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The Famous Shakespeare Book Macbeth (Apakah Anda sudah Pernah membaca Buku Shakespeaere Macbeth )

 

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” The Old and Contemporary  Lithography Picture of Sheakpeare Book Macbeth Collections”

Macbeth, Act IV, Sc. i, Banquo's Ghost.
Macbeth, Act IV, Sc. i, Banquo’s Ghost.
 
 
Macbeth, The Murder of Duncan.
Macbeth, The Murder of Duncan.
 

 

 

 

William Shakespeare 's Macbeth - David Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth

Plenty of people like to write about the worst Shakespearian villains, but what people don’t realize is that a jerk does not necessarily a villain make, and vice versa.  What follows are the top Shakesperian jerks, whether they are “heroes,” “villains,” or otherwise

Shakespeare's Macbeth with old books and a dagger Stock Photo - 8018347
Shakespeare’s Macbeth with old books and a dagger

 

Macbeth Film

 Orson Welles’s MACBETH: Shadows, Fog, and a Small Budget

macbeth5

In the hands of Orson Welles, Shakespeare’s “Macbeth” is an expressionistic, dream-like waltz through shadows and fog that comes across the screen as an aristocratic B-picture.

Macbeth is a film full of charming imperfections. Welles made the film cheaply and quickly in 23 days and utilized old stock sets and costumes, giving him intense limitations in adapting such a dense and highbrow piece of drama. At times the artifice is so glaringly noticeable – cardboard crowns, aluminum foil chain mail, plaster caves – that we cannot help but smile at the earnestness with which Welles and company deliver their lines. Yet, at the same time, Macbeth’s artificiality heightens our awareness of the divide between reality and fantasy, a central theme for Welles’s Macbeth, which is heavily played upon visually with murky fog and darkness. Does Macbeth, for example, actually see Banquo’s ghost or is he merely an imagined projection of Macbeth’s guilt? Is Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking state more clearly connected to her true self than her waking body? And perhaps that cardboard crown sitting on Macbeth’s head after he becomes king can now become an object of the deepest irony as we know that Macbeth is only king in title but not in substance.

gal_Welles_Orson_6

Perhaps the greatest stylistic device of Welles’s film, however, is the long take. Welles makes use of several incredibly long takes (up to a full reel at a time), at technique which speaks to the real-time dimension of theater, but which simultaneously allows purely filmic devices – perhaps Welles’s visual approximation of the harmony he wishes to attain between the two worlds (film and theater) in adapting Shakespeare. For example, though there are no cuts during these long takes, there are several changes in the framing of images and locations, as well as dramatic use of deep space and perspective. Instead of a character exiting the stage as they would during a play, the camera can now pan away from them to focus on a new character or setting. These techniques are not new to theater adaptations, though with Welles they are pushed to their extreme.

The most poignant shot of the film comes in the fifth act, during Macbeth’s oft-quoted soliloquy (Life’s but a walking shadow, a poor player / That struts and frets his hour upon the stage / And then is heard no more) when Welles cuts to the central visual motif of the film: darkness and fog. It is a moment of pure poetry that speaks to the theme of the film – the light, dust, and darkness visualizing the impermanence and futility of Macbeth’s life – and simultaneously makes use of the nothingness provided Welles for the film’s budget.

Macbeth, with its obvious limitations and moments of brilliance, reminds us of the tragedy of Welles’s own career – one fraught with the grandness of vision clashing with the consistent inability to find funding. Despite all, however, Welles, like Shakespeare, will remain with us infinitely, beyond the shadows and fog that signified Macbeth’s quick and tragic passing.

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Orson Welles’s Macbeth is playing at the Walter Reade Theater this Saturday, July 18th @ 7:00 PM, restored with Scottish accents as Welles originally intended

entregulistanybostan:</p>
<p>Peter O’Toole in the title role of Shakespeare’s Macbeth at the Old Vic, London, ca. 1980. por Chris Ball<br />
Corbis <br />
Vías Zoopat: Mis Macbeth” /></p>
<blockquote><p><strong>Peter O’Toole</strong> in the title role of Shakespeare’s <em>Macbeth </em>at the Old Vic, London, ca. 1980.</p>
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<h1>Hellraising antics of Shakespearean actors revealed</h1>
<h2>The hellraising antics of actors during Shakespeare’s time – including kidnapping rivals, destroying sets and even murderous rioting – have been revealed by researchers.</h2>
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William Shakespeare 's Macbeth - David Garrick and Mrs. Pritchard as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth

William Shakespeare’s Macbeth: David Garrick and Mrs Pritchard as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth Photo: ALAMY
 
7:06AM GMT 04 Feb 2011

 

Professor John McGavin, of Southampton University, directed research into eight early theatres north of the Thames, and the unearthed documents are now available online.

The records show that in 1575 a chorister of St Pauls was stolen – or kidnapped – by a rival group, prompting the Privy Council to demand action against the culprits.

In 1631, the King’s Revels Company at Salisbury Court reported that its boy actor had been snatched by rival the King’s Men, and forced to take to the stage on their behalf at Blackfriars Theatre.

They also refer to numerous references to violence at the Cockpit or Phoenix Theatre in Drury Lane when the apprentices went on the riot in 1617.

Several people were killed before they broke into the theatre, vandalising it, cutting up costumes and burning books.

 

The Privy Council wrote to the Lord Mayor the following day demanding an inquiry be set up ‘to examine and punish’ the offenders.

The ‘Early Modern London Theatres’ (EMLoT) database was created in conjunction with King’s College and looked at records from the Red Lion (1567), the Theatre (1576), the Curtain (1577), the Fortune (1600), the Red Bull (1604), the Boar’s Head (1602), the Phoenix or Cockpit (1616) and Salisbury Court (1629).

There are plans to extend it to cover theatres south of the river – including Shakespeare’s Globe in Southwark.

Prof McGavin said: “The website allows you to see what direct use has been made in books and other texts over the last four centuries of pre-1642 documents relating to the theatres in Middlesex and Westminster.

“This gives a fascinating insight into many aspects of 16th and 17th century theatre life and its place in society. The site is very flexible, allowing the user to pull together documents which are interlinked by common themes or events to help with their investigations.

“It shows how we got our information about the early theatres, from whom and when.”

 

The history Of Macbeth

 

 

 

 

 

 

Poster for a c. 1884 American production of Macbeth, starring Thomas W. Keene. Counter clockwise from top-left: Macbeth and Banquo meet the witches. Just after the murder of Duncan, Banquo’s ghost, Macbeth duels Macduff, Macbeth.

The Tragedy of Macbeth (commonly called Macbeth) is a play by William Shakespeare about a regicide and its aftermath. It is Shakespeare’s shortest tragedy and is believed to have been written sometime between 1603 and 1607. The earliest account of a performance of what was probably Shakespeare’s play is April 1611, when Simon Forman recorded seeing such a play at the Globe Theatre. It was first published in the Folio of 1623, possibly from a prompt book for a specific performance.

Shakespeare’s sources for the tragedy are the accounts of King Macbeth of Scotland, Macduff, and Duncan in Holinshed’s Chronicles (1587), a history of England, Scotland and Ireland familiar to Shakespeare and his contemporaries. However, the story of Macbeth as told by Shakespeare bears little relation to real events in Scottish history, as Macbeth was an admired and able monarch.

In the backstage world of theatre, some believe that the play is cursed, and will not mention its title aloud, referring to it instead by such names as “the Scottish play“. Over the centuries, the play has attracted some of the greatest actors in the roles of Macbeth and Lady Macbeth. It has been adapted to film, television, opera, novels, comic books, and other media.

Contents

 

 Characters

  • Ross, Lennox, Angus, Menteith, Caithness – Scottish Thanes
  • Siward– Earl of Northumberland, General of the English forces
    • Young Siward – Siward’s son
  • Seyton – Macbeth’s servant and attendant
  • Hecate – Goddess of Witchcraft
  • Three Witches – make the prediction of Macbeth becoming a King and Banquo’s descendants being kings.
  • Three Murderers
  • Porter (or Messenger) – Gatekeeper at Macbeth’s home
  • Scottish Doctor – Lady Macbeth’s doctor
  • The Gentlewoman – Lady Macbeth’s caretaker

Synopsis

Scene from Macbeth, depicting the witches’ conjuring of an apparition in Act IV, Scene I. Painting by William Rimmer

The first act of the play opens amidst thunder and lightning with the Three Witches deciding that their next meeting shall be with Macbeth. In the following scene, a wounded sergeant reports to King Duncan of Scotland that his generals  – Macbeth, who is the Thane of Glamis, and Banquo  – have just defeated the allied forces of Norway and Ireland, who were led by the traitor Macdonwald. Macbeth, the King’s kinsman, is praised for his bravery and fighting prowess.

The scene changes. Macbeth and Banquo enter, discussing the weather and their victory (“So foul and fair a day I have not seen”).[1] As they wander onto a heath, the Three Witches enter, who have waited to greet them with prophecies. Even though Banquo challenges them first, they address Macbeth. The first witch hails Macbeth as “Thane of Glamis”, the second as “Thane of Cawdor”, and the third proclaims that he shall “be King hereafter.” Macbeth appears to be stunned to silence, so again Banquo challenges them. The witches inform Banquo that he will father a line of kings, though he himself will not be one. While the two men wonder at these pronouncements, the witches vanish, and another thane, Ross, a messenger from the King, arrives and informs Macbeth of his newly bestowed title: Thane of Cawdor. The first prophecy is thus fulfilled. Immediately, Macbeth begins to harbour ambitions of becoming king.

Macbeth writes to his wife about the witches’ prophecies. When Duncan decides to stay at the Macbeths’ castle at Inverness, Lady Macbeth hatches a plan to murder him and secure the throne for her husband. Although Macbeth raises concerns about the regicide, Lady Macbeth eventually persuades him, by challenging his manhood, to follow her plan.

On the night of the king’s visit, Macbeth kills Duncan. The deed is not seen by the audience, but it leaves Macbeth so shaken that Lady Macbeth has to take charge. In accordance with her plan, she frames Duncan’s sleeping servants for the murder by planting bloody daggers on them. Early the next morning, Lennox, a Scottish nobleman, and Macduff, the loyal Thane of Fife, arrive.[2] A porter opens the gate and Macbeth leads them to the king’s chamber, where Macduff discovers Duncan’s corpse. In a feigned fit of anger, Macbeth murders the guards before they can protest their innocence. Macduff is immediately suspicious of Macbeth, but does not reveal his suspicions publicly. Fearing for their lives, Duncan’s sons flee, Malcolm to England and Donalbain to Ireland. The rightful heirs’ flight makes them suspects and Macbeth assumes the throne as the new King of Scotland as a kinsman of the dead king.

Théodore Chassériau (1819–1856), Macbeth seeing the Ghost of Banquo, 1854.

Despite his success, Macbeth remains uneasy about the prophecy about Banquo, so Macbeth invites him to a royal banquet where he discovers that Banquo and his young son, Fleance, will be riding out that night. He hires two men to kill them, while a third murderer also appears in the park before the murder. While the assassins kill Banquo, Fleance escapes. At the banquet, Banquo’s ghost enters and sits in Macbeth’s place. Only Macbeth can see the spectre; the rest panic at the sight of Macbeth raging at an empty chair, until a desperate Lady Macbeth orders them to leave, claiming that her husband is merely afflicted with a familiar and harmless malady.

Macbeth, disturbed, visits the Three Witches once more. They conjure up three spirits with three further warnings and prophecies, which tell him to “beware Macduff,”[3] but also that “none of woman born shall harm Macbeth” and he will “never vanquish’d be until Great Birnam Wood to high Dunsinane Hill shall come against him”. Since Macduff is in exile in England, Macbeth assumes that he is safe; so he puts to death everyone in Macduff’s castle, including Macduff’s wife and their young children.

Lady Macbeth becomes wracked with guilt from the crimes she and her husband have committed. She sleepwalks and tries to wash imaginary bloodstains from her hands, all the while speaking of the terrible things she knows.

Lady Macbeth sleepwalking by Henry Fuseli.

In England, Macduff is informed by Ross that “Your castle is surprised; your wife and babes / Savagely slaughter’d.”[4] Macbeth, now viewed as a tyrant, sees many of his thanes defecting. Malcolm leads an army, along with Macduff and Englishmen Siward (the Elder), the Earl of Northumberland, against Dunsinane Castle. While encamped in Birnam Wood, the soldiers are ordered to cut down and carry tree limbs to camouflage their numbers, thus fulfilling the witches’ third prophecy. Meanwhile, Macbeth delivers a soliloquy (“Tomorrow, and tomorrow, and tomorrow)”[5] upon his learning of Lady Macbeth’s death (the cause is undisclosed, and some assume that she committed suicide, as Malcolm’s last reference to her reveals “’tis thought, by self and violent hands / Took off her life”).[6]

A battle culminates in the slaying of the young Siward and Macduff’s confrontation with Macbeth. Macbeth boasts that he has no reason to fear Macduff, for he cannot be killed by any man born of woman. Macduff declares that he was “from his mother’s womb / Untimely ripp’d”[7] (i.e., born by Caesarean section) and was not “of woman born” (an example of a literary quibble). Macbeth realizes too late that he has misinterpreted the witches’ words. Macduff beheads Macbeth offstage and thereby fulfills the last of the prophecies.

Although Malcolm is placed on the throne and not Fleance, the witches’ prophecy concerning Banquo, “Thou shalt [be]get kings”, was known to the audience of Shakespeare’s time to be true, for James VI of Scotland (later also James I of England) was supposedly a descendant of Banquo.[citation needed]

 Sources

Macbeth has been compared to Shakespeare’s Antony and Cleopatra. Both Antony and Macbeth as characters seek a new world, even at the cost of the old one. Both are fighting for a throne and have a ‘nemesis’ to face to achieve that throne. For Antony the nemesis is Octavius, for Macbeth it is Banquo. At one point Macbeth even compares himself to Antony, saying “under Banquo / My Genius is rebuk’d, as it is said / Mark Antony’s was by Caesar.” Lastly, both plays contain powerful and manipulative female figures: Cleopatra and Lady Macbeth.[8]

Shakespeare borrowed the story from several tales in Holinshed’s Chronicles, a popular history of the British Isles known to Shakespeare and his contemporaries. In Chronicles, a man named Donwald finds several of his family put to death by his king, King Duff, for dealing with witches. After being pressured by his wife, he and four of his servants kill the King in his own house. In Chronicles, Macbeth is portrayed as struggling to support the kingdom in the face of King Duncan’s ineptitude. He and Banquo meet the three witches, who make exactly the same prophecies as in Shakespeare’s version. Macbeth and Banquo then together plot the murder of Duncan, at Lady Macbeth’s urging. Macbeth has a long, ten-year reign before eventually being overthrown by Macduff and Malcolm. The parallels between the two versions are clear. However, some scholars think that George Buchanan‘s Rerum Scoticarum Historia matches Shakespeare’s version more closely. Buchanan’s work was available in Latin in Shakespeare’s day.[9]

No other version of the story has Macbeth kill the king in Macbeth’s own castle. Scholars have seen this change of Shakespeare’s as adding to the darkness of Macbeth’s crime as the worst violation of hospitality. Versions of the story that were common at the time had Duncan being killed in an ambush at Inverness, not in a castle. Shakespeare conflated the story of Donwald and King Duff in what was a significant change to the story.[10]

Shakespeare made another revealing change. In Chronicles, Banquo is an accomplice in Macbeth’s murder of King Duncan. He also plays an important part in ensuring that Macbeth, not Malcolm, takes the throne in the coup that follows.[11] In Shakespeare’s day, Banquo was thought to be a direct ancestor of the Stuart King James I.[12][13] The Banquo portrayed in historical sources is significantly different from the Banquo created by Shakespeare. Critics have proposed several reasons for this change. First, to portray the king’s ancestor as a murderer would have been risky. Other authors of the time who wrote about Banquo, such as Jean de Schelandre in his Stuartide, also changed history by portraying Banquo as a noble man, not a murderer, probably for the same reasons.[14] Second, Shakespeare may have altered Banquo’s character simply because there was no dramatic need for another accomplice to the murder; there was, however, a need to give a dramatic contrast to Macbeth—a role which many scholars argue is filled by Banquo.[11]

 Date and text

Facsimile of the first page of Macbeth from the First Folio, published in 1623

Macbeth cannot be dated precisely owing to significant evidence of later revisions. Many scholars conjecture the likely date of composition to be between 1603 and 1606.[15][16] As the play seems to be celebrating King James‘s ancestors and the Stuart accession to the throne in 1603 (James believed himself to be descended from Banquo),[17] they argue that the play is unlikely to have been composed earlier than 1603; and suggest that the parade of eight kings—which the witches show Macbeth in a vision in Act IV—is a compliment to King James. Other editors conjecture a more specific date of 1605–6, the principal reasons being possible allusions to the Gunpowder Plot and its ensuing trials. The Porter’s speech (Act II, scene III, lines 1–21), in particular, may contain allusions to the trial of the Jesuit Henry Garnet in spring, 1606; “equivocator” (line 8) may refer to Garnet’s defence of “equivocation” [see: Doctrine of mental reservation], and “farmer” (4) to one of Garnet’s aliases.[18] However, “farmer” is a common word, and “equivocation” was also the subject of a 1583 tract by Queen Elizabeth‘s chief councillor Lord Burghley, and of the 1584 Doctrine of Equivocation by the Spanish prelate Martin Azpilcueta, which was disseminated across Europe and into England in the 1590s.[19]

Scholars also cite an entertainment seen by King James at Oxford in the summer of 1605 that featured three “sibyls” like the weird sisters; Kermode surmises that Shakespeare could have heard about this and alluded to it with the weird sisters.[20] However, A. R. Braunmuller in the New Cambridge edition finds the 1605–6 arguments inconclusive, and argues only for an earliest date of 1603.[21] The play is not considered to have been written any later than 1607, since, as Kermode notes, there are “fairly clear allusions to the play in 1607.”[20] The earliest account of a performance of the play is April 1611, when Simon Forman recorded seeing it at the Globe Theatre.[22]

Macbeth was first printed in the First Folio of 1623 and the Folio is the only source for the text. The text that survives had been plainly altered by later hands. Most notable is the inclusion of two songs from Thomas Middleton‘s play The Witch (1615); Middleton is conjectured to have inserted an extra scene involving the witches and Hecate, for these scenes had proven highly popular with audiences. These revisions, which since the Clarendon edition of 1869 have been assumed to include all of Act III, scene v, and a portion of Act IV, scene I, are often indicated in modern texts.[23] On this basis, many scholars reject all three of the interludes with the goddess Hecate as inauthentic. Even with the Hecate material, the play is conspicuously short, and so the Folio text may derive from a prompt book that had been substantially cut for performance, or an adapter cut the text himself.

Themes and motifs

 
 

Macbeth is an anomaly among Shakespeare’s tragedies in certain critical ways. It is short: more than a thousand lines shorter than Othello and King Lear, and only slightly more than half as long as Hamlet. This brevity has suggested to many critics that the received version is based on a heavily cut source, perhaps a prompt-book for a particular performance. That brevity has also been connected to other unusual features: the fast pace of the first act, which has seemed to be “stripped for action”; the comparative flatness of the characters other than Macbeth; the oddness of Macbeth himself compared with other Shakespearean tragic heroes.

As a tragedy of character

At least since the days of Alexander Pope and Samuel Johnson, analysis of the play has centred on the question of Macbeth’s ambition, commonly seen as so dominant a trait that it defines the character. Johnson asserted that Macbeth, though esteemed for his military bravery, is wholly reviled. This opinion recurs in critical literature, and, according to Caroline Spurgeon, is supported by Shakespeare himself, who apparently intended to degrade his hero by vesting him with clothes unsuited to him and to make Macbeth look ridiculous by several nimisms he applies: His garments seem either too big or too small for him – as his ambition is too big and his character too small for his new and unrightful role as king. When he feels as if “dressed in borrowed clothes”, after his new title as Thane of Cawdor, prophesied by the witches, has been confirmed by Rosse (I, 3, ll. 108–109), Banquo comments: “New honours come upon him, / Like our strange garments, cleave not to their mould, / But with the aid of use” (I, 3, ll. 145–146). And, at the end, when the tyrant is at bay at Dunsinane, Caithness sees him as a man trying in vain to fasten a large garment on him with too small a belt: “He cannot buckle his distemper’d cause / Within the belt of rule” (V, 2, ll. 14–15), while Angus, in a similar nimism, sums up what everybody thinks ever since Macbeth’s accession to power: “now does he feel his title / Hang loose about him, like a giant’s robe / upon a dwarfish thief” (V, 2, ll. 18–20).[24]

Like Richard III, but without that character’s perversely appealing exuberance, Macbeth wades through blood until his inevitable fall. As Kenneth Muir writes, “Macbeth has not a predisposition to murder; he has merely an inordinate ambition that makes murder itself seem to be a lesser evil than failure to achieve the crown.” Some critics, such as E. E. Stoll, explain this characterisation as a holdover from Senecan or medieval tradition. Shakespeare’s audience, in this view, expected villains to be wholly bad, and Senecan style, far from prohibiting a villainous protagonist, all but demanded it.

Yet for other critics, it has not been so easy to resolve the question of Macbeth’s motivation. Robert Bridges, for instance, perceived a paradox: a character able to express such convincing horror before Duncan’s murder would likely be incapable of committing the crime. For many critics, Macbeth’s motivations in the first act appear vague and insufficient. John Dover Wilson hypothesised that Shakespeare’s original text had an extra scene or scenes where husband and wife discussed their plans. This interpretation is not fully provable; however, the motivating role of ambition for Macbeth is universally recognised. The evil actions motivated by his ambition seem to trap him in a cycle of increasing evil, as Macbeth himself recognises: “I am in blood/Stepp’d in so far that, should I wade no more,/Returning were as tedious as go o’er.”

 As a tragedy of moral order

The disastrous consequences of Macbeth’s ambition are not limited to him. Almost from the moment of the murder, the play depicts Scotland as a land shaken by inversions of the natural order. Shakespeare may have intended a reference to the great chain of being, although the play’s images of disorder are mostly not specific enough to support detailed intellectual readings. He may also have intended an elaborate compliment to James’s belief in the divine right of kings, although this hypothesis, outlined at greatest length by Henry N. Paul, is not universally accepted. As in Julius Caesar, though, perturbations in the political sphere are echoed and even amplified by events in the material world. Among the most often depicted of the inversions of the natural order is sleep. Macbeth’s announcement that he has “murdered sleep” is figuratively mirrored in Lady Macbeth’s sleepwalking.

Macbeth’s generally accepted indebtedness to medieval tragedy is often seen as significant in the play’s treatment of moral order. Glynne Wickham connects the play, through the Porter, to a mystery play on the harrowing of hell. Howard Felperin argues that the play has a more complex attitude toward “orthodox Christian tragedy” than is often admitted; he sees a kinship between the play and the tyrant plays within the medieval liturgical drama.

The theme of androgyny is often seen as a special aspect of the theme of disorder. Inversion of normative gender roles is most famously associated with the witches and with Lady Macbeth as she appears in the first act. Whatever Shakespeare’s degree of sympathy with such inversions, the play ends with a thorough return to normative gender values. Some feminist psychoanalytic critics, such as Janet Adelman, have connected the play’s treatment of gender roles to its larger theme of inverted natural order. In this light, Macbeth is punished for his violation of the moral order by being removed from the cycles of nature (which are figured as female); nature itself (as embodied in the movement of Birnam Wood) is part of the restoration of moral order.

 As a poetic tragedy

Critics in the early twentieth century reacted against what they saw as an excessive dependence on the study of character in criticism of the play. This dependence, though most closely associated with Andrew Cecil Bradley, is clear as early as the time of Mary Cowden Clarke, who offered precise, if fanciful, accounts of the predramatic lives of Shakespeare’s female leads. She suggested, for instance, that the child Lady Macbeth refers to in the first act died during a foolish military action.

Witchcraft and evil

Macbeth and Banquo with the Witches by Henry Fuseli.

In the play, the Three Witches represent darkness, chaos, and conflict, while their role is as agents and witnesses.[25] Their presence communicates treason and impending doom. During Shakespeare’s day, witches were seen as worse than rebels, “the most notorious traytor and rebell that can be.”[26] They were not only political traitors, but spiritual traitors as well. Much of the confusion that springs from them comes from their ability to straddle the play’s borders between reality and the supernatural. They are so deeply entrenched in both worlds that it is unclear whether they control fate, or whether they are merely its agents. They defy logic, not being subject to the rules of the real world.[27] The witches’ lines in the first act: “Fair is foul, and foul is fair: Hover through the fog and filthy air” are often said to set the tone for the rest of the play by establishing a sense of confusion. Indeed, the play is filled with situations where evil is depicted as good, while good is rendered evil. The line “Double, double toil and trouble,” (often sensationalized to a point that it loses meaning), communicates the witches’ intent clearly: they seek only trouble for the mortals around them.[28]

While the witches do not tell Macbeth directly to kill King Duncan, they use a subtle form of temptation when they tell Macbeth that he is destined to be king. By placing this thought in his mind, they effectively guide him on the path to his own destruction. This follows the pattern of temptation many believed the Devil used at the time of Shakespeare. First, they argued, a thought is put in a man’s mind, then the person may either indulge in the thought or reject it. Macbeth indulges in it, while Banquo rejects.[28]

According to J. A. Bryant Jr., Macbeth also makes use of Biblical parallels, notably between King Duncan’s murder and the murder of Christ:

No matter how one looks at it, whether as history or as tragedy, Macbeth is distinctively Christian. One may simply count the Biblical allusions as Richmond Noble has done; one may go further and study the parallels between Shakespeare’s story and the Old Testament stories of Saul and Jezebel as Miss Jane H. Jack has done; or one may examine with W. C. Curry the progressive degeneration of Macbeth from the point of view of medieval theology.[29][30]

Superstition and “the Scottish play”

Main article: The Scottish play

While many today would say that any misfortune surrounding a production is mere coincidence, actors and other theatre people often consider it bad luck to mention Macbeth by name while inside a theatre, and sometimes refer to it indirectly, for example as “the Scottish play“,[31] or “MacBee”, or when referring to the character and not the play, “Mr. and Mrs. M”, or “The Scottish King”.

This is because Shakespeare is said to have used the spells of real witches in his text, purportedly angering the witches and causing them to curse the play.[32] Thus, to say the name of the play inside a theatre is believed to doom the production to failure, and perhaps cause physical injury or death to cast members. There are stories of accidents, misfortunes and even deaths taking place during runs of Macbeth (or by actors who had uttered the name).[31]

One particular incident that lent itself to the superstition was the Astor Place Riot. Because the cause of these riots was based on a conflict over two performances of Macbeth, this is often thought of as having been caused by the curse.[33]

Several methods exist to dispel the curse, depending on the actor. One, attributed to Michael York, is to immediately leave the building the stage is in with the person who uttered the name, walk around it three times, spit over their left shoulders, say an obscenity then wait to be invited back into the building.[34] A related practice is to spin around three times as fast as possible on the spot, sometimes accompanied by spitting over their shoulder, and uttering an obscenity. Another popular “ritual” is to leave the room, knock three times, be invited in, and then quote a line from Hamlet. Yet another is to recite lines from The Merchant of Venice, thought to be a lucky play.[35]

 Performance history

[edit] Shakespeare’s day

Apart from the one mentioned in the Forman document, there are no performances known with certainty in Shakespeare’s era. Because of its Scottish theme, the play is sometimes said to have been written for, and perhaps debuted for, King James; however, no external evidence supports this hypothesis. The play’s brevity and certain aspects of its staging (for instance, the large proportion of night-time scenes and the unusually large number of off-stage sounds) have been taken as suggesting that the text now extant was revised for production indoors, perhaps at the Blackfriars Theatre, which the King’s Men acquired in 1608.[36]

Restoration and 18th century

In the Restoration, Sir William Davenant produced a spectacular “operatic” adaptation of Macbeth, “with all the singing and dancing in it” and special effects like “flyings for the witches” (John Downes, Roscius Anglicanus, 1708). Davenant’s revision also enhanced the role of Lady Macduff, making her a thematic foil to Lady Macbeth.[37] In an April 19, 1667, entry in his Diary, Samuel Pepys called Davenant’s MacBeth “one of the best plays for a stage, and variety of dancing and music, that ever I saw.”[37] The Davenant version held the stage until the middle of the next century. The famous Macbeths of the early 18th century, such as James Quin, employed this version.

Charles Macklin, not otherwise recalled as a great Macbeth, is remembered for performances at Covent Garden in 1773 at which riots broke out, related to Macklin’s rivalries with Garrick and William Smith. Macklin performed in Scottish dress, reversing an earlier tendency to dress Macbeth as an English brigadier; he also removed Garrick’s death speech and further trimmed Lady Macduff’s role. The performance received generally respectful reviews, although George Steevens remarked on the inappropriateness of Macklin (then in his eighties) for the role.

After Garrick, the most celebrated Macbeth of the 18th century was John Philip Kemble; he performed the role most famously with his sister, Sarah Siddons, whose Lady Macbeth was widely regarded as unsurpassable. Kemble continued the trends toward realistic costume and to Shakespeare’s language that had marked Macklin’s production; Walter Scott reports that he experimented continually with the Scottish dress of the play. Response to Kemble’s interpretation was divided; however, Siddons was unanimously praised. Her performance of the “sleepwalking” scene in the fifth act was especially noted; Leigh Hunt called it “sublime.” The Kemble-Siddons performances were the first widely influential productions in which Lady Macbeth’s villainy was presented as deeper and more powerful than Macbeth’s. It was also the first in which Banquo’s ghost did not appear on stage.

Kemble’s Macbeth struck some critics as too mannered and polite for Shakespeare’s text. His successor as the leading actor of London, Edmund Kean, was more often criticised for emotional excess, particularly in the fifth act. Kean’s Macbeth was not universally admired; William Hazlitt, for instance, complained that Kean’s Macbeth was too like his Richard III. As he did in other roles, Kean exploited his athleticism as a key component of Macbeth’s mental collapse. He reversed Kemble’s emphasis on Macbeth as noble, instead presenting him as a ruthless politician who collapses under the weight of guilt and fear. Kean, however, did nothing to halt the trend toward extravagance in scene and costume.

Nineteenth century

The Macbeth of the next predominant London actor, William Charles Macready, provoked responses at least as mixed as those given Kean. Macready debuted in the role in 1820 at Covent Garden. As Hazlitt noted, Macready’s reading of the character was purely psychological; the witches lost all supernatural power, and Macbeth’s downfall arose purely from the conflicts in Macbeth’s character. Macready’s most famous Lady Macbeth was Helena Faucit, who debuted dismally in the role while still in her mid-20s, but who later achieved acclaim in the role for an interpretation that, unlike Siddons’, accorded with contemporary notions of female decorum. After Macready “retired” to America, he continued to perform in the role; in 1849, he was involved in a rivalry with American actor Edwin Forrest, whose partisans hissed Macready at Astor Place, leading to what is commonly called the Astor Place Riot.

Charles Kean and his wife as Macbeth and Lady Macbeth, in costumes aiming to be historically accurate (1858).

The two most prominent Macbeths of mid-century, Samuel Phelps and Charles Kean, were both received with critical ambivalence and popular success. Both are famous less for their interpretation of character than for certain aspects of staging. At Sadler’s Wells Theatre, Phelps brought back nearly all of Shakespeare’s original text. He brought back the first half of the Porter scene, which had been ignored by directors since Davenant; the second remained cut because of its ribaldry. He abandoned the added music, and reduced the witches to their role in the folio. Just as significantly, he returned to the folio treatment of Macbeth’s death.[38] Not all of these decisions succeeded in the Victorian context, and Phelps experimented with various combinations of Shakespeare and Davenant in his more than a dozen productions between 1844 and 1861. His most successful Lady Macbeth was Isabella Glyn, whose commanding presence reminded some critics of Siddons.

The outstanding feature of Kean’s productions at the Princess’s Theatre after 1850 was their accuracy of costume. Kean achieved his greatest success in modern melodrama, and he was widely viewed as not prepossessing enough for the greatest Elizabethan roles. Audiences did not mind, however; one 1853 production ran for twenty weeks. Presumably part of the draw was Kean’s famous attention to historical accuracy; in his productions, as Allardyce Nicoll notes, “even the botany was historically correct.”

Henry Irving‘s first attempt at the role, at the Lyceum Theatre, London in 1875, was a failure. Under the production of Sidney Frances Bateman, and starring alongside Kate Josephine Bateman, Irving may have been affected by the recent death of his manager Hezekiah Linthicum Bateman. Although the production lasted eighty performances, his Macbeth was judged inferior to his Hamlet. His next essay, opposite Ellen Terry at the Lyceum in 1888, fared better, playing for 150 performances.[39] At the urging of Herman Klein, Irving engaged Arthur Sullivan to write a suite of incidental music for the piece.[40] Friends such as Bram Stoker defended his “psychological” reading, based on the supposition that Macbeth had dreamed of killing Duncan before the start of the play. His detractors, among them Henry James, deplored his arbitrary word changes (“would have” for “should have” in the speech at Lady Macbeth’s death) and his “neurasthenic” and “finicky” approach to the character.[41]

 Twentieth century to present

Barry Vincent Jackson staged an influential modern-dress production with the Birmingham Repertory in 1928; the production reached London, playing at the Royal Court Theatre. It received mixed reviews; Eric Maturin was judged an inadequate Macbeth, though Mary Merrall‘s vampish Lady was reviewed favourably. Though The Times judged it a “miserable failure,” the production did much to overturn the tendency to scenic and antiquarian excess that had peaked with Charles Kean.

The Federal Theatre Project Negro Unit’s production of Macbeth, 1935

Among the most publicised productions of the 20th century was mounted by the Federal Theater Project at the Lafayette Theatre in Harlem from 14 April to 20 June 1936. Orson Welles, in his first stage production, directed Jack Carter and Edna Thomas, with Canada Lee playing Banquo, in an all African American production. It became known as the Voodoo Macbeth, because Welles set the play in post-colonial Haiti. His direction emphasised spectacle and suspense: his dozens of “African” drums recalled Davenant’s chorus of witches. Welles later directed and played the starring role in a 1948 film adaptation of the play.

Laurence Olivier played Malcolm in the 1929 production and Macbeth in 1937 at the Old Vic Theatre in a production that saw the Vic’s artistic director Lilian Baylis pass away the night before it opened. Olivier’s makeup was so thick and stylised for that production that Vivien Leigh was quoted as saying “You hear Macbeth’s first line, then Larry’s makeup comes on, then Banquo comes on, then Larry comes on”.[42] Olivier later starred in what is among the most famous 20th-century productions, by Glen Byam Shaw at Stratford-upon-Avon in 1955. Vivien Leigh played Lady Macbeth. The supporting cast, which Harold Hobson denigrated, included many actors who went on to successful Shakespearean careers: Ian Holm played Donalbain, Keith Michell was Macduff, and Patrick Wymark the Porter. Olivier was the key to success. The intensity of his performance, particularly in the conversation with the murderers and in confronting Banquo’s ghost, seemed to many reviewers to recall Edmund Kean. Plans for a film version faltered after the box-office failure of Olivier’s Richard III. Kenneth Tynan asserted flatly of this performance that “no one has ever succeeded as Macbeth”—until Olivier.

Olivier’s co-star in his 1937 Old Vic Theatre production, Judith Anderson, had an equally triumphant association with the play. She played Lady Macbeth on Broadway opposite Maurice Evans in a production directed by Margaret Webster that ran for 131 performances in 1941, the longest run of the play in Broadway history. Anderson and Evans performed the play on television twice, in 1954 and 1962, with Maurice Evans winning an Emmy Award the 1962 production and Anderson winning the award for both presentations. A film adaptation in 1971 titled The Tragedy of Macbeth was directed by Roman Polanski and executive-produced by Hugh Hefner.

A Japanese film adaptation, Throne of Blood (Kumonosu jô, 1957), features Toshirô Mifune in the lead role and is set in feudal Japan. It was well-received and, despite having almost none of the play’s script, critic Harold Bloom called it “the most successful film version of Macbeth.”[43]

One of the most notable 20th-century productions is that of Trevor Nunn for the Royal Shakespeare Company in 1976. Nunn had directed Nicol Williamson and Helen Mirren in the play two years earlier, but that production had largely failed to impress. In 1976, Nunn produced the play with a minimalist set at The Other Place; this small, nearly round stage focused attention on the psychological dynamics of the characters. Both Ian McKellen in the title role and Judi Dench as Lady Macbeth received exceptionally favourable reviews. Dench won the 1977 SWET Best Actress award for her performance and in 2004, members of the RSC voted her performance the greatest by an actress in the history of the company.

Nunn’s production transferred to London in 1977 and was later filmed for television. It was to overshadow Peter Hall‘s 1978 production with Albert Finney as Macbeth and Dorothy Tutin as Lady Macbeth. But the most infamous recent Macbeth was staged at the Old Vic in 1980. Peter O’Toole and Frances Tomelty took the leads in a production (by Bryan Forbes) that was publicly disowned by Timothy West, artistic director of the theatre, before opening night, despite being a sellout because of its notoriety. As critic Jack Tinker noted in the Daily Mail: “The performance is not so much downright bad as heroically ludicrous.”[44]

On the stage, Lady Macbeth is considered one of the more “commanding and challenging” roles in Shakespeare’s work.[45] Other actresses who have played the role include Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies, Janet Suzman, Glenda Jackson, and Jane Lapotaire.

In 2001 the film Scotland, PA was released. The action is moved to 1970’s Pennsylvania and revolves around Joe Macbeth and his wife Pat taking control of a hamburger cafe from Norm Duncan. The film was directed by Billy Morrissette and stars James LeGros, Maura Tierney and Christopher Walken.

A performance was staged in the real Macbeth’s home of Moray, produced by the National Theatre of Scotland, to take place at Elgin Cathedral. Professional actors, dancers, musicians, school children, and a community cast from the Moray area all took part in what was an important event in the Highland Year of Culture (2007).

In the same year there was general consent among critics that Rupert Goold‘s production for the Chichester Festival 2007, starring Patrick Stewart and Kate Fleetwood, rivalled Trevor Nunn’s acclaimed 1976 RSC production. And when it transferred to the Gielgud Theatre in London, Charles Spencer reviewing for the Daily Telegraph pronounced it the best Macbeth he had ever seen.[46] At the Evening Standard Theatre Awards 2007 the production won both the Best Actor award for Stewart, and the Best Director award for Goold.[47] The same production opened in the US at the Brooklyn Academy of Music in 2008, moving to Broadway (Lyceum Theatre) after a sold-out run. In 2009 Goold again directed Stewart and Fleetwood in an acclaimed film version of their production, which aired as part of PBS’ Great Performances series on October 6, 2010.

In 2003, the British theatre company Punchdrunk used The Beaufoy Building in London, an old Victorian school to stage “Sleep No More“, the story of Macbeth in the style of a Hitchcock thriller, using reworked music from the soundtrack of classic Hitchcock films.[48] Punchdrunk re-mounted the production, in a newly expanded version, at an abandoned school in Brookline, Massachusetts in October 2009 in association with the American Repertory Theatre.[49]

In 2004, Indian director Vishal Bharadwaj directed his own adaptation to Macbeth, titled Maqbool. Set in the contemporary Mumbai underworld, the movie starred Irrfan Khan, Tabu, Pankaj Kapur, Om Puri, Naseeruddin Shah and Piyush Mishra in prominent roles. The movie was highly acclaimed and brought fame to director Bharadwaj and to Irrfan Khan.[citation needed]

Sequels by other authors

In 2006, Harper Collins published the book Macbeth and Son by the Australian author Jackie French. In 2008, Pegasus Books published The Tragedy of Macbeth Part II: The Seed of Banquo, a play by American author and playwright Noah Lukeman which endeavored to pick up where the original Macbeth left off, and to resolve its many loose ends.

David Greig‘s 2010 play Dunsinane took Macbeth’s downfall at Dunsinane as its starting point, with Macbeth’s just-ended reign portrayed as long and stable in contrast to Malcolm’s.[citation needed]

Macbeth

 

Poster untuk sebuah c. 1884 American produksi Macbeth, dibintangi Thomas W. Keene. Counter searah jarum jam dari atas-kiri: Macbeth dan Banquo memenuhi penyihir. Hanya setelah pembunuhan Duncan, hantu Banquo’s, Macbeth duel Macduff, Macbeth.
Tragedi dari Macbeth (Macbeth biasa disebut) adalah bermain dengan William Shakespeare tentang seorang pembunuh raja dan sesudahnya. Ini adalah tragedi Shakespeare terpendek dan diyakini telah ditulis kadang antara 1603 dan 1607. Rekening awal kinerja dari apa yang mungkin bermain Shakespeare adalah April 1611, ketika Simon Forman mencatat melihat seperti bermain di Teater Globe. Ia pertama kali diterbitkan dalam Folio dari 1623, mungkin dari sebuah buku prompt untuk kinerja tertentu.

sumber Shakespeare untuk tragedi ini adalah akun Raja Macbeth of Scotland, Macduff, dan Duncan dalam Tawarikh Holinshed’s (1587), sejarah dari Inggris, Skotlandia dan Irlandia akrab dengan Shakespeare dan orang-orang sezamannya. Namun, kisah Macbeth yang diceritakan oleh Shakespeare beruang sedikit hubungan dengan peristiwa nyata dalam sejarah Skotlandia, sebagai Macbeth adalah dikagumi dan raja mampu.

Dalam dunia panggung teater, beberapa percaya bahwa bermain dikutuk, dan tidak akan menyebutkan judul keras, mengacu pada itu, bukan dengan nama-nama seperti “bermain Skotlandia”. Selama berabad-abad, memainkan telah menarik beberapa aktor terbesar dalam peran Macbeth dan Lady Macbeth. Telah disesuaikan dengan film, televisi, opera, novel, buku komik, dan media lainnya.

Isi
1 Karakter
2 Sinopsis
3 Sumber
4 Tanggal dan teks
5 Tema dan motif
5.1 Sebagai tragedi karakter
5.2 Sebagai tragedi tatanan moral
5.3 Sebagai tragedi puitis
5.4 Sihir dan yang jahat
6 Takhayul dan “bermain Skotlandia”
7 Kinerja sejarah
7.1 Shakespeare hari
7.2 Restorasi dan abad ke-18
7.3 abad kesembilanbelas
7,4 abad duapuluh sekarang
8 Sekuel oleh penulis lain
9 Referensi

 Karakter
Duncan – Raja Skotlandia
Malcolm – putra tertua Duncan
Donalbain – putra bungsu Duncan
Macbeth – Seorang jenderal di tentara Raja Duncan, awalnya panglima Glamis, maka Thane dari Cawdor dan kemudian Raja Skotlandia
Lady Macbeth – Macbeth istri, dan kemudian Ratu Skotlandia
Banquo-Macbeth sahabat dan seorang jenderal di tentara Raja Duncan
Fleance – anak Banquo’s
Macduff – The Thane dari Fife
Lady Macduff – istri Macduff’s
Macduff putra
 Ross, Lennox, Angus, Menteith, Caithness – Skotlandia Thanes
Siward-Earl of Northumberland, Jenderal pasukan Inggris
Young Siward – Siward putra
Seyton – Macbeth hamba dan penolong
Hecate – Dewi Sihir
Tiga Penyihir – membuat prediksi Macbeth menjadi Raja dan keturunan Banquo sedang raja-raja.
Tiga Pembunuh
Porter (atau Messenger) – Gatekeeper di rumah Macbeth’s
Skotlandia Dokter – dokter Lady Macbeth’s
Para wanita yg berkedudukan baik – pengurus Lady Macbeth’s
 

Ringkasan

Scene dari Macbeth, yang menggambarkan para penyihir ‘sulap dari penampakan dalam UU IV, Scene I. Lukisan oleh William Rimmer
Tindakan pertama bermain terbuka di tengah-tengah guntur dan kilat dengan Tiga Witches memutuskan bahwa pertemuan berikutnya mereka akan dengan Macbeth. Dalam adegan berikut, sebuah laporan sersan terluka ke Raja Duncan dari Skotlandia yang jendral – Macbeth, yang adalah panglima Glamis, dan Banquo – baru saja mengalahkan pasukan sekutu Norwegia dan Irlandia, yang dipimpin oleh pengkhianat Macdonwald. Macbeth, penebus Raja, dipuji karena keberaniannya dan kecakapan berkelahi.

Perubahan adegan. Macbeth dan Banquo masuk, membahas cuaca dan kemenangan mereka (“Jadi busuk dan adil dalam sehari aku belum melihat”) [1] Ketika mereka mengembara ke kesehatan, para Witches Tiga masukkan, yang telah menunggu untuk menyambut mereka dengan nubuat.. Meskipun Banquo tantangan mereka terlebih dahulu, mereka alamat Macbeth. Penyihir pertama berasal Macbeth sebagai “panglima Glamis”, yang kedua sebagai “Thane of Cawdor”, dan yang ketiga menyatakan bahwa ia akan “menjadi Raja akhirat.” Macbeth tampaknya tertegun untuk diam, sehingga sekali lagi Banquo menantang mereka. Para penyihir Banquo menginformasikan bahwa ia akan ayah garis raja-raja, meskipun ia sendiri tidak akan menjadi satu. Sementara dua orang heran pada pernyataan ini, para penyihir lenyap, dan Thane lain, Ross, seorang utusan dari Raja, datang dan menginformasikan Macbeth dari judul yang baru dianugerahkan: Thane dari Cawdor. Nubuat pertama adalah demikian terpenuhi. Segera, Macbeth mulai pelabuhan ambisi menjadi raja.

Macbeth menulis kepada istrinya tentang ramalan para penyihir ‘. Ketika Duncan memutuskan untuk tinggal di benteng Macbeths ‘di Inverness, Lady Macbeth menetas rencana untuk membunuh dia dan mengamankan takhta untuk suaminya. Meskipun Macbeth menimbulkan kekhawatiran tentang pembunuhan raja itu, Lady Macbeth akhirnya membujuknya, dengan menantang kejantanannya, untuk mengikuti rencananya.

Pada malam kunjungan raja, Macbeth membunuh Duncan. Akta tersebut tidak terlihat oleh penonton, tapi daun Macbeth begitu terguncang bahwa Lady Macbeth harus mengambil alih. Sesuai dengan rencananya, pelayan dia bingkai Duncan tidur atas pembunuhan dengan menanam belati berdarah pada mereka. Keesokan paginya, Lennox, seorang bangsawan Skotlandia, dan Macduff, yang Thane setia Fife, tiba. [2] penjaga pintu gerbang terbuka dan Macbeth membawa mereka ke kamar raja, di mana Macduff menemukan mayat Duncan. Dalam fit pura-pura marah, Macbeth pembunuhan para penjaga sebelum mereka dapat protes mereka tidak bersalah. Macduff segera curiga terhadap Macbeth, tetapi tidak mengungkapkan kecurigaan di depan umum. Takut untuk hidup mereka, anak-anak Duncan lari, Malcolm ke Inggris dan Donalbain ke Irlandia. Penerbangan ahli waris yang sah ‘membuat mereka tersangka dan Macbeth mengasumsikan takhta sebagai Raja baru Skotlandia sebagai penebus raja mati.

Théodore Chassériau (1819-1856), Macbeth melihat Hantu Banquo, 1854.
Meskipun berhasil, Macbeth tetap gelisah tentang ramalan tentang Banquo, sehingga Macbeth mengundang dia untuk sebuah pesta kerajaan di mana ia menemukan bahwa Banquo dan anak laki-lakinya, Fleance, akan naik keluar malam itu. Ia mempekerjakan dua orang untuk membunuh mereka, sementara seorang pembunuh ketiga juga muncul di taman sebelum pembunuhan. Sedangkan pembunuh membunuh Banquo, lolos Fleance. Pada perjamuan itu, hantu Banquo’s masuk dan duduk di tempat Macbeth’s. Hanya Macbeth dapat melihat hantu, sedangkan sisanya panik saat melihat Macbeth mengamuk di sebuah kursi kosong, sampai putus asa Lady Macbeth perintah mereka untuk pergi, mengklaim bahwa suaminya hanya menderita dengan penyakit akrab dan tidak berbahaya.

Macbeth, terganggu, mengunjungi Witches Tiga sekali lagi. Mereka menyulap tiga roh dengan tiga peringatan lebih lanjut dan nubuat, yang memberitahu dia untuk “waspada Macduff,” [3] tetapi juga bahwa “tidak ada wanita kelahiran akan membahayakan Macbeth” dan ia akan “tidak pernah vanquish’d akan sampai Besar Birnam Kayu untuk tinggi Dunsinane Hill akan datang melawan dia “. Karena Macduff di pengasingan di Inggris, Macbeth menganggap bahwa ia aman, maka ia menempatkan semua orang mati di benteng Macduff, termasuk istri Macduff dan anak-anak muda mereka.

Lady Macbeth menjadi didera dengan rasa bersalah dari kejahatan dia dan suaminya telah berkomitmen. Dia sleepwalks dan mencoba untuk mencuci noda darah imajiner dari tangannya, semua berbicara sementara dari hal-hal yang mengerikan dia tahu.

Lady Macbeth sleepwalking oleh Henry Fuseli.
Di Inggris, Macduff diinformasikan oleh Ross bahwa “istana Anda terkejut, istri dan babes / kejam slaughter’d.” Melihat [4] Macbeth, sekarang dipandang sebagai seorang tiran, banyak thanes nya membelot. Malcolm memimpin pasukan, bersama dengan Macduff dan Inggris Siward (the Elder), Earl of Northumberland, melawan Dunsinane Castle. Sementara berkemah di Birnam Kayu, para prajurit diperintahkan untuk menebang dan membawa dahan pohon untuk menyamarkan jumlah mereka, sehingga memenuhi nubuatan ketiga penyihir ‘. Sementara itu, Macbeth memberikan solilokui (“Besok, dan besok, dan besok)” [5] pada pembelajaran tentang kematian Lady Macbeth’s (penyebabnya adalah tidak diungkapkan, dan beberapa menganggap bahwa dia bunuh diri, sebagai acuan terakhir Malcolm padanya mengungkapkan “‘ tis berpikir, oleh tangan-tangan diri dan kekerasan / Took off hidupnya “). [6]

Pertempuran memuncak dalam pembunuhan dari Siward muda dan konfrontasi Macduff dengan Macbeth. Macbeth membanggakan bahwa dia tidak memiliki alasan untuk takut Macduff, karena ia tidak bisa dibunuh oleh pria kelahiran perempuan. Macduff menyatakan bahwa ia “dari rahim ibunya / sebelum waktunya ripp’d” [7] (yaitu, lahir melalui operasi caesar) dan tidak “dari wanita kelahiran” (contoh yang berdalih sastra). Macbeth terlambat menyadari bahwa ia telah salah menafsirkan kata-kata para penyihir ‘. Macduff beheads luar panggung Macbeth dan dengan demikian memenuhi terakhir dari nubuat.

Walaupun Malcolm ditempatkan di atas takhta dan tidak Fleance, ramalan para penyihir ‘tentang Banquo, “Engkau [akan] mendapatkan raja”, dikenal penonton waktu Shakespeare benar, untuk James VI dari Skotlandia (kemudian juga James I Inggris) adalah diduga keturunan Banquo. [rujukan?]

 Sumber
Macbeth telah dibandingkan dengan Shakespeare’s Antony dan Cleopatra. Baik Antony dan Macbeth sebagai karakter mencari dunia baru, bahkan dengan biaya yang lama. Keduanya berjuang untuk takhta dan memiliki ‘musuh’ untuk menghadapi untuk mencapai takhta itu. Untuk Antony nemesis ini Octavius, untuk Macbeth itu Banquo. Pada satu titik Macbeth bahkan membandingkan dirinya dengan Antony, mengatakan “dalam Banquo / Genius saya rebuk’d, seperti dikatakan / Mark Antony adalah dengan Caesar.” Terakhir, keduanya memainkan berisi tokoh perempuan yang kuat dan manipulatif: Cleopatra dan Lady Macbeth [8].

Shakespeare meminjam cerita dari beberapa cerita Tawarikh Holinshed, sebuah sejarah populer dari Kepulauan Inggris dikenal Shakespeare dan orang-orang sezamannya. Dalam Tawarikh, seorang pria bernama Donwald menemukan beberapa keluarganya dihukum mati oleh raja, Raja Duff, untuk menangani dengan penyihir. Setelah ditekan oleh istrinya, dia dan empat orang hambanya membunuh raja di rumahnya sendiri. Dalam Chronicles, Macbeth digambarkan sebagai berjuang untuk mendukung kerajaan dalam menghadapi kebodohan Raja Duncan. Dia dan Banquo memenuhi tiga penyihir, yang membuat persis nubuatan sama seperti dalam versi Shakespeare. Macbeth dan Banquo kemudian bersama-sama plot pembunuhan Duncan, di Lady Macbeth desakan. Macbeth memiliki pemerintahan, lama sepuluh tahun sebelum akhirnya digulingkan oleh Macduff dan Malcolm. Kesamaan antara dua versi yang jelas. Namun, beberapa ahli berpendapat bahwa George Buchanan Rerum Scoticarum Historia pertandingan versi Shakespeare lebih dekat. karya Buchanan adalah tersedia dalam bahasa Latin di hari Shakespeare. [9]

Tidak ada versi lain dari cerita telah Macbeth membunuh raja di puri Macbeth’s sendiri. Para sarjana telah melihat perubahan ini Shakespeare sebagai menambah kegelapan kejahatan Macbeth sebagai pelanggaran terburuk perhotelan. Versi cerita yang umum pada waktu itu Duncan yang tewas dalam penyergapan di Inverness, bukan di kastil. Shakespeare digabungkan kisah Donwald dan Raja Duff dalam apa yang merupakan perubahan yang signifikan ke cerita. [10]

Shakespeare membuat perubahan lain mengungkapkan. Dalam Chronicles, Banquo adalah kaki tangan dalam pembunuhan Macbeth’s Raja Duncan. Dia juga memainkan peran penting dalam memastikan bahwa Macbeth, tidak Malcolm, mengambil takhta dalam kudeta yang berikut. [11] Pada hari Shakespeare, Banquo dianggap nenek moyang langsung dari Stuart King James I. [12] [13 ] The Banquo digambarkan dalam sumber-sumber sejarah secara signifikan berbeda dari Banquo diciptakan oleh Shakespeare. Kritik telah mengusulkan beberapa alasan untuk perubahan ini. Pertama, untuk menggambarkan nenek moyang raja sebagai pembunuh akan berisiko. Penulis lain dari waktu yang menulis tentang Banquo, seperti Jean de Schelandre dalam bukunya Stuartide, juga mengubah sejarah dengan menggambarkan Banquo sebagai manusia mulia, bukan pembunuh, mungkin karena alasan yang sama. [14] Kedua, Shakespeare mungkin telah mengubah Banquo’s karakter hanya karena tidak perlu dramatis selama kaki untuk membunuh;. ada, bagaimanapun, perlu memberikan kontras dramatis untuk Macbeth-peran yang banyak sarjana berpendapat diisi oleh Banquo [11]

 Tanggal dan teks

Faksimili dari halaman pertama dari Macbeth dari Folio Pertama, yang diterbitkan pada tahun 1623
Macbeth tidak dapat diberi tanggal dengan tepat karena bukti yang signifikan dari revisi nanti. Banyak sarjana dugaan tanggal kemungkinan komposisi menjadi antara 1603 dan 1606 [15] [16] Seperti bermain tampaknya akan merayakan nenek moyang King James dan aksesi Stuart takhta pada tahun 1603 (James diyakini dirinya sebagai keturunan dari Banquo). , [17] mereka berpendapat bahwa bermain tidak mungkin telah disusun lebih awal dari 1603, dan menyarankan bahwa parade delapan raja-mana penyihir menunjukkan Macbeth dalam visi dalam Undang-undang IV-merupakan pujian kepada Raja James. Lain editor dugaan tanggal yang lebih spesifik 1605-6, alasan utama, sindiran mungkin untuk Plot Bubuk Mesiu dan uji coba yang berikutnya. Pidato Porter (Act II, adegan III, baris 1-21), secara khusus, mungkin berisi sindiran kepada sidang Yesuit Henry Garnet di musim semi, 1606; “equivocator” (baris 8) bisa merujuk ke pertahanan Garnet dari “dalih “[lihat: Doktrin reservasi mental], dan” petani “. (4) ke salah satu alias Garnet [18] Namun,” petani “adalah kata umum, dan” dalih “juga subjek dari saluran 1583 oleh Ratu Kepala dewan Elizabeth Lord Burghley, dan dari 1584 Doktrin Pengelakan oleh uskup Spanyol Azpilcueta Martin, yang disebarluaskan di seluruh Eropa dan ke Inggris pada 1590-an. [19]

Ulama juga mengutip sebuah hiburan terlihat oleh King James di Oxford pada musim panas 1605 yang menampilkan tiga “sibyls” seperti saudara aneh;. Kermode duga bahwa Shakespeare bisa mendengar tentang hal ini dan menyinggung dengan para suster aneh [20] Namun, AR Braunmuller di edisi Cambridge 1605-6 New menemukan argumen meyakinkan, dan berpendapat hanya untuk tanggal awal 1603 [21]. Drama tersebut tidak dianggap telah ditulis ada lebih dari 1607, karena, sebagai catatan Kermode, ada “sindiran cukup jelas untuk bermain pada tahun 1607.” [20] Cerita awal dari sebuah kinerja bermain adalah April 1611, ketika Simon Forman dicatat melihatnya di Teater Globe. [22]

Macbeth pertama kali dicetak di Folio Pertama 1623 dan Folio merupakan sumber hanya untuk teks. Teks yang bertahan telah jelas diubah oleh tangan-tangan nanti. Paling penting adalah dimasukkannya dua lagu dari bermain Thomas Middleton, The Witch (1615); Middleton adalah mengarah pada telah memasukkan adegan ekstra yang melibatkan para penyihir dan Hecate, untuk adegan ini telah terbukti sangat populer dengan khalayak. Revisi ini, yang sejak edisi Clarendon tahun 1869 telah diasumsikan termasuk semua Undang-undang III, v adegan, dan sebagian UU IV, adegan saya, sering ditunjukkan dalam teks-teks modern [23] Atas dasar ini., Banyak sarjana menolak semua tiga selingan dengan dewi Hecate sebagai tidak autentik. Bahkan dengan bahan Hecate, bermain adalah mencolok pendek, dan sehingga teks Folio mungkin berasal dari sebuah buku prompt yang telah secara substansial dipotong untuk kinerja, atau adaptor memotong teks sendiri.

Tema dan motif
  

Macbeth adalah sebuah anomali di antara tragedi Shakespeare dengan cara-cara kritis tertentu. Hal ini singkat: lebih dari seribu garis pendek dari Othello dan King Lear, dan hanya sedikit lebih dari setengah selama Hamlet. singkatnya ini disarankan untuk banyak kritik bahwa versi yang diterima didasarkan pada sumber berat dipotong, mungkin prompt-buku untuk kinerja tertentu. singkatnya itu juga telah terhubung ke fitur-fitur yang tidak biasa lain: kecepatan cepat dari tindakan pertama, yang tampaknya “ditelanjangi untuk tindakan”, yang kerataan perbandingan karakter selain Macbeth, sedangkan oddness dari Macbeth dirinya dibandingkan dengan lainnya Shakespeare tragis pahlawan.

Sebagai tragedi karakter
Setidaknya sejak jaman Alexander Pope dan Samuel Johnson, analisis bermain telah berpusat pada pertanyaan tentang ambisi Macbeth’s, sering dilihat sebagai sangat dominan suatu sifat yang mendefinisikan karakter. Johnson menegaskan bahwa Macbeth, meskipun terhormat untuk keberanian militer, sepenuhnya dicaci maki. Pendapat ini berulang dalam literatur kritis, dan, menurut Caroline Spurgeon, didukung oleh Shakespeare sendiri, yang tampaknya dimaksudkan untuk menurunkan pahlawan oleh vesting dia dengan pakaian yang tidak cocok untuk dia dan untuk membuat Macbeth tampak konyol oleh beberapa nimisms ia berlaku: pakaian-Nya tampaknya terlalu besar atau terlalu kecil untuk dia – karena ambisinya terlalu besar dan karakter nya terlalu kecil untuk perannya baru dan unrightful sebagai raja. Ketika ia merasa seolah-olah “mengenakan pakaian dipinjam”, setelah judul baru sebagai Thane dari Cawdor, dinubuatkan oleh para penyihir, telah dikonfirmasi oleh Rosse (I, 3, akan 108-109.), Komentar Banquo: “Baru datang kehormatan kepadanya, / Seperti pakaian aneh kita, tidak menggantungkan diri untuk membentuk mereka, / Tetapi dengan bantuan menggunakan “(I, 3, akan. 145-146). Dan, di akhir, ketika tiran berada pada teluk di Dunsinane, Caithness melihat dia sebagai orang yang berusaha dengan sia-sia untuk mempercepat sebuah garmen besar pada dirinya terlalu kecil dengan ikat pinggang: “Dia tidak bisa gesper menyebabkan distemper’d nya / Dalam sabuk aturan “(V, 2, akan 14-15.), sedangkan Angus, dalam nimism sama, meringkas apa semua orang berpikir sejak aksesi Macbeth ke kekuasaan:” sekarang tidak dia merasa gelar / Hang longgar tentang dirinya, seperti raksasa jubah / pada pencuri cebol “(V, 2, II. 18-20). [24]

Seperti Richard III, tetapi tanpa kegembiraan yang anehnya karakter menarik, menyeberangi Macbeth melalui darah sampai jatuh tak terelakkan nya. Sebagai Kenneth Muir menulis, “Macbeth belum kecenderungan untuk membunuh, ia memiliki hanya sebuah ambisi berlebihan yang membuat pembunuhan itu sendiri tampaknya menjadi jahat lebih rendah daripada kegagalan untuk mencapai mahkota.” Beberapa kritikus, seperti EE Stoll, menjelaskan hal ini karakterisasi sebagai peninggalan dari Senecan atau tradisi abad pertengahan. Shakespeare penonton, dalam pandangan ini, diharapkan penjahat akan sepenuhnya buruk, dan gaya Senecan, jauh dari melarang protagonis yang jahat, semua tapi menuntut itu.

Namun bagi kritikus lain, belum begitu mudah untuk menyelesaikan masalah motivasi Macbeth’s. Robert Bridges, misalnya, dianggap sebuah paradoks: karakter dapat mengekspresikan horor meyakinkan seperti sebelum pembunuhan Duncan kemungkinan akan mampu melakukan kejahatan. Bagi banyak kritikus, motivasi Macbeth dalam tindakan pertama muncul samar-samar dan tidak memadai. John Dover Wilson hipotesis bahwa teks asli Shakespeare memiliki adegan ekstra atau adegan di mana suami dan istri mendiskusikan rencana mereka. Penafsiran ini tidak sepenuhnya dapat dibuktikan, namun peran memotivasi ambisi untuk Macbeth secara universal diakui. Tindakan jahat dimotivasi oleh ambisinya tampaknya perangkap dia dalam siklus kejahatan meningkat, sebagai Macbeth sendiri mengakui: “Saya dalam darah / Stepp ‘d sejauh itu, saya harus menyeberang lagi, / Kembali adalah sebagai membosankan seperti pergi Aku tidur. “

 Sebagai tragedi tatanan moral
Konsekuensi bencana ambisi Macbeth adalah tidak terbatas baginya. Hampir dari saat pembunuhan itu, memutar menggambarkan Skotlandia sebagai tanah terguncang oleh inversi dari tatanan alam. Shakespeare mungkin telah dimaksudkan referensi ke rantai besar yang, walaupun gambar permainan tentang gangguan yang kebanyakan tidak cukup spesifik untuk mendukung pembacaan intelektual rinci. Dia mungkin juga bermaksud pujian yang rumit untuk keyakinan James di kanan ilahi dari raja, meskipun hipotesis ini, diuraikan panjang lebar terbesar oleh Henry N. Paulus, tidak diterima secara universal. Seperti dalam Julius Caesar, meskipun, gangguan dalam bidang politik bergema dan bahkan diperkuat oleh kejadian-kejadian di dunia material. Di antara yang paling sering digambarkan dari inversi dari tatanan alam tidur. Macbeth pengumuman bahwa ia telah “dibunuh tidur” adalah kiasan tercermin dalam sleepwalking Lady Macbeth’s.

Macbeth hutang secara umum diterima untuk tragedi abad pertengahan sering dilihat sebagai signifikan dalam pengobatan drama ketertiban moral. Glynne Wickham menghubungkan bermain, melalui Porter, untuk sebuah drama misteri pada mengerikan neraka. Howard Felperin berpendapat bahwa bermain memiliki sikap yang lebih kompleks terhadap “tragedi Kristen ortodoks” daripada yang sering mengaku, ia melihat kekerabatan antara bermain dan tiran memainkan dalam drama liturgi abad pertengahan.

Tema androgini sering dipandang sebagai aspek khusus dari tema gangguan. Pembalikan peran gender normatif yang paling terkenal berkaitan dengan penyihir dan dengan Lady Macbeth saat ia muncul dalam tindakan pertama. Apapun gelar Shakespeare simpati dengan inversi tersebut, memutar berakhir dengan kembali menyeluruh terhadap nilai-nilai gender normatif. Beberapa kritikus feminis psikoanalitik, seperti Janet Adelman, telah menghubungkan perawatan drama peran jender dengan tema yang lebih besar dari tatanan alam terbalik. Dalam terang ini, Macbeth adalah dihukum karena pelanggaran tentang tatanan moral dengan menjadi dikeluarkan dari siklus alam (yang digambarkan sebagai perempuan); alam itu sendiri (sebagaimana yang termaktub dalam gerakan Birnam Kayu) adalah bagian dari pemulihan tatanan moral .

 Sebagai tragedi puitis
Kritik pada awal abad kedua puluh bereaksi terhadap apa yang mereka lihat sebagai ketergantungan yang berlebihan pada studi karakter dalam kritik dari bermain. Ketergantungan ini, meskipun sebagian besar terkait erat dengan Andrew Cecil Bradley, jelas sedini saat Maria Cowden Clarke, yang ditawarkan tepat, jika fantastis, rekening kehidupan predramatic lead perempuan Shakespeare. Dia menyarankan, misalnya, bahwa anak Lady Macbeth mengacu pada tindakan pertama meninggal selama aksi militer bodoh.

Sihir dan yang jahat

Macbeth dan Banquo dengan Witches oleh Henry Fuseli.
Dalam bermain tersebut, Witches Tiga mewakili kegelapan, kekacauan, dan konflik, sedangkan peran mereka sebagai agen dan saksi. [25] Kehadiran mereka berkomunikasi pengkhianatan dan malapetaka yang akan datang. Selama hari Shakespeare, penyihir dilihat sebagai lebih buruk dari pemberontak, “yang traytor paling terkenal dan Rebell yang dapat.” [26] Mereka tidak hanya pengkhianat politik, tetapi pengkhianat spiritual. Banyak kebingungan yang muncul dari mereka berasal dari kemampuan mereka untuk mengangkang perbatasan bermain di antara realitas dan supranatural. Mereka begitu mengakar kuat di kedua dunia yang tidak jelas apakah mereka kontrol nasib, atau apakah mereka hanya agen-agennya. Mereka menentang logika, tidak tunduk pada aturan-aturan dunia nyata [27] baris Para penyihir ‘dalam tindakan pertama:. “Fair adalah busuk, dan kotor adalah wajar: Hover menembus kabut dan udara kotor” sering berkata untuk mengatur nada untuk sisa bermain dengan mendirikan rasa kebingungan. Memang, memainkan diisi dengan situasi di mana kejahatan digambarkan sebagai baik, sedangkan yang baik adalah diberikan jahat. Garis “Double, double kerja keras dan masalah,” (sering sensasional ke titik yang kehilangan makna), mengkomunikasikan maksud para penyihir ‘jelas:. mereka hanya mencari masalah bagi manusia di sekitar mereka [28]

Sementara para penyihir tidak memberi tahu Macbeth langsung untuk membunuh Raja Duncan, mereka menggunakan bentuk halus dari godaan ketika mereka mengatakan Macbeth bahwa ia ditakdirkan untuk menjadi raja. Dengan menempatkan pemikiran ini dalam benaknya, mereka efektif membimbingnya di jalan menuju kehancuran sendiri. Ini mengikuti pola godaan banyak yang percaya Iblis digunakan pada saat Shakespeare. Pertama, mereka berpendapat, pikiran diletakkan dalam pikiran manusia, maka orang dapat menikmati baik dalam pemikiran atau menolaknya. Macbeth memanjakan di dalamnya, sementara Banquo menolak. [28]

Menurut JA Bryant Jr, Macbeth juga memanfaatkan paralel Alkitab, terutama antara pembunuhan Raja Duncan dan pembunuhan Kristus:

Tidak peduli bagaimana seseorang melihat hal ini, baik sebagai sejarah atau sebagai tragedi, Macbeth adalah khas Kristen. Salah satu mungkin hanya menghitung sindiran Alkitab sebagai Richmond Noble telah dilakukan, orang dapat pergi lebih jauh dan mempelajari paralel antara cerita Shakespeare dan cerita-cerita Perjanjian Lama Saul dan Izebel sebagai Miss Jane H. Jack telah dilakukan, atau orang dapat memeriksa dengan WC Curry the degenerasi progresif dari Macbeth dari sudut pandang teologi Abad Pertengahan. [29] [30]
Takhayul dan “bermain Skotlandia”
Artikel utama: Permainan Skotlandia
Sementara hari ini banyak yang akan mengatakan bahwa setiap kemalangan sekitarnya produksi adalah kebetulan, aktor dan lainnya teater orang sering menganggap sial Macbeth menyebutkan nama sementara di dalam teater, dan kadang-kadang lihat secara tidak langsung, misalnya sebagai “bermain Skotlandia” , [31] atau “MacBee”, atau ketika mengacu pada karakter dan tidak bermain, “Mr dan Mrs M”, atau “Raja Skotlandia”.

Hal ini karena Shakespeare dikatakan telah menggunakan mantra penyihir nyata dalam teks-nya, konon kemarahan para penyihir dan menyebabkan mereka untuk mengutuk memainkan [32]. Jadi, untuk mengatakan nama bermain di dalam teater diyakini azab produksi untuk kegagalan, dan mungkin menyebabkan cedera fisik atau kematian untuk membuang anggota. Ada cerita dari kecelakaan, kemalangan dan bahkan kematian yang terjadi selama berjalan dari Macbeth (atau oleh aktor yang telah diucapkan nama). [31]

Salah satu kejadian tertentu yang dipinjamkan diri takhayul itu adalah Astor Place Riot. Karena penyebab kerusuhan ini didasarkan pada konflik lebih dari dua pertunjukan Macbeth, ini sering dianggap sebagai yang telah disebabkan oleh kutukan. [33]

Beberapa metode yang ada untuk menghilangkan kutukan, tergantung pada aktor. Satu, dihubungkan dengan Michael York, adalah untuk segera meninggalkan gedung stage dengan orang yang mengucapkan nama, berjalan sekitar tiga kali, meludah di atas bahu kiri, mengatakan kecabulan yang kemudian menunggu untuk diundang kembali ke dalam gedung. [34] Praktek yang terkait adalah untuk berputar sekitar tiga kali lebih cepat mungkin di tempat, kadang-kadang disertai dengan meludah di atas bahu mereka, dan mengucapkan sebuah kecabulan. Lain “ritual” yang populer adalah untuk meninggalkan ruangan, ketukan tiga kali, akan diundang dalam, kemudian mengutip sebuah garis dari Dusun. Namun lain adalah untuk membaca baris dari The Merchant of Venice, dianggap bermain beruntung. [35]

 Kinerja sejarah
[Sunting] hari Shakespeare
Selain yang disebutkan dalam dokumen Forman, tidak ada pertunjukan diketahui dengan pasti di era Shakespeare. Karena tema Skotlandia tersebut, bermain ini kadang-kadang dikatakan telah ditulis untuk, dan mungkin debut untuk, King James, namun tidak ada bukti eksternal mendukung hipotesis ini. keringkasan Permainan dan aspek-aspek tertentu dari stadium nya (misalnya, sebagian besar adegan malam hari dan jumlah yang luar biasa besar dari suara off-tahap) telah diambil sebagai menunjukkan bahwa teks sekarang masih ada diubah untuk ruangan produksi, mungkin di yang Blackfriars Teater, yang Pria Raja diperoleh pada tahun 1608. [36]

Restorasi dan abad ke-18
Dalam Restorasi, Sir William Davenant menghasilkan spektakuler “opera” adaptasi Macbeth, “dengan semua menyanyi dan menari di dalamnya” dan efek khusus seperti “flyings untuk para penyihir” (John Downes, Roscius Anglicanus, 1708). revisi Davenant juga meningkatkan peran Lady Macduff, membuat foil tematik ke Lady Macbeth. [37] Dalam sebuah entri April 19, 1667, dalam bukunya Diary, Samuel Pepys disebut Davenant’s Macbeth “salah satu bermain terbaik untuk panggung, dan berbagai menari dan musik, yang pernah saya lihat. “[37] Versi Davenant diadakan panggung sampai pertengahan abad berikutnya. Macbeths terkenal dari awal abad 18, seperti James Quin, digunakan versi ini.

Charles Macklin, tidak dinyatakan ingat sebagai Macbeth besar, dikenang untuk pertunjukan di Covent Garden pada tahun 1773 di mana kerusuhan pecah, terkait dengan persaingan Macklin dengan Garrick dan William Smith. Macklin dilakukan dalam pakaian Skotlandia, membalikkan kecenderungan sebelumnya untuk berpakaian Macbeth sebagai brigadir Inggris, ia juga dihapus pidato kematian Garrick dan dipangkas lebih lanjut peran Lady Macduff’s. Kinerja menerima ulasan umumnya hormat, meskipun George Steevens komentar pada ketidaktepatan Macklin (maka dalam delapan puluhan) untuk peran.

Setelah Garrick, yang Macbeth paling terkenal dari abad ke-18 adalah John Philip Kemble, ia melakukan peran yang paling terkenal dengan kakaknya, Sarah Siddons, Lady Macbeth yang secara luas dianggap sebagai tak tertandingi. Kemble melanjutkan tren terhadap kostum realistis dan dengan bahasa Shakespeare yang telah menandai produksi Macklin’s; Walter Scott laporan bahwa ia terus-menerus bereksperimen dengan gaun Skotlandia dari bermain. Respon untuk interpretasi Kemble itu terbagi, namun, Siddons suara bulat dipuji. Penampilannya dari adegan “sleepwalking” dalam tindakan kelima ini terutama dicatat; Leigh Hunt menyebutnya “agung.” Kinerja Kemble-Siddons adalah produksi berpengaruh secara luas pertama di mana kejahatan Lady Macbeth adalah disajikan sebagai lebih dalam dan lebih kuat daripada Macbeth’s. Itu juga yang pertama di mana hantu Banquo tidak tampak di panggung.

Kemble’s Macbeth melanda beberapa kritik terlalu santun dan sopan untuk teks Shakespeare. Penggantinya sebagai aktor terkemuka London, Edmund Kean, lebih sering dikritik karena kelebihan emosional, khususnya dalam tindakan kelima. Kean’s Macbeth tidak dikagumi; William Hazlitt, misalnya, mengeluh bahwa Kean’s Macbeth terlalu seperti miliknya Richard III. Seperti yang dia lakukan dalam peran lain, Kean dimanfaatkan athleticism sebagai komponen kunci dari keruntuhan mental Macbeth’s. Dia terbalik penekanan Kemble di Macbeth sebagai mulia, bukan menyajikan dia sebagai seorang politikus kejam yang runtuh di bawah beban rasa bersalah dan ketakutan. Kean, bagaimanapun, tidak melakukan apa pun untuk menghentikan kecenderungan terhadap pemborosan dalam adegan dan kostum.

Abad kesembilan belas
Para Macbeth dari aktor London berikutnya dominan, William Charles Macready, memancing tanggapan setidaknya variasinya seperti yang diberikan Kean. Macready debutnya dalam peran pada tahun 1820 di Covent Garden. Seperti Hazlitt dicatat, membaca Macready tentang karakter itu murni psikologis, para penyihir kehilangan semua kekuatan supranatural, dan kejatuhan Macbeth’s muncul murni dari konflik dalam karakter Macbeth’s. paling terkenal Macready’s Lady Macbeth adalah Helena Faucit, yang memulai debutnya muram dalam peran ketika masih di pertengahan 20-an-nya, tetapi yang kemudian mendapatkan pengakuan dalam peran untuk interpretasi itu, tidak seperti Siddons ‘, selaras dengan pengertian kontemporer kesopanan perempuan. Setelah Macready “pensiun” ke Amerika, ia terus tampil di peran, pada tahun 1849, ia terlibat dalam persaingan dengan aktor Amerika, Edwin Forrest, yang partisan mendesis Macready di Astor Place, yang menyebabkan apa yang biasa disebut Astor Place Riot.

Charles Kean dan istrinya sebagai Macbeth dan Lady Macbeth, dalam kostum yang bertujuan untuk secara historis akurat (1858).
Dua Macbeths paling menonjol dari abad pertengahan, Samuel Phelps dan Charles Kean, keduanya diterima dengan ambivalensi kritis dan keberhasilan populer. Keduanya kurang terkenal untuk interpretasi mereka atas karakter daripada untuk aspek-aspek tertentu dari pementasan. Pada Sadler’s Wells Theatre, Phelps membawa kembali hampir semua teks asli Shakespeare. Dia membawa kembali paruh pertama adegan Porter, yang telah diabaikan oleh direksi sejak Davenant, yang kedua tetap dipotong karena bahasa kasar nya. Dia meninggalkan musik ditambahkan, dan mengurangi penyihir untuk peran mereka dalam folio itu. Sama seperti nyata, ia kembali ke perlakuan folio kematian Macbeth’s [38] Tidak semua keputusan tersebut berhasil dalam konteks Victoria,. Dan Phelps bereksperimen dengan berbagai kombinasi Shakespeare dan Davenant dalam karyanya lebih dari produksi selusin antara 1844 dan 1861. paling sukses-Nya Lady Macbeth adalah Isabella Glyn, yang memerintah mengingatkan kehadiran beberapa kritik Siddons.

Fitur terhutang dari produksi Kean di Princess’s Theatre setelah 1850 adalah ketepatan mereka kostum. Kean mencapai kesuksesan yang terbesar dalam melodrama modern, dan ia secara luas dipandang sebagai tidak cukup menawan untuk peran Elizabeth terbesar. Audiens tidak keberatan, namun; satu 1853 produksi berlari selama dua puluh minggu. Agaknya bagian dari menarik adalah perhatian yang terkenal Kean untuk akurasi sejarah; dalam produksi, seperti Allardyce Nicoll catatan, “bahkan ilmu botani secara historis benar.”

Henry Irving’s usaha pertama pada peran, di Teater Lyceum, London pada 1875, gagal. Di bawah produksi Sidney Frances Bateman, dan dibintangi oleh Kate bersama Josephine Bateman, Irving mungkin telah dipengaruhi oleh kematian-Nya baru-baru ini manajer Hizkia Linthicum Bateman. Meskipun produksi pertunjukan berlangsung delapan puluh, Macbeth-nya dinilai lebih rendah daripada Hamlet-nya. esai berikutnya, berlawanan Ellen Terry di Lyceum pada tahun 1888, bernasib lebih baik, bermain untuk 150 pertunjukan [39] Pada desakan Herman Klein., Irving terlibat Arthur Sullivan untuk menulis suite musik insidental untuk bagian itu. [40] teman seperti Bram Stoker membela “psikologis” nya membaca, didasarkan pada anggapan bahwa Macbeth telah bermimpi membunuh Duncan sebelum memulai bermain. pengkritik-Nya, di antara mereka Henry James, menyesalkan perubahan kata sewenang-wenang-Nya (“akan” untuk “seharusnya” dalam pidato pada saat kematian Lady Macbeth’s) dan pendekatan “neurasthenic” dan “rewel” dengan karakter. [41]

 abad duapuluh sekarang
Barry Vincent Jackson melancarkan produksi modern-gaun berpengaruh dengan Repertory Birmingham pada tahun 1928, produksi mencapai London, bermain di Royal Court Theatre. Ia menerima tinjauan yang beragam; Eric Maturin dinilai merupakan Macbeth yang tidak memadai, meskipun Mary Merrall’s Lady vampish ditinjau baik. Meskipun Times menilai sebuah “kegagalan menyedihkan,” apakah produksi banyak untuk membalikkan kecenderungan untuk kelebihan indah dan antik yang mencapai puncaknya dengan Charles Kean.

Federal Teater Negro Proyek Unit produksi Macbeth, 1935
Di antara produksi yang paling dipublikasikan dari abad ke-20 dipasang oleh Federal Theater Proyek di Teater Lafayette di Harlem dari 14 April – 20 Juni 1936. Orson Welles, produksi tahap pertama, diarahkan Jack Carter dan Edna Thomas, dengan Kanada bermain Lee Banquo, dalam semua produksi African American. Menjadi dikenal sebagai Macbeth Voodoo, karena Welles mengatur bermain di Haiti pasca-kolonial. arah-Nya menekankan tontonan dan ketegangan: lusinan tentang “African” kenang drum paduan suara Davenant tentang penyihir. Welles kemudian diarahkan dan memainkan peran utama dalam film adaptasi 1948 dari bermain.

Laurence Olivier dimainkan Malcolm di produksi 1929 dan Macbeth pada 1937 di Old Vic Theatre di sebuah produksi yang melihat artistik direktur Vic Lilian Baylis meninggal malam sebelum dibuka. makeup Olivier begitu tebal dan bergaya untuk produksi yang yang Vivien Leigh seperti dikutip “Anda mendengar baris pertama Macbeth, maka riasan Larry datang pada, kemudian Banquo datang pada, kemudian Larry datang pada”. [42] Olivier kemudian membintangi dalam apa yang antara produksi abad ke-20 yang paling terkenal, dengan Glen Byam Shaw di Stratford-upon-Avon pada tahun 1955. Vivien Leigh dimainkan Lady Macbeth. Pemain pembantu, yang Harold Hobson direndahkan, termasuk banyak aktor yang pergi ke karier yang sukses Shakespeare: Ian Holm dimainkan Donalbain, Keith Michell adalah Macduff, dan Patrick Wymark tersebut Porter. Olivier adalah kunci keberhasilan. Intensitas kinerja, khususnya dalam percakapan dengan pembunuh dan dalam menghadapi hantu Banquo itu, tampaknya banyak tinjauan untuk mengingat Edmund Kean. Rencana untuk versi film goyah setelah kegagalan box-office dari Olivier Richard III. Kenneth Tynan menegaskan datar kinerja ini bahwa “tidak ada yang pernah berhasil sebagai Macbeth”-sampai Olivier.

Olivier co-bintang pada tahun 1937 itu produksi Old Vic Theatre, Judith Anderson, memiliki hubungan sama kemenangan dengan bermain. Dia bermain Lady Macbeth di Broadway berlawanan Maurice Evans dalam produksi disutradarai oleh Margaret Webster yang berlari untuk 131 pertunjukan pada tahun 1941, jangka terpanjang bermain dalam sejarah Broadway. Anderson dan Evans melakukan bermain di televisi dua kali, pada tahun 1954 dan 1962, dengan Maurice Evans memenangkan Emmy Award produksi tahun 1962 dan Anderson memenangkan penghargaan untuk kedua presentasi. Sebuah film adaptasi pada tahun 1971 berjudul Tragedi Macbeth ini disutradarai oleh Roman Polanski dan eksekutif-diproduksi oleh Hugh Hefner.

Sebuah adaptasi film Jepang, Tahta Darah (Kumonosu jo, 1957), Toshiro Mifune fitur di peran utama dan terletak di Jepang feodal. Itu diterima dengan baik dan, walaupun memiliki hampir tidak ada naskah drama, kritikus Harold Bloom menyebutnya “versi film Macbeth paling sukses.” [43]

Salah satu produksi abad ke-20 yang paling penting adalah bahwa dari Trevor Nunn untuk Royal Shakespeare Company pada tahun 1976. Nunn telah mengarahkan Nicol Williamson dan Helen Mirren dalam bermain dua tahun sebelumnya, tetapi produksi yang sebagian besar telah gagal untuk mengesankan. Pada tahun 1976, Nunn memproduksi bermain dengan satu set minimalis di The Place lain, hal ini, kecil hampir tahap putaran memusatkan perhatian pada dinamika psikologis karakter. Kedua McKellen Ian dalam peran judul dan Judi Dench sebagai Lady Macbeth menerima ulasan yang sangat menguntungkan. Dench memenangkan penghargaan 1977 SWET Aktris Terbaik untuk penampilannya dan pada tahun 2004, anggota RSC memilih penampilannya yang terbesar oleh seorang aktris dalam sejarah perusahaan.

Nunn produksi ditransfer ke London tahun 1977 dan kemudian difilmkan untuk televisi. Ini adalah untuk menaungi 1978 produksi Peter Hall dengan Albert Finney sebagai Macbeth dan Dorothy Tutin sebagai Lady Macbeth. Tapi Macbeth terakhir paling terkenal adalah dipentaskan di Old Vic pada tahun 1980. Peter O’Toole dan Frances Tomelty mengambil memimpin dalam produksi (oleh Bryan Forbes) yang umum diakui oleh Timotius Barat, direktur artistik dari teater, sebelum membuka malam, meskipun menjadi laris karena ketenaran nya. Sebagai kritikus Jack Tinker dicatat dalam Daily Mail: [44] “Kinerja tidak begitu banyak benar-benar buruk heroik menggelikan.”

Di atas panggung, Lady Macbeth dianggap salah satu yang lebih “komando dan menantang” peran dalam karya Shakespeare [45] aktris lain yang telah memainkan peran termasuk. Gwen Ffrangcon-Davies, Janet Suzman, Glenda Jackson, dan Jane Lapotaire.

Pada tahun 2001 film Skotlandia, PA dirilis. Tindakan dipindahkan ke tahun 1970 Pennsylvania dan berputar di sekitar Joe Macbeth dan istrinya kontrol Pat pengambilan kafe hamburger dari Norm Duncan. Film ini disutradarai oleh Billy Morrissette dan bintang-bintang James LeGros, Maura Tierney dan Christopher Walken.

Suatu pertunjukan dipentaskan di rumah Macbeth nyata tentang Moray, diproduksi oleh Teater Nasional Skotlandia, untuk mengambil tempat di Elgin Katedral. Profesional aktor, penari, musisi, anak-anak sekolah, dan peran masyarakat dari daerah Moray semua mengambil bagian dalam apa yang merupakan peristiwa penting dalam Tahun Highland Kebudayaan (2007).

Pada tahun yang sama ada persetujuan umum di kalangan kritikus bahwa produksi Rupert Goold untuk Chichester Festival 2007, dibintangi Patrick Stewart dan Kate Fleetwood, disaingi terkenal Trevor Nunn’s 1976 produksi RSC. Dan ketika ditransfer ke Gielgud Theatre di London, Charles Spencer meninjau untuk Daily Telegraph diucapkan dalamnya Macbeth terbaik yang pernah dilihatnya. [46] Pada Evening Standard Theatre Awards 2007 produksi baik memenangkan penghargaan Best Actor untuk Stewart, dan penghargaan Sutradara Terbaik untuk Goold [47] produksi yang sama dibuka di AS di Brooklyn Academy of Music pada tahun 2008, pindah ke Broadway (Lyceum Theatre) setelah menjalankan terjual habis.. Pada tahun 2009 Goold lagi diarahkan Stewart dan Fleetwood dalam versi film terkenal produksi mereka, yang ditayangkan sebagai bagian dari seri Kinerja Great PBS ‘pada tanggal 6 Oktober 2010.

Pada tahun 2003, teater Punchdrunk perusahaan Inggris digunakan Gedung Beaufoy di London, sebuah sekolah Victoria tua untuk tahap “Sleep No More”, kisah Macbeth dalam gaya thriller Hitchcock, menggunakan ulang musik dari soundtrack film klasik Hitchcock. [48] ​​Punchdrunk dipasang kembali produksi, dalam versi yang baru diperluas, di sebuah sekolah ditinggalkan di Brookline, Massachusetts pada bulan Oktober 2009 di asosiasi dengan Amerika Repertory Theatre. [49]

Pada tahun 2004, sutradara India Vishal Bharadwaj diarahkan adaptasi sendiri untuk Macbeth, berjudul Maqbool. Terletak di bawah Mumbai kontemporer, film ini dibintangi Irrfan Khan, Tabu, Pankaj Kapur, Om Puri, Naseeruddin Shah dan Piyush Mishra dalam peran menonjol. Film ini ketenaran sangat diakui dan dibawa ke sutradara Bharadwaj dan Irrfan Khan.

Sekuel oleh penulis lain
Pada tahun 2006, Harper Collins menerbitkan buku Macbeth dan Anak oleh penulis Jackie Australia Perancis. Pada tahun 2008, menerbitkan The Pegasus Buku Tragedi Macbeth Bagian II: The Seed of Banquo, sebuah drama oleh penulis Amerika dan dramawan Nuh Lukeman yang berusaha untuk mengambil tempat Macbeth asli tinggalkan, dan untuk menyelesaikan banyaknya ujung longgar.

2010 David Greig’s bermain Dunsinane mengambil kejatuhan Macbeth di Dunsinane sebagai titik awal, dengan pemerintahan Macbeth hanya-berakhir digambarkan sebagai panjang dan stabil berlawanan dengan Malcom

 

References

  • Coursen, Herbert (1997). Macbeth. Westport: Greenwood Press. ISBN 031330047X
  • Kliman, Bernice; Rick Santos (2005). Latin American Shakespeares. Madison: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press. ISBN 0838640648

Notes

  1. ^ “Macbeth, Act 1, Scene 3, Line 38.”. shakespeare-navigators.com. http://www.shakespeare-navigators.com/macbeth/T13.html#37
  2. ^ See On the Knocking at the Gate in Macbeth.
  3. ^ Macbeth, Act 4, Scene 1, Line 72.
  4. ^ Macbeth, Act 4, Scene 3, Line 204.
  5. ^ Macbeth, Act 5, Scene 5, Lines 17–28.
  6. ^ “Macbeth, Act 5, Scene 8, Lines 71–72″. shakespeare-navigators.com. http://www.shakespeare-navigators.com/macbeth/T58.html#71
  7. ^ Macbeth, Act 5, Scene 8, Lines 15–16.
  8. ^ Coursen (1997, 11–13)
  9. ^ Coursen (1997, 15–21)
  10. ^ Coursen (1997, 17)
  11. ^ a b Nagarajan, S. (1956). “A Note on Banquo”. Shakespeare Quarterly 7 (4): 371–376. JSTOR 2866356
  12. ^ Palmer, J. Foster (1886). “The Celt in Power: Tudor and Cromwell”. Transactions of the Royal Historical Society 3: 343–370. 
  13. ^ Banquo’s Stuart descent was disproven in the 19th century, when it was discovered that the Fitzalans actually descended from a Breton family.
  14. ^ Maskell, D. W. (1971). “The Transformation of History into Epic: The ‘Stuartide’ (1611) of Jean de Schelandre”. The Modern Language Review 66 (1): 53–65. JSTOR 3722467
  15. ^ Charles Boyce, Encyclopaedia of Shakespeare, New York, Roundtable Press, 1990, p. 350.
  16. ^ A.R. Braunmuller, ed. Macbeth (CUP, 1997), 5–8.
  17. ^ Braunmuller, Macbeth, pp. 2–3.
  18. ^ Kermode, Frank (1974). “Macbeth”. The Riverside Shakespeare. Boston: Houghton Mifflin. p. 1308. ISBN 0395044022.  For details on Garnet, see Zagorin, Perez (1996). “The Historical Significance of Lying and Dissimulation—Truth-Telling, Lying, and self-Deception”. Social Research 63 (3): 863–912. 
  19. ^ Anderson, Mark (2005). Shakespeare By Another Name. New York: Gotham Books. pp. 402–403. ISBN 1592401031
  20. ^ a b Kermode, Riverside Shakespeare, p. 1308.
  21. ^ Braunmuller (1997). Macbeth. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. pp. 5–8. ISBN 052129455X
  22. ^ If, that is, the Forman document is genuine; see the entry on Simon Forman for the question of the authenticity of the Book of Plays.
  23. ^ Brooke, Nicholas, ed (1998). The Tragedy of Macbeth. Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 57. ISBN 0192834177
  24. ^ Caroline Spurgeon, Shakespeare’s Imagery and What It Tells Us. In: John Wain (ed.): Shakespeare. Macbeth. A Casebook. Bristol: Western Printing Services (1968), pp. 168–177
  25. ^ Kliman, 14.
  26. ^ Perkins, William (1618). A Discourse of the Damned Art of Witchcraft, So Farre forth as it is revealed in the Scriptures, and manifest by true experience. London: Cantrell Legge, Printer to the Universitie of Cambridge. p. 53. http://digital.library.cornell.edu/cgi/t/text/text-idx?c=witch;idno=wit075. Retrieved 2009-06-24. 
  27. ^ Coddon, Karin S. “‘Unreal Mockery': Unreason and the Problem of Spectacle in Macbeth.” ELH. (Oct 1989) 56.3 pp. 485–501.
  28. ^ a b Frye, Roland Mushat. “Launching the Tragedy of Macbeth: Temptation, Deliberation, and Consent in Act I.” The Huntington Library Quarterly. (Jul 1987) 50.3 pp. 249–261.
  29. ^ “Full text of “Hippolyta S View Some Christian Aspects Of Shakespeare S Plays””. Archive.org. 1960-08-28. http://www.archive.org/stream/hippolytasviewso012763mbp/hippolytasviewso012763mbp_djvu.txt. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  30. ^ “Internet Archive: Free Download: Hippolyta S View Some Christian Aspects Of Shakespeare S Plays”. Archive.org. http://www.archive.org/details/hippolytasviewso012763mbp. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  31. ^ a b Robert Faires, “The curse of the play“, Austin Chronicle, 13 October 2000.
  32. ^ Tritsch, Dina (April 1984). “The Curse of ‘Macbeth’. Is there an evil spell on this ill-starred play?”. pretallez.com. http://pretallez.com/onstage/theatre/broadway/macbeth/macbeth_curse.html. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  33. ^ Dunning, Brian (September 7, 2010). “Toil and Trouble: The Curse of Macbeth”. skeptoid.com. http://skeptoid.com/episodes/4222. Retrieved 28 November 2010. 
  34. ^ Babylon 5 – The Scripts of J. Michael Straczynski, Volume 6 by J. Michael Straczynski, Synthetic Labs Publishing (2006).
  35. ^ Garber, Marjorie B. (2008). Profiling Shakespeare. Routledge. p. 77. ISBN 9780415964463
  36. ^ For the date of acquisition, see, for instance, Adams, J. Q., Shakespearean Playhouses, Boston: Houghton Mifflin, 1917: 224; Bentley, G. E. The Jacobean and Caroline Stage, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1941: 6.13–17; Chambers, E. K., The Elizabethan Stage, Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1923: 2.498. For Macbeth as an indoor play, see, for instance Bald, R.C., “Macbeth and the Short Plays,” Review of English Studies 4 (1928): 430; Shirley, Frances, Shakespeare’s Use of Off-stage Sounds, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press, 1963: 168–89.
  37. ^ a b Sylvan Barnet, “Macbeth on Stage and Screen,” in Macbeth, ed. Sylvan Barnet, A Signet Classic, 1998, p. 188.
  38. ^ Odell, George Clinton Densmore (1921). Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving. 274. 2. C. Scribner’s sons. http://books.google.com/books?id=vDRaAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  39. ^ “Henry Irving as Macbeth”, PeoplePlay UK website.
  40. ^ Information about Sullivan’s incidental music to Macbeth in 1888, The Gilbert and Sullivan Archive.
  41. ^ Odell, George Clinton Densmore (1921). Shakespeare from Betterton to Irving. 384. 2. C. Scribner’s sons. http://books.google.com/books?id=vDRaAAAAMAAJ. Retrieved 2009-08-17. 
  42. ^ Robert Tanitch, Olivier, Abbeville Press (1985).
  43. ^ Harold Bloom, Shakespeare: The Invention of the Human. New York: 1999. ISBN 1-57322-751-X, p. 519.
  44. ^ London Stage in the 20th Century by Robert Tanitch, Haus Publishing (2007) ISBN 978-1-904950-74-5.
  45. ^ Brown, Langdon. Shakespeare around the Globe: A Guide to Notable Postwar Revivals. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986: 355.
  46. ^ Spencer, Charles (September 27, 2007). “The best Macbeth I have seen”. The Daily Telegraph. http://www.telegraph.co.uk/culture/3668183/The-best-Macbeth-I-have-seen.html. Retrieved 2009-10-23. 
  47. ^ “Winning performances on the West End stage | News”. Thisislondon.co.uk. http://www.thisislondon.co.uk/standard/article-23423447-details/Winning+performances+on+the+West+End+stage/article.do. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  48. ^ “Punchdrunk website – Sleep No More”. punchdrunk. http://www.punchdrunk.org.uk/past/sleep.htm. Retrieved 2009-05-16. 
  49. ^ “ART website – Sleep No More”. ART. http://www.americanrepertorytheater.org/events/show/sleep-no-more. Retrieved 2009-12-20.
 
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011