Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Maritime Marine Historic Collections

The Maritime Marine Historic Collections

collection of maritime small arms and accessories.

a flintlock ‘coach’ pistol produced by J. Harding, a London manufacturer active between 1815 and 1840.

One pistol held by the collection—and yes, the story of its owner—brought home how close the Australian colonies and America were in the nineteenth century. It is a flintlock ‘coach’ pistol produced by J. Harding, a London manufacturer active between 1815 and 1840. For stylistic reasons I suspect this pistol was produced in the late 1830s. Harding manufactured similar pistols for use by Her Majesty’s Coach Service and three examples are held in the British Post Museum and Archive.

Flintlock Coach Pistol owned by Francis Deane (ANMM 00008294).

Flintlock Coach Pistol owned by Francis Deane

This particular pistol, however, was for civilian use, and is believed to have belonged to Francis Williams Deane, an American sailor who travelled between the gold-rushes in California and Victoria in the mid-nineteenth century. The museum holds a number of objects associated with Deane, including a daguerreotype portrait, and his naturalization, death and marriage certificates.

Daguerreotype of Francis Williams Deane (ANMM 00008367).Daguerreotype of Francis Williams Deane

Deane was born around 1820 in Raynham, Massachusetts. After travelling to the Californian rushes in 1848, Deane came to Sydney as master of the Bark Milwood. The following year, Deane returned to America to join the ‘forty-niners’ on the Yuma diggings in Arizona.

Diggings in Arizona and California were reputed to be fairly safe places for new immigrants, but around the time Deane arrived, a number of arrivals from the south had been causing trouble. One local miner explained there was an influx “of the worst element in the world, chiefly from Sydney and other Pacific Ocean ports… this matter seriously changed and endangered current affairs in California.” In response to a string of thefts in 1851, locals in San Francisco rose up and formed the famous “Committee of Vigilance Committee,” several hundred strong. In a flurry of activity, the Vigilantes hung 4 Australians, and drove several dozen others from California.

The execution of John Jenkins, “an ex-convict from Sydney”. Held at the Californian Military Museum.The execution of John Jenkins, “an ex-convict from Sydney”.

Deane was not Australian, but, perhaps due to his earlier Antipodean sojourn, is rumoured to have fled town “a pier jump ahead” of the Vigilantes. He departed (permanently) for Victoria, and it is tempting to wonder whether he armed himself with this pistol for protection.

Deane was naturalised in 1854 in Williamstown, Victoria, a place known for its strong maritime community. On his naturalization certificate he was described as “a master mariner who arrived from the US on board the Mary & Ellen and who intends to purchase land and establish himself in the said colony.”

Deane married a local, but never abandoned his ‘Yankee’ ways. According to a district historian, “Captain Deane called his home Yosemite… it was his habit to ride round the streets of Williamstown on a small skewbald pony, complete with Mexican saddle and savagely rowelled spurs. A heaving line [lasso] was coiled on the pommel like a lariat, and jammed on the head of the pilot would be his shiny stovepipe hat.” Deane died in 1898.

Deane’s single-shot, muzzle loading coach pistol seems small and awkward in comparison to a second pistol associated with both Americans and the Victorian gold rushes. It is a Colt Second Model Dragoon Revolver, which fired six shots and was known for its large bore and great stopping power. Colt revolvers were popular amongst civilians and soldiers because of their unique (at the time) double-action firing mechanism. Previous mechanisms required the shooter to manually ‘cock’ the pistol before firing the trigger. The ‘double action’ cocked and fired the pistol simply by pulling the trigger, which significantly increased the gun’s rate of fire.

Colt’s Patent Firearms Manufacturing Company was established in Hartford, Connecticut in 1847. It’s initial focus was on the production of revolvers for use in the Mexican-American War of 1846 – 1848, but it soon expanded its operations. Three models of the Colt revolver were manufactured, with the second model being made between 1850 and 1851. Approximately 2550 of these were produced, making them the least common of the three. This pistol’s serial number- 9253- indicates that it was manufactured in 1850.

Colt Second Model Dragoon Revolver (ANMM 00029485).Colt Second Model Dragoon Revolver

According to its previous owners, the pistol was “found in pieces under the dirt floor of a shed in Ballarat.” There is a chance- admittedly a small one- that it was used in the miner’s uprising at the Eureka Stockade in 1854.

The uprising began in response to the high price of mining licenses and the uncertain returns of digging. Some miners equated the purchase of licences with taxation, and argued that gold diggers were being subjected to taxation without representation.

In October 1854 the murder of a Scottish miner by a local hotelkeeper led to increasing civil unrest, which culminated with the formation of the Ballarat Reform League in November. Among other things, the League demanded the removal of the licence system, and manhood suffrage. On the 3rd of December, after a tense stand-off, miners and government troops clashed at a hill occupied by the League. A subsequent commission determined that 22 miners were killed, and at least twelve more were wounded. Other accounts put the figure as high as 27.

Troops and miners clash at the stockade. The miner in the blue trousers appears to be wielding a Colt. State Library of NSW SSV2B/Ball/7.Troops and miners clash at the stockade. The miner in the blue trousers appears to be wielding a Colt.

Because of the Reform League’s demand for universal male suffrage, the uprising at Eureka has sometimes been described as the “birthplace of Australian democracy.” This Australian claim makes it is easy to forget what an international endeavour the uprising was. The thirteen miners were charged with treason in the uprising’s aftermath included Irishmen. Scots, an Italian, and a Jamaican. The first of the thirteen tried, John Joseph, was an African American who hade come from New York. As with the other twelve, Joseph was acquitted. His defence, however, held a unique racial element: the defence argued it was impossible for “a simple nigger” to oppose Her Majesty the Queen.

Joseph was not the only American involved. The prominent American businessman George Francis Train, who was based in Melbourne, had imported a consignment of Colt revolvers to the colony. They sold well, and when tensions arose in Ballarat, miners sent a request for Train to forward a further stock of Colts, on loan, to the diggings. Train refused to help, and, ever the entrepreneur, proceeded to lease six wagons to transport government troops and supplies to Ballarat.

Despite Train’s tardiness, a group of up to 200 American miners based in Ballarat organised themselves into the “Independent California Rangers Revolver Brigade.” Rafaello Carboni, an Italian who described events at the stockade, noted members of the Brigade were armed “with a Colt’s revolver of large size, and many had a Mexican knife at the hip.” The Brigade missed the skirmish, having left the stockade the previous evening in an attempt to intercept government reinforcements (incorrectly) rumoured to be en-route to Ballarat.


 the lives and careers of the seamen who owned used the objects have  been examining. Scattered amongst drier details of calibres, dates, and manufacturers are stories, details of past lives.
One interesting example is found in the service records of Lieutenant Commander Thomas Edward Mullins. Mullins served as a Sick Berth Steward on the HMAS Sydney (I) when it engaged with the German light cruiser SMS Emden in November 1914. During and after this battle, Australia’s first as a federated nation, Mullins “constantly attended [the] sick and wounded uninterruptedly for 6 days, including terribly severe cases which were received from SMS Emden.” As a result of his actions, Mullins was awarded the Distinguished Service Medal, one of only 17 issued to Australians during the First World War.

Crew From the HMAS Sydney celebrating on the Cocos Islands. Australian War Memorial P00565.018.Crew From the HMAS Sydney celebrating on the Cocos Islands. Australian War .

Eight years later, in July 1922, Mullins was promoted to the rank of Warrant Wardmaster. It is likely that a sword held by the museum, engraved with the text “THOMAS E MULLINS” and “PRESENTED BY S. B. STAFF / ROYAL AUSTRALIAN NAVY / 1922″ commemorates his promotion. Eventually, in 1957, Mullins achieved the rank of Wardmaster Lieutenant Commander on the retired list.

Naval officer's sword presented to Thomas Mullins on his promotion in 1922. ANMM 00031676Naval officer’s sword presented to Thomas Mullins on his promotion in 1922.

Known to me as Lieutenant Commander Mullins D. S. M. through the museums records, I had imagined him as being a stately sort of naval gentleman. It was something of a surprise, when, browsing through his service records, I found that, when Mullins first enlisted in 1912 he was described as having “coiled snakes [tattooed] round neck—various figures and floral designs on arms R + L, butterfly on left leg, [butterfly on] each shoulder”

Thomas Edward Mullin's tattoos, as described on his service record, held at the National Archives of Australia.Thomas Edward Mullin’s tattoos,

The service records of the sailors I have encountered reveal that many would have crossed paths during their duties. Mullins is one of several sidearm-owners who served on or were associated with the pride of the Victorian Colonial Navy, the HMVS (later HMAS) Cerberus. The Cerberus was launched in 1868 at the Chatham Dockyards in Kent before making an arduous journey to the Colony. She was the first entirely steam-powered ship in the British Navy, inspired by ironclad riverboats such as the USS Monitor, which had seen service in the American Civil War of 1861 – 65.

Wood engraving of the HMVS Cerberus in dock, 1874. From the State Library of Victoria, IAN18/05/74/73.Wood engraving of the HMVS Cerberus in dock, 1874. The Cerberus remained under Victorian control until 1901, when the Australian Commonwealth Government assumed control of defence, and she was absorbed into the Royal Australian Navy after its formation in 1911. By this stage she was dilapidated and out of date. Fifteen years later, having been sold as scrap to a private firm, she was scuttled in Half Moon Bay, Victoria, where she can still be seen. A group of enthusiasts, the Friends of the Cerberus, have campaigned for several years to have the ship preserved.



A bayonet  believed to have been used aboard the Cerberus by James Conder, a seaman who had a lengthy career on several significant Victorian and Australian vessels, including the HMAS Katoomba, HMAS Challenger, and HMAS Psyche. It is an unusual sword-style bayonet which would have fitted an 1855 model Lancaster (Sappers & Miners) Carbine, a rifle popular with the Volunteer and Rifle Club movement in the nineteenth. There is some evidence that Victorian volunteer defence forces were issued with these guns, and one firearms authority considers it likely that this (by then) obsolete small arm was carried on the Cerberus in the 1890s.

Bayonet for Lancaster (Sappers & Miners) Carbine, ANMM 00005671.Bayonet for Lancaster (Sappers & Miners) Carbine,

A final object with a Cerberus association is a double-barrelled flintlock pistol. It is yet another souvenir from the Boxer Uprising, this time believed to have collected by Walter Underwood. Described as a 5 foot 9 inch tall Protestant with black hair and hazel eyes, Underwood was a bandmaster with the Williamstown Division of the Victorian Naval Brigade. He served upon the Cerberus until his retirement in 1922. Underwood is pictured in a group portrait of the Victorian Navy Band photographed in 1898, holding his baton and leaning against the bass drum.

The HMVS Cerberus band in 1898. Underwood is moustached, leaning on the bass drum near the centre-right. Australian War Memorial 305343.The HMVS Cerberus band in 1898. Underwood is moustached, leaning on the bass drum near the centre-right. Australian War Memorial 305343.

The pistol was produced by the firm Kynock & Co., which is known to have operated a plant in Warwickshire producing percussion sporting guns in the 1860s. This particular example is marked “Kynock & Co, Birmingham,” and stamped “TOWER 1867,” which roughly correlates with the estimated date of the pistol’s manufacture. It is further stamped “W U C E F 1901,” which I’m taking to stand for “Walter Underwood, China Expeditionary Force.” The question remains whether Underwood acquired the pistol from locals in China, or whether he obtained it from a British soldier, or perhaps even from the stores of the Naval Brigade, another antiquated relic like Conder’s bayonet. While in China, Underwood wrote letters home, and six of them are held by the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. Next time I head in that direction, I’ll be sure to stop by and take a look—they might shed some light on the mystery.

Double-barrelled flintlock pistol, marked "WUCEF", ANMM 00033858.Double-barrelled flintlock pistol, marked “WUCEF”, Giant guitar boat 

… the custom-made guitar boat SS Maton.

Josh Pyke and his guitar boat at the museumJosh Pyke and his guitar boat

The extraordinary vessel which starred in the music video for ARIA-award winning singer/songwriter Josh Pyke’s hit single ‘Make You Happy’ was on display at the museum while it was being auctioned off for charity.

The SS Maton – named for the brand of guitar Josh Pyke plays – made headlines late last year when Pyke cruised around Sydney Harbour in it for the music video. During filming, images of the boat spread rapidly across the world on the internet. The video clip even became the #1 featured video on YouTube world wide.

The boat was custom-designed and measures an amazing 6.1 metres from the top of the neck to the base, and is just over 2 metres wide. In all it took a week to build at a workshop at Fox Professional Studios in Moore Park. Made from plywood, polystyrene and steel it weighs around 250 kgs. It also features a small outboard motor hooked over the back to propel it across the water and even a giant plectrum (guitar pick)!

The choice of a guitar boat for his music video is not such a strange one for Pyke … he admits to a strong seafaring influence in his song writing.

‘I’ve always been interested in maritime history… my ancestors were all whalers and Navy men, so I feel some kind of pull for that kind of life and history,” Pyke says.

And it’s not such a surprise to see Pyke and the guitar boat at the museum… the song ‘Make You Happy’ is from Josh’s new album ‘Chimney’s Afire’ which has a distinct nautical feel.

“Ever since I was a kid reading adventure books, especially Huckleberry Finn, I’ve always had the desire to jump on a raft and disappear down a river…I relate solid, seafaring adventuring tales as the romantic, alternate universe that I’d want to live in if I was ever to throw it all away and disappear,” he said.

It’s the language of the whaling era which seems to have struck such a chord with Josh and can be heard flowing through the album. ‘Chimney’s Afire’ is the cry whalers of yesteryear made when they harpooned a whale and a plume of blood and water would spurt from its blowhole.

“It’s a horrifying, brutal image, but the actual language is evocative and quite amazing,” says Pyke. Other songs on the album include ‘The Lighthouse Song’, ‘Where Two Oceans Meet’ and the title track ‘Chimney’s Afire’.

The guitar boat  The eBay auction was a success with a final winning bid of $7,100..

Josh Pyke on board the guitar boat

Josh Pyke on board the guitar boat

the collection of naval and civilian small-arms.

 many of the small-arms , and in the future will be performing a much needed update to the catalogue information  around a dozen swords, two dozen guns, and a handful of assorted small-arms, including pikes, dirks, and a walking-stick rumoured (but not proven) to conceal a rapier.

The significance of these weapons often lies in the people or the events with which they are associated. Rather than simply being objects d’ art or examples of technological innovation, these weapons can tell us something of the lives lived and values held by the people who owned and used them. For example, many of the naval swords feature elaborate etchings on the blade, hinting at imperial loyalties, significant events, or personal achievements. We can track how these symbols changed over time, gaining an insight into the way in which social attitudes have evolved through the decades.

Other items give us an impression of everyday events. One of my personal favourites is a whaler’s “bowie” knife, believed to be made during the nineteenth century. Someone, perhaps the owner, has crudely incised a three-masted clipper on one side of the blade, and a whaling scene on the other. In this image, four whalers—three rowing and a fourth standing with a whaling spear—face off a rampant whale in a choppy sea.

Whaler's Bowie Knife ANMM Registry Number 00030339Whaler’s Bowie Knife  

The object that I am currently investigating is a bolt action rifle, previously described in the museum’s catalogue as an “Austrian Model 1888 Rifle,” thought to have been acquired during the Boxer Uprising in China.

The Boxer Uprising, often called the Boxer Rebellion, began when a Chinese sect known as the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists started agitating against Western Colonial influences in the late nineteenth century. In 1900, the Society, having gained popular support in northern China, attacked Western outposts in Beijing and Tianjin. In response, European and Japanese forces combined to form the Eight Nation Alliance. They brought 20,000 troops to China and suppressed the uprising in September 1901. Australia provided a contingent of several hundred troops from its colonial navies, primarily from the New South Wales and Victorian Naval Brigades. No Australians were killed in the fighting, but six troops were lost to illness. You can read more about the Boxer Uprising at Wikipedia, at The Australian War Memorial, or search Google Books. The Internet Modern History Sourcebook also contains a number of interesting contemporary resources.

The rifle I am researching is one of several objects held by the Museum that are associated with the Boxer Uprising or with the Colonial Naval Brigades.

A midshipman’s dirk on display in the Navy Gallery was used by the New South Wales Brigade, its unit insignia proudly etched on the blade’s surface.

Midshipman's Dirk, ANMM Registration Number 00031675Midshipman’s Dirk,

A Martini-Henry rifle, the type used by the Naval Brigades, is also on display in the Naval Gallery. It features an elaborately carved dragon motif on its stock, suggestive of its Boxer links. Out of view are four Chinese characters and the text “J. C. Jamieson.”

Martini-Henry Rifle, ANMM Registration Number 00033857Martini-Henry Rifle,

Jamieson was a member of the Royal Victorian Naval Brigade and is known to have travelled to China as part of the Australian contingent. He is believed to be pictured in a photograph held by the Australian War Memorial which was taken shortly before the Victorian Brigade left for China.
// Victorian Naval Brigade prepares to leave for war.

A final item on display in the Naval Gallery is an officer’s sword which belonged to Lieutenant William Staunton Spain. Spain travelled to China as part of the New South Wales Naval Brigade. The sword was dispensed by the London cutlers Firmin and Sons, and its hilt features an elaborate fouled anchor motif which was common on British naval swords.

NSW Naval Brigade Officer's Sword, ANMM Registration Number 00032413NSW Naval Brigade Officer’s Sword


Spain was photographed leading a group of Naval Brigade troopers mounted on ponies in China during 1901.

// Spain and his troopers.

Unlike these objects, the rifle which I am currently investigating  is not associated with a particular person. It is simply described as being a “souvenir from Boxer Rebellion” in the Museum’s database. (Sadly, it didn’t make it into our current exhibition on souvenirs!) It is listed as an “Austrian Model 1888 Full Length Rifle.” The rifle has no distinct maker’s marks, but features what is possibly a manufacturer’s number, “51006.”

Austria-Hungary were a member of the Eight Nation Alliance, and at first I was inclined to assume the rifle was a version of the Gewehr Model 1888 Commission Rifle. This model and its variants were produced in Germany, Austria-Hungary, and a number of other European countries from 1888 until the early 1920s, although they were superseded by a number of later designs, and made officially obsolete with the introduction of the Model 1898 Mauser.

On closer inspection  was obviously wrong. The Gewehr 1888 features a distinctive protruding magazine which is integrated with the trigger guard. The  rifle has a protruding magazine, but this is separated from the trigger guard.

// Gewehr Model 1888 Commission Rifle. Image kindly provided by Euroarms

The museum's rifle. ANMM Registration Number 00031681rifle. ANMM Registration Number 00031681

In many ways, the  rifle is similar to the 1898 Mauser– which replaced the Gewehr 1888– except that the Model ’98 did not have a protruding magazine at all. This suggests that the rifle  might be a transitional model, possibly a model 1890/91 or 1896 Mauser rifle. we will  awaiting a number of rifle identification books from libraries which might shed some light on the rifle’s origins.

One possibility I am not ruling out  is that the rifle is a Chinese “bootleg” Mauser. A number of Chinese foundries produced copies of Western-style rifles in the nineteenth century, sometimes going as far as replicating European maker’s marks and serial numbers. If this is the case, then this enigmatic rifle might signify the modernisation of China and the adoption of Western values which the Society of Righteous and Harmonious Fists fought hard to resist.


The Indonesia Historic Collections 1596-1700

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1596-1700

Portuguese forts and posts in Indonesia, 16th and 17th centuries

The Portuguese Estado da India was governed from Goa, on the Indian west coast. It consisted primarily of a sprinkling of forts and trading posts, stretching eventually from Mozambique to Japan, and its power lay not in trade but in tax collection. Although the Portuguese crown declared a royal monopoly over the trade of spices from Indonesia to Europe, the Portuguese authorities in Asia were unable and unwilling to enforce it. Instead, in exchange for payment, they issued cartaze, or certificates of safe conduct, to trading vessels within their sphere of influence and connived at smuggling on a massive scale by Portuguese returning to Europe. The Catholic missionary Francis Xavier commented that the learning of the Portuguese in Maluku was limited to the Latin verb rapio (‘I seize’), but that they had invented many new and imaginative ways to use it. Nonetheless, partly because of the widespread settlement of Portuguese men in the archipelago, partly because of Portugal’s control of major trading points, the Portuguese language spread widely as a second lingua franca alongside Malay. Portuguese-speaking communities survived in the region until the 19th century and many Portuguese words entered Malay itself.

The Portuguese initially had an advantage in firearms and ship design, but both advantages quickly diminished as Southeast Asians learnt European techniques and individual Portuguese took service with Southeast Asian rulers. Portugal, moreover, was a small country whose army and navy were thinly spread over a vast region, and their posts and forts were vulnerable to local emerging powers. Their efforts to control the trade routes were under constant challenge from states such as Aceh, Johor, Banten and Jambi.

In 1574, the people of Ternate expelled portugeus , as Japan did in 1637.

The greatest threat to Portugal, however, came from the Dutch and English trading companies. In 1601 a Dutch fleet drove the Portuguese from Banten, and in 1605 the Dutch seized the Portuguese forts in Maluku. Solor fell to the Dutch in 1613, and Melaka in 1641. Portuguese influence was then limited to Larantuka, which remained in their hands until 1859.

In 1587, following the union of Spain and Portugal in 1580, the Spanish king allocated the royal monopoly in the Indies to Fuggers and Welsers, the Habsburg bankers of Augsburg, who formed the Companhia Portugueza das Indias Orientaes, but this change came too late to deflect the military and commercial challenge presented by the Dutch



 merchants had set up an expedition to be sent to the Indonesia archipelago. Under the command of Cornelis de Houtman

Cornelis de Houtman
Cornelis de Houtman , brother of Frederick de Houtman, was a Dutch explorer who discovered a new sea route from Europe to Indonesia and managed to begin the Dutch spice trade…

, the expedition arrived in Banten in 1596. The goods it brought back to the Netherlands only produced a modest profit to the merchants who had set up the expedition


Jakarta , is the capital and largest city of Indonesia. Located on the northwest coast of Java,

. During the Dutch colonial era, it was called Batavia. In earlier forms it can be found as Djakarta

Dutch colonial era


(the location of Jayakarta), Prince Jayawikarta, was also very involved in the history of Jakarta. In 1596, many Dutch ships arrived in Jayakarta with the intention of trading spices, more or less the same as that of the Portuguese.


This island was conquered in 1598 by the Hollanders. It was called Mauritius after the then Stadtholder Maurits of Nassau. The trip was interrupted for the last time over here. As much fresh water as possible was taken in and furthermore some fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. Damage caused by the storm was repaired over here. After that the journey continued. For several weeks after that, the persons on board didn’t see anything else than sky and water. Especially a lot of water. Sometimes towering waves. Like tiny nutshells the ships of the convoy floated on the immeasurable ocean. In the middle of the day it was often unbearably hot, the pitch ran out the splits. 



:  One of the world’s first corporate logos, the VOC symbol. This was used widely on coinage, flags and public buildings in Dutch Asia.



Unlike the Estado da India, the Dutch East India Company (VOC, Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie) was a joint stock company, formed in 1602 by merging several smaller companies founded in the 1590s to trade with the Indies. The joint stock company was a relatively new commercial form which became one of the most important vehicles for the development of modern capitalism. Its essence was that investors purchased shares in a joint operation which they themselves did not necessarily operate. In this way it became possible not only to produce a very large operating capital at short notice but to separate the functions of providing capital and managing the operation.


The VOC also brought to its operations a charter from the Dutch government which gave it the right to administer and to make war and peace in the regions east of the Cape of Good Hope. Although it was technically a private company, its owners were from the same merchant class that dominated the Dutch Republic, and it could thus draw on the protection of the Dutch state.


Newly free from Spanish rule themselves, the Dutch rejected in principle the Treaty of Saragossa and its partition of the Indies, arguing instead the principle of freedom of the seas.


With a large fleet of ships willing to break the Portuguese monopoly, they were initially welcomed in Southeast Asia. By making exclusive commercial agreements with indigenous rulers, and by direct military action against their European rivals and local challengers, they sought to create an exclusive sphere of influence in the Indies. The inter-European contest of the 17th century involved only tiny patches of territory and relatively small numbers of indigenous people, but it determined that the Indonesian archipelago was to be the sphere of influence of the VOC. By the end of the century, the Dutch were a significant power only in parts of Java and Maluku, but their rivals were gone or confined to insignificant peripheral regions of the archipelago – Spain to the Philippines, Portugal to Timor and a few adjacent islands, and the British to the west coast of Sumatra.

 Lord of the Kingdom of Tanjungpura Panembahan Giri Kusuma embraced Islam and changed the name of the Hindu kingdom became the Kingdom of Islam Sukadana Tanjungpura-Matan.

 Sultan Banjar IV Mustainbillah be until the year 1641. He received tribute from Sambas, Trunk Lawai, Sukadana and Paser.
 1596: Dutch traders seized two junks from Banjarmasin the pepper trade in the Sultanate of Banten.
 1598: Abdul Akbar became the Sultan of Brunei Jalilul X until the year 1659. Oliver van Noord, Dutch traders came to Brunei. [14]
 1599: Sultan of Brunei held a nexus with the Spanish in Manila.
 1600: Prince Anom Jaya Kesuma became ruler of Hedgehog.
 1600: Brother Pencin title of Great Prince who reigned from 1600 to 1643 was the first ruler who embraced Islam Sintang. This prince sent a messenger to pass the river Banjarmasin Katingan to copy the Scriptures of the Qur’an.
 1604: On March 13, 1604, King Sukadana Panembahan Giri Kusuma binding agreement with the Dutch (VOC) [15], which infuriated the Sultan of Mataram.

On February 14, 1606, an expedition led by Koopman Gillis Michaelszoon Dutch first arrived in Banjarmasin, because of bad temperament captain was killed in a riot. [16]

 Aji Mas Anom Paser Indra became the ruler until the year 1644.
 1607: June 7, 1607 expedition led by Koopman VOC Michaelszoon Gillis arrived in Banjarmasin, all the crew were killed in retaliation for the seizure of Banjar junks in Banten in 1596. [17]

 On October 1, VOC conduct cooperation pact with the Prince Duke of Sambas. [18]
 1610: Aji violated Kutai VII became King until the year 1635.

  the first Dutch governor-general, 1609–1614,


 King maimed became ruler based in Pekana porcupine, Authorship.

In May 1612, fire destroyed the Dutch Company Banjar Banjar Old Empire’s capital, so capital was moved to Martapura. British trade partnership, chaired by Sir Henry Middleton coming to Brunei.

Amiril Pengiran Lion King Tidung Laoet served until 1650.

 Prince Dipati Anta-founded the Duchy Kotawaringin Kasuma, fractional area of ​​the Sultanate of Banjar most western border with the Kingdom of Tanjungpura.

The English ships that remained in the Archipelago seemed destined to fall to the Dutch, who captured two of them in July, 1619,

 Admiral Dale, stricken with fever, and fearful lest the Bantamese might sacrifice the English to make terms with the Dutch, had shipped off our goods and factors from Bantam in the summer of 1619, sought an asylum for them on the east coast of India, and there died. The English ships that remained in the Archipelago seemed destined to fall to the Dutch, who captured two of them in July, 1619,and four others off Sumatra in October 1619 . Our alliance with the Prince of Bantam, to capture the half-built Dutch fort at Jacatra (Batavia) in the beginning of that year, furnished Coen with a cause of war against us, and placed him in the right from the point of view of European diplomacy.

The arrival, early in 1620,

of the treaty of July, 1619,  snatched the prey from between his hands. “The English ought to be very thankful to you,” he wrote to the Dutch directors in Holland, “for they had worked themselves very nicely out of the Indies, and you have placed them again in the midst.”

If, however, he had to obey the treaty, he could use it for his own ends


The English would have liked. to resettle at Bantam, but Coen resolved not only to destroy the trade of that port but to force the English to live under his own eye at Batavia. After some negotiation the joint Council of Defence, established in Java by the treaty, agreed to blockade Bantam in 1620,and

In Batavia Coen made our position so miserable that in July, 1620, we had to keep a ship there as a floating warehouse, “having no place on shore.” In 1621 the English almost gave up Java in despair, and part of them again sought a refuge on the Indian coast. In August, 1622, Thomas Drockedon, our agent at Batavia, asked leave from the directors in London to return home, as he could “live no longer under the insolence of the Dutch.”

His situation was a mournful one. So far from restitution having been made to us under the treaty of 1619, we were compelled to supply “incredible sums” for fortifications which the Dutch did or did not build, but which could only be a menace to ourselves. We had been dragged into a war with Bantam, from which we could derive no benefit, and which shut us out from the chief pepper mart. The civil and criminal jurisdiction was exercised by the Dutch to publicly insult us. We were placed on a level with “the blacks,” whose bare affirmation was taken against us. We might not “kill a wild hog or gather a cocoanut in the wood without leave.” The Dutch had flogged William Clarke, steward of the English factory, in the market-place, “cruelly cutting his flesh, and then washed him with salt and vinegar, and laid him again in irons.” The English watch had been imprisoned for eight days and threatened with torture, to force them to make false confessions against the president of our council. What seemed to the Dutch their lawful jurisdiction, the English regarded as oppression


 Sultanate of Mataram send Tumenggung Bahurekso, Regent of Kendal Sukadana attack under control Bunku Princess / Queen Mas Jaintan (Mustika Giri’s mother), this attack will attack worrying Banjar Sultanate of Mataram. Giri mustaka (Raden Saradewa) son-king Prince Dipati Kotawaringin Kasuma Anta-crowned king-Matan Sukadana Syafiuddin title of Sultan Muhammad (1622-1659). He was the first king of the title of Sultan, the previous king Panembahan Sukadana title only.


For another alleged plot twelve natives had been condemned to be quartered, and the rest of the accused to perpetual slavery in chains. The torture failed to elicit anything against the English; but if it could have given the Dutch “any advantage against us,” we should have had no mercy. “Wherefore,” wrote in 1622 our President Furgand and council at Batavia,

“we earnestly desire speedily to be released from this bondage.” A similar attempt was made in the island of Pularoon to extort confessions against the English by cruel torments of the natives. Thus was rehearsed alike in the capital of Dutch India and in the distant Nutmeg Isles, that tragedy of torture which was so soon to be enacted at Amboyna. In the still remoter seas, as we learn from a letter of Richard Cocks, dated Nagasaki, 10th March, 1620, the Hollanders, with seven ships at Japan, had, “with sound of trumpet,” “proclaimed there open war against the English, as their mortal enemies.”

The Clove and Nutmeg Isles, including among them Amboyna, Banda, and Pularoon, lay, it will be remembered, at the south-eastern end of the Spice Archipelago. The Dutch claimed the sovereignty over them, by the conquest of Amboyna from the Portuguese in 1605, and in virtue of many treaties. The English had a set of counter-claims based on the free surrender of Pularoon to us in 1616, of Lantor or Great Banda in 1620, and on compacts with other chiefs. We had also an agency at Amboyna under the Dutch-English treaty of 1619. The Dutch with an overwhelming force expelled us from Lantor and Pularoon in 1621–1622. Our gallant agent, Nathaniel Courthorpe, who, in “much want and misery,” held Pularoon from 1616 to 1620, sometimes with but thirty-eight men to resist the “force and tyranny” of the Hollanders, had been mortally wounded in a sea-fight, and threw himself overboard rather than see his ship strike her flag.


Herman van Speult, governor of the neighbouring island of Amboyna, was regarded at headquarters as “too scrupulous” in his fiscal administration. In January, 1623, the Governor-General Coen, when departing for Europe, enjoined strict justice, and mentioned Amboyna as a place where no English encroachments were to be allowed. “Trust them not,” he said,

any more than open enemies … not weighing too scrupulously what may fall out.” His farewell instructions merely reiterated the principles on which he had always insisted. “Trust the English no more than a public enemy ought to be trusted,” he wrote two months previously to Banda, the agency nearest Amboyna. This policy of suspicion, and of “not weighing too scrupulously what may fall out,” was now to be enforced with a stupid violence which the great governor-general might perhaps have anticipated, but which he would have been the first to condemn.

By the beginning of 1623 the Dutch found themselves completely masters of the Clove and Nutmeg Archipelago. At the principal clove island, Amboyna, they had, according to the English statement founded upon depositions on oath, a fortress garrisoned by two hundred Dutch soldiers, with three or four hundred native troops, including some thirty Japanese, and further protected by eight vessels in the roadstead. The English numbered eighteen men, scattered between five small factories on different islands, very badly off, with a few slaves, “just six and all boys.” In their house at Amboyna only three swords, two muskets,

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and half a pound of powder were found. The nearest English support was the Banda agency, at a distance across the sea, and containing but nine of their countrymen. English ships seldom came to Amboyna, and not one was then near. Our president in council at Java had in fact resolved to withdraw the petty English factories at Amboyna and throughout the Clove and Nutmeg

The fortress at Amboyna

Archipelago. He had even arranged with the Dutch governor-general for their transport to Batavia in Holland ships. In February, 1623, orders to this effect were on their way from our president in Batavia to Amboyna.

They arrived too. late. On the evening of February 10, 1623, a Japanese soldier of the Dutch garrison had some talk with the sentries about the number of the troops and the times of changing the watch. When questioned by the Governor Van Speult next day, February 11th, he explained that he had merely chatted with the soldiers “for his own amusement.” Indeed,

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the steward of the Dutch factory afterwards declared that “it was an usual speech amongst soldiers to enquire one of another how strong the watch might be, that they might know how many hours they might stand sentinel.”

Van Speult was, however, on the lookout for conspiracy, and perhaps anxious to redeem his reputation from the charge of slackness at headquarters. In the previous summer he had written to the Governor-General Coen about the English at Amboyna: “We hope to direct things according to your orders that our sovereignty shall not be diminished or injured in any way by their encroachments, and if we may hear of any conspiracies of theirs against the sovereignty, we shall with your sanction do justice to them, suitably, unhesitatingly, and immediately.” In October, 1622, Coen gave this sanction. In February, 1623, the opportunity arrived. Van Speult put the Japanese soldier to the torture, and after he had “endured pretty long,” wrung from him an accusation against the English. His statement was signed by the unhappy man on the day of his torment, in direct contravention of the Dutch law that one who had confessed under torture should be re-heard to confirm it not sooner than twenty-four hours afterwards, “ne durare adhuc tormentorum metus videatur.”

Eight or nine other Japanese soldiers in the service of the Dutch, whose names he had mentioned, denied the plot, but were tortured on that and the following day, until a complete story of treason was evolved.

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“Wailing and weeping by reason of their extreme tortures with burning, they were carried by slaves to prison, for it was not possible of themselves to go on their feet.” Such was the statement made by the steward of the Dutch factory regarding the affair

Decoration from an Indian sword

 The End of the Struggle:

The Tragedy of Amboyna


Events were now hastening to a catastrophe. The Dutch governor-general, Coen, while resolved to make the Archipelago an island empire for Holland, was too sagacious to imperil his plans by putting his nation openly in the wrong toward a great European power. He trusted to the treaty of 1619 itself to afford causes of quarrel, which would enable him to carry out the instructions given to the first Dutch governor-general, 1609–1614, and steadily reiterated ever since, that “the commerce of the Moluccas, Amboyna, and Banda should belong to the Company, and that no other nation in the world should possess the least part.” But Coen’s far-reaching policy was beyond the grasp of his bluff ship-captains, with their flaming broadsides, or of the angry isolated Dutch agents, a thousand miles apart, with their forts and prison cells.

Coen himself believed that the treaty alone stood in the way of his triumph over the English. Our Admiral Dale, stricken with fever, and fearful lest the Bantamese might sacrifice the English to make terms with the Dutch, had shipped off our goods and factors from Bantam in the summer of 1619, sought an asylum for them on the east coast of India, and there died. The English ships that remained in the Archipelago seemed destined to fall to the Dutch, who captured two of them in July, 1619,and four others off Sumatra in October 1619 . Our alliance with the Prince of Bantam, to capture the half-built Dutch fort at Jacatra (Batavia) in the beginning of that year, furnished Coen with a cause of war against us, and placed him in the right from the point of view of European diplomacy.

The arrival, early in 1620,

of the treaty of July, 1619,  snatched the prey from between his hands. “The English ought to be very thankful to you,” he wrote to the Dutch directors in Holland, “for they had worked themselves very nicely out of the Indies, and you have placed them again in the midst.”

If, however, he had to obey the treaty, he could use it for his own ends.


The English would have liked. to resettle at Bantam, but Coen resolved not only to destroy the trade of that port but to force the English to live under his own eye at Batavia. After some negotiation the joint Council of Defence, established in Java by the treaty, agreed to blockade Bantam in 1620, and thus accomplished both his objects. For, although the English soon withdrew, they had compromised themselves with the Bantam prince, and the Dutch fleet was strong enough to continue the blockade without them.

Court of Directors, East India House

In Batavia Coen made our position so miserable that in July, 1620, we had to keep a ship there as a floating warehouse, “having no place on shore.” In 1621 the English almost gave up Java in despair, and part of them again sought a refuge on the Indian coast. In August, 1622, Thomas Drockedon, our agent at Batavia, asked leave from the directors in London to

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return home, as he could “live no longer under the insolence of the Dutch.”

His situation was a mournful one. So far from restitution having been made to us under the treaty of 1619, we were compelled to supply “incredible sums” for fortifications which the Dutch did or did not build, but which could only be a menace to ourselves. We had been dragged into a war with Bantam, from which we could derive no benefit, and which shut us out from the chief pepper mart. The civil and criminal jurisdiction was exercised by the Dutch to publicly insult us. We were placed on a level with “the blacks,” whose bare affirmation was taken against us. We might not “kill a wild hog or gather a cocoanut in the wood without leave.” The Dutch had flogged William Clarke, steward of the English factory, in the market-place, “cruelly cutting his flesh, and then washed him with salt and vinegar, and laid him again in irons.” The English watch had been imprisoned for eight days and threatened with torture, to force them to make false confessions against the president of our council. What seemed to the Dutch their lawful jurisdiction, the English regarded as oppression.


For another alleged plot twelve natives had been condemned to be quartered, and the rest of the accused to perpetual slavery in chains. The torture failed to elicit anything against the English; but if it could have given the Dutch “any advantage against us,” we should have had no mercy. “Wherefore,” wrote in 1622 our President Furgand and council at Batavia,

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“we earnestly desire speedily to be released from this bondage.” A similar attempt was made in the island of Pularoon to extort confessions against the English by cruel torments of the natives. Thus was rehearsed alike in the capital of Dutch India and in the distant Nutmeg Isles, that tragedy of torture which was so soon to be enacted at Amboyna. In the still remoter seas, as we learn from a letter of Richard Cocks, dated Nagasaki, 10th March, 1620, the Hollanders, with seven ships at Japan, had, “with sound of trumpet,” “proclaimed there open war against the English, as their mortal enemies.”

The Clove and Nutmeg Isles, including among them Amboyna, Banda, and Pularoon, lay, it will be remembered, at the south-eastern end of the Spice Archipelago. The Dutch claimed the sovereignty over them, by the conquest of Amboyna from the Portuguese in 1605, and in virtue of many treaties. The English had a set of counter-claims based on the free surrender of Pularoon to us in 1616, of Lantor or Great Banda in 1620, and on compacts with other chiefs. We had also an agency at Amboyna under the Dutch-English treaty of 1619. The Dutch with an overwhelming force expelled us from Lantor and Pularoon in 1621–1622. Our gallant agent, Nathaniel Courthorpe, who, in “much want and misery,” held Pularoon from 1616 to 1620, sometimes with but thirty-eight men to resist the “force and tyranny” of the Hollanders, had been mortally wounded in a sea-fight, and threw himself overboard rather than see his ship strike her flag.

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Herman van Speult, governor of the neighbouring island of Amboyna, was regarded at headquarters as “too scrupulous” in his fiscal administration. In January, 1623, the Governor-General Coen, when departing for Europe, enjoined strict justice, and mentioned Amboyna as a place where no English encroachments were to be allowed. “Trust them not,” he said,

any more than open enemies … not weighing too scrupulously what may fall out.” His farewell instructions merely reiterated the principles on which he had always insisted. “Trust the English no more than a public enemy ought to be trusted,” he wrote two months previously to Banda, the agency nearest Amboyna. This policy of suspicion, and of “not weighing too scrupulously what may fall out,” was now to be enforced with a stupid violence which the great governor-general might perhaps have anticipated, but which he would have been the first to condemn.

By the beginning of 1623 the Dutch found themselves completely masters of the Clove and Nutmeg Archipelago. At the principal clove island, Amboyna, they had, according to the English statement founded upon depositions on oath, a fortress garrisoned by two hundred Dutch soldiers, with three or four hundred native troops, including some thirty Japanese, and further protected by eight vessels in the roadstead. The English numbered eighteen men, scattered between five small factories on different islands, very badly off, with a few slaves, “just six and all boys.” In their house at Amboyna only three swords, two muskets,

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and half a pound of powder were found. The nearest English support was the Banda agency, at a distance across the sea, and containing but nine of their countrymen. English ships seldom came to Amboyna, and not one was then near. Our president in council at Java had in fact resolved to withdraw the petty English factories at Amboyna and throughout the Clove and Nutmeg

The fortress at Amboyna

Archipelago. He had even arranged with the Dutch governor-general for their transport to Batavia in Holland ships. In February, 1623, orders to this effect were on their way from our president in Batavia to Amboyna.

They arrived too. late. On the evening of February 10, 1623, a Japanese soldier of the Dutch garrison had some talk with the sentries about the number of the troops and the times of changing the watch. When questioned by the Governor Van Speult next day, February 11th, he explained that he had merely chatted with the soldiers “for his own amusement.” Indeed,

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the steward of the Dutch factory afterwards declared that “it was an usual speech amongst soldiers to enquire one of another how strong the watch might be, that they might know how many hours they might stand sentinel.”

Van Speult was, however, on the lookout for conspiracy, and perhaps anxious to redeem his reputation from the charge of slackness at headquarters. In the previous summer he had written to the Governor-General Coen about the English at Amboyna: “We hope to direct things according to your orders that our sovereignty shall not be diminished or injured in any way by their encroachments, and if we may hear of any conspiracies of theirs against the sovereignty, we shall with your sanction do justice to them, suitably, unhesitatingly, and immediately.” In October, 1622, Coen gave this sanction. In February, 1623, the opportunity arrived. Van Speult put the Japanese soldier to the torture, and after he had “endured pretty long,” wrung from him an accusation against the English. His statement was signed by the unhappy man on the day of his torment, in direct contravention of the Dutch law that one who had confessed under torture should be re-heard to confirm it not sooner than twenty-four hours afterwards, “ne durare adhuc tormentorum metus videatur.”

Eight or nine other Japanese soldiers in the service of the Dutch, whose names he had mentioned, denied the plot, but were tortured on that and the following day, until a complete story of treason was evolved.

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“Wailing and weeping by reason of their extreme tortures with burning, they were carried by slaves to prison, for it was not possible of themselves to go on their feet.” Such was the statement made by the steward of the Dutch factory regarding the affair.

The handful of English, ran the improbable tale, had solemnly sworn on New Year’s Day to seize the fort upon the arrival of an English ship, or during the absence of the Dutch governor, and had employed to corrupt the Japanese soldiers so unlikely an agent as a drunken barber, or barber-surgeon, Abel Price. This man already lay in the Dutch prison for threatening to set fire to a house in a frenzy of liquor. On February 15th, as the records show, he, too, was haled to the torture-chamber, and made to “confess whatever they asked him.”

A ship of the Seventeenth Century

The English treated as ridiculous the story that eighteen men, scattered over the two islands of Amboyna and Ceram, at the factories of Amboyna, Hittou, Larica, Loho, and Cambello, should dare conspire to take a fort from two hundred Dutch and three or four hundred native soldiers with eight Holland vessels in the harbour, and they went about their business as usual. But Van Speult, now armed with the confession under torture of his prisoner, the drunken English barber,

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seized our chief agent, Towerson, and the other factors at Amboyna, put them in irons, and swept in the whole English from the four outlying factories between February 15th and 23d – just eighteen men all told.

Of the extraordinary proceedings that followed we have six accounts by eye-witnesses. First, the minutes of the court, kept by the Greffier or secretary: minutes so irregular and incomplete as to call forth the censure of the Dutch governor-general, and to invalidate them as a judicial record under the Dutch law. Second, the solemn dying messages of the victims written on the pages of their prayer-books or other furtive scraps of paper. Third, the statements of certain members of the Dutch Council at Amboyna who formed the court, when called to account by the governor-general at Batavia two and a half years later (October, 1625). These latter admit the use of torture, passed over in silence by the minutes, but state that it was slight. Fourth, the depositions of six Englishmen who survived, taken on oath before Sir Henry Marten, Judge of the Admiralty, in 1624. Fifth, the answers of certain of the Amboyna judges to interrogatories in 1628. Sixth, the statement of the steward of the Dutch factory, who also acted as interpreter during the trial. It was laid before Lord Dorchester and Secretary Coke in 1629. This man, George Forbis or Forbisher, a native of Aberdeen, and little likely to favour the English Company which persuaded James to cancel the charter granted to the Scotch, had long served the Dutch in

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the East, and was found on board a Dutch ship stayed by royal command at Portsmouth in 1627. He had continued in the Dutch service for two years after the trial. His declaration closely corresponds with the depositions of the English survivors.

In my narrative I fairly consider all the foregoing materials, together with the pamphlet literature which quickly sprang up7. I have also checked the “True Relation” from the depositions on oath.

That evidence consisted entirely of confessions wrung from the accused by torture. The ransacking of the English factories yielded not a single incriminating letter, or other corroborative piece of testimony, as is proved by the answer of Joosten, the Dutch officer who examined the papers. The Dutch began with John Beaumont and Timothy Johnson. Beaumont, an elderly man for India and an invalid, was left with a guard in the hall, while Johnson was taken into another room. Presently Beaumont heard him “cry out very pitifully;

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then be quiet for a little while, and then loud again.” Johnson long refused to confess, but after an hour he was “brought forth wailing and lamenting, all wet and cruelly burnt in divers parts of his body.”

One Englishman, Edward Collins, gave evidence, according to the Dutch, without torture. But the narrative founded upon the depositions of the surviving Englishmen on oath states that Collins was tied up for the torture, and the cloth put about his throat. “Thus prepared he prayed to be respited and he would confess all. Being let down he again vowed and protested his innocency,” but for fear of the torture asked them what he should say. This was not enough and he was tortured, but not being able to endure it long, he made a confession helped out by the Dutch prosecutor. Collins himself confirmed this statement on oath and produced three witnesses who “heard him many times roar very pitifully, being in the next room, and saw

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him come out, having no doublet on, his shirt all wet, his face swollen and his eyes starting out of his head.” From February 15th to 23d the cruel process went on. According to the English statements, the prisoners, even while confessing under the torture, declared in the same breath that they were not speaking truth. In the case of Collins, the “fiscal,” or prosecutor, forced leading questions upon him, till one of the Dutch themselves exclaimed: “Do not tell him what he should say, but let him speak for himself.” John Wetheral having been four times tied up, they were at length obliged to read out to him the confessions of the other victims until the poor wretch merely “answered yea to all.” He “prayed them to tell him what he should say or to write down what they would; he would subscribe it.” John Clarke stood the ordeal so bravely that “the tormentors reviled him, saying that he was a devil … or a witch.” So they “cut off his hair very short, as supposing he had some witchcraft hidden therein.” They then went on with the torture – burning him with candles on the feet, hands, elbows, and “under the armpits until his inwards might evidently be seen.” The English declared that no surgeon was allowed to dress the sores “until, his flesh being putrefied, great maggots dropt and crept from him in most loathsome and noisome manner.” Authority for all these statements may be found in the first pamphlet, “A True Relation.”

According to the English accounts each confession was wrung forth by torture. The Dutch minutes of

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the trial conceal the fact of torture at all, and thus violate a fundamental rule of the Dutch criminal procedure. The members of the Amboyna council, who sat as judges, acknowledged on oath that twelve of the English were tortured by water and two of them also by fire, but stated that one (Beaumont) was only tortured a little on account of his age and feeble health.

The judges also pleaded in their defence that the torture was in no case extreme, indeed of a “civil” sort.

What it exactly amounted to we know from eye-witnesses. The accused man was hoisted up and tied spread-eagle fashion in a doorway. In the water torment “they bound a cloth about his neck and face so close that little or no water could go by. That done they poured the water softly upon his head until the cloth was full up to the mouth and nostrils … till his body was swollen twice or thrice as big as before, his cheeks like great bladders, and his eyes staring and strutting out beyond his forehead.” It was the slow agony of bursting, joined to the acute but long-drawn-out agony of suffocation. In the fire torture, they held lighted candles beneath the most sensitive parts of the body – under the armpits, the palms of the hand, and the soles of the feet. Emmanuel Thomson, like John Clarke, it was said, had no surgeon to dress his burnt flesh, so that no one “was able to endure the smell of his body.”

To the torture by fire and water, admitted by the Dutch, the English accounts add “the splitting of the toes, and lancing of the breast, and putting in gunpowder, and then firing the same, whereby the body is not left entire, neither for innocency nor execution. Clarke and Thomson were both fain to be carried to their execution, though they were tortured many days before.” But the Dutch admissions suffice.

Towerson, who steadily asserted his innocence, on being confronted with some who had confessed, charged them as they would answer it at the dreadful day of judgment, they should speak nothing but the truth.” The sufferers implored his forgiveness and declared all they had said was false. But, threatened again with torture, they reaffirmed their confessions. The spirit of the miserable little band was completely broken.

Even Van Speult felt that he might be going too far, and for some days hesitated as to whether he should not remit the case to the Dutch governor-general at Batavia. But the English president and council at Batavia had, on January 10–20, 1623, resolved to withdraw

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their oppressed factories from the Moluccas, Amboyna, and the Clove and Nutmeg Isles. They had indeed thanked the Dutch president and council for agreeing to bring them away in Flemish ships. Orders in this sense were simultaneously sent to our agents at Banda and elsewhere. The Calendar of State Papers of the East Indies for 1622–1624 (p. 398) shows that while the tortured men lay waiting their doom, two Holland ships arrived from Batavia, bringing the letter from the English president and council ordering the withdrawal of our agency from Amboyna. “Which letter was opened and read by the Dutch governor while our people were yet in prison and not executed, and might well have secured him that there was no further danger to be feared of the English aid of shipping, whatever the English had through fear of torture confessed.” The statement is confirmed by Van Speult’s own admissions, and it gives a darker shade to his resolve on instant judgment.

The public prosecutor was instructed to demand sentence. This, according to the minutes, he did with irregular brevity – twenty-one lines of writing in all. According to the Dutch procedure, his requisition should have given a summary of the facts and evidence, which it did not. It should certainly have specified the separate names of the accused Englishmen, while it only contained that of Gabriel Towerson “and his creatures and accomplices.” These were not the omissions of ignorance. The “fiscal” who conducted the case was a lawyer, and in his haste for condemnation,

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A scene at Darjiling

he set at defiance the safeguards of procedure which even the Dutch law prescribed. His demand was really the demand of Sieyes at the trial of Louis XVI – La Mort sans phrase.

On February 25, 1623, or February 23d (for there are discrepancies as to the date), the prisoners, with certain exceptions, were condemned to death. The English from outlying factories, who had not even been at Amboyna at the time of the alleged plot, were released; three others were allowed to draw lots for their life; and in the end the elderly Beaumont and the terrified Collins were sent to give evidence at Batavia as “men condemned and left to the mercy of the governor-general.” Captain Towerson manfully proclaimed the iniquity of the proceedings. When ordered to indite a confession, he wrote out a protestation of his innocence. The governor gave it to the interpreter to read out in Dutch, “which I could not do,” said that officer, “without shedding of tears.” He had also to translate a dying declaration secretly written by Towerson in a Bible which he asked Van Speult to send to his friends in England – “which Bible after that time I never saw or heard mentioned.”

Yet some last words reached the outer world. William Griggs wrote in his Table-book, which was secretly saved by a servant: “We through torment were constrained to speak that which we never meant nor once imagined. … They tortured us with that extreme torment of fire and water that flesh and blood could not endure. … Written in the dark.” Captain Towerson

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wrote much; but all was suppressed, except an unnoticed sentence appended to his signature to a bill of debt due from the English Company: “Firmed by the Firm [i.e. signature] of me Gabriel Towerson now appointed to die, guiltless of anything that can be justly laid to my charge. God forgive them their guilt and receive me to His mercy. Amen.”

The old East India House (about 1650)

Samuel Colson, imprisoned with six of the others, on board the Dutch ships in the roads, wrote the following in his prayer-book and had it sewed up in a bed: “March 5, stilo novo, being Sunday, aboard the Rotterdam, lying in irons.” “Understand that I, Samuel Colson, late factor of Hitou, was apprehended for suspicion of conspiracy; and for anything I know must die for it: wherefore having no means to make my innocence known, have writ in this book hoping some good Englishman will see it. I do here upon my salvation, as I hope by His death and passion to have redemption for my sins, that I am clear of all such conspiracy; neither do I know any Englishman guilty thereof nor any other creature in the world. As this is true, God bless me, Sam. Colson.” In another part

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of the book, at the beginning of the Psalms, he declared: “As I mean and hope to have pardon for my sins, I know no more than the child unborn of this business.” These statements were written three or four days before the execution of the death sentence, as “March 5, stilo novo,” would correspond to February 23d, if we take the English dates.

On February 26th (English date) the prisoners were brought into the hall of the castle to be prepared for death. Captain Towerson was taken into the torture-chamber with “two great jars of water carried after him. What he there did or suffered is unknown to the English without, but it seemeth they made him then to underwrite his confession” – a confession of a plot so wild that, had it ever entered a man’s brain, “he should,” in the words of the English Company, “rather have been sent to bedlam … than to the gallows.”

The condemned men still protested their innocence. “Samuel Colson spake with a loud voice saying, According to my innocency in this treason, so Lord pardon all the rest of my sins; and if I be guilty thereof more or less, let me never be partaker of Thy heavenly joys. At which words every one of the rest cried Amen for me, Amen for me, good Lord. This done, each of them knowing whom he had accused, went one to another begging forgiveness for their false accusation,” under the torture; “and they all freely forgave one another, for none had been so falsely accused, but he himself had accused another as falsely.” Their last “doleful night they spent in prayer, singing of psalms

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and comforting one another,” refusing the wine which the guards offered them, “bidding them to drink lustick and drive away the sorrow.”

Next day, February 27th (English date), the ten Englishmen8, nine Japanese, and the Portuguese captain of slaves were led out to execution “in a long procession round the town,” through crowds of natives who had been summoned by beat of drum “to behold this triumph over the English.”

It is not needful, after the fashion of that time, to accept as manifestations of divine wrath a “great darkness” and hurricane which immediately followed, and drove two Dutch ships from their anchorage; or the pestilence, said to have swept away one thousand people. The innocence of Towerson and his fellow sufferers rests upon no such stories, whether false or true. The improbability of the enterprise, the absence of any evidence except such as was wrung forth under torments, the neglect of the safeguards imposed by the Dutch law on judicial torture, the dying declarations of the victims – suffice to convince any unbiassed mind that the ten Englishmen were unjustly done to death. This, too, without insisting on the circumstance that would place Van Speult’s conduct in the darkest light – his being on the outlook for conspiracies; or on the arrival of the English letter during the trial ordering

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the withdrawal of our agency from Amboyna; or on the existence of Dutch ships in the harbour which might even, if the shore prison were overcrowded, have carried those accused of the supposed conspiracy for judgment to the Dutch governor-general at Batavia, or served for their confinement till his confirmation of the proceedings was obtained.

Van Speult took possession of our Amboyna and neighbouring factories; “the poor remnant of the English” were removed to Batavia; and the great design for driving us out of the Clove and Nutmeg Isles was accomplished.

When the news of the tragedy reached England fifteen months later – May 29, 1624 – a cry of execration arose. The Company demanded justice. With English self-control it repressed irresponsible discussion by its members, and resolved, on June 16th, to trust to the state “to call for an account of the lives of the king’s subjects.” The governor refrained from speech until he was assured of the facts, and it was not until July 2d that he brought the matter officially before a general court of the Company.

The first feeling indeed was one of incredulity at so abominable an outrage on innocent men. King James apprehended the fact to be so foul … he could not believe it,” and, when convinced, threatened to extort reparation from Holland. At the Royal Council table “sundry of the greatest shed tears.” But James had resolved to break with Spain, in wrath at the treatment of Prince Charles on his knight-errant quest at

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Madrid for a Spanish wife in 1623. War with Spain meant an alliance with Holland, whose twelve years’ truce with Spain had also expired. Dutch envoys were, indeed, at that moment in London, negotiating a treaty of offence and defence. So the king and his Council dried their eyes, and the Dutch diplomats joyfully returned home, praising the good-will of a monarch who had said not a word about “the late accident at Amboyna.” Nor were courtiers wanting who blamed the Company for raising a difficulty “when his Majesty had resolved to aid the Dutch.”

Very different was the temper of the nation. On July 2, 1624, the governor of the Company declared that assuredly “God the Avenger of all such bloody acts will in His due time bring the truth to light” – “the unspeakable tyrannies done upon those unfortunate men, which is able to amaze the Christian world.” They still hoped that the king would help them; but their best comfort was that when man is at the weakest then God is strongest. On July 9th a general court of the Company decided that unless justice were “done on those Dutch that have in so great fury and tyranny tortured and slain the English,” the Company must wind up and “fetch home what they have in the Indies.” A petition in this sense was voted to the king – “and according to his answer and proceeding the trade to stop or proceed.” On July 11th they waited on the king in his bedchamber with the memorial, together with “A True Relation,” and received his promise of “a speedy reparation from the Dutch by

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the strength of his own arm, if they did it not suddenly themselves.”

The cry for revenge had gathered a strength which not even James could resist. Chamberlain, the Horace Walpole of his time, wrote to the English ambassador in Holland that “we should stay or arrest the first Indian ship that comes in our way, and hang up upon Dover cliffs” as many Dutchmen as had taken part in the outrage, “and then dispute the matter afterwards. For there is no other course to be held with such manner of men, as neither regard law nor justice, nor any other respect of equity or humanity, but only make gain their god.” The Company was believed to

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have collapsed. No man would pay in any money to it. If the king would not help, it was wildly propounded at a general court on July 22d, to “join with the Portugals and root the bloody Dutch out of the Indies.”

Marwario merchants, or traders of the Indies

The “True Relation” presented to James on July 11, 1624, had touched the sentimental fibre in his weak nature. On July 16th he promised to make stay of Dutch vessels if satisfaction were not given, and even offered to become himself a shareholder in the Company, and to allow its ships to sail under the royal standard. This offer of greatness thrust upon it, the Company respectfully declined. The king meanwhile ordered his ambassador at The Hague to demand satisfaction from the States-General before August 12th, under threat of reprisals by hanging, or even “an irreconcilable war.”

These were brave words, and if the Dutch Government had believed they would be followed by action, they might have proved decisive. For the outrage of Amboyna had come as an unpleasant surprise to the Dutch Company, and as a serious embarrassment to the Dutch Government. The governor-general at Batavia spoke his mind as freely as he dared to Van Speult. The Company in Holland, while making the best case they could against the English claims for compensation, refrained from sending back Coen to the East, although they had reappointed him governor-general in 1624. Members of the States-General openly expressed their disgust. The Prince of Orange wished that Van Speult with all his council had been hanged

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on a gibbet before they began “to spell this tragedy.”

The States-General accordingly appointed deputies to treat with our ambassador. But an English observer wrote that, although the king spoke valiantly, he could wish his Majesty would say less, so that he would do more. The Dutch deputies played on his irresolution, and the time allowed for redress expired. When at length, on October 15th, a royal warrant was issued for the seizure of Flemish ships, our ambassador at The Hague advised that this extremity should be avoided, and the Dutch were somehow warned of the danger. In November, 1624, the London Company officially informed the lord admiral that Holland ships were in the Straits of Dover, but they were allowed to pass unharmed.

The English Company was forced to realize that, in trusting to the royal support, it leaned on a broken reed. In July it had demanded satisfaction under three heads:, justice against the murderers, compensation for injuries, and absolute separation from the Dutch Company in the East. In October it despondently reduced its claims to the safe removal of the English from Batavia; the question of jurisdiction and Council of Defence; and the right to erect forts, and to be treated by the Dutch as allies and friends. James would not fight, and the Dutch knew it. They were willing enough to accept the first condition and allow the safe removal of the English from Batavia. But, while dangling before us a compromise, they would never surrender

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their sovereign jurisdiction in the Spice Islands or allow the English to erect fortifications. On March 25, 1625, King James died.

Palace of Jahangir at Agra

By this time the facts were well known in England. A certain simplicity in Towerson’s character gave additional pathos to his death. He had sailed on the Company’s second voyage in 1604 and obtained his admission as a freeman gratis in recognition of long service. Eighteen checkered years brought him to the chief agency at Amboyna in 1622, with a salary of £10 a month. Once indeed he had emerged for a moment. Having married the Indian widow of Captain Hawkins, he attempted for a time to make a figure not justified either by her position or his own. In 1617 Sir Thomas

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Roe, our ambassador to the Moghul Emperor Jahangir, wrote that Towerson “is here arrived with many servants, a trumpet, and more show than I use.” In 1620 we find him back in England vainly soliciting the command of a ship, and returning to the Archipelago along with other factors in “the great cabin of the Anne.”

The contemporary records show that he had not gained caution with years. Arriving at Amboyna in May, 1622, he became a close friend of the Dutch Governor Van Speult and gave him his entire confidence. In June of that year, as we saw, Van Speult was on the lookout for conspiracies and asking the Dutch governor-general at Batavia for leave to deal with them “suitably, unhesitatingly, and immediately.” In September Towerson, on the other hand, wrote to the English president at Batavia in warm terms of Van Speult’s “courtesies” and “love.” He asks our president to send Van Speult a complimentary letter, together “with some beer or a case of strong waters, which will be very acceptable to him.”

The president and council at Batavia saw more of the game. “In such kind of courtesy,” they replied in December, 1622, “we know he is free enough, but in your main affairs you will find him a subtle man.” There was to be no beer or case of strong waters for Van Speult. On the contrary, “be careful you be not circumvented in matters of importance, through his dissembling friendship.” This warning they followed up next month by commanding Towerson and his subordinates to quit Amboyna. “Prepare and make yourself

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ready to come away from thence with all the rest of the factors in the Dutch ship, except two you may leave there at Amboyna to keep house until our further order.”

Meanwhile Towerson continued his unsuspecting course. On January 1, 1623, he gave his official dinner to the little English group at Amboyna – the regular New Year’s Day party which was to serve the Dutch fiscal as a ground-work for the alleged conspiracy. How far any thoughts of seizing Amboyna were from the minds of the English may be known by the letter of our president and council in March, 1622, to the Company, desiring to retire even from Batavia; by Brockedon’s petition in August, 1622, for leave to return home, as he could “live no longer under the insolence of the Dutch;” and by the orders of January, 1623, to Towerson and other outlying agencies to withdraw to Batavia with the English under their charge. Towerson, “a sincere, honest, and plain man without malice,” as one of the Amboyna free burghers and a servant of the Dutch Company described him, discerned not the signs of the times, and the letter ordering him to leave Amboyna was intercepted by the Dutch governor Van Speult. So he went to his death – ” that honest good man, Captain Towerson, whom I think in my conscience was so upright and honest toward all men, that he has harboured no ill will of any.”

Such a character is pretty sure of sympathy from the English middle classes, always indulgent to sturdy mediocrity, especially of the jovial sort. The story

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De Houtman’s Map of the sea route to India, Batavia, and Java, in 1597

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Blank page

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of Amboyna gathered round his name, until it reached Dryden’s version of a murderous plot by Van Speult against Towerson in revenge for his killing Van Speult’s son in a duel. In 1625 the legend was still a long way from this climax. But the last weeks of King James’s life had been harassed by popular demonstrations. In February, 1625, the Dutch living in London complained to the lords of the Council that on the coming Shrove Tuesday they would be in danger from the fury of the people. Besides the pamphlets spread broadcast, a play was to be publicly acted setting forth the sufferings of the English; and a great picture had been painted, “lively, largely, and artificially,” of their tortures and execution. The reins were falling from the old king’s hands, and the Council gently admonished the Company not to exhibit this picture – at least till Shrove Tuesday be passed.

Next month, March, 1625, Charles succeeded to the throne. The main business of our ambassador at The Hague, Sir Dudley Carleton (afterwards Viscount Dorchester), was to strengthen the affiance of Holland with England against Spain, and he groaned audibly over the new labours and awkward questions to which the Amboyna imbroglio gave rise. Charles, keenly resentful of his personal treatment when in quest of a wife at Madrid, was eager to send a fleet to the Spanish coast, and promised large subsidies to the Protestant league in the North. The Amboyna difficulty had to be got out of the way, and in September, 1625, Charles agreed to make no reprisals on the Dutch ships for

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eighteen months, and at the same time appeased the London Company by promising that if, by that time, justice were not done, he would proceed to hostilities. This is shown by the treaty of Southampton, September 7, 1625.

A Typical Eastern Scene

But before the expiration of the eighteen months Charles had quarrelled with his Parliament and found a war with France oh his hands. The Dutch were masters of the situation and they knew it. So far from their giving satisfaction for Amboyna, Coen went out as governor-general for a second time in March, 1627, in spite of the protests of the English Company, who regarded his policy as the main source of their sorrows. When in April, 1627, the States-General were reminded that the eighteen months had elapsed, they dexterously got the question transferred to the law courts, and offered to proceed by way of a legal prosecution against the Amboyna judges who had sentenced the English to death.

Here they were on safe ground. Preliminary difficulties at once arose. The Dutch naturally insisted that the tribunal should be a Dutch one sitting in Holland. King Charles objected to his subjects being

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required to leave their country and prosecute before a foreign court beyond the seas. The feeling both in England and Holland was that, while the States-General would gladly have seen the matter settled, the directors of the Dutch Company were so intermingled with the Dutch Government that no justice would be done.

English protests against the re-appointment of Coen passed unheeded, and in August, 1627, Carleton despaired of redress from a government controlled by the votes of the interested parties, among whom “one oar which holds back, stops more than ten can row forward.” In September, however, a tribunal of seven Dutch judges was constituted, three from the high and four from the provincial council.

Meanwhile Charles, with the rising tide in Parliament and in the nation against him, was anxious to keep the London Company his friends. In a moment of vigour, he stayed three Dutch ships off Cowes (September, 1627) and held them fast for eleven months, although threatened with a, Dutch fleet to bring them away. The English Company declared that, if his Majesty let the Dutch ships go, it were better for the Company to abandon the trade. But the fit of royal resolution passed, and the king, in sore straits for money, suddenly released the Dutch ships in August, 1628: it was rumoured, for a gratification of £30,000. In vain his Majesty tried to soften the blow by the unprecedented compliment of sending the lords of the Council to a court meeting of the Company to explain that the

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release was due to an “extraordinary matter of State.” The directors of the Dutch Company gave out as far back as March, 1628, that they had arranged for the release of the ships on the condition of their redeeming his Majesty’s jewels.

The Company now knew that, if they had little to expect from the Dutch tribunal, they had nothing to hope from the king. The Dutch also knew it. In November, 1628, his Majesty feebly suggested, in reply to the repeated demands of the Dutch for the English witnesses to go over to Holland, that the Dutch judges should come to England under a safe-conduct – a proposal which merely furnished a good ground for further delay.

A year later, having sunk into still deeper difficulties with the Parliament and the nation, Charles yielded to the demands of the foreigner and sent over the witnesses. But he tried to save his royal honour by explaining that he had never submitted to the jurisdiction of the Dutch judges, although he would prefer to receive reparation at their hands than by any other means The English ambassador must be present in the Dutch court; the English witnesses must not be questioned on other articles than those on which they had already been examined in his Majesty’s Court of Admiralty; the Dutch judges, when ready to deliver sentence, must inform the king of it, so that he might weigh and consider its import. The Dutch tribunal naturally refused to concede these points. The king had put not only himself but also the English nation

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in the wrong by his method of procedure, and again the Dutch knew it.

His Majesty struggled for a time in the meshes he had woven around himself. In December, 1629, he insisted on reserving the final sentence either to himself or to a joint bench of English and Dutch judges, on the strength of the treaty of 1619. The Dutch quite truly rejoined that the treaty contained not a single article which implied joint jurisdiction in criminal cases, but only in what concerned the joint defence and trade. While the preliminaries were thus spun out from 1627 to 1630, the six Amboyna councillors who were supposed to be on their trial figured as patriots to their nation. The English witnesses, still unheard, were sunk in debt to obtain food from day to day. They mournfully complained to the Privy Council that they had attended in Holland for twelve months, that they were now destitute and like to be cast into prison, while their wives and children were perishing miserably. In March, 1631, the British ambassador at The Hague reported that in the Amboyna business all was silence.

It is doubtful, even if the Amboyna council had been promptly and impartially tried, whether the London Company would have obtained substantial redress. It is certain that no court administering the law then in force in Europe could have condemned the judges to death for the Amboyna executions. The two grounds which underlay the English contention were badly chosen. As a matter of fact, the Amboyna council had

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exercised a lawful jurisdiction, and torture was not only allowed, but enjoined by the law which they were bound to administer. The Dutch Company’s charter of 1602 empowered it to appoint public prosecutors in the name of the States-General for the conduct of judicial business in its fortresses beyond the Cape of Good Hope. The ordinances for the Dutch governor-general in 1617 authorized him not only to execute all civil and

Cape Town and harbour

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criminal sentences, but also to delegate this function to the subordinate councils and proper officers of settlements at which the governor-general and council could not be present. In 1619 instructions had been duly given to Van Speult to administer justice as governor of Amboyna in civil and criminal cases. They were further enforced by the Dutch governor-general’s express sanction to Van Speult in October, 1622, to deal unhesitatingly with conspiracies.

A candid examination of the Anglo-Dutch treaty of 1619 shows that its jurisdiction clause referred only to questions of trade and joint defence, and left the criminal and civil jurisdiction untouched. Nor could the pronouncement of King James in 1623 seriously affect the issue, for the Dutch repudiated it as never having been accepted by (perhaps not even communicated to) their representatives. The States-General consistently maintained their civil and criminal jurisdiction in their settlements throughout the Spice Archipelago. As a matter of fact, the English in the Dutch settlements had been steadily subjected to that jurisdiction, although they groaned under it, and their very complaints to the directors in London prove their practical submission to its most irksome forms.

The general law of Europe at that time prescribed judicial torture as a proper and an almost necessary means for arriving at the truth. Dutch jurisprudence went so far as to declare that, in eases similar to that of Amboyna, a public prosecutor could demand sentence of death only on the confession of the accused.

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The judges therefore, after satisfying themselves by independent proof of the guilt of the accused, had to obtain his confession; without torture if possible, by torture if not. But the Dutch ordinances of 1570 provided safeguards against the abuse of this method, and insisted on indicia sufficientia ad torturam, or a reasonable presumption of guilt before the torture was resorted to.

In England torture, although unrecognized by the common law, was employed in state trials by the Privy Council or High Commission Court in virtue of the royal prerogative. “The rack seldom stood idle in the Tower,” writes Hallam, “for all the latter part of Elizabeth’s reign.” Lord Burleigh defended its use, as the accused “was never so racked but that he was perfectly able to walk and to write;” and “the warders, whose office and act it is to handle the rack, were ever by those that attended the examinations specially charged to use it in so charitable a manner as such a thing might be.” “In the highest cases of treason,” wrote Lord Bacon in 1603, “torture is used for discovery and not for evidence.”

James I had perhaps less right than any other English sovereign to complain of its use by the Dutch. As King of Scotland he had not only sanctioned torture in alleged cases of conspiracy and witchcraft, but had in 1596 authorized even a subordinate court – the provost and baillies of Edinburgh – to try rioters by torture. As King of England he had in 1605 racked Guy Fawkes, per gradus ad ima, and in 1615 the aged Puritan

View of Lucknow

Lucknow, a city now numbering nearly three hundred thousand inhabitants, is one of the largest cities of India, after Calcutta, Bombay, and Madras. It has been the capital of the Province of Oudh since 1775, and the part which it played in the tragic events of the Indian Mutiny, in the following century, rendered the name of Lucknow famous.

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Peacham had been examined “in torture, between tortures, and after torture.” In the same year O’Kennan was put to the rack in Dublin by commission of the king’s deputy. In each one of his three kingdoms James had used torture, and he defended it with his “own princely pen.”

Even such details as the Dutch complaint that John Clarke must be “a devil” or “a witch,” because he stubbornly refused to confess under torment, are reproduced in the English trials. On January 21, 1615, Lord Bacon condoled with his Majesty on the obstinacy of the mangled Peacham, “whose raging devil seems to be turned into a dumb devil.” Lord Burleigh’s defence of the rack on the ground that it was mercifully administered and that the sufferer was always “able to walk and to write” afterwards, is an exact anticipation of the Amboyna judge’s plea of the “civil” character of the water-torture.

Yet if history must allow that the Dutch had jurisdiction, and that under that jurisdiction the use of torture was lawful, it must also declare that a grievous miscarriage of justice had taken place. It is admitted that the record discloses grave irregularities in procedure – irregularities so serious that if an appeal had been allowed they might have sufficed to quash the trial. How far they were due to the careless character of the record itself will ever remain undecided. There was certainly an absence of the indicia sufficientia ad torturam, or reasonable presumption of guilt, which would have justified torture under the Dutch law. The

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confession of the Japanese soldier which formed the ground of the whole proceeding was signed on the day of his torture in defiance of the Dutch ordinances of July 15, 1570, and it was attested by all the judges, although one of them (Wyncoop) was admittedly not in Amboyna on that day. The minutes make no mention of the witnesses being confronted with each other after torture, and of their reaffirming their confessions made under torture, as required by the Dutch law.

Above all, if the English statements on oath are accepted, the whole evidence from first to last was wrung forth by torture or fear of torture. If the Dutch counter-statements be preferred, the great mass of evidence was thus obtained. Of the two witnesses not subjected to torture, according to the Dutch account, one, Edward Collins, swore that he had been tortured, and produced testimony on oath to his dismal outcries. The other, the invalid Beaumont, declared that he had confessed only after he had been tied up for torture, and that he repeated his confession at Batavia to save his own life after the death of the victims had placed them beyond reach of further harm. The survivors consistently affirmed that the only evidence against them at their trial was derived from confessions under torture; confessions which, according to the English depositions on oath, were withdrawn after the torture; and which were solemnly affirmed to be false in the dying declarations of the sufferers.

It is not needful to assume that the Amboyna Council wickedly, and against their conscience, condemned

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the victims to death. Van Speult, as we have seen, was on the lookout for conspiracies, when he and his fellow councillors were suddenly transferred into the judges of men who had been their keen trade-rivals and the great obstacle to the Dutch supremacy in the Archipelago.

The Durbar of an Indian Ruler

Among Eastern races the king or governor was both ruler and judge, and the early European settlements in Asia found themselves compelled firmly to unite all functions, executive and judicial, in the hands of one man or body of men. Cases inevitably occurred in which they were practically judges in their own cause; apt in moments of public danger or fear to bring their passions and preconceptions as governors to their seats on the bench. The Amboyna trial

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was such a case. It stands on the forefront of our history in the East as an example of the danger of combining the executive and the judicial authority in the same hands. That danger the English have striven to guard against by the separation of judicial and executive offices – a process commenced almost from the foundation of their territorial rule in India, yet reaching its final stages only in our own time.

But if we view with charity the cruel blunder of the Amboyna Council as a whole, it is difficult to extend to either the governor or the prosecuting fiscal the benefit of the doubt. The fiscal, Isaac de Bruyne, appears throughout the records in a sinister light. Intent on obtaining a conviction, he constantly urged on Van Speult, and forced incriminating answers upon the witnesses till the council itself had to interpose. His record of the trial was so irregular and incomplete as to render impossible a fair judicial review of the proceedings. On the face of the record as it stands, the accused were improperly condemned. Bruyne’s conduct called forth the reprobation of his superiors at Amboyna, and in the English depositions he appears as “the greatest adversary against the English.” Whatever may have been Van Speult’s own preconception as to their guilt during the first excited days of the prosecution, he can scarcely, after the seizure of the English factory and the perusal of Towerson’s correspondence with the English president at Batavia, have believed in the plot. But by that time he may have felt that he had gone too far to retrace his steps. Or he may have simply

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been one of those commonplace officials who jump to conclusions and then remain obdurate to facts. His interception of the letter from our president at Batavia ordering the withdrawal of the English from Amboyna, was only the last act in the suppression of proof of innocence.

The Dutch authorities themselves felt uneasy lest Van Speult should be examined as to his share in the business. On the expiration of his term of office at Amboyna, he had hardly returned to Batavia when a rumour arrived of a ship in the Straits of Sunda bearing a joint commission from the king and States-General for the despatch of Van Speult to Europe. He was hastily sent off to the western coast of India, whence he proceeded with an expedition to the Red Sea, and he died at Mocha, carrying his secret to the grave.

Meanwhile the English, with their agents drawn in from the Spice Archipelago, and huddled together at Batavia, waited wistfully for redress from home. They waited in vain. News of the Amboyna tragedy reached Batavia on June 20, 1623. At length, having suffered nineteen more months of insults and exactions, their ships dogged by Dutch vessels at sea and cut off from trade on shore, they resolved to quit “this perfidious people,” and, cost what it might, to seek shelter elsewhere. Some of them found refuge on the Indian coast, and in October, 1624, the miserable remnant sailed to the unhealthy Lagundy islets on the southeast of Sumatra.

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There, amid terrible privations, yet stubbornly “affiant of a happy plantation,” they renamed the little group Charles’s Islands, and held out against fever and dysentery for eight months, dying “like sheep infected” under the equatorial sun and rain. In May, 1625, the skeleton survivors were so reduced as to implore the clemency of the Dutch, who in pity fetched them back to Batavia. The commander Verholt, be it recorded, showed them all “care and courtesy,” although he himself and many of his crew caught the disease. Nor did Dutch compassion end with their bare deliverance. They received the rescued men with kindness and granted them a factory house at a moderate price, the Dutch governor-general and our president, in an effusion of good feeling, exchanging chains of gold.

The Dutch had, in fact, accomplished the two fixed purposes of their policy – our expulsion from the Spice Archipelago and our complete subjection at their Batavian headquarters in Java. Their harshness had been deliberately designed to this end, and, with the exception of Van Speult’s judicial slaughter at Amboyna, they had kept fairly within their treaty rights. Their double object being now achieved, they allowed their national good nature free scope. But the excess of cordiality wore off, and the English soon became impatient of the restraints which the Dutch thought themselves entitled to impose. In July, 1627, we find our President Hawley bitterly complaining of the treatment meted out to his countrymen.

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Their position was indeed an impossible one, and the Company at home, sick of King Charles’s fair words, realized this fact. In November, 1626, it proposed to abolish its factory at Batavia and to establish one under the protection of the King of Bantam. In

Javanese Princes

January, 1628, these orders reached Batavia, and the English, putting the relics of their property on board ship, sailed to Bantam, where they were welcomed by the native prince. The sad fortunes of our Bantam factory, its repeated reduction by the London Company to a subordinate post, its blockades by the Dutch, and the gradual but sure withdrawal of its trade to our

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settlements on the Indian coast, belong to a later period. Its history may, however, be summed up in a single sentence. As the executions at Amboyna proclaimed the triumph of the Dutch in the Spice Islands, so the fate of Bantam declared the supremacy of the Dutch in the sea-approaches to the Far East.

By 1631 all hope of judicial redress for the torture and execution of our countrymen at Amboyna had flickered out. In 1633, and again in 1638, Charles, urged by the despairing Company, reverted to feeble attempts at negotiation, with equal unsuccess9. Innocent Englishmen had been tortured and executed under the forms of a foreign law, and for their slaughter redress could not be obtained either by diplomacy or by judicial proceedings. From the first, the Dutch were resolved not to yield, save to force of arms. As they had speedily discovered that James I would not fight, so they gradually found out that Charles I could not fight.

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It was not till the unhappy distractions of the second Stuart’s reign came to their tragic close, and until the Dutch found that a real man again ruled England, that they conceded to Cromwell, after war, what a little firmness might have secured at the outset to James.

At length, in April, 1654, the States-General agreed “that justice be done upon those who were partakers or accomplices in the massacre of the English at Amboyna, as the Republic of England is pleased to term that fact, provided any of them be living.” Cromwell brooked no delay. Within five months all claims and counter-claims arising during forty-one years had been examined. In August the general damages of £85,000 were awarded to the London Company, together with £3615 to the heirs of the men done to death at Amboyna; and Pularoon was restored to English rule.

But this tardy justice failed to efface Amboyna from the English mind. The spectres of the tortured victims stood between the two great Protestant powers during a century. The memory of a great wrong unredressed and of innocent blood unavenged embittered their trade rivalry, intensified each crisis of political strain, and furnished a popular cry for two wars. Dryden’s “Tragedy of Amboyna,” produced in the fiftieth year after the execution, has been not unfairly described as his one literary effort which is wholly worthless except as a curiosity. Yet it serves to show how the story deepened into a darker hue with age.

The opening dialogue between Van Speult and the Dutch fiscal reveals their hatred to the English. Van

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Speult’s son, whom Towerson has rescued at sea, plots with the fiscal against the life of his preserver, and, after again being saved from death by Towerson, ravishes the Englishman’s bride and is thereupon killed by him in a duel. Van Speult, in revenge, invents the story of the plot. The victims are tortured on the stage, fiercely reviled by the governor, and led off to execution. On his way to death Towerson breaks forth in a prophetic strain, foretelling the vengeance of his countrymen and the ruin and downfall of the Dutch. The characters are coarsely drawn from the “True Relation;” the picture presented of the Dutch is grossly unfair. But it struck a chord of popular feeling, and responded to an antipathy which had hardened and set into a national tradition.

That tradition not only affected our internal and dynastic politics, but it profoundly influenced the march of events in Europe. If Holland and England had been friends at heart instead of occasional allies by interest, the aggressions of Louis XIV would have encountered a very different strength of resistance. Our Charles II

would scarcely have dared to remain the dependent of -France. James II would perhaps have shrunk from forcing a Catholic reaction on England. The memory

of Amboyna wrought like a fever on the trade-rivalry of the two Protestant sea powers. The friendship of France might mean court corruption and Popery, but between England and Holland, as long as that bloody memory lived, there could be no real friendship at all. Politicians and poets appealed to the middle-class

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hatred of the Dutch as against the middle-class hatred of Rome. Amboyna is thus disclosed as one of the influences which lured on the Stuarts to the Revolution, and as one of the remote secret springs of the age of Louis XIV.

Nor had Amboyna less important consequences for the Dutch. The overthrow of the English in the Spice Archipelago and their subjection in Java enabled the Holland Company to create a colonial system which, for frank indifference to human suffering, stands out in the history of European settlements across the seas. The fault was not the fault of the Dutch nation, but of the particular period when the chance of a great colonial empire came to it. The Catholic tradition of conversion by conquest, cruel as were its practices, had given place to the industrial idea of conquest for trade.

Neither Spain nor Portugal, with their record of blood in the Eastern and the Western worlds, nor England, with its subsequent slave traffic, can afford to cast stones. But the comparative isolation of Holland in the East, and the absence of any strong native power in the Archipelago like that of the Moghul dynasty in India, enabled the Dutch to work out the industrial idea of conquest to its logical results. The same isolation enabled them to perpetuate that idea, after it had been profoundly modified by a humanitarian awakening in Europe. It survived as a relic of a century when the Protestant nations of the Continent, wearied with religious strife, lost sight for a time of that spiritual brotherhood of man which shot rays across the darkness

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of Portuguese misrule, and which had burned up afresh before the foundation of British territorial sway in India. Jan Pieterszoon Coen, the chief founder of the Dutch colonial system, became governor-general in 1618 – the date taken by European history for the commencement of the Thirty Years’ War.

Tomb of the Moghul official Itmad-ad-Daulah, at Agra

Coen has left in his own words a detailed description of the fabric which he designed. The Dutch charter expired in January, 1623, and on the 21st of that month the great governor-general, as the last act of his first term of office, drew up his political testament for the benefit of his countrymen in the form of instructions left with Peter de Carpentier, governor-general, and the Council of the Indies, and dated Batavia,

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21–31, January, 1623. He realized that the sea-power of Holland in the Archipelago must rest on a territorial basis with a territorial revenue, the absence of which had drawn forth from Cosme Annes, nearly a hundred years earlier (1549), the Portuguese lament: “We sit still, perishing without lands out of which to support ourselves or find shelter.” Albuquerque discerned the same need a century before. But Coen deliberately worked out what Albuquerque had perceived, and, unlike Albuquerque, he was backed by a nation which loyally supported its great servants in the East.

He cherished no illusions as to how such a territorial sea-empire was to be acquired and maintained. It was easy to bring the scattered islands under subjection. The problem was to people them with workers. The idea of settling Dutchmen and Dutchwomen in sufficient numbers, although it had its attractions for Coen as for the other colonizing spirits of that age, he saw to be impracticable. He anticipated the conclusion which some of the European nations are only now reaching after long and cruel experience, that agricultural emigrants from the temperate zone perish in the tropics. The lands of the equator can be tilled only by equatorial races. The heathen whom the Papal Bulls had given to the Portuguese for an inheritance, to be converted with a rod of iron or dashed to pieces like a potter’s vessel, were to Coen merely a cheap labour-force. The “ingathering of a multitude of people from all parts to people our country withall” was

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his first object, and of far more consequence, he declared, than the buying of cloths and goods.

This object he proposed to accomplish by three distinct methods: the enslavement of conquered islands, the purchase of slaves from the African and Asiatic continents, and the seizure of slaves on their coasts. The first method needs but the single comment, that it went much further than the subjection of the native races enforced by the Portuguese. As regards the second, orders for the buying of slaves had been given in 1614; Coen resolved to carry them out on a large scale. “Divers fleets” were now to be sent to the Coromandel coast, to Madagascar, and to the African seaboard, to purchase as many slaves, especially young people, as could be got. This buying of slaves was to go forward before any other work, to the extent of “many thousands, yea, to an infinite number.”

The third method, by seizure, was to be conducted by a squadron on the Chinese coast. The shore-dwellers, especially the women and children, were to be carried away for the peopling of Batavia, Amboyna, and Banda. “Herein will be a great service done for the Company, and by this means will be found all the charge of the war.” The Chinese slaves might be redeemed for sixty reals (£13 10s.) apiece. “But by no means you must not suffer any women to return to China, or any other part out of the Company’s jurisdiction, but with them to people the same.” As the Dutch supremacy firmly established itself, a fourth system

Page 161

of recruitment was added, by treaty provisions for a tribute in full-grown slaves.

A typical scene in India

The Dutch industrial system in the East, thus founded on the most rigorous forms of slavery, was eventually softened through successive stages of forced labour. It produced for a time enormous profits. A tropical soil was made to yield as it had never yielded before, and its fruits were monopolized by Holland.

Page 162

As respects European rivals, the restrictions which the Anglo-Dutch still imposed on Coen, in January, 1623, were removed by the tragedy of Amboyna in the next month, and by the withdrawal of the English factories from the Spice Archipelago. As regards native competition, the islanders were compelled to root up their clove and nutmeg trees, where they seemed to threaten the profits of the Dutch. The produce of the most fertile regions in the world, cultivated on the severest system of human toil, was secured to the Dutch and to the Dutch alone.

While Coen founded the colonial empire of Holland on the sure basis of the soil, he strengthened it by all the devices of a skilful administration – by a lucrative coasting trade with the African and Asiatic continents, by a great sea commerce with Europe, and by a well-planned system of tolls and local taxation. The rich island empire which he thus projected, he secured by fortresses, built and maintained by the cheap labour of prisoners and slaves. Coen stands out from among all men of European race in the Asia of his day – a statesman of the clearest vision, and an administrator of the firmest hand, half-way between the Portuguese Albuquerque in the sixteenth century and the French Dupleix or the English Warren Hastings, in the eighteenth. But he could not rise above the morals of his time, and his strong personality during a double tenure of office impressed the stamp of a cruel age on the colonial system of his country. His crime, or his misfortune, was that he stereotyped in Dutch India the disregard

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for human suffering which brutalized Europe during the Thirty Years’ War.

Holland was the first European country to send a steady supply of really able men to the East, and she supported them by force of arms. James I would not and Charles I could not fight. The English East India Company was still a body of private adventurers for whose benefit Parliament felt by no means eager to go to war. In spite of the long list of lords and gentlemen who swelled the subscription book of the Company, in spite of the outburst of wrath and indignation which the news of Amboyna aroused in London, England had not yet learned to look upon her Indian trade as a national concern. Holland had, and she was willing to make sacrifices and to screen crimes, in order to maintain her position in Asia.

Home Table of Contents Previous: Chapter 3 Next: Chapter 5


7. The chief contemporary pamphlets on the Amboyna tragedy are six in number.

(i) A True Relation of the Unjust, Cruel, and Barbarous Proceedings against the English at Amboyna. This narrative was “taken out of the depositions of six several English factors “who survived the trial, as delivered on oath before Sir Henry Marten, Judge of. the Admiralty, supplemented by the testimony of Welden, the English chief agent in Banda at the time of the tragedy. The Privy Council in September, 1624, gave their opinion that the relation was justified by the statements of the six witnesses. Calendar of State Papers, East Indies, 1622–1624, par. 620.

(ii) A True Declaration of the Newes that came out of the East Indies, with the Pinace called the ‘‘Hare.” A Dutch pamphlet which appeared anonymously, and was thought by some to be the work of Boreel. The Directors of the Dutch Company denied the authorship, and, on complaint of the English ambassador, the States-General issued a proclamation declaring it to be “a scandalous and senseless libel,” and offering a reward of 400 guilders for the discovery of either the author or the printer.

(iii) An Answer to the Dutch Relation touching the pretended Conspiracy of the English at Amboyna in the Indies, being a reply to No. ii. (the libellous Dutch Declaration) drawn up by the English Company and issued under its authority. These three pamphlets were published together by the Company in 1624 with a preface. A third reprint is dated 1632, and there were several subsequent editions.

(iv) A Remonstrance of the Directors of the Netherlands East India Company presented to the Lords States-General … in defence of the said Company touching the bloody Proceedings against the English Merchants executed at Amboyna.

(v) The Acts of the Council of Amboyna. The official Court Record of the Trial and the confessions of the accused, as presented by the Dutch to the East India Company.

(vi) A Reply to the Defence of the Proceedings of the Dutch against the English at Amboyna. An answer to, and criticism of, Nos. iv. and v. These last three pamphlets were published by authority in London in 1632.

8. Captain Gabriel Towerson; Samuel Colson, factor at Hitto; Emanuel Thomson, assistant at Amboyna; Timothy Johnson, assistant at Amboyna; John Wetheral, factor at Cambello; John Clark, assistant at Hitto; William Griggs, factor at Larica; John Fardo, steward of the House; Abel Price (the drunken barber-surgeon); Robert Brown, tailor.

9. An English writer, who is not a lawyer and who has spent most of his life in the practical duties of Indian administration, should speak with diffidence as to the forms of Dutch procedure in the early seventeenth century. I have, therefore, taken the precaution to consult a Dutch jurist, Dr. Bisschop, who combines accurate historical research with a judicial training. He states, and quotes Dutch legal authorities for his opinion, that in extraordinary proceedings, in which the accused were examined without witnesses first being heard, the confessions of the accused were necessary for conviction, and that torture could be legitimately resorted to in order to obtain such confessions. The Amboyna trial came practically under this category, and the evidence from first to last was obtained by torture. But the Dutch law recognized the danger of a miscarriage of justice arising out of confessions thus wrung forth, and it provided safeguards accordingly. These safeguards were explicit in form and essential to the validity of the proceedings. They were disregarded in the Amboyna trial, although the prosecuting fiscal, in the words of the Dutch Governor-General and Council, “calls himself a lawyer, and was taken into the Company’s service as such


Muhammad Ali became the Sultan of Brunei XII until 1660.
 1626: Production of pepper Banjar greatly increased, so the VOC attempted to gain monopoly pepper, and try to eliminate the incidence in 1612 the Dutch invasion of the sultanate of Banjar. The Netherlands also apologized for his actions robbed the Banjar in cruise ship sultanate of Brunei trade to July 4, 1626. Trading empire Banjar still directed to Cochin China (Veitnam) not to Batavia.
 1634: VOC sent six merchant ships headed to Banjarmasin Londensteijn Gijsbert van, then added a few ships under the command of Antonie and Steven Scop Barentsz. [19]
 1635: June 17, 1635 Pearl British ship arrived in Banjarmasin, Tewseling and Gregory.
 1635: 4 September 1635 the Sultan of Banjar is represented by Ratna Syahbandar Goja Babouw Kings held the first commercial contract in Batavia by the Dutch Company is represented by: Hendrik Brouwer, Antonio van Diemen, Jan van der Burgh, Steven Barentszoon. VOCs also helps Banjar to conquer the eastern Kalimantan (Sand). [18]
 1635: Prince Aji ing chances, Duke Sinum Bannerman Martapura Kukar VIII became King until the year 1650. This king conquered the kingdom of Kutai Martadipura.
 1636: Sultanate of Banjar claim areas along the Sambas Karasikan Berau as well as its territory since that time Banjarmasin already has the military capacity to confront the attacks of Mataram.
 1636: The first time the Dutch began to dwell in Banjarmasin as VOC trading office in Banjarmasin established under the leadership of Wollenbrant Gelijnsen. [19]
 1637: Banjarmasin hold peace relations with Mataram. [20]
 1638: Sultan Banjarmasin send envoys to the Sultan of Makassar Makassar and East Kalimantan borrow area as a place of trade. Sultan Muhammad Zainudin moved the capital of the Sultanate Matan Matan kingdoms from the river to the land called the kingdom of Indra Indra Laya Laya.
 1638: Contract Craemer Banjar Sultan refused a request to send pepper to Makassar, came the anti-war Dutch VOC many as 108 people, 21 Japanese were killed, and the lodges were burned and the destruction of VOC VOC ships in Banjarmasin.
 1640: Governor-General Antonio van Diemen VOC ordered that hostilities with the Sultanate of Banjar is stopped and only requires 50,000 as compensation for the real tragedy in 1638.
 1641: Around mid-October 1641 Prince Tapesana and Kiai Narangbaya as Sultan Banjarmasin envoy arrives in Jepara and its escort of 500 people to deliver gifts to the Sultan Agung – the king of Mataram. [20] [19] [21]
 1641: Inayatullah became Sultan Banjar V until the year 1646
 1643: Dutch erected forts and factories on the island of Tatas (now Central Banjarmasin). [22]
 1644: Maulana Aji Anom Lions became the ruler Paser until the year 1667.
 1646: Sultan Banjar VI Saidullah be until the year 1660.
 1648: Dutch get a monopoly of pepper Banjarmasin dipasakan to the Sultan. [23]
 1650: Prince Aji Dipati ing the Great became King Kukar Martapura IX until year 1665. Amiril Pengiran Tidung Maharajalila I served the King until the year 1695.
 1659: Sultan Muhammad Zainuddin I (Marhum Affairs Laya) ruled the Sultanate Sukadana-Matan (1659-1724). Abdul-Jabbar became the Sultan of Brunei Jalilul XI until the year 1660.
 1660: Sultan Rakyatullah be Banjar VII until 1663, he made a treaty with the VOC December 18, 1660. Brunei Sultan Abdul Mubin become XIII until the year 1673.
 1661: Abdul Mubin Hakkul XIII to become the Sultan of Brunei in 1673. Sukadana-imperial envoy arrived in the Sultanate Matan Banjar to report that Sukadana back into the area of ​​the Sultanate of Banjar pegaruh since earlier in 1638.
 1662: According to Barra in 1662 there were only 12 junks a Malay, English, Portuguese and pepper transporting gold to Makassar, while in the Port of Banjarmasin filled with more than 1000 sailboats, both interinsuler trade and inter-continental trade.
 1663: Sultan Sultan Amrullah be Banjar VIII, but he later coup by Sultan Agung to be the Sultan of Banjar IX until year 1679, with the help of tribal Biaju and moved the capital to the River Prince, New York.
 1665: Prince Aji Dipati Maja became King Kusuma ing Martapura Kukar X until the year 1686.
 1766: Sultan of Sulu island Balambangan surrender to the British. [24]
 1667: I to King Solomon Panembahan Paser until the year 1680. He was the first ruler who holds Panembahan Paser.
 January 21, 1668: La Mohang Daeng Mangkona whose inhabitants founded the city of Samarinda is known as the Bugis Samarinda Seberang.
 1670: Sultan Muhammad Tajuddin from Sambas reigned until the year 1708.
 1672: Sultan Muhammad Syamsudin Sa’idul Khairiwaddien Nata, as the first ruler Sintang wear wear a higher degree of Sultan, ruled until 1737.
 1673: Muhyiddin XIV became the Sultan of Brunei until 1690.
 1675: Muhammad Syafeiuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until 16701675-1685.
 1680: Good Amirullah Kusuma ascended the throne back to Emperor Banjar X until the year 1700. Adam Panembahan I became Panembahan Paser until 1705. King Senggauk be Panembahan Mempawah.
 1686: Queen’s Court, the first woman to lead the Kutai Kingdom in 1700.
 January 18, 1689: Spreader Catholicism, Fr. Antonino Ventimiglia arrives at Banjarmasin from Goa, India. [25]
 June 25, 1689: Portuguese ships under the command of Captain Francesco Luigi Cottigno entering the island area plot in Kapuas district and establishing relationships with the tribe Dayak Ngaju [26].
 1690: Nassaruddin became Sultan of Brunei until the year 1705.
 1695: Amiril Pengiran Tidung Maharajalila II serving ruler until the year 1731.
 1698: Sultan Banjarmasin, Saidilah establish a contract with the UK.
 1699: In April, two of the English Captain Henry Watson and Cotesworth instructed to establish factory / warehouse in Yogyakarta. [27]
 1700: Hamidullah became Sultan Banjar XI until the year 1734. Prince Aji Old Dipati XII became the Sultan of Kutai which until the year 1710. In 1700 the war between the Hedgehog and Matan, because the seizure of diamond inheritance Kobi. Hedgehogs assisted by Bantam and VOC, because it then Bantam expressed Hedgehogs and Matan under the power of the Sultanate of Banten.


 the first British contack with what is indonesia date back to 1601 when Quen Elisabeth I sent an emissary to the sultan of Acheen (Aceh). correspondence from those early contacts is still exant in the british  library in london. World demand for spices had led the european powers to establish route to the indies, the island the today form the indonesia archipelago. Trading post and garrisons were won and lost in the European power struggle, but it was the dutch who came dominate the lucrative trade in spices.




Early history of Christianity in Indonesia is not the same as the dawn of the Protestant Church. In 1605 the Christian religion is no longer a stranger in the archipelago. Mung * kin once the Christian merchants from Arab khalifa or from South India to set foot in Indonesia starting from the 7th century or the 8th AD In 1323-1324 a member of the Franciscan Order, Oderico de Pordenone, visiting Borneo, the palace of Majapahit, and Sumatra. Twenty years later a messenger from the Pope met with a number of Christians in Sumatra [SGA I, 34v]. However, in this era of Christianity has not been rooted in the Earth Indonesia. Congregations that there may not leave scars, and in any case consists only of migrants.
Conversely, the expansion of Christianity that took place in the 16th century laid the foundation of the church that stands today. Around the year 1500 entered the Roman Catholic mission coincided with the soldiers and Portuguese and Spanish traders. In those days people of Spain and Portugal had just managed to repel the Arab rulers of Europe, but the Islamic kingdoms in North Africa remains a security threat to Southern Europe. At that time the Turks launched a great attack in the name of Islam in Southeast Europe. They conquered Christian countries in the Balkan peninsula and in 1529 invaded the country instead of Germany. Europeans feel besieged, and attempting to make a counter-attack by moving the circular. That way they hope to also get direct access to areas of origin of luxury goods as long as it reached Europe through the mediator in the East Indies and Egypt or Turkey. Then they explore the ocean to find a way to “the Indies”, which is located behind the Turkish camp.For them, the Indian was a fairy tale, the source of unimaginable wealth. As he sailed westward, the Spaniards discovered America, which at first they thought were “the Indies” (so-called natives “Indians”). A few years later, the Portuguese managed to reach the “Indies” the truth, namely the Indian Ocean region, and immediately began a military and economic war against the Muslims there, who they view as a ally of the Turks. They are not strong enough to colonize a large area, but only seize or establish a series of fortress along the trade route that stretched from India to Indonesia and China Eastern. Main strongholds is Goa (west coast of India), Malacca (Malaysia area now), Ternate and Solor (off the coast of Flores), as well as the Macao (China offshore). From their base in America, the Spaniards colonize and Christianize the North and Central Philippine region. At a later date, their influence extends to the islands of Sangihe and North Maluku.
It is clear that the activities of Europeans in Indonesia, particularly the Portuguese, religious motives, military motifs, and motifs interwoven trade. So fortresses they have dual functions. In it there is a military barracks, warehouses for merchandise, and a church building. The priests serving the soldiers and merchants in the fort. Sometimes they also came out to bring Christianity to the natives who live around the fort. But in general spread of the gospel does not become their primary goal. Said one high official of the Portuguese era: “They come with a crucifix in one hand and a sword in the other. But when they found wealth, they immediately rule out the cross and fill their pockets “. The most active group mission is to perform the work of the clergy of the order, in particular members of the Society of Jesus (SJ) who worked in Asia since the 1540s. Beside them, the Order of Franciscans and Dominicans also need to be called.
Laying the Basic Christian Church
Here we only give an outline of the history of Catholic missions in the 16th century and the 17th. Who want to know the ropes can find in the work history of the Catholic Church in Indonesia, Volume I, and the Yeast Carita I. We will successively discuss the development of western Indonesian archipelago and in the East.
At the time the Portuguese arrived in the archipelago, the inhabitants of coastal areas of Sumatra and Java had converted to Islam. After all, in terms of politics they are relatively compact, they have formed a powerful kingdom with a relatively large area, such as Aceh, Johor, Banten and Demak. Therefore, the mission did not succeed to get a foothold there. Only in the city of Malacca, which in the 1511-1641 period is the main stronghold in the east of Portuguese Goa, there is a rather large Christian congregation, headed by a bishop. But this congregation is made up of immigrants from Europe and their descendants. Elsewhere in the western part of the archipelago there is never a stable congregation.

in 1612, in Tolucco (Fort Hollandia). The main Dutch base of the  Moluccas remained however the fort of Malayo. In a few years, practically the greater part of the island of Ternate had been lost to the Spanish control. Great aid in this reached to the Dutch from their natural allies the Ternatens. In the same years in which these forts in Ternate were built, the Dutch control extended also to the other islands of the archipelago. Starting from 1608 also all the island of Makian was occupied by the Dutch who constructed to three fortresses long the coasts of the island. Makian was the richer island in absolute than nail of ambita garofano and that more from the Dutch who aimed to control the commerce of the spices. Another fortress, Fort Nassau, was built in 1609 in the island of Moti (Motir), island situated between Tidore and Maquiem (Machian), also this island was rich of cloves. In 1609, also the Spanish fort of Bachan was captured by the Dutch commandants vice admiral Simon Jansz Hoen. Practically after 1606, and between 1607 and 1610, the Dutch with theirs ally succeeded to force the Spanish on the defensive and took the control of great part of the islands. Under the Spanish control only remained the southern side of the island of Ternate (where was the main town of “Nuestra Seńora del Rosario”), the entire island of Tidore and some ports in the islands of Halmahera and Morotai. The Spanish garrisons had their headquarters in the islands of Ternate and Tidore where it’s often difficult to understand by the documents where were situated  the spanish “presidios”, the some “presidio” was sometimes called with different names causing not little difficulties to understand where and which was. In addition to a multitude of fortified places in Ternate and Tidore, the Spaniards maintained sometimes for a few years some garrisons also in the peripheral islands of Halmahera, Morotai and Sulawesi, these places were important  for the maintenance of the garrisons, because those islands were sources of sago and other indispensable food for   the maintenance of the garrisons and of the population of the islands of Ternate and Tidore, islands where because of the conformation of the land and the continuous state of war in which they were did not allow the cultivation of such products. Often the spanish garrisons depended for the refueling of food, dressed and ammunitions nearly exclusively from the so-called fleet of “soccorro” that  was sendt every year from the Philippines. When one of these fleets lacked to the appointment or because it was captured from the Dutch or because the bad weather who provoked frequent shipwrecks, were times of great lack for the Spanish soldiers of the garrisons and for the population of the Spanish city of Ternate. In spite of these deprivations and of the high human and material cost, the Spaniards maintained their own garrisons in Ternate, Tidore and in other islands, until 1663, year in which on order of the governor of the Philippines Manrique de Lara was decided the dismantling and the abandonment of all the garrisons of the Moluccas.

Major VOC posts and forts in the archipelago, 17th century


The Company’s initial interest was in obtaining spices from Maluku for direct shipment to Europe, and it established a fort in Ambon (Amboina) in 1605. Under the third Governor-General, J.P. Coen, however, the Company’s ambitions began to extend to taking part in trade within Asia. Coen decided that the Company needed a more central base and in 1619 founded a new headquarters, which he called Batavia, in the small trading city of Jayakarta on the northwestern coast of Java. In developing this so-called inter-Asian trade, the VOC made the most both of its capital reserves, which gave it disproportionate power in the market place, and its naval strength, which enabled it to sweep from the seas both pirates and Asian traders it now classified as smugglers because they infringed its monopolies.


The VOC’s interests in Indonesia were only part of its Asian empire. The Company had major trading operations in India and was the only European power permitted to trade in Japan. It came to control the islands of Ceylon (now Sri Lanka) and Formosa (now Taiwan), as well as a significant territory at the Cape of Good Hope. Most of the Company’s territories were ruled by governors subordinate to the Governor-General in Batavia; the gouvernement of Java’s Northeast Coast, therefore, was no more directly monitored from Batavia than was the distant Cape settlement. Even within the VOC structure, therefore, the ‘Netherlands Indies’, as a precursor to modern Indonesia, had no formal existence.


Banda under Dutch rule



The british had ben forced out of the cosmopolitan peper trading fort at banten near present day serang in 1648, but the were determinet to break the dutch  monopoly.

VOC territories and trading posts in Asia, 1650


The naval commercial power of the VOC, especially in an island region such as Indonesia, meant that the Company could pursue its interests on many fronts, but its two most important adversaries in the period to 1800 were Makasar and Mataram. Makasar, the main port in southern Sulawesi, became a major centre for the ‘smuggling’ trade which defied the Dutch monopoly until it succumbed to the Dutch and allied indigenous forces in a three-year war ending in 1669.

Coen had placed his headquarters on Java some distance from the rising central Java power of Mataram, but the two quickly came into conflict. In 1628 and 1629 forces from Mataram attacked Batavia but were repulsed. Thereafter, it was the Company which harassed Mataram, both deliberately circumscribing its power and finding itself drawn into civil wars and political conflicts within Mataram to defend its own interests. Following its participation in the defeat of Trunojoyo in 1678–1681, the VOC was a permanent element in Javanese politics and the Company gradually moved from being a maritime trading power to managing a territorial empire on Java. The Company’s administrative structure, however, continued to resemble that of a trading company, with officials below the level of governor holding mercantile titles and retaining principal responsibility for commercial matters along with administration

Sumatra, first half of 17th century

The successors of Sultan Iskandar Muda were unable to maintain the empire he had created and in the middle of the 17th century, the Acehnese empire began to contract. Within Aceh, moreover, royal power dwindled in the hinterland with the rise of powerful regional warlords or uleëbalang. Although Aceh remained independent, it was never again a major power.

Meanwhile, Aceh’s main rival, Johor, was also in decline. From the north, the aggressive Thai kingdom of Ayutthaya had turned Kedah into a vassal, requiring its ruler to send as tribute an intricate gold and silver tree (bunga mas dan perak). Johor was also under pressure from the south. From the middle of the 17th century, the pepper kingdoms of Jambi and Palembang had grown increasingly independent of their Javanese overlords and had begun to develop close relations with the VOC. Palembang soon fell out with the VOC, which sent forces to destroy its capital in 1659, but Jambi continued to prosper, repudiating Mataram’s overlordship in 1663. By 1673, Jambi was powerful enough to attack Johor and to destroy its capital utterly. Johor’s rulers then shifted their court once again into the islands for fifteen years. The final blow to Johor’s standing came in 1699, with the assassination of the brutal Sultan Mahmud, which broke Johor’s dynastic link with the prestige of the Melaka sultanate.

The decline of Aceh and Johor gave new opportunities to the Minangkabau peoples of central Sumatra. Siak on the Sumatra coast opposite Johor, Indrapura on the west coast, and the small Minangkabau communities of Sungai Ujung and Rembau near Melaka all became virtually independent in this era.


The founding of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) on 20 March 1602 marked the worldwide start of share trading. The VOC was the first company to give private citizens the opportunity to participate in its capital, and the documents recording their participation are thought to be the oldest shares in the world. The Amsterdam stock exchange owns one of the few remaining copies of this very rare document, which is seldom seen by the public. This VOC share will also be on display during Visitor’s Day.

VOC share

In 1602,


the English East India Company’s first voyage, commanded by Sir James Lancaster, arrived in Aceh, region of Indonesia, located on the northern tip of the island of Sumatra.  and sailed on to Bantam, where he was allowed to build trading post which becomes the centre of English trade in Indonesia until 1682. In this case, the Prince took the Dutch, arrival seriously as the Dutch had constructed many military. A military is an organization authorized by its greater society to use lethal force, usually including use of weapons, in defending its country by combating actual or perceived threats…

 1615 Prince Jayawikarta apparently also had a connection with the English and allowed them to build houses directly across from the Dutch buildings in 1615. When relations between Prince Jayawikarta and the Dutch later deteriorated, his soldiers attacked the Dutch fortress which covered two main buildings, Nassau and Mauritus. But even with the help of 15 ships from the English, Prince Jayawikarta’s army wasn’t able to defeat the Dutch, for Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen was a officer of the Dutch East India Company in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies….

 (J.P. Coen) came to Jayakarta just in time, drove away the English ships and burned the English trading post.

Things then changed for the Prince, when the Sultan of Banten sent his soldiers and summoned Prince Jayawikarta to establish a close relationship with the English without an approval of the Banten authorities. The relationships between both Prince Jayawikarta and the English with the Banten government then became worse and resulted in the Prince’s decision to move to Tanara, a small place in Banten, until his death. This assisted the Dutch in their efforts to establish a closer relationship with Banten. The Dutch had by then changed the name to “Batavia“, which remained until 1942.


In 1602 the Dutch set up the Dutch East Indies Company, Vereenigde Oostindie Compagnie in Dutch or VOC. In the Moluccas, the Dutch took a first Portuguese fort in 1605.


Maluku people’s resistance against the Portuguese, the Dutch used to set foot in the Moluccas. In 1605, the Dutch managed to force the Portuguese to give up its defenses in Ambon to Steven van der Hagen and the Tidore to Sebastiansz Cornelisz. Similarly, the British fort at Kambelo, Seram Island, destroyed by the Dutch. Since then the Dutch managed to control large parts of Maluku.
The position of the Dutch in the Moluccas strengthened with the establishment of the VOC in 1602, and since then the Dutch became the sole ruler in the Moluccas. Under the leadership of Jan Pieterszoon Coen, Chief Operating VOC, clove trade in the Moluccas sepunuh under the control of VOC for nearly 350 years. For this purpose the VOC did not hesitate to drive out competitors, Portuguese, Spanish, and English. Even tens of thousands of people become victims of brutality VOC Maluku.

Jan Pieterszoon Coen

Jan Pieterszoon Coen was a officer of the Dutch East India Company in the early seventeenth century, holding two terms as its Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies….

 was appointed the VOC governor general for the Moluccas. He too wanted to set up an establishment in Java. He took Jayakarta in 1619. On the ruins of the Javanese town, he founded Batavia, which he named after the ancestors of the Dutch people, the Germanic tribe of the Batavians

The Batavi were an ancient Germanic tribe, originally part of the Chatti, reported by Tacitus to have lived around the Rhine delta, in the area that is currently the Netherlands, “an uninhabited district on the extremity of the coast of Gaul, and also of a neighbouring island, surrounded by the…



Under a tropical sun these almost stagnant waters, soaking into-the soft soil, produced malaria, and the city came to be regarded as the graveyard of Europeans; the wealthy classes took up their residence in the suburbs which formed the new town on the heights of Weltevreden, whither the government offices were removed. Within a few years canals have been filled up and drainage introduced, so that the city is considered tolerably healthy. The thermometer ranges from 65° to 90°. The old town is mainly inhabited by natives and the poorer Chinese. The city has a bank and a newspaper, and has recently been connected with Singapore by a telegraphic cable 600 m. long. Among the principal public buildings are the Lutheran church, military hospital, and exchange. – Batavia occupies the site of the former native city of Jacatra, which was seized in 1619 by the Dutch governor Jan Pieterszoon Koen, the Dutch having a few years before set up a factory here. The capital of the Dutch possessions in India was now removed from Amboyna to this place. In 1628-‘9 the allied sovereigns of Bantam, Jacatra. and Mataram twice besieged the new city, with an army of 100,000 men, but were repulsed.

In 1641 there was a revolt of the Chinese population, of whom 12,000 were massacred by order of the governor, Adriaan Valckenaer. In 1811 it was captured by the English, but was restored to the Dutch after the peace.




When the kingdom was ruled by Raden Sumedang bans Suriadiwangsa, stepchild Geusan Ulun of RTU Harisbaya, Sumedanglarang into Mataram territory since 1620. Since then the status Sumedanglarang any changes from the kingdom into districts under the name Sumedang District. Mataram make Priangan as a region in western defenses against possible attacks Banten forces, and or Company based in Batavia, because of Mataram under Sultan Agung (1613-1645) hostile to the Company and the conflict with the Sultanate of Banten.
To oversee the Priangan, Sultan Agung lift Raden Aria Suradiwangsa be Wedana Regent (Regent Chief) in Priangan (1620-1624), with the title of Prince Rangga Gempol Kusumadinata, known as Rangga Gempol I.
In 1624 the great Emperor ordered Rangga Gempol I to conquer the Sampang (Madura). Therefore, the position represented Regent Wedana Priangan of younger princes Rangga Gempol I Dipati Rangga Gede. Shortly after Prince Dipati Rangga Gede served as Regent Wedana, Sumedang attacked by forces of Banten. Since most forces left Sumedang Sampang, Prince Dipati Rangga Gede unable to cope with the attack. As a result, he received a political sanction of Sultan Agung. Prince Dipati Rangga Gede held in Mataram. Regent Position Wedana Priangan submitted to Dipati Ukur, provided that he should be able to seize power Batavia of the Company.
Sultan Agung in 1628 ordered Dipati Ukur to help troops attacked the Mataram Company in Batavia. But the attack failed. Dipati Ukur realize that as a consequence of the failure that he will receive punishment similar to that received by Prince Dipati Rangga big, or a heavier punishment again. Therefore Dipati Ukur and their followers to rebel against Mataram. After the attacks on the Company fails, they do not come to Mataram report the failure of his duty. Dipati Ukur actions were considered by the party as a rebellion against the rulers of Mataram kingdom of Mataram.

Dipati Ukur occurrence of insubordination and his followers made possible, partly because of the Mataram difficult to monitor directly Priangan region, due to the distance between the center of Mataram Kingdom with regional Priangan. Theoretically, if the area is very far from the centers of power, the power center in the region are very weak. However, thanks to the assistance some areas in Priangan Head, Mataram party to quell the rebellion finally Dipati Ukur. According to Soil History (Chronicle), Dipati Ukur caught on Mount Barn (Bandung district) in the year 1632.

After the “rebellion” Dipati Ukur deemed concluded, Sultan Agung handed back office to the Prince Regent Wedana Priangan Dipati Rangga Gede who has been free from punishment. In addition, reorganization of government in Priangan to stabilize the situation and condition of the area. Priangan area outside Sumedang and Galuh divided into three districts, namely Bandung District, County and District Parakanmuncang Sukapura raised by three regional heads of Priangan which is considered to have contributed to quell the rebellion Dipati Ukur.

Third person referred to is the regional head Astamanggala Ki, was appointed head nurse pennant Cihaurbeuti great (regent) of Bandung with a degree Tumenggung Wiraangunangun, Tanubaya as regent Parakanmuncang and Ngabehi Wirawangsa became regent Sukapura with Wiradadaha Tumenggung title. The three men were sworn in together on the basis “Piagem Sultan Agung”, issued on Saturday the 9th of Muharam Year Alip (Javanese calendar). Thus, on 9 Muharam Taun Alip not just an anniversary of Bandung Kabupagten but at the same time as the anniversary Sukapura District and County Parakanmuncang.

Bandung 1800
The establishment of Bandung regency, means in Bandung area changes occur mainly in the areas of government. The area originally was part (subordinate) of the kingdom (the Kingdom of Sunda-Pajararan then Sumedanglarang) with an unclear status, turned into a region with a clear administrative sttus, namely district.
After the third regent appointed Mataram in central government, they return to their respective regions. Sadjarah Bandung (manuscript) states that the Regent of Bandung Tumeggung Wiraangunangun along with his followers from returning to the Tatar Ukur Mataram. The first time they come to Timbanganten. Where the regent of Bandung get 200 count.
Next Tumenanggung Wiraangunangun together people build Krapyak, a place located on the shores near the mouth of the Citarum River Sungat Cikapundung, (suburb of the southern part of Bandung Regency) as the district capital. As the central area of ​​Bandung regency, Krapyak and the surrounding area called Earth chick Gede.
Bandung District administrative area under the influence of Mataram (until the end of the 17th century), not known for sure, because accurate source that contains data about it is not / has not been found. According to native sources, the early stages of data covering several areas of Bandung regency, among others, Tatar Ukur, including area Timbanganten, Kuripan, Sagaraherang, and partly Tanahmedang.
Perhaps, the area outside the District Priangan Sumedang, Parakanmuncang, Sukapura and Galuh, which originally was Tatar territory Measure (Measure Sasanga) in the reign of Dipati Ukur, an administrative area of ​​Bandung regency at that time. If the allegations are true, then the capital of Bandung regency with Krapyak, its territory includes the area Timbanganten, Gandasoli, Adiarsa, Cabangbungin, Banjaran, Cipeujeuh, Majalaya, Cisondari, cavities, Kopo, Ujungberung and others, including area Kuripan, Sagaraherang and Tanahmedang.
Bandung regency as one of the district which formed the Kingdom of Mataram, and under the influence of royal authority, the system of government in Bandung Regency has a system of government of Mataram. Regent has a variety of symbols greatness, special guards and armed soldiers. Symbol and attributes it adds a big and strong power and influence over his people Bupti.
The amount of power and influence of the regents, among others, indicated by the possession of the privileges normally dmiliki by the king. These rights are the rights referred to inherit the position, only to collect taxes in money and goods, ha obtained a labor (Ngawula), hunting and fishing rights and the right to prosecute.
With very limited direct supervision of the rulers of Mataram, it is no wonder if that time Regent of Bandung in particular and generally Priangan Regents ruling like a king. He ruled over the people and regions. Pemerinatahn System regent and lifestyle is miniature of palace life. In performing its duties, the regent assisted by his subordinate officials, such as governor, prosecutors, rulers, village headman or chief cutak (head of district), district (chief assistant district), patinggi (headman or village leader) and others.
Bandung regency under the influence of the Mataram until the end of 1677. Then Bandung regency in the hands of the Company. This It occurs due to Mataram-VOC agreement (first agreement) December 19 to 20 October 1677. Under the authority of the Company (1677-1799), Regent of Bandung and other Regents Priangan still serves as the supreme ruler of the district, with no bureaucratic ties with the Company.
District government system basically does not have changes, because the Company only demanded that the regents recognize the power of the Company, with a guarantee to sell certain products of the earth to the VOC. In this case, the regents must not engage in political relations and trade with other parties. One thing that changed was the office of regent Wedana removed. Instead, the Company raised Prince Aria Cirebon as a supervisor (opzigter) area of ​​Cirebon-Priangan (Cheribonsche Preangerlandan).
One of the main obligations of the regents of the Company is obliged to carry out the planting of certain crops, especially coffee, and deliver results. The system is called Preangerstelsel compulsory planting. Meanwhile, the regents must maintain security and order in his territory. Regents also must not appoint or dismiss employees without consideration of subordinates regent regent ruler of the Company or the Company in Cirebon. For the regents to implement obligations of the latter well, the influence of the regent in the field of religion, including income from that field, such as the penis nature, are not bothered whether the regents and the people (farmers) get paid upon delivery of a large coffee determined by the Company.
Until the end of the power of VOC-VOC end in 1779, Bandung regency capital is Krapyak. During the Bandung regency ruled for generations by the six regents. Tumenggung Wiraangunangun (the first regent) ankatan Mataram who ruled until 1681. Five other regents are force the regents of the Company namely Tumenggung Ardikusumah who ruled in 1681-1704, Tumenggung Anggadireja I (1704-1747), Tumenggung Anggadireja II (1747-1763), R. Anggadireja III with a degree of RA Wiranatakusumah I (1763-1794) and RA Wiranatakusumah II who ruled from 1794 until 1829. In the reign of regents RA Wiranatakusumah II, moved the capital of Bandung Regency from Karapyak to the city of Bandung.

In 1613,

 prince Rangsang became king of Mataram

Mataram Sultanate

The Sultanate of Mataram was the last major independent Javanese empire on Java before the island was colonized by the Dutch. It was the dominant political force in interior Central Java from the late 16th century until the beginning of the 18th century….

 in Central Java. The following year, he attacked the principality of Surabaya


Surabaya is Indonesia’s second-largest city with a population of over 2.7 million , and the capital of the province of East Java…

 in the east. The man who would be remembered as Sultan Agung had started a series of successful campaigns against rival kingdoms and principalities on Java.

 In 1625,

in addition to Central Java, Mataram was in control of central and eastern parts of the island’s northern coast, called the Pasisir. Now Agung wanted to take on Banten and Batavia.


Agung launched a first offensive on Batavia in 1628. Having suffered heavy losses, he had to retreat. he launched a second offensive in 1629. The Dutch fleet destroyed his supplies and his ships in the harbours of Cirebon


Cirebon is a port city on the north coast of the Indonesian island of Java. It is located in the province of West Java near the provincial border with Central Java, approximately 297 km east of Jakarta, at .The seat of a former Sultanate, the city’s West and Central Java border location have…

 and Tegal

Tegal is the largest city in the Tegal Regency, Indonesia. It is located on the north coast of Central Java about from Cirebon. Slawi, about to the south, is its suburb….

. Mataram troops, starving and decimated by illness, had to retreat again.

However, Agung pursued his conquering ambitions to the east. He attacked Blitar

Blitar is a city and also the capital of the regency of the same name on East Java, Indonesia, about 73 kilometers from Malang and 167 kilometers from Surabaya. The area lies within longitude 111° 40′ – 112° 09′ East and its latitude is 8° 06′ South…

, Panarukan and the Blambangan principality in Java’s eastern salient, a vassal of the Bali

Bali is an Indonesian island located in the westernmost end of the Lesser Sunda Islands, lying between Java to the west and Lombok to the east. It is one of the country’s 33 provinces with the provincial capital at Denpasar towards the south of the island….

nese kingdom of Gelgel

Gelgel may refer to:*Gelgel, Chad, a city in Chad*Gelgel, Indonesia, a village on the island of Bali, and a former kingdom…

. Agung died in 1646. His son succeeded him under the title of Susuhunan

Sunan (Indonesian title)
Sunan is the shorter version of “Susuhunan”, both used as an honourific in Java Indonesia.According to Hamka in his book Dari Perbendaharaan Lama the word derived from a Javanese word for position of hands in reverential salutation, done with hands pressed together, palms touching and fingers……

 outside the city walls

Makasar empire before 1667

Pre-colonial records are even sparser for eastern Indonesia than they are for Sulawesi, and only the sketchiest outline can be given of the region’s history before the 17th century.

The islands of Maluku had supplied cloves to other parts of the world since at least 1700 B.C., according to archaeological evidence from the Middle East, and they were also the only source of nutmeg. The small islands with their narrow coastal plains, however, could only sustain a relatively small population, and there appear to have been no large polities in the region before the 15th century, when the tiny clove-producing islands of Ternate and Tidore began to emerge as major political centres. Except in Sula, Buru, Ambon and Seram, where Ternatean aristocrats ruled directly, both empires operated as a network of alliances and vassalages, rather than as tightly ruled polities, and there was considerable ebb and flow in the degree of authority that each exercised. Ternate reached the peak of its power in the late 16th century under the warlike Sultan Baabullah.

Traditional kingdoms of Maluku, early 15th century, and the spheres of influence of Ternate and Tidore, early 16th century

As the main reason for European interest in the Indies, the Spice Islands were amongst the first to experience direct European military intervention. Ternate and Tidore were unable to prevent first the Portuguese and Spanish and later the Dutch and English from establishing fortified trading posts in the region, though Ternate had a number of military victories over the Europeans in the course of the sporadic hostilities of the 16th and early 17th centuries.

By the middle of the 17th century, however, Ternate’s need for free trade in spices was fundamentally in conflict with the Dutch aims for monopoly. In 1652, the Dutch extracted a treaty from Ternate giving the Company a monopoly of clove production, and broke the power of local Ternatean lords in a series of bloody campaigns during the next few years. The Company then centred clove production on Ambon and sent out periodic expeditions to destroy clove trees in other regions.

The great island of New Guinea was also a major centre of population, but its people were concentrated in the interior and except on the fringes close to Maluku there is no record at all of political forms before the 17th century.

Imagining the Archipelago

Although trade routes had tied the Indonesian archipelago to China, India and the Middle East since very early times, the region remained relatively unknown to outsiders until five or six centuries ago. Long distances and the hazards of travel, together with the fact that Indonesians themselves carried most of the products of their islands to the outside world, meant that scholars in the major centres of civilization generally relied on sparse and often second hand accounts of Southeast Asia.

In the West, the Egyptian geographer Claudius Ptolemy (c. 85–165 AD) prepared a major geographical work, the Periplus of the Erythrean Sea, containing a compilation of information on the region gathered from traders and seafarers. Ptolemy described a Golden Chersonese, or peninsula, far to the east which is normally identified with the Malay Peninsula and he records the existence of many islands in the vicinity. Ptolemy’s geography formed the basis of most Western conceptions of the Far East until the 16th century, and also influenced some of the Arab geographers. The maps of Idrisi (d. 1165) show a good deal more detail than those based on Ptolemy’s account, but they clearly reflect an attempt to reconcile imprecise and contradictory information originating from several centuries and a wide variety of sources.


In the 1580’s

there was the mission in East Java which is still part of Hindu religion; a century later, an Italian priest named Ventimiglia managed to penetrate into the interior of South Kalimantan. But the effort failed.
Developments in other Eastern Indonesia. As noted above, there the Portuguese could not determine its own direction they wish to travel, but more must react to the actions of others. Similarly with their mission. Christianity was successfully implanted in Eastern Indonesia. Only, unlike the way the expansion of rice or other food crops, grown in a planned, but more like the grasses that grow anywhere seed carried by wind or birds. Society of Jesus tried to spread the Gospel with more regular. But in the midst of storms of war, they had not managed to instill congregations in new areas. Later, in China, Japan, and India, the Jesuits and members of other orders indicates that they are able to build a solid church, so long as they can work in peace.


Kerajaan Sukapura

Kerajaan/ Kadipaten SukapuraMerupakan kerajaan/ kadipaten lama di Jawa Barat. Lokasinya adalah sebagai berikut:
Sumber: Digital Atlas of Indonesian History by Robert Cribb.Raja-raja dan bupati swapraja yang pernah memerintah Sukapura adalah:
• Wiradedaha I (1641-?)
• Wiradedaha II (?-1674)
• Anggadipa Wiradedaha III (1674-1726)


It was on the 12 th july 1685  that ralph ord, the repsentative of the honourable East india company, managed to establish a settlemen at bencoolen, concluding an agreement with the local rulers fort the supply of papper to the company, in return for an undertaking to protect them from the dutch.

Bencoolen was considered to be in a strategic position to control the trade route through the sunda strait. In fact its strategic infortance was never realised as most Europeen  shipping chose to use the starait of malacca, the more direct route from india to china. Bencoolen was to remain the head quarters for the company’s Operations in sumatra. A number of small trading post, or factories as the were called  from the title of factor, (the official responsible for the settlement), were established on the west coast of sumatra from Tapanuli, natal and moko moko in the north, to manna and krui in the south, near the modern border with lampung.



Gouvenor general VOC

View of the city of Batavia, seen from out to sea with many ships in the foreground, including four East Indiamen

View of Batavia, 1730
View of the city of Batavia, seen from out to sea with many ships in the foreground, including four East Indiamen.

After the Dutch arrived in the East Indies in 1596, the VOC (Dutch East India Company) established its headquarters in the city of Jayakarta, on the island of Java.

Later renamed Batavia, the city (now Jakarta) soon became the capital of the East Indies and the principal harbour for Dutch ships sailing to and from Europe.

The Governor-General and Council in Batavia controlled all VOC trade in Asia, and the city reflected the company’s monopolistic approach. Private trade at most of the ports was prohibited, except in Batavia.

View of the city and castle of Batavia in two parts 1650 – 1700

View of the city and castle of Batavia in two parts 1650–1700

The VOC was not the first to use the monopoly approach. But it was the VOC and its appetite for new markets that eventually put Australia on the map.

Soon after the company established its base in the city, Batavia became the launching place for the first of many Dutch voyages of discovery beyond the Spice Islands.

In 1605, VOC headquarters in Amsterdam issued an order to Frederick de Houtman, Governor in Batavia: ‘There must be more charting, mapping and exploring of the lands further east of the Spice Islands and a renewed search for a passage through to the Pacific Ocean’.

The twin objectives of the expeditions to the unknown south were trade and territory: commanders of the voyages were instructed to find new commercial prospects and acquire new land. They were the orders that effectively signalled the beginning of the Dutch discovery of Australia.

Map of the islands in the Banda Sea and the New Guinea region showing the tracks of the Duyfken in 1606

Desepascaert vertoont de wegh, soo int heen als in het weerom seylen, die gehouden is bij het jacht het Duijfien in het besoecken van de landen beoosten Banda, tot aen Nova Guinea.
Map of the islands in the Banda Sea and the New Guinea region showing the tracks of the Duyfken in 1606.
engraving; 61.5 x 56.0 cm
Reproduction: Monumenta cartographica, Hague: Martinus Nijhoff, 1925
National Library of Australia

Captained by Willem Janszoon, the voyage of the Duyfken in 1606 was the first of several planned voyages to the north of Australia. A secret map, Dese pascaert vertoont, shows the route of the Duyfken and the first European landfall on the Australian continent, at 11°45’S. Most VOC voyages, commercial or explorative, were secret. But maps of their voyages soon revealed to the world the extent of their discoveries. Janszoon’s discoveries were thought to be an extension of New Guinea as the Duyfken had missed Torres Strait.

No second voyage of discovery to the south lands was organised until 1623, though the Dutch did consider it. In 1620, prompted after a series of accidental landfalls on Australia’s west coast, the Seventeen urged closer investigation of the extent of Janszoon’s discoveries.

In 1622, Dutch exploration of the unknown South Land suddenly became urgent. In that year, the English ship the Trial (or Tryall) became the first European ship to come to grief on the Australian coast. The Trial was wrecked off the Montebello Islands, in north-west Australia. Captain John Brookes and 45 of his crew sailed in two boats to Batavia to mount a rescue, but 93 people left behind died.The safety of the VOC ships was paramount. On 29 September, VOC officials in Batavia instructed the captains of the de Haringh and Hasewint to combine the search for new trading opportunities with the pressing need to chart unknown, and possibly dangerous, stretches of coastline.

The main object for which you are dispatched on this occasion is, that for 45° or 50°S, or from the farthest point to which the land shall be found to extend southwards within these latitudes, up to the northernmost extremity of the South Land you will have to discover and survey all capes, forelands, bights, lands, islands, rocks, sandbanks, depths, shallows, roads, winds, currents and all that appertains to the same, so as to be able to map out and duly mark everything in its true latitude, longitude, bearings and conformation. You will moreover go ashore in various places and diligently examine the coast in order to ascertain whether or not it is inhabited, the nature of the land and the people, their towns and inhabited villages, the divisions of their kingdoms, their religion and polity, their wars, their rivers, the shape of their vessels, their fisheries, commodities and manufactures, but especially to inform yourselves what minerals, such as gold, silver, tin, iron, lead, and copper, what precious stones, pearls, vegetables, animals and fruits, these lands yield and produce.

Bonaparte Tasman map

Carten dese landen Zin ontdeckt bij de compangie ontdeckers behaluen het norder deelt van noua guina ende het West Eynde van Java dit Warck aldus
[Bonaparte Tasman map]
‘Map these lands were discovered by the Company’s explorers except for the northern part of New Guinea and the west end of Java.’
manuscript map, hand-coloured; 73.0 x 95.0 cm
State Library of New South Wales

While this project came to nothing, the following year the voyage of discovery of the ships Pera and Arnhem added significantly to Dutch knowledge of the Gulf of Carpentaria, and the discoveries of Jan Carstensz began to appear on regional and world maps.

Twenty years later, the VOC was still probing, and Dutch discoveries reached their climax with Abel Tasman‘s two voyages in 1642–43 and 1644.

In August 1642, Anthonie van Diemen, Governor-General of the East Indies from 1636 to 1645, instructed Abel Tasman to ‘sail to the partly known as well as the undiscovered South and East lands, to discover them and find some important lands, or at the very least some practicable passages to well known rich places, to be used eventually to enhance and enlarge the general welfare of the company’.

New Holland, as the Dutch and for a time the rest of the world would come to know Australia, offered little through trade in the way of spices or precious stones or produce. With only a few exceptions, the Dutch navigators had experienced some of the most desolate and inhospitable of Australia’s coasts. They were confounded by their contact with Indigenous Australians.

After the loss of several ships and with little to show for its effort, the VOC began losing interest in the South Land with each expedition. The last significant voyage commissioned by the company was that of Willem de Vlamingh in 1696.

Some VOC expeditions that left Batavia to explore the South Land

Duyfken, 1606

Captain Willem Janszoon, sailing in the Duyfken, made landfall on the western side of Cape York Peninsula in north Australia and charted about 320 kilometres of coastline. It was Europe’s first recorded contact with Australia.



The wreck Of Batavia Ship

Mutiny on the Batavia

This is the article  of the shipwreck of the Batavia, and the ensuing mutiny and massacre.

Well, despite all the carnage the surviving crew and passengers of the Batavia were lucky in one sense, they were eventually rescued. In 1711 another Dutch ship, the Zuytdorp, also wrecked upon the same remote coast. Actually many Dutch ships had disappeared before along this coast, which was bad news for the Zuytdorp, because when she didn’t make it to Indonesia, no search was made. Presumably becasue of the expense of previous fruitless searches. This was unfortunate for the Zuytdorp,  because some survivors made it ashore. Starting in the 1920s when westerners started penetrating this remote area of coast, many artifacts from a shipwreck were found, some clearly having been carried to cliff tops with unmistakable evidence of habitation found as well. And while the survivors may indeed have tried to signal passing ships, even if they were seen most likely ships simply regarded them as fires set by aborigines.

Both the wreck and the land sites were excavated in a  series of digs over many decades, and many artifacts discovered. Coins dated 1711 very early pegged the site as the Zuytdorp, it was carrying a cargo of said coins, and in fact when the site was first visited by divers, they reported  a “carpet” of silver coins.

The excavation took decades because the location is so treacherous that only a  few days a year is it safe to dive. And even on land the airstrip is extremely windy and dangerous. It was done though, and many artifacts were recovered. The big question, what happened to the survivors, was never answered. Did any of them join with the aborigines? Could there be aborigines with 17th and 18th century Dutch DNA in them? Remember, two of the Batavia mutineers were also marooned on this coast, and no doubt other unknown survivors made it ashore in the centuries that Dutch ships hugged this coast. Alas, a 2002 DNA study concluded, not likely.

As for the wreck of the Batavia, it was discovered in the sixties, and in pretty good shape all things considered. It was excavated in the early seventies, one of the first great underwater shipwreck excavations. It inspired laws to protect such sites, and many further recovery efforts. Much of the stern of the ship was recovered intact, as well as a stone archway intended for a Dutch fort in Indonesia. Both can be seen above, as they are on display in the Fremantle Maritime Museum, in Fremantle Australia. Human remains were recovered as well, and I read that some of them are on display too.

And on the islands where the actual fighting and battles took place, there have been excavations. The remains of the fort and the well built by Wiebbe Hayes and his men are still to be seen, and are in fact the oldest European built structures in Australia. Yes, the “barren” island Wiebbe Hayes and company had been left on actually had an aquifer, and a shallow well provided fresh water. And they had discovered that they could wade at low tide to another nearby island, East Wallabi Island. And on said island,  some sort of small island wallaby lived. They were delicious.

That was one of many details I left out of a fascinating but complicated story. Complicated in and of itself, and complicated by the fact that I had trouble finding good images or even maps of the area. I did find some pictures of Wiebbe Hayes Fort here. Unfortunately the images show two stone structures, with no explanation as to which is what. Still, the fact that the earliest structures built by Europeans in Australia are still intact shows nicely just how remote the Abrolhos Islands, or more properly, the Houtman Abrolhos, really are.

. The wreck of the Batavia happened over 400 years ago, yet multiple threads from this event are still unravelling.

It probably goes without saying that Jeronimus Cornelisz was a psychopath/sociopath.

 The link above says he was a devil worshipper, which may or may not be true, it’s suspected but not proved that he had links with Johannes van der Beeck, a Dutch artist who was executed for atheistic and Satanistic beliefs. I suspect without Jeronimus Cornelisz the mutiny would never have happened or been a much more bloodless thing. A case can be made that many if not most of the murderous mutineers only became murderers because they got trapped on a deserted island with a psychopath. Imagine Gilligan’s Isle if Gilligan had been a psychopath. Yikes. This is why I never get in an elevator with strangers.

Pera and Arnhem, 1623

Carta particolare della costa Australe scoperta dall'Olandesi … d’ Asia Carta

Sir Robert Dudley (1574–1649)
Carta particolare della costa Australe scoperta dall’Olandesi … d’ Asia Carta
Part of the coast of New Holland.
engraving; 47.5 x 37.3 cm
Firenze: Nella stamperia di Francesco Onofri, 1647
Northern Territory Library

Captain Jan Carstenszoon in the Pera and Captain Willem van Coolsteerd in the Arnhem explored the south coast of New Guinea and the western side of Cape York Peninsula. Carstenszoon went on to chart the Gulf of Carpentaria, naming it for Pieter de Carpentier, the Governor-General in Batavia. Meantime, van Coolsteerd charted the northern part of Arnhem Land.





After these initial West African slavesSlave sale notice were brought to the Cape the Dutch East India Company fell into line with agreements with the Dutch West Indian Company to focus its slaving operations on the African territories on Indian Ocean coast and East Indies.
See full size image

In addition to the dedicated Cape based slaver ships, other slaver ships of many nationalities anchored in the Cape with ‘cargoes` destined for Europe and the Americas.


Some from amongst this ‘cargo` ware sent to Indonesia(Dutch Indie)

Heemskerck and Zeehaen, 1642

Abel Tasman, commanding the Heemskerck and Zeehaen, became the first European to sight Van Diemen’s Land (Tasmania), Statenlandt (New Zealand) and the islands of Tonga and Fiji. Tasman charted much of Tasmania, but missed Bass Strait and the east coast of the continent, proceeding east to New Zealand.

Zeemeeuw, Limmen and Bracq, 1644

Commanding a second expedition of three ships, the Zeemeeuw, Limmen and Bracq, Tasman charted much of Australia’s north and north-west coasts, from Cape York in the east to Point Cloates in the west.




Dutch travel literature: the account of Wouter Schouten’s adventurous travels in the East Indies in a rare French edition, published in 1708 by Pierre Mortier. The ship surgeon Schouten travelled widely in the East Indies between 1658 and 1665, visiting Colombo (Ceylon), the Malabar coast, Bengal, Arakan, Batavia, Formosa (= Taiwan), Sumatra, the Moluccas and Amboina.View of Nagasaki

Being an observant traveller, his narrative contains much detailed information on life in the East, including an eye-witness report of the Dutch Siege of Makassar, Ceylon.


the Indian Ocean Slave Trade  

As stated in other posts, the first slaves to be brought to the Cape Colony were from West Africa, but that soon changed to a position where slaves almost exclusively came from the Indian Ocean slave trade.

From the 1660s until 1742, a majority, over 57% of slaves, came from India and the Indonesian Archipelago. Thereafter the figures decreased.

After 1767 a combination of official reluctance to bring slaves from the east and, a decrease in the fortunes of Dutch shipping, finally resulted in the import of eastern slaves dwindling to a trickle. During the overall 180 year period of slavery around 51% of new slaves in the Cape came from Africa, Madagascar and the Mascarenes, 26% from India and 22% from the Indonesian Archipelago.

This post deals with the complex roots of the Indian and Indonesian components which dominated the early years of slavery at the Cape and has often been simplistically referred to as the Malay slaves.

South India.bmp South INDIA3.bmp

The heyday of the Dutch dominance in the Indian Ocean Slave Trade is poorly understood in South Africa, in terms of where slaves actually originally came from. The confusion arises out of the ‘shorthand` accounts of ships bringing slaves from slaving ‘stations` or ‘centres` rather than where slaves originally actually were taken. Modern day Indonesia and Malaysia and its attributes are also overlaid on the situation pertaining in the 17th and 18th centuries. In South Africa we have also allowed the local construct of a ‘Cape Malay` Muslim identity cloud our understanding of the roots of eastern slavery.

According to Markus Vink, The World`s Oldest Trade: Dutch Slavery and Slave Trade in the Indian Ocean in the Seventeenth Century, Journal of World History 14, no. 2 (Fall 2003): the Dutch Indian Ocean slave system drew captive labour from three interlocking and overlapping circuits of sub-regions: the westernmost, African circuit of East Africa, Madagascar, and the Mascarene Islands (Mauritius and Réunion); the middle, South Asian circuit of the Indian subcontinent (Malabar, Coromandel, and the Bengal/Arakan coast); and the easternmost, Southeast Asian circuit of Malaysia, Indonesia, New Guinea (Irian Jaya), and the southern Philippines.

Vink goes on to establish that ‘in general, the Dutch slave trade took people from segmented microstates and stateless societies in the East outside the House of Islam to the company`s Asian headquarters, the Chinese colonial city of Batavia (Jakarta), and its regional centre in the western districts of the Indian Ocean, coastal Ceylon (Sri Lanka),` From here slaves were dispersed to strategic footholds in Malacca and Makassar and in eastern Indonesian islands of Maluku, Ambon, and Banda. The Cape Colony was also one of these strategic footholds of Dutch interest.

Markus Vink establishes that the first circuit or sub-region of the Dutch Slave Trade, the Indian subcontinent (Arakan/Bengal, Malabar, and Coromandel), remained the most important source of slave labour until the mid 1660s. Vink says that during the first thirty years of Batavia`s existence, Indian and Arakanese slaves provided the main labour force of the company`s Asian headquarters. The point is further made that until the Dutch seizure of the Portuguese settlements on the Malabar coast (165863), large numbers of slaves were also captured and sent from India`s west coast to Batavia, Ceylon, and elsewhere. After 1663, however, the stream of forced labour from Cochin dried up to a trickle of about 50100 and 80120 slaves per year to Batavia and Ceylon, respectively.


Amongst the Cape Colony slaves, Bengal, coast of Coromandel, Saloor (Ceylon), Cochin, Palicatte, Devanampatnam and other places of origin listed in slave inventories feature strongly in the last three decades of the 1600s. Vink makes the point that in contrast with other areas of the Indian subcontinent, Coromandel remained the centre of a spasmodic slave trade throughout the seventeenth century. In various short-lived booms accompanying natural and human-induced calamities, the Dutch exported thousands of slaves from the east coast of India. South African history does little to acknowledge these Indian roots of slaves in the Cape. Generally it projects that Indians first came to South Africa as indentured labourers and merchants in the late 1800s. That this migration occurred is absolutely true as the large KwaZulu-Natal Indian population has its roots therein. But it is not the only truth.

In the Cape Colony the much earlier forced Indian migration has left very little of a distinct Indian character amongst the population. The dubbing over of Indian roots with the ‘Cape Malay` construct whereby all eastern slaves got lumped together as a constructed ethnic identity, resulted in wiping out historical facts. This had more to do with dividing slave descendants who had the same roots, into Christian and Muslim entities as though distinct ethnic differences existed. The irony was that many who had been enslaved and sold to the Dutch were often the ‘heathen` victims of conquering Muslim religious armies in South-Indian wars. In the Cape many of these ‘hindu` or ‘heathen` slaves converted to Islam, while others converted to Christianity. When war and religious conquest was not the reason for enslavement, then famine facilitated enslavement. Markus Vink makes the point elsewhere that between 1620 and 1830, Hindu Bali, internally divided among various rival states after the collapse of the kingdom of Gelgel, exported at least 100,000 members of its own population and neighboring Lombok, Sumbawa, Sumba, and elsewhere as slaves.

Masters & Slaves1.JPG

Markus Vink in his study provides the following information: ‘A third short-lived boom in slaving took place between 1659 and 1661 due to the devastation of Tanjavur resulting from a series of successive Bijapuri raids, creating the usual famine-slave cycle. At Nagapatnam, Pulicat, and elsewhere, the company purchased 8,00010,000 slaves, the bulk of whom were sent to Ceylon while a small portion were shipped to Batavia and Malacca. A fourth boom (167377) was initiated by a long drought in
Madurai and southern Coromandel starting in 1673, exacerbated by the prolonged Madurai-Maratha struggle over Tanjavur and resulting oppressive fiscal practices. Between 1673 and 1677, the VOC exported 1,839 slaves from the Madurai coast alone. A fifth boom occurred in 1688, caused by a combination of poor harvests and the Mughal advance into the Karnatak. Reportedly thousands of people from Tanjavur, mostly girls and little boys, were sold into slavery and exported by Asian traders from Nagapattinam to Aceh, Johor, and other slave markets’.

In September 1687, 665 slaves were exported by the English from Fort St. George, Madras. The Dutch decision to participate was belated for the boom ended as abruptly as it had started as a result of the abundant rice harvest in early 1689. Finally, in 169496, when warfare once more ravaged South India, a total of 3,859 slaves were imported from Coromandel by private individuals into Ceylon.`

Vink goes on to elaborate that ‘after 1660 relatively more slaves came from the second circuit or sub-region, Southeast Asia. Warfare and endemic raiding expeditions provided a steady supply of slaves from the region`s stateless societies and microstates, especially after the collapse of the powerful sultanate of Makassar (Goa) in Southwest Sulawesi (1667/1669). The slave trade network in the archipelago revolved around the dual axis of Makassar and Bali. Makassar was the main transit port for slaves from Borneo (Kalimantan), Sulawesi, Buton (Butung), and the northeastern islands, as well as the eastern Tenggara islands (Lombok, Sumbawa, Bima, Manggarai, and Solor). The kingdoms of Bali were not only independent slave exporters, but also re-exported slaves from eastern Indonesia as far as New Guinea (Irian Jaya). Of almost 10,000 Indonesian slaves brought to Batavia by Asian vessels between 1653 and 1682, 41.66% (4,086) came from South Sulawesi, 23.98% (2,352) from Bali, 12.07% (1,184) from Buton, 6.92% (679) from the Tenggara islands, and 6.79% (646) from Maluku (Ambon and Banda).`

This post shows just the surface of the complexity of roots that exist behind those who were labelled Cape Malays in the Cape Colony, a term that has been accepted by some and rejected by others. Both Christian Coloured people and Muslim Coloured people have these roots that were dubbed ‘Cape Malay`, but which have a very strong Indian Hindu background as well as roots amongst islanders practicing animist beliefs and even Catholic converts of the Portuguese. Conversion to Islam largely took place in Cape Town when Muslim rebellious nobles, political and religious leaders captured in the East were exiled to the Cape. They had a profound and positive influence on the enslaved and offered social coherence and comfort in dire circumstances. The ‘Cape Malay` construct is here to stay but we should ensure that the historical distortions are cleared up so that all Coloured people may celebrate the hidden layers of cultures that are part of who we were and are. The Indian and multifaceted Indonesian Archipelago roots can be celebrated by us all and should not be allowed to be ghettoised .


Why they signed on for the VOC 1)

Reading the Journael of the Ongeluckige Voyagie van ‘t Jacht de Sperwer (the unhappy voyage of the jaght the Sperwer) makes one wonder what made people throw themselves in an adventure like this. One may consider the shipwrecking of the Sperwer and the involuntary stay of the surviving crew as a company accident, but who enlisted as a sailor on a VOC ship, should have known that one exposed himself at a considerable risk.

Though the Heeren XVII did everything in their power to make these risks as small as possible. And not totally without success. The health conditions of the crew for instance became little by little better. Around the middle of the seventeenth century contagious diseases like cholera, didn’t occur more on board of the ships than in contemporary Amsterdam.

From the records which have been kept, we know that he, who survived the first journey, made statistically a good chance to keep up for years. According to present standards these ships would have been hardly called seaworthy. Nevertheless it appeared from the ‘daghregisters‘ (daily records) in which the departures and arrivals of the ships were written down, that from the so-called return ships on route to the Indies in two centuries only two percent perished. From the ships on their way home only four percent didn’t return. So it is well possible that the perspective of being separated for a long time from family and acquaintances was a bigger drawback for signing on then the fear of possible dangers. But maybe was the desire for adventure sometimes bigger than the family ties. According to Arthur van Schendel the scent of pepper and nutmeg, which floated around the warehouses of the VOC, turned into many a young man’s head, and they let themselves seduce by the exiting stories which old seamen told, while sitting on their “lie benches”. This might have played a role. But the most important reason to take service with the VOC, will have been poverty.

A research done by the Department of Agricultural History of the former Agricultural Academy of Wageningen, shows that in the period, which is called in the History books of the Netherlands: the Golden Age, many civilians suffered from hunger. And for these people a VOC-contract meant a living. In the 17th century the social lower classes in Holland were better fed then in the rest of Europe, but hunger amongst them was not a rare occurrence.

 In 1653,

 the year in which the unhappy voyage of the Sperwer took place, many failed grain harvests in the East-Sea countries and war violence on the North-Sea (first English War) led in many cities of the Republic to severe shortage of food. J.A. Faber, Death and Famine in Pre-Industrial Netherlands (1980).

It appeared that when life circumstances of the lower class improved little by little, less and less Hollanders seemed to be willing to sign in as a sailor at the VOC. In the beginning of the 18th century only the officers on most VOC-ships were still Hollanders. The rest of the crew members were Scottish, Scandinavian or other immigrant workers. And already in the 17th century conjunctural fluctuations caused problems with getting people to sign on. Sometimes the shipbuilding industry of the VOC competed with the shipping industry. When many ships had to be built, there was much employment and this created a lack of sailors.

Then some coercion had to be practiced. Everywhere recruiters were active. With fine words and empty promises they appeased the doubters and irresolutes. A contract was signed easily. Illiterate, and those were the most, could suffice with putting a cross. How much would be known to them of the contents of the contract? Who signed once, stayed usually loyal to the VOC. Who was strong and didn’t drown, because the sea demanded its toll as well, completed his tour of duty and signed on for the next period. Because it was not easy to find a job ashore, and who had been at sea for a long time could not thrive well as a landlubber.

Few happy ones made a career, and became eventually a skipper. Ex-captains of the VOC sometimes had beautiful dwellings build in their place of birth. They had made it, but the rest just remained a motley crew.

How a jaght was designed.

In the course of the 16th century the appearance of the newly build ships changed somewhat. It became fashionable to build a new-built ship as a Spiegelschip (a ship with a straight stern, a transom). The types themselves didn’t change though, and it was quite possible to see two ships that were of the same type, but nonetheless were different, since only the newer ship would have a transom  

By the end of the 16th century smaller, fast, but usually completely rigged, transomships, whatever their type, are indicated by the merchant navy with the word “jaght” (yacht, which is derived from the Dutch word: jacht, it means hunt, hunter, but also speed and in the latter meaning it was used for the ship).


Well-known jaghts are the Duyfken, which partook in a voyage to the Indies under the command of Cornelis Houtman in 1595, the Halve Maen, which Hudson sailed to North America in 1609, and the Sperwer, its voyage being described before, ending in a shipwreck on the coast of Quelpaert in 1653. Since the Sperwer was launched in Amsterdam in 1648, which was the year of the Munster peace treaty, when it shipwrecked, it was only five years old.

By its build the Sperwer should be considered a “Vlieboot” (also called a vliet, a boat that could be sailed through the “Vlie“, i.e.. to open sea). The size of such seaworthy jaghts was between the 15 and 80 last (A last is a: A measure of volume for ships; and b: A measure of cargo/deadweight capacity; a last is 2000 kg), at a maximum length of 135 voet (A voet is a measure of length; a Rijnlandse voet is about 30 cm) and a width of 25 voet. The water replacement was around the 540 tons.

The rigging consisted of three masts; a square rigged jibmast (or mast with a foresail), a big mast, a mizzen with a gallant, a topsail and a Latin sail. Jaghts were designed for the transportation of artillery. 

Jaght” was not an absolute type indication but a relative one. A jaght was built more for speed, where other ships of the same type would be built more for transport. A jaght would therefore have had smaller hold, and less guns. It would still have been armed, though: The jaght the Sperwer had 30 pieces on board, which actually made it for a jaght rather heavily armed.

That “jaght” is not the name of a fixed type is demonstrated by the fact that sometimes the smallest type of warship was called “jaght” as well, though it was more commonly indicated as “pinnace“. Usually, however, the name was limited to the types directly below the warships in size.

Apparently sometimes even the transom was not considered a requirement. At least, this is apparently the only way to explain the occasional mix-ups with the transom-less Flutes [a a narrow type of ship also called a flyship], such as the following one:


  Journael van ‘t geene de overgebleven officierin ende Matroosen van ‘t Jacht de Sperwer ‘t zedert den 16en Augustus A° 1653: dat ‘tselve Jacht aan ‘t quelpaerts eijland (staande onder den Coninck van Coree) hebben verlooren, tot den 14en September A° 1666 dat met haar 8en onvlught, ende tot Nangasackij in Japan aangecomen Zijn, Int selve Rijk van Coree is wedervaeren, mitsgaders den ommeganck van die natie ende gelegentheijt van ‘t land 
  Journal of what happened to the remaining officer(s) and sailors of the jaght the Sperwer, since August 1653. They lost the same ship off the island of Quelpaert (reigned by the King of Coree). Until September 14, 1666, when eight of them have fled and arrived at Nagasaki in Japan. What had happened to them in the same kingdom of Coree, the manners of the country and the circumstances of the country

Then follows, in a third handwriting, the actual Journael. Whether this is the handwriting of Hendrick Hamel or of a clerk, who copied the Journael in Batavia, cannot be retrieved anymore. Hamel starts his Journael as follows:

original manuscript.jpg (117635 bytes)

Naer dat wij bij d’Ed=e. Hr. gouverneur en d’E. H=ren raden van India naer Taijoan waren gedestineert, soo sijn op den 18en Junij 1553 met bovengenoemde Iacht vande rheede van Batavia ‘tzeijl gegaen, op hebbende d’E. Hr. Cornelis Caesar om’t gouvernement van Taijoan, Formosa , met den aencleven van dien te becleden, tot vervangh van d’E

After that we by the honorable Mr. governor-general and the honorable Mr. Councils of the Indies were destined for Tayoan, so did we go under sail on June 18, 1553 on the above mentioned jaght, from the roadstead of Batavia. On board were also honorable Mr. Cornelis Caesar, to take over the government of Tayoan, to hold this office, to replace the honorable.

B. The text editions of the Journael

/ Van de ongeluckighe Voyagie / van ‘t Jacht de Sperwer/ van Batavia ghedestineert na Tayowan/ in ‘t / Jaer 1653. en van daer op Japan; hoe ‘t selve Jacht door storm op het / Quelpaerts Eylandt is gestrant/ ende van 64. personen/ maer 36. / behouden aen het voornoemde Eylant by de Wilden zijn gelant: / Hoe de selve Maets door de Wilden daer van daen naer het / Coninckrijck Coeree zijn vervoert/ by haer genaemt Tyos/cen-koeck; Alwaer sy 13 Jaren en 28 dagen in slaver-/nye onder de Wilden hebben gezworven/ zijnde in die / tijt tot op 16, NA aldaer gestorven/ waer van 8 Per-/sonen in ‘t Jaer 1666, met een kleyn Vaertuych / zijn ontkomen/ latende daer noch 8. Maets /sitten/ende zijn in ‘t Jaer 1668. in het / Vaderlandt gearriveert. / Alles beschreven door de Boeckhouder van ‘t voornoemde / Jacht de Sperwer/ genaemt / HENDRICK HAMEL van Gorcum. / [Schip in woodcut] / Tot Amsterdam/ gedruckt by JACOB VAN VELSEN / in de Kalverstraet/ / aen de Ossesluys/Anno 1668.

8 sheets, sign. A2-A5, 4o alternating Gothic en Roman letter types. On the reverse side of the title on top the Namen van de acht Maets die van ‘t Eylandt Coeree af gekomen zijn. (names of the eight mates coming from the island Coeree) and the “Namen van de acht Maets die daer noch zijn.  (Names of the eight mates who are still there)

JOURNAEL, / Van de ongeluckighe Voyagie / van ‘t Jacht de Sperwer/ van Batavia ghedestineert NA Tayowan/ in ‘t / Jaer 1653. En van daer op Japan; hoe ‘t selve Jacht door storm op het / Quelpaerts Eylandt is gestrant/ ende van 64. personen/ maer 36. / behouden aen het voornoemde Eylant by deWilden zijn gelant: / Hoe de selve Maets door de Wilden daer van daen naer het / Coninckrijck Coeree zijn vervoert/ by haer genaemt Tyo-/cen-koeck; Alwaer zy 13 Jaren en 28 dagen in slaver-/nye onder de Wilden hebben gezworven/ zijnde in die / tijt tot op 16. NA aldaer gestorven / waer van 8 Per-/sonen in ‘t Jaer 1666. met een kleyn Vaertuych / zijn ontkomen/ latende daer noch 8. Maets / sitten/en de zijn in ‘t Jaer 1668 in het / Vaderlandt gearriveert. / Alles beschreven door de Boeckhouder van ‘t voornoemde / Jacht de Sperwer/ genaemt / HENDRICK HAMEL van Gorcum./[Schip in houtsn.] / Tot Amsterdam/ Gedruckt by JACOB VAN [VELSEN / in de Kalverstraet/] / aende Ossesluys/An[no 1668.]

8 sheets, sign. A2-A5, 4o alternating Gothic en Roman letter types. On the reverse side of the title on top the “Namen van de acht Maets die van ‘t Eylandt Coeree AF gekomen zijn.” (Names of the eight mates coming from the island Coeree) and the “Namen van de acht Maets die daer noch zijn.” (Names of the eight mates who are still there)

JOURNAEL, / Van de Ongeluckige Voyagie van ‘t Jacht de Sperwer/ van / Batavia gedestineert NA Tayowan/ in ‘t Jaar 1653

. En van daar op Japan; hoe ‘t selve / Jacht door storm op ‘t Quelpaarts Eylant is ghestrant/ ende van 64. personen / maar 36. / behouden aan ‘t voornoemde Eylant by de Wilden zijn gelant: Hoe de selve Maats door / de Wilden daar van daan naar ‘t Coninckrijck Coeree sijn vervoert/ by haar ghenaamt / Tyocen-koeck; Alwaar zy 13. Jaar en 28. daghen/ in slavernije onder de Wilden hebben / gesworven/ zijnde in die tijt tot op 16, NA aldaar gestorven/ waer van 8. Persoonen in / ‘t Jaar 1666. Met een kleen Vaartuych zijn ontkomen/ latende daar noch acht / Maats sitten/ ende zijn in ‘t Jaar 1668. In ‘t Vaderlandt gearriveert. / Als mede een pertinente Beschrijvinge der Landen/ Provin-/tien/ Steden ende Forten/ leggende in ‘t Coninghrijck Coeree: Hare Rechten/ Justitien / Ordonnantien/ ende Koninglijcke Regeeringe: Alles beschreven door de Boeck-/houder van ‘t voornoemde Jacht de Sperwer/ Ghenaamt / HENDRICK HAMEL van Gorcum. / Verciert met verscheyde figueren. / [houtsnede: de schipbreuk van de Sperwer] / Tot Rotterdam, / Gedruckt by JOHANNES STICHTER / Boeck-drucker: Op de Hoeck / van de Voghele-sangh/ inde Druckery/1668. 
16 sheets, 20 + 12 pages, sign. A – D, 4o Gothic letter type. On the reverse side the name lists (titles and spellings peculiarities as in the last edition-van Velsen ). The journal fills page. 3-20. In the text 7 rather rude woodcuts, which are used on this webiste as well: presenting the capture (page. 5) penal exercise (page. 8), crossing in four Korean ships (page. 9), in front of the King (page. 11), forced labor (page. 13), flight in a ship (page. 18), arrival at the Dutch fleet in Japan (page. 20). After the  Journael a new title: Beschryvinge / Van ‘t Koninghrijck / Coeree, / Met alle hare Rechten, Ordon-/nantien, ende Maximen, soo inde Politie, als / inde Melitie, als vooren verhaelt, / [Ornament woodcut] / Anno M.DC.LXVII J.

‘t Oprechte JOURNAEL, / Van de ongeluckige Reyse van ‘t Jacht de / Sperwer, / Varende van Batavia NA Tyoman NA Fer-/ mosa/ in ‘t Jaer 1653. En van daer NA Japan/ daer / Schipper op was REYNIER EGBERTSZ . van Amsterdam. / Beschrijvende hoe het Jacht door storm en onweer op Quelpaerts Ey-/lant vergaen is/ op
hebbende 64. Man/ daer van 36. aen Lant zijn geraeckt/ en gevan-/gen genomen van den Gouverneur van ‘t Eylant/ die haer als Slaven NA den Coninck / van Coree dede voeren/ alwaer sy 13. Jaren en 28. dagen hebben in Slaverny moeten blij-/ven/ waren in die tijdt tot op 16. nae gestorven: Daer van acht persoonen in ‘t Jaer 1666. / Met een kleyn Vaertuygh zijn ‘t ontkomen/ achterlatende noch acht van haer Maets: / En hoe sy in ‘t Vaderlandt zijn aen gekomen Anno 1668. In de Maent July. / [Schip in houtsnede] / t’ Amsterdam, Gedruckt / By GILLIS JOOSTEN SAAGMAN, in de Nieuwe-straet/ / Ordinaris Drucker van de Zee-Journalen en Landt-Reysen.

20 sheets, 40 numbered pages, sign. A – E, 4o Gothic typeface, 2 columns. On the reverse side of the front is a big woodcutde Faam,” printed by van Sichem, which has been printed in several older Journael editions of Saagman as well. The name on the globe has been replaced with the word d’Atlas. Under the picture is a rhyme of six lines:
Ghy die begeerigh zijt yets Nieuws en vreemts te lesen,
(You, who are desirous to read something new and strange)
Kond’ hier op u gemack, en in u Huys wel wesen,
(Can here, at ease and being well in your house)
En sien wat perijckelen dees Maets zijn over g’komen,
(And see what perils these mates had occurred)
Haer Schip dat blijft door storm, gevangen zijns’ genomen,
(Their ship that stayed, by storm, taken prison)
In een woest Heydens landt; in ‘t kort men u beschrijft
(In a wild heathen country; in short being described to you)
Den handel van het volck, d’Negotie die men drijft.
(The conduct of the people and the trade one does)
Hier nae een Beter.
(Hereafter a better one.)

On Page 3 starts “de Korte Beschrijvinghe van de Reyse.” In some lines the departure from Texel (10 Jan.1653) and the arrival  in Batavia (2nd of June) is told, and after that, like in the manuscript and in other editions, the departure from Batavia and the rest of the journey. In the edition are only slight differences with the manuscript and the other editions. The description of Korea is here, like in the manuscript, in the middle of the Journal. In the margins are dates and short summaries placed and on page 30-31 in the enumeration of the animals, a short description is added, with two big pictures of elephants found in Asia and the crocodiles or caimans of which “in this country” many can be found. A marginal comment indicates that this is a “note to fill these two pages” (Nota tot vervullinghe van dese twee pagiens). The Journal doesn’t end, as with the other printers, with the arrival in Japan, but gives, like the manuscript, in some lines note of the stay there, the interrogation before the departure (without the text itself) of the trip to Batavia, as addition the presentation of the Journal to “Den Generael” and the arrival in Amsterdam on July 20, 1668. Both the name lists follow. In the text 6 prints and 5 engravings and a woodcut from the storage of Saagman: On page 4: a ship wreckage, used before in the journey of the Bontekoe; on page 7: a crowd of armed people a carriage with two horses, and two camels on their way to a reinforcement; on page 13: prisoners in front of an oriental monarch; on page 22Straffe der Hoereerders” (punishment of the whore-hoppers from the 2nd journey of Van Neck; in the filler on page 30 a woodcut of a big elephant, already used by Saagman in his edition of Van Linschoten’s Itinerario, and on page 31 a big engraving, depicting a landscape with crocodiles and casuarisses. Copies are the Royal Library in the Hague and in the Koch in Rotterdam.

JOURNAEL / Van de ongeluckige Reyse ‘t Jacht de / Sperwer, / Varende van Batavia NA Tyowan en Fer-/mosa/ in ‘t Jaer 1653. En van daer NA Japan/ daer /Schipper op was REYNIER EGBERTSZ. van Amsterdam. / Beschrijvende hoe het Jacht door storm en onweer ver:/gaen is/ veele Menschen verdroncken en gevangen sijn: Mitsgaders / wat haer in 16. Jaren tijdt wedervaren is/ en eyndelijck hoe / noch eenighe van haer in ‘t Vaderlandt zijn aen geko-/ men Anno 1668. In de Maendt July. / [woodcut with 2 ships] / t’ Amsterdam, Gedruckt / By GILLIS JOOSTEN SAAGMAN, in de Nieuwe-straet/,/ Ordinaris Drucker van de Zee-Journalen en LandtReysen.

20 sheets, 40 numbered pages, sign. A-E, 4o Gothic typeface, 2 columns. On the reverse side the Faam with the poem as in “‘t Oprechte Journael.” Also the text is similar except some spelling differences, literally the same. On page 7 is another engraving: a fort on the waterside and the filler on page 30/31 is changed. The big crocodile print is replaced by a smaller print of a “krackedil”, the marginal notes which indicated the filler as such, disappeared, and from the elephants is said that they are “hier”(here). Both descriptions have been made bigger to fill the space. A copy is in the collection Mensing in Amsterdam.

JOURNAEL, / Van de ongeluckige Reyse van ‘t Jacht de / Sperwer, / Varende van Batavia NA Tyowan en Fer-/mosa/ in ‘t Jaer 1653. En van daer NA Japan/ daer / Schipper op was REYNIER EGBERTSZ. Van Amsterdam. / Beschrijvende hoe ‘t Jacht door storm en onweer op Quelpaerts Eylant / vergaen is/ op hebbende 64 man/ daer van 36 aen landt zijn geraeckt/ en gevangen ghe:/nomen van den Gouverneur van ‘t Eylandt/ die haer als Slaven NA den Koningh van / Coree dede voeren/ alwaer sy 13 Jaren en 28 daghen hebben in slaverny moeten blijven; / waren in die tijdt tot op 16 NA gestorven: daer van 8 persoonen in ‘t 1666. met een kleyn / Vaertuygh ‘t ontkomen zijn/ achterlatende noch 8 van haer Maets: En hoe sy in ‘t/ Vaderlandt zijn aen-gekomen/ Anno 1668. In de Maent Julij. / [Ship with woodcut.] / t’ Amsterdam, / By GILLIS JOOSTEN ZAAGMAN, in de Nieuwe-straet / Ordinaris Drucker van de Zee-Journalen en Landt- Reysen

20 sheets, 40 numbered pages, sign. AE 4o Gothic letter type 2 columns. On the reverse side the Faam with the poem as in the other two editions Zaagman. Also the text is page by page similar. On page 7 the fort on the waterside; on page 22 the print is disappeared; on page 23, where the worship of the idols is mentioned, a big engraved portrayal is added, borrowed from Van Linschoten en Houtman (see Werken Linsch.-vereniging, VII, page 124); the whole page filling with both the prints (elephant and crocodiles) on page 30/31 has been removed; in it’s place on page 30/32 (4 columns) a “beschrijvinghe van des Konings Gastmael” (description of the kings host-meal) from the”Javaense Reyse gedaen van Batavia over Samarangh NA de Konincklijcke Hoofd-plaets Mataram, in den jare 1656“(Javanese journey done from Batavia via Samarang to the capital Mataram, in the year 1656) printed in Dordrecht in 1666, is added. The host meal “van den Sousouhounan, Grootmachtighste Koninck van ‘t Eyland Java” (of the Susuhan, great mighty king of the isle of Java) is without any clue, transferred to Korea. This copy was in Hoetinks time still in the Prussian State Library (Kgl. Bibliothek) in Berlin.

4. MINUTOLI (1670), ‘Relation du noufrage d’un vaiseau hollandois sur la Coste de l”Isle de Quelparts. Avec la Description de Royaume de Corée’.
Traduit de Flamande, par Monsieur Minutoli. A Paris, chez Thomas Jolly, au Palis, dans la Salle des Merciers, au coin de la Gallerie des prissonniers,   la Palme & aux Armes d’Hollande.

5. MICHAEL UND JOH. FRIEDRICH ENDTERS (1672), ‘Journal, oder Tagregister. Darinnen Alles Dasjenige was sich mit einem Holländischen Schiff das von Batavien aus nach Tayowan, und von dannen ferner nach Japan, reisfertig durch Sturm im 1653 Jahre gestranded, und mit dem Volk darauf so das Knigreich Corea gebracht worden nach begeben ordentlich beschrieben und erzehlt wird: von Heinrich Hamel von Gorkum, damaligem Buchhalter auf denjenigen Schiff SPERBER genannt’, aus dem Niederladischen verteutschet.
Mit. Rom. Kays. Majest. Freyheit. Nurnberg. In Verlegung Michael un Joh. Endters, im Jahre M.DC.LXXII

The daily record of Batavia tell us that December 11, 1667, ‘

Hendrick Hamel, gewesen boeckhouder (*) van het jagt de Sperwer, nevens nog seven 7 personen van gemelte jagt, den 28e November jongsteden met de FLUYT de Spreeuw is aengecomen‘. (Hendrick Hamel, former bookkeeper of the jaght the Sperwer , beside 7 other person of the mentioned jaght, did arrive on last November 28 with the FLUTE the Spreeuw). But in the Hollantsche Mercurius, XIX, 1668, page 113, it is written that ” ‘t JACHT de Spreeuw 20 Julij 1668 in Tessel wel gearriveert” (the jaght de Spreeuw had well arrived). 

The flute itself was derived from the “Vlieboot“, but it was shaped longer, which may account for its name. The first flute was built in 1595 by Pieter Jansz. Liorne. Though Flutes did not have transoms, they were nevertheless built in two styles. Flutes sailing to England or sailing South had an ordinarily shaped deck. However, since Danish taxes were calculated in relation to the size of the deck, flutes sailing North or East were built with a relatively small deck and a bulky trunk, to lower the costs of visiting Norway or passing through the Sont.

It has been established, however, that at least the Sperwer was indeed a jaght. Like any ship in the service of the VOC, jaghts were primarily meant for the transport of merchandise. Furthermore, since they were fast ships, they were used to transport persons and messages, and occasionally ammunition.

The bigger part of the trunk was taken by holds for the cargo. This left little room for the crew, who were accommodated rather tightly. Most of the crew was quartered on the tween deck, an area where one could hardly stand up straight. Here the mates slept and used their meals. There were no beds, inner walls or closets; their personal possessions were kept in chests. In the bow were some primitive toilets, however, in heavy weather when the bow plunged into the waves these sanitary provisions could not be used.


The officers were accommodated slightly more comfortably. They slept in cabins near the stern of the ship. However, most officers had to share a cabin, sleeping in bunks or hammocks, and sharing a common room next to the
galley. The bookkeeper had his own office with a writing desk, where writing was done standing up, and a closet for the ship papers and the money chest, of which chest both bookkeeper and skipper had a key.

The most beautiful cabin on the ship was the cabin for the skipper. This was located on deck at the rear of the ship. It had windows to the front as well as windows that looked out through the transom, to let in as much light as possible. The aft windows also gave the captain the only clear view aft on the whole ship, except for guard in the crow’s nest, and it must have been through those aft windows that skipper Reijnier Egberse of the jaght the Sperwer saw, by coincidence, on August 1, 1653, the island the jaght had drifted precariously close to.

Food and drinks aboard were plainly bad, at least for the common sailors. They ate porridge or grit and prunes cooked in butter in the morning, yellow peas or beans with salted meat, stock fish or bacon covered with a butter sauce or just bread in the afternoon for lunch. Often dinner was was just a concoction of the leftovers. Additionally they received per week half a pound of butter and five pounds of bread or ship’s biscuits. They ate in groups of seven from one bowl or plate. Daily they received a mutsje [=1.5 deciliter] of wine or jenever, and a liter of beer. After about five weeks the beer would go bad and they had to drink water which on it’s turn turned undrinkable very soon as well because of the tropical heat. Sometimes they stirred the water with a hot iron rod to try to kill the vermin, but in order not to eat the worms, bugs or insects, they had to drink the water with their teeth closed.

The officers on the other hand, received daily fresh meat and vegetables. There was life-stock aboard and aft there was a small vegetable garden with herbs and other greens. They ate with pewter tableware in the cabin of the skipper.

The Lords XVII were strict in their orders about the hygiene aboard. The holds had to be aired on a regular base. It had to be fumigated with gunpowder and juniper berries and afterwards sprinkled with vinegar. The bunk linens had to be aired regularly on deck and between decks had to be cleaned with the fire-hose. The rotten keel water under in the ship, the bad hygiene and the fact that people sometimes took a crap anywhere (although heavily fined), was a breeding ground for diseases. Not to forget the fact that people didn’t wash themselves.

The one-sided food and the hygiene were a cause for many diseases. There was a lack of vitamins and scurvy and beriberi were common. The gums rotted and the legs got swollen, often the patient just died, since the barber was most of the times not a good doctor. When the Cape of Good Hope was opened as a refreshing station and also when ships took pots with fresh herbs along, scurvy was not the most important cause of dead and desease anymore, but other diseases like dysentery, spotted fever and typhoid fever were still rampant. Malaria was common in Asia as well.

Irregularities were severely punished. Blasphemy, inebriety and spilling food overboard, were fined, fighting, using dice or making them and gambling in general were usually punished with solitary confinement, flogging and when someone had been fighting, his hand was pinned to the mast with his own knife and he had to figure out how to free himself. Keelhauling was the punishement for insulting an officer. Mutiny and sodomy were considered fit for capital punishment. The culprits were just thrown overboard or hung from the yard. Murder was just punished if there happened to be a witness. There was a system with which there were three kinds of councils responsible for the discipline. The council of naval officers the so-called broad council and the militairy council for the soldiers aboard. Above all this stood the skipper or captain who had a final word in the verdict and could overrule the councils.

In the light of this information one should also read the Journael of Hamel. One should not only look at what he wrote, but also what he didn’t write.

Outside the territorial waters of the Republic, the skipper represented both the Company and the country of which his ship hoisted the flag. That’s why his cabin had a representative function and was furnished distinguishably. The skipper sometimes received highly placed guests over here. Important functionaries of the VOC, who sailed as passengers, used, with their family, this cabin as a day room. That’s why it was relatively spacey. On most of the jaghts there were two big cabinets, in which glassware, crockery and cutlery was stored. In the other the sea charts were stored. These were in brass cases. There was also a list, on which all the charts were mentioned, which was signed by the skipper. Because the skipper paid deposit for the charts, which was refunded when he handed back the undamaged charts after the journey.

Example of a hand-drawn chart like they were used in the 17th century on board of the VOC-ships.
Initially all these charts were made in Amsterdam. Later there was a map manufactory in Batavia. The charts were drawn by hand. They had only the coastlines with all the bays, coves and shoals. Again some time later the professional cartographers also published charts.. Of course these were printed.

They were beautifully decorated with mythological characters, like the sea god Neptune, depictions of existing or legendary animals and of ships. On board there were a limited number of navigational instruments, amongst which a compass, the cross staff, the back staff, and the mariners astrolabe. They formed the set of instruments that 17th century Dutch mariners used to measure altitude of objects and calculate latitude. The longitude could be determined with a clock, based on the determined latitude. The first marine clock however, did not appear until 1735, invented by John Harrison and it was 40 years later that Harrison developed a clock that won the prize from the English Board of Longitude. Marine chronometers were exceedingly rare aboard ships until well into the 19th century. Oceanic sailors used dead reckoning and empirical measures to determine longitude. Dead reckoning was a deductive way of reckoning; estimating location and speed using a variety of different methods including wind, waves, bird sightings, and current. Dutch ships of the 17th century did not carry sextants, which were not invented until about 1760. Even then, it was not practical until mechanical dividing machines were developed about 1775. The octant was more commonly used, with the sextant coming into greater use in the 19th century.

 The octant came into being in the early 18th century (1730s) 1). 

In the 10th century, Abd al-Rahmân b. Umar al-Sufî(d. 986-7) wrote 386 chapters, describing 1000 uses for the astrolabe, including finding latitude. Chaucer wrote the first English technical manual (1391?) on the astrolabe with similar procedures for solar sightings. Altitude readings could be taken with any available instrument and then applied to an astrolabe to use it as an analog calculator rather than a sighting instrument.

The cross-staff in use was a simple device that worked reasonably well for measuring the angle of the sun above the horizon at noon. It was fitted with one movable vane (transversally) that, with the end of the staff placed at the eye of the observer, was positioned so that it appeared to touch both the horizon and the sun. The angle was then read from a scale on the staff.

The mariner’s astrolabe in common use by the Dutch seamen at the time was a wheel-shaped, cast-brass instrument of perhaps 17 to 20 centimeter in diameter with a thumb ring at the top. The ring mount was designed to allow the instrument to hang vertically plumb and to provide for precise rotational control by the user. The disk was divided into four quadrants, two or more of which had scales divided into 90 degrees each. The astrolabe had a rotating sighting arm (alhidada), mounted through the center. Though the astrolabe offered a reliable and accurate method of measuring altitude, the mariner’s ability to read the degree scales along the rim was a limiting factor on the precision of the observation. Since each degree division for a 17 cm diameter instrument was only about one centimeter, the mariner could read the angle only to the nearest half degree. As with the quadrant, the mariner’s ability to make an astrolabe sighting at sea could be completely frustrated by movement of the ship. 

A barometer was neither on board, this instrument was only invented in 1643 by the Italian Toricelli.

 It didn’t belong to the standard equipment of the VOC-ships in the 17th century. A thermometer was missing as well. Celsius made his scale division only in the year 1742. Because these instruments were missing, a hurricane announced itself often, for crew and skipper alike, totally unexpected

 A trip to the Indies of a return convoy

jaghts like the Sperwer made their journey from Holland or Zeeland to the East-Indies only once in their existence.

They stayed there subsequently to maintain the connection between the several factories.

The connection with the mother country was done by the so-called return-ships. These were much bigger than the jaghts, sometimes twice as big. During a trip to and from the East-Indies, they sailed always in convoy. Such a convoy was called a return-fleet.
Most return-fleets had Amsterdam as their home port. The ships from Amsterdam sailed out of the IJ via the Zuiderzee to the roadstead of Texel. There they waited for the ships from Hoorn and Enkhuizen. Then the convoy sailed southward till the mouth of the Meuse. Here the ships from Rotterdam and Delft/Delftshaven joined the convoy. From there they sailed further until the mouth of the Scheldt, where they waited for the ships from Middelburg. Only after all the ships had joined, the journey started.
One of the skippers, most of the time somebody from Amsterdam, was in command of the convoy. He was called the commander and his ship the flagship.



A critical phase was passing the Iberian peninsula. To limit the chance of meeting a Spanish or Portuguese convoy, a western course was followed via the Cape-Verdian Islands and the Azores Islands. Off these islands, on the African coast there was a Hollands factory called Goree (see part of the map from 1806, nowadays Dakar. Click on it to see the whole map). The convoy anchored here; fresh water, vegetables and fruits were taken in and messages exchanged. But nobody was allowed to leave the ship. Most of the times the convoy sailed on in 24 hours.

Usually the next place where the convoy anchored was the factory Elmina on the Ivory Coast (Jan Boonstra has been in Elmina and says it’s on the Goldcoast, nowadays Ghana). Thus some other factories were frequented and finally the convoy arrived after several months in Cape Town, where it stayed for at least one month. Everybody embarked and before they sailed on, the ships were cleaned thoroughly. There were almost always sick persons who had to stay behind. Sometimes there were so many sick persons that one of the ships had to stay behind as well.

Now the most dangerous part of the journey began: the crossing from Cape of Good Hope to the Island of Java, right across the Indian Ocean. It started already right east of Cape Town, in the area where the treacherous Cape storms raged (The Portuguese called the cape for a while Cape of Storms, but then the sailors didn’t want to go there anymore, so John II renamed it to Cape of Good Hope). When the convoy came into a hurricane, the skippers not rarely stayed on their post for days in a row.

While the mates worked in shifts and were regularly relieved, the skippers didn’t get out of their clothes. A myth had to be kept up. (Think of the myth of the flying Dutchman) If a skipper would hand over his task to his coxswain, the mates might conclude that he was just as well or maybe even better than the skipper. When the convoy had passed the area of the Cape storms, soon the island of Mauritius came into sight.

This island was conquered in 1598 by the Hollanders.

It was called Mauritius after the then Stadtholder Maurits of Nassau. The trip was interrupted for the last time over here. As much fresh water as possible was taken in and furthermore some fresh fruits and fresh vegetables. Damage caused by the storm was repaired over here. After that the journey continued. For several weeks after that, the persons on board didn’t see anything else than sky and water. Especially a lot of water. Sometimes towering waves. Like tiny nutshells the ships of the convoy floated on the immeasurable ocean. In the middle of the day it was often unbearably hot, the pitch ran out the splits. 

To protect themselves against the burning sun, pieces of sails were stretched horizontally over the deck. The mates walked half-naked, but the skipper stood completely dressed on the castle. He even kept on his hat. The decorum demanded that. 

At the end of the journey, there was often lack of certain foods. Cockroaches seemed to have eaten the beans and peas, worms were crawling in the flour and the drinking water started to smell. Though there was a regular hunt at rats, their numbers remained constant. The mates were also troubled by lice and fleas. On top of that they started to become bored, they longed to the end of the journey.

Everybody became overjoyed when the watch at the end of the journey of two months after Mauritius shouted: “Land a shore.”The commander and the other skipper skimmed the horizon with their binoculars. Had they sailed the right course? Or did the convoy go too much to the south and were they in front of the unknown Southland” terra australis?” The coast became clearer and clearer, the charts of street Sunda were taken out of their cases. On these was also a silhouette of the southwestern point of Java and of the south coast of Sumatra, as well as the small islands in-between. Finally the tension was broken. The convoy was in the entrance of Strait Sunda. Cheering went in the air. The mates received a drink. Carefully they sailed on. The first land birds were flying over the ship. On the horizon a dot appeared which became bigger and bigger. It appeared to be a VOC- jaght, which was on the outlook.

Some salute shots were exchanged, after which the jaght turned around and sailed to Batavia as fast as possible to report the arrival of the convoy.

The northwestern point of Java was rounded. They sailed that close to the coast that palm-trees could be seen with the bare eye. Some local ships appeared, fisherman boats and perahus. They passed Bantam. More ships could be seen. And there it was; the roadstead of Batavia. Again salute-shots were exchanged between the convoy and the batteries ashore. Some hours later the ships anchored. Relieved the bookkeeper of the flagship closed his Journael with the following words:

  Heden den 18en Maij, zijn Godtloff, behouden te Batavia gearriveerd, na weijnigh tegenspoet, de Tijger, de Witte Leeuw, de Constantia en de Hollantsche Tuyn uyt Amsterdam, ‘t Wapen van Hoorn en de Westfrysia uyt Hoorn, de Lelie en de Vryheijt uyt Enkhuizen, De Hollandia uyt Rotterdam, De Spreeuw uyt Delft en het Wapen van Middelburg uyt Zeeland..
  Today, May 18, safely arrived at Batavia , praise to the Lord, after little adversity, The Tijger , the Witte Leeuw , the Constantia and the Hollantsche Tuyn from Amsterdam, ‘t Wapen van Hoorn and the Westfrysia from Hoorn, the Lelie and the Vryheijt from Enkhuizen, the Hollandia from Rotterdam, the Spreeuw from Delft and the Wapen van Middelburg from Zeeland.

1) I want to thank William T. (Chip) Reynolds Captain of the Half Moon for some excellent remarks on this page especially about the instruments on board and some of the terminology. Also thanks to Peter Hans van den Muijzenberg who has sent email with corrections and additions. (Back to top)

Click on the image to learn more details about ship rigging and there you can also download the above uncompressed image (4,2Mb)

If you want to have an idea how the size of the sailors related to the size of the ship, follow this link (it also gives a good idea how small a boat like the Sperwer really was

Vink, 1657

The Vink sailed to Batavia with orders to search for survivors of the VOC ship Vergulde Draeck, which had hit a reef and sunk off the coast of Western Australia, about 100 kilometres north of present-day Perth, on 28 April 1656. After 75 survivors managed to struggle ashore, a crew of seven sailed to Batavia to raise the alarm. The Vink‘s rescue mission was unsuccessful.



Batavia 1656

Waeckende Boei and Emeloort, 1658

Joining the search for the Vergulde Draeck were the Waeckende Boei and Emeloort, commanded by Samuel Volkerson and Aucke Pietersz Jonck. They also failed to find any wreckage



A soldier of Amboina

The Macasser soldiers blow the poisons

The habit of Malayan and his Wife of Batavia

The Church of the cross of Batavia

The Fort of Ryswick

Hospital of  Batavia

Fish Market of Batavia

slaughter House Of Batavia





  • FrancoisValentijn (1666-1727): Batavia in ‘t Verschiet. Amsterdam 1726. Ca. 27 x 54cm. (private collection)
  • Arnoldus Montanus: Batavia (detail). From: Gedenkwaerdige Gesantschappen der Oost-Indische Maetschappy in’t Vereenigde Nederland, aen de Kaisaren van Japan […] Getrokken uit de Geschriften en Reiseaentekeninge der zelver Gesanten, door Arnoldus Montanus, t’ Amsterdam, By Jacob Meurs […] 1669. (private collection)
  • G. Leti: Waere affbeeldinge wegens het casteel ende stadt Batavia. Amsterdam 1681. Ca. 40 x 51 cm. (private collection)
    After Clement de Jonghe’s map on a smaller scale. Coastline comes to lie farer from the castle.
  • F. Halma: Batavia. Amsterdam 1705. 19 x 27 cm. Copied after Johannes Vingbooms.
  • Reinier & Josua Ottens: Afbeldinge van het casteel en de stadt Batavia […]. Amsterdam 1740. Ca. 40 x 49 cm, copied after Clement de Jonghe’s map of 1650.
  • Reinier Ottens (1698-1750), Josua Ottens (1704-1765)
  • Academie. Die innere Anssicht des Castells in Batavia. Augsburg 1750. Ca. 29 x 40 cm, handcoloured.


  • G. B. Probst: Vue de L’Hotel de Batavie. Augsburg 1750. Ca. 27 x 40 cm. (private collection)
    Optical print.The headquarter (Raadhuis) of the VOC in the center is nowadays used as the Jakarta Museum. 


 Batavia, circa 1670


. Sejak masa kompeni empat abad lalu hukuman ini telah melayangkan banyak nyawa. Bahkan jauh sebelumnya, di masa masa kerajaan, hukuman mati telah dilaksanakan.

Tapi, siapa yang mulai dihukum mati pada zaman VOC? Yang jelas Gubernur Jenderal JP Coen pernah memancung seorang calon perwira muda VOC bernama Pieter Contenhoef di alun-alun Balai Kota (Stadhuis), kini Museum Sejarah Jakarta.

Pasalnya, pemuda berusia 17 tahun itu tertangkap basah saat ‘bermesraan’ dengan Sara, gadis berusia 13 tahun yang dititipkan di rumah Coen. Sara sendiri, didera dengan badan setengah telanjang di pintu masuk Balai Kota.

Sara adalah puteri Jacquees Speex dari hasil kumpul kebonya dengan wanita Jepang. Pada 29 Juli 1676 di tempat yang sama dilaksanakan hukuman terhadap empat orang pelaut karena membunuh orang Cina. Kemudian, hampir dalam waktu bersamaan enam budak belian dipatahkan tubuhnya dengan roda karena dituduh mencekik majikannya pada malam hari.

Pada masa kompeni hukuman bagi ‘penjahat’ memang berat. Pelaksanaan hukuman mati pada tiang gantungan, dengan pedang atau guillotine primitif, dilaksanakan di depan serambi Balai Kota pada hari-hari tertentu setiap bulan. Seorang mestizo, putra seorang ibu pribumi dan
ayah berkulit putih, digantung hanya karena mencuri. Sementara delapan pelaut dicap dengan lambang VOC yang panas dan membara, karena disersi dan pencurian.

Prajurit VOC wajib memiliki disiplin yang tinggi. Mereka yang melalaikan tugas tidak ampun lagi akan mendapatkan hukuman berat. Pernah dua tentara Belanda digantung karena selama dua malam meninggalkan pos mereka. Perzinaan, apalagi perbuatan serong, mendapat hukuman berat.
Ini dialami oleh seorang wanita Belanda, istri seorang guru, dikalungi besi dan kemudian ditahan dalam penjara wanita selama 12 tahun karena beberapa kali melakukan
.. .. ..
Kalau sekarang ini eksekusi dengan tembak sampai mati tidak akan dilakukan di muka umum, dulu saat guilletin masih berlaku, masyarakat diminta untuk mendatangi tempat eksekusi. Menyaksikan bagaimana kepala terpisah dari badan.

Untung Suropati lolos dari eksekusi karena dibantu oleh Suzanna, puteri majikannya yang menaruh hati pada budak dari Bali ini. Malah Untung berhasil membunuh Kapten Tack, ketika hendak menumpas pemberontakan yang dipimpinnya.

Prasasti Kapten Tack dapat kita saksikan di Museum Prasasti di Jl Tanah Abang I, Jakarta Pusat. Pieter Elberveld dan beberapa orang pengikutnya yang dituduh hendak melakukan
pemberontakan menjelang malam tahun baru 1722 juga dieksekusi secara kejam. Badannya dirobek jadi empat bagian kemudian dilempar keluar kota untuk santapan burung. Kita juga dapat menjumpai prasastinya di Museum Prasasti.

Diposkan dalam Nostalgia, Label Cap Go Meh, ciliwung, imlek pada Februari 16, 2009 | 2 Komentar »

Masyarakat Tionghoa memiliki hari raya cukup banyak. Setelah tahun baru Imlek dengan hidangan khas kue keranjang atawa kue cina, pada malam ke-15 ditutup dengan pesta Cap Go Meh. Masih ada hari raya Cengbeng di mana orang-orang membersihkan makam orangtuanya sebagai tanda bakti pada leluhur. Kemudian disusul dengan Pehcun (hari keseratus setelah Imlek). Pada hari itu […]

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Diposkan dalam Bandar Jakarta, Label ciliwung, sunda kelapa pada Juli 2, 2008 | Tinggalkan sebuah Komentar »

Foto yang diabadikan oleh Woodbrog & Page pada tahun 1870 memperlihatkan masa kejayaan Kali Besar yang terletak di muara Sungai Ciliwung, bandar Sunda Kalapa. Pemandangan ini diambil dari dekat muara Ciliwung, Kali Besar di mana terdapat Hotel Omni Batavia — hotel berbintang lima yang dibangun akhir 1980-an untuk menarik para wisatawan mancanegara. Terlihat belasan kapal […]

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Diposkan dalam Bandar Jakarta, Label ciliwung pada Mei 21, 2008 | 2 Komentar »

Pemandangan seperti terlihat dalam foto tahun 1940-an di tepi Sungai Ciliwung sudah tidak akan dijumpai lagi dewasa ini. Puluhan wanita tengah mencuci pakaian di tepi sungai Ciliwung di Molenvliet (kini Jl Hayam Wuruk dan Jl Gajah Mada), Jakarta Kota. Sampai 1950-an, Sungai Ciliwung, airnya masih cukup dalam dan jernih, sehingga digunakan untuk mandi, cuci, dan […]

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Diposkan dalam Nostalgia, Label Kampung Makassar, voc pada Agustus 4, 2008 | 2 Komentar »

Akhir pekan lalu suasana mencekam terlihat di Kelurahan Pinangranti, Kecamatan Makassar, Jakarta Timur. Sedikitnya 400 personel gabungan polisi berjaga-jaga mengantisipasi terulangnya bentrok antar-kelompok warga. Yakni, antara mahasiswa Sekolah Tinggi Theologi Injili Arastamar dengan warga setempat. Kampung Makassar merupakan kampung tua di Jakarta, karena sejak tahun 1686 telah dijadikan pemukiman orang-orang Makassar. Menurut sejarawan Belanda, De […]


Batavia 1681

het ommuurde oude Batavia (Benedenstad) in 1681 met het kasteel, inderdaad ligt het Noorden links


Vliegende Swaan, 1678

Captain Jan van der Wall mapped the north-west coast of New Holland in the Vliegende Swaan, from present-day Dampier to the Exmouth Gulf.


Batavia in 1682

Batavia 1683




The Roebuck


Voyage to New Holland

Too late to take his preferred route via Cape Horn, Dampier departed England on January 14th 1699 for the Cape of Good Hope. Trouble had surfaced even before they left at Deptford, however, centring on acrimony between Dampier and his first Lieutenant George Fisher RN. One of his biographers Clennell Wilkinson indicates that from the moment of departure they were apparently;

‘behaving equally as boors without a spark of dignity or self-respect… alternately drinking together, backbiting one another to their confidants, and breaking into personal abuse and even fisticuffs in presence of the crew’

An inevitable state of indiscipline ensued, and en route Fisher was caned by Dampier, clapped in irons and confined to his quarters. The crew were divided on the matter and, concerned at the possibility of mutiny, Dampier had Fisher sent ashore and imprisoned at Bahia in Brazil.

Having regained control of the ship, Dampier then rounded the Cape of Good Hope, first making his landfall on the Australian continent at the place he subsequently named Sharks Bay on the mid-west coast.

Dampier, Australia’s First Natural Historian

There he collected many plants, shells and other specimens, and in full and detailed descriptions of the plant and animal life encountered, he was the first Englishman to do so. In also describing the landscape and soils and in describing the land and marine animals, some in scientific terms that are still in use today, Dampier deservedly earned himself the title Alex George has afforded him—‘Australian’s first natural historian.’ Dampier is not known to have been an artist, however, and the charming drawings in his A Voyage to New Holland are attributed to an unknown member of his crew, a man Dampier himself describes in the preface to his work as a ‘Person skill’d in Drawing’.



Of some importance to this narrative is Dampier’s comment that at;

‘Sharks Bay’ [now Shark Bay], the shore ‘was lined thick with many sorts of very strange and beautiful Shells…I brought away a great many of them…’. He also comments that further north, in what is now known as the Dampier Archipelago, ‘… I gather’d a few strange Shells, chiefly a sort not large, and thick-set all about with Rays or Spikes growing in Rows’.

Coast Views

After calling in to Timor, Dampier sailed around the northern part of New Guinea, naming it Nova Britannia (New Britain). Dampier Strait was subsequently named after him. Concerned at the state of his ship, at the end of March 1700, Dampier abandoned his plan to sail south to explore the eastern Australian coast, leaving these explorations to Lt James Cook RN well over half a century later. His reasons for doing so are evident in the following quote and here also appears the seed of his coming misfortune;

‘In the Afternoon I sent my Boat ashore to the Island, to see what convenience there was to haul our Vessel ashore in order to be mended…but we could not land. .I design’d to have stay’d among these Islands till I had got my pinnace refitted; but having no more than one Man who had skill to work upon her, I saw she would be a long Time in repairing; (which was one great Reason why I could not prosecute my discoveries further:)…’

Intending to touch again at New Holland (the west coast) in 20° latitude, he found himself too far west and then headed off in search of the elusive ‘Tryal Rocks’ scene of the loss of the English East India Company ship Tryal in 1622, the first known European ship lost on the Australian coast. Being sick and unable to continue, Dampier then elected to head for the nearest port Batavia, on west Java.


This vibrant entrepot was the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company (VOC) and the centre of a vast trading network with links to China, Japan, India and Europe generally. A vast array of goods, including ceramics passed through this centre. Again this is of particular significance to this narrative.

Arriving at the end of June, Dampier then set about the repair of his vessel and again the cause of his change of plans and the reasons for the imminent demise of his ailing vessel at the hands of what appears to be an inept ship’s carpenter emerge.

‘… I supplied the Carpenter with such Stores as were necessary for refitting the Ship; which prov’d more leaky after he had caulk’d Her then she was before: So that I was obliged to carreen her, for which purpose I hired Vessels to take our guns, Ballast, Provision and Stores.’

WA Passage

A French view of New Holland c.1750. Note ‘Dampier Passage’, showing how close Dampier got to his goal: the exploration of the east coast.

The Loss of the Roebuck

On 17th October 1700, they left Batavia, arriving back at the Cape of Good Hope (another VOC centre) at the end of December, and departed thence on 11th January. On 2nd February, they anchored at St Helena till the 13th and then proceeded to Ascension Island, which they sighted on 21st February 1701.


Dampier’s account of the ensuing events reads thus:

An account of the loss of His Majesty’s Ship Roebuck February 21st 1700/1.

At three aclock in the afternoon being in Sight of the Island Ascension, and not having Light enough to carry us into the Bay where design’d to anchor, …we stood to the Eastward, At half an hour after 8 in the night we sprung a Leake on the larboard bow about four Strakes from the Keele, which oblig’d us to keep our Chain pump constantly going, at twelve at night having a moderate gale, we bore away for the Island and be daylight were close in with it, at nine aclock in the morning anchored in the N.W. bay in ten fathom and half water, sandy ground about half a mile from the shoare, the S. point of the bay bore S.S.W. dist. one mile and a half and the northernmost point, N.E.1/2 N.dist. two mile……

 Aground Roebuck

John Alcott’s impression of HM Ship Roebuck at Shark Bay

Being come to anchor I ordered the Gunner to clear his Powder roome, that we might there search for the Leake, and endeavour to stop it within board if possible, for we could not heele the Ship so low, neither was there any convenient place to haul her ashoare….

I ordered the Carpenter’s Mate…with the Boatswain and some others to goe downe and search for the Leake, the Carpenter’s Mate and the Boatswain told me that they could not come at it unless they cut the Ceiling, which I bid them doe, which done they found the Leake against one of the foothook timbers, it was very large, and the water gushed in with great violence… after the cutt the timber… the leake so increased…

I ordered a bulkhead to be cutt open to give passage to the water, and withall ordered to cleare away abaft the bulkhead, that we might beale…But about 11 aclock at night the Boatswain came to me, told me… that the Plank was quite rotten, and that it was now impossible to save the Ship…I therefore hoysted out the boate, and next morning, being the 23rd, we weigh’d anchor and warped in nearer the shoare, but to little purpose till in the afternoon we had a Sea breeze by which we gott in within a Cable’s length of the Shoare, then made a Raft to carry men’s chests and bedding ashoare., and before Eight at night most of them were gott ashoare, She struck not before nine aclock at night, and so continued, I ordered some sailes to be cut from the yards to make us some tents, etc, and the next morning being the 24th myself and Officers went ashoare…

(Additional information and details of events significant to the loss of the ship appeared in Dampier’s published account entitled A Voyage to New Holland that appeared a few years later, in 1703:)

…In the Afternoon, with the help of a Sea-breeze, I ran into 7 Fathom, and anchored; Then carried a small Anchor ashore, and warp’d in till I came into 3 Fathom and a half. Where having fastnd her, I made a Raft….

On the 26th following, we, to our great Comfort, found a Spring of fresh water, about 8 Miles from our Tents, beyond a very high Mountain, which we must pass over: So that now we were, by God’s Providence, in a Condition of subsisting some Time; having Plenty of very good Turtle by our Tents….The next Day I went up to see the Watering-place…where we found a very fine Spring on the South-East-side of the high mountain, about half a Mile from its top:…About 2 Mile South-East from the Spring, we found 3 or 4 shrubby Trees, upon which was cut an Anchor and Cable, and the year 1642….

[on 3 April] …appear’d 4 Sail, which came to anchor in this Bay. They were his Majesty’s Ships, the Anglesey, Hastings and Lizard; and the Cantebury East-India Ship. I went on board the Anglesey with about 35 of my Men; and the rest were dispos’d of into the other Men of War.

We sail’d from Ascension, the 8th…

From: William Dampier’s unpublished account of the loss of the “Roebuck.” (Public Record Office, Admiralty 1/5262) Dated 29 September, 1701


Kaempfer, Engelbert, 1651-1716

The History of Japan, giving an account of the ancient and present state and government of that empire; … Together with a description of the Kingdom of Siam(London, 1727) [Facsimile edition, Kyoto, Koseikaku, 1929]

Kaempfer was the physician to the Dutch Embassy at the Japanese Emperor’s court. He travelled to the East in 1688, and spent 1688 and 1689 visiting India, Ceylon, and the East Indies.

 In 1690

 Kaempfer left Batavia as physician in the Embassy being sent by the Dutch East India Company to Japan. They sailed via Siam, thus enabling Kaempfer to give a description of that country. He stayed for two years in Japan, leaving in November 1692. He had been assiduous in observing and travelling as much as possible while in Japan, and his book is partly history, and partly an account of his own travels in “the last Eastern country”.

Kaempfer describes the post-houses, inns and food establishments a traveller would encounter in Japan. Even “take-aways” were available.

There are innumerable Inns, Cook-shops, Sacki, or Ale-houses, Pastry-cook’s and Confectioner’s shops, all along the road, even in the midst of woods and forests, and at the tops of mountains, where a weary foot-traveller, and the meaner sort of people, find at all times, for a few farthings, something warm to eat, or hot Tea-water, or Sacki, or somewhat else of this kind, wherewithal to refresh themselves. ‘Tis true, these cook-shops are but poor sorry houses, if compar’d to larger Inns, being inhabited only by poor people, who have enough to do to get a livelihood by this trade: and yet even in these, there is always something or other to amuse passengers, and to draw them in; sometimes a garden and orchard behind the house, which is seen from the street looking thro’ the passage, and which by its beautiful flowers, or the agreeable sight of a stream of clear water, falling down from a neighbouring natural or artificial hill, or by some other curious ornaments of this kind, tempts People to come in and to repose themselves in the shadow; at other times a large flower-pot stands in the window, fill’d with flowering branches of trees, (for the flowers of plants, tho’ never so beautiful, are too common to deserve a place in such a pot,) dispos’d in a very curious and singular manner; sometimes a handsom, well-looking house-maid, or a couple of young girls well dress’d, stand under the door, and with great civility invite people to come in, and to buy something. The eatables, such as cakes, or whatever it be, are kept before the fire, in an open room, sticking to skewers of bambous, to the end that passengers, as they go along, may take them, and pursue their journey without stopping. The landladies, cooks and maids, as soon as they see any body coming at a distance blow up the fire, to make it look as if the victuals had just been got ready. Some busy themselves with making tea, others prepare the soop in a cup, others fill cups with Sacki, or other liquors to present them to passengers, all the while talking and chattering, and commending their merchandize with a voice loud enough to be heard by their next neighbours of the same profession (p. 426-127)

The illustration shows acupuncture needles, and a woman who has just undergone the procedure. Perhaps because he was a physician, Kaempfer devotes several pages to this treatment, particularly as a cure for Senki, a certain type of colic, “an endemial distemper of this populous empire



“A Malabar shewing tricks with Serpents,” from Johannes Nieuhof, “Voyages and travels, into Brasil, and the East Indies: containing an exact description of the Dutch Brasil, and divers parts of the East-Indies; their provinces, cities, living creatures, and products; the manners, customs, habits, and religion of the inhabitants: with a most particular account of all the remarkable passages that happened during the author’s stay of nine years in Brasil; especially, in relation to the revolt of the Portuguese, and the intestine war carried on there from 1640 to 1649. As also, a most ample description of the most famous city of Batavia, in the East-Indies,” 1693; in an edition from 1703


Geelvink, Nijptangh and Wieseltje, 1696

Commanded by Willem de Vlamingh, three ships were sent to look for the wreck of the VOC ship Ridderschap van Holland and explore New Holland. No trace of the ship was found but the expedition explored Rottnest Island, the mainland around the Swan River and landed on Dirk Hartog Island. Before heading for Batavia, de Vlamingh retrieved Hartog’s pewter plate and left one of his own in its place.

Dutch East India Company period – 17th to late 18th century

A map of Batavia showing step by step transformation from Jayakarta into Batavia.

The first type of colonial architecture grew from the early Dutch settlements in the 17th century, when settlements were generally within walled defences to protect them from attack by other European trade rivals and native revolt. Following the siege of Jayakarta (previously known as Sunda Kelapa) and its demolition by the Dutch in 1619, it was decided to build the headquarters of the Dutch East India Company on the site. Simon Stevin was commissioned to design a plan for the future settlement based on his concept of the ‘ideal city’. His response was a rectangular, walled town, bisected by the river Ciliwung which was to be channeled into a straight canal (later known as also known as Grote Rivier or Kali Besar or “Big River” in this area). This new city is called Batavia (now Jakarta). In accordance to Stevin’s model, the fortress of Batavia was the most prominent building in the city, symbolizing the center of power, while townhall, markets, and other public buildings were distributed. This layout of Jakarta can still be clearly recognized today in Jakarta Old Town through the layout of the streets and canals, although most of the original 17th structures had been destroyed or replaced with newer early 20th century structures.[2]

The architecture style of this period were the tropical counterparts of 17th century Dutch architecture. Typical features include the typically Dutch high sash windows with split shutters,[2] gable roofs,[2] and white-coral painted wall (as opposed to exposed brick architecture in the Netherlands). This earlier period of Jakarta had many of the buildings solidly built with relatively enclosed structures, a structure that is not very friendly to tropical climate as compared to the architecture of the next period in Jakarta.[2] Best example of these buildings were located along the Tygersgracht (now Jalan Muka Timur), all had been demolished.[2] Best surviving example is Toko Merah.

Several Portuguese colonial architecture also exist, usually outside the walled city of Batavia. Tugu Church and Sion Church, with its plain facade and domed windows, are some surviving examples.

In 1808, Daendels officially moved the city center to south because of the deteriorating condition of the inner town as well as the malaria outbreak. As a result, many buildings and structures from this period were left to deteriorated. Because of financial issues, many buildings were demolished in 19th century and the debris were used to construct newer structure in the south (such as the Palace of Governor-General Daendels (now the Financial Department of Indonesia) from the debris of Batavia Castle, and Batavia Theater (now Gedung Kesenian Jakarta) from the debris of the Spinhuis.

Later, these empty lots in Jakarta Old Town were filled with newer 20th century structures. Surviving 17th–18th structures were later converted as Jakarta’s cultural heritage, e.g. Toko Merah, Gereja Sion and Jakarta History Museum.

Other dominant architecture style from these period were the Chinese merchant houses, many were built during the 18th century.


BONTEKOE, W YZN., Journael, ofte Gedenkwaerdige Beschrijvinge van de Oost-Indische Reyse van Willem Ysbrantsz Bontekoe van Hoorn (1646). Reprinted as Prisma -pocket, Utrecht/Antwerpen 1971.
BOXER, C.R., Jan Compagnie in Japan, 1600-1817 (1936).
BOXER, C.R., The Dutch Seaborne Empire (1965).
COOLHAAS, W. PH., Generale Missiven van gouwerneur-generaal en raden aan de heren XVII der Verenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie (1975).
DAVIDS, K. et al., De Nederlands Geschiedenis als afwijking van het algemeen menselijk patroon (1988).
DEKKER, R., Holland in beroering. Oproeren in de 17e en 18e eeuw (1981).
FABER, J.A., Death and Famine in Pre-Industrial Netherlands , Low Countries Yearbook 13 (1980), pp 51-63.
HART, H., Vasco da Gama und der Seeweg nach Indien (1964).
HONOLKA, K., Magellan (1965).
ISRAEL, J.L., The Dutch Republic and the Hispanic World (1982).
LINSCHOTEN , J.H. VAN , Itinerario, voyage ofte schipvaert van J.H. van Linschoten naar Oost ofte Portugaels Indin, reprinted as Vol. II of the series of the Linschoten-Association (1910).
LINSCHOTEN, J.H. VAN , Reisgheschrift van de Navigatin der Portugaloyers in Orinten , reprinted as Vol. XLIII of the series of the Linschoten-Association (1939).
MANUSCRIPT Hamel, national archives (rijks archief Den Haag) archive number 1265 pages 1155 ~ 1179
MOLLEMA, J., De eerste Schipvaart der Hollanders naar Oost-Indi (1935).
NOORDEGRAAF, L., Hollands welvaren? Levensstandaard in Holland 1450-1650 (1985).
PATER, J. DE, Jan Peterszoon Coen en het Indi van zijn tijd (1952).
PRESTAGE, E. , The Portuguese Pioneers (1943).
REINSMA, R., Jan Compagnie (1974).
SCHAMA, S., The Embarrassment of Riches (1987).
STAPELS, F.W. , Geschiedenis van Nederlands Indi (1939).
TAKASHI HATODA, A History of Korea (1969).)
WITSEN , N. , Noord en Oost Tartarije, ofte bondig ontwerp van eenige dier Landen en Volken in de Noorder- en Oostelijkste Gedeelten van Asia en Europa, 2nd edition (1705).

WOUDE, A.M. VAN DER, The AAG-bijdragen and the study of rural history’ , in: The Journal of European Economic History, 4 (1975).

Many of these structures show eclectic mix of Dutch and Chinese influences.[2]

Last official name Former names Year Architect Location Latest image Oldest image
18th century Dutch mansion at Kali Besar Barat 18th century Dutch mansion at Kali Besar Barat 18th century   6°08′11″S 106°48′41″E / 6.136367°S 106.811372°E / -6.136367; 106.811372 18th house kota.jpg COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Koloniale gevels aan de westzijde van de straat Kali Besar in Batavia TMnr 60030905.jpg
Baijen’s Country House and the Outer Hospital (demolished, replaced by Citadel Prins Frederik) Baijen’s Country House and the Outer Hospital[3] before 1669, later a hospital, from 1743 until 1820.[3]   6°10′13″S 106°49′51″E / 6.170386°S 106.830742°E / -6.170386; 106.830742    
Bastion Amsterdam (demolished) Amsterdam 1632-1635[4] anonymous 6°07′46″S 106°48′54″E / 6.129527°S 106.815078°E / -6.129527; 106.815078    
Bastion Buren (demolished) Buren before 1650[5] anonymous 6°07′41″S 106°48′28″E / 6.128014°S 106.807904°E / -6.128014; 106.807904    
Bastion Cuylenburg (demolished, on its site stands Menara Syahbandar) Bastion Cuylenburg, Bastion Cullenburch,[6] before 1650[5][7] anonymous 6°07′39″S 106°48′33″E / 6.127527°S 106.809071°E / -6.127527; 106.809071    
Bastion Diest (demolished) Diest 1632-1635[4] anonymous 6°08′12″S 106°48′42″E / 6.136733°S 106.811704°E / -6.136733; 106.811704    
Bastion Enkhuizen(demolished) Enkhuizen 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°08′05″S 106°48′59″E / 6.134680°S 106.816474°E / -6.134680; 106.816474   Stadsmuren-Batavia1709.jpg
Bastion Friesland (demolished) Friesland 1632-1635[5] anonymous 6°07′55″S 106°48′22″E / 6.131831°S 106.806058°E / -6.131831; 106.806058    
Bastion Gelderland (demolished) Punt Gelderland 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°08′15″S 106°49′00″E / 6.137472°S 106.816785°E / -6.137472; 106.816785   Stadsmuren-Batavia1709.jpg
Bastion Grimbergen (demolished) Grimbergen 1635-1650[4] anonymous      
Bastion Groningen (demolished) Groningen 1632-1635 (replacing the older Buren fortification)[4] anonymous 6°07′37″S 106°48′17″E / 6.126864°S 106.804796°E / -6.126864; 106.804796    
Bastion Hollandia (demolished) Hollandia 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°08′19″S 106°48′46″E / 6.138544°S 106.812822°E / -6.138544; 106.812822   Nieuwepoort1682.jpg
Bastion Middelburg (demolished) Middelburg 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°07′51″S 106°48′55″E / 6.130719°S 106.815397°E / -6.130719; 106.815397    
Bastion Nassau (demolished) Nassau 1632-1635[4] anonymous      
Bastion Oranje (demolished) Oranje 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°08′15″S 106°48′52″E / 6.137377°S 106.814514°E / -6.137377; 106.814514   Stadsmuren-Batavia1709.jpg
Bastion Overrijsel (demolished) Overrijsel 1632-1635[4] anonymous 6°07′47″S 106°48′20″E / 6.129746°S 106.805465°E / -6.129746; 106.805465    
Bastion Rotterdam (demolished) Rotterdam 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°07′58″S 106°48′57″E / 6.132779°S 106.815928°E / -6.132779; 106.815928   Stadsmuren-Batavia1709.jpg
Bastion Utrecht and portal(demolished) Utrecht Poort 1635-1650[4] anonymous 6°08′07″S 106°48′25″E / 6.135285°S 106.806872°E / -6.135285; 106.806872    
Bastion Vierkant (demolished) Vierkant 1627-1632[nb 1] anonymous 6°07′36″S 106°48′28″E / 6.126775°S 106.807857°E / -6.126775; 106.807857    
Bastion Zeeburch (demolished) Zeeburch poort 1632-1635[4] anonymous 6°07′34″S 106°48′28″E / 6.126119°S 106.807639°E / -6.126119; 106.807639    
Bastion Zeeland (demolished) Zeeland poort 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°08′16″S 106°48′28″E / 6.137890°S 106.807708°E / -6.137890; 106.807708    
Batavia City Hall (1st) and church (demolished between 1622 and 1627.) Kerk en Stadhuis 1619-1622[4] anonymous 6°07′57″S 106°48′42″E / 6.132411°S 106.811770°E / -6.132411; 106.811770    
Batavia City Hall (2nd) (replaced with Batavia City Hall (3rd)) Batavia Stadhuis 1627   6°08′07″S 106°48′48″E / 6.135348°S 106.813372°E / -6.135348; 106.813372   Batavia-stadthuys.jpg
Binnen Hospital, “Inner Hospital” (demolished) Binnen Hospital[3] 1635-1650[4]   6°08′14″S 106°48′46″E / 6.137185°S 106.812856°E / -6.137185; 106.812856    
De Middelpunt, “the middle point” De Middelpunt 1650-1667[4] anonymous 6°08′03″S 106°48′40″E / 6.134163°S 106.811096°E / -6.134163; 106.811096[4]   COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM De stad Batavia in 1709 TMnr 3440-8.jpg
De Portugese Stadskerk (burned down in 1808)[8] De Portugese Stadskerk 1650-1667[4]   6°08′02″S 106°48′37″E / 6.133806°S 106.810358°E / -6.133806; 106.810358[4]   Algr001disp04ill55.gif
Fort Ancol (demolished) Fort Ancol, Fort Ansjol[6]   anonymous 6°07′36″S 106°50′43″E / 6.126605°S 106.845150°E / -6.126605; 106.845150    
Fort Angke(demolished) Fort Angke 1657[9] anonymous      
Fort Batavia (dismantled in 1890–1910) Kasteel Batavia 1619 (project started)[4] anonymous 6°07′40″S 106°48′41″E / 6.127854°S 106.811338°E / -6.127854; 106.811338 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Het Kasteel van Batavia TMnr 3440-11.jpg Andries Beeckman - The Castle of Batavia.jpg
Fort Jacatra (Nassau and Mauritius) (dismantled between 1627–1632)[4] Fort Jacatra before 1619[4]   6°07′43″S 106°48′36″E / 6.128640°S 106.809979°E / -6.128640; 106.809979    
Fort Jacarta Buiten Batavia (demolished) Fort Jacarta Buiten Batavia   anonymous 6°08′43″S 106°49′50″E / 6.145389°S 106.830442°E / -6.145389; 106.830442   17Het-fort-Jacatra-buiten-Batavia-in-1709.jpg
Fort Noordwijk (demolished in 1808) Fort Noordwijk[6] 1658 anonymous 6°10′04″S 106°49′51″E / 6.167773°S 106.830801°E / -6.167773; 106.830801   Vue du fort noortwyck.jpg
Fort Zevenhoek (demolished) Fort Zevenhoek 1657[9] anonymous      
Fort Rijswijk (demolished) Fort Rijswijk[6]   anonymous      
Fort Zouteland (demolished) Fort Zouteland 1656[10] anonymous Ancol    
Galangan VOC Restaurant and Ta San Yen Carpenter’s shop of the Dutch East Indies 1627-1632[4] or before 1650[5] or 1727[11] anonymous 6°07′42″S 106°48′32″E / 6.128344°S 106.808937°E / -6.128344; 106.808937 Galangan-voc-restaurant.jpg  
Gedung Candranaya (1957)[12] Landhuis Kroet / Landhuis Van Majoor der Chinezen Khouw Kim An or “residence of Chinese Mayor Khouw Kim An”[13] 18th century[13] Khouw Tjoen (first resident)[13] 6°08′50″S 106°48′55″E / 6.147337°S 106.815284°E / -6.147337; 106.815284    
Gerbang Amsterdam or “Amsterdam Gate” (demolished in 1950s) Amsterdamsepoort, Pinangpoort, Kasteelpoort 1622-1627[4]   6°07′51″S 106°48′43″E / 6.130834°S 106.812062°E / -6.130834; 106.812062 1947 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM De Amsterdamse Poort te Batavia TMnr 60004991.jpg
Gereja Sion De Portugese Buitenkerk 1695 E. Ewout Verhagen 6°08′17″S 106°49′05″E / 6.138009°S 106.817920°E / -6.138009; 106.817920 PintuGerejaSion hariadhi.jpg Algr001disp04ill55.gif
Gereja Tugu Portuguese Church 1676–1678, rebuilt in 1737–1738 Melchior Leidecker, later rebuilt by Julius Vinck[14] 6°07′26″S 106°55′27″E / 6.123844°S 106.924070°E / -6.123844; 106.924070    
Government House or a ‘Play House’ (demolished) Huis van de Generaal/Speelhuis 1632-1650[4][5]   6°08′31″S 106°48′55″E / 6.141976°S 106.815156°E / -6.141976; 106.815156    
Great Palace of Weltevreden (demolished in 1820, now Rumah Sakit Pusat AD Gatot Subroto or Army Main Hospital)[15][16] Great Palace of Weltevreden / Landhuis Weltevreden[16] 1761[15] for Jacob Mossel[15][nb 2] 6°10′36″S 106°50′12″E / 6.176726°S 106.836608°E / -6.176726; 106.836608   Weltevreden country house.jpg
Jembatan Gantung Kota Intan Engelse Brug[18] / Het Middelpuntbrug[19] / Grote Boom or “Large Tree Bridge”[19] / Djembatan Hoenderpasser Kali Besar or Hoenderpasserbrug or “Chicken Market Bridge” (1900s)[18][19][20] / Ophaalbrug Juliana (1938)[19] 1655 (after the demolition of earlier English Bridge, located 100 meter to the south),[4][18] 1937 (renovated)[19]   6°07′53″S 106°48′38″E / 6.131259°S 106.810579°E / -6.131259; 106.810579 Jembatan kota intan JKT.jpg COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Dubbele ophaalbrug (Hoenderpasarbrug) Batavia TMnr 10014923.jpg
Mesjid Luar Batang, Luar Batang Mosque Mesjid Luar Batang 1739 (established)[21] Sayid Husein bin Abubakar Alaydrus (founder)[21] 6°07′26″S 106°48′24″E / 6.123765°S 106.806533°E / -6.123765; 106.806533   COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Moskee Luar Batang (Batavia) TMnr 60046455.jpg
Mohr Observatory (demolished in 1812) Mohr Observatory 1765 Johan Maurits Mohr 6°08′38″S 106°48′46″E / 6.143863°S 106.812911°E / -6.143863; 106.812911 Observatory-of-Mohr-Chinese-temple-1770.jpg Mohr2.jpg
Museum Bahari Warehouse 1652–1771   6°07′36″S 106°48′30″E / 6.126753°S 106.808279°E / -6.126753; 106.808279 Abandon sampan.jpg  
Museum Sejarah Jakarta Batavia City Hall (3rd) 1710 W.J. van der Velde 6°08′07″S 106°48′48″E / 6.135348°S 106.813372°E / -6.135348; 106.813372 Museum fatahillah.jpg Batavia - Townhall 1770.jpg
Nieuwe Hollandse Kerk, “New Church of Holland” (destroyed by earthquake in 1808, Wayang Museum is now on its site) Nieuwe Hollandse Kerk, Groote Hollandse Kerk 1736   6°08′06″S 106°48′45″E / 6.134882°S 106.812603°E / -6.134882; 106.812603 COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Houten model van de Nieuwe Hollandse Kerk in het museum van de Stichting Oud Batavia TMnr 10001344.jpg Batavia - Townhall 1770.jpg
Nieuwe Poort, “New Gate” (demolished) Nieuwe Poort 1627-1632[4] anonymous 6°08′18″S 106°48′50″E / 6.138424°S 106.813777°E / -6.138424; 106.813777   Nieuwepoort1682.jpg
Old Gelderland defence works (demolished after 1667)[4] Oud Gelderland 1622-1627[4]   6°08′06″S 106°48′56″E / 6.135031°S 106.815689°E / -6.135031; 106.815689    
Oude Hollandse Kerk, “Old Holland Church” (demolished in 1732, bottom part still viewable)[nb 3] Oude Hollandse Kerk / Kruiskerk, “Cross Church” 1640   6°08′06″S 106°48′45″E / 6.134882°S 106.812603°E / -6.134882; 106.812603 Gereja Tua Belanda.jpg De-Kruis-Kerk-op-Batavia-1682.jpg
Oude Utrechtse Poort, “Old Utrecht Gate” (demolished) Oude Utrechtse Poort[nb 4] 1632-1650[4] anonymous 6°08′10″S 106°48′26″E / 6.136034°S 106.807207°E / -6.136034; 106.807207    
Pasar Ikan, “Fish Market” Vismarkt   anonymous   Ciliwung 080710-0799 mb.JPG COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Het Havenkanaal met de Boom en zeilschepen op de rede Batavia TMnr 60004893.jpg
Raja Kuring Restaurant Carpenter’s shop of the Chinese 1632-1635[4]   6°07′48″S 106°48′35″E / 6.130012°S 106.809692°E / -6.130012; 106.809692[5]    
Sinees Sieken Huys, Chinese hospital and home for the aged (demolished) Sinees Sieken Huys 1646   6°08′05″S 106°48′27″E / 6.134812°S 106.807577°E / -6.134812; 106.807577[5]   Batavia-sineessiekenhuys.png
Spinhuis, “spinning-house for single women” (demolished) Spinhuis, Spinhuys 1635-1650[4]   6°08′04″S 106°48′27″E / 6.134435°S 106.807492°E / -6.134435; 106.807492   SPINHUYS-1682.jpg
The Latin and Greek School (demolished)[2] The Latin and Greek School 1622-1627[4] anonymous 6°07′55″S 106°48′48″E / 6.131917°S 106.813228°E / -6.131917; 106.813228[4]    
Toko Merah, “Red Shop” Residence of Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff / Residence of other Governor General of Batavia, Jacob Mossel (1750–1761), Petrus Albertus van der Parra (1761–1775), Reinier de Klerk (1777–1780), Nicolaas Hartingh, Baron van Hohendorf / Academie de Marine (1734)[23][24] / Kantoor van de Bank voor Indië / Hotel[24] / Shop of Oey Liauw Kong (1851)[23] 1730[nb 5] for Gustaaf Willem van Imhoff 6°08′09″S 106°48′41″E / 6.135955°S 106.811285°E / -6.135955; 106.811285 Toko merah Kota Tua.JPG COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Kantoor van de Bank voor Indië Batavia TMnr 10015467.jpg
Vihara Dharma Bhakti Jin De Yuan Klenteng 1650, 1755 (restored)   6°08′38″S 106°48′46″E / 6.143973°S 106.812736°E / -6.143973; 106.812736 Klenteng Jin De Yuan, Glodok, Jakarta.jpg COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Een Chinese tempel in Batavia. TMnr 60007617.jpg
Vismarkt, “Fish Market” (earlier structure) (demolished) Vismarkt, Vischmarkt 1632-1635[4] anonymous 6°07′50″S 106°48′36″E / 6.130653°S 106.80995°E / -6.130653; 106.80995 VIS-MARKT-op-BATAVIA-1682.jpg COLLECTIE TROPENMUSEUM Olieverfschilderij voorstellende het Kasteel Batavia gezien van Kali Besar west met op de voorgrond de vismarkt TMnr 118-167.jpg
Waterkasteel (demolished) Waterkasteel / “Hornwerk”[25] 1741, 1750[26] anonymous 6°06′58″S 106°48′24″E / 6.116205°S 106.806601°E / -6.116205; 106.806601    


The Indonesia Historic Collections 1700-1800


The Indonesia Historic Collections 1700-1800

created by

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited Edition E-book In CD-ROM


Batavia in 1682

The Ommelanden fell under the authority of a ‘delegate for native affairs’, responsible to the Governor-General in Batavia, but for the most part they were left to their own devices under a system of private estates (particuliere landerijen), whose landlords had quasi-feudal rights over their tenants. The granting of private estates continued into the early 18th century, by which time they encompassed virtually the whole of the northern coastal plain of West Java. The region was fertile and productive, sugar, rice and cotton being the main crops, but it was also unruly: small-scale landlords and entrepreneurs squeezed their tenants for what they could, and the tenants in turn simmered constantly on the threshold of revolt or brigandage.



Batavia Map 1700

  Jakarta , pianta del 1700. Occorre ricodare che la città fu progettata e costruita dagli olandesi sul modello di Delf




 Three years of confusion in the VOC ensue over the post of Governor-General. Sultan of Banjar tries to eject the British post by force, but fails.



Amangkurat II sends a secret representative to the VOC, hoping for help in the face of court intrigues. Antonio Coelho Guerreiro arrives as the first official governor of Portuguese Timor. The Portuguese on Timor were limited to outposts along the northern coast only.



Amangkurat II dies. Amangkurat III faces opposition from Pangeran Puger.


Teuku Umar


Sultan Aji Muhammad Sultan Alam became Paser I through the year 1726, the first ruler of Paser take a higher degree of Sultan.


 Amangkurat III demands that the VOC return Puger to his custody. VOC refuses, but VOC army takes Demak and other coastal areas on behalf of Pangeran Puger.


Mataram truncated: Amangkurat II and his rivals, 1681-1704

Although Dutch troops had preserved the Mataram dynasty, the kingdom was now a shadow of its former power. Territorial concessions to the Dutch in the west, creeping political influence by the Madurese along the coast, and a full-scale rebellion by Surapati in the east left it sadly truncated. Moreover, when Amangkurat II died in 1703, the Dutch backed his brother, Pangeran Puger, to succeed to the throne over Amangkurat’s son, Amangkurat III. In 1706, in what came to be called the First Javanese War of Succession, VOC forces with numerous indigenous allies marched on Kartasura and installed Puger as Pakubuwana I. Amangkurat III fled to join the former slave, Surapati, whose followers controlled much of Java’s eastern peninsula. Bitter fighting continued in which Surapati was killed and Amangkurat III captured by ruse and sent into exile. In exchange for VOC support, Pakubuwana ceded eastern Madura to the Dutch and gave them the right to build fortifications anywhere in Java.

The six decades which followed were a time of constant turmoil for Java. The descendants of Surapati maintained his kingdom south of the Brantas; further east, they fought with Balinese princes and with remnants of the kingdom of Balambangan for control of the eastern peninsula. The coastal regions from Surabaya to Juana remained under the influence of the powerful Cakraningrat family in western Madura, while the question of whether the VOC was Mataram’s greatest enemy or its best potential ally underpinned incessant factional conflict within the Mataram court


VOC sends reinforcements to Semarang. Surapati offers to make a conditional surrender to the VOC, but the VOC rejects his offer. VOC bribes the commander of the troops at Kartasura, allowing them to take Salatiga and other approaches without significant resistance. VOC recognizes Pangeran Puger as Susuhunan Pakubuwono I. 


 Hussin Kamaluddin became Sultan of Brunei (period I) until the year 1730.

De Vossenbosch, Waaier and Nova Hollandia, 1705

Under the command of Commander Maarten van Delft, the de Vossenbosch, Waaier and Nova Hollandia explored the Gulf of Carpentaria and north coast of New Holland.

October 5:

Pakubuwono I makes a deal with the VOC: Mataram debts to VOC are wiped out; East Madura goes to VOC control; Semarang is officially a VOC city after years of occupation; Cirebon is officially a VOC protectorate; VOC gets extensive trade rights; Javanese sailors must stick to their home waters; Mataram must deliver rice on demand to the VOC at a price set by the VOC. In addition, the two sides agree that no other European nation will be allowed to build factories or fortifications anywhere on Java. October 11: Pakubuwono I signs an agreement to pay the costs of the VOC garrison at Kartasura. 


VOC and Mataram armies take Kediri, and defeat Amangkurat III and Surapati.


 Britain allowed to set up factories in Banjar


VOC and Pakubuwono I of Mataram battle the forces of Amangkurat III at Madiun, and take Pasuruan.

On June 27, 1707,

 the British merchant settlements in Banjarmasin was suddenly attacked by the natives, most British people were killed, and the survivors fled to the ship. EIC company property lost in this place, estimated at $ 50,000. [29] The British were expelled from English-Banjar Banjar War II in 1707, so that Chinese people can be free again to enter into transactions with the merchants pepper Banjar and Biaju. The number of Chinese people who gathered in the area of ​​the Sultanate of Banjar increasingly composed of junk merchants and traders settled.


 Omar Akamuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until the year 1732


VOC forces land at Surabaya to continue fighting against Amangkurat III. July 17 Amangkurat III surrenders himself at Surabaya, after receiving a false VOC promise of lands and freedom in exchange for surrender. August 24 Amangkurat III, his family and attendants are sent by ship from Surabaya to Batavia. At Batavia, he is told that the VOC representative at Surabaya had no authority to offer him terms of surrender. He is taken as a prisoner of war and sent to exile in Ceylon.


 Batavia  1708. Chinese Qing Ceramic  Export for the Dutch


VOC opens tin mines on Bangka. Around this time, many Bugis, who had been wandering as mercenaries or refugees due to the wars involving Makassar and Bone, began to settle on and around the Malay peninsula


 Pakubuwono I sends repeated requests to the VOC in Batavia for help against continuing unrest in Balambangan and Madura.



In 1712, Joseph Collets wrote mail to the council proposed to build a new garrison in Carrang (probably refers to Ujung Karang). It is about three kilometers far from Fort York.
1714This fort was established in 1714-1719 by Joseph Collet (1712-16). The progress was continued by his successors: Thiophilus Shyllinge (1716-17), Richard Farmer (1717-18), and Thomas Cooke (1718-19).
Gravestone of Cap. James Cuney (moved from British Cemetery in Jitra)


British begin building Fort Marlborough at Bengkulu. Sultan of Tidore cedes claim on Irian Jaya to VOC. After this time (especially after the Treaty of Utrecht in 1713, which ended 13 years of war between the European powers and their colonies) the Dutch and the VOC began to lose prominence, and Britain became the dominant colonial and naval power in the world.


The fortification was under contruction for four year and was compled in its firts form in 1718

Due to the lack of  a qualifed engineer the fort gradually fell into a state of decay  and when joseph collet was appointend deputy Fovendor in 1712 he requested permission to abandon yort fort and to contruct a new fort on the ‘carang’, small hill about two mill from york and overlooking the bay. colet was eventually given permission to commace work on this new fotification in 1714. It was to be large enough to provide living accommodation for the factor and writers of the company and their servanst well as the militiary garrison. Joseph colled name his fort ‘marlboroug’  in honour of john Churhill, the firs Duke of marlborough, who wasbeing hailed as a national hero after winning a number of strategic battles in Erouppe against the friench  and their allies. 

Pland of the original fort 1714-1718

Al old print of FortMarlborough looking north towerd Gunung Bungkuk (Sugar loaf Mountain) Showing the lookout tower which was demolished towar the end of 1700s.


 VOC accuses the Adipati of Surabaya of collaborating with the rebels in eastern Java. The son of the Adipati of Surabaya, Jaya Puspita, leads a renewed rebellion against Mataram in the areas around Surabaya, Kediri, Probolinggo, Balambangan, and Madura, with help from Bali. The VOC organizes further reinforcements to counter the threat.


Bali warriors


 VOC takes Surabaya and Madiun from the rebels. Some rebellions continue in east Java. Cakraningrat III of Madura is killed by VOC soldiers while travelling to talks; Cakraningrat IV takes power. 







 Amangkurat IV takes rule in Mataram. Court rebellion breaks out almost immediately; rebel princes flee eastward. A combined VOC and Mataram force drives the rebels back from Kediri to Malang.

Java, 1719

A Second War of Succession followed from 1719 to 1723, after the death of Pakubuwana I. His son, Amangkurat IV, again held his throne against rebel forces thanks only to VOC intervention. During the reign of Amangkurat IV’s son, Pakubuwana II, a further round of fighting broke out, eventually merging into the Third Javanese War of Succession. Although conflict had been endemic in the intervening years,


 Rumors of a conspiracy against the VOC spread in Batavia. Peter Erberfelt and several others are tried and executed.


 VOC receives a monopoly on tin from Bangka and Belitung from the Sultan of Palembang.


 Rebel princes and Surapati’s descendants in East Java are subdued by VOC forces. VOC begins compulsory coffee production in Priangan.


 Government of the Kingdom of Matan / Sukadana by Sultan Ma’aziddin (1724-1762)


• Wiradedaha IV (1726-1745)
• Satjapati (1745-1747)
• Wiradedaha V (1747-1765)
• Jayamenggala (1765-1807)
• Demang Anggadipa (1807-1813)
• Suryalaga (1813-1814)
• Wiradedaha VI (1814-1828)
• Wiratanubaja I (1828-1835)
• Wiratanubaja II (1835-1854)
• Adipati Wiradedaha VII (1854-1874)
• Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906)
• Aria Prawiradiningrat (1906-1908)
• Wiratanudiningrat (1908-1925)
Beberapa peristiwa penting di Sukapura
Abad 17. Priangan Tengah dibagi menjadi empat kadipaten. Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah pimpinan Ki Wirawangsa Umbul Sukakerta bergelar Tumenggung Wiradedaha. Beliau adalah leluhur para adipati/ bupati Sukapura.
1811/ 1813 Raden Demang Anggadipa (1807-1811/1813) dicopot dari kedudukannya oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda karena menolak penanaman paksa nila sebagai pengganti beras. Beliau keberatan dengan kebijakan Belanda itu karena akan mengakibatkan rakyat kelaparan. Akibat pembangkangan itu, Kadipaten Sukapura sementara waktu dihapuskan dan diserahkan pemerintahannya pada Limbangan di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wangsareja (1805-1811).
Akhir abad ke-19. Belanda menata ulang pemerintahan Priangan dan membaginya menjadi 9 afdeeling (Jerman: Abteilung). Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya IV.
Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906) memperoleh penghargaan bintang Oranye Nassau dari Belanda.SOURCE:Cribb, Robert. Digital Atlas of Indonesian History.
Hardjasaputra, Sobana A. Bupati di Priangan: Kedudukan dan Peranannya pada abad ke-17-19 dalam Seri Sundalana, Pusat Studi Sunda, Bandung, 2004.
Sutherland, Heather. Notes on Java’s Regent Family, Cornel University, 1973
Taniputera, Ivan. Kerajaan-kerajaan Nusantara Pascakeruntuhan Majapahit: Hikayat dan Sejarahnya, Arruzzwacana, Jogjakarta (sedang dalam proses penerbitan).

Banjar kINGDOM


SOURCE : An alphabetical enumeration of the former princely states of Indonesia, from the earliest time to the modern period, with simplified genealogies and order of succession by Hans Haegerdal.


 As the daughter of King Paser, La Madukelleng (National Hero) served King Paser until the year 1736. 


 Court intrigues in Kartasura result in Pangeran Mangkunegara being sent into exile by Dutch.




Further north, Acehnese power recovered somewhat, but the more significant power was the sultan of Siak Sri Indrapura, a state founded in 1723, which had extended its hegemony northwards as far as Tamiang by 1780.




West Java: colonial political divisions, 1730-1808

In Cirebon, the Dutch preserved an unusual arrangement in which the heads of two related families, Kanoman and Kesupuhan, both carried the hereditary rank and powers of sultan. The upland regions to the south were incorporated into the Priangan System, but the sultans retained extensive powers in the lowlands, where they farmed their estates out to Chinese entrepreneurs, with miserable consequences for the peasants. Cirebon was the scene of repeated famine and uprising in the late 18th century


 Mohammad Alauddin became the Sultan of Brunei until the year 1745.

Amir Wira Bulungan I became ruler until the year 1777. Amiril Pengiran Dipati II served Tidung ruler until 1765.

Abubakar I to the Sultan of Sambas Kamaluddin until the year 1762. The Sultanate’s capital was moved from the Kutai Kutai Lama to Pemarangan.

 A warlord’s men attacked the La Madukelleng Banjarmasin but failed.
 1733: Puana Dekke Bugis leaders borrowed land to Sultan Banjar Tahlilullah to establish settlements in Pagatan with a population that became known as the Bugis Pagatan. [31]

Sultan Banjar Tamjidillah I to XII until the year 1759.
 1735: Sultan Aji Muhammad Idris Kukar XIV became King until the year 1778. He is the King of Kutai first took the title of Sultan.
 1736: Sultan Alam Sepuh I became Sultan Paser II until the year 1766.

Lyeth Interrd the
Body of
Cap. James Cuney
Who departed this
February 7th 1737
A.Aetatis 36”Explanation:
“A.Aetatis 36”, it stands for “anno aetatis suae 36”,
that means “”in the year of his age 36 years

Gravestone of Henry Stirling (moved from British Cemetery in Jitra)



 – Gov.-Gen. Durven and several other high officials are ordered to return to the Netherlands by the Heeren XVII for financial misdeeds. Malaria epidemic sweeps Batavia in 1732.



– Pakubuwono II agrees to heavier debt service payments to VOC. He has his minister Danureja sent into exile in Ceylon.


– Pakubuwono II transfers his claim to Balambangan to VOC.


– Official VOC archives in Batavia are founded. 


Shipwreck ‘Viegent Hart’ Silver Coin

Shipwreck coin with a certificate for 'Viegent Hart'…

Shipwreck coin ‘Viegent Hart’ shipwrecked 1735, Dutch East Indies on voyage to Batavia, Java


VOC tells Pakubuwono II to exile Pangeran Purbaya.



Arung Singkang attacks Bone and Makassar, but VOC drives him back.


VOC begins a campaign to have “superfluous Chinese” deported to Ceylon (Sri Lanka) or South Africa.


Kapitan Pattimura


 Panembahan Mempawah Manambung Opu Daeng brought mine workers from mainland China.


marked the beginning of an era of cataclysmic violence. The era began with a wholesale massacre of Chinese in Batavia – probably about 10,000 perished – by Dutch citizens resentful of their prosperity and stirred by VOC fears of a Chinese rebellion. Chinese bands fleeing the destruction moved along the north Java coast destroying VOC posts one by one and massacring their inhabitants. Pakubuwana II joined the rebels in attacking Semarang, while the VOC formed an alliance with the Cakraningrats. As the tide turned towards the VOC, Pakubuwana sued for peace, but found himself at once facing a rebellion amongst Javanese and in mid-1742 he was driven out of his capital. VOC troops on the coast, however, and Madurese troops inland were successful in stemming the rebellion and in late 1743, Pakubuwana was formally restored to his throne in exchange for further territorial concessions to the VOC, the guarantee of a perpetual tribute in rice, and the acceptance of a VOC garrison in the Kartasura court. Although the Cakraningrats had been instrumental in the VOC victory, their fate was still less favourable. They were given none of the concessions they wanted on the eastern Java mainland 


Within Batavia’s walls, wealthy Dutch built tall houses and pestilential canals. Commercial opportunities attracted Indonesian and especially Chinese immigrants, the increasing numbers creating burdens on the city. Tensions grew as the colonial government tried to restrict Chinese migration through deportations. On 9 October 1740, 5,000 Chinese were massacred

1740 Batavia massacre
The 1740 Batavia massacre was a pogrom against ethnic Chinese living in the port city of Batavia, the Dutch East Indies. The incident lasted for two weeks in October.Up to 80,000 ethnic Chinese lived in Batavia in the early 18th century…. and the following year, Chinese inhabitants were moved to Glodok
Glodok is a part of the Jakarta Old Town, Indonesia. The area is also known as Pecinan or Chinatown since the Dutch colonial era, and is considered the biggest in Indonesia, as a majority of the traders in Glodok are of Chinese descent


Octob. 1740. –

Afbelding van dat gBATAVIA. TABLEAU DE LA PARTIE BATAVIA, où s’est fait proprement le terrible massacre des Chinois, le 9edeelte van Batavia, alwaar eigentlyk de schrikkelyke slagting der Chinezen geschied is, den 9 Octob. 1740. (Amsterdam, 1755).Engraving by J. van Schley. Ca. 19 x 28 cm. From: A.F. Prevost. Historische beschrijving der reizen. – Striking bird’s eye view of Batavia depicting the massacre of the Chinese by the Dutch in Batavia, October 9, 1749.Feith 74; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 159,1. [Boeknr.: 14562 ]


lies interred
the body
Henry Stirling
Late Council at Fort Marlborough on this coast
He was ninth son of
James Stirling of Key Esq.
And the honourable
Mr. Maron Stewart
of the Kingdom of Scotland and Departed
this life on first day
of April 1744
Aged 25 years

Buitenzorg Palace (1744)

Buitenzorg/Bogor – Indonesia

The original palace was built in 1744 as a country retreat for the Dutch Governors. This building was substantially damaged by an earthquake in 1834, triggered by the volcanic eruption of Mount Salak. The palace was rebuilt into its present form in 1856 – this time with only one story instead of the original three, as a precaution against further earthquakes. Till 1942, Buitenzorg Palace served as the official residence of the Dutch Governors-General. After the Indonesian independence, the palace was used by President Sukarno, but then largely neglected by Suharto when he came to office. The grounds of the estate contain several buildings – the largest of which is the main palace and its two wings.

The Palace is surrounded by the largest and most famous botanical gardens of South-East Asia. An area of 284,000 square metres (28.4 hectares). The garden was built by Governor-General Gustaaf Willem, Baron van Imhoff. The extensive grounds of the presidential palace were later converted into a botanical garden by the German-born Dutch botanist, Professor Casper George Carl Reinwardt. The gardens officially opened in 1817 as ‘s Lands Plantentuin (‘National Botanical Garden’) and were used to research and develop plants and seeds from other parts of the Indonesian archipelago for cultivation during the 19th century. This is a tradition that continues today and contributes to the garden’s reputation as a major center for botanical research.Today the garden contains more than 15,000 species of trees and plants located among streams and lotus ponds. There are 400 types of exceptional palms to be found along the extensive lawns and avenues, helping the gardens create a refuge for more than 50 different varieties of birds and for groups of bats roosting high in the trees.



in 1897

is de loop van de Tjiliwoeng nog min of meer ongewijzigd

Om er voor te zorgen dat Weltevreden een aantrekkelijk gebied zou worden voor de nog in de Benedenstad wonende Europeanen, liet Daendels de later beroemde Societeit De Harmonie bouwen, nummer 29 op onze kaart.
Inderdaad wat moeilijk te vinden :

In het noorden van de kaart, bij de Kleine Boom, loopt de rivier de Tjiliwoeng. Daar waar de Tjiliwoeng naar het Oosten afbuigt, begint een kanaal met Tramway ernaast, het kanaal werd Molenvliet genoemd.
Trambaan en Molenvliet buigen op een gegeven moment naar het Oosten en daar op die hoek lag Societeit De Harmonie. Een klein stukje naar het Noorden aan de Westkant van Molenvliet, links van het woord (wijk) Noordwijk ligt ons nummer 10, Hotel Des Indes. Ten Zuiden van Noordwijk, aan de andere kant van het Molenvliet, lag de wijk Rijswijk met het beroemde Koningsplein en het Waterlooplein, over deze twee pleinen en Societeit De Harmonie zal Aad het ooit ook nog eens gaan hebben…

        We ontvingen, samengevat, deze vragen, allemaal verband houdend met de naam Rijswijk, een chique wijk in Batavia, vooral in de 19e eeuw:
            1. De wijk Rijswijk was oorspronkelijk een gebiedsdeel van het landgoed Rijswijk en is vernoemd naar het fort Rijswijk.
            2. Wanneer en waarom kreeg dit gebied bij Batavia de naam Rijswijk, heeft het iets te maken met Rijswijk bij Den Haag?
            3. Was de stichting van de wijk Rijswijk voor of na de afbraak van Fort Rijswijk.
            4. Hoe dicht was de bewoning toen Daendels er de Harmonie liet bouwen?
            5. Is bekend hoeveel oppervlak het grondgebied, c.q. de bebouwde wijk Rijswijk besloeg en hoeveel mensen er woonden, in verhouding tot de rest van de bovenstad?
            6. Wat is het verschil tussen Paleis Rijswijk en Paleis Koningsplein, die met elkaar verbonden waren ??
            7. Waren beide paleizen, Paleis Rijswijk en Paleis Koningsplein vroeger de residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal en waarom werden ze zo genoemd: Paleis Rijswijk en Paleis Koningsplein?

We kunnen hierover het volgende vertellen, het is inderdaad een beetje ingewikkeld en soms heel verwarrend……:


Fort Rijswijk ten zuiden van Batavia 

        Ten zuiden van Batavia, een maand na de bouw van het Fort Jacatra, werd in augustus 1656 het vierhoekige redoute

Fort Rijswijk

        gebouwd. Fort Rijswijk werd aan de oostzijde van de rivier de Krokot gebouwd te midden van de


        velden, waarbij Rijs een Oud-Hollands woord is voor Rijs


        Fort Rijswijk werd in 1697 weer ontruimd en in 1729 afgebroken.
        Ten oosten van Fort Rijswijk en Fort



(gebouwd een jaar na Fort Rijswijk en pas afgebroken in 1809)

        verrezen half 18e eeuw de eerste grote, we zouden nu zeggen, Herenhuizen in Weltevreden, een zeer toepasselijke naam !!
        Ongeveer op de oude lokatie van Fort Rijswijk zou Daendels Sociëteit de Harmonie laten bouwen, daarbij werden stenen gebruikt van de oude stadswallen van de Benedenstad van Batavia.
        Weltevreden lag op een behoorlijke afstand van de steeds onhygiënisch wordende Benedenstad en ook het Gouvernement besloot in Weltevreden een buitenverblijf te bouwen. De eerste die dit deed, was Gouverneur-Generaal Jacob Mossel. Ook zijn opvolgers trokken zich geregeld terug in dit fraaie buitenverblijf.
        Gouverneur-Generaal Petrus Albertus van der Parra zou het geheel uiteindelijk zodanig verbouwen dat het paste bij de status van een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië….

(al werd het toen nog Oost-Indië genoemd)

GG palace weltevreden



Het buitenverblijf van Gouverneur-Generaal Mossel en zijn opvolgers

1741 – Escaping Chinese from Batavia attack Semarang and Rembang; the VOC leaves Demak. Pakubuwono II changes sides, sends a force to attack VOC at Semarang, and destroys the VOC garrison at Kartasura. Cakraningrat IV of Madura declares allegiance with the VOC, and rejects his ties with Mataram and Pakubuwono II.


Forces of Mataram and rebellious Chinese attack many north coast cities of the VOC. Siege of Semarang is unsuccessful. Rival Governor-Generals of the VOC struggle in Batavia: Valckenier arrests Van Imhoff and sends him back to Europe. The Heeren XVII in the Netherlands names Van Imhoff as Governor-General. Valckenier is himself eventually arrested and jailed.


1742 – Negotiations begin between the VOC and Pakubuwono II of Mataram as the VOC and Cakraningrat IV of Madura spread their power. An agreement is reached between the VOC and Pakubuwono II. A popular rebellion under Sunan Kuning, a grandson of Amangkurat III, against the VOC and Mataram takes hold in the countryside. Cakraningrat IV retakes Kartasura from the rebels. The VOC is suspicious, and orders Pakubuwono II to be put back on throne. VOC troops defeat the last of the Chinese forces; a general amnesty is declared.


1743 – November 11 Pakubuwono II gives VOC Surabaya, Rembang, Jepara and claims to easternmost Java and West Madura. VOC receives a say in court appointments. Mixed-Portuguese locals attack VOC post at Kupang on Timor; VOC solidifies control of western part of Timor. VOC takes Bawean island.


1745 –

 Cakraningrat IV wages war with the VOC, attacks Surabaya, and retakes much of Madura and East Java. He is defeated by VOC forces and escapes to Banjarmasin, but the Sultan of Banjar captures him and sends him to Batavia. The VOC exiles him to South Africa. Gov-Gen Van Imhoff founds Buitenzorg (today’s Bogor). Malaria epidemic in Batavia.


Sentot Alibasyah (Prawiradirja)

 in 1745

they went to war against the VOC. The fighting ravaged Madura and much of the north coast, but by the end of the year the Madurese were defeated and West Madura’s status as a VOC vassal was confirmed.

Pakubuwana II’s concessions to the Dutch in 1743 included the right for the VOC to take a narrow strip of land along the entire north coast, as well as along rivers feeding into the Java Sea. The VOC did not take up this option but instead in 1746 pressed the king to lease to the VOC the entire north coastal region. Despite opposition from within the court, the king acquiesced, prompting a further rebellion, led by the capable Pangeran Mangkubumi.

territory of Mataram and the fact that some territories were still held jointly. There was almost constant conflict over land between the three authorities until a more detailed settlement was reached in 1774.

 the Dutch in Yogyakarta City of Fort Tatas built in 1709. [30]
 1710: Prince Aji ing chances, Anum Bannerman Martapura Kukar XIII became King until the year 1735


Hussin Kamaluddin became Sultan of Brunei until the year 1762 for the second time.

 Ship Dragon and pepper in Banjarmasin Onflow load. [32] [33]
 1747: Dutch Company founded the fort on the island of Tatas (Banjarmasin Central) is the first European settlement in Borneo until 1810 and then abandoned by Marshall Daendels accordance with the agreement with the Sultan of Banjar. [17]
 1747 – VOC decrees that native law (“adat”) will be in force in areas under its control outside of Batavia. VOC establishes a presence at Banjarmasin.


1748 – VOC sends Sultan of Banten into exile, makes his wife Ratu Sarifa regent but take direct control.


1749 – December 11 Pakubuwono II, in very ill health, signs a treaty giving full sovereignty in all Mataram to the VOC. (The treaty is widely ignored.) VOC declares Pakubuwono III as heir to throne of Mataram. Mangkubumi claims the title for himself, and rules from Yogya.


By 1749,

the king’s new court at Surakarta was under threat from the rebels and in desperation he signed over his entire domain to the VOC. Upon Pakubuwana’s death a few days later, the VOC installed his son as Pakubuwana III, but Mangkubumi also declared himself king, likewise with the name Pakubuwana. After another six years of war, the VOC and Mangkubumi finally reached an agreement, the 1755 Treaty of Giyanti, which partitioned Mataram between the two royal contenders. Mangkubumi took the title of Sultan and the regnal name Hamengkubuwana, and established his capital in the town of Yogyakarta, while Pakubuwana III remained as Susuhunan in the older city of Surakarta. Both rulers confirmed the VOC’s lease over the north coast and its ownership of the eastern peninsula.


1750 – Rebellion in Banten against Ratu Sarifa and the VOC.


GG mossel

1750 – 1761

Gouverneur-Generaal Jacob Mossel 


DEI Gouvenor’s Old  Batavia palace

        Aan het eind van de 18e eeuw was het buitenverblijf van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Weltevreden weer verouderd.
        Gouverneur-Generaal Van Imhoff was de eerste die al mocht gaan bouwen in een gebied wat Van Imhoff noemde


          , een naam die we in de geschiedenis van Nederlands-Indië nog vaker tegen zullen komen…..


GG Van Imhoff was de man betrokken bij de beruchte moord
op de Chinese bevolking in en rondom Batavia in 1740:



Sumatra, second half of 18th century

The assassination of Sultan Mahmud of Johor led to the disintegration of what remained of Johor’s empire. The Thai state of Ayutthaya invaded Trengganu, most of the east Sumatra coast as well as the Minangkabau settlements west of Melaka threw off Johor’s domination, and in 1718 Johor’s former vassal Siak attacked and occupied its territory. The sultan fled to Trengganu, which enjoyed a brief heyday as the centre of Malay power on the peninsula, though its power never extended beyond the east coast. Johor, meanwhile, came under the control of Bugis adventurers from Sulawesi, who also established the new state of Selangor between Melaka and Perak.


Bugis power drove Siak from the peninsula and the Riau archipelago, re-establishing ‘Johor’ with its capital on Bintan. Siak meanwhile extended its power northward along the Sumatra coast as far as Tamiang. Although Siak was still nominally a vassal of Johor until 1745, when the sultan ceded it to the VOC, in practice it was independent of all outside powers.

The greatest power on the island, however, was Palembang, which grew wealthy from the tin mines on the island of Bangka. Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin (r. 1724–57) kept tight control of the tin trade and delivered reliably to the VOC. Because Bangka and Belitung had been seriously depopulated by the slave-raiding of the previous century, however, the sultan encouraged Chinese miners to settle and work the deposits. By the middle of the century they dominated production


Bugis Sultan Banjar land to borrow to establish settlements in Tanjung Aru (the border area with Paser Land of Spices).

 Age of VOC
The Italians are the first Europeans to visit Borneo in the 14th century, then followed by the Spanish, British, and Dutch. Sambas kingdom is the first area that was under the influence of the Netherlands since the contract with the VOC made by Queen Sapudak (King Sambas) on October 1, 1609. On September 4, 1635, the Sultanate of Banjar make the first trade contract with the VOC and VOC will help conquer Paser Banjar. Since 1636, New York trying to be the center of the mandala to the other kingdoms in West Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan and East Kalimantan. Banjar saga noted the delivery of tribute to the Sultan of Sambas Banjarmasin, Sukadana, Paser, Kutai, Berau, Karasikan (Buranun / Sulu), Great Lease (Sawakung), Bunyut and countries in Batang Lawai. Sukadana (formerly named Tanjungpura) is the host for the kingdom Tayan, Meliau, Sanggau and Mempawah. In 1638 in Yogyakarta tragedy occurred a massacre of the Dutch and Japanese so that the Dutch sent punitive expeditions and making threats against the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, the Kingdom and the Kingdom Sukadana Kotawaringin. In 1700 Sukadana (Matan) suffered defeat in the war with the Hedgehog (vazal Bantam). Hedgehogs assisted Bantam and VOCs, so the porcupine and Sukadana Banten claims (mostly West Kalimantan) as its territory. Year 1756 VOC trying to get Lawai, Sintang and Sanggau from Banjarmasin. Initial area in Kalimantan, which claimed to belong to VOCs are areas along the coast from Sukadana until Mempawah given by the Sultanate of Banten on March 26, 1778. VOC had established a factory in Sukadana and Mempawah but 14 years later abandoned due to non-productive (Sir Stamford Rafless, The History of Java). Pontianak Sultanate supported establishment of the VOC in the estuary of the river Hedgehogs Hedgehogs originally protested because it is a territory but eventually loosens the pressure of the VOC. On August 13, 1787, the Sultanate of Banjar a protectorate, VOCs and vazal vazal Banjarmasin submitted to VOCs include East Kalimantan, Central Kalimantan, part of South Kalimantan, West Kalimantan and the interior, which reaffirmed the 1826 agreement. Then formed the Dutch East Indies Residency Residency Sambas and Pontianak with the appointment of kings as a regent of the Netherlands Indies colonial administration. Later merged into the Residency Residency Sambas and Pontianak Kalimantan hinterland into Residency West Borneo. Dutch East Indies in 1860 abolished the Sultanate of Banjar, then the last territory to be part of the Residency Afdeeling South and East Borneo.
 1756: On October 20, 1756 Sultan Banjar Tamjidullah I made a pact with the VOC containing pepper trade ban by the Chinese, English and French will help further VOC reconquer the breakaway region such as: Berau, Kutai, Paser, Sanggau, Sintang and Lawai. Tatas fort was built on the island of Tatas, New York.
 1759: Sultan Muhammad Aliuddin Aminullah be Banjar XIII until the year 1761.
 1761: His Majesty Sultan Nata Nature is the Banjar XIV until the year 1801, previously as regent Crown Prince who was a child.
 1762: Omar Akamuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until 1793. In Brunei, Omar Ali Saifuddin I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1795.
 1765: King Amiril Pengiran Maharajadinda Tidung served until 1782.
 1766: Ibrahim Sultan Alam Shah became Sultan of Sand III until 1786.
 October 23, 1771: City of Pontianak was founded by Abdurrahman Sharif Alkadrie who in 1778 sanctioned the Dutch VOC-I as Sultan of Pontianak in power until 1808. Establishment of a new kingdom at the mouth of the river was originally protested by Hedgehogs Hedgehog Kingdom.
 1772: Sayyid Idrus Alaydrus, son of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin I of the Sultanate of Palembang was appointed VOC-Dutch became the first camp Pertuan kingdom, ruled until 1795.
 1773: British occupy Balambangan. [34]
 1775: La Pangewa, was sworn in as lieutenant of the Bugis Pagatan Kapitan title by Sultan of Pulo Sea Tahmidullah II, after pounding the Prince Amir (King Kusan I) are out of the way up to Kuala Biaju.
 1777: Republic of Hakka Lanfang a country in West Kalimantan, founded by Mr. Fang Low until finally destroyed by the VOC, the Dutch in 1884.
 1778: According to the deed dated March 26, 1778 Hedgehog and Sukadana submitted to the Dutch Company by the Sultan of Banten. This is the territory that originally belonged to the VOC.
 1778: Sultan Aji Muhammad Aliyeddin be Kukar XIV until the year 1780.
 1780: Sultan Aji Muhammad Muslihuddin be Kukar XV until the year 1816.
 1780: Sultanate Banjarmasin population approaching 9000 people. [35]
 1782: Amiril Pengiran Maharajalila III became King Tidung until 1817.
 28 September 1782: Pemindahkan Kutai Sultanate’s capital of Pemarangan to the Edge of Pandan.
 1785: Prince Amir assisted Whitewater Tarawe Tabaneo attacked by troops Paser 3000 the Bugis-powered boats 60 to demand the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar of Tahmidullah II. [36]
 1786: Queen of the Great became the Sultan of Sand II until 1788.
 May 14, 1787: Prince Amir Dutch Company were arrested, then exiled to Sri Lanka.
 August 13, 1787: Tahmidullah II Sultan of the Sultanate Banjar cede sovereignty to the VOC became the protectorate of the deed of submission in front of the Resident Walbeck, after the VOC, the Dutch managed to get rid of Prince Amir, his rival in the struggle for the throne. Most of Borneo submitted become property of the company VOCs.
 1788: Sultan Anom Dipati Alamsyah became Sultan of Sand III until 1799. Sultan is married to the Queen is the Queen of Diamonds I Tjangtoeng and Batoe Litjin.
 1789: Sultan of Pontianak with Dutch support attacks against Panembahan Mempawah with the objective of winning the region Panembahan Mempawah. Lan Fong partnership then also sent troops to help force the Sultan of Pontianak. Panembahan Mempawah Panembahan Mempawah defeated then King resigned himself to the Authorship and later settled there.
 1790: Abubakar Tajuddin I became Sultan of Sambas until 1814.
 1795: Mohammed Tajuddin became Sultan of Brunei IX until 1807. Ordered Khatib Haji Abdul Latif writes Genealogy of the Kings of Brunei and ordered him to make a home waqf for Brunei pilgrims in Mecca.
 1795: Kingdom of Panembahan Simpang Matan built on the remnants of the Kingdom Sukadana [37]
 1797: Sovereignty of the Sea Island area Paser and VOC handed back to the Sultan of Banjar, Tahmidullah II.
 1799: Sultan Sulaiman Alam II became Sultan of Sand IV until 1811.
Age of British Colonialism

1746 – Pangeran Mangkubumi, disgusted with capitulations to the VOC (and being the target of court intrigues to take away his lands), announces full-scale rebellion. He is joined by Pangeran Mas Said. August 26: First VOC Post Office opened in Jakarta. VOC reestablishes presence in Perak. VOC receives Siak (across the straits from Melaka) from the Sultan of Johore. Bank van Leening founded by VOC to support trade.



Sumatra and the Malay peninsula, first half of 18th century

During the second half of the 18th century, VOC power became increasingly decisive in the international politics of the Melaka Strait region. In 1753, the Company gained sovereignty over Banten, giving it a legal claim to Lampung. It was also engaged in a protracted struggle with the Bugis on the peninsula and in the Riau archipelago during which the Bugis occupied Kedah and the Dutch briefly took Selangor and sacked Bintan yet again. Johor, which still had little presence in the Malay Peninsula, came under Dutch influence and was under effective Dutch rule until 1795.


The west coast of Sumatra, meanwhile, became the scene of sporadic competition between the colonial powers. The vague understanding which gave the north to the VOC and the south to the British broke down when the British established forts at Poncang Kecil and Natal on the Tapanuli coast in 1752, though these posts never grew into a significant colonial presence. In the south, Bencoolen was briefly occupied by French forces in 1760.

In 1759
the fortifications were improved by the addition of a dry dich which can still be seen. The earth  from the ditch was dug out to a depth of six feet and width of twelve feet. The eaeth from this ditch was placed between the original outer wall of the fort and a new wall which had been contructed thus making the fort virtually impregnable from gun fire.This work gave the fort the resemblance that is seen today, with the enlarged gun platforms and ramparts.Shortly after this improvement, a french napal squadron, under the command of comte Charles-henri ‘Estaing’, arrived Bencoolen.Owing toa lack of ammunition and supplies but to surrender to the French Commander.The town  and fort were handed over the intruders withour conflict. The french used the fort as aprison for the East India company garrison, but affer some decimation of his force by a variety of fevers, the french commander abandoned Bencoolen and handed the town and fort back to the Ease town and fort back to the Ease India company representative althoug they too had been severely reduced in number owing to sickness and fevers.
In 1760  the Ease  india company settlement on the west coast of the sumatra were declared a presidency with Bencoolen becoming a presidential town, The garrison had, unfortunately, capitulated to the french before the new of the raise in  status was received. Following the departure of the french maritime force the senior appointtmen was up-granded to that of Governor and the firs to be  appointed was roger carter.

second half of 18th century


The second major geo-political zone to develop in western Indonesia was in Java. In the interior of the island, a combination of rich volcanic soil and abundant rain made the Kedu plain the richest agricultural region of maritime Southeast Asia. Somewhat isolated from the north coast by mountains, the region was less vulnerable than most to sea-borne attack, and its rulers were able to keep the merchant world of the trading cities at bay, with the result that royal authority became more deeply established than elsewhere.

The early history of Kedu is as shadowy as that of the rest of the archipelago. The region may at first have been under the domination of Ho-ling, but in about 732 a king called Sanjaya, a follower of the Hindu god Siva, established a kingdom there which we generally call Mataram. Sanjaya was probably not an absolute ruler in any sense; he is probably best thought of as a local warlord who managed by a combination of careful alliance and calculated warfare with other warlords to establish himself as the most important power-holder in the plain. Within a few decades, moreover, and for reasons still not at all clear, his lineage was eclipsed by other rulers who were followers of Mahayana Buddhism and who acknowledged the suzerainty of the Sailendra dynasty. The Sailendras apparently sponsored the construction of the Borobudur, a massive Buddhist stupa, on the Kedu plain, as well as a number of other major monuments. This era of temple construction, which is paralleled nowhere else in maritime Southeast Asia, is a powerful measure of the ability of rulers in Central Java to mobilize the labour of their people on a massive scale.

The coastal polity of Ho-ling evidently survived the rise to power of Mataram on the other side of the mountains, for its ruler sent an embassy to China as late as 820, announcing that it had resumed the old name Jawa (‘Shepo’), but there are signs that it sent this embassy from eastern Java, having been displaced there by Mataram.

The disappearance of Ho-ling soon after 820 coincides with the overthrow of the Sailendras by a Hindu descendant of Sanjaya named Pikatan who restored Sivaitic Hinduism as the dominant religion. Pikatan or his successors were responsible for the construction of the Hindu temple complex of Prambanan and the century or so which followed is generally recognized as a time of cultural florescence, in which Java absorbed and re-worked new elements of Indian culture to create a distinctive indigenous variant of Indian civilization.

In the middle of the 10th century, for reasons which are still not clear, the centre of Javanese power moved from the Kedu plain to the valley of the Brantas River in eastern Java. There, with easier access to the sea, Javanese rulers may have become more closely involved in trade. They were also more vulnerable, and in 1016 were badly defeated in battle, probably during an attack from Srivijaya.


Rijder and Buis, 1756

The Rijder, commanded by Captain Jean Gonzal, and the Buis, skippered by Captain Lavienne Lodewijk van Asschens, explored the Gulf of Carpentaria.

Java, 1595-1625

Mataram’s overseas empire

Mataram at the height of its power, early 17th century

Mataram’s period of dominance was brief. Sultan Agung’s brutality in eliminating potential opposition was exceeded by that of his successor, Amangkurat I, who soon alienated a large part of the Javanese elite. Full-scale rebellion broke out in 1675, led by a disaffected prince of Madura named Trunojoyo, who was in league both with Makasar refugees from southern Sulawesi and with the crown prince, Amangkurat’s son. The rebellion began in the coastal regions which had felt the brunt of Mataram’s hostility to trade, but quickly found support in the interior after Trunojoyo defeated the Mataram forces at Gogodog in 1676 and, abandoning the crown prince, declared himself king.

Mataram would certainly have fallen but for the fact that the VOC, fearing the rise of a new, assertive dynasty on Java, gave military support to Mataram in exchange for territorial and trading concessions. In 1678, after Amangkurat I had died and the crown prince had been installed as Amangkurat II, Dutch troops marched into eastern Java to begin a three-year campaign alongside Mataram forces which destroyed the rebel armies. The intervention established the VOC as the single most powerful military force in Java, gave it hegemony over a large hinterland south and east of Batavia, as well as control of the enclave of Semarang, and reduced the power and territory of Banten.

Java in turmoil, 1676-1681: the Trunajaya rebellion



VOC civil administration in Indonesia, 1792

VOC civil administration in central and east Java, 1792

VOC civil administration in Ambon, 1792


1751 – VOC forces des

Private estates close to Batavia, about 1750

The city of Batavia, on the other hand, gradually developed into a significant urban settlement. Built at first in Dutch style, with tall buildings facing on to a grid of narrow canals, the city soon spread beyond its old walls. In the newer southern suburbs of the city, called Weltevreden, Dutch architecture was modified to take more account of the needs of life in the tropics.

As far as possible, the VOC preferred not to take a direct hand in the day-to-day administration of the territories they dominated. Rather, they sought to work with established indigenous elites, believing that these elites possessed a political legitimacy as rulers which the Dutch would never have and that Dutch domination thus could be maintained without unduly offending indigenous sensibilities. On Java, they turned for the most part to the bupati who had been regional lords under Mataram and whom they referred to as regenten (regents).

The Dutch maintained the bupati as symbols of traditional authority and each bupati had responsibility for law and order in his district. In most regions, however, the bupati were also deeply involved in Dutch economic programmes. The most important of these programmes was the Priangan System (Preanger-Stelsel), applied in the so-called Priangan Regencies (Preanger Regentschappen). The people of the region farmed coffee estates for the bupati, who received 10% of the produce for their role. The producers were obliged to deliver the remainder of the crop to the Company, which paid them at half the market rate, in exchange for exempting them from land tax and further feudal services to the bupati. In practice, however, the bupati retained wide powers to tax their subjects on top of the official provisions. This lucrative arrangement remained in force from the early 18th century until 1870.

In the early days of the Company’s settlement at Batavia, Banten (which the Dutch called Bantam) had been a major regional power. Because it possessed only a small agricultural hinterland, it was much more vulnerable than Mataram and its military power was decisively broken in 1677. Thereafter, although the Dutch repeatedly nibbled at the boundary with Banten in order to increase the territory around Batavia, and although they forced the sultan to recognize their suzerainty in 1752, the sultanate was left intact. Only in 1808 did the Dutch annex the coastal regions, a prelude to the incorporation of the rest of the territory in 1813.

troy the Banten rebellion; guerilla attacks continue against VOC plantations around Batavia. VOC extends control over Lampung.


1754 – Mangkubumi considers negotiating with VOC, worries about possible disloyalty from Mas Said.


1755 – February 13 Treaty of Gijanti: Sultan Hamengkubuwono gets VOC recognition of title and lands. Treaty requires Sultan Hamengkubuwono to ally himself with the VOC against Mas Said. Mas Said, now without allies, attacks VOC forces.


Java after the Treaty of Giyanti, 1755

The Javanese territories continued to be divided into mancanegara and negara agung, as in the time of Sultan Agung, but areas such as Banyumas and Pacitan were now included in the negara agung. These boundaries remained intact until the end of the century.

By the second half of the 18th century, the VOC controlled more than half of Java. Only Banten and a severely truncated Mataram remained outside their control, and in fact the rulers of both territories had formally acknowledged Dutch suzerainty, Mataram in 1749 and Banten in 1752.

Because Dutch dominion had grown gradually under widely differing political and economic conditions, the character of Dutch rule varied from region to region. The oldest region of Dutch rule – Batavia and its surrounding territories, known as the Ommelanden – had been purged of its indigenous inhabitants soon after the first Dutch settlement and was inhabited in the 18th century by the descendants of immigrants, some free-born, some slaves, drawn from many parts of the archipelago and beyond. Balinese and Chinese were an especially significant component of the ethnic mix on the outskirts of the city

Until 1755,

VOC policy had been to support whichever ruler of Mataram they believed could be bent to their interests. From 1755, their policy was one of divide and rule. The partition of Mataram was repeated in Surakarta in 1757 with the installation of another former rebel as prince Mangkunegara I with a domain which was beneath Surakarta in status but not quite subordinate in practice. The arrangement was made all the more complex by the fact that Surakarta and Yogyakarta territories were scattered across the whole of the remaining former

1756 – VOC signs treaties with chiefs on Savu and Sumba. October: Bugis begin a siege of VOC at Melaka. VOC sends a special ambassador to Banjarmasin. A trade agreement is reached. VOC makes agreements with local chieftains on Timor.

1757 – February: Reinforcements from Batavia force Bugis to end siege of Melaka. Mas Said agrees to negotiations with the VOC.


1758 – January 1: VOC signs treaty with the Bugis. Hostilities between the VOC, Yogya, Surakarta and Pangeran Mas Said end; Mas Said becomes Pangeran Mangkunegara I with his court also at Surakarta. VOC has control of all the north coast provinces.


1759 – VOC abandons fort at Linggi, near Melaka.



August 1760
The France assault from the sea and captured Fort Marlborough under the command of Admiral Comte Charles d’Estaing.

March 1761
The France left the Bencoolen.

July 1761
The British expedition under the command of Captain Vincent was conflicted by native authority. They refused the British arrival in Bencoolen.


GG parra

1761 – 1775

Gouverneur-Generaal Petrus Albertus van der Parra

1781The British in turn occupied Padang from 1781 to 1784, while the French took the settlement briefly in 1793. In 1795, under an agreement between William of Orange and the British during the Napoleonic occupation of the Netherlands, British forces occupied Padang again, along with Melaka, to exclude the French. 


February 1762
The British retake the Fort Marlborough. When the British returned to slip back it to Bengal’s jurisdiction, Bencoolen functioned as separated presidency until 1773.


GG Van Riemsdijk

1775 – 1777

Gouverneur-Generaal Jeremias van Riemsdijk


1765 – VOC abandons fort at Siak.


1768 – VOC expedition to Malang against descendants of Surapati captures Pangeran Singasari, who dies in custody.


1769 – French expedition steals clove and nutmeg plants from Ambon, breaking the VOC monopoly. Portuguese build post at Dili, East Timor.


1770 – English Captain James Cook visits Batavia.


1771 – Last of Surapati’s line is captured by VOC forces in Malang. Malang now falls under VOC control. VOC forces work to push Balinese out of Balambangan. Syarif Abdurrahman from Arabia founds Pontianak, becomes its first Sultan.


1778 – Sultan of Pontianak accepts VOC protectorate in exchange for recognition by the VOC as a Sultan. The Bataviaasch Genootschap van Kunsten en Wetenschappen is founded. (Its collections would later form the basis of the National Museum and National Library.)



Kuta Besak is the center court Palembang Darussalam Sultanate, as traditional power centers that experienced the change from middle age into a new era in the 19th century. Understanding Kuto here comes from the Sanskrit word, which means: The city, castle, fort, stronghold (see ‘Dictionary of Ancient Java – Indonesia’, L Mardiwarsito, Nusa Indah Flores, 1986).

Melayu Language (Palembang) seems to put more emphasis on the meaning of the castle, fortress, stronghold kuto meaning even more defined in terms of the shape of the high fence wall. While understanding more of the country translated.

The fort was founded in 1780 by Sultan Muhammad Bahauddin (father Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin II). This idea comes from the fortress of Sultan Mahmud Badaruddin I (1724-1758), or known by Jayo Wikramo, who founded the Old Palace Kuta in 1737. This castle development process is fully supported by all the people in South Sumatra. They also donated building materials and labor executive.

Who was the architect, is not known with certainty. There is the suggestion that the architect was the Europeans. For monitoring the implementation of the work entrusted to a Chinese, who are experts in their fields.

As a material for the adhesive cement brick limestone is used in rural areas Ogan River. Limestone material landfills are located in the back of the Land of the Kingdom which is now called the Kapuran Village, and creeks are used as a means of transport is Kapuran River.

1781 – British take the Dutch outpost at Perak.


1783 – The VOC, short of cash, asks the Netherlands States-General for financial assistance.


1784 – VOC attacks Riau to prevent the British from taking over. October 29: VOC defeats Bugis forces in Riau. Sultan of Riau dies without a successor; VOC takes complete control of Johore and Riau by treaty. VOC builds fort on Bintan. Treaty of Paris ends the war with Britain, and opens the VOC controlled Indies to free trade.



February 1785
Presidency of Fort Marlborough was set back to Residency administration, and responsible to Calcutta Presidency in India. It ruled until the end of the colony in 1825 on the subject of Anglo-Dutch Treaty 1824.

Fort Marlborough seen from the South
Engraved by Joseph Stadler 1799

Fort Marlborough seen from the South-East
Engraved by Joseph Stadler 1799

1780 – War breaks out between the Netherlands and Britain. Extra troops are sent to Java. Plague in Batavia. Smallpox epidemic on Sumatra. Islamic reform movement grows in Minangkabau.


1786 – British found Penang in Malaya. Sultan of Banjar cedes sovereignty to VOC

1790 – Rumours spread that Pakubuwono IV is planning a massacre of Dutch in Java, and takeovers of the Yogya and Mangkunegara courts. Forces from Yogya and VOC surround Surakarta. Pakubuwono IV orders his advisors to leave court; VOC sends them into exile. Gold rush begins in West Kalimantan.


1791 – VOC withdraws from Pontianak.



An extrack from the East India company record showing the military establishment of Fort Marlborough for 1791

1792 – VOC declares that Mangkunegara title and possessions are hereditary.


VOC civil administration in Banda, 1792

This administrative burden contributed to growing financial difficulties for the VOC during the 18th century. The Company’s monopoly policies, moreover, had contributed to serious impoverishment in the archipelago, diminishing the possibility of large profits. In response, the Dutch sought to drive down the purchase price of produce by various systems of forced delivery which often caused enormous hardship to their Indonesian subjects. A further problem was high levels of corruption amongst Company officials, despite draconian penalties for those who were caught. Another blow were French raids on Ambon in 1769–1772 which obtained clove plants and allowed the French to begin cultivation of cloves in Mauritius. The consequence was that the Company began to borrow money to pay its still-impressive dividends to investors, thereby digging itself into deeper financial problems. Many attempts at reform were begun during the 18th century; some of them tightening systems of control, others proposing some liberalization, but entrenched interests in Batavia were able for the most part to prevent reforms from having long-term effect.

By the end of the century, the VOC could no longer pay its way, and on 31 December 1799 it was formally wound up, its property, debts and interests in the Indies being taken over by the Dutch state. At that moment, however, not just the system of Dutch rule in the archipelago was in the balance. Dutch power itself appeared likely to disappear in the Napoleonic world war between England and France.

The English East India Company (EIC), founded in 1600, was a joint stock company like the VOC formed to exploit the trading opportunities of Asia. Unlike the VOC, it was reconstituted initially after each voyage and then at intervals of four years, so that it did not immediately develop a lasting bureaucratic stucture like that of the Dutch company. The two companies almost immediately came into conflict over trade in the archipelago, with Governor-General Coen unilaterally declaring Maluku closed to the English in 1616. The English established posts on Lontor and Run in the Banda Islands, but were generally outmanoeuvred by the Dutch. The conflict came to a head in 1623, in the so-called Amboyna massacre, when ten English company agents on Ambon were tortured and executed on charges of conspiring against the VOC.

The English briefly established a headquarters at Legundi off the southern tip of Sumatra, but were forced by disease to move first to Batavia and then to Banten. Their interest, however, was moving towards India and they did not attempt to maintain more than a scattering of small posts in Indonesia from this time.

By 1684 the English had lost all their former posts and forts in Indonesia, but in the following year they began to develop interests on the western coast of Sumatra, beginning with Pariaman. These interests grew into control of the southern part of that coast, with a headquarters at Bengkulu (Bencoolen), which became a base, according to Dutch complaints, for private English traders to infringe Dutch monopolies throughout the western archipelago

1795 – January Dutch revolutionaries and French troops declare the Batavian Republic in the Netherlands. The Stadhouder of the Netherlands flees to London. The new Republic finds itself in a state of war with Britain. February 7: The Prince of Orange, stadhouder-in-exile of the Netherlands, issues a letter to all colonial governors telling them to surrender to the British. (The VOC in Batavia do not comply.) August: VOC surrenders Melaka to the British East India Company.



 – March 1 Heeren XVII transfer administration of the VOC to a government Committee for East Indian Affairs. Mangkunegara II inherits court, but much of the treasury is stolen by the VOC resident at Surakarta. British occupy Padang. British occupy Ambon. Riots break out in Maluku between villages. VOC fortress at Ternate refuses to surrender.


Weltevreden Palace (1796)

Batavia/Jakarta – Indonesia

Istana Merdeka is a palace complex in Central Jakarta, Indonesia. At first there was only one building in this complex, the Istana Negara. The Istana Negara was originally built as the residence for a Dutch businessman, J. A. van Braam. Rijswijk and Molenvliet (presently known as Harmonie), the location chosen as the time was the most exclusive neighborhood in Weltevreden area, the New Batavia. During its early years, only the State Palace stood in this complex. The State Palace was built in 1796 facing north toward Ciliwung river bank, during the era of Pieter Gerardus van Overstraten as Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies, and completed in 1804.

The government used this building as the center of all administration and as the official residence of the Governor-General during a stay in Batavia, in occasion of events such as the Indies Council Meeting held every Wednesday. The Governor-Generals preferred to live in Bogor Palace in Bogor, due to the cooler and more adaptable temperatures in the hillsides of Bogor. The mansion of van Braam was bought due because of a need for the Dutch government to centralize power. However, Daendels Palace (currently Ministry of Finance) in Lapangan Banteng (formerly known as Waterloo Square) was not completed yet.

Upon the completion of Daendels Palace, plans to centralize power changed, and the mansion of van Braam officially became the residency of the governor-general, and Daendels Palace housed administrative buildings. Hotel van den Gouverneur-Generaal (Hotel of the Governor-General) became the official name of the van Braam mansion. During the Colonial era, important events took place in this building. Some of which include the declaration of the cultuur stensel system by the Governor Graaf van den Bosch, and the ratification ceremony of the Lingarjati Treaty on March 25, 1947.

During mid-19th century, the palace does not suffice the accommodation of its administrative purposes, and under orders from J.W. van Lansberge, a new building that today become the Merdeka Palace was built within the complex in 1873 during the Governor General Loudon administration, and finished in 1879 during Governor General Johan Willem van Landsberge administration. This neoclasical building, designed by Drossares, was built in southern part of the complex directly facing Koningsplein (now Merdeka Square). The new Governor General palace at Koningsplein was also known as Istana Gambir (Gambir Palace).

            Daendels kocht, na de stichting van Buitenzorg, de vroegere woning van Gouverneur-Generaal Van Riemsdijk aan het Molenvliet, Rijswijk zijde. Dit huis, vanaf 1796 gemoderniseerd, ging dienen als residentie voor de Gouverneurs-Generaal als deze in Batavia waren en werd al s

1797 – Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap or Dutch Missionary Society is founded. This was the beginning of heavy activity by Dutch Protestant missionaries in Indonesia, not only to Java and Sumatra but also to very remote areas, eventually even to Irian Jaya.


In 1797,

the Palembang Darusalam castle was finished, and began formally occupied by the Sultan Muhammad Bahauddin on Monday, 23 Sha’ban 1211 Hijri in the morning or in conjunction with the February 21, 1797 AD. Meanwhile, the oldest son, who became Prince Queen (Crown Prince) occupies the Old Palace Kuta.


1798 – Napoleonic Dutch government revokes charter of VOC, assumes its debts and assets.


1799 –

 April 27 Committee for East Indian Affairs sends a letter of instructions to Batavia, stating that the revolutionary ideas of the Republic (liberty and equality) could not be applied to the Indies. Dutch officers under siege at Ternate mutiny and surrender to the British.




The first papermoney of the Netherlands Indies

At the end of the 18th century, the first kind of papermoney appeared in the Netherlands Indies. The notes were issued by the Dutch East India Company (VOC) that represented the Dutch interests in the East.

Many money transports from the Netherlands got lost and the wars with England twarted these transports regularly. Also the political uncertainty in Europe due to the French revolution and the war between France and England, resulting in the occupation by the English of the Dutch possessions in the East and West, bothered the VOC substantially.  

As a consequence, the decay of the VOC started in the second half of the 18th century. The subsequent scarcity of money and the shortage of precious metals for coinage, led to the issuing of papermoney in 1782. The notes were issued in a period during which France also re-introduced papermoney and a number of other European countries also started using papermoney, like Sweden, Denmark and England.

Initially interest bearing bonds were issued (6%) in denomiations of 25, 50, 100, 200, 300, 400, 500 en 1000 rijksdaalders. In 1873 the interest was not applied anymore. The notes were issued in multiples of rijksdaalders, starting from 1 up to 1000 rijksdaalders.

The exchange rate of these credit notes and the exchange against cash was problematic due to the impoverished situation of the VOC and resulted in substantial depreciation and the notes being sold at exchange rates lower than 15%.

Just before the VOC got bankrupt in 1799, the Netherlands Indies government issued new emissions, even during the French occupation (in the name of King Lodewijk Napoleon) and the English occupation (in the name of the English East India Company EEIC)) until approximately 1810.

Example of this first papermoney, a rijksdaalder from 1799, good for 48 zwaare stuyvers Indish money, issued in t’ Casteel (the Castle) in Batavia. The notes carry authenticity marks with VOC stamps on obverse and reverse, on handmade paper and has signatures by Brongers, Brinkman and Kleijnst


1800 – VOC formally dissolved on January 1; properties revert to Dutch government. Sultan of the Kraton Kanoman in Cirebon is banished to Ambon by the Dutch. A low-level rebellion breaks out under Bagus Rangen.


The VOC was losing money to corruption and political intrigues. By the end of the 1700s, it was fully bankrupt. On January 1st, 1800, it ceased to exist. The British had taken all the former VOC possessions and protectorates in the area, except for Java, Banjarmasin, Palembang, western Timor and Makassar. Most of these were returned to the Dutch in 1802, only to be reconquered by the British a few years later.


And the Struggle continued…


Atche warriors











BATAVIA ALS HANDELS-, INDUSTRIE- EN WOONSTAD samengesteld in opdracht van de stadsgemeente Batavia. Batavia as a commercial, industrial and residential center written for the municipality of Batavia. Batavia, Amsterdam, G. Kolff & Co., (1937). 8vo. Cloth. With many plates and photographic illustrations. 303 pp.


BATAVIA, GELEGEN OP HET EILAND JAVA, EEN BEROEMDE VOLKPLANTING DER BATAVIEREN. – BATAVIA NOVA, KALAPPA & JACATRA PRIUS DICTA, IN INSULA JAVA, BATAVORUM NOBILIS COLONIA. (Amsterdam, 1702).Engraving. Ca. 21 x 25,5 cm. From: P. Schenk. Hecatompolis sive totius orbis terrarum oppida nobiliora centrum. – Fine bird’s-eye view of Batavia with ships in the foreground.Feith 13; Cat. Batavia Tentoonstelling Amsterdam 1919, 19.


BATAVIA. Die innere Aussicht des Castells in Batavia nebst der Schloss Kirche. – Vuë interieure du pallais de Batavie avec l’eglise du chateau. Augsburg, François Xavier Habermann, (ca. 1780).Contemporary handcoloured perspective view (vue d’optique or Guckkastenbild), with descriptive text in German and French. ca 29 x 40 cm. Collection des prospects. – Handsome view, after J.W. Heijdt, inside the castle depicting the parade-ground with on the left side the houses of the Raad van Indië and on the right side the castle-chucrh, the house of the governor-general and the buildings of the government, in the background the sea with ships. – Fine.Feith 78c; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 208,3.


BATAVIA. Die innere Aussicht des Castells in Batavia nebst der Schloss Kirche. – Vuë interieure du pallais de Batavie avec l’eglise du chateau. Augsburg, François Xavier Habermann, (ca. 1780).Contemporary handcoloured perspective view (vue d’optique or Guckkastenbild). ca 29 x 40 cm. Collection des prospects. – Handsome view, after J.W. Heijdt, inside the castle depicting the parade-ground with on the left side the houses of the Raad van Indië and on the right side the castle-chucrh, the house of the governor-general and the buildings of the government, in the background the sea with ships. – (Without printed text at lower side, just printed title on top).Feith 78c; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 208,3.




BATAVIA. BATAVIA. (Hildburghausen, ca. 1850).Steel-engraving after C. Reiss by W. Wallis. Ca. 10 x 15,5 cm. From: J. Meyer. Universum. – Romantic view from the sea with some people in the foreground.Feith 108; Haks & Maris, Lexicon, B 34.


BATAVIA. BATAVIA. (London, 1704). Engraving. Ca. 12,5 x 16 cm. From: Nieuhof. The voyages and travels. – Panoramic view with on the left the Old Dutch Church and the old townhall and on the right the castle. With title on scroll and coat of arms of Batavia.


BATAVIA. CARTE DES ENVIRONS DE BATAVIA avec la vuë de cette ville. Pour servir a l’histoire generale des voyages. 1750. Tirée des Hollandois. (Amst., 1750).Engraved plan by Dheulland, with cartouche and fine view of Batavia from the sea. Ca. 21 x 28 cm. From: A.F. Prévost. Histoire generale des voyages. – Fine plan and profile of Batavia.Cf. Brommer BAT K35; Feith 30; Cf. Cat. 300-jarig bestaan Batavia 36.


BATAVIA. GESIGHT VAN’T SUYKER PAKHUYS, GESIEN OP DE BRUGH VAN’T CASTEEL BATAVIA. (Amst., 1726).Engraving. Ca. 29 x 37 cm. From: François Valentijn. Oud en nieuw Oost-Indiën. – Fine view of the sugar warehouse seen from the castle-moat, with on the right bastion Diamant. The popular name of Kota Inten (Diamond City), still carries the memory of the Diamond Bastion of the old castle. – (Some wormholes restored).Feith 67e; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 154,5.


BATAVIA. THE GOVERNOR OF BATAVIA’S PALACE, IN THE EAST INDIES. (London, 1780). Engraving by J. Lodge. Ca. 15,5 x 27 cm. – Fine view of the palace with people in the foreground. – Feith 101.


BATAVIA. DE NEDERLANDERS VOOR JACATRA. 1618. (Leyden, 1855).Tinted lithographed plate. Ca. 26 x 36 cm. From: J.H. Eichman & H. Altmann. Vaderlandsche historieplaten. – Historical print depicting the taking by the Dutch of Jacatra in 1602.Catalogus 300-jarig bestaan Batavia, 215. [Boeknr.: 30841 ]
€ 65,00


BATAVIA. PLAN DE BATAVIA. (Leiden, Pieter van der Aa, 1729).Engraved plan of Batavia. Ca. 21 x 28 cm. From: Pieter van der Aa. Galérie agréable du monde. – Plan of the town with legend in the lower right corner, numbered 1 – 41, referring to all important buildings. Bastin, Batavia, BAT K40; Feith 24. 
€ 125,00


BATAVIA. PLAN DE LA VILLE ET DU CHATEAU DE BATAVIA EN L’ISLE DE JAVA. Ware afbeeldinge wegens het casteel ende stadt Batavia gelegen opt groot eylant Java. Leide, Pierre van der Aa, (1729).Engraved plan of Batavia with ships lying in the road, with coat of arms, legend and scroll, in the righthand corner a panoramic view of the city. Ca. 26,5 x 35,5 cm. From: Pieter van der Aa. Galérie agréable du monde. – Fine decorative plan of Batavia after Clemendt de Jonghe.Brommer, Batavia, BAT K25; Feith 14; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan Batavia 20. [Boeknr.: 14110 ]
€ 450,00


BATAVIA. PLAN ODER GRUND-RISS, DER STADT BATAVIA, samt der eine Stund Weges umher liegenden Gegend. (Wilhermsdorff, 1744).Engraving after J.W. Heijdt by A. Hoffer. Ca. 24 x 28 cm. From: J.W. Heydt. Allerneuester .. Schau-Platz. – Charming plan of the town with surroundings. Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 37; Brommer BAT K34. [Boeknr.: 1296 ]
€ 180,00


BATAVIA. PLAN ODER GRUNDRISS DER STADT UND DERER VORSTÄTTE, wie auch des Castels Batavia. (Wilhermsdorff, 1744).Engraving after J.W. Heijdt by A. Hoffer. Ca. 22,5 x 26,5 cm. From: J.W. Heydt. Allerneuester .. Schau-Platz. – Fine plan of Batavia and surroundings. With street-index on scroll.Feith 70a XXII; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 55; Brommer BAT K44. [Boeknr.: 14537 ]
€ 180,00


BATAVIA. Prospect von der Bastion Gelderland ausserhalb der Stadt Batavia, wie solche nach der Natur gege die aussern portugiesischen Kirche und dem blauen Berg zu gezeichnet worden von Johan Wolffgang Heyd. – Vuë de la Bastion de Gelderland .. Augsburg, François Xavier Habermann, (ca. 1780).Contemporary handcoloured perspective view (vue d’optique or Guckkastenbild), with descriptive text in German and French. ca. 29 x 40 cm. Collection des prospects. – Handsome view, after J.W. Heijdt, depicting the Portuguese Church outside the city walls, the present Gereja Sion on Jl. Jaykarta, with the old belltower and the Jassenbridge. It is the oldest remaining VOC-church in Jakarta. – Fine.Feith 78f; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 208,6. [Boeknr.: 32265 ]
€ 350,00


BATAVIA. Prospect von der Bastion Perl längst der Courtine des Castells Batavia gezeichnet. – Vuë de la Bastion Perl, desine pres de Courtine du Chateau de Batavia. Augsburg, François Xavier Habermann, (ca. 1780).Contemporary handcoloured perspective view (vue d’optique or Guckkastenbild), with descriptive text in German and French. ca. 29 x 40 cm. Collection des prospects. – Handsome view, after J.W. Heijdt, depicting the north-west bastion of the castle of Batavia called Parel or Pearl. – Fine.Feith 78e; Cat. 300-jarig bestaan van Batavia 208,5. [Boeknr.: 32264 ]
€ 350,00

Koleksi taman Prasasti Jakarta(Jakarta Old Tombstone Garden Collections)

Koleksi Taman Prasasti Jakata

Sebuah meriam perunggu cuaca berdiri di depan tanda, menunjuk ke arah jalan yang berlari berdekatan dengan kuburan. Sebuah sekilas dari masa kolonial Batavia, mungkin? Ini harus tempat itu, pikirku.

Aku melihat ke sebelah saya dan serambi tampak besar, dihiasi dengan kolom yang indah di kedua sisi, disambut pandangan saya. Ada gerbang besi yang menjaga pintu masuk, dan di luar gerbang itu, aku bisa melihat lebih dari beberapa batu nisan terpampang pada kolom berdiri di ruang terbuka.

Ada koleksi batu nisan kuno terpampang di dinding serambi bertiang dan ini memberikan seluruh tempat nuansa kuno. Ketika aku mendekati pintu masuk, aku tertarik dengan tanda di atas pintu gerbang, yang memajang kata Latin dalam urutan sebagai berikut:


Setelah sekali tidak memiliki pengetahuan tentang bahasa misterius yang dalam bahasa Latin, aku berhasil potongan kata-kata pada prasasti bersama-sama dan berakhir dengan terjemahan longgar berikut (dan mungkin sangat buruk):

Ini berfungsi sebagai monumen ke rumah relik
candi suci bobrok Batavia lama.

Pada pertengahan abad ke-19, mayoritas orang Belanda di kedua Belanda dan koloni mereka Katolik Roma yang setia. Ditampilkan di atas pintu masuk ke sebuah kuburan yang didominasi Belanda, membuat beberapa arti bahwa tanda itu tertulis dalam bahasa Latin. Hal ini juga mendorong saya untuk menggali lebih dalam sejarah pemakaman.

Taman Prasasti pertama kali didirikan sebagai 5,5 hektar Kerkhoflaan (Pemakaman Lane di Belanda) pada tahun 1795 dan penduduk setempat menyebutnya Kebun Jahe Kober. Salah satu pemakaman tertua di bagian dunia, itu dibangun menyusul wabah penyakit besar yang menewaskan banyak di Batavia. Terlepas dari ini, Kerkhoflaan dimaksudkan untuk melengkapi kuburan dari Nieuw De Hollandsche Kerk (Gereja Baru Belanda, yang saat ini rumah Museum Wayang) yang terletak di Stadhuisplein (City Hall Square), dan De Nieuwe Potugeesche Buitenkerk (sekarang Sion gereja) yang terletak di bagian tenggara Batavia. Kedua kuburan telah diisi dan Pemerintah Belanda harus mencari tanah pemakaman alternatif dalam mengantisipasi pesatnya pertumbuhan penduduk Belanda di Batavia.

Sebuah rouwbord atau berkabung perisai adalah praktek yang umum Belanda. Ini ditampilkan prestasi seumur hidup dari almarhum dan digantung di atas pintu rumah almarhum dan kemudian di dinding gereja di mana ia dikuburkan.

Kerkhoflaan lokasi itu dipilih setelah banyak pertimbangan, dan ditempatkan secara strategis karena kedekatannya dengan sungai Krukut Kali. Di masa lalu, orang-orang mati – bersama dengan keluarga dan teman-teman berduka – diangkut dalam kapal kecil dari Rumah Sakit Binnen (sekarang Bank hari Museum Indonesia) di utara sepanjang Kali Krukut dan pergi ke selatan ke Kerkhoflaan, di mana mobil jenazah akan dipindahkan ke lahan kering untuk kereta kuda di lokasi sekarang dari Departemen Komunikasi dan Informatika. Mobil jenazah akan menempuh jarak pendek di jalan untuk Kerkhoflaan untuk ritual terakhir sebelum tubuh ini akhirnya dimakamkan di pemakaman.

Kerkhoflaan adalah tanah pemakaman untuk bangsawan Belanda dan beberapa pejabat tinggi dari VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische Compagnie – Belanda Perusahaan India Timur) di mana mereka dimakamkan oleh keluarga dan kerabat. Masyarakat umum diizinkan untuk dikubur di sana banyak kemudian tapi biaya tertentu harus dibayar. Setelah proclaimation kemerdekaan dari Belanda pada tahun 1945, Pemerintah Indonesia menutup pemakaman pada tahun 1975 seperti yang telah kehabisan ruang.

Morbid, tapi itu bagaimana kita semua berakhir satu hari.

Selama waktu ini, semua mayat terkubur di bawah pemakaman entah dipindahkan ke kuburan lain (yaitu pemakaman di Menteng Pulo) atau dibawa kembali ke Belanda oleh kerabat yang tinggal mereka, meninggalkan batu nisan di belakang. Pemakaman asli juga menyusut menjadi 1,3 hektar situs sebagai bagian dari kantor Walikota Jakarta Pusat baru itu dibangun atas dasar pemakaman mantan. Pemakaman itu dibuka kembali untuk umum sebagai museum pada 9 Juli 1977 oleh Gubernur Jakarta saat itu-, Ali Sadikin. Sebuah plak ditampilkan pada monolit kecil yang terletak dekat pintu masuk untuk memperingati ini bergerak oleh Pemerintah.

Monolit di Taman Prasasti pesan bantalan Gubernur Ali Sadikin dan tanda tangan.
Dia tanda-tanda off dengan pangkat militer – Letnan Jenderal TNI * Korps Marinir
TNI – Tentara Nasional Indonesia (Tentara Nasional Indonesia)

Bangunan utama yang saya sedang berdiri di dibangun pada 1844 dengan urutan kolom Doric disukai oleh Dorians, salah satu dari dua ras Yunani. Ini dikenal sebagai Gedung Balairung dan memiliki dua sayap di kedua sisi yang berfungsi sebagai ruang seremonial untuk ritual terakhir sebelum penguburan dilakukan. Aula di sayap kanan digunakan untuk tubuh perempuan, sedangkan yang lain di sebelah kiri digunakan untuk tubuh laki-laki.

Saat aku melangkah melewati gerbang ke pemakaman, aku disambut oleh deretan kolom dihiasi dengan batu nisan tua. Tampaknya bahwa orang-orang di belakang proyek renovasi telah memilih beberapa batu nisan yang akan ditetapkan di pilar-pilar beton. Sebagian besar prasasti dari batu nisan yang ditampilkan pada tiang-tiang itu masih dapat dibaca. Saya diberitahu bahwa orang-orang batu nisan di layar dipilih karena prasasti cerdas mereka dan makna yang lebih dalam di belakang mereka. Salah satu batu nisan seperti itu ditulis dengan baik ayat tertulis dalam bahasa Belanda dengan kata-kata mencolok:


yang diterjemahkan ke

Seperti Anda sekarang, saya sebelumnya. Dan seperti saya sekarang, sehingga Anda akan menjadi salah satu hari

Pilar-pilar di pintu masuk semua nomor dan tertata rapi.
Untuk sebelah kiri pilar batu nisan, saya melihat pemandangan yang aneh. Ada bel duduk di atas tiang logam dan lonceng itu melekat pada tali, yang bisa menarik pengunjung. Namun, saya pikir tidak banyak yang tahu bahwa lonceng ini sebenarnya digunakan di masa lalu oleh para pekerja pemakaman untuk menginformasikan semua staf bahwa sebuah badan baru yang baru saja tiba. Seorang pekerja, bila melihat kedatangan mobil jenazah, akan membunyikan bel dengan menarik tali dan semua staf akan menyiapkan item yang diperlukan untuk ritual akhir dalam masing-masing sayap Gedung Balairung. Aku cukup yakin bahwa banyak pengunjung yang membunyikan bel bercanda akan terkejut untuk mengetahui tujuan sebenarnya dari “lonceng kematian”.

“Kematian bel” dari Taman Prasasti. Berpikir dua kali sebelum Anda menarik tali itu.

Aku bergerak lebih jauh ke dalam, bersemangat untuk menemukan makam Olivia Raffles. Namun, seperti aku melihat sekeliling, saya menyadari bahwa kuburan itu lebih rumit dari yang saya duga. Aku berharap untuk melihat makam diatur dalam rumput rumput yang rapi dengan beberapa makam berbentuk aneh seperti yang ada di Petamburan. Itu akan membuat pencarian saya jauh lebih mudah. Namun, ini tidak terjadi. Taman Prasasti adalah sebuah taman pemakaman luas dengan makam-makam yang ditempatkan sembarangan. Ada makam dari berbagai bentuk dan ukuran di mana-mana. Aku tidak tahu di mana untuk memulai. Itu adalah mimpi buruk total.

Bunga kamboja jatuh, umumnya terkait dengan Pontianak, dapat ditemukan dalam kelimpahan dekat pintu masuk. Tidak ada “Fatimah rocker” dapat ditemukan di sini meskipun.

Sicantik  Menangis

Pergi dengan insting saya, saya memutuskan untuk bergerak dalam arah searah jarum jam untuk menyisir daerah tersebut. Begitu aku memulai pencarian saya, sebuah kuburan khas dengan penutup khas tertangkap mata saya segera. Penutup makam mengambil bentuk seorang wanita sedih tergeletak di tanah dengan kepala terbenam di tangannya, yang menggambarkan saat pedih orang yang dicintai berangkat dari dunia ini. Saya suka menyebutnya wanita itu Kecantikan Menangis.

Rupanya ini adalah kuburan yang sangat terkenal dengan cerita kembali-ke patung Kecantikan Menangis. Dikatakan bahwa makam dibangun untuk menggambarkan rasa sakit dari seorang wanita yang baru menganut yang suaminya meninggal karena malaria. Tidak dapat mengambil rasa sakit, wanita itu bunuh diri. Sayangnya, tidak ada prasasti di atas kuburan untuk memberikan petunjuk tentang identitas sejati Kecantikan Menangis itu.

Makam Roll H.F Dr

Sebuah batu membuang dari Kecantikan Menangis, sebuah buku terbuka yang diukir dari batu terletak di atas makam Dr HF Roll. Dr Gulung adalah pendiri dan direktur STOVIA medis sekolah, yang berkembang menjadi Fakultas Kedokteran di Universitas Indonesia saat ini.

Pada tahun 1851, pemerintah kolonial Belanda memutuskan untuk mendirikan sebuah sekolah untuk melatih asisten medis asli. Pelatihan untuk setiap orang berlangsung selama dua tahun dan lulusan telah disertifikasi untuk menyediakan perawatan medis sederhana dan mendasar. Tingkat diberikan kepada lulusan adalah Dokter Djawa atau “Dokter Jawa” karena mereka disertifikasi hanya berpraktek di Hindia Belanda, terutama jadi di pulau Jawa. Segera, program menjadi lebih komprehensif dan dengan 1875, program ini telah mencapai 7 tahun panjang. Lulusan berhak ke tingkat yang lebih mapan dari Dokter Medis. Kemudian, lompatan kuantum datang pada tahun 1898, ketika pemerintah mendirikan sekolah kedokteran yang sama sekali baru bernama STOVIA untuk melatih dokter medis.

STOVIA berdiri untuk Sekolah Tot Opleiding Van Inlandsche Artsen atau “Sekolah Pelatihan untuk Dokter asli” yang terletak di Hospitaalweg (harfiah Jalan Rumah Sakit) di Batavia. Banyak lulusan STOVIA kemudian memainkan peran penting selama gerakan nasional Indonesia terhadap proclaimation mereka kemerdekaan, serta dalam mengembangkan pendidikan kedokteran di Indonesia secara keseluruhan.

Dr Gulung dapat dilihat melakukan ceramah kepada sekelompok peserta dokter pribumi di foto tua yang diambil pada tahun 1902 (link) di mana dia duduk di sebelah kiri. Dia juga dapat dilihat duduk di tengah-tengah foto ini anggota staf STOVIA (link).

Sesuai dengan akar nya, buku batu di makam Dr Gulung menggambarkan kebijaksanaan dan pengejaran tanpa henti keunggulan akademik medis saat dia masih hidup.

Prasasti berbunyi:

27 MAY 1867 – 20 September 1935

Di bawah prasasti nama Dr HF Gulung, saya menemukan nama orang lain dari keluarga gulung yang dikubur bersamanya. Prasasti (diterjemahkan) di bawah ini mengatakan:

Frits ROLL
Maret 20 1920 – 15 Januari 1940

Saya menduga bahwa ini mungkin anak Dr Gulung itu, melihat bahwa mereka berbagi nama yang sama. Tidak banyak informasi tentang Gulung Frits, kecuali bahwa dia adalah seorang mahasiswa kedokteran dan meninggal sebelum ulang tahunnya yang ke-20. Sebuah chip dari blok lama, mungkin?

Di bagian bawah penutup makam, prasasti Latin berikut dapat ditemukan:

                                                              Ovid CEPAT IV 311

Ini adalah pesan inspiratif yang diterjemahkan menjadi:

                       Sebuah kemenangan hati nurani yang jelas lebih dari kebohongan palsu.
                                                             Ovid kronika IV 311
Ovid adalah seorang penyair Romawi yang hidup pada awal masa pemerintahan Augustus, kaisar pertama Roma. Kutipan ini diambil dari buku keempat dari Ovid kronika, koleksi buku keenam puisi bersifat sajak sedih Latin.

Jar rusak Anda lihat dalam gambar di atas digunakan untuk menghias kaki kuburan. Namun, sayang untuk melihat bahwa ia telah dipecah menjadi dua bagian mungkin melalui pekerjaan dari beberapa perusak.

Memorial Jepang

Karena ini adalah sebuah pemakaman untuk Belanda dan Eropa lainnya, aku paling terkejut melihat sebuah makam Jepang saat aku terus berjalan saya. Saat aku mendekati batu nisan, aku disambut oleh sebuah batu nisan tertulis dalam Kanji.

Nisan itu sebenarnya sebuah monumen untuk 30 tentara Jepang pemberani dari Kota Shibata, Niigata Prefacture, yang berjuang untuk Perusahaan 19, Batalyon 16, Divisi ke-2 dari Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang. Seluruh perusahaan tewas di Sungai Ciantung di Bogor pada tahun 1942 ketika Jepang menyerbu Hindia Belanda. Orang-orang Jepang yang tinggal di Jakarta datang ke monumen ini dua kali setahun untuk melakukan ritual seremonial sebagai tanda menghormati almarhum.

Pangkat dan nama almarhum yang terukir pada plak batu di bawah batu nisan.

Para Carriage mobil jenazah

Kembali di hari-hari ketika Kali Krukut sungai masih digunakan untuk mengangkut mayat-mayat dari Rumah Sakit Binnen, kuda-kereta jenazah yang biasa digunakan untuk mentransfer tubuh dari bank sungai ke Gedung Balairung dalam persiapan untuk pemakaman.

Kekayaan dan status sosial dari orang yang meninggal sering tercermin dalam jumlah kuda menarik kereta ke kuburan. Orang kaya atau terkenal lebih merupakan itu, kuda-kuda lebih akan menarik mobil jenazah mereka. Sebagai mobil jenazah kereta membuat jalan ke gerbang Kerkhoflaan, seorang pekerja pemakaman akan membunyikan lonceng untuk menginformasikan semua orang dari kedatangannya. Administrator pemakaman akan mempersiapkan diri ketika mereka mendengar dering bel, dan orang dering bel akan berlanjut sampai mobil jenazah tiba di gerbang yang tepat.

Hari ini, replika dari mobil jenazah kereta ditampilkan di layar gudang yang terletak di sudut Taman Prasasti.



Mobil jenazah tidak terbungkus dalam gelas di yesteryears. Para panel kaca dipasang
pada replika ini untuk mencegah masyarakat dari memanjat di dalam gerbong.


Sebuah jalan untuk membantu kereta hingga tampilan nya gudang.

Legenda Kapten Jas

Ada sebuah makam tertentu yang diyakini memiliki kekuatan untuk memberikan kemakmuran, kebahagiaan dan kesuburan bagi mereka yang mengunjunginya. Penghuni kuburan ini tampaknya supranatural berjalan dengan nama Kapiten Jas (Kapten Jas). Namun, identitas orang yang dikuburkan di sana tetap menjadi misteri sejati. Makam ini terkenal memiliki aroma yang kuat membakar dupa sekitarnya meskipun ada ternyata tidak ada dupa yang sedang ditawarkan di daerah itu.

Ketika saya pertama stumbled atas makam Kapten Jas, awalnya saya pikir itu adalah tempat penyimpanan untuk “hilang dan ditemukan” item dalam kuburan. Bayangkan keterkejutan saya ketika saya membaca prasasti dan menyadari bahwa aku telah menemukan-Nya “makam”. Saya tidak menangkap bau bau “terkenal” dupa meskipun, dan udara berbau tetap sepanjang waktu aku berada di sana. Waktu yang salah, mungkin? Itu juga cukup tidak biasa untuk melihat bahwa pohon telah tumbuh di atas bagian dari kuburan.

Terlepas dari patung Yesus Kristus, guci dan lintas yang ditemukan tergeletak di atas kubur, piring batu kecil ditempelkan ke sudut makam. Ia mengatakan:

Vader JAS

Bij OL Heer

Dan terjemahan (sangat longgar) berlangsung seperti ini:



Dari prasasti ini, tampaknya bahwa banyak dari mereka yang mengunjungi makam ini benar-benar menempatkan sejumlah besar iman yang benar dalam kekuatan Kapten Jas. Kata-kata yang dipilih untuk tulisan menggambarkan betapa “Bapa Jas” diyakini menjadi pengikut Allah dan satu yang mampu mengirim pesan atas nama orang percaya.

Di sini terletak Kapten Jas.

Nama Kapiten Jas dapat ditelusuri kembali ke Jassenkerk, sebuah gereja Portugis yang terletak dekat kuburan. Pada pertengahan tahun 1600-an, banyak orang yang dimakamkan di sebuah pemakaman di dekat pos jaga yang terletak di sisi timur Jembatan Jassen, sebuah jembatan kayu yang berlari melintasi anak sungai dari Sungai Ciliwung. Sungai ini merupakan bagian penting dari infrastruktur selatan Batavia karena membantu untuk mengarahkan air berlebih ke Stadsbuitengracht, sebuah kanal drainase besar terbuka yang terletak di luar tembok kota.

 Pada 1676, sebuah gereja Katolik Roma, yang dibangun benar-benar keluar dari bambu, didirikan dekat kuburan. Karena kedekatannya dengan Jembatan Jassen, itu hanya bernama Jassenkerk (Jassen Gereja) dan pemakaman telah berasimilasi gereja. Seluruh “Kapten Jas” kegagalan diyakini menjadi sosok sederhana dari pidato di mana orang menggambarkan kematian dan penguburan sebagai “het tanah naar Jaket Kapten von gaan” atau “pergi ke tanah Kapten Jas”.

Kemudian, beberapa mayat dikuburkan di gereja Jassenkerk direlokasi ke Kerkhoflaan. Oleh karena itu, secara luas diyakini bahwa batu nisan bertuliskan nama Kapten Jas di Taman Prasasti adalah benar-benar hanya suatu peringatan akan gereja Jassenkerk sendiri, dan bahwa orang ini imajiner – Kapten Jas – tidak benar-benar ada, juga tidak ada yang benar-benar terkubur di bawah nisan. Rekening orang-orang yang mengaku memiliki pengalaman aneh dengan penciuman bau supernatural membakar dupa di kuburan mungkin bisa menghubungkannya dengan penggunaan dupa selama ibadah di Jassenkerk ketika itu masih ada. Gereja bambu telah dihapus dan diganti dengan Gereja Sion.

Dalam versi lain dari legenda Kapten Jas, dikatakan bahwa kejadian aneh terjadi ketika makam ini digali. Para pekerja menemukan bahwa peti mati yang begitu erat terkait dengan akar pohon yang tumbuh di sampingnya, hal itu tidak mungkin untuk menghapus peti mati. Kata segera menyebar seperti api dan banyak orang mulai mengunjungi makam ini aneh. Banyak yang mengunjungi makam itu mengklaim bahwa mereka mengalami perubahan besar dalam hidup mereka. Mereka yang miskin menjadi kaya secara signifikan, sementara pasangan memiliki anak juga berhasil berhasil hamil setelah mengunjungi kuburan.

Kedua versi dari legenda Kapten Jas tampaknya bertentangan satu sama lain. Satu versi menyatakan bahwa dia tidak ada, sementara yang lain melibatkan penemuan peti mati bawah kuburan. Namun, meskipun awan ketidakpastian yang mengelilingi legenda Kapten Jas, masih banyak berdatangan ke makam, bersemangat untuk mencari kesuburan, keselamatan, kemakmuran atau kebahagiaan.

Ini adalah misteri sejati yang masih harus dipecahkan.

Mungkinkah ini makam Olivia?

Saat aku terus berjalan di sepanjang jalur, aku melihat sebuah makam besar di dekat ke makam Kapten Jas. Makam sedang beristirahat di atas tangga oktagonal dan itu dikelilingi oleh 8 kolom pendek. Hal pertama yang mengejutkan saya adalah tangga hitam dan kolom putih. Ini skema warna jauh lebih mirip dengan kolonial Inggris “hitam & putih” rumah Tudor yang kita miliki di Singapura. Mungkinkah ini makam Olivia Mariamne Raffles?


Aku naik tangga dengan penuh semangat, ingin membaca prasasti di atas kuburan untuk mengkonfirmasi asumsi saya. Namun, prasasti di batu nisan itu sendiri telah buruk cuaca dan itu akan menjadi tantangan nyata untuk membaca prasasti tanpa mengolesi beberapa kapur ke batu nisan. Namun, tidak hanya saya tidak memiliki kapur apapun dengan saya, saya tidak berpikir itu akan sangat bagus untuk mulai menerapkan kapur atas semua makam yang saya hanya diasumsikan milik Lady Raffles!

 Bagian atas nisan mungkin telah memudar dengan waktu, tetapi saya masih bisa melihat tulisan samar di atasnya.


Prasasti itu berbunyi:

ke memori dari
OLIVIA Mariamne
Wakil gubernur
Dan yang dependancies
Siapa yang meninggalkan kehidupan ini
Hari 26 November 1814

BINGO! Keringat, gigitan nyamuk dan kelelahan sia-sia. Ini makam di sini adalah bagian penting dari sejarah tidak hanya untuk orang Jawa, tetapi juga untuk kita sebagai Raffles pergi dari Jawa ke ditemukan Singapura. Setiap kelelahan aku merasa sebelumnya telah menghilang seketika. Di sini, tepat di depan mata saya, sebuah fragmen dari masa kolonial kami.

Aku berkeliling makam dengan semangat baru, memotret saat aku mengelilingi tempat peristirahatan megah akhir Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Pikiran mengisi pikiran saya. Bagaimana jika Olivia Raffles tidak jatuh korban penyakit yang dideritanya selama tinggal di Jawa? Bagaimana jika ia mengikuti Raffles ke Singapura? Perubahan apa yang akan dia telah diimplementasikan sebagai First Lady pendiri Singapura? Begitu banyak bagaimana seandainya muncul di pikiran saya. Hal itu cukup menarik.

Di depan makam, ada sebuah piring kecil yang ditambahkan jauh kemudian (mungkin oleh kurator) untuk membantu mengidentifikasi makam juga.



Saya menemukan prasasti lucu sebagai kata-kata “Keterangan: Bentuk Kijing” pada pelat sebenarnya berarti “Keterangan: Bentuk batu nisan”. Hal ini juga menggambarkan tahun bahwa makam telah selesai (1814), jumlah persediaan (mungkin sebagai rekor museum) dan yang paling penting nama penghuni kubur itu.

Sementara menyiapkan tripod saya untuk menembak di bawah ini, saya perhatikan bahwa kantor Walikota Jakarta Pusat adalah latar belakang foto saya. Makam Olivia Mariamne Raffles adalah salah satu yang paling dekat dengan kantor Walikota. Karena gedung ini baru dibangun atas apa yang awalnya bagian dasar pemakaman mantan, batas pekuburan akan diperpanjang jauh melampaui mencapai Kantor Walikota.

Anda dapat membandingkan makam Olivia Mariamne Raffles dengan peringatan Sir Stamford Raffles dibangun untuknya di dekat istana Letnan-Gubernur di Buitenzorg (sekarang Kebun Raya Bogor) di bawah ini. Anda bisa klik untuk memperbesar foto atau melihat set lengkap di sini.



Ada bernyanyi dan bertepuk tangan riuh datang dari sekelompok orang yang mengenakan pakaian yang sama di lingkungan kantor walikota, memecah kesunyian di kuburan. Sekelompok pegawai pemerintah memiliki semacam membangun tim kegiatan, mungkin?

Saya berdiri kembali dan melihat delapan kolom pendek di sekitar makam. Meskipun mereka terlihat seperti mereka dibangun untuk melambangkan poin kardinal kompas, kolom ini sebenarnya bagian dari church.When Belanda gereja itu dianggap terlalu tua dan tidak aman untuk digunakan lagi, batu dari gereja itu digunakan kembali untuk menghias makam Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Delapan kolom, yang digunakan untuk mendukung atap gereja tua itu, kemudian diperpendek dan ditempatkan di sekitar makam sebagai hiasan.

Makam Yohanes Casper Leiden,

penulis Skotlandia, dokter, penyair dan ahli bahasa oriental brilian yang merupakan teman dekat dari Raffleses, terletak di dekat makam Olivia Raffles juga.

John Leyden dan Raffles Olivia sering berkirim surat dan puisi dengan satu sama lain dan ia dikenal menjadi teman dada Sir Stamford Raffles dan kepercayaan dari pasangan. Keduanya bertemu ketika Leiden, yang meninggalkan India Inggris setelah menghabiskan dua tahun di sana mempelajari bahasa Hindustan mistik timur, Tamil, Sansekerta, Melayu antara lain, berlayar Malaya pada tahun 1805 di mana dia berteman dengan Stamford Raffles muda pada Prince of Wales Island (Pulau Penang). Raffles sekretaris asisten Gubernur Penang, Philip Dundas, pada waktu itu.

Pada 1811, Lord Minto Leiden bergabung dalam ekspedisi ke Jawa. Leiden jatuh ke Batavia Demam terkenal (epidemi pada waktu itu, itu mungkin malaria atau demam berdarah) setelah memasuki sebuah perpustakaan (yang dikatakan telah terkandung Timur banyak manuskrip) tanpa tempat benar ditayangkan pertama. Setelah tiga hari sakit, ia meninggal pada tanggal 28 Agustus 1811.

prasati  Kuburan yang menarik  disekitarnya

Sementara makam Olivia Raffles mungkin lebih penting bagi kita, ada makam yang lebih menarik di sekitar Taman Prasasti yang layak mengambil melihat. Meskipun misi kecil saya selesai, saya bertekad untuk mencari makam biasa lebih untuk kesempatan foto di daerah tersebut.

Makam Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser

Berdiri seperti sebuah monumen besar, makam Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser menara di atas kuburan di sekitarnya.

Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, seorang pejabat pemerintah Hindia Belanda, lahir di Semarang (sekarang-hari Semarang di Jawa Tengah) pada 11 Juli 1800 dan meninggal pada 4 Januari 1857 di Batavia. Dia adalah mantan residen Belanda Pasuruan (di Jawa Timur, dekat ke kota Surabaya), dan dia juga diberikan gelar dan Ordo Singa Belanda, perintah Belanda diberikan kepada individu-individu terkemuka dari semua lapisan masyarakat, termasuk jenderal , menteri, walikota, para ilmuwan terkemuka, industrialis dan pegawai negeri sipil peringkat tinggi, antara lain.

Batu nisannya memiliki prasasti sebagai berikut:

Dirk Anthonius
DI Leven
VAN DER Ridder orde DEN Neder
Samarang DEN 11DEN Juli 1800
DEN 4DEN Januari 1857


Ke memori
Dirk Anthonius
Meninggal dalam BATAVIA
PADA 4 Januari 1857

Sebuah tinggi-bantuan seperangkat alat-alat pertanian secara jelas ditampilkan pada wajah depan makam Dirk Varkevisser, di antara mereka seorang penggemar menampi digunakan dalam sabit menampi angin, dan sabit untuk tanaman panen, sekop untuk menggali bumi dan banyak alat berbagai macam lain yang digunakan untuk pertanian dan budidaya tanah. Hal ini karena sebagai Residen Belanda Pasuruan, Varkevisser mengawasi budidaya tanaman komersial banyak, yang termasuk tebu sangat menguntungkan, dan dia juga bertanggung jawab atas produksi gula. Tanaman ini, yang secara signifikan lebih murah untuk menanam di Jawa, kemudian diangkut kembali ke Belanda pada kapal-kapal besar untuk memenuhi permintaan dari penduduk Belanda pulang.

Monumen patung batu nisan Varkevisser adalah bagian yang cukup menakjubkan seni yang telah terpelihara dengan baik sejak 1857 sampai hari ini, suatu prestasi besar dan kuat mengingat bahwa makam hampir satu abad dan setengah tua.

Makam Keluarga borjuis Keluarga Delben van

Ini makam yang unik, yang berbentuk seperti rumah kecil, adalah makam keluarga untuk keluarga van kaya kaum borjuis Delben. Kepala keluarga Delben van itu Ambrosius Johannes van Wilbrordus Delben.







Selama transformasi pemakaman ke Taman Prasasti Museum, makam dibuka dan para pekerja menemukan mayat mumi dari keluarga Delben van disimpan di dalam makam. Tubuh telah sejak dihapus dan makam saat ini digunakan sebagai gudang penyimpanan untuk museum.

Tidak ada yang tahu dimana tubuh mumi saat ini. Mereka akan sangat mungkin telah dibawa kembali ke Belanda atau dikubur di pemakaman lain di Jakarta untuk membuat jalan bagi museum.

Kisah Tragis dari Pieter Elberfeld

Kebanyakan orang yang mengunjungi Taman Prasasti Museum akan tertarik dengan melihat sebuah peringatan dihiasi dengan pemandangan yang mengerikan, sebuah tengkorak manusia pearched pada sebuah tombak tegak. Ini peringatan luar biasa milik Pieter Elberfeld, seorang pemberontak yang brutal dipotong oleh pemerintah Belanda karena pengkhianatan tinggi.

Lahir di Jawa pada tahun 1663 dari ayah Jerman dan ibu Jawa, Pieter Elberfeld adalah salah satu yang menempel pada ide-ide asli dan adat istiadat, yang kemudian membawanya menjadi seorang patriot antusias dan berani. Dia membenci Belanda dan semua terhubung dengan mereka dan diselesaikan pada pemusnahan setiap Belanda dari tanah Jawa.

Ketika ayahnya meninggal, Pieter Elberfeld mewarisi perkebunan besar dari ayahnya. Pemerintah VOC, di bawah perintah kemudian Gubernur Jenderal Hendrick Zwaardecroon, menjalankan otoritas superior mereka dengan mengklaim bagian dari warisan. Marah dengan memindahkan mereka, Elberfeld datang dengan sebuah rencana untuk membunuh pejabat tinggi VOC. Sayangnya, sebelum ia bisa melaksanakan rencananya, keponakannya – yang telah jatuh cinta dengan seorang pejabat Belanda dari VOC – tumpah kacang pada pamannya. Pemerintah kemudian menangkapnya basah di tengah-tengah pertemuan rahasia dan memenjarakannya segera. Setelah berjam-jam penyiksaan, Elberfeld mengaku rencananya dan dijatuhi hukuman mati bersama dengan 19 dari budak-budaknya.

Hukuman itu sangat kejam, bahkan untuk standar waktu itu. Dia terikat ke belakang untuk salib, dipenggal dan tubuhnya dipotong dalam empat potong (dan tidak dipotong-potong oleh kuda sebagai populer digambarkan) Empat potongan tubuhnya digantung di empat perempat kota dan hukuman serupa diberikan kepada-Nya kaki. Dia adalah 59 tahun pada waktu itu.

Elberfeld rumah, yang terletak di luar kota itu, dihancurkan dan schandmuur (dinding malu) didirikan di tempatnya. Kepala Elberfeld itu ditetapkan mencolok atas atas tombak untuk melayani sebagai peringatan ke seluruh Batavia. Seiring waktu, hanya tengkorak yang tersisa. Saat itu tebal menempel ke melindunginya dari pengaruh waktu dan cuaca.

Para Schandmuur – Circa 1885
Creative Commons – Tropenmuseum

Langsung di bawah tengkorak terpaku, tablet bantalan prasasti panjang setelah di Belanda bisa ditemukan:

Uik eene verfoeyelyke gedachtenise tegen den gestraften landverrader, Pieter Elberfeld, Zal niemaud vermogen ter dezer plaatse untuk boumen, Simmeren, metselem, planten. IIU, dari tenccurrige, dage. Batavia, den 22 April 1722.

Terjemahan berjalan kira-kira seperti ini:

Sebagai konsekuensi dari memori dibenci Pieter Elberfeld, yang dihukum karena pengkhianatan, tidak seorang pun diizinkan untuk membangun di kayu, atau batu, atau untuk menanam sesuatu apapun di dasar ini, dari waktu sebagainya selama-lamanya. Batavia, 22 April 1722

Jalan tempat eksekusi Pieter Elberfeld itu berlangsung sekarang dikenal sebagai Jalan Pecah Kulit atau “Skin Jalan Ruptur”, nama mengerikan yang paling menggambarkan sejarah tempat itu. Para Schandmuur, bersama-sama dengan tengkorak di tombak besi, kemudian bergeser ke Taman Prasasti sebelum membuka museum. Dari foto lama Schandmuur dan yang terakhir saya mengambil di Taman Prasasti, Anda bisa melihat bahwa langkah-langkah besar dilakukan untuk menghapus dinding asli dari lokasi aslinya ke museum.

Patung Lady lain Menangis

Selain Kecantikan Menangis, patung menangis kedua wanita dapat ditemukan lebih lanjut dalam taman. Serupa dengan Kecantikan Menangis, patung ini dipahat dalam gaya Renaisans juga dan ada juga ada prasasti yang terlihat untuk mengatakan siapa kuburan milik.

 Hal khusus tentang makam ini adalah penggunaan karang di fabrikasi nya. Wanita menangis terlihat bersandar ke sebuah gundukan batu yang terbuat dari batu diplester dan karang. Dapatkah Anda melihat mereka?

Makam dengan The Doric Kolom Patah

Makam ini dihiasi dengan kolom Doric rusak (seperti yang di pintu masuk Taman Prasasti) yang mengingatkan saya dari arsitektur Yunani kuno digunakan untuk Parthenon. Sebuah karangan bunga pahatan di sekitar kolom untuk meminjamkan suasana prestise ke makam. Ini adalah tempat peristirahatan terakhir bagi seorang wanita bernama CM van Os, yang menurut prasasti pada batu nisan itu, adalah istri tercinta dari IHR Goedhart.


Alfa Misterius – Omega Grave

Ada terletak sebuah makam, yang besar lebar tidak terlalu jauh dari Dirk Varkevisser. Makam ini tampak jauh lebih luas daripada makam lain di museum, dan memiliki abjad Yunani yang berbeda A (Alpha) dan Ω (Omega) tertulis di atasnya. Ini adalah huruf pertama dan terakhir dari alfabet Yunani. Dalam Kitab Wahyu, Yesus Kristus menunjukkan dirinya sebagai Alpha dan Omega, melambangkan awal dan akhir dari semua ciptaan.


Di atas alfabet Yunani, Latin Ayat berbunyi:


Ini sebenarnya bagian dari sebuah ayat dari Alkitab, yang diterjemahkan menjadi sebagai berikut:

Ingat orang-orang yang memimpin Anda, yang berbicara firman Allah kepada Anda, dan mempertimbangkan hasil dari perilaku mereka, contohlah iman mereka. – Ibrani 13:07

Dulu ada sebuah bola batu di kedua sisi makam, namun seperti yang Anda lihat pada gambar di bawah, ruang di sebelah kanan telah copot dan sekarang terletak rusak di lantai makam.

Para penghuni (ya, ada 2 penghuni) makam harus telah Katolik memang sangat saleh. Terlepas dari Alpha – Omega referensi dan ayat Alkitab dalam bahasa Latin, simbol religius yang dikenal sebagai Chi Rho Salib juga dapat ditemukan di tengah kuburan.



Dua huruf pertama dari nama Kristus dalam bahasa Yunani adalah X dan P. Dalam X alfabet Yunani diucapkan sebagai Chi dan P adalah diucapkan sebagai Rho, maka nama Chi Rho Cross.


.para pastor batavia


 Pastor van der Grinten adalah pendeta kepala Gereja Katolik Batavia – gereja Katolik pertama di Batavia – yang terletak di sudut Lapangan Banteng (alun-alun terbuka yang luas terletak di daerah kantong Eropa dan sebelumnya dikenal sebagai Waterloopein). Itu dibangun di atas kediaman mantan Hindia Belanda komandan militer Hendrik Merkus de Kock (yang kemudian dibuat Baron untuk kemenangannya atas Pangeran Diponegoro dalam perang Jawa).

Gereja ini diresmikan pada tanggal 6 November 1829 dan diberkati oleh pendeta kepala pada waktu itu, Pastor L. Prinsen, sebagai “Gereja Our Lady of Asumsi”. Ini diukur 35 panjang 17 meter lebar, terdiri dari sebuah aula besar dengan deretan pilar di kedua sisi dalam gaya neo-gothic, gaya arsitektur yang umum untuk gereja-gereja pada saat itu. Pastor van der Grinten tinggal di kediaman pastor di sayap timur gereja, sementara koster tinggal di sayap barat.

Gereja berdiri sampai 9 April 1890 ketika runtuh karena usia tua dan pemeliharaan yang buruk. Sebuah gereja baru dibangun kembali di tempatnya antara 1891 dan 1901 dan hari ini berdiri sebagai Katedral Jakarta. Gereja diakui sebagai alat integral untuk penyebaran Katolik Roma di Jawa selama abad ke-19


In the northwestern corner of Taman Prasasti, I came across a magnificent tomb which could fit right into Transylvania like a glove. This gothic looking tomb belongs to Major General J. J. Perie,  the Commander of the 1st Groote Militaire Afdeeling (literally the Great Military Division) in Java.  During his illustrious career with the military, he was knighted and conferred with the 4th Order of the Militaire Willems-Orde (Military Order of William), the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. This chivalric order was often presented to senior military officers in recognition of their feats of bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration. The receipient of several awards during his lifetime, Major General Perie was also awarded the Order of the Netherlands Lion.



english version 

A weathered bronze cannon stood in front of the sign, pointing in the direction of the road that ran adjacent to the cemetery. A glimpse of Batavia’s colonial past, perhaps? This had to be the place, I thought to myself.


I looked to my left and a grand looking portico, adorned with beautiful columns on both sides, greeted my sight. There was an iron gate guarding the entrance, and beyond that gate, I could make out more than a handful of headstones plastered on standing columns in an open space.

There was a collection of age-old tombstones plastered on the walls of the colonnaded portico and this gave the entire place an archaic feel. As I got nearer to the entrance, I was intrigued by the sign above the gate, which displayed the Latin words in the following order:



Having absolutely no knowledge of the arcane language that is Latin, I managed to piece the words on the inscription together and ended up with the following loose (and possibly very bad) translation:

This serves as a monument to house the relics
of the dilapidated old sacred temple of Batavia.

In the mid 19th century, the majority of the Dutch people in both the Netherlands and their colonies were staunch Roman Catholics. Displayed above the entrance to a cemetery which was predominantly Dutch, it made some sense that the sign was inscribed in Latin. It also prompted me to dig deeper into the history of the cemetery.

Taman Prasasti was first established as the 5.5 hectare Kerkhoflaan (Cemetery Lane in Dutch) in 1795 and the locals called it Kebun Jahe Kober. One of the oldest cemeteries in this part of the world, it was built following a massive disease outbreak which killed many in Batavia.  Apart from this, Kerkhoflaan was meant to supplement the cemeteries of the De Nieuw Hollandsche Kerk (The New Holland Church, which presently houses the Wayang Museum) located in the Stadhuisplein (City Hall Square), and the De Nieuwe Potugeesche Buitenkerk (now the Zion church) located in the southeastern part of Batavia. Both cemeteries had been filled up and the Dutch Government had to look for an alternate burial ground in anticipation of the rapid growth of the Dutch population in Batavia.


A rouwbord or mourning shield was a common Dutch practice. It displayed the lifetime achievements of the deceased and was hung over the door of the deceased’s house and later on the wall of the church where he or she was buried.

Kerkhoflaan’s location was chosen after much consideration, and it is strategically placed due to its proximity to the Kali Krukut river. In the olden days, the dead were – along with the grieving family and friends – transported in small boats from the Binnen Hospital (present day Bank of Indonesia Museum) in the north along the Kali Krukut and travelled down south to Kerkhoflaan, where the hearse would be transferred onto dry land to a horse-drawn carriage at the present location of the Ministry of Communications and Informatics. The hearse would  travel a short distance on road to Kerkhoflaan for the final rites before the body is finally buried at the cemetery.

Kerkhoflaan was the burial ground for Dutch nobles and several high ranking officials of the VOC (Vereenigde Oostindische CompagnieDutch East India Company) where they were laid to rest by their families and relatives. The general public were allowed to buried there much later but a certain fee had to be paid. Following its proclaimation of independence from the Netherlands in 1945, the Indonesian Government sealed off the cemetery in 1975 as it had ran out of space.

Morbid, but that’s how we all end up one day.

During this time, all the bodies buried underneath the cemetery were either moved to other cemeteries (i.e the cemetery in Menteng Pulo) or brought back to the Netherlands by their living relatives, leaving the tombstones behind. The original cemetery was also shrunk into a 1.3 hectare site as part of the new Central Jakarta Mayor’s office was built on the former cemetery grounds. The cemetery was reopened to the public as a museum on 9 July 1977 by the then-Governor of Jakarta, Ali Sadikin. A plaque is displayed on a small monolith located near to the entrance to commemorate this move by the Government.

The monolith at Taman Prasasti bearing Governor Ali Sadikin’s message and signature.
He signs off with his military rank – Lieutenant General of the TNI* Marine Corps
TNI – Tentara Nasional Indonesia (The Indonesian National Armed Forces)

The main building which I was standing in was built in 1844 with a doric column order favoured by the Dorians, one of two Greek races. It was known as the Balairung Building and it had two wings on either side which functioned as ceremonial halls for the final rites before the burial was carried out. The hall on the right wing was used for female bodies, while the other one on the left was used for male bodies.

As I stepped through the gates to the cemetery, I was greeted by neat rows of columns adorned with old tombstones. It seems that the people behind the refurbishment project had chosen some tombstones to be set in concrete pillars. Most of the inscriptions of the tombstones displayed on these pillars were still legible. I was told that those tombstones on display were selected due to their witty inscriptions and the deeper meanings behind them. One such tombstone had the well written verse inscribed in Dutch with the striking words:


which translates to

Like you are now, I was before. And like I am now, thus you will be one day


The pillars at the entrance are all numbered and arranged neatly.

To the left of the tombstone pillars, i noticed a peculiar sight. There was a bell sitting atop a metal pole and the bell was attached to a rope, which visitors could pull. However, I think not many would know that this bell was in fact used in the past by the cemetery workers to inform all the staff that a new body had just arrived. A worker, upon sighting the arrival of the hearse, would ring the bell by pulling the rope and all the staff would prepare the necessary items for the final rites in the respective wing of the Balairung Building. I’m pretty sure that the many visitors who rang the bell in jest would be shocked to find out the real purpose of this “death bell”.

The “death bell” of Taman Prasasti. Think twice before you pull that rope.

I moved further inward, eager to locate Olivia Raffles’ tomb. However, as I looked around, i realized that the cemetery was more complicated than I had expected. I was hoping to see tombs arranged in neat grass lawns with a couple of odd-shaped tombs like the ones in Petamburan. That would have made my search much easier. However, this was not to be. Taman Prasasti was a sprawling cemetery park with tombs that were haphazardly placed. There were tombs of different shapes and sizes everywhere. I did not know where to start. It was a total nightmare.

Fallen frangipani flowers, commonly associated with the Pontianak, can be found in abundance near to the entrance. There are no “fatimah rockers” to be found here though.

The Weeping Beauty

Going by my instinct, I decided to move in a clockwise direction to comb the area. As soon as I set off on my search, a distinctive grave with a distinctive cover caught my eye almost immediately. The grave cover took the form of a sad lady lying on the ground with her head buried in her hands, depicting the poignant moment of a loved one departing from this world. I like to call this lady the Weeping Beauty.

Apparently this is a very well-known grave with a back-story to the statue of the Weeping Beauty. It is said that the grave was build to illustrate the pain of a newly-wedded lady whose husband succumbed to malaria. Unable to take the pain, the lady committed suicide. Unfortunately, there were no inscriptions on the grave to give any clues to the Weeping Beauty’s true identity.

The Tomb of Dr. H.F Roll

A stone’s throw away from the Weeping Beauty, an open book carved out of stone lies atop the grave of Dr. H.F. Roll. Dr. Roll was the founder and director of the STOVIA medical school, which evolved into the Faculty of Medicine in the University of Indonesia today.

In 1851, the Dutch colonial government decided to establish a school to train native medical assistants. The training for each person lasted for two years and graduates were certified to provide simple and basic medical treatments. The degree conferred to the graduates was Dokter Djawa or “Javanese Doctor” as they were certified to only practice medicine in the Dutch East Indies, especially so on the island of Java. Soon, the program became more comprehensive and by 1875, the program had reached 7 years in length. Graduates were entitled to the more established degree of Medical Doctor. Then, the quantum leap came in 1898, when the government established a entirely new medical school named STOVIA to train medical doctors.

STOVIA stood for the School Tot Opleiding Van Inlandsche Artsen or “Training School for Native Doctors” located in the Hospitaalweg (literally Hospital Road) in Batavia. Many STOVIA graduates later played important roles during Indonesia’s national movement towards their proclaimation of independence, as well as in developing medical education in Indonesia as a whole.

Dr Roll can be seen conducting a lecture to a group of native doctor trainees in this old photo taken in 1902 (link) where he is seated on the left. He can also be seen seated in the middle of this photo of the staff members of STOVIA (link).

True to his roots, the stone book on Dr. Roll’s grave illustrates his wisdom and relentless pursuit of medical academic excellence when he still was alive.

His inscription reads:

27 MAY 1867 – 20 SEPT. 1935



Below the inscription of Dr. H.F Roll’s name, I found the name of another person from the Roll family who was buried with him. The (translated) inscription below says:

20 MAR. 1920 – 15 JAN. 1940
I’m guessing that this was probably Dr. Roll’s son, seeing that they share the same surname. There is not much information about Frits Roll, except that he was a medical student and died before his 20th birthday. A chip off the old block, perhaps?


At the bottom of the grave cover, the following Latin inscription can be found:

                                                              OVID FAST IV 311
This is an inspiring message which translates to:

                       A clear conscience triumphs over false lies.
                                                             Ovid’s Fasti IV 311

Ovid was an early Roman poet who lived during the reign of Augustus, the first emperor of Rome. This quote was taken from the fourth book of Ovid’s Fasti, a six book collection of Latin elegiac poems.

The broken jar you see in the picture above used to decorate the foot of the grave. However, it’s a pity to see that it has been broken into two pieces probably through the work of some vandal.

The Japanese Memorial

As this was a cemetery for the Dutch and other Europeans, I was most surprised to see a Japanese tomb as I continued my stroll. As I approached the tombstone, I was greeted by a headstone inscribed in Kanji.

The tombstone was in fact a monument for the 30 brave Japanese soldiers from Shibata City, Niigata Prefacture, who fought for the 19th Company, 16th Battalion, 2nd Division of the Imperial Japanese Army. The entire company perished in the Ciantung River in Bogor in 1942 when the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies. The Japanese people who live in Jakarta come to this monument twice a year to perform a ceremonial ritual as a mark of respect for the deceased.


The ranks and names of the deceased are engraved on a stone plaque below the tombstone.

The Hearse Carriage

Back in the days when the Kali Krukut river was still used to transport dead bodies from the Binnen Hospital, the horse-drawn hearse carriage was commonly used to transfer the bodies from the river bank to the Balairung Building in preparation for the burial.

The wealth and social status of the deceased is often reflected in the number of horses pulling the carriage into the cemetery. The more wealthier or famous a person was, the more horses would be pulling their hearse. As the hearse carriage made its way to the gates of Kerkhoflaan, a cemetery worker would ring the bell to inform everyone of its arrival. The funeral administrators would prepare themselves when they heard the bell ringing, and the person ringing the bell would continue until the hearse arrived at the gate proper.

Today, a replica of the hearse carriage is displayed in a display shed located at a corner of Taman Prasasti.

The hearse was not encased in glass in the yesteryears. The glass panels were installed
on this replica to prevent the public from climbing inside the carriage.


A ramp to help the carriage up to its display shed.

The Legend of Captain Jas

There is a particular tomb which is believed to have the power to grant prosperity, happiness and fertility to those who visit it. The occupant of this seemingly supernatural grave goes by the name Kapiten Jas (Captain Jas). However, the identity of the person who was buried there remains a true mystery. The tomb is well-known for having a strong fragrance of burning incense surrounding it even though there evidently wasn’t any incense that was being offered in the area.

When I first stumbled upon the tomb of Captain Jas, I initially thought it was a storage area for “lost and found” items in the cemetery. Imagine my shock when I read the stone inscription and realised that I had found his “tomb”. I didn’t catch a whiff of the “infamous” incense smell though, and the air remained odorless the whole time I was there. Wrong time, maybe? It was also pretty unusual to see  that a tree has grown on top of a part of the grave.

Apart from the statue of Jesus Christ, jars and cross which were found lying on top of the grave, a small stone plate is affixed to a corner of the tomb. It says:





And the (very loose) translation goes something like this:



From this inscription, it seems that many of those who visit this grave actually place a huge amount of true faith in Captain Jas’s powers. The words chosen for the inscription depicts just how much “Father Jas” is believed to be a vassal of God and one who was able to send messages on behalf of the believer.

Here lies Captain Jas.

The name Kapiten Jas can be traced back to the Jassenkerk, a Portuguese church which was located near to the cemetery.  In the mid 1600s, many people were buried in a cemetery near the guardhouse located on the eastern side of the Jassen Bridge, a wooden drawbridge which ran across a tributary of the Ciliwung River. This tributary was an important part of southern Batavia’s infrastructure as it helped to direct excess water into the Stadsbuitengracht, a large open drainage canal located outside the city walls.

 In 1676, a Roman Catholic church, built completely out of bamboo, was erected near to the cemetery. Due to its proximity to the Jassen Bridge, it was simply named the Jassenkerk (Jassen Church) and the cemetery was assimilated into the churchyard. The whole “Captain Jas” fiasco is believed to be a simple figure of speech where people described death and burial as “naar het land Jackets Captain von gaan” or “going to the land of Captain Jas.

Later on, some of the bodies buried in the Jassenkerk churchyard were relocated to Kerkhoflaan. Therefore, it is widely believed that the headstone bearing the name of Captain Jas in Taman Prasasti was really just a memorial of the Jassenkerk churchyard itself, and that this imaginary person – Captain Jas – did not really exist, nor was anyone really buried beneath the headstone. The accounts of people who claim to have the strange olfactory experience with the supernatural smell of burning incense around the grave can probably relate it to the use of incense during worship in the Jassenkerk when it was still around. The bamboo church has since been removed and replaced by the Zion Church.


In another version of the legend of Captain Jas, it is said that a strange incident happened when this grave was dug. The workers found that coffin that was so tightly intertwined with the roots of the tree growing beside it, it was impossible to remove the coffin. The word soon spread like wildfire and many people began to visit this strange grave. Many who visited the grave claimed that they experienced a big change in their lives. Those who were poor became significantly wealthier, while childless couples also managed to conceive successfully after visiting the grave.

Both versions of Captain Jas’s legend seem to conflict each other. One version states that he does not exist, while the other involves the discovery of his coffin below the grave. However, despite this cloud of uncertainty which surrounds the legend of Captain Jas, many still flock to the tomb, eager to seek fertility, safety, prosperity or happiness.

This is a true mystery which remains to be solved.

Could this be Olivia’s tomb?

As I continued walking along the pathway, I noticed a large tomb near to Captain Jas’s grave. The grave was resting on top of a octagonal staircase and it was surrounded by 8 short columns. The first thing that struck me was the black staircase and white columns. This colour scheme was much akin to the British colonial “black & white” Tudor houses that we have in Singapore. Could this be Olivia Mariamne Raffles’ tomb?



I climbed up the steps eagerly, wanting to read the inscription atop the grave to confirm my assumption. However, the inscriptions on the tombstone itself had been badly weathered and it would be a real challenge to read the inscriptions without smearing some chalk onto the tombstone. However, not only did I not have any chalk with me, I did not think it would be very nice to start applying chalk over all the tombs which I simply assumed belonged to Lady Raffles!


 The top of the gravestone may have faded with time, but i could still make out the faint inscription on it.

The inscription reads:

to the Memory of
Wife of
Lieutenant Governor 
And its Dependancies
Who departed this life
The 26th day of November 1814

BINGO! The sweat, mosquito bites and fatigue was worth it. This tomb here is an important piece of history not only to the Javanese people, but also to us as Raffles went on from Java to found Singapore. Any tiredness I had felt before had instantaneously disappeared. Here it was, right before my eyes, a fragment of our colonial past.

I went around the tomb with renewed vigour, snapping away as I circled the majestic final resting place of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Thoughts filled up my mind. What if Olivia Raffles did not fall victim to her illness during her stay in Java? What if she had followed Raffles to Singapore? What changes would she have implemented as the First Lady of the founder of Singapore? So many what-ifs popped into my mind. It was simply fascinating.

On the front of the tomb, there was a small plate which was added much later (probably by the curator) to help identify the tomb as well.

I found the inscription amusing as the words “Keterangan: Bentuk Kijing” on the plate actually meant “Description: The Shape of a Gravestone“. It also depicts the year that the grave was completed (1814), the inventory number (probably as a record for the museum) and most importantly the name of the grave’s occupant.

While setting up my tripod for this shot below, I noticed that the Central Jakarta Mayor’s office was the backdrop of my photo. Olivia Mariamne Raffles’ tomb was one of the closest ones in proximity to the Mayor’s office. Since this newer building was built over what was originally part the former cemetery grounds, the cemetery’s boundary would have extended far beyond the reaches of the Mayor’s Office.


You may compare Olivia Mariamne Raffles’s grave with the memorial Sir Stamford Raffles built for her in near the Lieutenant-Governor’s palace in Buitenzorg (present-day Kebun Raya Bogor) below.  You may click to enlarge the photos or view the full set here.

There was boisterous singing and clapping coming from a group of people who were dressed in similar clothing within the grounds of the mayor’s office, breaking the silence in the cemetery. A group of government servants having some sort of team-building activity, maybe?

I stood back and looked at the eight short columns surrounding the tomb. Although they look like they were built to symbolize the cardinal points of the compass, these columns were actually part of a Dutch church.When the church was deemed too old and unsafe to be used anymore, the stone from the church was reused to decorate the tomb of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. The eight columns, which used to support the old church’s roof, were then shortened and placed around the tomb as an ornament.

The tomb of John Casper Leyden, the Scottish writer, doctor, poet and brilliant oriental linguist who was a close friend of the Raffleses, lies in close proximity to Olivia Raffles’s tomb as well.

John Leyden and Olivia Raffles had often exchanged letters and poetry with each other and he was well known to be a bosom friend of Sir Stamford Raffles and a confidant of the couple. The two had met when Leyden, who left British India after spending two years there studying the mystic eastern languages of Hindustani, Tamil, Sanskrit, Malay among others, set sail for Malaya in 1805 where he befriended a young Stamford Raffles on Prince of Wales Island (Pulau Penang). Raffles was the assistant secretary to the Governor of Penang, Philip Dundas, at that time.

In 1811, Leyden joined Lord Minto in the expedition to Java. Leyden fell to the infamous Batavian Fever (an epidemic at that time, it was possibly malaria or dengue) after entering a library (which was said to have contained many Eastern manuscripts) without having the place properly aired first. After three days of illness, he died on 28 August 1811.

More Fascinating Tombs Around Taman Prasasti

While Olivia Raffles’s tomb may be of more significance to us, there are many more interesting tombs around Taman Prasasti which are worth taking a look at. Although my little mission was complete, I was determined to seek out more unusual tombs for photo opportunities in the area.

The Tomb of Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser

Standing like a grand monument, the tomb of Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser towers over the tombs in the vicinity.


Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, an official of the Dutch East Indies government, was born in Samarang (present-day Semarang in Central Java) on 11th July 1800 and passed away on 4th January 1857 in Batavia. He was the former Dutch resident of Pasuruan (in east Java, near to the city of Surabaya), and he was also knighted and conferred the Order of the Netherlands Lion, a Dutch order awarded to eminent individuals from all walks of life, including generals, ministers, mayors, leading scientists, industrialists and high ranking civil servants, among others.

His tombstone has the following inscription:





A high-relief set of agricultural tools is prominently displayed on the front face of Dirk Varkevisser’s tomb, among them a winnow fan used in wind winnowing, scythes and sickles for harvesting crops, a spade for digging the earth and many other assorted tools used for farming and soil cultivation. This is because as the Dutch Resident of Pasuruan, Varkevisser oversaw the cultivation of many cash crops, which included the highly profitable sugar cane, and he was also in charge of the production of sugar. These crops, which were significantly cheaper to cultivate in Java, were then transported back to the Netherlands in large ships to meet the demand of the Dutch population back home.

The sculptural monument of Varkevisser’s tombstone is a simply stunning piece of art which has been well preserved since 1857 until the present day, a hefty feat considering that the tomb is almost a century and a half old.

The Bourgeois Family Tomb of The van Delben Family

This unique mausoleum, which is shaped like a small house, was a family tomb for the wealthy  bourgeoisie van Delben family. The head of the van Delben family was Ambrosius Johannes Wilbrordus van Delben.

During the transformation of the cemetery into the Taman Prasasti Museum, the mausoleum was opened up and the workers found the mummified bodies of the van Delben family stored inside the crypt. The bodies have since been removed and the mausoleum is currently used as a storage shed for the museum.

No one knows where the mummified bodies are presently. They would have most probably been brought back to the Netherlands or buried in another cemetery in Jakarta to make way for the museum.


The Tragic Story of Pieter Elberfeld

Most people who visit the Taman Prasasti Museum would be intrigued by the sight of a memorial decorated with a macabre sight, a human skull pearched upon an upright spear. This uncanny memorial belongs to Pieter Elberfeld, a rebel who was brutally quartered by the Dutch government for high treason.

Born in Java in the year 1663 to a German father and a Javanese mother, Pieter Elberfeld was one who clung to native ideas and customs, which subsequently led him to become an enthusiastic and daring patriot. He hated the Dutch and all connected with them and resolved on the extermination of every Dutchman from the soil of Java.

When his father died, Pieter Elberfeld inherited a huge estate from his father. The VOC government, under the orders of then Governor-General Hendrick Zwaardecroon, exercised their superior authority by claiming a part of the estate. Incensed by their move, Elberfeld came up with a plan to kill the higher ranking officials of the VOC. Alas, before he could carry out his plan, his niece – who had fell in love with a Dutch official from the VOC – spilled the beans on her uncle. The government then caught him red-handed in the midst of a secret meeting and imprisoned him immediately. After hours of torture, Elberfeld confessed to his plans and was sentenced to death along with 19 of his slaves.

The punishment was very cruel, even for the standards of that time. He was bound backward to a cross, decapitated and his body was cut in four pieces (and not quartered by horses as popularly depicted) The four pieces of his body were hung in the four quarters of the city and the similar punishment was administered to his accomplices. He was 59 years old at that time.

Elberfeld’s house, which was located outside the city then, was demolished and a schandmuur (wall of shame) was erected in its place. Elberfeld’s head was set conspicuously upon a top of a pike to serve as a warning to the rest of Batavia. Over time, only the skull was left. It was then thickly plastered over to protect it from the influence of time and weather.


The Schandmuur – Circa 1885
Creative Commons – Tropenmuseum

Immediately below the transfixed skull, a tablet bearing the following long inscription in the Dutch can be found:

Uik eene verfoeyelyke gedachtenise tegen den gestraften landverrader, Pieter Elberfeld, zal niemaud vermogen ter dezer plaatse to boumen, Simmeren, metselem, planten. iiu, of tenccurrige, dage. Batavia, den 22nd April, 1722.

The translation goes roughly like this:

In consequence of the detested memory of Pieter Elberfeld, who was punished for treason, no one shall be permitted to build in wood, or stone, or to plant anything whatsoever in these grounds, from this time forth for evermore. Batavia, 22nd April, 1722

The street where Pieter Elberfeld’s execution took place is now known as Jalan Pecah Kulit or “Ruptured Skin Street”, a morbid name which best describes the history of the place. The Schandmuur, together with the skull on the iron pike, was then shifted to Taman Prasasti prior to the museum’s opening. From the old photo of the Schandmuur and the recent one I took at Taman Prasasti, you could see that great measures were taken to remove the original wall from its original location to the museum.

Another Weeping Lady Statue

Apart from the Weeping Beauty, a second weeping lady statue can be found further in the park. Similar to the Weeping Beauty, this statue is sculptured in the Renaissance style too and there are also no visible inscriptions to tell us who the grave belongs to.

The special thing about this tomb is the usage of corals in its fabrication. The weeping lady is seen leaning onto a rock mound made out of plastered rocks and corals. Can you spot them?

The Tomb with The Broken Doric Column


This tomb is decorated with a broken doric column (like the ones at the entrance of Taman Prasasti) which reminded me of the ancient Greek architecture used for the Parthenon. A wreath is sculptured around the column to lend an air of prestige to the tomb. It was the final resting place for a lady named C.M van Os, which according to the inscription on the headstone, was the beloved wife of I. H. R. Goedhart.

The Mysterious Alpha – Omega Grave

There lies a large, wide tomb not too far away from Dirk Varkevisser. This tomb is visibly much wider than any other tomb in the museum, and it has the distinct Greek alphabets A (Alpha) and Ω (Omega) inscribed on it. These are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. In the Book of Revelation, Jesus Christ refers to himself as the Alpha and the Omega, symbolizing the beginning and the end of all creation.

Above the Greek alphabets, a Latin Verse reads:


This is in fact a part of a verse from the Bible, which translates into the following:

Remember those who led you, who spoke the word of God to you; and considering the result of their conduct, imitate their faith. – Hebrews 13:7

There used to be a stone sphere on either side of the tomb, but as you can see in the picture below, the sphere on the right had been dislodged and now lies broken on the grave floor.


The occupants (yes,there were 2 occupants) of the tomb must have been very pious Catholics indeed. Apart from the Alpha – Omega reference and the biblical verse in Latin, a religious symbol known as the Chi Rho Cross can also be found in the centre of the grave.

The first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek are X and P. In the Greek alphabet X is pronounced as Chi and P is pronounced as Rho, hence the name Chi Rho Cross. These two letters are usually inscribed as one over the other and enclosed within a circle, thus becoming both a cosmic and a solar symbol. Although not technically a cross, the Chi Rho invokes the crucifixion of Jesus as well as symbolizing his status as the Christ.

The occupants of this grave also happen to be strange bedfellows, in my opinion. On the left, we have the following inscription:


11 SEP 1860
11 SEP 1860

It seems that one of the tomb’s occupants, Mabisa, was a native Javanese lady married to a Dutchman named H. Lastdrager. While I was logically expecting to see the tombstone of Mabisa’s husband on the right side of the tomb, I was totally perplexed to see the following inscription instead:


CEB: te BERN 1830
OVERL: 13 JULI 1886

BORN in BERN 1830
DEC: 13 JULY 1886

Who was this A. Schultheiss? Schultheiss is a last name of German origin, which made sense for this gentleman since he was born in Bern, the capital of Switzerland. How was he related to the Lastdragers, and why is he being buried next to Mabisa instead of her husband? A real puzzle, indeed.

The Pastor of Batavia

The tomb of H. van der Grinten, the head pastor of Batavia between 1847 – 1848, is also located in Taman Prasasti. Among the hundreds of gravestones, his benevolent statue cuts a fine figure.

Father van der Grinten was the head pastor of the Catholic Church of Batavia – the first Catholic church in Batavia – located at the corner of Lapangan Banteng (a large open square situated in an European enclave and formerly known as Waterloopein). It was built over the former residence of the Dutch East Indies military commander General Hendrik Merkus de Kock (who later was made Baron for his triumph over Prince Diponegoro in the Java war).

The church was inaugurated on 6 November 1829 and blessed by the head pastor at that time, Father L. Prinsen,  as “The Church of Our Lady of Assumption”. It measured 35 long by 17 metres wide, consisted of a large hall with rows of pillars on either side in the neo-gothic style, a common architectural style for churches at the time. Father van der Grinten lived in the priest’s residence on the east wing of the church, while the sacristan lived in the west wing.

The church stood until 9 April 1890 when it collapsed due to old age and poor maintenance. A new church was rebuilt in its place between 1891 and 1901 and today it stands as the Jakarta Cathedral. The church is acknowledged as an integral instrument for the spread of Roman Catholicism in Java during the 19th century.

The inscription on Father van der Grinten’s tomb reads:


1 COR. IX v:22



- R . I . P -




“To the weak I became weak, that I might win the weak; I have become all things to all men, so that I may by all means save some.”

1 Corinthians 9:22

“His memory will not perish”
“And his name will be called”
“From generation to generation”
Ecclesiasticus 39:13

- R . I . P -







Major General J.J Perie’s Gothic Tomb

In the northwestern corner of Taman Prasasti, I came across a magnificent tomb which could fit right into Transylvania like a glove. This gothic looking tomb belongs to Major General J. J. Perie,  the Commander of the 1st Groote Militaire Afdeeling (literally the Great Military Division) in Java.  During his illustrious career with the military, he was knighted and conferred with the 4th Order of the Militaire Willems-Orde (Military Order of William), the oldest and highest honour of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. This chivalric order was often presented to senior military officers in recognition of their feats of bravery on the battlefield and as a meritorious decoration. The receipient of several awards during his lifetime, Major General Perie was also awarded the Order of the Netherlands Lion.


Major General Perie passed away in 1853 in Batavia. Due to his military rank and appointment, he was given a grand and honourable funeral and buried in Batavia itself. The high-relief hatchment on his tomb consists of a Galea (a Roman soldier’s helmet), a Gladius (Roman sword) and a wreath.

Further up, the upper hatchment displays an array of military flags, swords, drums and pistols. From this hatchment, we could tell that Major General Perie was a military man. (Compare this to the hatchment of Dirk Varkevisser – which consisted of agricultural tools – as seen earlier)

For Asians, it is very common to find larger tombs for the wealthy or people who were very important (take O.G Khouw for instance!). I guess the same can be said for the Dutch! From the size and grandeur of his grave, we could see the importance of Major General J. J. Perie’s contributions to the Dutch East Indies government in Batavia.


Apart from my main task of locating Olivia Raffles’s tomb, the discovery of other tombs along the way and the interesting stories behind them were pretty gratifying for me. The many different tombs of Petamburan and Taman Prasasti were bewitching and I had much joy in discovering the tomb of O.G Khouw in the process. The many amazing stories behind each tomb were simply fascinating. I hope that you have enjoyed reading the memoir as much as I had enjoyed carrying out my research and writing it.

As Greg Anderson once said “Focus on the journey, not the destination. Joy is found not in finishing an activity but in doing it.”, nothing can be further from the truth.

Is he?

As it stands, there are slightly over one thousand tombs in Taman Prasasti, each with their own story to tell. There are several more tombs of significance located in the area, like the tombs of Soe Hok Gie (an Chinese-Indonesian activist who fought for the rights of the Chinese community during the reign of presidents Sukarno and Suharto), Major General Johan Harmen Rudolf Khöler (a Dutch general who died in the Aceh war), Major General Andreas Victor Michiels (a highly successful Dutch general who triumphed over his native opponents in many skirmishes), Ms. Riboet (a hugely popular actress and recording artiste in the 1920s) and many, many others whom I am unable to mention in one breath alone. Perhaps one day I will return to document all these tombs and find out about the magnificent stories behind them. In my opinion, Taman Prasasti deserves a dedicated website of its own, documenting each individual tomb, their unique designs, their inscriptions and of course the back story of the deceased

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1928

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1920


Javanese opium-smokers
Antique Map East Indies Reinecke, I.C.M.






In 1795

, a French-backed revolution in Holland expelled the Stadthouder, William of Orange, who fled to Britain, where he issued the so-called ‘Kew Letter’, instructing VOC officials in the Indies to surrender their posts to the British on demand. On this basis, the British occupied Melaka, Padang and Ambon without a struggle, Banda by surprise and Tidore by assault, but were unable to capture Kupang or Ternate. The 1802 Treaty of Amiens restored these territories to the Dutch.


1798 -1806


Antique Map Bali (Indonesia) De Bry, Theodor







Balinese kingdoms, ca 1800

To the east of Bali lies the long chain of islands known as the Lesser Sundas or Nusatenggara (Southeastern Islands). For the most part, these islands were involved only peripherally in the trade and civilization of the western archipelago until the colonial area. Although the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana) lists Timor and Sumba as tributaries of 14th -century Majapahit, Javanese culture has left at the most only scattered traces in the region. No significant local inscriptions have been found to attest to the existence of early kingdoms and Chinese records are vague. The region’s economic relations with the outside world seem to have been based on the export of sandalwood, especially from Timor, a trade which may have begun in the 7th century.


The establishment of Bandung
When the Bandung regency led by the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II, the powers of the Company on the archipelago ended due to the VOC went bankrupt (December 1799). Power in the archipelago then taken over by the Government of the Netherlands East Indies with the first Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811).
In line with change of power in the Dutch East Indies, Bandung regency circumstances change. Changes in the first place is to transfer the capital district of the southern region Krapyak in Bandung to Bandung, which was; etak in the middle area of ​​the district.
Between January 1800 to end December 1807 in the archipelago in general and in Java in particular, occur foreign power vacuum (invaders), because although the Governor-General of the Company is still there, but he had no power. For the regents, during the vacuum power means the loss of the burden of obligations to be fulfilled for the benefit of a foreign ruler (invaders). Thus, they can devote attention to the interests of local governments respectively. This would occur also in Bandung Regency.
According to the script Sadjarah Bandung, Bandung in 1809 Regent Wiranatakusumah II along with a number of people moved from Karapyak to the area north of the land going to the capital. At that time the land would Bandung still forested, but in the north existing settlements, namely Kampung Cikapundung conservative, Kampung Cikalintu, and Villages Bogor. According to the script, the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II moved to the city of Bandung after he settled in temporary shelters for two and a half years.
Originally regents living in Cikalintu (Cipaganti area) and then he moved Balubur Downstream. When Deandels Cikapundung inaugurate the construction of the bridge (bridge at Jl. Asia Africa Building near PLN now), Regent of Bandung was there. Deandels with Regent over the bridge and then they walk eastward to one place (in front of the Office of Public Works Jl. Asia Africa now). In that place deandels plugging rod and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (Try, if I come back here, a city has built! “. Apparently Deandels wants city center was built in the place.
Peanger Hotel 1910
As a follow-up of his word, Deandels asked Regent Bandung and Parakanmuncang to move the capital of each district to the nearby Jalan Raya Pos. Deandels request was submitted by letter dated May 25, 1810.
beauty of the city of Bandung Regency Bandung in conjunction with the appointment of Raden Suria became Patih Parakanmuncang. Both momentum is confirmed by besluit (decree) dated September 25, 1810. This date is also the date of Decree (besluit), the formal judicial (dejure) designated as the City Anniversary Bandung.
Perhaps the regents began domiciled in Bandung after there in the first district where the building marquee. Certainly the marquee district is the first building constructed for the central government activities Bandung regency.




1798 -1806

 In the time the possessions of the former VOC were administered by the Batavian Republic it was under the supervision of the Council of the Asiatic Possessions and Establishments (Raad der Asiatische Bezittingen en Etablissementen.)The Batavian Republic introduced the use of the emblem of the sovereign in the colonies and this was continued by the following administrations. First this emblem consisted of an altar charged with an anchor and a dolphin, supported by a lion with the national flag and the Batavian Virgin with spear an hat of Liberty. The legend of these stamps read “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen) der bataafsche / republiek”. [13]In 1802 the emblem was changed into a lion rampant, armed with a sword and a bundle of arrows.On the stamps for use by the councils the emblem of state was surrounded by the legend “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen)”.[14]Nevertheless on a florin for circulation in the colonies there appeared the old symbols of the Company and of the States General: a ship sailing to the sinister and the crowned arms with the lion with sword and arrows.  This time the symbols can be considered as the symbols of the territory and of its ruler. 






 The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:



Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”








 1801: II became Sultan Sulaiman Saidullah Banjar XV until 1825.
 1806: Muhammad Jamalul Alam I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1807.
 1806: August 11, 1806 changed its name from the royal palace Banjar Kencana into Earth Good Earth.
 1807: Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei Kanzul until the year 1829.
 1808: Sharif Kasim became the Sultan of Pontianak Alkadrie II until 1819.
 1809: Dutch Banjarmasin release of its colonies. [38]
 1810: British occupy Banjarmasin. [39]
 1810: Sultan Alimuddin became the first sultan Sambaliung Sultanate, the Sultanate of Berau fractions are divided by two.
 1811: Sultan Ibrahim became Sultan of Sand Alamsyah until 1815.
 1812: Alexander Hare became resident-commissioner for the British government in Yogyakarta. [40]
 1814: Queen Imanuddin move the administrative center of Kotawaringin Old Kingdom Kotawaringin to Pangkalan Bun.
 1814: Muhammad Ali Syafeiuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until the year 1828.
 1815: Sultan Mahmud became the Sultan Han Alamsyah Sand until 1843.
 1816: Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin be Kutai XVI until the year 1845.
[Edit] Age of Dutch East Indies
 1817: On January 1, British Borneo Banjarmasin and handed back to the Dutch, then on the day it was made Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman I of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented Boekholzt Resident Aernout van.
 1817: King Tidung Amiril Tadjoeddin served until 1844. In Kotawaringin, Prince Queen Imanuddin ruled until 1855 [41]
 1819: Sharif Osman Sultan of Pontianak III Alkadrie be until the year 1855. He was appointed to lead the Dutch East Indies government Afdeeling Pontianak.
 1820: Zainul Abidin bin Badruddin II (1820-1834) became Sultan Mountain Sow I, the fraction of the Sultanate of Berau. Prince Sultan Sulaiman-law of Moses Banjar Kusan II became King until the year 1830.
 1823: Mr. Muller Dutch East Indies government employees surveyed northwest Borneo. [42])
 1823: 13 September 1823: Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman II of the Dutch East Indies represented Banjar with Mr. Resident. Tobias.
 1825: Adam Alwasikh Billah became Sultan of Banjar XVI until 1857. In Brunei, Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei until 1828.
 1825: In July 1825, Prince Aji Jawi, King of the Land Seasonings establish a contract with the Dutch East Indies.
 1826: After the conquest attack Banjar palace in Yogyakarta in 1826, the Dutch East Indies had been made a rule which areas are still controlled by the Sultanate of Banjar and determine the division of the territories.

Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800

Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century, they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.

Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.


Raid on Batavia (1806)

Raid on Batavia
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Maria Riggersbergen 2.jpg
A painting by Thomas Whitcombe depicting Batavia harbour in 1806.
Date 27 November 1806
Location Batavia, Java, Dutch East Indies
Result British victory
United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of Holland
Commanders and leaders
Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Rear-Admiral Hartsink
Four ships of the line, two frigates and a brig Frigate Phoenix, eight small warships and support from gun batteries on shore
Casualties and losses
One killed, four wounded Casualties unknown, Phoenix, seven small warships and 20 merchant ships destroyed. One brig and two merchant ships captured.

The Raid on Batavia of 27 November 1806 was an attempt by a large British naval force to destroy the Dutch squadron based on Java in the Dutch East Indies that posed a threat to British shipping in the Straits of Malacca. The British admiral in command of the eastern Indian Ocean, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, led a force of four ships of the line, two frigates and brig to the capital of Java at Batavia (later renamed Djakarta), in search of the squadron, which was reported to consist of a number of Dutch ships of the line and several smaller vessels. However the largest Dutch ships had already sailed eastwards towards Griessie over a month earlier, and Pellew only discovered the frigate Phoenix and a number of smaller warships in the bay, all of which were driven ashore by their crews rather than engage Pellew’s force. The wrecks were subsequently burnt and Pellew, unaware of the whereabouts of the main Dutch squadron, returned to his base at Madras for the winter.

The raid was the third of series of actions intended to eliminate the threat posed to British trade routes by the Dutch squadron: at the Action of 26 July 1806 and the Action of 18 October 1806, British frigates sent on reconnaissance missions to the region succeeded in attacking and capturing two Dutch frigates and a number of other vessels. The raid reduced the effectiveness of Batavia as a Dutch base, but the continued presence of the main Dutch squadron at Griessie concerned Pellew and he led a second operation the following year to complete his defeat of the Dutch. Three years later, with the French driven out of the western Indian Ocean, British forces in the region were strong enough to prepare an expeditionary force against the Dutch East Indies, which effectively ended the war in the east.



In early 1806, Pellew was relieved by the news that a large French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles Linois had sailed out of the Indian Ocean and into the Atlantic. The departure of Linois after three years of operations in eastern waters freed Pellew’s small squadron based at Madras for operations against the Dutch East Indies. Pellew’s particular target was the island of Java, where the principal Dutch squadron and their base at Batavia were located.[1] The Dutch Kingdom of Holland was a French client state under Emperor Napoleon‘s brother Louis Bonaparte and Batavia had been used by Linois in his preparations for the Battle of Pulo Aura, in which a valuable British convoy came under attack, and its position close to the Straits of Malacca threatened British trade with China.[2]

Pellew’s departure for the East Indies was delayed by the Vellore Mutiny in the spring, and instead he sent frigates to reconnoitre the situation of the Dutch forces in the region. In July, HMS Greyhound under Captain Edward Elphinstone cruised in the Molucca Islands and captured a Dutch convoy at the Action of 26 July 1806 off Celebes.[3] Three months later another frigate, HMS Caroline under Captain Peter Rainier, cruised successfully in the Java Sea and managed to capture a Dutch frigate at the Action of 18 October 1806 from the entrance to Batavia harbour.[4] Shortly before Rainier’s engagement, the principal ships of the Dutch squadron, the two ships of the line Pluto and Revolutie, had sailed westwards towards the port of Griessie, Rear-Admiral Hartsink seeking to divide his forces in preparation for the coming British attack to prevent their complete destruction.[5]

Pellew sailed from Madras in the early autumn of 1806, expecting the full Dutch squadron to be present and preparing accordingly with the ship of the line HMS Culloden under Captain Christopher Cole as his flagship, accompanied by HMS Powerful under Captain Robert Plampin, HMS Russell under Captain Thomas Gordon Caulfield and HMS Belliqueux under Captain George Byng. The ships of the line were accompanied by the frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, Admiral Pellew’s son, as well as the brig HMS Seaflower under Lieutenant William Fitzwilliam Owen.[6]

Pellew’s attack

By 23 November, Pellew’s squadron was approaching the Sunda Strait from the southwest when he encountered the British frigate HMS Sir Francis Drake, which he attached to his force. Three days later, the squadron passed the port of Bantam and seized the Dutch East India Company brig Maria Wilhelmina, continuing on to Batavia during the night.[7] At the approaches to the port, the squadron separated, with the frigates and brig passing between Onrust Island and the shore while the ships of the line took a longer route through deeper water. Although Terpsichore was able to surprise and capture the corvette William near Onrust Island, the main body of the squadron was spotted by Dutch lookouts from a distance, who initially mistook the approaching vessels for a French squadron.[8] The Dutch officers, led by Captain Vander Sande on the frigate Phoenix, decided that resistance against such a large British squadron was useless: the only warships remaining in the harbour were the Phoenix and six small armed ships, none of which could contend with the approaching British force. In an effort to dissuade the British from pressing their attack, the Dutch captains all drove their vessels ashore, joined by the 22 merchant vessels that were anchored in the harbour.[6]

Determined to prevent the Dutch from refloating the grounded ships, Admiral Pellew ordered landing parties to assemble in the boats of his squadron alongside Terpsichore. From there, under distant covering fire from the British frigates, Fleetwood Pellew led the boats against Phoenix, coming under fire from the grounded vessels and gun batteries ashore.[7] Passing through the bombardment from the shoreline, Pellew’s men boarded Phoenix to find that the Dutch crew had just abandoned the vessel, scuttling the frigate as they departed. Although now useless as a ship, Phoenix‘s guns were turned on the other beached vessels to cover the British boats as they spread out to board and burn them. This operation was followed by the destruction of 20 grounded merchant ships in the harbour, although two others were successfully refloated and captured.[9] In a final act before withdrawing to the squadron offshore, Captain Pellew set fire to the wreck of Phoenix, burning the ship to the waterline. The entire operation was conducted under heavy fire from the shore, but British casualties were only one Royal Marine killed and three men wounded.[10]

Without sufficient troops to attempt a landing at Batavia itself, Admiral Pellew withdrew from the harbour. Preparing his prizes for the return to Madras, he ordered all prisoners taken from the captured and burnt ships returned to shore under condition of parole.[11] The captured William was found to be in such a poor state of repair that it was not worth keeping the corvette and Admiral Pellew ordered the ship burnt, noting in his official report that Lieutenant Owen, who as senior lieutenant would otherwise have been placed in command, should be recompensed with another command as reward for his services in the engagement. With his preparations complete, Pellew then ordered his squadron to disperse, Culloden sailing to Malacca.[5]


The British raid on Batavia had destroyed 28 vessels. In addition to Phoenix, William and the merchant ships, Pellew’s squadron had burnt the 18-gun brigs Aventurier and Patriot, the 14-gun Zee-Ploeg, the 10-gun Arnistein, the 8-gun Johanna Suzanna and the 6-gun Snelheid. Just three ships were captured: two merchant vessels and Maria Wilhelmina.[11] The elimination of the smaller vessels of the Dutch squadron was an important victory for Pellew, leaving only the larger ships of the line at large. These ships were old and in poor condition, limiting the threat they posed to British trade routes. Nevertheless, Pellew returned to the Java Sea in 1807 in search of the warships, destroying them at the Raid on Griessie in November, a year after the success at Batavia.[5] A lack of resources in the region and the threat posed by the French Indian Ocean island bases delayed larger scale British operations against the East Indies until 1810, when a series of invasions rapidly eliminated the remaining Dutch presence in the Pacific


Herman Willem Daendels (1762-1818) Herman William Daendels lived in a very complex period of national history. As unknown as he is now so well known and controversial, he was in the late 18th and early 19th century.

He was son of the town clerk of Hattem. He studied law at Harderwijk and established himself as a lawyer in his hometown.
William Herman, a regent from family, was one of the leaders of the Hattemerbroek bourgeoisie, who sought a greater influence on the appointment of citizens of the city.

In 1785 he was recommended for appointment ships placed. Stadtholder William V wished him not to appoint. Daendels now openly joined the Patriots Party.

The Patriots (patriotic) opposed Prince William V, without public participation in the provincial and municipal officials appointed boards.

Uprising in Hattem
In 1786 led the then 23-year-old William Herman Daendels the uprising against William V. Hattem The patriotic citizen companies were supported by patriots from Overijssel. The Prussian troops of the prince, however, drove them to flee occupied and Hattem. Daendels and many other patriots fled to France.
In 1788 the Court sentenced him in absentia of Ontario, with a sword over the head to be punished and to perpetual exile from Ontario;

The Daendelshuis and Daendelspoortje in Hattem recall the famous resident of this city.

He followed with great interest the progress of the French Revolution and took a seat on the Batavian committee, that a revolution in the Northern Netherlands prepared.

When the favorable moment, he seemed to have come in 1792 as a battalion commander of the Batavian Legion in French military service. As such he participated in the conquest of Belgium under Dumouriez. A year after his defeat at Neerwinden, in 1793, followed Daendels’s appointment as brigadier general in the Northern Army under Pichegru (March 1794). In this capacity he took part in the siege include: ‘s-Hertogenbosch and the conquest of the Bommelerwaard.

French Revolution
In December 1794 the armies of Pichegru on the frozen rivers in the Netherlands.

The patriots had formed in France in a Batavian legion, under the command of General Herman Willem Daendels.
The people offered little resistance and Prince William V fled by fishing boat to England. The Patriots took control and called the Batavian Republic.
Daendels played a prominent role in domestic politics in drafting the new constitution.

Coup d’etat
Daendels volgede with scrutiny work to prepare a Constitution for the Batavian Republic. When this did not to his knowledge went, he committed his first coup, January 22, 1798 and continued with his grenadiers all Federalists outside the National Assembly.
On July 12 d.a.v. He grabbed it again and forced illegally elected Executive Directors to resign, which earned him the nickname Second Brutus. In 1798 the Executive Directors appointed him commander of the Batavian Republic of Batavian troops, who would participate in the landing in Ireland, but the expedition was called off.

In the following year he was the head of a Batavian division under the leadership of Chief General Brune, with an impending mandate English-Russian invasion of England to prevent. He could not prevent the successful landing in 1799.

Slander Campaign
Although he is in the further struggle behaved very bravely and enemies to the agreement of Alkmaar were forced to leave the country, was for Daendels’s many adversaries envious and a welcome opportunity to begin a campaign against him. They even accused him of treason. Disappointed took Daendels in 1800 resigned, settled as a farmer in Ontario and kept himself entirely aloof several years of politics.

Kingdom of Holland 1806
After the founding of the Kingdom of Holland, King Louis Napoleon him the country’s service. The appointments and promotions now followed each other in quick succession.

Governor-General of Dutch East Indies (1807 – 1811)
Louis Napoleon in 1807 to Daendels appointed governor-general of Dutch East Indies.

It was a hard task, which Daendels’s shoulders was laid. The remains of the old Company area, Java, Timor, part of the Moluccas and Bandjermasin was the Dutch authorities declined to an alarming manner. Shipment of troops, money and material from the mother country was impossible, since the British ruled the seaways. It was not easy even for Daendels are employed to reach Batavia.

Reorganizations and reforms
His main task was the Dutch colonies against the British. He therefore began a reorganization of the army and filled it with native volunteers. In Weltevreden, a suburb of Batavia, he built a then modern hospital in Surabaya, the capital of Austria, Java, a construction shop, a cadet school in Semarang and Batavia a cannon foundry. The old unhealthy castle at this place he demolished and replaced by a fortified camp at Meester Cornelis. Surabaya became the Fort Louis.
The most popular work of Daendels, the great highway of Carnation to Panaroekan, was primarily a military objective, rapid troop movements. The construction of a military port in the Bay Gulls (Sunda Strait), he had, because of the disastrous climate, obstruction of Bantam, give up.

Administrative and legal Daendels organized in a modern way, and thereby cleared numerous abuses and abuses of time on the Company. However, all these innovations earned him the hatred and opposition of the old party-guests, who many complaints and accusations against him sent to Napoleon.

And there were legitimate complaints. The most serious was the manner in which Daendels enriched themselves. Moreover witnessed his performance against the local rulers of little tact and knowledge of their manners and customs. Shortly after the incorporation of the mother Daendels Napoleon called back and instructed the government on May 16, 1811 the emperor appointed by the General Janssens.

Governor-General of Guinea
After the fall of Napoleon asked Daendels King William I, son of his old adversary William V, a new appointment. Understandably trusted the Orange Frost the former revolutionary not too much, but asked him to lock it in October 1815 as Governor General of Guinea (Ghana), on the Gold Coast in West Africa, a very unhealthy and very little meaning area.

William Herman passed away on May 2, 1818 due to yellow fever and was buried in the fort Elmina


Portrait Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels




Raden Syarif Bustaman Saleh


Oil on canvas


119 x 98 cm


Herman Willem Daendels’s career was very eventful. Political developments in the Netherlands around 1800 were certainly the reason for this. Within a short space of time there were a large number of changes of rulers. Daendels’s career appeared to survive these changes. He was first and foremost a soldier. In 1808 he was appointed Governor General of the Asian colonies. After heavy criticism of his leadership, he was replaced in 1811. He then became an officer in the French army. King William I appointed Daendels Governor General of the Dutch Colonies on the west coast of Africa. There he died of yellow fever in 1818.


Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy








Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy








Half Doeit 1770-special   

Half Doeit 1750   

1 doeit 1792   

1 doeit special design 1793   

1 doeit 1805 Dandaels   


(1) L.N COIN

LN Lodewijk Napoleon 1 doeit  


antique char.L.Napoleon   

1/2 St L.Napoleon  


The energetic Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1808 to 1811, had ordered the construction of Die Groete Postweg, the “great post way,” a highway traversing Java and recalled by this roadside monument. van Holland 


Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Java Great Post Road, commissioned by Daendels.

Louis Bonaparte made Daendels colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) on 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General, Albertus Wiese. His primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved.[citation needed] He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and a new military college in Batavia. He demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara), and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. However, his best-known achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos) across northern Java. The road now serves as the main road in the island of Java, called Jalur Pantura. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.[2]

He displayed a firm attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch. He also subjected the population of Java to forced labour (Rodi). There were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java.

There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the local bureaucracy and reduced corruption, although he certainly enriched himself during this period.[citation needed]

 General in Napoleon’s Grande Armée

When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810, Daendels returned to Holland. He was appointed a Divisional General (Major General) and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

 Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast

After the fall of Napoleon, king Willem I and the new Dutch government feared that Daendels could become an influential and powerful opposition leader and effectively banned him from the Netherlands by appointing him Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast (now part of Ghana). In the aftermath of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, Daendels tried to redevelop the rather dilapidated Dutch possessions as an African plantation colony driven by legitimate trade. Drawing on his experience from the East Indies, he came up with some very ambitious infrastructural projects, including a comprehensive road system, with a main road connecting Elmina and Kumasi in Ashanti. The Dutch government gave him a free hand and a substantial budget to implement his plans. At the same time, however, Daendels regarded his governorship as an opportunity to establish a private business monopoly in the Dutch Gold Coast.

Eventually none of the plans came to fruition, as Daendels died of malaria in the castle of St. George d’Elmina, the Dutch seat of government, on 8 May 1818. His body was interred in the central tomb at the Dutch cemetery in Elmina town. He had been in the country less than two years.


dit verhaal

        hebben we het al eens over het stormachtige leven van Daendels gehad :
        Waar uit die buurt (Hattem) ook


        vandaan kwam, de Nederlandse bevelhebber van het latere Bataafse Legioen, toen

Under French domination during the Napoleonic years in Europe, the Dutch authorities appointed Marshal H. W. Daendels as Governor-General in 1808. He sought both to reform the corrupt administrative practices that had brought down the VOC and to prepare for the defence of Java against an expected British attack. Amongst his measures was to construct a post-road the full length of the island of Java, from Anyer to Panarukan, to improve communications and the movement of troops. Constructed mainly with forced labour working to a tight timetable, the road earned Daendels a reputation for dictatorial cruelty,

Daendels’ postroad on Java

The Great Post Road is the road stretched from west to east at northern part of Java from Anyer to Panarukan along 1,000km. Initaded by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels, this road is passing through Serang, Tangerang, Jakarta, Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, Cirebon, Brebes, Tegal Pemalang, Pekalongan, Kendal, Semarang, Demak, Kudus, Rembang, Tuban, Gresik, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Probolinggo dan Situbondo.

Daendels was a marshal appointed as governor general of East Indies by Lodewijk Napoleon who ruling Holland at that time. The ultimate aim was handling military preparation in anticipating British Navy attack that had blockaded Java Island. Daendels landed in Anyer in 1808 after routing a long trip from Cadiz in southern Spain, Canary Islands and then departing from New York using American vessel.

Daendels’s most important military project in defending Java from British attack was constructing a highway connecting west and east corner of this island. The road was built by means of obliging indigenous rulers to mobilize people along the route to work it by force. This road had sacrificed thousands life in nearly a year of its building process. Later, the road was renowned as the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) since Daendels also set off post and telegraph services at the moment of the making.

1809Since its operation in 1809, the road formerly intended for military purpose had become a main transportaion infrastructure in Java Island. This highway had witnessed traffice of commodities coveyed over it since colonial era till now. The road has play important role as one of crucial veins of Indonesian economy today.


Here’s the page of full document as shown on this stamp issue. This document is about appointment of Raksa Manggala as a Head of Bengawan Wetan, Cirebon region by Governor General Daendels. The aim of this appointment is to succeed the development of The Great Post Road.

The document’s date is 18 April 1809.
The Document 



 an extremely rare 1809 handwritten Ambon bank note  

info source: Rob Huisman

 an extremely rare handwritten VOC bank note of 100 rijksdaalders dating from 1809 and issued in Ambon. “This piece of paper is literally of great value. After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade, resulting in a severe deficiency in coins and coin materials. The Dutch authorities therefore resorted to issuing paper money. In 1808 Governor General H.W. Daendels decided that an additional three hundred thousand guilders needed to be printed in Ambon. These notes varied in value from 1 to 1,000 silver rijksdaalders. They were widely used in the Moluccas, but could also be exchanged for real money in Batavia. It is conspicuous that this piece of paper mentions the Dutch East India Company, even though the VOC had been nationalized in 1799. The most notable detail however is that only the one hundred rijksdaaldersnote exists as a written currency; the remainder of the issue was printed. An extremely rare piece of paper, which is mentioned in the paper currency catalogue of Mevius, but of which no image has been printed as yet.”  

a high resolution scan, which  a great privilege to be able to see this note in great detail and share it through this website. This note has never been published in the past



and in 1811

he was dismissed. Three months later, British forces occupied Java.

British troops landed near Batavia in August 1811 and the Dutch forces surrendered to them at Salatiga six weeks later. Thomas Stamford Raffles took over as Lieutenant Governor and began a vigorous programme of reform in the hopes of convincing the British government to retain Java permanently as a colony (as it was to do with the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon). Raffles’ authority was quickly challenged by the sultan of Yogyakarta, but in 1812 British forces attacked, plundered the court of Yogyakarta and sent the sultan into exile, replacing him with his pliable son. To keep the court weak, Raffles also created a new principality within it, the Pakualaman, with a lesser status similar to that of the Mangkunegaran within Surakarta.


The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition. On 23 May 1811 a party from HMS Sir Francis Drake attacked a flotilla of 14 Dutch gunvessels off Surabaya, capturing nine of them.[2] Marrack, in north-western Java, was attacked and the fort defending the town largely demolished by a party from HMS Minden and HMS Leda on 30 July, while that same day a fleet of six Dutch gunboats flying French colours was attacked by HMS Procris, capturing five and destroying the sixth.[3][4]

Java Expedition

The British force was assembled at bases in India in early 1811, initially overseen by Vice-Admiral William O’Bryen Drury, and then after his death in March, by Commodore William Robert Broughton.[5] The first division of troops, under the command of Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Christopher Cole aboard the 36-gun HMS Caroline. They arrived at Penang on 18 May, and were joined on 21 May by the second division, led by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, which had left Calcutta on 21 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, aboard the 38-gun HMS Phaeton.[5] The two squadrons sailed together, arriving at Malacca on 1 June, where they made contact with a division of troops from Bengal under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, and Commodore Broughton aboard the 74-gun HMS Illustrious. Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition.[5] With the force now assembled Auchmuty had roughly 11,960 men under his command, the previous strength having been reduced by approximately 1,200 by sickness. Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards. After calling at various points enroute, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June.[2]

There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the strength of the Dutch. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who had been dispatched to reconnoitre the coast, suggested a landing site at Cilincing, an undefended fishing village 12 miles east of Batavia.[6] The fleet anchored off the Marandi River on 4 August, and began landing troops at 14:00.[4] The defenders were taken by surprise, and nearly six hours passed before Franco-Dutch troops arrived to oppose the landing, by which time 8,000 British troops had been landed.[4][7] A brief skirmish took place between the advance guards, and the Franco-Dutch forces were repulsed.[7]

Fall of Batavia

On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8,000 and 10,090 men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis.[7] The British advanced on Batavia, reaching it on 8 August and finding it undefended. The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property.[7][8] The British were disappointed to find that part of the town had been set on fire, and many warehouses full of goods such as coffee and sugar had been looted or flooded, depriving them of prize money.[9] On 9 August 1811 Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford arrived and superseded Commodore Broughton, who was judged to be too cautious.[9][10] Stopford had orders to supersede Rear-Admiral Albemarle Bertie as commander in chief at the Cape, but on his arrival he learnt of Vice-Admiral Drury’s death, and the planned expedition to Java, and so travelled on.[8]

 British advances

General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing.[9] The British now advanced on Janssens’s stronghold, reducing enemy positions as they went. The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed 100 while the defenders lost over 300.[11] In one skirmish, one of Janssens’s French subordinates, General Alberti, was killed when he mistook some British troops in green uniforms for Dutch troops. Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some 600 yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.[10]

Siege of Fort Cornelis

Diagram of Fort Cornelis, Batavia.

Fort Cornelis measured 1 mile (1,600 m) in length by between 600 yards (550 m) and 800 yards (730 m) in breadth. Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes. The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis. On 14 August the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort. For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.[12]

A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot.[11] The two sides then exchanged heavy fire, faltering on 23 August, but resuming on 24 August.[8][13] The Franco-Dutch position worsened when a deserter helped General Rollo Gillespie to capture two of the redoubts by surprise. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt. The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt’s magazine.[14]

The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens’s East Indian troops. Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight.[8][13] The siege cost the British 630 casualties. The defenders’ casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and 230 captured, including two French generals.[14] Nearly 5,000 men were captured, including three general officers, 34 field officers, 70 captains and 150 subaltern officers.[13] 1,000 men were found dead in the fort, with more being killed in the subsequent pursuit.[13] Janssens escaped to Buitenzorg with a few survivors from his army, but was forced to abandon the town when the British approached.[13]

Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of 156 killed, 788 wounded and 16 missing by 27 August.[13]

 Later actions

Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity. On 4 September two French 40-gun frigates, the Méduse and the Nymphe attempted to escape from Surabaya. They were pursued by the 36-gun HMS Bucephalus and the 18-gun HMS Barracouta, until Barracouta lost contact.[15][16] Bucephalus pursued them alone until 12 September, when the French frigates came about and attempted to overhaul her. Bucephalus‘s commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.[17][18]

On 31 August a force from the frigates HMS Hussar, HMS Phaeton and HMS Sir Francis Drake, and the sloop HMS Dasher captured the fort and town of Sumenep, on Madura Island in the face of a large Dutch defending force.[18] The rest of Madura and several surrounding islands placed themselves under the British soon afterwards.[19] Suspecting Janssen to be in Cirebon, a force was landed there from HMS Lion, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper on 4 September, causing the defenders to promptly surrender. General Jamelle, a member of Janssens’s staff, was captured in the fall of the town.[18][19] The town and fort of Taggal surrendered on 12 September after HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe arrived offshore.[20]

While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1,200 mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia. On 16 September Salatiga fell to the British.[20] Janssen attacked a British force under Colonel Samuel Gibbs that day, but was repulsed. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rout.[21] With his effective force reduced to a handful of men, Janssens surrendered two days later, on 18 September.[18][20]


The Dutch-held islands of Amboyna, Harouka, Saparua, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Manado, Copang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate had surrendered to a force led by Captain Edward Tucker in 1810, while Captain Christopher Cole captured the Banda Islands, completing the conquest of Dutch possessions in the Maluku Islands.[22] Java became the last major colonial possession in the East not under British control, and its fall marked the effective end of the war in these waters.[22][18] Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java.[23][24] He ended Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade. Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.

 British order of battle

Stopford’s fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast:[10]

Rear-Admiral Stopford’s fleet
Ship Rate Guns Navy Commander Notes
HMS Scipion Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Rear-Admiral Hon. Robert Stopford
Captain James Johnson
HMS Illustrious Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Commodore William Robert Broughton
Captain Robert Festing
HMS Minden Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Edward Wallis Hoare  
HMS Lion Third rate 64 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Heathcote  
HMS Akbar Fifth rate 44 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Drury  
HMS Nisus Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Philip Beaver  
HMS President Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Samuel Warren  
HMS Hussar Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain James Coutts Crawford  
HMS Phaeton Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Fleetwood Pellew  
HMS Leda Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain George Sayer  
HMS Caroline Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Christopher Cole  
HMS Modeste Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Hon. George Elliot  
HMS Phoebe Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain James Hillyar  
HMS Bucephalus Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Charles Pelly  
HMS Doris Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain William Jones Lye  
HMS Cornelia Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Folkes Edgell  
HMS Psyche Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain John Edgcumbe  
HMS Sir Francis Drake Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain George Harris  
HMS Procris Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Robert Maunsell  
HMS Barracouta Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen  
HMS Hesper Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Barrington Reynolds  
HMS Harpy Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henderson Bain  
HMS Hecate Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry John Peachey  
HMS Dasher Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Benedictus Marwood Kelly  
HMS Samarang Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Joseph Drury  
The British Army troops attached to the force included 12,000 soldiers from the 22nd Light Dragoons; 14th Foot; 59th Foot; 69th Foot; 78th Foot; 89th Foot; 102nd Foot. There were also contingents of the Royal Marines, and several regiments of Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Native Infantry, with half of the overall troop strength consisting of Indian troops of the East India Company. General Samuel Auchmuty was the overall commander, but he delegated the field command to Major General Rollo Gillespie.[9]

In addition to the official navy forces, the East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by the Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. These were the Ariel; Aurora; Mornington; Nautilus; Psyche; Thetis; Vestal. With the transport vessels, and several gunboats captured as the campaign progressed, Stopford commanded nearly a hundred ships.[10]




 After the annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France in 1811 the imperial symbol appeared in the East Indian Archipelago.


Seal of the Governor General of the Dutch Indies dd. 20 II – 18 IX 1811.

French Imperial Eagle. L.: gouverneur generaal van indien.

This seal was only used for a very short time and prints are very rare [16]


From 1811 until 1813 the seal of the combined ministries showed the coat of arms of Napoleon Bonaparte.




 In the time of British rule in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies the Royal British achievement should have been used. No examples of this achievement from Dutch East Indian soil are known however.
 The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:



Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”



1815 -1940/’49

 After the defeat of Napoleon the Sovereign Principalityof the Netherlands prepared the restoration of Dutch rule in the Indies. This meant also the restoration of the old symbols of sovereignty. By royal resolution of 8 November 1815 nr. 39 the introduction of new currency was provided for. The design for a 1 guilder-piece shows the Dutch Virgin on the obverse and the crowned ancient arms of the States General and the Executive on the reverse. From this guilder only one minted coin is known.


Nederlandsch Oost-Indië, 1 gulden, 1815 Æ 31 mm.

At the date of the Royal Resolution the coat of arms of the Sovereign Principality of 14 January 1814 was already substituted by Royal Resolution of 24 August 1815. The new coat of arms, amended in 1816, was used in the Colonies throughout the nineteenth century and was changed again in 1907. [17])

A picture of this coat of arms was in the Audience Hall above the seat of the Governor General in Batavia.

The seal for the Dutch Indies showed this coat of arms with the legend DEPARTEMENT VAN KOLONIËN (until 1848) and MINISTERIE VAN KOLONIËN until 1945.

   The Dutch East Indies never had a coat of arms of its own. The coat of arms of Batavia was often considered as such and it is said that Governor General Van Heutz (1904-‘09) was a strong advocate of the idea. A proposal for a coat of arms was made in 1933 by Dirk Rühl on the frontispeice of his “Nederlandsch Indische Gemeentewapens”. His design shows a parted per pale of the Netherlands and Batavia.However, no specific coat of arms for the Dutch East Indies was ever adopted. 


 The commercial successor of the V.O.C. was the Nederlandse Handelmaatschappij (NHM), founded in 1824  (after the Anglo-Dutch treaty). In 1964 this company merged with the Twentsche Bank and changed its name in Nederlandsche Middenstands Bank. In 1990 the NMB merged with the Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank into the ABN AMRO Bank. This bank was split up in 2007. (Fortis, Bank of Scotland en Banco Santander).
 The emblems of the Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij were deposed in 1866. They consisted of a larger emblem, a medial emblem and a cypher. [18]



The larger emblem consists of disc charged with a winged anchor between the date 1824, surrounded by the title nederlandsche handel maatschappy. As a crest a three-masted sailing ship and as supporters two lions couchant. Below the central emblem is the cypher NHM. The achievement is surrounded by waves of the sea and decorated with several floral motives.




Daendels Palace (1809)

Weltevreden/Jakarta, Indonesia

Construction of this architectural gem was commissioned by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels. As a governor general, Daendels stimulated the move southwards of Batavia; the densely populated walled city was unhealthy and many inhabitants suffered from malaria and cholera. The area of Weltevreden, several kilometres south of Batavia, originally a country estate, was developed and would turn into a highly fashionable area. Halfway Batavia and Weltevreden, the new accommodation for the club Harmonie was constructed.

In Weltevreden, on the Paradeplaats, a new Government House was erected; since Daendels did not wish to inhabit the old country estate (known as the Van der Parra estate), officially assigned to the governors general. The Government House is a building constructed in the period 1809-1827 in Batavia, ‘capital’ of the Dutch colony in the East-Indies. Construction was ordered by governor general H.W. Daendels (1808-1811) and completed by governor general L.P.J. du Bus de Ghisignies (1826-1830).

The building has been preserved and is located on present Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Pusat, which was known in the nineteenth century as Paradeplaats and since 1828 as Waterlooplein. Modelled in the Empire style, the proportionate Witte Huis (White House) measures 160 meters lengthwise. The pillars on the first story are Doric, whereas those on the second level are Ionic in style. In the past, the building hosted many state functions and even served as a post office, a printing office and a high court. Today, it houses the Indonesian Ministry of Finance.

[IMG][/IMG]The Supreme Court (left) and the Daendels Palace at the Waterloo Square. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, compl. by J. Tromp, 1809)

Daendels Palace.

Picture by De Rooij Fotografie


to the Memory of
Wife of
Lieutenant Governor 
And its Dependancies
Who departed this life
The 26th day of November 1814

 Raffles went on from Java to found Singapore. Any tiredness I had felt before had instantaneously disappeared. Here it was, right before my eyes, a fragment of our colonial past.

 the tomb with renewed vigour, snapping away as we circled the majestic final resting place of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Thoughts filled up our mind. What if Olivia Raffles did not fall victim to her illness during her stay in Java? What if she had followed Raffles to Singapore? What changes would she have implemented as the First Lady of the founder of Singapore?


British possessions in Indonesia, 1810-1817

Javanese territories ceded to the colonial governments of Daendels and Raffles, 1808-1812

Both Daendels and Raffles radically restructured the administration of the island, reducing the power of the bupati, changing the taxation system and turning the village into the basic administrative unit. Raffles in particular emphasized that ‘native welfare’ should be an aim of the colonial government, and he introduced a form of land tax, called land rent, in an effort to develop a money economy on the island.

EIC Indies lead coin 1814

Raffles’ rule, however, was only brief. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain’s policy was to strengthen the Netherlands as a European counterweight to France, and


1811/ 1813 Raden Demang Anggadipa (1807-1811/1813) dicopot dari kedudukannya oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda karena menolak penanaman paksa nila sebagai pengganti beras. Beliau keberatan dengan kebijakan Belanda itu karena akan mengakibatkan rakyat kelaparan. Akibat pembangkangan itu, Kadipaten Sukapura sementara waktu dihapuskan dan diserahkan pemerintahannya pada Limbangan di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wangsareja (1805-1811).

in 1816

 restored Java to Dutch rule; the outer territories were restored in 1817.

Bencoolen has become well -known fort the fact that sin Thomas stamford Raffles was the last lieutenant governor from 1818-1824 when the settlements reverted to the dutch. it was from bengkulu, in 1819, that laffles, despite disapproval of the company in london and madras, sailed off to establish a british settlemen in the singapure. the historical and strategic importance and 20 th centries would hard to assess
Following the example of the dutch it was considered necessary to provide military protection for the settlement, and small fortification was built on a narrow spit of land between the sea and the Bengkulu river (now sungai serut). The original fortification named York for was manned by two companies of infantry soldiers and artisans who had been redruited in london. The site proved to be very unhealthy owing to the close proximity of the  river and mangrove swamps. There were many deaths in the early day among the soldiers sen to garrison the fort as well as the civil servants living there.


 It was Vastly different to the fort that can be seen today, being just a  rectangle of building wit a roof capable of supporting the artillery pieces required to defend the fort. house of the Deputy Govendor was contructed and the diagram on the original plan.
 In 1719,
shortly after completion, the fort was abandoned by the Deputy Govendor and the whole garrison in the face of the major di sagreement with the local rules. It was feared that anttack migh be made on the settlemen. It was not until 1723 that the Ease India company despatched a new Deputy Govendor and staff to reestablish the settlement.Following the return of the traders the military garrison, consisting of two companies of infantry and an artillery detachmen, was established. Repairs  were made to the fort and the depences strengthened. The local people who had been seriously affeced by the sudden departure of the settlers were once again contracted to suply pepper to the company. One of the major problems facing the military garrison was the distance between them and their ‘master’. Requests for stores, gunpowder and such like had to be submitted to the court of Directort in London. These would be despatched by the firt available sailing vessel returning to london, a journey which coul take as long as eigh months : 12-16 months for the ron journey. it is not the garris stores were at acrical level, and it is recorded that some times it became necessary for vital.Stores, such as gunpowder,  to be requesisioned from traiding vessels calling at Bencoolen.
The garrison at this time was supplied wit sepoy troops from the madras presidency in India, although frequent use was made of the buginese troops from the celebes Islan. The begal sepoys continued to serve at Bencoolen and the other west coast settlemen, until all of the british trading posts along the west coast of sumatra were handed over to the Dutch Argeement of 1824. the actual handover took place earlt in 1825. Raffles arrived in Bencoolen in 1818 and immediately applied his enligh ened style of government which he had demontrated to great effec during his time as lieutenent Govenor of java from 1811-1816. Towards the end of the Napoleoonic wars, java had been captured from the french in a short, sharp campaign bastion at cornelis, now covered by Manggrai, within present day jakarta. With greatly improved relation with the local rules, Raffles was able to begin the run down og the Bencoolen settlement and to reduce the high cost of maitaining a large garrison force. He was also able to place Fort Marlborough on a lower states of readiness, perceiving that there was little or no thereat from any other Euoropean nation. Following the handover of the settlemen to the Dutch in 1825, records show that the for continued to be manned by Dutch colonial troops, although it was never enlarged or upgraded with the exception of the intruduction, during the mid-19 th century, of four breech loading guns mounted on each of the four bastions.The dutch continued to occupy Fort Marlborough until the scond word war and after the fall of sumatra it was then occupied by the japanese army. Following the surrender of the japanese in 1945 the fort was again briefly occupied by the dutch. After independence For Marlboroug was used by the indonesian army and police force until it was abandonednin the late 1970’s. The fort remains in its present state following a sympathetic restorasion programme which was carrid out in the late out 1980’s.
 _____________________________________________THE HISTORY
AND FIRST FLEET INTO BENCOOLENPhotobucket~Establishment~

The East India Company (EIC) was the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with the East Indies. Therefore, EIC formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India.The first trading post, known as a station or factory, was set up at Surat on the Indian’s West Coast (Bombay Presidency) around 1612 and the second at Fort St. George (Madras Presidency) 1640.

British East Indiamen

~First Fleet of East Indiamen on Bencoolen~

The East Indiamen were ships operating under charter or license to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. They were designed to carry both passengers and goods and to defend themselves against piracy, and so constituted a special class of ship.The first British East Indiamen anchored in Bencoolen in 1685, lead by Ralph Ord and William Cowley. Under the command of Captain J. Andrew, there were The Caesar, The Resolution, and The Defense. The EIC’s influence spread with Fort York (1685–1719) and continued in Fort Marlborough (1719–1824), both established in Bencoolen, West Coast of Sumatra.Other factories were established in the Prince of Wales Island (Penang), Singapore, Malacca, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Siam (Thailand), Persia (Iran) and the Persian Gulf, Macao and Whampoa (China), and St. Helena.


The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the “Great Mutiny” (also known as First War of Indian Independence), brought the consequence that the British government nationalized the EIC indirectly. After this rebellion, the EIC lost all its administrative powers and dissolved on 1st of January 1874.

_____________________________________________THE SOLDIER OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

EIC was indirectly subject to the British government and it ruled India through the three presidencies of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, each of which maintained forces for internal and external defense.The backbone of the EIC military system was the Indian regular soldier or sepoy (from the Persian sipahi) and for infantry private (a cavalry trooper was a Sowar). They served under mainly British officers and mainly Indian NCOs

The painting above depicts a soldier of the European Company of the West Coast of Sumatra garrison, on duty at Fort Anne, Moco Moco, circa 1764.
Courtesy: Alan Harfie, “A History on the Honourable East India Company’s,
Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825”Photobucket
Native Troops, East India Companys Service, A Sergeant and a Private Grenadier Sepoy of the Bengal Army, from Costumes of the Army of the British Empire, according to the last regulations 1812, published by Colnaghi and Co. 1812-15, Charles Hamilton Smith.

British officers, trained at the EIC’s ‘military seminary’ at Addiscombe, held their commissions from the EIC’s court of directors and enjoyed the right of command over British troops.



Me and John Verbeek observed the remnants of Fort York
The thick bushes in right side is ruin of the ramparts

Remnants of Fort York

Left End: Location of Fort York
Edge of Serut River Estuary

Fort York was established in small hill close the estuary of Serut River based on the agreement of 12th of July 1685 that The British EIC was permitted to build a settlement in the area close to the estuary, and built a fort to cover their village regarding the spice trading.The agreement was prepared by EIC representative in Fort St. George in Madras, signed by Deputy Governor Ralph Ord and Young Prince from Sungai Lemau.

Gravestone of Richard Watts Esquire (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“Richard Watts Esq.
Sometime of Council for the
Right Honourable Company Affairs
In the Fort St. George
And in the year 1699 came
over Deputy Governor of this place
And in … years after
Made by … from
The Company the First President of this Coast
In this Station he departed
This life December 17th 1705 and
In the 44th years of his age”.Photobucket
Gravestone of George Shaw (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“George Shaw
Son of
Mr. Thomas Shaw
Of London Merchant;
After he had served the Right Honourable Company
as Factor in Fort St.
George for some time;
Came over in the year 1699
served of this place
In this Station he continued
Until has removed by the death, April 25th 1704
Atatis 28”Explanation:
“Atatis 36”, it stands for “anno aetatis suae 28”,
that means “”in the year of his age 28 years”_____________________________________________

March 1825 – March 1942
Fort Marlborough was occupied by the DutchPhotobucket
The Dokar in front of Fort Marlborough – Bencoolen 1900
Source: KITLVPhotobucket
A trio of European women dressed in sarong,
with the background of Fort Marlborough Bencoolen – 1920
Source: TropenmuseumMarch 1942 – August 1945
Fort Marlborough was captured by Imperial Japanese Army. The Prison chamber was purposed for Japanese internment camp.

Compass and Message that scratched on the wall by Japanese Prisoner of War 1942-45
the fomaus the bengkulu Flower, Rafflesia anorldi wich Rafflesia nemed wideh his great friend, botanish Dr, Joseph Arnold.


Bencoolen (Bengkulu)

Raffles in 1817

Raffles arrived in Bencoolen (Bengkulu) on 19 March 1818. Despite the prestige connected with the title, Bencoolen was a colonial backwater whose only real export was pepper and only the murder of a previous Resident, Thomas Parr, gained it any attention back home in Britain. Raffles found the place wrecked, and set about reforms immediately, mostly similar to what he had done in Java – abolishing slavery and limiting cockfighting and such games. To replace the slaves, he used a contingent of convicts, already sent to him from India. It is at this point when he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia. However, the strategic importance of poorly-maintained but well-positioned British possessions such as Penang or Bencoolen made it impossible for the British to abandon such unprofitable colonies in such close proximity to the Dutch in Java. The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Raffles looked into alternatives in the area – namely Bangka, which had been ceded to the Dutch after its conquest by the British during its occupation of Java.

Bintan was also under consideration. Despite the fact that Warren Hastings overlooked the island before settling upon Penang in 1786, the Riau Archipelago was an attractive choice just to the south of the Malay Peninsula, for its proximity to Malacca. In his correspondences with Calcutta, Raffles also emphasized the need to establish a certain amount of influence with the native chiefs, which had greatly waned since the return of the Dutch. Raffles sent Thomas Travers as an ambassador to the Dutch, to possibly negotiate an expansion of British economic interests. When this failed, and when Raffles’ own expeditions into his new dominion found only treacherous terrain and few exportable goods, his desire to establish a better British presence was cemented.

However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang. The Convention of 1814 only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang. Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau. Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.


werd van Nederlands-Indië en zijn laatste jaren doorbracht als


malay bencoolen sumatra

Gouverneur van Elmina

        , waar hij in 1818 overleed en werd begraven.
        Daendels ging naar Elmina met het idee van Elmina e.o. iets te maken als Nederlands-Indië, maar al zijn brieven met plannen werden door het moederland niet beantwoord, men was blij van Daendels verlost te zijn.

Op 3 Meij 1818 werd den Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels ten 4 uur des namiddags in de Tombe gezet, doende het Hoofdkasteel van Elmina bij die gelegenheid 15 schoten

        Tot in 1844 zijn er processen gevoerd over de nalatenschap van Daendels…
        In 1962 is toch nog in Elmina een gedenkplaat voor Mr. Herman Willem Daendels aangebracht.


Herman Willem Daendels (1762 – 1818)

Kwam als Brigade-Generaal van het Bataafsche Legioen
samen met een Frans leger o.l.v. Pichegru in de winter van 1795 naar Nederland
waar alle rivieren tot hun geluk bevroren waren…. 

daendels palace 1878

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

Daendels ging in Indië de geschiedenis in als De Donderende Groote Heer
onder zijn leiding werd onder dwang de Grote Postweg dwars door Java aangelegd

terug in Europa trok hij met Napoleon op naar Moskou en overleefde het ternauwernood
Daendels ging ook de geschiedenis in als de man die grote delen van de Benedenstad liet afbreken en een nieuwe Bovenstad begon, met o.m. de bouw van het bovenstaande paleis, wat later echter geen paleis werd, maar dat is weer een ander verhaal, komen we zoo nog even op terug. Het gebied waar Daendels begon met de Bovenstad was al van een zeer aantrekkelijke naam voorzien :

Op de plattegrond uit 1897 is nog heel goed de scheiding tussen de Benedenstad en de Bovenstad te zien, de Benedenstad was oorspronkelijk natuurlijk ommuurd en bezat een versterkt kasteel, de Bovenstad kon veel ruimer worden opgezet.

Paleis Rijswijk

        Volgens andere bronnen was het latere

Paleis Rijswijk

        ooit de residentie van J.A. van Braam, die het eind 18e eeuw liet bouwen. De achtertuin grensde, daar is iedereen het over eens, tot aan het latere Koningsplein. In het stuk grond van Paleis Rijswijk, grenzend aan het Koningsplein, zou later

Paleis Koningsplein

        worden gebouwd.
          In 1820,
           na de dood van Van Braam, kocht het Gouvernement het huis en werd het ingericht als officiële residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië (1820 – 1879), waarbij dus werd afgeweken van het plan van Daendels, waarschijnlijk omdat het Paleis van Daendels nog lang niet klaar was.
WAR Nov 24, ’09 5:51 AM
for everyone

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius in 1850

[3rd of December 1787  – 1st of May 1876]

Lithograph in format of 32×24.5cm

Source: KITLV

Engineer of Battlefield Fortification Strategy in 1827-30

in sequence capturing Diponegoro





If Frans David Cochius was still alive today, he must be 222 years old in December 2009. Who is he? I’ll bring his short biography and compartment in sequence of capturing Diponegoro in Java War.  

Java War 1825-30 was the badly war in the history of colonization in Netherlands Indies. For the first time the colonial government faced a massive social rebellion covering large part of Java: 2 million Javanese people were exposed to the ravages of war, 200 thousands Javanese were died. On the other hand, Dutch suffered 8 thousands European troops and 7 thousands of Indonesian troops who fought for Dutch were perished. The war consequence was rising cost about 20 million guilders! The war that perished everything both Javanese and Dutch side. 

The Java War was started in a rebellion led by Pangeran Diponegoro for the reason of Dutch political intervention in the Court of Mataram (general reason), and Dutch decision to build a road across a piece of his ancestral property (personal reason). 

F.D. Cochius was an expertise in fortification. He designed the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy [Benteng Stelsel]. The fort was built in high terrain, a square building made by coconut tree height about 7-8 feet.The cannons were applied in the one of diagonal corner of the fort. Each corner has two cannons.


In the throne of Governor General Du Bus de Gissignies,


 the government of Dutch Indies failed to extinguish the rebellion of Diponegoro. In several party the Diponegoro army defeated the Dutch Indies army, such as campaign for capturing Kejiwan [August 1826], campaign of Delanggu [August 1826], and campaign of Gawok [October 1826]. Military operation did not reach the objective. General H.M. de Kock ordered to Colonel F.D. Cochius for planning the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy.  

This prototype was implied in battlefield fortification strategy in area Bagelen, Banjoemas, Gowong, Ledok, Kedhu, and Jogjakarta. It could be the simple fort for defense in Java War for the reason for limitation the movement of Diponegoro. It was the temporary battlefield fortification: a simple building for military defense, efficient in raw material for the building, and the materials are available in Java.


The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[7]



The strategy of Battlefield Fortification was implied since May 1827. The Battlefield Fortification means that fort was not only have a passive role in the military defense, but it’s emphasized that the fort has active and important role as quarter for offensive operation, military command and control and logistic purposes. Broadly speaking, fort was attempted as warfare and military strategic. In period of May – December 1827 General H.M. de Kock established about 30 forts surrounding Central Java.




F.D. Cochius was born 3rd of December 1787 in Valburg.

His parents are Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius and Anna Dibbets.

He died in Huize Vredenoord near Rijswijk, Netherlands on 1st of May 1876.

July 1811:

Captain in the French Army 

December 1814:

Captain in Netherlands Army

May 1822:

Awarded “Ridder IIIe klasse of Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde” [MWO], the 3rd Class Knight in Military Order of William in his service as engineer attached to Headquarters during the Waterloo Campaign.

September 1825:

Lieutenant-Colonel F.D. assaulted the Jogjakarta. He was the Commander of Garrison of Soerakarta with 2 companies of infantry [Hulptropen from Soemenap and Legion of Mangkoenegaran], 1 platoon of cavalery [Huzar], and 12 Light Infantry [Dragonder]. 

October 1825:

He designed the prototype of temporary battlefield fortification in Kalidjengking. His designed would be adopted in to Fortification Strategy in following Java War 1826 – 30. 

June 1826:

Capturing Pleret, a fort of Diponegoro in Southern of Jogjakarta with more than 7.000 Dutch soldiers.

July 1826:

He lead the movement to Dekso, a new headquarter of Diponegoro after Pleret conquered by Dutch Army.


Commander in Military Operation District of Jogjakarta

April 1828:

Battle of Bedoyo, he waved Diponegoro army out from this village. 

July – August 1828:

Colonel Cochius occupied the valley of Progo and assault the Diponegoro army between Progo and Opak rivers.

January 1829:

Military operation to North Mataram.

This operation was moving Diponegoro in to the western Progo River successfully.

The operation continued to Southern Mountains of Jogjakarta.

July 1829:

Capturing Fort Geger. This fort was built by coral materials.

March 1830:

Colonel Cleerens with Diponegoro arrived in Magelang.

The Kedhu Resident and military chief, including Colonel F.D. Cochius met them in Magelang before the capitulation 28 of March 1830. Based on capturing Diponegoro in Magelang, it designate that the Java War was terminated.

Post of Java War, Colonel F.D. Cochius was the commander in Salatiga, a town in Java.

1831 – 37:

Extinguishing of the uprising of the Padri’s Islamic fundamentalist insurgents in the mountains of western Sumatra raged. 

August 1837:

Conquered the Fort Bondjol in West Sumatra. 

May 1838:

Commander Militaire Willemsorde

September 1837:

1st Colonial Infantry Battalion in Bondjol for Major General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment]. 

November 1841:

12th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

April 1846:

13th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

        Pas in 1827
        zou het Paleis van Daendels gereed komen, in opdracht van de enige, “Belgische” Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies, want het jaar 1830 was immers nog niet aangebroken:


1826 – 1830

Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies 

        Volgens de overlevering woog bij aankomst Du Bus de Gisignies 145 kg, toen hij weer in 1830 naar Europa terugkeerde was hij 60 kg lichter geworden.

Batavia, a city of Java, capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, in hit. 6° 10′ 8., lon. 106° 50′ E., on a swampy plain at the head of a deep bay of the Java sea, on the N. W. coast of the island, upon both banks of the river Jacatra. The bay is protected by a number of islands, and forms a secure harbor.

The population in 1832 was 118,300, of whom 2,800 were Europeans, 25,000 Chinese, 80,000 natives, 1,000 Moors and Arabs, and 0,500 slaves; the present number is variously stated at from 70,000 to 150,000, the discrepancy apparently arising from the different areas embraced, the wealthy inhabitants now residing beyond the limit of the fortifications, upon several broad roads running for some distance inland. The local trade and handicrafts are mostly in the hands of the Chinese; the foreign commerce in those of the Dutch, although there are also English, French, German, and American merchants. About 1,500 vessels annually enter the port, two thirds of which are Dutch. The principal articles of export are spices, rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, dyewoods, and gold dust. In 1867 the total value of the exports was $27,-227,025; imports, $22,439,435. Batavia was originally laid out on the model of a Dutch city, with broad streets having each a canal in the centre.



 After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control

The Dutch 7th Battalion advancing in Bali in 1846

        In 1848
        werd de bovenste verdieping van het Paleis Rijswijk afgebroken in de hoop het gebouw wat meer status te geven. In de praktijk verbleven de Gouverneurs-Generaal ook liever in Buitenzorg dan in Paleis Rijswijk….. het Paleis Rijswijk kreeg al snel de bijnaam Hotel van de Gouverneur-Generaal….
        In Paleis Rijswijk kwam wel geregeld de Raad van Indië bij elkaar, de onofficiële regering van Nederlands-Indië voorgezeten door de Gouverneur-Generaal. De Gouverneur-Generaal had echter in de praktijk, we zouden nu zeggen, dictatoriale bevoegdheden en dus altijd het laatste woord. In 1862 werden in Paleis Rijswijk de eerste gasverlichtings armaturen van Batavia aangebracht.


The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

        Ook in 1862 verscheen een wat negatief commentaar over Paleis Rijswijk: waarom werd dit armetierige gebouw Paleis genoemd, aan de voorzijde hangt weliswaar het Wapen van het Koninkrijk van Nederland, maar de rest van het gebouw lijkt meer op een paardenstal dan een Paleis een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië waardig.
        In 1879 the Koningsplein Palace beginning to built,and klater became Rijswijk Palace Of DEI Govenour General
        En dus (?) werd in 1879 begonnen met de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein, in de achtertuin van Paleis Rijswijk…

GG palace rijswijk

19th Century19e eeuw

Old DEI Gouvenor General Palace Rijswijk at Batavia Het (Oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Rijswijk, Batavia


        In 1809 begon Daendels dus aan zijn plan voor wat de geschiedenis zou ingaan als het Paleis van Daendels, en ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd. Pas in 1827 zou het voltooid worden.
        Alhoewel groots van opzet

(Daendels dacht altijd in het groot)

        is het dus nooit als Paleis gebruikt. In het Groote Huis zijn altijd overheidsinstellingen ondergebracht, zoals de Raad van Indië, het Departement van Onderwijs en


        en het Departement van Financiën. Ook werd het gebruikt als centraal magazijn bijvoorbeeld voor schoolmaterialen. Ook het Departement van Oorlog was hier ooit gevestigd.
        Bijzonder aan het Paleis is wel dat hier na verloop van tijd alle portretten naar toe verhuisd zijn van alle Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië. In 1949 werden de portretten van de Gouverneurs-Generaal vanuit het Paleis van Daendels rechtstreeks overgebracht naar het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, waar je ze nog steeds kunt bewonderen.

daendels palace 1878

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd 


Voor het Paleis van Daendels:

het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia

tot 1942….. 



In the War of 1819 the first Palembang,

 the fort was tested by cannon shells Dutch corvette, but not one bullet that can penetrate both walls and doors. Due to run out of bullets and gunpowder, then the Dutch fleet escaped to Batavia. From this was born the phrase, which states that work for nothing, because it does not bring results: ration runs out, no ne of Palembang, means the act or attempt that did not give results, only brought loss and fatigue sernata. This event is written with great charm in Menteng War poem or a poem also called the War of Palembang.

In addition to beautiful and sturdy, Kuto Besak is located in strategic places, namely in the fields like floating on the water. She lies on the “island”, ie the area surrounded by the Musi River (in the front or south), in the western part limited by Sekanak River, bounded on the east Tengkuruk River and behind, or the northern part limited by Kapuran River. This area is called Land of the Palace.

Figure sketch Palembang Palace by J. Jeakes

Forms and soil conditions in the city of Palembang as if to the islands, and by the Dutch people gave him the title as the de Twintig Eilanden der Stad (City of Twenty-Island). Further according to G. Bruining, the island’s most valuable (dier Eilanden) is the place Kuto Besak, Kuta Lama and the Great Mosque stands.

Formation of the islands in the city of Palembang is because the number of children who crossed the river and cut the city. Naturally also called the City if Palembang River Hundred. Whereas in the early colonial era, Palembang dubbed by them as het Indische Venetie. Another epithet is de Stad des Vredes, namely a peaceful place (meaning Dar’s Greetings). And indeed this is the name of the official name of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam.

Castle Map Kuto Besak (plus sign) visits with wikimapia
[Click to enlarge]

Structure and Technical

According I. J. Sevenhoven, the first Dutch commisaris Regeering in Palembang, Kuto Besak roede width and 77 length 49 roede (Amsterdamsch roede = approximately 3.75 m, or the length is 288.75 meters and 183.75 meters wide), with a strong wall around and the height and width of 30 feet 6 or 7 feet. This wall is strengthened with bastions 4 (bastion). Inside there was a similar wall and nearly as tall, with the gates strong, so this can also be used for defense if the first wall can be broken (see LJ. Sevenhoven, Painting, page 14).

Recent measurements of the consultants themselves have a slightly different size, which is 290 meters long and 180 meters wide.

Opinions de Sturler on the condition of the fort Kuto Besak:
“… 77 roede width and length 44 roede, equipped with a 3 and a half bastion bastion management, which complements a wall around all four sides. Walls are thick and 5 feet high from the ground 22 and 24 feet.
On the inside in the middle of the palace called Dalem, especially for the king’s residence, several feet higher than ordinary buildings. Entirely surrounded by high walls, so bring a protection for the king. No one may approach the royal residence unless the family or the person who ordered. Other stone buildings in the palace is a place to store ammunition and bullets “. (see W. L de Sturler – Proeve – 186 pages)

Site Plan Palace of Palembang in 1811 [click image to enlarge]

At the time of the war against the Dutch colonialists in 1819, there were as many as 129 shoots a cannon was on the wall Kuto Besak. Whereas during the war in 1821, only 75 shoots a cannon on the wall Kuto Besak and 30 shoots along the river wall, the attackers threatened standby.

Images Main Front Gate Castle Kuto Besak

Lawang Buratan (west side of the gate) Citadel Kuto Besak remaining

Fortress Kuto Besak year of 1935

Fortress Kuto Besak




1822        Oct 8, The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.

1822        The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia. It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)


Waterlooplein Batavia

Met op de achtergrond

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia 

VELDE, Charles William Meredith van de. Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.W.M. van de Velde. Ca. 21 x 30 cm. From: C.W.M. van de Velde. Gezigten uit Nêerlands Indië. – Rustic view of the capital of Bantam, Serang. With horsemen and coach.Bastin-Brommer N360.

résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).

Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.

Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la


the first nederland Indie one cent coin


Based on data from various sources, the development of fully Bandung carried out by a number of people under the leadership of Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah II. Therefore, it can be said that the regents RA Wiranatakusumah II is the founder of (the founding father) of Bandung.
The development of the city of Bandung and its strategic location in the middle Priangan, has encouraged the emergence of the idea of ​​the Dutch East Indies government in 1856 to move Capital Keresiden Priangan from Cianjur to Bandung.


The idea for a variety of new things realized in 1864. Based Besluit Governor-General dated August 7, 1864 No.18, Bandung defined as the central government Priangan Residency. Thus, since then the city of Bandung has a double function, namely as the Capital District as well as the capital of Bandung Residency Priangan. At that time, who became Regent of Bandung is Wiranatakusumah RA IV (1846-1874).


In line with the development function, in the city of Bandung was built buildings in the area Cicendo prefecture (now the Home Office of the Governor of West Java) and a government hotel. The building was completed residency in 1867.



        In 1869 kreeg Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer toestemming voor de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein.

GG Mijer

1866 – 1872

Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer 

        In 1879 werd het Paleis Koningsplein officieel geopend, het zou dienst doen tot 1949. Op Paleis Koningsplein zou de Indonesische vlag voor het eerst gaan wapperen.

Koningsplein Batavia

Luchtfoto Koningsplein Batavia

Met het (werk) Paleis / Residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië

…….indien aanwezig in Batavia……..

Het (woon) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië was in Buitenzorg

zie hieronder 

        Waar lagen nu al die Paleizen, daarvoor pakken we de kaart van Batavia uit 1897 weer erbij:

Batavia in 1897

Batavia plattegrond 1897 

        Ten noorden van het woord Rijswijk op het Koningsplein lag het (nieuwe) Koningsplein Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, dit is dus het laatste Paleis / Residentie geweest van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië. In dit Paleis vond dus de Soevereiniteitsoverdracht in Batavia in 1949 plaats, een foto van deze Soevereiniteitsoverdracht staat verderop in het verhaal.
        Het Koningsplein Paleis werd gebouwd in de achtertuin van het (oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, op de kaart het rode blokje ten noorden van het Koningsplein paleis.
        Het Rijswijk Paleis lag aan het Molenvliet water, de weg erlangs heette ook Rijswijk. Aan de overkant van het Molenvliet heette de weg langs het Molenvliet Noordwijk. Kortom, de weg langs de noordoever van het Molenvliet heette dus Noordwijk, de weg langs de zuidoever Rijswijk !
        Het Paleis van Daendels ligt aan het Waterlooplein, (nummer 19 op de kaart), ten oosten van het Koningsplein.
        Het Waterlooplein is natuurlijk vernoemd naar de Slag bij Waterloo. Ter ere van de overwinning op


        werd op het Waterlooplein een zuil gebouwd met daar bovenop een Leeuw. Helaas was de Leeuw wat klein uitgevallen t.o.v. de zuil en werd al spoedig

Het Hondje van Jan Pietersz Coen genoemd


Voor het Paleis van Daendels:

het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia

tot 1942….. 

        Waarom? Het leek net of Jan Pietersz Coen voor het paleis van Daendels zijn hondje riep dat bovenop een paal was gesprongen….
        De naam Koningsplein kan worden herleid naar Koning-Stadhouder Willem III.


Koning-Stadhouder Willem III 

        In het oosten van de oude benedenstad van Batavia lag het Buffelveld, rond 1690 werd het Buffelveld omgedoopt tot Koningsplein. In de nieuwe bovenstad van Batavia werd rond 1818 het nieuwe centrale plein ten westen van het Waterlooplein ook weer Koningsplein genoemd. Niet alleen ter ere van Koning-Stadhouder Willem III, maar natuurlijk ook voor Koning Willem I.


Koning Willem I

        Tot slot nog een paar schitterende prenten van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg, ook daarover zullen we het in de toekomst nog eens verder hebben wellicht.

GG palace 19th century

19e eeuw

Het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 

GG palace buitenzorg

Toen en nu

Het (ex) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 

GG palace buitenzorg

Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 


“Daar staat, breed en wit en behagelijk laag gebouwd, het paleis van Zijne Excellentie den Hollandschen Gouverneur-Generaal. Ziedaar een van de machtigste mannen der wereld, die te beschikken heeft over leven en dood van 55 millioen bruine menschen in Insulinde. De “Raad van Indië” beredeneert en beraadslaagt, maar zijn wil is macht !
Vijf jaren resideert een Gouverneur-Generaal in dit witte paleis. …..met nu en dan oproer en schietpartijen, weliswaar nog maar lage bergvormingen boven de kalme zee der Hollandsche koloniale politiek, doch hier en daar aan de randen reeds rood geverfd door het bloed der blanken……edoch de inheemschen hier zijn vreedzaam en onderworpen. Zij dienen de blanken met glimlachend geduld…….in afzienbaren tijd kunnen de inlanders de Hollandschen overheersching niet missen………kleurlingen “Westersch” opvoeden beteekent : den val van de Westersche wereldheerschappij verhaasten…..Azië ontwaakt ? Neen, Europa slaapt in!
Een rijke toekomst kan men de Nederlandsche Oost-Indische kolonie voorspellen, in geval er over honderd jaar nog koloniën bestaat. Waaraan getwijfeld mag worden.” Citaat uit 1933.


Het Kerkhof van de Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg

        Sommige nu nog bekende Nederlanders hadden in Buitenzorg ook een residentie, zoals dat toen genoemd werd:

huis Colijn buitenzorg

De residentie van Hendrik Colijn in Buitenzorg

Biografie Colijn 

        Tot slot nog een citaat uit dit verhaal:

Dirk Cornelis Buurman van Vreeden, de laatste Nederlandse legercommandant in Nederlands-Indië: zijn dochter Nan vertelt haar verhaal

            We beginnen ons verhaal met deze bekende foto’s uit ons Hatta verhaal:




Mohammad Hatta naast Koningin Juliana
tijdens de Soevereiniteits “overdracht” op 27 December 1949
in het Paleis op de Dam in Amsterdam

Op de onderste foto 27 December 1949 in Djakarta,
voor de laatste keer wordt ‘s avonds de Nederlandse Vlag gestreken

op het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal op het Koningsplein 

            Over de periode voor en na WOII hebben we slechts enkele verhalen ooit samengesteld:

Wil je weten waar ik mijn kennis allemaal vandaan heb, lees dan eens de boeken zoals die te vinden zijn op mijn pagina

book covers 

            Speciaal aanbevolen o.m. de volgende boeken:

Terug naar ons Des Indes verhaal:

Reizigers in de 19e eeuw die aankwamen op de rede van Batavia, werden met kleine scheepjes afgezet bij de Kleine Boom en werden vandaar met een rijtuig langs Molenvliet naar bijvoorbeeld Hotel Des Indes vervoerd.


rechts aan de overkant de Kleine Boom, het douane kantoor van Batavia…..
Eind 17e eeuw werd Batavia als volgt aangeprezen, een heel kontrast t.o.v. wat reizigers in de 19e eeuw van Batavia vonden…

Batavia, vroeger Jacatra geheten, is nu voor de Nederlanders de hoofdstad van Oost-­Indië. Het ligt aan de fraaie binnenkust van het groot en lustig eiland Java op 5 graden en 50 minuten zuiderbreedte. In het westen ligt het beroemde koninkrijk en de stad Bantam, aan de oostkant bevinden zich de mooie landstreken van de Mataram. In het noorden wordt het door de zee en een paar kleine eilandjes begrensd, waardoor een vei­lige ankerplaats ontstaat. Naar het zuiden toe strekken zich mooie landerijen, tuinen, bossen en weilanden uit, omgeven door hemelhoge bergen.

De stad en het Kasteel worden van elkaar gescheiden door een prachtig plein en een brede rivier. Het voorname Kasteel Batavia ligt aan de fraaie zeekust en langs de oever van de mooie rivier van Jacatra, die met haar helder en heerlijk water dwars door het midden van de bedrijvige stad stroomt. De rivier mondt uit in zee, waar zij een geschik­te haven vormt voor allerhande grote en kleine vaartuigen, zelfs voor flinke Chinese jon­ken. Iedere dag krioelt de rivier van sampans, boten, prauwen, sloepen, jachten en an­dere vreemde vaartuigen, die op de bijna altijd volle rede van Batavia allemaal profijt trachten te vinden.

Maar nu weer verder over het voortreffelijke Kasteel. Dit wordt versterkt met vier hoekpunten, namelijk Diamant, Robijn, Saphier en Parel. Het heeft stevige muren, diepe grachten, fraaie poorten en valbruggen en is goed voorzien van alle middelen ten dienste van de oorlogsvoering. In het Kasteel bevinden zich het hof van de gouverneur­generaal en veel andere, bijzonder mooie gebouwen waar de Raden van Indië en andere hoogwaardigheidsbekleders hun woonplaats hebben.

Wat de stad verder betreft: die is flink uitgestrekt en dichtbevolkt want er wonen niet alleen Nederlanders, maar ook moren, Chinezen, Javanen, Maleiers en andere Indi­sche volken. De onzen hebben daar echter de regering, macht en godsdienst volgens de wetten en gebruiken van ons vaderland ingevoerd en die worden daar nog tot op de dag van vandaag uitgeoefend.

In de nijvere stad Batavia bevinden zich verder veel mooie stenen gebouwen, defti­ge straten, bewoonde grachten, fraaie burgwallen, stenen bruggen en pasars of mark­ten, die op bepaalde tijden van de dag zeer druk zijn.

Een flinke kruiskerk pronkt in het beste deel van de stad en er is ook nog een andere waar, in de aangenaam klinkende Maleise taal, de zuivere christelijke leer wordt gepredikt. Ook wordt er op zondag in het Kasteel gepredikt voor de gouverneur-generaal, Raden van Indië en anderen die daar­voor zijn uitgenodigd.

De stad heeft ook nog een aanzienlijk raadhuis, een hospitaal of gasthuis voor zieken en gewonden alsmede een tuchthuis voor vrouwen die niet deu­gen, een weeshuis enzovoort.

Batavia is voorzien van sterke poorten, bolwerken, hoekpunten en muren, omringd door een brede gracht. Landinwaarts zijn er heel mooie wandelpaden langs lustige ak­kers, boomgaarden, tuinen, en fraaie buitenplaatsen. Hier kan de nieuwsgierige wande­laar wat vertoeven om op een plezierige en veilige manier de landbouw gade te slaan.

Op de Javaanse toegangswegen buiten Batavia staan diverse fortificaties en verster­kingen die door Hollandse garnizoenen zijn bemand. Aan de landzijde, niet ver van de Nieuwpoort, bevinden zich allerlei soorten molens voor de bereiding van papier, suiker, buskruit en het malen van allerhande soorten graan. Ook staan er zaag- en andere molens die niet door wind, maar door waterkracht van de rivier van Jacatra worden aangedreven. Allemaal zijn ze door de Nederlanders op deskundige wijze gebouwd. Hiermee overtreft de nijvere stad Batavia, wat staat en luister betreft, alle andere steden van Indië.

In de 19e eeuw werd Batavia dus door reizigers als volgt toegelicht, niet meer zoo positief… :

Het prachtige, wereldberoemde Batavia is een puinhoop geworden, een duidelijke samenvatting van het proces van vervuiling en verval van de stad, die eens de ‘Koningin van het Oosten’ werd genoemd, maar langzamerhand bekend wordt als het ‘kerkhof der Europeanen’.

De lezer denke zich nu eene ouderwetsche oud-Hollandsche stad met eenige breede straten en grachten, en talrijke voor-, achter-, dwars- en zijstraten, alle dicht bebouwd met oud-Hollandsche huizen. Maar het Batavia van heden is het Batavia van voorheen niet meer.

Thans ziet het er op vele plaatsen uit alsof er een regiment kozakken hadde huisgehouden. Niet alleen zijn de voormalige fraaije stadsmuren, de bolwerken, het Vierkant, het Kasteel, het daarin voormaals aanwezige paleis van den Gouverneur-Generaal, en zeer vele gebouwen meer, tot den grond geslegt en vernield, maar ook de meeste kerken en publieke gebouwen zijn in een bouwvalligen staat, en een groot gedeelte der partlkuliere huizen zijn verlaten en staan ledig met geslotene deuren en vensters.

Ter illustratie wordt een verhaal verteld over een Nederlandsen ambtenaar, die voor het eerst in Indië kwam, aan de werf met rijdtuig afgehaald door een zijner vrienden, die op het Koningsplein (bij Weltevreden) woonde. Nadat zij reeds een goed eind weegs voortgereden waren, vroeg de vreemdeling: “Maar zijn we dan nog niet haast te Batavia?” – “Batavia!” was het antwoord, “meent gij de stad? Daar zijn wij reeds lang door gereden.”

Dit alles betreft de oude stad, de benedenstad. Bij het verslechteren van de gezondheidstoestand in de stad trokken de Europeanen begin 19de eeuw langzamerhand meer het land in

De Maarschalk Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels die, gelijk men weet, geen vriend was van halve maatregelen, kwam op het denkbeeld om de geheele stad onder de voet te halen en een nieuw Batavia op een genoegzamen afstand van het ongezonde terrein te stichten.
Dat dit zelfs deze ijzeren maarschalk niet één, twee, drie lukte valt te begrepen. Toch heeft hij binnen enkele jaren het oude kasteel en de stadsmuren laten slopen, grote aantallen bouwvallige huizen opgeruimd en de bossen tussen Batavia en Weltevreden laten kappen om de frisse berglucht vrij spel te geven. Nieuwe woonwijken verrezen langs het Molenvliet, in Noordwijk en Rijswijk en rondom het Koningsplein en het Waterlooplein te Weltevreden.

Nog geen tien jaar geleden, was de eerste indruk welke de reiziger die zich van de rede naar de hooggeroemde begaf, een grote teleurstelling. Na met een stoomscheepje of tambangan het smalle havenkanaal met zijn morsige oevers doorgevaren te zijn, kwam hij aan een onaanzienlijk douanekantoor, dat op z’n oudhollands de Kleine Boom heette in tegenstelling met de Grote Boom, het verderop aan de rivier gelegen kantoor, waar ook het entrepot is en de douanezaken op grotere voet behandeld worden.

Vervolgens bracht een pover rijtuig met een paar magere, kleine paarden bespannen, hem de stad binnen, die geheel in Europese trant gebouwd is en welker kantoren, magazijnen, werkplaatsen over het algemeen weinig vertonen van de spreekwoordelijk geworden Hollandse netheid en zindelijkheid.
De troebele wateren der grachten, de stoffige wegen, door de regen bij wijlen in modderpoelen herschapen, het gekrioel van Europese, Chinese, Arabische, Klingalese en Inlandse handelaars en zeelieden, van bedienden en beambten, van halfnaakte koelies, waartussen zich onooglijke palankijns en niet veel fraaier dos-a-dos en karretjes bewogen, deed dit gedeelte van Batavia veel meer op een slavin, afgebeuld door zware arbeid onder de brandende tropische zon, in bestoven haveloze kledij, dan op een schone en fiere koningin lijken.

Het is nog slechts een bestoven, verouderde verzameling van gouvernementsgebouwen, handelskantoren, winkels, magazijnen en pakhuizen.Gedurende de dag heerst er zeer veel bedrijvigheid en vertier, doch alle gemak en weelde is verdwenen; ‘s nachts is het er doods en ledig.

Maar zodra men langs Molenvliet komt, verandert het hele aanzien:
Geleidelijk worden de huizen fraaier en groter, door sierlijke tuinen omgeven, als villa’s gebouwd. Links en rechts treden daar tussendoor, de kampongs uit klapperbossen en vruchtentuinen tevoorschijn en eindelijk aanschouwen we een opeenvolging van de heerlijkste lustverblijven. We zijn in dat gedeelte van Batavia, dat Rijswijk genoemd wordt,

‘s Morgens tussen acht en tien uur ziet men deze weg overdekt met duizenden voertuigen van allerlei soort, alle in ijlende vaart; de heren begeven zich dan naar hun kantoren. De trams snorren er met een zekere nieuwerwetse deftigheid tussendoor, in scherpe tegenstelling met de logge houten karren op twee hoge wielen, door ossen getrokken.

Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes stilstaan. We stappen uit en zeggen de koetsier om vijf uur weet voor te komen om te gaan toeren.

Te vijf uur komt het rijtuig voor en gaan we Batavia eens bezichtigen. We slaan rechts af, komen allereerst voorbij het Marinehotel en bevinden ons dan aan een driesprong. Dat grote gebouw op de hoek is de sociëteit de Harmonie, welker rijke en ruime zalen meermalen het toneel zijn van schitterende feesten, bals en concerten. Een eind verder ligt het Hotel der Nederlanden en het Java Hotel en andere officiële en particuliere woningen. Alle verscholen tussen lommerrijk groen en bomen, die met hun brede takken ook de weg grotendeels overschaduwen en waaronder we ook weer de reusachtigste soorten aantreffen, maken ze op ons een niet alleen zeer aangename, maar onvergetelijk liefelijke indruk.
De vurige, rood-gele bloem van de boom, door de Engelsen the flame of the wood geheten, valt hier bijzonder in het oog. Eerst nu begrijpen we hoe men Batavia de naam van Koningin van het Oosten kon geven en worden we overtuigd hoezeer het die naam verdient.

Al snel komen onze reizigers er hopelijk ook achter dat in Batavia o.m. de nu zeer beroemde Engelse fotografen

Woodbury & Page
werkzaam zijn, bij wie je prachtige foto’s van Batavia en omgeving kon verkrijgen.


het atelier van Woodbury & Page in Batavia

met het Britse wapenschild boven hun namen 


Woodbury & Page in Batavia nemen het er even van en terecht….
Nu moet Aad eerlijk bekennen dat het nooit precies duidelijk is geworden wie is nu Woodbury en wie is nu Page. Maar in alle oude fotoboeken over o.m. Batavia kom je (bijna) altijd tegen dat de foto is genomen door Woodbury & Page…..dankzij hen kun je je helemaal verdiepen in het oude Batavia, wat Aad dus heel graag doet met al zijn boeken met foto’s van Woodbury & Page

Reeds in 1857 begonnen Walter Bentley Woodbury (1834 – 1885) en James Page (1833 – 1865) hun atelier in Batavia. Zij maakten grote reportages niet alleen van Batavia, maar ook van Java en dan natuurlijk altijd in de vroege nog koele ochtend, helaas dus zelden met een Europeaan op de foto. Later kwam nog een broer Henry James Woodbury erbij.
Uit advertenties is af te leiden dat je bij hen komplete albums kon kopen, nu natuurlijk onbetaalbaar en zeldzaam, maar gelukkig is er een paar jaar geleden een prachtig overzichtsboek verschenen door Aad binnen een dag gefinancierd….

Want als een van je hobbies Nederlands-Indië is, dan kun je ademloos naar een foto van Woodbury & Page kijken en dan weten dat hier ooit o.m. Loudon, van Swieten, Snouck Hurgronje, Köhler, van Daalen, Christoffel en natuurlijk de bekendere Van Heutsz en Colijn hebben rondgelopen. Wie dit allemaal waren :

Klik hier als je wilt zoeken via Aad’s Freefind search engine, vul in het venster jouw woord in, bijvoorbeeld Heutsz en klik op ENTER

De onderstaande foto is een van de eerste van Woodbury & Page geweest, waarschijnlijk uit 1857, de beroemde tijger foto gemaakt ergens op Java. De tijger sprong te vlug en daarom, aldus het verhaal, is de tijger er later “bijgeplakt” :


een van de eerste foto’s van Woodbury & Page

1857 Java

de tijger werd later “bijgeplakt” ???
We hebben dus nu zoo’n mooi foto album gekocht van Woodbury & Page en spoedden ons weer voorzichtig terug naar ons Hotel Des Indes, want wat we zojuist hebben gekocht is over zoo’n 150 jaar heel zeldzaam….

In 1747 begon men al met bouwen op de grond waar later ons hotel Des Indes zou ontstaan. In 1760 werd het terrein opgekocht door de latere Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk :

GG Klerk


Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk

De residentie van Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk is onlangs gerestaureerd
In 1824 werd het geheel opgekocht door het Gouvernement die er een kostschool voor meisjes vestigde. In 1828 werd het gebouw weer verlaten, in 1832 werd de kostschool voor meisjes weer opgeheven omdat de leraressen maar steeds weggingen om te trouwen….

In 1829 werd het geheel opgekocht door de Fransman Surleon Antoine Chaulan die er als eerste een hotel begon onder de naam Hotel de Provence.

In 1845 kocht zoon Etienne Chaulan op een veiling het hotel van zijn vader voor dfl 25.000,=, vraag me niet waarom….
Etienne maakte het hotel al een beetje beroemd, want hij was de eerste die ….. verschillende soorten ijs ging verkopen.

In 1851 ging het management over in handen van Cornelis Denninghoff die de naam veranderde in

Ook wel het Rotterdamsch Hotel genoemd. Het had niet zoo’n goede naam, iemand schreef dat hem Hotel Rotterdam was aanbevolen, maar hij had veel beter Hotel der Nederlanden kunnen kiezen en toen op een dag in 1856 kwam Douwes Dekker voorbij, mogelijk op weg naar de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves tegenover Societeit De Harmonie.

En natuurlijk moet dit er dan even bij, de voetnoot onder bijna ieder Nederlands-Indië verhaal van Aad :

            ……een roofstaat aan de Noordzee……
            …..dat spoorwegen bouwt van gestolen geld en tot
            betaling de bestolene bedwelmt met
            opium, Evangelie en jenever…

             Aan U durf ik met vertrouwen te vragen of het
            Uw wil is dat daarginds Uw meer dan dertig
            millioenen onderdanen worden mishandeld en
            uitgezogen in UWEN naam?

            Multatuli [1860] …aan Nederland…Koning Willem III


.…dat dorp stond in brand, omdat het veroverd was door Nederlandsche soldaten…….

Ja, ‘t dorp was veroverd door Nederlandsche soldaten, en stond dus in brand.

Op Nederlandsche heldendaad volgt brand.
Nederlandsche overwinning leidt tot verwoesting.
Nederlandsche krygsbedryven baren wanhoop.

Maar terug naar ons verhaal:



Woodbury & Page

vanuit de Benedenstad langs het Molenvliet (links)

meteen rechts de ingang van ons hotel

in de verte links De Harmonie met rechts in dat ronde gebouw de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves

Het Hotel Rotterdam had in 1852 al weer een andere eigenaar gekregen, de Zwitser Wijss die in 1851 getrouwd was met een 16-jarige nicht van Etienne Chaulan. En deze Wijss was degene die op advies van Douwes Dekker op 1 Mei 1856 de naam veranderde in het veel chiquer klinkende

In 1860 verkocht Wijss het hotel weer door aan de Fransman Cresonnier en deze Cresonnier was degene die Woodbury & Page foto’s liet maken van zijn Hotel Des Indes, waarom ? Inderdaad, om met deze fotographieën reclame te maken…..

En dus hier slechts twee foto’s genomen van Hotel Des Indes door Woodbury & Page :





 After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade,


Battle of Bergen (1799)
The Battle of Bergen, also called the Battle of Bergen-Binnen, was fought on 19 September 1799, and resulted in a French-Dutch victory under General Brune and General Daendels against the Russians and British under the Duke of York who had landed in North Holland

 VOC papermoney 1799

 Noncolour embosed VOC revenue sheet

VOC embosed


VOC 50 Ryksdaalders 1805


The first papermoney of the Netherlands Indies         


Info source: Rob Huisman         

Last month a very rare VOC note  was on auction at the prestigious auction house for historical stock certificates HWPH Historisches Wertpapierhaus AG (HWPH) in Germany.  the lot was finally sold for 10.500 Euro, a fair price – knowing that most similar notes available on the market were offered at between 20.000 and 30.000 Euro the past couple of years.         

According to  Mr. Matthias Schmitt, CEO of HWPH,  the notes has been put up for auction by a private person in Europe who got the item from his uncle who lived in the United States. The uncle’s father was a Colonel in Dutch East Indies before World War II. 
The HWPH website has an extensive description of the VOC note.  They grade the note as VF and appraise it as follows: “Amboina, Castle Victoria, 30 April 1805, Banknote for 50 Ryksdaalders, Lettra E, #426, 27.8 x 17.2 cm, black, beige, handmade paper, folds (one partially broken), OU, stamp VOC A(mboina)?, onverso two more stamps, bilingual: Dutch, Hindi. This is a very rare banknote from the Netherland Indies, issued by the VOC.”
This 50 Ryksdaalder note was issued from Fort Victoria at Ambon island, Indonesia. The fortress was orignally built by the Portuguese in 1775, but soon taken over by the Dutch to establish a local stronghold for their colonial rule of the Netherlands Indies. 



The note is bilingual and has both Dutch and Arabic language. This note is especially interesting because it has a spelling mistake in the Dutch word “Gezien” which is printed as “Gezein” on this note. I have never observed spelling mistakes on similar notes before. Another thing that strikes me is the VF qualification. Using the IBNS grading rules for paper money, the note would grade as Fair only. The note has rounded corners, strong folds, holes around the folds, some small stains, etc. Grading it as Fair would be appropriate. One should not take the rarity into consideration when grading a note. Altough Fair, this is still a great note and absolutely worth its price.


After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.


 Javasche Bank 1828


De Javasche Bank 1828 – 1953

Presidents, Secretaries and Directors


info source: Rob Huisman 

The Javasche Bank was founded in 1828 and continued its operations until after the Dutch transfer of souvereignty to Indonesia in 1949. The Javasche Bank became the circulation bank for the Republic of Indonesia and was nationalized in 1953.

A date in italics (24/01/1828) means the date of the decree deciding about the appointment or discharge of  the board member. The date of a decree is only mentioned in case the actual start or end date is unknown.

The following board members (Presidents, Secretaries and Directors) were authorized to sign banknotes issued by the Javasche Bank:


24/01/1828 – 22/03/1838 Chr. de Haan (LL.M.)
Leonard Pierre Joseph viscount du Bus de Gisignies, Commissioner General of the Netherlands Indies, appointed Chr. de Haan by decree 25 on January 24, 1828, to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Although several other people applied for the position of President, the Commissioner General used his right to move past the nominees. On December 13, 1837, after almost 10 year of service, de Haan was granted a two year European leave. He seceded in the board meeting of March 22, 1838.


31/03/1838 – 10/03/1851 C.J. Smulders
C.J. Smulders, the Secretary of the Javasche Bank, succeeded de Haan as President by decision of the Commissioner General on March 31, 1838. 
In November 1846, Smulders bought 1/2 share in the sugar factory Langsee. On January 7, 1851, Smulders requested to be honorably discharged because of his weakening health. By decree of March 4, 1851, Smulders was honorably discharged. He decided to dedicate his time to his interest in the Langsee sugar factory. His successor E. Francis, took over presidency during the board meeting of March 10, 1851.


Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.


President of Javasche bank


10/03/1851 – 01/07/1863 E. Francis
Emanuel Francis started his career in the Netherlands Indies as a clerk in 1815 and worked his way up in the government service to eventually become the top civil servant available to the Commissioner General. From 1848 to 1850 Francis was Inspector of Finance and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from the governement service. Next, Francis was appointed to President of the Javasche Bank by decree of March 4, 1851. On his own request Francis was honorably discharged  per Juli 1, 1863 per decree of  April 20, 1863. In 1864 Francis published a book “De regerings-beginselen van Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie”, expressing his dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and proposing an investigation by an independent committee. In 1969 Francis published a request to the Dutch parliament about his reputed right for payment of pension being a retired civil servant of the Netherlands Indies government.


Legendary story of Banjar War
Many legendary stories in Banjar War period that lasted from 1859 until 1865. one of which there are death squads called the Army War Beratib Ba-mall. Until now, the name of the force is still very legendary ….

Beginning of the conflict in the palace of Sultan Tahmudiah Banjar is when I died. He has a son who still small. Therefore, for while the power is held by Prince Tamjidillah I, brother, Sultan Tahmidillah I. But in fact, Prince Tamjidillah I not only became the guardian of his nephew was a kid, but took control with a smooth and would not return

the son of Sultan Tahmidillah I. Even to strengthen its position as the Sultan of his descendants in the future, Banjar land handed over to the Netherlands. Then by the Dutch were given to the Sultan hakPemerintahan Tamjid I and his descendants.

Therefore there was an armed uprising of Prince Amir (Prince Antasari a hero’s grandfather), a descendant of Sultan Tahmidillah I. However, resistance can be broken by the Dutch. He was later exiled to Ceylon or Sri Lanka.

To reconcile these two offspring, then, Adam Sultan Al Wasique Billah who is a descendant of Sultan Tamjidillah I married his daughter to Prince Antasari. But alas, the Queen died before giving Antasari trigger descent.

In addition, Prince Sultan Muda Abdurrahrnan also had a concubine of the Chinese nation. In 1817 the mistress gave birth to a son. Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman wanting sons became crown prince. Therefore then freed and married her legally and was named the Big Nyai Aminah. While his son was named Prince Tamjidilllah,

Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman desire is opposed by the grandfather and father of Sultan Sulaiman and Adam Sultan Al Wasiqu `Billah. They forced the young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman himself married to a cousin of Queen Siti, Miss Mangkubumi Nata.

Nata Mangkubumi besedia Young married his daughter to Prince Sultan Abdurrahman condition, later-born son will be king when the Sultan Muda died. This provision was approved, and the Sultan Muda had made a will on anyone who is entitled to the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar.

In Prince 1822Iahirlah Hidayatutlah. A few years later died so jabatan’tersebut Mangkubumi Nata. is empty. This opportunity was used by Prince Tamjid best, namely the Netherlands requested that appointed him in the Sultanate Mangkubumi Banjar. `With pleasure, of course, the Dutch agreed to because it will benefit the ‘they.’

In 1852 the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman died suddenly. A day later with Pengeran Tamjid secretly sent a letter to the Resident of the Dutch in Yogyakarta to appoint him as the heir apparent to the promised delivery of the Sultanate of Banjar areas that prompted the Dutch origin of the request is approved. Once again the Dutch Prince’s request Tamjid, because this is an opportunity for the Dutch reap the fish in troubled waters, as well as running the political divide et empera: glassware and colonize.

On June 10, 1852 the Dutch crown prince Tamjid become crown prince. Of course this appointment caused angry reactions to the nobility, clergy and community on Prince Tamjid and its allies, especially the Dutch.

In April 1853, Sultan Adam, Son of the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman sent envoys to Batavia to meet with Governor General of Dutch East Indies in order to request the cancellation of the appointment of justice PangeranTamjid become crown prince and Prince Setting Hidayatullah become crown prince in accordance with the testament of Sultan Adam. But this request was rejected by the Dutch East Indies governor. This adds to the heat of the political climate in the Kingdom of Banjar Prince Tamjid so do not dare to live in the palace which is located diIbukota Banjar Jewels Temple (City of Gems) that the person called Banjar City Martapura now Martapura Banjar regency’s capital.

Tamjid Prince Sultan fled to Banjarmasin. To cool the political atmosphere is getting warmer, finally. HidayatuIlah into Dutch raised Pengeran Mangkubumi previously held by PangeranTamjid and set PangeranTamjid as crown prince. Besides capturing the Dutch Prince and banished him to the King Anom Banjarmasin because it is considered as a provocateur who oppose the decisions of the Netherlands.

To avoid unwanted things to his son, then, the Sultan had come to accompany Prince Adam King moved to Banjarmasin Anom. When gering, or severe illness, he was taken to the palace in Martapura Banjar. On November 01, 1857 he died and was buried in Martapura

On 3 November 1857 the Dutch crown prince as the king’s successor Sultan Tamjid Adam, and the Prince immediately ordered the arrest of Prince Tamjid Anom King then threw to Bogor, West Java.

In 1858, there is a continual movement of people who want to restore the kingdom of culture and the concessions that have been damaged due to the inclusion of power penjajajah Netherlands.

EMERGENCE bead cherished daughter of froth

Mentioned, magical princess who emerged from the foaming whirlpools, then by Gastric Mangkurat crowned as queen in the Kingdom of Dipa Nagara, and then married to the Majapahit royal palace, Raden Putra

After marriage with Princess Bubble cherished, Raden Putra became king in the Kingdom under the name Prince Dipa Nagara Ananta Surya (son of the sun). According to legend Banjar society, they both, in the end mokswa or disappear into the invisible realm and became a ruler in the palace of Magical Mountain Pamaton

According to public confidence, they could both dripping or possessed bodies of people they want.

Thus, when the political temperature in the Kingdom of Banjar is getting hot because the Dutch intervened at the coronation of Prince Tamjid as king in the Kingdom of Banjar to replace Adam Sultan because Sultan Muda Prince Abdurrahman had died first. In fact, the nobility, clergy and the people willed Banjar Hidayatullah became Prince Sultan, according to the testament or the testament of Sultan previous

One of the pious scholars in Kumbayau Tambarangan, Overseas (Regency But right now), named Datu Aling are concerned about the crisis in the palace Banjar. Accordingly, it is because he salampah or penance with his own solitude, fasting, prayer, and remembrance wird, and other practice-practice to draw closer to God, accompanied by a request that the instructions given and the solution to the crisis that is happening in the palace Banjar . Datu Aling_dilaksanakan penance for nine months nine days, beginning in April 1858 until. by February 1859.

On February 2, 1859 to coincide with the 10th Rajab 1275 H; Datu Aling visited by kings and magical kingdom of Banjar Datu Aling asked to bring Prince Muning Antasari to the area. He will start the New Kingdom until the rightful king was elected.

On 13 Rajab 1275 AH, Princess Datu named Aling Saranti, cherished daughter was possessed by Bubble. He is married with a young man asked village named Dulasa because in her magical spirit benemayam Prince Surya Ananta.

Hearing all that, then, was Aling Datu daughter Implementing all these desires. Once married to Dulasa, then, Saranti be named espouse Bubble Princess and her husband Prince Surya Dulasa named Ananta. Datu Aling then announced to the public about Saranti coronation, the king cherished Princess Bubble Bead. Kumbayau area was renamed the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. As a king in the Kingdom Tambay Mecca, Saranti Bead Princess Bubble lift ayahya cherished, Datu Aling, as Panembahan, brother Sambang given the title of the Yellow Emperor, his sister was given the title Queen of the Sacred Nuramin, while the husband was given the title as Mangkubumi Nuramin Kusuma Nagara, Bayan Sampit, Garuntung waluh, Garumung manau, Kindaui Aji, Kindui Mu `l, splitting Batung, Panimba Sagara, there is also the Commander Juntai In Sky and others.

Tambay Mecca kingdom separate from the Sultanate of Banjar and not subject to the Dutch colonizers. Bubble bead Saranti cherished became queen in Mecca KerajaanTambay only as a symbol of the head of state, while the affairs of government are held, by Penembahan Muda Datu Aling. As a Panembahan, the pious, just and wise he is working with Immediate Banua Ampat, namely: Banua Halat, Banua Gadung, Banua Padang and Banua Parigi. They are subject to the Datu Aling. Then follow the same Banua Top, Trunk Hulu, Guava, Amandit and Pangabau

To his followers, Datu Aling always instill the spirit of jihad for the sake of fighting injustice and occupation. The call for jihad Aling Datu who received tremendous response from the community, was made Prince of the Netherlands felt teracam Tamjid its position. For the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin send a team consisting of the Chief Prosecutor. Suryadinata prince and the prince of the Head of Prince Muhammad Seman accompanied by 120 followers

Knowing the Will of their arrival, then, was Aling Datu Yellow Emperor ordered his troops to prepare his jihad as many as 700 people complete with weapons drawn

to keep all possibilities that bakal_terjadi.Tentu Dutch Resident is just the messenger gasped to see so many forces in Datu Aling the STAP jihad fighters if they do sort-rnacam. Because they just want to see the actual situation in the Kingdom of Mecca, they were welcome to meet at the Palace of Datu Aling Tambay Mecca.

After hearing reports messenger, once again ordered the Dutch Resident Mangkubumi Prince Hidayatullah to deal with the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. Then sent Prince Prince Hidayatullah Antasari. Kesuma Jantera Prince and Prince Omar Sharif to meet Datu Aling, Datu Aling During the meeting explaining the intent and purpose of establishment of the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. It turned out that what is conveyed by Datu Aling dengart hand in hand what is desired by Prince Antasari. Until finally terjadilahn matchmaking agreement between the child named Antasari Prince Prince Mohammed Said with Saranti Bead Princess Bubble who have been widowed cherished.

Thus grew stronger the position of Datu Aling due 30 days after the wedding with Prince Muhammad Said Saranti, the incarnation of Princess Bubble cherish, then, Prince Antasari began to actively lead the popular movement in Banua Ampat and Banua five are directed to the Dutch.

28 April 1859 Puncaknyapada jihadists from Datu Aling Banua Banua Ampat and five under the leadership of Prince Antasari, attacked the Dutch fortress in Pengaron Orange Nassau. The attack was very successful. That was the beginning of the outbreak of the War Banjar. Finally, the battle also extends to various areas in South Kalimantan

As retaliation for the collapse of bastion of Orange Nassau in Pengaron, then, on 16 November 1859, suddenly attacked the Dutch defense forces Yellow Emperor. This attack was greeted with cries of Allahu Akbar by jihadi forces under the command of Sultan Datu Aling Yellow. In battle, the leader of the Dutch army captain killed by a spear Benschop. That day came again a platoon of the larger Dutch troops, but all were driven back.

In the evening, come back bigger Dutch troops to storm the bastion of Datu Aling Muning ie in the mosque. The battle occurred overnight. Datu Aling, Saranti Along with a few people remained loyal followers in the mosque. Aling Datu did not want to surrender to the Dutch even though the fire had licked all the mosques are made of wood. Finally, Datu Aling and Saranti was killed as a martyr.

Listen to the death of Datu Aling and Saranti, then, Prince Antasari issued a slogan which reads “Heram manyareh, waja until ka nipple: (haram surrendered to the Dutch until the last drop of blood)”


Attacks on the forts, coal mines, warships and other Dutch possessions to make the colonists could not do anything about it. Until June 25, 1859 forced the Dutch Prince Tamjid turunt ahta and throw it to Bogor. Prince is being run from the palace Martapura Hidayatullah joined Prince Antasari.

The battle occurred not only in South Kalimantan region, but extends to Central Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan is the field of battle Barito, Kapuas and Katingan led by Prince Antasari, accompanied by the original Surapati Tumenggung Dayak tribe. Martapura and Tang Sea region led by Lehman Demat, Region Five Banua led by Jalil degree Kiyai Wall Duke Anom king.

After the Netherlands asked for help to Batavia, then, berdatanganlah warships and complete with soldiers and cannon-cannon. Onrust Warships sailing to Barito to capture Prince Antasari metalui Tumenggung Surapati. However Tumenggung Surapati not want to sell out despite promises prizes of several thousand Dutch Guilders if Tumenggung Surapati could give Prince Antasari.

On December 26, 1859, suddenly Tumenggung Surapati with his men attacked the ship Onrust In this incident commander Onrust warships and 93 of his men were killed. The guns and cannon cannon transported ashore while his ship was sunk. Meanwhile, the warship sailed Tjipanas Martapura River came under fire from Demat Lehman and his men so hastily returned to Banjarmasin.

On June 11, 1860, proclaimed the abolition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Banjar and the region as a Dutch colony. Thus the war against the Dutch because the Dutch are no longer intervene in the area of ​​Banjar palace, but the war against Dutch colonialism who want to destroy the Muslims. Therefore, in 1861 came the death squads to defend the religion of Islam. The force is called Ba-Baratib War Forces charity. The cornerstone of their struggle is the sentence of God, Hadith Prophet Muhammad, ask syafa’at 40 prophets, sacred science of the Datu and Heroes. Before progressing to the battlefield, first, they purify the body of hadast with shower and ablution, then dressed in white like clothing Rasullullah war era. They also fasted then beratib ba charity (practice / mewiridkan one practice: Pen) until I forget myself. Then advanced into battle to face the enemy. They believe, if they fall in battle against the infidels Dutch and their allies, they die a martyr.

Leaders of the movement of Ba `War Beratib this mall is the religious teachers and the prince. Among the leaders of the Army War Baratib Perhaps this is the charity of Banua Lawas Badr Haji, the prince of Rashid, and Abdul Gani Buyasin headman of the village Amuntai Basil.

Sementera it Pula, Prince Hidayatullah who has been crowned as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Banjar in Amuntai repeatedly received offers of peace from the Netherlands, but the offer was always declined. With the ruse. Dutch Prince Hidayatullah tricked to come to-Martapura on orders Siti’s mother Queen Dowager. Queen Mother Queen Siti who can not read Latin letters to the Dutch believe it enough to sign a letter written by the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as stamped Banjar. As a pious man, of Prince Hidatullah afraid of his mother. Hidayatullah Prince came to Martapura on March 3, 1862. Rock aat the same way, he was arrested and exiled to Cianjur.

Prince Antasari continue the struggle against the Dutch. But unfortunately he was a sickly start to Rahmatullah finally passed away on October 11, 1862.

Nevertheless, the war continues. Commander of the Army War Beratib Ba-Hajj Amal Buyasin fall in battle, following the then Chairman of the prince Rashid, Commander of Bukhari, Tumenggung State Tigers, Tumenggung Naro, and others,

Demat Lehman, leader of the guerrilla war untukwilayah Martapura Land Sea and was caught by fraud Dutch in Slippery Rock area and then transported to Martapura and hanged to death in the plaza III (now the Great Mosque of Al-page KaromahPen) Martapura. After that head cut off and sent to Holland. And there is a necklace around her neck ajimat. When ajimat is opened in it there is a white paper that read Arabic letters that people which means free or die.


01/07/1863 – 30/06/1868 C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem
Wiggers van Kerchem was appointed President per July 1, 1863. Wiggers van Kerchem was a member of the firm Tiedeman & van Kerchem in Batavia prior to his appointment. Per decree of June 30, 1868, it was decided to discharge Wiggers van Kerchem in the most honorable way. After finishing the concept of the fifth Exclusive Right that should be implemented per April 1, 1870, Wiggers van Kerchem decided to return to Europe for retirement.

The Town Hall in the old city center built in 1710 (3rd building)

Military parade in front of the statue of Jan Pietersz. Coen at Waterloo-square during the coronation celebrations of Queen Wilhelmina, 1898.

The Artesian well at Salemba, 1885.

The Artesian well at the Koningsplein square, 1885.

The City Theatre, 1865

The ‘Landsarchief’ – the colonial archives, housed in a former country house built around 1760

A typical Chinese house.

The shop of ‘Eigen Hulp’ at the Molenvliet-West canal, 1890.

Building in the botanical gardens and zoo.

Bathing kids in the Molenvliet canal next to ‘De Harmonie’ society builing. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, 1815)‘De Harmonie’ society building, 1875.

The Aceh monument at the Koningsplein square

The protestant Willemskerk, 1875.

Museum of the Society for Arts and History. (Built in 1862)

Military Society on the east side of the Waterlooplein square, corner Sipajersweg-road.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlMilitary Society Concordia.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlWeltevreden Palace at the Koningsplein square, 1880.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlSoldiers in front of a ‘watch-house’ of Weltevreden Palace, 1880.

Audience-hall in the Palace

The Palace (back), 1875.

palace interior

Volksraad or Council of the Indies Building or Raad van Indië (founded in 1918).

www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate in Rijswijk in Batavia, 1875.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate, 1856-1878.


De Javasche Bank note issues 1864


De Javasche Bank note issues, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn. 

info source:Rob Huisman 

 In 1863, De Javasche Bank, was the circulation bank of the Netherlands Indies. One would expect it to be a well-established colonial institution, however the opposite is true. Research at the archives of the printer Joh. Enschede en Zonen at the Museum Enschedé in Haarlem, the Netherlands, shows a completely different picture. The board and especially the President of De Javasche Bank were directly involved in detail in all operational matters related to the design and ordering of their banknotes


01/07/1868 – 31/03/1870 J.W.C. Diepenheim
Wiggers van Kerchem was succeeded by Diepenheim by decree of June 30, 1868. Diepenheim who proviously was Secretary for two years, was President for a short period. He resigned shortly after the fifth Exclusive Right was made public. On March 18, 1870, his resignation was accepted. Diepenheim died in The Hague on May 21, 1875 in the age of 75.

01/04/1870 – 31/03/1873 F. Alting Mees (LL.M.)
By decree of March 19, 1870, Alting Mees was appointed to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Alting Mees, previously lawyer and attorney, already served the bank as director for several years. Due to his appointment to President of the two high courts of the Netherlands Indies, he left the Javasche Bank per March 31, 1873.


01/04/1873 – 01/09/1889 N.P. van den Berg (LL.M.)                               
Norbertus Petrus van den Berg was chosen as the next President of the Javasche bank from two nominees and was appointed per decree of March 20, 1873. After more than 16 years of service, Van den Berg left the Netherlands Indies in 1889 to become Director of the Nederlandsche Bank and two years later President for a period of 21 years until the age of 81. He passed away in Amsterdam on January 8, 1917.

De Javasche Bank 1864-1895


January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sources: Rob Huisman

 In 1863, De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies. One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true. Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede, the Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council President De Javasche and in particular the Bank is directly involved in operational detail in everything related to design and order their paper money

Section 4, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

In 1863,

De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies.
One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true.
Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede,
The Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council and in particular President De
Javasche Bank directly involved in operational detail in all matters related to the design and
to order their paper money.

Reading through all the correspondence carefully stored and arranged between Javasche Bank
and printing companies in the homeland, one can feel the atmosphere of modern
entrepreneurial start-up companies. President (CEO) of E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) and
Wiggers van Kerchem successor, wrote a letter to John. Enschede en Zn. (Later called the “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) on a regular basis to order the new banknotes, commenting on the quality and implementation
command, complained about delays in delivery, and often underscores the urgent need for new supplies to
those remote regions.

Most striking is that they often mention that the cost is to limit the maximum
important. The letters are written with beautiful calligraphy and using ways of polite and politically correct
complaining, urging, comment and criticize. Words such as “worry”, “disappointed”, “propose” and
“Like” is used regularly and frequently suggestions and proposals submitted by completing the statement
such as:

 “But we rely on your expertise in this regard and believe you will make the right decision”.
E. Francis (he signed his letters with M. Francis), third President of Javasche Bank, started as a
employees in 1815 and worked his way in the service of civil government to finally be over
available to the Commissioner General of the servant. From 1848 to 1850 Francis is the Superintendent of Financial
and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from government service. Furthermore, Francis was appointed
Javasche to the President of the Bank under the decision dated March 4, 1851. In the early sixties of the 19th century,
De Javasche Bank started to prepare a complete new emission of paper money the Dutch East Indies. In
cooperation with the Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank is pointing towards the Netherlands
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (now known as John. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Security)) to have
The new banknotes are designed and manufactured. Francis was personally involved in the process and
communicate with the printer on a regular basis. Unfortunately, Francis did not stay in the office to see
the results of his efforts. At the request of Francis himself honorably discharged per July 1, 1863
The decision by 20 April 1863. In 1864 Francis published the book “De-beginselen regerings van
Nederlandsch Indie: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, expressed his
dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and
proposed inquiry by an independent committee. In 1869 Francis issued a request to
Dutch Parliament about his famous right to payment of pensions to retired civil servants
Government of the Netherlands Indies. This response proposal and the request is not found, leading to
believe that Francis ignored by the establishment and must fight for that trust and pension
pay the old days.
In a letter from Francis dated January 31, 1863, with the management of the Nederlandsche Bank, which
evidence has confirmed receipt of the record and the evidence has been approved. In the same letter Francis
raised some comments that he wanted to address:
- Size note: DJB prefer to be the difference in size between the records of 100 and 50
guilders. This means that the records of 1000, 500, 300, 200 and 100 will be great, and notes
of 50, 25 and 10 will be small size. DJB stated that if the De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) think
the divide should be between 25 and 10 guilders, DJB will also agree.
- Character value in the corner records should be larger.
- Lions at 10 guilders note has an expression, surprised almost frightened. DJB would like
lion to have a more relaxed expression symbolizes strength.

- DJB would prefer that the signature is placed under the words “Secretary” and “President” and demand
words to be printed under the date as high as possible.
- DJB prefer that the date is printed on a printer that was not applied in (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB after arrival. In the case of a printer to print the date, Francis suggests choosing a date is not be
Christian holiday or Sunday and about 6 months after the date of expected departure from the
paper money.
- DJB stated that they calculated six months for the duration of the trip and apply numbers and
signatures for the amount of paper money needed for the exchange of banknotes in circulation today.
In early 1870 the delivery of DJB’s request to be sent through the Suez Canal opened, reducing the
travel time by more than 50%.

De Javasche fourth President of the Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, took office on July 1
1863 and continue the process of ordering new issues of paper money.
During the period January 1864 – April 1895, serial number and signature on the front and
cons in the opposite sign printed locally by the Bank in the Netherlands Indies Javasche on
complete records are sent from the printers in the Netherlands. The Bank also Javasche
ordering equipment numbering stamps and signatures of the printer and some blank signature stamps
in the case of signatories will change, allowing them to carve out a new signature stamps
own local. Together with the first order of 1864 new banknotes, the Bank Javasche
ordered the mechanic to accompany numbering machine and take care of the machine becomes
production. Willem Hooij contracted by Joh. Enschede en Zonen for traveling to Batavia in
Dutch East Indies and install the machine. In a letter from Hooij to John. Enschede en Zonen date
August 12, 1864, he wrote about President patient from Javasche Bank makes
difficulties because Hooij not get the machine installed in one day. Wiggers van Kerchem
invite a local printer to meet and together they underestimate Hooij.
161a – from private collections, with the Contra Mark printed in the lower right corner opposite.
All banknotes issued by the De Javasche Bank in the Dutch East Indies during the period 1864 to 1931
and printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, bringing counter-sign, printed in the lower right corner or
lower center of the opposite. A code that is printed in black on the cap ellipse with a triangular shape
pointing outwards and have up to 5 numbers. Countries lower denomination notes issued during this
period does not have this mark.

Collectors who are familiar with the Dutch East Indies paper money from
This period may be aware that there is a relationship between the date of issuance and cons
the sign. Although it looks like a date then the higher the score, in reality this is not always
the case.
In order to determine the proper application of the mark cons, I gather more information about
than 150 records starting from 1864 to 1931. When setting up and organizing all relevant information
such as date, serial number and the cons, I observed the following:
- One of the unique sign of a counter is always connected to only one specific date of issue
- One of the specified date there are problems with different security code, but the security code that is close
- When a record is more of the same problem occurs with the same date and security code, the record has
combinations of the same character in the serial number
- When the date occurs with more than one mark each sign cons cons unique place with different
combinations of characters in the serial number of a specific problem or a sign of a counter connected to the
other denominations issued
- Many have missed the date, there are many days or weeks gap between one and the subsequent counter-sign
- Note the different denominations issued on the same date with different sign cons
- It seems that a range of sequence numbers is used to sign a counter that includes all the notes issued
from the entire period
- There are some exceptions in which the later date has a number of counter low marks
- No combination of different character serial number of a particular denomination with
same counter-sign.
- Changes from 4 to 5 digits occur in the course of 1918
- Note EXAMPLE frequently have signs that are not suitable to deviate counter the usual sequential increase
counter-sign and date.
Clearly, the Bank managed the Netherlands will keep detailed records of the security code and
dates and serial numbers of all paper money issued. It is unknown whether this note De Javasche
Banks still exist in archives somewhere today, although there are rumors that this record is still
present in the archives of Bank Indonesia in Jakarta.
Based on the “Note by PJ Soetens, former conservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), the archive
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, The Netherlands “, I conclude that the Bank used the sign of De Javasche cons
number to identify a separate batch of unfinished bills are transported between
various departments, where they were printed with the serial number and signature, and finally
stored in a vault teller before circulation
Archives of Enschede Museum contains many original orders, production records,
delivery of information and also letters from Batavia where Javasche Bank confirms receipt
shipments. The author makes an overview of all this data and be able to specify the exact amount of
issued notes for each date of issuance. The number of issued notes mentioned in the summary below
should be regarded as a minimum. There is strong evidence that these figures actually incurred.
Although it is possible that more records were published, the opportunity – while there is no distinct
detailed records mention them – very small.
Here is an overview of the different banknotes and their varieties are printed in Johan
Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem, the Netherlands which will be issued by the De Javasche Bank in Batavia,
Dutch East Indies. Although there are rumors about another date of issue and signature combinations,
Overview below lists only those banknotes and varieties that writers have sufficient evidence that
they actually exist.
Java Auction Catalog (7), Cookies (15) and Mevius (16) mentions Van Duyn as a signatory, but
no one by that name is part of the board of DJB during the period. It seems that the signature
of H.P.J. van den Berg (Secretary of 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) has been mistaken as it looks like
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, brother of the past president of the Bank Javasche NP van den Berg,
appointed as successor to President Groeneveld is on January 17, 1899, but died on February 9, 1899
in Nice, before actually starting his new position.



5 Gulden

1 Oktober 1866
issued : 100,000

10 Gulden

 1 Februari 1864
issued : 350.000

25 Gulden

1 Agustus 1864
issued : 120.000


50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
withdrawed l 1872 becaus e too many counterfiet circulated
issued : 40.000

100 Gulden

1 Maret 1864
issued : 60.000

200 Gulden


1 Januari 1864
issued : 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” and two  “200”  __________________________________________________________________________

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
issued : 6.000

500 Gulden

197 – 1 Juni 1864
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

issued : 2.000

1000 Gulden


 1 Juli 1864
issued : 14,998


Ordonasi Reveneu

the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,





original info:

Maar natuurlijk hebben we ook een schets van iemand anders met een van de beroemde Javaanse Waringinbomen, een mistieke boom die nooit gekapt mocht worden, want in de boom wonen boomgeesten.


        Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor

de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes



Cresonnier overleed in 1870, zijn familie verkocht het hotel aan Theodoor Gallas die het op zijn beurt weer verkocht in 1886 aan Jacob Lugt voor dfl 177.000,=. Lugt breidde het hotel fors uit met allerlei grondaankopen van de buren. In 1897 werd zelfs de N.V. Hotel Des Indes door Lugt opgericht, want in de jaren negentig ontstond er in de kolonie een economische depressie. Door die N.V. was Lugt niet meer persoonlijk aansprakelijk.



Since the establishment of the VOC in the seventeenth century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been founded on business. However from the mid-nineteenth century it was Dutch national expansionism, in line with the prevailing empire-building outlook of Europe during the era of New Imperialism, that saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions.[8] The most prolonged of these was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.[7] Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century,[3] however, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894,[9] and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895.[7].


Akhir abad ke-19. Belanda menata ulang pemerintahan Priangan dan membaginya menjadi 9 afdeeling (Jerman: Abteilung).

Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya IV. Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906)
memperoleh penghargaan bintang Oranye Nassau dari Belanda



1303895796646361216Di bawah ini beberapa nama bupati di daerah(the regent Of)  Priangan,yakni:

1. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.

2. Bupati Bandung X (1893-1918), sewaktu muda diberi nama Kusumaningrat, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Raden Adipati Aria Martanegara, dan setelah pensiun hingga wafat digelari Kangjeng Burujul karena setelah pensiun ia tinggal di desa Burujul, Sumedang.

3. Bupati Cianjur IX (1834-1862), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Hasan, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Dalem Pancaniti karena selama menjadi bupati ia lebih senang tinggal di paviliyun kabupaten yang biasa disebut pancaniti dari pada tinggal dibangunan utama kabupaten.

4. Bupati Limbangan yang memerintah antara tahun 1836-1871, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Jenon, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal dengan nama Tumenggung Jayaningrat, dan setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiratanuningrat VII. Setelah pensiun dan wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Sepuh (Bupati Tua).

5. Bupati Sukapura yang memerintah antara tahun 1855-1975, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Raden Tanuwangsa, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Tumenggung Wiratanubaya, setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiradadaha. Setelah wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Bogor karena ia dibuang ke Bogor oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda akibat dianggap kurang loyal.

Ada beberapa yang mendapat julukan Dalem Bintang karena mereka mendapat tanda jasa berupa gouden ster Nederlandsche-Leeuw (bintang mas singa Belanda), misalnya RAA. Wiranatakusumah IV  Bupati Bandung (1846-1874), R. Adipati Wirahadiningrat Bupati Sukapura (1874-1904).



 The development occurred after the Bandung railway transport operations to and from the city since 1884.
 Because the city of Bandung serves as a center of railroad transportation “West Lin”, it has encouraged the development of life in the city of Bandung with the increase in population from year to year.
At the end of the 19th century, the population of the European group number has reached thousands of people and demands an autonomous institution that can take care of their interests. Meanwhile the central government realized the failure of centralized government system following the implementation of its impact. Therefore, the government arrive at a policy to replace the system of government with a system of decentralization, decentralization not only in finance, but also decentralization in the field of government granting autonomy (zelfbestuur)
 In this case, the government of Bandung regency under the leadership of Regent RAA Martanagara (1893-1918) welcomed the idea of ​​the colonial government. Ongoing autonomous government in Bandung, means the district gets a special budget fund from the previous colonial government did not exist.



04/12/1889 – 19/09/1893 S.B. Zeverijn
Altough the board recommended Buijskes to become the next President, the Governor General appointed S. B .Zeverijn to that position by decree of August 21, 1889. Zeverijn was forced because of illness to leave for Europe on March 1, 1893 where he died on December 13, 1893.


29/09/1893 – 21/12/1898  D. Groeneveld
Groeneveld, serving as Director zince 1877, was promoted to President of the Bank per decree of September 29, 1893. After more than five years as President, Groeneveld died on December 21, 1898. Groeneveld was the first President that came from the Bank’s own personnel.


The road is now called Jalan Asia-Afrika in memory of the conference.

Indonesia: Bandung picture 2

Mileposts on the road were numbered starting at Bandung. Rapid growth of the city, however, began only after the railroad from Batavia (now Jakarta) arrived in 1884


schitterende plattegrond van Batavia te vinden op Aad’s Nederlands-Indië site :

Batavia in 1897

Batavia plattegrond 1897

Meer foto’s en plattegronden van Batavia kun je vinden via deze LINK
Als je onbekend bent in het Batavia van toen, dan is het even zoeken, maar we gaan het hebben over nummer 10….:

Hotel Des Indes

Het noordelijke gedeelte van Batavia werd de Benedenstad genoemd, het zuidelijke gedeelte de Bovenstad. Het zuidelijke gedeelte van Batavia lag wat hoger, vandaar de naam Bovenstad

In de 18e eeuw werd het leven van de in de Benedenstad wonende Europeanen steeds ondragelijker, de grote rivier de Tjiliwoeng die door de stad stroomde, begon steeds meer te stinken, je mag zelf raden waardoor. Ook zakte het waterpeil steeds verder door dichtslibben van de rivier monding.

Een citaat uit dit verhaal:

The Earliest Netherland Oost Indie revenue

The Ned Oost Indie Revenue  sheet , embosed noncolour , nominal:

Quater G

 half G

,one G

,one and  half

two Gld

,four Gld

Six Gld

and 12 guilders.


In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was opened, boosting light industry and bringing in Chinese workers.


Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)


All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894





2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
Tombolouh Tribe at Minahasa
 in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 

religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

 NED.INDIE REVENUE STAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenth century, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.


Although parts of Java were under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including






, and




It was not until the early 20th century, that Dutch dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.


The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830


In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[9]


 In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.


 Dutch control was restored in 1816.[10]


Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]


The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) 


 the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[11]


. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 interventionbrought northern Bali under Dutch control.


The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan









Father van der Grinten was the head pastor of the Catholic Church of Batavia – the first Catholic church in Batavia – located at the corner of Lapangan Banteng (a large open square situated in an European enclave and formerly known as Waterloopein).

 It was built over the former residence of the Dutch East Indies military commander General Hendrik Merkus de Kock (who later was made Baron for his triumph over Prince Diponegoro in the Java war).

The church was inaugurated on 6 November 1829 and blessed by the head pastor at that time, Father L. Prinsen,  as “The Church of Our Lady of Assumption”. It measured 35 long by 17 metres wide, consisted of a large hall with rows of pillars on either side in the neo-gothic style, a common architectural style for churches at the time. Father van der Grinten lived in the priest’s residence on the east wing of the church, while the sacristan lived in the west wing.


 Sir T. Stamford Raffles, who was among them in 1820, found some of their law



 In 1840 Batavia had 537, and, in 1880, 1015 inhabitants


Cafe Batavia


 a building in the old Jakarta city area just across the square of Fatahillah, the main attraction is the interior. It was constructed between 1805-1850, and underwent a renovation in 1993. The Cafe Batavia  was established in 1930.


The Postal history used cover from Honolulu hawai via manila to Batavia.

Postmarks front and back of this cover are Honolulu, March 11, 1852, Manila, May 19 and June 17, Hong Kong, June 21, Canton, July 2 along with a Canton PAID mark, and again Hong Kong on July 22. This cover, addressed to Batavia via a forwarder in Canton, was carried to Manila by the Bremen bark Ceres, departing April 3, 1852. The letter next went from Manila to Hong Kong and paid a single letter rate of 4 pence (represented by the black “4” over the Honolulu postmark). At Hong Kong, the letter was sent to the forwarder in Canton at another 4 pence rate (represented by the red “4” in the upper left corner). The forwarder crossed out his name, paid postage to Singapore (1 shilling represented by a red squiggle over the Honolulu postmark) and sent it back down to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong, the letter was carried to Singapore by the P&O steamship Malta (July 23 departure; July 31 arrival) under British mail contract, and then to Batavia by local shipping. The “48” is said to represent a Batavia local rate, typically written with the same type of ink


the famous “Batavia Cover” shown below.

52 - Mar 11 Batavia cover
52 - Mar 11 Batavia Cover backstamps - OFF



Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, an official of the Dutch East Indies government, was born in Samarang (present-day Semarang in Central Java) on 11th July 1800 and passed away on 4th January 1857 in Batavia. He was the former Dutch resident of Pasuruan (in east Java, near to the city of Surabaya), and he was also knighted and conferred the Order of the Netherlands Lion, a Dutch order awarded to eminent individuals from all walks of life, including generals, ministers, mayors, leading scientists, industrialists and high ranking civil servants, among others


Photograph of night watchmen in Batavia by Isidore van Kinsbergen, 1865

Painting of Mount Merapi erupting in 1865, by Raden Saleh


In 1866 ,
 Bickmore stories …
Prof. Albert S. Bickmore was traveling in Sumatra, he saw not a little of these people, and he believed then that the place where their aboriginal civilization sprang up was very likely on the shores of that famous Sumatran lake, Lake Toba, and upon the neighboring plateau of Silindung. From this locality they gradually occupied an extensive domain in the in- terior, which was extended upon either side to the seacoast. Eventually, however, the Malays spread along the coast line, and thus confined the Battaks once more to the interior.
The origin of the Battas is doubtful
Battas or Dutch Battaks, the inhabitants of the formerly independent Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area extends from 9 8 °-99° 35′ E., and 2°-3° 25′ S. North-east of Toba Lake dwell the Timor Batta [ Batak Timur = Simalungun now, red], and west of it the Pakpak [Dairi, red ], but on its north (in the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Batta [ Batak Karo , red ] form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus [ suku Gayo , red ] and Alias [suku Alas : red] occupying the interior of Achin [Aceh : red ].
The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese, Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population seems to have been long going on.

Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type
The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.[± 160-170 cm , red ]; of the women 4 ft. 8 in [± 130 – 140 cm , red ].
The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food
In general build they are rather thickset, with broad shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skulll is rather ovall than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the large, black, longshaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language of their own, and yet are cannibals.
Battaks have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism
The more civilized of them around Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal; system, the letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism.
( see: Memoirs of the Life, &c., of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1830.)
Battaks is mainly confined to a belief in three gods concept
The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in evil spirits, but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and a Destroyer, like a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.
Up to the publication of Dr H. N. van der Tuuk’s essay, Over schrift en uitspraak der Tobasche taal (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be found in W. Marsden’s Miscellaneous Works, in F. W. Junghuhn’s Battalander, and in the Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (Bataksch Leesboek, in 4 vols., 1861-1862; Batakschnederduitsch Woordenboek, 1861; Tobasche Spraakkunst, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra.
Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects
According to him, it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (Die Battas in ihrem Verheiltnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra, 1874) endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the first and second have again two subdivisions each.
The Battas further possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the Hata Andung, or language of the wakes, and the Hata Poda or the soothsayer’s language.
A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is very general among them. Battaks’s alphabet is said, with the Rejang and Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin.
The language is written on bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft, in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose, occasionally varied by verse.’
See also “Reisen nach dem Toba See,” Petermanns Mitteil. (1883); Modigliani, Fra i Batacchi indipendenti (Rome, 1892); Neumann, “Het Paneen Bilastroomgebiad,” Tydschr. Aardr. Gen., 1885-1887; Van Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894; Niemann in the Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Wurzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, 21 Jahre in Indien, Java, Sumatra (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G. P. Rouffaer, Die BatikKunst in niederlcindisch-Indien and ihre Geschichte (Haarlem, 1899).


House in Batavia, from Le Tour du Monde, 1879


The church of Our Lady of Assumption at waterlooplein stood until 9 April 1890 when it collapsed due to old age and poor maintenance.

A new church was rebuilt in its place between 1891 and 1901 and today it stands as the Jakarta Cathedral. The church is acknowledged as an integral instrument for the spread of Roman Catholicism in Java during the 19th century.


Antique Maps ofSoutheast Asia



Thailand, Birma & Andaman Sea
Servet, Michael

Tabula XI Asiae.

Lyon, Servet 1535 [37,3 x 50,3 cm]
Early woodcut map of the East Indies, published in the Ptolemy edition by M. Servet, showing Southeast Asia with Thailand, Burma and the Malaysian Archipel. The paper with watermark anchor in a circle. The cartographic woodblock was published here in 1535 by Michael Trechsel in Lyon and contained text by Michael Servetus. The paper with watermark anchor in a circle. The map is illustrated on the reverse side with descriptive text in Latin and a decorative woodblock border, probably by Hans Holbein, who was working at that time in Basle. An early decorative woodcut map of the Indian Ocean and its adjacenting regions of the gulf of Siam, Central Asia with the Ganges Delta and the region north of it towards the Himalayas. An early and interesting map depicting the northern part of the East Indies. With engraved place names, where cities are shown as small schematic engraved woodcut town views, further with engraved rivers and the mountains are shown mainly as schematic chains.
A strong and even impression on the full paper sheet as published. A minor very skillful restoration in the upper and lower centre fold. In very good to excellent condition.
[Stock No.:25235]
Full description

Antique Map Thailand, Birma & Andaman Sea Servet, Michael

click on image toClick Here to ZOOMClick Here to ZOOM

Bali (Indonesia)
De Bry, Theodor

Contrasantung der Insel Baln 27

Frankfurt, de Bry 1598-1613 [13,8 x 17,8 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22351]
Full description

Antique Map Bali (Indonesia) De Bry, Theodor


Click Here to ZOOM


East Indies
Mercator, Gerard

India Orientalis

Amsterdam, I.E. Cloppenburgh, 1632 [19 x 26 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published. A fine copy in a dark impression, full margins as published. This is the first so-called Cloppenburgh editions which was a competive edition with new engraved maps in a larger format. Most of the maps were engraved by Pieter van den Keere. The Cloppenburgh edition was continued for a couple of years but seems to have been suppressed after 1636 … . This is another Cloppenburgh edition, now with Latin text. The maps from the Appendix have been incorporated. The title-page is followed by a dedication to Prince Frederik Hendrik, dated 1632 and signed by Johannes Cloppenburgh. (Koeman Atlantes Neerlandici).
In excellent condition. Koeman, ME 200
[Stock No.:20858]
Full description

Antique Map East Indies Mercator, Gerard

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Southeast Asia
Jansonnius, Joan. & Hondius, Hendric

Indiae Orientalis Nova Descriptio

Amsterdam, Joan. Janssonius. 1638 [39,3 x 50,5 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Decorative map of the East Indies by J. Jansson, first published in Amsterdam 1630. An important map for Southeast Asia and the discovery of Australia. New Guinea is marked as ‘Duyfkens Eyland’, the (Is)land next to it is called ‘Nieu Zeelandt’. The island Duyfkens is named after the ship ‘Duyfken’, which discovered Australia.
In excellent condition. Koeman I [8500:1B] Latin text edition.
[Stock No.:24657]
Full description

Antique Map Southeast Asia Jansonnius, Joan. & Hondius, Hendric

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Maluku Islands (Spice Islands)
Blaeu, Joan & Guiljelmus

Moluccae Insulae Celeberrimae.

Amsterdam, G. & J. Blaeu. 1640-43 [37,5 x 48,8 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash. A highly decorative map of the so-called ‘Spice Islands’, equipped with two highly decorative cartouches, one of them with an inset map of ‘Bachian Island’. Further on this map is highly decorated with sailing ships, sea monsters and compass roses in the sea. A very good example published in a Latin text edition of the ‘Atlas Novus’, wide full margins and outstanding hand coloring.
In excellent condition. Koeman II [8560:2.2]
[Stock No.:12745]
Full description

Antique Map Maluku Islands (Spice Islands) Blaeu, Joan & Guiljelmus

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Molucc Islands
Janssonius, Joan.

Insularum Moluccarum Nova Descritio

Amsterdam, Joan. Janssonius. 1640 [38,5 x 50 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Sea chart of the Molucca Islands, the so-called ‘Spice Islands’. The map is very detailed showing the Islands with its plantations further the map is equipped with sailing ships and sea monsters in the ocean.
In very good to excellent condition. The paper minor toned.
[Stock No.:14279]
Full description

Antique Map Molucc Islands Janssonius, Joan.

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Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
Rossi, Giovanni Iacomo

Penisola Dell India di la dal Gange Diusa ne i Regni, che in essasi contengono et accresciuta di varie notizie. Da Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola e conforme le Relationi di alcuni Padri della Compa di Giesu di Monsu Tavernier, Mandeslo e d`altri Illustri Viaggiatori del nostro Secolo. Data in Luce da Gio: Giaco de Rossi in Roma alla Pce con priu del Sommo Pont. 1683.

Roma, Gio. Iacomo Rossi 1683 [52,5 x 40,5 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published. Detailed rare map of Malaysia, Sumatra, Malakka, Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. A highly detailed map of Southeast Asia with detailed engraved place names, rivers, political border, mountains and lakes. Fine engraved map by Giacomo Cantelli (1643-95) based on the cartographic source after Melchior Tavernier. This map was engraved by Franciscus Doria. The cartographer of this map is Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola (1643-1695), he worked in Modena in Italy and published many maps in Giovanni Iacomo Rossi’s atlas in Rome.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:24202]
Full description

Antique Map Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand Rossi, Giovanni Iacomo


Southeast Asia
Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria

Isole Dell’ Indie, divise in Filippine, Molucche, e della Sonda, Descritte, e Dedicate Dal P. Coronelli …

Venice, V. Coronelli 1689 [45 x 60 cm]
Fine copper-engraving, uncolored as published. Large and detailled engraved map showing Southeast Asia from the Andaman Sea with Thailand in the northwest towards the northwestern coast of Australia (Nuova Hollanda) in the southeast. The map itself covers Sumatra, Borneo, the Philipines and other places in Southeast Asia very accurately. The map was published in Coronelli’s ‘Atlante Veneto’. It is ornated with a decorative title cartouche showing (sea)-cherubs holding a coat of arm. The title cartouche contains as well the dedication to the Venice royal house. In the upper right corner we find another decorative cartouche with a mileage scale. The engraving contains many details like small villages or cities, rivers, mountains and details on the coast line with its small islands and its bays.
A strong impression in excellent condition.
[Stock No.:16978]
Full description

Antique Map Southeast Asia Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria

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Van der Aa, Pieter

D’Oost-Indize landschappen, zeen en eylanden, door de Portugysen en anderen ontdekt en bevaren.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,5 x 28 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
2nd state of this map, with the engraved ‘Privilege’ below the lower borderline. Still a good and acceptable copy. On the full sheet as published, however minor cut within the upper engraved borderline. The map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15564]
Full description

Antique Map  Van der Aa, Pieter

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Van der Aa, Pieter

De Moluccos, of speceri-dragende eilanden tussen Gilolo en Celebes gelegen.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,6 x 22,7 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
Printed on the full sheet as published; the map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15607]
Full description

Antique Map Molukken Van der Aa, Pieter

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Van der Aa, Pieter

Het eiland Java zoo als het sederd de tyden der Portugysen by de Ed. Oost-indize maatschappye bekend geworden en bevaren is.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,7 x 23 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
Printed on the full sheet as published; the map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15604]
Full description

Antique Map Java Van der Aa, Pieter

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Molukken & Celebes
Van der Aa, Pieter

De Moluccos en andere speceri-eilanden in d’oostindien.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,9 x 23,5 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
On the full sheet as published, however minor cut within the upper engraved borderline. The map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15606]
Full description

Antique Map Molukken & Celebes Van der Aa, Pieter

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Moluccs / Gammalamm
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Stadt Gamenlamm – Gammalamme

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative scene from the sea towards the city of Gammalamm in the Molucc islands.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18528]
Full description

Antique Map Moluccs / Gammalamm Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Stadt Waradin. – Waradin.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Bird’s eye view of the city of Waradin with its fortifications and the nearer surroundings.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18533]
Full description

Antique Map Waradin Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Molucc Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die malucesische Inselen. – Isle Molucque.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Bird’s eye view of the Molucc Islands (Gammalamma, Ternate, Miterra, Tidoro, Pottebackers, Timor, Machian, Tabittola, Bachian and others). Decorative ornated with fireing canon sailing boats.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18537]
Full description

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Antique Map Molucc Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Batavia – Jakarta
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Cutadel u Batavia – Citadelle de Batavia – Batavia – die Stadt Batavia.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative view of Batavia (Jakarta) from the sea with fireing canon boats in front of the port, above a small scene of the citadelle of Jakarta.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18538]
Full description

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Antique Map Batavia - Jakarta Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Sunda Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inselen von Sont gegen Orient. – Isles dela Sonde vers l’Orient.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Small and decorative map of the Sunda Islands (Celebes, Timor, Banda, Ceran, etc.) with the neighbouring Borneo, Phillipines and Papua seen again East.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18539]
Full description

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Antique Map Sunda Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Cocos Palms
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Balmen Beume – Palmiers

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative scene of three large Cocos Palms with a plantage in the background.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18545]
Full description

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Antique Map Cocos Palms Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Habitans des Isles dela Sonde – Von den Einwohnern der Insulen Sonde

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22273]
Full description

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Antique Map Habitans Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Molvoques – Die Mohiebeser

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:21654]
Full description

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Antique Map  Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Larron Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inwohner der Diebs Inseln. – Habitans des Isles des Larrons

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Scene of two inhabitants of the Larron Islands.
In very good condition.
[Stock No.:22281]
Full description

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Antique Map Larron Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Sunda Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inseln von Sonte gegen Occident – Isles de la sonde vers occident.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in wash and outline. Small and decorative map of the Sunda Islands seen again West with Sumatra, Java, the neighboring gulf of Siam and Bengal and Borneo. Ornated with a maritime title cartouche.
In very good condition.
[Stock No.:22289]
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Antique Map Sunda Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Habitans des Isles dela Sonde – Von den Einwohnern der Insulen Sonde

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:21631]
Full description

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Antique Map  Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Southeast Asia
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inselen von Sonte gegen Orient. – Isles dela Sonde versi Orient

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in wash and outline.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22525]
Full description

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Antique Map Southeast Asia Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Borneo, Sumatra & Java
Ottens, Ioachim

Le Royaume de Siam Avec les Royaumes qui luy sont Tributaires, et Les Isles de Sumatra, Andemaon, etc. et les Isles Voisine Avec les Observations des Six Peres Jesuites Envojez par le Roy en Qualite de Ses Mathematiciens dans les Indes, et a la Chine ou est aussi Tracee. La Route qu’ils ont tenue par le Detroit de la Sonde Jusqu a Siam. A Amsterdam Chez Ioachim Ottens.

Amsterdam, Ottens 1730-45 [48,5 x 55,8 cm]
Copper engraving handcolored in outline when published. A strong and fine impressions of this detailled map of Sumatra, Borneo, Java and the Sunda islands. With many detailled engraved informations along the coastlines, names of villages, rivers, small islands, sand banks with depths, etc. Ship routes from Batavia to Siam are as well engraved. The map is equipped in the lower right right corner with a small milage scale.
A fine copy of this map, in original outline color and in a strong impression.
[Stock No.:17327]
Full description

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Antique Map Borneo, Sumatra & Java Ottens, Ioachim

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Southeast Asia
Mortier, Cornelius & Covens, Jean

Carte des Indes et de la Chine.
Dressee sur plusieurs Relations particulieres Rectisiees par quelques Observations. Par Guillaume de L`Isle de l’Academie Royale des Sciences. A. Amsterdam chez Iean Covens et Corneille Mortier.
Amsterdam, Covens, I. & Mortier, C. 1745 [65 x 62,8 cm]
Contemporary colored in outline. Decorative and detailed map of Southeast Asia.
Left margin cut close into the engraved border. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible. Still in very good condition.
[Stock No.:12729]
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Antique Map Southeast Asia Mortier, Cornelius & Covens, Jean

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Molucc Islands
Bellin, Nicolaus

Besondere Karte von den Moluckischen Eylanden.

Leipzig, Merkur 1752 [21,5 x 15,5 cm]
Copper engraving, decorative handcolored in wash and outline. A fine and detailed map showing the little Molucc Islands Ternate, Miterra, Tidor, Pottebackers, Timor (Mothir), Machian, Manen and Bachian located nearby the island of Gilolo. With engraved place names on the map, as well a few anchor places or other small detaills are engraved. Below the title a small mileage scale. Detailled and interesting map engraved by Bellin after earlier voyages.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18543]
Full description

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Antique Map Molucc Islands Bellin, Nicolaus

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Philippines & Southeast Asia
Bonne, M.

La Presqu`Isle de L’Inde – au dela du Gange, avec L`Archpel des Indes. Partie Orientale. – Par M. Bonne, Ingenieur-Hydrographe de la Marine.

Paris, M. Bonne 1771 [34,7 x 23,5 cm]
Copper-engraving, decorative handcolored in outline and wash. Decorative map of Southeast Asia by the French cartographer Bonne showing the Phillipines, Borneo, the Celebe islands, Indonesia and the Mollucces. Many of the islands a named and with a few place names equipped.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18196]
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Antique Map Philippines & Southeast Asia Bonne, M.

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Awatska (Kamtschatka), Macao & Japan
Bonne, Rigobert

Plan du Haure de St. Pierre et St. Paul. – Plan de la Baye D`Awatska, sur la Cote Orientale. Du Kamtschatka. – Plan du Typa ou de Macao. – Partie du Japon ou Nipon.

Paris, M. Bonne 1785 [34,5 x 23,5 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18188]
Full description

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Antique Map Awatska (Kamtschatka), Macao & Japan Bonne, Rigobert

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East Indies
Reinecke, I.C.M.

Charte von Ostindien Diesseits und Jenseits des Ganges nach den neuesten astronom. Beobachtungen auch andern sichern Huelfsmitteln neu entworfen und nach der lezten Zertheilung des Mysorischen Reichs berichtiget von I.C.M. Reinecke. Weimar im Verlage des Geograph. Instituts. revidirt im Aug. 1804.

Weimar, Geographisches Institut 1804 [47,1 x 86 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash when published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:20936]
Full description

Antique Map East Indies Reinecke, I.C.M.

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Street of Malaka
Petermann, A.

Karte von Malaka und Naning, nach Aufnahmen und andern Quellen gez. von A. Petermann. – Der Dieksand oder Friederichs-Koog, nach der Aufnahme von Wiechers u. Kroehnke gez. von A. Petermann

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1857 [24,7 x 19,3 cm]
Lithograph, original hand color in outline.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22393]
Full description

Antique Map Street of Malaka Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Orographisch_physikalische Karte von Java. Die Grundlage nach der grossen Karte von Dr. F. Junghuhn,
Die Hoehenverhaeltnisse nach allen bisherigen hypsometrischen Messungen von: Blueme, Lange, Forsten, Hasskarl, Herwer, Hoerner, Jukes, Junghuhn, Maier, Melvill, Mueller, Reinwardt, Smits, Zollingen u. a. – Von A. Petermann
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1860 [24,7 x 42,6 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22390]
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Antique Map Java Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Die suedlichen Batta-Laender auf Sumatra. Hauptsaechlich nach Angaben und Zeichnungen Rheinischer Missionare, (namentlich Chr. Leipoldt & W. Heine) & des Ingenieurs Nagel. – Unter Redaktion von A. Petermann.

Gotha, Justus Perthes 1876 [36,1 x 22,9 cm]
Original lithograph, handcolored in outline and wash when published. The map shows the southern ‘Batta countries’ on Sumatra, after notes of missionares from Germany, mainly Chr. Leipoldt & W. Heine and the Ing. Nagel. With an inset map of the mission regions.
In excellent condition. The map was originally folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visable.
[Stock No.:18193]
Full description

Antique Map Sumatra Petermann, A.

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Veth, D.D.

Originalkarte des mittleren Sumatra zur Uebersicht der Wissenschaftlichen Expedition 1877 bis 1879. – Mit Benutzung der Aufnahmen von Schouw Santvoort, Cornelissen & Makkini – gezeichnet von D. D. Veth. Mitglied der Expedition

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1880 [38,1 x 58,2 cm]
Original lithograph in colors, printed in colors and handcolored in outline. Detailled map of central Sumatra, providing an overview of the scientific expedition 1877-79. Using the mappings by Schouw Santvoort, Cornelissen and Makkink. The map is providing an enormous amount on information on the river system, the mountains and trails in Sumatra. A detailled map.
In excellent condition. The map was originally folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visable.
[Stock No.:14273]
Full description

Antique Map Sumatra Veth, D.D.

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Island Saleijer
Petermann, A.

Originalkarte der Insel Saleijer im Ostindischen Archipel. – Aufgenommen u. gezeichnet von H. E. D. Engelhard.

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1886 [52,6 x 20,3 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22429]
Full description

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Antique Map Island Saleijer Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Karte der Alluvial-Bildungen in Bancka. – Von Dr. Th. Posewitz.

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1886 [19,3 x 24,2 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22435]
Full description

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Antique Map Sumatra Petermann, A.

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Celebes Island
Petermann, A.

Topographische Skizze aus dem Ostarm der Insel Celebes
Aufgenommen im Februar und Maerz 1905 von Dr. J. Wagner
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1914 [41,5 x 38,7 cm]
Lithograph, original color as published.
In excellent condition. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible.
[Stock No.:19242]
Full description

Antique Map Celebes Island Petermann, A.

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Molucc Islands
Petermann, A.

Die Molukkeninsel Misol
Aufgenommen von O. D. Tauern August bis Oktober 1911 – Gezeichnet unter Benutzung der niederlaendischen Seekarten.
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1915 [37,8 x 46,6 cm]
Lithograph, hand colored in outline when published. This decortative map shows the Molucc island Misol. Inside the map are many rivers and mountains shown. At the bottom we look at a panorama from Djawaplolo at Fanfanlolo.
In excellent condition. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible.
[Stock No.:19240]
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Antique Map Molucc Islands Petermann, A.

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President of Javasche bank

25/03/1899 – 18/02/1906 J. Reijsenbach
Reijsenbach was President of the Javasche Bank from March 25, 1899. After the Eight Exclusive Right was established, Reijsenbach resigned and was honorably discharged per February 28, 1906. Reijsenbach died on December 1, 1918.


01/07/1906 – 31/10/1912 G. Vissering (LL.M.)
By decree of February 2, 1906, Vissering,  Director of the Amsterdamsche Bank was appointed as Director of the Javasche Bank.Vissering resigned on October 31, 1912.31/10/1912 – 01/07/1924 E.A. Zeilinga Azn.
In April 1907 Zeilinga started as Director of the Bank and was promoted to President per October 31, 1912. Zeilinga resigned after almost 12 years of serving as President and was honorably discharged on July 1, 1924. (Azn.stands for the Dutch “Abrahamzoon” which means “Son of Abraham”)


unidentified building in batavia postcard 1907


The first of Bandung’s university, the Technische Hogeschool (TH) was established on July 3, 1920. Now known as the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), TH’s alumni include independence leader and first president Soekarno.



Military leaders and Dutch politicians said they had a moral duty to free the Indonesian peoples from indigenous rulers who were oppressive, backward, or did not respect international law.[10] Although Indonesian rebellions broke out, direct colonial rule was extended throughout the rest of the archipelago from 1901 to 1910 and control taken from the remaining independent local rulers.[11] Southwestern Sulawesi was occupied in 1905–06, the island of Bali was subjugated with military conquests in 1906 and 1908, as were the remaining independent kingdoms in Maluku, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Nusa Tenggara.[12][7] Other rulers including the Sultans of Tidore in Maluku, Pontianak (Kalimantan), and Palembang in Sumatra, requested Dutch protection from independent neighbours thereby avoiding Dutch military conquest and were able to negotiate better conditions under colonial rule.[13] The Bird’s Head Peninsula (Western New Guinea), was brought under Dutch administration in 1920. This final territorial range would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.


Under the Decentralization Act (Decentralisatiewet) issued in 1903 and the Decree on decentralization (Decentralisasi Besluit) and the Local Council Ordinance (Ordinance Raden Locale) from the date of 1 April 1906 set as the gemeente (municipality) the governing otonomom. The decision further strengthens the function of the city of Bandung as a center of government, especially Dutch Colonial government in Bandung. Originally Gemeente Bandung
Led by the Assistant Resident Priangan as Chairman of the Board of the City (Gemeenteraad), but since 1913, led by burgemeester gemeente (mayor).


Kubu Tribe



the end

The Phillipine Historic Collections 1700-1800


The Philippine Historic Collections 1700-1800

The Philippine Historic Collections 1700-1800


Red Shirts Over Manila: The Philippines Under The British Empire



You may agree with me or not, but most of us Filipinos believed that the Spanish, Americans and Japanese were the ONLY foreign countries that ruled philippine land. But in reality, we had some shares of unwelcome visitors that ravaged the motherland. The British had the largest empire the world has ever seen by the late 19th century but 200 years before that, Spain was the mistress of the world as her empire stretched from the North and South America, Africa and Asia. It was her crowning glory and as a fitting tribute to her glory, its dubbed as “Siglo de Oro.” Despite her achievements, she remained envious of her enemies like the British, French and the Dutch. Because of this, she waged countless colonial wars against her adversaries and even attempted to invade the British Isles itself — the first since Guillaume duc D’Normandie (William the Conqueror) and followed by the likes of Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler.
A formidable British armada was assembled at the mouth of the Manila Bay

in preparation for its ground assault against the Spanish defenders of the Walled City

(Credits: /

Little did we know that as a Spanish colony, the Philippines is a prime target by Spain’s enemies. A century earlier, the Spanish colonial government managed to rally the Filipinos against the Dutch invaders in the decisive battle at Playa Naval that defeated the likes of Olivier van Noort. But the British were a different enemy, it has a fearsome navy, which was second to none. This navy was the same navy that destroyed the vaunted Spanish Armada. And so a colonial war with the British would be a dagger in the Spanish presence in Asia. The real war did not happened in the colonies but in Europe itself.
The British invasion of the Philippines was brought about by the Seven Years’ War. Many historians believed that its was the first ‘world’ war because of the fact the European war later involved wars within their colonial possessions. The war actually started between Austria and Prussia over the province of Silesia. The conflict may have been heightened because of the previous War of the Austrian Succession. We all know most of the European countries are monarchies and obviously one way or another these countries are bounded thru blood, marriage and military alliances. To cut the long story short, Britain became involved because she was an ally of Prussia while Spain supported Austria because of the fact that they are both Catholic nations and having Hapsburg pedigree.
Spain and its allies (green) against Britain and its allies (blue)
Despite the name, war was waged throughout the world from 1754 to 1763 and was named as the French & Indian War in North America and the Third Carnatic War in India. Though the war ended in a bloody stalemate in the European front, which led to little changes in the status quo, its consequences in the colonies were wider ranging and longer lasting.
Spain at first did not take part in the growing European conflict due to the influence of its pro-British Prime Minister Ricardo Wall. However, with the accession of Charles III to the throne Spanish foreign policy began to change. The king was alarmed by the British conquest of the French colonies in North America and he believed that his own colonial possessions would be the next target. Charles offered support to France after the signing of the Bourbon Family Compact.
With evidence of growing Franco-Spanish cooperation, British Prime Minister William Pitt suggested it was only a matter of time before Spain entered the war. Despite cabinet opposition of a war against Spain and the resignation of Pitt, war with Spain swiftly became unavoidable, and on January 4, 1762 Britain duly declared war on Spain.
Almost as soon as war had been declared with Spain, orders had been despatched for a British force at Madras, India to proceed to the Philippines and invade Manila. On August 1762, about 1,600 soldiers, 4,000 marines and 14 ships were sent to invade the Philippines. And on September 23, 1762, the powerful fleet of Vice Admiral Samuel Cornish with the armies composed of regulars and colonial troops under the command of Brigadier General William Draper have started the siege of the walled city.
The British forces brilliantly executed their invasion plan
against the defenders of the walled city(Credits: /
The Spanish were in for a big surprise as an invading force that was more powerful than the Portuguese and Dutch forces they encountered suddenly appeared on the horizon. The colonial government were not aware that war was already been declared between both countries and so there was a general panic among the Spaniards in the Philippines.
Life in the Philippines before the war started were relatively peaceful despite some occurrences of rebellions against the Spanish and incursions from Muslim pirates and Dutch/Portuguese forces. One important thing about Spain’s ill-preparedness was the fact that the archipelago was governed by Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo. The long coastline of the archipelago mean that they have lots of ground to cover from an invasion force. The colony was mismanaged and was only funded by an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown. As a cost saving measure, and because the Spanish authorities never really contemplated a serious expedition against Manila by a European power, the 200 year old fortifications at Manila had not been much improved since first built by the Spanish. Despite the huge disadvantages, the Spaniards were able to rally the local population against the British forces by spreading propaganda that the “protestants” are going to kill everyone.
Draper’s forces quickly attached Moratta first and about 3 kilometers into the Intramuros, the British were able to capture a supply and ammunition dump filled with gunpowder and artillery supplies. The invasion force suffered minor casualties but pushed through the defenses. In the area of what is now Taft Avenue, the British brought their artillery reinforced by the captured Spanish supplies and placed their artillery spots in present-day Ermita and the church of the Nuestra Senora de Guia near the walled city. This set-up would create a shocking blow to the defenders because they will be fired upon by artillery shells from different angles.
The army that laid siege to the city was not large as expected but it was more disciplined and battle-trained than previous invaders who tried to defeat the Spanish. It was composed mostly of British East India Company soldiers, in other words mercenaries like the Indian sepoys.
The British forces bombarded the fortress into submission (in what was today’s ‘shock and awe’ approach used by the Americans in the Iraq War) and eventually antiquated wall gave way to the awesome firepower of the enemies. Intramuros’ defense were only manned by crack group of 1,000 men (only 565 of them were professional soldiers) led by Brigadier General Marcos de Villa Maidana. An armed militia was formed including Augustinian friars to defend the city.
On October 5, 1762, the night before the fall of the walled city of Manila, the Spanish military persuaded Archbishop Rojo to summon a council of war. But the British had successfully breached the walls of the bastion San Diego, dried up the ditch, dismounted the cannons of that bastion and the two adjoining bastions, San Andes and San Eugeno, set fire to parts of the town, and driven the Spaniards from the walls.
On October 6, 1762, the Spanish surrendered Manila at the cost of 400 wounded and 85 dead. Four days later, the British captured Cavite at the cost of 24 British casualties. The British were promised to be compensated by 4 million Mexican silver pesos so that the city will be spared from any looting and indiscriminate destruction of properties, but the Spanish only paid them 1 million pesos.
Don Simon de Anda continued his fight against the British by
establishing a separate government in Pampanga
(Credits: Traveler on Foot)
According to “Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on Manila in the Seven Years War,” by Nicholas Tracy, the Spanish military leaders recommended capitulation but Rojo would not consent. Tracy claimed that the only positive action from the council of war was the dispatch of Don Simón de Anda y Salazar to the provincial town in Bulacan to organize continued resistance to the British once Manila fell. I believed that the Spanish are still prepared to resist the British by establishing their government in Bulacan.
At that war council, the Real Audencia appointed de Anda Lieutenant Governor and Visitor-General. Shirley Fish noted in her book “When Britain ruled the Philippines, 1762-1764: the story of the 18th century British invasion of the Philippines during the Seven Years War,” that de Anda took a substantial portion of the treasury and official records with him, departing Fort Santigo through the postern of Our Lady of Solitude, to a boat on the Pasig River, and then to Bulacan. He transferred his headquarters from Bulacan to Bacolor, Pampanga, which was more secure from the British, and quickly obtained the powerful support of the Augustinians.
He raised an army of up to 10,000 men but almost all were ill-armed native Filipinos. And on October 8, 1762, he wrote to the archbishop that he had assumed the position of Governor and Capitan-General under statutes of the Indies which allowed for the devolution of authority from the Governor to the Audencia, of which he was the only member not captive by the British. He also demanded the royal seal, but Rojo declined to surrender it and refused to recognise de Anda’s self-proclamation as Governor and Capitan-General because he’s a ‘traitor.”
But the native troops were no match against the fusiliers and artillery fire and in one encounter, when an artillery shell decimated about 400 of them, the rag-tag militia scattered in disarray.
Even though, the British were successful in the campaign, they did not tried to occupy all parts of the colony and so they were contented in holding their possessions in Manila and Cavite. Prominent Filipino historian Gregorio Zaide claimed that virtually most of the country were still controlled by the Spanish and some Filipinos who decided to rebel against the Spanish like what Diego and Gabriela Silang did in the Ilocos. The British finally received a written surrender from the archbishop on October 30, 1762.
The terms of surrender proposed by the Real Audencia and agreed to by the British leaders, secured private property, guaranteed the Roman Catholic religion and its episcopal government, and granted the citizens of the former Spanish colony the rights of peaceful travel and of trade ‘as British subjects.’ Under superior British control, the Philippines would continue to be governed by the Real Audencia, the expenses of which were to be paid by Spain.
The controversies I want to point out is that, if the British got what they want, why did they left the Philippines in two years time. Though a peace treaty was signed after the Seven Years’ War wherein the British rose as a powerful imperialist nation by gaining more lands in the Americas and gaining a firm foothold in India by dislodging the French. I don’t what life would be under British control, could we be like Singapore or Malaysia? But such scenario is harder to contemplate. I believe it was the successful effort of de Anda to rally some Filipinos against the British and I think the British were contented in having the seat of power, Manila, under their hands rather than prolonging a potential gruesome guerilla war against the Spanish-Filipino forces. Besides, all was one already. But I believe having the entire archipelago would serve a big purpose for the British because of the islands’ strategic location. But just like a true gentleman, the British decided to return the Philippines back to Spanish control.
Some Sepoys remained in the Philippines
most of them settled in what is now Rizal province
Another interesting aspect of this British experience, some Sepoys who chose to stay in the country were said to be some of the ancestors of the people living in Angono and Cainta, Rizal, Fish relates. Former Manila mayor Ramon Bagatsing is believed to be a Sepoy descendant. Even some French mercenaries have married local women dedided to remain in the Philippines.


The Seven Years War was ended by the Treaty of Paris, which was signed on February 10, 1763. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Philippines had been taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony. Consequently no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Crown.
I used to think that it was back to status quo, meaning, no territorial changes as far as the Philippines is concerned. But the British established a fort in a little island of Balambangan (in what is now Mandah) in the Sulu archipelago as headquarters of its spice trade in Maluku as well as its transit point for the products bound for Malacca. That remained a secret to the Spanish authorities and was violation of the peace treaty signed in Paris.
Eventually, they have started to treat the natives harshly and they even went into the extent of punishing a local datu by tying him into a post at the local plaza. An on March 5, 1775, a group of Tausugs led by a certain Tenteng attacked the fort and killed all the soldiers manning it except for the commandant and his aides who managed to escape with their lives. They plundered the fort of all its weapons and valuables but the datus of Jolo were afraid that the British may attacked them and so they disengaged. Tenteng returned to Jolo a hero with his plundered 2,000 Mexican pesos and patrol boat to boot.
But the British hit back, without the Spanish knowing it, in 1803 with a force of 6 British East India Company ships, 300 British soldiers, 700 Sepoys, 200 Chinese mercenaries. They attacked Zamboanga but were successfully repelled and so they returned to Balambangan. On December 15, 1806, they decided to left the island for good and destroyed their fort.
It was in the later part of the 19th century that the British entered the scene once again and this time they decided to rent Sabah, a domain owned by the Sultan of Sulu.
The British incursion into the scene had a profound effect on the course of our history. It marked the decline and degradation of Spanish power in the islands. It also strengthened the belief that the Spanish were not strong after all and that its just a matter of time that Filipinos can declare their independence from foreign occupiers.




The Philippine Historic Collections 1800-1912



Manila fishermen, early 1800s





The Philippine Historic Collections 1800-1900

 Manila Bay, early 1800s


Bridge of Binondoc in Manila, early 1800s


“Officer and Privates of Infantry-1802-1810


the end of Manila Galleons

Two decades after Cabrillo explored the coast of California, other Spanish ships started appearing off of the California coast. For 250 years, from 1565 until 1815, Spanish galleons laden with the riches of the Orient–silks, porcelain, and spices–sailed annually from Manila in the Philippines bound for Acapulco on the west coast of Mexico.

A map of the Pacific Ocean, circa 1600.  Much of the coastline of the Pacific rim was uncharted.

Following instructions, the sailing masters steered the ships as near to 30 degrees north latitude as possible. They only journeyed further north to find favorable winds. After the long trip across the Pacific, the ships turned south upon seeing the first indications of land. This way, they would avoid the uncharted hazards of the California coast. If all went well, the first land seen by the sailors would be the tip of the Baja peninsula. The ship then sailed on to Acapulco. From this port city, much of the cargo was sent overland across Mexico and loaded at Vera Cruz onto ships bound for Havana, Cuba, where they would join the treasure fleet that sailed every year for Spain.

But, the voyages seldom went well. Galleons often had to sail far above 30 degree latitude to find favorable winds. Very poor conditions plagued the vessels. After the crossing, crews needed to replenish food, water, and other essentials. Many sailors became sick from scurvy and other diseases during the crossing. Leaking and worn out from the long but unfinished voyage, the ships were in danger of sinking. The galleons needed a port of refuge along the California coast where they could restock vital supplies and make repairs after the long trans-Pacific journey.

In 1594, the galleon San Augustin sailed from Manila with treasure. She had a secondary mission to scout good ports of refuge along the California coast. The ship arrived off the California coast near Trinidad Head, just south of the California-Oregon border. The ship continued down the coast to Drakes Bay, just north of San Francisco. While in the bay, the ship wrecked in a storm becoming the first known shipwreck in California. The sailors used one of the galleon’s launches to return to civilization. Today, National Park Service archeologists search for the remains of San Augustin.

Eight years after the loss of San Augustin, Sebastian Vizcaino sailed from Acapulco to explore upper California with three ships: San Diego, Santo Tomas, and Tres Reyes. The three ship flotilla traveled far to the north and one at a time each turned back to Mexico. Santo Tomas was first. After exploring as far north as Monterey, the ship returned with those sailors too sick to continue the journey. San Diego, commanded by Vizcaino reached 43 degrees north latitude before turning back because of sickness among the crew. Tres Reyes returned last. During the voyage up the coast to 43 degrees north latitude, her skipper and pilot died. With her leaders gone, the ship reversed course and headed south for home.

The Vizcaino expedition marked the end of official Spanish explorations of the California coast for almost two centuries. Often talked about expeditions to fortify and settle California did not happen. Yet, vessels continued to visit the coast. Spanish galleons continued to sail down the coast on their annual voyages. Some never made it to the safe harbor at Acapulco. In 1600, the galleon Capitana disappeared without a trace. Nuestro de Senora Aguda reportedly ran aground on a rock west of Catalina in 1641. Another galleon, Francisco Xavier, may have wrecked just south of the Columbia river in Oregon in 1707.

Other dangers lurked for the galleons off the California coast. The riches of the Pacific attracted raiders intent plundering Spanish ships and settlement. The English sea captain, Sir Francis Drake, explored the California coast in 1579 after attacking Spanish settlements in South America. He landed somewhere in California to repair his ship, Golden Hind. The exact location of this landfall is not known. Most historians believe it was near San Francisco. Yet, some believe the ship stopped along the Santa Barbara Channel coast for repairs. Other English sea captains hunted the galleons. Thomas Cavendish looted and burned the Manila galleon Santa Ana off the tip of the Baja peninsula in 1587. George Compton pursued the galleon San Sebastian in 1754. The galleon’s crew purposely ran the ship aground on Catalina Island to escape the raider. Compton captured and killed the surviving crew. Spain finally colonized California because of incidents like this and threats to her claims over the territory. Soldiers established a series of forts or presidios along the coast. With the presidios, came the California missions. Soon, the Spanish required all ships sailing along the California coast, including the Manila galleons, to stop at Monterey. Castle Rock near Point Bennett on San Miguel Island in the Santa Barbara Channel.  Some people believe a Manilia galleon wrecked in this area.

Did any vessels from this era of exploration wreck in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands? Evidence is scare and often unreliable. But, legends of wrecked vessels continue to persist.

Author Charles Hillinger noted that “in the decades following Cabrillo’s discovery, shipwrecks were so frequent off Point Bennett…that it is said if divers were able to search offshore reefs, wrecked vessels from Spanish galleons to early 20th century schooners would be found in the depths of the waiting graveyard. Conflicting currents that continuously pound against the dangerous reefs of the point discourage divers from exploring the area.” Indeed, many ships have come to grief in the waters around Point Bennett.

Rumors of a brass cannon, a ships ballast stone, and a very old anchor off Point Bennett motivated one group to get permission from California to search for a late 16th century galleon in the area. Nothing ever came of the expedition. A newspaper article reported that “investigation indicates that the wreckage is scattered too widely to make exploration and salvage convenient.”

Historian Hubert Bancroft wrote “that an old sailor of Santa Barbara told (me) that in 1872 he opened a grave on Santa Cruz Island, which had a wooden headboard on which could be deciphered the date of about 1660.” Was this the final resting place of an unfortunate who died on a ship while passing the islands or is it the grave of a castaway from a long forgotten shipwreck? We will probably never know.

Perhaps one day you may be the one to solve the Mystery of the Point Bennett Galleon. What do you think would need to be done in order for you to lead the group of explorers who would look for her? Who would you chose to be on the team and what skills would the people in your expedition need? What equipment and supplies would you need in order to lead the search?

Recommended Reading

OCS Study 90-0090. California, Oregon, and Washington Archaeological Study. Volume IV–History. U.S. Department of Interior, Pacific OCS Region. Camarillo, California

Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: Submerged Cultural Resources Assessment by Don P. Morris and Jim Lima. Channel Islands National Park and Submerged Cultural Resources Unit, National Park Service. Available from on the world wide web at

The California Islands by Charles Hillinger. 1958. Academy Publishers. Los Angeles, Cal

Fort Santiago Gate, Manila, circa late 1800s




 the Arisan Maru left Manila with about 1800


 An 1828 MANILA counterstamped on 8R Zacatecas (Mexico) 1825 AZ



- QUARTO 1830 Manila. FILIPINAS.



1830 MANILA Counterstamp

Counterstamp MANILA. on Mexico Resello YII coronadas sobre 8 Reales 1830


 A view in Manila in 1830


Faro Project drawn up for a lighthouse on Corregidor Island. Mariano de Goicoechea. 1830. SHM Corregidor Island occupied a position of importance at the entrance to Manila Bay, and for this reason it was equipped with signalling lights from very early on.


Plano Situation plan of the port and arsenal of Cavite. 1832 MN During the 18th century, the port of Cavite, close to Manila, was preferred as an anchorage for ships reaching the city, since it had a greater depth of water.


admiral Parish drew the picture during visit Manila


Domesticated Natives—Origin—Character

The generally-accepted theory regarding the origin of the composite race which may be termed “domesticated natives,” is, that their ancestors migrated to these Islands from Malesia, or the Malay Peninsula. But so many learned dissertations have emanated from distinguished men, propounding conflicting opinions on the descent of the Malays themselves, that we are still left on the field of conjecture.

There is good reason to surmise that, at some remote period, these Islands and the Islands of Formosa and Borneo were united, and possibly also they conjointly formed a part of the Asiatic mainland. Many of the islets are mere coral reefs, and some of the larger islands are so distinctly of coral formation that, regarded together with the numerous volcanic evidences, one is induced to believe that the Philippine Archipelago is the result of a stupendous upheaval by volcanic action.1 At least it seems apparent that no autochthonous population existed on these lands in their island form. The first settlers were probably the Aetas, called also Negritos and Balugas, who may have drifted northwards from New Guinea and have been carried by the strong currents through the San Bernadino Straits and round Punta Santiago until they reached the still waters in the neighbourhood of Corregidor Island, whilst others were carried westwards to the tranquil Sulu Sea, and travelling thence northwards would have settled on the Island of Negros. It is a fact that for over a century after the Spanish conquest, Negros Island had no other inhabitants but these mountaineers and escaped criminals from other islands.

The sturdy races inhabiting the Central Luzon highlands, decidedly superior in physique and mental capacity to the Aetas, may be of Japanese origin, for shortly after the conquest by Legaspi a Spanish galley cruising off the north coast of Luzon fell in with Japanese, who probably [164]penetrated to the interior of that island up the Rio Grande de Cagayán. Tradition tells us how the Japanese used to sail down the east coast of Luzon as far as the neighbourhood of Lamon Bay, where they landed and, descending the little rivers which flowed into the Lake of Bay, settled in that region which was called by the first Spanish conquerors Pagsanján Province, and which included the Laguna Province of to-day, with a portion of the modern Tayabas Province.