Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1928

The Indonesia Historic Collections 1800-1920


Javanese opium-smokers
Antique Map East Indies Reinecke, I.C.M.






In 1795

, a French-backed revolution in Holland expelled the Stadthouder, William of Orange, who fled to Britain, where he issued the so-called ‘Kew Letter’, instructing VOC officials in the Indies to surrender their posts to the British on demand. On this basis, the British occupied Melaka, Padang and Ambon without a struggle, Banda by surprise and Tidore by assault, but were unable to capture Kupang or Ternate. The 1802 Treaty of Amiens restored these territories to the Dutch.


1798 -1806


Antique Map Bali (Indonesia) De Bry, Theodor







Balinese kingdoms, ca 1800

To the east of Bali lies the long chain of islands known as the Lesser Sundas or Nusatenggara (Southeastern Islands). For the most part, these islands were involved only peripherally in the trade and civilization of the western archipelago until the colonial area. Although the Nagarakertagama (Desawarnyana) lists Timor and Sumba as tributaries of 14th -century Majapahit, Javanese culture has left at the most only scattered traces in the region. No significant local inscriptions have been found to attest to the existence of early kingdoms and Chinese records are vague. The region’s economic relations with the outside world seem to have been based on the export of sandalwood, especially from Timor, a trade which may have begun in the 7th century.


The establishment of Bandung
When the Bandung regency led by the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II, the powers of the Company on the archipelago ended due to the VOC went bankrupt (December 1799). Power in the archipelago then taken over by the Government of the Netherlands East Indies with the first Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels (1808-1811).
In line with change of power in the Dutch East Indies, Bandung regency circumstances change. Changes in the first place is to transfer the capital district of the southern region Krapyak in Bandung to Bandung, which was; etak in the middle area of ​​the district.
Between January 1800 to end December 1807 in the archipelago in general and in Java in particular, occur foreign power vacuum (invaders), because although the Governor-General of the Company is still there, but he had no power. For the regents, during the vacuum power means the loss of the burden of obligations to be fulfilled for the benefit of a foreign ruler (invaders). Thus, they can devote attention to the interests of local governments respectively. This would occur also in Bandung Regency.
According to the script Sadjarah Bandung, Bandung in 1809 Regent Wiranatakusumah II along with a number of people moved from Karapyak to the area north of the land going to the capital. At that time the land would Bandung still forested, but in the north existing settlements, namely Kampung Cikapundung conservative, Kampung Cikalintu, and Villages Bogor. According to the script, the Regent RA Wiranatakusumah II moved to the city of Bandung after he settled in temporary shelters for two and a half years.
Originally regents living in Cikalintu (Cipaganti area) and then he moved Balubur Downstream. When Deandels Cikapundung inaugurate the construction of the bridge (bridge at Jl. Asia Africa Building near PLN now), Regent of Bandung was there. Deandels with Regent over the bridge and then they walk eastward to one place (in front of the Office of Public Works Jl. Asia Africa now). In that place deandels plugging rod and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (Try, if I come back here, a city has built! “. Apparently Deandels wants city center was built in the place.
Peanger Hotel 1910
As a follow-up of his word, Deandels asked Regent Bandung and Parakanmuncang to move the capital of each district to the nearby Jalan Raya Pos. Deandels request was submitted by letter dated May 25, 1810.
beauty of the city of Bandung Regency Bandung in conjunction with the appointment of Raden Suria became Patih Parakanmuncang. Both momentum is confirmed by besluit (decree) dated September 25, 1810. This date is also the date of Decree (besluit), the formal judicial (dejure) designated as the City Anniversary Bandung.
Perhaps the regents began domiciled in Bandung after there in the first district where the building marquee. Certainly the marquee district is the first building constructed for the central government activities Bandung regency.




1798 -1806

 In the time the possessions of the former VOC were administered by the Batavian Republic it was under the supervision of the Council of the Asiatic Possessions and Establishments (Raad der Asiatische Bezittingen en Etablissementen.)The Batavian Republic introduced the use of the emblem of the sovereign in the colonies and this was continued by the following administrations. First this emblem consisted of an altar charged with an anchor and a dolphin, supported by a lion with the national flag and the Batavian Virgin with spear an hat of Liberty. The legend of these stamps read “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen) der bataafsche / republiek”. [13]In 1802 the emblem was changed into a lion rampant, armed with a sword and a bundle of arrows.On the stamps for use by the councils the emblem of state was surrounded by the legend “raad der asiat(ische): bezitt(ingen): en etabl(issementen)”.[14]Nevertheless on a florin for circulation in the colonies there appeared the old symbols of the Company and of the States General: a ship sailing to the sinister and the crowned arms with the lion with sword and arrows.  This time the symbols can be considered as the symbols of the territory and of its ruler. 






 The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:



Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”








 1801: II became Sultan Sulaiman Saidullah Banjar XV until 1825.
 1806: Muhammad Jamalul Alam I to the Sultan of Brunei until 1807.
 1806: August 11, 1806 changed its name from the royal palace Banjar Kencana into Earth Good Earth.
 1807: Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei Kanzul until the year 1829.
 1808: Sharif Kasim became the Sultan of Pontianak Alkadrie II until 1819.
 1809: Dutch Banjarmasin release of its colonies. [38]
 1810: British occupy Banjarmasin. [39]
 1810: Sultan Alimuddin became the first sultan Sambaliung Sultanate, the Sultanate of Berau fractions are divided by two.
 1811: Sultan Ibrahim became Sultan of Sand Alamsyah until 1815.
 1812: Alexander Hare became resident-commissioner for the British government in Yogyakarta. [40]
 1814: Queen Imanuddin move the administrative center of Kotawaringin Old Kingdom Kotawaringin to Pangkalan Bun.
 1814: Muhammad Ali Syafeiuddin I to the Sultan of Sambas until the year 1828.
 1815: Sultan Mahmud became the Sultan Han Alamsyah Sand until 1843.
 1816: Sultan Aji Muhammad Salehuddin be Kutai XVI until the year 1845.
[Edit] Age of Dutch East Indies
 1817: On January 1, British Borneo Banjarmasin and handed back to the Dutch, then on the day it was made Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman I of Banjar with the Dutch East Indies represented Boekholzt Resident Aernout van.
 1817: King Tidung Amiril Tadjoeddin served until 1844. In Kotawaringin, Prince Queen Imanuddin ruled until 1855 [41]
 1819: Sharif Osman Sultan of Pontianak III Alkadrie be until the year 1855. He was appointed to lead the Dutch East Indies government Afdeeling Pontianak.
 1820: Zainul Abidin bin Badruddin II (1820-1834) became Sultan Mountain Sow I, the fraction of the Sultanate of Berau. Prince Sultan Sulaiman-law of Moses Banjar Kusan II became King until the year 1830.
 1823: Mr. Muller Dutch East Indies government employees surveyed northwest Borneo. [42])
 1823: 13 September 1823: Coral Diamond Contract Agreement between the Sultan Suleiman II of the Dutch East Indies represented Banjar with Mr. Resident. Tobias.
 1825: Adam Alwasikh Billah became Sultan of Banjar XVI until 1857. In Brunei, Mohammad Alam became the Sultan of Brunei until 1828.
 1825: In July 1825, Prince Aji Jawi, King of the Land Seasonings establish a contract with the Dutch East Indies.
 1826: After the conquest attack Banjar palace in Yogyakarta in 1826, the Dutch East Indies had been made a rule which areas are still controlled by the Sultanate of Banjar and determine the division of the territories.

Lombok and Sumbawa, ca 1800

Balinese rule on Lombok was turbulent. By the middle of the 18th century, they had subdued the Sasak aristocracy in the east of the island. A few decades later, however, disunity led them to split into four separate kingdoms, while the Sasak domains in the east regained much of their independence. Even in times of Balinese control, the east of the island was often restive.

Evidence from the earliest European visitors to the Nusatenggara region suggests that the normal state of affairs was one of division into a large number of small polities, which were linked into larger confederacies or empires whose significance was sometimes political and economic but more often symbolic. Timor produced sandalwood, which was valued for trade to China, and management of this trade necessarily meant a relationship between port towns such as Sorbian, Insana and Dili, and the polities of the interior. In the centre and east of the island, the ruler of Wehale (Belu), sometimes based in the port of Dili, sometimes based in the interior, claimed a hegemony over some forty-six liurai or ‘kings’ along the coast and the interior. In the west the confederacy of Sonba’i (Sonnebait), sometimes based in Sorbian, claimed a similar hegemony over sixteen liurai. The port of Kupang seems to have been independent of both of these power centres.


Raid on Batavia (1806)

Raid on Batavia
Part of the Napoleonic Wars
Maria Riggersbergen 2.jpg
A painting by Thomas Whitcombe depicting Batavia harbour in 1806.
Date 27 November 1806
Location Batavia, Java, Dutch East Indies
Result British victory
United Kingdom United Kingdom Flag of the Netherlands.svg Kingdom of Holland
Commanders and leaders
Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew Rear-Admiral Hartsink
Four ships of the line, two frigates and a brig Frigate Phoenix, eight small warships and support from gun batteries on shore
Casualties and losses
One killed, four wounded Casualties unknown, Phoenix, seven small warships and 20 merchant ships destroyed. One brig and two merchant ships captured.

The Raid on Batavia of 27 November 1806 was an attempt by a large British naval force to destroy the Dutch squadron based on Java in the Dutch East Indies that posed a threat to British shipping in the Straits of Malacca. The British admiral in command of the eastern Indian Ocean, Rear-Admiral Sir Edward Pellew, led a force of four ships of the line, two frigates and brig to the capital of Java at Batavia (later renamed Djakarta), in search of the squadron, which was reported to consist of a number of Dutch ships of the line and several smaller vessels. However the largest Dutch ships had already sailed eastwards towards Griessie over a month earlier, and Pellew only discovered the frigate Phoenix and a number of smaller warships in the bay, all of which were driven ashore by their crews rather than engage Pellew’s force. The wrecks were subsequently burnt and Pellew, unaware of the whereabouts of the main Dutch squadron, returned to his base at Madras for the winter.

The raid was the third of series of actions intended to eliminate the threat posed to British trade routes by the Dutch squadron: at the Action of 26 July 1806 and the Action of 18 October 1806, British frigates sent on reconnaissance missions to the region succeeded in attacking and capturing two Dutch frigates and a number of other vessels. The raid reduced the effectiveness of Batavia as a Dutch base, but the continued presence of the main Dutch squadron at Griessie concerned Pellew and he led a second operation the following year to complete his defeat of the Dutch. Three years later, with the French driven out of the western Indian Ocean, British forces in the region were strong enough to prepare an expeditionary force against the Dutch East Indies, which effectively ended the war in the east.



In early 1806, Pellew was relieved by the news that a large French squadron under Rear-Admiral Charles Linois had sailed out of the Indian Ocean and into the Atlantic. The departure of Linois after three years of operations in eastern waters freed Pellew’s small squadron based at Madras for operations against the Dutch East Indies. Pellew’s particular target was the island of Java, where the principal Dutch squadron and their base at Batavia were located.[1] The Dutch Kingdom of Holland was a French client state under Emperor Napoleon‘s brother Louis Bonaparte and Batavia had been used by Linois in his preparations for the Battle of Pulo Aura, in which a valuable British convoy came under attack, and its position close to the Straits of Malacca threatened British trade with China.[2]

Pellew’s departure for the East Indies was delayed by the Vellore Mutiny in the spring, and instead he sent frigates to reconnoitre the situation of the Dutch forces in the region. In July, HMS Greyhound under Captain Edward Elphinstone cruised in the Molucca Islands and captured a Dutch convoy at the Action of 26 July 1806 off Celebes.[3] Three months later another frigate, HMS Caroline under Captain Peter Rainier, cruised successfully in the Java Sea and managed to capture a Dutch frigate at the Action of 18 October 1806 from the entrance to Batavia harbour.[4] Shortly before Rainier’s engagement, the principal ships of the Dutch squadron, the two ships of the line Pluto and Revolutie, had sailed westwards towards the port of Griessie, Rear-Admiral Hartsink seeking to divide his forces in preparation for the coming British attack to prevent their complete destruction.[5]

Pellew sailed from Madras in the early autumn of 1806, expecting the full Dutch squadron to be present and preparing accordingly with the ship of the line HMS Culloden under Captain Christopher Cole as his flagship, accompanied by HMS Powerful under Captain Robert Plampin, HMS Russell under Captain Thomas Gordon Caulfield and HMS Belliqueux under Captain George Byng. The ships of the line were accompanied by the frigate HMS Terpsichore under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, Admiral Pellew’s son, as well as the brig HMS Seaflower under Lieutenant William Fitzwilliam Owen.[6]

Pellew’s attack

By 23 November, Pellew’s squadron was approaching the Sunda Strait from the southwest when he encountered the British frigate HMS Sir Francis Drake, which he attached to his force. Three days later, the squadron passed the port of Bantam and seized the Dutch East India Company brig Maria Wilhelmina, continuing on to Batavia during the night.[7] At the approaches to the port, the squadron separated, with the frigates and brig passing between Onrust Island and the shore while the ships of the line took a longer route through deeper water. Although Terpsichore was able to surprise and capture the corvette William near Onrust Island, the main body of the squadron was spotted by Dutch lookouts from a distance, who initially mistook the approaching vessels for a French squadron.[8] The Dutch officers, led by Captain Vander Sande on the frigate Phoenix, decided that resistance against such a large British squadron was useless: the only warships remaining in the harbour were the Phoenix and six small armed ships, none of which could contend with the approaching British force. In an effort to dissuade the British from pressing their attack, the Dutch captains all drove their vessels ashore, joined by the 22 merchant vessels that were anchored in the harbour.[6]

Determined to prevent the Dutch from refloating the grounded ships, Admiral Pellew ordered landing parties to assemble in the boats of his squadron alongside Terpsichore. From there, under distant covering fire from the British frigates, Fleetwood Pellew led the boats against Phoenix, coming under fire from the grounded vessels and gun batteries ashore.[7] Passing through the bombardment from the shoreline, Pellew’s men boarded Phoenix to find that the Dutch crew had just abandoned the vessel, scuttling the frigate as they departed. Although now useless as a ship, Phoenix‘s guns were turned on the other beached vessels to cover the British boats as they spread out to board and burn them. This operation was followed by the destruction of 20 grounded merchant ships in the harbour, although two others were successfully refloated and captured.[9] In a final act before withdrawing to the squadron offshore, Captain Pellew set fire to the wreck of Phoenix, burning the ship to the waterline. The entire operation was conducted under heavy fire from the shore, but British casualties were only one Royal Marine killed and three men wounded.[10]

Without sufficient troops to attempt a landing at Batavia itself, Admiral Pellew withdrew from the harbour. Preparing his prizes for the return to Madras, he ordered all prisoners taken from the captured and burnt ships returned to shore under condition of parole.[11] The captured William was found to be in such a poor state of repair that it was not worth keeping the corvette and Admiral Pellew ordered the ship burnt, noting in his official report that Lieutenant Owen, who as senior lieutenant would otherwise have been placed in command, should be recompensed with another command as reward for his services in the engagement. With his preparations complete, Pellew then ordered his squadron to disperse, Culloden sailing to Malacca.[5]


The British raid on Batavia had destroyed 28 vessels. In addition to Phoenix, William and the merchant ships, Pellew’s squadron had burnt the 18-gun brigs Aventurier and Patriot, the 14-gun Zee-Ploeg, the 10-gun Arnistein, the 8-gun Johanna Suzanna and the 6-gun Snelheid. Just three ships were captured: two merchant vessels and Maria Wilhelmina.[11] The elimination of the smaller vessels of the Dutch squadron was an important victory for Pellew, leaving only the larger ships of the line at large. These ships were old and in poor condition, limiting the threat they posed to British trade routes. Nevertheless, Pellew returned to the Java Sea in 1807 in search of the warships, destroying them at the Raid on Griessie in November, a year after the success at Batavia.[5] A lack of resources in the region and the threat posed by the French Indian Ocean island bases delayed larger scale British operations against the East Indies until 1810, when a series of invasions rapidly eliminated the remaining Dutch presence in the Pacific


Herman Willem Daendels (1762-1818) Herman William Daendels lived in a very complex period of national history. As unknown as he is now so well known and controversial, he was in the late 18th and early 19th century.

He was son of the town clerk of Hattem. He studied law at Harderwijk and established himself as a lawyer in his hometown.
William Herman, a regent from family, was one of the leaders of the Hattemerbroek bourgeoisie, who sought a greater influence on the appointment of citizens of the city.

In 1785 he was recommended for appointment ships placed. Stadtholder William V wished him not to appoint. Daendels now openly joined the Patriots Party.

The Patriots (patriotic) opposed Prince William V, without public participation in the provincial and municipal officials appointed boards.

Uprising in Hattem
In 1786 led the then 23-year-old William Herman Daendels the uprising against William V. Hattem The patriotic citizen companies were supported by patriots from Overijssel. The Prussian troops of the prince, however, drove them to flee occupied and Hattem. Daendels and many other patriots fled to France.
In 1788 the Court sentenced him in absentia of Ontario, with a sword over the head to be punished and to perpetual exile from Ontario;

The Daendelshuis and Daendelspoortje in Hattem recall the famous resident of this city.

He followed with great interest the progress of the French Revolution and took a seat on the Batavian committee, that a revolution in the Northern Netherlands prepared.

When the favorable moment, he seemed to have come in 1792 as a battalion commander of the Batavian Legion in French military service. As such he participated in the conquest of Belgium under Dumouriez. A year after his defeat at Neerwinden, in 1793, followed Daendels’s appointment as brigadier general in the Northern Army under Pichegru (March 1794). In this capacity he took part in the siege include: ‘s-Hertogenbosch and the conquest of the Bommelerwaard.

French Revolution
In December 1794 the armies of Pichegru on the frozen rivers in the Netherlands.

The patriots had formed in France in a Batavian legion, under the command of General Herman Willem Daendels.
The people offered little resistance and Prince William V fled by fishing boat to England. The Patriots took control and called the Batavian Republic.
Daendels played a prominent role in domestic politics in drafting the new constitution.

Coup d’etat
Daendels volgede with scrutiny work to prepare a Constitution for the Batavian Republic. When this did not to his knowledge went, he committed his first coup, January 22, 1798 and continued with his grenadiers all Federalists outside the National Assembly.
On July 12 d.a.v. He grabbed it again and forced illegally elected Executive Directors to resign, which earned him the nickname Second Brutus. In 1798 the Executive Directors appointed him commander of the Batavian Republic of Batavian troops, who would participate in the landing in Ireland, but the expedition was called off.

In the following year he was the head of a Batavian division under the leadership of Chief General Brune, with an impending mandate English-Russian invasion of England to prevent. He could not prevent the successful landing in 1799.

Slander Campaign
Although he is in the further struggle behaved very bravely and enemies to the agreement of Alkmaar were forced to leave the country, was for Daendels’s many adversaries envious and a welcome opportunity to begin a campaign against him. They even accused him of treason. Disappointed took Daendels in 1800 resigned, settled as a farmer in Ontario and kept himself entirely aloof several years of politics.

Kingdom of Holland 1806
After the founding of the Kingdom of Holland, King Louis Napoleon him the country’s service. The appointments and promotions now followed each other in quick succession.

Governor-General of Dutch East Indies (1807 – 1811)
Louis Napoleon in 1807 to Daendels appointed governor-general of Dutch East Indies.

It was a hard task, which Daendels’s shoulders was laid. The remains of the old Company area, Java, Timor, part of the Moluccas and Bandjermasin was the Dutch authorities declined to an alarming manner. Shipment of troops, money and material from the mother country was impossible, since the British ruled the seaways. It was not easy even for Daendels are employed to reach Batavia.

Reorganizations and reforms
His main task was the Dutch colonies against the British. He therefore began a reorganization of the army and filled it with native volunteers. In Weltevreden, a suburb of Batavia, he built a then modern hospital in Surabaya, the capital of Austria, Java, a construction shop, a cadet school in Semarang and Batavia a cannon foundry. The old unhealthy castle at this place he demolished and replaced by a fortified camp at Meester Cornelis. Surabaya became the Fort Louis.
The most popular work of Daendels, the great highway of Carnation to Panaroekan, was primarily a military objective, rapid troop movements. The construction of a military port in the Bay Gulls (Sunda Strait), he had, because of the disastrous climate, obstruction of Bantam, give up.

Administrative and legal Daendels organized in a modern way, and thereby cleared numerous abuses and abuses of time on the Company. However, all these innovations earned him the hatred and opposition of the old party-guests, who many complaints and accusations against him sent to Napoleon.

And there were legitimate complaints. The most serious was the manner in which Daendels enriched themselves. Moreover witnessed his performance against the local rulers of little tact and knowledge of their manners and customs. Shortly after the incorporation of the mother Daendels Napoleon called back and instructed the government on May 16, 1811 the emperor appointed by the General Janssens.

Governor-General of Guinea
After the fall of Napoleon asked Daendels King William I, son of his old adversary William V, a new appointment. Understandably trusted the Orange Frost the former revolutionary not too much, but asked him to lock it in October 1815 as Governor General of Guinea (Ghana), on the Gold Coast in West Africa, a very unhealthy and very little meaning area.

William Herman passed away on May 2, 1818 due to yellow fever and was buried in the fort Elmina


Portrait Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels




Raden Syarif Bustaman Saleh


Oil on canvas


119 x 98 cm


Herman Willem Daendels’s career was very eventful. Political developments in the Netherlands around 1800 were certainly the reason for this. Within a short space of time there were a large number of changes of rulers. Daendels’s career appeared to survive these changes. He was first and foremost a soldier. In 1808 he was appointed Governor General of the Asian colonies. After heavy criticism of his leadership, he was replaced in 1811. He then became an officer in the French army. King William I appointed Daendels Governor General of the Dutch Colonies on the west coast of Africa. There he died of yellow fever in 1818.


Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy








Posted on July 31, 2010 by iwansuwandy








Half Doeit 1770-special   

Half Doeit 1750   

1 doeit 1792   

1 doeit special design 1793   

1 doeit 1805 Dandaels   


(1) L.N COIN

LN Lodewijk Napoleon 1 doeit  


antique char.L.Napoleon   

1/2 St L.Napoleon  


The energetic Herman Willem Daendels, Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies from 1808 to 1811, had ordered the construction of Die Groete Postweg, the “great post way,” a highway traversing Java and recalled by this roadside monument. van Holland 


Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies

Java Great Post Road, commissioned by Daendels.

Louis Bonaparte made Daendels colonel-general in 1806 and Governor-General of the Dutch East Indies in 1807. After a long voyage, he arrived in the city of Batavia (now Jakarta) on 5 January 1808 and relieved the former Governor General, Albertus Wiese. His primary task was to rid the island of Java of the British Army, which he promptly achieved.[citation needed] He built new hospitals and military barracks, a new arms factories in Surabaya and Semarang, and a new military college in Batavia. He demolished the Castle in Batavia and replaced it with a new fort at Meester Cornelis (Jatinegara), and built Fort Lodewijk in Surabaya. However, his best-known achievement was the construction of the Great Post Road (Indonesian: Jalan Raya Pos) across northern Java. The road now serves as the main road in the island of Java, called Jalur Pantura. The thousand-kilometre road was completed in only one year, during which thousands of Javanese forced labourers died.[2]

He displayed a firm attitude towards the Javanese rulers, with the result that the rulers were willing to work with the British against the Dutch. He also subjected the population of Java to forced labour (Rodi). There were some rebellious actions against this, such as those in Cadas Pangeran, West Java.

There is considerable debate as to whether he increased the efficiency of the local bureaucracy and reduced corruption, although he certainly enriched himself during this period.[citation needed]

 General in Napoleon’s Grande Armée

When the Kingdom of Holland was incorporated into France in 1810, Daendels returned to Holland. He was appointed a Divisional General (Major General) and commanded the 26th Division of the Grande Armée in Napoleon’s invasion of Russia.

 Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast

After the fall of Napoleon, king Willem I and the new Dutch government feared that Daendels could become an influential and powerful opposition leader and effectively banned him from the Netherlands by appointing him Governor-General of the Dutch Gold Coast (now part of Ghana). In the aftermath of the abolition of the Atlantic slave trade, Daendels tried to redevelop the rather dilapidated Dutch possessions as an African plantation colony driven by legitimate trade. Drawing on his experience from the East Indies, he came up with some very ambitious infrastructural projects, including a comprehensive road system, with a main road connecting Elmina and Kumasi in Ashanti. The Dutch government gave him a free hand and a substantial budget to implement his plans. At the same time, however, Daendels regarded his governorship as an opportunity to establish a private business monopoly in the Dutch Gold Coast.

Eventually none of the plans came to fruition, as Daendels died of malaria in the castle of St. George d’Elmina, the Dutch seat of government, on 8 May 1818. His body was interred in the central tomb at the Dutch cemetery in Elmina town. He had been in the country less than two years.


dit verhaal

        hebben we het al eens over het stormachtige leven van Daendels gehad :
        Waar uit die buurt (Hattem) ook


        vandaan kwam, de Nederlandse bevelhebber van het latere Bataafse Legioen, toen

Under French domination during the Napoleonic years in Europe, the Dutch authorities appointed Marshal H. W. Daendels as Governor-General in 1808. He sought both to reform the corrupt administrative practices that had brought down the VOC and to prepare for the defence of Java against an expected British attack. Amongst his measures was to construct a post-road the full length of the island of Java, from Anyer to Panarukan, to improve communications and the movement of troops. Constructed mainly with forced labour working to a tight timetable, the road earned Daendels a reputation for dictatorial cruelty,

Daendels’ postroad on Java

The Great Post Road is the road stretched from west to east at northern part of Java from Anyer to Panarukan along 1,000km. Initaded by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels, this road is passing through Serang, Tangerang, Jakarta, Bogor, Sukabumi, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang, Cirebon, Brebes, Tegal Pemalang, Pekalongan, Kendal, Semarang, Demak, Kudus, Rembang, Tuban, Gresik, Surabaya, Sidoarjo, Pasuruan, Probolinggo dan Situbondo.

Daendels was a marshal appointed as governor general of East Indies by Lodewijk Napoleon who ruling Holland at that time. The ultimate aim was handling military preparation in anticipating British Navy attack that had blockaded Java Island. Daendels landed in Anyer in 1808 after routing a long trip from Cadiz in southern Spain, Canary Islands and then departing from New York using American vessel.

Daendels’s most important military project in defending Java from British attack was constructing a highway connecting west and east corner of this island. The road was built by means of obliging indigenous rulers to mobilize people along the route to work it by force. This road had sacrificed thousands life in nearly a year of its building process. Later, the road was renowned as the Great Post Road (De Groote Postweg) since Daendels also set off post and telegraph services at the moment of the making.

1809Since its operation in 1809, the road formerly intended for military purpose had become a main transportaion infrastructure in Java Island. This highway had witnessed traffice of commodities coveyed over it since colonial era till now. The road has play important role as one of crucial veins of Indonesian economy today.


Here’s the page of full document as shown on this stamp issue. This document is about appointment of Raksa Manggala as a Head of Bengawan Wetan, Cirebon region by Governor General Daendels. The aim of this appointment is to succeed the development of The Great Post Road.

The document’s date is 18 April 1809.
The Document 



 an extremely rare 1809 handwritten Ambon bank note  

info source: Rob Huisman

 an extremely rare handwritten VOC bank note of 100 rijksdaalders dating from 1809 and issued in Ambon. “This piece of paper is literally of great value. After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade, resulting in a severe deficiency in coins and coin materials. The Dutch authorities therefore resorted to issuing paper money. In 1808 Governor General H.W. Daendels decided that an additional three hundred thousand guilders needed to be printed in Ambon. These notes varied in value from 1 to 1,000 silver rijksdaalders. They were widely used in the Moluccas, but could also be exchanged for real money in Batavia. It is conspicuous that this piece of paper mentions the Dutch East India Company, even though the VOC had been nationalized in 1799. The most notable detail however is that only the one hundred rijksdaaldersnote exists as a written currency; the remainder of the issue was printed. An extremely rare piece of paper, which is mentioned in the paper currency catalogue of Mevius, but of which no image has been printed as yet.”  

a high resolution scan, which  a great privilege to be able to see this note in great detail and share it through this website. This note has never been published in the past



and in 1811

he was dismissed. Three months later, British forces occupied Java.

British troops landed near Batavia in August 1811 and the Dutch forces surrendered to them at Salatiga six weeks later. Thomas Stamford Raffles took over as Lieutenant Governor and began a vigorous programme of reform in the hopes of convincing the British government to retain Java permanently as a colony (as it was to do with the Cape of Good Hope and Ceylon). Raffles’ authority was quickly challenged by the sultan of Yogyakarta, but in 1812 British forces attacked, plundered the court of Yogyakarta and sent the sultan into exile, replacing him with his pliable son. To keep the court weak, Raffles also created a new principality within it, the Pakualaman, with a lesser status similar to that of the Mangkunegaran within Surakarta.


The Navy was active off the Javanese coastline before and during the expedition. On 23 May 1811 a party from HMS Sir Francis Drake attacked a flotilla of 14 Dutch gunvessels off Surabaya, capturing nine of them.[2] Marrack, in north-western Java, was attacked and the fort defending the town largely demolished by a party from HMS Minden and HMS Leda on 30 July, while that same day a fleet of six Dutch gunboats flying French colours was attacked by HMS Procris, capturing five and destroying the sixth.[3][4]

Java Expedition

The British force was assembled at bases in India in early 1811, initially overseen by Vice-Admiral William O’Bryen Drury, and then after his death in March, by Commodore William Robert Broughton.[5] The first division of troops, under the command of Colonel Rollo Gillespie, left Madras on 18 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Christopher Cole aboard the 36-gun HMS Caroline. They arrived at Penang on 18 May, and were joined on 21 May by the second division, led by Major-General Frederick Augustus Wetherall, which had left Calcutta on 21 April, escorted by a squadron under Captain Fleetwood Pellew, aboard the 38-gun HMS Phaeton.[5] The two squadrons sailed together, arriving at Malacca on 1 June, where they made contact with a division of troops from Bengal under Lieutenant-General Sir Samuel Auchmuty, and Commodore Broughton aboard the 74-gun HMS Illustrious. Auchmuty and Broughton became the military and naval commanders in chief respectively of the expedition.[5] With the force now assembled Auchmuty had roughly 11,960 men under his command, the previous strength having been reduced by approximately 1,200 by sickness. Those too ill to travel on were landed at Malacca, and on 11 June the fleet sailed onwards. After calling at various points enroute, the force arrived off Indramayu on 30 June.[2]

There the fleet waited for a time for intelligence concerning the strength of the Dutch. Colonel Mackenzie, an officer who had been dispatched to reconnoitre the coast, suggested a landing site at Cilincing, an undefended fishing village 12 miles east of Batavia.[6] The fleet anchored off the Marandi River on 4 August, and began landing troops at 14:00.[4] The defenders were taken by surprise, and nearly six hours passed before Franco-Dutch troops arrived to oppose the landing, by which time 8,000 British troops had been landed.[4][7] A brief skirmish took place between the advance guards, and the Franco-Dutch forces were repulsed.[7]

Fall of Batavia

On learning of the successful British landing, Janssens withdrew from Batavia with his army, which amounted to between 8,000 and 10,090 men, and garrisoned themselves in Fort Cornelis.[7] The British advanced on Batavia, reaching it on 8 August and finding it undefended. The city surrendered to the forces under Colonel Gillespie, after Broughton and Auchmuty had offered promises to respect private property.[7][8] The British were disappointed to find that part of the town had been set on fire, and many warehouses full of goods such as coffee and sugar had been looted or flooded, depriving them of prize money.[9] On 9 August 1811 Rear-Admiral Robert Stopford arrived and superseded Commodore Broughton, who was judged to be too cautious.[9][10] Stopford had orders to supersede Rear-Admiral Albemarle Bertie as commander in chief at the Cape, but on his arrival he learnt of Vice-Admiral Drury’s death, and the planned expedition to Java, and so travelled on.[8]

 British advances

General Janssens had always intended to rely on the tropical climate and disease to weaken the British army rather than oppose a landing.[9] The British now advanced on Janssens’s stronghold, reducing enemy positions as they went. The Dutch military and naval station at Weltevreeden fell to the British after an attack on 10 August. British losses did not exceed 100 while the defenders lost over 300.[11] In one skirmish, one of Janssens’s French subordinates, General Alberti, was killed when he mistook some British troops in green uniforms for Dutch troops. Weltevreeden was six miles from Fort Cornelis and on 20 August the British began preparing fortifications of their own, some 600 yards from the Franco-Dutch positions.[10]

Siege of Fort Cornelis

Diagram of Fort Cornelis, Batavia.

Fort Cornelis measured 1 mile (1,600 m) in length by between 600 yards (550 m) and 800 yards (730 m) in breadth. Two hundred and eighty cannon were mounted on its walls and bastions. Its defenders were a mixed bag of Dutch, French and East Indies troops. Most of the locally raised East Indian troops were of doubtful loyalty and effectiveness, although there were some determined artillerymen from Celebes. The captured station at Weltevreeden proved an ideal base from which the British could lay siege to Fort Cornelis. On 14 August the British completed a trail through the forests and pepper plantations to allow them to bring up heavy guns and munitions, and opened siege works on the north side of the Fort. For several days, there were exchanges of fire between the fort and the British batteries, manned mainly by Royal Marines and sailors from HMS Nisus.[12]

A sortie from the fort early on the morning of 22 August briefly seized three of the British batteries, until they were driven back some of the Bengal Sepoys and the 69th Foot.[11] The two sides then exchanged heavy fire, faltering on 23 August, but resuming on 24 August.[8][13] The Franco-Dutch position worsened when a deserter helped General Rollo Gillespie to capture two of the redoubts by surprise. Gillespie, who was suffering from fever, collapsed, but recovered to storm a third redoubt. The French General Jauffret was taken prisoner. Two Dutch officers, Major Holsman and Major Muller, sacrificed themselves to blow up the redoubt’s magazine.[14]

The three redoubts were nevertheless the key to the defence, and their loss demoralised most of Janssens’s East Indian troops. Many Dutch troops also defected, repudiating their allegiance to the French. The British stormed the fort at midnight on 25 August, capturing it after a bitter fight.[8][13] The siege cost the British 630 casualties. The defenders’ casualties were heavier, but only those among officers were fully recorded. Forty of them were killed, sixty-three wounded and 230 captured, including two French generals.[14] Nearly 5,000 men were captured, including three general officers, 34 field officers, 70 captains and 150 subaltern officers.[13] 1,000 men were found dead in the fort, with more being killed in the subsequent pursuit.[13] Janssens escaped to Buitenzorg with a few survivors from his army, but was forced to abandon the town when the British approached.[13]

Total British losses in the campaign after the fall of Fort Cornelis amounted to 141 killed, 733 wounded and 13 missing from the Army, and 15 killed, 45 wounded and three missing from the Navy; a total of 156 killed, 788 wounded and 16 missing by 27 August.[13]

 Later actions

Royal Navy ships continued to patrol off the coast, occasionally making raids on targets of opportunity. On 4 September two French 40-gun frigates, the Méduse and the Nymphe attempted to escape from Surabaya. They were pursued by the 36-gun HMS Bucephalus and the 18-gun HMS Barracouta, until Barracouta lost contact.[15][16] Bucephalus pursued them alone until 12 September, when the French frigates came about and attempted to overhaul her. Bucephalus‘s commander, Captain Charles Pelly, turned about and tried to lead the pursuing French over shoals, but seeing the danger, they hauled off and abandoned the chase, returning to Europe.[17][18]

On 31 August a force from the frigates HMS Hussar, HMS Phaeton and HMS Sir Francis Drake, and the sloop HMS Dasher captured the fort and town of Sumenep, on Madura Island in the face of a large Dutch defending force.[18] The rest of Madura and several surrounding islands placed themselves under the British soon afterwards.[19] Suspecting Janssen to be in Cirebon, a force was landed there from HMS Lion, HMS Nisus, HMS President, HMS Phoebe and HMS Hesper on 4 September, causing the defenders to promptly surrender. General Jamelle, a member of Janssens’s staff, was captured in the fall of the town.[18][19] The town and fort of Taggal surrendered on 12 September after HMS Nisus and HMS Phoebe arrived offshore.[20]

While the navy took control of coastal towns, the army pushed on into the interior of the island. Janssens had been reinforced on 3 September by 1,200 mounted irregulars under Prince Prang Wedono and other Javanese militia. On 16 September Salatiga fell to the British.[20] Janssen attacked a British force under Colonel Samuel Gibbs that day, but was repulsed. Many of the native militia killed their Dutch officers in the ensuing rout.[21] With his effective force reduced to a handful of men, Janssens surrendered two days later, on 18 September.[18][20]


The Dutch-held islands of Amboyna, Harouka, Saparua, Nasso-Laut, Buru, Manipa, Manado, Copang, Amenang, Kemar, Twangwoo and Ternate had surrendered to a force led by Captain Edward Tucker in 1810, while Captain Christopher Cole captured the Banda Islands, completing the conquest of Dutch possessions in the Maluku Islands.[22] Java became the last major colonial possession in the East not under British control, and its fall marked the effective end of the war in these waters.[22][18] Stamford Raffles was appointed Lieutenant Governor of Java.[23][24] He ended Dutch administrative methods, liberalized the system of land tenure, and extended trade. Britain returned Java and other East Indian possessions to the newly independent United Kingdom of the Netherlands under the terms of the Treaty of Paris in 1814.

 British order of battle

Stopford’s fleet on his arrival on 9 August to assume command of the expedition, consisted of the following ships, dispersed around the Javanese coast:[10]

Rear-Admiral Stopford’s fleet
Ship Rate Guns Navy Commander Notes
HMS Scipion Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Rear-Admiral Hon. Robert Stopford
Captain James Johnson
HMS Illustrious Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Commodore William Robert Broughton
Captain Robert Festing
HMS Minden Third rate 74 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Edward Wallis Hoare  
HMS Lion Third rate 64 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Heathcote  
HMS Akbar Fifth rate 44 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Drury  
HMS Nisus Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Philip Beaver  
HMS President Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Samuel Warren  
HMS Hussar Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain James Coutts Crawford  
HMS Phaeton Fifth rate 38 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Fleetwood Pellew  
HMS Leda Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain George Sayer  
HMS Caroline Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Christopher Cole  
HMS Modeste Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Hon. George Elliot  
HMS Phoebe Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain James Hillyar  
HMS Bucephalus Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Charles Pelly  
HMS Doris Fifth rate 36 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain William Jones Lye  
HMS Cornelia Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry Folkes Edgell  
HMS Psyche Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain John Edgcumbe  
HMS Sir Francis Drake Fifth rate 32 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain George Harris  
HMS Procris Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Robert Maunsell  
HMS Barracouta Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain William Fitzwilliam Owen  
HMS Hesper Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Barrington Reynolds  
HMS Harpy Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henderson Bain  
HMS Hecate Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Henry John Peachey  
HMS Dasher Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Benedictus Marwood Kelly  
HMS Samarang Sloop 18 Naval Ensign of the United Kingdom.svg Captain Joseph Drury  
The British Army troops attached to the force included 12,000 soldiers from the 22nd Light Dragoons; 14th Foot; 59th Foot; 69th Foot; 78th Foot; 89th Foot; 102nd Foot. There were also contingents of the Royal Marines, and several regiments of Madras Native Infantry and Bengal Native Infantry, with half of the overall troop strength consisting of Indian troops of the East India Company. General Samuel Auchmuty was the overall commander, but he delegated the field command to Major General Rollo Gillespie.[9]

In addition to the official navy forces, the East India Company provided the services of several of their ships, led by the Malabar under Commodore John Hayes. These were the Ariel; Aurora; Mornington; Nautilus; Psyche; Thetis; Vestal. With the transport vessels, and several gunboats captured as the campaign progressed, Stopford commanded nearly a hundred ships.[10]




 After the annexation of the Kingdom of Holland by France in 1811 the imperial symbol appeared in the East Indian Archipelago.


Seal of the Governor General of the Dutch Indies dd. 20 II – 18 IX 1811.

French Imperial Eagle. L.: gouverneur generaal van indien.

This seal was only used for a very short time and prints are very rare [16]


From 1811 until 1813 the seal of the combined ministries showed the coat of arms of Napoleon Bonaparte.




 In the time of British rule in the Dutch possessions in the East Indies the Royal British achievement should have been used. No examples of this achievement from Dutch East Indian soil are known however.
 The coat of arms of the quite famous lieutenant governorof the Dutch East Indies from 1811-’16, Thomas Stamford Raffles, was:



Or a double headed Eagle displayed Gules charged on the breast with an Eastern Crown on the first, on a Chief Vert pendent from a chain two oval Medallions in Pale the one bearing Arabic characters and the other a dagger in fess the blade wavy the point towards the dexter in relief Or, the said medallions and chain being a representation of a personal decoration called the Order of the Golden Sword conferred upon by him by the Chief or King of Atcheen in Sumatra as a mark of the high regard of the said King and in testimony of the good understanding which had been happily established between that Prince and the British Government; and for a crest out of an Eastern Crown Or a Gryphon’s Head Purpure gorged with a collar gemel Gold.”



1815 -1940/’49

 After the defeat of Napoleon the Sovereign Principalityof the Netherlands prepared the restoration of Dutch rule in the Indies. This meant also the restoration of the old symbols of sovereignty. By royal resolution of 8 November 1815 nr. 39 the introduction of new currency was provided for. The design for a 1 guilder-piece shows the Dutch Virgin on the obverse and the crowned ancient arms of the States General and the Executive on the reverse. From this guilder only one minted coin is known.


Nederlandsch Oost-Indië, 1 gulden, 1815 Æ 31 mm.

At the date of the Royal Resolution the coat of arms of the Sovereign Principality of 14 January 1814 was already substituted by Royal Resolution of 24 August 1815. The new coat of arms, amended in 1816, was used in the Colonies throughout the nineteenth century and was changed again in 1907. [17])

A picture of this coat of arms was in the Audience Hall above the seat of the Governor General in Batavia.

The seal for the Dutch Indies showed this coat of arms with the legend DEPARTEMENT VAN KOLONIËN (until 1848) and MINISTERIE VAN KOLONIËN until 1945.

   The Dutch East Indies never had a coat of arms of its own. The coat of arms of Batavia was often considered as such and it is said that Governor General Van Heutz (1904-‘09) was a strong advocate of the idea. A proposal for a coat of arms was made in 1933 by Dirk Rühl on the frontispeice of his “Nederlandsch Indische Gemeentewapens”. His design shows a parted per pale of the Netherlands and Batavia.However, no specific coat of arms for the Dutch East Indies was ever adopted. 


 The commercial successor of the V.O.C. was the Nederlandse Handelmaatschappij (NHM), founded in 1824  (after the Anglo-Dutch treaty). In 1964 this company merged with the Twentsche Bank and changed its name in Nederlandsche Middenstands Bank. In 1990 the NMB merged with the Amsterdam-Rotterdam Bank into the ABN AMRO Bank. This bank was split up in 2007. (Fortis, Bank of Scotland en Banco Santander).
 The emblems of the Nederlandsche Handelsmaatschappij were deposed in 1866. They consisted of a larger emblem, a medial emblem and a cypher. [18]



The larger emblem consists of disc charged with a winged anchor between the date 1824, surrounded by the title nederlandsche handel maatschappy. As a crest a three-masted sailing ship and as supporters two lions couchant. Below the central emblem is the cypher NHM. The achievement is surrounded by waves of the sea and decorated with several floral motives.




Daendels Palace (1809)

Weltevreden/Jakarta, Indonesia

Construction of this architectural gem was commissioned by Governor-General Herman Willem Daendels. As a governor general, Daendels stimulated the move southwards of Batavia; the densely populated walled city was unhealthy and many inhabitants suffered from malaria and cholera. The area of Weltevreden, several kilometres south of Batavia, originally a country estate, was developed and would turn into a highly fashionable area. Halfway Batavia and Weltevreden, the new accommodation for the club Harmonie was constructed.

In Weltevreden, on the Paradeplaats, a new Government House was erected; since Daendels did not wish to inhabit the old country estate (known as the Van der Parra estate), officially assigned to the governors general. The Government House is a building constructed in the period 1809-1827 in Batavia, ‘capital’ of the Dutch colony in the East-Indies. Construction was ordered by governor general H.W. Daendels (1808-1811) and completed by governor general L.P.J. du Bus de Ghisignies (1826-1830).

The building has been preserved and is located on present Lapangan Banteng, Jakarta Pusat, which was known in the nineteenth century as Paradeplaats and since 1828 as Waterlooplein. Modelled in the Empire style, the proportionate Witte Huis (White House) measures 160 meters lengthwise. The pillars on the first story are Doric, whereas those on the second level are Ionic in style. In the past, the building hosted many state functions and even served as a post office, a printing office and a high court. Today, it houses the Indonesian Ministry of Finance.

[IMG][/IMG]The Supreme Court (left) and the Daendels Palace at the Waterloo Square. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, compl. by J. Tromp, 1809)

Daendels Palace.

Picture by De Rooij Fotografie


to the Memory of
Wife of
Lieutenant Governor 
And its Dependancies
Who departed this life
The 26th day of November 1814

 Raffles went on from Java to found Singapore. Any tiredness I had felt before had instantaneously disappeared. Here it was, right before my eyes, a fragment of our colonial past.

 the tomb with renewed vigour, snapping away as we circled the majestic final resting place of Olivia Mariamne Raffles. Thoughts filled up our mind. What if Olivia Raffles did not fall victim to her illness during her stay in Java? What if she had followed Raffles to Singapore? What changes would she have implemented as the First Lady of the founder of Singapore?


British possessions in Indonesia, 1810-1817

Javanese territories ceded to the colonial governments of Daendels and Raffles, 1808-1812

Both Daendels and Raffles radically restructured the administration of the island, reducing the power of the bupati, changing the taxation system and turning the village into the basic administrative unit. Raffles in particular emphasized that ‘native welfare’ should be an aim of the colonial government, and he introduced a form of land tax, called land rent, in an effort to develop a money economy on the island.

EIC Indies lead coin 1814

Raffles’ rule, however, was only brief. At the end of the Napoleonic Wars, Britain’s policy was to strengthen the Netherlands as a European counterweight to France, and


1811/ 1813 Raden Demang Anggadipa (1807-1811/1813) dicopot dari kedudukannya oleh pemerintah kolonial Belanda karena menolak penanaman paksa nila sebagai pengganti beras. Beliau keberatan dengan kebijakan Belanda itu karena akan mengakibatkan rakyat kelaparan. Akibat pembangkangan itu, Kadipaten Sukapura sementara waktu dihapuskan dan diserahkan pemerintahannya pada Limbangan di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wangsareja (1805-1811).

in 1816

 restored Java to Dutch rule; the outer territories were restored in 1817.

Bencoolen has become well -known fort the fact that sin Thomas stamford Raffles was the last lieutenant governor from 1818-1824 when the settlements reverted to the dutch. it was from bengkulu, in 1819, that laffles, despite disapproval of the company in london and madras, sailed off to establish a british settlemen in the singapure. the historical and strategic importance and 20 th centries would hard to assess
Following the example of the dutch it was considered necessary to provide military protection for the settlement, and small fortification was built on a narrow spit of land between the sea and the Bengkulu river (now sungai serut). The original fortification named York for was manned by two companies of infantry soldiers and artisans who had been redruited in london. The site proved to be very unhealthy owing to the close proximity of the  river and mangrove swamps. There were many deaths in the early day among the soldiers sen to garrison the fort as well as the civil servants living there.


 It was Vastly different to the fort that can be seen today, being just a  rectangle of building wit a roof capable of supporting the artillery pieces required to defend the fort. house of the Deputy Govendor was contructed and the diagram on the original plan.
 In 1719,
shortly after completion, the fort was abandoned by the Deputy Govendor and the whole garrison in the face of the major di sagreement with the local rules. It was feared that anttack migh be made on the settlemen. It was not until 1723 that the Ease India company despatched a new Deputy Govendor and staff to reestablish the settlement.Following the return of the traders the military garrison, consisting of two companies of infantry and an artillery detachmen, was established. Repairs  were made to the fort and the depences strengthened. The local people who had been seriously affeced by the sudden departure of the settlers were once again contracted to suply pepper to the company. One of the major problems facing the military garrison was the distance between them and their ‘master’. Requests for stores, gunpowder and such like had to be submitted to the court of Directort in London. These would be despatched by the firt available sailing vessel returning to london, a journey which coul take as long as eigh months : 12-16 months for the ron journey. it is not the garris stores were at acrical level, and it is recorded that some times it became necessary for vital.Stores, such as gunpowder,  to be requesisioned from traiding vessels calling at Bencoolen.
The garrison at this time was supplied wit sepoy troops from the madras presidency in India, although frequent use was made of the buginese troops from the celebes Islan. The begal sepoys continued to serve at Bencoolen and the other west coast settlemen, until all of the british trading posts along the west coast of sumatra were handed over to the Dutch Argeement of 1824. the actual handover took place earlt in 1825. Raffles arrived in Bencoolen in 1818 and immediately applied his enligh ened style of government which he had demontrated to great effec during his time as lieutenent Govenor of java from 1811-1816. Towards the end of the Napoleoonic wars, java had been captured from the french in a short, sharp campaign bastion at cornelis, now covered by Manggrai, within present day jakarta. With greatly improved relation with the local rules, Raffles was able to begin the run down og the Bencoolen settlement and to reduce the high cost of maitaining a large garrison force. He was also able to place Fort Marlborough on a lower states of readiness, perceiving that there was little or no thereat from any other Euoropean nation. Following the handover of the settlemen to the Dutch in 1825, records show that the for continued to be manned by Dutch colonial troops, although it was never enlarged or upgraded with the exception of the intruduction, during the mid-19 th century, of four breech loading guns mounted on each of the four bastions.The dutch continued to occupy Fort Marlborough until the scond word war and after the fall of sumatra it was then occupied by the japanese army. Following the surrender of the japanese in 1945 the fort was again briefly occupied by the dutch. After independence For Marlboroug was used by the indonesian army and police force until it was abandonednin the late 1970’s. The fort remains in its present state following a sympathetic restorasion programme which was carrid out in the late out 1980’s.
 _____________________________________________THE HISTORY
AND FIRST FLEET INTO BENCOOLENPhotobucket~Establishment~

The East India Company (EIC) was the oldest among several similarly formed European East India Companies, the Company was granted an English Royal Charter, under the name Governor and Company of Merchants of London Trading into the East Indies, by Elizabeth I on 31 December 1600. The original object of the group of merchants involved was to break the Dutch monopoly of the spice trade with the East Indies. Therefore, EIC formed for the exploitation of trade with East and Southeast Asia and India.The first trading post, known as a station or factory, was set up at Surat on the Indian’s West Coast (Bombay Presidency) around 1612 and the second at Fort St. George (Madras Presidency) 1640.

British East Indiamen

~First Fleet of East Indiamen on Bencoolen~

The East Indiamen were ships operating under charter or license to any of the East India Companies of the major European trading powers of the 17th through the 19th centuries. They were designed to carry both passengers and goods and to defend themselves against piracy, and so constituted a special class of ship.The first British East Indiamen anchored in Bencoolen in 1685, lead by Ralph Ord and William Cowley. Under the command of Captain J. Andrew, there were The Caesar, The Resolution, and The Defense. The EIC’s influence spread with Fort York (1685–1719) and continued in Fort Marlborough (1719–1824), both established in Bencoolen, West Coast of Sumatra.Other factories were established in the Prince of Wales Island (Penang), Singapore, Malacca, Java, Borneo, Celebes, Siam (Thailand), Persia (Iran) and the Persian Gulf, Macao and Whampoa (China), and St. Helena.


The Indian Rebellion of 1857, known to the British as the “Great Mutiny” (also known as First War of Indian Independence), brought the consequence that the British government nationalized the EIC indirectly. After this rebellion, the EIC lost all its administrative powers and dissolved on 1st of January 1874.

_____________________________________________THE SOLDIER OF BRITISH EAST INDIA COMPANY

EIC was indirectly subject to the British government and it ruled India through the three presidencies of Bombay, Madras, and Bengal, each of which maintained forces for internal and external defense.The backbone of the EIC military system was the Indian regular soldier or sepoy (from the Persian sipahi) and for infantry private (a cavalry trooper was a Sowar). They served under mainly British officers and mainly Indian NCOs

The painting above depicts a soldier of the European Company of the West Coast of Sumatra garrison, on duty at Fort Anne, Moco Moco, circa 1764.
Courtesy: Alan Harfie, “A History on the Honourable East India Company’s,
Garrison on the West Coast of Sumatra 1685-1825”Photobucket
Native Troops, East India Companys Service, A Sergeant and a Private Grenadier Sepoy of the Bengal Army, from Costumes of the Army of the British Empire, according to the last regulations 1812, published by Colnaghi and Co. 1812-15, Charles Hamilton Smith.

British officers, trained at the EIC’s ‘military seminary’ at Addiscombe, held their commissions from the EIC’s court of directors and enjoyed the right of command over British troops.



Me and John Verbeek observed the remnants of Fort York
The thick bushes in right side is ruin of the ramparts

Remnants of Fort York

Left End: Location of Fort York
Edge of Serut River Estuary

Fort York was established in small hill close the estuary of Serut River based on the agreement of 12th of July 1685 that The British EIC was permitted to build a settlement in the area close to the estuary, and built a fort to cover their village regarding the spice trading.The agreement was prepared by EIC representative in Fort St. George in Madras, signed by Deputy Governor Ralph Ord and Young Prince from Sungai Lemau.

Gravestone of Richard Watts Esquire (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“Richard Watts Esq.
Sometime of Council for the
Right Honourable Company Affairs
In the Fort St. George
And in the year 1699 came
over Deputy Governor of this place
And in … years after
Made by … from
The Company the First President of this Coast
In this Station he departed
This life December 17th 1705 and
In the 44th years of his age”.Photobucket
Gravestone of George Shaw (moved from British Cemetery in Fort York)“George Shaw
Son of
Mr. Thomas Shaw
Of London Merchant;
After he had served the Right Honourable Company
as Factor in Fort St.
George for some time;
Came over in the year 1699
served of this place
In this Station he continued
Until has removed by the death, April 25th 1704
Atatis 28”Explanation:
“Atatis 36”, it stands for “anno aetatis suae 28”,
that means “”in the year of his age 28 years”_____________________________________________

March 1825 – March 1942
Fort Marlborough was occupied by the DutchPhotobucket
The Dokar in front of Fort Marlborough – Bencoolen 1900
Source: KITLVPhotobucket
A trio of European women dressed in sarong,
with the background of Fort Marlborough Bencoolen – 1920
Source: TropenmuseumMarch 1942 – August 1945
Fort Marlborough was captured by Imperial Japanese Army. The Prison chamber was purposed for Japanese internment camp.

Compass and Message that scratched on the wall by Japanese Prisoner of War 1942-45
the fomaus the bengkulu Flower, Rafflesia anorldi wich Rafflesia nemed wideh his great friend, botanish Dr, Joseph Arnold.


Bencoolen (Bengkulu)

Raffles in 1817

Raffles arrived in Bencoolen (Bengkulu) on 19 March 1818. Despite the prestige connected with the title, Bencoolen was a colonial backwater whose only real export was pepper and only the murder of a previous Resident, Thomas Parr, gained it any attention back home in Britain. Raffles found the place wrecked, and set about reforms immediately, mostly similar to what he had done in Java – abolishing slavery and limiting cockfighting and such games. To replace the slaves, he used a contingent of convicts, already sent to him from India. It is at this point when he realized the importance of a British presence that both challenged the Dutch hegemony in the area and could remain consistently profitable, unlike Bencoolen or Batavia. However, the strategic importance of poorly-maintained but well-positioned British possessions such as Penang or Bencoolen made it impossible for the British to abandon such unprofitable colonies in such close proximity to the Dutch in Java. The competition in the area, between Raffles and the aggressive Dutch de jure Governor, Elout, certainly led at least in part to the later Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824. Raffles looked into alternatives in the area – namely Bangka, which had been ceded to the Dutch after its conquest by the British during its occupation of Java.

Bintan was also under consideration. Despite the fact that Warren Hastings overlooked the island before settling upon Penang in 1786, the Riau Archipelago was an attractive choice just to the south of the Malay Peninsula, for its proximity to Malacca. In his correspondences with Calcutta, Raffles also emphasized the need to establish a certain amount of influence with the native chiefs, which had greatly waned since the return of the Dutch. Raffles sent Thomas Travers as an ambassador to the Dutch, to possibly negotiate an expansion of British economic interests. When this failed, and when Raffles’ own expeditions into his new dominion found only treacherous terrain and few exportable goods, his desire to establish a better British presence was cemented.

However, the Anglo-Dutch Convention of 1814 was not completely clear, especially on the issue of certain possessions such as Padang. The Convention of 1814 only returned Dutch territory that was held before 1803, which did not include Padang. Raffles asserted the British claim personally, leading a small expedition to the Sultanate of Minangkabau. Yet, as Raffles confirmed with the sultan regarding the absolute British influence of the area, he realized that the local rulers had only limited power over the well-cultivated and civilized country, and the treaty was largely symbolic and had little actual force.


werd van Nederlands-Indië en zijn laatste jaren doorbracht als


malay bencoolen sumatra

Gouverneur van Elmina

        , waar hij in 1818 overleed en werd begraven.
        Daendels ging naar Elmina met het idee van Elmina e.o. iets te maken als Nederlands-Indië, maar al zijn brieven met plannen werden door het moederland niet beantwoord, men was blij van Daendels verlost te zijn.

Op 3 Meij 1818 werd den Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels ten 4 uur des namiddags in de Tombe gezet, doende het Hoofdkasteel van Elmina bij die gelegenheid 15 schoten

        Tot in 1844 zijn er processen gevoerd over de nalatenschap van Daendels…
        In 1962 is toch nog in Elmina een gedenkplaat voor Mr. Herman Willem Daendels aangebracht.


Herman Willem Daendels (1762 – 1818)

Kwam als Brigade-Generaal van het Bataafsche Legioen
samen met een Frans leger o.l.v. Pichegru in de winter van 1795 naar Nederland
waar alle rivieren tot hun geluk bevroren waren…. 

daendels palace 1878

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

Daendels ging in Indië de geschiedenis in als De Donderende Groote Heer
onder zijn leiding werd onder dwang de Grote Postweg dwars door Java aangelegd

terug in Europa trok hij met Napoleon op naar Moskou en overleefde het ternauwernood
Daendels ging ook de geschiedenis in als de man die grote delen van de Benedenstad liet afbreken en een nieuwe Bovenstad begon, met o.m. de bouw van het bovenstaande paleis, wat later echter geen paleis werd, maar dat is weer een ander verhaal, komen we zoo nog even op terug. Het gebied waar Daendels begon met de Bovenstad was al van een zeer aantrekkelijke naam voorzien :

Op de plattegrond uit 1897 is nog heel goed de scheiding tussen de Benedenstad en de Bovenstad te zien, de Benedenstad was oorspronkelijk natuurlijk ommuurd en bezat een versterkt kasteel, de Bovenstad kon veel ruimer worden opgezet.

Paleis Rijswijk

        Volgens andere bronnen was het latere

Paleis Rijswijk

        ooit de residentie van J.A. van Braam, die het eind 18e eeuw liet bouwen. De achtertuin grensde, daar is iedereen het over eens, tot aan het latere Koningsplein. In het stuk grond van Paleis Rijswijk, grenzend aan het Koningsplein, zou later

Paleis Koningsplein

        worden gebouwd.
          In 1820,
           na de dood van Van Braam, kocht het Gouvernement het huis en werd het ingericht als officiële residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië (1820 – 1879), waarbij dus werd afgeweken van het plan van Daendels, waarschijnlijk omdat het Paleis van Daendels nog lang niet klaar was.
WAR Nov 24, ’09 5:51 AM
for everyone

Lieutenant-General Frans David Cochius in 1850

[3rd of December 1787  – 1st of May 1876]

Lithograph in format of 32×24.5cm

Source: KITLV

Engineer of Battlefield Fortification Strategy in 1827-30

in sequence capturing Diponegoro





If Frans David Cochius was still alive today, he must be 222 years old in December 2009. Who is he? I’ll bring his short biography and compartment in sequence of capturing Diponegoro in Java War.  

Java War 1825-30 was the badly war in the history of colonization in Netherlands Indies. For the first time the colonial government faced a massive social rebellion covering large part of Java: 2 million Javanese people were exposed to the ravages of war, 200 thousands Javanese were died. On the other hand, Dutch suffered 8 thousands European troops and 7 thousands of Indonesian troops who fought for Dutch were perished. The war consequence was rising cost about 20 million guilders! The war that perished everything both Javanese and Dutch side. 

The Java War was started in a rebellion led by Pangeran Diponegoro for the reason of Dutch political intervention in the Court of Mataram (general reason), and Dutch decision to build a road across a piece of his ancestral property (personal reason). 

F.D. Cochius was an expertise in fortification. He designed the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy [Benteng Stelsel]. The fort was built in high terrain, a square building made by coconut tree height about 7-8 feet.The cannons were applied in the one of diagonal corner of the fort. Each corner has two cannons.


In the throne of Governor General Du Bus de Gissignies,


 the government of Dutch Indies failed to extinguish the rebellion of Diponegoro. In several party the Diponegoro army defeated the Dutch Indies army, such as campaign for capturing Kejiwan [August 1826], campaign of Delanggu [August 1826], and campaign of Gawok [October 1826]. Military operation did not reach the objective. General H.M. de Kock ordered to Colonel F.D. Cochius for planning the prototype of battlefield fortification strategy.  

This prototype was implied in battlefield fortification strategy in area Bagelen, Banjoemas, Gowong, Ledok, Kedhu, and Jogjakarta. It could be the simple fort for defense in Java War for the reason for limitation the movement of Diponegoro. It was the temporary battlefield fortification: a simple building for military defense, efficient in raw material for the building, and the materials are available in Java.


The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[7]



The strategy of Battlefield Fortification was implied since May 1827. The Battlefield Fortification means that fort was not only have a passive role in the military defense, but it’s emphasized that the fort has active and important role as quarter for offensive operation, military command and control and logistic purposes. Broadly speaking, fort was attempted as warfare and military strategic. In period of May – December 1827 General H.M. de Kock established about 30 forts surrounding Central Java.




F.D. Cochius was born 3rd of December 1787 in Valburg.

His parents are Gerrit Jan Casparus Cochius and Anna Dibbets.

He died in Huize Vredenoord near Rijswijk, Netherlands on 1st of May 1876.

July 1811:

Captain in the French Army 

December 1814:

Captain in Netherlands Army

May 1822:

Awarded “Ridder IIIe klasse of Officier in de Militaire Willems-Orde” [MWO], the 3rd Class Knight in Military Order of William in his service as engineer attached to Headquarters during the Waterloo Campaign.

September 1825:

Lieutenant-Colonel F.D. assaulted the Jogjakarta. He was the Commander of Garrison of Soerakarta with 2 companies of infantry [Hulptropen from Soemenap and Legion of Mangkoenegaran], 1 platoon of cavalery [Huzar], and 12 Light Infantry [Dragonder]. 

October 1825:

He designed the prototype of temporary battlefield fortification in Kalidjengking. His designed would be adopted in to Fortification Strategy in following Java War 1826 – 30. 

June 1826:

Capturing Pleret, a fort of Diponegoro in Southern of Jogjakarta with more than 7.000 Dutch soldiers.

July 1826:

He lead the movement to Dekso, a new headquarter of Diponegoro after Pleret conquered by Dutch Army.


Commander in Military Operation District of Jogjakarta

April 1828:

Battle of Bedoyo, he waved Diponegoro army out from this village. 

July – August 1828:

Colonel Cochius occupied the valley of Progo and assault the Diponegoro army between Progo and Opak rivers.

January 1829:

Military operation to North Mataram.

This operation was moving Diponegoro in to the western Progo River successfully.

The operation continued to Southern Mountains of Jogjakarta.

July 1829:

Capturing Fort Geger. This fort was built by coral materials.

March 1830:

Colonel Cleerens with Diponegoro arrived in Magelang.

The Kedhu Resident and military chief, including Colonel F.D. Cochius met them in Magelang before the capitulation 28 of March 1830. Based on capturing Diponegoro in Magelang, it designate that the Java War was terminated.

Post of Java War, Colonel F.D. Cochius was the commander in Salatiga, a town in Java.

1831 – 37:

Extinguishing of the uprising of the Padri’s Islamic fundamentalist insurgents in the mountains of western Sumatra raged. 

August 1837:

Conquered the Fort Bondjol in West Sumatra. 

May 1838:

Commander Militaire Willemsorde

September 1837:

1st Colonial Infantry Battalion in Bondjol for Major General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment]. 

November 1841:

12th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

April 1846:

13th Infantry Battalion in Batavia for Lieutenant-General F.D. Cochius, RVH

[Van Heutz Regiment].

        Pas in 1827
        zou het Paleis van Daendels gereed komen, in opdracht van de enige, “Belgische” Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies, want het jaar 1830 was immers nog niet aangebroken:


1826 – 1830

Gouverneur-Generaal Leonard P. J. Burggraaf Du Bus de Gisignies 

        Volgens de overlevering woog bij aankomst Du Bus de Gisignies 145 kg, toen hij weer in 1830 naar Europa terugkeerde was hij 60 kg lichter geworden.

Batavia, a city of Java, capital of the Dutch possessions in the East Indies, in hit. 6° 10′ 8., lon. 106° 50′ E., on a swampy plain at the head of a deep bay of the Java sea, on the N. W. coast of the island, upon both banks of the river Jacatra. The bay is protected by a number of islands, and forms a secure harbor.

The population in 1832 was 118,300, of whom 2,800 were Europeans, 25,000 Chinese, 80,000 natives, 1,000 Moors and Arabs, and 0,500 slaves; the present number is variously stated at from 70,000 to 150,000, the discrepancy apparently arising from the different areas embraced, the wealthy inhabitants now residing beyond the limit of the fortifications, upon several broad roads running for some distance inland. The local trade and handicrafts are mostly in the hands of the Chinese; the foreign commerce in those of the Dutch, although there are also English, French, German, and American merchants. About 1,500 vessels annually enter the port, two thirds of which are Dutch. The principal articles of export are spices, rice, coffee, sugar, indigo, tobacco, dyewoods, and gold dust. In 1867 the total value of the exports was $27,-227,025; imports, $22,439,435. Batavia was originally laid out on the model of a Dutch city, with broad streets having each a canal in the centre.



 After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control

The Dutch 7th Battalion advancing in Bali in 1846

        In 1848
        werd de bovenste verdieping van het Paleis Rijswijk afgebroken in de hoop het gebouw wat meer status te geven. In de praktijk verbleven de Gouverneurs-Generaal ook liever in Buitenzorg dan in Paleis Rijswijk….. het Paleis Rijswijk kreeg al snel de bijnaam Hotel van de Gouverneur-Generaal….
        In Paleis Rijswijk kwam wel geregeld de Raad van Indië bij elkaar, de onofficiële regering van Nederlands-Indië voorgezeten door de Gouverneur-Generaal. De Gouverneur-Generaal had echter in de praktijk, we zouden nu zeggen, dictatoriale bevoegdheden en dus altijd het laatste woord. In 1862 werden in Paleis Rijswijk de eerste gasverlichtings armaturen van Batavia aangebracht.


The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan

        Ook in 1862 verscheen een wat negatief commentaar over Paleis Rijswijk: waarom werd dit armetierige gebouw Paleis genoemd, aan de voorzijde hangt weliswaar het Wapen van het Koninkrijk van Nederland, maar de rest van het gebouw lijkt meer op een paardenstal dan een Paleis een Gouverneur-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië waardig.
        In 1879 the Koningsplein Palace beginning to built,and klater became Rijswijk Palace Of DEI Govenour General
        En dus (?) werd in 1879 begonnen met de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein, in de achtertuin van Paleis Rijswijk…

GG palace rijswijk

19th Century19e eeuw

Old DEI Gouvenor General Palace Rijswijk at Batavia Het (Oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Rijswijk, Batavia


        In 1809 begon Daendels dus aan zijn plan voor wat de geschiedenis zou ingaan als het Paleis van Daendels, en ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd. Pas in 1827 zou het voltooid worden.
        Alhoewel groots van opzet

(Daendels dacht altijd in het groot)

        is het dus nooit als Paleis gebruikt. In het Groote Huis zijn altijd overheidsinstellingen ondergebracht, zoals de Raad van Indië, het Departement van Onderwijs en


        en het Departement van Financiën. Ook werd het gebruikt als centraal magazijn bijvoorbeeld voor schoolmaterialen. Ook het Departement van Oorlog was hier ooit gevestigd.
        Bijzonder aan het Paleis is wel dat hier na verloop van tijd alle portretten naar toe verhuisd zijn van alle Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië. In 1949 werden de portretten van de Gouverneurs-Generaal vanuit het Paleis van Daendels rechtstreeks overgebracht naar het Rijksmuseum in Amsterdam, waar je ze nog steeds kunt bewonderen.

daendels palace 1878

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia

ook wel Het Groote Huis genoemd 


Voor het Paleis van Daendels:

het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia

tot 1942….. 



In the War of 1819 the first Palembang,

 the fort was tested by cannon shells Dutch corvette, but not one bullet that can penetrate both walls and doors. Due to run out of bullets and gunpowder, then the Dutch fleet escaped to Batavia. From this was born the phrase, which states that work for nothing, because it does not bring results: ration runs out, no ne of Palembang, means the act or attempt that did not give results, only brought loss and fatigue sernata. This event is written with great charm in Menteng War poem or a poem also called the War of Palembang.

In addition to beautiful and sturdy, Kuto Besak is located in strategic places, namely in the fields like floating on the water. She lies on the “island”, ie the area surrounded by the Musi River (in the front or south), in the western part limited by Sekanak River, bounded on the east Tengkuruk River and behind, or the northern part limited by Kapuran River. This area is called Land of the Palace.

Figure sketch Palembang Palace by J. Jeakes

Forms and soil conditions in the city of Palembang as if to the islands, and by the Dutch people gave him the title as the de Twintig Eilanden der Stad (City of Twenty-Island). Further according to G. Bruining, the island’s most valuable (dier Eilanden) is the place Kuto Besak, Kuta Lama and the Great Mosque stands.

Formation of the islands in the city of Palembang is because the number of children who crossed the river and cut the city. Naturally also called the City if Palembang River Hundred. Whereas in the early colonial era, Palembang dubbed by them as het Indische Venetie. Another epithet is de Stad des Vredes, namely a peaceful place (meaning Dar’s Greetings). And indeed this is the name of the official name of the Sultanate of Palembang Darussalam.

Castle Map Kuto Besak (plus sign) visits with wikimapia
[Click to enlarge]

Structure and Technical

According I. J. Sevenhoven, the first Dutch commisaris Regeering in Palembang, Kuto Besak roede width and 77 length 49 roede (Amsterdamsch roede = approximately 3.75 m, or the length is 288.75 meters and 183.75 meters wide), with a strong wall around and the height and width of 30 feet 6 or 7 feet. This wall is strengthened with bastions 4 (bastion). Inside there was a similar wall and nearly as tall, with the gates strong, so this can also be used for defense if the first wall can be broken (see LJ. Sevenhoven, Painting, page 14).

Recent measurements of the consultants themselves have a slightly different size, which is 290 meters long and 180 meters wide.

Opinions de Sturler on the condition of the fort Kuto Besak:
“… 77 roede width and length 44 roede, equipped with a 3 and a half bastion bastion management, which complements a wall around all four sides. Walls are thick and 5 feet high from the ground 22 and 24 feet.
On the inside in the middle of the palace called Dalem, especially for the king’s residence, several feet higher than ordinary buildings. Entirely surrounded by high walls, so bring a protection for the king. No one may approach the royal residence unless the family or the person who ordered. Other stone buildings in the palace is a place to store ammunition and bullets “. (see W. L de Sturler – Proeve – 186 pages)

Site Plan Palace of Palembang in 1811 [click image to enlarge]

At the time of the war against the Dutch colonialists in 1819, there were as many as 129 shoots a cannon was on the wall Kuto Besak. Whereas during the war in 1821, only 75 shoots a cannon on the wall Kuto Besak and 30 shoots along the river wall, the attackers threatened standby.

Images Main Front Gate Castle Kuto Besak

Lawang Buratan (west side of the gate) Citadel Kuto Besak remaining

Fortress Kuto Besak year of 1935

Fortress Kuto Besak




1822        Oct 8, The Galunggung volcano on Java sent boiling sludge into valley. The eruption left 4,011 dead. The long-inactive volcano erupted Apr 4 and blew its top on Apr 12. The Oct 8 and Oct 12 eruptions left 4,011 dead.

1822        The parasitic plant Rafflesia was discovered in the lowland forests of Southeast Asia. It steals nutrition from other plants and periodically creates a monstrous, red-brown flower with the perfume of rotten flesh.
    (SFC, 1/19/04, p.A4)


Waterlooplein Batavia

Met op de achtergrond

Het Paleis van en gebouwd door Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels in Batavia 

VELDE, Charles William Meredith van de. Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.W.M. van de Velde. Ca. 21 x 30 cm. From: C.W.M. van de Velde. Gezigten uit Nêerlands Indië. – Rustic view of the capital of Bantam, Serang. With horsemen and coach.Bastin-Brommer N360.

résidence Bantam. Amsterdam, Frans Buffa en Zonen, (c. 1843).

Lithograph by P. Lauters after C.

Serang, hoofdplaats van de residentie Bantam. – Serang, chef-lieu de la


the first nederland Indie one cent coin


Based on data from various sources, the development of fully Bandung carried out by a number of people under the leadership of Regent Bandung RA Wiranatakusumah II. Therefore, it can be said that the regents RA Wiranatakusumah II is the founder of (the founding father) of Bandung.
The development of the city of Bandung and its strategic location in the middle Priangan, has encouraged the emergence of the idea of ​​the Dutch East Indies government in 1856 to move Capital Keresiden Priangan from Cianjur to Bandung.


The idea for a variety of new things realized in 1864. Based Besluit Governor-General dated August 7, 1864 No.18, Bandung defined as the central government Priangan Residency. Thus, since then the city of Bandung has a double function, namely as the Capital District as well as the capital of Bandung Residency Priangan. At that time, who became Regent of Bandung is Wiranatakusumah RA IV (1846-1874).


In line with the development function, in the city of Bandung was built buildings in the area Cicendo prefecture (now the Home Office of the Governor of West Java) and a government hotel. The building was completed residency in 1867.



        In 1869 kreeg Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer toestemming voor de bouw van Paleis Koningsplein.

GG Mijer

1866 – 1872

Gouverneur-Generaal Pieter Mijer 

        In 1879 werd het Paleis Koningsplein officieel geopend, het zou dienst doen tot 1949. Op Paleis Koningsplein zou de Indonesische vlag voor het eerst gaan wapperen.

Koningsplein Batavia

Luchtfoto Koningsplein Batavia

Met het (werk) Paleis / Residentie van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië

…….indien aanwezig in Batavia……..

Het (woon) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië was in Buitenzorg

zie hieronder 

        Waar lagen nu al die Paleizen, daarvoor pakken we de kaart van Batavia uit 1897 weer erbij:

Batavia in 1897

Batavia plattegrond 1897 

        Ten noorden van het woord Rijswijk op het Koningsplein lag het (nieuwe) Koningsplein Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, dit is dus het laatste Paleis / Residentie geweest van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië. In dit Paleis vond dus de Soevereiniteitsoverdracht in Batavia in 1949 plaats, een foto van deze Soevereiniteitsoverdracht staat verderop in het verhaal.
        Het Koningsplein Paleis werd gebouwd in de achtertuin van het (oude) Rijswijk Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië, op de kaart het rode blokje ten noorden van het Koningsplein paleis.
        Het Rijswijk Paleis lag aan het Molenvliet water, de weg erlangs heette ook Rijswijk. Aan de overkant van het Molenvliet heette de weg langs het Molenvliet Noordwijk. Kortom, de weg langs de noordoever van het Molenvliet heette dus Noordwijk, de weg langs de zuidoever Rijswijk !
        Het Paleis van Daendels ligt aan het Waterlooplein, (nummer 19 op de kaart), ten oosten van het Koningsplein.
        Het Waterlooplein is natuurlijk vernoemd naar de Slag bij Waterloo. Ter ere van de overwinning op


        werd op het Waterlooplein een zuil gebouwd met daar bovenop een Leeuw. Helaas was de Leeuw wat klein uitgevallen t.o.v. de zuil en werd al spoedig

Het Hondje van Jan Pietersz Coen genoemd


Voor het Paleis van Daendels:

het standbeeld van Jan Pietersz Coen in Batavia

tot 1942….. 

        Waarom? Het leek net of Jan Pietersz Coen voor het paleis van Daendels zijn hondje riep dat bovenop een paal was gesprongen….
        De naam Koningsplein kan worden herleid naar Koning-Stadhouder Willem III.


Koning-Stadhouder Willem III 

        In het oosten van de oude benedenstad van Batavia lag het Buffelveld, rond 1690 werd het Buffelveld omgedoopt tot Koningsplein. In de nieuwe bovenstad van Batavia werd rond 1818 het nieuwe centrale plein ten westen van het Waterlooplein ook weer Koningsplein genoemd. Niet alleen ter ere van Koning-Stadhouder Willem III, maar natuurlijk ook voor Koning Willem I.


Koning Willem I

        Tot slot nog een paar schitterende prenten van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg, ook daarover zullen we het in de toekomst nog eens verder hebben wellicht.

GG palace 19th century

19e eeuw

Het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 

GG palace buitenzorg

Toen en nu

Het (ex) Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 

GG palace buitenzorg

Het interieur van het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal in Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg 


“Daar staat, breed en wit en behagelijk laag gebouwd, het paleis van Zijne Excellentie den Hollandschen Gouverneur-Generaal. Ziedaar een van de machtigste mannen der wereld, die te beschikken heeft over leven en dood van 55 millioen bruine menschen in Insulinde. De “Raad van Indië” beredeneert en beraadslaagt, maar zijn wil is macht !
Vijf jaren resideert een Gouverneur-Generaal in dit witte paleis. …..met nu en dan oproer en schietpartijen, weliswaar nog maar lage bergvormingen boven de kalme zee der Hollandsche koloniale politiek, doch hier en daar aan de randen reeds rood geverfd door het bloed der blanken……edoch de inheemschen hier zijn vreedzaam en onderworpen. Zij dienen de blanken met glimlachend geduld…….in afzienbaren tijd kunnen de inlanders de Hollandschen overheersching niet missen………kleurlingen “Westersch” opvoeden beteekent : den val van de Westersche wereldheerschappij verhaasten…..Azië ontwaakt ? Neen, Europa slaapt in!
Een rijke toekomst kan men de Nederlandsche Oost-Indische kolonie voorspellen, in geval er over honderd jaar nog koloniën bestaat. Waaraan getwijfeld mag worden.” Citaat uit 1933.


Het Kerkhof van de Gouverneurs-Generaal van Nederlands-Indië in Buitenzorg

        Sommige nu nog bekende Nederlanders hadden in Buitenzorg ook een residentie, zoals dat toen genoemd werd:

huis Colijn buitenzorg

De residentie van Hendrik Colijn in Buitenzorg

Biografie Colijn 

        Tot slot nog een citaat uit dit verhaal:

Dirk Cornelis Buurman van Vreeden, de laatste Nederlandse legercommandant in Nederlands-Indië: zijn dochter Nan vertelt haar verhaal

            We beginnen ons verhaal met deze bekende foto’s uit ons Hatta verhaal:




Mohammad Hatta naast Koningin Juliana
tijdens de Soevereiniteits “overdracht” op 27 December 1949
in het Paleis op de Dam in Amsterdam

Op de onderste foto 27 December 1949 in Djakarta,
voor de laatste keer wordt ‘s avonds de Nederlandse Vlag gestreken

op het Paleis van de Gouverneur-Generaal op het Koningsplein 

            Over de periode voor en na WOII hebben we slechts enkele verhalen ooit samengesteld:

Wil je weten waar ik mijn kennis allemaal vandaan heb, lees dan eens de boeken zoals die te vinden zijn op mijn pagina

book covers 

            Speciaal aanbevolen o.m. de volgende boeken:

Terug naar ons Des Indes verhaal:

Reizigers in de 19e eeuw die aankwamen op de rede van Batavia, werden met kleine scheepjes afgezet bij de Kleine Boom en werden vandaar met een rijtuig langs Molenvliet naar bijvoorbeeld Hotel Des Indes vervoerd.


rechts aan de overkant de Kleine Boom, het douane kantoor van Batavia…..
Eind 17e eeuw werd Batavia als volgt aangeprezen, een heel kontrast t.o.v. wat reizigers in de 19e eeuw van Batavia vonden…

Batavia, vroeger Jacatra geheten, is nu voor de Nederlanders de hoofdstad van Oost-­Indië. Het ligt aan de fraaie binnenkust van het groot en lustig eiland Java op 5 graden en 50 minuten zuiderbreedte. In het westen ligt het beroemde koninkrijk en de stad Bantam, aan de oostkant bevinden zich de mooie landstreken van de Mataram. In het noorden wordt het door de zee en een paar kleine eilandjes begrensd, waardoor een vei­lige ankerplaats ontstaat. Naar het zuiden toe strekken zich mooie landerijen, tuinen, bossen en weilanden uit, omgeven door hemelhoge bergen.

De stad en het Kasteel worden van elkaar gescheiden door een prachtig plein en een brede rivier. Het voorname Kasteel Batavia ligt aan de fraaie zeekust en langs de oever van de mooie rivier van Jacatra, die met haar helder en heerlijk water dwars door het midden van de bedrijvige stad stroomt. De rivier mondt uit in zee, waar zij een geschik­te haven vormt voor allerhande grote en kleine vaartuigen, zelfs voor flinke Chinese jon­ken. Iedere dag krioelt de rivier van sampans, boten, prauwen, sloepen, jachten en an­dere vreemde vaartuigen, die op de bijna altijd volle rede van Batavia allemaal profijt trachten te vinden.

Maar nu weer verder over het voortreffelijke Kasteel. Dit wordt versterkt met vier hoekpunten, namelijk Diamant, Robijn, Saphier en Parel. Het heeft stevige muren, diepe grachten, fraaie poorten en valbruggen en is goed voorzien van alle middelen ten dienste van de oorlogsvoering. In het Kasteel bevinden zich het hof van de gouverneur­generaal en veel andere, bijzonder mooie gebouwen waar de Raden van Indië en andere hoogwaardigheidsbekleders hun woonplaats hebben.

Wat de stad verder betreft: die is flink uitgestrekt en dichtbevolkt want er wonen niet alleen Nederlanders, maar ook moren, Chinezen, Javanen, Maleiers en andere Indi­sche volken. De onzen hebben daar echter de regering, macht en godsdienst volgens de wetten en gebruiken van ons vaderland ingevoerd en die worden daar nog tot op de dag van vandaag uitgeoefend.

In de nijvere stad Batavia bevinden zich verder veel mooie stenen gebouwen, defti­ge straten, bewoonde grachten, fraaie burgwallen, stenen bruggen en pasars of mark­ten, die op bepaalde tijden van de dag zeer druk zijn.

Een flinke kruiskerk pronkt in het beste deel van de stad en er is ook nog een andere waar, in de aangenaam klinkende Maleise taal, de zuivere christelijke leer wordt gepredikt. Ook wordt er op zondag in het Kasteel gepredikt voor de gouverneur-generaal, Raden van Indië en anderen die daar­voor zijn uitgenodigd.

De stad heeft ook nog een aanzienlijk raadhuis, een hospitaal of gasthuis voor zieken en gewonden alsmede een tuchthuis voor vrouwen die niet deu­gen, een weeshuis enzovoort.

Batavia is voorzien van sterke poorten, bolwerken, hoekpunten en muren, omringd door een brede gracht. Landinwaarts zijn er heel mooie wandelpaden langs lustige ak­kers, boomgaarden, tuinen, en fraaie buitenplaatsen. Hier kan de nieuwsgierige wande­laar wat vertoeven om op een plezierige en veilige manier de landbouw gade te slaan.

Op de Javaanse toegangswegen buiten Batavia staan diverse fortificaties en verster­kingen die door Hollandse garnizoenen zijn bemand. Aan de landzijde, niet ver van de Nieuwpoort, bevinden zich allerlei soorten molens voor de bereiding van papier, suiker, buskruit en het malen van allerhande soorten graan. Ook staan er zaag- en andere molens die niet door wind, maar door waterkracht van de rivier van Jacatra worden aangedreven. Allemaal zijn ze door de Nederlanders op deskundige wijze gebouwd. Hiermee overtreft de nijvere stad Batavia, wat staat en luister betreft, alle andere steden van Indië.

In de 19e eeuw werd Batavia dus door reizigers als volgt toegelicht, niet meer zoo positief… :

Het prachtige, wereldberoemde Batavia is een puinhoop geworden, een duidelijke samenvatting van het proces van vervuiling en verval van de stad, die eens de ‘Koningin van het Oosten’ werd genoemd, maar langzamerhand bekend wordt als het ‘kerkhof der Europeanen’.

De lezer denke zich nu eene ouderwetsche oud-Hollandsche stad met eenige breede straten en grachten, en talrijke voor-, achter-, dwars- en zijstraten, alle dicht bebouwd met oud-Hollandsche huizen. Maar het Batavia van heden is het Batavia van voorheen niet meer.

Thans ziet het er op vele plaatsen uit alsof er een regiment kozakken hadde huisgehouden. Niet alleen zijn de voormalige fraaije stadsmuren, de bolwerken, het Vierkant, het Kasteel, het daarin voormaals aanwezige paleis van den Gouverneur-Generaal, en zeer vele gebouwen meer, tot den grond geslegt en vernield, maar ook de meeste kerken en publieke gebouwen zijn in een bouwvalligen staat, en een groot gedeelte der partlkuliere huizen zijn verlaten en staan ledig met geslotene deuren en vensters.

Ter illustratie wordt een verhaal verteld over een Nederlandsen ambtenaar, die voor het eerst in Indië kwam, aan de werf met rijdtuig afgehaald door een zijner vrienden, die op het Koningsplein (bij Weltevreden) woonde. Nadat zij reeds een goed eind weegs voortgereden waren, vroeg de vreemdeling: “Maar zijn we dan nog niet haast te Batavia?” – “Batavia!” was het antwoord, “meent gij de stad? Daar zijn wij reeds lang door gereden.”

Dit alles betreft de oude stad, de benedenstad. Bij het verslechteren van de gezondheidstoestand in de stad trokken de Europeanen begin 19de eeuw langzamerhand meer het land in

De Maarschalk Gouverneur-Generaal Daendels die, gelijk men weet, geen vriend was van halve maatregelen, kwam op het denkbeeld om de geheele stad onder de voet te halen en een nieuw Batavia op een genoegzamen afstand van het ongezonde terrein te stichten.
Dat dit zelfs deze ijzeren maarschalk niet één, twee, drie lukte valt te begrepen. Toch heeft hij binnen enkele jaren het oude kasteel en de stadsmuren laten slopen, grote aantallen bouwvallige huizen opgeruimd en de bossen tussen Batavia en Weltevreden laten kappen om de frisse berglucht vrij spel te geven. Nieuwe woonwijken verrezen langs het Molenvliet, in Noordwijk en Rijswijk en rondom het Koningsplein en het Waterlooplein te Weltevreden.

Nog geen tien jaar geleden, was de eerste indruk welke de reiziger die zich van de rede naar de hooggeroemde begaf, een grote teleurstelling. Na met een stoomscheepje of tambangan het smalle havenkanaal met zijn morsige oevers doorgevaren te zijn, kwam hij aan een onaanzienlijk douanekantoor, dat op z’n oudhollands de Kleine Boom heette in tegenstelling met de Grote Boom, het verderop aan de rivier gelegen kantoor, waar ook het entrepot is en de douanezaken op grotere voet behandeld worden.

Vervolgens bracht een pover rijtuig met een paar magere, kleine paarden bespannen, hem de stad binnen, die geheel in Europese trant gebouwd is en welker kantoren, magazijnen, werkplaatsen over het algemeen weinig vertonen van de spreekwoordelijk geworden Hollandse netheid en zindelijkheid.
De troebele wateren der grachten, de stoffige wegen, door de regen bij wijlen in modderpoelen herschapen, het gekrioel van Europese, Chinese, Arabische, Klingalese en Inlandse handelaars en zeelieden, van bedienden en beambten, van halfnaakte koelies, waartussen zich onooglijke palankijns en niet veel fraaier dos-a-dos en karretjes bewogen, deed dit gedeelte van Batavia veel meer op een slavin, afgebeuld door zware arbeid onder de brandende tropische zon, in bestoven haveloze kledij, dan op een schone en fiere koningin lijken.

Het is nog slechts een bestoven, verouderde verzameling van gouvernementsgebouwen, handelskantoren, winkels, magazijnen en pakhuizen.Gedurende de dag heerst er zeer veel bedrijvigheid en vertier, doch alle gemak en weelde is verdwenen; ‘s nachts is het er doods en ledig.

Maar zodra men langs Molenvliet komt, verandert het hele aanzien:
Geleidelijk worden de huizen fraaier en groter, door sierlijke tuinen omgeven, als villa’s gebouwd. Links en rechts treden daar tussendoor, de kampongs uit klapperbossen en vruchtentuinen tevoorschijn en eindelijk aanschouwen we een opeenvolging van de heerlijkste lustverblijven. We zijn in dat gedeelte van Batavia, dat Rijswijk genoemd wordt,

‘s Morgens tussen acht en tien uur ziet men deze weg overdekt met duizenden voertuigen van allerlei soort, alle in ijlende vaart; de heren begeven zich dan naar hun kantoren. De trams snorren er met een zekere nieuwerwetse deftigheid tussendoor, in scherpe tegenstelling met de logge houten karren op twee hoge wielen, door ossen getrokken.

Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes stilstaan. We stappen uit en zeggen de koetsier om vijf uur weet voor te komen om te gaan toeren.

Te vijf uur komt het rijtuig voor en gaan we Batavia eens bezichtigen. We slaan rechts af, komen allereerst voorbij het Marinehotel en bevinden ons dan aan een driesprong. Dat grote gebouw op de hoek is de sociëteit de Harmonie, welker rijke en ruime zalen meermalen het toneel zijn van schitterende feesten, bals en concerten. Een eind verder ligt het Hotel der Nederlanden en het Java Hotel en andere officiële en particuliere woningen. Alle verscholen tussen lommerrijk groen en bomen, die met hun brede takken ook de weg grotendeels overschaduwen en waaronder we ook weer de reusachtigste soorten aantreffen, maken ze op ons een niet alleen zeer aangename, maar onvergetelijk liefelijke indruk.
De vurige, rood-gele bloem van de boom, door de Engelsen the flame of the wood geheten, valt hier bijzonder in het oog. Eerst nu begrijpen we hoe men Batavia de naam van Koningin van het Oosten kon geven en worden we overtuigd hoezeer het die naam verdient.

Al snel komen onze reizigers er hopelijk ook achter dat in Batavia o.m. de nu zeer beroemde Engelse fotografen

Woodbury & Page
werkzaam zijn, bij wie je prachtige foto’s van Batavia en omgeving kon verkrijgen.


het atelier van Woodbury & Page in Batavia

met het Britse wapenschild boven hun namen 


Woodbury & Page in Batavia nemen het er even van en terecht….
Nu moet Aad eerlijk bekennen dat het nooit precies duidelijk is geworden wie is nu Woodbury en wie is nu Page. Maar in alle oude fotoboeken over o.m. Batavia kom je (bijna) altijd tegen dat de foto is genomen door Woodbury & Page…..dankzij hen kun je je helemaal verdiepen in het oude Batavia, wat Aad dus heel graag doet met al zijn boeken met foto’s van Woodbury & Page

Reeds in 1857 begonnen Walter Bentley Woodbury (1834 – 1885) en James Page (1833 – 1865) hun atelier in Batavia. Zij maakten grote reportages niet alleen van Batavia, maar ook van Java en dan natuurlijk altijd in de vroege nog koele ochtend, helaas dus zelden met een Europeaan op de foto. Later kwam nog een broer Henry James Woodbury erbij.
Uit advertenties is af te leiden dat je bij hen komplete albums kon kopen, nu natuurlijk onbetaalbaar en zeldzaam, maar gelukkig is er een paar jaar geleden een prachtig overzichtsboek verschenen door Aad binnen een dag gefinancierd….

Want als een van je hobbies Nederlands-Indië is, dan kun je ademloos naar een foto van Woodbury & Page kijken en dan weten dat hier ooit o.m. Loudon, van Swieten, Snouck Hurgronje, Köhler, van Daalen, Christoffel en natuurlijk de bekendere Van Heutsz en Colijn hebben rondgelopen. Wie dit allemaal waren :

Klik hier als je wilt zoeken via Aad’s Freefind search engine, vul in het venster jouw woord in, bijvoorbeeld Heutsz en klik op ENTER

De onderstaande foto is een van de eerste van Woodbury & Page geweest, waarschijnlijk uit 1857, de beroemde tijger foto gemaakt ergens op Java. De tijger sprong te vlug en daarom, aldus het verhaal, is de tijger er later “bijgeplakt” :


een van de eerste foto’s van Woodbury & Page

1857 Java

de tijger werd later “bijgeplakt” ???
We hebben dus nu zoo’n mooi foto album gekocht van Woodbury & Page en spoedden ons weer voorzichtig terug naar ons Hotel Des Indes, want wat we zojuist hebben gekocht is over zoo’n 150 jaar heel zeldzaam….

In 1747 begon men al met bouwen op de grond waar later ons hotel Des Indes zou ontstaan. In 1760 werd het terrein opgekocht door de latere Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk :

GG Klerk


Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk

De residentie van Gouverneur-Generaal Reynier de Klerk is onlangs gerestaureerd
In 1824 werd het geheel opgekocht door het Gouvernement die er een kostschool voor meisjes vestigde. In 1828 werd het gebouw weer verlaten, in 1832 werd de kostschool voor meisjes weer opgeheven omdat de leraressen maar steeds weggingen om te trouwen….

In 1829 werd het geheel opgekocht door de Fransman Surleon Antoine Chaulan die er als eerste een hotel begon onder de naam Hotel de Provence.

In 1845 kocht zoon Etienne Chaulan op een veiling het hotel van zijn vader voor dfl 25.000,=, vraag me niet waarom….
Etienne maakte het hotel al een beetje beroemd, want hij was de eerste die ….. verschillende soorten ijs ging verkopen.

In 1851 ging het management over in handen van Cornelis Denninghoff die de naam veranderde in

Ook wel het Rotterdamsch Hotel genoemd. Het had niet zoo’n goede naam, iemand schreef dat hem Hotel Rotterdam was aanbevolen, maar hij had veel beter Hotel der Nederlanden kunnen kiezen en toen op een dag in 1856 kwam Douwes Dekker voorbij, mogelijk op weg naar de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves tegenover Societeit De Harmonie.

En natuurlijk moet dit er dan even bij, de voetnoot onder bijna ieder Nederlands-Indië verhaal van Aad :

            ……een roofstaat aan de Noordzee……
            …..dat spoorwegen bouwt van gestolen geld en tot
            betaling de bestolene bedwelmt met
            opium, Evangelie en jenever…

             Aan U durf ik met vertrouwen te vragen of het
            Uw wil is dat daarginds Uw meer dan dertig
            millioenen onderdanen worden mishandeld en
            uitgezogen in UWEN naam?

            Multatuli [1860] …aan Nederland…Koning Willem III


.…dat dorp stond in brand, omdat het veroverd was door Nederlandsche soldaten…….

Ja, ‘t dorp was veroverd door Nederlandsche soldaten, en stond dus in brand.

Op Nederlandsche heldendaad volgt brand.
Nederlandsche overwinning leidt tot verwoesting.
Nederlandsche krygsbedryven baren wanhoop.

Maar terug naar ons verhaal:



Woodbury & Page

vanuit de Benedenstad langs het Molenvliet (links)

meteen rechts de ingang van ons hotel

in de verte links De Harmonie met rechts in dat ronde gebouw de Franse kleermaker Oger Frèves

Het Hotel Rotterdam had in 1852 al weer een andere eigenaar gekregen, de Zwitser Wijss die in 1851 getrouwd was met een 16-jarige nicht van Etienne Chaulan. En deze Wijss was degene die op advies van Douwes Dekker op 1 Mei 1856 de naam veranderde in het veel chiquer klinkende

In 1860 verkocht Wijss het hotel weer door aan de Fransman Cresonnier en deze Cresonnier was degene die Woodbury & Page foto’s liet maken van zijn Hotel Des Indes, waarom ? Inderdaad, om met deze fotographieën reclame te maken…..

En dus hier slechts twee foto’s genomen van Hotel Des Indes door Woodbury & Page :





 After 1795 no regular shipping was possible between the Netherlands and the Dutch East Indies due to an English naval blockade,


Battle of Bergen (1799)
The Battle of Bergen, also called the Battle of Bergen-Binnen, was fought on 19 September 1799, and resulted in a French-Dutch victory under General Brune and General Daendels against the Russians and British under the Duke of York who had landed in North Holland

 VOC papermoney 1799

 Noncolour embosed VOC revenue sheet

VOC embosed


VOC 50 Ryksdaalders 1805


The first papermoney of the Netherlands Indies         


Info source: Rob Huisman         

Last month a very rare VOC note  was on auction at the prestigious auction house for historical stock certificates HWPH Historisches Wertpapierhaus AG (HWPH) in Germany.  the lot was finally sold for 10.500 Euro, a fair price – knowing that most similar notes available on the market were offered at between 20.000 and 30.000 Euro the past couple of years.         

According to  Mr. Matthias Schmitt, CEO of HWPH,  the notes has been put up for auction by a private person in Europe who got the item from his uncle who lived in the United States. The uncle’s father was a Colonel in Dutch East Indies before World War II. 
The HWPH website has an extensive description of the VOC note.  They grade the note as VF and appraise it as follows: “Amboina, Castle Victoria, 30 April 1805, Banknote for 50 Ryksdaalders, Lettra E, #426, 27.8 x 17.2 cm, black, beige, handmade paper, folds (one partially broken), OU, stamp VOC A(mboina)?, onverso two more stamps, bilingual: Dutch, Hindi. This is a very rare banknote from the Netherland Indies, issued by the VOC.”
This 50 Ryksdaalder note was issued from Fort Victoria at Ambon island, Indonesia. The fortress was orignally built by the Portuguese in 1775, but soon taken over by the Dutch to establish a local stronghold for their colonial rule of the Netherlands Indies. 



The note is bilingual and has both Dutch and Arabic language. This note is especially interesting because it has a spelling mistake in the Dutch word “Gezien” which is printed as “Gezein” on this note. I have never observed spelling mistakes on similar notes before. Another thing that strikes me is the VF qualification. Using the IBNS grading rules for paper money, the note would grade as Fair only. The note has rounded corners, strong folds, holes around the folds, some small stains, etc. Grading it as Fair would be appropriate. One should not take the rarity into consideration when grading a note. Altough Fair, this is still a great note and absolutely worth its price.


After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.


 Javasche Bank 1828


De Javasche Bank 1828 – 1953

Presidents, Secretaries and Directors


info source: Rob Huisman 

The Javasche Bank was founded in 1828 and continued its operations until after the Dutch transfer of souvereignty to Indonesia in 1949. The Javasche Bank became the circulation bank for the Republic of Indonesia and was nationalized in 1953.

A date in italics (24/01/1828) means the date of the decree deciding about the appointment or discharge of  the board member. The date of a decree is only mentioned in case the actual start or end date is unknown.

The following board members (Presidents, Secretaries and Directors) were authorized to sign banknotes issued by the Javasche Bank:


24/01/1828 – 22/03/1838 Chr. de Haan (LL.M.)
Leonard Pierre Joseph viscount du Bus de Gisignies, Commissioner General of the Netherlands Indies, appointed Chr. de Haan by decree 25 on January 24, 1828, to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Although several other people applied for the position of President, the Commissioner General used his right to move past the nominees. On December 13, 1837, after almost 10 year of service, de Haan was granted a two year European leave. He seceded in the board meeting of March 22, 1838.


31/03/1838 – 10/03/1851 C.J. Smulders
C.J. Smulders, the Secretary of the Javasche Bank, succeeded de Haan as President by decision of the Commissioner General on March 31, 1838. 
In November 1846, Smulders bought 1/2 share in the sugar factory Langsee. On January 7, 1851, Smulders requested to be honorably discharged because of his weakening health. By decree of March 4, 1851, Smulders was honorably discharged. He decided to dedicate his time to his interest in the Langsee sugar factory. His successor E. Francis, took over presidency during the board meeting of March 10, 1851.


Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.


President of Javasche bank


10/03/1851 – 01/07/1863 E. Francis
Emanuel Francis started his career in the Netherlands Indies as a clerk in 1815 and worked his way up in the government service to eventually become the top civil servant available to the Commissioner General. From 1848 to 1850 Francis was Inspector of Finance and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from the governement service. Next, Francis was appointed to President of the Javasche Bank by decree of March 4, 1851. On his own request Francis was honorably discharged  per Juli 1, 1863 per decree of  April 20, 1863. In 1864 Francis published a book “De regerings-beginselen van Nederlandsch Indië: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie”, expressing his dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and proposing an investigation by an independent committee. In 1969 Francis published a request to the Dutch parliament about his reputed right for payment of pension being a retired civil servant of the Netherlands Indies government.


Legendary story of Banjar War
Many legendary stories in Banjar War period that lasted from 1859 until 1865. one of which there are death squads called the Army War Beratib Ba-mall. Until now, the name of the force is still very legendary ….

Beginning of the conflict in the palace of Sultan Tahmudiah Banjar is when I died. He has a son who still small. Therefore, for while the power is held by Prince Tamjidillah I, brother, Sultan Tahmidillah I. But in fact, Prince Tamjidillah I not only became the guardian of his nephew was a kid, but took control with a smooth and would not return

the son of Sultan Tahmidillah I. Even to strengthen its position as the Sultan of his descendants in the future, Banjar land handed over to the Netherlands. Then by the Dutch were given to the Sultan hakPemerintahan Tamjid I and his descendants.

Therefore there was an armed uprising of Prince Amir (Prince Antasari a hero’s grandfather), a descendant of Sultan Tahmidillah I. However, resistance can be broken by the Dutch. He was later exiled to Ceylon or Sri Lanka.

To reconcile these two offspring, then, Adam Sultan Al Wasique Billah who is a descendant of Sultan Tamjidillah I married his daughter to Prince Antasari. But alas, the Queen died before giving Antasari trigger descent.

In addition, Prince Sultan Muda Abdurrahrnan also had a concubine of the Chinese nation. In 1817 the mistress gave birth to a son. Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman wanting sons became crown prince. Therefore then freed and married her legally and was named the Big Nyai Aminah. While his son was named Prince Tamjidilllah,

Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman desire is opposed by the grandfather and father of Sultan Sulaiman and Adam Sultan Al Wasiqu `Billah. They forced the young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman himself married to a cousin of Queen Siti, Miss Mangkubumi Nata.

Nata Mangkubumi besedia Young married his daughter to Prince Sultan Abdurrahman condition, later-born son will be king when the Sultan Muda died. This provision was approved, and the Sultan Muda had made a will on anyone who is entitled to the throne of the Sultanate of Banjar.

In Prince 1822Iahirlah Hidayatutlah. A few years later died so jabatan’tersebut Mangkubumi Nata. is empty. This opportunity was used by Prince Tamjid best, namely the Netherlands requested that appointed him in the Sultanate Mangkubumi Banjar. `With pleasure, of course, the Dutch agreed to because it will benefit the ‘they.’

In 1852 the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman died suddenly. A day later with Pengeran Tamjid secretly sent a letter to the Resident of the Dutch in Yogyakarta to appoint him as the heir apparent to the promised delivery of the Sultanate of Banjar areas that prompted the Dutch origin of the request is approved. Once again the Dutch Prince’s request Tamjid, because this is an opportunity for the Dutch reap the fish in troubled waters, as well as running the political divide et empera: glassware and colonize.

On June 10, 1852 the Dutch crown prince Tamjid become crown prince. Of course this appointment caused angry reactions to the nobility, clergy and community on Prince Tamjid and its allies, especially the Dutch.

In April 1853, Sultan Adam, Son of the Young Prince Sultan Abdurrahman sent envoys to Batavia to meet with Governor General of Dutch East Indies in order to request the cancellation of the appointment of justice PangeranTamjid become crown prince and Prince Setting Hidayatullah become crown prince in accordance with the testament of Sultan Adam. But this request was rejected by the Dutch East Indies governor. This adds to the heat of the political climate in the Kingdom of Banjar Prince Tamjid so do not dare to live in the palace which is located diIbukota Banjar Jewels Temple (City of Gems) that the person called Banjar City Martapura now Martapura Banjar regency’s capital.

Tamjid Prince Sultan fled to Banjarmasin. To cool the political atmosphere is getting warmer, finally. HidayatuIlah into Dutch raised Pengeran Mangkubumi previously held by PangeranTamjid and set PangeranTamjid as crown prince. Besides capturing the Dutch Prince and banished him to the King Anom Banjarmasin because it is considered as a provocateur who oppose the decisions of the Netherlands.

To avoid unwanted things to his son, then, the Sultan had come to accompany Prince Adam King moved to Banjarmasin Anom. When gering, or severe illness, he was taken to the palace in Martapura Banjar. On November 01, 1857 he died and was buried in Martapura

On 3 November 1857 the Dutch crown prince as the king’s successor Sultan Tamjid Adam, and the Prince immediately ordered the arrest of Prince Tamjid Anom King then threw to Bogor, West Java.

In 1858, there is a continual movement of people who want to restore the kingdom of culture and the concessions that have been damaged due to the inclusion of power penjajajah Netherlands.

EMERGENCE bead cherished daughter of froth

Mentioned, magical princess who emerged from the foaming whirlpools, then by Gastric Mangkurat crowned as queen in the Kingdom of Dipa Nagara, and then married to the Majapahit royal palace, Raden Putra

After marriage with Princess Bubble cherished, Raden Putra became king in the Kingdom under the name Prince Dipa Nagara Ananta Surya (son of the sun). According to legend Banjar society, they both, in the end mokswa or disappear into the invisible realm and became a ruler in the palace of Magical Mountain Pamaton

According to public confidence, they could both dripping or possessed bodies of people they want.

Thus, when the political temperature in the Kingdom of Banjar is getting hot because the Dutch intervened at the coronation of Prince Tamjid as king in the Kingdom of Banjar to replace Adam Sultan because Sultan Muda Prince Abdurrahman had died first. In fact, the nobility, clergy and the people willed Banjar Hidayatullah became Prince Sultan, according to the testament or the testament of Sultan previous

One of the pious scholars in Kumbayau Tambarangan, Overseas (Regency But right now), named Datu Aling are concerned about the crisis in the palace Banjar. Accordingly, it is because he salampah or penance with his own solitude, fasting, prayer, and remembrance wird, and other practice-practice to draw closer to God, accompanied by a request that the instructions given and the solution to the crisis that is happening in the palace Banjar . Datu Aling_dilaksanakan penance for nine months nine days, beginning in April 1858 until. by February 1859.

On February 2, 1859 to coincide with the 10th Rajab 1275 H; Datu Aling visited by kings and magical kingdom of Banjar Datu Aling asked to bring Prince Muning Antasari to the area. He will start the New Kingdom until the rightful king was elected.

On 13 Rajab 1275 AH, Princess Datu named Aling Saranti, cherished daughter was possessed by Bubble. He is married with a young man asked village named Dulasa because in her magical spirit benemayam Prince Surya Ananta.

Hearing all that, then, was Aling Datu daughter Implementing all these desires. Once married to Dulasa, then, Saranti be named espouse Bubble Princess and her husband Prince Surya Dulasa named Ananta. Datu Aling then announced to the public about Saranti coronation, the king cherished Princess Bubble Bead. Kumbayau area was renamed the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. As a king in the Kingdom Tambay Mecca, Saranti Bead Princess Bubble lift ayahya cherished, Datu Aling, as Panembahan, brother Sambang given the title of the Yellow Emperor, his sister was given the title Queen of the Sacred Nuramin, while the husband was given the title as Mangkubumi Nuramin Kusuma Nagara, Bayan Sampit, Garuntung waluh, Garumung manau, Kindaui Aji, Kindui Mu `l, splitting Batung, Panimba Sagara, there is also the Commander Juntai In Sky and others.

Tambay Mecca kingdom separate from the Sultanate of Banjar and not subject to the Dutch colonizers. Bubble bead Saranti cherished became queen in Mecca KerajaanTambay only as a symbol of the head of state, while the affairs of government are held, by Penembahan Muda Datu Aling. As a Panembahan, the pious, just and wise he is working with Immediate Banua Ampat, namely: Banua Halat, Banua Gadung, Banua Padang and Banua Parigi. They are subject to the Datu Aling. Then follow the same Banua Top, Trunk Hulu, Guava, Amandit and Pangabau

To his followers, Datu Aling always instill the spirit of jihad for the sake of fighting injustice and occupation. The call for jihad Aling Datu who received tremendous response from the community, was made Prince of the Netherlands felt teracam Tamjid its position. For the Dutch Resident in Banjarmasin send a team consisting of the Chief Prosecutor. Suryadinata prince and the prince of the Head of Prince Muhammad Seman accompanied by 120 followers

Knowing the Will of their arrival, then, was Aling Datu Yellow Emperor ordered his troops to prepare his jihad as many as 700 people complete with weapons drawn

to keep all possibilities that bakal_terjadi.Tentu Dutch Resident is just the messenger gasped to see so many forces in Datu Aling the STAP jihad fighters if they do sort-rnacam. Because they just want to see the actual situation in the Kingdom of Mecca, they were welcome to meet at the Palace of Datu Aling Tambay Mecca.

After hearing reports messenger, once again ordered the Dutch Resident Mangkubumi Prince Hidayatullah to deal with the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. Then sent Prince Prince Hidayatullah Antasari. Kesuma Jantera Prince and Prince Omar Sharif to meet Datu Aling, Datu Aling During the meeting explaining the intent and purpose of establishment of the Kingdom of Tambay Mecca. It turned out that what is conveyed by Datu Aling dengart hand in hand what is desired by Prince Antasari. Until finally terjadilahn matchmaking agreement between the child named Antasari Prince Prince Mohammed Said with Saranti Bead Princess Bubble who have been widowed cherished.

Thus grew stronger the position of Datu Aling due 30 days after the wedding with Prince Muhammad Said Saranti, the incarnation of Princess Bubble cherish, then, Prince Antasari began to actively lead the popular movement in Banua Ampat and Banua five are directed to the Dutch.

28 April 1859 Puncaknyapada jihadists from Datu Aling Banua Banua Ampat and five under the leadership of Prince Antasari, attacked the Dutch fortress in Pengaron Orange Nassau. The attack was very successful. That was the beginning of the outbreak of the War Banjar. Finally, the battle also extends to various areas in South Kalimantan

As retaliation for the collapse of bastion of Orange Nassau in Pengaron, then, on 16 November 1859, suddenly attacked the Dutch defense forces Yellow Emperor. This attack was greeted with cries of Allahu Akbar by jihadi forces under the command of Sultan Datu Aling Yellow. In battle, the leader of the Dutch army captain killed by a spear Benschop. That day came again a platoon of the larger Dutch troops, but all were driven back.

In the evening, come back bigger Dutch troops to storm the bastion of Datu Aling Muning ie in the mosque. The battle occurred overnight. Datu Aling, Saranti Along with a few people remained loyal followers in the mosque. Aling Datu did not want to surrender to the Dutch even though the fire had licked all the mosques are made of wood. Finally, Datu Aling and Saranti was killed as a martyr.

Listen to the death of Datu Aling and Saranti, then, Prince Antasari issued a slogan which reads “Heram manyareh, waja until ka nipple: (haram surrendered to the Dutch until the last drop of blood)”


Attacks on the forts, coal mines, warships and other Dutch possessions to make the colonists could not do anything about it. Until June 25, 1859 forced the Dutch Prince Tamjid turunt ahta and throw it to Bogor. Prince is being run from the palace Martapura Hidayatullah joined Prince Antasari.

The battle occurred not only in South Kalimantan region, but extends to Central Kalimantan. Central Kalimantan is the field of battle Barito, Kapuas and Katingan led by Prince Antasari, accompanied by the original Surapati Tumenggung Dayak tribe. Martapura and Tang Sea region led by Lehman Demat, Region Five Banua led by Jalil degree Kiyai Wall Duke Anom king.

After the Netherlands asked for help to Batavia, then, berdatanganlah warships and complete with soldiers and cannon-cannon. Onrust Warships sailing to Barito to capture Prince Antasari metalui Tumenggung Surapati. However Tumenggung Surapati not want to sell out despite promises prizes of several thousand Dutch Guilders if Tumenggung Surapati could give Prince Antasari.

On December 26, 1859, suddenly Tumenggung Surapati with his men attacked the ship Onrust In this incident commander Onrust warships and 93 of his men were killed. The guns and cannon cannon transported ashore while his ship was sunk. Meanwhile, the warship sailed Tjipanas Martapura River came under fire from Demat Lehman and his men so hastily returned to Banjarmasin.

On June 11, 1860, proclaimed the abolition of the Kingdom of the Netherlands makes the Banjar and the region as a Dutch colony. Thus the war against the Dutch because the Dutch are no longer intervene in the area of ​​Banjar palace, but the war against Dutch colonialism who want to destroy the Muslims. Therefore, in 1861 came the death squads to defend the religion of Islam. The force is called Ba-Baratib War Forces charity. The cornerstone of their struggle is the sentence of God, Hadith Prophet Muhammad, ask syafa’at 40 prophets, sacred science of the Datu and Heroes. Before progressing to the battlefield, first, they purify the body of hadast with shower and ablution, then dressed in white like clothing Rasullullah war era. They also fasted then beratib ba charity (practice / mewiridkan one practice: Pen) until I forget myself. Then advanced into battle to face the enemy. They believe, if they fall in battle against the infidels Dutch and their allies, they die a martyr.

Leaders of the movement of Ba `War Beratib this mall is the religious teachers and the prince. Among the leaders of the Army War Baratib Perhaps this is the charity of Banua Lawas Badr Haji, the prince of Rashid, and Abdul Gani Buyasin headman of the village Amuntai Basil.

Sementera it Pula, Prince Hidayatullah who has been crowned as the Sultan of the Kingdom of Banjar in Amuntai repeatedly received offers of peace from the Netherlands, but the offer was always declined. With the ruse. Dutch Prince Hidayatullah tricked to come to-Martapura on orders Siti’s mother Queen Dowager. Queen Mother Queen Siti who can not read Latin letters to the Dutch believe it enough to sign a letter written by the Kingdom of the Netherlands as well as stamped Banjar. As a pious man, of Prince Hidatullah afraid of his mother. Hidayatullah Prince came to Martapura on March 3, 1862. Rock aat the same way, he was arrested and exiled to Cianjur.

Prince Antasari continue the struggle against the Dutch. But unfortunately he was a sickly start to Rahmatullah finally passed away on October 11, 1862.

Nevertheless, the war continues. Commander of the Army War Beratib Ba-Hajj Amal Buyasin fall in battle, following the then Chairman of the prince Rashid, Commander of Bukhari, Tumenggung State Tigers, Tumenggung Naro, and others,

Demat Lehman, leader of the guerrilla war untukwilayah Martapura Land Sea and was caught by fraud Dutch in Slippery Rock area and then transported to Martapura and hanged to death in the plaza III (now the Great Mosque of Al-page KaromahPen) Martapura. After that head cut off and sent to Holland. And there is a necklace around her neck ajimat. When ajimat is opened in it there is a white paper that read Arabic letters that people which means free or die.


01/07/1863 – 30/06/1868 C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem
Wiggers van Kerchem was appointed President per July 1, 1863. Wiggers van Kerchem was a member of the firm Tiedeman & van Kerchem in Batavia prior to his appointment. Per decree of June 30, 1868, it was decided to discharge Wiggers van Kerchem in the most honorable way. After finishing the concept of the fifth Exclusive Right that should be implemented per April 1, 1870, Wiggers van Kerchem decided to return to Europe for retirement.

The Town Hall in the old city center built in 1710 (3rd building)

Military parade in front of the statue of Jan Pietersz. Coen at Waterloo-square during the coronation celebrations of Queen Wilhelmina, 1898.

The Artesian well at Salemba, 1885.

The Artesian well at the Koningsplein square, 1885.

The City Theatre, 1865

The ‘Landsarchief’ – the colonial archives, housed in a former country house built around 1760

A typical Chinese house.

The shop of ‘Eigen Hulp’ at the Molenvliet-West canal, 1890.

Building in the botanical gardens and zoo.

Bathing kids in the Molenvliet canal next to ‘De Harmonie’ society builing. (Architect: J.C. Schultze, 1815)‘De Harmonie’ society building, 1875.

The Aceh monument at the Koningsplein square

The protestant Willemskerk, 1875.

Museum of the Society for Arts and History. (Built in 1862)

Military Society on the east side of the Waterlooplein square, corner Sipajersweg-road.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlMilitary Society Concordia.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlWeltevreden Palace at the Koningsplein square, 1880.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlSoldiers in front of a ‘watch-house’ of Weltevreden Palace, 1880.

Audience-hall in the Palace

The Palace (back), 1875.

palace interior

Volksraad or Council of the Indies Building or Raad van Indië (founded in 1918).

www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate in Rijswijk in Batavia, 1875.

www.geheugenvannederland.nlPrivate estate, 1856-1878.


De Javasche Bank note issues 1864


De Javasche Bank note issues, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn. 

info source:Rob Huisman 

 In 1863, De Javasche Bank, was the circulation bank of the Netherlands Indies. One would expect it to be a well-established colonial institution, however the opposite is true. Research at the archives of the printer Joh. Enschede en Zonen at the Museum Enschedé in Haarlem, the Netherlands, shows a completely different picture. The board and especially the President of De Javasche Bank were directly involved in detail in all operational matters related to the design and ordering of their banknotes


01/07/1868 – 31/03/1870 J.W.C. Diepenheim
Wiggers van Kerchem was succeeded by Diepenheim by decree of June 30, 1868. Diepenheim who proviously was Secretary for two years, was President for a short period. He resigned shortly after the fifth Exclusive Right was made public. On March 18, 1870, his resignation was accepted. Diepenheim died in The Hague on May 21, 1875 in the age of 75.

01/04/1870 – 31/03/1873 F. Alting Mees (LL.M.)
By decree of March 19, 1870, Alting Mees was appointed to the position of President of the Javasche Bank. Alting Mees, previously lawyer and attorney, already served the bank as director for several years. Due to his appointment to President of the two high courts of the Netherlands Indies, he left the Javasche Bank per March 31, 1873.


01/04/1873 – 01/09/1889 N.P. van den Berg (LL.M.)                               
Norbertus Petrus van den Berg was chosen as the next President of the Javasche bank from two nominees and was appointed per decree of March 20, 1873. After more than 16 years of service, Van den Berg left the Netherlands Indies in 1889 to become Director of the Nederlandsche Bank and two years later President for a period of 21 years until the age of 81. He passed away in Amsterdam on January 8, 1917.

De Javasche Bank 1864-1895


January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.
Info Sources: Rob Huisman

 In 1863, De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies. One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true. Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede, the Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council President De Javasche and in particular the Bank is directly involved in operational detail in everything related to design and order their paper money

Section 4, January 1864 – April 1895, printed by Joh. Enschede en Zn.

In 1863,

De Javasche Bank, founded in 1828, is a circulation bank in the Netherlands Indies.
One would expect to become an established colonial institutions, but the opposite is true.
Research in archives John printer. Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem Museum in Enschede,
The Netherlands, showed a completely different picture. Council and in particular President De
Javasche Bank directly involved in operational detail in all matters related to the design and
to order their paper money.

Reading through all the correspondence carefully stored and arranged between Javasche Bank
and printing companies in the homeland, one can feel the atmosphere of modern
entrepreneurial start-up companies. President (CEO) of E. Francis De Javasche Bank (DJB) and
Wiggers van Kerchem successor, wrote a letter to John. Enschede en Zn. (Later called the “Heeren
Enschedee te Haarlem “) on a regular basis to order the new banknotes, commenting on the quality and implementation
command, complained about delays in delivery, and often underscores the urgent need for new supplies to
those remote regions.

Most striking is that they often mention that the cost is to limit the maximum
important. The letters are written with beautiful calligraphy and using ways of polite and politically correct
complaining, urging, comment and criticize. Words such as “worry”, “disappointed”, “propose” and
“Like” is used regularly and frequently suggestions and proposals submitted by completing the statement
such as:

 “But we rely on your expertise in this regard and believe you will make the right decision”.
E. Francis (he signed his letters with M. Francis), third President of Javasche Bank, started as a
employees in 1815 and worked his way in the service of civil government to finally be over
available to the Commissioner General of the servant. From 1848 to 1850 Francis is the Superintendent of Financial
and in 1851 he was honorably discharged from government service. Furthermore, Francis was appointed
Javasche to the President of the Bank under the decision dated March 4, 1851. In the early sixties of the 19th century,
De Javasche Bank started to prepare a complete new emission of paper money the Dutch East Indies. In
cooperation with the Nederlandsche Bank, De Javasche Bank is pointing towards the Netherlands
printer “De Heeren Enschedee” (now known as John. Enschede en Zn. (Enschede Security)) to have
The new banknotes are designed and manufactured. Francis was personally involved in the process and
communicate with the printer on a regular basis. Unfortunately, Francis did not stay in the office to see
the results of his efforts. At the request of Francis himself honorably discharged per July 1, 1863
The decision by 20 April 1863. In 1864 Francis published the book “De-beginselen regerings van
Nederlandsch Indie: getoetst aan de behoefte van moederland en kolonie “, expressed his
dissatisfaction with the implementation of a new economic system in the Netherlands Indies and
proposed inquiry by an independent committee. In 1869 Francis issued a request to
Dutch Parliament about his famous right to payment of pensions to retired civil servants
Government of the Netherlands Indies. This response proposal and the request is not found, leading to
believe that Francis ignored by the establishment and must fight for that trust and pension
pay the old days.
In a letter from Francis dated January 31, 1863, with the management of the Nederlandsche Bank, which
evidence has confirmed receipt of the record and the evidence has been approved. In the same letter Francis
raised some comments that he wanted to address:
- Size note: DJB prefer to be the difference in size between the records of 100 and 50
guilders. This means that the records of 1000, 500, 300, 200 and 100 will be great, and notes
of 50, 25 and 10 will be small size. DJB stated that if the De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) think
the divide should be between 25 and 10 guilders, DJB will also agree.
- Character value in the corner records should be larger.
- Lions at 10 guilders note has an expression, surprised almost frightened. DJB would like
lion to have a more relaxed expression symbolizes strength.

- DJB would prefer that the signature is placed under the words “Secretary” and “President” and demand
words to be printed under the date as high as possible.
- DJB prefer that the date is printed on a printer that was not applied in (Joh. Enschede en Zn.)
DJB after arrival. In the case of a printer to print the date, Francis suggests choosing a date is not be
Christian holiday or Sunday and about 6 months after the date of expected departure from the
paper money.
- DJB stated that they calculated six months for the duration of the trip and apply numbers and
signatures for the amount of paper money needed for the exchange of banknotes in circulation today.
In early 1870 the delivery of DJB’s request to be sent through the Suez Canal opened, reducing the
travel time by more than 50%.

De Javasche fourth President of the Bank,

C.F.W. Wiggers van Kerchem, took office on July 1
1863 and continue the process of ordering new issues of paper money.
During the period January 1864 – April 1895, serial number and signature on the front and
cons in the opposite sign printed locally by the Bank in the Netherlands Indies Javasche on
complete records are sent from the printers in the Netherlands. The Bank also Javasche
ordering equipment numbering stamps and signatures of the printer and some blank signature stamps
in the case of signatories will change, allowing them to carve out a new signature stamps
own local. Together with the first order of 1864 new banknotes, the Bank Javasche
ordered the mechanic to accompany numbering machine and take care of the machine becomes
production. Willem Hooij contracted by Joh. Enschede en Zonen for traveling to Batavia in
Dutch East Indies and install the machine. In a letter from Hooij to John. Enschede en Zonen date
August 12, 1864, he wrote about President patient from Javasche Bank makes
difficulties because Hooij not get the machine installed in one day. Wiggers van Kerchem
invite a local printer to meet and together they underestimate Hooij.
161a – from private collections, with the Contra Mark printed in the lower right corner opposite.
All banknotes issued by the De Javasche Bank in the Dutch East Indies during the period 1864 to 1931
and printed by Johan Enschede en Zonen, bringing counter-sign, printed in the lower right corner or
lower center of the opposite. A code that is printed in black on the cap ellipse with a triangular shape
pointing outwards and have up to 5 numbers. Countries lower denomination notes issued during this
period does not have this mark.

Collectors who are familiar with the Dutch East Indies paper money from
This period may be aware that there is a relationship between the date of issuance and cons
the sign. Although it looks like a date then the higher the score, in reality this is not always
the case.
In order to determine the proper application of the mark cons, I gather more information about
than 150 records starting from 1864 to 1931. When setting up and organizing all relevant information
such as date, serial number and the cons, I observed the following:
- One of the unique sign of a counter is always connected to only one specific date of issue
- One of the specified date there are problems with different security code, but the security code that is close
- When a record is more of the same problem occurs with the same date and security code, the record has
combinations of the same character in the serial number
- When the date occurs with more than one mark each sign cons cons unique place with different
combinations of characters in the serial number of a specific problem or a sign of a counter connected to the
other denominations issued
- Many have missed the date, there are many days or weeks gap between one and the subsequent counter-sign
- Note the different denominations issued on the same date with different sign cons
- It seems that a range of sequence numbers is used to sign a counter that includes all the notes issued
from the entire period
- There are some exceptions in which the later date has a number of counter low marks
- No combination of different character serial number of a particular denomination with
same counter-sign.
- Changes from 4 to 5 digits occur in the course of 1918
- Note EXAMPLE frequently have signs that are not suitable to deviate counter the usual sequential increase
counter-sign and date.
Clearly, the Bank managed the Netherlands will keep detailed records of the security code and
dates and serial numbers of all paper money issued. It is unknown whether this note De Javasche
Banks still exist in archives somewhere today, although there are rumors that this record is still
present in the archives of Bank Indonesia in Jakarta.
Based on the “Note by PJ Soetens, former conservator DNB (De Nederlandsche Bank), the archive
Geldmuseum, Utrecht, The Netherlands “, I conclude that the Bank used the sign of De Javasche cons
number to identify a separate batch of unfinished bills are transported between
various departments, where they were printed with the serial number and signature, and finally
stored in a vault teller before circulation
Archives of Enschede Museum contains many original orders, production records,
delivery of information and also letters from Batavia where Javasche Bank confirms receipt
shipments. The author makes an overview of all this data and be able to specify the exact amount of
issued notes for each date of issuance. The number of issued notes mentioned in the summary below
should be regarded as a minimum. There is strong evidence that these figures actually incurred.
Although it is possible that more records were published, the opportunity – while there is no distinct
detailed records mention them – very small.
Here is an overview of the different banknotes and their varieties are printed in Johan
Enschede en Zonen in Haarlem, the Netherlands which will be issued by the De Javasche Bank in Batavia,
Dutch East Indies. Although there are rumors about another date of issue and signature combinations,
Overview below lists only those banknotes and varieties that writers have sufficient evidence that
they actually exist.
Java Auction Catalog (7), Cookies (15) and Mevius (16) mentions Van Duyn as a signatory, but
no one by that name is part of the board of DJB during the period. It seems that the signature
of H.P.J. van den Berg (Secretary of 19/10/1893 – 17/01/1899) has been mistaken as it looks like
Van Duyn. H.P.J. van den Berg, brother of the past president of the Bank Javasche NP van den Berg,
appointed as successor to President Groeneveld is on January 17, 1899, but died on February 9, 1899
in Nice, before actually starting his new position.



5 Gulden

1 Oktober 1866
issued : 100,000

10 Gulden

 1 Februari 1864
issued : 350.000

25 Gulden

1 Agustus 1864
issued : 120.000


50 Gulden

174 – 1 September 1864
withdrawed l 1872 becaus e too many counterfiet circulated
issued : 40.000

100 Gulden

1 Maret 1864
issued : 60.000

200 Gulden


1 Januari 1864
issued : 16,010
Watermark: “JAV BANK.” and two  “200”  __________________________________________________________________________

300 Gulden

193 – 2 Mei 1864
issued : 6.000

500 Gulden

197 – 1 Juni 1864
197c – koleksi Museum Enschede (BB2140 28/13)

198 – 1 Juni 1872

issued : 2.000

1000 Gulden


 1 Juli 1864
issued : 14,998


Ordonasi Reveneu

the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,





original info:

Maar natuurlijk hebben we ook een schets van iemand anders met een van de beroemde Javaanse Waringinbomen, een mistieke boom die nooit gekapt mocht worden, want in de boom wonen boomgeesten.


        Plotseling zwenkt de koetsier rechts af, voert ons een met hoge, schaduwrijke waringinbomen beplant plein op en doet het rijtuig voor

de marmeren vestibule van het kolossale Hotel des Indes



Cresonnier overleed in 1870, zijn familie verkocht het hotel aan Theodoor Gallas die het op zijn beurt weer verkocht in 1886 aan Jacob Lugt voor dfl 177.000,=. Lugt breidde het hotel fors uit met allerlei grondaankopen van de buren. In 1897 werd zelfs de N.V. Hotel Des Indes door Lugt opgericht, want in de jaren negentig ontstond er in de kolonie een economische depressie. Door die N.V. was Lugt niet meer persoonlijk aansprakelijk.



Since the establishment of the VOC in the seventeenth century, the expansion of Dutch territory had been founded on business. However from the mid-nineteenth century it was Dutch national expansionism, in line with the prevailing empire-building outlook of Europe during the era of New Imperialism, that saw them wage a series of wars to enlarge and consolidate their possessions.[8] The most prolonged of these was the Aceh War in which a Dutch invasion in 1873 was met with indigenous guerrilla resistance and ended with an Acehnese surrender in 1912.[7] Disturbances continued to break out on both Java and Sumatra during the remainder of the 19th century,[3] however, the island of Lombok came under Dutch control in 1894,[9] and Batak resistance in northern Sumatra was quashed in 1895.[7].


Akhir abad ke-19. Belanda menata ulang pemerintahan Priangan dan membaginya menjadi 9 afdeeling (Jerman: Abteilung).

Salah satunya adalah Sukapura di bawah Raden Tumenggung Wiratanubaya IV. Wirahadiningrat (1874-1906)
memperoleh penghargaan bintang Oranye Nassau dari Belanda



1303895796646361216Di bawah ini beberapa nama bupati di daerah(the regent Of)  Priangan,yakni:

1. Bupati Sumedang XV (1882-1918), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Sadeli, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Pangeran Aria Suriaatmaja, dan setelah wafat dijuluki Pangeran Mekah karena ia wafat di Mekah sewaktu menunaikan obadah haji.

2. Bupati Bandung X (1893-1918), sewaktu muda diberi nama Kusumaningrat, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Raden Adipati Aria Martanegara, dan setelah pensiun hingga wafat digelari Kangjeng Burujul karena setelah pensiun ia tinggal di desa Burujul, Sumedang.

3. Bupati Cianjur IX (1834-1862), sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Hasan, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Dalem Pancaniti karena selama menjadi bupati ia lebih senang tinggal di paviliyun kabupaten yang biasa disebut pancaniti dari pada tinggal dibangunan utama kabupaten.

4. Bupati Limbangan yang memerintah antara tahun 1836-1871, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Aom Jenon, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal dengan nama Tumenggung Jayaningrat, dan setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiratanuningrat VII. Setelah pensiun dan wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Sepuh (Bupati Tua).

5. Bupati Sukapura yang memerintah antara tahun 1855-1975, sewaktu kecil dipanggil Raden Tanuwangsa, setelah menjadi bupati dikenal sebagai Tumenggung Wiratanubaya, setelah naik pangkat menjadi Raden Adipati Wiradadaha. Setelah wafat dikenal sebagai Dalem Bogor karena ia dibuang ke Bogor oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda akibat dianggap kurang loyal.

Ada beberapa yang mendapat julukan Dalem Bintang karena mereka mendapat tanda jasa berupa gouden ster Nederlandsche-Leeuw (bintang mas singa Belanda), misalnya RAA. Wiranatakusumah IV  Bupati Bandung (1846-1874), R. Adipati Wirahadiningrat Bupati Sukapura (1874-1904).



 The development occurred after the Bandung railway transport operations to and from the city since 1884.
 Because the city of Bandung serves as a center of railroad transportation “West Lin”, it has encouraged the development of life in the city of Bandung with the increase in population from year to year.
At the end of the 19th century, the population of the European group number has reached thousands of people and demands an autonomous institution that can take care of their interests. Meanwhile the central government realized the failure of centralized government system following the implementation of its impact. Therefore, the government arrive at a policy to replace the system of government with a system of decentralization, decentralization not only in finance, but also decentralization in the field of government granting autonomy (zelfbestuur)
 In this case, the government of Bandung regency under the leadership of Regent RAA Martanagara (1893-1918) welcomed the idea of ​​the colonial government. Ongoing autonomous government in Bandung, means the district gets a special budget fund from the previous colonial government did not exist.



04/12/1889 – 19/09/1893 S.B. Zeverijn
Altough the board recommended Buijskes to become the next President, the Governor General appointed S. B .Zeverijn to that position by decree of August 21, 1889. Zeverijn was forced because of illness to leave for Europe on March 1, 1893 where he died on December 13, 1893.


29/09/1893 – 21/12/1898  D. Groeneveld
Groeneveld, serving as Director zince 1877, was promoted to President of the Bank per decree of September 29, 1893. After more than five years as President, Groeneveld died on December 21, 1898. Groeneveld was the first President that came from the Bank’s own personnel.


The road is now called Jalan Asia-Afrika in memory of the conference.

Indonesia: Bandung picture 2

Mileposts on the road were numbered starting at Bandung. Rapid growth of the city, however, began only after the railroad from Batavia (now Jakarta) arrived in 1884


schitterende plattegrond van Batavia te vinden op Aad’s Nederlands-Indië site :

Batavia in 1897

Batavia plattegrond 1897

Meer foto’s en plattegronden van Batavia kun je vinden via deze LINK
Als je onbekend bent in het Batavia van toen, dan is het even zoeken, maar we gaan het hebben over nummer 10….:

Hotel Des Indes

Het noordelijke gedeelte van Batavia werd de Benedenstad genoemd, het zuidelijke gedeelte de Bovenstad. Het zuidelijke gedeelte van Batavia lag wat hoger, vandaar de naam Bovenstad

In de 18e eeuw werd het leven van de in de Benedenstad wonende Europeanen steeds ondragelijker, de grote rivier de Tjiliwoeng die door de stad stroomde, begon steeds meer te stinken, je mag zelf raden waardoor. Ook zakte het waterpeil steeds verder door dichtslibben van de rivier monding.

Een citaat uit dit verhaal:

The Earliest Netherland Oost Indie revenue

The Ned Oost Indie Revenue  sheet , embosed noncolour , nominal:

Quater G

 half G

,one G

,one and  half

two Gld

,four Gld

Six Gld

and 12 guilders.


In 1880, the first major railroad between Jakarta to Bandung was opened, boosting light industry and bringing in Chinese workers.


Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)


All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894





2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
Tombolouh Tribe at Minahasa
 in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 

religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

 NED.INDIE REVENUE STAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenth century, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.


Although parts of Java were under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including






, and




It was not until the early 20th century, that Dutch dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.


The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830


In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[9]


 In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.


 Dutch control was restored in 1816.[10]


Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]


The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) 


 the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[11]


. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 interventionbrought northern Bali under Dutch control.


The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan









Father van der Grinten was the head pastor of the Catholic Church of Batavia – the first Catholic church in Batavia – located at the corner of Lapangan Banteng (a large open square situated in an European enclave and formerly known as Waterloopein).

 It was built over the former residence of the Dutch East Indies military commander General Hendrik Merkus de Kock (who later was made Baron for his triumph over Prince Diponegoro in the Java war).

The church was inaugurated on 6 November 1829 and blessed by the head pastor at that time, Father L. Prinsen,  as “The Church of Our Lady of Assumption”. It measured 35 long by 17 metres wide, consisted of a large hall with rows of pillars on either side in the neo-gothic style, a common architectural style for churches at the time. Father van der Grinten lived in the priest’s residence on the east wing of the church, while the sacristan lived in the west wing.


 Sir T. Stamford Raffles, who was among them in 1820, found some of their law



 In 1840 Batavia had 537, and, in 1880, 1015 inhabitants


Cafe Batavia


 a building in the old Jakarta city area just across the square of Fatahillah, the main attraction is the interior. It was constructed between 1805-1850, and underwent a renovation in 1993. The Cafe Batavia  was established in 1930.


The Postal history used cover from Honolulu hawai via manila to Batavia.

Postmarks front and back of this cover are Honolulu, March 11, 1852, Manila, May 19 and June 17, Hong Kong, June 21, Canton, July 2 along with a Canton PAID mark, and again Hong Kong on July 22. This cover, addressed to Batavia via a forwarder in Canton, was carried to Manila by the Bremen bark Ceres, departing April 3, 1852. The letter next went from Manila to Hong Kong and paid a single letter rate of 4 pence (represented by the black “4” over the Honolulu postmark). At Hong Kong, the letter was sent to the forwarder in Canton at another 4 pence rate (represented by the red “4” in the upper left corner). The forwarder crossed out his name, paid postage to Singapore (1 shilling represented by a red squiggle over the Honolulu postmark) and sent it back down to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong, the letter was carried to Singapore by the P&O steamship Malta (July 23 departure; July 31 arrival) under British mail contract, and then to Batavia by local shipping. The “48” is said to represent a Batavia local rate, typically written with the same type of ink


the famous “Batavia Cover” shown below.

52 - Mar 11 Batavia cover
52 - Mar 11 Batavia Cover backstamps - OFF



Dirk Anthonius Varkevisser, an official of the Dutch East Indies government, was born in Samarang (present-day Semarang in Central Java) on 11th July 1800 and passed away on 4th January 1857 in Batavia. He was the former Dutch resident of Pasuruan (in east Java, near to the city of Surabaya), and he was also knighted and conferred the Order of the Netherlands Lion, a Dutch order awarded to eminent individuals from all walks of life, including generals, ministers, mayors, leading scientists, industrialists and high ranking civil servants, among others


Photograph of night watchmen in Batavia by Isidore van Kinsbergen, 1865

Painting of Mount Merapi erupting in 1865, by Raden Saleh


In 1866 ,
 Bickmore stories …
Prof. Albert S. Bickmore was traveling in Sumatra, he saw not a little of these people, and he believed then that the place where their aboriginal civilization sprang up was very likely on the shores of that famous Sumatran lake, Lake Toba, and upon the neighboring plateau of Silindung. From this locality they gradually occupied an extensive domain in the in- terior, which was extended upon either side to the seacoast. Eventually, however, the Malays spread along the coast line, and thus confined the Battaks once more to the interior.
The origin of the Battas is doubtful
Battas or Dutch Battaks, the inhabitants of the formerly independent Batta country, in the central highlands of Sumatra, now for the most part subjugated to the Dutch government. The still independent area extends from 9 8 °-99° 35′ E., and 2°-3° 25′ S. North-east of Toba Lake dwell the Timor Batta [ Batak Timur = Simalungun now, red], and west of it the Pakpak [Dairi, red ], but on its north (in the mountains which border on the east coast residency) the Karo Batta [ Batak Karo , red ] form a special group, which, by its dialects and ethnological character, appears to be allied to the Gajus [ suku Gayo , red ] and Alias [suku Alas : red] occupying the interior of Achin [Aceh : red ].
The origin of the Battas is doubtful. It is not known whether they were settled in Sumatra before the Hindu period. Their language contains words of Sanskrit origin and others referable to Javanese, Malay and Tagal influence. Their domain has been doubtless much curtailed, and their absorption into the Achin and Malay population seems to have been long going on.

Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type
The Battas are undoubtedly of Malayan stock, and by most authorities are affiliated to that Indonesian pre-Malayan race which peopled the Indian Archipelago, expelling the aboriginal negritos, and in turn themselves submitting to the civilized Malays. In many points the Battas are physically quite different from the Malay type. The average height of the men is 5 ft. 4 in.[± 160-170 cm , red ]; of the women 4 ft. 8 in [± 130 – 140 cm , red ].
The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food
In general build they are rather thickset, with broad shoulders and fairly muscular limbs. The colour of the skin ranges from dark brown to a yellowish tint, the darkness apparently quite independent of climatic influences or distinction of race. The skulll is rather ovall than round. In marked contrast to the Malay type are the large, black, longshaped eyes, beneath heavy, black or dark brown eyebrows. The cheek-bones are somewhat prominent, but less so than among the Malays. The Battas are dirty in their dress and dwellings and eat any kind of food, though they live chiefly on rice. They are remarkable as a people who in many ways are cultured and possess a written language of their own, and yet are cannibals.
Battaks have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism
The more civilized of them around Lake Toba are good agriculturists and stock-breeders, and understand iron-smelting. They weave and dye cotton, make jewellery and krisses which are often of exquisite workmanship, bake pottery, and build picturesque chalet-like houses of two storeys. They have an organized government, hereditary chiefs, popular assemblies, and a written civil and penal code. There is even an antiquated postal; system, the letter-boxes being the hollow tree trunks at crossroads. Yet in spite of this comparative culture the Battas have long been notorious for the most revolting forms of cannibalism.
( see: Memoirs of the Life, &c., of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles, 1830.)
Battaks is mainly confined to a belief in three gods concept
The Battas are the only lettered people of the Indian Archipelago who are not Mahommedans. Their religion is mainly confined to a belief in evil spirits, but they recognize three gods, a Creator, a Preserver and a Destroyer, like a trinity suggestive of Hindu influence.
Up to the publication of Dr H. N. van der Tuuk’s essay, Over schrift en uitspraak der Tobasche taal (1855), our knowledge of the Batta language was confined to lists of words more or less complete, chiefly to be found in W. Marsden’s Miscellaneous Works, in F. W. Junghuhn’s Battalander, and in the Tijdschrift van het Bataviaasch Genootschap, vol. iii. (1855). By his exhaustive works (Bataksch Leesboek, in 4 vols., 1861-1862; Batakschnederduitsch Woordenboek, 1861; Tobasche Spraakkunst, 1864-1867) van der Tuuk made the Batta language the most accessible of the various tongues spoken in Sumatra.
Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects
According to him, it is nearest akin to the old Javanese and Tagal, but A. Schreiber (Die Battas in ihrem Verheiltnis zu den Malaien von Sumatra, 1874) endeavoured to prove its closer affinity with the Malay proper. Like most languages spoken by less civilized tribes, Batta is poor in general terms, but abounds in terms for special objects. The number of dialects is three, viz. the Toba, the Mandailing and the Dairi dialects; the first and second have again two subdivisions each.
The Battas further possess six peculiar or recondite modes of speech, such as the Hata Andung, or language of the wakes, and the Hata Poda or the soothsayer’s language.
A fair acquaintance with reading and writing is very general among them. Battaks’s alphabet is said, with the Rejang and Lampong alphabets, to be of Indian origin.
The language is written on bark or bamboo staves from bottom to top, the lines being arranged from left to right. The literature consists chiefly in books on witchcraft, in stories, riddles, incantations, &c., and is mostly in prose, occasionally varied by verse.’
See also “Reisen nach dem Toba See,” Petermanns Mitteil. (1883); Modigliani, Fra i Batacchi indipendenti (Rome, 1892); Neumann, “Het Paneen Bilastroomgebiad,” Tydschr. Aardr. Gen., 1885-1887; Van Dijk in the same periodical (1890-1895); Wing Easton in the Jaarboek voor het Mynwezen, 1894; Niemann in the Encyclopaedia van Nederlandsch-Indie, under the heading Bataks, with very detailed bibliography; Baron J. v. Brenner, Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras (Wurzburg, 1893); H. Breitenstein, 21 Jahre in Indien, Java, Sumatra (Leipzig, 1899-1900); G. P. Rouffaer, Die BatikKunst in niederlcindisch-Indien and ihre Geschichte (Haarlem, 1899).


House in Batavia, from Le Tour du Monde, 1879


The church of Our Lady of Assumption at waterlooplein stood until 9 April 1890 when it collapsed due to old age and poor maintenance.

A new church was rebuilt in its place between 1891 and 1901 and today it stands as the Jakarta Cathedral. The church is acknowledged as an integral instrument for the spread of Roman Catholicism in Java during the 19th century.


Antique Maps ofSoutheast Asia



Thailand, Birma & Andaman Sea
Servet, Michael

Tabula XI Asiae.

Lyon, Servet 1535 [37,3 x 50,3 cm]
Early woodcut map of the East Indies, published in the Ptolemy edition by M. Servet, showing Southeast Asia with Thailand, Burma and the Malaysian Archipel. The paper with watermark anchor in a circle. The cartographic woodblock was published here in 1535 by Michael Trechsel in Lyon and contained text by Michael Servetus. The paper with watermark anchor in a circle. The map is illustrated on the reverse side with descriptive text in Latin and a decorative woodblock border, probably by Hans Holbein, who was working at that time in Basle. An early decorative woodcut map of the Indian Ocean and its adjacenting regions of the gulf of Siam, Central Asia with the Ganges Delta and the region north of it towards the Himalayas. An early and interesting map depicting the northern part of the East Indies. With engraved place names, where cities are shown as small schematic engraved woodcut town views, further with engraved rivers and the mountains are shown mainly as schematic chains.
A strong and even impression on the full paper sheet as published. A minor very skillful restoration in the upper and lower centre fold. In very good to excellent condition.
[Stock No.:25235]
Full description

Antique Map Thailand, Birma & Andaman Sea Servet, Michael

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Bali (Indonesia)
De Bry, Theodor

Contrasantung der Insel Baln 27

Frankfurt, de Bry 1598-1613 [13,8 x 17,8 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22351]
Full description

Antique Map Bali (Indonesia) De Bry, Theodor


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East Indies
Mercator, Gerard

India Orientalis

Amsterdam, I.E. Cloppenburgh, 1632 [19 x 26 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published. A fine copy in a dark impression, full margins as published. This is the first so-called Cloppenburgh editions which was a competive edition with new engraved maps in a larger format. Most of the maps were engraved by Pieter van den Keere. The Cloppenburgh edition was continued for a couple of years but seems to have been suppressed after 1636 … . This is another Cloppenburgh edition, now with Latin text. The maps from the Appendix have been incorporated. The title-page is followed by a dedication to Prince Frederik Hendrik, dated 1632 and signed by Johannes Cloppenburgh. (Koeman Atlantes Neerlandici).
In excellent condition. Koeman, ME 200
[Stock No.:20858]
Full description

Antique Map East Indies Mercator, Gerard

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Southeast Asia
Jansonnius, Joan. & Hondius, Hendric

Indiae Orientalis Nova Descriptio

Amsterdam, Joan. Janssonius. 1638 [39,3 x 50,5 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Decorative map of the East Indies by J. Jansson, first published in Amsterdam 1630. An important map for Southeast Asia and the discovery of Australia. New Guinea is marked as ‘Duyfkens Eyland’, the (Is)land next to it is called ‘Nieu Zeelandt’. The island Duyfkens is named after the ship ‘Duyfken’, which discovered Australia.
In excellent condition. Koeman I [8500:1B] Latin text edition.
[Stock No.:24657]
Full description

Antique Map Southeast Asia Jansonnius, Joan. & Hondius, Hendric

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Maluku Islands (Spice Islands)
Blaeu, Joan & Guiljelmus

Moluccae Insulae Celeberrimae.

Amsterdam, G. & J. Blaeu. 1640-43 [37,5 x 48,8 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash. A highly decorative map of the so-called ‘Spice Islands’, equipped with two highly decorative cartouches, one of them with an inset map of ‘Bachian Island’. Further on this map is highly decorated with sailing ships, sea monsters and compass roses in the sea. A very good example published in a Latin text edition of the ‘Atlas Novus’, wide full margins and outstanding hand coloring.
In excellent condition. Koeman II [8560:2.2]
[Stock No.:12745]
Full description

Antique Map Maluku Islands (Spice Islands) Blaeu, Joan & Guiljelmus

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Molucc Islands
Janssonius, Joan.

Insularum Moluccarum Nova Descritio

Amsterdam, Joan. Janssonius. 1640 [38,5 x 50 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline when published. Sea chart of the Molucca Islands, the so-called ‘Spice Islands’. The map is very detailed showing the Islands with its plantations further the map is equipped with sailing ships and sea monsters in the ocean.
In very good to excellent condition. The paper minor toned.
[Stock No.:14279]
Full description

Antique Map Molucc Islands Janssonius, Joan.

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Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand
Rossi, Giovanni Iacomo

Penisola Dell India di la dal Gange Diusa ne i Regni, che in essasi contengono et accresciuta di varie notizie. Da Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola e conforme le Relationi di alcuni Padri della Compa di Giesu di Monsu Tavernier, Mandeslo e d`altri Illustri Viaggiatori del nostro Secolo. Data in Luce da Gio: Giaco de Rossi in Roma alla Pce con priu del Sommo Pont. 1683.

Roma, Gio. Iacomo Rossi 1683 [52,5 x 40,5 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published. Detailed rare map of Malaysia, Sumatra, Malakka, Burma, Cambodia, and Thailand. A highly detailed map of Southeast Asia with detailed engraved place names, rivers, political border, mountains and lakes. Fine engraved map by Giacomo Cantelli (1643-95) based on the cartographic source after Melchior Tavernier. This map was engraved by Franciscus Doria. The cartographer of this map is Giacomo Cantelli da Vignola (1643-1695), he worked in Modena in Italy and published many maps in Giovanni Iacomo Rossi’s atlas in Rome.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:24202]
Full description

Antique Map Malaysia, Singapore and Thailand Rossi, Giovanni Iacomo


Southeast Asia
Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria

Isole Dell’ Indie, divise in Filippine, Molucche, e della Sonda, Descritte, e Dedicate Dal P. Coronelli …

Venice, V. Coronelli 1689 [45 x 60 cm]
Fine copper-engraving, uncolored as published. Large and detailled engraved map showing Southeast Asia from the Andaman Sea with Thailand in the northwest towards the northwestern coast of Australia (Nuova Hollanda) in the southeast. The map itself covers Sumatra, Borneo, the Philipines and other places in Southeast Asia very accurately. The map was published in Coronelli’s ‘Atlante Veneto’. It is ornated with a decorative title cartouche showing (sea)-cherubs holding a coat of arm. The title cartouche contains as well the dedication to the Venice royal house. In the upper right corner we find another decorative cartouche with a mileage scale. The engraving contains many details like small villages or cities, rivers, mountains and details on the coast line with its small islands and its bays.
A strong impression in excellent condition.
[Stock No.:16978]
Full description

Antique Map Southeast Asia Coronelli, Vincenzo Maria

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Van der Aa, Pieter

D’Oost-Indize landschappen, zeen en eylanden, door de Portugysen en anderen ontdekt en bevaren.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,5 x 28 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
2nd state of this map, with the engraved ‘Privilege’ below the lower borderline. Still a good and acceptable copy. On the full sheet as published, however minor cut within the upper engraved borderline. The map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15564]
Full description

Antique Map  Van der Aa, Pieter

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Van der Aa, Pieter

De Moluccos, of speceri-dragende eilanden tussen Gilolo en Celebes gelegen.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,6 x 22,7 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
Printed on the full sheet as published; the map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15607]
Full description

Antique Map Molukken Van der Aa, Pieter

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Van der Aa, Pieter

Het eiland Java zoo als het sederd de tyden der Portugysen by de Ed. Oost-indize maatschappye bekend geworden en bevaren is.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,7 x 23 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
Printed on the full sheet as published; the map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15604]
Full description

Antique Map Java Van der Aa, Pieter

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Molukken & Celebes
Van der Aa, Pieter

De Moluccos en andere speceri-eilanden in d’oostindien.

Leiden, Van der Aa 1706-08 [15,9 x 23,5 cm]
Original copper-engraving, uncoloured as published. The famous Dutch publisher and mapmaker Pieter Van der Aa (1659 Leiden – 1733 Leiden) published ‘during the period 1882-1733, an enormous quantity of printed matter’ (Koeman). This map was actually published in the first edition of his travelbooks ‘Naauwkeurige versameling der gedenk-waardigste zee en landreysen na Oost en West-Indien’, in Leiden 1706-08.
On the full sheet as published, however minor cut within the upper engraved borderline. The map was originally folded in this series, so that old folds are more or less visable.
[Stock No.:15606]
Full description

Antique Map Molukken & Celebes Van der Aa, Pieter

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Moluccs / Gammalamm
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Stadt Gamenlamm – Gammalamme

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative scene from the sea towards the city of Gammalamm in the Molucc islands.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18528]
Full description

Antique Map Moluccs / Gammalamm Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Stadt Waradin. – Waradin.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Bird’s eye view of the city of Waradin with its fortifications and the nearer surroundings.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18533]
Full description

Antique Map Waradin Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Molucc Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die malucesische Inselen. – Isle Molucque.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Bird’s eye view of the Molucc Islands (Gammalamma, Ternate, Miterra, Tidoro, Pottebackers, Timor, Machian, Tabittola, Bachian and others). Decorative ornated with fireing canon sailing boats.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18537]
Full description

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Antique Map Molucc Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Batavia – Jakarta
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Cutadel u Batavia – Citadelle de Batavia – Batavia – die Stadt Batavia.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative view of Batavia (Jakarta) from the sea with fireing canon boats in front of the port, above a small scene of the citadelle of Jakarta.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18538]
Full description

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Antique Map Batavia - Jakarta Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Sunda Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inselen von Sont gegen Orient. – Isles dela Sonde vers l’Orient.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Small and decorative map of the Sunda Islands (Celebes, Timor, Banda, Ceran, etc.) with the neighbouring Borneo, Phillipines and Papua seen again East.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18539]
Full description

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Antique Map Sunda Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Cocos Palms
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Balmen Beume – Palmiers

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Decorative scene of three large Cocos Palms with a plantage in the background.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18545]
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Antique Map Cocos Palms Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Habitans des Isles dela Sonde – Von den Einwohnern der Insulen Sonde

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22273]
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Antique Map Habitans Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Molvoques – Die Mohiebeser

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:21654]
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Antique Map  Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Larron Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inwohner der Diebs Inseln. – Habitans des Isles des Larrons

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper-engraving, handcolored in wash and outline. Scene of two inhabitants of the Larron Islands.
In very good condition.
[Stock No.:22281]
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Antique Map Larron Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Sunda Islands
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inseln von Sonte gegen Occident – Isles de la sonde vers occident.

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in wash and outline. Small and decorative map of the Sunda Islands seen again West with Sumatra, Java, the neighboring gulf of Siam and Bengal and Borneo. Ornated with a maritime title cartouche.
In very good condition.
[Stock No.:22289]
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Antique Map Sunda Islands Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Mallet, Allain Manesson

Habitans des Isles dela Sonde – Von den Einwohnern der Insulen Sonde

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:21631]
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Antique Map  Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Southeast Asia
Mallet, Allain Manesson

Die Inselen von Sonte gegen Orient. – Isles dela Sonde versi Orient

Frankfurt, 1719 [ca. 15 x 11 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in wash and outline.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22525]
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Antique Map Southeast Asia Mallet, Allain Manesson

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Borneo, Sumatra & Java
Ottens, Ioachim

Le Royaume de Siam Avec les Royaumes qui luy sont Tributaires, et Les Isles de Sumatra, Andemaon, etc. et les Isles Voisine Avec les Observations des Six Peres Jesuites Envojez par le Roy en Qualite de Ses Mathematiciens dans les Indes, et a la Chine ou est aussi Tracee. La Route qu’ils ont tenue par le Detroit de la Sonde Jusqu a Siam. A Amsterdam Chez Ioachim Ottens.

Amsterdam, Ottens 1730-45 [48,5 x 55,8 cm]
Copper engraving handcolored in outline when published. A strong and fine impressions of this detailled map of Sumatra, Borneo, Java and the Sunda islands. With many detailled engraved informations along the coastlines, names of villages, rivers, small islands, sand banks with depths, etc. Ship routes from Batavia to Siam are as well engraved. The map is equipped in the lower right right corner with a small milage scale.
A fine copy of this map, in original outline color and in a strong impression.
[Stock No.:17327]
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Antique Map Borneo, Sumatra & Java Ottens, Ioachim

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Southeast Asia
Mortier, Cornelius & Covens, Jean

Carte des Indes et de la Chine.
Dressee sur plusieurs Relations particulieres Rectisiees par quelques Observations. Par Guillaume de L`Isle de l’Academie Royale des Sciences. A. Amsterdam chez Iean Covens et Corneille Mortier.
Amsterdam, Covens, I. & Mortier, C. 1745 [65 x 62,8 cm]
Contemporary colored in outline. Decorative and detailed map of Southeast Asia.
Left margin cut close into the engraved border. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible. Still in very good condition.
[Stock No.:12729]
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Antique Map Southeast Asia Mortier, Cornelius & Covens, Jean

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Molucc Islands
Bellin, Nicolaus

Besondere Karte von den Moluckischen Eylanden.

Leipzig, Merkur 1752 [21,5 x 15,5 cm]
Copper engraving, decorative handcolored in wash and outline. A fine and detailed map showing the little Molucc Islands Ternate, Miterra, Tidor, Pottebackers, Timor (Mothir), Machian, Manen and Bachian located nearby the island of Gilolo. With engraved place names on the map, as well a few anchor places or other small detaills are engraved. Below the title a small mileage scale. Detailled and interesting map engraved by Bellin after earlier voyages.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18543]
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Antique Map Molucc Islands Bellin, Nicolaus

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Philippines & Southeast Asia
Bonne, M.

La Presqu`Isle de L’Inde – au dela du Gange, avec L`Archpel des Indes. Partie Orientale. – Par M. Bonne, Ingenieur-Hydrographe de la Marine.

Paris, M. Bonne 1771 [34,7 x 23,5 cm]
Copper-engraving, decorative handcolored in outline and wash. Decorative map of Southeast Asia by the French cartographer Bonne showing the Phillipines, Borneo, the Celebe islands, Indonesia and the Mollucces. Many of the islands a named and with a few place names equipped.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18196]
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Antique Map Philippines & Southeast Asia Bonne, M.

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Awatska (Kamtschatka), Macao & Japan
Bonne, Rigobert

Plan du Haure de St. Pierre et St. Paul. – Plan de la Baye D`Awatska, sur la Cote Orientale. Du Kamtschatka. – Plan du Typa ou de Macao. – Partie du Japon ou Nipon.

Paris, M. Bonne 1785 [34,5 x 23,5 cm]
Copper engraving, uncolored as published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:18188]
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Antique Map Awatska (Kamtschatka), Macao & Japan Bonne, Rigobert

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East Indies
Reinecke, I.C.M.

Charte von Ostindien Diesseits und Jenseits des Ganges nach den neuesten astronom. Beobachtungen auch andern sichern Huelfsmitteln neu entworfen und nach der lezten Zertheilung des Mysorischen Reichs berichtiget von I.C.M. Reinecke. Weimar im Verlage des Geograph. Instituts. revidirt im Aug. 1804.

Weimar, Geographisches Institut 1804 [47,1 x 86 cm]
Copper engraving, hand colored in outline and wash when published.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:20936]
Full description

Antique Map East Indies Reinecke, I.C.M.

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Street of Malaka
Petermann, A.

Karte von Malaka und Naning, nach Aufnahmen und andern Quellen gez. von A. Petermann. – Der Dieksand oder Friederichs-Koog, nach der Aufnahme von Wiechers u. Kroehnke gez. von A. Petermann

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1857 [24,7 x 19,3 cm]
Lithograph, original hand color in outline.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22393]
Full description

Antique Map Street of Malaka Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Orographisch_physikalische Karte von Java. Die Grundlage nach der grossen Karte von Dr. F. Junghuhn,
Die Hoehenverhaeltnisse nach allen bisherigen hypsometrischen Messungen von: Blueme, Lange, Forsten, Hasskarl, Herwer, Hoerner, Jukes, Junghuhn, Maier, Melvill, Mueller, Reinwardt, Smits, Zollingen u. a. – Von A. Petermann
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1860 [24,7 x 42,6 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22390]
Full description

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Antique Map Java Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Die suedlichen Batta-Laender auf Sumatra. Hauptsaechlich nach Angaben und Zeichnungen Rheinischer Missionare, (namentlich Chr. Leipoldt & W. Heine) & des Ingenieurs Nagel. – Unter Redaktion von A. Petermann.

Gotha, Justus Perthes 1876 [36,1 x 22,9 cm]
Original lithograph, handcolored in outline and wash when published. The map shows the southern ‘Batta countries’ on Sumatra, after notes of missionares from Germany, mainly Chr. Leipoldt & W. Heine and the Ing. Nagel. With an inset map of the mission regions.
In excellent condition. The map was originally folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visable.
[Stock No.:18193]
Full description

Antique Map Sumatra Petermann, A.

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Veth, D.D.

Originalkarte des mittleren Sumatra zur Uebersicht der Wissenschaftlichen Expedition 1877 bis 1879. – Mit Benutzung der Aufnahmen von Schouw Santvoort, Cornelissen & Makkini – gezeichnet von D. D. Veth. Mitglied der Expedition

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1880 [38,1 x 58,2 cm]
Original lithograph in colors, printed in colors and handcolored in outline. Detailled map of central Sumatra, providing an overview of the scientific expedition 1877-79. Using the mappings by Schouw Santvoort, Cornelissen and Makkink. The map is providing an enormous amount on information on the river system, the mountains and trails in Sumatra. A detailled map.
In excellent condition. The map was originally folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visable.
[Stock No.:14273]
Full description

Antique Map Sumatra Veth, D.D.

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Island Saleijer
Petermann, A.

Originalkarte der Insel Saleijer im Ostindischen Archipel. – Aufgenommen u. gezeichnet von H. E. D. Engelhard.

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1886 [52,6 x 20,3 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22429]
Full description

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Antique Map Island Saleijer Petermann, A.

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Petermann, A.

Karte der Alluvial-Bildungen in Bancka. – Von Dr. Th. Posewitz.

Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1886 [19,3 x 24,2 cm]
Lithograph, original color in outline and wash.
In excellent condition.
[Stock No.:22435]
Full description

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Antique Map Sumatra Petermann, A.

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Celebes Island
Petermann, A.

Topographische Skizze aus dem Ostarm der Insel Celebes
Aufgenommen im Februar und Maerz 1905 von Dr. J. Wagner
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1914 [41,5 x 38,7 cm]
Lithograph, original color as published.
In excellent condition. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible.
[Stock No.:19242]
Full description

Antique Map Celebes Island Petermann, A.

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Molucc Islands
Petermann, A.

Die Molukkeninsel Misol
Aufgenommen von O. D. Tauern August bis Oktober 1911 – Gezeichnet unter Benutzung der niederlaendischen Seekarten.
Gotha, Justus Perthes. 1915 [37,8 x 46,6 cm]
Lithograph, hand colored in outline when published. This decortative map shows the Molucc island Misol. Inside the map are many rivers and mountains shown. At the bottom we look at a panorama from Djawaplolo at Fanfanlolo.
In excellent condition. The map was originally published folded, so that the old folds are still slightly visible.
[Stock No.:19240]
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Antique Map Molucc Islands Petermann, A.

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President of Javasche bank

25/03/1899 – 18/02/1906 J. Reijsenbach
Reijsenbach was President of the Javasche Bank from March 25, 1899. After the Eight Exclusive Right was established, Reijsenbach resigned and was honorably discharged per February 28, 1906. Reijsenbach died on December 1, 1918.


01/07/1906 – 31/10/1912 G. Vissering (LL.M.)
By decree of February 2, 1906, Vissering,  Director of the Amsterdamsche Bank was appointed as Director of the Javasche Bank.Vissering resigned on October 31, 1912.31/10/1912 – 01/07/1924 E.A. Zeilinga Azn.
In April 1907 Zeilinga started as Director of the Bank and was promoted to President per October 31, 1912. Zeilinga resigned after almost 12 years of serving as President and was honorably discharged on July 1, 1924. (Azn.stands for the Dutch “Abrahamzoon” which means “Son of Abraham”)


unidentified building in batavia postcard 1907


The first of Bandung’s university, the Technische Hogeschool (TH) was established on July 3, 1920. Now known as the Institut Teknologi Bandung (ITB), TH’s alumni include independence leader and first president Soekarno.



Military leaders and Dutch politicians said they had a moral duty to free the Indonesian peoples from indigenous rulers who were oppressive, backward, or did not respect international law.[10] Although Indonesian rebellions broke out, direct colonial rule was extended throughout the rest of the archipelago from 1901 to 1910 and control taken from the remaining independent local rulers.[11] Southwestern Sulawesi was occupied in 1905–06, the island of Bali was subjugated with military conquests in 1906 and 1908, as were the remaining independent kingdoms in Maluku, Sumatra, Kalimantan, and Nusa Tenggara.[12][7] Other rulers including the Sultans of Tidore in Maluku, Pontianak (Kalimantan), and Palembang in Sumatra, requested Dutch protection from independent neighbours thereby avoiding Dutch military conquest and were able to negotiate better conditions under colonial rule.[13] The Bird’s Head Peninsula (Western New Guinea), was brought under Dutch administration in 1920. This final territorial range would form the territory of the Republic of Indonesia.


Under the Decentralization Act (Decentralisatiewet) issued in 1903 and the Decree on decentralization (Decentralisasi Besluit) and the Local Council Ordinance (Ordinance Raden Locale) from the date of 1 April 1906 set as the gemeente (municipality) the governing otonomom. The decision further strengthens the function of the city of Bandung as a center of government, especially Dutch Colonial government in Bandung. Originally Gemeente Bandung
Led by the Assistant Resident Priangan as Chairman of the Board of the City (Gemeenteraad), but since 1913, led by burgemeester gemeente (mayor).


Kubu Tribe



the end

The Phillipine Historic Collections 1700-1800


The Philippine Historic Collections 1700-1800

The Philippine Historic Collections 1700-1800


Red Shirts Over Manila: The Philippines Under The British Empire



You may agree with me or not, but most of us Filipinos believed that the Spanish, Americans and Japanese were the ONLY foreign countries that ruled philippine land. But in reality, we had some shares of unwelcome visitors that ravaged the motherland. The British had the largest empire the world has ever seen by the late 19th century but 200 years before that, Spain was the mistress of the world as her empire stretched from the North and South America, Africa and Asia. It was her crowning glory and as a fitting tribute to her glory, its dubbed as “Siglo de Oro.” Despite her achievements, she remained envious of her enemies like the British, French and the Dutch. Because of this, she waged countless colonial wars against her adversaries and even attempted to invade the British Isles itself — the first since Guillaume duc D’Normandie (William the Conqueror) and followed by the likes of Napoleon Bonaparte and Adolf Hitler.
A formidable British armada was assembled at the mouth of the Manila Bay

in preparation for its ground assault against the Spanish defenders of the Walled City

(Credits: /

Little did we know that as a Spanish colony, the Philippines is a prime target by Spain’s enemies. A century earlier, the Spanish colonial government managed to rally the Filipinos against the Dutch invaders in the decisive battle at Playa Naval that defeated the likes of Olivier van Noort. But the British were a different enemy, it has a fearsome navy, which was second to none. This navy was the same navy that destroyed the vaunted Spanish Armada. And so a colonial war with the British would be a dagger in the Spanish presence in Asia. The real war did not happened in the colonies but in Europe itself.
The British invasion of the Philippines was brought about by the Seven Years’ War. Many historians believed that its was the first ‘world’ war because of the fact the European war later involved wars within their colonial possessions. The war actually started between Austria and Prussia over the province of Silesia. The conflict may have been heightened because of the previous War of the Austrian Succession. We all know most of the European countries are monarchies and obviously one way or another these countries are bounded thru blood, marriage and military alliances. To cut the long story short, Britain became involved because she was an ally of Prussia while Spain supported Austria because of the fact that they are both Catholic nations and having Hapsburg pedigree.
Spain and its allies (green) against Britain and its allies (blue)
Despite the name, war was waged throughout the world from 1754 to 1763 and was named as the French & Indian War in North America and the Third Carnatic War in India. Though the war ended in a bloody stalemate in the European front, which led to little changes in the status quo, its consequences in the colonies were wider ranging and longer lasting.
Spain at first did not take part in the growing European conflict due to the influence of its pro-British Prime Minister Ricardo Wall. However, with the accession of Charles III to the throne Spanish foreign policy began to change. The king was alarmed by the British conquest of the French colonies in North America and he believed that his own colonial possessions would be the next target. Charles offered support to France after the signing of the Bourbon Family Compact.
With evidence of growing Franco-Spanish cooperation, British Prime Minister William Pitt suggested it was only a matter of time before Spain entered the war. Despite cabinet opposition of a war against Spain and the resignation of Pitt, war with Spain swiftly became unavoidable, and on January 4, 1762 Britain duly declared war on Spain.
Almost as soon as war had been declared with Spain, orders had been despatched for a British force at Madras, India to proceed to the Philippines and invade Manila. On August 1762, about 1,600 soldiers, 4,000 marines and 14 ships were sent to invade the Philippines. And on September 23, 1762, the powerful fleet of Vice Admiral Samuel Cornish with the armies composed of regulars and colonial troops under the command of Brigadier General William Draper have started the siege of the walled city.
The British forces brilliantly executed their invasion plan
against the defenders of the walled city(Credits: /
The Spanish were in for a big surprise as an invading force that was more powerful than the Portuguese and Dutch forces they encountered suddenly appeared on the horizon. The colonial government were not aware that war was already been declared between both countries and so there was a general panic among the Spaniards in the Philippines.
Life in the Philippines before the war started were relatively peaceful despite some occurrences of rebellions against the Spanish and incursions from Muslim pirates and Dutch/Portuguese forces. One important thing about Spain’s ill-preparedness was the fact that the archipelago was governed by Archbishop Manuel Antonio Rojo. The long coastline of the archipelago mean that they have lots of ground to cover from an invasion force. The colony was mismanaged and was only funded by an annual subsidy paid by the Spanish Crown. As a cost saving measure, and because the Spanish authorities never really contemplated a serious expedition against Manila by a European power, the 200 year old fortifications at Manila had not been much improved since first built by the Spanish. Despite the huge disadvantages, the Spaniards were able to rally the local population against the British forces by spreading propaganda that the “protestants” are going to kill everyone.
Draper’s forces quickly attached Moratta first and about 3 kilometers into the Intramuros, the British were able to capture a supply and ammunition dump filled with gunpowder and artillery supplies. The invasion force suffered minor casualties but pushed through the defenses. In the area of what is now Taft Avenue, the British brought their artillery reinforced by the captured Spanish supplies and placed their artillery spots in present-day Ermita and the church of the Nuestra Senora de Guia near the walled city. This set-up would create a shocking blow to the defenders because they will be fired upon by artillery shells from different angles.
The army that laid siege to the city was not large as expected but it was more disciplined and battle-trained than previous invaders who tried to defeat the Spanish. It was composed mostly of British East India Company soldiers, in other words mercenaries like the Indian sepoys.
The British forces bombarded the fortress into submission (in what was today’s ‘shock and awe’ approach used by the Americans in the Iraq War) and eventually antiquated wall gave way to the awesome firepower of the enemies. Intramuros’ defense were only manned by crack group of 1,000 men (only 565 of them were professional soldiers) led by Brigadier General Marcos de Villa Maidana. An armed militia was formed including Augustinian friars to defend the city.
On October 5, 1762, the night before the fall of the walled city of Manila, the Spanish military persuaded Archbishop Rojo to summon a council of war. But the British had successfully breached the walls of the bastion San Diego, dried up the ditch, dismounted the cannons of that bastion and the two adjoining bastions, San Andes and San Eugeno, set fire to parts of the town, and driven the Spaniards from the walls.
On October 6, 1762, the Spanish surrendered Manila at the cost of 400 wounded and 85 dead. Four days later, the British captured Cavite at the cost of 24 British casualties. The British were promised to be compensated by 4 million Mexican silver pesos so that the city will be spared from any looting and indiscriminate destruction of properties, but the Spanish only paid them 1 million pesos.
Don Simon de Anda continued his fight against the British by
establishing a separate government in Pampanga
(Credits: Traveler on Foot)
According to “Manila Ransomed: The British Assault on Manila in the Seven Years War,” by Nicholas Tracy, the Spanish military leaders recommended capitulation but Rojo would not consent. Tracy claimed that the only positive action from the council of war was the dispatch of Don Simón de Anda y Salazar to the provincial town in Bulacan to organize continued resistance to the British once Manila fell. I believed that the Spanish are still prepared to resist the British by establishing their government in Bulacan.
At that war council, the Real Audencia appointed de Anda Lieutenant Governor and Visitor-General. Shirley Fish noted in her book “When Britain ruled the Philippines, 1762-1764: the story of the 18th century British invasion of the Philippines during the Seven Years War,” that de Anda took a substantial portion of the treasury and official records with him, departing Fort Santigo through the postern of Our Lady of Solitude, to a boat on the Pasig River, and then to Bulacan. He transferred his headquarters from Bulacan to Bacolor, Pampanga, which was more secure from the British, and quickly obtained the powerful support of the Augustinians.
He raised an army of up to 10,000 men but almost all were ill-armed native Filipinos. And on October 8, 1762, he wrote to the archbishop that he had assumed the position of Governor and Capitan-General under statutes of the Indies which allowed for the devolution of authority from the Governor to the Audencia, of which he was the only member not captive by the British. He also demanded the royal seal, but Rojo declined to surrender it and refused to recognise de Anda’s self-proclamation as Governor and Capitan-General because he’s a ‘traitor.”
But the native troops were no match against the fusiliers and artillery fire and in one encounter, when an artillery shell decimated about 400 of them, the rag-tag militia scattered in disarray.
Even though, the British were successful in the campaign, they did not tried to occupy all parts of the colony and so they were contented in holding their possessions in Manila and Cavite. Prominent Filipino historian Gregorio Zaide claimed that virtually most of the country were still controlled by the Spanish and some Filipinos who decided to rebel against the Spanish like what Diego and Gabriela Silang did in the Ilocos. The British finally received a written surrender from the archbishop on October 30, 1762.
The terms of surrender proposed by the Real Audencia and agreed to by the British leaders, secured private property, guaranteed the Roman Catholic religion and its episcopal government, and granted the citizens of the former Spanish colony the rights of peaceful travel and of trade ‘as British subjects.’ Under superior British control, the Philippines would continue to be governed by the Real Audencia, the expenses of which were to be paid by Spain.
The controversies I want to point out is that, if the British got what they want, why did they left the Philippines in two years time. Though a peace treaty was signed after the Seven Years’ War wherein the British rose as a powerful imperialist nation by gaining more lands in the Americas and gaining a firm foothold in India by dislodging the French. I don’t what life would be under British control, could we be like Singapore or Malaysia? But such scenario is harder to contemplate. I believe it was the successful effort of de Anda to rally some Filipinos against the British and I think the British were contented in having the seat of power, Manila, under their hands rather than prolonging a potential gruesome guerilla war against the Spanish-Filipino forces. Besides, all was one already. But I believe having the entire archipelago would serve a big purpose for the British because of the islands’ strategic location. But just like a true gentleman, the British decided to return the Philippines back to Spanish control.
Some Sepoys remained in the Philippines
most of them settled in what is now Rizal province
Another interesting aspect of this British experience, some Sepoys who chose to stay in the country were said to be some of the ancestors of the people living in Angono and Cainta, Rizal, Fish relates. Former Manila mayor Ramon Bagatsing is believed to be a Sepoy descendant. Even some French mercenaries have married local women dedided to remain in the Philippines.


The Seven Years War was ended by the Treaty of Paris, which was signed on February 10, 1763. At the time of signing the treaty, the signatories were not aware that the Philippines had been taken by the British and was being administered as a British colony. Consequently no specific provision was made for the Philippines. Instead they fell under the general provision that all other lands not otherwise provided for be returned to the Spanish Crown.
I used to think that it was back to status quo, meaning, no territorial changes as far as the Philippines is concerned. But the British established a fort in a little island of Balambangan (in what is now Mandah) in the Sulu archipelago as headquarters of its spice trade in Maluku as well as its transit point for the products bound for Malacca. That remained a secret to the Spanish authorities and was violation of the peace treaty signed in Paris.
Eventually, they have started to treat the natives harshly and they even went into the extent of punishing a local datu by tying him into a post at the local plaza. An on March 5, 1775, a group of Tausugs led by a certain Tenteng attacked the fort and killed all the soldiers manning it except for the commandant and his aides who managed to escape with their lives. They plundered the fort of all its weapons and valuables but the datus of Jolo were afraid that the British may attacked them and so they disengaged. Tenteng returned to Jolo a hero with his plundered 2,000 Mexican pesos and patrol boat to boot.
But the British hit back, without the Spanish knowing it, in 1803 with a force of 6 British East India Company ships, 300 British soldiers, 700 Sepoys, 200 Chinese mercenaries. They attacked Zamboanga but were successfully repelled and so they returned to Balambangan. On December 15, 1806, they decided to left the island for good and destroyed their fort.
It was in the later part of the 19th century that the British entered the scene once again and this time they decided to rent Sabah, a domain owned by the Sultan of Sulu.
The British incursion into the scene had a profound effect on the course of our history. It marked the decline and degradation of Spanish power in the islands. It also strengthened the belief that the Spanish were not strong after all and that its just a matter of time that Filipinos can declare their independence from foreign occupiers.




The Philippine Historic Collections 1800-1912



Manila fishermen, early 1800s





The Philippine Historic Collections 1800-1900

 Manila Bay, early 1800s


Bridge of Binondoc in Manila, early 1800s


“Officer and Privates of Infantry-1802-1810


the end of Manila Galleons

Two decades after Cabrillo explored the coast of California, other Spanish ships started appearing off of the California coast. For 250 years, from 1565 until 1815, Spanish galleons laden with the riches of the Orient–silks, porcelain, and spices–sailed annually from Manila in the Philippines bound for Acapulco on the west coast of Mexico.

A map of the Pacific Ocean, circa 1600.  Much of the coastline of the Pacific rim was uncharted.

Following instructions, the sailing masters steered the ships as near to 30 degrees north latitude as possible. They only journeyed further north to find favorable winds. After the long trip across the Pacific, the ships turned south upon seeing the first indications of land. This way, they would avoid the uncharted hazards of the California coast. If all went well, the first land seen by the sailors would be the tip of the Baja peninsula. The ship then sailed on to Acapulco. From this port city, much of the cargo was sent overland across Mexico and loaded at Vera Cruz onto ships bound for Havana, Cuba, where they would join the treasure fleet that sailed every year for Spain.

But, the voyages seldom went well. Galleons often had to sail far above 30 degree latitude to find favorable winds. Very poor conditions plagued the vessels. After the crossing, crews needed to replenish food, water, and other essentials. Many sailors became sick from scurvy and other diseases during the crossing. Leaking and worn out from the long but unfinished voyage, the ships were in danger of sinking. The galleons needed a port of refuge along the California coast where they could restock vital supplies and make repairs after the long trans-Pacific journey.

In 1594, the galleon San Augustin sailed from Manila with treasure. She had a secondary mission to scout good ports of refuge along the California coast. The ship arrived off the California coast near Trinidad Head, just south of the California-Oregon border. The ship continued down the coast to Drakes Bay, just north of San Francisco. While in the bay, the ship wrecked in a storm becoming the first known shipwreck in California. The sailors used one of the galleon’s launches to return to civilization. Today, National Park Service archeologists search for the remains of San Augustin.

Eight years after the loss of San Augustin, Sebastian Vizcaino sailed from Acapulco to explore upper California with three ships: San Diego, Santo Tomas, and Tres Reyes. The three ship flotilla traveled far to the north and one at a time each turned back to Mexico. Santo Tomas was first. After exploring as far north as Monterey, the ship returned with those sailors too sick to continue the journey. San Diego, commanded by Vizcaino reached 43 degrees north latitude before turning back because of sickness among the crew. Tres Reyes returned last. During the voyage up the coast to 43 degrees north latitude, her skipper and pilot died. With her leaders gone, the ship reversed course and headed south for home.

The Vizcaino expedition marked the end of official Spanish explorations of the California coast for almost two centuries. Often talked about expeditions to fortify and settle California did not happen. Yet, vessels continued to visit the coast. Spanish galleons continued to sail down the coast on their annual voyages. Some never made it to the safe harbor at Acapulco. In 1600, the galleon Capitana disappeared without a trace. Nuestro de Senora Aguda reportedly ran aground on a rock west of Catalina in 1641. Another galleon, Francisco Xavier, may have wrecked just south of the Columbia river in Oregon in 1707.

Other dangers lurked for the galleons off the California coast. The riches of the Pacific attracted raiders intent plundering Spanish ships and settlement. The English sea captain, Sir Francis Drake, explored the California coast in 1579 after attacking Spanish settlements in South America. He landed somewhere in California to repair his ship, Golden Hind. The exact location of this landfall is not known. Most historians believe it was near San Francisco. Yet, some believe the ship stopped along the Santa Barbara Channel coast for repairs. Other English sea captains hunted the galleons. Thomas Cavendish looted and burned the Manila galleon Santa Ana off the tip of the Baja peninsula in 1587. George Compton pursued the galleon San Sebastian in 1754. The galleon’s crew purposely ran the ship aground on Catalina Island to escape the raider. Compton captured and killed the surviving crew. Spain finally colonized California because of incidents like this and threats to her claims over the territory. Soldiers established a series of forts or presidios along the coast. With the presidios, came the California missions. Soon, the Spanish required all ships sailing along the California coast, including the Manila galleons, to stop at Monterey. Castle Rock near Point Bennett on San Miguel Island in the Santa Barbara Channel.  Some people believe a Manilia galleon wrecked in this area.

Did any vessels from this era of exploration wreck in the Santa Barbara Channel Islands? Evidence is scare and often unreliable. But, legends of wrecked vessels continue to persist.

Author Charles Hillinger noted that “in the decades following Cabrillo’s discovery, shipwrecks were so frequent off Point Bennett…that it is said if divers were able to search offshore reefs, wrecked vessels from Spanish galleons to early 20th century schooners would be found in the depths of the waiting graveyard. Conflicting currents that continuously pound against the dangerous reefs of the point discourage divers from exploring the area.” Indeed, many ships have come to grief in the waters around Point Bennett.

Rumors of a brass cannon, a ships ballast stone, and a very old anchor off Point Bennett motivated one group to get permission from California to search for a late 16th century galleon in the area. Nothing ever came of the expedition. A newspaper article reported that “investigation indicates that the wreckage is scattered too widely to make exploration and salvage convenient.”

Historian Hubert Bancroft wrote “that an old sailor of Santa Barbara told (me) that in 1872 he opened a grave on Santa Cruz Island, which had a wooden headboard on which could be deciphered the date of about 1660.” Was this the final resting place of an unfortunate who died on a ship while passing the islands or is it the grave of a castaway from a long forgotten shipwreck? We will probably never know.

Perhaps one day you may be the one to solve the Mystery of the Point Bennett Galleon. What do you think would need to be done in order for you to lead the group of explorers who would look for her? Who would you chose to be on the team and what skills would the people in your expedition need? What equipment and supplies would you need in order to lead the search?

Recommended Reading

OCS Study 90-0090. California, Oregon, and Washington Archaeological Study. Volume IV–History. U.S. Department of Interior, Pacific OCS Region. Camarillo, California

Channel Islands National Park and Channel Islands National Marine Sanctuary: Submerged Cultural Resources Assessment by Don P. Morris and Jim Lima. Channel Islands National Park and Submerged Cultural Resources Unit, National Park Service. Available from on the world wide web at

The California Islands by Charles Hillinger. 1958. Academy Publishers. Los Angeles, Cal

Fort Santiago Gate, Manila, circa late 1800s




 the Arisan Maru left Manila with about 1800


 An 1828 MANILA counterstamped on 8R Zacatecas (Mexico) 1825 AZ



- QUARTO 1830 Manila. FILIPINAS.



1830 MANILA Counterstamp

Counterstamp MANILA. on Mexico Resello YII coronadas sobre 8 Reales 1830


 A view in Manila in 1830


Faro Project drawn up for a lighthouse on Corregidor Island. Mariano de Goicoechea. 1830. SHM Corregidor Island occupied a position of importance at the entrance to Manila Bay, and for this reason it was equipped with signalling lights from very early on.


Plano Situation plan of the port and arsenal of Cavite. 1832 MN During the 18th century, the port of Cavite, close to Manila, was preferred as an anchorage for ships reaching the city, since it had a greater depth of water.


admiral Parish drew the picture during visit Manila


Domesticated Natives—Origin—Character

The generally-accepted theory regarding the origin of the composite race which may be termed “domesticated natives,” is, that their ancestors migrated to these Islands from Malesia, or the Malay Peninsula. But so many learned dissertations have emanated from distinguished men, propounding conflicting opinions on the descent of the Malays themselves, that we are still left on the field of conjecture.

There is good reason to surmise that, at some remote period, these Islands and the Islands of Formosa and Borneo were united, and possibly also they conjointly formed a part of the Asiatic mainland. Many of the islets are mere coral reefs, and some of the larger islands are so distinctly of coral formation that, regarded together with the numerous volcanic evidences, one is induced to believe that the Philippine Archipelago is the result of a stupendous upheaval by volcanic action.1 At least it seems apparent that no autochthonous population existed on these lands in their island form. The first settlers were probably the Aetas, called also Negritos and Balugas, who may have drifted northwards from New Guinea and have been carried by the strong currents through the San Bernadino Straits and round Punta Santiago until they reached the still waters in the neighbourhood of Corregidor Island, whilst others were carried westwards to the tranquil Sulu Sea, and travelling thence northwards would have settled on the Island of Negros. It is a fact that for over a century after the Spanish conquest, Negros Island had no other inhabitants but these mountaineers and escaped criminals from other islands.

The sturdy races inhabiting the Central Luzon highlands, decidedly superior in physique and mental capacity to the Aetas, may be of Japanese origin, for shortly after the conquest by Legaspi a Spanish galley cruising off the north coast of Luzon fell in with Japanese, who probably [164]penetrated to the interior of that island up the Rio Grande de Cagayán. Tradition tells us how the Japanese used to sail down the east coast of Luzon as far as the neighbourhood of Lamon Bay, where they landed and, descending the little rivers which flowed into the Lake of Bay, settled in that region which was called by the first Spanish conquerors Pagsanján Province, and which included the Laguna Province of to-day, with a portion of the modern Tayabas Province.

Either the Japanese extended their sphere from the Lake of Bay shore, or, as some assert (probably erroneously), shipwrecked Japanese went up the Pansipít River to the Bómbon Lake: the fact remains that Taal, with the Bómbon Lake shore, was a Japanese settlement, and even up to now the Taaleños have characteristics differing from those of the pure Malay immigrant descendants. The Philippine patriot, Dr. José Rizal, was a good Japanese-Malay type.
The Tagálogs, who occupy a small portion of Luzon Island, chiefly the provinces of Batangas, Laguna, Rizal, and Bulacan, are believed to be the cross-breed descendants of these Japanese immigrants. At the period of the Spanish conquest the Tao ílog, that is to say, “the man who came by the river,” afterwards corrupted into the more euphonious name of Tagálog, occupied only the lands from the south shore of Laguna de Bay southwards. Some traded with the Malay settlers at Maynila (as the city on the Pasig River was then called) and, little by little, radicated themselves in the Manila suburbs of Quiapo, Sampáloc, and Santa Cruz.2

From the West, long before the Spanish conquest, there was a great influx of Malays, who settled on the shores and the lowlands and drove the first settlers (Aetas) to the mountains. Central Luzon and the Lake environs being already occupied, they spread all over the vacant lands and adjacent islands south of Luzon. These expeditions from Malesia were probably accompanied by Mahometan propagandists, who had imparted to the Malays some notions, more or less crude, of their religion and culture, for at the time of Legaspiʼs arrival in Manila we find he had to deal with two chiefs, or petty kings, both assuming the Indian title of Rajah, whilst one of them had the Mahometan Arabic name of Soliman. Hitherto the Tao ílog, or Tagálog, had not descended the Pasig River so far as Manila, and the religious rites of the Tondo-Manila people must have appeared to Legaspi similar to the Mahometan rites, for in several of his despatches to his royal master he speaks of these people as Moros. All the dialects spoken by the Filipinos of Malay and Japanese descent have their root in the pure Malay language. After the expulsion of all the adult male Japanese Lake settlers in the 17th century, it is feasible to suppose that the language of the males who took their place in the Lake district and intermarried there, should prevail over the idiom of the primitive settlers, and possibly this amalgamation of speech accounts for the difference between the Tagálog dialect and others of these islands peopled by Malays.
The Malay immigration must have taken place several generations prior to the coming of the Spaniards, for at that period the lowland occupants were already divided into peoples speaking different dialects and distinguishing themselves by groups whose names seem to be associated with the districts they inhabited, such as Pampanga, Iloco, and Cagayán; these denominations are probably derived from some natural condition, such as Pámpang, meaning a river embankment, Ilog, a river, Cauáyan, a bamboo, etc.

In a separate chapter (x.) the reputed origin of the Mahometans of the southern islands is alluded to. They are also believed to be immigrants from the West, and at the time of the conquest recent traditions which came to the knowledge of the Spaniards, and were recorded by them, prove that commercial relations existed between Borneo and Manila. There is a tradition4 also of an attempted conquest of Luzon by a Borneo chief named Lacasama, about 250 years before the Spanish advent; but apparently the expedition came to grief near Luzon, off an island supposed by some to be Masbate.

The descendants of the Japanese and Malay immigrants were the people whom the Spanish invaders had to subdue to gain a footing. To the present day they, and the correlative Chinese and Spanish half-castes, are the only races, among the several in these Islands, subjected, in fact, to civilized methods. The expression “Filipino” neither denotes any autochthonous race, nor any nationality, but simply one born in those islands named the Philippines: it is, therefore, open to argument whether the child of a Filipino, born in a foreign country, could be correctly called a Filipino.
The christianized Filipinos, enjoying to-day the benefits of European training, are inclined to repudiate, as compatriots, the descendants of the non-christian tribes, although their concurrent existence, since the time of their immigrant forefathers, makes them all equally Filipinos. Hence many of them who were sent to the St. Louis Exhibition in 1904 were indignant because the United States Government had chosen to exhibit some types of uncivilized natives, representing about one-twelfth of the Philippine population. Without [166]these exhibits, and on seeing only the educated Filipinos who formed the Philippine Commission, the American people at home might well have asked—Is not American civilization a superfluity in those islands?
The inhabitants of these Islands were by no means savages, entirely unreclaimed from barbarism before the Spanish advent in the 16th century. They had a culture of their own, towards which the Malay settlers themselves appear to have contributed very little. In the nascent pre-Spanish civilization, Japanese immigrants were almost the only agriculturists, mine-workers, manufacturers, gold-seekers, goldsmiths, and masters of the industrial arts in general. Pagsanján (Laguna) was their great industrial centre. Malolos (Bulacan) was also an important Japanese trading base. Whilst working the mines of Ilocos their exemplary industry must undoubtedly have influenced the character of the Ilocanos. Away down in the Bicol country of Camarines, the Japanese pushed their trade, and from their great settlement in Taal their traffic must have extended over the whole province, first called by the Spaniards Taal y Balayán, but since named Batangas. From the Japanese, the Malays learnt the manufacture of arms, and the Igorrotes the art of metal-working. Along the coasts of the large inhabited islands the Chinese travelled as traders or middlemen, at great personal risk of attack by individual robbers, bartering the goods of manufacturers for native produce, which chiefly consisted of sinamay cloth, shark-fin, balate (trepang), edible birdsʼ-nests, gold in grain, and siguey-shells, for which there was a demand in Siam for use as money. Every north-east monsoon brought down the junks to barter leisurely until the south-west monsoon should waft them back, and neither Chinese nor Japanese made the least attempt, nor apparently had the least desire, to govern the Islands or to overrule the natives. Without coercion, the Malay settlers would appear to have unconsciously submitted to the influence of the superior talent or astuteness of the sedulous races with whom they became merged and whose customs they adopted, proof of which can be traced to the present day.5 Presumably the busy, industrious immigrants had neither time nor inclination for sanguinary conflicts, for those recorded appear to be confined to the raids of the migratory mountaineers and an occasional attack by some ambitious Borneo buccaneer. The reader who would wish to verify these facts is recommended to make a comparative study of native character in Vigan, Malolos, Taal, and Pagsanján.

In treating of the domesticated nativesʼ character, I wish it to be understood that my observations apply solely to the large majority of the six or seven millions of them who inhabit these Islands.

In the capital and the ports open to foreign trade, where cosmopolitan vices and virtues obtain, and in large towns, where there is a constant number of domiciled Europeans and Americans, the native has become a modified being. It is not in such places that a just estimate of character can be arrived at, even during many yearsʼ sojourn. The native must be studied by often-repeated casual residence in localities where his, or her, domestication is only “by law established,” imposing little restraint upon natural inclinations, and where exotic notions have gained no influence.
Several writers have essayed to depict the Philippine native character, but with only partial success. Dealing with such an enigma, the most eminent physiognomists would surely differ in their speculations regarding the Philippine native of the present day. That Catonian figure, with placid countenance and solemn gravity of feature, would readily deceive any one as to the true mental organism within. The late parish priest of Alaminos (Batangas)—a Franciscan friar, who spent half his life in the Colony—left a brief manuscript essay on the native character. I have read it. In his opinion, the native is an incomprehensible phenomenon, the mainspring of whose line of thought and the guiding motive of whose actions have never yet been, and perhaps never will be, discovered.
The reasoning of a native and a European differs so largely that the mental impulse of the two races is ever clashing. Sometimes a native will serve a master satisfactorily for years, and then suddenly abscond, or commit some such hideous crime as conniving with a brigand band to murder the family and pillage the house.

When the hitherto faithful servant is remonstrated with for having committed a crime, he not unfrequently accounts for the fact by saying, “Señor, my head was hot.” When caught in the act on his first start on highway robbery or murder, his invariable excuse is that he is not a scoundrel himself, but that he was “invited” by a relation or compadre to join the company.
He is fond of gambling, profligate, lavish in his promises, but lâche in the extreme as to their fulfilment. He will never come frankly and openly forward to make a clean breast of a fault committed, or even a pardonable accident, but will hide it, until it is found out. In common with many other non-European races, an act of generosity or a voluntary concession of justice is regarded as a sign of weakness. Hence it is that the experienced European is often compelled to be more harsh than his real nature dictates.
If one pays a native 20 cents for a service performed, and that be exactly the customary remuneration, he will say nothing, but if a feeling of compassion impels one to pay 30 cents, the recipient will loudly protest that he ought to be paid more. In Luzon the native is able to say “Thank you” (salámat-pô) in his mother-tongue, but in Panay and Negros there is no way of expressing thanks in native dialect to a donor (the nearest approach to it is Dios macbáyat); and although this may, at first sight, appear to be an insignificant fact, I think, nevertheless, a great deal may be deduced from it, for the deficiency of the word in the Visaya vernacular denotes a deficiency of the idea which that word should express.

If the native be in want of a trivial thing, which by plain asking he could readily obtain, he will come with a long tale, often begin by telling a lie, and whilst he invariably scratches his head, he will beat about the bush until he comes to the point, with a supplicating tone and a saintly countenance hiding a mass of falsity. But if he has nothing to gain for himself, his reticence is astonishingly inconvenient, for he may let oneʼs horse die and tell one afterwards it was for want of rice-paddy, or, just at the very moment one wants to use something, he will tell one “Uala-pô”—there is not any.
I have known natives whose mothers, according to their statement, have died several times, and each time they have tried to beg the loan of the burial expenses. The mother of my first servant died twice, according to his account.
Even the best class of natives do not appreciate, or feel grateful for, or even seem to understand a spontaneous gift. Apparently, they only comprehend the favour when one yields to their asking. The lowest classes never give to each other, unsolicited, a centʼs worth, outside the customary reciprocal feast-offerings. If a European makes voluntary gratuities to the natives, he is considered a fool—they entertain a contempt for him, which develops into intolerable impertinence. If the native comes to borrow, lend him a little less than he asks for, after a verbose preamble; if one at once lent, or gave, the full value requested, he would continue to invent a host of pressing necessities, until oneʼs patience was exhausted. He seldom restores the loan of anything voluntarily. On being remonstrated with for his remissness, after the date of repayment or return of the article has expired, he will coolly reply, “You did not ask me for it.” An amusing case of native reasoning came within my experience just recently. I lent some articles to an educated Filipino, who had frequently been my guest, and, at the end of three months, I requested their return. Instead of thanking me for their use, he wrote a letter expressing his indignation at my reminder, saying that I “ought to know they were in very good hands!” A native considers it no degradation to borrow money: it gives him no recurrent feeling of humiliation or distress of mind. Thus, he will often give a costly feast to impress his neighbours with his wealth and maintain his local prestige, whilst on all sides he has debts innumerable. At most, with his looseness of morality, he regards debt as an inconvenience, not as a calamity.

Before entering another (middle- or lower-class) nativeʼs house, he is very complimentary, and sometimes three minutesʼ polite excusatory dialogue is exchanged between the visitor and the native visited before the former passes the threshold. When the same class of native enters a Europeanʼs house, he generally satisfies his curiosity by looking all around, and often pokes his head into a private room, asking permission to enter afterwards.
The lower-class native never comes at first call; among themselves it is usual to call five or six times, raising the voice each time. If a native is told to tell another to come, he seldom goes to him to deliver the message, but calls him from a distance. When a native steals (and I must say they are fairly honest), he steals only what he wants. One of the rudest acts, according to their social code, is to step over a person asleep on the floor. Sleeping is, with them, a very solemn matter; they are very averse to waking any one, the idea being, that during sleep the soul is absent from the body, and that if slumber be suddenly arrested the soul might not have time to return. When a person, knowing the habits of the native, calls upon him and is told “He is asleep,” he does not inquire further—the rest is understood: that he may have to wait an indefinite time until the sleeper wakes up—so he may as well depart. To urge a servant to rouse one, one has to give him very imperative orders to that effect: then he stands by oneʼs side and calls “Señor, señor!” repeatedly, and each time louder, until one is half awake; then he returns to the low note, and gradually raises his voice again until one is quite conscious.
In Spanish times, wherever I went in the whole Archipelago—near the capital, or 500 miles from it—I found mothers teaching their offspring to regard the European as a demoniacal being, an evil spirit, or, at least, as an enemy to be feared! If a child cried, it was hushed by the exclamation, “Castila!” (European). If a white man approached a poor hut or a fine native residence, the cry of caution, the watchword for defence was always heard—“Castila!”—and the children hastened their retreat from the dreaded object. But this is now a thing of the past since the native crossed swords with the “Castila” (q.v.) and the American on the battle-field, and, rightly or wrongly, thoroughly believes himself to be a match for either in equal numbers.
The Filipino, like most Orientals, is a good imitator, but having no initiative genius, he is not efficient in anything. He will copy a model any number of times, but one cannot get him to make two copies so much alike that the one is undistinguishable from the other. Yet he has no attachment for any occupation in particular. To-day he will be at the plough; to-morrow a coachman, a collector of accounts, a valet, a sailor, and so on; or he will suddenly renounce social trammels in pursuit of lawless vagabondage. I once travelled with a Colonel Marqués, acting-Governor of Cebú, whose valet was an ex-law student. Still, many are willing to learn, and really become very expert artisans, especially machinists.
The native is indolent in the extreme, and never tires of sitting still, gazing at nothing in particular. He will do no regular work without an advance; his word cannot be depended upon; he is fertile in exculpatory devices; he is momentarily obedient, but is averse to subjection. He feigns friendship, but has no loyalty; he is calm and silent, but can keep no secret; he is daring on the spur of the moment, but fails in resolution if he reflects. He is wantonly unfeeling towards animals; cruel to a fallen foe; tyrannical over his own people when in power; rarely tempers his animosities with compassion or pity, but is devotedly fond of his children. He is shifty, erratic, void of chivalrous feeling; and if familiarity be permitted with the common-class native, he is liable to presume upon it. The Tagálog is docile and pliant, but keenly resents an injustice.

Native superstition and facile credulity are easily imposed upon. A report emitted in jest, or in earnest, travels with alarming rapidity, and the consequences have not unfrequently been serious. The native rarely sees a joke, and still more rarely makes one. He never reveals anger, but he will, with the most profound calmness, avenge himself, awaiting patiently the opportunity to use his bowie-knife with effect. Mutilation of a vanquished enemy is common among these Islanders. If a native recognizes a fault by his own conscience, he will receive a flogging without resentment or complaint; if he is not so convinced of the misdeed, he will await his chance to give vent to his rancour.

He has a profound respect only for the elders of his household, and the lash justly administered. He rarely refers to past generations in his lineage, and the lowest class do not know their own ages. The Filipino, of any class, has no memory for dates. In 1904 not one in a hundred remembered the month and year in which General Aguinaldo surrendered. During the Independence war, an esteemed friend of mine, a Philippine priest, died, presumably of old age. I went to his town to inquire all about it from his son, but neither the son nor another near relation could recollect, after two daysʼ reflection, even the year the old man passed away. Another friend of mine had his brains blown out during the Revolution. His brother was anxious to relate the tragedy to me and how he had lost 20,000 pesos in consequence, but he could not tell me in which month it happened. Families are very united, and claims for help and protection are admitted however distant the relationship may be. Sometimes the connection of a “hanger-on” with his hostʼs family will be so remote and doubtful, that he can only be recognized as “un poco pariente nada mas” (a sort of kinsman). But the house is open to all.
The native is a good father and a good husband, unreasonably jealous of his wife, careless of the honour of his daughter, and will take no heed of the indiscretions of his spouse committed before marriage. Cases have been known of natives having fled from their burning huts, taking care to save their fighting-cocks, but leaving their wives and children to look after themselves.
If a question be suddenly put to a native, he apparently loses his presence of mind, and gives the reply most convenient to save himself from trouble, punishment, or reproach. It is a matter of perfect indifference to him whether the reply be true or not. Then, as the investigation proceeds, he will amend one statement after another, until, finally, he has practically admitted his first explanation to be quite false. One who knows the native character, so far as its mysteries are penetrable, would never attempt to get at the truth of a question by a direct inquiry—he would “beat about the bush,” and extract the truth bit by bit. Nor do the natives, rich or poor, of any class in life, and with very few exceptions in the whole population, appear to regard lying as a sin, but rather as a legitimate, though cunning, convenience, which should be resorted to whenever it will serve a purpose. It is my frank opinion that they do not, in their consciences, hold lying to be a fault in any degree. If the liar be discovered and faced, he rarely appears disconcerted—his countenance rather denotes surprise at the discovery, or disappointment at his being foiled in the object for which he lied. As this is one of the most remarkable characteristics of the Filipino of both sexes in all spheres of life, I have repeatedly discussed it with the priests, several of whom have assured me that the habit prevails even in the confessional.7 In the administration of justice this circumstance is inconvenient, because a witness is always procurable for a few pesos. In a law-case, in which one or both parties belong to the lowest class, it is sometimes difficult to say whether the false or the true witnesses are in majority.

Men and women alike find exaggerated enjoyment in litigation, which many keep up for years. Among themselves they are tyrannical. They have no real sentiment, nor do they practise virtue for virtueʼs sake, and, apart from their hospitality, in which they (especially the Tagálogs) far excel the European, all their actions appear to be only guided by fear, or interest, or both.
The domesticated Tagálogs of Luzon have made greater progress in civilization and good manners than the Visayos of Panay and Negros. The Tagálog differs vastly from his southern brother in his true nature, which is more pliant, whilst he is by instinct cheerfully and disinterestedly hospitable. Invariably a European wayfarer in a Tagálog village is invited by one or another of the principal residents to lodge at his house as a free guest, for to offer payment would give offence. A present of some European article might be made, but it is not at all looked for. The Tagálog host lends his guest horses or vehicles to go about the neighbourhood, takes him round to the houses of his friends, accompanies him to any feast which may be celebrated at the time of his visit, and lends him his sporting-gun, if he has one. The whole time he treats him with the deference due to the superiority which he recognizes. He is remarkably inquisitive, and will ask all sorts of questions about oneʼs private affairs, but that is of no consequence—he is not intrusive, and if he be invited to return the visit in the capital, or wherever one may reside, he accepts the invitation reluctantly, but seldom pays the visit. Speaking of the Tagálog as a host, pure and simple, he is generally the most genial man one could hope to meet.

The Negros and Panay Visayoʼs cold hospitality is much tempered with the prospect of personal gain—quite a contrast to the Tagálog. On the first visit he might admit the white traveller into his house out of mere curiosity to know all about him—whence he comes—why he travels—how much he possesses—and where he is going. The basis of his estimation of a visitor is his worldly means; or, if the visitor be engaged in trade, his power to facilitate his hostʼs schemes would bring him a certain measure of civility and complaisance. He is fond of, and seeks the patronage of Europeans of position. In manners, the Negros and Panay Visayo is uncouth and brusque, and more conceited, arrogant, self-reliant, ostentatious, and unpolished than his northern neighbour. If remonstrated with for any fault, he is quite disposed to assume a tone of impertinent retort or sullen defiance. The Cebuáno is more congenial and hospitable.

The women, too, are less affable in Panay and Negros, and evince an almost incredible avarice. They are excessively fond of ornament, and at feasts they appear adorned with an amount of gaudy French jewellery which, compared with their means, cost them a lot of money to purchase from the swarm of Jew pedlars who, before the Revolution of 1896, periodically invaded the villages.

If a European calls on a well-to-do Negros or Panay Visayo, the women of the family saunter off in one direction or another, to hide themselves in other rooms, unless the visitor be well known to the family. If met by chance, perhaps they will return a salutation, perhaps not. They seldom indulge in a smile before a stranger; have no conversation; no tuition beyond music and the lives of the Saints, and altogether impress the traveller with their insipidity of character, which chimes badly with their manifest air of disdain.

The women of Luzon (and in a slightly less degree the Cebuánas) are more frank, better educated, and decidedly more courteous and sociable. Their manners are comparatively lively, void of arrogance, cheerful, and buoyant in tone. However, all over the Islands the women are more parsimonious than the men; but, as a rule, they are more clever and discerning than the other sex, over whom they exercise great influence. Many of them are very dexterous business women and have made the fortunes of their families. A notable example of this was the late Doña Cornelia Laochanco, of Manila, with whom I was personally acquainted, and who, by her own talent in trading transactions, accumulated considerable wealth. Doña Cornelia (who died in 1899) was the foundress of the system of blending sugar to sample for export, known in Manila as the fardería. In her establishment at San Miguel she had a little tower erected, whence a watchman kept his eye on the weather. When threatening clouds appeared a bell was tolled and the mats were instantly picked up and carried off by her Chinese coolie staff, which she managed with great skill, due, perhaps, to the fact that her three husbands were Chinese.

The Philippine woman makes an excellent general servant in native families; in the same capacity, in European service, she is, as a rule, almost useless, but she is a good nursemaid.
The Filipino has many excellent qualities which go far to make amends for his shortcomings. He is patient and forbearing in the extreme, remarkably sober, plodding, anxious only about providing for his immediate wants, and seldom feels “the canker of ambitious thoughts.” In his person and his dwelling he may serve as a pattern of cleanliness to all other races in the tropical East. He has little thought beyond the morrow, and therefore never racks his brains about events of the far future in the political world, the world to come, or any other sphere. He indifferently leaves everything to happen as it may, with surprising resignation. The native, in general, will go without food for many hours at a time without grumbling; and fish, rice, betel-nut, and tobacco are his chief wants. Inebriety is almost unknown, although strong drink (nipa wine) is plentiful.
In common with other races whose lives are almost exclusively passed amid the ever-varying wonders of land and sea, Filipinos rarely express any spontaneous admiration for the beauties of Nature, and seem little sensible to any aspect thereof not directly associated with the human interest of their calling. Few Asiatics, indeed, go into raptures over lovely scenery as Europeans do, nor does “the gorgeous glamour of the Orient” which we speak of so ecstatically strike them as such.

When a European is travelling, he never needs to trouble about where or when his servant gets his food or where he sleeps—he looks after that. When a native travels, he drops in amongst any group of his fellow-countrymen whom he finds having their meal on the roadside, and wherever he happens to be at nightfall, there he lies down to sleep. He is never long in a great dilemma. If his hut is about to fall, he makes it fast with bamboo and rattan-cane. If a vehicle breaks down, a harness snaps, or his canoe leaks or upsets, he always has his remedy at hand. He stoically bears misfortune of all kinds with the greatest indifference, and without the least apparent emotion. Under the eye of his master he is the most tractable of all beings. He never (like the Chinese) insists upon doing things his own way, but tries to do just as he is told, whether it be right or wrong. A native enters oneʼs service as a coachman, but if he be told to paddle a boat, cook a meal, fix a lock, or do any other kind of labour possible to him, he is quite agreeable. He knows the duties of no occupation with efficiency, and he is perfectly willing to be a “jack-of-all-trades.” Another good feature is that he rarely, if ever, repudiates a debt, although he may never pay it. So long as he gets his food and fair treatment, and his stipulated wages in advance, he is content to act as a general-utility man; lodging he will find for himself. If not pressed too hard, he will follow his superior like a faithful dog. If treated with kindness, according to European notions, he is lost. The native never looks ahead; if left to himself, he will do all sorts of imprudent things, from sheer want of reflection on the consequences, when, as he puts it, “his head is hot” from excitement due to any cause.

On March 15, 1886, I was coming round the coast of Zambales in a small steamer, in which I was the only saloon passenger. The captain, whom I had known for years, found that one of the cabin servants had been systematically pilfering for some time past. He ordered the steward to cane him, and then told him to go to the upper deck and remain there. He at once walked up the ladder and threw himself into the sea; but the vessel stopped, a boat was lowered, and he was soon picked up. Had he been allowed to reach the shore, he would have become what is known as a remontado and perhaps eventually a brigand, for such is the beginning of many of them.

The thorough-bred native has no idea of organization on a large scale, hence a successful revolution is not possible if confined to his own class unaided by others, such as Creoles and foreigners. He is brave, and fears no consequences when with or against his equals, or if led by his superiors; but a conviction of superiority—moral or physical—in the adversary depresses him. An excess of audacity calms and overawes him rather than irritates him.
His admiration for bravery and perilous boldness is only equalled by his contempt for cowardice and puerility, and this is really the secret of the nativeʼs disdain for the Chinese race. Under good European officers he makes an excellent soldier, and would follow a brave leader to death; however, if the leader fell, he would at once become demoralized. [175]There is nothing he delights in more than pillage, destruction, and bloodshed, and when once he becomes master of the situation in an affray, there is no limit to his greed and savage cruelty.

Yet, detesting order of any kind, military discipline is repugnant to him, and, as in other countries where conscription is the law, all kinds of tricks are resorted to to avoid it. On looking over the deeds of an estate which I had purchased, I saw that two brothers, each named Catalino Raymundo, were the owners at one time of a portion of the land. I thought there must have been some mistake, but, on close inquiry, I found that they were so named to dodge the Spanish recruiting officers, who would not readily suppose there were two Catalino Raymundos born of the same parents. As one Catalino Raymundo had served in the army and the other was dead, no further secret was made in the matter, and I was assured that this practice was common among the poorest natives.

In November, 1887, a deserter from the new recruits was pursued to Langca, a ward of Meycauáyan, Bulacan Province, where nearly all the inhabitants rose up in his defence, the result being that the Lieutenant of Cuadrilleros was killed and two of his men were wounded. When the Civil Guard appeared on the spot, the whole ward was abandoned.

According to the Spanish army regulations, a soldier cannot be on sentinel duty for more than two hours at a time under any circumstances. Cases have been known of a native sentinel having been left at his post for a little over that regulation time, and to have become phrenetic, under the impression that the two hours had long since expired, and that he had been forgotten. In one case the man had to be disarmed by force, but in another instance the sentinel simply refused to give up his rifle and bayonet, and defied all who approached him. Finally, an officer went with the colours of the regiment in hand to exhort him to surrender his arms, adding that justice would attend his complaint. The sentinel, however, threatened to kill any one who should draw near, and the officer had no other recourse open to him but to order a European soldier to climb up behind the sentry-box and blow out the insubordinate nativeʼs brains.

In the seventies, a contingent of Philippine troops was sent to assist the French in Tonquin, where they rendered very valuable service. Indeed, some officers are of opinion that they did more to quell the Tuh Duc rising than the French troops themselves. When in the fray, they throw off their boots, and, barefooted, they rarely falter. Even over mud and swamp, a native is almost as sure-footed as a goat on the brink of a quarry. I have frequently been carried for miles in a hammock by four natives and relays, through morassy districts too dangerous to travel on horseback. They are great adepts at climbing wherever it is possible for a human being to scale a height; like monkeys, they hold as much with their feet as with their hands; they ride any horse barebacked without fear; they are utterly careless about jumping into the sea among the sharks, which sometimes they will intentionally attack with knives, and I never knew a native who could not swim. There are natives who dare dive for the caiman and rip it up. If they meet with an accident, they bear it with supreme resignation, simply exclaiming “desgracia pá”—it was a misfortune.

I can record with pleasure my happy recollection of many a light-hearted, genial, and patient native who accompanied me on my journeys in these Islands. Comparatively very few thorough-bred natives travel beyond their own islands, although there is a constant flow of half-castes to and from the adjacent colonies, Europe, etc.

The native is very slowly tempted to abandon the habits and traditional customs of his forefathers, and his ambitionless felicity may be envied by any true philosopher.

No one who has lived in the Colony for years could sketch the real moral portrait of such a remarkable combination of virtues and vices. The domesticated nativeʼs character is a succession of surprises. The experience of each year modifies oneʼs conclusions, and the most exact definition of such an inscrutable being is, after all, hypothetical. However, to a certain degree, the characteristic indolence of these Islanders is less dependent on themselves than on natural law, for the physical conditions surrounding them undoubtedly tend to arrest their vigour of motion, energy of life, and intellectual power.

The organic elements of the European differ widely from those of the Philippine native, and each, for his own durability, requires his own special environment. The half-breed partakes of both organisms, but has the natural environment of the one. Sometimes artificial means—the mode of life into which he is forced by his European parent—will counteract in a measure natural law, but, left to himself, the tendency will ever be towards an assimilation to the native. Original national characteristics disappear in an exotic climate, and, in the course of time, conform to the new laws of nature to which they are exposed.

It is an ascertained fact that the increase of energy introduced into the Philippine native by blood mixture from Europe lasts only to the second generation, whilst the effect remains for several generations when there is a similarity of natural surroundings in the two races crossed. Moreover, the peculiar physique of a Chinese or Japanese progenitor is preserved in succeeding generations, long after the Spanish descendant has merged into the conditions of his environment.

The Spanish Government strove in vain against natural law to counteract physical conditions by favouring mixed marriages,8 but Nature overcomes manʼs law, and climatic influence forces its conditions [177]on the half-breed. Indeed, were it not for new supplies of extraneous blood infusion, European characteristics would, in time, become indiscernible among the masses. Even on Europeans themselves, in defiance of their own volition, the new physical conditions and the influence of climate on their mental and physical organisms are perceptible after two or three decades of yearsʼ residence in the mid-tropics.

All the natives of the domesticated type have distinct Malay, or Malay-Japanese, or Mongol features—prominent cheek-bones, large and lively eyes, and flat noses with dilated nostrils. They are, on the average, of rather low stature, very rarely bearded, and of a copper colour more or less dark. Most of the women have no distinct line of hair on the forehead. Some there are with a frontal hairy down extending to within an inch of the eyes, possibly a reversion to a progenitor (the Macacus radiata) in whom the forehead had not become quite naked, leaving the limit between the scalp and the forehead undefined. The hair of both males and females stands out from the skin like bristles, and is very coarse. The coarseness of the femaleʼs hair is, however, more than compensated by its luxuriance; for, provided she be in a normal state of health, up to the prime of life the hair commonly reaches down to the waist, and occasionally to the ankles. The women are naturally proud of this mark of beauty, which they preserved by frequent washings with gogo (q.v.) and the use of cocoanut oil (q.v.). Hare-lip is common. Children, from their birth, have a spot at the base of the vertebrae, thereby supporting the theory of Professor Huxleyʼs Anthropidae sub-order—or man (vide Professor Huxleyʼs “An Introduction to the Classification of Animals,” p. 99. Published 1869).

Marriages between natives are usually arranged by the parents of the respective families. The nubile age of females is from about 11 years. The parents of the young man visit those of the maiden, to approach the subject delicately in an oratorical style of allegory. The response is in like manner shrouded with mystery, and the veil is only thrown off the negotiations when it becomes evident that both parties agree. Among the poorer classes, if the young man has no goods to offer, it is frequently stipulated that he shall serve on probation for an indefinite period in the house of his future bride,—as Jacob served Laban to make Rachel his wife,—and not a few drudge for years with this hope before them.

Sometimes, in order to secure service gratis, the elders of the young woman will suddenly dismiss the young man after a prolonged expectation, and take another Catipad. as he is called, on the same terms. The old colonial legislation—“Leyes de Indias”—in vain prohibited this barbarous ancient custom, and there was a modern Spanish law (of which few availed themselves) which permitted the intended bride to be [178]“deposited” away from parental custody, whilst the parents were called upon to show cause why the union should not take place. However, it often happens that when Cupid has already shot his arrow into the virginal breast, and the betrothed foresee a determined opposition to their mutual hopes, they anticipate the privileges of matrimony, and compel the brideʼs parents to countenance their legitimate aspirations to save the honour of the family. Honi soit qui mal y pense—they simply force the hand of a dictatorial mother-in-law. The women are notably mercenary, and if, on the part of the girl and her people, there be a hitch, it is generally on the question of dollars when both parties are native. Of course, if the suitor be European, no such question is raised—the ambition of the family and the vanity of the girl being both satisfied by the alliance itself.

When the proposed espousals are accepted, the donations propter nuptias are paid by the father of the bridegroom to defray the wedding expenses, and often a dowry settlement, called in Tagálog dialect “bigaycaya” is made in favour of the bride. Very rarely the brideʼs property is settled on the husband. I never heard of such a case. The Spanish laws relating to married personsʼ property were quaint. If the husband were poor and the wife well-off, so they might remain, notwithstanding the marriage. He, as a rule, became a simple administrator of her possessions, and, if honest, often depended on her liberality to supply his own necessities. If he became bankrupt in a business in which he employed also her capital or possessions, she ranked as a creditor of the second class under the “Commercial Code.” If she died, the poor husband, under no circumstances, by legal right (unless under a deed signed before a notary) derived any benefit from the fact of his having espoused a rich wife: her property passed to their legitimate issue, or—in default thereof—to her nearest blood relation. The children might be rich, and, but for their generosity, their father might be destitute, whilst the law compelled him to render a strict account to them of the administration of their property during their minority. This fact has given rise to many lawsuits.

A married woman often signs her maiden name, sometimes adding “de ——” (her husbandʼs surname). If she survives him, she again takes up her nomen ante nuptias amongst her old circle of friends, and only adds “widow of ——” to show who she is to the public (if she be in trade), or to those who have only known her as a married woman. The offspring use both the parental surnames, the motherʼs coming after the fatherʼs; hence it is the more prominent. Frequently, in Spanish documents requiring the mention of a personʼs name in full, the motherʼs maiden surname is revived.
Thus marriage, as I understand the spirit of the Spanish law, seems to be a simple contract to legitimize and license procreation.

Up to the year 1844, only a minority of the christian natives had distinctive family names. They were, before that date, known by certain harsh ejaculations, and classification of families was uncared for among the majority of the population. Therefore, in that year, a list of Spanish surnames was sent to each parish priest, and every native family had to adopt a separate appellation, which has ever since been perpetuated. Hence one meets natives bearing illustrious names such as Juan Salcedo, Juan de Austria, Rianzares, Ramon de Cabrera, Pio Nono Lopez, and a great many Legaspis.
When a wedding among natives was determined upon, the betrothed went to the priest—not necessarily together—kissed his hand, and informed him of their intention. There was a tariff of marriage fees, but the priest usually set this aside, and fixed his charges according to the resources of the parties. This abuse of power could hardly be resisted, as the natives have a radicate aversion to being married elsewhere than in the village of the bride. The priest, too (not the bride), usually had the privilege of “naming the day.” The fees demanded were sometimes enormous, the common result being that many couples merely cohabited under mutual vows because they could not pay the wedding expenses.

The banns were verbally published after the benediction following the conclusion of the Mass. In the evening, prior to the marriage, it was compulsory on the couple to confess and obtain absolution from the priest. The nuptials almost invariably took place after the first Mass, between five and six in the morning, and those couples who were spiritually prepared first presented themselves for Communion. Then an acolyte placed over the shoulders of the bridal pair a thick mantle or pall. The priest recited a short formula of about five minutesʼ duration, put his interrogations, received the muttered responses, and all was over. To the espoused, as they left the church, was tendered a bowl of coin; the bridegroom passed a handful of the contents to the bride, who accepted it and returned it to the bowl. This act was symbolical of his giving to her his worldly goods. Then they left the church with their friends, preserving that solemn, stoical countenance common to all Malay natives. There was no visible sign of emotion as they all walked off, with the most matter-of-fact indifference, to the paternal abode. This was the custom under the Spaniards, and it still largely obtains; the Revolution decreed civil marriage, which the Americans have declared lawful, but not compulsory.

After the marriage ceremony the feast called the Catapúsan begins. To this the vicar and headmen of the villages, the immediate friends and relatives of the allied families, and any Europeans who may [180]happen to be resident or sojourning, are invited. The table is spread, à la Russe, with all the good things procurable served at the same time—sweetmeats predominating. Imported beer, Dutch gin, chocolate, etc., are also in abundance. After the early repast, both men and women are constantly being offered betel-nut to masticate, and cigars or cigarettes, according to choice.

Meanwhile, the company is entertained by native dancers. Two at a time—a young man and woman—stand vis-à-vis and alternately sing a love ditty, the burthen of the theme usually opening by the regret of the young man that his amorous overtures have been disregarded. Explanations follow, in the poetic dialogue, as the parties dance around each other, keeping a slow step to the plaintive strains of music. This is called the Balítao. It is most popular in Visayas.

Another dance is performed by a young woman only. If well executed it is extremely graceful. The girl begins singing a few words in an ordinary tone, when her voice gradually drops to the diminuendo, whilst her slow gesticulations and the declining vigour of the music together express her forlornness. Then a ray of joy seems momentarily to lighten her mental anguish; the spirited crescendo notes gently return; the tone of the melody swells; her measured step and action energetically quicken—until she lapses again into resigned sorrow, and so on alternately. Coy in repulse, and languid in surrender, the danseuse in the end forsakes her sentiment of melancholy for elated passion.

The native dances are numerous. Another of the most typical, is that of a girl writhing and dancing a pas seul with a glass of water on her head. This is known as the Comítan.

When Europeans are present, the bride usually retires into the kitchen or a back room, and only puts in an appearance after repeated requests. The conversation rarely turns upon the event of the meeting; there is not the slightest outward manifestation of affection between the newly-united couple, who, during the feast, are only seen together by mere accident. If there are European guests, the repast is served three times—firstly for the Europeans and headmen, secondly for the males of less social dignity, and lastly for the women. Neither at the table nor in the reception-room do the men and women mingle, except for perhaps the first quarter of an hour after the arrival, or whilst dancing continues.

About an hour after the mid-day meal, those who are not lodging at the house return to their respective residences to sleep the siesta. On an occasion like this—at a Catapúsan given for any reason—native outsiders, from anywhere, always invade the kitchen in a mob, lounge around doorways, fill up corners, and drop in for the feast uninvited, and it is usual to be liberally complaisant to all comers.

As a rule, the married couple live with the parents of one or the other, at least until the family inconveniently increases. In old age, the elder members of the families come under the protection of the younger ones quite as a matter of course. In any case, a newly-married pair seldom reside alone. Relations from all parts flock in. Cousins, uncles and aunts, of more or less distant grade, hang on to the recently-established household, if it be not extremely poor. Even when a European marries a native woman, she is certain to introduce some vagabond relation—a drone to hive with the bees—a condition quite inevitable, unless the husband be a man of specially determined character.

Death at childbirth is very common, and it is said that 25 per cent. of the new-born children die within a month.

Among the lowest classes, whilst a woman is lying-in, the husband closes all the windows to prevent the evil spirit (asuan) entering; sometimes he will wave about a stick or bowie-knife at the door, or on top of the roof, for the same purpose. Even among the most enlightened, at the present day, the custom of shutting the windows is inherited from their superstitious forefathers, probably in ignorance of the origin of this usage.

In Spanish times it was considered rather an honour than otherwise to have children by a priest, and little secret was made of it.

In October, 1888, I was in a village near Manila, at the bedside of a sick friend, when the curate entered. He excused himself for not having called earlier, by explaining that “Turing” had sent him a message informing him that as the vicar (a native) had gone to Manila, he might take charge of the church and parish. “Is ‘Turing’ an assistant curate?” I inquired. My friend and the pastor were so convulsed with laughter at the idea, that it was quite five minutes before they could explain that the intimation respecting the parochial business emanated from the absent vicarʼs bonne amie.

Consanguine marriages are very common, and perhaps this accounts for the low intellect and mental debility perceptible in many families.

Poor parents offer their girls to Europeans for a loan of money, and they are admitted under the pseudonym of sempstress or housekeeper. Natives among themselves do not kiss—they smell each other, or rather, they place the nose and lip on the cheek and draw a long breath.

Marriages between Spaniards and pure native women, although less frequent than formerly, still take place. Since 1899 many Americans, too, have taken pure native wives. It is difficult to apprehend an alliance so incongruous, there being no affinity of ideas, the only condition in common being, that they are both human beings professing Christianity. The husband is either drawn towards the level of the native by this heterogeneous relationship, or, in despair of remedying the error of a passing passion, he practically ignores his wife in his own social connections. Each forms then a distinct circle of friends of his, or her, own selection, whilst the woman is but slightly raised above her own class by the white manʼs influence and contact. There are some exceptions, but I have most frequently observed in the houses of Europeans married to native women in the provinces, that the wives make the kitchen their chief abode, and are only seen by the visitor when some domestic duty requires them to move about the house. Familiarity breeds contempt, and these mésalliances diminish the dignity of the superior race by reducing the birth-origin of both parents to a common level in their children.

The Spanish half-breeds and Creoles constitute a very influential body. A great number of them are established in trade in Manila and the provinces. Due to their European descent, more or less distant, they are of quicker perception, greater tact, and gifted with wider intellectual faculties than the pure Oriental class. Also, the Chinese half-breeds,—a caste of Chinese fathers and Philippine mothers,—who form about one-sixth of the Manila population, are shrewder than the natives of pure extraction, their striking characteristic being distrust and suspicion of anotherʼs intentions. It is a curious fact that the Chinese half-caste speaks with as much contempt of the Chinaman as the thorough-bred Filipino does, and would fain hide his paternal descent. There are numbers of Spanish half-breeds fairly well educated, and just a few of them very talented. Many of them have succeeded in making pretty considerable fortunes in their negotiations, as middlemen, between the provincial natives and the European commercial houses. Their true social position is often an equivocal one, and the complex question has constantly to be confronted whether to regard a Spanish demi-sang from a native or European standpoint. Among themselves they are continually struggling to attain the respect and consideration accorded to the superior class, whilst their connexions and purely native relations link them to the other side. In this perplexing mental condition, we find them on the one hand striving in vain to disown their affinity to the inferior races, and on the other hand, jealous of their true-born European acquaintances. A morosity of disposition is the natural outcome. Their character generally is evasive and vacillating. They are captious, fond of litigation, and constantly seeking subterfuges. They appear always dissatisfied with their lot in life, and inclined to foster grievances against whoever may be in office over them. Pretentious in the extreme, they are fond of pomp and paltry show, and it is difficult to trace any popular movement, for good or for evil, without discovering a half-breed initiator, or leader, of one caste or another. They are locally denominated Mestizos.


A Tagálog Townsman

The Jesuit Father, Pedro Murillo Velarde, at p. 272 of his work on this Colony, expressed his opinion of the political-economical result of mixed marriages to the following effect:—“Now,” he says, “we have a querulous, discontented population of half-castes, who, sooner or later, will bring about a distracted state of society, and occupy the [183]whole force of the Government to stamp out the discord.” How far the prophecy was fulfilled will be seen in another chapter

San Miguel, Manila

The Jesuits probably built the first parochial structures


during their administration of the San Miguel ecclesiastical district in 1603 until 1768. The Franciscans took over the mission in 1777 and in 1835, Fr. Esteban Mena (OFM) was reported to have started building a church. Fr. Francisco Febres (OFM) made repairs and improvements after the 1852 earthquake.


When the sandalwood and fur trades died out in the third decade of the 19th Century, the new economic engine was whale fishing, starting in the mid-1820’s. That industry depended more on the Cape Horn Route and fewer ships traveled from Honolulu to China. Some ships did go that way and letters even in the 1840’s are known going via the Indian Ocean route. Please send me an E-mail ( with details of pre-Postal covers routed to or from Honolulu via the Indian Ocean.

Feb 10 Per Joseph Peabody

The notation “per J. Peabody” reveals this cover as one sent via the Indian Ocean. The content confirms it with this beginning: “Per Jos. Peabody/Manila,” datelined “Honolulu, Oahu, Feby 16, 1840.” The American Brig Joseph Peabody sailed from Honolulu for Manila on February 16, 1840. From Manila, the Peabody sailed north to the Siberian Coast and returned to Honolulu, so this letter was transshipped at Manila to a New York bound ship. Winds, current and distance would have dictated a voyage from Manila via the Indian Ocean and the Cape of Good Hope and then northward in the Atlantic. It was stamped with a New York ship postmark on August 31 and received at Boston on September 2, 1840. At New York, the letter was rated with a manuscript “20½” indicating the 18½¢ fee to carry it beyond 150 miles (but less than 400 miles) under the rates in effect until 1845, plus a 2¢ ship fee. Captain Dominis of the Joseph Peabody became the father-in-law of Queen Liliuokalani


A Scene in Town from The Flebus Album of Views In and Around Manila 1845


A Scene in Town from The Flebus Album of Views In and Around Manila 1845,

a painting by

Jose Honorato Lozano.



The Postal history used cover from Honolulu hawai via manila to Batavia.

the famous “Batavia Cover” shown below.

52 - Mar 11 Batavia cover
52 - Mar 11 Batavia Cover backstamps - OFF

Postmarks front and back of this cover are Honolulu, March 11, 1852, Manila, May 19 and June 17, Hong Kong, June 21, Canton, July 2 along with a Canton PAID mark, and again Hong Kong on July 22. This cover, addressed to Batavia via a forwarder in Canton, was carried to Manila by the Bremen bark Ceres, departing April 3, 1852. The letter next went from Manila to Hong Kong and paid a single letter rate of 4 pence (represented by the black “4” over the Honolulu postmark). At Hong Kong, the letter was sent to the forwarder in Canton at another 4 pence rate (represented by the red “4” in the upper left corner). The forwarder crossed out his name, paid postage to Singapore (1 shilling represented by a red squiggle over the Honolulu postmark) and sent it back down to Hong Kong. From Hong Kong, the letter was carried to Singapore by the P&O steamship Malta (July 23 departure; July 31 arrival) under British mail contract, and then to Batavia by local shipping. The “48” is said to represent a Batavia local rate, typically written with the same type of ink.




 the 1863 earthquake

- Double rated folded cover bearing two 2 Reales stamps from Madrid to Manila

after 1863

After the 1863 earthquake, a new bridge replaced it in 1875. This had eight arches – the two middle ones were built of iron – and was named the “Puente de España”. The second to be built was called the Clavería bridge.

This was a suspension bridge and was a landmark

View of the “Puente de España”, built after the 1863 earthquake. Álbum fotográfico… End of the 19th century. BN The metallic parts of the “Puente de España” – the central arches, the balustrades and the candelabra – were imported from France, this being organized by José Echeverría, the Spanish engineer posted there. Bridge


After the 1863 earthquake, a new bridge replaced it in 1875. This had eight arches – the two middle ones were built of iron – and was named the “Puente de España”. The second to be built was called the Clavería bridge.

This was a suspension bridge and was a landmark on the urban landscape of Manila; it linked Quiapo with the Arroceros district and was opened to the public in 1852. A third construction, the Ayala bridge was built in two separate sections; it crossed the river at Convalecencia island and was opened in 1880.

Marine traffic in the bay increased heavily during the second half of the 19th century. It was at this time that the construction of lighthouses began. Examples of this are the San Nicolás lighthouse and those built on Corregidor Island, all of which were constructed in accordance with the latest advances in European technology.


The “Puente de España” over the Pasig River in Manila. Casto Olano in Colección de planos… 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid After the destruction of the “Puente Grande” , a project was drawn up for an eight-arch combined construction: the two central arches had wider spans, were low, and were built from iron, the remaining six arches being built from quarried stone. Bridge
Bridge The “Concepción” portion of the Convalecencia bridge in Manila. Eduardo López Navarro in Colección de planos correspondientes a varias de las construcciones realizadas o proyectadas por la Inspección General de Obras Públicas de las Islas Filipinas. 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The Ayala bridge, as it was also known, crossed the river in two independent sections that converged on Convalecencia Island. Each of these sections was formed by three low arches and a lower platform, all of which were timber-built.
Puente View of the suspension bridge in the city of Manila. Álbum fotográfico… Late 19th century. BN The suspension bridge was constructed by private enterprise which operated it on a toll basis. The project was drawn up by the French engineer M. Gabaud.

The Ayala bridge between Convalecencia island and the Concepción district collapsed in this year. La Ilustración Española y Americana, 1890. BNAlthough scarcely ten years had passed since it was opened, by 1889 the Ayala bridge was in a dangerous condition. That year, the section between the island and the San Miguel district collapsed, and only a few months later the Concepción section followed suit.


Project for the port of Manila. José García Morón. Revista de Obras Públicas, 1889-1890 During the 1880’s, a greater number of efforts were made to provide Manila with an exterior port that would match its trading, economic and political importance. Puerto
Puerto New project for an artificial port for the city of Manila. José García Morón. 1890. AHN Generally speaking, the proposal consisted of creating a sheltered area for ships to anchor in. In addition, large areas would be set aside for the construction of sheds and warehouses to store produce and merchandise awaiting shipment to Europe and America.
Project for a battery on the south wall. Mariano de Goicoechea. 1834. SHM Throughout its history, the defence of Manila was a constant cause of concern which gave rise to continual fortifications works on the seaboard front. Muralla
Río Section of the Pasig River close to the Manila city walls. 19th century. SHM During the 19th century, a great deal of effort was devoted to the channelling and straightening of the Pasig river estuary and the defence of its banks.
Channelling dikes to counter the sediments that silted up the Pasig mouth. 1757. SGE During the 18th century, dredging works and campaigns were carried out to clear the accumulation of sand at the river mouth, which was a hindrance to navigation and entry into the river port. Diques
Río View of the Pasig River and the stone-built “Puente Grande”, before the 1863 earthquake. Fernando Brambila. Collection of drawings and engravings made on the Malaspina Expedition. 1789-1794. MN Built in the first half of the 17th century, and until the suspension bridge was opened, the “Puente Grande” was the only bridge crossing the Pasig River. In 1814, the wooden roadway was replaced with masonry arches.


Faro Project for a metallic lighthouse on the sandy promontory of San Nicolás at Manila Bay. José Echeverría in Colección de planos… 1876. BETSICCP, Madrid The majority of the lighthouses built in the Philippines were of traditional construction, although some were also built with a metallic structure in consonance with the latest trends in European engineering.
Watchtower on Corregidor Island at the entrance to Manila Bay. Ildefonso de Aragón. First half of the 19th century. SHM Although the lighthouses constructed in the Philippines were of varied types, they were all provided with living quarters for the tower keepers and deposits for supplies of drinking water, which were essential in isolated places with difficult access. Torre



The San Miguel  church was destroyed during the 1880 earthquake and rebuilt by Fr. Emilio Gago (OFM) in 1886. It was rebuilt IN 1913 through the patronage of the Roxas clan and was sedignated by Msgr. Michael O’Doherty as a Pro-cathedral of the Archdiocese of Manila after it was inaugurated in 1913.


The “Punta Santiago” lighthouse (Batangas) which provided signalling in the strait between Luzon and the island of Mindanao. Magin Pers y Pers and Guillermo Brockmann. La Ilustración Española y Americana. José Fernández. 1891. BN In 1890, the new catadioptric lighthouse was opened to assist navigators by illuminating this unavoidable route leading from the south and the Pacific towards the China Sea. Faro


one of the older homes (late 1800′s)




The history of the Odd Fellows in the Philippines is quite interesting. The fraternity reached the Philippines long ago before the country gained independence and many unfortunate events occurred along the course of time. Many of the records were destroyed and only few remain where we can get accountable information about its first organization in the country.

1872: According to Major O.W. Coursey, author of the History and Geography of the Philippine Islands, the awakening of the Filipinos to a deep sense of injustice being practiced upon them by the Spaniards was the introduction of ‘fraternal’ societies in the Islands, and to the influence of higher education obtained by those of means in the school of Hong Kong and other Old-World cities. He mentioned that the ‘Society of Odd Fellows’ spread to the Islands in 1872 and was largely responsible for the petty insurrection of the following year. This could be because many of the military men who fought the war were members of the society. Membership was mostly limited to military servicemen during that time.

1898: Author Peter Sellars in his book, History of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the City of San Francisco, mentioned of military men, whom many are members of the Order, had been given proper send-off by the Odd Fellows of San Francisco on their way to the Philippines. The New York Times also mentioned that during the 74thAnnual Session of the Sovereign Grand Lodge of the Independent Order of Odd Fellows in the United States, a ‘Brother Badley’ who is with the United States Army in the Philippines, asked permission to establish the society in the country. The Grand Sire, international president of the organization, at that time recommended that the action be taken by the Sovereign Grand Lodge at that session. He also recommended that members serving in the Army may be permitted to form military lodges or associations. In Peter Sellars’ book, an ‘Odd Fellows Association of the Philippines ‘ was in existence in the country. Most members, if not all, were military servicemen so presumably, meetings were held inside Naval or military base camps and that membership was exclusive to military servicemen.

1899: An armed military conflict between Filipinos and Americans umably, Lodge meetings of the Odd Fellows were suspended.

1903: When the war ended on July 4, 1902, the.





The history of Odd Fellow  in Phillipne quatete interresting,the fraternity reached phillipine before long ago before the country gained the records of were destroyed and only few remain where we can found accountable informations






According to Major O.W. Coursey, author of the History and Geography of the Philippine Islands, the awakening of the Filipinos to a deep sense of injustice being practiced upon them by the Spaniards was the introduction of ‘fraternal’ societies in the Islands, and to the influence of higher education obtained by those of means in the school of Hong Kong and other Old-World cities. He mentioned that the ‘Society of Odd Fellows’ spread to the Islands in 1872 and was largely responsible for the petty insurrection of the following year. This could be because many of the military men who fought the war were members of the society. Membership was mostly limited to military servicemen during that time.


conflict bertween Filipinod  and US Army,Odd fellow suspended.







Manila is  a bustling, vibrant city and much like the Big Apple, it never sleeps! During the 1800-1900s it was the place to be and had the highest standard of living! Here are some glimpses of vintage Manila!

Binondo used to look this way like a rural community! It is now one of the busiest commercial places in Manila where a lot of stores are and not a square meter of space is vacant
Escolta Street, 1884, had European architecture adapted to the Philippine climate. People dressed up quite elegantly on the streets and I suppose the weather was not as humid otherwise attired with long sleeves and maria claras, fainting would have been rampant.
n the late 1800s, the gate to Intramuros still looks as it does now. We have kept the kalesas going for the tourists only now there is a golf course surrounding the gate
Here is the gate to Fort Santiago. It curiously holds up a Freemason symbol. What is that all about? Incidentally, this is where my hero uncle has been laid to rest. He was beheaded along with others who wrote insurgent material against the Japanese government. You rock Uncle Dever Alejandro!I
 Fort Santiago, Intramuros Manila
 (Dr. Jose Rizal’s detention cell before his execution in the 1890’s)

Rizal (1861-December 30 1896) was the hero of the Philippine rebellion of 1896-8 against Spain.

 Andrés Bonifacio (1863-May 10 1897) was another. Both were executed.


Emilio Aguinaldo, born in 1869, died in 1964 (sic), was a third, and the country’s first president.





 Photo of Intramuros Manila, circa 1800s


Commodore Dewey’s Flagship at the Battle of Manila, USS Olympia


Filipino-American War


1898 Filipino soldiers outside Manila

 The Philippine Army: From “Katipuneros” to “Soldiers”

A chapel where Katipuneros were sworn in. Influenced by the Masonic Order, the Katipunan was established as a secret, fraternal society, complete with Masonic rituals, blood oaths, coded passwords, and an aura of religious mystery. Women were admitted later on although most were exempted from the blood-letting rites.

The Katipunan or KKK was founded by Filipino rebels in Manila on July 7, 1892 (Long name: Kataas-taasang Kagalang-galangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan or “Supreme and Venerable Society of the Children of the Nation”).

The founders –all freemasons– were: Andres Bonifacio, Ladislao Diwa, Teodoro Plata, Deodato Arellano, Valentin Diaz, Jose Dizon and a few others.

They met secretly at Deodato Arellano’s  house on Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue), near Elcano Street, Tondo district. 

Unlike the pacifist and Europe-based Propaganda Movement, whose members were scions of the elite and wealthy, the Katipunan — composed of the common people, with only a sprinkling of the well-to-do middle class — did not dream of mere reforms. It aimed at liberating the country from Spanish tyranny by preparing the people for an armed conflict. Thus the Katipunan was founded on a radical platform, namely, to secure the independence and freedom of the Philippines by force of arms.

The San Francisco Call, Sept. 24, 1899, Page 26

Residence of Deodato Arellano on Azcarraga (now Claro M. Recto Avenue), near Elcano Street, Tondo district, birthplace of the Katipunan.

Spanish police headquarters at Tondo district, Manila, 1897.

A Katipunero’s cedula and a skull used in Katipunan initiation rites

Manila:   The Garrote was a strangulation machine. The two young Filipino muchachos (male domestic helpers) were sentenced to death for killing their abusive Spanish employer. The execution took place in front of the public slaughterhouse. The photographer, American businessman Joseph Earle Stevens, wrote: “The sight of the unfortunate prisoners…was pitiable in the extreme, and their faces bore marks of unforgettable anguish.”

The premature discovery of the plot on Aug. 18, 1896 forced the Katipuneros, as the members called themselves, to open hostilities.

The first major battle of the revolution took place on Aug. 30, 1896 when the Katipuneros attacked but failed to capture the Spanish polverin (powder depot) and deposito (water reservoir) in San Juan del Monte; 153 Katipuneros and 2 Spanish soldiers died.

As the rebellion progressed, a split developed between the Magdiwang faction (identified with Supremo Andres Bonifacio) and the Magdalo faction (loyal to Emilio Aguinaldo), both situated in Cavite Province.

The marker reads: “The Tejeros Convention: A revolutionary assembly was held March 22, 1897 in the building known as the Casa Hacienda of Tejeros that once stood on this site. Presided over by Andres Bonifacio toward the end of the session, the assembly decided to establish a central revolutionary government and elected Emilio Aguinaldo President, Mariano Trias Vice President, Artemio Ricarte Captain General, Emiliano Riego de Dios Director of War and Andres Bonifacio Director of the Interior. Certain events arising in the convention caused Bonifacio to bolt its action (1941)”.

At the Tejeros Convention on March 22, 1897 held in Barrio Tejeros, San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Cavite Province, the delegates voted to do away with the Katipunan.  They argued that the insulated fragmentation that had aided the Katipunan’s  secrecy had outlived its usefulness; in a wide-open national war for independence, unified leadership was required. A well-defined structure was needed to steer a combat force of thousands. From a small circle of conniving men and women, membership had grown to about 15,000 to 45,000 patriots (up to 100,000, according to some estimates; the previous figures, considered as more credible, were supplied by the Ilocano writer and labor leader, Isabelo de los Reyes, who was born in 1864 and died in 1929). 

Bonifacio did not strongly object; the convention went ahead and formed the “Pamahalaang Tagapamatnugot ng Paghihimagsik” or Central Revolutionary Government.

Artemio Ricarte restrains an enraged Andres Bonifacio who tried to shoot Daniel Tirona; the latter had objected to Bonifacio’s election as Director of the Interior of the Revolutionary Government. Tirona had argued that the post should not be occupied by a person without a lawyer’s diploma. Bonifacio, who had to quit schooling at age 14 due to a family exigency, fumed at the thinly-disguised personal insult.

Emilio Aguinaldo was elected President; when his own election as Director of the Interior was questioned for lack of academic credentials by Daniel Tirona, Bonifacio (RIGHT) took it as a personal affront. At age 14, his father and mother had died forcing him to quit his studies and to look after his younger siblings. As a means of support, he made wooden canes and paper fans which he sold in the streets. (Daniel Tirona became one of the founding members of the pro-American Partido Federal when it was organized on Dec. 23, 1900).

Feeling grievously insulted, Bonifacio hotly declared that by virtue of his authority as Katipunan Supremo, he was voiding and nullifying the decisions of the convention. He stormed out of the convention and drafted his own government and army.

Gen. Pantaleon Garcia (ABOVE) was appointed a committee of one by Emilio Aguinaldo to investigate and to report on the case of the Bonifacio brothers. He recommended a court-martial; when the brothers were convicted, Garcia recommended that the death penalty be imposed on them.

Bonifacio and his brother Procopio were arrested, tried and convicted of treason; they were executed on May 10, 1897.

(Andres Bonifacio had 4 years of formal schooling compared to 7 years for Emilio Aguinaldo. However, while Bonifacio wrote and spoke good Spanish, Aguinaldo was barely able to speak it).

The Revolutionary Government unified the ragtag Katipunero rebel forces into a cohesive Philippine Revolutionary Army organized along European  lines. It gave each conventional unit a nomenclature and organization. The army  adopted two official names: in Tagalog,  “Hukbong  Pilipinong Mapanghimagsik” and in Spanish “Ejército Revolucionario Filipino”. 

General Artemio “Vibora” Ricarte was designated as Captain-General (Commanding General). He heldthis post from March 22, 1897 until Jan. 22, 1899 when he was replaced by General Antonio Luna.

When independence was declared onJune 12, 1898, the Philippine Revolutionary Army became the Philippine Republican Army. 

The first Philippine Army used the 1896 edition of the Spanish army’s  Ordenanza del Ejercito to organize its forces and establish its character as a modern army. Rules and procedures were laid down for the reorganization of the Army, adoption of new fighting methods, regulation of ranks, adoption of new rank insignias and a standard uniform called rayadillo.

Orders and circulars were subsequently issued covering such matters as building trenches and fortifications, equipping every male aged 15 to 50 with bows and arrows to partially meet the acute lack of arms, enticing Filipino soldiers in the Spanish Army to defect, collecting empty cartridges for refilling, prohibiting unplanned sorties, inventories of captured arms and ammunition, fund raising, purchase of arms and supplies abroad, unification of military commands, and exhorting the people to give any material aid, especially food, to the soldiers.

Filipino flag secured by Peter MacQueen, correspondent of The National Magazine in the Philippines in 1899.

Pay scale of officers and men of the Philippine Army, per decree of President Aguinaldo issued from Bacoor, Cavite Province on July 30, 1898. He raised money by taxing merchants, businessmen and well-to-do families. Benito Legarda, director of the treasury department, was described by Joseph Stickney, aide to Admiral Dewey, as “a suave diplomat” and “…just the man to convince a reluctant lot of business men that it will be more pleasing to themselves and more satisfactory to the government for them to part with their money than their blood.”

Shoulder bars of Philippine army officers.

The Filipino army’s main weapons were the 1893 Spanish Mauser bolt-action 7 mm rifle (TOP); it was reloaded by pressing 5 cartridges stacked in a thin metal clip down through the open bolt; and the single-shot, breechloading Remington Rolling Block .43 Spanish rifle (BOTTOM).

Bladed weapons carried into battle by the Filipino rank-and-file. Officers wielded European-style swords.

The Filipinos were short of artillery; the few guns they possessed were booties from the Spanish army. They  improvised by making cannon out of water pipe, strengthened with timber. 

A Filipino iron pipe cannon strengthened with bamboo

A cannon made of bamboo by the Filipinos

Igorots in the Philippine Army. Photo was probably taken in  January 1899 at Candon, Ilocos Sur Province. The Igorots — numbering 225 — were hardy mountaineers from the Cordilleras of northern Luzon. They were recruited by Maj. Isabelo Abaya (PHOTO, central figure, with pistol and sword). Abaya was killed in action on May 3, 1900.  

Filipino soldiers in Bacolor, Pampanga, 1898. The American photographer’s caption: “PORTION OF AGUINALDO’S ARMY IN THE SUBURBS OF BACOLAR. These men were well armed and drilled, and if they had been commanded by officers trained in the military service, they would have made excellent soldiers. But they cannot stand before a charge of American volunteers.”

The Filipino soldiers in dark uniforms were former members of the Spanish Army who had defected to the Philippine Republican Army. This photo could have been taken on May 28, 1898, when a native regiment of  the Spanish Army surrendered at San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Cavite Province, and a large number of the men enlisted in the Philippine Army. In his memoirs,  Aguinaldo wrote that about 1,800 crossed over.



 The army was divided into an active and a volunteer force. The Active Army was organized into regiments, companies and batteries. In turn, the companies were divided into soldiers with firearms and those without, the duty of the latter – the proportion of five to each rifleman – being to keep themselves close to the rear of the firing line and secure the guns of men who are disabled. The function of the Volunteer Army was the gathering and storing of food supplies and obtaining iron and copper from every possible source for the fabrication of arms. It was also its duty to search the fields for projectiles which had failed to explode, to carry food to the troops, to strengthen daily the defenses and deploy others to suitable sites.

Academia Militar – First Philippine military school

Filipino army officers (under General Juan Cailles)

On the recommendation of General Antonio Luna, General Emilio Aguinaldo authorized the creation of a military school for officers.

On  Oct. 25, 1898, the Academia Militar was established at  Malolos, Bulacan with Colonel Manuel Bernal Sityar, hijo (meaning junior), as Director. 

Colonel Sityar (RIGHT) was a Spanish mestizo who had served as a lieutenant in the Spanish Civil Guard.  In 1882, he trained at the Academia Infanteria de Filipinas in Manila. He graduated from the Academia Militar de Toledo in Spain in 1895. He was born on Aug. 20, 1863 in Cavite City of an “Indio” mother and a Spanish father who hailed from Cadiz, Spain. His great grandfather was a lawyer to Spanish King Alfonso. His great grandmother was a relative of Queen Isabela. Both his grandfather and father were Spanish Dukes, and his father was in addition a commodore of the Spanish Navy.

Sityar was the first to suspect the existence of a revolutionary movement. On July 5, 1896, he reported to the Civil Governor of Manila that certain individuals, especially in Mandaluyong and San Juan del Monte, were enlisting men for unknown purposes, making them sign in pledge with their own blood. But his report did not alarm the colonial authorities. Fifty-six days later, on Aug. 30, about 800 Katipuneros assaulted the polverin (Spanish powder magazine) at San Juan del Monte, igniting the Philippine Revolution. (153 Katipuneros and 2 Spanish soldiers died in this first major battle of the revolution).

1898: A company of Filipino soldiers originally in the Spanish service

Sityar later defected to Aguinaldo’s army at San Francisco de Malabon (now General Trias), Cavite on May 28, 1898. He declared, ” I have served the country of my father with blood. Now I will serve the country of my mother with blood”. Colonel Sityar served as aide-de-camp and assistant chief of staff to General Emilio Aguinaldo. In the Malolos Congress which opened on Sept. 15, 1898, he represented the province of Laguna. 

Sityar and his wife accompanied the president of theFirstRepublicin his long and arduous trek to northern Luzon, from Nov. 13, 1899 in Bayambang, Pangasinan, until Dec. 25, 1899 in Talubin, Bontoc, Mountain Province; on that Christmas day, Aguinaldo, wishing to spare the 5 women in his entourage from further hardships (Aguinaldo’s wife and sister, Sityar’s wife and Col. Jose Leyba’s 2 sisters) ordered Sityar and a certain Colonel Paez to accompany the women and surrender to the Americans in Talubin. [Colonel Leyba was Aguinaldo's adjutant and secretary].

Aguinaldo and his party reached Palanan, Isabela on Sept. 6, 1900. Here, Aguinaldo was captured by the Americans on March 23, 1901. 

After the surrender at Talubin, Sityar quit the military life and taught at the Liceo de Manila when it was founded in 1900. Curiously, in the same year, the Queen Regent of Spain made Manuel Sityar Knight of the Military Order of Maria Cristina.

Sityar was one of the founding members of the pro-American Partido Federal when it was organized on Dec. 23, 1900.

He died in 1927.

1898: Staff officers of General Juan Cailles

1899: Filipino army officers

Group showing General Manuel Tinio (seated, center),  General Benito Natividad (seated, 2nd from right), Lt. Col. Jose Alejandrino (seated, 2nd from left) and their aides-de-camp

A page from The Illustrated London News, issue dated March 17, 1899. Clockwise, from top left: Generals Pantaleon Garcia, Gregorio del Pilar, Tomas Mascardo, and Isidoro Torres.

Shoulder bars of Philippine army officers. From: “Buhay na Kasaysayan” by Pedro Javier and Yonito Flores

The Academia Militar‘s  mission was to complete the training of all  officers in the active service. The academy formally opened its classes on Nov. 1, 1898.  The classes were divided into two sections, one for field officers from colonels to majors, and the other from Captains and below. Graduates became regular officers of the army. The course of instruction consisted of current orders and regulations, field and garrison regulations, military justice and penal laws, arithmetic and military accounting, geography and history, field fortifications, and map drawing and reading.

Barasoain Church and Convent. Photo taken on March 31, 1899, shortly after the Americans captured Malolos.

The Academia Militar was housed in the convent of Barasoain together with the Universidad Literia de Pilipinas and Instituto Burgos.

The Academia was deactivated on Jan. 20, 1899 due to highly escalated tensions between the Filipinos and Americans. Fifteen days later, on February 4, war broke out

Battle of Manila Bay

Battle of Manila Bay
Part of the Spanish-American War
USS Olympia with Dewey at Battle of Manila bay DSCN4191 at Vermont State.jpg
Commodore George Dewey aboard the cruiser Olympia.
Date 1 May 1898
Location Near Manila, Philippines
Result Decisive U.S. victory
United States United States Spain Kingdom of Spain
Commanders and leaders
US Naval Jack 45 stars.svg George Dewey Naval Jack of Spain.svg Patricio Montojo y Pasarón
Engaged Forces:[cn 1]
4 protected cruisers
2 gunboats
Unengaged Forces:
1 revenue cutter
2 transports
Engaged Forces:[cn 1]
2 protected cruisers
4 unprotected cruisers
2 gunboats
Unengaged Forces:
1 cruiser
3 gunboats,
1 transport
Shore defenses
6 batteries
3 forts
Casualties and losses
1 dead (due to heatstroke),[5]
9 wounded,
1 protected cruiser damaged
161 dead,
210 wounded,
2 protected cruisers sunk,
5 unprotected cruisers sunk,
1 transport sunk

Pacific Theater: Spanish American War

The Battle of Manila Bay took place on 1 May 1898, during the Spanish-American War. The American Asiatic Squadron under Commodore George Dewey engaged and destroyed the Spanish Pacific Squadron under Admiral Patricio Montojo y Pasarón. The engagement took place in Manila Bay in the Philippines, and was the first major engagement of the Spanish-American War.



Admiral Montojo, who had been dispatched rapidly to the Philippines, was equipped with a variety of obsolete vessels. Efforts to strengthen his position amounted to little. The Spanish bureaucracy knew they could not win a war and saw resistance as little more than a face-saving exercise. Administration actions worked against the effort, sending explosives meant for naval mines to civilian construction companies while the Spanish fleet in Manila was seriously undermanned by inexperienced sailors who had not received any training for over a year.[6] Reinforcements promised from Madrid resulted in only two poorly-armored scout cruisers being sent while at the same time the authorities transferred a squadron from the Manila fleet under Admiral Pascual Cervera to reinforce the Caribbean. Montojo compounded his difficulties by placing his ships outside the range of Spanish coastal artillery (which might have evened the odds) and choosing a relatively shallow anchorage. His intent seems to have been to spare Manila from bombardment and to allow any survivors of his fleet to swim to safety. The harbor was protected by six shore batteries and three forts whose fire during the battle proved to be ineffective. Only Fort San Antonio Abad had guns with enough range to reach the American fleet, but Dewey never came within their range during the battle.[3][6]


USS Olympia entering Manila Bay.

At 7 p.m. on 30 April, Montojo was informed that Dewey’s ships had been seen in Subic Bay that morning. As Manila Bay was considered unnavigable at night by foreigners, Montojo expected an attack the following morning. The American Consul in Manila, however, had provided Dewey with detailed information on the state of the Spanish defenses and the lack of preparedness of the Spanish fleet, prompting him to enter the bay immediately. At midnight Dewey, aboard the protected cruiser USS Olympia, led his squadron into Manila Bay. Passing the entrance, two Spanish mines exploded but were ineffective as they were well below the draft of any of the ships due to the depth of the water. Inside the bay, ships normally used the north channel between Corregidor Island and the northern coast and this was the only channel mined. Dewey instead used the unmined south channel between El Fraile and Caballo Islands. The El Fraile battery fired a few rounds but the range was too great. The McCulloch, Nanshan and Zafiro were now detached from the line and took no further part in the fighting. At 5:15 a.m. on 1 May, the squadron was off Manila and the Cavite battery fired ranging shots. The shore batteries and Spanish fleet then opened fire but all the shells fell short as the fleet was still out of range.[6] At 5:41 with the now famous phrase, “You may fire when ready, Gridley,[1] the Olympia’s captain was instructed to begin the destruction of the Spanish flotilla.[7]

The U.S. squadron swung in front of the Spanish ships and forts in line ahead, firing their port guns. They then turned and passed back, firing their starboard guns. This process was repeated five times, each time closing the range from 5,000 yards to 2,000 yards. The Spanish forces had been alerted, and most were ready for action, but they were heavily outgunned. Eight Spanish ships, the land batteries, and the forts returned fire for two and a half hours although the range was too great for the guns on shore. Five other small Spanish ships were not engaged.

Montojo accepted that his cause was hopeless and ordered his ships to ram the enemy if possible. He then slipped the Cristina’s cables and charged. Much of the American fleet’s fire was then directed at her and she was shot to pieces. Of the crew of 400, more than 200, including Montojo, were casualties and only two men remained who were able to man her guns. The ship managed to return to shore and Montojo ordered it to be scuttled. The Castilla, which only had guns on the port side, had her forward cable shot away causing her to swing about, presenting her weaponless starboard side. The captain then ordered her sunk and abandoned. The Ulloa was hit by a shell at the waterline that killed her captain and disabled half the crew. The Luzon had three guns out of action but was otherwise unharmed. The Duero lost an engine and had only one gun left able to fire.[6]

Contemporary colored print, showing USS Olympia in the left foreground, leading the U.S. Asiatic Squadron in destroying the Spanish fleet off Cavite. A vignette portrait of Rear Admiral George Dewey is featured in the lower left.

At 7:45 a.m., after Captain Gridley messaged Dewey that only 15 rounds of 5″ ammunition remained per gun, he ordered an immediate withdrawal. To preserve morale, he informed the crews that the halt in the battle was to allow the crews to have breakfast.[7] According to an observer on the Olympia, At least three of his (Spanish) ships had broken into flames but so had one of ours. These fires had all been put out without apparent injury to the ships. Generally speaking, nothing of great importance had occurred to show that we had seriously injured any Spanish vessel. Montojo took the opportunity to now move his remaining ships into Bacoor Bay where they were ordered to resist for as long as possible.[6]

A captains’ conference on the Olympia revealed little damage and no men killed. It was discovered that the original ammunition message had been garbled – instead of only 15 rounds of ammunition per gun remaining, the message had meant to say only 15 rounds of ammunition per gun had been expended. During the conference reports arrived that sounds of exploding ammunition had been heard and fires sighted on the Cristina and Castilla. At 10:40 AM action was resumed but the Spanish offered little resistance and Montojo issued orders for the remaining ships to be scuttled and the breechblocks of their guns taken ashore. The Olympia, Baltimore and Boston then fired on the Sangley Point battery putting it out of action and followed up by sinking the Ulloa. The Concord fired on the transport Mindanao, whose crew immediately abandoned ship. The Petrel fired on the government offices next to the arsenal and a white flag was raised over the building after which all firing ceased.[6] The Spanish colors were struck at 12:40 PM.

The results were decisive. Dewey won the battle[7] with seven men very slightly wounded,[8] a total of nine injured, and only a single fatality among his crew: Francis B. Randall, Chief Engineer on the McCulloch, from a heart attack.[9]

Subsequent action

A Spanish attempt to attack Dewey with the naval task force known as Camara’s Flying Relief Column came to naught, and the naval war in the Philippines devolved into a series of torpedo boat hit-and-run attacks for the rest of the campaign. While the Spanish scored several hits there were no American fatalities directly attributable to Spanish gunfire.

On 2 May, Dewey landed a force of Marines at Cavite. They completed the destruction of the Spanish fleet and batteries and established a guard for the protection of the Spanish hospitals. The resistance of the forts was weak. The Olympia turned a few guns on the Cavite arsenal, detonating its magazine, and ending the fire from the Spanish batteries.


In recognition of George Dewey’s leadership during the Battle of Manila Bay a special medal known as the Dewey Medal was presented to the officers and sailors under Admiral Dewey’s command. Dewey was later honored with promotion to the special rank of Admiral of the Navy; a rank that no one has held before or since in the United States Navy. Building on his popularity, Dewey briefly ran for president in 1900, but withdrew and endorsed William McKinley, the incumbent, who won.

Dewey’s flagship, the Olympia, is preserved as a museum ship in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, at the Independence Seaport Museum (formerly the Philadelphia Maritime Museum).

Order of battle

United States

The Battle of Manila Bay, depicted in a lithograph by Butler, Thomas & Company, 1899



  • USS Olympia, flagship, protected cruiser of 5,870 tons. Twin 8-inch guns mounted in turrets fore and aft, ten 5-inch guns and six torpedo tubes. Top speed 20 knots.
  • USS Baltimore, protected cruiser of 4,600 tons. Single 8-inch guns mounted fore and aft, two 8-inch and two 6-inch guns aiming axially and three 6-inch guns aiming on each broadside. Top speed 20 knots.
  • USS Raleigh, protected cruiser of 3,200 tons. One 6-inch and two 5-inch guns aiming forward, four 5-inch guns aiming astern and two 5-inch guns aiming on each broadside. Top speed 19 knots.
  • USS Boston, protected cruiser of 3,200 tons. Single 8-inch guns mounted in barbettes fore and aft with 6-inch axial firing guns mounted beside each. Four additional 6-inch guns. Top speed 13 knots.
  • USS Concord, gunboat of 1,710 tons with six 6-inch guns. Top speed 17 knots.
  • USS Petrel, gunboat of 867 tons with four 6-inch guns. Top speed 12 knots.

Unengaged Vessels:

  • The Revenue Cutter McCulloch, the collier Nanshan and the steamer Zafiro (a supply vessel) were directed to keep out of the main action because of their light armament and lack of armor. The McCulloch’s chief engineer died of a heart attack.[9]


Engaged Vessels:

  • Reina Cristina, flagship, unprotected cruiser of 3,042 tons, with six 6.4-inch guns. The fastest Spanish vessel with a top speed of 16 knots.
  • Castilla, unprotected cruiser of 3,289 tons, with four 5.9-inch and two 4.7-inch guns. The vessel’s 8-inch guns had been removed to equip the shore batteries. The ship was used as a floating battery as the temporary repair of the leaks had immobilized her propeller shaft.
  • Don Antonio de Ulloa, unprotected cruiser of 1,152 tons, with two 4.7-inch guns on the starboard side. Under repair with her engines ashore. Her entire port side armament had been removed to equip the shore batteries.
  • Don Juan de Austria, unprotected cruiser of 1,152 tons, with four 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 13 knots.
  • Isla de Cuba, protected cruiser of 1,030 tons, with six 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 14 knots.
  • Isla de Luzón, protected cruiser of 1,030 tons, with six 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 14 knots.
  • Marques del Duero, gunboat of 492 tons, with one 6.4-inch and two 4.7-inch guns. Top speed 10 knots.

Engaged vessels ranged in size from 5870 tons (Olympia) to 492 tons (Marques del Duero).[2]

Unengaged Vessels:

  • Mindanao, transport ship of 1,900 tons, with 2 secondary rapid fire guns. 77 men.
  • Velasco, unprotected cruiser of 1152 tons. Her boilers were ashore being repaired. All her guns were apparently removed to the Caballo Island Battery. 145 men.
  • El Coreo, gunboat of 560 tons, with three 4.7-inch guns, three secondary rapid fire guns, and 1 torpedo tube. 115 men.
  • General Lezo, gunboat of 520 tons, with two 4.7-inch guns which were apparently removed to El Fraile Island, 2 secondary rapid fire guns, and 1 torpedo tube. 115 men.
  • Argos, gunboat of 508 tons, with one 3.5-inch gun. 87 men.

The Spanish vessels had 19 torpedo tubes between them but no serviceable torpedoes.

Shore Defenses

  • Fort San Antonio Abad: Built 1584. Located in Manila. Various guns with only the 9.4-inch having enough range to reach Dewey’s ships at their closest approach.
  • Fort San Felipe: Built 1609. A small castle built on a sandbar protected by a breakwater and separated from Cavite City by a moat.
  • Cavite Fort: Fortified naval base and shipyard in Cavite City located adjacent to Fort San Felipe.
  • Corregidor battery: Entrance to Manila Bay. Did not fire.
  • Caballo battery: Entrance to Manila Bay. Did not fire.
  • El Fraile battery: Entrance to Manila Bay. Fired three rounds before Raleigh silenced it after hitting the battery with a single shell.
  • Cañacao battery: Located in the town of Cañacao. Armed with a single 4.7-inch gun. Did not fire.
  • Sangley Point battery: Located at the Sangley Point Naval Base. Armed with three 64-lb muzzleloading cannon and two 5.9-inch guns (which were the only ones to fire.)
  • Malate battery: Located in the Manila district of Malate. Did not fire.

The batteries were supplemented with the guns removed from Montojo’s fleet. The Corregidore, Caballo and El Fraile batteries had a combined total of 17 guns.

Dispatches between Dewey and the Secretary of the Navy

Engraving of the Battle of Manila Bay with portraits of the respective commanders, from The history and conquest of the Philippines and our other island possessions; embracing our war with the Filipinos by Alden March, 1899.

Multiple dispatches were exchanged between Dewey and John D. Long, Secretary of the Navy, immediately prior to, and following, the Naval Battle of Manila Bay. One dispatch notified Dewey of his promotion to the acting grade of Rear Admiral:[10]

HONGKONG, May 7, 1898. (Manila, May 1.)
The squadron arrived a Manila at daybreak this morning. Immediately engaged enemy and destroyed the following Spanish vessels: Reina Christina, Castilla, Don Antonio de Biloa, Don Juan de Austria, Isla de Luzon, Isla de Cuba, General Lezo, Marquis del Duaro, El Curreo, Velasco, one transport, Isla de Mandano, water battery at Cavite. I shall destroy Cavite arsenal dispensatory. The squadron is uninjured. Few men were slightly wounded. I request the Department will send immediately from San Francisco fast steamer with ammunition. The only means of telegraphing is to the American consul at Hongkong.

HONGKONG, May 7, 1898. (Cavite, May 4.)
I have taken possession of the naval station at Cavite, Philippine Islands, and destroyed its fortifications. Have destroyed fortifications bay entrance, paroling garrison. Have cut cable to main land. I control bay completely and can take city at any time, but I have not sufficient men to hold. The squadron excellent health and spirits. The Spanish loss not fully known; very heavy; 150 killed, including captain, on Reina Cristina, alone. I am assisting and protecting Spanish sick and wounded, 250 in number, in this hospital, within our lines. Will ammunition be sent? I request answer without delay. I can supply squadron coal and provisions for a long period. Much excitement at Manila. Scarcity of provisions on account of not having economized stores. Will protect foreign residents.

WASHINGTON, May 7, 1898.
DEWEY (care American consul), Hongkong:
The President, in the name of the American people, thanks you and your officers and men for your splendid achievement and overwhelming victory. In recognition he has appointed you acting rear admiral, and will recommend a vote of thanks to you by Congress as a foundation for further promotion. The Charleston will leave at once with what ammunition she can carry. Pacific Mail Steamship Company steamer Pekin will follow with ammunition and supplies. Will take troops unless you telegraph otherwise. How many will you require? LONG.


  • Wreck of the Regina Cristina
  • Wreck of the Castilla
  • Wreck of the Don Antonio de Ulloa
  • Wreck of the Isla de Cuba
  • Wreck of the Isla de Luzon
  • Wreck of the Velasco


In 1898 the US won the Philippines, along with Cuba, Puerto Rico and Guam, in the Spanish-American War. The Philippines resisted America in a further war lasting from 1899 to 1901.

The US granted the Philippines semi-independence in 1935 as the Commonwealth of the Philippines (President Manuel Quezon). The Japanese were in occupation from 1941 to ’44, when General MacArthur landed with the Sixth United States Army. The independent Republic of the Philippines was established in 1946 (President Manuel Roxas).

In 2007 a new translation of Noli me tangere by Harold Augenbraum (480 pages) was released by Penguin Classics. Neither it nor its successor is, strictly speaking, historical. They were set in Rizal’s own time. They angered both the Spaniards and hispanicised Filipinos. They are critical of Spanish friars (Franciscan, Dominican, Augustinian) and of atrocities committed in the name of the Church. Noli me tangere was published in Berlin in 1887, El filibusterismo in Ghent in 1891, with borrowed funds.

The former begins, in the new translation:

“Toward the end of October, Don Santiago de los Santos, who was generally known as Captain Tiago, gave a dinner party that, despite its having been announced only that afternoon, which was not his usual practice, was the topic of every conversation in Binondo and neighboring areas, and even as far as Intramuros [the walled inner city of Manila]. In those days Captain Tiago was considered the most liberal of men, and it was known that the doors of his house, like those of his country, were closed to no one but tradesmen or perhaps a new or daring idea.

“The news surged like a jolt of electricity among the parasites, spongers, and freeloaders that God, in his infinite goodness, has so lovingly multiplied in Manila. Some went looking for bootblack, and others in search of collar-buttons and cravats, but everyone, of course, spent time deciding on the best way to greet the master of the house with just the right amount of familiarity to make him believe in a past friendship, or, if necessary, how exactly to make excuses for not having come by sooner.

“The dinner was to be given on a house in Analoague Street, and since we no longer remember its number, we will describe it in such a way that it can still be recognised, if earthquakes haven’t destroyed it. We don’t believe the owner would have torn it down, because usually this sort of work is reserved for God or nature, which has, it appears, many projects of this type under contract with our government. It is quite a large structure, of a style similar to many others in the country, located near a section that overlooks a branch of the Pasig often called the Binondo Creek, which plays, like many rivers in Manila, the multiple roles of bathhouse, sewer, laundry, fishing hole, thoroughfare, and even drinking water, if that served the interests of the Chinese water-seller. It is important to note that this vital district artery, where traffic is so bustling and bewildering, for a length of over a kilometer, is served by just one wooden bridge, which for half the year is under repair on one end and for the remainder is closed to traffic on the other, so that in the hot months horses take advantage of this permanent status quo to jump from it into the water, to the great surprise of the daydreaming individual as he dozes … or philosophizes on the century’s progress. [...]”

The French term filibuster was used in the late eighteenth century to describe pirates who pillaged Spanish colonies in the West Indies. Then, in the middle of the next century, it was used to describe US citizens who fomented insurrections in Latin America. Another, extant, use was in relation to the obstruction of legislation in the US Congress. Did that appear before or after the Latin American use? Presumably Rizal’s filibusterismo refers to the latter use, transposed to the Philippines.

Joaquin (1917-2004) was a Philippine historian and journalist. His novels, with their “baroque Spanish-flavored English [and] his reinventions of English based on Filipinisms” are mainly about Manila. The Woman Who Had Two Navels (1961) is set in the American period, leading up to independence, with part taking place in Hong Kong

The Manila Pictures in 1900-1920 compare with the present day

old pictures around the country mostly with wonderful photographs of Manila then and now. I was amazed by the majestic beauty and simplicity of our country. Looking at the old photos made me realize how resplendent and classic the buildings and architectures were during that time. Too bad that many of those structures were totally or partially damaged mostly during World War II when the Philippines was attacked by the Empire of Japan as part of its ambition to expand its empire in Asia.

Luneta c1890

Fortunately, some structures are still standing today and some places are almost left untouched. So let’s take a journey back in time as we look at the wonderful photographs of Manila then and now.


Calle Misericordia (now Tomas Mapua Street)

Misericordia was taken from the Confraternidad de la Santa Misericordia (Fraternity of Holy Piety) that was founded for charitable purposes in 1594 by Governor Luis Peres Dasmariñas.

Tomas Mapua Street in district of Sta. Cruz is formerly known as Calle Misericordia. Tomas Mapua is the founder and first president of the Mapua Institute of Technology (MIT) and first registered architect in the Philippines after graduating BS Architecture from Cornell University.


Calle Misericordia (now Tomas Mapua Street)

Present Day

Calle Misericordia (now Tomas Mapua Street)

Luneta Hotel

Luneta Hotel is a defunct hotel located in T.M. Kalaw Street and Roxas Boulevard in Manila. The hotel is in the Art deco style of architecture that was very popular during the early American period. The hotel is owned by the Litonjua family, and still stands to this day but has ceased operations as a hotel. It is now converted as a storage building. The old edifice is being considered for demolition.


Luneta Hotel 1900

Present Day

Luneta Hotel 2005

Calle Real del Palacio (now General Luna Street)

General Luna (also known by its old name, Calle Real del Palacio) is the closest thing Intramuros has to a main street and gives visitors easy access to most of the major attractions, including San Agustín Church and Manila Cathedral. Follow this street all the way to its northwestern tip and you’ll find yourself in front of Fort Santiago; go the other way and you’ll eventually end up in Rizal Park, which is just over the border in the nearby Ermita district.


Calle Real del Palacio (now General Luna) c1913

Present Day

Calle Real del Palacio (now General Luna)

Binondo Church (Minor Basilica of St. Lorenzo Ruiz)

Binondo Church, also known as Minor Basilica of St. Lorenzo Ruiz , is located in the District of Binondo, Manila, in the Philippines. This church was founded by Dominican priests in 1596 to serve their Chinese converts to Christianity. The original building was destroyed in 1762 by British bombardment. A new granite church was completed on the same site in 1852 however it was greatly damaged during the Second World War, with only the western facade and the octagonal bell tower surviving.

San Lorenzo Ruiz, who was born of a Chinese father and a Filipino mother, trained in this church and afterwards went as a missionary to Japan and was executed there for refusing to renounce his religion. San Lorenzo Ruiz was to be the Philippines’ first saint and he was canonized in 1989. A large statue of the martyr stands in front of the church.

Masses are held in Filipino, in Chinese dialects (Mandarin, Hokkien), and in English.



Present Day

binondo church

Calle Rosario, Binondo (now Quintin Paredes Street)

Quintin Parades in Binondo is the old Calle Rosario after the district’s patroness the Nuestra Señora del Rosario. The street was renamed after the Filipino statesman and lawyer Quintin Paredes. He represented Abra in Congress and became Speaker of the House.


A typical Manila street scene Calle Rosario, Binondo

Present Day




Present Day

calle-rosario-binondo-before-and-today 1

Sta. Cruz Church

The first Santa Cruz Church was erected in 1608 by the Society of Jesus, better known as Jesuits, as a parish church for the swelling ranks of Chinese immigrants to Manila, many of whom had converted to the Catholic faith. The original structure was twice damaged by earthquakes, and totally destroyed in World War II. The present building, completed in 1957, is essentially Baroque and somewhat reminiscent of the Spanish-built mission churches in southern California. Shortly before the expulsion of the Jesuit in the Philippines, a replica of the venerated image of the Nuestra Señora del Pillar was brought over to Sta. Cruz Church from Zaragoza, Spain. In the middle of the 19th century, the Our Lady of the Pillars was declared patroness of Sta. Cruz district, replacing San Entanislao Kostka. For next centuries up the present, she was the object of veneration among devotees of the Blessed Virgin.


Santa Cruz Church, Manila

Present Day

Santa Cruz Church, Manila

Malacañan Palace

The Malacañan Palace, commonly known simply as Malacañang, is the official residence and principal workplace of the President of the Philippines. Located at 1000 J. P. Laurel Street, San Miguel, Manila, the house was built in 1750 in Spanish Colonial style. It has been the residence of every Philippine head since Rafael de Echague y Berminghan. During the American period, Governors-General Francis Burton Harrison and Dwight F. Davis built an executive building, the Kalayaan Hall, which was later transformed into a museum.

Originally a summer house by Spanish aristocrat Don Luis Rocha, the house was sold to Colonel Jose Miguel Formente, and was later purchased by the state in 1825. Since 1825, Malacañan Palace became the temporary residence of every Governor-General. During the Spanish–American War, Malacañan Palace became the residence of the American Civil Governors, with William Howard Taft being the first American Governor resident. During the American period, many administrative buildings were constructed and Malacañan Palace was refurbished. Emilio Aguinaldo, the first Philippine President, was the only head of the state who did not reside in Malacañan Palace, instead residing in his own home, the Aguinaldo Shrine, located in Kawit, Cavite.


Malacañan Palace

Present Day

Malacañan Palace

Dewey Boulevard (now Roxas Boulevard)

Roxas Boulevard (formerly known as Dewey Boulevard) is a boulevard in Metro Manila, and an eight-lane arterial road that connects the center of Manila with Pasay City, Parañaque City. It is one of the major arteries in the city’s metropolitan network, designated as Radial Road 1. Formerly named in honor of the American Admiral George Dewey who defeated the Spanish navy in the Battle of Manila Bay in 1898, the boulevard was renamed to Roxas Boulevard in the 1960’s to honor President Manuel Roxas, the fifth President of the Republic of Philippines. Roxas Boulevard runs along the shores Manila Bay and is well-known for its sunsets.


Roxas Boulevard


Roxas Boulevard

Quiapo Church (Minor Basilica of the Black Nazarene)

Quiapo Church is a Roman Catholic church located in the District of Quiapo, Manila. The church is one of the most popular churches in the country. It is home to the Black Nazarene, a much venerated statue of Jesus Christ which many people believe has miraculous attributes. The church was painted cream after the original Mexican Baroque edifice was burned down in 1928. It is expanded to its current form in 1984 for accommodation of thousands of devotees. Also known as St. John the Baptist Parish, the church at present belongs to the Archdiocese of Manila.


Quiapo Church


Quiapo Church

These are the wonderful photographs of Manila then and now. I will try to come up with another set in the near future.


The Phillipines  tribes

Tobacco Smoking Family – 1911
Kalinga Man – 1911
Kalinga Woman – 1911
Mock Wedding of A Spaniard and a Local (Negritos)
Tattooed Bontoc Warrior
Bagobo Woman (Mindanao Rgeion) – 1914
Tinguian Woman
Tinguian Women
A Benguet Brave
Weaving Cloth Machine In Bontoc Province
Ethnic Bamboo Band
Head Hunters
Ifugao Head Hunter – 1911
Native Ifugao Tribe Dance
Igorot Tribes Men
Igorot Deer and Dog Hunters
Igorot Native Rain Coats
Moro Soldiers 1909
Negrito Cheif with His Family 1909
Tattooed Kalinga Man 1911

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Korea Historic collections:”The Goryeo Dynasty”918-1392

The Goryeo Dynasty  Historic Collections 918-1392


Taejo of Goryeo Background. Taejo Wang Geon


Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CRD-ROM




The Goryeo Dynasty 918-1392

the nearly 500 year-old Goryeo Dynasty established by Wang Geon in 918

Wang Geon (877-943), the founder of Goryeo dynasty


which had accomplished an incomplete unification of the Three Kingdoms of Korea in 668, weakened and lost control over local lords during the end of the 9th century. The country entered a period of civil war and rebellion, led by Gung Ye, Gi Hwon, Yang Gil, and Gyeon Hwon.

Gung Ye established Hugoguryeo (meaning “Later Goguryeo“, renamed Taebong and Majin). Gyeon Hwon established Hubaekje (meaning “Later Baekje“). Together with the declining Silla, they are known as the Later Three Kingdoms.


Wang Geon, a descendant of a merchant family of Songdo (present-day Kaesŏng), joined Taebong but overthrew Gung Ye and established the Goryeo Kingdom and Dynasty in 918. [2]


Goryeo cannon

  A literal hand-cannon (Goryeo)



Amitabha and Eight Great Bodhisattvas, Goryeo scroll from the 1300s

Buddhism in medieval Korea evolved in ways which rallied support for the state.[13]

Initially, the new Seon schools were regarded by the established doctrinal schools as radical and dangerous upstarts. Thus, the early founders of the various “nine mountain” monasteries met with considerable resistance, repressed by the long influence in court of the Gyo schools. The struggles which ensued continued for most of the Goryeo period, but gradually the Seon argument for the possession of the true transmission of enlightenment would gain the upper hand. The position that was generally adopted in the later Seon schools, due in large part to the efforts of Jinul, did not claim clear superiority of Seon meditational methods, but rather declared the intrinsic unity and similarities of the Seon and Gyo viewpoints. Although all these schools are mentioned in historical records, toward the end of the dynasty, Seon became dominant in its effect on the government and society, and the production of noteworthy scholars and adepts. During the Goryeo period, Seon thoroughly became a “religion of the state,” receiving extensive support and privileges through connections with the ruling family and powerful members of the court.

Although most of the scholastic schools waned in activity and influence during this period of the growth of Seon, the Hwaeom school continued to be a lively source of scholarship well into the Goryeo, much of it continuing the legacy of Uisang and Wonhyo. In particular the work of Gyunyeo (均如; 923-973) prepared for the reconciliation of Hwaeom and Seon, with Hwaeom’s accommodating attitude toward the latter. Gyunyeo’s works are an important source for modern scholarship in identifying the distinctive nature of Korean Hwaeom.

Another important advocate of Seon/Gyo unity was Uicheon. Like most other early Goryeo monks, he began his studies in Buddhism with the Hwaeom school. He later traveled to China, and upon his return, actively promulgated the Cheontae (天台宗, or Tiantai in Chinese) teachings, which became recognized as another Seon school. This period thus came to be described as “five doctrinal and two meditational schools” (ogyo yangjong). Uicheon himself, however, alienated too many Seon adherents, and he died at a relatively young age without seeing a Seon-Gyo unity accomplished.


Hwaeomgyeong Byeonsangdo, Goryeo painting.

Jinul sought to establish a new movement within Korean Seon, which he called the samādhi and prajñā society”, whose goal was to establish a new community of disciplined, pure-minded practitioners deep in the mountains. He eventually accomplished this mission with the founding of the Seonggwangsa monastery at Mt. Jogye (曹溪山). Jinul’s works are characterized by a thorough analysis and reformulation of the methodologies of Seon study and practice. One major issue that had long fermented in Chinese Seon, and which received special focus from Jinul, was the relationship between “gradual” and “sudden” methods in practice and enlightenment. Drawing upon various Chinese treatments of this topic, most importantly those by Zongmi (780-841) and Dahui (大慧; 1089–1163), Jinul created a “sudden enlightenment followed by gradual practice” dictum, which he outlined in a few relatively concise and accessible texts. From Dahui, Jinul also incorporated the gwanhwa (觀話) method into his practice. This form of meditation is the main method taught in Korean Seon today. Jinul’s philosophical resolution of the Seon-Gyo conflict brought a deep and lasting effect on Korean Buddhism.

The general trend of Buddhism in the latter half of the Goryeo was a decline due to corruption, and the rise of strong anti-Buddhist political and philosophical sentiment. However, this period of relative decadence would nevertheless produce some of Korea’s most renowned Seon masters. Three important monks of this period who figured prominently in charting the future course of Korean Seon were contemporaries and friends: Gyeonghan Baeg’un (景閑白雲; 1298–1374), Taego Bou (太古普愚; 1301–1382) and Naong Hyegeun (懶翁慧勤; 1320–1376). All three went to Yuan China to learn the Linji (臨濟 or Imje in Korean) gwanhwa teaching that had been popularized by Jinul. All three returned, and established the sharp, confrontational methods of the Imje school in their own teaching. Each of the three was also said to have had hundreds of disciples, such that this new infusion into Korean Seon brought about considerable effect. Despite the Imje influence, which was generally considered to be anti-scholarly in nature, Gyeonghan and Naong, under the influence of Jinul and the traditional tong bulgyo tendency, showed an unusual interest in scriptural study, as well as a strong understanding of Confucianism and Taoism, due to the increasing influence of Chinese philosophy as the foundation of official education. From this time, a marked tendency for Korean Buddhist monks to be “three teachings” exponents appeared.


Goryeo adopted a Silla-friendly Hubaekje-hostile stage in the later Three Kingdoms, but in 927, Goryeo was defeated by Hubaekje in present-day Daegu. Wang Geon lost his best supporters in the battle.


For 3 years after the battle, Hubaekje dominated the Later Three Kingdoms but after a defeat at the Andong in 930, Hubaekje lost power.


The Later Three Kingdoms era ended as Goryeo annexed Silla in 935 and defeated Hubaekje in 936. Wang Geon moved the capital to his hometown Kaesǒng, and ruled the Korean peninsula as the first Emperor of Goryeo. Wang Geon married a daughter of the Silla royal family and let most nobles keep their lands. Even though Wang Geon ruled the united nation for only 7 years before his son took the reign after his death, the succession was not challenged.[2]


Foreign relations

During the 10th century, the Khitans tried to establish relations with Goryeo at least on two occasions.

In 942,

 the Khitan ruler Taizu sent an embassy with a gift of 50 camels to Goryeo, but Taejo refused them, banishing the envoys and starving the camels to death.

Goryeo had maintained relations with most of the Five Dynasties and southern kingdoms in China.


 - Choi Chul Ho as Gyeong Jong / Wang Yu (The 5th King)

The fifth emperor, Gyeongjong, launched land-ownership reformation called Jeonsigwa (hangul: 전시과, hanja: 田柴科) and the 6th emperor, Seongjong of Goryeo appointed officials to local areas, which were previously succeeded by the lords.

drama of the 5th king Gyeongjong

Chae Si Ra as Empress Chun Chu

o Kim So Eun as young Hwang Bo Soo / Chun Chu

* Kim Suk Hoon as Kim Chi Yang

* Choi Jae Sung as Kang Jo

* Lee Duk Hwa as General Kang Kam Chan

Extended Cast

* Kim Ho Jin as Wang Wook / Prince Gyeong Joo

* Shin Ae as Hwang Bo Seol / Princess Hun Jung (the empress’s younger sister)

* Park Eun Bin as young Hwang Bo Seol

* Ban Hyo Jung as Queen mother, Shin Jung Hwang (Taejo Wang Geon’s 4th wife)

* Kim Myung Soo as Seong Jong / Wang Chi (The 6th King and the empress’s older brother)

* Choi Woo Hyuk as Wang Chi / young Seong Jong

* Choi Chul Ho as Gyeong Jong / Wang Yu (The 5th King)

* Moon Jung Hee as Empress Moon Hwa / Lady Kim (Seong Jong’s 2nd wife) 
* Oh Wook Chul (오욱철) as Jo Haeng Soo 

Gallery Picture Number 3706



In order to strengthen the power of the central government, Gwangjong, the fourth emperor, made a series of laws including that of freeing slaves in 958, and one creating the exam for hiring civil officials. To assert power internationally, Gwangjong also proclaimed Goryeo an empire, independent from any other country of its day

 By 962,

formal relations were established with the Song dynasty. Relations with Song were close, with many embassies being exchanged between Goryeo and Song, but relations would be interrupted by the rise of the Liao and Jin dynasties.

After about 30 years of peace, the Khitans invaded Goryeo. It failed and after two other failed attempts, a state of peace was established in the Far East. For around 100 years, the Far East was relatively peaceful and Munjong strengthened the Liao-Song-Goryeo line.

 Political structure

The terminology used in the court of Goryeo was that of an empire, not of a kingdom. The capital, Gaegyeong (hangul: 개경,hanja: 開京,) was called “Imperial Capital” (hangul: 황도, hanja: 皇都) and the palace was referred to as “Imperial Palace” (hangul: 황성, hanja: 皇城). The nation also utilized a system of multiple capitals: Gaegyeong (modern-day Gaeseong), being the main capital, and Seogyeong (hangul: 서경, hanja: 西京) (modern-day Pyongyang), Namgyeong (hangul: 남경, hanja: 南京) (modern-day Seoul), and Donggyeong (hangul: 동경, hanja: 東京) (modern-day Gyeongju) as secondary capitals. The mere use of this system and the nomenclature or use of the character “京“ implied that Goryeo functioned internally as an empire.

Other terms, such as “Your Imperial Majesty” (hangul: 성상, hanja: 聖上), “Empress” (hangul: 황후, hanja: 皇后) “Imperial Crown Prince” (hangul: 태자, hanja: 太子), “Empress Dowager” (hangul: 태후, hanja: 太后), and “Imperial Ordinance” (詔 or 勅) also suggest that Goryeo adopted the title system of an empire. However, Goryeo, when enshrining its rulers, did not use the title of “Emperor” (hangul: 황제, hanja: 皇帝). Instead, the title of “Great King” (hangul: 대왕, hanja: 大王) was used to posthumously enshrine Goryeo monarchs. When enshrining its rulers, however, it did use “temple names” such as Taejo (hangul: 태조, hanja: 太祖); this is a practice mere kingdoms did not take part in. Imperial titles, like Emperor or “Haedong Emperor” (hangul: 해동천자, hanja: 海東天子, lit. the Son of Heaven Ruling the Land East of the Sea)” were also used.

After the Mongol invasions, all of these terms were prohibited by Mongol rulers, and Goryeo monarchs were forced to insert the character “忠” (hangul: 충, romanization: “chung”), meaning loyal, into their posthumous enshrinement names. This is why the monarchs after Wonjong had this character “忠” in their posthumous names, up until Gongmin. As Mongol power diminished, rulers no longer used “忠,” but still were unable to restore the use of the temple name.


Between 993 and 1019, the Goryeo-Khitan Wars ravaged the northern border.

By the time of eleventh emperor, Munjong of Goryeo, the central government of Goryeo gained complete authority and power over local lords. Munjong and later emperors emphasized the importance of civilian leadership over the military.


Khitan invasions and Jurchen expedition

In 993, the Khitan invaded Goryeo’s northwest border with an estimated 60,000 troops. However, after Seo Hui‘s negotiation with Khitan, they withdrew and ceded territory to the east of the Amnok River when Goryeo agreed to end its alliance with Song Dynasty China. However, Goryeo continued to communicate with the Song, having strengthened its position by building a fortress in the newly gained northern territories.


  Korean Koryo Kahl Geom Sword ca 1000 – 1200

Meanwhile, In 1009,

 General Gang Jo of Goryeo led a coup against Emperor Mokjong, killing the monarch and establishing military rule.

In 1010,

 - Goryeo – Khitan War

The Khitan attacked again with 400,000 troops during an internal Goryeo power struggle. Gang Jo blocked the Liao invasions until his own death. The Goryeo Emperor Hyeonjong was forced to flee the capital to Naju temporarily. Unable to establish a foothold and fearing a counterattack, the Khitan forces withdrew.

In 1018,

 the Khitan army invaded for the third time with 100,000 troops. In Heunghaejin stream, General Gang Gam-chan ordered the stream to be blocked until the Khitans began to cross it, and when the Khitans were mid-way across, he ordered that the dam be destroyed so that the water would drown much of the Khitan army. The damage was great, and General Gang led a massive attack that annihilated many of the Khitan army. Barely a few thousand of the Liao troops survived after the bitter defeat at Kwiju one year later.

Meanwhile, the Jurchen tribes lived to the north of Goryeo. The Jurchens always rendered tribute to the Goryeo monarchs, but the Jurchen tribes grew strong, and were soon united under Wanyan. They began to violate the Goryeo-Jurchen borders, and eventually invaded Goryeo. In 1087, the first version of the Tripitaka Koreana was completed, after many years of labor.


 Doğum Tarihi: 1079-1122


 Water dropper in the shape of a turtle 1100-1200 CE Korea Goryeo


 Ewer 1100-1200 CE Korea Goryeo dynasty Stoneware with celadon

In 1102,

 the Jurchen threatened and another crisis emerged. But after Jin agreed to a tributary relationship with Goryeo, peace was maintained and Jin never actually did invade Goryeo.

Tension continued through the 12th century and into the 13th century, when the Mongol invasions started. After a series of battles, Goryeo capitulated to the Mongols, with the direct dynastic rule of Goryeo monarchy

In 1107,

General Yun Gwan led the newly formed Goryeo army, a force of approximately 17,000 men called Byeolmuban, and attacked the Jurchens. Though the war lasted for several years, the Jurchen were ultimately defeated, and surrendered to Yun Gwan. To mark the victory, General Yun built nine fortresses to the northeast of the Goryeo-Jurchen borders (Hangul:동북 9성, Hanja:東北九城). In 1108, however, General Yun was given orders to withdraw his troops by Goryeo’s new ruler, Emperor Yejong. Due to manipulation and court-intrigue from opposing factions, he was discharged from his post. Along with this, the opposing factions fought to make sure that the new nine fortresses were returned to the Jurchens.

Power struggles

Monarchs of Korea
  1. Taejo 918–943
  2. Hyejong 943–945
  3. Jeongjong 945–949
  4. Gwangjong 949–975
  5. Gyeongjong 975–981
  6. Seongjong 981–997
  7. Mokjong 997–1009
  8. Hyeonjong 1009–1031
  9. Deokjong 1031–1034
  10. Jeongjong 1034–1046
  11. Munjong 1046–1083
  12. Sunjong 1083
  13. Seonjong 1083–1094
  14. Heonjong 1094–1095
  15. Sukjong 1095–1105
  16. Yejong 1105–1122
  17. Injong 1122–1146
  18. Uijong 1146–1170
  19. Myeongjong 1170–1197
  20. Sinjong 1197–1204
  21. Huijong 1204–1211
  22. Gangjong 1211–1213
  23. Gojong 1213–1259
  24. Wonjong 1259–1274
  25. Chungnyeol 1274–1308
  26. Chungseon 1308–1313
  27. Chungsuk 1313–1330
  28. Chunghye 1330–1332
  29. Chungmok 1344–1348
  30. Chungjeong 1348–1351
  31. Gongmin 1351–1374
  32. U 1374–1388
  33. Chang 1388–1389
  34. Gongyang 1389–1392

The House Yi of Inju (인주 이씨, 仁州李氏) married the emperors from Munjong to the 17th emperor, Injong. Eventually the Yis gained more power than the monarch himself. This led to the coup of Yi Ja-gyeom in 1126. The coup failed but the power of the monarch was weakened; Goryeo underwent a civil war among the nobility.

In 1135,

Myo Cheong argued in favor of moving the capital to Seogyeong (present day P’yŏngyang). This proposal divided the nobles of Goryeo in half. One faction, led by Myo Cheong, believed in moving the capital to Pyongyang and expanding into Manchuria. The other one, led by Kim Bu-sik (author of the Samguk Sagi), wanted to keep the status quo. Myo Cheong failed to persuade the emperor and rebelled against the central government and made a country named Daebang, but failed and was killed.


  Korea – wine ewer – 1150-1200 AD


The most important figure of Seon in the Goryeo was Jinul (知訥; 1158–1210). In his time, the sangha was in a crisis of external appearance and internal issues of doctrine. Buddhism had gradually become infected by secular tendencies and involvements, such as fortune-telling and the offering of prayers and rituals for success in secular endeavors. This kind of corruption resulted in the profusion of increasingly larger numbers of monks and nuns with questionable motivations. Therefore, the correction, revival, and improvement of the quality of Buddhism were prominent issues for Buddhist leaders of the period

In 1170,

 a group of army officers led by Jeong Jung-bu, Yi Ui-bang and Yi Go launched a coup d’état and succeeded. Emperor Uijong went into exile and Emperor Myeongjong was placed on the throne. Effective power, however, lay with a succession of generals who used an elite guard unit known as the Tobang to control the throne: military rule of Goryeo had begun.

 In 1179,

the young general Gyeong Dae-seung rose to power and began an attempt to restore the full power of the monarch and purge the corruption of the state.


However, he died in 1183 and was succeeded by Yi Ui-min, who came from a nobi (slave) background.[3] His unrestrained corruption and cruelty[3] led to a coup by general Choe Chungheon, who assassinated Yi Ui-min and took supreme power in 1197. For the next 61 years, the Choe house ruled as military dictators, maintaining the emperors as puppet monarchs; Choe Chungheon was succeeded in turn by his son Choe U, his grandson Choe Hang and his great-grandson Choe Ui. On taking power, Choe Chungheon forced Myeongjong off the throne and replaced him with Emperor Sinjong, but after Sinjong died he forced two further monarchs off the throne until he found the pliable Emperor Gojong.


A significant historical event of the Goryeo period is the production of the first woodblock edition of the Tripitaka, called the Tripitaka Koreana.


Two editions were made, the first one completed from 1210 to 1231, and the second one from 1214 to 1259.


 The Tripataka  first edition was destroyed in a fire, during an attack by Mongol invaders in 1232, but the second edition is still in existence at Haeinsa in Gyeongsang province. This edition of the Tripitaka was of high quality, and served as the standard version of the Tripitaka in East Asia for almost 700 years.


 Mongol invasion

A. Korea from the Mongols to the Yi, 1231-1500

 Mongol conquest–Korea was the answer to the Mongol search for coastal areas from which to launch naval expeditions and choke off the sea trade of their adversaries. After twenty years of defensive war, Korea was left with a ravaged countryside and a depleted treasury, as well as other losses. The Korean military commander (analagous to the Japanese shogun) was killed by his underlings in 1258, and soon afterward the Koryo king surrendered to the Mongols.

2. Breakdown of Isolation–Mongol control broke down centuries of comparative isolation. Cotton was introduced in southern Korea, gunpowder came into use, and the art of calendar-making stimulated astronomical obersvation and mathematics. Avenuues of advancement opened for Korean scholars willing to learn Mongolian, landowners willing to open their lands to falconry and grazing, and merchants servicing the new royal exchanges with Beijing.


Relocated Goryeo pagoda

In 1231, Mongols under Ögedei Khan invaded Goryeo, following the aftermath of joint Goryeo-Mongol forces against the Khitans in 1219.[4] The royal court moved to Ganghwa Island in the Bay of Gyeonggi, in 1232. The military ruler of the time, Choe U (최우), insisted on fighting back.


 The Tripataka  first edition was destroyed in a fire, during an attack by Mongol invaders in 1232


Tripitaka Koreana

Tripitaka Koreana (팔만대장경) is a Tripitaka with approximately 80,000 Buddhist scripts. The scripts are stored in Haeinsa, South Gyeongsang province. Made in 1251 by Gojong in an attempt to fight away the Mongol invasions by Buddhism. The scripts are kept clean by leaving them to dry outside every year


Goryeo resisted for about 30 years but finally sued for peace in 1259.

Meanwhile, the Mongols began a campaign from 1231 to 1259 that ravaged parts of Gyeongsang and Jeolla provinces. There were six major campaigns: 1231, 1232, 1235, 1238, 1247, 1253; between 1253 and 1258, the Mongols under Möngke Khan‘s general Jalairtai Qorchi launched four devastating invasions in the final successful campaign against Korea, at tremendous cost to civilian lives throughout the Korean peninsula.

Civilian resistance was strong, and the Imperial Court at Ganghwa attempted to strengthen its fortress. Korea won several victories but the Korean military could not withstand the waves of invasions. The repeated Mongol invasions caused havoc, loss of human lives and famine in Korea. In 1236, Gojong ordered the re-creation of the Tripitaka Koreana, destroyed during the 1232 invasion. This collection of Buddhist scriptures took 15 years to carve on some 81,000 wooden blocks, and is preserved to this day. In March 1258, the dictator Choe Ui was assassinated by Kim Jun. Thus, dictatorship by his military group was ended, and the scholars who had insisted on peace with Mongolia gained power. Eventually, the scholars sent an envoy to the Mongols, and a peace treaty was contracted between the Mongol Empire and Goryeo. Some military officials who refused to surrender formed the Sambyeolcho Rebellion and resisted in the islands off the southern shore of the Korean peninsula.[5]

The treaty permitted the sovereign power and traditional cultures of Goryeo, and implied that the Mongols had no plans of controlling Goryeo.[6] The Mongols annexed the northern areas of Korean peninsula after the invasions and incorporated them into their empire. After the peace treaty with Goryeo, the Mongols planned to conquer Japan by allying with Goryeo troops again;

in 1274 and 1281

 the Japan Campaign took place; however, it failed due to a heavy storm (called the Kamikaze) and strong military resistance.

The Goryeo became quda (marriage alliance) subordinate state of the Mongol imperial family and monarchs of Goryeo were mainly imperial sons in-law (khuregen). The Kings of Goryeo held an important status like other important families of Mardin, Uighurs and Mongols (Oirat, Hongirat, and Ikeres).[7] It is claimed that one of Goryeo monarchs was the most beloved grandson of Kublai Khan.[8] On the other hand, the Mongols were actively involved in the Goryeon court. They were able to exile Korean emperor and Mongol troops stationed in the capital following the Mongolian queens of Goryeo. Many of Goryeo monarchs had Mongolian mother during this period.


The Goryeo Dynasty survived under Mongol influences until King Gongmin began to push Mongol garrisons back around 1350. By the 1350s Goryeo regained its lost northern territories.

Most beneficial aspects of the Mongol domination of Eurasia was cultural exchange and flourishing international trade between east and west.[9] The Mongols certainly learned Korean ideas and technology and those benefits of the growing world empire also influenced the knowledge of cartogrpahy and production of pottery in Goryeo.[9][10] Due to high military preparedness of the Goryeo and Mongol allies in Korea, particularly during the Sambyolch’o rebellion in Cheju and southernmost Korea and Mongol invasions of Japan, and the awareness of Kamakura in Japan led to the decline in Wako (Japanese pirates) raids into Korean peninsula.[11] No more raids of Japanese again heard until 1350 when the Mongols were suffering from massive rebellions in China.[12]




 Yi Dynasty–when the Yuan Dynasty in China fell in 1368, the Koryo ruling family remained loyal to the Mongols, and had to be forced to recognize the new Ming Empire. In 1392 the Yi established a new kingdom in Seoul and sought to re-establish a distinctive Korean identity. Like Russia and Ming China, the Yi regime publicly rejected the period of Mongol domination, yet still employed Mongol-style land surveys, taxation in kind, and military garrison techniques.

 Korean Printing–Like the Ming emperors, the Yi kings revived the study of the Confucian classics, and this may have spurred a technological breakthrough in printing. Working directly with the king, Yi printers developed a reliable device to anchor the pieces of type securely to the printing plate. This enhanced the legibililty and accuracy of the printing, and made the production of a high volume of printed material possible. This allowed Korean printers to not only produce Confucian texts, but also manuals for producing and using fertilizer, transplanting rice seedlings, and engineering resevoirs.


  in 1376 by a Buddhist teacher known as Naong during the Goryeo


 Last reform

Yeom Jesin (1304–1382) was the main political opponent of the monk, Shin Don, who was in power.

When King Gongmin ascended to the throne Goryeo was under the influence of the Mongol Yuan Dynasty. He was forced to spend many years in the Yuan court, being sent there in 1341 as a virtual prisoner before becoming king. He married the Mongol princess Queen Noguk. But in the mid-14th century Yuan was beginning to crumble, soon to be replaced by the Ming dynasty in 1368. King Gongmin began efforts to reform the Goryeo government and remove Mongolian influences.

His first act was to remove all pro-Mongol aristocrats and military officers from their positions. Mongols had annexed the northern provinces of Goryeo after the invasions and incorporated them into their empire as the Ssangseong (쌍성총관부, 雙城摠管府) and Dongnyeong Prefectures (동녕부, 東寧府). The Goryeo army retook these provinces partly thanks to defection from Yi Ja-chun, a minor Korean official in service of Mongols in Ssangseong, and his son Yi Seonggye. In addition, Generals Yi Seonggye and Ji Yongsu led a campaign into Liaoyang.

But after the death of Gongmin’s wife Queen Noguk in 1365, he fell into depression. In the end, he became indifferent to politics and entrusted that great task to the buddhist monk Shin Don (신돈, 辛旽). But after six years, Shin Don lost his position. In the end, Gongmin was killed by his favorite young men, shattering his dream and putting Goryeo on the road to collapse.



Goryeo in 1374

In 1388, King U (son of King Gongmin and a concubine) and general Choe Yeong planned a campaign to invade present-day Liaoning of China. King U put the general Yi Seong-gye (later Taejo) in charge, but he stopped at the border and rebelled.


Goryeo fell to General Yi Seong-gye, a son of a Yi Ja-chun, who put to death the last three Goryeo Kings, usurped the throne and established in 1392 the Joseon Dynasty.




In the Goryeo dynasty, trade was frequent. In the start of the dynasty, Byeokrando was the main port. Byeokrando was a port close to the Goryeo capital. Trade included:

# Trading country Import Export  
1 Song dynasty Silk, pearls, tea, spices, medicine, books, instruments Gold and silver, ginseng, marble, paper, ink
2 Liao dynasty Horses, sheep, low-quality silk Minerals, cotton, marble, ink and paper, ginseng
3 Jurchen Gold, horse, weapons Silver, cotton, silk
4 Japan Mercury, minerals Ginseng, books
5 Abbasid dynasty Mercury, spices, tusk Gold, silver


A Goryeo painting which depicts the Goryeo nobility.


Main article: Korean nobility

At the time of Goryeo, Korean nobility was divided into 6 classes.

  • Gukgong (국공, 國公), Duke of a nation
  • Gungong (군공, 郡公), Duke of a county
  • Hyeonhu (현후, 縣侯), Marquis of a town
  • Hyeonbaek (현백, 縣伯), Count of a town
  • Gaegukja (개국자, 開國子), Viscount of a town
  • Hyeonnam (현남, 縣男), Baron of a town

Also the title Taeja (hangul: 태자, hanja: 太子) was given to sons of emperor. In most other east Asian countries this title meant crown prince. It was similar to Chinwang (hangul: 친왕, hanja: 親王) of the Korean Empire.



Main article: Korean Confucianism

Emperor Gwangjong creating the national civil service examinations. and Emperor Seongjong was a key figure in establishing Confucianism. King Seongjong established Gukjagam. Gukjagam was the highest educational institution of the Goryeo dynasty. This was facilitated by the establishment in 1398 of the Seonggyungwan – an academy with a Confucian curriculum – and the building of an altar at the palace, where the king would worship his ancestors.





 Goryeo celadon

Celadon incense burner. National Treasures of South Korea.

The ceramics of Goryeo are considered by some to be the finest small-scale works of ceramics in Korean history. Key-fret, foliate designs, geometric or scrolling flowerhead bands, elliptical panels, stylized fish and insects, and the use of incised designs began at this time. Glazes were usually various shades of celadon, with browned glazes to almost black glazes being used for stoneware and storage. Celadon glazes could be rendered almost transparent to show black and white inlays.

While the forms generally seen are broad-shouldered bottles, larger low bowls or shallow smaller bowls, highly decorated celadon cosmetic boxes, and small slip-inlaid cups, the Buddhist potteries also produced melon-shaped vases, chrysanthemum cups often of spectacularly architectural design on stands with lotus motifs and lotus flower heads. In-curving rimmed alms bowls have also been discovered similar to Korean metalware. Wine cups often had a tall foot which rested on dish-shaped stands.

 Construction techniques

These ceramics are of a hard porcellaneous body with porcelain stone as one of the key ingredients; however, it is not to be confused with porcelain. The body is low clay, quartz rich, high potassia and virtually identical in composition to the Chinese Yueh ceramics which scholars hypothesize occasioned the first production of celadon in Korea. The glaze is an ash glaze with iron colourant, fired in a reduction atmosphere in a modified Chinese-style ‘dragon’ kiln. The distinctive blue-grey-green of Korean celadon is caused by the iron content of the glaze with a minimum of titanium contaminant, which modifies the color to a greener cast, as can be seen in Chinese Yueh wares. However, the Goryeo potters took the glaze in a different direction than their Chinese forebears; instead of relying solely on underglaze incised designs, they eventually developed the sanggam technique of inlaying black (magnetite) and white (quartz) which created bold contrast with the glaze. Scholars also theorize that this developed in part to an inlay tradition in Korean metalworks and lacquer, and also to the dissatisfaction with the nearly invisible effect of incising when done under a thick celadon glaze.[14]



Jikji, Selected Teachings of Buddhist Sages and Seon Masters, the earliest known book printed with movable metal type, 1377. Bibliothèque Nationale de Paris.

In 1234,

 the world’s first metal movable type printing was invented by Choe Yun-ui in Goryeo. Sangjeong Gogeum Yemun were printed with the movable metal type in 1234. Technology in Korea took a big step in Goryeo and strong relation with the Song dynasty contributed to this. In the dynasty, Korean ceramics and paper, which come down to now, started to be manufactured.

During the late Goryeo Dynasty, Goryeo was at the cutting edge of shipboard artillery.

In 1356 early

experiments were carried out with gunpowder weapons that shot wood or metal projectiles. In 1373 experiments with incendiary arrows and “fire tubes” possibly an early form of the Hwacha were developed and placed on Korean warships. The policy of placing cannons and other gunpowder weapons continued well into the Joseon Dynasty and by 1410, over 160 Joseon warships had cannons onboard. Choe Mu-seon, a medieval Korean inventor, military commander and scientist who introduced widespread use of gunpowder to Korea for the first time and creating various gunpowder based weapons.


King Gochang

A beautiful temple of Goryeo dynasty, Seonun Temple and Dosolam

(Source : Korea Tourism Organization)




Joseon dynasty

a poetry ‘Seonun-sa(temple) East’ written by Seo Jeong-ju born in Gochang. Here is his poetry.

“I went to see camellia of Seonun-sa but it was too early to see. I just saw camellia of last year that remained in the song by the bar hostess in her Yukjabaegi rhythm” He wrote it with sorrow for unseen camellia. There is a song ‘Seonun-sa’ sung by Song Chang-sik. He praised the beauty of camellia. Like this, Seonun-sa is a beautiful but hidden attraction of Gochang.
As it appeared in literature and songs, Seonun temple has a unique beauty with beautiful nature. In particular, Seonun temple is famous for the beauty of camellias. Camellia wasn’t planted for beauty, but for preventing the temple from fire. But they soon reached up to 2000 and have changed the forest into a beautiful hills. The Camellia forest represents the beauty of Seonun temple which is filled with red flowers in spring.

In addition, the scenery of the temple including the main building and Sumakjae will make you feel good, even carrying the scent of the temple. Also temple bell is enlisted as tangible cultural heritage of Chungcheonbuk-do. When you go up for half an hour after looking around Seonun temple, you will meet the magnificent beaut, Dosol-am. There you will understand why ancestors considered Mt. Seonun as another Mt. Geumgang, which is the most beautiful mountains in Korea. You will be fascinated at its rocks and trees. Do not miss the landscape in summe as well!

(Source: Yonhap News)

Maaebul, a carved buddha in mountain rocks, is the finest in Dosol-am enlisted as a national treasure No. 1200. It is overwhelming to see it which is embossed and engraved in harmony. 15.6 meters high and 8.48 meters wide of massive Maaebul is one of three carved buddha in size in Korea. There is a shrine in the pit of its stomach. In general, a shrine is used to store buddha statue or holy things. However, people believed that there was a secret book telling the kingdom’s destiny in shrine.

One day, an officer of Dong-hak, Son Wha-jung took it out. We still don’t know whereabouts. It would be quite interesting to see Maaebul, imagining the event. After looking around Dosol-am, you will see a 600 year old pine tree which is a natural heritage No. 354. This is the end of journey to Seonun temple. There is a saying that there could be someone who has never been to Seonun temple, but no one visits only once, which means you would come again anyway.

Living together with past and present. Gochang’s fortress and festival

(Source:: Korea Tourism Organization)

Did you know three old fortresses in Korea? Haemi- fortress, Nakan- fortress, Gochang- fortress. Haemi- fortess is well-known for history that many christians sacrificed their life. Nakan- fortress is well known for cool staying over place. However Gochang gives you a different image from the history. Actually, Gochang fortress was built by commoners to defend Korea from Japan. After the era, Gochang fortress was abandoned so many years but fortunately restored in 1976.

When it was repaired, the stone from nature was used in order to bring in the nature itself. It’s not completely restored but a guest house, jail and several buildings were built, which is quite breezing to travellers’ mind.

When you walk along fortress of the Mt. Seonun, you will feel the fragrance of mountains and the magnificent huge landscape of mountains.

There are some nice roads. We can enjoy flowers and trees such as pine trees and bamboo trees. Gochang has a festival every year. Gochang has a big festival of Bokbunja in June. It also has a big festival of Watermelon in July. There is a saying that if you have Gochang- watermelon, you can’t try any watermelon. Gochang watermelon is better than any others. Why don’t you come over to the festival?

Gochang the ‘hometown of nature, culture and happiness’ where history stays alive
‘Home town of nature, culture and happiness’ is the slogan of Gochang. You will finally understand why the Michelin Guide included the dolmens of the Bronze Age, and the Seonun temple and Dosolam of Buddhism culture in the Goryeo dynasty.

Indulging in a variety of attractions of the Joseon Dynasty of Gochang


  1. ^ Encyclopedia of World History, Vol II, P238 Koryo Dynasty
  2. ^ Encyclopedia of World History, Vol II, P238 Koryo Dynasty, Edited by Marsha E. Ackermann, Michael J. Schroeder, Janice J. Terry, Jiu-Hwa Lo Upshur, Mark F. Whitters, ISBN 978-0-8160-6386-4
  3. ^ a b |Daum Encyclopædia Britannica
  4. ^ a b
  5. ^ 국방부 군사편찬연구소, 고려시대 군사 전략 (2006) (The Ministry of National Defense, Military Strategies in Goryeo)
  6. ^ 국사편찬위원회, 고등학교국사교과서 p63(National Institute of Korean History, History for High School Students, p64)[1]
  7. ^ Ed. Morris Rossabi – China among equals: the Middle Kingdom and its neighbors, 10th-14th centuries, p.244
  8. ^ Baasanjavyin Lkhagvaa-Solongos, Mongol-Solongosyin harilstaanii ulamjlalaas, p.172
  9. ^ a b Thomas T. Allsen – Culture and Conquest in Mongol Eurasia, p.53
  10. ^ Namjil- Solongos-Mongolyin haritsaa: Ert, edugee, p.64
  11. ^ Henthorn, Korea, the Mongol Invasions, pp. 226- 234.
  12. ^ Benjamin H. Hazard-The Formative Years of The Wakō, 1223-63, Monumenta Nipponica, Vol. 22, No. 3/4 (1967), pp. 260-277
  13. ^ Vermeersch, Sem. (2008). The Power of the Buddhas: the Politics of Buddhism during the Koryŏ Dynasty (918-1392), p. 3.
  14. ^ Wood, Nigel. “Technological Parallels between Chinese Yue wares and Korean celadons.” in Papers of the British Association for Korean Studies (BAKS Papers), vol 5. Gina Barnes and Beth McKillop, eds. London: British Association for Korean Studies, 1994; pp. 39-64.
  15. ^ The official history of Koryo, is printed by woodblock 1580. 


The Korea Historic Collections Part One:Choson Dynasty 1392-1700

The Choson Historic Coillections 1392-1700

Created By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Private Limited Edition In CRD-ROM


Pre Choson Dynasty


Goryeo Dynasty

the nearly 500 year-old Goryeo Dynasty established by Wang Geon in 918


Taejo Dynasti Before Choson


The Choson Dynasty(1392-1910) is the nation’s longest-lived. Its founder, Yi Song­gye, took the dynastic name Taejo (“Great Prog­enitor”),

Early Joseon Dynasty


King Taejo‘s portrait

Early Joseon monarchs: Taejo to Seongjong

A military leader in the waning days of the Goryeo period, King Taejo of Joseon was no longer a young man when he established the Dynasty, taking over the throne from the last Goryeo monarch, Gongyang, in 1392. In 1398, after just six years of rule, Taejo, disheartened by the fighting between his eight sons, turned the throne over to his second son, King Jeongjong (the eldest had already died). Taejo was posthumeously given the title Emperor by Emperor Gojong in recognition of his contribution as founder of the Dynasty. Many of the other early monarchs of Joseon had relatively short reigns, ascending the throne when they were already rather advanced in age. The first nine monarchs of Joseon collectively ruled for about 100 years, with King Sejong the Great ruling for the longest time, 32 years.

Statue of King Sejong the Great

King Jeongjong’s reign was even shorter than his father’s, lasting only two years before he resigned in fear of retaliation from his younger brother, who already killed several nobles and his younger half brothers, whom he perceived as obstacles to his taking the throne. In spite of his ruthless actions in attaining the throne, the younger brother, King Taejong, who ruled much longer than his father or brother, holding the throne for 18 years, accomplished a great deal toward establishing a strong foundation for the Joseon kingdom.

Taejong passed the kingdom in good condition to his most able son, King Sejong, who went on to be Joseon’s most successful monarch, ruling for 32 years, and further strengthening the young dynasty. A lot of the momentum he built up was lost in the series of short, less successful reigns followed Sejong: his 1st son, King Munjong was Joseon’s 5th king, but died after only two years, and was followed by his son, King Danjong, who took the throne at age 12, with a council of Ministers to help him reign. After only three years, the ministers were assassinated and Danjung was forced from the throne by Sejong’s 2nd son, King Sejo.

After his bloody ascent to the throne, Sejo ruled successfully for 13 years, leaving behind a legacy of improvements. His eldest son died before him, so at his death, the throne passed to his 2nd son, King Yejong, who was not yet 20, and his mother Queen Jeonghee, become Joseon’s first female regent. When Yejong died less than two years later, his oldest son was only three years-old, so the throne passed to his nephew, King Seongjong, the son of King Sejo’s first son Deokjong, who had died before he had a chance to take the throne himself. Queen Jeonghee continued as regent for Seongjong, along with his mother Queen Insu. After seven years of regency, Seongjong ruled almost two more decades in his own right, a reign marked by progress and prosperity. His father was given the posthumous title King Deokjong in recognition of role as the father of Seongjong in light of his son’s accomplishments.

Emperor Taejo
    Grand Prince

      Grand Prince
King Munjong
King Danjong
      Grand Prince
Prince Weolsan
King Sejo
    King Deokjong
(posthumous title)

    Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
King Yejong
    Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
            Bulno     Prince
            Jiun     Prince
King Taejong
    Grand Prince
      Grand Prince
    Grand Prince
      Grand Prince
King Sejong
      Grand Prince
    Grand Prince

Monarchs of Korea
Joseon (Choson) Dynasty
  1. Taejo 1392–1398
  2. Jeongjong 1398–1400
  3. Taejong 1400–1418
  4. Sejong the Great 1418–1450
  5. Munjong 1450–1452
  6. Danjong 1452–1455
  7. Sejo 1455–1468
  8. Yejong 1468–1469
  9. Seongjong 1469–1494
  10. Yeonsangun 1494–1506
  11. Jungjong 1506–1544
  12. Injong 1544–1545
  13. Myeongjong 1545–1567
  14. Seonjo 1567–1608
  15. Gwanghaegun 1608–1623
  16. Injo 1623–1649
  17. Hyojong 1649–1659
  18. Hyeonjong 1659–1674
  19. Sukjong 1674–1720
  20. Gyeongjong 1720–1724
  21. Yeongjo 1724–1776
  22. Jeongjo 1776–1800
  23. Sunjo 1800–1834
  24. Heonjong 1834–1849
  25. Cheoljong 1849–1863
  26. Gojong 1863–1907
  27. Sunjong 1907–1910

By the late 14th century, the nearly 500 year-old Goryeo Dynasty established by Wang Geon in 918 was tottering, its foundations collapsing from years of war and de facto occupation from the disintegrating Mongol Empire. Following the wake of the Ming Dynasty , the royal court in Goryeo split into two conflicting factions: the group led by General Yi (supporting the Ming Dynasty) and the camp led by General Choe (standing by the Yuan Dynasty). When a Ming messenger came to Goryeo in 1388 (the 14th year of King U) to demand the return of a significant portion of Goryeo’s northern territory, General Choe seized the chance to argue for the attack of the Liaodong Peninsula (Goryeo claimed to be the successor of the ancient kingdom of Goguryeo; as such, restoring Manchuria as part of Korean territory was part of its foreign policy throughout its history).

Yi was chosen to lead the attack; however, he revolted and swept back to Gaegyeong and initiated a coup d’état, overthrowing King U in favor of his son, King Chang (1388). He later killed King U and his son after a failed restoration and forcibly placed a royal named Yi on the throne (he became King Gongyang). In 1392, Yi eliminated Jeong Mong-ju, highly respected leader of a group loyal to Goryeo dynasty, and dethroned King Gongyang, exiling him to Wonju, and before he ascended the throne. The Goryeo Dynasty had come to an end after almost 500 years of rule.

In the beginning of his reign, Yi Seonggye, now King Taejo, intended to continue use of the name Goryeo for the country he ruled and simply change the royal line of descent to his own, thus maintaining the façade of continuing the 500 year-old Goryeo tradition. However, after numerous threats of mutiny from the drastically weakened but still influential Gwonmun nobles, who continued to swear allegiance to the remnants of the Goryeo Dynasty and now the demoted Wang clan, and the consensus in the reformed court that a new dynastic title was needed to signify the change, he declared a new dynasty in 1393 under the name of Joseon (meaning to revive an older dynasty also known as Joseon, founded nearly four thousand years previously) and renamed the country the “Kingdom of Great Joseon”. He also moved the capital to Hanyang.

 Strife of Princes

When the new dynasty was promulgated and officially brought into existence, Taejo brought up the issue of which son would be his successor. Although Yi Bang-won, Taejo’s fifth son by Queen Sineui, had contributed most to assisting his father’s rise to power, the prime minister Jeong Do-jeon and Nam Eun used their influence on King Taejo to name his eighth son (second son of Queen Sindeok) Grand Prince Uian (Yi Bang-seok) as the crown prince in 1392. This conflict arose largely because Jeong Do-jeon, who shaped and laid down ideological, institutional, and legal foundations of the new dynasty more than anyone else, saw Joseon as a kingdom led by ministers appointed by the king while Yi Bang-won wanted to establish the absolute monarchy ruled directly by the king. With Taejo’s support, Jeong Do-jeon kept limiting the royal family’s power by prohibiting political involvement of princes and attempting to abolish their private armies. Both sides were well aware of each other’s great animosity and were getting ready to strike first. After the sudden death of Queen Sindeok, and while King Taejo was still in mourning for his second wife, Yi Bang-won struck first by raiding the palace and killed Jeong Do-jeon and his supporters as well as Queen Sindeok’s two sons (his half-brothers) including the crown prince in 1398. This incident became known as the First Strife of Princes.

Aghast at the fact that his sons were willing to kill each other for the crown, and psychologically exhausted from the death of his second wife, King Taejo abdicated and immediately crowned his second son Yi Bang-gwa, or King Jeongjong, as the new ruler. One of King Jeongjong’s first acts as monarch was to revert the capital to Gaeseong, where he is believed to have been considerably more comfortable. Yet Yi Bang-won retained real power and was soon in conflict with his disgruntled older brother Yi Bang-gan, who also yearned for power. In 1400, the tensions between Yi Bang-won’s faction and Yi Bang-gan’s camp escalated into an all-out conflict that came to be known as the Second Strife of Princes. In the aftermath of the struggle, the defeated Yi Bang-gan was exiled to Tosan while his supporters were executed. Thoroughly intimidated, King Jeongjong immediately invested Yi Bang-won as heir presumptive and voluntarily abdicated. That same year, Yi Bang-won assumed the throne of Joseon at long last as King Taejong, the third king of Joseon.

Consolidation of royal power

In the beginning of Taejong’s reign, the Grand King Former, Taejo, refused to relinquish the royal seal that signified the legitimacy of any king’s rule. Taejong began to initiate policies he believed would prove his qualification to rule. One of his first acts as king was to abolish the privilege enjoyed by the upper echelons of government and the aristocracy to maintain private armies. His revoking of such rights to field independent forces effectively severed their ability to muster large-scale revolts, and drastically increased the number of men employed in the national military. Taejong’s next act as king was to revise the existing legislation concerning the taxation of land ownership and the recording of state of subjects. With the discovery of previously hidden land, national income increased twofold.


Choson tomb with murals



This is picture of one very primitive-looking white tiger, the protective animal of the west. According to the caption however (see here), it was found on the northern wall of the southern chamber, which does not make sense. For an article on this find, see here. It notes that the other Choson tomb was found in 2000 in Kobop-ri near Miryang; it also notes the similarity with a Koryo tomb from 1352 found in Sogok-ri near P’aju. And for the specialists: this is apparently a 橫口式石室 – or a stone chamber tomb with vertical opening (i.e. no entranceway)




This is presumably the first “Choson” tomb mural, from 고법리, 청도면, 밀양. However, it belonged to one Pak Ik (1332-1398), so presumably dates to around 1398 – which means it is really a Koryo tomb. (found here). The next photo is the 1352 mural from P’aju, which looks much more primitive than the Miryang one (from here):



In 1399,

 Taejong had played an influential role in scrapping the Dopyeong Assembly, a council of the old government administration that held a monopoly in court power during the waning years of the Goryeo Dynasty, in favor of the State Council of Joseon (의정부), a new branch of central administration that revolved around the king and his edicts. After passing the subject documentation and taxation legislation, King Taejong issued a new decree in which all decisions passed by the State Council could only come into effect with the approval of the king. This ended the custom of court ministers and advisors making decisions through debate and negotiations amongst themselves, and thus brought the royal power to new heights. Shortly thereafter, Taejong installed an office, known as the Sinmun Office, to hear cases in which aggrieved subjects felt that they had been exploited or treated unjustly by government officials or aristocrats. However, Taejong kept Jeong Do-jeon’s reforms intact for most part. In addition, Taejong executed or exiled many of his supporters who helped him ascend on the throne in order to strengthen the royal authority. To limit influence of in-laws, he also killed all four of his Queen’s brothers and his son Sejong‘s father-in-law. Taejong remains a controversial figure who killed many of his rivals and relatives to gain power and yet ruled effectively to improve the populace’s lives, strengthen national defense, and lay down a solid foundations for his successor Sejong’s rule.


 King Sejong the Great

King Sejong‘s portrait

In August of 1418, following Taejong’s abdication two months earlier, Sejong ascended the throne. In May of 1419, King Sejong, under the advice and guidance of his father Taejong, embarked upon the Gihae Eastern Expedition to remove the nuisance of Japanese pirates who had been operating out of Tsushima. In September of 1419 the Daimyo of Tsushima, Sadamori, capitulated to the Joseon court.

 In 1443,

The Treaty of Gyehae was signed, in which the Daimyo of Tsushima was granted rights to conduct trade with Korea in fifty ships per year, in exchange for sending tribute to Korea and aiding to stop any Japanese coastal pirate raid on Korean ports.[3][4][5][6]

On the northern border, Sejong established four forts and six posts (hangul: 사군육진 hanja: 四郡六鎭) to safeguard his people from the hostile Chinese and Manchurian nomads living in Manchuria. In 1433, Sejong sent Kim Jong-seo (hangul: 김종서, hanja: 金宗瑞), a prominent general, north to destroy the Manchu. Kim’s military campaign captured several castles, pushed north, and restored Korean territory, roughly the present-day border between North Korea and China.[7]

During the rule of Sejong, Korea saw advances in natural science, agriculture, literature, traditional medicine, and engineering. Because of such success, Sejong was given the title “King Sejong the Great of Joseon”.[8] The most remembered contribution of King Sejong is the creation of hangeul, the Korean alphabet, in 1443. Everyday use of hanja and hanmun in writing eventually came to an end in the latter half of the 20th century.

Power plays, intrigue, conspiracies, mysteries, mass murders, storytelling assassins, awkward tea parties, and drug-induced confessions are just some of the delicacies we’re being offered as we head toward that final and much-dreaded stretch. Who will remain rooted, and who will inevitably be rooted out by King Sejong’s ultimatum? And, more importantly, will our hero save the girl from an enemy he can’t even find?

We’ll have to tune in next week for all of our answers… But is it so bad that I want to tune in next week for the next one hundred weeks?


Kim Bum-soo – “말하지 않아도” (Even Without Speaking) from the Tree With Deep Roots soundtrack. [ Download ]




Shim Jong-soo, Jeok-hee, and Pyung are all headed straight for So-yi. But where the other pursuers pass up the roving band of singing beggars, Pyung stops them in order to ask about the location of the missing court maidens. The song they’re singing is the one So-yi taught to them in order to circulate Hangul, and Pyung has a brief flashback to the moment when he received the order that anyone and everyone who knows the alphabet must be killed.

With that in mind, he waits until So-yi’s location is divulged before he sets to slaughtering the whole band. He’s merciless, and doesn’t even spare the woman in the group. Fortunately the leader of the roving band is saved from a horrible death due to being away at just the right time, but that also means that he’s left to witness the murder of all his friends and comrades.

Court maiden Geun-ji, who was previously drugged into revealing So-yi’s whereabouts to Jeok-hee, has made it back to the palace. She’s an emotional wreck, hardly able to even begin to tell her story – and the moment Sejong walks into the Hangul Room, it’s over. She breaks down into pitiful sobs, blaming herself for the fact that So-yi and Deok-geum might now be in danger.

Sejong wants to know how much she told them, and in a shaking voice, she says she told everything. They were looking for the Haerye, and she told them where So-yi was. No one doubts her story, and Sejong looks deeply affected as he considers all the implications this might have. Namely, So-yi. Ahh!

So-yi and Deok-geum have been preparing taffy as incentive to get children to sing the Hangul Song, both of them completely unaware that any danger is headed their way. And though it seemed like Shim Jong-soo and Jeok-hee had a head start over Pyung, he’s the one who makes it to So-yi’s house first. When she goes outside expecting to see her orabeoni, it’s Pyung that’s waiting there instead. Uh oh. Oh no.

Shim Jong-soo and Jeok-hee arrive at So-yi’s house after having found their own ways separately. There’s signs of a scuffle, but no court maidens. A woman passing by is swiftly interrogated by both of them for anything she knows, and the unlikely duo comes to the conclusion that Pyung is the one who spirited away So-yi and Deok-geum before they arrived. Both Shim Jong-soo and Jeok-hee decide that, for the moment at least, they might as well work together since they’re after the same thing (the Haerye).

We find Pyung back in the town, alone. He comes across the group of children commissioned by So-yi to sing the Hangul Song and… oh no. They cut away from this scene, but does that mean Pyung is so ruthless that he’d kill all those kids?!

Both Sejong and Jung Ki-joon are trying to figure out exactly what has gone on in their respective camps. Jung Ki-joon is having to deal with betrayal, as news comes from Pyung that Shim Jong-soo has turned on them and that he even attempted to steal their court ladies (hey, they captured them first).

I kind of love that Sejong has made the Joseon approximation of a graph in order to make sense of the story Geun-ji told him. What Team Sejong has come away with is that Pyung showed up, then Shim Jong-soo showed up and fought with Pyung, and in the middle of all of that, a woman from Ming came and captured Geun-ji, acting under orders from Lee Shin-juk. At least Sejong is able to tell that all three of those parties must be working separately from each other, but even he’s wondering why everything is getting so tangled.

Chae-yoon has come too late to rescue So-yi, and sees the bloodied bodies of the singing band strewn in the street. This propels him straight to So-yi’s house, but there’s no sign of the one he loves. We can see this weighing on him as he yells in anguish, knowing that for the moment, at least, he can’t do anything.

In the street he runs into some of the singing children (looking very much like they haven’t been murdered – phew!) to ask them about So-yi. They say that they were supposed to meet her to receive taffy, but she never came. Instead, a tall man with a ghostly voice showed up.

I don’t know why this flashback is funny, but it is. It’s Story Time With Pyung, as he gathers all the children around and asks them to read Hangul to him. If anyone can, he has a biiiig prize to give them (I assume this big prize is certain death). Fortunately for all of those children, none of them can read the letters – they’d just been taught the song. This spares them from being murdered, and the nice assassin ajusshi tells them that they must never sing that Hangul Song again, because it only calls for death.

Knowing that Pyung has captured So-yi but not knowing where he might be, Chae-yoon goes to Sejong. He blames himself for leaving So-yi and Deok-geum for even a moment, and Sejong is brought up to speed on the status of his court maidens. This doesn’t stop us from launching into a blame-a-thon, though, as the King then takes blame onto himself for not anticipating Jung Ki-joon’s moves sooner. But now, along with their missing court ladies, they’re also hit with the fact that their circulation plan has failed.

So-yi finds herself bound in a room with the two other captured court ladies, Mok-yi and Deok-geum. They’re soon faced with a triumphant Jung Ki-joon, who’s positively reveling in the belief that he’s won over their silly little Hangul circulation plan. I love that So-yi’s got spirit, and she shoots him the most defiant look she can muster. What becomes of this conversation is a mystery to us, as we cut to the outside of the shed where Pyung is grimly standing guard. If Jung Ki-joon has any plans against So-yi, I hope Pyung steps up his game so his crush isn’t all for naught.

Clearly Jung Ki-joon’s single-mindedness and obsession with blocking the letters is taking a toll on even the most loyal members of Hidden Root, as the Leader wonders aloud to Pyung as to what is to become of them. Something must have happened in the palace to cause all of this ruckus, but what could it have been? Hmm, seems like no one’s told them about Sejong’s proposition yet.

It’s time for some cute, as little Yeon-doo has gone alone into the forest to cry over her missing ajusshi friend, Gae Pa-yi. It’s a nice little moment when she writes his name in Hangul on a stone (Jung Ki-joon has seen her use the new alphabet before, but I wonder if he hasn’t had her killed because of her relationship with Gae Pa-yi), and suddenly he appears. She immediately hugs him, which is adorable, and despite all the bad things Gae Pa-yi has done it’s so hard to not like him when he’s just so sweet with her.

She doesn’t know if he’s eaten or not since Ban Chon has been in chaos due to the whole Hidden Root With Hunt, and offers to go and bring him some food. Double aww.

Promulgation Day is approaching, and you can all but feel it in the air. Team Sejong is working hard to sway their dissenters – first by Park Paeng-nyeon and Sung Sam-moon persuading other Jiphyunjeon scholars, and then by Jung In-ji trying to persuade his old friend and schoolmate, Choi Man-ri.

Our two young scholars seem to have more luck, as they’re able to win the debate on whether or not Hangul will be a detriment to learning Chinese characters. Their answer is simple but brilliant (in a way that I’m upset I didn’t think of before), in that Chinese characters can’t be currently learned just by self-study alone. But with an alphabet like Hangul that can be mastered in ten days, manuals and other helpful material can be made in Hangul in order to teach traditional Chinese characters to those who wish to self-study. Therefore, how can the scholars say that Hangul is working against Chinese characters when more people could learn them?

As far as Choi Man-ri is concerned, it’s nice to see that he is rational and logical (as he should be, with his position), but that he’s also human. His rational side acknowledges that Sejong only has good intentions, but it’s his human side that simply won’t allow him to consent to these letters. The Jiphyunjeon scholars may be able to be persuaded, but Choi Man-ri is already too set in his ways. It’s a lost cause, but at least there aren’t any bitter feelings.

Like Sejong, Jung Ki-joon is having his time of wavering and indecision. But unlike Sejong, Jung Ki-joon doesn’t have a Chae-yoon to bring him back from the brink, and so he just seems to be slipping deeper and deeper into himself and his obsession with the alphabet. In many ways he’s become the polar opposite of Sejong – they’re both obsessed with the same thing, but in two completely different ways.

The other Hidden Root members have become aware of this, and it’s Han Ga who specifically pleads for Jung Ki-joon to come to his senses and make some decisions. The offer Sejong made for all Hidden Root members to safely out themselves can effectively make their Hidden Root Scroll (and thus their allegiance roster) moot, thus ending the blackmail-like hold they have over their veterans. At this rate, Hidden Root will collapse. Even the Leader interrupts, knowing that Jung Ki-joon has changed upon seeing the letters. But he can’t forget the mandate fated onto him. He can’t forget how Jung Do-jun died so terribly, and how his father, Jung Do-gwang, also died.

Through all this, Jung Ki-joon remains eerily silent.

Sejong and Chae-yoon are both lost souls, since both of them are helpless to save the woman they cherish. After uselessly obsessing over a map (he doesn’t even know where to start, so it can’t do him any good), Chae-yoon goes straight to Sejong, who doesn’t seem all that happy to see him. Maybe he reminds him of So-yi.

Chae-yoon: “Were you wavering again? Don’t. Due to my error, Dam has fallen into great danger. So I will find her no matter what. As of now, I don’t know how or where to find her. However, remaining like this inside the palace, I cannot forgive myself, Your Majesty. Hence, your humble subject, at this moment, will be leaving to find Dam. Hence, Your Majesty should also go on Your Majesty’s path. May you press forward without faltering, Your Majesty. If Dam were here now, she would have said that to you.”

He fights tears as he says this, and it’s clear that leaving the King, and thus breaking his promise to follow wherever Sejong would lead, is a gut-wrenchingly difficult decision for him to make. He doesn’t ask for permission to leave, nor does Sejong stop him. They just have a tacit understanding of each other.

Chae-yoon is left to wander Ban Chon in misery until he sees a ray of hope… the little girl, Yeon-doo. You can just see the thought processses in Chae-yoon’s mind and how he immediately latches onto her because she’s the only tie he has to Hidden Root now, and the only tie he has to finding So-yi. He treads so carefully that it feels like even his words are treading on eggshells as he asks her if she’s going to her friend, Gae Pa-yi.

He appeals to her both as a child and as an adult, using a soft voice and words she can understand. His eyes glassy, he all but pleads with her to tell him where Gae Pa-yi is, because the court lady he loves is at the place where Gae Pa-yi is at, and So-yi is all Chae-yoon has left. Just when it seems that Yeon-doo is going to acquiesce, her mother interrupts for her to hurry up and tell the kind palace guard so he can catch that horrible Gae Pa-yi. With Yeon-doo’s trust in Chae-yoon effectively broken, she chooses to side with her ajusshi friend and heartbreakingly lies to Chae-yoon that she hasn’t heard from Gae Pa-yi. Aww.

Fortunately Chae-yoon gets the bright idea to follow Yeon-doo anyway to see if she leads him to Gae Pa-yi. He’s saved from a killing blow by her inhumanly strong just in the nick of time, but he’s thrown a good ways away just by blocking the blow. By the time he gets up, which is mere seconds later, all traces of Gae Pa-yi and Yeon-doo have disappeared. Believing Yeon-doo is the one in danger, Gae Pa-yi has set to running away with her on his back.

With his only lead gone, our hero is left alone to wander the forest, crying Dam’s name in the saddest, loneliest voice ever. My heart is breaking for him.

We’re soon back to Lee Shin-juk, whose house of cards is falling down all around him since Shim Jong-soo’s betrayal and Sejong’s proposition. The ticking clock of Promulgation Day can be felt by everyone, and thus the span of time in which Lee Shin-juk can choose to reveal himself or not is slowly disappearing. Through a message from the Ming woman, Jeok-hee, he’s made aware that Sejong most likely knows about his movements. So now, he must debate on whether or not to trust Sejong and reveal himself as a member of Hidden Root – or forever stay silent and suffer the inevitable consequences.

Jung Ki-joon finally breaks his long silence as he tells Han Ga that every grievance that’s been brought against him from the rest of Hidden Root is true. A genuine parliament system would make for a better Joseon, and it would be in keeping with Jung Do-jun’s ideals. Instead of trusting one man (the King) with a nation, it’s better to trust many. However…

Jung Ki-joon: “These letters, you see. Lee Do and myself… It’s a fight between us, with us laying down our thoughts. As for me, this extremely dangerous mischief of Lee Do’s – casting aside history – I cannot just wait and watch. One who understands politics… casting the citizenry aside, without even knowing the end result for which he himself can’t even be responsible… he tries to experiment? This from the likes of a mere King who, at best, can govern for just fifty years?!”

Whichever way anyone puts it, Jung Ki-joon simply can’t accept these letters, and can’t accept King Sejong. At least he recognizes that he’s being single-minded, and says he’s come up with a plan. What is it? Of course we don’t hear it, because that would ruin the surprise.

As Chae-yoon is on his way out of the city to do anything he can to find So-yi, he passes by the only man that survived Pyung’s massacre. He’s trying to get justice for all his people that have been killed, and just when it seems like Chae-yoon is about to pass him up, he hears the man sing the Hangul Song. This instantly warrants our hero’s attention as Chae-yoon instantly takes the singing man aside, desperate to be told every single thing that he saw. He has to find So-yi, and is clinging to what might now be his last remaining lead.

Sejong’s done a little maneuvering himself, and through the use of Sung Sam-moon and his father’s palanquin, he’s able to arrange a secret and sudden meeting with Lee Shin-juk. It’s The Most Awkward Tea Party Ever, as Sejong switches between being jokey and serious as he prods the minister about his involvement with Hidden Root. Lee Shin-juk couldn’t be less obvious, and we know that the King knows about his involvement in Hidden Root… but for the course of most of their conversation, they speak as if they’re roleplaying, with Lee Shin-juk answering questions as if he were a member of Hidden Root. Which of course he’s not. Right? Right. Cue strained laughter all around.

The question of the night is why Hidden Root would have denied themselves that deal to realize a genuine parliament, when that seems to be their highest goal. Through Lee Shin-juk, Sejong is able to discern that there has been a fissure within Hidden Root over Jung Ki-joon choosing to block the promulgation over making the deal for a parliament. Sejong is a master at this psychological warfare stuff, because he keeps laughing to calm Lee Shin-juk down when the minister seems to get worried, in a tone that’s like: Oh, we’re still joking, right? This is so fun, isn’t it? Look at us, just a couple of good buddies having a good time. I love this scene.

While they’re roleplaying, Sejong goes ahead and asks why Lee Shin-juk hasn’t stepped forward as a pretend-member of Hidden Root. The minister boils it down to trust (mainly, that he doesn’t trust in Sejong), even though the King already said that he would acknowledge Hidden Root as a separate political faction, and one that could be debated with, at that. So how much more trust can Sejong offer?

Shim Jong-soo knows that if the court lady Geun-ji made it back to the palace, then she’s surely told everyone that he’s a member of Hidden Root. What he’s also deduced on his own? That So-yi is the Haerye. That’s yet another strike against our favorite girl, and one that Shim Jong-soo seems to be holding up his sleeve when he goes to meet with Jung Ki-joon in Hidden Root’s secret camp.

When Jung Ki-joon accuses him of betrayal, Shim Jong-soo throws it right back at him. It wasn’t he who betrayed Hidden Root, it was Jung Ki-joon, when he chose the letters over a genuine parliament. He claims that Jung Ki-joon was everything to him, but he’s changed too much. Regardless of how frightening the letters can be, he accuses Jung Ki-joon of not looking to the future (which is interesting, since this is exactly what Jung Ki-joon is accusing the King of) since he’s wagered his life on blocking these letters. What’s to become of Hidden Root once he’s dead?

Jung Ki-joon finally asks what Shim Jong-soo wants, and the formerly loyal member responds that he knows where the Haerye is. Well, this can’t be good.

Sejong and Lee Shin-juk carry out their pretend party all the way till the end, neither of them saying what they actually mean yet somehow managing to convey exactly what they mean at the same time. It’s only when Lee Shin-juk is leaving that Sejong drops all pretenses and lays it out straight. Lee Shin-juk is to hand Jung Ki-joon over in exchange for becoming the head of the political faction called Hidden Root, and he can use that power in the court to insist on a parliament system. Win-win, right?

Shim Jong-soo, in the same breath, offers a deal of his own to Jung Ki-joon. In exchange for the Haerye he wants so dearly, he’s to step down from his position as First Root and give it over to Shim Jong-soo. As the new leader of Hidden Root, he’ll be the one to realize Jung Do-jun’s will.


While this wasn’t my favorite episode ending, I understood its necessity. We’ve been flirting with the power play within Hidden Root for a while, so we needed to see payoff in some form. Still, I’m getting the sinking feeling that Jung Ki-joon is becoming more and more impotent – and I don’t think a change in leadership is necessarily going to make Hidden Root menacing again. Especially with Shim Jong-soo, who I’ve honestly never taken very seriously. His scenes aren’t anything to throw away, but I admit that my attention tends to waver when he’s usually on as so far he hasn’t carried all that much weight. Now that it seems like he might be carrying a great deal of weight, I’m not sure if my perception of him can really change this late in the game. But who knows, this show has surprised me many times before.

I’m beginning to question Jung Ki-joon more and more, and not in the way I used to. One wonders if he ever received Sejong’s message throwing his youthful words back at him: “Only violence?” Of course, it’s dramatically fun for him to be at one end of the extreme (in that he feels charged by heaven to block those letters), but goodness, sometimes I wish he’d just move a little more. It does baffle me a little as to how he can get so angry – like when Shim Jong-soo walked in – and still have no desire to even stand. It’s as if he’s been told that he can only act with his face and that he’s not allowed to move his body. This might just be a result of ‘what happens when you’re evil’, though, since he’s pretty limited in the places he can go and the things he can do while occupying the top spot on Joseon’s Most Wanted list.

Of course I still loved the episode as I’ve loved every episode, and perhaps Jung Ki-joon is bearing the brunt of my impatience to see what becomes of Chae-yoon and So-yi. Honestly, whatever happens within Hidden Root is fine – I just want to have a good showdown as we head into the last two episodes. Tree has been so good to us thus far, I’m hoping the final week will really cement this as, you know, the best drama ever.



 Six martyred ministers

After King Sejong’s death, his son Munjong continued his father’s legacy but soon died of illness in 1452, two years after becoming the king. After his son Danjong became the king at the age of twelve, his uncle Sejo gained control of the government and eventually deposed his nephew to become the seventh king of Joseon himself in 1455.


Choson tomb with murals


Apparently only the second Choson dynasty tomb with murals was recently uncovered. It belonged to one No Hoe-sin 盧懷愼 (1415-1456), probably a high official. No details yet about whether anything else was found; the tomb is located in Tonghwa-ri near Wonju.


The figures in the murals – here on the western mall of the northern chamber – remind somewhat of those found in the tomb of King Kongmin, less than a century before these ones.

After six ministers loyal to Danjong attempted to assassinate Sejo to return Danjong to the throne, Sejo executed the six ministers and also killed Danjong in his place of exile. Despite having snatched the throne from his young nephew, Sejo proved himself one of the most able rulers like Taejong. He strengthened the administrative system, enabling the government to determine exact population numbers and to mobilize troops effectively. He also revised the land ordinance to improve the national economy and encouraged publication of books. Most importantly, he compiled the Grand Code for State Administration, which became the cornerstone of dynastic administration and provided the first form of constitutional law in a written form in Korea.

After Sejo, his weak son Yejong became the eighth king, but died two years later in 1469, when Yejong’s nephew Seongjong ascended the throne. His reign was marked by the prosperity and growth of the national economy and the rise of neo-Confucian scholars called Sarim, who were encouraged by Seongjong to enter the court politics. He established Hongmungwan (홍문관, 弘文館), the royal library and advisory council composed of Confucian scholars, with whom he discussed philosophy and government policies. He ushered in a cultural golden age that rivaled King Sejong’s reign by publishing numerous books on geography, ethics, and other various fields. He also sent several military campaigns against the Jurchens to stabilize the northern border.


 Literati purges

Seongjong’s son Yeonsangun is often considered the worst tyrant in Joseon dynasty, whose reign was marked by a series of bloody purges of neo-Confucian scholars between 1498 and 1506. His behavior became erratic after he learned that his biological mother was not Queen Jung-hyeon but deposed Consort Yoon, who was forced to drink poison after poisoning one of Seongjong’s concubines out of jealousy and leaving a scratch mark on Seongjong’s face. When he was shown a piece of clothing that was allegedly stained with his mother’s blood vomited after drinking poison, he beat to death two of Seongjong’s concubines who accused Consort Yoon and pushed Grand Queen Insu, who died afterward. He executed government officials who supported Consort Yoon’s death along with their families. He also executed Sarim scholars for writing phrases critical of Sejo’s usurpation of throne. He also seized a thousand women from the provinces to serve as palace entertainers and appropriated the Seonggyungwan, Royal University, as a personal pleasure ground. He abolished the Office of Censors, whose function was to criticize inappropriate actions and policies of the king, and Hongmungwan. He banned the use of hangul when the common people criticized the king with posters written in hangul.


 After twelve years of misrule, he was finally deposed in a coup that placed his half-brother Jungjong on the throne in 1506.

Jungjong was a fundamentally weak king because of the circumstances that placed him on the throne, but his reign also saw a period of significant reforms led by his minister Jo Gwang-jo, the charismatic leader of Sarim scholars. He established the local self-government system called Hyang’yak to strengthen local autonomy and communal spirit among the people, sought to reduce the gap between the rich and poor with a land reform that would distribute land to farmers more equally and limit the amount of land and number of slaves that one could own, promulgated widely among the populace Confucian writings with vernacular translations, and sought to trim the size of government by reducing the number of bureaucrats. According to Annals of Joseon Dynasty, it was said that no official dared to receive a bribe or exploit the populace during this time because he applied law strictly as Inspector General. These radical reforms were very popular with the populace but were fiercely opposed by the conservative officials who helped to put Junngjong on the throne. They plotted to cause Jungjong to doubt Jo’s loyalty by writing “Jo will become the king” (주초위왕, 走肖爲王) with honey on leaves so that caterpillars left behind the same phrase as if in supernatural manifestation.


Jo Gwang-jo was executed, and most of his reform measures died with him in the resulting Third Literati Purge of 1519.


For nearly fifty years afterward, the court politics was marred by bloody and chaotic struggles between factions backing rival consorts and princes. In-laws of the royal family wielded great power and contributed to much corruption of the era

Korea, 1600–1700 a.d. 

  • Joseon dynasty (1392–1910), 16th–17th century
    Lacquer with mother-of-pearl and tortoiseshell inlayH. 8 3/8 in. (21.3 cm), W. 18 1/8 in. (46 cm), L. 31 1/8 in. (79.1 cm)
    Promised Gift of Florence and Herbert Irving (L.1996.47.131)
  • 1604


Emperor Injo 1623–1649



The historical relationship between Korea and the Netherlands
In 1627 a handful of Dutch reached for the first time in Korea. Parties in Taiwan to Japan, they had experienced a storm that had baffled and had sent a boat to the water on the Korean coast. Three of them, Dirk Gijsbertsz. and Jan Janse Weltevree, both from De Rijp (North Holland) and Jan Pieterse Verbaest Amsterdam were captured, others managed to escape on board the boat. The trio was sent to the capital where Jan Janse Weltevree even managed to become the bodyguard of the king.


It Whimsical representation of Hendrik Hamel and his family in their exile in the province of Cholla-do. The house is not much about Korea!

was given a Korean name Pak Yon, and married a Korean woman who bore him a son and a daughter. His two fellow prisoners died in 1637 during fighting against the Manchus, who, seven years later, supplant, China, the Ming Dynasty. After 1656, we hear no more of Weltevree, so he lived at least 39 years in Korea.

Also scathing of Taiwan to Japan, the Dutch ship De Sperwer was also baffled by a storm and sank August 15, 1653 on the coast of Cheju-do (Quelpart), a large island south of southwestern Korea. Of the 64 crewmen, 36 managed to reach shore. Most of the survivors died in the ensuing years, fifteen eventually return to their homeland.

[P. 30]
The adventures of the castaways were recorded by the accounting board, Hendrik van Hamel Gorkum in his Journal which appeared in 1668 in Amsterdam and Rotterdam and enjoyed for many translations into French, German and English. We can not provide here briefly the experiences that knew the shipwrecked. The population of the island provides them with food and treats them well in general. A week after their arrival, a four-man delegation was received by the prefect of Cheju-do. They make it clear that they want to win Japan where the Dutch had a factory while on the island of Dejima, located in the Bay of Nagasaki. This may not allow them, the laws of Korea to the contrary. It sends to the Court a report on the arrival of foreigners and ask for instructions.

Meanwhile, the prefect and often invites the castaways will sometimes hold parties up to console their misfortune. ‘It was so great care of our patients, we can

Arrival of Hamel and fugitives Dutch in Nagasaki.

that we were better received this idolatry that we had not been Christians. ‘

On October 29, the prefect demand Hamel, the master pilot and the second surgeon: they meet a man with a long beard who turns out to be Jan Janse Weltevree already mentioned. ‘So was there about being surprised, and even surprising to see a man of fifty-eight years, as it was, had so far forgotten his mother tongue in the beginning we had many of the just to hear it and it is true that it took him a month to do it again. ‘

In late May 1654, we summoned the Dutch in Seoul, where the King receives in audience and where they are sad to learn that they can indeed leave the country. The king, however, marks his good name and bodyguards. Just two years later, they fall into disgrace and into exile in the province of Cholla-do (south-west of Korea). They need this reversal of fortune for some of their attempts to contact an embassy from China and Manchuria to the jealousy of certain senior officials.

[P. 31]
In the summer of 1666, after ten years of misery, Hamel and seven other successful, against a pretty penny to buy a boat that they sailed to Dejima. In October the following year, the Japanese authorities allow them to earn Batavia. Intervention of the Japanese, the eight remaining castaways receive permission to leave Korea. Seven of them arrived in Nagasaki in September 1668, the eighth, Jan Claesz. van Dort, preferred to remain in Korea. ‘He had married and claimed to have more hair on the body resembling a Christian or a Dutchman.’

The monument erected in 1980 on the south coast of Chejudo in memory of shipwrecked Dutch seventeenth century.

About one third of the Journal of Hamel is devoted to the description of Korea, its people and its culture and is the first European book on this country before the West knew little more than existence. The high accuracy attained by some observations Hamel, appears in the remarks he dedicated to language and writing:

‘As for their language, their writing and arithmetic, language differs from all others. It is very difficult to learn, because they give different names to one and the same thing. They speak very clearly, especially the notables and the learned. They use three types of writing. The first type, which is also the most important, like

[P. 32]
the writing of Chinese and Japanese and is used to print all their books and writings that relate to the state and government. The second is very fast as our cursive, the notables and governors use it routinely to write sentences or to annotate queries and for their private correspondence, as the common man does not know to read it. The third writing, the simplest, is used by women or jointly. It is very easy for an acquisition, but it allows them to write everything and even unfamiliar words easily and better than the other two.


 In all Von Siebold met by Korea (National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden).

cases we write with a brush – with great skill and speed. They have a lot of handwritten or printed works from ancient times and assign such a value that is the brother of the king or crown prince who has custody forever. Copies and printing plates are held in many cities and fortresses, which they can not find it private in case of fire or other catastrophe. ‘

The three graphs are traditional Chinese writing, the cursive and abbreviated Chinese invented the Korean alphabet in the middle of the fifteenth century. The Veritable Records (Chronicles authentic) concerning the events in the reign of the Yi Dynasty (1392-1910) have in fact been kept in different places for the reasons mentioned by Hamel. We find an example of conservation of engravings at the monastery of his Haein-west of Taegu, where stores 81,258 wooden planks that were used for printing, between 1237 and 1251, the Buddhist canon ( Tripitaka).

We find also a very interesting information on Korea in the seventeenth century in Noord-en Oost-Tartaryen (Tartars North and East), a work in two volumes from the hand of Nicolas Witsen, who between 1682 and 1705, was thirteen times mayor of Amsterdam, and in 1697-1698, master of ship-building of Tsar Peter the Great.

For his description of Korea, Witsen made use, among other sources of oral information provided by Matthew Eibokken, a fellow sufferers of Hamel. Eibokken was the second surgeon already mentioned, a rather considerable, judging from the minutes of Hamel. The relationship Eibokken brings a host of valuable supplements

[P. 33]


The original text of the poem by Ko Ungyang (Library of the University of Leiden).

to the work of Hamel, which is particularly interesting is its glossary of 143 Korean words. Their spelling, we can affirm qu’Eibokken was able to read and write the Korean alphabet.

This article has already mentioned the Dutch factory located in the artificial island of Dejima where Dutch in 1641 to 1854 were the only Europeans allowed to trade with Japan.

Between 1823 and 1829, Dr. Philipp Franz von Siebold, a native of Würzburg, including filling the position of physician in the service of the Dutch. It was a great scholar who taught Western medicine to many Japanese, who, after his return to the Netherlands, has contributed significantly through its publications to make known in Europe Japan and its neighbors. During his stay in Dejima, new contacts took place between Dutch and Koreans; their meeting on March 17, 1828 deserves special mention.

Three boats manned by Korean trentesix men from the province of Cholla-do, had been wrecked near Goto Islands and the western coast of Kyushu. They were brought to the trading post of the feudal prince of Tsushima in Nagasaki, as this gentleman was in charge of relations between Korea and Japan.

On the said date, Von Siebold and his friend Hubert Carel de Villeneuve received permission to meet six of the castaways. On this occasion, we held a banquet where they exchanged gifts.

Here is the translation of a poem by a Chinese merchant Korean and Von Siebold given to:

On borders and capitals of the world
I have learned nothing since my birth and my adolescence.
The winds have thrown off the coast of Japan.
The prohibitions are lifted and here we are in this nice house.
People from three countries met
and play together now …
It has become an enchanting encounter
and giving the tone here?
We chaired a talented Dutch!
I had never heard of Holland …
We Koreans, we express our respect
and are establishing friendship with you.
Written by KB Ungyang, Korean.
Subsequently Von Siebold and Villeneuve went a few visits to their Korean friends, the first named deepened his knowledge of the Korean script, on which he had in 1824 sent a communication to the Government of the Netherlands Indies, while De Villeneuve and Japanese painter Kawahara Keig realized portraits and other artwork. In the interest of Von Siebold in Korea we are not only the first scientific paper on the language and script of this country but also an overview of Korean history.

[P. 34]


Korean children’s song recorded by a Korean friend of Von Siebold (Library of the University of Leiden). The Korean text (third and fifth columns from the right) is written in Korean alphabet (‘han’gul’) and with the right, by a phonetic Japanese. Then comes a Japanese translation (sixth and seventh columns from the right). Here’s what the song says:
‘In this world there is nothing worse than a spider!
Reeling off his son from behind
she makes a great canvas to entangle the butterfly,
so happily visiting the flowers. ‘
Chinese characters (quite close to the right and drawings) mean: Korean song, Korean girl, woman and boy Korean Korean.

[P. 35]
After the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Korea became a Japanese protectorate which Ito Hirobumi was the first resident-general.

The opening at The Hague in June 1907 of the second Peace Conference appeared to the Emperor Korean Kojong a golden opportunity to plead before a Korean global forum. On April 20, without any filtration – which was a feat, given the pervasiveness of Japanese agents and their creatures – he named three ambassadors to Koreans


Korean shipwrecked in Nagasaki near the scene ‘paduk’.

the Conference. This was the former Minister vicepremier Sangsol Yi, former Judge of the High Court of Justice Chun Yi and former secretary of the Korean Embassy in St. Petersburg, Yi Wijong. Flanked by the American academic Homer B. Hulbert who served as their advisor, they came to 24 June in The Hague.

Such as Russia and Japan were preparing for the month following the conclusion of an agreement to partition Manchuria into two zones of influence, the president of the conference, the Russian Nelidov, refused admission to the Korean delegation unless invitation by the Dutch government. But neither the Minister

[P. 36]
Dutch Foreign Affairs nor the heads of other delegations were willing to lend their support to the Koreans. Their argument was that under the protectorate treaty of November 1905, it was Japan who was in charge of External Relations of Korea. So the mission was completed she a fiasco.

On July 19, the Japanese forced the emperor to abdicate in favor of his son, Crown Prince, who was incompetent. Five days later it ratified a new agreement also confided to the resident-general control of the internal administration of Korea. This measure is transformed into the final annexation of Korea by Japan in August 1910 as a mere formality.

Yi Chun died July 15 in The Hague: the failure of his mission had prompted him to completely ignore an already dilapidated health. He was buried in the cemetery of Nieuw Eykenduynen


Korean painting on a roll, given as a gift to Von Siebold (National Museum of Ethnology, Leiden).

where his tomb became a place of pilgrimage for all Koreans who visit the Netherlands – although his ashes were transferred to Suyu-ri (Seoul) in 1963.

This article can not ignore the involvement of Dutch land and naval forces in the Korean War (1951-1953). Nearly 4000 Dutch fought on the Korean front: 123 died in battle, 645 were wounded. On September 29, 1975 saw the inauguration Hoengsong near a beautiful monument in honor of the Dutch United Nations Detachment.


The monument to the Dutch Detachment United Nations.



(info from my  korean friend)

 *Han Hyo Joo as DongYi / Choi suk bin      11—49 years old.

*Han Hyo Joo as DongYi / Choi suk bin

Born on 1670 (11 th year of King Hyunjong) Later, Mother of King Yeongjo.

King  Jeong Jo

She was honored as Sukbin which is located third level in Chosun lady’s hierarchy system. She is very bright, smart and witty. Not only smart but also warm heart, she cannot pass poor person freely. After her father and brother was executed bitterly, she became a orphan. As police officer Mr. Seo Yongki chase her continuously, she hide herself in Jangakwon, which is music academy, with the help of Suli. With her born familiarity and wit, she is chosen as a helper in palace from the slave position. Behind her, there is Cha Chunsoo, who gave her a love in spite of all kind of sacrifice. He is best friend of her brother, Dongju.

Later, surprisingly, she was picked up by Sukjong to sleep with. Then, discord against queen Chang Heebin, then, return of queen Inhyun, giving birth to a prince, Yeonanggun. Love from Sukjong, trouble with queen Inhyun. Education of prince Yeonanggun, whose position was always in danger. Within the difficulty which concubine would face and her son’s royalty to her, her life faced incredible turning point.   

 *Ji Jin Hee as King Sukjong      24-60 years old.

Ji Jin-hee as King Sukjong (1661-1720)

The 19th king of Chosun dynasty (1661—1720) His- childhood- time name was Soon. He was absolute monarch of Chosun. He recovered the authority of king which had dropped before. Though he became a king when just 14 years old, with the powerful leadership and wide knowledge, he succeeded and ruled experienced old his subjects. To recover royalty of king which had dropped through 2 times war, he eliminated Song Siyul who was the biggest scholar in Chosun. With the powerful leadership and gut, he controlled his subjects and used the power game among his subjects. Though he was scareful king to his subjects, he is delicate and smart. That means, he was smart and fantastic king to the numerous concubine. He met Dongyi first time during palace festival, then, he was impressed by her warmth and smartness.

Description of the Kingdom Korea

Geographical situations.

The country, which is called Korea by us and Chosŏn Kuk by the inhabitants themselves, is situated between 33 and 44 degrees latitude and is from north to south around 150 miles long and from east to west around 75 miles wide. Korean cartographers depict the country like an oblong, like a playing card, though it has several extensions which point deep into the sea. 

The country is divided into eight provinces, in which you will find 360 cities and furthermore a big number of fortresses and castles, which are located partly in the mountains and partly alongside the coast. For whom is not known locally, it is very dangerous to approach the country by ship, because everywhere alongside the coast cliffs and shallow places will hinder a safe passing by ship. 

The country is densely populated and can maintain in its own needs in favorable years, because of the surplus of rice, grain and cotton, which is provided by the south of the country. To the southeast the country is closely situated near Japan. The distance between the Korean city Pusan and the Japanese city East Shimonoseki amounts to 25 to 26 miles (Hamel wrote Hacca, “Ha-kwan” is the Korean pronunciation for Shimonoseki in Japan and 25-26 miles with 1 mile being 7.5 = 195-210 the real distance is 205 km!).

In the strait between Korea and Japan lies the island of Tsushima, which the Koreans call Tymatte (The Japanese called it in effect Tsushima and the Koreans Taimato). According to the Koreans this was originally part of their country, but was taken by the Japanese, in exchange for the island of Quelpaert (This is historically not true, look here). To the west side, the kingdom is being separated from China by rough mountains, so it’s almost an island. 


To the southeast is a vast sea. Not seldom, one finds whales with Dutch harpoons in their body. In the months of January to April a lot of herring is being caught. In the first two months the herring is the same as the one that is caught in the North Sea; after that they catch a smaller species. Presumably there is a passage from Waaigat.

( The cabin boy Benedictus Clerq saw how the Koreans took harpoons out of the carcasses of the whales which were captured by them, which he recognized with big certainty as being Dutch harpoons. As a boy of twelve years old he had made a trip on a whaling vessel to Greenland. So he knew exactly how these harpoons looked like. From this he drew the conclusion, that there was a passage – at least for fish – between Nova Zembla and Korea and Japan.) 
Waaigat (=Dutch for storm gate; the Russians call that Vaygach, it is close to Novaya Zemlya (Nova Zembla. If you want to see the map of Nova Zembla better, just click on it).


He who wants to travel from Korea to China, almost always goes by ship, because the voyage by land in summertime is dangerous because of the game, which are roaming around in the mountain range in big numbers, and in wintertime impossible due to the severe cold. 
In wintertime the northern part of the bay is frozen, so it is easy to travel on horseback to China. In wintertime an enormous amount of snow often falls in the north. In the year 1662, we were in a monastery in the mountains, where the snow was that high, that one had dug tunnels under the snow to go from one house to the other. In order to be able to walk over it, the Koreans tied small planks around their feet, so they didn’t sink into the snow. 

Agricultural products

In those areas the people live from barley and millet, because rice can’t grow there. Cotton grows there neither, so it had to be supplied from the south. The ordinary man in these areas is most of the time shabbily dressed in hemp, linen or hides. But in these areas one can also find the ginseng plant. The root of this plant is being used to pay the tribute to the Tartarians. This stuff is furthermore much exported to China and Japan. 

Form of constitution

Though Korea can be considered as a vassal state of the Tartarians, the latter respected the sovereignty of the king so far as it concerned local government. He practices his power unlimitedly. The crown council is just an advisory college. There are no feudal lords in the country, who own cities, villages or islands. The well-to-do take their income from farmlands and slaves. Some of them own not less than 2000 to 3000 slaves. There are some who have islands or domains in loan from the king, but as soon as they die, these fall back to the king.

The word Ginseng comes from the Chinese word Jin Shen, which means “little man”, because the roots of this plant look a little bit like a figurine. The best Ginseng comes from the Manchurian Mountain range. The half-wild Korean ginseng is considered to be of less quality. That’s why it’s strange that the Koreans paid their tribute partly with ginseng. Maybe because the plant grows in Manchuria in inhospitable areas. The root was and is mainly considered as a cure-all; a panacea. In reality it has no medical power, but it can be used as a tonic.

The army

For the defense of the country there are several thousands of soldiers in the capital, both cavalry and infantry. They are maintained by the king. Their duty is to guard the king and protect him if he goes out. Each province is obliged to send all its free men, once every seven years to the capital, to guard the palace of the king during two months; every two months another group and each year another province. Each province has a general who has three to four colonels below him. Below each colonel are a number of captains, who are commanders of a city or a stronghold. Each ward has a sergeant, each village a corporal and at the head of each group of ten men is a soldier first class. All officers and noncommissioned officers have to keep records with the names of all the men who falls under his command. These records have to be handed over to their superiors once a year. In this way, the king always knows how many soldiers he has at his disposal. The horsemen always wear a suit of armor and a helmet. They carry a sword, a bow and arrows and a kind of flail with sharp points. Of the infantry, some wear suits of armor and helmets, made of iron plates, and also from bone. They are armed with muskets, sables and short lances. The officers are armed with bow and arrow. Each soldier has to have gunpowder and bullets for 50 shots at his own expense. When we served in Seoul , we received on a certain day 10 blows on our bare buttocks, because we didn’t have enough gunpowder on us. Each city has to appoint a number of monks from the monasteries in its surroundings who have to maintain the fortresses and strongholds in the mountains. In times of great need these monks are being used as soldiers. They are armed with sword, bow and arrow. 

They are considered to be the best soldiers of the country. They are under the command of a captain they have chosen from their own ranks. Who has reached the age of 60 is dismissed from military service. His place is being taken by his children. The free men who haven’t been in the army, form, together with the slaves, half of the population. If a free man fathers a child from a slave or a slave from a free woman, is the child which is conceived in this way, a slave. If a male slave who begets children by a female slave, those children become the property of the owner of the female slave. Each city has to maintain a war junk, with the crew, the armament and further accessories. These junks have two decks and 20 to 24 oars. On each oar there are six rowers. The total crew consists of about 300 heads, soldiers and rowers. The junks have some pieces of artillery and provisions for shooting Byzantine fire. 

Byzantine fire is a flammable mixture that catches fire when it is exposed to water or oxygen. It was already used by the Byzantines to put the ships of the enemy on fire.

The war fleet 

Each province has an admiral, who drills the crew of the junks and inspects them yearly. He reports his findings to the admiral general, who sometimes takes a naval review. When one establishes only the smallest failing in the fulfilling of the duty of the admirals or the generals, the culprit is exiled or condemned to death. Such happened in 1666 with our governor. 

Political Organs.

The Crown Council forms the advisory council for the king. It gathers daily at the palace. Its advises are not binding for the king. Members of the Crown Council are the most important people of the country. As long as they don’t misbehave, they remain members of the Crown Council until they are 80 years old. This counts for all high functionaries, everybody keeps his function until he is 80 years old, unless he is promoted. 

The term of office of a Stadtholder is three years, of the remaining functionaries one year. A lot of them however are relieved of their function before the term of the office ends because of fraud, corruption or any other offense. Everywhere in the country there are spies of the king, who spot any irregularity immediately. He who has been caught, risks death or lifelong exile. 

Fiscal system

The king derives his income from taxes, which are raised on the profit of agriculture and fisheries. These taxes are often paid in kind, for which the king has warehouses in all cities and villages. What the king receives in silver, he lends to the civilians again at an interest of 10%. Well-to-do live, like previously mentioned, from their own income and as far they’re in service of the king, from the allowance they get from him. The local authorities raise taxes on the properties on which houses are build, both in cities and in villages. The height of the tax is determined by the size of the property. The profit is used for the maintenance of all kind of local provisions. 

Who doesn’t fulfill military service, has to perform replacing activities, and that during three months per year. Cavalry and infantry in cities and villages have to hand over three pieces of linen, or the equivalent in silver on behalf of the cavalry and infantry that services in the capital. Further taxes and excises do not exist in this country.

Administration of justice

High treason or other serious crimes aimed at the king of the state, are punished very severely. The whole lineage of the culprit is wiped out. His house is demolished until the ground, On that place it is not allowed to build another house, ever. All his slaves and goods are confiscated. These are being used for either the good of the country or given away to deserving civilians. 
When someone criticizes the verdict that has been passed by the king, or on his behalf, will be punished severely. The king had a sister-in-law who was very skillful in making clothes. The king requested her to make a dress for him. The fact was that this woman nourished a deep hate against the king. That’s why she sowed some witches herbs in the lining of the dress. As a consequence he felt very uncomfortable, when he wore the dress, and couldn’t find any rest. That’s why he had the dress examined. When they had unpicked the dress, they discovered the malicious herbs hidden in it. The king became outrageous and had the woman locked up in a room of which the floor was made of copper plates. Here under a fire was lit, so that the woman slowly stewed and subsequently died. 
An acquaintance of the woman, a high placed civil servant, who was highly esteemed at the court protested against this. He thought that one should not treat a woman, especially a woman in a prominent position, like that. Here upon the high civil servant was caught. He received 120 beatings on the shins and was then beheaded. His goods and slaves were confiscated. Offenses like that, and also the other ones I will mention further on, are considered to be a personal offense. The family of the culprit is not being punished, like in the case of high treason. 

A woman, who kills her husband, is buried alongside a road on which a lot of people pass, in a way that only her head sticks out of the ground. Next to her they put a wooden saw, with which everybody who passes her, except the nobility, has to saw one time on her head, until she dies. The city or the environment in which the murder has taken place, loses during a number of years the right to have its own governor. During this period the city is administrated by the governor of a neighboring city or by a nobleman, on behalf of the king. A man who kills his wife goes freely if he can proof that he had a good reason for that, for instance adultery or having failed in her marital duties. A man, who kills a female slave, has to pay to the owner of the female slave, three times the value. Slaves, who kill their master, are being tortured during a long time until death follows. A master can kill his slave because of a small offense. Commonly killers are killed in the same way as they killed their victims, but first they receive several beatings on the soles of their feet. 
Who is guilty of manslaughter, is punished as follows: the corps of the body is washed with vinegar and dirty water. This mixture is poured into the mouth of the criminal with a funnel. Then his swollen belly is beaten with sticks until it bursts. 

Though also theft and burglary are severely punished, a lot is being stolen. Thieves are generally beaten on the soles of their feet until they pass out. 

Who commits adultery with a married woman, is lead through the city, together with the woman, naked or just dressed in thin underpants. From both the face is smeared with slake lime, they have an arrow through each ear, and on their back a small drum is tied on their back on which a judicial servant beats while he shouts: “Look people!, this man and this woman committed adultery!”. After being led through the city like this, they conclusively got 50 to 60 beating on their buttocks in the square in front of the city hall. 

Who doesn’t pay his taxes in time, is beaten on the shins twice or three times a month, until he pays his debt. If he dies before this time, his family or friends have to foot the debt. 

The most usual punishment in this country consists of beatings on the calves or buttocks. This is not considered to be disgraceful, because a little offense. can already be a cause. 

The common governors cannot condemn somebody to death without the consent of the Stadtholder. 

The beatings of the shins are done as follows: the condemned is placed on a stool with his legs tied together. On his shins they put two stripes, one a hand width under his knees, and one a hand width above his feet. There ( between the stripes ) he is beaten with sticks of one arm length, round at the top and flat at the bottom, two fingers wide and a two and a half guilder coin thick, made of oak or alder wood. After 30 beatings the condemned gets three to four hours rest. Then the treatment continues, until he had his share. 
The beating of the soles of ones feet, takes place as follows: while the condemned sits on the ground, his feet are tied together with his big toes and placed upon a beam. With round sticks as thick as an arm he is beaten then on the soles of his feet as long as the judge pleases. 
The beating of the buttocks takes place as follows: The condemned has to lower his pants and lie face down. Sometimes he has to lay face down on a bench, at which he is tied. For moral reasons the women can keep up their pants. These are wetted to feel the blows better. For the beating sticks are being used which are five feet long, round at the top and one hand wide at the bottom and of a little finger’s thickness. A hundred beatings mean the death of the condemned. Beatings are also done with rods: bundles of twigs which are one finger thick and three feet long. The punished have to stand on a bench and is beaten with these rods on the calves. For children thinner twigs are used. 
Many punished howl from pain, while other show a pitiful moaning. Therefore, these tortures are a true torture for the bystanders as well. 


Concerning religion, the temples, monks and religious practices, I think I have to draw the conclusion that the common civilian has more respect for the government, then for the many Gods. The well to do even show less religious respect. They seem to esteem themselves and their equals higher than their idols. When a Korean dies, regardless he was high or common, the monks come to say their prayers and bring offerings for the deceased, where family and acquaintances are present. If some highly placed person dies, his next of kin sometimes come from 30 to 40 miles away, to attend these ceremonies.
On official holidays some farmers and civilians come to honor the Gods. They light a fine smelling stick (incense) in a little pot with fire, which burns in front of the Idol’s statue. They mumble there for a moment, make a few bows and leave again. They claim that he who does good, will be rewarded for that later and he who does evil, will be punished later. Preaching or teaching is not one of their religious practices. They also never discuss about religious affairs. They don’t know a diversity of religions like we do. Throughout the whole country one honors the gods in the same way.
The monks pray twice a day in front of the statues, while bringing fragrant offerings. On official holidays a lot of people come to the temples and the monks make a lot of noise by beating on drums and gongs and the monks also make strange music with flutes and primitive string instruments.

There are many monasteries and temples in the country. These are almost all in the mountains, often at beautiful spots. In some of these monasteries there are sometimes 600 monks. But in the cities there are also small monasteries in which 10, 20, at the utmost 30 monks live. In each monastery the oldest monk is in charge. If one of the monks misbehaves, he can administer 20 to 30 blows on the buttocks. But with severe offenses the monk is handed to the governor of the city.
There’s no lack of monks, but their doctrine doesn’t represent much. Everyone who wants, can become a monk in an instance and stop again when he doesn’t like it. Monks therefore are not highly esteemed in this country. 
There are however also very highly placed monks, who supervise a big number of monasteries. These are highly esteemed however. One respects their knowledge. They are considered to belong to the court of the king. They use the national stamp and have jurisdiction when they visit the monasteries. They ride on horseback and where they come they are welcomed with a lot of ceremony. 

Shin Yun Bok: Prominent Koreans in the company of some Kisengs. Hamel calls these ladies unashamed “whores”. Sex however was only a part of their repertoire that included also singing, dance and music. Oil on silk (1758?), Chosôn.

All monks are vegetarians; they neither eat eggs. They shave their heads and chins smoothly. They are not allowed to speak with women. Offenders of these regulations get 80 blows on their buttocks and are expelled from the monastery. At their entrance they receive a brand on their right arm, so one can always see that a Korean has been a monk. Ordinary monks have to make a living with working, trading and begging.In all monasteries there are a number of small boys who receive education in reading and writing and religious affairs. But they are allowed to leave the monastery as well. These boys consider the monks who have raised them as their fathers. They are in mourning if one of them dies. There are in Korea also other monks. These don’t shave their heads and are allowed to marry. 

The monasteries are build with gifts which have been collected by the people. Anybody from highly placed persons to commoners contributes to this. On itself this, however, is not enough to live on. Many monks believe that all people used to speak the same language. But the big amount of languages originates when the people wanted to build a tower to climb to heaven.

The well to do often go to a monastery to spend their leisure time. These are pleasantly situated in the mountains and between the trees. They often take whores with them to amuse themselves, and drink often a lot of strong alcoholic drinks, so that many a monastery looks more like a brothel or a cheap joint then a place where one can repent.
In the capital there were two convents, one for noble women and one for common women. The women have also shaved their heads and perform ceremonies in the same way as the monks. They don’t work nor beg, but live from an allowance from the king. Four or five years ago the present king disbanded these two convents and gave permission to the nuns to marry.

Public housing

Concerning public housing it can be established that the well to do live in very beautiful houses, but that the common man has to be satisfied with a slum. In general it is the Koreans not allowed to alter something to their houses. For a roofing with roof tiles they need permission from the governor. That’s why the most ordinary houses are covered with cork, reed or straw. The properties are separated by each other by a wall or a fence. The houses are built on poles. The lower part of the walls is made of stone. The part above the walls are partly made of timbering with mud smeared in-between. On the inside the walls are covered with white paper.
Under the floors of the rooms they heat continuously, so that they are always warm like a baker’s oven. The floors are covered with oiled paper. The houses only have one floor with on top of that a small loft, where they can store all kind of small things. Noble people have in front of the actual house an accommodation for guests where they can receive friends and acquaintances, who will stay there sometimes. They use this separate living space to relax and rest. This room usually looks out at an inner courtyard with a fountain and a fishpond, and a garden full of plants, rocks and some trees.
The women live in the back part of the house, so they can’t be stared at by passersby. Merchants often have besides their house a warehouse, in which they store goods, have office and receive their relations, whom they treat most of the time with tobacco and arak (arak is actually an Indonesian drink, most likely Hamel means Soju) Their wives often join them too. Sometimes they visit others as well, but they are always close to each other or to their husbands. 
In general their houses are scarcely furnitured; only the most necessary things are there. In all cities there are many joints and brothels where men go to see the whores dancing and where music is made and singing is done. 

In summertime when the weather is beautiful, the Koreans sometimes go to the mountains to relax in the woods. They do not know inns, where travelers can stay. Fatigued travelers sit down in the inner courtyard of a private house, where they get food and something to drink. The guest rooms of the well to do are always open for travelers passing by as well. Alongside the main roads however there are stopping places where the ones who are on an official journey can stay overnight and eat on the expenses of the community.

Marital law

Blood relatives are not allowed to marry until the fourth degree. There is no engagement time, because marriages are arranged by the parents when the children are only 10 to twelve years old. The girl is then going to live in the house of her parents in law, unless her parents don’t have sons. The girl and the young husband stay to live there until she learned to be a good housewife and he how to make a living. Then they move to a house of their own. Some days before the wedding the girl returns to her parental house. In the morning she will be picked up here by her husband, who is in the company of friends and relatives. These are given a warm welcome, after which the whole company goes on horseback in a festive parade to the new house. There the matrimony is celebrated.

A man can repudiate a wife, even if he begets several children by her. He then may marry again. A woman doesn’t have these privileges unless a judge has granted her these.
A man may have as many wives as he can maintain and, if he desires, go to the whores. One woman stays in his house and does the housekeeping. The other women live somewhere else in separate houses. Noblemen usually have two to three women in their house, of which one is in charge of the housekeeping. Each of these women has her own apartment, where the lord of the house can visit them to his liking.
The Koreans treat their women as slaves, whom they can repudiate for a futility. If the man doesn’t want the children, the repudiated woman has to take them with her. No wonder this country is so densely populated.


Noblemen and well to do give their children a good education. They hire teachers to teach them reading and writing. The children do not receive education with strictness but with gentleness. They are told about the many wise men in their history and how they received an honorable position in the country. It is admirable to see how diligently these young children study the scriptures which are given to them to read and which form the main part of their learning program. 

In each city there is a house in which the ones who have given their lives for the country are remembered. In these houses old scriptures are kept. Youngsters study these scriptures. When they have fulfilled their study, the governor is informed who sends examiners to examine them. The names of the ones, who are found to be suitable to hold a administrator function, are passed on to the court of the king. Yearly meetings have been held, during which the candidates for government functions are examined. The successful candidates receive from the king a Letter of Promotion. This is a much wanted document. Many a young nobleman became a senior beggar before he finally succeeded to receive the document in the meantime. They have exhausted their means -which are often very modest – by high costs, donations and meals they had to give to achieve the intended goal. Many parents also have to grab deep into their wallet, to pay for the study of their children. Too many never get the high administrator post for which it all started in the first place. But the bare fact that their children succeeded in passing the exam, give the parents so much satisfaction that the sacrifices they had to do are highly compensated.
The parents love their children very much, as well as the children do their parents. If one of the parents committed a crime and he succeeded in avoiding the punishment which stands for it, then the children will have to take the blame. The reverse is also true.
Between parents and children of slaves is a much looser bond. This is because the owners take the children from their parents as soon as they are able to work.

Delivery of corpses.

For a deceased father the sons observe three, and for a deceased mother two years of mourning. During this time they use the same food as monks and they are not allowed to carry out any public duty. Who carries a public duty, has to resign immediately when his father or mother dies. During the period of mourning they are not allowed to have intercourse with their wife. Children fathered during that period, are considered to be illegitimate children.
During the period of mourning the Koreans are not allowed to argue, fight nor become drunk. They wear long skirts from rough linen, at the bottom no hem, and around it a belt of hemp, as thick as a cable of a ship or the arm of a grown up man. Around their heads they wear a somewhat thinner rope with a bamboo hat. In their hand they carry a thick stick or a thin bamboo stalk. Thus one can see if somebody mourns for his father or mother; the stick indicates that his father, the bamboo stalk that his mother has died. Mourning people wash themselves also little, so that they sometimes look like a scarecrow.
When somebody has died, his friends and relatives behave like madmen; they cry and shriek and pull their hair from their heads. To bury the dead, much care is taken. Fortune tellers determine what the most suitable burial place is. This is most of the time in the mountains, where no water can reach it. The body is placed in a double coffin. Each coffin is 2 or 3 thumbs thick. They fill the coffin with new clothes and other things which the deceased is supposed to need in the next world. The wealthier the relatives, the more they put into the coffin. Burials usually take place in spring and in fall when the harvesting has been done. Who dies in summertime usually is temporarily interned in a small house made of straw and which stands on high poles. The bearers do nothing else then dancing and singing, while the relatives fill the air with their wailing. The third day friends and acquaintances go to the grave to make their offerings. They make it a gay day. On the graves one finds normally a small hill of 3, 4 or 6 feet high, neatly planted with small ornamental bushes. Prominent deceased are interned in graves which are covered with stones on which some statues are put. The name of the deceased and the function he fulfilled is carved in the stones. 
On the fifteenth day of the eighth month, the grass on the graves is mowed and a rice offering is made. This is, except for New Year the most important holiday in the year. Their calendar is based on the cycle of the moon: after three years of each twelve months, follows always a year with thirteen months. There are female fortune tellers in the country, or witches who won’t harm anybody. They examine whether a deceased died peacefully or not. And if he has been buried on the right spot. Is this not the case according to them, then the corps is exhumed and reburied somewhere else. So it happens sometimes that a corps is replaced three times. 
After the death of the parents and after the burial rites have been performed, the eldest son gets the house and the accessories. The remaining properties, lands and goods are being divided amongst the other sons. Daughters never inherit anything, not even if they don’t have brothers. When an old father becomes 80 years old, he is obliged to hand over all his possessions to his sons, because at that age he is not considered to be able to take care of these in a proper way. Such an old man however is highly esteemed by his sons and is well taken care of.

Moral standards

With regard to the moral standards, it has to be said that the Koreans are not very strict when it comes to mine and thine, they lie and cheat and that’s why they can’t be trusted. They are proud if they have cheated somebody and they don’t think that’s a disgrace. That’s why they can undo the buy of a horse or a cow even after four months if it becomes clear that the buyer has been cheated. But the sale of a parcel ground or other immovable goods can only be undone if the conveyance has not taken place yet.

On the other hand the Koreans are very gullible. We could fool them with anything. This was particularly true for the monks, who liked to listen to stories about foreign countries and their people. Furthermore they are very cowardly, as it seemed what we have heard from reliable people concerning their behavior during the Japanese invasion, when their king was killed and a great number of cities and villages were destroyed. From Jan Janse Weltevree we heard that when the Tartarians came over the ice and occupied the country, more soldiers hanged themselves in the wood, than had been killed during the battle against the invaders. The Koreans don’t consider this to be unworthy. They think that these people who commit suicide are pitiful people, who came into an emergency situation, in which they only could escape by committing suicide.
So it happened quite a few times that when Dutch, English or Portuguese ships on their way to Japan came into Korean waters, Korean war junks who wanted to take possession of these ships returned empty-handed to their base, because the persons on board did it in their trousers out of fear.
They can’t see any blood. If a Korean gets wounded during a battle, the others don’t know how quickly to leave the battlefield. They also have fear for diseases, especially contagious ones. As soon as somebody gets seriously ill, they take him out of his house, to put him in a small hut of straw, outside the city or village he lives in. Here nobody else visits him other than his next of kin, who brings him food and something to drink. Who doesn’t have any next of kin, runs the big risk, in the case of a disease, to be left completely unattended in a hut like that. When somewhere an epidemic breaks out, the entrance to the house of the sick persons is blocked with thorn branches. On top of that they put thorn branches on the roof of the houses to mark them as such.


The only people who have a trade post on Korean soil are the Japanese who own a factory on the southeast side of the city of Pusan. The Japanese who stay there come from the island Tsushima. They import pepper, sapwood, alum, buffalo horn, deer skins and more goods which are imported by us and the Chinese into Japan. Furthermore they have some trade with Peking (=Beijing) and the north of China. The trip to and fro takes three months, which is very costly. That’s why only the greatest merchants can undertake these trips. At the foreign trade they usually use linen as a means of trade. The greater merchants use also silver as a means of trade, but the farmers and the common people use rice and grains.
Before the Tartarians took over this country this was a country full of bliss and friskiness. The people did nothing else but eating, drinking and making love. But now they have to pay so much tribute to Tartarians and the Japanese that they have hardly anything to eat in feeble years. It is especially the tribute to the Tartarians who usually personally come to claim it three times a year, which pressures heavily on the economy of the country.

World Orientation

The Koreans believe that there are only twelve countries or kingdoms in the world, which were all once subordinate to the emperor of China and had to pay tribute to him. But that all these countries have liberated themselves in the meantime, because the Tartarians couldn’t conquer them. They call the Tartarians Tieckese (looks like the Chinese: Chong Kwo ) and Orankaij [barbarians], they call our country Nampankuk, [Southern Country] which is the name which the Japanese gave to Portugal. Because we look in their eyes the same as the Portuguese, the Koreans give us the same name. They learned the name from the Japanese already some 50 years ago, when they came to teach them how to grow tobacco. The Japanese claimed that the seed of the tobacco plant came from Nampankuk. That’s why the Koreans usually call tobacco Nampankoy. In this country they smoke a lot, both men and women. And they start early with it. Many a time I saw a four-year-old toddler smoke a pipe.
In their old scriptures it is written that there are in total 84000 countries in the world. The Koreans consider this to be a fable. They say this number has to include all the islands, isles, cliffs and rocks, because it would be impossible for the sun to shine on all these countries in one twenty-four hour period. If we mentioned a number of countries they laughed and said this had to be the names of cities and villages. Because their maps didn’t reach further than Siam (=Thailand)

Vegetable and mineral products

This country can maintain in it’s own needs. It has an abundance of rice and other grain. Furthermore it produces cotton, hemp and flax. There are a lot of silkworms, though the Koreans don’t know the art to spin silk yarns sufficiently to weave cloths of highest quality.
Also silver, iron and lead is taken from the soil. From the wild regions they get various kinds of fur and the ginseng root. There are enough medicinal herbs, though that’s useless for the common man. They can’t afford a doctor and that’s why they go to a fortune teller or clairvoyant if they are sick. These advise normally to ask help from the Gods by bringing offerings on the mountains, alongside the rivers or on the rocks. They also call sometimes for the devil. The latter thing is not done so often lately, because the king has forbidden the devil worshipping in 1662.

Weights and measures

There exists one uniform system of measures and weights that counts for all of the country. But little merchants and hagglers often work with inaccurate weights and measures. It’s true that in each province a strict control is being practiced, but obviously the deceit that is committed with counterfeit weights and measures, is never to be wiped out. They know of no other coined money then the “kassis and this is only accepted as a legal currency in the area close to the Chinese border. In the rest of the country for the wholesale, small blocks of silver are being used as a means of payment. These exist in various weights. Retailers manage with rice and linen as a means of payment.


In Korea there are many horses and cattle. The horses are used for the transportation of persons and goods. They use cattle to pull the plough, the cows as well as the bulls. In the north of the country there are tigers. The fur is exported to China and Japan. Furthermore there are bears, deer, pigs, boars, dogs, cats, all kind of snakes, swans, geese, chickens storks, herons, crane birds, eagles, falcons, magpies, crows, cuckoos, pigeons, snipes, pheasants, larks, finches, thrushes, lapwings, harriers and many other kind of birds.

Language and literature

Korean is very hard to learn. It doesn’t look like any other language. Moreover, this language is pronounced in different ways. The important people and scholars usually speak slowly, little merchants on the contrary very fast. The common man is somewhat in between. The language is written in three different ways: in the first place there is the script, with which the books are being printed. This script looks like that of the Chinese and the Japanese. The second type looks more like our script. This is used by the governors and other high administrators, when they answer petitions or correspond with each other. The common man can’t read this. And finally there is the third type. This is being used by women and simple men. It is very easy to learn and one can write something with it very easily. This is done with a small pencil and they are very handy at it.
The Koreans possess many very old books of which some are printed and some are written by hand. They value this very much, proven by the fact the brother of the king supervises this. In several cities and fortresses, copies and printing plates of these books are being kept, so that in case of fire they won’t be lost completely. Their almanacs are made in the Chinese language, since they don’t know the art to make them by themselves. Printing of a book is done with wooden plates. On both sides of a sheet a plate is placed.


The Koreans count with wooden sticks. They have no knowledge of bookkeeping. If they buy something, they write down how much they paid for it. Underneath they write down the amount for which they sold it. By subtracting these numbers, they see how much profit or loss they have made.

The king takes a ride.

When the king takes a ride, he is surrounded by all his noblemen of the court. These are dressed in black silk garments, on which both on the front or back a coat of arms and emblems have been embroidered and over which they wear a wide sash. In front of the parade are the horsemen and infantry with a lot of flags and music, who receive a ration from the king, dressed in their most beautiful garments. Behind them follows the body guard of the king, selected from the most important civilians of the city. In their midst the king sits in his sedan chair which is beautifully decorated and gilded. If he passes by it becomes so silent that you only hear the stamping of the horses and foot steps of the soldiers.
Right in front of the king rides a secretary of state or an other high official. He carries a little chest in which one places the requests, which are handed over from the public on a long bamboo stem. There are also requests hanging on the walls where the king passes. All these requests the secretary puts in that little chest. These requests concern the injustice the requestant experienced by the government or other civilians, or punishments laid upon innocent friends or relatives and many other cases. When the king is back in his palace, the secretary hands him over the little chest with the requests. The king makes a verdict which is final and irrevocable. This verdict is executed immediately.
The streets, which the king passes, are closed at both ends. Nobody is allowed to open a door or window or look over a wall or fence. Highly placed and the military whom are passed by the king, have to stand with their backs turned to him and are not allowed to look around, or even allowed to cough. That’s why the soldiers usually put a stick in their mouth, like the bit of a horse, to make no sound at all.

Visit of the Tartarian envoy

When the Tartarian envoy visits the country, the king personally has to ride toward him with all his noblemen to pledge the necessary honor. He accompanies him to his accommodation. Music is made during this, while clowns show their tricks. In fact the envoy is shown more respect than the king himself, when he rides out.

In the parade which accompanies the envoy, also old pieces of arts are carried along and during the stay of the envoy, the street from his residency to the court is closed off by soldiers. These are lined up in long rows, two or three fathoms apart from each other. There are also two or three men who do nothing else then bringing notes which come from the residency to their king, so he knows any moment what the envoy is doing. Furthermore they do everything in their power to please the envoy, so he takes favorable messages about them to the emperor in Peking.


The Journal


Hendrick Hamel

This is the journal, which describes the fate of the officers and crew of the VOC-jaght the Sperwer in the period from August 16th, when the jaght shipwrecked off the coast of the island Quelpaert, which is subject to the king of Coree, and lies south of the coast of this country, till September 1666, when eight of the survivors arrived in Nangasackij in Iapan, with also a description of the nation and the country of Coree.

The shipwreck

After we were sent, by order of the Governor-general and the Counsel of the Indies, we went with the jaght the Sperwer and hoisted sail at June 18th, 1653 from Batavia, with destination Taijoan (Tainan). One of the passengers aboard was Mr. Cornelis Caesar who would relieve Mr. Nicolaes Verburgh as governor of Taijoan,. Formosa (Taiwan) .After a prosperous journey the jaght arrived on July 16th in the roadstead of Taiwan, where Mr. Caesar disembarked and the cargo was unloaded. At July 30th, the jaght left by order from the governor and the Council from Taijoan to Iapan, to continue our journey in the name of God. To avoid confusion between the modern word “yacht”, which is derived from the word the “jaght”, we continue to use the word “jaght.”

On the last day of July, the weather was beautiful, but in the evening there was a storm coming up from the coast of Formosa, which increased in the course of the night. On the first of August we were at dawn break in the neighborhood of a small island. We tried our best to drop our anchor behind this island to find a little bit of shelter. Eventually we succeeded with a lot of danger to do so. But we could only pay out the anchor rope a little, because behind us was a big reef, on which the surf ranted and raved heavily. The skipper discovered this island purely by chance. Luckily he was looking out of the window from the back of the ship or we would have stranded on the island and would have lost the ship. Because it was very dark we saw later that we were scarcely musket shot away from it.

When it brightened up, we saw that we were close to the coast of China. We could see troops of fully armed Chinese parade on the beach, they were hoping our ship would strand. With the help of the Almighty this was not to happen. On that day the storm didn’t decrease but increased and we stayed anchored that day as well as the following night. At August 2nd the weather was very calm. The Chinese still showed up in big numbers. It appeared as they were waiting for us like hungry wolves.

We also had quite some problems with our anchor and the ropes, so we decided, in order to prevent more problems to raise the anchor and set sail. In that way we wouldn’t see them anymore and we could get away from the coast. That day and the following one we had very little wind. At the third of August we discovered that the current [of the sea] drifted us back for another 20 miles (the German geographical mile, which is 7420 meter) and we saw the coast of Formosa again. We set course between both [China and Formosa]. From the fourth till the eleventh we had a lot of quiet and calm weather and we drifted between the coast of China and Formosa. At August 11th we were faced again with a fierce wind coming from the southeast, so we set course in the direction east-northeast-east. From the twelfth till the fourteenth the weather became worse and worse with a lot of wind and rain so we could sometimes hoist the sails but also sometimes we couldn’t. The sea became so turbulent and since we couldn’t take our bearings, we were forced to drift around without sail to prevent that we wouldn’t shipwreck on one or the other coast.

On the fifteenth the wind was so fierce that we couldn’t speak with each other above the roaring of the sea. We couldn’t hoist more than a handful of sail and the ship started to leak more and more. We were busy pumping to keep us dry. Because the sea was so turbulent, at times we got high seas rolling over and we though that we would sink.

At dusk a high wave almost swept the galleon and the transom away. This made also the bowsprit loose, so we were in dangerous loosing it from the bow. With all our strength we tried to tighten it a bit, but all our efforts were in vain, because of the heavy swaying of the ship and the high waves rolling over us. We saw no other solution to avoid the high seas and thought it advisable to hoist the jib a little. In this way we thought to save our skin, the ship and the goods of the company as much as possible and also to be saved a bit from the high waves. We thought that this, besides the help of God, would be the best. Suddenly a huge wave came rolling over from the behind, in such a way that the mates who were hoisting the jib, almost washed from the yard and the ship was filled with water.

The galleon was the light, usually decorated extension of the bow, and served as a support of the bowsprit; it ran from both sides of the front-part and stuck out, higher then the sprit with a peak or a figure head. The flat part of the back-end of the ship was often called a Spiegel (mirror) [in English: the transom]. This was often decorated with the heraldic arm of the city to which the ship belonged or an image in relief, which represented the name of the ship

Here upon the skipper shouted: “Men, keep God in mind.” The waves hit us twice in such a way that we thought that we would die for sure. We couldn’t stop it any longer.sperwerInDistress.jpg (21956 bytes)

It had just stricken two glasses of the middle watch, when the lookout shouted: “land ashore”. We were just one musket shot away from it. But because of the darkness and the heavy rain we didn’t notice it earlier. We dropped anchors immediately because the rudder had turned around. But because of the waves, the depth of the sea and the fierce wind, the anchors didn’t catch. In a short while we hit the coast with three jolts so that the ship was completely smashed to smithereens.

Of the ones who were below decks in their bunks, several had no chance to come up to save their skin, the last thing they could do. Some of the ones on deck jumped overboard, others were swept hither and thither by the waves. When we reached the coast we were with fifteen men, most of us naked [could also be translated as: almost naked] and heavily wounded. Initially we though that no more were able to salvage their lives but sitting on the rocks we still heard the moaning of the people still in the wreckage, but we couldn’t find anyone in the dark, nor help them.

Stay on the island of Quelpaert

On the 16th at the crack of dawn, the ones who could still move reasonably, walked along the beach and shouted to see if more had come ashore. Here and there a few of them appeared. It seemed that there were only 36 men left, of which most of them, as said before, were considerably wounded. We looked in the wreck. We found a man there, who was jammed between two big beams. We freed him immediately. After three hours he died since his body was very seriously flattened out.

The manuscript speaks about leggers which also in English, on ships, means: big barrels, in Dutch however also beams. It seems unlikely  that during a shipwreck, someone gets caught between two, round objects, which were in general in the hold, as opposed to leggers, beams which were placed over the keel, hence the translation as beams (Nelson was brought back to England, after he died, in a legger of rum)

We looked at each other sadly. Seeing that in less than 15 minutes a beautiful ship smashed to smithereens and that we were reduced from 64 souls to 36 in less than 15 minutes. We searched immediately to see if any corpses had been washed ashore. We found skipper Reijnier Egberse from Amsterdam at around 10 or 12 fathoms (A fathom is 1,698 meters, so about 18 meters) from the waterline, with his one arm under his head. We buried him immediately, as well as the seven sailors we found dead hither and thither. We also looked for food, which possibly had washed ashore.

Since the last two or three days we had only eaten little, because the cook couldn’t cook, as a result of the bad weather. We only found a bag with flour, a barrel which was filled with meat and also a barrel with some bacon, further a small casket with sweet Spanish wine. The last thing coming in useful for the wounded.

What we needed most, was fire. Because we saw no living soul, we thought we were on a deserted island. At around noon, when the rain and wind calmed down, we brought so many things ashore, that we made a tent from some pieces of sail. At the 17th being together in misery, we looked around us to see if there were no people who could help us, hoping they were Japanders. In this way we could get back in our country, There was no other solution, since the boat was splintered and beyond repair. It was before noon, when we saw in the distance a human being at around a canon shot’s distance away [500 mtr] from our tent. We beckoned him, but as soon as he saw us, he took to his heels.

Shortly after noon another three people came at a musket shot’s distance from our tent, but they didn’t want to understand what we signaled and did. At the end one of us was so brave to walk to them to present him his gun en eventually received fire which we needed so dearly. They were dressed like Chinese, but had hats made of horsehair. We were very afraid about that, because we thought we had ended up in a nest of pirates or amongst banned Chinese.

At dusk about 100 armed people arrived at the tent. They counted us and kept watch during the night around the tent. In the morning of the 18th, they were putting up a big tent, at noon 1000 or 2000 men appeared, partly horsemen, partly foot-soldiers. They made up their camp around our our and once they were lined up they took hold of the bookkeeper, the head coxswain, the petty officer and the cabin boy and they were brought to the chief at a musket shot’s distance. They each got an iron chain around their neck, which had a bell attached to it, like we do in Holland with the sheep. They were forced to crawl on hands and knees onto the commander, where they were pushed with their faces against the ground. With that the warriors shouted so deafening, that the shivers ran us on our body. Our companions, who remained in or near the tent, when they heard and saw this, said to each other: “Our officers will be killed first we will follow suit.”

After a we had lain in this way for a while, they made our mates clear that they were allowed to sit on their knees. The commander asked us some questions, but they couldn’t understand him. Our people pointed and motioned to them that we wanted to go to Nangasakij in Iapan. But it was all in vain, because they didn’t understand each other. They didn’t know the word ‘Iapan‘ since they call the country Ieenare or IiIpon. The lieutenant-colonel had pored them a cup of arrack (probably Hamel means soju, since arrack is an Indonesian drink) and had them send back to the tent. Immediately they came and looked in the tent to see if we had some food and they found nothing more than the two, previously mentioned half full barrels with meat and bacon, which they showed immediately to the lieutenant-colonel.

After about an hour they brought us small portions in water boiled rice. They thought that we were starved, so that bigger portions might do us harm.

After noon a number of men approached us with ropes, which frightened us tremendously, because we thought they would tie is and kill us. But with a lot of noise they went to the wreck to bring the things, which were still alright, on the land. At night they gave us a little bit of rice to eat. At noon our coxswain had taken the latitude and found that we were at Quelpaert’s island, at 33 degrees and 32 minutes latitude.

On the 19th, they were still busy to bring things on the land and dry it. Wood in which there was any iron, was burned. Our officers went to the lieutenant-colonel and an admiral of the island who had come there as well. They offered both a binocular and also brought them also a jar of wine and a silver plate from the Company which we had found between the rocks. It seemed they liked the wine, because they drank that much that they became very cheerful and send our people back to the tent after they had shown and proved all friendship. They also gave the plate back.

On the 20th, they set the ship on fire and the rest of the wood, to get the ironwork out of it. While it burned the two canons, which were loaded with powder, went off. Both the officers and the soldiers fled away, but they came back soon. With gestures they asked us of more would go off but we made them clear that such wouldn’t happen. They continued immediately to work and brought us some food twice a day.

On the 21st, the commander had some of us come and made us clear to bring him the goods we still had in our tent so they could be sealed. When did this and it was sealed in our presence. While our people were still sitting there, some thieves, who had stolen during the salvage of the wreck, some furs, iron and the like, which were tied on their back, were taken before him. They were punished in our presence as indication that they didn’t want to separate from the goods. They hit them under the balls of their feet with sticks of about a fathom’s length and as thick as an average boy’s arm. They did that so hard that with some of them their toes fell off their feet. Each received 30 to 40 blows.

That afternoon they motioned us that we were to leave. Those, who were still able to ride, received a horse and those ,who could not ride because of the injuries, were transported in hammocks. After the noon we left, well guarded by horsemen and foot-soldiers. At night we stayed at a little place called Tadjang (TaejOng). After we had eaten something, they brought us to a house to sleep but it looked more like a stable for horses then like an inn or a place to sleep. We had traveled for around four miles. At the morning of the 22nd time at the break of dawn, we mounted our horses again and we used a meal on our way at a small fortress, near which two junks were moored (at Aewôl, the old harbor is still there). In the afternoon we reached the city Moggan (Cheju city), where the residence of the governor of the island was. They call the governor Mocxo (probably Hamel mixed up the name for the governor and the city name). Having arrived there, we were brought on a field straight in front a city hall or government building and we got to drink a mug of rice water. We thought that this would be our last drink and that we would die a certain death. It was terrible to see, like they stood there with around 3000 armed men with their guns. They were dressed in the way of the Chineesen or Iapanders. We had never seen or heard something like this.

Immediately the bookkeeper and the three previously mentioned persons were taken in the previously mentioned manner in front of the governor and were thrown down. After they had lain there for a while, did he shout and motioned that they had to come on a big platform in the city hall. There he was, like a king, and seated along his side, he motioned and asked where we came from and whereto we wanted to go. We repeated and motioned as well as we could, that we wanted to go to Nangasackij in Iapan. Hereupon he nodded the head and it appeared that he could understand something of it. In the same way the rest of our people were brought to his excellency, in groups of four and questioned in the same way. We did our best to indicate what our answers were. Like before, we couldn’t understand each other.

He had us bring to the house where an uncle of the king had lived his life long as an exile and where he had died as well. The reason why he was banished was that he had tried to dethrone the king and banish him from the country. He made our house strictly guarded with a big force and gave us as provisions 3/4 catty of rice and daily just as much wheat flour. They gave us however few side dishes, and we couldn’t eat those well, so we had to eat our meal with salt and a little bit of water instead of side dishes.

In modern English and Dutch, side dishes means all kinds of extras, Hamel meant meat or fish, so actually the main-dish. A catty is around 625 gram.

As it seemed later, the governor was a good and wise man. He was about 70 years old and came from the kings city and at the court they held him in high esteem. He motioned us that he would write a letter to the king to await orders what he should do with us. Since the answer of the King could not be expected soon, because the letter had to for twelve to thirteen miles by sea and another 70 by land, we asked the governor to give us every now and then some meat or some other side dishes Because from rice with water and salt, we couldn’t stay alive. We also asked permission to stroll around a little bit and to wash our bodies and clothes, which we didn’t have very much anymore and that we were allowed to go out at turns of six men, which was granted immediately.

He had us come often, to ask us, both in their as in our language, questions therefore we could gradually communicate with each other, though in a crooked and broken way. He sometimes had parties or other entertainment organized, so that we wouldn’t be too sad, and tried to encourage us daily by suggesting we could leave for Nangasackij as soon as the answer of the king came in. He also had the wounded cure, so we received a treatment from a heathen which would have ashamed many a Christian.

On October 29th in the afternoon, the bookkeeper, the head coxswain and the petty barber were summoned before the governor. When they came to him they found a man there with a long red beard. The governor asked them what kind of man that was, whereupon they answered: a Hollander like us. Hereupon the the governor started to laugh and motioned or said that this was a Coreese man. After a lot of talking and motioning on both sides, the man, who had been silent thus far, asked, in very crooked Dutch, what kind of people we were and where we came from. We answered him “Hollanders (Dutch, coming from the province of Holland, which is a part of the Seven United Netherlands) from Amsterdam.” Furthermore he asked us where we came from and where we were going to. Our people answered hereupon that they came from Taijoan with the intention to go to Nangasackij. This however, was prevented by the Almighty. Because of a storm which had lasted for five days, we stranded on this island and expected now a lenient solution.

Our people asked him for his name, from what country he came and how he had come there. He answered thus: “My name is Jan Janse Weltevree from De Rijp. I came in 1626 with the ship Hollandia from the fatherland and in 1626, while going to Iapan with the jaght Ouwerkerck, due to the unfavorable wind, we stranded at the coast of Coree. We needed water and we went with the boat ashore, where three of us we captured by the inhabitants. The boat with the remaining companions got away and the ship left immediately.” He said furthermore that his two companions were killed after 17 or 18 year, when the Tartar came into the country, were killed. They were (called) Dirk Gijsbertsz from De Rijp and Jan Pieterse Verbaest from Amsterdam.

They asked him also where he lived, how he made a living and why he came to the island. He said that he stayed in the kings city (Seoul). He received from the king a royal maintenance and that he was sent there to find out what kind of people we were and how we got there. He told us further that he had asked the king and other high administrators to be sent to Iapan. This, however was him forbidden all the time.

He said that if we were birds, we could fly to there. They don’t send foreigners from this country. They will provide you with a living and for clothes and in this way you will have to end your life in this country. He tried to comfort us in this way. Even if we came in front of the king, we couldn’t expect anything else, so that our joy of having found an interpreter, almost changed into sadness. It was remarkable that this man, of 57 or 58 years old, almost had forgotten his mother tongue, so that we hardly could understand him and had learned it again within a month.

All the previously mentioned was pertinently written down by order of the governor, after which it was read aloud and translated by the previously mentioned Jan Janszoon, so that this could be sent to the court with the first favorable wind. The governor gave us daily a fresh heart by saying that he expected an answer with the first boat and that this answer, according to him, would contain the answer that we could leave for Iapan on short notice, we had to resign with our fate. He showed us nothing but friendship, as long as his time lasted. He had us visited daily by the previously mentioned Weltevree and one of his officers or Opper (=head) Benjoesen (pronounced as Benyusen), to let him know what happened.

In the beginning of December the new governor arrived, because the last one’s term of three years had expired. We were extremely sad about this, because we were worried that new lords would mean new laws and so it happened. Since it became cold and we had only a few clothes, the old governor had made us a long lined robe, with a pair of leather socks and a pair of shoes, so we could protect our selves against the cold. He also gave us the salvaged books as well as a big tankard of oil, so we could pass the winter.

On his farewell meal he treated us very well, and had us told through the previously mentioned Weltevree that he regretted it very much that he wasn’t[‘t allowed to sent us go to Iapan or could take us with him to the mainland. We shouldn’t be too sad about his departure, since as soon as he arrived at the court he would do all his efforts to bring us from the island to the court. We thanked the governor very friendly for all the mentioned friendliness.

As soon as the new governor took office, he didn’t receive any additional food, so that most of our meals consisted only of some rice and salt and a sip of water. We complained to the other governor, who was still on the island because of onshore wind, but he replied that his term as governor was finished and he couldn’t do anything. But he would write to the new governor, so that, as long as he was there, we got from the new one, to prevent complaints, some side dishes

1654 In the beginning of January the old governor left and that worsened the situation. Now one gave us wheat, millet and barley flour instead of rice without any side dishes So if we wanted to have some side dishes we sold our millet. Daily we had to be satisfied with portion of 3/4 of barley flour. We could however continue to go out daily with six men at the same time. So very disheartened we sought for all kinds of means (of existence) because the harvest time and the monsoon were also due.

Because it took a long time before the answer of the king arrived, we were afraid to stay forever at the island and to end our lives in prison, so we looked out for possibilities to escape, maybe there was at night a boat which would be on the shore with all the necessary things, so we could take that so we could take to our heels. This happened at the end of April, when a few of our people, among them the chief navigator and three other of the salvaged mates, made their first attempt. As we have understood it, one of our companions would climb over the wall to look the ship and the tide of the water. The guard became aware of this because either a dog started to bark, or in another way. They kept guard very strictly, so that even before our mates could get going, they were pushed back.

In the beginning of the month of May, the coxswain, who was on leave with five other companions (among them three of the previous attempt), saw in a village not far from the city a ship with all the necessities on board. Immediately they sent a man back home to fetch two pieces of bread for each and a plaiting (a piece of rope which is twined in a flat way).When they were together again, each took a sip of water of water and went, without taking anything else in the boat. They pulled this over a sandbank, in the presence of some villagers, who watched very surprised, not knowing what to do. Eventually one of the villagers entered his house and took a musket and followed those in the boat, wading through the water. They came offshore, except the one who couldn’t get into the boat, since he loosened the hawsers and therefore he chose the shore. The ones in the boat hoisted sail, but because they couldn’t handle the rigging very well the the mast with the sail fell overboard. With a lot of effort they managed to erect the mast again. When they had tied the sail with the plaiting to the mast and the thwart (the rowing bench), the pin with which the mast is fixed broke, so the mast with the sail fell again overboard. They couldn’t erect it anymore and drifted therefore back ashore. Some villagers, who saw this, went immediately after them with another boat.

Having arrived there, our mates jumped unexpectedly into the other ship, and even though the villagers were armed, they were of the opinion that they could throw them over board. This ship however was almost full with water and wasn’t seaworthy so they sailed altogether back ashore. They were taken before the governor. He had them tied up really tight with a heavy plank with a chain around their neck, one hand was nailed by means of a clamp against the plank.

They were thrown in front of him. The others were also fetched from the house in which they were imprisoned. They were also tied very well, and were also brought before the governor. There we saw our mates lying in a deplorable situation.

The governor had them questioned whether they did this without the knowledge of the others. They answered that this happened without the knowledge if the others to advance that the others would not be burdened and their mates would not be punished. To that the governor asked what they had planned.They answered that they wanted to go to Iapan whereupon the governor asked if they thought this could be done with such a small boat and without water and so little bread. They answered that they it was better to die fast than to die a lingering dead. He had them untied and had each given 25 blows on the bare buttocks with a stick which is about one fathom long and a finger thick at the bottom and round on the top. As a result they had to stay in bed for about a month, additionally we were not allowed to go out and were strictly guarded day and night. This island which is called Schelue (Cheju ) by them and Quelpaert by us. It lies as previously mentioned on 33 degrees 32 minutes latitude, twelve to thirteen miles south from the south point of the mainland or Coree. It has at the inside or the north side a bay, in which the ships come. From there they sail to the mainland. It is dangerous to come in for those who don’t know it. It can’t be sailed by those who don’t know it, because of the invisible cliffs. Many who sail there and miss the bay, eventually drift to Iapan. There is, besides that bay, no roadstead or port of refuge. The island has a lot of visible and invisible cliffs and reefs on all sides. The country is very populated and is fertile for the life stock: there is an abundance of horses and cattle. Yearly they give a lot of income to the king. The inhabitants are poor people and considered to be simple by those of the mainland, they aren’t esteemed very high. There is a high mountain, full with trees and further there are mainly bare mountains without any trees and many valleys where they cultivate rice.

At the end of May the long expected message from the king arrived. To our sadness we had to come to the court, that changed into joy, because we were to be released from our prison. Six or seven days later we were divided over four junks and with both our legs and a hand locked in a block because they worried that we run off one or the other ship. We would have certainly done this if we would have been unlocked, because the soldiers who had to guard us were seasick during the biggest part of the crossing. After we had sat two days like that, and couldn’t make any progress as a result of the head wind, we were unlocked again and brought back to our house of detention. Four or five days later the wind came from the right angle and we were taken aboard of the junks at daybreak, where we were locked in the same way as before. The anchors were weighed and the sails hoisted. Already at the evening of the same day we found ourselves close to the mainland where we anchored.

The next day we were freed from the junks and brought ashore. There we were strictly guarded by the soldiers. The other day we got horses and rode to a city called Heijnam (Haenam, near Kangjin, an important big city in Cholla-do during the Chosôn period), where we joined at night all 36 together, and to prevent difficulties and punishment from those who were in charge, the junks moored at different places. The next day after we had eaten something, we were on horseback again, and came at night in a city called Ieham (Yôngam). At night gunman Paulus Janse Cool from Purmerent died there. He had never been healthy since the loss of the ship. By order of the city governor he was buried in our presence. From the grave we moved onto a city called Naedjoo (Naju). The next day we moved on again and stayed the night in a city called Sansiangh (Changsông), from where we left in the morning and stayed in the city Tiongop (Chôngûp), passed that day a high fortress, where lay a big reinforcement which was called Iipam sansiang (Ipamsansông). After we had stayed in the city left in the morning and arrived on the same day in the city Teijn (Tae’in).The next day we sat on horseback again and came in the afternoon in a small city called Kumge(Kûmku), after we had taken a lunch we left again and arrived in the evening in a big city called Chentio (Chônju), where the king in ancient times had his court and the stadholder of Thiollado (Chôllado) lives there. [This city] is considered throughout the country as a big commercial center, which couldn’t be reached by water, and therefore a city surrounded by land. The next morning we left again and arrived at night in a city called Iesaen (Yôsan), this was the last city from the province of Thiollado from where we left in the morning on horseback again, and stayed in a small city called Gunjiu (Ûnjin), which laid in the province Tiongsiangdo (Chungchôndo), left the next day to a city called Iensaen (Yonsan): where we stayed the night and were on horseback again the next morning. And arrived at night in a city called Congtio (Kongju), where the Stadholder of the before mentioned province has his court, the next day we passed a big river, and came into the province of Senggado (Kyonggido) where the Kings city lies

the history of Hendrick Hamel. He was the “discoverer” or explorer (the Marco Polo) of Korea.

you will find everything in English about himo .  an introduction about where Van Hove tells a little bit of the preface, the history of Korea before Hamel came, how the Dutch followed the Portuguese, how Korea eventually was “discovered”, the complete Journal of Hamel, how they stayed at Seoul, in the province of Chollado, how they escaped, how they were interrogated by the Japanese, how he describes Korea, The religion, the moral standards and how it continued after he had written the Journal. Read about the person Jan Janse Weltevree, Hendrick Hamel, about the motives of the Dutch, what would have happened if….. Why people worked for the VOC and in the end, the bibliography and the resources. Take (a lot of) your time and enjoy! You may download or print everything, provided you mention my name when you want to use  Just make sure that the margins are very small, otherwise you won’t see everything. you will also see the transcription of the complete manuscript in 17th century Dutch and all the resources of those times


Jan Janse Weltevree

In the introduction Jan Janse Weltevree is called a mysterious person. Comparison of the texts in which he is mentioned gives us some contradictions, which are difficult to explain. For instance Hamel mentions in his Journael that he and his mates saw Weltevree for the last time in 1656 at the ferry over the river Han near Seoul and that they never heard anything of him again.
The same is claimed at the interrogation in Nagasaki. To the question of the Japanese if Weltevree is still alive, the Hollanders reply that they don’t know, because they didn’t see him for ten years. This sounds very implausible. Is it plausible that Weltevree, who seemed to be able to travel freely throughout the country, in all those ten years never traveled to the south, to see how his country men were doing?
On top of that there was according to the Journael a certain kind of mail traffic. It was possible to send messages. After all it was Hamel who mentions that the three mates who were lured from Seoul under the pretense that they had to function as an interpreter, informed them by letter that they were captured in the south.
One and the other raises the suspicion that there have been contacts between Weltevree and the other Hollanders, also in the period after 1656. This suspicion is enforced by the fact that according to the daily records of the chief of the factory in Deshima, Hamel has said on or during the same day that the interrogation took place, to this chief, that Weltevree at their departure was still alive and was about 70 years old. Did Hamel lie to the Japanese or to the chief?

Also regarding the circumstances under which Weltevree was captured in 1627 by the Koreans, the several sources are contradicting themselves. In the Journael is written that Weltevree was on board of the jaght the Ouwerkerck , when it stranded off the coast of Korea. With a number of mates he rowed to the shore to fetch water. While doing this they were surprised by the Koreans who captured Weltevree and two of his mates, while the rest managed to escape. But what do we read in the above-mentioned daily record of the chief in Deshima ? Here is written that Weltevree was not at all on board of the Ouwerkerck. One day the crew of this ship had privatized a Chinese junk. Weltevree was put on this ship together with some other Hollanders to take this ship to Taiwan. Because of a storm, this ship ended up on the coast of a Korean island. Here the three Hollanders were overwhelmed by the Chinese and handed over to the Koreans. This version is confirmed in a letter from the governor of Formosa to the governor-general in Batavia , dated July 22, 1627. In which the governor of Formosa announced that the Ouwerkerck on July 16 had privatized a Chinese junk, which was on his way to Amoy. 70 of the 150 Chinese were brought from the junk to the Ouwerkerck , while 16 men moved over to the junk to bring them with the rest of the Chinese crew to Taiwan. The junk however had drifted away by a storm in northeastern direction and is since then without any trace, so it maybe feared that the ship is perished. The Ouwerkerck itself was privatized some months later by a Portuguese ship and burned in Macao. The jaght has never been in Korean waters. From the above mentioned it is clear that Weltevree belonged to a group of Hollandse privateers, who were captured by their victims and were handed over to the Koreans. And Hamel knew this. It is understandable that he didn’t mention these less honorable events in the Journael. And also that he didn’t speak about it during the interrogation by the Japanese. It is less clear however, why he, both in the Journael and during the interrogation, claims that he hadn’t heard from Weltevree during ten years.

There is more by the way, which Hamel doesn’t mention concerning Weltevree. In a Korean edition of the Journael, the interpreter Yi Pyong Do cites in a supplement a document of about 1700, in which Weltevree is described as follows:

  Yon was tall from stature and rather heavily build. He had blue eyes, a pale face and a blond beard which hangs until his belly. He was married to a Korean woman who gave him two children; a boy and a girl.

The father and the uncle of the writer of the document were both connected as high officials to the court of king of Korea in the time that Weltevree was there too. One may assume that the document is a reliable source. If Weltevree had a wife and children, it was most unlikely that Hamel didn’t know that. It speaks for itself to assume that he and the other Hollanders visited him during their stay in Seoul. In the Journael however Hamel leaves this interesting fact unnoticed. Possibly he considered that mentioning of the marital state of Weltevree would raise some questions by the readers about the marital state of the other Hollanders, questions who might be painful since most of them had a wife and children after all in Holland as well. In another Korean document, also cited by Yi Pyong Do, the following is mentioned about Weltevree:
Yon was working at the staff of general Ku In Hu. His sons are mentioned in the military register of the training office.
What is noticeable in this quotation is the word ‘sons’. Maybe Jan Janse had more than one son. The in this quote mentioned training office was a government institution which was established to the end of the 16th century for the production of firearms and for the practice of the use of them. The military register contained the names of the technicians skillful in professions like the manufacturing of canons. Such professions where hereditary in Korea and from another source we know that Weltevree was in charge of making firearms in Seoul and that he was considered to be an expert in this field. We read this in the Korean document from which the previous quotation is derived. It says the following:

  Yon was an expert in the field of the knowledge of arms. He was very skillful in casting canons of which the finishing touch was very beautiful.

Also the shipwreck of the Sperwer is mentioned in this document.

  In the fourth year of Hyo Jong (1653) a strange ship was wrecked in the coastal waters of the Chindo-district. On board were 36 men. They were remarkably dressed, and also their stature was remarkable. Their noses were high in their face and their eyes sunk deep. They didn’t understand our language, nor orally nor in writing. The court requested Park Yon to figure out what kind of people they are.
When Yon saw these people he was very moved. His beard was wet of tears. He said they were his countrymen and that they spoke his language. That’s why the king decided to use him as an interpreter.
Many years these people lived in our country. They were incorporated in the garrisons which were camped in or around our capital, because they had much knowledge about arms and were also skilled in manufacturing arms.
When they had been with us for fourteen years, eight of them escaped in a fisherman’s boat from a place in the south where they were accommodated. They reached Nagasaki. The governor of that city wrote in a letter to the king that they were people from Haranda (Holland), which is a vassal state of Japan. That’s why he requested the king to send the remaining Haranda’s who still remained in our country, also to Nagasaki. And so it happened.

That Hamel and his mates had much knowledge about arms and had many skills in manufacturing them, doesn’t match with what Hamel tells in his Journael about the way he and his mates had to make a living, begging and all kind of petty jobs.
There was, on board of a VOC-ship usually a man, a blacksmith or an instrument maker, who could do some simple repairs on the arms, like muskets and pistols and 25 to 30 pieces of artillery with which the ships were armed. But in case of dire need, everyone on board had to be able to do anything. Then the blacksmith baked bread. Everybody on board probably knew how to handle arms and knew how they were put together. Maybe Weltevree had more special knowledge in this field. But he might have been the one-eyed man in the country of the blind. Because the Koreans didn’t have a highly-developed arms industry. It seems that they imported canons from China.

Nicolaes Witsen writes in his Noord en Oost Tartarije:

  Snaphaunces are unknown to them; they use rifles with a fuse. Furthermore they use leather pieces of artillery which is fitted on the inside with copper plates, half a finger thick. The leather is 2 till 5 thumbs thick and consists of several layers on top of each other. These pieces of artillery are transported at the back of an army , on horseback, two on one horse. It is possible to fire relative big cannonballs with these canons.

The Korean author Song Haeng, who lived from 1760 till 1839, describes the Hollanders in a historical essay as follows:

  Amongst the survivors of the shipwreck there were some artillery experts. On board their ship there was around 30 canons. These were on wheels, so they were easily maneuverable. When a shot was fired, the canon rolled a distance to the back. Thus the power of the recoiling was taken and prevented the barrel from splitting open. Their muskets also showed an ingenious design. At firing the powder is ignited by a spark, which origins by hitting a piece of flint against an iron point. This takes place by means of a spring mechanism, which can be latched and unlatched.

According to experts this description points out that the Hollanders used muskets of the type which is known as the miquelet lock. In The age of fire arms, a Pictorial Study , written by Robert Held and published in 1957 at Harper, New York, one can read the following about this firearm:

  The miquelet, in simplest terms, was a snapping lock like a snaphaunce, but refined by the revolutionary feature of having the battery combined with the flashpan cover in one L-shaped piece hinged at the toe, the upright section being struck by the flint and the horizontal forming the flashpan cover. To shoot a miquelet lock, the shooter first cocked it in the half-cock position, and no amount of pressure could release the cock to snap. To fire it nothing remained but to cock it in full-cock and pull the trigger. But at times a worn or defective gun-lock did snap out of half-lock while being carried about, an always unexpected as usually disastrous occurrence commemorated in the saying ‘to go half-cocked’.

This type of musket was developed by the Spaniards, at the end of the 16th century, and the Hollanders got to know it when they were shot with it. But in 1600 during the Battle of Nieuwpoort, the soldiers of Prince Maurits already shot back with it.
From the above mentioned it seemed that the Koreans were way behind compared to the Hollanders when it comes to the manufacturing and plying of guns. Gratefully they would have used the knowledge of the Hollanders. It will be for that reason that they were assigned to the bodyguard of the king. Song Haeung writes that all the guns from the wreck of the Sperwer have been taken to Seoul . There they would have been investigated by the people from the ‘training office’. After that the Hollanders transferred their knowledge. When the incident occurred with the Tartarian envoy, several Koreans proposed to kill the Hollanders.
Instead of that they were exiled to a province in the south of the country. And since that time they had to make a living with all kind of futile jobs and even with begging. They were lucky that some of the governors were kindly disposed to them and let them go us much as possible.
Hamel probably didn’t think it wise to mention during the interrogation the fact that they taught the Koreans in Seoul about the use of modern guns. He also tells that only some of the guns were salvaged from the water, and that these were heavily affected by the water.
That is of course strange, because they have been in the water only for a short time. From the Korean sources we know that ‘all weapons from the wreck’ were transported to Seoul.
In the light of what is known now about Weltevree, is the question of the Japanese if the crew of the Sperwer also had the assignment to privatize Chinese junks, intriguing. The answer of Hamel was to be expected: They didn’t get that assignment.
Nevertheless there was an order from the Heeren XII, applicable to all skippers that the trade between the different nations had to be obstructed as much as possible, by privatizing their ships and confiscate their cargo. For each confiscated ship skipper and crew received a reward.

There are some other orders which can’t bear the daylight. There is for instance an order concerning the fetching of water. For this the skippers were to choose preferably an uninhabited island. There were fixed points where regularly water was taken. But by storm and headwind people sailed often in unknown waters. The orders prescribed that the ship had to anchor at a safe distance from the coast and that the crew of the sloop had to be armed sufficiently. Then follows this hair-raising sentence: “When savages show up, they have to be killed immediately”.
The general states of the Seven Provinces had granted the VOC a patent, which gave her the right to declare war and to commit war-actions, like hijacking ships and shooting of savages. They were however only allowed to do so in the area east of Cape of Good Hope.

Because of the thorough work of Wim Hamel who made the following critical remarks we might ask the following questions:

Where was he born was it really in De Rijp?

1. When Hendrick Hamel met Jan Janse Weltevree, Jan had problems speaking Dutch, since he didn’t speak it for more then 26 years. A ship called “De Rijp” was sailing in Asian waters. For instance Nicolaes Coeckebakker was asked to help the shôgun to suppress a revolt on the peninsula Shimibara. He requested for the use of the guns of “De Rijp” to bombard the fort from the shore. The shôgun withdrew at the last minute his request to avoid the loss of face. Maybe Jan Janse meant that he had been on that ship?

2. In those days surnames were pretty exceptional and the custom was to name someone, with his father’s name, the profession he had or the place he came from e.g. Jan Janszoon (Jan son of Jan), Jan de Boer (Jan the farmer), Jan van der Bilt (coming from de Bilt).
Janszoon was very often abbreviated to Jansz or Janse, depending on the region where one lived.

3. In the ship’s rolls of the “Hollandia” there is no mentioning of Weltevree, but on the other hand a Jan Jansz from Vlaardingen is mentioned.

4. In the same year 1626 two ships named “Hollandia” sailed off, on which one was our Jan Janse?

5. Since he had reasons to keep his existence in Korea secret, he might have mentioned the name De Rijp, the village where one of his mates was born, instead of Vlaardingen.

6. Because of the big fire in De Rijp in 1654 all archives are lost. In the baptism books since 1655 the name Weltevree is not mentioned.

7. His wife, with or without his children, was probably according the custom in those days, remarried, when Jan did not return. This however was not confirmed. It would be interesting to find out if there are still any descendants left in Holland.

The answers to some of these questions are recently known. (As of January 6, 2000)

A document showed up that Jan Janse Weltevree was from Vlaardingen.

Another link with the following data:

Married (2) Rijsoord 29-06-1755 (pre-married Rijsoord 13-06-1755) with Lijsbet Janse Weltevreen jd, from Pernis, buried Ridderkerk 02-09-1791, daughter of Jan Janse Weltevreen (?) and Lijdia Cornelisse Block (?). Which is close to Vlaardingen, Lijsbeth’s father might be the great-grandson of Jan Janse Weltevree.

Hendrick Hamel

Hendrick Hamel was born in 1630 in Gorkum. He was baptized on August 22 (*). His parents were mentioned in a genealogical record as Dirck Frericks Hamel and Margaretha Verhaar, dochter van Hendrik Verhaar en Cunera van Wevelinckhoven. In his baptismal record we read that his mother was Margrietgen Heyndricks. His father has been married three times, which was not uncommon in those days. In the 17th century people were not always mentioned in the same way. Sometimes with their surname, sometimes with their patronymic, sometimes even not with a last name at all. Most likely are Margaretha Verhaar and Margrietgen Heyndricks one and the same person

On November 6, 1650 he left on board of the jaght the Vogel Struijs (Ostrich) from the Landdiep at Texel (an Island in the north of Holland) to the Indies. On July 4, 1651 he arrived in the port of Batavia.

On the ship’s rolls of the Vogel Struijs Hamel was enlisted as Bosschieter, which means gunman. Obviously a mentioning like that, didn’t mean much. We read for instance that the later governor-general Wiese on his journey to the Indies was mentioned on the ship’s rolls as hooploper, which means ordinary seaman. If we also know that Wiese had to call Van der Parre at that time governor, granduncle, one has to draw the conclusion that his name was only put on the ships rolls to give him free passage

Maybe Hamel came with good recommendations to the Indies and owes his promotion as “soldier on the pen” to this. First as assistant and later as bookkeeper. Therefore was his starting salary increased to f 30 per month. The salary of his fellow passenger of the “Vogel Struijs”, the bosschieter Jan Pieters van Hoogeveen was in 1653 f 11 per month. In rank this bookkeeper equaled the coxswain.

On June 18, Hamel left Batavia on board of the Sperwer on his way to Taiwan in this function. Without experiencing any bad luck it arrived here on July 16, 1653. The jaght left Batavia somewhat late because initially it waited for a number of militaries who had to come from Holland to be stationed in Taiwan. After waiting in vain for some time for the arrival of the ship from Holland on which the militaries were, it was decided to let the jaght the Sperwer go to Taiwan without the militaries. In the meantime the favorable season for such a journey was almost at its end.

On the route from Batavia to Taiwan, the weather didn’t cause any problems yet. It was fine and the journey prosperous. From the Journael it is known that the second part of the journey, from Taiwan to Nagasaki was less favorable. At hindsight we might conclude that the adventure of Hamel and his mates was a consequence of the late departure from Batavia.

After the Sperwer had been declared lost officially, an order from governor Joan Maetsuyker was issued in which it was explicitly forbidden to send ships to the waters north of Taiwan after July 1, in connection with the hurricanes which use to rage after that date in the seas between China and Japan.

What happened with Hamel and his mates after their departure from Taiwan is extensively described in the Journael. Whether or not Hendrick Hamel is the author of the Journael is not proven without doubt. But it is very likely. The writing of such a report was the task of a bookkeeper.

Hamel speaks about himself in the Journael as the third person. That was not uncommon in those days. Hamel didn’t sign the Journael, which was also common in those days. Reports were rarely signed by their author. All his contemporaries by the way, considered Hamel always as the author. There is also little reason to doubt this.
The question remains however when he wrote it. It lies at hand that it happened during his forced stay at Deshima. After their fortunate escape from Korea, Hamel and his mates hoped already to leave with the flyship [a narrow type of ship also called a flute] Espérance on October 23, 1666 to Batavia. They received no permission to do so however and had to stay another year on Deshima.

Two days later, on October 25, the interrogation took place. This interrogation is dated on September 14, 1666. That was the day on which Hamel and his mates arrived with the little Korean fishermen’s boat at Nagasaki. Obviously then the interrogation already took place. There were two interpreters present: a Hollander and a Japanese, who both spoke Portuguese. That’s why the interrogation took the biggest part of that day and Hamel and his mates only crossed the bridge to Deshima towards the evening, where they were welcomed heartily by the chief and the other employees of the VOC. The notorious ‘precisiteyt‘ (preciseness) of the Japanese required that the questions and answers were copied in Japanese and subsequently read out loud on October 25, to Hamel and his mates, with which again two interpreters had to assist. On one of those occasions, so on September 14, or on October 25, Hamel had probably the opportunity to copy the questions and answers or to make notes. Another, maybe more obvious possibility, was that the interpreter of the VOC made those notes.

Report of the interrogation by the Japanese.

On October 25, we were taken by the interpreter from the island and brought to governor of Nagasaki. Here were a number of questions being asked, which we answered to our best knowledge. Here under follows a truthful report of this interrogation.

Questions Answers
1. What kind of people are you and where do you come from? We are Hollanders and come from Korea.
2. How and when did you come to Korea We ran aground with the jaght the Sperwer on August 16, 1653, as a result of a storm which had lasted five days.
3. Where did you run aground? How many men did you have on board and how many pieces of artillery? On the coast of an island, which we call Quelpaert and the Koreans Cheju We had 64 men on board and 30 pieces of artillery.
4. How big is the island Quelpaert and how far is it from the mainland? The island of Quelpaert takes up about 15 miles in the round. It’s very fertile, densely populated and is about 10 or 12 miles from the south of the mainland.
5. Where were you coming from and which ports did you call at? On June 18, 1653, we left from Batavia with Taiwan as destination. We had Mr. Caesar on board, who was to replace Mr. Verburgh as ruling chief of Taiwan.
6. What kind of cargo did you have on board and what was the purpose of that? We had deerskins, sugar, alum and other goods on board. The destination of these was Japan. Mr. Coijet was ruling chief of Deshima in those days.
7. What has happened with the crew, the artillery and the cargo of the Sperwer ? At the shipwreck, 28 men drowned. From the artillery some pieces were dredged up. They were severely affected by the sea water. From the cargo only a part was salvaged. We don’t know where these goods are now.
8. How have you been treated by the Koreans after the shipwrecking? We were well treated. We were being accommodated, and given food and drinks.
9. Did you have orders from the authorities to privateer the Chinese and other junks, or to undertake raids on the coast of China ? We didn’t receive such kind of order. Our assignment was to sail straight ahead to Japan. But because of the storm we were off course and ended up in Korea.
10. Did you have Christians or people of other nationality on board? The crew consisted only of servants from the Company.
11. How long have you been at that Island of Quelpaert and where have you been brought to after that? We were about ten months on Quelpaert . From there we were brought to the residence of the king. This is located in Seoul .
12. How far is Seoul from Quelpaert and how long did the journey take? Seoul is about 90 miles north of Quelpaert . The strait between the island and the mainland is about 10 to 12 miles wide. From the South point of the mainland we traveled another fourteen days on horseback
13. How long have you been in Seoul, what did you do there, and what did you do for a living? We were appointed as bodyguard of the king and received a ration of 70 ounces rice per month. We have lived in Seoul for three years.
14. How did there come an end to your stay in Seoul and where did the king send you? Our chief coxswain and another mate approached the Tartarian envoy. They wanted to try to come home through China. This failed, and we were exiled to the province of Chollado .
15. What happened to the two mates who approached the Tartarian envoy? They were thrown immediately in prison. Later we heard that they died. But how they met their end, is not known to us.
16. How big is the kingdom of Korea? We estimate the length of the country from the north to the south at about 150 miles and from the east to the west 80 miles. The country is divided in eight provinces and counts 360 cities, and many big and little islands.
17. Are there in Korea also any Christians or people with another nationality? We didn’t meet any Christians. We did meet another Hollander, Jan Janse Weltevree. He was captured in 1627, together with some mates when he ended up in Korea, with a jaght from Taiwan. There were furthermore some Chinese, who fled their country, because of the war.
18. Is this Jan Janse still alive end where did he live? That we do not know. We didn’t see him for ten years and he wasn’t that young anymore. He lived in the court of the king.
19. How is the army of the Koreans armed? With muskets, swords and bow and arrow. They also have some pieces of artillery.
20. Are there any castles and fortresses? Near every city, which itself is indefensible, there is a fortress or a walled enforcement, most of the time on a high mountain. These always have food and ammunition for three years.
21. How many war junks do the Koreans have in navigation? Every city has to maintain a war junk. Every junk has a crew of 200 to 300 men, oarsmen and soldiers, and is equipped with some small pieces of artillery.
22. Are the Koreans at war with any country and do they pay tribute to any country? They are not at war, but pay tribute to the Tartarians, whose envoy comes three times a year to collect the tribute. They pay furthermore a tribute to Japan. How much is not known to us.
23. Which religion do the Koreans profess and do they try to convert you to this religion? They have, we presume, the same religion as the Chinese. They do not try to convert others.
24. Are there many temples and statues and which function do they have in the ceremonies? In the mountains there are many temples and monasteries situated, in which there are many statues. These are, as we presume, worshiped in the same way as in China.
25. Are there many monks and how do they look like? Monks are there in abundance. They make a living with working and begging. Their dressing is the same as the dressing of the Japanese monks.
26. How are the Koreans dressed? In the Chinese way. They wear hats of horsehair, or of cow hair and sometimes of bamboo. They wear shoes and socks.
27. Does there grow a lot of rice and other grain? In the south of the country grows a lot of rice. But in the dry period the crop fails and a famine starts. In the years 1660, 1661 and 1662 many thousands died of hunger. Furthermore there grows cotton. In the north they also grow barley and millet.
28. Are there many horses and cows? There are very little cows, but very many horses. Since about three years the number of cows decreased strongly, as a result of some contagious cattle decease.
29. Are there any foreign nations which are coming to trade with Korea? The only people that trade in Korea is the Japanese. They have an enclave in the country.
30. Have you ever been in the Japanese enclave? We have never been there, because this was strictly forbidden to us. To the Chinese they sell ginseng roots and other goods.
31. What kind of trade do the Koreans have? In the capital the well-to-do trade with silver , the commoner trades, as in other cities with pieces of linen according the value, rice and other grains.
32. What kind of trade do the Koreans have with China? From the Chinese they obtain the same kind of goods that as we Hollanders deliver also to Japan. Furthermore they get silk from China.
33. Are there any silver mines or other mines in Korea? The Koreans exploit already since many years some silver mines. A fourth part from the proceeds, is to the benefit of the king. As far as we know there aren’t any other mines.
34. Where does the ginseng root come from, what’s its purpose, and where is it exported to? The ginseng root comes from a plant which is growing in the north of Korea. They use it as a medicine. A part of the harvest is being given to the Tartarians, as part of the tribute. Furthermore the root is being exported to China and Japan.
35. Is it known to you if Korea and China are connected with each other? We were told that the two countries are connected by means of a mountain range. In wintertime these mountains are impassable, because of the severe cold and in summertime because of the game who lives there. That’s why they use the sea as a link between the two countries, in summertime by boat and in wintertime on horseback on the ice.
36. How does the appointment of the governors take place in Korea? Stadtholders are being appointed for one year, and normal governors for three years.
37. How long have you lived in the province of Chollado, what did you do for a living and how many of you have passed away there? We have lived for about seven years in the city Pyongyong. We received a monthly ration of 50 ounces of rice. In that time eleven mates died.
38. Why have you been relocated to other cities and what were the names of those cities? Due to the extreme drought in the years 1660, 1661 and 1662 there was a lack of food, so that the governor couldn’t give us our monthly ration. That’s why the king divided us over three places: in SaesOng twelve mates, Sunchon five and Namwon also five.
39. How big is the province of Chollado and where is it situated? In the utmost south of the mainland is the province of Chollado. It contains 52 cities, is densely populated and very fertile.
40. Did the king send you out of the country or did you flee? We fled with eight men, because we knew that the king would never let us go. We rather risked death than live for the rest of our lives in that country.
41. With how many were you at that moment and were the ones who stayed behind acquainted with your departure? We were sixteen in number. We left with eight of us, without informing the others.
42. Why didn’t you inform the others? We didn’t inform them, because they couldn’t come with us. By turns only eight of us had permission to go out.
43. How can the ones who stayed behind, still leave the country? If the emperor of Japan makes a written request for their release, he will not refuse it. After all the emperor sends the Korean shipwrecked persons back to their country.
44. Did you ever make another attempt to flee? We have tried it twice. The first attempt failed because we didn’t know the rigging of a Korean fisherman’s boat, that’s how the mast broke two times. The approaching of the Tartarian envoy wasn’t successful because the king bribed the envoy.
45. Did you ever request the king to let you go and, if yes, why did he refuse that? We have requested it repeatedly, to the king as well as to the crown council, to let us go. It was always refused with the argument that Korea never let foreigners leave, because one doesn’t want Korea to be known to foreign countries.
46. How did you get the barge? We have bought it with our own hard-earned money and money we begged together.
47. Was this the first ship that you have bought? No, it was the third one. The two previous ones appeared to be too small for the crossing to Japan.
48. From which place did you flee? From SaesOng, where five of us lived, and from Sunchon, where the other three lived.
49. How big was the distance to Nagasaki and how long did it take you? We estimate the distance between SaesOng and Nagasaki at about 50 miles. From SaesOng to Goto it took us three days. We stayed there four days and went then in two days to Nagasaki. So in total the journey took nine days.
50. Why did you go to Goto, and why did you want to flee when they wanted to stop you? We have been hiding there for the storm, and when it laid down, we decide to continue our journey.
51. How have you been treated in Goto, and furthermore was something charged you there? Two of our mates were taken away for interrogation. For the rest we have been treated well, without that something has been charged for that.
52. Has somebody of you ever been in Japan, and, if no, how come you knew the way? Nobody has ever been in Japan. A few Koreans, who have been in Nagasaki, told us how we had to sail. Furthermore we remembered what the coxswain had told us.
53. What are the names, the functions and the ages of the eight mates who stayed behind in Korea? 1. Johannis Lampen, assistant, 36 years old;
2. Hendrick Cornelisse, sub officer in charge of the rigging; *
3. Jan Claeszen, cook, 49 years old:
living in the city of Namwon;
4. Jacob Janse, quartermaster, 47 years old;
5. Anthonij Ulderic, gunman, 32 years old;
6. Claes Arentszen, cabin boy, 27 years old;
living in SaesOng.
7. Sander Basket , gunman, 41 years old;
8. Jan Janse Pelt, junior boatswain, 35 years old.
54. What are the names, the functions and the ages of the eight mates who made it to Nagasaki? 1. Hendrick Hamel, bookkeeper, 36 years old; *
2. Govert Denijszen, quartermaster, 36 years old;
3. Mattheus Ibocken, petty barber, 32 years old;
4. Jan Pieterszen, gunman, 36 years old;
5. Gerrit Janszen, idem, 32 years old;
6. Cornelis Dirckse, sailor, 31 years old;
7. Benedictus Clercq, cabin boy, 27 years old;
8. Denijs Govertszen, idem 25 years old.
  Thus answered truthfully by us, at September 14, 1666

An official report of the chief, dated October 18, 1666, when Mr. Volger had already embarked and was already on board of the Espérance, he wrote to the governor general that the adventures of the person from the shipwreck of the Sperwer had to be written down. It may be assumed that Hamel had the assignment to write this report before his departure. Whether Hamel, while writing the Journael, had notes at his disposal, is unsure. He mentions so many places and so many dates that one is tempted to assume that he kept a diary in Korea. On the other hand he never mentions exact dates, which he would have done if he would have written the Journael by means of a diary. So if he had notes at his disposal, these must have been very brief.

He must have relied on his memory and that of his mates, while writing the Journael. When on October 22 of the next year finally the permission to leave arrives, Hamel will have finished the Journael for a long time. On the same day Hendrick Hamel and his mates embark on the Spreeuw, which was ready to sail out. The journey back to Batavia didn’t go via Formosa, because this island was lost in 1662. In that year fort Zeelandia was conquered by a descendant of the Ming dynasty. The Spreeuw chooses the deep blue sea on October 23 and arrives on November 28 at Batavia. Here was, according to the daily reports of Joan Maetsuyker, the Journael handed over to the last-mentioned.
The mates of Hendrick Hamel traveled through to their fatherland, with the same ship with which they arrived at Batavia. They arrived there on July 20, 1668. Hamel himself however stayed behind in the Indies.

It was told that he was a bachelor and because of that was less homesick for Holland. The manuscript which is in the archives of the State in the Hague is considered to be an original document as written by Hamel, on the basis of a careful text analysis. It was sent to Holland by the governor general, after a handwritten copy was made for the archives in Batavia. This copy however is lost.

Striking is that Hamel, at the end of the Journael did write down the date on which he and his mates did leave for Batavia, but that the date on which the Spreeuw arrived at Batavia isn’t filled in. It is assumed that Hamel in 1669 returned back to Holland, at the same time with the second group of rescued persons who survived the shipwrecking. When that exactly happened and with which ship is not to be retrieved anymore. In August 1670 he appeared with two members of the second group, in front of the Heeren XVII, to ask for the payment of their wages over the period of their imprisonment in Korea.

The same request was already done by the first group. The Heeren XVII had already turned away this request. And also in 1670 they rejected the request. Servants of the VOC only had the right to wages for the time during which they were on board of one of the ships of the VOC or if they were in one of the factories.

This was a hard and strict rule, from which the Heeren XVII, under no condition, wanted to deviate. Out of humanitarian considerations, they decided however to give to all the surviving members of the Sperwer an amount of money. This amount will be in no proportion to the amount of the total of their wages during their thirteen years long stay in Korea. It was clear that the VOC was a trade company and not a charitable institution.

The escape

We didn’t feel like doing slavery work for the rest of our lives. That’s why we decided to sneak off as soon as possible. We had the money to buy a boat, but nobody was willing to sell us one. Then we persuaded a neighbor of ours, who was a regular visitor at our home, to work as a puppet for us. Suspiciously he asked what we intended to do with that boat.
We told him we wanted to sail to one of the islands to buy wool. After we promised that we would share the profit, which we would make with the sale of the wool, he agreed and bought the next day a boat from a local fisherman. Almost things went wrong, because the next day this fisherman saw that we were rigging the boat. He wanted to cancel the sale, because he understood we wanted to escape with the boat. If the governor would find out that we escaped with his boat, then he would without doubt be killed.
Probably he was right. That’s why we advised him, immediately after we had left, to go to the governor and tell him the Hollanders had stolen his boat. The man started to doubt and when we gave him all the Korean money we had, he yielded. We impressed upon him that he should not go to the governor too fast, because in that case we would possibly be overtaken by the war-junks. If that would happen, we would appoint the fisherman as one of our accessories.

We wanted to leave at the first quarter of the moon, because then, most of the time, the weather is favorable. Since we were in a leap month (February). Coincidence was that two of our mates of the city Sunchon, came to visit us, as we did visit each other more often. We told them about our plan and they decided to join us. They were noncommissioned barber Mattheus Eibocken and Cornelis Dirckse. Apart from those two we also wanted to bring a certain Jan Pieterszen, because he knew about navigating.
One of our mates went hastily to Sunchon to fetch him. Unfortunately it seemed he visited by coincidence the mates in Namwon, which is 15 miles further. This meant an extra stiff walk. After two days both of them returned in SaesOng. The first-mentioned mate had walked in those four days, for about a fifty miles.

We decided to weigh the anchors the following day, September 4, with the moon set, and before the low tide. In the meantime our neighbors became more and more suspicious. We still had to bring all kinds of things aboard and, in order to do so, we had to climb over the city wall all the time. Such a thing naturally couldn’t be done unnoticed. That’s why we told our neighbors that we wanted to make a beach party. We did as if we were very gay and lighted a big fire at the beach.
Naturally a lot of people came to watch, but luckily one after the other left, as it became later and later. These fishermen get up early and that’s why they sleep early. When everybody was gone, we let the fire go out and waited until the moon completely disappeared behind the horizon.

First we sailed to an island right in front of the coast, because we wanted to take in some fresh water. Right alongside the island we sailed to the open sea. Left in front of us, we saw the city shrouded in darkness, with, in front of it, in the roadstead, some war-junks. When we passed the island, we got the full wind in our sails, which we had hoisted in the meantime, and sailed quickly to the open sea.
.By means of the stars we tried to sail a straight course in south-southeastern direction. When it became light, we saw a ship at the right of us. Its crew had noticed us in the meantime as well. They hailed us, but we didn’t react to it and let the ship straight in the wind, to make as much speed as possible. When we were far enough from them, we retook the right course, while we now used the rising sun as a beacon.
So we sailed on all of that day. The weather was good and there was a firm breeze. We had agreed that we would sleep in turns, but that went to no avail: everybody stayed wide awake. So we went into the second night. The sky was practically unclouded, and it was not really difficult to sail by means of the stars a straight course. We had cooking pots, fire wood, rice and salt aboard, so we didn’t have to starve.

The next day on September 5, with sun rise, the wind vanished completely. That’s why we lowered the sail, as not to be visible so easily from a great distance and put ourselves on the oars, to keep the speed from the ship up. Toward the afternoon the wind grew a little from the west. We hoisted sail again and set course, paying attention to the sun, in Southeastern direction. Toward the night the wind increased, from the same direction. We saw the last South point of Korea obliquely behind us. Then we were not afraid anymore to be overtaken and heaved a sigh of relief.
In the morning of September 6, we saw, not far from us, one of the first Japanese islands. That evening we were, as we heard later from the Japanese, off Hirado.
Because none of us had ever been in Japan, we didn’t know the coast. From the Koreans we were told that, in order to get to Nagasaki, we shouldn’t let any islands on starboard That’s why we tried to surround the island, which seemed initially very small, and found ourselves that night west of the country.

On September 7, we sailed with a weak and changing wind, alongside the islands. We discovered that there was a whole row of them, one island after the other. Toward the evening we lowered the sail and rowed to the coast to anchor during the night in a bay. Because there were a lot of turning winds we thought it risky to continue sailing during the night. When we wanted to enter the bay, we saw so many lights of ships, that we thought it wiser to turn around. We hoisted the sail and sailed on all night, with the wind from behind. When it lighted up again, we saw that we were still in the same place as the night before. We suspected we drifted back by the stream. We steered our ship from the shore to get better above the islands.
At about two miles from the coast, we had a strong wind coming from the front. It did cost us a lot of efforts more to guide our brittle little ship into a bay, to seek some shelter there. We lowered the sail, threw out the anchor and started to prepare a meal. We knew at that moment absolutely not where we were. Sometimes a few Japanese fishermen’s boats passed by, without paying attention to us.
By evening time the wind began to drop, and we were just about to continue our journey, when a ship with six men aboard, sailed into the bay. When we saw this, we hastily raised the anchor and hoisted the sail in order to get away fast. We would have been successful if we didn’t have head wind. Besides more ships entered the bay.

That’s why we lowered the sail and hoisted a small flag with the regimental colors of the Prince of Orange (an orange, white blue flag) which we had made especially for that purpose. When the Japanese -because we understood that’s what they were – were within shouting distance, we shouted in unison: “Hollando, Nagasaki.” The ship, which entered as the first into the bay, came toward us. One of the Japanese stepped on our ship and gestured to the one who was at our helm at that moment to join him aboard the Japanese ship. Accordingly they took us in tow and sailed around a small cape.

On the other side was a small fishermen’s village. Here they rigged our ship with a big anchor and a thick rope. Apart from the one who was sitting at the helm, they took some others from our group to the shore. An attempt was being done to interrogate them. But without much result, because both parties didn’t understand each other. Our coxswain continued to shout:”Hollanda, Nagasaki.”
The last word however they seemed to understand, because more and more Japanese pointed in a certain direction and nodded to us. Our coming, by the way, had caused a lot of consternation. Everything was thrown into confusion. The whole village had come out to take a look at us.
Toward the evening a big sailing ship came sculling into the bay, with lowered sails. We were taken aboard, a man was sitting there, who looked rather impressive.
Later when we were in Nagasaki, we were told that he was a high official, the third in rank on the island. He was a friendly man. He smiled at us. He pointed to us and then said that we were Hollanders. We nodded fiercely. Then he told us we would be taken to Nagasaki in four or five days. That five Hollander ships were anchored there.

We in our turn, tried to make him clear that we came from Korea. That we were shipwrecked thirteen years ago and since then stayed in Korea. And that we tried now to go to Nagasaki to join our countrymen.
We were very relieved that the reception was so friendly. The Koreans had fooled us with telling us that every foreigner who sets foot on Japanese soil, immediately was beaten to death. From this one can see how many nonsense several nations told about each other.

September 9, 10 and 11 we remained anchored. Who wanted to stretch his legs, was allowed to go ashore, but was strictly guarded. We received from the Japanese additionals, water, firewood and what we needed more. Because it started to rain, we received straw mats from them, with which we could make a little tent, so we could sit dry.
On September 12, everything was made ready for the trip to Nagasaki. In the afternoon we lifted the anchor and we arrived by evening time on the other side of the island, where we dropped our anchor to spend the night.
On the thirteenth, at sunrise, the earlier mentioned high official boarded the big sailing ship. He had some letters and goods with him, which were meant for the court of the emperor. Then we lifted our anchor. We were accompanied by two big and two small sailing ships. The two mates who were the first to be brought ashore, were on board of one of the bigger ships. We saw them no earlier back then in Nagasaki.

Toward the night we reached the bay of Nagasaki and at midnight we arrived in the roadstead. Because it was a clear night, we saw clearly the five Dutch ships from which they had told us.

This was a touching moment. Most of us had tears in the eyes. We embraced each other and shouted our throats hoarse from joy.In the morning of the fourteenth, we set foot ashore in Nagasaki, where we were welcomed by the interpreter of the VOC, who asked us a hundred and naught questions about our adventures. After we had told him our story, he admired the way, that we escaped in such a small ship and made a dangerous journey over, to us unknown waters, to join us with our countrymen.

These two sentences are not mentioned in the original document. Hamel avoided any form of emotionality. But in this place in the Journael, he does mention a relevant fact. Because in the translation of the Journael of 1954 from Yi Pyong Do, a Japanese contemporary source is cited, from which it appeared that the cheers of joy of Hamel and his mates, on the escorting Japanese boats, were clearly audible (For a map of the route taken during Hamel’s escape, click here)

Then we went over the bridge, to the island of Deshima, Here we were welcomed by the chief, his lordship, Willem Volger, Mr. Nicolaas de Reij, his replacement, and by a number of employees of the Company. We received a warm welcome and were then provided with Dutch clothes.
We hardly could believe that this was the end of a dangerous adventure which lasted exactly thirteen year and 28 days. We were grateful to the great Lord that He had listened to our prayers and rewarded our efforts with such a good ending.
We spoke of our hope that the eight mates who remained in Korea, also would be liberated from their prison, and that they once could return to their country and people as well. That the Almighty Lord may help them with that.

Of the further life of Hamel is as little known as of his life before the Korean adventure. In a handwritten document, which is kept in Gorkum, of around 1734 is written that Hamel settled himself in Gorkum in 1670. Some years later, it is not known when exactly, he left again to the Indies. About his stay there, one can’t find any data. But in 1690, or a little bit earlier, he’s back in Gorkum. Here he dies, “vrijer zijnde” (still being a bachelor), on February 12, 1692. He is then 62 years old.

Additional investigation shows:

In the meantime there are in memory of Hamel the following landmarks found:

Gorkum : Hendrik Hamel straat.
In the Linge district since July 7, 1930.
Gorkum: a statue has been erected as well as in Kangjin (Korea) where Hamel and his mates lived.
As an homage to Hendrick Hamel who was born in the Kortedijk next to the premises of number 65.
Heusden: Hamel Park
In Heusden there have been several mayors who were called Hamel at around 1500; they were the ancestors of Hendrick.
The Hague: Hendrik Hamel straat (=Street)
Hendrik Hamel plantsoen. (=Park)
1st Western expert on Korea 1630-1692.

The name Hendrick and Hendrik are used in the same way, Hendrick being the 17th century spelling, Hendrik the modern one, therefor the original Journael uses Hendrick


The journal of Hendrick Hamel ends as follows. 

On October 23, 1666 Mr. Volger left with seven ships from the bay of Nagasaki. We were very sad when we saw the ships leave. Because we had hoped to leave together with the chief to Batavia. This was us however not granted by the governor of Nagasaki. So we were forced to stay one year longer on Deshima.

On October 25, we were taken by the interpreter from the island and taken to the governor. Here a number of questions were asked which we answered to our best knowledge.
On October 22, 1667, round noon we got permission from the new governor to leave. And so we lifted anchor at the break of dawn and left the bay of Nagasaki.
On… we arrived at the port of Batavia, thanking the good Lord that He released us after these distressful wanderings of more than fourteen years released us from the hands of the heathens.

(Since Hamel wrote his journal on Deshima, he wrote on the last day October 23 as the day of departure. On which day he would arrive, he didn’t know. Why he didn’t fill in this date later is not clear. Anyhow on this place the manuscript shows a gap. The date which was supposed to be written here was 28 November 1667) 

From what is mentioned above, it appears that the “distressful wanderings” of Hendrick Hamel and company did not end in October 1666. They were obliged to stay exactly one more year on Deshima. That can’t be such a pleasant stay. Deshima was a very small artificial island in the bay of Nagasaki. It was connected by a bridge to the mainland. The Hollanders were only allowed to pass this bridge with the permission from the Japanese. And this permission was rarely granted. Only when the Japanese wanted to ask the Hollanders something or wanted to say something, a small delegation was allowed to pass the bridge. Deshima was exactly one hectare big. It was a long, small piece of land, on which there was one street, with houses on both sides. It was constructed by the Japanese in 1635-36, especially with the purpose to accommodate foreigners – barbarians- with whom the Japanese wanted to trade. (Click here for a detailed map of Deshima)

The isle was originally meant for the Portuguese. These however, were driven out in 1638, because they had tried to convert the Japanese to Christianity. Some years later it was assigned to the Hollanders because they declared not to be Christian, or at least not to nourish the intention to undertake any missionary activities.

Till 1641 the Hollanders owned a factory on Hirado. This is a much bigger island which is North of Nagasaki. In the archives of the VOC, this is called a lodge. This term is being used more often and seems to mean something like an enclave. The Hollanders were on this island for 38 years, from 1603 till 1641. They had much more liberty to move over there.

But in 1641 the Hollanders had to move to Deshima. The removal lasted from 12th till 24th of June and on June 25, 1641 the chief Le Maire of Hirado came for once and for all to Nagasaki. The isle was completely packed. There were offices, warehouses and furthermore houses for the handful of servants of the VOC, who stayed for a longer period of time on the isle. The leading person was the chief, who was assisted by a second person and an assistant. The chief lived in a rather spacious accommodation, which was beautifully furnished. The rest of the servants lived in little houses, which were more like barracks.

There were some guest houses as well, destined for the officers of the ships of the Company which were moored in the port. In one of those houses Hamel and his companions were accommodated. Probably they didn’t have much space and little privacy and that it was a boring place to stay appears from the following: “… come previously mentioned ships here for Schisima or the Compagnie’s residence to drop anchor” (Daily Reg. Japan August 14, 1646).

The Hollanders were not allowed to practice the Christian religion on Deshima. Thus there was no church and no minister. They were not even allowed to bury their deceased. There was hardly any space for that as well. Deceased had to be thrown over board, five miles off the coast. From each ship which moored in the roadstead, the sails and the rudder had to be handed over to the Japanese. This to prevent that they would leave without permission. The bibles and guns had to be handed in as well. The pieces of artillery on board were locked.

Provision was partly supplied by the ships of the Company and partly bought from the Japanese, amongst others chickens, fish, fresh vegetables and fruits. On Deshima they were most likely not troubled by scurvy. They were troubled however by venereal diseases. The chief proclaimed in one of his official documents to Batavia, that the servants of the Company got these diseases from the Japanese prostitutes, who crossed the bridge regularly. In a daily report from the chief, dated August 19, 1641, is written: “De Japanders verordonneerden dat geene Hollanders sonder vragen van’t Eiland vermochten te gaan. Dat wel hoeren, maar geene andere vrouwen, Japanse papen noch bedelaers op ‘t Eiland mochten comen” (The Japanese ordered that no Dutchman was allowed to leave the isle without permission. Whores were allowed, but no other women, Japanese clergymen nor beggars).

The stories, which these, as from the air descended fellow countrymen could cough up, were pre-elementally suitable to appeal to one’s imagination and were a joy to hear. They knew after all to tell something about an eastern country where, as far as one knew, no other European has been. The castaways could however tell about their thirteen-year experiences, during which they had almost complete freedom, the story of the lives that they and their companions had lived. Starting with the shipwreck and the life they lead on the island and after that about their lives on the mainland of Korea. These stories will have been followed with suspense. The story of the experiences, their adventurous flight and especially their meeting with a fellow countryman, who stranded a quarter century before them in Korea, will have made a deep impression.

In the official everyday life, the Japanese behaved themselves correctly but with a haughty air. From Japanese sources is known that they considered the Hollanders as unmannered barbarians, who smelled unpleasantly. As seemed from the correspondence, which they had with the Korean administrators, they considered Holland as a vassal state, though they had only a vague idea where the country was located. Civilians from a vassal state ought to behave themselves like that. They had to approach the Japanese humbly and respectfully.

This was already the case when the Hollanders were still on Hirado. In an Instruction from the Heeren XVII of May 31, 1633, to the presiding chief Nicolaes Couckebacker we read:
De Hollanders moeten de Jappanders na de mondt sien en, om den Handel onbecommert te gauderen, alles verdragen. Dat hij sich in alle sijnen handel, wandel ende civilen ommeganck zoo lieftallig, vrundelijck ende nederig tegen allen en een ieder, soowel groot als clijn, sal hebben te comporteren dat hij bij de Japanse natie, die selfs van conditie wonder glorieus is, oock geen grootsheit of hoovaerdij in vreemdelingen can verdragen, bemint ende aengenaem sijn mach. (The Hollanders have to tell the Japanese what they like to hear and, to grant the Trade carefree, bear everything. That he (Couckebacker) behaves himself in all his actions and in civilian contacts, to all and everyone, be it big or small, to compromise himself, that he is beloved and pleased by the Japanese nation, which is of great glorious condition itself and cannot stand grandeur or haughty behavior from foreigners).

Most of the chiefs succeeded in making themselves “beloved and pleased” by buttering up the Japanese. When, from their reports it seemed that there were frictions, then the chief in question was replaced quickly. 

There is a world of difference between the conduct of the Dutch on Deshima and their attitude towards the locals elsewhere in southeast Asia. The contracts which the Company entered the local chiefs into, were mostly only advantageous for the Company and, if they were good contracts, they were dishonestly carried out. Extortion and corruption were common practice and if the ‘savages’ dared to resist violently against the Company, it hit back hard-handedly.

On the island of Formosa, the Chinese had attacked the Dutch settlement ‘Provintien‘ and killed eight servants of the Company. As an action of revenge the military was sent out and in twelve days time a true massacre was performed amongst the Chinese. An official statement of December 24, 1652, says the following; “Soo werden in den tijt van 12 dagen tusschen de 3 a 4 duisendt rebellige Chineesen in wederwraeck van het verghoten Nederlants Christenbloet on ‘t leven gebracht.” (And so in a time of twelve days, between the two and three thousand Chinese were killed as a revenge for the shredding of Dutch Christian blood)

Nevertheless the results from the trade of Deshima were not less advantageous for the Company than the trade of Taiwan. The different approach the Hollanders had towards the Japanese didn’t do any harm to the Company. In several reports one can read that the trade with the Japanese was ‘seer profijtelijck‘ (very profitable). So with buttering up, one could make obviously as much profit as with blood shedding.

One may wonder why the Japanese didn’t allow Hendrick Hamel and his companions to leave as fast as possible. This was in connection with what the chief called “den Japanchen precisiteyt” (the Japanese preciseness). The castaways had hoped they could leave on October 23, 1666 with the Esperance to Batavia. But despite repeated oral and written requests by representatives of the Company, the required permission stayed out.

Only on October 22, of the following year this license was handed out, which made an end to the second imprisonment of Hamel and co. On the same day they boarded on the moored ship the Spreeuw (starling). This fluitschip (= kind of freighter with three masts) arrived on at Batavia November 28, 1667.

Why did the permission for Hamel and co. to leave from Nagasaki stayed out so long? What did the Japanese authorities do in the meantime? The written report of the interrogation which was taken from the Hollanders, was sent by the governor of Nagasaki to Yedo to get the required permission. Only the transportation of this report took some time.

The state government didn’t react immediately. They wanted to verify the answers which the castaways had given. Therefore they started a correspondence with the Korean government. This was a time-consuming procedure. The complicated protocol made it impossible that the Shogunate corresponded directly with the Koreans and as an intermediate the Daimyo of Tsusima was appointed. This was obvious because he already traded for a long period of time with Korea. The Daimyo owned a small enclave in Pusan. There was a small harbor, near Tongnae, where to the Daimyo was allowed to send yearly 21 ships.

What the Japanese would like to know, was if there were any Christians hidden amongst Hamel and co. That’s why the Daimyo sent a letter to the authorities in Pusan.

We have respectfully received a lofty command (from Edo) to dispatch en envoy to ascertain the real circumstances of these people. Considering that they have long dwelled within your honorable boundaries, it must be surely known to you whether they are proper people or heathen……… Other details have been entrusted to our junior messengers Tachibana Narutomo and (Fujiwara?) Naramasa to deliver orally.

This official report had first to be translated into Korean, which took some time. Then the authorities in Pusan had to contact the governor of the province, because they didn’t have the right themselves to have written contact with the Japanese. The governor sent the letter to Seoul , where it caused a lot of concern. It took a lot of thinking how to respond to the letter. At that moment it was not known in Seoul that the Hollanders had escaped. The governor of the southern province had kept the news of the escape behind as a way of precaution. One had assured him that the Hollanders would never succeed in reaching Japan in such a small boat. They would vanish without trace.

The tone in which the oral information was given by the Japanese representative in Tongnae was by far not as courteous as that in the letter. He demanded in an arrogant tone from the mayor of Pusan, that he should take care that the Japanese government should get the answers to the following questions as soon as possible:

Is it true that thirteen years ago a ship from Holland stranded off the coast of Korea and that you stole the cargo? Don’t you know that every foreign ship, that strands off the coast of Korea, immediately has to be reported to the authorities of Japan? You do know that Holland is a vassal state of Japan?

The tough tone from this oral questioning was meant to speed up the Koreans. This was a procedure which was much used by the Japanese. They always sent very courteous and highly formal official reports, and ordered one of their representatives to hit the table in an oral conversation in an intimidating way. The questions were written down by the mayor and handed over to the governor of the province. Frightened, he sent them to Seoul. The Korean government answered by return.

Indeed a ship was stranded thirteen years ago, but we didn’t steal the cargo. It was given back to the shipwrecked persons. In our opinion only the stranding of Chinese ships has to be reported to Japan. How could we know that Holland is a Japanese vassal state. These people were not dressed in a Japanese way. And they spoke nor understood Japanese. They claimed never to have been there.

Shortly there after the Korean authorities formulated an official answer to the letter of the Daimyo of Tsushima. This started with the usual courtesy phrases and continued in the following way.

In the year 1653 a foreign ship stranded in front of the coast of the southern island. Half of the crew drowned. Thirty-six persons survived the shipwrecking. Nobody understood their language nor could read their handwriting. They stayed here for fourteen years. They supported themselves with fishing and chopping wood. They have never been caught trying to preach the doctrine of Jesus or to pollute in any other way the people with pernicious ideas. Would this have been the case, then we would not have hesitated to inform you immediately. If these barbarians were really Christians they wouldn’t have fled to Japan. They were namely told that followers of Jesus were killed instantaneously. There are still eight barbarians in our country. When you appreciate that, you can see these and if necessary, interrogate them.

Then the letter ended with the usual assurance of the highest esteem and the deepest respect which the Koreans nourished for their Japanese brothers. This answer satisfied the Japanese. They were now at ease and doubted no longer that the Hollanders were no Christians. Now they could fulfill the repeated request from the chief of Deshima. Hamel and co. got their permission to leave Deshima and the Daimyo wrote the following to the Koreans:
Recently we asked information about a vessel that stranded thirteen years ago off the coast of Korea. We understood that there are still eight of these people in your country. Since they are subject of a vassal state of our country, we request you to promote that these people are transferred to our island.

This letter was brought to Tongnae by a Japanese messenger, where it is handed over to the Korean commander in April or May 1668. He sent the letter to the court in Seoul. The king and his Crown council were immediately willing to grant the request. They seemed to be happy to be freed from the cursed Hollanders.

Instructions were sent to Cholla, where the Hollander were residing. And a letter was sent to the Japanese. In this the following was written: Of the eight Hollanders, one died last year. Seven are still alive. These will be taken to Tongnae and handed over to your envoy.

In August 1668 the seven arrived at the island of Tsushima. Here the Daimyo took care that they were transported to Nagasaki. After a difficult journey , they arrived there on September 16. In the daily records of Deshima the names of the ones who returned are written down on that day. They are the same names as mentioned by Hamel at the end of the interrogation by the Japanese in 1666. From Jan Claeszen , cook, coming from Dordrecht, is written that he died two years before in Namwon in the south of Korea.

But in the book Noord en Oost Tartarije (North and East Tartary) by Nicolaes Witsen , 2nd print Amsterdam 1705, is written in part I on page 53, that Jan Claeszen was, at that moment, alive and kicking. He however preferred to stay in Korea. “Hij was aldaer getrouwt en gaf geen hair aen zijn lyf meer te hebben dat na een Christen of Nederlander geleek.” (He was married there and declared to have no hair on his body that looked like a Christian or Nederlander [Dutchman]).

Nicolaes Witsen was an old esteemed administrator of the VOC, a scion or a jack of all trades, who occupied several functions for the VOC and was 13 times Mayor of Amsterdam between 1682 and 1705. While writing his book he consulted many written sources, which were not always equally reliable. But he also spoke with people who have been in the service of the VOC, to verify one and the other. For the description of the adventure of Hamel and his mates he used the Journael. This is proven by the fact that he has taken over, unaltered, some of the mistakes which occurred in the edition which he used. Besides that he has had contact with Meester (master) Mattheus Eibocken, who was a sub-barber in that time on board of the Sperwer. One may assume that everything which doesn’t occur in the Journael, is written down by him from the mouth of this sub-barber.

In order not to be troubled by the Japanese the Koreans will have written down in their report that Jan Claeszen had died. For the same reason his seven mates will have confirmed this message. They wanted to avoid the risk that they would not get permission from the Japanese to return homeward. And so this fake message entered the records of the VOC. But according to Witsen, Jan Claeszen was not the only person on the Sperwer who married in that country and had children. Witsen writes: “Kinderen en wijven, die enige daer getrouwt hadden, verlieten ze.” (They left children and wives, whom they have married).

Hoetink writes in the introduction to the scientific text edition of the Journael that here and there in Korea inboorlingen (natives, but in a disdainful way) have been found with blond hair and blue eyes. He considers it however not certain that these blond Koreans are descendants from the crew of the Sperwer. Hoetink keeps it in account that the possibility exists that other white sailors landed in Korea who “eveneens omgang hebben gehad met de vrouwen des lands” (also contacted the women of the country). This however is not likely. Hoetink himself is writing about “de afzondering waarin Korea heeft volhard na ‘t vertrek van de Nederlanders ” (the seclusion in which Korea persisted after the departure of the Dutchmen) and adds that “eerst aan het eind van de vorige eeuw Korea gedwongen werd zijn poorten voor vreemdelingen to ontsluiten” (first at the end of the last century Korea was forced to open its gates for foreigners) (1876). But as mentioned before, we do know some other foreigners DID enter the country.

This opening up was only related to the trade. Puritanism, racist prejudices and hate of foreigners prevented also after this year sexual relations between Koreans and Westerners. Only during and after the Korean war children of mixed blood were born in Korea. (1950-1953) Genetically speaking, only the third generation would have the possibility of having children with the characteristics of the first generation, presuming that dark dominates light.

From this one may conclude that all blue-eyed, blond Koreans of whom the father was demonstrably not a UN-military who was in service during that war, is a descendent of the crew of the Sperwer.

This statement is supported by a research recently done by dr. Tae Jin Kim, (Kim Tae Jin, who I met at the Dutch embassy in Seoul ) head of the library of the Chonnam University at Kwangju, the capital of the province of Cholla (Thiellado according to Hamel) In an article of the NRC Handelsblad of January 4, 1988 is written about this research:

   Al zes jaar lang brengt Tae Jin Kim een groot deel van zijn vrije tijd door met onderzoek naar nazaten van de 17e eeuwse Hollandse schipbreukelingen, die op een eilandje voor de kust aanspoelden. Volgens hem trouwden ze tijdens hun langdurig verblijf in Cholla met Koreaanse vrouwen en zorgden voor een nageslacht met gemengd bloed. “Mensen zijn ontsteld, ja diep geschokt, als ik alleen al suggereer dat ze misschien wel van Hollanders afstammen,” zegt Tae. “Ik heb nog niemand gevonden die het wil toegeven, ook al weet ik van sommige families voor bijna 100% zeker dat ze Hollands bloed in de aderen hebben”
  Already for six years Tae Jin Kim spends a big part of his free time with researching the descendants of the 17-century Dutch crew who shipwrecked and washed ashore at an island off the coast. According to him they married during their long stay in Cholla with Korean women and provided an offspring of mixed blood. “People are dismayed, yes even deeply shocked, when I only suggest that they might have descended from the Hollanders ” says Tae. I’ve yet not found anybody who wants to admit it, though I’m almost certain for 100% that they have Dutch blood in their veins.”

The newspaper article continues with the remark that ‘according to the Journael of Hendrick Hamel only one crewmember stayed behind in Cholla, because he married in the meantime and he had no hair on his body which was still Christian’.

We know that this message is not written in the Journael of Hendrick Hamel but in the book Noord en Oost Tartarije of Nicolaes Witsen. The source however is less important then the contents. It is placed in the newspaper article against the remark of dr. Tae Jin Kim that the greater part of the sixteen Hollanders who lived in the province of Cholla, fathered children in the villages of Pyongyong, Sunchon, Namwon and Shinsong. He bases this theorem not only on the presence in these villages of many blond and blue-eyed Koreans, but also on the fact that most of them bear the surname Nam. Nam means in Korean South. Nam is not an unusual family name in Korea. There are three branches. Two of them already existed before the arrival of Hamel and his companions, but the third finds his roots over here.

Hamel mentions in his Journael that the Hollanders when they were placed into the bodyguard of the king, they received Korean names. From the Korean sources (Ledyard) we know that Nam was a name given at least to a few of them. Tae Jin Kim also visited burial places, where he found at least two Hollander surnames. But also corrupted first names, for instance Yon (the Dutch name Jan, pronounced as Yan, is very common in Holland)

He made pictures of the faces of members of the Nam-families in these villages, and compared the facial features with those of other families. Dr. Tae (most likely dr. Kim) also investigated a social-historical research, from which it appeared that in the Nam-family there are remarkably many lawyers, doctors, professors and high military and civilian administrators. Unfortunately he didn’t write down the results of his research and he died without leaving any documentation behind.


An example is Nam Il, a North Korean general, originating from Pyongyong , it is said that in the Korean war he saved the village of Pyongyong from destruction.

In July 2000, I went to the places and the place names Hamel writes about and they are exactly pronounced in that way in the local dialect. Pyongyong becomes indeed Pyeingyeing and Namwon hears more like Namman, also Sunchon looks more like Suinschien, Shinsong is indeed pronounced as Saijsingh. Personally I saw that in Pyongyong at least most of the older people there have blue eyes, not bright blue, but brownish blue. However no blond hair. In Yosu I found, while I went to the harbor I saw a small boy, the crown of his hair was blond. From a personal correspondence with one of the people from Pyongyong we read the following:

Around sixty or seventy years after Dutchmen departed from Pyôngyông, Sir. Woo Jae published a world map first time as a local scholar. Of course, he comes from Pyôngyông.

He transcribes from a Korean book called T’am Jin mun hwa (no publisher known, obviously a Xeroxed compilation of papers presented at a lecture about Hamel)
Dr.Kim, Tae Jin focused on researching ‘which Korean last name Dutchmen used’, ‘how they made a living in Pyôngyông’, and ‘what their relationships to local people were’. Probable last names they might use are either “Nam” or “Nam-koong” in fact; a written record has it that one of the Nam family’s ancestors made an effort to develop firearms.
According to Late Park, Yong Hoo, several skeletal bones were found at
“Melke” Beach 60 or 70 years ago. These bones must have belonged to the Westerners based on their size.
Mr. Kim, Bong Ok believed that Hamel and his gangs could have lived at Prince Kwanghae’s house in Cheju.
Dr.Choi, Sang Soo suspects that Dutchmen may have lived somewhere near the ‘Su So Moon’ Dong in Seoul because the training school where they were assigned (for a post) is located in ‘Dong Dae Moon’ Stadium.

More information on the subject:

Jan Boonstra’s in search of traces
or (in Korean)
A site about the name Nam in general

Of course there are still more things to investigate. In the course of research I came upon the following things:
1.One day a Korean song was heard with the tune of a traditional Dutch tune. It was said to be a traditional Korean song. 
2.The origin of the word Hollan Hada, which means confused in Korean hollan is a compound of two Chinese characters, their Korean pronunciations being hon and lan, both of which mean confusion or disorder “Doing Hollands” ?
3.Why do Koreans call their mother Omma, (the Dutch word for grandmother is Oma), their elder brother Oppa (the Dutch word for grandfather is Opa), toktok in Korean means smart, didn’t the Dutch fool them when they mentioned that somebody was toctoc, (which means fool) Probably there are more words with a similar background; it would be interesting for a linguistic expert to investigate those things.
4. In Pyongyong, Kangjin in Cholla Province, the people wear wooden shoes, which are made in the same way as the Dutch do, made of one piece of wood, but with high heels


Abundance and discomfort


Riches alone make no man happy

A well-known proverb says that the love of money is the root of all evil. But another one says that Money has no smell. And that should be fine as well. Because otherwise the bricks of the VOC-buildings in Amsterdam, Hoorn, Enkhuizen and elsewhere would smell like the perspiration of the mates in the forecastle and like the blood of the victims of the many punitive expeditions in the East Indian archipelago.

The high profits of the VOC were, which is said here foregoing already, made at the cost of their own employees and the local population. For the administrators the hunt for profit was their most important motivation. Elsewhere one wrote already about the relationship between the so-called trade spirit of the Dutch and their Calvinistic way of living, so that moral considerations are not forthcoming and we can limit ourselves to the facts (van Hove however, makes judgments as well, as we will see further on. Also with citing certain writers one makes judgments).One of those facts is that the second half of the eighty yearlong independence war our independence struggle is financed to a high degree by the VOC, so that it can be said that Holland owes his existence as an independent state to this commercial enterprise. But also its culture. Because if the governor families didn’t earn that much money with the VOC, they couldn’t have given that much assignments to painters and architects. The Palace on the Dam wouldn’t have been built, nor most of the mansions alongside the canals of Amsterdam.

It is described in a satirical way in the Max Havelaar (1860) in a scientific way in amongst others: Wirtschaft und Geselschaft (1922) Max Weber) According to Weber, Calvinism sired virtues like thrift and diligence. Laziness was “the devils cushion of an idle person”, squandering and wastefulness were ‘not done’. This labor ethos was at the cradle of several mighty trade tycoons

The victory on the totalitarian (which is not a fact, but a judgment, the Spanish describe their history different t) Spanish ruler created on top of that space for a liberal climate. All kind of dissidents could publish their books here. The philosophical thinking developed in the spirit of Erasmus and Coornhert.

In sharp contrast with this is the fact that the local population of the East-Indian archipelago, in no way had any benefit of the activities of the VOC. In materialistic sense they were exploited and of the philosophical ideas which were developed in the Republic, they remained ignorant.

Some of the highest functionaries of the VOC knew about these philosophical developments. It’s not unlikely that an erudite man like governor-general Joan Maetsuyker read the in 1662 published work Tractatus de Intellectus Emandatione of Baruch Spinoza. He will have admired the theorem that ” material gain was no gain and that the only thing which has value and gives undisturbed joy, is the love to the divine creature ” which was posed there. But at the same time Maetsuyker will have had the opinion that you can’t do anything in practice with those ideas. He will have had no need to enter these ideas into the Council of the Indies. For the VOC material gain after all was a goal and a reason to exist.

This discord between philosophical theory and commercial practice is typical for the more educated merchants in Holland during the Golden Age. One may read the Embarrassment of Riches of Simon Schama (which is translated and published in Holland as Overvloed en welbehagen in 1988).

To ease their mind some rich Hollanders had a provision in their will, that a part of their fortune had to be destined after their death to the establishment and maintenance for some houses for needy countrymen. That’s how in many Hollandse cities the well-known hofjes (almshouses) originate, where single women were allowed to live for free or for a small amount. But no will ever mentions a legacy for the need of the local population of the East Indies. The locals were in the eyes of the Hollanders savages, who had brought down the revenge of God on their heads, that’s why they couldn’t make claims on Christian charity.

It was not before the 19th century that some of the enlightened spirits in our country started to see the locals as their fellow humans. The result was that the feeling of discomfort, like it is formulated by Schama, henceforth also concerned the population of the East Indian archipelago.

J.P. Heije, the well-known author of patriotic songs, expressed this feeling on a characteristic, but not very poetical way:

Did not your golden beams
Easter light and Easter glow,
Above Spanish recklessness
flaunt Dutch young freedom?
from that eastern balm air
buddeth Dutch youngest prosperity
till Europe’s richest fruit?
Ai, what did thy giveth to Java’s beaches
For the Freedom, for the Power,
for the blessing brought to you,
AI, what hast thou given Netherlands,
when your ships Netherlands,
Returneth with emptied womb,
Sendeth your grace to Java’s beaches,
slavery, dullness poverty, death
Deden niet uw gulden stralen
Oosterlicht en oostergloed,
Boven Spanjes overmoed
Neerlands jonge vrijheid pralen
van die oosterbalsemlucht
Neerlands jonge welvaart knoppen
tot Europa’s rijkste vrucht?
AI, wat gaaft ge aan Java’s stranden
Voor de Vrijheid, voor de Kracht,
Voor de zegen u gebracht?
AI, wat gaaft GE Nederlanden?
Als Uw schepen, Nederlanden
Keerden met geleegde schoot
Zond uw dank aan Java’s stranden
Slaafsheid, stompheid, armoe, dood.

Douwe Dekker formulated it more concise:” Goed, goed, alles goed. Maar…. de Javaan wordt mishandeld.” (Okay, okay, everything’s well. But…. the Javanese is being maltreated). The meeting between East and West, as it had taken place in the 17th century in the East Indian archipelago, had the big disadvantage that it was a meeting between unequal partners. The Hollanders came as oppressors and extortionists and misused the weak military position of the local population. That it could be done differently is shown in the case of Deshima. On that little island the Hollanders stayed for 200 years. If the Japanese had no advantage of their stay, they would have thrown them out, like they did before with the Portuguese. And if the contacts with the Japanese weren’t advantageous for the Hollanders, they wouldn’t have stayed that long. It seems to be worth investigating whether a similar relation wouldn’t have been possible between the Hollanders and the Koreans.

Quelpaert, a missed chance?

The fifteen crew members of the Sperwer, who came in contact with their countrymen, after their long stay in Korea, were of course extensively interrogated about all kind of aspects of their adventure. What interested the administrators in Amsterdam and the High Government in Batavia especially was the question if one could trade with this unknown country in a profitable way. That’s why the description of country and people of Korea as it is written down in the Journael, will have been read with a lot of interest. This description and the oral explanation by Hamel and his mates obviously raised optimistic expectations by the administrators in Amsterdam. Anyhow in 1669 a ship was launched that was baptized Corea.

The High Government in Batavia was less enthusiastic. But also this council concluded that several products which were exported to Korea were brought to Japan by the VOC. Amongst these were products like sandalwood, pepper , hides, etc. They wanted to investigate the possibility to deliver these goods to Korea straight-away in order to make higher profits in this way. That’s why, shortly after the arrival of Hamel in Batavia, an official document was sent, directed to Mr. Daniel Six, chief of Deshima, in which was asked to advice about this.

The answer of Six was not encouraging. He pointed at the monopoly for the trade with Korea, which was in the hands of the Daimyo of Tsushima . The Japanese would never allow that this monopoly was broken, according to the chief. In short, if the VOC valued continuing the commercial relations with the Japanese, they should not throw themselves in a Korean adventure. There was some more correspondence between Batavia and Deshima and between Batavia and Amsterdam, but eventually they took the advise of the chief at heart. As a consequence of the powerful position of Japan in that area, the VOC rejected further exploration of Korea. The good ship Corea, never set course to the country after which is was named.

Without doubt an attempt to harbor a VOC ship at a Korean port shortly after 1670, in an attempt to make commercial relations with Korea, have failed. If it is only that the Koreans were of the opinion that they were bothered enough by the Hollanders. Furthermore they stuck to their decision not to make any contacts besides the contacts with other foreigners with the Tartarians and the Japanese (In the case of the Japanese and the Tartarians they had not much choice!).

This decision was based on the bad experiences which the Koreans had in the past with foreigners. It was only a century ago that the Hideyoshi invasions took place, and the memories of the invasion of the Manchu’s in 1636 was hardly faded. The Korean desire to be left alone had always been very strong, even before the Hideyoshi invasion.

The coast of the country was carefully guarded and the harbors locked. On top of that the appearance was given that the country was poor. To the foreigners they pretended more or less: You have nothing of value here, because there is nothing. This isolating policy was enforced so consequently that when the Korean isolation was broken, it was the last country outside Europe which was disclosed.

The Japanese were also not very keen on foreigners. But while the Koreans kept the door firmly closed, the Japanese put theirs ajar. This was related to the fact that Japan was a powerful country and possessed a strong military and naval force and therefore had more self-confidence.

Already in 1543, the Japanese government granted the Portuguese to establish a factory on the island of Hirado . It was for the Japanese a lucky coincidence that when they changed the Portuguese for the Hollanders as commercial relation one century later. This happened on a moment in history where Portugal lost it’s importance as a world power indefinitely, like the Spanish Empire, of which the decline already started with the sinking of the Armada in 1588. In that year was the young Republic an insignificant dwarf state that in the swampy delta of Schelde, Meuse and Rhine hardly could keep its head above the water. A year before, in 1587, a soldier from Leicester called our territory:

…..the biggest quagmire of Europe. Nowhere in the world you will find so much bogginess. It’s everywhere swamp. Indeed it’s the buttock of the world, full of blood and veins, but with no bones in it.

This was written by Sir Henry Unton, troops captain of the cavalry in the English expedition army, which rushed forward to the help of the moribund Republic in his desperate looking battle against the Spanish oppressor. Obviously the English thought this such a suitable description of Holland that they used this in the course of the 17th and 18th century every time when the political situation gave a reason. They used it in leaflets against the Republic der Zeven Verenigde Provincien (The republic of the seven united provinces).

Sir Henry wrote his letter though from Middelburg, and the Province of Zeeland was in those days more sea then land, and much land was drowned or half drowned. As a consequence of the war circumstances the maintenance of the dikes was neglected, while some of the dikes were perforated sometimes on purpose to hinder the advancement of the Spanish troops. As a consequence Zeeland was nothing more then a collection of silts, from which some cities like Middelburg, Veere and Zierikzee stood up like little islands. It’s no miracle that Sir Henry complained about the bogginess.

That this buttock of the world would develop in two generations to a center of power and civilization, nobody could surmise. Also modern historians are amazed about this development, which, speed-wise, only is equaled by that of Japan at around 1900. In de Nederlandse Geschiedenis als afwijking van het algemeen menselijk patroon (1988) (the Dutch History as a deviation of the common human pattern) the authors are seeking an explanation of this swift development in the physic-geographical circumstances of the young republic. They end their argument with the rhetorical question :”Doesn’t the “Homo Hollandicus” arise in the first instance from the swamp?” For Japan the Hollanders were as trade partners much more acceptable, because obviously they were also hostile against both the Portuguese and the Spaniards, and they were as less charmed by the catholic religion as the Japanese themselves. It was a comforting thought that the Hollanders came purely as merchants and not as preachers of religion to the Japanese waters.

But in fact the choice of the Japanese meant that they chose an ideology which was already losing in Europe, and they came in contact with a liberal-capitalistic system, that eventually would determine the face in both the New as the Old World. Though the Japanese were in no way planning to study the European culture after Hollands design, with the aim to take over this cultural pattern, but the fact that they were capable in the second half of the 19th century of making themselves familiar with the western ideas, was partly due to the fact that they kept their door ajar for centuries. And that crack was Deshima .

When Perry arrived in 1853 in Japan, he encountered Japanese who could read Hollands. Some had made a study of sciences like they had developed in Europe. Others possessed knowledge about the civics and the economic organization of the most important European countries. There were even minor groups who aimed at importing certain scientific methods and political policy making in Japan. However small these groups were, their influence was unproportional big. Thanks to this influence the culture shock for the Japanese was less big, in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the West started to become engaged in the Far East than for most of the other countries in that part of the world, especially Korea. Here in 1870 the first European visitors since Hendrick Hamel and his mates encountered a backward country, with a degenerated dynasty, a corrupt administration and a society which was decomposing.

Matthew Galbraith Perry (1794-1858). American admiral, who forced the Japanese to open their ports for foreign merchant navy and lift the business embargo.

In a South Korean TV-documentary about the jaght the Sperwer and his crew (broadcasted by the TROS on May 31, 1988) some Korean historians regretted the fact that their ancestors, in 1653, didn’t use the opportunity to make cultural and economical relations with the Hollanders through Hamel and co.
According to these historians it would have been much better for the development of their country, if it had given the opportunity to the remaining members of the crew of the Sperwer to return to their countrymen with an invitation to the governor general to send as quick as possible a convoy of VOC ships with trade goods to the Korean waters.
One can only guess how the governor-general and the Japanese would have reacted, or the Tartarians. But according to the Korean historians it wouldn’t have been an impossible alternative, provided it would have been done carefully.
There could have been another script possible as well, according to which the initiative was to the VOC. It is tempting to wonder what would have happened if the Heeren XVII had laid down the advice of the chief of Deshima and accepted the risk of breaking economical ties with Japan, in order to make higher profits in Korea.

In order to save both ‘ de kool en de geit’ (the cabbage and the goat, meaning to be safe at both ends), there would have been a lot of diplomacy involved, beside some roaring of cannons and showing of flags. That wouldn’t have been troublesome since there was a lot of diplomatic talent present in the Republic. The assignment to play Tartary against Japan would have been right up the street of the in 1649 born Hans Willem baron Bentinck. He succeeded in a similar assignment in Europe shortly thereafter.

Baron Bentinck played an important role in the marriage of William III and Mary Stuart, which led to the Glorious Revolution

But, maybe unfortunately for Korea and maybe unfortunately for the Republic, nothing of this all happened. In 1653 the Koreans didn’t send the Hollanders back to Taiwan with an invitation for the governor-general, and in 1670 or hereabout, the governor-general didn’t send a powerful fleet to Quelpaert to occupy this island.

In reality the thirteen-year stay of the Hollanders was just a short incident of the long history of this country. With the departure of the last survivors of the Sperwer in 1668 Korea slept in again, to be wakened two centuries later, much ruder then the Sleeping Beauty







Interesting weekend fare: Cars, cola, Disney, history, and lift troubles

Sunday, November 6th, 2011


Uriminzokkiri posted this short video of rush-hour traffic in Pyongyang (YouTube):

I will leave it up to the reader to determine if the video was staged. What is more interesting to me is to see the variety of vehicles used in the shots.  I saw at least one American Dodge Van in the footage (similar to the one I saw parked next to the Pueblo in 2005).  If you know a lot about cars, feel free to try identifying other vehicles in the footage.

And continuing on the automotive front–a tourist to the DPRK took this picture in September 2010:

The picture above is of an American-made, petrol-guzzling “Hummer H2″ (MSRP in 2008 – USD$53,286; 10 mpg-US; 24 L/100 km; 12 mpg-imp). The license plate on the vehicle is 평양 22-2722.

In September 2011, Eric Lafforgue took the picture below of what appears to be a second Hummer on the streets of the DPRK.

The license plate on this vehicle is “23-199″. I cannot read the city name on the plate.  According to the photographer:

During my stay in North Korea, i [sp] saw 2 Hummer cars. This is the fist time i [sp] hear north korean people making cristisms about something in their country! They all told me it was a shame to see such a car in North Korea, as it needs lot of fuel. Some people told me that the car number tells that it belongs to a local media (press or tv).


Mr. Lafforgue has also brought up another interesting topic through his pictures: North Korea’s cola wars!


On the left is a Picture of Cocoa “crabonated drink” [sp] taken by Eric Lafforgue in 2008.  On the right is a picture of  ”코코아 탄산단물” (Translation: “Cocoa Carbonated Drink”) taken by Eric Lafforgue in September 2011.

I might have been inclined to believe they were the same product with different labels (and maybe they are?), however, they appear to be manufactured by different companies.  The cola on the left is manufactured by a company called “룡진” (Ryongjin), a company about which I cannot find any additional information, and the beverage on the right is manufactured by “모란봉” (Moranbong).  I presume that “Moranbong” is actually the Moranbong Carbonated Fruit Juice J.V. Company. According to Naenara:

Moranbong Carbonated Fruit Juice J.V. Company
Add: Taedonggang District, Pyongyang, DPR Korea
Fax: 850-2-381-4410

The company formed in 2004 produces a wide assortment of carbonated fruit juice and health drink.

It has an affiliated factory equipped with hi-tech facilities that conform to hygienic requirements of GMP, ranging from production of bottles and drinks to packing.

Its products include apple, grape, peach, orange, cocoa, lemon and strawberry carbonated juices.

A multifunctional super-antioxidant health drink “Pirobong” is a drawing card in the world market.

The company will steadily increase investment in the development of new brand of drinks and further promote exchange and collaboration with partners across the world.

So why does the DPRK produce competing colas? Wouln’t that be wasteful duplication of processes? No.  Monopolys are generally more wasteful than competitive firms. Though in the past there were few producers of carbonated drinks in the DPRK (Ryongsong Food Factory, Kyongryon Patriotic Soda Factory), the DPRK seems to have moved away from near-monopoly production to a more competitive industrial organization in the production of soda.

Kim Jong-il’s sister, Kim Kyong-hui (KKH), is director of the Light Industry Department in the Worker’s Party and as a result holds all colas in her job portfolio. Without having any special data on the DPRK’s cola market, I would speculate that KKH promotes competition between the different soda producers to increase efficiency and profits for the ultimate goal of improving the positions of her discretionary official and unofficial budgets.

As an aside, earlier this year Forbes ran a story about meetings held between the DPRK’s Taepung International Investment Group and Coca Cola. Taephing is directed by Jang Song-thaek, Kim Kyong-hui’s husband.


In the past I have pointed out the appearance of Disney characters on North Korean apparel . Now they are showing up on mobile phones:

History 1

Here is a video of Lim Su-kyung in Pyongyang (1989). Here is a story about her in the Daily NK. I think I just found her Facebook profile!


History 2

Here is a map of Pyongyang produced int he 1800s.  Other maps of the region here. Hat tip to Kwang On Yoo.


Lift troubles

Here is a 30+ minute video shot in Pyongyang–nearly entirley in the dark. Hat tip to Leonid Petrov.

The video caption reads: “We were touring the 3 Revolutions Exhibition in Pyongyang in 2009, when our elevator lost all power and 11 of us were stuck in blackness, hanging by a North Korean thread.”


Friday Grab bag: a little bit of everything

Friday, June 17th, 2011

1. Google has uploaded some beautiful new satellite imagery of Pyongyang. Some parts of it are easier to see than others, and I have not gone through it all, but here are some fun, quick discoveries:

1. There appears to be a new aircraft runway in Ryongsong-guyok (룡성구역, 39.127835°, 125.777533°).  Maybe not, but maybe.