practicing, but then the bombs started to fall and the aeroplanes were fighting in the air. We were so afraid and we all dived under the bed. After what seemed like hours, the all clear came. We were all dazed and didn’t know what to think about it all. There was chaos everywhere…. [9]

 

on February 3th.1942,

the Japanese launched their first major air attacks on the city. Frank was on anti-aircraft observation duty that day:

I am reading a letter from Lisa while on duty in the listening post (“Darling, do you want it to be a boy or a girl?”), when suddenly a sound from a great distance enters the earphones. Growing louder and louder, it seems to come from every direction. No, wait, from high in the invisible vault above the cloud banks it comes! In a flash I recognise it with a sudden, racing heart: approaching aircraft. Can’t be ours, we haven’t got that many! My thumb sinks the alarm button while I reach for her letter fluttering to the floor. My field glasses show the Jap airplanes up as silver-winged, transparent dragonflies, three flights of five bombers in each squadron, moving slowly across the sky, too high for the black and white popping blossoms of our ack-ack.

 

What little is left of our fighter planes whiningly soar upwards to meet their fate. The dragonflies move on southwards – southwards! But that is Surabaya! Fear clutches my throat.

 

My God! Almost immediately I hear the dull boom of exploding bombs in a muffled staccato that pierces through my heart. Where, oh God, have they fallen? [8]

In Surabaya, Elisabeth was visiting a friend of her mother’s. She recalls:

The sirens started with a horrible noise and we thought they were just practicing, but then the bombs started to fall and the aeroplanes were fighting in the air. We were so afraid and we all dived under the bed.

 

After what seemed like hours, the all clear came. We were all dazed and didn’t know what to think about it all. There was chaos everywhere…. [9]

 

 

 

A formation of Mitsubishi G4M “Betty” Japanese medium bombers.
This type flew missions against Surabaya from Kendari, Celebes.

 

 

“There was chaos everywhere….”
Japanese bombs fall on Surabaya (February 1942)

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

February,3rd.1942

The Javanese Etnic group:KRIDO REKSO WIROTOMO: BRANCH DJAKARTA p/a M.L.Joedokoesoemo  Kesehatan II/2 Street Batavia centrum circulAir stencil letter to Mr L.Ch.Damais Java street 72 pavilliun  Batavia centrum,Postalkly used with DEI Karbouw  2 cent CDS Batavia Centrum 3.2.42

 The letter :

By means of this letter KRW Jakarta branch officials to declare all the members of his attitude in the current war as follows:

a.Perkumpulan Krido Rekso wirotomo Djakarta  branch remained standing.
b.The Meeting this year  postponed until  at a good time.
c.All the lessons (Beksan and Gamelan) and other works such as “Cipto Ening” and others dismissed.
d.Starting from  February 1942 all members exempt from payment of contributions.

To the members who are delinquent (not paid) contributions are kindly requested to pay arrears until January 1942. This outstanding money (cut at the cost of shipping) continue to be sent to you let bendahari R.Soebari Pasar Minggoe.Djakarta Post Office (f 70)
 

 Apart from the above that if something about the proposal and make associations in this war, the board asked the committee also requested the committee get forgivenes of  any errors
  for its obligations,

yours respectfully
Board-Rekso Krido-Wirotomo
Djakarta branch

(old spelling has been adapted to the current to be easily translated)

 

Original info

Dengan perantaraan  surat ini pengurus KRW cabang Djakarta mempermaklumkan kepada sekalian anggota tentang sikapnya dalam masa perang saat ini seperti berikut:

a.Perkumpulan Krido Rekso wirotomo cabang Djakarta tetap berdiri.

b.Rapat tahun ini ditunda sampai pada saat yang baik.

c.Semua pelajaran (Beksan dan Gamelan) dan pekerjaan-pekerjaan lainnya seperti “Cipto Ening” dan lain-lainnya diberhentikan.

d.Mulai bulan Pebruari 1942 semua anggota dibebaskan dari pembayaran kontribusi.

Kepada Angggota yang masih menunggak(belum membayar) Kontribusi  diminta dengan hormat supaya membayar tunggakan itu sampai bulan januari 1942. Uang tunggakan ini(dipotong dengan ongkos pengiriman)hendaklah terus dikirimkan kepada saudara bendahari  R.Soebari di Kantor Post Pasar Minggoe.Djakarta( f 70)

 Selain dari pada yang tersebut diatas jika sesuatu usul tentang dan buat perkumpulan dalam masa perang ini, maka pengurus meminta kepada penguruds dan juga pengurus meminta dipermaafkan segala kekeliruan

 selama menjalankan kewajibannya,

Wassalam

Pengurus Krido-Rekso-Wirotomo

Cabang Djakarta

(ejaan lama telah disesuaikan dengan yang berlaku saat ini agar mudah diterjemahkan)

 

Japanese bombing raids against East Java began on 3 February, 1942.

 

and on the 4th February 1942

the Punjabis with Dutch agreement set out in two columns for Sampit and Pangkalanboeoen on the south coast. The British tried to get out of Borneo by going south. Their aim was to find a radio station at Sampit (or if that failed at Pangkalanboen) in order to get contact with Java Island or to reach one of the harbours in the south of Borneo.

The force at Nanga Pinoh was split in three parts: A (Sikh), B (PM) Company and part of Staff (Hindu) Company under command of Major Milligan formed the western column, which took the shorter route, C (Khattack), D (Jat) and part of Staff (Hindu) Company under command of Lieutenant Colonel Ross-Thompson formed the eastern column, which took the longer route and the blitzparty. The blitzparty consisted of 2 officers and 4 men and it was their task to go as fast as possible to Sampit in order to get contact with Java Island

February. 6th, 1942

 

Sydney Morning Herald (February 6, 1942)
National Library of Australia

Japan’s fearsome Zero fighter planes inflicted heavy casualties on the Dutch and Allied interceptors, and the city was soon without effective air defense:

The following week a few more air raids are directed on fortifications outside Surabaya, but the scattered pillboxes and gun emplacements are perfectly camouflaged and no direct hit is suffered. The enemy aircraft, unchallenged since the last Dutch plane was downed, fly low over the dense swamp vegetation in an effort to draw fire and so pinpoint our gun positions. But the order by the fort commander is clear: repulse enemy landings on the beaches and nothing else. Do not shoot at aircraft, do not even shake a fist at them lest they spot you. Keep your head low and swear if you must, but all all events stay out of sight. What kind of war is this? [10]

By the middle of February, Singapore had surrendered,

Read more

THE BATTLE FOR SINGAPORE 

The True Story of Britain’s Greatest Military Disaster 

 

Gen Yamashita landed at singapore

 

General Percival with white flag in Singapore

Read more-book in CD-ROM

Created By dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

“The dai Nippon War In Singapore”

.

 

 

Peter Thompson –

 

General Arthur Percival, ill-fated British commanding officer in Singapore, Olga and Maisie Prout, the brave sisters who defied the Japanese during the occupation of the island colony and Captain William ‘Bill’ Drower, the man the Japanese couldn’t kill. Their dramatic stories are told in The Battle for Singapore

 

the bulk of the American army in the Philippines was bottled up on the Bataan Peninsula,

and the Japanese had taken Palembang in southern Sumatra.

 

The enemy was now on Java’s doorstep. Getting 24 hours’ leave, Frank entered Surabaya to find the town “swarming with British and Australian soldiers.” There were also American air and artillery units on Java.

 

 These hastily collected reinforcements, belatedly shipped to the East Indies without adequate arms or supplies, were too little, too late

The following week a few more air raids are directed on fortifications outside Surabaya, but the scattered pillboxes and gun emplacements are perfectly camouflaged and no direct hit is suffered. The enemy aircraft, unchallenged since the last Dutch plane was downed, fly low over the dense swamp vegetation in an effort to draw fire and so pinpoint our gun positions. But the order by the fort commander is clear: repulse enemy landings on the beaches and nothing else. Do not shoot at aircraft, do not even shake a fist at them lest they spot you. Keep your head low and swear if you must, but all all events stay out of sight. What kind of war is this? [10]

(ibid Frank semethini)

on 8th February 1942,

 without waiting for the fall of Singapore, launched their attack on southern Sumatra. From Camranh Bay in Indochina came a strong naval force to support the transports headed for Palembang with its airfield and oil refinery. On the 14th about 700 paratroopers were dropped in the Palembang area, but achieved only a limited success against the Dutch and British defenders. At the end of the day Allied troops were still in control, but next morning, when the main Japanese force landed upshore and began to move toward Palembang, they withdrew. Two days later, the Japanese were in control of southern Sumatra, leaving the northern part of the island to the conquerors of Singapore. Only the Straits of Sunda now separated the Japanese from their main objective, Java.45

Shortly before midnight of 8 February,

 under cover of an extremely heavy artillery bombardment, the Japanese began to cross the straits.

By the morning of the February. 9th,

they had established a firm position on the island and were pouring reinforcements into the lodgment area. From there the Japanese spread over the island, infiltrating the defender’s lines and isolating them into small pockets of resistance.

 

 

From Balikpapan, the Japanese moved on to Bandjermasin, along the southeast coast of Borneo, which they took on

On 9 Feb 1942,

The day before the Japanese entered the island, he reported he could leave immediately on a cargo ship; however he was instructed to stay at his post as Australia’s most senior civilian official otherwise Canberra “would be deprived of independent information and effect on morale would be bad’. 

 

 

10 February 1942

(2)February,12th.1942.

The Battle Of Palembang

 

Teishin Shudan (Raiding Group) paratroopers landing during the battle of Palembang, February 1942

 

The Dai Nippon  paratroops army  by parachute landed at Palembang and the oil area at plaju near Palembang were attack and occupied ,look the pictures.dai Nippon capture the oil field

 

japanese troops in a captured oil field (dutch east indies 1942)

 

japanese army paratrooper (Teishin Shudan) using a Type 99 light machine gun during the Battle of Palembang (february 1942)

 

(2)FEBRUARY,14TH,1942

On Saturday the 14th of February 1942,

my father came to fetch Henny (my younger sister) and I from our boarding-school for the weekend. We went into town where we did some shopping for my mother and next we went to the Javasche Bank. When my father came out of the bank, we heard and then saw Japanese planes coming over. This time they machine-gunned Malang. I saw two working men, who were hit, falling from the roof where they were busy. They were dead, we saw them lying in their blood on the street. I had never seen dead people before; Henny and I were deeply shocked. Henny started crying, my father took us both quickly away from this very sad sight.

(Elizabeth Van Kampen, Memories of the Dutch East Indies: From Plantation Society to Prisoner of Japan,web blog,2011)

On Saturday the 14th of February 1942,

 my father came to fetch Henny (my younger sister) and I from our boarding-school for the weekend.

 We went into town where we did some shopping for my mother and next we went to the Javasche Bank.

 When my father came out of the bank, we heard and then saw Japanese planes coming over.

This time they machine-gunned Malang. I saw two working men, who were hit, falling from the roof where they were busy.

They were dead, we saw them lying in their blood on the street. I had never seen dead people before; Henny and I were deeply shocked. Henny started crying, my father took us both quickly away from this very sad sight

(ibid Elizabeth Van Kampen)

Of the adventures of the two columns on their long journey through the almost unexplored jungles and swamps of southern Borneo much might be written. Travelling by forest track and by raft and boat on treacherous rivers, short of food and clothing, and constantly exposed to tropical heat and rain they finally reached the coast. The blitzparty arrived at Sampit on

 14th February 1942,

On the February. 15th

 General Percival, with his water, food, and ammunition gone, decided that further resistance was impossible. That afternoon, he met Yamashita at the Ford Motor Factory and formally surrendered his command, an act which symbolized the end of British imperial power in the Far East.43

 

 

 

On 15 Feb,1942

After the British surrender(in Singapore),

 he and two colleagues escaped on a small boat to Sumatra where they were intercepted and forced to land on Bangka island. 

 At Muntock, Bowden tried to explain his diplomatic status but was then beaten by Japanese guards and taken outside. According to later reports, was shot after being forced to dig his own grave.

 

MEANTIME ON JAVA, AUSTRALIA’S TRADE COMMISSIONER to the Dutch-controlled East Indies, Herbert Anton Peterson, moved his office from Batavia (now Jakarta) to Bandung as the Japanese navy won sea battles in the Sunda Straits and Java Sea.

His wife was safely back in Australia but he had already lost one son in airborne operations and another was a POW in Italy.

 

 

.

(3)FEBRUARY,15TH. 1942

On Sunday the 15th of February we received the bad news over the radio that Singapore had fallen into Japanese hands. Indeed, that was a very sad Sunday. Who had ever thought that Singapore could fall? Were the Japanese so much stronger than the Allies? And then there was the Battle of the Java Sea from 27 February to 1 March 1942. The Dutch warships Ruyter and Java were hit by Japanese torpedoes; they sunk with a huge loss of life. The Allies lost this battle..

.Jungle and Indian Ocean

Soon it was the New Year.

 We had no more Japanese visitors. There were not many Dutch or other Europeans outside of camps.

 In Malang there was already a camp for men called Marine Camp. And another camp, we were told, called De Wijk, prepared to house women and children. Taking a long, last walk through the rubber plantations and jungle, my father and I beheld the Indian Ocean. My father looked at me and said, “I have to ask you something, you are almost 16 so you are old enough. I want you to look after Mama and your sisters when I have to leave Sumber Sewa. Will you promise me that?” I remonstrated, but he insisted and I agreed.

And so, at the beginning of February 1942, my father received a phone call ordering him to leave our home in Sumber Sewu within six days and report to the Marine Camp in Malang. This would be a fateful separation. By now, most Dutch men were internees.

A Japanese visitor

.

On Sunday the 15th of February

we received the bad news over the radio that Singapore had fallen into Japanese hands. Indeed, that was a very sad Sunday. Who had ever thought that Singapore could fall?

 

Were the Japanese so much stronger than the Allies?

 

Sunday, 15 February

 

 

Australian light cruiser PERTH relieved light cruiser ADELAIDE which departed Fremantle with convoy MS.4 of four tankers and two cargo ships.

 

On the 15th, convoy MS.4 was ordered back to Fremantle, except for PERTH and Dutch steamer ‘S JACOB (note: name as shown in reports, but does not appear in Lloyds) (2839grt). En route they were joined by Dutch steamers SWARTENHONDT (5084grt) and KARSIK (3057grt).

 

On the 21st, three ship convoy was ordered back to Fremantle and PERTH escorted it to within 700 miles of Fremantle before proceeding Tanjong Priok arriving on the 24th.

_____

 

American heavy cruiser HOUSTON, destroyer PEARY and Australian sloops SWAN and WARREGO departed Darwin escorting US Army transports MEIGS, MAUNA LOA, PORT MAR and Australian coaster TULAGI, carrying 1800 troops to reinforce Timor. Shortly after sailing, the convoy came under air attack, all four transports suffered damage from near misses, and it returned to Darwin.

_____

 

Auxiliary anti-submarine ship MATA HARI (Temporary Lt G A Brignall RNR) was sunk by Japanese gunfire at Banka. S/Lt I Ellis MRNVR, Temporary Acting S/Lt (E) W MacCrorie RNVR, Temporary S/Lt (E) T R Gordon MRNVR, Lt V A Burton MRNVR, Lt J R Pickhall MRNVR, Lt Cdr B Scott MRNVR, Temporary S/Lt A H Hogge RNR, S/Lt G Lyons MRNVR,Temporary S/Lt (E) H M MacGregor RNVR, Temporary Acting S/Lt (E) F J Lumley RNR, Temporary S/Lt F W Matthews RNVR, Paymaster S/Lt R W Cornell MRNVR and Temporary Lt A C Carton RNR, were taken prisoners by the Japanese.

_____

 

Steamer RHU (254grt) was seized by Japanese forces at Singapore.

_____

 

Auxiliary patrol boat DYMAS, which had departed Singapore on the 13th, was captured by a Japanese cruiser nine miles north of Muntok Light. S/Lt R. G. Banks MRNVR and rest of the crew were made prisoners of war and DYMAS was taken to Muntok.

 

Tug YIN PING (191grt) was sunk by Japanese surface craft 20 miles 225° from Muntok. Of a crew of ten and 65 passengers, 50 were lost, including Capt T K W Atkinson of Singapore Dockyard and Cdr B M Douglas Rtd of SULTAN.

_____

 

Steamers SIUSHAN (296grt), MERSING (65grt) and requisitioned yacht SILVIA were lost at Singapore.

_____

 

Auxiliary patrol boats JERANTUT (217grt) and KLIAS (207grt) were scuttled at Palembang.

_____

 

Steamer HONG CHUAN (67grt) was lost at Djambi when she caught fire from burning shore installations and a drifing barge.

_____

 

Cdr (E) G. H. Craven-Phillips of NASAR (RNAS Sembawang) was lost in ML.433.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.65 sank steamer JOHANNE JUSTESEN (4681grt) in 9-04N, 75-58E. Of a crew of 59, one was lost.

 

 

 

 

A light tank of 3rd Hussars disembarks at Sumatra on 14 February 1942.

 

.

 

 February,15th.1942

New information and photos on ML-KNIL Lodestar flights from Max Schep

Dutch researcher Max Schep has some valuable detailed information on ML-KNIL Lodestar flights in February and March 1942 via the logbooks of pilots Lt Jansen and Olt Oonincx.

This shows that the very first foreign military aircraft to arrive in Broome was possibly not Lt Lamade’s SOC-3 floatplane, as noted in Zero Hour in Broome, but Lodestar LT 919. Olt (“under lieutenant”) Oonincx flew this aircraft from Malang to Broome on 15th February, after a flight time of 330 minutes. LT919 continued on to Brisbane and subsequently remained in Australia.

Just hours after LT919 departed Broome, Lt Jansen arrived in Lodestar LT909 at 11.06am on 16th February 1942 (the SOC-3 also arrived on this same day). Jansen was flying a full plane, comprising himself, three crewmen and twelve passengers. The passengers were ML-KNIL aircrews, travelling to meet expected B-25s in Brisbane. They had departed Andir, Java mid-afternoon on 15th February, arriving at Denpassar, Bali a couple of hours later, where they stayed overnight. Soon after 5am the next morning they took off for Broome, arriving after a flight time of 349 minutes, or almost six hours. The newly arrived Dutchmen spent the day in Broome. To celebrate the occasion some of the men were photographed on Broome airfield in front of LT909. The same photographer also took a picture of some men posing in front of Lamade’s SOC-3 on the tidal flats with the long jetty in the background. These are wonderful photos – thank you for sharing them Max.

Monday, 16 February

 

 

Auxiliary minesweeper FUH WO (Temporary Lt B Shaw RNVR) was lost on Banka Island, after being beached and blown up by her crew. No officers or ratings were lost.

_____

 

Lt Cdr C A Smith Rtd of SULTAN, Temporary Acting Boatswain C Harding of the Singapore Dockyard, Temporary Lt Cdr T W Moore RNR of SULTAN III, Temporary Lt J F Adams RNR of SULTAN III (Examination Service, Penang), Temporary Lt R H Williams RNR of SULTAN III (Examination Service, Penang), Temporary Lt G R Wiseman RNR of SULTAN, Temporary Lt J S Whyte RNR of Examination Service, Singapore and Temporary Paymaster Lt R H Douglas RNVR at Batavia were lost, presumed missing on the 16th (posted July 1946).

 

Lt R C Beckwith and S/Lt R C Ripley RCNVR, both formerly of battleship PRINCE OF WALES, in SULTAN and FANLING respectively and Temporary Lt A J Martin RNVR in PULO SOEGI, were lost on the 16th (posted January 1946, also Halifax list for Canadian officer)

_____

 

 

Ferry BAGAN (244grt) was scuttled at Palembang.

_____

 

Auxiliary patrol vessel ELIZABETH with 15 crew and 11 passengers was sunk by Japanese gunfire in the Banka Strait. Twenty four were missing

_____

 

Steamer TAYLTHYRIUS (10,254grt), which had been damaged on the 3rd, was seized by Japanese forces at Singapore.

.

 

.

_____

 

Convoy SJ.2 departed Batavia with steamers EMPIRE STAR (13,479grt) and PLANCIOUS (5955grt), escorted by light cruiser DURBAN and destroyer JUPITER, the latter detaching the same day.

 

From the Sunda Strait, the ships proceeded independently, PLANCIUS proceeding to Colombo escorted by DURBAN and arriving on the 22nd, while EMPIRE STAR, with US Admiral Hart embarked, proceeded to Fremantle on her own.

 

By 16 February,

 three days after Wavell had told the Combined Chiefs in Washington that he might not be able to hold Sumatra,

 the situation in the ABDA area had rapidly worsened. There was no longer any chance of holding Java, Wavell now told the Chiefs. Its loss would be serious, he asserted, and would deprive the Allies of their only base in the South China Sea. But, he pointed out, the fall of Java would not be fatal to the Allied cause. Burma and Australia, not Java, he declared, were the “absolutely vital” positions in the war against Japan. He therefore recommended again that the two Australian divisions be diverted to Burma,

 

special naval landing force paratroopers commander Toyoaki Horiuchi on a monument tributed to japanese army and navy paratroopers killed during the invasion of the dutch east indies

 

On 16 February 1942,

The Dutch Royal Air forve use Hurricane MK II B  were flown to Kalidjati and formed into two makeshift oprerational squadrons.

 

 

 

The following day, 17th February,

 LT909 flew out at dawn, and subsequently arrived at Brisbane the next day, after stops at Daly Waters and Cloncurry.

The aircraft was back at Broome on 20th February, and then made the long flight back to Java, arriving in Malang after a relatively fast flight time of just over five hours. These aircraft were very hard worked at this time. By the end of February Jansen had flown far to the west, taking passengers to Bangalore, via Colombo and Sumatra: despite the latter island being rapidly occupied by the Japanese at this time. Indeed on the return flight the pilot notes picking up women and children evacuees from Lho Nga and returning to Medan on 3rd March. LT-909 was one of the Lodestars taken to a hidden airstrip outside Andir. At 2.05am on 7th March it departed for the mammoth evacuation flight to Port Hedland. Jansen lists two crew and seven passengers onboard. He landed safely at Port Hedland at 10.20am, after a flight time of over eight hours.

Max Schep is involved with the “Dutch Profiles” series of books which looks into great detail at a selected aircraft type and its Dutch service history. Some of these types are relevant for Australia, such as the P-40s operated by 120 Squadron. An interesting edition on the subject of refugee aircraft and their markings is currently being prepared – a note will be posted when it is available.


Tuesday, 17 February

 

.

 

American bomber B-17 on fire after Japanese bombardment,
Bandoeng airfield on Java, February 17th 1942

 

 

Convoy WS.16 escort from Oversay

 

joined

detached

17th

battleship Malaya, aircraft carrier Eagle, cruiser Hermione, destroyers Active, Anthony, Blankney, Croome, Duncan, Firedrake, Laforey, Lightning

destroyers Verity, Walker, Witherington

 
     
     
     
     
 

 

 

The combined convoy was steamers AWATEA, BERGENSFJORD, BRISBANE STAR, DELFTDIJK, DENBIGHSHIRE, DUCHESS OF RICHMOND, DUCHESS OF YORK, EMPIRE PRIDE, NEA HELLAS, PORT JACKSON, POTARO, SIBAJAK, STRATHEDEN and VOLENDAM. Commodore ships remained as previously.

 

Convoy WS.16A with BERGENSFJORD, NEA HELLAS and VOLENDAM formed the Aden convoy escorted by COLOMBO from the splitting position on 3 April until dispersed off Aden on the 6th after which the ships went to Suez as independents.

 

Convoy WS.16B was the Bombay detachment steaming in the following order from 3 April – AWATEA, BRISBANE STAR, DELFTDIJK, DENBIGHSHIRE, DUCHESS OF RICHMOND, DUCHESS OF YORK, EMPIRE PRIDE, PORT JACKSON, POTARO, SIBAJAK and STRATHEDEN, escorted by ALAUNIA and WORCESTERSHIRE (which joined at the splitting position) and arrived at Bombay 8 April.

 

.

_____

 

Dutch destroyer VAN NES and escorted Dutch steamer SLOET VAN DER BEELE (2977grt), carrying evacutees from Billiton, were sunk by Japanese bombing south of Banka. There were no survivors from either ship.

_____

 

Auxiliary patrol vessel TANDJONG PINANG (133grt) with 17 crew and 150 passengers (survivors from steamer KUALA lost on the 14th), was sunk by Japanese surface craft 30 miles south of Pulo Ubar. There were only three survivors and Temporary Lt B Shaw NZRNVR, Temporary Lt E G Gerard NZRNVR and Temporary Lt G Studholme NZRNVR were lost. Commissioned Gunner A Rafferty, who also had been rescued from KUALA was also lost.

.

 

_____

 

Dutch light cruiser HEEMSKERK arrived at the Seychilles, and carried on, arriving at Colombo on the 21st.

_____

 

Convoy SJ.3 departed Tandjong Priok with steamers KRIAN (857grt), ORISKANY (1644grt) and RESANG (252grt) for Colombo and GIANG ANN (1063grt), auxiliary patrol ships DARVEL and PING WO (3105grt), the latter towing disabled destroyer VENDETTA, for Fremantle.

 

VENDETTA left Tanjong Priok harbour in tow of two tugs and was met outside the harbour by PING WO, which took over the tow before they joined SJ.3 escorted by destroyer ELECTRA and sloop YARRA. On the 22nd off Christmas Island, light cruiser ADELAIDE relieved YARRA in the escort.

_____

 

Convoy SR.6 of steamers WINGSANG, CHILKA, and ELLENGA departed Calcutta for Rangoon, escorted by Indian sloop INDUS, while convoy MR.4 with steamers KUTSANG, NEURALIA and PRESIDENT DOUMER had departed Madras on the 16th for Rangoon, escorted by light cruiser EMERALD. On the 19th, the two convoys merged as SR.6. Due to the situation around Rangoon only troopships ELLENGA (5196grt) and NEURALIA (9182grt) were to proceed there. The rest of the convoy was ordered to Calcutta and arrived on the 22nd.

_____

 

Steamer TATUNG (1560grt), which had been immobilised, was seized by Japanese forces at Tanjong Batoe.

 

 

February 18th 1942

A Small Group Army and Air Force aircraft ABDACOM (American British Dutch Australian Command) operation with British aircraft  Huricane at Tjililitan in Batavia.
Ten Aircraft Brewsters at the Airport Assistant Tjisaoek and 10 Huricane aircraft in the second part of Branch IV in Kalidjati

Wednesday, 18 February

 

Destroyer ENCOUNTER was sent from Batavia to evacuate RAF and service personnel from Padang.

 

Light cruiser DANAE and ENCOUNTER evacuated 877 evacuees from Padang.

 

PANGKOR also brought out 244 from Benculen.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.55 reported sinking a transport north of Sunda Strait.

_____

 

Auxiliary patrol vessel MALACCA (210grt) was scuttled in the Tjemake River, Sumatra.

 

 

Thursday, 19 February

 

 

In Japanese carrier based air attacks on Port Darwin, American destroyer PEARY (LCDR J M Bermingham), British tanker BRITISH MOTORIST (6891grt), steamers ZEALANDIA (6683grt), NEPTUNIA (5952grt), American steamer MAUNA LOA (5436grt) and Army Transport MEIGS (7358grt) were sunk, and British steamers BAROSSA (4239grt) and MANUNDA (9115grt) damaged.

 

PEARY lost LCDR Bermingham, LT A F Gustafson, LT M M Koivisto, Ensign P M Joyce and seventy six enlisted men, with LT R L Johnson and thirteen enlisted men wounded. BRITISH MOTORIST with a crew of 60 and one gunner, lost two crew. ZEALANDIA had three crew killed. NEPTUNIA’s cargo, which included depth charges, exploded and 45 crew were killed. MAUNA LOA had five crew killed. MEIGS lost two crew.

_____

 

American steamer DON ISIDRO (3261grt) was badly damaged by Japanese bombing NW of Bathurst Island, near Darwin in 11S, 130E, beached and considered a total loss. Four crew died, seven missing and 73 rescued by Australian minesweeper WARRNAMBOOL. Two of the survivors died after reaching Darwin.

 

American steamer FLORENCE D (2638grt), in company, was sunk by Japanese bombing at 10-56S, 130-07E. Three crew were lost and the 34 survivors rescued by WARRNAMBOOL and lugger ST FRANCIS.

_____

 

American destroyer EDSALL, in operations in the Dutch East Indies, was damaged by the explosion of one of her own depth charges close aboard.

_____

 

Convoy SJ.4 departed Tandjong Priok with British steamers LEE SANG (1655grt), MODASA (9070grt), STANMORE (4970grt), Norwegian ERLING BROVIG (9970grt) and Dutch GENERAAL MICHIELS (1282grt), GENERAAL VAN GEEN (1290grt) and GENERAAL VAN SWIETEN (1300grt) for Colombo, escorted by light cruiser DRAGON until the 21st February. The ships arrived at Colombo independently between 28 February and 3 March.

_____

 

Convoy SM.2 departed Tandjong Priok with steamers WHANG PU (3204grt) and CABLE ENTERPRISE (943grt) for Fremantle, escorted by light cruiser DRAGON until later in the day.

_____

 

Australian heavy cruiser AUSTRALIA lost her Walrus when it hit the ship during landing and caught fire. Pilot Flight Officer E J Rowan RAAF was killed, but S/Lt G H Jackson RAN and the TAG were rescued.

 

 

 

February 19th.1942

The Japanense boombardement Buitenzorg(Bogor) semplak  airfield and in the midday attack  Bandung Andir airfield

Gubernor General Tjarda vsn Stoukerborough with his  Chief of Staf Ter Porten moved from Batavia to Bandung and they stayed at Mei Ling Villa which owned by  the Tionghoa Volkraad (house of representative)’s member H.H. Kan

 

February ,19th.1942

In a major engagement above Semplak on 19 February 1942, eight Dutch Brewster fighters intercepted a formation of about 35 Japanese bombers with an escort of about 20 Zeros. The Brewster pilots destroyed 11 Japanese aircraft and lost four Brewsters; two Dutch pilots died.[33]

 

February 20th.1942.

This put Surabaya within range of enemy bombers. From Kendari,

Friday, 20 February

 

 

BATTLE OF BADOENG STRAIT

 

Allied ships were in two groups. The first were Dutch cruisers DE RUYTER, JAVA, Dutch destroyers PIET HEIN and the American JOHN D FORD, and POPE. Dutch destroyer BANCKERT was part of the force, but ran aground at the mouth of Tjilatjap harbour and could not proceed.

 

The second group was Dutch cruiser TROMP from Surabaya and American destroyers STEWART, PARROTT, JOHN D EDWARDS and PILLSBURY from Ratai Bay.

 

STEWART was damaged by Japanese gunfire, with one enlisted man killed and the executive officer LT C B Smiley and one enlisted man wounded. JOHN D EDWARDS had one enlisted man wounded. PIET HEIN (Lt Cdr J M L I Chompff) was lost with all but 33 of her crew and TROMP was badly damaged.

 

_____

 

Convoy SM.3 departed Batavia unescorted with British steamers ADRASTUS (7905grt), CITY OF MANCHESTER (8917grt), MARELLA (7475grt), Dutch PHRONTIS (6181grt) and Norwegian PROMINENT (2282grt). Steamers CITY OF MANCHESTER and PROMINENT proceeded to Tjilatjap and the rest of the convoy to Fremantle.

_____

 

Convoy SJ.5 departed Batavia with British steamers ANGBY (786grt), FILLEIGH (4856grt), JALAKRISHNA (4991grt), LULWORTH HILL (7628grt), SILVERLARCH (5064grt), YOMA (8131grt) and Norwegian HAI LEE (3616grt). Escort at the start was by heavy cruiser EXETER, destroyer STRONGHOLD and Indian sloop JUMNA. The ships proceeded to Colombo, arriving independently between 28 February and 6 March.

_____

 

Battleship WARSPITE arrived at Sydney, NSW, after refitting in the United States.

 

_____

 

Destroyer NIZAM departed Colombo for the west coast of Sumatra to evacuate personnel. Patrol vessel PANGKOR of the China Force was also sent to evacuate personnel. NIZAM was recalled on the 21st for escort duties.

_____

 

Australian minesweeper BALLARAT evacuated important stores and completed the destruction of port facilities and abandoned equipment at Oosthaven on the 20th.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.65 sank steamer BHIMA (5280grt) in 7-47N, 73-31E. Crew of 68, two passengers, all rescued.

_____

 

Steamer KOOLAMA (4068grt) was sunk by Japanese bombing off Wyndham, West Australia.

_____

 

Dutch steamer TOBELO (983grt) was sunk by Japanese bombing at Kupang.

_____

 

Steamer JALAKRISHNA (4991grt) was damaged by Japanese bombing in the Dutch East Indies.

 

 

Saturday, 21 February

 

 

Convoy SJ.6 departed Tandjong PrioK with steamers MANGOLA and THEPASTRIN NAWA (3260grt) for Fremantle and KIANG (1451grt), JALAVIHAR, ELSA, STRAAT SOENDA (6439grt) and GENERAAL VAN DE HEYDEN (1213grt) for Colombo.

_____

 

Convoy SJ.7 departed Tandjong Priok with troopship ORCADES (23,456grt), carrying 3768 troops and refugees, escorted by destroyer ELECTRA to the 22nd and Australian light cruiser HOBART to the 23rd, when the convoy dispersed and the escorts detached. ORCADES arrived at Colombo on the 27th.

 

Americans providing reinforcements for Australia.46

Washington agreed with Wavell’s estimate of the probable loss of Java. Reinforcement was evidently futile and the wisest course, the Combined Chiefs thought, would be to send at least one of the Australian divisions to Burma and the other to Australia. It was clear also that the fall of Java would split the ABDA area and make a co-ordinated defense of its eastern and western extremities impossible. The British therefore suggested that Burma be taken out of ABDACOM and transferred to their command in India, a proposal that the U.S. Chiefs and General Wavell, who had always believed Burma was an integral part of the Indian command, readily accepted. This was accomplished formally

on 21 February.47

 

Sunday 22, February

 

 

LANGLEY and SEA WITCH, carrying crated aircraft, were detached to Java. LANGLEY was lost and SEA WITCH was able to escape after delivering her cargo at Tjilatjap.

 

LANGLEY was sunk by Japanese bombing. Only sixteen crew and passengers were lost. The survivors were picked up by WHIPPLE and EDSALL. WHIPPLE then scuttled LANGLEY.

 

The convoy arrived at Colombo on 5 March.

_____

 

Patrol vessel PANGKOR departed Batavia to evacuate personnel from Sibolga and Ongha, then proceeded to Colombo.

_____

 

Boom defence vessels BARRIER, BARLANE and BARRICADE departed Batavia for Colombo and patrol vessels CIRCE and MEDUSA for Fremantle, via Tjilatjap.

_____

 

Convoy SJ.8 departed Tandjong Priok with EDENDALE (1659grt) for Fremantle and FU KWANG (1559grt), TINOMBO (872grt) and ROOSEBOOM (1035grt) for Colombo.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.58 sank Dutch steamer PIJNACKER HORDIKJ (2982grt) south of Tjilatjap.

 

 

Monday, 23 February

 

 

Norwegian steamer BELITA and Norwegian collier WOOLGAR departed Colombo for Batavia, escorted until the 25th by destroyer NIZAM and minesweeper BATHURST. The merchantmen proceeded independently for Batavia until recalled.

_____

 

Convoy SM.4 departed Tandjong Priok with steamer SPRINGDALE (1579grt) for Fremantle and SEIRSTAD and PERAK (1188grt) for Colombo. The ships proceeded independently after Sunda Strait.

 

The plan for sending the Australian divisions to Burma, however, came to naught. Concerned over the defense of their own country, the Australians persistently refused, despite strong appeals from Churchill and Roosevelt, to permit the diversion of these divisions to Burma, and finally,

on 23 February, they were ordered home.48

Though the loss of Java was conceded by all except the Dutch, there was a reluctance to act on this assumption. To do so would create the impression that the Americans and British were deserting their Dutch allies. On the 20th, therefore, the Combined Chiefs, asserting that “every day gained is of importance,” directed Wavell to defend Java “with the utmost resolution” and not to withdraw or surrender any of the troops there. To minimize the loss of Allied troops in Java, the Chiefs specifically prohibited Wavell from reinforcing that island further, but did give him discretion to use his naval forces and American planes in Australia as he thought best.49

Even as these fresh instructions were being received at ABDACOM, the Japanese were making their execution impossible. On the 19th, they landed on the southern tip of Bali, immediately to the east of Java. Next day they landed on Timor, half of which was Dutch and half Portuguese. Control of these islands, lying between Java and northwest Australia, completed the isolation of Java, placed Japanese land-based fighters within bombing range of the Dutch base at Surabaya, and made further reinforcements from Australia impossible.

 

 

 

 

. on 23 February

had been ordered to Tjilatjap, on the south coast of Java,

 

with its cargo of thirty-two assembled P-40′s and their pilots. On the 27th, almost within sight of Java, it was spotted by Japanese patrol planes and sunk. The freighter Seawitch with 27 P-40′s in her hold had left Fremantle at the same time, but sailed separately and made its way successfully to Java. It arrived there on the eve of invasion and the P-40′s, still crated, were dumped into the sea to prevent their capture.55

Meanwhile the Japanese had completed their preparations for the invasion of Java. D-day was set for

 air reconnaissance confirmed that the airfield was unfit for use. Thereupon Air Headquarters made arrangements for supplies to be dropped and the following day three Blenheims from Singapore, modified to carry containers, successfully dropped 900 pounds of supplies on the airfield.

the 23rd February

 at Kenamboi, where they were re-united with C and D Company.

 

 

February,24th,1942

Japanese filght attacked and bombardement Kemajoran Batavia, Semplak Buitenzorg and Kalijati airfield.

Tuesday, 24 February

 

 

Steamers INDRAGIRI (592grt), NAM YONG (1345grt), and BOERO (7135grt) departed Tandjong Priok for Colombo.

_____

 

Dutch steamer KOTA RADJA (7117grt) was sunk by Japanese bombing at Surabaya.

Dutch light cruiser HEEMSKERK departed Colombo for Trincomalee to embark ammunition and proceed to the Dutch East Indies. She then left Trincomalee the next day for Sunda Strait with all despatch, but was diverted to Tjilatjap on the 26th. On 1 March, both she and destroyer ISAAC SWEERS were ordered to return to Colombo.

 

 

Wednesday, 25 February

 

British heavy cruiser EXETER, Australian light cruiser PERTH and British destroyers ENCOUNTER, ELECTRA and JUPITER departed Tanjong Priok to join Dutch Admiral Doorman’s force at Surabaya. Australian light cruiser HOBART was also ordered to sail, but had not completed refuelling. Instead she joined a Western Striking Force with light cruisers DANAE, DRAGON and destroyers TENEDOS and SCOUT. The EXETER group arrived at Surabaya at 0330/26th and sailed at 1900 that day.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.58 sank Dutch steamer BOERO (7135grt) south of Sunda Strait. Crew of 70, with no casualties.

.

_____

 

. With the Japanese making ready for the final assault on Java,

General Wavell turned to his superiors for new instructions. Their orders were to transfer command of Java to the Dutch and withdraw, but to maintain ABDACOM and keep his headquarters intact. When and where he would go was left to him. Ground forces “for whom there are arms” were to remain and continue the fight, but air forces that could operate from bases outside Java and other troops “who cannot contribute to defense” were to be withdrawn, the Americans and Australians to go to Australia. General Brett was to return to Australia, when released by Wavell, to command the U.S. forces there.50

The ABDA commander did not agree with the program. What he wanted was the dissolution of ABDACOM, all reason for its existence having disappeared. Burma, he pointed out, had already been separated from the ABDA theater and Java’s defense was a local problem, best handled by the Dutch themselves. If the Philippines, which had never really been under his control, were taken over by the Americans again and northwest Australia by the Australians, he told the Chiefs, he could turn over his remaining forces to the Dutch and leave the area by

25 February.51

This recommendation was in line with the solution being proposed by the British Chiefs of Staff for the establishment of two areas in the Far East, one to be under American control and to include Australia; the other a British area encompassing India and the Indian Ocean. The Dutch opposed such a solution for fear it would mean the end of Allied assistance in the Netherlands Indies. ‘For God’s sake,’ wrote the Dutch governor-general to Marshall, “take the strong and active decisions and don’t stop sending materials and men.”52

Still anxious to avoid the appearance of abandoning their allies, the U.S. Chiefs continued to oppose the dissolution of ABDACOM. But in recognition of the fact that Wavell had lost the confidence of the Dutch and obviously wanted to pull out, they agreed to the dissolution of his headquarters and his transfer to India, leaving control of the ABDA area to the Dutch. And lest the Dutch should think that the Americans had made this arrangement to shirk their commitments, Marshall assured the Dutch governor that the forces then assembling in Australia were “seeking opportunity to enter the ABDA battle” and would “continue their full support of the Dutch commanders in their magnificent fight.”53

On the 25th

General Wavell turned over command to the Dutch and left for India where General Brereton had already gone to organize an American air force. This move placed MacArthur technically under the Dutch, but he had already been told that “because of your special situation all procedures in your case remain as heretofore.”54 The burden of defending Java was now squarely on the Dutch. Their forces, with the exception of minor ground units (including an American artillery battalion), American and British naval units, and a small U.S.-Australian fighter force, composed the entire command.

There was still a chance that fighters could be brought in by sea, though the air ferry route had been closed by the Japanese seizure of Timor. To this task was assigned the aircraft tender Langley,

 

 

 

 

Thursday, 26 February

 

 

Convoy MR.5 departed Madras with steamers ERINPURA (5143grt), ETHIOPIA (5574grt), KAROA (7009grt) and VARSOVA (4701grt) escorted by heavy cruiser DORSETSHIRE, which departed Trincomalee on the 26th. The convoy and escort arrived at Rangoon on 3 March.

_____

 

Steamer ASHRIDGE was the last steamer to departed Tandjong Priok, escorted through the Sunda Strait by destroyer STRONGHOLD

Back in Balikpapan, the Japanese rounded up civilians and the newly captured prisoners of war. They delayed their promised vengeance until

 

On February 27th,1942,

And then there was the Battle of the Java Sea from 27 February to 1 March 1942. The Dutch warships Ruyter and Java were hit by Japanese torpedoes; they sunk with a huge loss of life. The Allies lost this battle.

 

 

japanese destroyer Inazuma launching a type 93 long lance torpedo against allied ships in the Second Battle of the Java Sea

 

Frank looked out from Fort Menari to see a small fleet of Allied cruisers and destroyers – American, British, Dutch, and Australian – steaming through the Western Fairway:

…the binoculars pick up the sleek outlines in camouflage grey, stealing through the mist of dawn out into the open sea. Our gallant Navy sailing to their last engagement with the enemy, to bear the brunt of the great onslaught. [11]

In the Java Sea the ABDA fleet boldly attacked the more powerful Japanese warships escorting the East Java invasion force, hoping to break through and sink the troop transports.

The Japanese, with their heavier guns and advanced “Long Lance” torpedoes, drove them off after inflicting severe losses.

Among the vessels sunk was

 the Dutch flagship, the light cruiser De Ruyter.

She went down with 345 of her crew, including Warrant Officer Frans Anton Boerman, Frank’s father-in-law.

Read more

 

Dutch cruiser De Ruyter
Laid down: 1933. Launched: 1935. Commissioned: 1936
Seven 150-mm guns on a 6442-ton displacement
Crew: 435

In the Battle of the Java Sea on 27 February 1942, De Ruyter was the flagship of the Dutch rear-admiral Karel Doorman, with his flag captain Eugène Lacomblé (who had previously served on board the ship as a lieutenant). Off the north coast off Java the ABDA fleet was surprised at night by a Japanese squadron consisting of the heavy cruisers Nachi and Haguro supported by 14 destroyers.

De Ruyter was supposedly hit by a single Japanese Long Lance torpedo at about 23:30 and sank at 02:30 the next day with the loss of 345 men, including Admiral Doorman and Captain Lacomblé. Her wreck was found after the war and declared a war grave, with only the ship’s bell (now in the Kloosterkerk in the Hague) being recovered.

 

Battle of the Java Sea

In February 1942, the Allies established a naval “Combined Striking Force” for the protection of Java.

 The “Eastern Striking Force”, comprising the Dutch cruisers Java and De Ruyter, the US heavy cruiser Houston, the British cruiser Exeter, and the Australian cruiser Perth , was placed under the command of Dutch Rear Admiral Karel Doorman. “Eastern Striking Force” also included the destroyers Witte de With and Kortenaer (RNN), J.D. Edwards, Alden, John Ford and Paul Jones (USN), and Jupiter, Electra and Encounter (RN).

On February 27,

 Doorman’s force sailed from Surabaya to intercept the Japanese “Eastern Invasion Force”, which comprised four cruisers and 14 destroyers, escorting 41 transport vessels. At about 4 pm, the two forces met in a battle which lasted much of the night. Outgunned, Doorman’s force was unable to engage the invasion fleet, which escaped to the north while the escort vessels were pressing their attack.

Allied casualties were heavy.

 

Admiral Doorman

was lost along with both of the Dutch cruisers and almost all of their crews.

The Exeter was badly damaged by shell-fire, and was sunk along with its escorting destroyer Encounter two days later. Among the other destroyers engaged, Kortenaer, Jupiter and Electra were all sunk, with considerable loss of life. The Japanese invasion fleet was delayed, but not prevented from making a landing on Java on 28 February. The surviving cruisers, Houston and Perth, were sunk on the evening of the same day as they attempted to withdraw to Ceylon, having encountered the Japanese “Western Invasion Force” in the Sunda Strait.

 

Admiral Doorman’s flagship De Ruyter at anchor shortly before the battle of the Java Sea.

Read more about Admiral Karel dorman

Rear-Admiral K.W.F.M. Doorman, RNN

 

Karel Willem Frederik Marie Doorman

Born Utrecht April 23, 1889 – Died on board light cruiser De Ruyter February 28, 1942

 

Although Karel Doorman was the son of an army officer, he joined the officer’s course at the Naval Institute in 1906, which he completed successfully four years later. After some years in the Netherlands East Indies, he returned to Holland to become one of the pioneers in Dutch naval aviation. He earned his wings in 1915, and what followed was a turbulent period at the naval airfield De Kooy until 1921, during which he survived 33 emergency landings. Then, he went to the High Naval Academy to study the art of naval warfare. He was sent out to the NEI for the last time in 1937, where he became the Commanding Officer of the Naval Air Service during the last prewar years. Being an aviator himself, he understood the value of a well-trained and well-equipped Naval Air Service (the correct Dutch term is Marine Luchtvaartdienst, or MLD) and under his command, the MLD became just that.

In June 1940, he was given command of the Netherlands East Indies Seagoing Squadron, which normally included the bulk of the Dutch surface fleet. Although a neglected dysentery started to play up shortly before the start of the Pacific War, he retained command and was also given command of the Combined Striking Force on February 3, 1942. The idea was to use this scratch-collection of Dutch, American, British and Australian warships to attack and destroy Japanese invasion convoys. During the month of February, the force made a number of sorties, which were usually unsuccessful due to Japanese aerial intervention. It only came to blows during the Battle of Badung Strait, when a numerically superior Allied Force attacked four Japanese destroyers and a transport, unfortunately without much success. In return, the Japanese managed to sink the destroyer Piet Hein and damage several other ships.

After this battle, it was clear that the next step would be the invasion of Java island. In compliance with Admiral Helfrich’s orders, Doorman continued to sweep the Java sea with his force, until the Japanese invasion fleet was finally sighted on February 27. Although the two forces were more or less equal in terms of strength, the Allied were handicapped by the lack of a good communication system, aerial reconnaissance and rest during the past few months. Both the light cruisers Java and Doorman’s flagship, De Ruyter were hit and sunk by torpedoes, taking a heavy toll among the exhausted crews. It is believed Doorman, his staff and De Ruyter’s commanding officer, Commander E.E.B. Lacomblé chose to remain on board as the cruiser sank.

In honor of Admiral Doorman, the only two Dutch aircraft carriers and lastly, a new frigate were named after him. In addition, he was one of only persons who were made Knights in the Military Order of William 3rd class. [1]

Ranks
Midshipman 1st class [2] August 24, 1910
Lieutenant August 24, 1912
Lieutenant-Commander November 1, 1920
Commander February 1, 1933
Captain September 6, 1937
Rear-Admiral May 16, 1940
Postings [3]
Coastal defence ship Hr.Ms. Tromp and Hr.Ms. De Ruyter 1910 - 1913
Light cruiser Hr.Ms. Noord Brabant April, 1914 - 1915
Pilot Instructor 1916 - 1917
Commanding Officer, Naval Airbase De Mok August 18, 1917 -  
First Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy   - 1920
Commanding Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy 1920 - 1921
Student Netherlands Naval War College November 2, 1921 - 1923
Staff Officer, Ministry of Navy, Weltevreden (Java) 1923 - 1926
Gunnery Officer, coastal defence ship Hr.Ms. Zeven Provinciën May 14, 1926 - January, 1928
Head MLD Technical Department, The Hague March 12, 1928 - July 14, 1928
First Officer, Naval Airfield De Kooy July 14, 1928 - November 2, 1931
Commanding Officer, minelayer Hr.Ms. Prins van Oranje 1932 - 1932
Commanding Officer, destroyer Hr.Ms. Witte de With 1933 - 1933
Commanding Officer, destroyer Hr.Ms. Evertsen and Group Destroyers 1 1934 - 1934
Chief of Staff, Den Helder naval base June, 1934 - September 4, 1937
Commanding Officer, light cruiser Hr.Ms. Sumatra October 25, 1937 - June 15, 1938
Commanding Officer, light cruiser Hr.Ms. Java June 15, 1938 - August 13, 1938
Commanding Officer, Naval Air Service NEI August 17 1938 - May 5, 1940
Commanding Officer, NEI Squadron June 17, 1940 - February 27, 1942
Commanding Officer, Combined Striking Force February 3, 1942 - February 27, 1942
Awards
Dutch Knight in the Military Order of William (MWO.3)
Knight in the Order of the Dutch Lion (NL)
Officer in the Order of Orange Nassau (ON.4)
Service Medal for naval officers, for 30 years’ of service (XXX)
Mobilization Cross 1914-1918 (Mk)
Foreign Silver Cross 5th class, Order Virtuti Militairi (Poland)

[1]: The other was Captain J.P. van Helsdingen, a fighter pilot of the KNIL airforce. He was killed in action on March 5, 1942.
[2]: The rank of sublieutenant had not yet been introduced at this time.
[3]: For a more thorough, albeit romanticized, description of Doorman’s career, the book “Ik val aan, volg mij”  by Anthony van Kampen (Published by C.V. Uitgeverij, Amsterdam, 1947), is recommended reading.

 

 De Ruyter was lost in the battle along with Doorman and 344 of its crew.

The Dutch cruiser Java under attack from Japanese aircraft in February 1942.

Read more info

The mysterious fate of Cornelius Blaak and PK-AFZ

Some months ago we received a query from a relative of Dutch KNILM pilot Cornelius Blaak. His only son is now 80 years old and knew very little about his father’s death in February 1942.

 Blaak was the pilot of KNILM DC-3 PK-AFZ, which crash-landed in Sumatra after getting lost at the end of a flight from Broome to Batavia. Although they survived the crash landing, Blaak and three crew members were killed soon afterwards. The family had received some information from the excellent Pacific Wrecks organisation as per:
http://www.pacificwrecks.com/aircraft/dc-3/ph-afz.html

Dutch airline history specialist Richard Pflug was asked if he could shed any further light on this incident. He replied with the following in November 2011:

According to what I read,

in the night of 26/27th of February 1942

 PK-ALT, PK-ALO and PK-AFZ left Broome with destination Bandung.

That night there were very strong winds making the planes drift. Only PK-ALO made it to Bandung. PK-ALT and -AFZ drifted of course.

The radio operator on board PK-ALT remembered a technique from training called “impulse bearing” to get a tie line on Bandung. Despite heavy static he was able to get some bearing on Bandung, but was unable to determine if the were NE or SW of Bandung.

They decided to fly 15 minutes due South. With no land in sight the turned 180 degrees and found Prinsen Island and Krakatau. The radio operator of PK-ALT tried to transmit this information to his colleague Pieter Pronk on PK-AFZ.

Although the mechanic of PK-ALT loaded 400 litres of fuel over the allowed take-off weight of the DC-3, the result of the drifting and searching for land is that they have insufficient fuel to make it to Andir and around 2.00 AM, some 9 and a half hours after the left Broome, they touch down at Kamajoran with almost empty tanks.

PK-AFZ never arrived…..

After the war the fate of PK-AFZ and its crew was investigated by the Dutch government. The tail section was found near Tandjung Batoe. According to interviews with locals the crew survived the emergency landing almost unscathed. At a nearby village they tried to organise a boat to get to Palembang. They were betrayed to Japanese forces and on March 1st soldiers attacked their hideout. In the following shoot-out two crew members were killed. A third crew member was hit in the shoulder, escaped to the river and presumably drowned. Radio operator Pieter Pronk managed to escape and made it back to the village, but later was delivered to a passing Japanese patrol and beheaded on March 4th.

There seems to be a copy of the full investigation in a Dutch archive. This document might be very useful; if you are interested I will try to get hold of a copy of this document.

Richard was kind enough to visit the Dutch archives, and replied with this on 23rd December 2011:

Last Monday I visited the Dutch Institute for War Documentation (NIOD) and copied their file on PK-AFZ, containing letters to Plesman (CEO of KLM), De Bruijn (Manager Operations of KNILM) the widow of pilot Nieuwdorp, the death certificates of the crew members, etc. One letter is largely written in English.

According to the reports the crew was able to get the plane on the ground largely intact. A local offered his services to help them, but instead organized a mob to rob them as they were in possession of money. Allegedly two crew members were killed; one was wounded but drowned in a swamp while trying to flee. Pronk was captured wounded and treated well by his Japanese captures. But the battalion had to move on, they decided he was a burden and beheaded him. So it’s a pretty dramatic and sad story!

The family of Blaak was very happy to receive the documents. They didn’t know these letters and documents existed.

As Richard mentions, the Blaak family was very happy to receive this information. Here is the wording of the English section of the report in the Dutch archives, referred to above:

Amsterdam, 7th November 1946

On February 26th, 1942, the aircraft PK-AFZ carried out a regular ammunition transport from Broome, Australia to Batavia as its point of destination. There was therefore no question of a diversion to another airfield. Atmospheric conditions were bad. There was the ordinary monsoon headwind from (the) Western direction. Thunderstorms in the Batavia region made radio contact with the ground impossible, either from Bandoeng or Batavia.

Besides, total black-out made it impossible to make out Batavia, lights could only be turned on when immediately above the airfield, so that captain te Roller, doing the same flight under the same atmospheric conditions, also passed the Batavia airfield, but by incident was able to check his position (in the neighbourhood of the Isle of Krakatou and – having 1200L more fuel onboard – could return safely. Mr Blaak’s aircraft had no cabin tanks as Mr te Roller had and seems to have made a forced landing on the South East coast of Sumatra, near Palembang at Kajoe Agoung, apparently in the estuary of the river.

Batavia’s wireless operator seems to have heard weak S.O.S. signals sent by wireless operator Pronk on board of the aircraft and later it was reported that the crew landed safely. Suggestions for a rescue flight with an amphibious aircraft could at that time not be followed up. The ill fate of the crew became known afterwards and nothing about the aircraft itself has been heard ever since. No debris were found afterwards or reported to have been found.

This was dated 1946. The death certificates were dated September 1947, so presumably some further information was eventually received, as summarised by Richard above

February.28th,1942

The battle in Java sea, 

 

the battle ship “de Ruyter”,

 

”Java”

 

”Kortenaer”

 

HMS Electra

And

 

destroyer HMS “Jupiter” were burned  and

HMS “Evertsen” from Dutch Navy  broken during boarding to Australia at Sunda straits.

At the night the dai Nippon  army landing at Java Island with 18 thousand of  with 100 light pantser with basic at Merak.XVI th army division

Read more info the battle of java sea

BATTLE OF THE JAVA SEA

27TH FEBRUARY 1942

       
 
 

IJN Haguro April 1936
(Courtesy of Irootoko Digital Color Photos)

 

PERTH left Batavia on the 24th for Surabaya to join the combined American-British-Dutch -Australian fleet ( ABDA ) under the command of Dutch Admiral Karel Doorman.   The ships had not exercised together before and communications and signalling between ships was very awkward.   The fleet left Surabaya on the night of 26th February to search for the Japanese Invasion Fleet but were unable to locate them.

The next day Japanese ships were reported  to the north and at 4.12pm contact was made.The battle was fought in two stages

AFTERNOON.
                             For the early part of the battle the Japanese were out of range of PERTH’s guns  but at 4.25pm she opened fire on Jap destroyers off her starboad bow.  At 4.37pm she came under intense and accurate fire from the Japanese 8″ cruisers NACHI and HAGURO.   

 HMS EXETER

was hit at 5.14pm and immediately lost speed and  PERTH was forced to swerve quickly to avoid a collision.

  PERTH immediately circled EXETER laying a protective smokescreen.

 At 5.40pm HMS ELECTRA

was hit by gunfire and sank soon after. At 5.45pm the NACHI and HAGURO appeared through the smokescreen.  The light  cruiser NAKA and destroyers  were even closer.  

 In the exchange of fire, PERTH  appeared to have scored hits on HAGURO

but this was incorrect.  At 6.30pm the Japanese retired and were lost from view.

 

 

IJN Nachi

 

NIGHT
                  At 7.15pm

a Japanese aircraft dropped flares illuminating PERTH

and the other ships and fifteen minutes later PERTH

opened fire on destroyers delivering a torpedo attack on her port side. 

 The destroyer HMS JUPITER hit

what was thought to have been a Dutch mine and exploded and sank at 9.25pm. 

 PERTH passed by survivors from HMS ELECTRA at 10.15pm

 but was under orders not to stop and attempt rescue. 

 At 10.30pm

 PERTH and HOUSTON once again began an exchange of fire

With

 NACHI and HAGURO and at the same time the IJN destroyers delivered another torpedo attack.

The allied cruisers were steaming in line ahead led by De RUYTER,

Then

 PERTH, HOUSTON, JAVA.

Just after 11pm

 NACHI and HAGURO fired torpedoes hitting both JAVA and De RUYTER.

  JAVA blew up

an with appalling explosion. Her stern broke off and she sank in fifteen minutes with

 the loss of of over 500 men.

 PERTH had to swerve violently to avoid colliding with De RUYTER. De RUYTER stayed afloat

for nearly another two hours before sinking.

Admiral Doorman and 344 of his crew were lost in the sinking.

PERTH and HOUSTON now broke off the action and headed for Tanjong Priok, the port of Batavia.

 

 

IJN Naka 1942

 

 

 

De Ruyter

 

 

 

Java

 

 

 

Kortenaer

 

 

WWII Cruiser HMS Exeter Found

The Heavy Cruiser that fought like a Lion in World War Two

 

The HMS Exeter – public domain

The Royal Navy’s Heavy cruiser HMS Exeter had a brief but legendary war service. In her 18-months of War she helped kill the Graf Spee and fought the Japanese.

It can be argued Battleships really started World War One. The Anglo-German naval arms race was the kindling to the fire that erupted all of the Europe in that Great War. At Versailles, Germany, vanquished in combat, was to rid herself of most of her Great High Seas Fleet, keeping only a few old tubs. In the inter-war period she was allowed to build a class of 16,000-ton ‘pocket-battleships’ -essentially very large cruisers with a battleship’s guns. The pocket battleships were to be the scourge of the sea in the event of war, ranging the globe sinking merchantmen by the dozens. One of these, the Admiral Graf Spee, engaged in the legendary Battle of the River Plate with three British cruisers and eventually scuttled herself on a bluff. In this battle the cruiser HMS Exeter, with her 8-inch guns, was the only ship that could make effective hits on the German battleship’s armor. One of these hits by the Exeter effectively wrecked the Graf Spee’s boiler room and caused her to withdraw and seek repairs.

These cruisers, the Ajax, Exeter and Achilles earned everlasting naval fame in this running battle in 1939.

All went onto very different fates. The HMS Ajax, a 7000-ton Leander class light cruiser, went on to fight in the Pacific and then in the Battle of Normandy before being broken up and scrapped in 1949. The HMS Achilles, a sister ship of the Ajax also finished the war and, in the service of the Royal New Zealand Navy, was eventually scrapped in 1976 after decades of peacetime service. The HMS Exeter, a 10,000-ton heavy cruiser of the York class, was severely damaged in the battle with the Graf Spee but was repaired in time to see combat in the Pacific.

As a member of the ABDA “Fleet that God Forgot” that fought the Imperial Japanese Navy under impossible odds in 1942, HMS Exeter was lost. She was heavily damaged in the Battle of the Java Sea and was ordered away to limp home. Finding herself just days later in combat with four Japanese cruisers and five destroyers and only supported by a pair of destroyers herself she was sunk 90 miles off Bawean Island in what is now Indonesia on March 1st, 1942 after a terrific gunfight. She has just been found after being lost at sea for over sixty years. Her wreck shows signs of the battle and it remains as a final testament to her short wartime service. Her last commander, RN Captain Oliver Loudon Gordon MVO, survived the war in a Japanese POW camp in published a memoir entitled “Fight It Out” published in 1957

 

 

Battle of the Java Sea

In February 1942, the Allies established a naval “Combined Striking Force” for the protection of Java. The “Eastern Striking Force”, comprising the Dutch cruisers Java and De Ruyter, the US heavy cruiser Houston, the British cruiser Exeter, and the Australian cruiser Perth , was placed under the command of Dutch Rear Admiral Karel Doorman. “Eastern Striking Force” also included the destroyers Witte de With and Kortenaer (RNN), J.D. Edwards, Alden, John Ford and Paul Jones (USN), and Jupiter, Electra and Encounter (RN).

On February 27, Doorman’s force sailed from Surabaya to intercept the Japanese “Eastern Invasion Force”, which comprised four cruisers and 14 destroyers, escorting 41 transport vessels. At about 4 pm, the two forces met in a battle which lasted much of the night. Outgunned, Doorman’s force was unable to engage the invasion fleet, which escaped to the north while the escort vessels were pressing their attack.

Allied casualties were heavy. Admiral Doorman was lost along with both of the Dutch cruisers and almost all of their crews. The Exeter was badly damaged by shell-fire, and was sunk along with its escorting destroyer Encounter two days later. Among the other destroyers engaged, Kortenaer, Jupiter and Electra were all sunk, with considerable loss of life. The Japanese invasion fleet was delayed, but not prevented from making a landing on Java on 28 February. The surviving cruisers, Houston and Perth, were sunk on the evening of the same day as they attempted to withdraw to Ceylon, having encountered the Japanese “Western Invasion Force” in the Sunda Strait.

 

Admiral Doorman’s flagship De Ruyter at anchor shortly before the battle of the Java Sea. De Ruyter was lost in the battle along with Doorman and 344 of its crew. 305837

 

The Dutch cruiser Java under attack from Japanese aircraft in February 1942. 305183

1942

 

 

.

 

 

Friday 27, February

 

 

BATTLE OF THE JAVA SEA

 

Destroyer JUPITER (Lt Cdr N V J T Thew) was sunk by Japanese destroyers. Five ratings were killed and one died of wounds while Temporary S/Lt A L Cato RNZNVR, Lt (E) V D Hodge OBE, Midshipman M G Rivington RNR, Lt J W R Spedding DSC and eighty six ratings were missing. Cdr Thew, Gunner (T) E D Furneaux and 45 ratings survived, but 27 of the ratings died while prisoners of war.

 

Destroyer ELECTRA (Cdr C W May) was sunk by Japanese destroyers. Cdr May, Lt R Jenner-Fust OBE, Lt E A Coale, Lt (E) F McLeod, S/Lt R Price RNR, Temporary Lt H W Davies RNVR and 102 ratings were lost. Of the survivors, S/Lt S H Cruden RNVR and four ratings were taken prisoner by the Japanese from the water, and Gunner (T) T J Cain, Surgeon Lt W R D Seymour and forty three ratings were picked up by American submarine S.38 at 0315/28th. On arriving on the scene, S.38 was attacked by destroyer ENCOUNTER, but not damaged. One rating died of wounds after arriving in Java, and 10 wounded ratings were left at Surabaya and later captured. Seven died while prisoners of war.

 

Forty survivors from JUPITER and 42 from ELECTRA departed Tjilatjap in early March on Dutch steamer VERSPECK and arrived in Australia on 10 March.

 

Dutch destroyer KORTENAER was sunk by Japanese warships. ENCOUNTER picked up 113 survivors and took them to Surabaya.

 

Dutch light cruisers DE RUYTER and JAVA were sunk by Japanese warships. British Temporary Lt W A. Jackson RNVR and Temporary Acting S/Lt W G Jenkins RNVR, on board DE RUYTER were rescued and made prisoners of war.

_____

 

Australian light cruiser HOBART, British light cruisers DANAE and DRAGON, British destroyers TENEDOS, SCOUT and the Dutch EVERTSEN departed Tanjong Priok at 2330, with the orders that if no enemy were sighted, they would retire through the Sunda Strait to Ceylon. Early on the 28th, EVERTSEN became separated and returned to Tanjong Priok. On 1 March, the force arrived at Padang to embark evacuatees, with HOBART and DANAE taking on board 648 and 319 evacuees, respectively. These ships, less DRAGON, arrived at Colombo on 5 March. DRAGON arrived on the 6th.

_____

 

Dutch light cruiser TROMP, after being damages by Japanese ships on the 20th/21st, departed Surabaya for repairs at Fremantle.

_____

 

American seaplane tender LANGLEY (CDR R P McConnell) was sunk by Japanese bombing 75miles SSE of Tjilatjap. Sixteen crew and passengers were lost – LT W C Bailey, Warrant Officer R . Curtis, five enlisted men and nine passengers, and 11 enlisted men wounded. The 308 survivors were picked up by US destroyers WHIPPLE and EDSALL, after which WHIPPLE scuttled LANGLEY.

_____

 

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.53 sank Dutch steamer MOESIE (913grt) 25 miles from Banjoewangi.

_____

 

Steamer NAM YONG (1345grt) was sunk by Japanese submarine in the Indian Ocean in 15-55S, 108-05E. Master and four crew made prisoners of war.

 

 

28 February, Saturday

 

 

Lt Cdr A H Terry DSC, command unknown and Acting Surgeon Cdr T . Stevenson OBE, MB, BCH, formerly of SULTAN II, were lost on the 28th (posted April 1946).

_____

 

 

Japanese submarine I.53 sank steamer CITY OF MANCHESTER (8917grt) in 8-16S, 108-52E. Crew of 115, 21 gunners and one passenger, with three crew lost and six presumed captured. I.53 also sank Dutch steamer PARIGI (1172grt) in 8S, 109E.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.58 damaged tanker BRITISH JUDGE (6735grt) ten miles south of Princess Island, Sunda Strait, and escorting sloop JUMNA and minesweeper WOOLLONGONG counter-attacked. Oiler WAR SIRDAR, also with this convoy, was bombed and set afire. She was beached on Agenielien Island, northwest of Batavia in 5-31S, 106-36E, and declared a total loss on 1 March.

_____

 

Japanese submarine I.4 sank Dutch steamer BAN HO GUAN (1693grt), which was en route from Padang to Tjilatjap, south of Bali.

_____

 

Dutch steamer TOMOHON (983grt) was sunk by Japanese surface craft off Tjilatjap. Crew of 30 rescued.

On 28 February ,1942

Dutch-led forces, supported by about 5500 British, 3000 Australians (the lightly equipped Blackforce infantry brigade), and 750 Americans (a Texas National Guard unit attached to Blackforce), met the Japanese invasion of the island at Bantam Bay/Merak and Eretan Wetan (West Java) and at Kragan (East Java).

 

That day the last two Qantas flying boats moored at Chilacap (Central Java) made their final flight, full of civilian refugees, to Broome in Western Australia.

In Bandung, Peterson visited Australian women who had decided to remain with their families and distributed cash to those who needed it. Austrade’s local staff hid Trade Commission documents, closed the office and disbursed until the end of the Japanese occupation

estimated that the convoys would reach Javanese waters early

on the 27th.

Hurriedly he made his plans to meet the attack with a woefully inferior naval force led by

 

Rear Adm. K. W. F. M. Doorman.

 All Doorman had were 2 heavy cruisers, one of them the USS Houston, 3 light cruisers, and 11 destroyers.

Contact between the opposing forces came shortly after 1500 of the 27th, and the fight that began then raged throughout the afternoon and into the night. By the time the battle of the Java Sea was over the Allies had lost half their ships, including the flagship and Admiral Doorman. The Japanese had not lost a single vessel.56

28 February.

 Supporting the invasion was the largest force of warships the Japanese had yet assembled for an amphibious operation. In it were four battleships, led by

 

Admiral Nobutake Kondo,

a carrier group led by Admiral Nagumo of Pearl Harbor fame, and the two attack forces, each now considerably reinforced.

The approach of the Japanese was carefully traced by the Allies, and

 

 Admiral Helfrich, Hart’s successor as Allied naval commander,

 

During the next few days

 the Japanese completed their control of the air and sea approaches to Java. From their circle of bases surrounding the island patrol planes kept constant watch while bombers completed the destruction of Allied airfields and military installations.

At the same time

 the powerful battle fleet ranged the waters of the Java Sea to hunt down the remnants of the Allied fleet which were split between Surabaya and Batavia, seeking some way to make their escape into the Indian Ocean.

The last fight began on the night of 28 February

When

 

 the heavy cruisers USS Houston

and

 

H.M.S. Exeter,

 

accompanied by

 

 the light cruisers H.M.A.S. Perth

and two destroyers,

 tried to slip through Sunda Strait, between Java and Sumatra.

 The Japanese had already closed the strait and the Allied warships sailed into a trap.

That night, in a vigorous battle which lasted past midnight,

 

 

the Houston

 

and

 

 Perth

went down.

On 28 Feb 1942

Dutch-led forces, supported by about 5500 British, 3000 Australians (the lightly equipped Blackforce infantry brigade), and 750 Americans (a Texas National Guard unit attached to Blackforce), met

 

the Japanese invasion of the island at Bantam Bay/

 

Merak

and Eretan Wetan (West Java) and at Kragan (East Java).

 

During the Battle of the Java Sea on 28 February 1942

The battle in the Pacific was taken up by the Americans, and the Allies, consisting of troops from NZ, Australia and Great Britain. Also the KNIL military who escaped from the Japanese to Australia played a part. In a painful struggle which cost many lives, island by island was conquered. The Dutch East Indies however was skipped because the target was Japan

 

Little boats used in the Battle of the Java Sea

 

 

 

 

That day the last two Qantas flying boats moored at Chilacap (Central Java) made their final flight, full of civilian refugees, to Broome in Western Australia.

 

Though the Dutch had concentrated their remaining ground forces in Java, mostly in the western portion of the island, the issue was never in doubt. The Japanese moved inland rapidly, splitting the Dutch Army on the island and isolating the defenders into small groups.

For the Allies the fall of Java marked the loss of the Malay Barrier,

 “the basic defensive position”

 in the Far East. The strategic significance of this loss was enormous. Not only did the Allies lose the resources of the Indies and their lines of communications northward, but they found themselves in a perilous position, split into two areas and threatened by invasion.

The gateway to the Indian Ocean lay open and Australia and India were in dire danger. And the Allies could ill afford to lose the ships, planes, and men that went down in the heroic defense of Malaya, Singapore, and the Indies.

The defeat of ABDACOM was, in a sense,

 the inevitable outcome of Allied weakness.

There was no time to assemble in an area so remote from the sources of supply sufficient aircraft to contest Japanese domination of the air.

Although reinforcements adequate for this task were allocated by the Combined Chiefs of Staff, only a trickle, barely enough to replace losses, reached its destination.

The warships that might have challenged the invaders were engaged in other tasks, and when they were finally organized into a combined striking force it was already too late.

 In the six weeks of its existence

ABDACOM never had a chance to test the validity of General Marshall’s contention that a unified command would “solve nine-tenths of our troubles.”

But important lessons about Allied command could be learned from the disagreements and differences which marked the brief existence of ABDACOM and these were not lost when the time came to establish other commands later in the war.

While the campaign for Java was in progress,

 the Japanese had pushed on to take northern Sumatra and central Burma, thus consolidating their control of the southern area and cutting China off from its Allies.

 From Singapore, ten days after that fortress had fallen,

 came the troops to take northern Sumatra.

With their arrival the defenders of the island fled to Java in time to join the fight there, and eventually to surrender.

.

 

 

 

Read more

Amazing Australian: Beryl Stevenson (nee Beryl Spiers and later Beryl Daley) was a young shorthand writer from New South Wales who served as secretary to two British generals in Singapore and Java and later worked for General George Brett in Melbourne and General George Kenney in Brisbane, Port Moresby, Hollandia and the Philippines. She was commissioned as a lieutenant in the United States Army and rose to the rank of major

 

Burma Railway hero Major James ‘Jake’ Jacobs of the 2nd AIF; Lieutenant-Commander Mackenzie Gregory of the RAN (who was on the bridge of HMAS Canberra when she was attacked by the Japanese in the Battle of Savo Island), and Flight Lieutenant Rex T. Barber of the USAAF (the pilot who killed Admiral Yamamoto in mid-air)… just three of the dozens of vivid stories told in Pacific Fury

Next day, March,

 the Exeter was sunk off the coast of Borneo.

Meanwhile the Japanese convoys had come in for the landing. On the way the convoy was attacked by three submarines and the remaining planes of the Allied air force, about ten light bombers and fifteen fighters, and suffered some damage. But the landing was accomplished without serious difficulty, and by morning of the 1st the Japanese were consolidating their positions and rapidly expanding the beachheads

In the meantime were C and D Company split into three marching groups. The Staff Company arrived as first in Sampit on 1st March 1942.

 In March 1942

 the commander of the United States Army Forces in the Far East was ordered to move to Australia by the President of the United States. Troops from the United States began arriving in Australia

 

 


\

The invasion of Java
(Click map to enlarge)

 

On March 1st,1942

the Japanese landed at four points on the north coast of Java: Merak, Bantam Bay, Eretenwetan, and Kragan.

The invaders encountered occasionally heavy resistance as they advanced across the island, but wherever the Allies stood, the enemy smashed them, drove them back, or simply outflanked them. The colonial government fled the capital, Batavia, for the relative safety of Bandung. On March 8 the Dutch leadership, demoralized and fearful of possible Japanese reprisals against civilians, ordered the military forces to surrender. [12]

 

Soldiers of the Japanese 2nd Division celebrate their landing at Merak

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

 

48th Division landing trucks at Kragan

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

 

The Japanese Army enters Surabaya

Photo Source: Netherlands Institute for War Documentation

 

Dutch soldiers surrender on Java

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

 

Read more

The Battle of Java (Invasion of Java, Operation J)

 was a battle of the Pacific theatre of World War II. It occurred on the island of Java from 28 February-12 March 1942.

It involved forces from the Empire of Japan, which invaded on 28 February 1942, and Allied personnel. Allied commanders signed a formal surrender at Japanese headquarters at Bandung on 12 March.

ABDA Order of battle

Koninklijk Nederlands Indisch Leger (KNIL Army): Lieutenant-General Hein Ter Poorten

  • 1st KNIL Infantry Division: Major-General Wijbrandus Schilling[2]
  • 2nd KNIL Infantry Division: Major-General Pierre A. Cox
  • 3rd KNIL Infantry Division: Major-General Gustav A. Ilgen
  • British troops (ca. 5,500 men): Major-General Sir Hervey D.W. Sitwell[3]
  • US troops (ca. 750 men:) Major-General J.F. Barnes
  • Australian troops (ca. 3000 men): Brigadier Arthur S. Blackburn.[4]

Forces

The Japanese forces were split into two groups:

 the Eastern Force,

with its headquarters at Jolo Island in the Sulu Archipelago, included the 48th Division and the 56th Regimental Group.

The Western Force,

 based at Cam Ranh Bay, French Indochina included the 2nd Division and the 230th Regiment (detached from the 38th Division).

The Allied forces were commanded by the Royal Netherlands East Indies Army (KNIL) commander, General Hein ter Poorten.[5]

Although the KNIL forces had, on paper, 25,000 (mostly Indonesian) well-armed troops, many were poorly trained. The KNIL forces were deployed in four sub-commands: Batavia (Jakarta) area (two regiments); north central Java (one regiment); south Java (one regiment) and; east Java, one regiment.

The British, Australian and United States units were commanded by British Major General H. D. W. Sitwell.[3]

The British forces were predominantly anti-aircraft units: the 77th Heavy AA Regiment, 21st Light AA Regiment and 48th Light AA Regiment. The only British armoured unit on Java was a squadron of light tanks from the British 3rd Hussars.[6] Two British AA regiments without guns, the 6th Heavy AA Regt and the 35th Light AA Regiment were equipped as infantry to defend airfields. The British also had transport and administrative units.

The Australian formation — named “Blackforce” after its commander, Brigadier Arthur Blackburn V.C.[7]

 included the Australian 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalion, the Australian 2/2nd Pioneer Battalion, a company from the Royal Australian Engineers, a platoon from the 2/1st Headquarters Guard Battalion,[8]

about 100 reinforcements diverted on route to Singapore, a handful of soldiers who had escaped from Singapore following its fall to the Japanese, two transport companies, a casualty clearing station, and a company headquarters unit. Blackburn decided to re-organise his troops as an infantry brigade. They were well-equipped in terms of Bren guns, light armoured cars, and trucks, but they had few rifles, submachineguns, anti-tank rifles, mortars, grenades, radio equipment or Bren gun carriers. Blackburn managed to assemble an HQ staff and three infantry battalions based on the 2/3rd Machine Gun, the 2/2nd Pioneers, and a mixed “Reserve Group”. The only U.S. ground forces in Java, the 2nd Battalion of the 131st Field Artillery (a Texas National Guard unit) was also attached to Black Force.[9]

 

West Java Campaign

West Java Campaign from Merak and Bantam Bay

After discussing the war preparation on 21 January with the commander of the 3rd Fleet and inspected the 48th Division at Manila, Lieutenant General Hitoshi Imamura received an order to attack Java on 30 January.

The convoy consisted of 56 transport ships with troops aboard from 16th Army Headquarters, 2nd Division and 230th Infantry Regiment. The convoy left Cam Ranh Bay at 10:00 on 18 February, and the commander-in-chief Lieutenant General Hitoshi Imamura was aboard on the transport ship Ryujo Maru. The convoy escort was under the command of Rear Admiral Kenzaburo Hara.[12]

At 23:20 on 28 February, the transport ships carrying the Nasu and Fukushima detachments commenced landing operations at Merak. Ten minutes later they were joined by the other transport ships; the one carrying the Sato detachment dropped anchor at Bantam Bay. By 02:00 on 1 March, all ships had reached their designated positions. The KNIL Merak Coastal Detachment, made up of a section from the Captain F.A.M. Harterink’s 12th KNIL Infantry Battalion, machine-gunned the invaders but was quickly defeated.

On 1 March, the invaders set up new headquarters at Serang. The troops of the 2nd Division led by Lieutenant-General Masao Maruyama were divided into the following detachments:

  • Nasu Detachment: Major-General Yumio Nasu
  • Fukushima Detachment: Colonel Kyusaku Fukushima
  • Sato Detachment: Colonel Hanshichi Sato

The Nasu detachment was ordered to capture Buitenzorg to cut the escape route from Batavia to Bandoeng. The Fukushima and Sato Detachments would in the meanwhile head for Batavia through Balaradja and Tangerang.

On 2 March, the Nasu detachment arrived at Rangkasbitung and continued to Leuwiliang, 15 mi (24 km) west of Buitenzorg. The Australian 2/2nd Pioneer and 2/3rd Machine Gun Battalions were positioned along a riverbank at Leuwiliang and put up a vigorous defence. Highly accurate volleys from “D” Battery, U.S. 2/131st Field Artillery, destroyed many Japanese tanks and trucks. Blackforce managed to hold up the Japanese advance for two full days before being forced to withdraw to Soekabumi, lest it become trapped by Japanese flanking manoeuvres, and was ordered to retreat to Soekabumi. Around the same time, the Fukushima and Sato units headed westwards to Madja (Maja) and Balaradja (Balaraja). They found many of the bridges already destroyed by the retreating Dutch and were forced to find other routes; some units took the opportunity to make for Buitenzorg.

On 4 March, Ter Poorten decided to withdraw his forces from Batavia and Buitenzorg to reinforce the defence of Bandoeng. The following evening Dutch troops in Batavia surrendered to the Sato Detachment. By dawn of 6 March, the Japanese troops had attacked Buitenzorg, which was guarded by the 10th Company, KNIL 2nd Infantry Regiment; 10th Company, 1st Infantry Regiment; Landstorm troops and a howitzer unit. In the morning Buitenzorg was occupied, while a large number of Allied soldiers had retreated to Bandoeng. The Nasu Detachment pursued them through Tjiandjoer and (Tjimahi), entering the city on 9 March. The Shoji Detachment also entered Bandoeng on the same day, arriving from the north, having travelled via Lembang.

West Java Campaign from Eretan Wetan

On 27 February, the unit 230th Infantry Regiment, led by Colonel Toshishige Shoji, separated from the main convoy and landed on 1 March, at Eretan Wetan, near Soebang on the northern coast of West Java. The unit’s objectives were to capture the important Kalidjati airfield and weaken the Allied air arm, while the 2nd Division attacked Batavia.

At dawn on 1 March, nine Brewster and three Glenn Martins from the KNIL Air Force, together with 12 Hurricanes from the 242nd and 605th RAF Squadrons, carried out attacks on Japanese troops at Eretan Wetan. Using motor vehicles, the Japanese rapidly advanced to Soebang. At noon, the Kalidjati airfield was finally occupied following a tenacious defence carried out by 350 British troops. Meanwhile, other Japanese units led by Major Masaru Egashira bypassed Allied defences and headed for Pamanoekan (Pamanukan), and from then on to (Tjikampek), where they were able to cut the road link between Batavia and Kalidjati.

The fall of Kalidjati airfield greatly alarmed the Dutch, who set about planning hasty and ill-prepared counterattacks. On 2 March, a KNIL armoured unit (the Mobiele Eenheid), commanded by Captain G.J. Wulfhorst with approximately 20 tanks, and supported by the 250 men of Major C.G.J. Teerink’s 5th KNIL Infantry Battalion, launched a counterattack against the Shoji unit outside Soebang. The attempt initially went well, but in the afternoon the attack was repulsed. Afterwards, the main force of the Japanese 3rd Air Brigade arrived at Kalidjati airfield.

By the night of 7 March, Japanese troops had arrived at the plateau of Lembang, which is only 5 mi (8.0 km) north from Bandoeng. At 10:00 on 8 March, Major-General Jacob J. Pesman, the commander of Stafgroep Bandoeng,[13] met Colonel Toshishige Shoji at the Isola Hotel in Lembang and surrendered.

Japenese Order of battle

2nd Division: Lt. Gen. Masao Maruyama[14]

  • Nasu Detachment: Maj. Gen. Yumio Nasu
    • 16th Infantry Regiment
    • 1st Battalion of 2nd Field Artillery Regiment
    • 1st Company of 2nd Engineer Regiment
    • Two motor transport companies
  • Fukushima Detachment: Col. Kyusaku Fukushima
    • 4th Infantry Regiment
    • 2nd Battalion of 2nd Field Artillery Regiment
    • 5th Anti-Tank Battalion
    • 2nd Company of 2nd Engineer Regiment
  • Sato Detachment: Col. Hanshichi Sato
    • 29th Infantry Regiment
    • 2nd Tank Regiment
    • 1st Company of 2nd Field Artillery Regiment
    • 2nd Engineer Regiment
  • Shoji Detachment: Col. Toshishige Shoji[15]
    • 230th Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
    • One anti-tank battalion
    • One light tank company
    • One anti-aircraft battery
    • Two independent engineer companies
    • One platoon of the Bridge Material Company
    • One motor Transport Company
    • Part of the 40th Anchorage Headquarters
    • Part of the Airfield Battalion

East Java Campaign

Moving eastward

The East Java campaign was composed of the 48th Division from the Philippines. On 8 February, the 48th Division departed from Lingayen Gulf, Luzon Island (Philippines) protected by the 4th Destroyer Squadron. On 22 February, the convoy arrived at Balikpapan and the Sakaguchi Detachment joined the 48th Division aboard the ships.

On 25 February, the convoy left Balikpapan, and sailed southward to Java. On 27 February, the ABDA fleet under command of Rear-Admiral Karel Doorman was detected and attacked by the 5th Destroyer Squadron and other units of the 3rd Fleet in the Battle of the Java Sea. The Japanese won the battle and at 00:15 on 1 March, the fleet landed in Kragan, a small village in East Java, approximately 100 mi (160 km) west of Surabaya.

The 3rd (Motorised) Cavalry Squadron of the 1st Dutch KNIL Cavalry Regiment, under the command of Ritmeester C.W. de Iongh, resisted the landing force but was quickly subdued.[16]

Meanwhile, the flying boat Dornier X-28 of the 6th GVT (Groep Vliegtuigen or Aircraft Group) from MLD, B-17 bombers of the U.S. 7th Bomber Group, A-24 dive bombers of the U.S. 27th Bomb Group and Vildebeest torpedo-bombers from the 36th RAF Squadron worked round the clock to harass the invaders.

After landing, the 48th Division was divided into:

  • Imai Unit (Right Wing): Colonel Hifumi Imai
  • Abe Unit (Left Wing): Major-General Koichi Abe
  • Tanaka Unit (Tjepoe Raiding Unit): Colonel Tohru Tanaka
  • Kitamura Unit (Bodjonegoro Raiding Unit): Lieutenant Colonel Kuro Kitamura

Moving southward

The Sakaguchi Detachment from Balikpapan joined the East Java Invasion fleet as well. After landing, they were divided into three units with one battalion each: Kaneuji Unit, Major Kaneuji commanding; Yamamoto Unit: Colonel Yamamoto commanding; and Matsumoto Unit, Lieutenant Colonel Matsumoto commanding; these units moved south with the objective to occupy Tjilatjap in order to capture the harbour and block the retreat to Australia. In one week, they advanced rapidly and overcame all Dutch army defence found in Blora, Soerakarta, Bojolali, Jogjakarta, Magelang, Salatiga, Ambarawa and Poerworedjo. The Kaneuji and Matsumoto Detachments moved through the mainland, captured Keboemen and Purwokerto, north of Tjilatjap on 8 March. The Yamamoto Unit fanned out along the beach and mounted a two-pronged attack, entering Tjilatjap on 8 March. By then, however, the Dutch had withdrawn to Wangon, a small town located between Purwokerto and Tjilatjap. On the following day, Major-General Pierre A. Cox — the Dutch Central Army District commander — surrendered his troops to the Japanese.

Any expectation of reinforcement from America was dashed

 on March 1

 by the news of Japanese landings on Java.

 

 

 

Japanese Order of battle

48th Division: Major-General Yuitsu Tsuchihashi[17]

  • Imai Unit (Right Wing): Colonel Hifumi Imai, commander of the 1st Formosan Infantry Regiment
    • 1st Formosan Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
  • Abe Unit (Left Wing): Major-General Koichi Abe
    • 48th Infantry Group Headquarters
    • 47th Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
  • Tanaka Unit (Tjepoe Raiding Unit): Colonel Tohru Tanaka
    • 2nd Formosan Infantry Regiment
    • One mountain artillery battalion
    • One engineer company
  • Kitamura Unit (Bodjonegoro Raiding Unit): Lieutenant Colonel Kuro Kitamura
    • 48th Reconnaissance Regiment

Sakaguchi Detachment: Major-General Shizuo Sakaguchi[18]

  • Yamamoto Unit: Colonel Yamamoto
    • 1st Battalion of the 124th Infantry Regiment
  • Kaneuji Unit: Major Kaneuji
    • 2nd Battalion of the 124th Infantry Regiment
  • Matsumoto Unit: Lieutenant Colonel Matsumoto
    • 3rd Battalion of the 124th Infantry Regim

 

THE DAI NIPPON MILITARY OCCUPATION JAVA ISLAND

 1942

COLLECTION

 

officer of the special naval landing force, Major Uroku Hashimoto using his binoculars during the invasion of the dutch east indies (january 1942)

 

Japanese landings

 

The Japanese 2d Division celebrates landing at Merak, Java, 1 March 1942. (Sectie Militaire Geschiedenes Landmachstaf)

Japanese troops move through Java. (Sectie Militaire Geschiedenes Landmachstaf)

 

The Japanese 2nd Division landed at Merak, 1 March 1942

 

 

Japanese bicycle infantry moving through Java.

The Japanese troops landed at three points on Java on 1 March. The West Java invasion convoy landed on Bantam Bay near Merak and Eretan Wetan. The West Java convoy had previously fought in the Battle of Sunda Strait, a few hours prior to the landings.[10]

Meanwhile, the East Java invasion convoy landed on Kragan after having successfully defeated the ABDA fleet in the Battle of the Java Sea.[11]

(1)March,1th,1942

March 1st’1942 :”Dai Nippon Occupation Indonesia This Day”

 

1.MARCH. 1st, 1942

(1) Early in the morning this day,

 

 

Dai Nippon forces landing in Java and succeeded without any struggle by DEI forces(KNIL) and Indonesia Native people accepted DN Frces with up the DN and Indnesian national flag because Dai Nippon propaganda before the war that Indonesia will Independent when they occupied Indonesia,

 

Soldiers of the Japanese 2nd Division celebrate their landing at Merak

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

 

 

 

At the same time, Three Dai Nippon Forces Landing  area in Java:

 

japanese destroyer bombarding allied forces during the invasion of the Dutch East Indies.

(a) Banten Beach at Merak

 

Type 96 25mm Gun crew observing the naval bombardment on the beach during the invasion of the dutch east indies

 

 

daihatsu landing craft transporting soldiers of the special naval landing force during the invasion of the ducht east indies

 

japanese navy troops firing inside a landing craft against dutch troops during the invasion od the dutch eats indies

 

type 95 ha-go light tanks in Merak

 

with route

 

Banten attack Map 1942

Merak-Serang-Rangkasbitung-Leuwiliang-Buitenzorg(Bogor)-Kragilan-Tanggerang-Batavia

 

special naval landing force infantryman marching (dutch east indies, december 1941)

 

 

soldiers of the SNLF landing in the dutch east indies (1942)

 

 

Japanese troops crossing a bridge during
their advance towards Batavia, March 1942

 

under the command of

 

the commander-in-chief 16th Dai Nippon forces Lt.Gen.Hitoshi Immamura,

with

 

the 2nd Division under Commander May.Gen. Maruyama,

and

the 49th Division under Commander May.Gen Tsuchi Hashi ,

 also Brigade under commander

May. gen.Sakaguchi

and one Resiment under commander

 

Col, Shoji.

 

Let.Col. Noguchi

tank commander

 

Description

tank commander Lieutenant Colonel Noguchi of the 2nd Recon Regiment equipped with 16 Type 97 Tankettes during the Java Island Campaign, March 1942

 

 

 

 

 

tank crew

 

Description

japanese tank crew with their type 94 tankette

tankette

 

a japanese tank commander receiving his type 94 tankettes (dutch east indies 1942)

 

Commander of the japanese marines paratroopers colonel Toyoaki Horiuchi (dutch east indies, 1942)

 

 

 

japanese army officer Genjirou Inui, he fought in java, phillipines and guadalcanal, then he returned to japan for the rest of the war

 

 

Description

tyep 94 tankette passing through river

 

 

 

 

 

 

(b) Eretan Wetan near Indramajoe

 


(ill 4) The Vintage Dutch Map of Indramjoe Dai Nippon landing area 1942,caption Indramajoe map 1942

(c) Krangan Rembang middle Java,

 

48th Division landing trucks at Kragan

Photo Source: The Dutch East Indies Campaign

The fleet of Dai Nippon Naval Forces reach the Krangan coast ,a village between Rembang and Lasem, about 160 km west of Soerabaja.
The Sakaguchi detachment from Balikpapan joined this invasion fleet. After landing divided into 3 units with 1 battalion of 124th Infantry Regiment :
(c.1) Col.Yamamoto,1st Battalion unit.
(c.2) Mayor Kaneuji, 2nd Battalion unit.
(c.3) Let.Col.Matsimoto,3rd battalion unit.
In one week ,they advanced rapidly and overcome all Dutch army defended in Blora ,Solo ,Bojolali-Yogja ,Magelang and Ambarawa
the Map will illustrated

The Tanaka Unit was ordered to occupy Tjepoe (Cepu) to secure the oilfields there and the Kitamura Unit was to occupy Bodjonegoro, near Tjepoe. The whole unit planned a two-pronged attack on Surabaya from the west through Lamongan and from south through Djombang and Modjokerto.

The Tanaka Unit occupied Tjepoe on 2 March,

 

the 2nd March 1942

Information on KNILM evacuation flights via Broome & Derby from Richard Pflug

The following was sent some months ago by Richard Pflug, summarising information in Dutch language sources.

There is some good detail on the KNILM evacuation flights which took place

around 2nd March 1942.

This was at the peak of the USAAF evacuation and the Broome aerodrome was crowded to capacity, mainly with huge B-17s.

Some of the Dutch aircraft arrived right at this time, and were directed north to the small field at Derby. This was the only known use of Derby during the evacuations.

According to what I read the KNILM/KLM management was well prepared for the evacuation. For instance they asked Shell to direct an oil tanker with aviation fuel to the port of Broome.

They also ordered spare parts to be delivered in Australia (but these were impounded by the US Army).

Although the government was in charge of making the passenger lists some crew members were able to “smuggle” colleagues on board.

Captain Evert van Dijk for instance took KLM chief radio engineering C.R. Klooster on his second round trip with him as his “co-pilot”, while the man was not on the official evacuation list.

On the second group of planes, radio operator Hans Pool gets his friend Dick Sweitser (who got wounded when DC-3 PK-AFW was shot down over East Borneo on January 24th) on board DC-5 PK-ADC.

When Captain Van Messel arrives in Broome on March 2nd 1942 with DC-5 PK-ADB he asks if Japanese reconnaissance planes have been sighted over Broome recently.

 It is confirmed that an unidentified plane has passed at high altitude.

Based on earlier experiences with airfields on Java, he is pretty sure this means a Japanese attack is eminent within 48 hours and decides to leave Broome as soon as possible.

 B17s from the 7th and 19th group however get priority with refuelling. With much persuasion Van Messel and his colleague Reyers with the L14 PK- AFP manage to get refuelled and leave.

Captain Deenik with DC-5 PK-ADD has less luck. He is advised to go on to Derby and get refuelled there for the further flight to Daly Waters.

According to the book “De Douglas DC-5 – een kort maar bewogen bestaan” (translation: The Douglas DC-5 – a short but moving history) by Pieter C. Kok, Captain Dirk Rab with DC-5 PK-ADC, nearing the Australian coast heads for a course just few degrees more south of Broome, just after dawn on the morning of March 2nd he locates the small coral reefs “Rowley Shoals” and turns east to Broome.

When he arrives he also gets the advice to go on to Derby for refuelling for the flight to Daly Waters.

 Flying time will be some 40 to 45 minutes. The tanks of the DC-5 are nearly empty, but fearing a Japanese attack they decide to take the risk. About 30 minutes out, with Derby in sight, both engines begin to sputter and eventually stop.

Captain Rab manages to land the plane safely in a field with long alang-alang grass. They are stranded without fuel, water and food. And without power from the generators from the engines they are also unable to send an S.O.S.

According to the story mechanic John Gijzemijter thinks up a creative way to get out an S.O.S.

When they get the tail of DC-5 down, the last bit of remaining fuel flows to the lowest point in the tank. And with this they might be able to start up an engine for a few seconds, power up the radio equipment and send an S.O.S. The passengers and crew manage to carefully pull down the tail with their weight and muscle power. Gijzemijter manages to get an engine running and radio operator Lambrechtsen sends the S.O.S. and position of the plane. The signal is picked up in Broome.

DC-2 PK-AFL with Gerrit Jan Schippers arrives in Broome at about 10.00 AM, after a flying time of 7 hours 5 minutes.

They hear PK-ADC is missing but the radio transmission has been received. It takes 2 and half hours to get the plane checked and refuelled. With food and an open drum of water held in place by an American soldier, PK-AFL takes off to look for the stranded DC-5.

Seeing a DC-5 at Derby Schippers thinks PK-ADC managed to reach the destination and touches down at 13.35. He learns that the DC-5 is PK-ADD. 8 minutes later he is back in the air, sees a flare and then is able to spot the camouflaged PK-ADC.

He touches down gently not to spill the water in the open drum, but while taxiing he makes a sharp turn, the soldier loses his balance and the drum tips over.

After transferring fuel both planes head back to Broome. PK-AFL reaches Broome at 15.40 and the crew is instructed to go on to Port Hedland.

Schippers takes off again at 18.00 hours. PK-ADC stays at Broome for the night.

 

 

(2) All of the West Java Postal office were closed not opretated inculding Tjiandjoer.

 

Front Capitulation cover 1942

 

 

Back Capitulation cover 1942

(1ll.5) Postally free postally used Geadvisers (Registered) cover with Commander of the forces and the Departmen of War’s chief (Commandant Leger en hoofd departement van Oorlog ) official Headquaters Stamped send from The Dutch East Indie Forces Head Quaters Bandoeng CDS Bandoeng Riaow Str 27.2.42, arrival Cds Tjiandjoer 28.2.42 and after that the post office closed, open after capitulaition CDS Tjiandjoer 4.4.42 Onafgeh. and ret.afzd handwritten postmark (Cann’t delivered and return to sender) , arrived back CDS Bandoeng 6.4.42 (during dai nippon occupation0 to Dai Nippon Forces Headquaters in java .(The very rare Dai Nippon capitulation Postal History collection from the DEI forces headquaters back to Dai nippon forces Bandoeng Headquaters only one ever seen, if the collecters have the same collectins please send information via comment-Dr iwan S.)
Caption : capitulation cover 1942

 

Dai Nippon Army Landed at Merak, and other area

(3)March,3th.192

The latest used of DEI Imprint revenue 1942 on the document of money storting 2500 guiler at DEI Bank Wscompto Buitenzorg(now bogor), the owner told that after storting the money he left his house and all his belonging nothing left when he back in  May 1942 ,all his belonging were robbery . In the document there written at may ,5th 1942 the money get back from the vabk and keep in his house, Same with postal service in May 1942 did not operated,sarting agai at May 1942. This collections belonging to my friend Mr Gunawan from Bogor,thank you Mr Gunawa for your informations

The same imprint DEI revenue 1942 used  in september 1942 used by the Japanese school look below.

 

while

the Kitamura Unit occupied Bodjonegoro on 3 March.

 The Japanese proceeded further and overwhelmed the Dutch defences at the Ngawi Regency, Tjaroeban (Caruban), Ngandjoek, Kertosono, Kediri and Djombang.

At Porong, near Surabaya, the Dutch infantry from 8th, 13th Battalion, 3rd Cavalry Unit and the American 131st (Texas) “E” Field Artillery Regiment gave fierce resistance to the incoming Japanese.

 Eventually the Allied troops under Major-General Gustav A. Ilgen had to retreat to the island of Madura upon the completion of demolition of the city’s infrastructure.

.

 

Wyndham raid photo received via WA historian Kevin Gomm

WA author / historian Kevin Gomm sent this fascinating photo of the burnt out DH-84 Dragon at Wyndham aerodrome.

 

 The damaged civil hangar is visible in the background.

This was all a result of the 3rd March strafing by a squadron of Zeroes, mirroring the attack on Broome.

Indeed a more well known series of photos was taken of the Broome raid wreckage and can be viewed via the Australian War Memorial online collection.

However this particular photo is not from that same series, although it must have been taken at a similar time, very soon after the raid and before the wreckage was cleared up. It actually appeared in a Sydney newspaper (The Daily Telegraph), just after Wyndham was raided for a second time, on 24th March 1942. Strangely the photo never featured in the West Australian newspaper, which would seem the obvious candidate.

Kevin Gomm has extensively researched all of the WWII attacks on WA, as well as maritime events.

He has visited all of the attack sites and has a detailed knowledge of anything surviving from the wartime years.

 His book Red Sun on the Kangaroo Paw documents each of the Japanese raids and attacks on WA during WWII.

 It is currently being re-released as a 70th Anniversary 1942-2012 Commemorative Edition.

The book is available from http://www.helveticapublishing.com – indeed the site is well worth a visit, concentrating solely on WA military history.

March.2nd.1942.

 

At midnight March 3rd

the positions of the planes of the second group are:

  • Lockheed L14 – PK-AFP – Captain A. Reyers – Alice Springs
  • Douglas DC-5 PK-ADB – Captain G. van Messel – Alice Springs
  • Douglas DC-5 PK-ADC – Captain M.S. Rab – Broome
  • Douglas DC-5 PK-ADD – Captain P.A. Deenik – Daly Waters
  • Douglas DC-2 PK-AFL – Captain G.J. Schippers – Port Hedland
  • Douglas DC-2 PK-AFK – Captain F. van Breemen – emergency strip near Daly Waters (he can’t find Daly Waters after sunset. Using his landing lights and finds this strip with two crossed “runways” of mowed grass some 600 metres long. And after three attempts manages to make a precautionary landing)

In the early morning of March 3rd the crew and passengers of PK-ADC have breakfast on the airfield (where according to the story there are no more non-alcoholic drinks available. Just beer). Just before the attack begins PK-ADC is the first plane of the day to get take-off clearance. As they receive the air raid warning on the radio, they go down to treetop level, to escape attention

 

(3)March,4th.1942

On 4 March,

 MacArthur split this command and created a separate Visayan Force under Brig. Gen. Bradford C. Chynoweth.

 

japanese soldiers observing smoke coming from a american position during the battle of bataan

 

 Sharp remained in command of Mindanao, the only island south of Luzon on which a major Japanese force had landed.53 This move was probably designed to permit General Sharp to devote all his energies to the defense of Mindanao, the base from which MacArthur still hoped to mount a counteroffensive against the Japanese.

But careful as he had been in making

these arrangements (to go into effect the day after his departure), and briefing the force commanders and new deputy chief of staff, MacArthur neglected one thing — to inform the War Department. Whatever the reasons, the result was utter confusion.

 

type 95 ha-go tank of the japanese army 7th tank regiment using fouliage for camouflage (phillipines 1942)

 

 The War Department assumed that Wainwright, the senior officer in the islands, was in command of all forces in the Philippines as MacArthur had been, and addressed him as such.

 

japanese tank crew man posing with a knock out american tank (phillipines 1942)

 

But the messages, intended for Wainwright and marked for the commander in the Philippines came to Beebe who had no recourse but to refer them to MacArthur, then en route to Australia. Beebe’s position was an embarrassing one and he urged his chief repeatedly to clear up the matter with Washington. But to no avail. MacArthur remained silent and the War Department uninformed.54.

Batavia have declared as the open city

The Dutch government at London ordered DEI Governor Tjarda military handed over power to General ter  Porten and DEI Govenor General Dr van Mook domiciled in Australia

 (4)March,5th.1942

Batavia(Jakarta) occupied by dai Nippon Army

lead by Let.General Immamura

 

A Japanese soldier outside oil tanks near Jakarta destroyed by Dutch forces in March,5th. 1942

 

Dai Nippon tanl entering Batavia(Jakarta) march.5th.1942

 

Japanese tanks with infantry entering Batavia, March 1942

The other was Captain J.P. van Helsdingen, a fighter pilot of the KNIL airforce. He was killed in action on March 5, 1942

Batavia fell on the March,5th 1942

without a struggle, after the government moved inland to Bandoeng. It was not safe even there, for the Japanese closed in on this mountain retreat and by the 8th were in position to attack the remnants of the Dutch Army defending it. The next morning the Dutch surrendered and the fight for Java was over.57

For the Japanese, the conquest of the Indies was the crowning achievement of the war. It realized their long-cherished dream of empire. The rich resources of Southeast Asia, the oil, rubber, and manganese needed for war and for the control of Asia, were now in their possession. And all this had been won in three months.

On this day Ciater and the north area of Subang occupied by the Dai Nippon military army.

 

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The Last day Of Batavia

(Setyawati Soelaiman,the private notes during Dai nippon Occupation)

Alpha

We will be very sorry if he would fall, he was a young adept, I still see it last time when batavia  would have been invaded by the armies of Dai Nippon d I still to  RH building (hoogeschool Recht, High School of Law)

 

 I saw some friends who are still busy studying, in a room that has been a faculty library literature “How Optimik” I thought, when I see my future keruang Prof.Soepomo dressed in cloth and blankon . He was assigned to lead the Faculty of Law and is to be