Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Air Ballon Flight Historic Collections (Koleksi Sejarah Penerbangan Dengan Balon Udara)

The first flight in a hydrogen balloon, 1 December 1783.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI    
 
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      
THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

THE AIR BALLOON FLIGHT HISTORIC COLLECTIONS

 

 

_______________________________________________________

                            THE  AIR BALLOON FLIGHT HISTORIC  COLLECTIONS

                                                   The first flight in a hydrogen balloon, 1 December 1783.                                     

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

______________________________________________________________

The Old Art Pictures of King and Queen In The world memorable collection part Six

 Matthew Baillie, Scottish physician and pioneer morbid anatomist, c 1794.

The first flight in a hydrogen balloon, 1 December 1783.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

 

_______________________________________________________

                                         THE OLD ART PICTURES OF  KING AND QUEEN

                                           IN THE WORLD MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS

                                                     King William IV commemorative mug: 1831

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

______________________________________________________________

The Old Art Pictures Of King and Queen In the world memorable Collections Part Five

Fragment of a Roman Samian cup

'Thundersley', locomotive of the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway, 1911.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

 

_______________________________________________________

                                         THE OLD ART PICTURES OF  KING AND QUEEN

                                           IN THE WORLD MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS

                                                     King William IV commemorative mug: 1831

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

______________________________________________________________

 
 

 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 
 
Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their children boarding the royal train, c 1850.
Queen Victoria, Prince Albert and their children boarding the royal train, c 1850.
Construction of the Eastern Counties Railway near Ilford, Esex, 1838.
Construction of the Eastern Counties Railway near Ilford, Esex, 1838.
View of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway, 1831.
View of the Liverpool & Manchester Railway, 1831.
'A Fireman of the Sun Fire Office', 1805.
‘A Fireman of the Sun Fire Office’, 1805.
'Fire in London', 1791.
‘Fire in London’, 1791.
R E B Crompton, English electrical, c 1935.
R E B Crompton, English electrical, c 1935.
'Thundersley', locomotive of the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway, 1911.
‘Thundersley’, locomotive of the London, Tilbury & Southend Railway, 1911.
'Vauxhall' steam locomotive, 1834.
‘Vauxhall’ steam locomotive, 1834.
Construction of the Eastern Counties Railway, near Ilford, Esex, 1838.
Construction of the Eastern Counties Railway, near Ilford, Esex, 1838.
'Bristol Terminus of the Great Western Railway', c 1841.
‘Bristol Terminus of the Great Western Railway’, c 1841.
'Bristol Station', 1846.
‘Bristol Station’, 1846.
John Harrison, English inventor and horologist, 1767.
John Harrison, English inventor and horologist, 1767
 
'Blackpool', original oil painting for an LMS poster, c 1930s.
‘Blackpool’, original oil painting for an LMS poster, c 1930s.
London Brighton & South Coast Railway Royal Train, 1899.
London Brighton & South Coast Railway Royal Train, 1899.
Rock of Cashel, Ireland.
Rock of Cashel, Ireland.
Train at Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1850.
Train at Shakespeare Cliff, Dover, 1850.
John Flamsteed, English astronomer, 1712.
John Flamsteed, English astronomer, 1712.
Matthew Baillie, physician and pioneer morbid anatomist, 1781-1798.
Matthew Baillie, physician and pioneer morbid anatomist, 1781-1798.
Plan of Matthew Baillie's estate at Duntisbourne, Gloucestershire, 1790-1823.
Plan of Matthew Baillie’s estate at Duntisbourne, Gloucestershire, 1790-1823.
Matthew Baillie, Scottish physician and pioneer morbid anatomist, 1812.
Matthew Baillie, Scottish physician and pioneer morbid anatomist, 1812.
'Shaving by Steam', c 1810.
‘Shaving by Steam’, c 1810.
aerial view of Southampton Docks, 1840-1880.
aerial view of Southampton Docks, 1840-1880.
Launch of Virgil 'Gus' Grisom's Redstone rocket (MR4), 1961.
Launch of Virgil ‘Gus’ Grisom’s Redstone rocket (MR4), 1961.
Goods Shed, Bristol, Great Western Railway, 1846.
Goods Shed, Bristol, Great Western Railway, 1846
 
 
'The Record Breaking Run of Mallard', 1938.
‘The Record Breaking Run of Mallard’, 1938.
Burtall's 'Perseverance' locomotive, 1829.
Burtall’s ‘Perseverance’ locomotive, 1829.
Sir Malcolm Campbell racing at Brooklands, Weybridge, Surrey, 1935.
Sir Malcolm Campbell racing at Brooklands, Weybridge, Surrey, 1935.
Susan Roper riding her sheep, 12 November 1956.
Susan Roper riding her sheep, 12 November 1956.
Princes Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh.
Princes Elizabeth and the Duke of Edinburgh.
Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, 22 June 1953.
Edmund Hillary and Sherpa Tenzing Norgay, 22 June 1953.
Working on the propellers of the 'Queen Mary', Southampton, 16 July 1936.
Working on the propellers of the ‘Queen Mary’, Southampton, 16 July 1936.
Amy Johnson, British aviator, 3 April 1936.
Amy Johnson, British aviator, 3 April 1936.
'Welwyn Garden City', railway poster, c 1930s.
‘Welwyn Garden City’, railway poster, c 1930s.
Brochure promoting 'The Coronation' LNER train, 1937-1939.
Brochure promoting ‘The Coronation’ LNER train, 1937-1939.
Sign advertising 'Fry's Milk Chocolate', c 1920.
Sign advertising ‘Fry’s Milk Chocolate’, c 1920.
Parsons Steam Turbo-Generator 60 KW, 1901.
Parsons Steam Turbo-Generator 60 KW, 1901
 
'Wolsey Pageant, Ipswich, June 23-28', LNER poster, 1923-1947.
‘Wolsey Pageant, Ipswich, June 23-28′, LNER poster, 1923-1947.
Thomas Mudge, English horologist, 1772.
Thomas Mudge, English horologist, 1772.
Sir Samuel Morland, English diplomatist, mathematician and inventor, c 1660.
Sir Samuel Morland, English diplomatist, mathematician and inventor, c 1660.
William Oughtred, English mathematician, 17th century.
William Oughtred, English mathematician, 17th century.
Jese Ramsden, English instrument maker, 1791.
Jese Ramsden, English instrument maker, 1791.
Digging a cutting on the Great Western Railway, 1841.
Digging a cutting on the Great Western Railway, 1841.
Thomas Mudge, English horologist, 1772.
Thomas Mudge, English horologist, 1772.
Colonel Francis Macerone, British soldier and mechanical inventor, 1822.
Colonel Francis Macerone, British soldier and mechanical inventor, 1822.
Mr Cocking's parachute descent from the 'Vauxhall' balloon, 24 July 1837.
Mr Cocking’s parachute descent from the ‘Vauxhall’ balloon, 24 July 1837.
Charles and Robert's aerostatic globe experiment, Paris, 1 December 1783.
Charles and Robert’s aerostatic globe experiment, Paris, 1 December 1783.
'The aerostatic Globe', 1783.
‘The aerostatic Globe’, 1783.
Thomas Mudge, English horologist, 1772.
Thomas Mudge, English horologist, 1772.
 
'British Empire Exhibition,' LNER poster, 1925.
‘British Empire Exhibition,’ LNER poster, 1925.
'British Empire Exhibition', LNER poster, 1925.
‘British Empire Exhibition’, LNER poster, 1925.
'A Moment's Impatience - A Lifetime of Remorse', BR poster, 1973.
‘A Moment’s Impatience – A Lifetime of Remorse’, BR poster, 1973.
'Winchester', SR poster, 1935.
‘Winchester’, SR poster, 1935.
'Jersey', BR poster, 1952.
‘Jersey’, BR poster, 1952.
'Festival of Britain', BR poster, 1951.
‘Festival of Britain’, BR poster, 1951.
'Southampton Docks', SR poster, 1933.
‘Southampton Docks’, SR poster, 1933.
'West Riding Limited', LNER poster, 1938.
‘West Riding Limited’, LNER poster, 1938.
'The Flying Scotsman', LNER poster, c 1935.
‘The Flying Scotsman’, LNER poster, c 1935.
'The Flying Scotsman's Cocktail Bar', LNER poster, c 1930s.
‘The Flying Scotsman’s Cocktail Bar’, LNER poster, c 1930s.
'The Coronation', LNER poster, 1937.
‘The Coronation’, LNER poster, 1937.
'Scotland by the Night Scotsman', LNER poster, 1932.
‘Scotland by the Night Scotsman’, LNER poster, 1932.
 
 
'The Silver Jubilee', BR poster, 1977.
‘The Silver Jubilee’, BR poster, 1977.
'Gloucester Cathedral', GWR/LMS poster, 1923-1947.
‘Gloucester Cathedral’, GWR/LMS poster, 1923-1947.
'Norfolk for Happy Holidays', BR poster, 1950s.
‘Norfolk for Happy Holidays’, BR poster, 1950s.
'Bourenmouth: Britain's All-Season Resort', BR poster, 1950s.
‘Bourenmouth: Britain’s All-Season Resort’, BR poster, 1950s.
'London by LNER', LNER poster, 1933.
‘London by LNER’, LNER poster, 1933.
'Explore the Home Counties', LNER poster, 1936.
‘Explore the Home Counties’, LNER poster, 1936.
'Stirling Castle', LMS poster, 1923-1947.
‘Stirling Castle’, LMS poster, 1923-1947.
Ipswich, Suffolk, LNER poster, c 1930s.
Ipswich, Suffolk, LNER poster, c 1930s.
'Factory Sites', LNER poster, 1923-1947.
‘Factory Sites’, LNER poster, 1923-1947.
'Belgium via Harwich', LNER poster, c 1930s.
‘Belgium via Harwich’, LNER poster, c 1930s.
'Dunfermline', LNER poster, 1923-1947.
‘Dunfermline’, LNER poster, 1923-1947.
'British Empire Exhibition', LNER poster, 1925.
‘British Empire Exhibition’, LNER poster, 1925
 
Suffrage banner: 1908
Suffrage banner: 1908
Photograph of Indian suffragettes on the Women's Coronation Procession, 17 June 1911
Photograph of Indian suffragettes on the Women’s Coronation Procession, 17 June 1911
'100 Years of Progress, 1835-1935', GWR poster, 1935.
’100 Years of Progress, 1835-1935′, GWR poster, 1935.
The Flying Scotsman', LNER poster, 1923-1947.
The Flying Scotsman’, LNER poster, 1923-1947.
'Isle of Man', LMS poster, c 1920s.
‘Isle of Man’, LMS poster, c 1920s.
'Southport, For a Holiday In Wintertime', LMS poster, 1925.
‘Southport, For a Holiday In Wintertime’, LMS poster, 1925.
'Glasgow International Exhibition', GNR/NER/NBR poster, 1901.
‘Glasgow International Exhibition’, GNR/NER/NBR poster, 1901.
'Lantern Lectures, Lantern Slides', LYR notice, early 20th century.
‘Lantern Lectures, Lantern Slides’, LYR notice, early 20th century.
'England - Scotland in Comfort by Train', B
‘England – Scotland in Comfort by Train’, B
'Bavaria', BR poster, c 1960s.
‘Bavaria’, BR poster, c 1960s.
'Northward Bound', BR(ER) poster, c 1950s.
‘Northward Bound’, BR(ER) poster, c 1950s.
'Campbeltown Inveraray & c.', SECR poster, 1914.
‘Campbeltown Inveraray & c.’, SECR poster, 1914

 

 
Neolithic stone polished axehead
Neolithic stone polished axehead
Neolithic flint polished axehead
Neolithic flint polished axehead
Regalia of Charles II: 1670
Regalia of Charles II: 1670
Late Bronze Age bronze scabbard chape
Late Bronze Age bronze scabbard chape
Upper Palaeolithic antler perforated baton
Upper Palaeolithic antler perforated baton
Roman Samian cup
Roman Samian cup
Royal Hunt of the Sun, The
Royal Hunt of the Sun, The
Lonnie Donegan
Lonnie Donegan
Sugar Loaf and mould: 17th century
Sugar Loaf and mould: 17th century
Oliver Cromwell's plaster death mask: 1658
Oliver Cromwell’s plaster death mask: 1658
Double key with case: 1731-1734
Double key with case: 1731-1734
The Adoration of The Magi
The Adoration of The Magi
 
 
Scabbard chape: middle bronze-age
Scabbard chape: middle bronze-age
Bronze flanged axehead: middle bronze age
Bronze flanged axehead: middle bronze age
Polished flint axe-head: Neolithic
Polished flint axe-head: Neolithic
Fragment of a Roman flagon
Fragment of a Roman flagon
Fragment of a Roman Samian cup
Fragment of a Roman Samian cup
Saxon biconical jar
Saxon biconical jar
Pilgrim badge of Henry VI: 15th century
Pilgrim badge of Henry VI: 15th century
Rectangular grave slab: 11th century
Rectangular grave slab: 11th century
Roman figurine of a pigeon
Roman figurine of a pigeon
Prince's Play, The
Prince’s Play, The
A decorated street during Edward VII's coronation: 1902
A decorated street during Edward VII’s coronation: 1902
Silver coin: late 15th
Silver coin: late 15th
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Old Pictures Of King and Queen In The World Memorable Collections Part Four

 Gudmundur Sivertsen, young Icelander, early 19th century.

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

 

_______________________________________________________

                                         THE OLD ART PICTURES OF  KING AND QUEEN

                                           IN THE WORLD MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS

                                                     King William IV commemorative mug: 1831

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

______________________________________________________________

The Old Pictures Of King and Queen In The World Memorable Collection Part Three

 Willem II, King of the Netherlands

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

 

_______________________________________________________

                                         THE OLD ART PICTURES OF  KING AND QUEEN

                                           IN THE WORLD MEMORABLE COLLECTIONS

                                                     King William IV commemorative mug: 1831

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

______________________________________________________________

The Old Art Pictures Of King and Queen In The World Memorable Collections part Two

 'King's Cross for Scotland', LNER poster, 1923-1947.

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

“The Vintage Timor Kupang and realted Area”

_______________________________________________________

                                         THE OLD ART PICTURES OF  KING AND QUEEN

                                                                  IN THE WORLD

                                                     King William IV commemorative mug: 1831

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

______________________________________________________________

 
   
 
King / Rustic courtship
King / Rustic courtship
G.H.Thomas, Coronation of the King and..
G.H.Thomas, Coronation of the King and..
G.H.Thomas, Coronation of the King and..
G.H.Thomas, Coronation of the King and..
G.H.Thomas, The Coronation of the King..
G.H.Thomas, The Coronation of the King..
A.Zorn, Portrait of Clarence King
A.Zorn, Portrait of Clarence King
W.Hilton, King Lear.
W.Hilton, King Lear.
kings square
kings square
'King's Lynn', BR poster, 1948-63.
‘King’s Lynn’, BR poster, 1948-63.
'King's Lynn', BR poster, 1948-1965.
‘King’s Lynn’, BR poster, 1948-1965.
'King's Cross for Scotland', LNER poster, 1923-1947.
‘King’s Cross for Scotland’, LNER poster, 1923-1947.
'Cambridge: King's College Chapel',  LNER poster, 1954.
‘Cambridge: King’s College Chapel’, LNER poster, 1954.
'King's Lynn - A Treasury of Medieval Architecture', LNER poster, 1923-1947.
‘King’s Lynn – A Treasury of Medieval Architecture’, LNER poster, 1923-1947.
 
 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Old Art Pictures Of Royal King and Queen Collections Part One(Koleksi Seni Gambar Para Raja dan Ratu Tempo Dulu Di Dunia)

 

  
 
Plan of Tortola from survey by George King
Plan of Tortola from survey by George King
The tombs of King Sebba of the Eastern Saxons and King Ethelred in Old St Pauls
The tombs of King Sebba of the Eastern Saxons and King Ethelred in Old St Pauls
King Lear - Daughters Bowing to King
King Lear – Daughters Bowing to King
Greenwich Hospital from west, roadway between King William block & King Charles block
Greenwich Hospital from west, roadway between King William block & King Charles block
King George III, King of Great Britain, c 1800.
King George III, King of Great Britain, c 1800.
King William IV commemorative mug: 1831
King William IV commemorative mug: 1831
The Sea-wife carrying off the jewel from the Dragon-King's Palace, through the waves by his fishy retainers, by Utagawa Kuniyoshi
The Sea-wife carrying off the jewel from the Dragon-King’s Palace, through the waves by his fishy retainers, by Utagawa Kuniyoshi
Obverse of a silver penny of King Alfred: c. 880
Obverse of a silver penny of King Alfred: c. 880
King George II at the Battle of Dettingen, 1743
King George II at the Battle of Dettingen, 1743
The King of the Mountain, by Claude Allin Shepperson
The King of the Mountain, by Claude Allin Shepperson
High-relief oak panel depicting King Stephen: 16th century
High-relief oak panel depicting King Stephen: 16th century
Three kings pilgrim badge: 15th century
Three kings pilgrim badge: 15th century
 
 
 

The Vintage Timor Kupang,Flores And Related Area Collections(Koleksi dari Timor Kupang dan Nusatenggara Timur)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Book :

“The Vintage Timor Kupang ,Flores and related Area”

_______________________________________________________

                                         THE VINTAGE TIMOR KUPANG

                                   AND RELATED AREA COLLECTIONS

                   PRIVATE LIMITED E-BOOK SPECIAL FOR COLLE CTORS.

  Created by Dr IWAN S from many vintage books and His private collections

                         

Limited Private Edition 100 expl special for Premium member                          

                        JAKARTA @copyright Dr IWAN S 2011

                   hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

___________________________________________________________________

PREFACE

Timor Kupang  and related area in Indonesia was called Nusa Tengara Timur Province, Kupang is the capital city at Timor Island, another island were  Sumba,Solor, Alor,Flores ,komoko ,roti and Timor Indonesia,border with Timor leste.

Before world world II , two ilsnad Sawu and Raidjua under (onderafdeling)  Roti or Sawu which one leader chief or Raja ,the latest raja was Paulus Charles Djawa or Rohi Rihi Djawa which was died in 1963. After the world war II Sau and Raijdua Island still under Roti area under Kabupaten (Subprovinsi) Kupang, with two Kecamatan Sawu Timur and Sawu Barat.

I NEVER VISIT THIS AREA,BUT IN 1999 DURING MY DUTY TO TIMOR DILI(now TIMOR LESTE), I have seen from the fligth the beautiful three color Kalimutu Lake,

                                                

 and many of my nurse and the wife of health personil were evacuated from Dilli to Kupang Timor due to the worst situation before the Timor leste elections between freedom and autonom Indonesian Province.

Very difficult to find the Timor Kupang collection in Sumatra and Java or Bali, bacause not much communications between that area, but some Timor Kupang man which moved to Jakarta still bring their vintage books and picture collections and when they were passed away their family throw away teir collecrtions and I have found some rare collections from the Lapak, and in 2008 i found some postal history from that area which belonging of a snior collectors from Macassar,cutting fragment from his letter from that area ,very pity but still us a rare info from the small city in the Flores and Timor Island.I have aslo found vintgae book about that area early textile and embroidery.

If the c ollectors have MORE INFO FROM THIS AREA PLEASE CONTACT ME VIA COMMENT, THANK YOU.

Jalkarta June 2010

The author

Dr IWAN S

KATA PENGANTAR

Timor Kupang dan daerah terkait di Indonesia disebut Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur, Kupang adalah ibu kota di Pulau Timor, pulau lain adalah Sumba, Solor, Alor, Flores,, komoko roti dan Timor Indonesia, perbatasan dengan Timor leste.

Sebelum dunia dunia II, dua pulau Sawu dan Raidjua dibawah (onderafdeling) Roti atau Sawu yang satu pemimpin kepala atau Raja, raja terakhir Paulus Charles Djawa atau Rohi Djawa Rihi yang meninggal pada tahun 1963. Setelah perang dunia II Sau dan Pulau Raijdua masih dalam Roti daerah di bawah Kabupaten (Subprovinsi) Kupang, dengan dua Kecamatan Sawu Sawu Timur dan Barat.

Saya  PERNAH berKUNJUNGAN ke DAERAH INI, TAPI TAHUN 1999 SELAMA SAYA MASUK KE DILI TIMOR (TIMOR LESTE sekarang), saya pernah melihat dari pesawat udara  keindahan danau  tiga warna ,Danau Kelimutu,

                                                 

  dan banyak perawat  dan istri personil kesehatan dievakuasi dari Dili ke Kupang Timor karena situasi terburuk sebelum pemilu Timor leste antara kebebasan dan otonom Propinsi Indonesia.

Sangat sulit untuk menemukan koleksi Timor Kupang di Sumatera dan Jawa atau Bali, karena  tidak banyak komunikasi antara daerah itu, tetapi beberapa orang Timor Kupang yang pindah ke Jakarta masih membawa buku lama  mereka dan koleksi gambar dan ketika mereka meninggal dunia keluarga mereka membuang koleksi tersebut  dan saya telah menemukan beberapa koleksi langka dari Lapak, dan pada tahun 2008 saya menemukan beberapa sejarah pos dari daerah yang dimiliki seorang kolektor senior dari Makassar, pemotongan fragmen dari surat dari daerah itu, sangat sayang tapi masih kita info langka dari kota kecil di Flores dan pulau Timor .Saya juga menemukan buku lama  tentang tekstil dini dan sulaman dari daerah ini.

Jika para kolektor  memiliki INFO  DARI DAERAH INI SILAHKAN HUBUNGI SAYA VIA COMMENT, TERIMA KASIH

Jalkarta Mei  2011

Penulis

Dr IWAN

___________________________________________________________________

CHAPTER ONE:

THE VINTAGE PICTURES COLLECTIONS.

             

1. The Koepang horse race June 1927

2.The koepang Seaport (a part of picture ,full panoramic look at the complete e-book)

                     

3. The ethnic Kupang family and their house Sept.2nd1924

4. The ethnic Kupang man in their house 1924

5. ethnic pictures

(1) ethnic Kupang

(2) Ethnic Flores

(3) ETNIC SOLOR

Naba-leba, King of the island of Solor, Timor, 1801-1803.
Naba-leba, King of the island of Solor, Timor, 1801-1803.

(4) ETHNIC ROTE (ROTI) ISLAND

Korbafo chief with warriors, 1900.

CHAPTER TWO

THE EARLY TEXTILES AND EMBROIDERY COLLECTIONS

1. THE SUMBA ISLAND EARLY TEXTILE

                                

(1) SUMBA PENNANT(PENJI?) WITH LIZARD BEADS EMBROIDERY. CIRCA 1900

(2)Lau Pahudu (women’s cremonial skitrs) design human figure

(3)Lau Pahudu tubular decorated Bands 19th century

(4)Lau Katipa applique Band design dancing horse late 19th century.

2. TIMOR KUPANG EARLY TEXTILE

(1) TIMOR KUPANG EARLY TEXTILE EMBROIDERY HANING IN THEIR HOUSE 1924

3.FLORES EARLY TEXTILE

                          

(1) EAST FLORES APPLIQUE BAND WITH HUMAN DESIGN

4. SOLOR EARLY TEXTILE

(1) WOMEN SARONG DESIGN ROSTER AND GEOMETRIC LINE.

5. ROTI ISLAND EARLY TEXTILE

(1)APPLIQUE BAND DESIGN SPIRAL LINE.

(2) WOMEN SARONG SKIRT DESIGN LINE AND RAIDING HORSE.

CHAPTER THREE

THE POSTAL HISTORY COLLECTIONS

1.TIMOR ISLAND

KOEPANG

 2.FLORES ISLNAD

1. Maumere(Sikka Regency)

2. Ende(Ende Regency)

Ende, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

3.Ruteng (Manggarai Regency)

Ruteng Pu'u

4.Larantuka (East Flores)

5.Bajawa(Ngada Regency)

6.Labuan Bajo( East Manggarai regency)

Labuanbajo Flores

7.Mbay(Nagekeo regency)

8.Borong Est Manggarai regency)

           
hhtp ://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com            
           
           
           
           
           
           
           

 

F L O R E S ISLANDFlores island,  the exotic place least visited by the foreigner. It is worth to visit the destination.It has strong ethnic touch with typical tribal work of civilization, more people still influenced by the animistic beliefs. The nature settings are so beautiful, there are soaring volcanoes, colored crater lakes, forests, beautiful sea gardens with white sands beaches, and prehistoric Giant animals too.Flores is a big, rugged remarkably beautiful island .Dominated by a string of volcanes, the long impenetrable terrain has divided the island into many distinct ethnic groups. There are interesting cultures here, with layers of traditional beliefs beneath the prevalent Christianity Labuanbajo Flores

Labuanbajo Flores
Ende, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993
Ende, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

REF: IND/016

REF: IND/017

The next morning, I left hospitable Moni and began a journey to the central part of Flores. The bus was very crowded as usual. Public transport in Indonesia was relatively cheap and it was virtually the only way to move around. In almost every village, passengers traded places and each bus stop was turned into a small bazaar. The road mainly followed a wide river valley, winding around cultivated fields and banana plantation. Two hours later the road approached the coast and I reached Ende, the biggest town on Flores and capital of the island. It was also the most important port for the whole region.
Ende, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993
Ende, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

REF: IND/018

REF: IND/019

The town had a very beautiful location at the foot of several volcanoes. The most famous of them was Gunung Meja with an almost perfectly conical shape and a flat summit. Another volcano, Gunung Ipi, a little bit further south, was still considered active. Waiting for another bus, I could admire a beautiful view of tropical beaches with black, volcanic sand and coconut palm trees bowing to the sea.
In Bajawa District, 60,000 Ngada people were living on a large plateau where Bajawa is located and also on the southern slopes of the volcano Inerie. The Ngada were the most well known ethnic group of Flores because they had preserved, far better than most, their unique culture, customs and traditional architecture. Almost all Ngada people were Roman-Catholic, but at the same time, they also practiced their ancient animistic beliefs. Bajawa was the tourist centre of the whole region and jumping off point to the neighbouring traditional Ngada villages.
Langa,  Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993
Langa,  Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

REF: IND/020

REF: IND/021

The first of the villages, Langa was located just a few kilometres from the town. It was also very typical. The main square of the village contained two characteristics for Ngada cultural elements: five nghadu and four bhaga. Nghadu were similar to umbrellas in structure, consisting of a three-meter long stick and a reedy roof. A small statue of a man toped them, often with a headband, holding a parang (machete) in one hand and a spear in the other one. A Bhaga was a miniature of a house with the steep roof. The meaning and function of nghadu and bhaga were various but first of all they were supposed to symbolise the presence of ancestors. The nghadu was always masculine and bhaga feminine, and each pair belongs to a particular family group living in the village. The carved sticks of nghadu were always very solid like a rock; however, their top parts were often in poor condition. It was said that some of them have been carved to commemorate people killed during ancient land disputes and were more than 100 years old. The main trunk of a nghadu, called Sebu, must had come from a special type of wood and must had been dug out together with its roots, transported to the village along a direct line, and planted in a specific place.
Bena, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993
Bena, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

REF: IND/022

REF: IND/023

Another village, Bena was located 10 kilometres further south of Langa. A narrow road winded to the foot of the perfect cone of the extinct volcano Inerie (2245m). Bena was the most typical and best preserved of all villages in the area and consisted of two rows of houses with tall, steep rectangular roofs supported by two sticks. There was an empty space between them containing several nghadu, bhaga, and mysterious megalithic structures. The whole complex rose gradually up the hill.
Bena, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993
Bena, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

REF: IND/024

REF: IND/025

Bena, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993
Bena, Flores, Indonesia, Jacek Piwowarczyk, 1993

REF: IND/026

REF: IND/027

.

History

Flores owes its name to the Portuguese, who called its eastern most Cape Cabo Das Flores, meaning Cape of Flowers. The island diverse cultures have enough similarities to suggest that they developed from common ancestry, differentialed by geographical isolation and varying influence of outsiders. Long before Europeans arrived in the 16 century, much of coastal Flores was firmly in the hands of the Makasarnese  and Bugis from southern Celebes ( Sulawesi ).

As early 1512, Flores was sighted by the Portuguese navigator Antonio de Abreu and Europeans had probably landed by 1550. The Portuguese involved in the lucrative Sandalwood trade with Timor, built Fortresses on Pulau Solor ( Solor island ) eastern of flores island .and at Pulau Ende ( Ende island ) south coast of central of Flores. In 1561 Dominican Priests established a mission on Pulau Solor. Christianity was a successful import and today a church is the centerpiece of almost every village.In the 17 century, the Dutch kicked the Portuguese out of flores. Ternate and Gowa  ( a part of Molluceas island ) also ceded all their rights on Solor, Flores and eastern Sumbawa to the Dutch, giving them nominal control, but it was too complex and isolated to rule effectively komodo village

komodo village

. Around 1850 the Dutch purchased  Portugal’s remaining enclaves in the area, including Larantuka , Sikka and Paga. Even into the first decade of the 20th century, the Dutch were constantly confronted with rebellions and inter – tribal wars. Unrest continued until a major military campaign in 1907 subdued most of the tribes of central and western Flores. Missionaries moved into the isolated western hills in the 1920’s.

Flores is holding its breath for provincial statues . This will be a huge development for the island, as it is currently under the jurisdiction of Kupang and the Nusa Tenggara Timor ( NTT ) government  and has only limited control over its affairs.  

Geography

The island’s turbulent volcanic past has left a complicated relief of   V – shaped valleys, knife edged ridges, and a collection of active and extinct volcanoes.

One of the finest volcanoes is the caldera of Kelimutu in Central Flores, with its three colored lakes. There are 14 active volcanoes in Flores. Rutong island riung

Rutong island riung

Only Java and Sumatera have more. The central mountains slope gently to the volcanoes plunge steeply into the sea.

In the island is part of one of the worlds most geologically unstable zones, and earthquakes and tremors hit every year. In December 1992 an earthquake measuring 6,8 on the Richter scale, and then massive tidal wave that followed it, killed around 3000 people in eastern Flores and Flattened much of Maumere.The rugged terrain makes road construction difficult, although Flores is only about 375 km long, its main east – west  roads winds, twists, ascends and descends for nearly 710 km – that is almost 2 – for – 1.   

Climate

The rainy season ( November to March ) is more intense in western Flores, which receives the brunt of the north – Flores highest peak ( The 2400mGunung Ranaka ), gets an average of 3350mm of rain every year. But Ende , Maumere, have only 1140mm and Larantuka recevest 770mm.

Religion

Around 85% of the people are Catholic but in rural areas particularly, Christianity is divided onto traditional beliefs lake kelimutu

lake kelimutu

. Animistic rituals are still important here for a variety of Occasions, ranging from birth, marriage, and death to the building of new houses, or to mark important points in the agricultural cycle. Even educated, English – speaking Florinese still admit to the odd chicken, pig ,or buffalo sacrifice to keep their ancestors happy when rice is planted or a new field opened up. In former times, it took more then animal blood to keep the Gods and spirits friendly, there are persistent tales of children or virgin girls being sacrificed. Muslims tend to congregate in the coastal towns such as Ende where they make up half population.        

Administration

Flores is part of the East Nusa Tenggara province. The island is split into eight regencies (local government districts); from west to east these are: West Manggarai,Manggarai,east Manggarai, Ngada, Nagekeo, Ende, Sikka and Flores Timur.

Tourism

The most famous tourist attraction in Flores is Kelimutu; three coloured lakes in the district of Ende. These coloured lakes change colours on a regular basis Ruteng Pu'u

Ruteng Pu’u

. The latest colours (late 2004) were said to be turquoise, brown and black.

There is good snorkelling and diving on several locations along the north coast of Flores, most notably Maumere and Riung. However, due to the destructive practice of local fishermen using bombs to fish, and locals selling shells to tourists, the reefs are slowly being destroyed.

West Flores is also the best place for eco tours, trekking, hiking, and birds watching

CHAPTER FOUR:

THE ANTIQUARIAN  AND OLD BOOKS COLLECTIONS

I. ANTIQUARIAN BOOKS

(1)THE ETHNIC LESSER SUNDA (NUSA TENGARA) 1868 (Berlin Ethnographic edition) with colour Engraved Pictures.

(2). KUPANG IN  1890 (KUPANG TAHUN 1890)

Beitrage Zur Ethnographie der Timorgruppe(vons Dr H.Ten Kate)

Ethnografi  dari group Timor  (oleh  Dr H. Ten Kate)

Hanya satu Kontribusi berikut ini dinawarkan kepada saya , yaitu  tahun 1890-1891 atas nama Masyarakat Royal. Belanda , Geografis  Perjalanan dilaksanakan ke  beberapa pulau Timor di Semenanjung  Hinndia Belanda.

Bahkan kisah  perjalan tersebut , telah saya   laporkan secara terperinci pada tulisan di tempat lain  dan dikomunikasikan dengan baik  pengamatan etnografi dan catatan keselamatan secara umum dalam laporan perjalanan. Hanya hal ini  yang tersisa bagi saya, karena itu  untuk hanya  keterangan lebih lanjut tentang koleksi saya, yang  sekarang tergabung dalam Museum Nasional Ethnographical ,.

Walaupun sama, termasuk beberapa disusun oleh saya di 1892 dikumpulkan subjek lebih Sudsee, dari 696 angka yang saya berikan di sini tetapi pilihan untuk membatasi diri dengan info yang baru atau kurang dikenal. Koleksi Saya  telah dipermudah dengan kepustakaan yang relevan, lebih atau kurang  secara terperinci etnografi  untuk merancang pulau yang warganya  saya telah  kunjungi , namun saya tidak melakukannya, karena menurut saya canggung seperti sia-sia oleh orang lain untuk mengulang apa yang  telah diceritakan. Saya telah membatasi diri untuk hanya selecta etnografi dari koleksi saya dan hanya orang-orang dari catatan lapangan saya dengan aphoristic nilai absolut yaitu Logie Ergo, Sarasin’schen dalam arti orang tersebut.

Dari pulau yang saya berkesempatan untuk mengunjungi, Sumba  atau Pulau Sandal sangat aman atau ia  masih sedikit dikenal dan hanya ada  objek koleksi etnografi  dan yang sangat sedikit adalah Flores, terkait begitu lama sebelum saya pergi, tetapi sebelumnya sudah menjadi  info  berharga “Catatan Etnografi  (suplemment untuk Bd III lokio Ar International untuk Etnografi) oleh Prof Max Weber ” tapi saya juga telah  menemukan  vorgonnt Baru untuk pelengkap  dan sudah akrab dalam beberapa hal  di sini selama dipulau Solor, Adunara, Saman. dan Roti (Red) Umumnya  dikomunikasikan agar  dapat info baru, dan meskipun dari pulau Timor dengan perjalanan De Freycinet, Solomon Muller, Wallace, Riedel, sxchon Forbes dan juga beberapa etnografi sejak lama diketahui, dijelaskan oleh saya subjek hampir semua baru.

Meskipun dalam  A., Jacobsen 1888  dngan koleksi sangat kaya Flores ,Adunara, dan Timor dibawa bersama untuk  Museum Etnologi Berlin, Namum sejauh ini  s tidak ada penjelasan rinci dari mereka dikenal dan karena itu saya bisa lakukan dalam hal ini, tidak ada perbandingan

Sebuah perbaikan   besar agak tidak merata  dari bahan ini tak terelakkan, dan Orde saat Deskripsi obejk itu  adalah haupttsachlich dari melihat Cool alasan, apa pun begitu kuat ‘dengan memberi info  seperti yang saya inginkan bentuk hatte. Sumba subyek utama dari bagian pertama dari dua di mana ini Beittrage zertfallen, meskipun beberapa Timor etnografi, Solor, Flores dan Sawu akan digambarkannya.

Deskripsi ini  berada di Rijksmuseum Etnografi untuk  pertama akan dibagi dalm kelompok   sistematis sebanyak mungkin jenis yang mendasari gelegt.Der Sacge untuk tidak semua dua belas kelompok sistem ini dalam koleksi saya ini diwakili dalam delapan sampai sembilan adalah vergegenwartigten bezieben untuk benda atau gambar, hanya bagian tertentu dari itu.

Dimana terpikir olehku erwunscht, saya mengacu pada tujuan dibandingkan dengan literatur yang ada dan memungkinkan saya nothigenfalls beberapa catatan kritis, tetapi tanpa harus dicari dalam hal ini untuk kelengkapan. Pada akhir bagian kedua saya punya tabel distribusi geografis dari hinzugefugt dijelaskan dalam hal ini disebut artikel atau kontrak Butuh.

 sebelum saya  menyimpulkan komentar ini pengantar rubrik ini , kata penghargaan yang tulus untuk  orang-orang yang membantu saya terutama atas  nama koleksi etnografi .Para tuan-tuan misionaris  RRR PPLA Cocq d’Armandville dan AAJ Matthysen, Tuan-tuan  komandan sipil Kleian dan Worms dan Pimpinan Pos Kailola  sekalian, Baumgarte dan DM Pelt,  saya akan tetap  selalu  berada dalam ingatannya  

English version:

The follow contributions here offered me one, in the year 1890/91 in behalf of the Royal. Dutch Geographical Society Travel executed, according to several islands of Timor in the Indian archipelago, the occasion

On the trip itself, I have already reported elsewhere in detail and communicated well meningitidis ethnographic observations and notes gros stent salvation in the travel report. It was left to me, therefore Ubrig mitzuthellen For further details about my, now incorporated in the National Museum Ethnographical to suffering, collection.

Although the same, including some composed by me in 1892 collected more Sudsee subject, of 696 numbers I give here a selection bur deselben to confine myself to new or less familiar. I ware have been easy to Hulfe the relevant literature, a more or less in detail ethnography to design the island I visited residents, yet I did not do, because it struck me as awkward as useless by others to repeat already been said. I have limited myself to just ethnographic selecta from my collection and only those of my field notes with aphoristic in absolute value that is the Ergo Logie, Sarasin’schen in the sense of those peoples.)

A somewhat unequal massive treatment of this material was inevitable, and the current Order of Description de object was haupttsachlich from Cool look of reasons, nothin ‘so strong by feeding as I desired hatte.Dennoch forms Sumba the main subject of the first section of the two In which these zertfallen Beittrage, although some of ethnographic Timor, Solor, Flores and Sawu will describe it.

Diesse description was in the Ethnographic Rijksmuseum to suffering from Srrrurier first be fords systematic Gruppeneinthellung as much as possible underlying gelegt.Der type of Sacge to are not all twelve groups of this system in my collection is represented in the eight to nine is vergegenwartigten bezieben to the objects or pictures, only certain sections of it.

Where it occurred to me erwunscht, I referred to the purposes of comparison to the existing literature and allowed me nothigenfalls some critical remarks, but without having sought in this regard to completeness. At the end of the second section I have a table of the geographic distribution of hinzugefugt described in this article subject or contracts referred Need.

It erubright me before I conclude these introductory remarks, a word sincere appreciation to diejeningen persons who helped me especially in the collection of ethnographic haben.Die names of the gentlemen missionaries RRR PPLA Cocq d’Armandville and AAJ Matthysen, de Men Civil commander Kleian and Worms and postmaster Kailola gentlemen, Baumgarte and DM Pelt me weren always remain in his memory.

II. OLD BOOKS

Of the islands which I had the opportunity to visit, was very secure Sumba or Sandal-Imsel “sher still little known and there were only very few ethnographic collections of individual objects hier.Was Flores, relates so long before I left, but already the valuable “Ethnographic Notes (suplemment to Bd III of International Ar chive for Ethnography) by prof Max Weber before” but I was also there vorgonnt New find un complement to already familiar in some respects.’s here over the islands of Solor, Adunara, Saman and Roti (Red) communicated could generally be new, and although from the island of Timor by the travels of De Freycinet, Solomon Muller, Wallace, Riedel, Forbes sxchon and also some ethnographic long since been known, are described by me subject almost all new.

although A. Jacobsen 1888, a tremendously rich collection of Flores <Adunara, Timor brought together for the Berlin Museum of Ethnology, I am but so far no detailed description of them known and therefore I can do in this regard, no comparisons.

 

1. TRAVEL TIMOR IN 1624 ,1898 and 1926(KISAH PERJALAN KE TIMOR TAHUN 1624 DAN KUPANG TAHUN 1930). THE RARE OLD BOOK WERE Dr Iwan ‘s Perivate Collections, the complete story exist,but only for premium member, If someone need this minformations please subscribed to be Premium Member via comment.This 1624 Story from old book  in dutch Langugaue ” Historische Beschcryving De RAIZEN,  zee en Land Tochten, by J.Hayman CC,Amsterdam,MDCCLX_1760. timor and flores 1898 the cyclopedia of South east asia and the 1930 from Dutch Magazine Eigen Haard ,Haarlem,Nederland. read the sample:

1) Befschryving of Timor Island

Gives the nature of the Dutch, that access to the Island for all the ships of other nations to whistle, only in a condition, to cen’Beschryving do require where they have no part, and which would prevent mooglyk suspicious if they Travelers was the work of theirs. Dampier, who hadst been Gantis’s  Island sails, gives ontrent seventy miles or sixteenth  fiftienth length and width. The light, he says, almost North East and South-West, and his middle ontrrent nine degrees south latitude. The gene has many navigable rivers or ports, but they are ‘a’ crowd Bay, where the Ships in fome jaargetyden können liggen.De Kuft is pure, that is without ondieptyden.Zelfs cliffs and there is no island, “to which they can not easily discover and vermyden. Anabao, it covers not in’t South Weft, is a high island, Twal or ten miles long and four wide, the other by a afgefscheiden Channel about ten miles long and so deep that all ships through it herself Können sails.

(2) Kupang (Timor) 1931 by M.O.W

Checker B.B. on tour, and easy: the King of Kupang, the lieutenant governor and MOW, mistgaders victuals for three days plus opvoubaar estservies on sleep room muebiliar . For eight hours v.m. we crossed from shore in a motorboat razend_ratelend, Semaoe against the island to which Timor me a torn piece truly southern point services.

versi indonesia :

 Befschryving dari Pulau Timor

Memberikan sifat Belanda, bahwa akses ke Pulau untuk semua kapal dari negara lain untuk peluit, hanya dalam kondisi, untuk cen’Beschryving memang membutuhkan di mana mereka tidak akan menerima bagian, dan yang akan mencegah mooglyk mencurigakan jika mereka Travelers adalah karya mereka. Dampier, yang Rabbi telah layar gantische Pulau, memberikan tujuh puluh mil ontrent atau panjang viftien zftien dan lebar. Lampu, katanya, hampir Utara Timur dan Selatan-Barat, dan menengah ontrrent nya sembilan derajat lintang selatan. Gen memiliki banyak sungai dilayari atau pelabuhan, tetapi mereka kerumunan ‘a’ Baaij, di mana Kapal di können fome liggen.De Kuft jaargetyden murni, yang tanpa tebing ondieptyden.Zelfs dan tidak ada pulau, “untuk yang mereka tidak dapat dengan mudah menemukan dan vermyden. Anabao, meliputi tidak in’t pakan Selatan, adalah sebuah pulau tinggi, Twal atau sepuluh mil panjang dan empat lebar, yang lain oleh Channel afgefscheiden sekitar sepuluh mil panjang dan begitu dalam bahwa semua kapal melalui itu sendiri Können layar.

(2) Kupang (Timor) 1931 oleh M.O.W

Checker B.B. tur, dan mudah: Raja Kupang, gubernur letnan dan MOW, mistgaders victuals selama tiga hari plus estservies opvoubaar pada slaapkamen_meubilair. Selama delapan jam v.m. kami menyeberang dari pantai dalam razend_ratelend perahu motor, Semaoe terhadap pulau mana Timor saya sobekan layanan titik benar-benar selatan.

english version
 
 
Dutch version:
 

(1) Befschryving van het Eiland Timor

De bezorgtheid der Hollanders,om den toegang tot dat Eiland voor de Schepen van alle de andere Natien te fluiten, is alleen in ftaat, naar cen’Beschryving te doen verlangen,waaraan zy geen deel hebben,en welke mooglyk verdacht zoude voorkomen, indien zy het werk van hunne Reizigers was. Dampier,die het gantische Eiland hadt omgezeilt,geeft het ontrent zeventig mylen lengte en viftien of zftien breedte. Het light,zegt hy,byna Noord Oost en Zuid-West, en zyn midden op ontrrent negen graden zuider breedte. Het heeft gene bevaarbare Rivieren noch vele Havens; doch men vindt ‘er een’ menigte Baaijen, alwaar de Schepen in fommige jaargetyden konnen liggen.De Kuft is zuiver,dat is zonder klippen en ondieptyden.Zelfs heeft het geen eiland,’t welk men niet ligt ontdekken en vermyden kan. Anabao, ‘t geen in’t Zuid Weften dekt, is een hoog Eiland,tien of twaal mylen lang en vier breed, van het ander afgefscheiden door een Kanaal van ontrent tien mylen lengte, en zo diep, dat alle Schepen door ‘t zelve zeilen konnen.

(2) KOEPANG(TIMOR) 1931 door M.O.W

De Controleur B.B. op tournee, en mee : de Koning van Koepang, de gezaghebber en M.O.W., mistgaders leeftocht voor drie dagen plus opvoubaar estservies on slaapkamen_meubilair. Om acht uur v.m. staken wij van wal in een razend_ratelend motorbootje, het eiland Semaoe tegenmoet,dat mij een van Timors zuidelijksten punt afgescheurd stuk lijk.

2 .1973

The Etnologic Introduction Of  Sawu Island Yakop.Y. (Nusa Indah public.Arnoldus printing ,Endeh Flores 1973):1)The history of Sawu etnic. 2) The Mojopahit Kingdom authority in Sawu Island.3) Mone Ama  Etnic Sawu government system, 4) The Legend of Ancient Sawu. 5)The Sawu Ethnic calender , 6)The etnic land Law,7)the etnic tree framily of Kika Ga and 5) Sawu Island Map. (premium info only for premium member or in  E-book CD-rom)

3.1971

Horse Hunting In Timor (Theric.Ris,Pustaka Djaja,first ed.Karja Nusantara Printin.inc.Bandung.1971) with cover painting by Ipe Maaruf and book illustration by Sjahwil)

 

3) 1973

The nostalgia Of Indonesia East Archiphelago(Nusatengara ),Gerson Pyok,Nusa Indah Public.Inc-Arnoldus Printing ,Ende.flores ,1973.Cover painting by painters G.M.Sufarta (illus.for premium members or limited e-book);

Some interesting in that book :

His heart shouting :”Amboi (natif Oh Oh ) at the border of river which snelling , i have ever tired sleeping under the open air at the wooden Fire for coocking food and watur on the ex butter kaleng . In the night My Buffalo tire broken. Tha Made in middle night i was swimming between water , grass   and pimping without take head spin to Crocodile and smake” The man ownself nostalgia and looking the scene from the high gemawan.

(Hatinya berteriak : “Amboi di tepi sungai berliku itu, aku pernah tidur kecapean di bawah langit terbuka di tepi api unggun untuk memasak makanan dan air dengan bekas kaleng mentega. Di tengah malam tali kerbauku putus. Akibatnya dimalambuta aku berenang membelah air dan rumput lalangtanpa ambil pusing pada buaya dan ular” Laki-laki itu ngeri sendiri mengenang dan memandang alam dari ketinggian gemawan)

CHAPTER FIVE :

THE HISTORY OF TIMOR KUPANG

 1.TIMOR

Timor

 
Timor

Political Division of Timor
Timor is located in Indonesia

 
Timor (Indonesia)
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 9°14′S 124°56′E / 9.233°S 124.933°E / -9.233; 124.933
Archipelago Lesser Sunda Islands
Area 30,777 km2 (11,883.1 sq mi)
Area rank 44th
Highest elevation 9,720 ft (2,963 m)
Highest point Ramelau
Country
East Timor
Indonesia
Province East Nusa Tenggara
Largest city Kupang (West Timor)
Demographics
Population 2,900,000 (as of 2005)
Density 94.5 /km2 (244.8 /sq mi)

Timor is an island at the southern end of Maritime Southeast Asia, north of the Timor Sea. It is divided between the independent state of East Timor, and West Timor, belonging to the Indonesian province of East Nusa Tenggara. The island’s surface is 30,777 square kilometres. The name is a variant of timur, Malay for “east”; it is so called because it is at the east end of a chain of islands.

 Language, ethnic groups, and religion

Similar to nearby islands, most Timorese are Melanesian[1] and anthropologists identify eleven distinct ethno-linguistic groups in Timor. The largest are the Atoni of western Timor, and the Tetum of central and eastern Timor.[2] Most Timor indigenous Timorese languages belong to the Austronesian group of languages spoken through the Indonesian archipelago. The non-Austronesian languages are related to languages spoken in the Halmahera (in Maluku) and Western New Guinea.[3]

The official languages of East Timor are Tetum and Portuguese, while in West Timor it is Indonesian. Indonesian is also widely spoken and understood in East Timor.

Christianity is the dominant religion throughout the island of Timor, at about 90% of the population. Roman Catholics are the majority on both halves of the island; Catholics outnumber Protestants in West Timor by about a 3:2 ratio. Muslims and Animists are most of the remainder, at about 5% each.

 Geography

Timor Island from space, November 1989

Timor is located north of Australia, and is one of the easternmost Sunda Islands. Together with Sumba, Babar and associated smaller islands, Timor forms the southern outer archipelago of the Lesser Sunda Islands with the inner islands of Flores, Alor and Wetar to the north, and beyond them Sulawesi.

Timor has older geology and lacks the volcanic nature of the northern Lesser Sunda Islands. The orientation of the main axis of the island also differs from its neighbors. These features have been explained as the result of being on the northern edge of the Indo-Australian Plate as it meets the Eurasian Plate and pushes into South East Asia.[4] The climate includes a long dry season with hot winds blowing over from Australia. Rivers on the island include the Southern and Northern Laclo Rivers in East Timor.

The largest towns on the island are the provincial capital of Kupang in West Timor, Indonesia and the Portuguese colonial towns of Dili the capital, and Baucau in East Timor. Poor roads make transport to inland areas difficult, in East Timor especially.[5] East Timor is a nation in debt, with health issues including malaria and dengue fever. Sources of revenue include gas and oil in the Timor Sea, coffee growing and increasing tourism.

 Flora and fauna

Timor and its offshore islands such as Atauro, the former place of exile now becoming known for its beaches and coral[citation needed] , and Jaco along with Wetar and the other Barat Daya Islands to the northeast constitute the Timor and Wetar deciduous forests ecoregion. The natural vegetation was tropical dry broadleaf forests with an undergrowth of shrubs and grasses supporting a rich wildlife[citation needed]. However much of the original forest has been cleared for farming[citation needed], especially on the coasts of Timor and on the smaller islands like Atauro, and apart from one large block in the centre of Timor only patches remain, while the clearance is ongoing[citation needed] . This ecoregion is part of the Wallacea area with a mixture of plants and animals of Asian and Australasian origin; it lies in the western part of Wallacea, in which Asian species predominate.

Many trees are deciduous or partly deciduous, dropping their leaves during the dry season, there are also evergreen and thorn trees in the woodland mix. Typical trees of the lowland slopes include a tropical chestnut Sterculia foetida, Calophyllum teysmannii and Candlenut (Aleurites moluccana).

During the Pleistocene epoch, Timor was the abode of extinct giant monitor lizards similar to the Komodo Dragon. Like Flores, Sumba and Sulawesi, Timor was also once a habitat of extinct dwarf stegodonts, relatives of elephants.

Fauna of today includes a number of endemic species including the distinctive Timor Python, the Timor Shrew and Timor Rat. One marsupial mammal of Australasian origin, the Northern Common Cuscus, occurs, but is thought to be introduced.[6] The islands have a great many birds, mainly of Asian and but some of Australasian origin. There are a total of 250 species of which twenty-four are endemic, a large number due to the relative isolation of these islands, including five threatened species; the Slaty Cuckoo-dove, Wetar Ground-dove, Timor Green Pigeon, Timor Imperial-pigeon, and Iris Lorikeet.[7]

Saltwater Crocodiles (the world’s largest reptiles) are present within the coastal rivers and wetlands of Timor, although very little information in regards to this species Timor population is available. Reticulated Pythons (the world’s longest snakes) are also present within the jungles & grasslands of Timor. However, despite the current existence of both species on Timor being confirmed, the population sizes & status are unknown.

History

 

The earliest historical record about Timor island is 14th century Nagarakretagama, Canto 14, that identify Timur as an island within Majapahit‘s realm. Timor was incorporated into ancient Javanese, Chinese and Indian trading networks of the 14th century as an exporter of aromatic sandalwood, slaves, honey and wax, and was settled by both the Dutch, based in Kupang, and Portuguese in the mid-17th century.

As the nearest island with a European settlement at the time, Timor was the destination of William Bligh and seamen loyal to him following the infamous mutiny on the Bounty in 1789. It was also where survivors of the wrecked HMS Pandora, sent to arrest the Bounty mutineers, landed in 1791 after that ship sank in the Great Barrier Reef.

The island has been politically divided in two parts for centuries. The Dutch and Portuguese fought for control of the island until it was divided by treaty in 1859, but they still did not formally resolve the matter of the boundary until 1912. West Timor, was known as Dutch Timor until 1949 when it became Indonesian Timor, a part of the nation of Indonesia which was formed from the old Netherlands East Indies; while East Timor was known as Portuguese Timor, a Portuguese colony until 1975. It includes the enclave of Oecussi-Ambeno in West Timor.

Japanese forces occupied the whole island from 1942 to 1945. They were resisted in a guerrilla campaign led initially by Australian commandos. (See Battle of Timor.)

Following the military coup in Portugal in 1974 the Portuguese began to withdraw from Timor, the subsequent internal unrest and fear of the communist Fretilin party encouraged an invasion by Indonesia, who opposed the concept of an independent East Timor. In 1975, East Timor was annexed by Indonesia and became known as Timor Timur or ‘Tim-Tim’ for short. It was regarded by Indonesia as the country’s 27th province, but this was never recognised by the United Nations or Portugal(See: Indonesian occupation of East Timor).

The people of East Timor, through Falintil the military wing of Fretilin, resisted 35,000 Indonesian forces in a prolonged guerilla campaign, but the whole island remained under Indonesian control until a referendum held in 1999 under a UN sponsored agreement between Indonesia and Portugal in which its people rejected the offer of autonomy within Indonesia. The UN then temporarily governed East Timor until it became independent as Timor-Leste in 2002 under the presidency of Falintil leader Xanana Gusmão. Although political strife continued as the new nation coped with poverty the UN presence was much reduced.

A group of people on the Indonesian side of Timor have been reported active since 2001 trying to establish a Great Timor State.[8] However, there is no real evidence whatsoever that the people of West Timor, most of whom are from Atoni ethnicity who are the traditional enemy of East Timorese, have any interest in joining their tribal enemies. Additionally, East Timor‘s independence movement never laid claim to West Timor at any time, before the Indonesian invasion or thereafter. Similarly, the government of East Timor fully recognises Indonesia’s existing boundaries as inherited from the Netherlands East Indies. This is similar to the position taken by Papua New Guinea in relation to West Papua, when the former became independent of Australia.

 See also

Portrait of a Timor warrior at the area of Kupang in 1875 from report of expedition of German SMS Gazell

References

  1. ^ Schwarz, A. (1994). A Nation in Waiting: Indonesia in the 1990s. Westview Press. pp. 198. ISBN 1-86373-635-2
  2. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 378. ISBN 0-300-10518-5
  3. ^ Taylor, Jean Gelman (2003). Indonesia: Peoples and Histories. New Haven and London: Yale University Press. pp. 378. ISBN 0-300-10518-5
  4. ^ Audley-Charles, M.G. (1987) “Dispersal of Gondwanaland: relevance to evolution of the Angiosperms” In: Whitmore, T.C. (ed.) (1987) Biogeographical Evolution of the Malay Archipelago Oxford Monographs on Biogeography 4, Clarendon Press, Oxford, pp. 5–25, ISBN 0-19-854185-6
  5. ^ http://www.jstor.org/pss/4029980
  6. ^ IUCN Red List: Northern Common Cuscus accessed 17 June 2010
  7. ^ http://www.worldwildlife.org/wildworld/profiles/terrestrial/aa/aa0204_full.html
  8. ^ etan.org
  9. Timor
    Divisi Politik Timor 
    Timor (Indonesia)
    Geografi
    Lokasi Asia Tenggara
    Koordinat 9 ° 124 ° 56′E / 9,233 ° 14′S S 124,933 ° BT / -9,233; 124,933
    Kepulauan Kepulauan Sunda Kecil
    Luas 30.777 km2 (11,883.1 sq mi)
    Area peringkat ke-44
    Tertinggi ketinggian 9.720 kaki (2.963 m)
    Titik tertinggi Ramelau
    Negara
    Timor Timur
    Indonesia
    Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur
    Kota terbesar Kupang (Timor Barat)
    Demografi
    Penduduk 2.900.000 (2005)
    Kepadatan 94,5 / km2 (244,8 / sq mi)Timor adalah sebuah pulau di ujung selatan Maritim Asia Tenggara, sebelah utara Laut Timor. Hal ini terbagi antara negara merdeka Timor Timur, dan Timor Barat, milik provinsi Indonesia Nusa Tenggara Timur. permukaan pulau ini 30.777 kilometer persegi. Nama ini varian dari timur, Melayu untuk “timur”; itu disebut demikian karena itu adalah di ujung timur rantai kepulauan.Isi
    1 Bahasa, kelompok etnis, dan agama
    2 Geografi
    3 Flora dan fauna
    4 Sejarah
    5 Lihat juga
    6 Referensi Bahasa, kelompok etnis, dan agama
    Lihat juga: Bahasa di Timor Timur dan Tetun
    Serupa dengan pulau-pulau terdekat, kebanyakan orang Timor adalah Melanesia [1] dan antropolog mengidentifikasi sebelas kelompok etno-linguistik yang berbeda di Timor. Yang terbesar adalah masyarakat Atoni di Timor barat, dan Tetun Timor tengah dan timur [2] Sebagian besar Timor Leste bahasa milik adat. Untuk kelompok Austronesia bahasa yang diucapkan melalui kepulauan Indonesia. Bahasa non-Austronesia yang berkaitan dengan bahasa dituturkan di Halmahera (di Maluku) dan Western New Guinea. [3]Bahasa resmi Timor Timur adalah bahasa Tetun dan Portugis, sedangkan di Timor Barat adalah Bahasa Indonesia. Indonesia juga banyak diucapkan dan dimengerti di Timor Timur.Kristen adalah agama yang dominan di seluruh pulau Timor, sekitar 90% dari populasi. Katolik Roma adalah mayoritas di kedua bagian pulau; Katolik melebihi Protestan di Timor Barat sekitar rasio 3:2. Muslim dan Animisme yang paling besar sisanya, sekitar 5% masing-masing. GeografiPulau Timor dari angkasa, November 1989
    Timor terletak di utara Australia, dan merupakan salah satu dari Kepulauan Sunda timur. Bersama dengan Sumba, Babar dan terkait pulau-pulau kecil, Timor membentuk kepulauan luar selatan Kepulauan Sunda Kecil dengan pulau-pulau bagian dalam Flores, Alor dan Wetar di utara, dan seterusnya mereka Sulawesi.Leste telah geologi yang lebih tua dan tidak memiliki sifat vulkanik dari Kepulauan Sunda Kecil utara. Orientasi dari sumbu utama pulau juga berbeda dari tetangganya. Fitur-fitur ini telah dijelaskan sebagai hasil dari berada di tepi utara Lempeng Indo-Australia karena memenuhi Lempeng Eurasia dan mendorong ke Asia Tenggara [4] iklim meliputi. Musim kemarau panjang dengan angin panas bertiup lebih dari Australia . Sungai-sungai di pulau ini termasuk Selatan dan Utara Sungai Laclo di Timor Timur.Kota-kota terbesar di pulau ini adalah ibukota propinsi Kupang di Timor Barat, Indonesia dan kota-kota kolonial Portugis dari ibukota Dili dan Baucau di Timor Timur. jalan yang buruk membuat transportasi ke daerah pedalaman yang sulit, di Timor Timur pada khususnya. [5] Timor Timur adalah negara dalam utang, dengan masalah kesehatan termasuk malaria dan demam berdarah. Sumber pendapatan termasuk gas dan minyak di Laut Timor kopi, tumbuh dan meningkatkan pariwisata. Flora dan fauna
    Timor dan pulau-pulau lepas pantai seperti Atauro, bekas tempat pembuangan kini menjadi terkenal karena pantai dan karang [rujukan?], Dan Jaco bersama dengan Wetar dan Kepulauan Barat Daya lainnya di timur laut merupakan Timor dan Wetar berganti daun ekoregion hutan. Vegetasi alami adalah hutan berdaun lebar tropis kering dengan semak-semak semak dan rumput mendukung satwa liar kaya [rujukan?]. Namun sebagian besar hutan asli telah dibuka untuk [rujukan?] Pertanian, terutama di pantai Timor dan di pulau-pulau kecil seperti Atauro, dan selain dari satu blok besar di tengah Timor hanya tambalan tetap, sedangkan clearance yang sedang berlangsung [rujukan?]. ruang wilayah ini merupakan bagian dari daerah Wallacea dengan campuran tanaman dan hewan asal Asia dan Australasia, melainkan terletak di bagian barat Wallacea, di mana spesies Asia mendominasi.Banyak pohon yang gugur atau sebagian gugur, menjatuhkan daun mereka selama musim kemarau, ada juga hijau dan duri pohon di hutan campuran. pohon Khas dari lereng dataran rendah termasuk berangan tropis Sterculia foetida, Calophyllum teysmannii dan Kemiri (Aleurites moluccana).Selama zaman Pleistosen, Timor tempat tinggal monitor punah kadal raksasa mirip dengan Naga Komodo. Seperti Flores, Sumba dan Sulawesi, Timor juga pernah menjadi habitat stegodonts kerdil punah, kerabat gajah.Fauna hari ini mencakup sejumlah spesies endemik termasuk Python Timor khas, yang tikus kesturi Timor dan Timor Tikus. Salah satu mamalia berkantung asal Australasia, Utara Common kuskus, terjadi, tetapi diperkirakan akan diperkenalkan [6] Pulau-pulau memiliki burung banyak sekali,. Terutama dari Asia dan tetapi beberapa asal Australasia. Ada total 250 spesies yang 24 adalah endemik, sejumlah besar karena isolasi relatif dari pulau-pulau, termasuk lima spesies terancam; yang kelabu Cuckoo-burung merpati, Wetar Ground-burung merpati, Timor Green Pigeon, Timor Imperial- merpati, dan Iris Perkici. [7]Buaya air asin (reptil terbesar di dunia) apa yang ada dalam sungai dan lahan basah pesisir Timor, meskipun informasi yang sangat sedikit dalam hal spesies ini penduduk Timor tersedia. Reticulated Python (ular terpanjang di dunia) juga hadir di dalam hutan-hutan & padang rumput Timor. Namun, meskipun saat ini keberadaan kedua spesies di Timor dikonfirmasikan, ukuran populasi & status tidak diketahui.Sejarah
    Sejarah Timor TimurArtikel ini adalah bagian dari seri
    ————————————————– ——————————
     
    Kronologi
    Awal sejarah
    Kolonisasi Portugis
    Pendudukan Indonesia
    Transisi menuju kemerdekaan
    Kontemporer Timor Timur
    Topik
    Invasi Indonesia
    Pembantaian Santa Cruz
    Vote for kemerdekaan
    2006 krisis politik
    Timeline————————————————– ——————————Catatan sejarah paling awal tentang pulau Timor adalah abad ke-14 Nagarakretagama, Pupuh 14, yang mengidentifikasi Timur sebagai sebuah pulau dalam wilayah Majapahit. Timor dimasukkan ke dalam jaringan perdagangan kuno Jawa, Cina dan India abad ke-14 sebagai eksportir cendana aromatik, budak, madu dan lilin, dan diselesaikan oleh kedua Belanda, yang berbasis di Kupang, dan Portugis pada pertengahan abad ke-17.Sebagai pulau terdekat dengan pemukiman Eropa pada saat itu, Timor tujuan William Bligh dan pelaut setia kepadanya setelah pemberontakan yang terkenal pada Bounty pada tahun 1789. Hal itu juga di mana korban yang selamat dari HMS Pandora rusak, dikirim untuk menangkap Bounty pemberontak, mendarat tahun 1791 setelah kapal yang tenggelam di Great Barrier Reef.Pulau ini memiliki secara politik dibagi menjadi dua bagian selama berabad-abad. Belanda dan Portugis berjuang untuk mengontrol pulau itu sampai dibagi dengan perjanjian pada tahun 1859, tetapi mereka tetap tidak secara resmi menyelesaikan masalah batas sampai tahun 1912. Timor Barat, dikenal sebagai Timor Belanda sampai tahun 1949 ketika menjadi bahasa Indonesia Timor, bagian dari bangsa Indonesia yang terbentuk dari Timur Hindia Belanda lama, sedangkan Timor Timur dikenal sebagai Timor Portugis, sebuah koloni Portugis sampai tahun 1975. Ini mencakup Oecussi-Ambeno di Timor Barat.Pasukan Jepang menduduki pulau keseluruhan dari 1942 sampai 1945. Mereka menolak dalam kampanye gerilya awalnya dipimpin oleh pasukan komando Australia. (Lihat Pertempuran Timor.)Menyusul kudeta militer di Portugal pada tahun 1974 Portugis mulai menarik diri dari Timor, kerusuhan internal berikutnya dan takut partai Fretilin komunis didorong invasi oleh Indonesia, yang menentang konsep Timor Lorosae yang independen. Pada tahun 1975, Timor Timur dianeksasi oleh Indonesia dan dikenal sebagai Timor Timur atau ‘Tim-Tim’ untuk pendek. Hal ini dianggap oleh Indonesia sebagai provinsi ke-27 negara itu, tapi ini tidak pernah diakui oleh PBB atau Portugal (Lihat: pendudukan Indonesia di Timor Timur).Orang-orang Timor Timur, melalui Falintil sayap militer Fretilin, menolak 35.000 pasukan Indonesia dalam kampanye gerilya berkepanjangan, tetapi seluruh pulau tetap berada di bawah kekuasaan Indonesia sampai referendum yang diadakan pada tahun 1999 di bawah perjanjian yang disponsori PBB antara Indonesia dan Portugal di mana nya orang menolak tawaran otonomi di Indonesia. PBB diatur kemudian sementara Timor Leste sampai menjadi independen Timor-Leste pada tahun 2002 di bawah pimpinan pemimpin Falintil Xanana Gusmão. Walaupun perselisihan politik yang berkelanjutan sebagai bangsa baru diatasi dengan kemiskinan kehadiran PBB jauh berkurang.Sekelompok orang di sisi Indonesia Timor telah dilaporkan aktif sejak tahun 2001 berusaha untuk mendirikan sebuah Besar Negara Timor [8]. Namun, tidak ada bukti nyata sama sekali bahwa masyarakat Timor Barat, yang kebanyakan adalah dari suku Atoni yang adalah musuh tradisional Timor Timur, memiliki minat pada bergabung dengan musuh suku mereka. Selain itu, gerakan kemerdekaan Timor Timur tidak pernah mengklaim Timor Barat setiap saat, sebelum invasi Indonesia atau setelahnya. Demikian pula, pemerintah Timor Timur sepenuhnya di Indonesia mengakui batas-batas yang ada sebagai warisan dari Hindia Belanda. Hal ini mirip dengan posisi yang diambil oleh Papua New Guinea dalam kaitannya dengan Papua Barat, ketika mantan menjadi independen dari Australia. Lihat juga
    Potret seorang prajurit Timor di kawasan Kupang pada tahun 1875 dari laporan ekspedisi SMS Jerman Gazell

 

2.Kupang

 
 
 
Kupang

Kupang lighthouse and Sail Indonesia anchorage


Seal

Location of the City of Kupang in East Nusa Tenggara

Kupang is located in Indonesia Timor

Kupang
 

Location of the City of Kupang on the island of Timor

Coordinates: 10°11′S 123°35′E / 10.183°S 123.583°E / -10.183; 123.583Coordinates: 10°11′S 123°35′E / 10.183°S 123.583°E / -10.183; 123.583
Country Indonesia
Region Lesser Sunda Islands
Territory West Timor
Regency Kupang Regency
Kecamatan  
Area
 - Total 61.9 sq mi (160.34 km2)
Population (2010)[1]
 - Total 335,050
 - Density 5,412.1/sq mi (2,089.6/km2)
Area code(s) +62 380

Kupang is the provincial capital of East Nusa Tenggara province in southeast Indonesia.

The city is located in West Timor on the island of Timor, and had a population estimated in 2010 at 335,050. It is surrounded by (but is separate from) the regency of Kupang, which had a population estimated in 2009 at 394,173. It is the biggest city and port on the island of Timor.

Kupang’s economy is mainly based on its cement industry and the export and import of goods from its busy port. The airport of Kupang El Tari (IATA-Code: KOE), is approximately 8 km from the city center and is situated to the east. As capital of East Nusa Tenggara, the transport and administrative links from Kupang with isolated islands are extensive.

History

The harbor of Kupang in the early 20th century.

The house of the Resident of Timor in the early 20th century.

Kupang lighthouse and Sail Indonesia anchorage.

The location was an important port and trading point during the Portuguese and Dutch colonial eras. There are ruins and remnant signs of the colonial presence in the city.

The city was an important landing and refueling place for early long distance airplane flights between Europe and Australia in the early twentieth century. It was an important location during the conflict in East Timor, for the Indonesian military, as well as the militias. The camps around Kupang were also of significant impact on the city.

In 1962, the University of Nusa Cendana was established, and the city became important both in the field of education and also economically.

In 1967, the city was made the seat of the Diocese of Kupang. In 1989 the diocese was elevated to become the Archdiocese of Kupang.

William Bligh

Kupang was the final destination of William Bligh who was set adrift in an open boat during the Mutiny on the Bounty (1789). The Mutiny on the Bounty took place about 30 nautical miles (56 km) from Tofua. Lt William Bligh navigated the overcrowded 23 foot (7 m) open launch on an epic 41-day voyage first to Tofua and then to the West Timor city of Kupang equipped only with a sextant and a pocket watch— no charts or compass. He recorded the distance as 3,618 nautical miles (6710 km). He passed through the difficult Torres Strait along the way and landed on June 14. The only casualty of his voyage was a crewman named John Norton who was stoned to death by the natives of Tofua, the first island they tried to land on.[2]

William and Mary Bryant

News of the journey of Captain Bligh inspired the escape of a party of convicts from the penal colony at Sydney Cove, Australia. A group of nine convicts and two children, led by William Bryant, stole a small uncovered government boat and escaped from Port Jackson, Australia[3]. Ten weeks later, they arrived at Kupang, having covered 3,254 nautical miles (6,026 km), a feat as remarkable as Blighs, given that only three members of the group had any sailing experience.

Sailing

Kupang is the first port of call for yachts in the annual Sail Indonesia[4] rally which starts in Darwin, Australia towards the end of July each year. In 2006 about 100 yachts from around the world took part in the rally. From Kupang yachts head north to Alor and then stop at various ports in Indonesia over a period of about three months ending up in Singapore.

Sister cities

Kupang has a sister city relationship with:

References

  1. ^ http://ntt.bps.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=46&Itemid=8
  2. ^ re the Mutineers see: http://library.puc.edu/pitcairn/pitcairn/history.shtml
  3. ^ Kenealy, T: “Commonwealth of Thieves”, page 353. Random House Australia 2005
  4. ^ http://www.sailindonesia.net/ Sail Indonesia

3.FLORES

Flores

Flores

Topography of Flores
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 8°37′S 121°08′E / 8.617°S 121.133°E / -8.617; 121.133
Archipelago Lesser Sunda Islands
Area 13,540 km2 (5,228 sq mi)[1]
Area rank 60th
Highest elevation 2,370 m (7,780 ft)
Highest point Poco Mandasawu
Country
Indonesia
Province East Nusa Tenggara
Largest city Maumere (pop. 70,000)
Demographics
Population 1,600,000 (as of 2003)
Density 112 /km2 (290 /sq mi)

Flores is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, an island arc with an estimated area of 14,300 km² extending east from the Java island of Indonesia. The population is estimated to be around 1.5 million,[2] and the largest town is Maumere. Flores is Portuguese for “flowers”.

Flores is located east of Sumbawa and Komodo and west of Lembata and the Alor Archipelago. To the southeast is Timor. To the south, across the Sumba strait, is Sumba and to the north, beyond the Flores Sea, is Sulawesi.

On December 12, 1992, an earthquake measuring 7.8 on the Richter scale occurred, killing 2,500 people in and around Maumere, including islands off the North coast.

Contents

 

Administration

Flores is part of the East Nusa Tenggara province. The island along with smaller minor islands are split into eight regencies (local government districts); from west to east these are: Manggarai Barat (West Manggarai), Manggarai Tengah (Central Manggarai), Manggarai Timur (East Manggarai), Ngada, Nagekeo, Ende, Sikka and Flores Timur (East Flores). It has 39.1% of the provincial population as of 2010, and the most Indonesians of all islands in the province. However, Timor including the nation of East Timor is more populated. It is the island with the 8th most number of Indonesians, and 9th most populous (if Timor is included) in the country, after Java, Sumatra, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali, Lombok, Papua.

Name↓ Capital↓ Est.↓ Statute↓ Area (km²)↓ Population
2010 Census[3]↓
Manggarai Regency Ruteng 1958 UU 69/1958 1,545.97 292,037
Sikka Regency Maumere  1958 UU 69/1958 1,731.92 300,301
Ngada Regency Bajawa 1958 UU 69/1958 1,620.92 142,254
Ende Regency Ende 1958 UU 69/1958 2,046.62 260,428
East Flores Regency Larantuka 1958 UU 69/1958 1,812.85 232,312
West Manggarai Regency Labuan Bajo 2003 UU 8/2003 2,947.50 221,430
Nagekeo Regency Mbay 2007 UU 2/2007 1,416.96 129,956
East Manggarai Regency Borong 2007 UU 36/2007 2,502.24 252,754
Flores *     15,624.98 1,831,472

Flora and fauna

The west coast of Flores is one of the few places, aside from the island of Komodo itself, where the Komodo dragon can be found in the wild, and is part of the Komodo National Park, a UNESCO World Heritage Site. The Kelimutu National Park is the second national park designated on Flores to protect endangered species. The Flores Giant Rat is also endemic to the Island.

Flores was also a habitat of an extinct dwarf form of the proboscidean Stegodon until approximately 18,000 years ago; it also formerly harbored giant rodents such as Verhoeven’s Giant Tree Rat. It is speculated by scientists that limited resources and an absence of advanced predators drove the few species that lived upon the island to dwarfism and gigantism, respectively.[4]

Homo floresiensis

Main article: Homo floresiensis

In September 2004, at Liang Bua Cave in western Flores, paleoanthropologists discovered small skeletons that they described as a previously unknown hominid species, Homo floresiensis. These are informally named hobbits and appear to have stood about 1 m (3.3 ft) tall. The most complete individual (LB1) is dated as 18,000 years old.

Culture

 

Some fishing boats on Flores

There are many languages spoken on the island of Flores, all of them belonging to the Austronesian family. In the centre of the island in the districts of Ngada, Nagekeo, and Ende there is what is variously called the Central Flores Dialect Chain or the Central Flores Linkage. Within this area there are slight linguistic differences in almost every village. At least six separate languages are identifiable. These are from west to east: Ngadha, Nage, Keo, Ende, Lio and Palu’e, which is spoken on the island with the same name of the north coast of Flores. Locals would probably also add So’a and Bajawa to this list, which anthropologists have labeled dialects of Ngadha.

Flores is almost entirely Roman Catholic and represents one of the “religious borders” created by the Catholic expansion in the Pacific and the spread of Islam from the west across Indonesia. In other places in Indonesia, such as in the Maluku Islands and Sulawesi, the divide is less rigid and has been the source of bloody sectarian clashes.

 History

Indigenous warrior from Ende, Flores.

History
The first archaeological research was in the years just before World War II conducted by the Dutchman Dr. W.J.A. Willems. Due to circumstances, these excavations, however, after a very short time interrupted. Much more extensive research was done by the (also Dutch) missionary Th. Verhoeven, 50 and 60 years in the twentieth century. His discoveries, especially the remains of prehistoric mini-elephants (Stegodonten), and stone tools from about 800,000 years old were the basis for still ongoing archaeological research. Thus in 2003, paleontologists discovered a previously unknown hominid species, probably original inhabitants of Flores. This Gay floresiensis appears to be a miniature version of the Gay and erectus was only about 1 meter long. He has lived at least until 13,000 years ago and is perhaps only recently extinct.

The Flores name, derived from the Portuguese name “Cabo de Flores’ few flowers cape means is not, as long thought, invented by the Portuguese. The name already existed in Malay, namely as “Tandjong Boenga” which literally translated from the Portuguese in Cabo de Flores “(it is not clear whether the name refers to flowers on land, or to the rich coral what is meant by water near the coast could find). In Cabo de Flores’ was originally only the northeastern tip of the island meant. Later that name by the Dutch Governor-General Hendrik Brouwer, of course on the island transferred. The island in the 17th century sources, however, often “Ende said.

Over the centuries the indigenous people of Flores, for fear of Bugis and Makassar and other seafaring nations, who harassed the coast of the island, moved to the mountainous interior. On the coast drew Macassar and Bugis and other settlers small kingdoms headed by a rajah. In the 13th century, these empires in the name subordinate to the empire of Majapahit and a century later to the rulers of Makassar. Other areas, such Boeteng and Ternate, have tried to control parts of the island.

In 1522 the first European who visited the coast of Flores was the Spaniard Del Cano. During the 16th century the Portuguese established a number of places on the island of Flores and Solor, which lies just east of Flores. To Larantuka was a fort and a fort on Solor (probably called “Henriquez”) and a mission-post here.

The Portuguese Dominican mission was, saying, very successful in the Timor archipelago. In 1567, the number of converts in Timor and Flores estimated at 50,000. In the town of Ende on the southern coast of Flores in 1599 were about eight thousand native Christians. Here, in the Bay of Ende on the southern coast of the island of Pulau Ende on Flores, a fortress built in 1570, “Fortaleza do Ende Minor named. This post was created to protect the native Christians who are severely suffered from Javanese pirates.

In the 16th century, Islam spread, from Makassar, its influence on the island. The Portuguese were on the island of Pulau Endeh not stand. In 1605 they were led by a standing among Islamic indigenous army expelled from that place.

The Portuguese influence in the Timor archipelago was waning. Solor Dominican missionaries also had trouble getting the native Christians against the Islamic influences. Although Portuguese merchants Flores twice a year trooped to sandalwood from Timor to get, the Portuguese governor of Malacca showed no interest in the island of Solor and the established mission. The missionaries therefore had to defend the mission to organize themselves.

In 1613 appeared off the coast of Solor not a Muslim, but a Dutch fleet of four ships led by Apolonnius Scotte. They opened fire almost immediately. The native Christians who led the mission defended the missionaries were eventually forced to surrender. In 1618, with several heads of Solor a treaty, whereby the Dutch supremacy was recognized. Then there was a commander of the VOC Solor posted. The Portuguese influence is not entirely disappeared, and increased again when the VOC only years later, disappointed by the poor trading results, partly retreated from this area. After some time the fort by the Portuguese in question, and recaptured by the Dutch. In the end, the fort (by the Dutch renamed “Frederick Henry,” or simply “Henry”) until the 18th century, manned by two gun irish as a sort of outpost of the VOC Comptoir Kupang, the Dutch relied on their Muslim allies in the archipelago.

First in 1660 and again in 1667, joined Governor General Speelman with the ruler of Makassar a contract specifying the VOC monopoly on the spice trade in the Macassar area would receive. Flores as “subordination” of Makassar was included. Simultaneously, Bima, one principality on the island of Sumbawa, the supremacy of Makassar and hidden under the direct administration of the VOC placed. Since then, the western part of Flores, also known as the Manggarai, a quarrel between the princes of Makassar and Bima. In 1822 government finally settled the fight and awarded it to the Manggarai to Bima. In 1691 installed the VOC Baraai, across the bay from Ende, a post holder. From there, slaves were mostly cinnamon and wild out. This post has existed only briefly.

The Portuguese influence on Flores, mainly Larantuka and Sikka, not disappeared, although Article 6 of the 1667 contract stipulated that the Portuguese officially no longer allowed to settle in those parts. The VOC considered these sites not important enough. Therefore they did condone the (Catholic) rajas of these places to the Portuguese supremacy acknowledged. This was typical of Dutch behavior toward Flores. The contacts with those regions were in the 18th century, of little importance. It came when it was not very secure by the abundance of piracy, which the coastal population was guilty. Although the VOC little in these regions interfered was in 1756, including the sengadjis of Solor in Kupang on Timor a contract on April 1, 1757 by Governor General Mossel been ratified, and that since then as the ‘big charter “for the Timor archipelago must be considered. This has the VOC and then by the Dutch government’s claims and rights asserted in these areas. It was established under the leadership of government commissioner Paravicini.

[Edit] Flores between 1800 and 1859Na an English short interim period, the Dutch government in 1816 restored its authority in the Indonesian archipelago. In 1818 the islands of the Timor Archipelago under the administration of the Moluccas charged. A year later it was again elevated to an autonomous residence that Mr Hazar was the first resident. Around that time a dispute arose with the Portuguese on mutual possessions. There was then an agreement which were agreed upon spheres of influence on a number of islands in the Timor archipelago. East Flores came in it as a Portuguese possession. About Ende on Flores Middle were no arrangements made.

In 1838 received the “Colonial Marine” command to investigate a number of very committed oven and possibly the hiding places of the pirates on Flores to detect and destroy. As a correspondence with the Portuguese governor to Dilli, East Timor on the guilt of piracy on Larantoeka an unsatisfactory outcome had led the place was first visited. On arrival in Larantuka flew the Portuguese flag on the beach. There was also a native Benteng (fortress kind) raised, but the Raja had disappeared. The Benteng was fired from the Dutch ships. There was a landing in the town was set on fire.

After this punishment, which in fact had occurred on foreign soil, put it on his way to the Bay of Kampong Ende where some were fired from ships. As a result of this discipline appeared in 1839, seven great men from Ende to Kupang on Timor Leste, where the resident was seated and Dependencies. They came to offer their submission after which they signed a contract stating that they would accept the Dutch supremacy.

In 1848 it was at 30 kilometers from Flores island located Lomblen a number of disputes between the Dutch East Indies and Portuguese nationals, and the authorities of both countries intervened in these disputes. The Dutch Government Commissioner Steiner Parve was sent to Timor to settle the dispute. In view of the future, he also had to give a clear definition of mutual sovereignty. Parve could only reach the Dutch sovereignty over some places actually occupied by the Netherlands, were recognized. After the negotiations were left to the European diplomacy.

Eventually, after five years of negotiations, on October 5, 1854 was a treaty concluded in which all the Portuguese possessions in the Netherlands Timor archipelago, except East Timor, the Portuguese took over for a price of two hundred thousand guilders. This treaty was signed in April 1859 by the Dutch government ratified. From that moment, the Netherlands, at least in name, the sovereignty over the island of Flores.

 
 

Portuguese traders and missionaries came to Flores in the 16th century, mainly to Larantuka and Sikka. Their influence is still discernible in Sikka’s language, culture and religion.

The Dominican order was extremely important in this island, as well as in the neighbouring islands of Timor and Solor. When in 1613 the Dutch attacked the Fortres of Solor, the population of this fort, led by the Dominicans, moved to the harbor town of Larantuka, on the eastern coast of Flores. This population was mixed, of Portuguese and local islanders descent and Larantuqueiros, Topasses (people that wear heats) or, as Dutch knew them, the ‘Black Portuguese’ (Swarte Portugueezen).

The Larantuqueiros or Topasses became the dominant sandalwood trading people of the region for the next 200 years. This group used Portuguese as the language for worship, Malay as the language of trade and a mixed dialect as mother tongue. This was observed by William Dampier, a British Brigadier visiting the Island in 1699:

These [the Topasses] have no Forts, but depend on their Alliance with the Natives: And indeed they are already so mixt, that it is hard to distinguish whether they are Portugueze or Indians. Their Language is Portugueze; and the religion they have, is Romish. They seem in Words to acknowledge the King of Portugal for their Sovereign; yet they will not accept any Officers sent by him. They speak indifferently the Malayan and their own native Languages, as well as Portugueze. [1]

In 1846, Dutch and Portuguese initiated negotiations towards delimiting the territories but these negotiations led to nowhere. In 1851 the new governor of Timor, Solor and Flores, Lima Lopes, faced with an impoverished administration, agreed to sell eastern Flores and the nearby islands to Dutch in return for a payment of 200000 florin. Lima Lopes did so without the consent of Lisbon and was dismissed in disgrace, but his agreement was not rescinded and in 1854 Portugal ceded all its historical claims on Flores.

After this, Flores became part of the territory of Dutch East Indies until the independence of Indonesia, when it became part of this country.[5]

FLORES ISLAND

 

Flores island has been under the influence of various outsider from 13th century. However it was then clearly mentioned in the history that Flores got strongly influence since the Portuquese arrive in these areas part of Indonesia.The Islam influences have arrived in Ende between 16th till 17th century. While the Portuquese arrived in Malaka in 1511. The Dutch East India Company was established in 1602 especially in Ende of Flores island.After their arrival in the area, the Portuguese made Solor (an eastern island off the mainland Flores) the centre of their trade. Repeated attacks on Solor by the Javanese seafaring traders suggest that the island had already been used as a trading port by the Javanese (especially for the sandalwood derived from Timor). Nagarakertagama mentioned that Solot (Solor-Flores) belonged to Majapahit. The small island called Pulau Ende in the Bay of Ende seems to have served the same purpose for the Javanese.In the 1561, the first Bishop in Malaka sent three missionaries to Solor, where after an attack by the Javanese Muslims, then constructed a fortress. Also, on Pulau Ende, the Portuquese constructed a fortress there. The two fortresses are the main scenes of the struggle among the Portuguese, Muslims and, later on, the Dutch.A tale of struggle between the Christians and the Muslims on Pulau Ende was told in a legend about a beautiful woman, Rendo, the daughter of the commander of the fortress. That tale is usually referred to as Rendo Rate Rua, or Rendo of the Two Tombs. The story is as followsRendo was the daughter of a Portuguese commander of the fortress and a Numba woman. She had a long hair which was repa rhima rua (seven yards), siku rhima rua (seven elbows), pangga rhima rua (seven hands), fate rhima rua (seven cubits) long. And her throat was so white that one could see the water going down through itWhen her father was away from the fortress, a troop of Javanese pirates attacked the fortress. Rendo’s lover Jebe Jawa, a Javanese working in the fortress, was killed at that time.The leader of the pirates, Ndoke Rua, was going to take Rendo away; but she and her slave, Tonjo, managed to escape from him. They ran to a place called ‘Eko Reko bringing a golden tray with themThe two women threatened the pirates by making papaya leaves look like a cannon. This trick, however, did not work for long. Then Rendo and Tonjo were about to jump into the sea, when they found a fisherman. They asked him a favour and borrowed his boat.When Ndoke Rua, with his pirates, arrived at Eko Reko, Rendo and Tonjo were already in the middle of the sea. Ndoke Rua, finding no boats available there, prayed for rain and wind. There came big waves and their boat sank. Rendo and Tonjo died. Rendo father moved to Royo HayonRendo has two tombs: one on the island; and another in Numba, which now serves as a boundary between two ritual domains called Tana Rhorho and Tana Dea. The slave, Tonjo, turned into a flower, which is now called by the name of Tonjo.Van Suchtelen collects a shorter version of the same story. The interesting difference is that the bad guy, Ndoke Rua, is, in this version, a priest working in the fortress. The struggle between the Portuguese and the Muslims (not only Javanese, but also native people who had been converted to Islam) continued on the island of Flores.After some years of peace, in 1605, the Portuguese on Pulau Ende were driven out by the natives to a village on the mainland Flores, called Numba. At the beginning of the 17th century, there happened an interesting episode in the history of Flores, which tells us the relation between a Makassarese princedom and some native headmen on Flores. In 1602, a native headman, called Ama Kira (according to Rouffaer; the original Portuguese rendering of the name is Amequira) raised the war, and Ama Kira asked for the help of a Makasarese prince, who sent a fleet under the command of a man called Dom Joao (apparently once a Christian). The fleet under Dom Joao attacked the fortress on Pulau Ende, and was defeated. Dom Joao, after the defeat, returned to Makassar, and the prince of Makassar sent rice to Solor and concluded a peace with the PortugueseThe fortress on Pulau Ende was burned down. Since this time until its recovery in 1613 Pulau Ende was abandoned by the Christians1613 is a significant year in the history of eastern Indonesia. A Dutch fleet under the command of Apollonius Scotte (or Scot) sailed through the islands. Before arriving at Kupang, Scotte went to Solor and attacked the fortress there and took it from the Portuguese. The Portuguese, or more precisely, the `black Portuguese’ fled to Larantuka, which, from that time, became the centre of the black Portuguese. The Dutch attacked Larantuka also, but failed to take it. Adrian van der Velden, Scotte’s deputy commander, went to Ende, and found the ruin of the fortress thereIn the decades between 1610 and 1640, the Portuguese in Larantuka and the Dutch on Solor played a kind of see-saw game, which, in the long run, turned in favour of the Dutch.The Portuguese in Larantuka, in 1616, managed to defeat the Dutch on Solor and regained the fortress, only to lose it again in two years. In 1618, the Dutch made an assault on Larantuka, and failed. In 1625 and 1629, the Portuguese attacked the fortress, and in the latter battle, the fortress became the possession of the Portuguese. But the Portuguese occupation of Solor did not last for ten years. In 1636, attacked by the Dutch, the Portuguese had to abandon the fortress again, and this time, forever.The fortress on Pulau Ende had been destroyed earlier in 1620 (the exact date is unknown). Unlike Solor, which remained significant in the Dutch Company/Colonial Rule context, Pulau Ende ceased to play any important role. The city of Ende, where the rajadom of Ende may already have formed, replaced Pulau Ende as a focus point in central Flores. Around this time, the Portuguese influence over the area waned.Even though the formal transference of Flores from the Portuguese to the Dutch took place as late as 1851 and 1859 (eastern Flores), the Portuguese began to lose their control over this part after 1657, when the Dutch East India Company established Fort Concordia in Kupang and the Dutch began to set a strong hold on the area.Through the 17th and 18th centuries, there are occasional references to the relations concluded between the Dutch East India Company and some Endenese headmen.Baraai, a coastal Endenese village about 6 km west of the city of Ende, recognized its subordination to the Company and received a “posthouder” in 1691. The posthouder, though, seems to have stayed there only for a short time

The Company selected Ende as a rajadom. In 1756, the rajadom of Ende is said to have exported its cinnamon to the Company. This fact suggests that even though there were many equally strong headmen in central Flores, Ende became conspicuous among them by this time.

The Dutch East India Company’s involvement in eastern Indonesia ended in 1799 when the Company’s charter expired. Then came a new era of the Dutch Colonial rule in Indonesia.

This era can be divided, in central Flores, into two periods, 1907 marking the transition between the two. During the earlier period, there was no serious intervention by the Dutch Government in Flores. This period can be further divided into two: (1) the period before 1890 and (2) that after 1890. In the former period, the Dutch colonial rule had virtually no hold over the region.

An incident, which reveals the not so simple relationship between the Endenese raja and the Dutch Government, happened in the year of 1890, the year which, according to one officer (de Vries), demarcates the period before 1907.

In June 1890, a Kupang-interned prisoner Bara Nuri, an Endenese headman, escaped and returned to Ende. The Dutch Colonial Government requested the raja of Ende to help the Government catch Bara Nuri. After repeated failures, mainly due to the Dutch government’s reluctance to help cooperate with the raja, the raja finally managed to capture Bara Nuri.

On returning to Ende, Bara Nuri called for help and set himself up in a village, Manu Nggoo. The raja of Ende (Aru Busman) attacked the village, in vain.

On the 8th of January 1891, the warship Java appeared in Ipi bay of Ende. With this help and about 1,000 men gathered by the effort of the raja, the raja attacked the fortification of Bara Nuri, on the 10th of January, and failed again. In February, reinforcements came from Kupang: the cruiser van Speijck.

Seeing that Bara Nuri would not surrender despite the repeated attack of the raja and the Dutch force, the posthouder (Rozet) sent for a truce. After concluding the peace, Bara Nuri came out, only to be captured by the posthouder, an act of “treachery” on the posthouder’s side. Some of the headmen told de Vries later in 1910 that the posthouder had said to Bara Nuri that Bara Nuri should come to Ende so that people could choose him as Raja.

In 1896, the raja, Pua Note, was formally appointed as raja of Ende by the Dutch Government.

When another war broke out between the raja of Ende and some other villages (Nanga Baa and Watu Sipi) in 1904, the Government quickly sent a ship, H.M. Mataram, to help the raja.

Thursday, May 27, 2010

Tourism

Bena Village

The most famous tourist attraction in Flores is Kelimutu, a volcano containing three colored lakes, located in the district of Ende close to the town of Moni. These crater lakes are in the caldera of a volcano, and fed by a volcanic gas source, resulting in highly acidic water. The colored lakes change colors on an irregular basis, depending on the oxidation state of the lake[6] from bright red through green and blue.

There are snorkelling and diving locations along the north coast of Flores, most notably Maumere and Riung. However, due to the destructive practice of local fishermen using bombs to fish, and locals selling shells to tourists, combined with the after effects of a devastating tsunami in 1992, the reefs have slowly been destroyed.

Labuanbajo (on the western tip of Flores) is a town often used by tourists as a base to visit Komodo and Rinca. Labuanbajo also attracts scuba divers, as whale sharks inhabit the waters around Labuanbajo.

The Luba and Bena villages include traditional houses in Flores. Larantuka, on the isle’s eastern end, is known for its Holy Week festivals.

 Economy

In addition to tourism, the main economic activities on Flores are agriculture, fishing and seaweed production. The primary food crops being grown on Flores are rice, maize, sweet potato and cassava, while the main cash crops are coffee, coconut, candle nut and cashew.[7] Flores is one of the newest origins for Indonesian coffee. Previously, most Arabica coffee (Coffea arabica) from Flores was blended with other origins. Now, demand is growing for this coffee because of its heavy body and sweet chocolate, floral and woody notes.[8]

 Gallery

  • The Lesser Sunda Islands with Flores in the upper right

  • A statue of Jesus in Maumere, Flores

  • An ancient Ngada megalithFlores
    Topografi Flores
     
    Geografi
    Lokasi Asia Tenggara
    Koordinat 8 ° 121 ° 08′E / 8,617 ° 37′S S 121,133 ° BT / -8,617; 121,133
    Kepulauan Kepulauan Sunda Kecil
    Luas 13.540 km2 (5.228 sq mi) [1]
    Area peringkat 60
    Ketinggian tertinggi 2.370 m (7780 ft)
    Titik tertinggi Poco Mandasawu
    Negara
    Indonesia
    Propinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur
    Kota terbesar Maumere (pop. 70.000)
    Demografi
    Penduduk 1.600.000 (pada 2003)
    Kepadatan 112 / km2 (290 / sq mi)

    Flores merupakan salah satu dari Kepulauan Sunda Kecil, sebuah busur pulau dengan luas diperkirakan 14.300 km ² tersebar di timur dari pulau Jawa Indonesia. Populasi diperkirakan sekitar 1,5 juta, [2] dan kota terbesar adalah Maumere. Flores adalah bahasa Portugis untuk “bunga”.

    Flores terletak di sebelah timur Sumbawa dan Komodo dan barat Lembata dan Kepulauan Alor. Untuk tenggara adalah Timor. Ke selatan, di seberang selat Sumba, adalah Sumba dan di utara, di luar Laut Flores, adalah Sulawesi.

    Pada tanggal 12 Desember 1992, gempa berkekuatan 7,8 pada skala Richter terjadi, menewaskan 2.500 orang di dan sekitar Maumere, termasuk pulau-pulau lepas pantai Utara.

    Isi

    1 Administrasi
    2 Flora dan fauna
    3 Homo floresiensis
    4 Budaya
    5 Sejarah
    6 Pariwisata
    7 Ekonomi
    8 Galeri
    9 Lihat juga
    10 Referensi

    Administrasi
    Flores merupakan bagian dari provinsi Nusa Tenggara Timur. Pulau bersama dengan pulau-pulau kecil yang lebih kecil dibagi menjadi delapan kabupaten (pemerintah daerah kabupaten); dari barat ke timur ini adalah: Manggarai Barat (Manggarai Barat), Manggarai Tengah (Central Manggarai), Manggarai Timur (Manggarai Timur), Ngada, Nagekeo, Ende, Sikka dan Flores Timur (Flores Timur). Ini memiliki 39,1% dari jumlah penduduk provinsi pada 2010, dan Indonesia hampir semua pulau di provinsi ini. Namun, Timor termasuk bangsa Timor Timur lebih padat. Ini adalah pulau dengan paling banyak 8 orang Indonesia, dan 9 paling padat penduduknya (jika Timor termasuk) di negara itu, setelah Jawa, Sumatera, Kalimantan, Sulawesi, Bali, Lombok, Papua.

    Nama Est Modal. Statuta Area (km ²) Populasi
    2010 Sensus [3]
    Kabupaten Manggarai Ruteng 1958 UU 69/1958 1,545.97 292.037
    Kabupaten Sikka Maumere 1958 UU 69/1958 1,731.92 300.301
    Kabupaten Ngada Bajawa 1958 UU 69/1958 1,620.92 142.254
    Kabupaten Ende Ende 1958 UU 69/1958 2,046.62 260.428
    Larantuka Kabupaten Flores Timur 1958 UU 69/1958 1,812.85 232.312
    Kabupaten Manggarai Barat Labuan Bajo 2003 UU 8 Tahun 2003 2,947.50 221.430
    Kabupaten Nagekeo Mbay 2007 UU 2 / 2007 1,416.96 129.956
    Kabupaten Manggarai Timur Borong 2007 UU 36/2007 2,502.24 252.754
    Flores * 15,624.98 1.831.472

    Flora dan fauna
    Pantai barat Flores adalah salah satu dari beberapa tempat, selain pulau Komodo itu sendiri, di mana komodo dapat ditemukan di alam bebas, dan merupakan bagian dari Taman Nasional Komodo, sebuah Situs Warisan Dunia UNESCO. The Taman Nasional Kelimutu merupakan taman nasional kedua yang ditunjuk di Flores untuk melindungi spesies yang terancam punah. Tikus raksasa Flores juga endemik Pulau.

    Flores juga merupakan habitat bentuk kurcaci punah dari Stegodon berbelalai sampai kira-kira 18.000 tahun yang lalu, tetapi juga dahulu memendam tikus raksasa seperti Verhoeven’s Giant Tree Tikus. Hal ini berspekulasi oleh para ilmuwan bahwa sumber daya terbatas dan tidak adanya predator maju mendorong beberapa spesies yang hidup di pulau untuk dwarfisme dan gigantisme, masing-masing. [4]

    Homo floresiensis
    Artikel utama: Homo floresiensis
    Pada bulan September 2004, di Gua Liang Bua di Flores barat, paleoanthropolog menemukan kerangka kecil yang mereka digambarkan sebagai satu spesies hominid yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui, Homo floresiensis. Ini adalah informal bernama hobbit dan tampaknya telah berdiri sekitar 1 m (3.3 ft) tinggi. Individu yang paling lengkap (LB1) adalah tanggal sebagai 18.000 tahun.

    Budaya

    Beberapa perahu nelayan di Flores

    Ada banyak bahasa yang diucapkan di Pulau Flores, semuanya milik keluarga Austronesia. Di tengah-tengah pulau di Kabupaten Ngada, Nagekeo, dan Ende ada apa yang disebut berbagai Flores Tengah Dialek Chain atau Pusat Flores Linkage. Dalam area ini terdapat sedikit perbedaan linguistik di hampir setiap desa. Setidaknya enam bahasa terpisah dapat diidentifikasi. Ini adalah dari barat ke timur: Ngadha, Nage, Keo, Ende, Lio dan Palu’e, yang diucapkan di pulau dengan nama yang sama dari pantai utara Flores. Warga mungkin akan juga menambahkan So’a dan Bajawa untuk daftar ini, yang telah diberi label antropolog Ngadha dialek.

    Flores hampir seluruhnya Katolik Roma dan merupakan salah satu dari “perbatasan keagamaan” diciptakan oleh ekspansi Katolik di Pasifik dan penyebaran Islam dari barat di seluruh Indonesia. Di tempat-tempat lain di Indonesia, seperti di Kepulauan Maluku dan Sulawesi, membagi kurang kaku dan telah menjadi sumber bentrokan sektarian berdarah.

     Sejarah

    Adat prajurit dari Ende, Flores.

    Sejarah
    Penelitian arkeologi pertama adalah pada tahun-tahun sebelum Perang Dunia II yang dilakukan oleh Belanda Dr WJA Willems. Karena keadaan, penggalian ini, bagaimanapun, setelah waktu yang sangat singkat terganggu. Jauh lebih penelitian yang luas dilakukan oleh Th (juga Belanda) misionaris. Verhoeven, 50 dan 60 tahun di abad kedua puluh. penemuan-Nya, terutama gajah mini sisa-sisa prasejarah-(Stegodonten), dan alat-alat batu dari sekitar 800.000 tahun adalah dasar bagi penelitian arkeologi masih berlangsung. Dengan demikian pada tahun 2003, ahli paleontologi menemukan spesies hominid yang sebelumnya tidak diketahui, mungkin penduduk asli Flores. Gay floresiensis ini tampaknya merupakan versi miniatur dari Gay dan Homo hanya sekitar 1 meter sudah lama. Dia telah hidup setidaknya sampai 13.000 tahun yang lalu dan mungkin baru saja punah.

    Nama Flores, berasal dari nama Portugis “Cabo de Flores beberapa ‘bunga tanjung berarti tidak, seperti berpikir panjang, diciptakan oleh Portugis Nama sudah. ​​Ada dalam bahasa Melayu, yaitu sebagai” Tandjong Boenga “yang secara harfiah diterjemahkan dari Portugis di Cabo de Flores “(tidak jelas apakah nama mengacu pada bunga di darat, atau ke karang kaya apa yang dimaksud dengan air dekat pantai bisa menemukan). Dalam Cabo de Flores “semula hanya ujung timur laut pulau berarti. Kemudian bahwa nama oleh Belanda Gubernur Jenderal Hendrik Brouwer, tentu saja di pulau tersebut ditransfer. Pulau dalam sumber-sumber abad ke-17, bagaimanapun, sering “kata Ende.

    Selama berabad-abad penduduk asli di Flores, karena takut Bugis dan Makassar dan bangsa-bangsa pelaut lainnya, yang dilecehkan pantai pulau, pindah ke pegunungan. Di pantai menarik Makassar dan Bugis dan pemukim lainnya kerajaan kecil dipimpin oleh seorang raja. Pada abad ke-13, kerajaan ini dalam nama bawahan kerajaan Majapahit dan abad kemudian untuk para penguasa Makassar. Daerah lain, Boeteng tersebut dan Ternate, telah mencoba untuk mengontrol bagian pulau tersebut.

    Pada 1522 orang Eropa pertama yang mengunjungi pantai Flores adalah Spanyol Del Cano. Selama abad ke-16 Portugis mendirikan sejumlah tempat di Pulau Flores dan Solor, yang terletak di timur Flores. Untuk Larantuka adalah benteng dan sebuah benteng di Solor (mungkin disebut “Henriquez”) dan misi-posting di sini.

    Misi Dominikan Portugis itu, mengatakan, sangat sukses di kepulauan Timor. Pada tahun 1567, jumlah mualaf di Timor dan Flores diperkirakan sebesar 50.000. Di kota Ende di pantai selatan Flores di 1599 sekitar delapan ribu orang Kristen asli. Di sini, di Teluk Ende di pantai selatan pulau Pulau Ende di Flores, sebuah benteng yang dibangun pada 1570, “melakukan Fortaleza Ende Minor bernama. Posting ini diciptakan untuk melindungi orang-orang Kristen asli yang sangat menderita dari bajak laut Jawa.

    Pada abad ke-16, Islam menyebar, dari Makassar, pengaruhnya di pulau itu. Portugis berada di pulau Pulau Endeh tidak berdiri. Di tahun 1605 mereka dipimpin oleh seorang berdiri di antara tentara adat Islam diusir dari tempat itu.

    Pengaruh Portugis di kepulauan Timor sudah mulai berkurang. Solor Dominika misionaris juga mengalami kesulitan mendapatkan orang-orang Kristen asli terhadap pengaruh Islam. Meskipun pedagang Portugis Flores dua kali setahun beriringan untuk cendana dari Timor untuk mendapatkan, gubernur Portugis Malaka tidak menunjukkan minat di pulau Solor dan misi yang ditetapkan. Para misionaris itu harus mempertahankan misi untuk mengorganisir diri.

    Pada 1613 muncul lepas pantai Solor bukan seorang Muslim, tetapi armada Belanda dari empat kapal yang dipimpin oleh Apolonnius Scotte. Mereka melepaskan tembakan segera. Orang-orang Kristen asli yang memimpin misi membela para misionaris itu akhirnya dipaksa untuk menyerah. Pada tahun 1618, dengan beberapa kepala Solor sebuah perjanjian, dimana supremasi Belanda yang diakui. Lalu ada seorang komandan dari Solor VOC diposting. Pengaruh Portugis ini tidak sepenuhnya hilang, dan meningkat lagi ketika tahun VOC hanya kemudian, kecewa dengan hasil trading yang buruk, sebagian mundur dari daerah ini. Setelah beberapa waktu benteng oleh Portugis di pertanyaan, dan direbut kembali oleh Belanda. Pada akhirnya, benteng (oleh Belanda berganti nama menjadi “Frederick Henry,” atau hanya “Henry”) sampai abad ke-18, diawaki oleh dua Irlandia pistol sebagai semacam pos dari VOC Comptoir Kupang, Belanda mengandalkan sekutu mereka muslim di nusantara.

    Pertama pada tahun 1660 dan sekali lagi pada 1667, bergabung dengan Gubernur Jenderal Speelman dengan penguasa Makassar menetapkan kontrak monopoli VOC pada perdagangan rempah-rempah di daerah Makassar akan menerima. Flores sebagai “subordinasi” dari Makassar dimasukkan. Bersamaan, Bima, salah satu kerajaan di Pulau Sumbawa, supremasi Makassar dan tersembunyi di bawah pemerintahan langsung dari VOC ditempatkan. Sejak itu, bagian barat Flores, juga dikenal sebagai Manggarai, pertengkaran antara pangeran Makassar dan Bima. Tahun 1822 pemerintah akhirnya menetap memerangi dan diberikan ke Manggarai ke Bima. Pada 1691 menginstal Baraai VOC, di seberang teluk dari Ende, pemegang posting. Dari sana, budak sebagian besar kayu manis dan keluar liar. Posting ini telah ada hanya sebentar.

    Pengaruh Portugis di Flores, terutama Larantuka dan Sikka, tidak hilang, meskipun Pasal 6 kontrak 1667 menetapkan bahwa Portugis secara resmi tidak lagi diijinkan untuk menetap di bagian-bagian. VOC menganggap situs-situs tersebut tidak cukup penting. Oleh karena itu mereka tidak membenarkan (Katolik) raja-raja dari tempat untuk supremasi Portugis diakui. Ini adalah khas perilaku Belanda terhadap Flores. Kontak dengan daerah-daerah berada di abad ke-18, sedikit penting. Hal ini datang ketika itu tidak terlalu aman dengan kelimpahan pembajakan, yang penduduk pantai bersalah. Meskipun VOC kecil di wilayah ini ikut campur di 1756, termasuk sengadjis dari Solor di Kupang, Timor kontrak pada April 1, 1757 oleh Gubernur Jenderal Mossel telah diratifikasi, dan bahwa sejak itu sebagai ‘piagam besar “untuk kepulauan Lorosa’e harus dipertimbangkan. ini memiliki VOC dan kemudian dengan klaim pemerintah Belanda dan hak menyatakan di daerah-daerah itu. dibentuk di bawah pimpinan pemerintahan komisaris Paravicini.

    [Edit] Flores antara 1800 dan 1859Na periode interim pendek Inggris, pemerintah Belanda tahun 1816 dipulihkan kewenangannya di kepulauan Indonesia. Pada tahun 1818 pulau-pulau di Kepulauan Timor di bawah administrasi Maluku dikenakan. Setahun kemudian ia kembali diangkat menjadi sebuah tempat tinggal otonom bahwa Mr Hazar adalah penduduk pertama. Sekitar waktu itu perselisihan muncul dengan Portugis pada harta bersama. Ada maka perjanjian yang telah disepakati lingkungan yang berpengaruh pada sejumlah pulau di kepulauan Timor. Flores Timur datang sebagai milik Portugis. Tentang Ende di Flores Tengah ada pengaturan yang dibuat.

    Pada tahun 1838 menerima “Kolonial Marine” perintah untuk menyelidiki sejumlah oven yang sangat berkomitmen dan mungkin tempat persembunyian dari para perompak di Flores untuk mendeteksi dan menghancurkan. Sebagai korespondensi dengan gubernur Portugis ke Dili, Timor Timur pada rasa bersalah pembajakan pada Larantoeka hasil yang tidak memuaskan telah memimpin tempat pertama kali dikunjungi. Setibanya di Larantuka terbang bendera Portugis di pantai. Ada juga Benteng asli (jenis benteng) dinaikkan, namun Raja telah menghilang. Para Benteng dipecat dari kapal Belanda. Ada mendarat di kota itu dibakar.

    Setelah ini hukuman, yang sebenarnya telah terjadi di tanah asing, menaruhnya di perjalanan ke Kampung Teluk Ende di mana beberapa ditembakkan dari kapal. Sebagai hasil dari disiplin ini muncul pada tahun 1839, tujuh orang besar dari Ende ke Kupang di Timor Leste, di mana warga duduk dan Dependensi. Mereka datang untuk menawarkan pengajuan mereka setelah mana mereka menandatangani kontrak yang menyatakan bahwa mereka akan menerima supremasi Belanda.

    Pada tahun 1848 itu berada di 30 kilometer dari Pulau Flores yang terletak Lomblen sejumlah perselisihan antara Hindia Belanda dan warga negara Portugis, dan otoritas kedua negara campur tangan dalam perselisihan. Pemerintah Belanda Komisaris Steiner Parve dikirim ke Timor untuk menyelesaikan perselisihan tersebut. Dalam pandangan masa depan, ia juga harus memberikan definisi yang jelas kedaulatan bersama. Parve hanya bisa mencapai kedaulatan Belanda atas beberapa tempat sebenarnya diduduki oleh Belanda, yang diakui. Setelah negosiasi kiri ke diplomasi Eropa.

    Akhirnya, setelah lima tahun perundingan, pada 5 Oktober 1854 adalah perjanjian yang diadakan di mana semua harta Portugis di kepulauan Timor Belanda, kecuali Timor Timur, Portugis mengambil alih dengan harga dua ratus ribu gulden. Perjanjian ini ditandatangani pada April 1859 oleh pemerintah Belanda meratifikasi. Sejak saat itu, Belanda, setidaknya dalam nama, kedaulatan atas pulau Flores.

     
    pedagang Portugis dan misionaris datang ke Flores pada abad 16, terutama untuk Larantuka dan Sikka. Pengaruh mereka masih dilihat dalam, budaya bahasa Sikka dan agama.

    Ordo Dominikan sangat penting di pulau ini, maupun di pulau-pulau tetangga Timor dan Solor. Ketika pada 1613 Belanda menyerang Fortres dari Solor, populasi benteng ini, dipimpin oleh Dominikan, pindah ke kota pelabuhan Larantuka, di pesisir timur Flores. Populasi ini dicampur, Portugis dan lokal keturunan pulau dan Larantuqueiros, Topass (orang-orang yang memakai memanaskan) atau, seperti Belanda tahu mereka, ‘Black Portugis’ (Swarte Portugueezen).

    The Larantuqueiros atau Topass menjadi orang-orang perdagangan kayu cendana yang dominan di wilayah tersebut selama 200 tahun berikutnya. Kelompok ini menggunakan bahasa Portugis sebagai bahasa untuk ibadah, Melayu sebagai bahasa perdagangan dan dialek campuran sebagai bahasa ibu. Hal ini diamati oleh William Dampier, seorang Brigadir Inggris mengunjungi pulau pada tahun 1699:

    Ini [para Topass] tidak memiliki Benteng, tetapi tergantung pada mereka Aliansi dengan Pribumi: Dan sesungguhnya mereka telah begitu dicampur, bahwa sulit untuk membedakan apakah mereka Portugueze atau Indian. Bahasa mereka Portugueze, dan agama yang mereka miliki, adalah Romawi. Mereka tampaknya di Kata-kata untuk mengakui Raja Penguasa Portugal untuk mereka, namun mereka tidak akan menerima Petugas dikirim oleh dia. Mereka berbicara acuh tak acuh Malaya dan Bahasa asli mereka sendiri, serta Portugueze. [1]

    Pada tahun 1846, Belanda dan Portugis memulai negosiasi terhadap pembatasan wilayah tetapi ini menyebabkan negosiasi ke mana-mana. Pada tahun 1851 gubernur baru Timor, Solor dan Flores, Lima Lopes, dihadapkan dengan suatu administrasi miskin, setuju untuk menjual Flores Timur dan pulau-pulau terdekat untuk Belanda dengan imbalan pembayaran sejumlah 200000 Florin. Lima Lopes melakukannya tanpa persetujuan dari Lisbon dan diberhentikan dipermalukan, tetapi kesepakatan itu tidak dibatalkan dan pada 1854 Portugal menyerahkan semua klaim historisnya di Flores.

    Setelah ini, Flores menjadi bagian dari wilayah Hindia Belanda sampai kemerdekaan Indonesia, ketika menjadi bagian dari negara ini. [5]

    Pariwisata

    Desa Bena

    Objek wisata paling terkenal di Flores Kelimutu, sebuah gunung berapi yang mengandung tiga danau berwarna, yang terletak di distrik dekat Ende ke kota Moni. Ini danau kawah berada di kaldera gunung berapi, dan diberi makan oleh sumber gas vulkanik, mengakibatkan air sangat asam. Danau berwarna mengubah warna secara tidak teratur, tergantung pada keadaan oksidasi danau [6] dari merah cerah melalui hijau dan biru.

    Ada lokasi snorkeling dan menyelam di sepanjang pantai utara Flores, terutama Maumere dan Riung. Namun, karena praktek destruktif nelayan lokal dengan menggunakan bom untuk ikan, dan penduduk lokal menjual kerang untuk wisatawan, dikombinasikan dengan setelah efek dari bencana tsunami tahun 1992, terumbu telah perlahan-lahan hancur.

    Labuanbajo (di ujung barat Flores) adalah sebuah kota sering digunakan oleh wisatawan sebagai basis untuk mengunjungi Komodo dan Rinca. Labuanbajo juga menarik penyelam scuba, sebagai hiu paus mendiami perairan sekitar Labuanbajo.

    The Luba dan desa Bena termasuk rumah tradisional di Flores. Larantuka, di ujung timur pulau itu, dikenal dengan festival Minggu yang Kudus.

     Ekonomi
    Selain pariwisata, kegiatan ekonomi utama di Flores adalah pertanian, perikanan dan produksi rumput laut. Tanaman pangan utama yang ditanam di Flores adalah beras, jagung, ubi jalar dan ubi kayu, sedangkan tanaman utama kopi, kelapa, kemiri dan jambu mete [7] Flores merupakan salah satu asal-usul terbaru untuk kopi Indonesia.. Sebelumnya kopi, paling Arabika (Coffea arabica) dari Flores dicampur dengan asal-usul lain. Sekarang, permintaan tumbuh untuk kopi karena berat badan dan coklat manis, bunga dan catatan kayu.

4.Komodo (island)

 
Komodo

Northern tip of the island
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 8°33′S 119°27′E / 8.55°S 119.45°E / -8.55; 119.45Coordinates: 8°33′S 119°27′E / 8.55°S 119.45°E / -8.55; 119.45
Archipelago Lesser Sunda Islands
Area 390 km2 (151 sq mi)
Country
Indonesia
Province East Nusa Tenggara
Demographics
Population c. 2000
Ethnic groups Bugis, others

Komodo is one of the 17,508 islands that make up the Republic of Indonesia. The island has a surface area of 390 km² and over 2000 inhabitants. The inhabitants of the island are descendants of former convicts who were exiled to the island and who have mixed themselves with the Bugis from Sulawesi. The population are primarily adherents of Islam but there are also Christian and Hindu minorities.

Komodo is part of the Lesser Sunda chain of islands and forms part of the Komodo National Park. Particularly notable here is the native Komodo dragon. In addition, the island is a popular destination for diving. Administratively, it is part of the East Nusa Tenggara province.

Vegetation on Komodo Island

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Location

Komodo lies between the substantially larger neighboring islands Sumbawa to the west and Flores to the east.

 Fauna

The island is famous not only for its heritage of convicts but also for the unique fauna which roam it. The Komodo dragon, the world’s largest living lizard, takes its name from the island. A type of monitor lizard, it inhabits Komodo and some of the smaller surrounding islands.

Komodo Dragon

Sail Indonesia 2011

Komodo island will be more popularized by Sail Indonesia 2011 on June with about 120 yachts from at least 20 countries and will start from the provincial city of Kupang through Alor, Lembata, Maumere, Ende, Rote Ndao, Sabu, Sumba Timur, Riung, Sumba Tengah and Labuan Bajo as the mouth of Komodo island.[1]

 

References

5.SUMBA ISLAND

Sumba

 
 
Sumba
Geography
Location South East Asia
Coordinates 9°40′S 120°00′E / 9.667°S 120°E / -9.667; 120
Archipelago Lesser Sunda Islands
Area 11,153 km2 (4,306.2 sq mi)
Area rank 73rd
Country
Indonesia
Province East Nusa Tenggara
Largest city Waingapu (pop. 10,700)
Demographics
Population 611,954 (as of 2009)
Density 54.8 /km2 (141.9 /sq mi)
Ethnic groups Austronesian and Melanesian ancestry

The Lesser Sunda Islands; Sumba is in the center

 
 

Sumba is an island in eastern Indonesia, is one of the Lesser Sunda Islands, and is in the province of East Nusa Tenggara. Sumba has an area of 11,153 km², and the population was officially at 611,422 in 2005. To the northwest of Sumba is Sumbawa, to the northeast, across the Sumba Strait (Selat Sumba), is Flores, to the east, across the Savu Sea, is Timor, and to the south, across part of the Indian Ocean, is Australia.

Contents

 

 History

Historically, this island exported sandalwood and was known as Sandalwood Island.[1]

Before colonization, Sumba was inhabited by several small ethnolinguistic groups, some of which may have had tributary relations to the Majapahit Empire. In 1522 the first ships from Europe arrived, and by 1866 Sumba belonged to the Dutch East Indies, although the island did not come under real Dutch administration until the twentieth century.

Despite contact with western cultures, Sumba is one of the few places in the world in which megalithic burials, are used as a ‘living tradition’ to inter prominent individuals when they die. Burial in megaliths is a practice that was used in many parts of the world during the Neolithic and Bronze Ages, but has survived to this day in Sumba.[citation needed] Another long-lasting tradition is the sometimes lethal game of pasola, in which teams of horse-riders fight with spears.[2]

On August 19, 1977, an earthquake measuring 7.0 on the Richter scale occurred, killing 316 people, including islands off the West coast.

Social Structure

   

 Geography

Traditional Sumbaneese houses near Bondokodi, West-Sumba

Topography of Sumba

The Sumbanese people speak a variety of closely related Austronesian languages, and have a mixture of Austronesian and Melanesian ancestry. Twenty-five to thirty percent of the population practises the animist Marapu religion. The remainder are Christian, a majority being Dutch Calvinist, but a substantial minority being Roman Catholic. A small number of Sunni Muslims can be found along the coastal areas. The largest town on the island is the main port of Waingapu, with a population of about 10,700. The landscape is low, limestone hills, rather than the steep volcanoes of many Indonesian islands. There is a dry season from May to November and a rainy season from December to April. The western side of the island is more fertile and more heavily populated than the east.

Sumba is one of the poorer islands of Indonesia.[3] A relatively high percentage of the population suffer from malaria and infantile death is high.

 Administration

Sumba is part of the East Nusa Tenggara province. The island and very small islandz administered along with it are split into four regencies (local government districts); these are: Sumba Barat (West Sumba), Sumba Barat Daya (Southwest Sumba), Sumba Tengah (Central Sumba) and Sumba Timur (East Sumba). The island accounts for some 14.6% of the provincial population in 2010. The provincial capital is not located on the island, but rather on Timor.

Closer look to the islands of East Nusa Tenggara
Name↓ Capital↓ Est.↓ Statute↓ Area (km²)↓ Population
2010 Census↓
West Sumba Regency Waikabubak 1958 UU 69/1958 737.42 111,023
East Sumba Regency Waingapu 1958 UU 69/1958 7,000.50 227,835
Central Sumba Regency Waibakul 2007 UU 3/2007 1,869.18 62,510
Southwest Sumba Regency Tambolaka 2007 UU 16/2007 1,445.32 283,818
Sumba *     11,052.42 685,186

 Ecology

Due to its distinctive flora and fauna Sumba has been categorised by the World Wildlife Fund as the Sumba deciduous forests ecoregion. Originally part of the Gondwana southern hemisphere supercontinent Sumba is within the Wallacea ecozone, having a mixture of plants and animals of Asian and Australasian origin. Most of the island was originally covered in deciduous monsoon forest while the south facing slopes, which don’t have such a dry season, were evergreen rainforest.

 Fauna

There are a number of mammals but the island is particularly rich in birdlife with nearly two hundred birds of which seven endemic species and a number of others are found only here and on some nearby islands. The endemic birds include four vulnerable species; the secretive Sumba Boobook owl, Sumba Buttonquail, Red-naped Fruit-dove and Sumba Hornbill as well as three more common species; the Sumba Green Pigeon, Sumba Flycatcher, and Apricot-breasted Sunbird.

Threats and preservation

Most of the original forest has been cleared for the planting of maize, cassava and other crops so only small isolated patches remain. Furthermore this clearance is ongoing due to the growing population of the island and this a threat to the birdlife.[4] In 1998 two national parks have been designated on the island for the protection of endangered species: the Laiwangi Wanggameti National Park and Manupeu Tanah Daru National Park.

References

6.SOLOR ISLAND

Solor

 

Solor archipelago.

Solor is a volcanic island located off the eastern tip of Flores island in the Lesser Sunda Islands of Indonesia, in the Solor Archipelago. The island supports a small population that has been whaling for hundreds of years. They speak the languages of Adonara and Lamaholot. There are at least five volcanos on this island which measures only 40 km (25 miles) by 6 km (4 miles). The island’s area is 222 km2.[1]

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 History

Portuguese Fortress of Solor

In 1520, the Portuguese established a trading post in the village of Lamakera on the eastern side of the island as a transit harbor between Maluku and Malacca. In 1562, Dominican priests built a palm-trunk fortress which Javanese Muslims burned down the following year. The fort was rebuilt from more durable materials and the Dominicans commenced the Christianisation of the local population. By 1590 the Portuguese and Christian population numbered about 25,000. There was, however, repeated displays of resistance against both the Portuguese and their religion; in 1598-1599, for example, the Portuguese required an armada of 90 ships to put down a Solorese uprising. [2]

Solor warriors, 1915.

At this time, there was a conflict between the traders and the priests, so the traders left Solor and settled in Larantuka at Flores island. When the Dutch came in 1613, the priests surrender at the first attack and were brought to Larantuka, too.

The Dutch kept the fort, but did not make trading profit close to the Portuguese port. After two commanders defected to the Portuguese they give up Solor. In 1636, attacked by the Dutch, the Portuguese had to abandon the fort. In 1646 the Dutch occupied the fort again. The first of the new commanders was suspended, because he married an indigenous woman. The second commander challenged the Portuguese commander to a duel and was slain. In 1648 the Dutch left and the Dominican priests returned. [3]

Towns and villages

  • Aplame
  • Balawelin
  • Kelike
  • Kukuwerang
  • Lamakera
  • Lamawolo
  • Lewograran
  • Liko

 References

  1. ^ Monk, K.A.; Fretes, Y., Reksodiharjo-Lilley, G. (1996). The Ecology of Nusa Tenggara and Maluku. Hong Kong: Periplus Editions Ltd.. p. 8. ISBN 962-593-076-0
  2. ^ Ricklefs, M.C. (1991). A History of Modern Indonesia Since c.1300, 2nd Edition. London: MacMillan. p. 25. ISBN 0-333-57689-6
  3. ^ Daus, Ronald (1983). Die Erfindung des Kolonialismus. Wuppertal: Hammer. pp. 325–327. ISBN 3-87294-202-6

 

 

7. ROTI (ROTE) iSLAND

Rote Island

 

Satellite photo of Roti

Map of the islands of East Nusa Tenggara, including Rote (labelled as Roti).

Rote Island (Indonesian: Pulau Rote, also spelled Roti) is an island of Indonesia, part of the East Nusa Tenggara province of the Lesser Sunda Islands. It has an area of 1,200 km2 (463 sq mi). It lies 500 km (311 mi) northeast of the Australian coast and 170 km (106 mi) northeast of the Ashmore and Cartier Islands. The island is situated to the southwest of the larger island of Timor. To the north is the Savu Sea, and to the south is the Timor Sea. To the west is Savu and Sumba. The uninhabited Dana Island (also called Ndana), just south of Rote, with an area of 14 km2 (5 sq mi), is the southernmost island of Indonesia. Along with some other nearby small islands, such as Ndao, it forms the kabupaten (regency) of Rote Ndao Regency, which in 2010 decennial census recorded a population of 119,711.[1]

The main town, called Baa, is located in the north of the island. It has a good surf area in the south around the village of Nembralla. There is a daily ferry to the island from Kupang, the provincial capital on West Timor, which brings tourists.

Rote has many historical relics including fine antique Chinese porcelain, as well as ancient arts and traditions. Many prominent Indonesia nationalist leaders were born here. A popular music instrument Sasando, which is made of palm leaves. According to legend, this island got its name accidentally when a lost Portuguese sailor arrived and asked a farmer where he was. The surprised farmer, who could not speak Portuguese, introduced himself, “Rote”.

Rote just off the southern tip of Timor Island consists of rolling hills, terraced plantations, and acacia palm, savanna and some forests. The Rotinese depend, like the Savunese, on lontar palm for basic survival, but also as the supplement their income with fishing and jewelry making.

The critically endangered Roti Island Snake-necked Turtle is endemic to Rote Island.

Agriculture is the main form of employment. Fishing is also important, especially in the eastern village of Papela, which has led to disputes with Australia over the water between them.[2]

Contents

 Gallery

  • Town Market in Baa, Rote

  • the Beach on Nusa Manuk (Manuk Island), Sth West Rote

  • the Raja of West Rote on Ndana Island in 2007

  • A Rotenese drummer with Traditional Hat

  • Korbafo chief with warriors, 1900.

Sasando a Traditional Music Instrument from Rote – Indonesian Heritage Series

Posted in Culture on December 30, 2010 by mannaismayaadventure

Sasando a Traditional Music Instrument from Rote – East Nusa Tenggara  (NTT)  Indonesian Heritage Series

Rote island map

Rote Island, East Nusa Tenggara. Indonesia



What is Sasando ?

Sasando is a stringed musical instrument or cordophone type musical instrument. It comes from the island of Rote, East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. The most southern island in Indonesia archipelago.
Sasando word comes from Rote word sasandu. It means vibrant instrument

Sasando form is similar to other stringed instruments such as guitar, violin and harp.

A man wearing Tiilangga (traditional hat) with Sasando beritadaerah.com

A man wearing Tiilangga (traditional hat) with Sasando

Sasando(Rote Island Tribes Music Instrument)

The main part of the long tubular Sasando commonly made from bamboo. Then in the middle, circling from top to bottom is placed some lumps in which the strings that stretched across the tube, from top to bottom resting. The wedge gives different tone  to each passage of the string. Then this Sasando tube placed in a container made from a kind of woven palm leaves (Lontar leaves ) like a fan made. This container is the place of Sasando resonance

Sasando indonesiaculturalnews.blogspot.com

The composition of the notation is irregular and you can not see it because it is wrapped.  Sasando is played with both hands from the opposite direction. From left to right and left to right. Left hand plays the melody and bass, while right hand plays the accord. That makes Sasando unique because somebody could play the melody, bass, and accord at once. And the harmony is awesome.

Sasando’s sound is very unique. Compare to guitar, Sasando’s sound is more various. Sasando has 28 strings and it hard to play. Sasando player should have the ability to combine and make the right rythm and feeling from the whole strings.

The History of Sasando

Sasando  indonesiaculturalnews.blogspot.com

Ana Sanggu created the early shape of Sasando in the 15th century on a small island near the island of Rote, the Dana Island , which then controlled by the Taka La’a King. Sanggu is citizen on the island of Nusa Ti’i Southwest Rote. He was arrested by the King  when stranded on the island while searching for fish with his friend, Mankoa. In addition to a fisherman, Sanggu also an artist.

The King at that time had a daughter. Princess in love with Sanggu. To Sanggu, the Princess requests for a new instrument created by Sanggu that could entertain people. Princess likes to entertain  people when the moon is full.

Sanggu then created the Sari Sando, an instrument that is vibrating when picked. As with seven ropes made from wooden roots. The Princess relationship with Sanggu was discovered by King . The King Taka La’a was furious and executed Sanggu.

Sanggu mate who could run away, Mankoa, reported it to the Nusa Ti’i. Sanggu’s son in Ti’i, Nale Sanggu, angry at his father died. Nale revenge with 25 knights Ti’i. He destroyed the whole Dana island, only the children and musical instruments Sasando inherited from his father who rescued to Ti’i.

In  Ti’i, Sasando was modified, the string added to nine. “The music only consist of five notes mi, sol, la, do, re. Si and fa did not exist.

In the Dutch period, 18th century, the number of strings added to 10 strings. After independence again amended by adding a string to 11 string. In the 19th century, Sasando (Sasando haik)  was modified into a violin by Ti’i son named Kornelis Frans. Called Sasando violin because when it created the tone is adjusted like the violin tone. Number of ropes become 39 pieces and the main tone become 7 notes.

Type of Sasando

Sasando Engkel : Sasando that has 28 strings
Sasando Dobel  :  Sasando that has 56 strings, some type has 84 strings.
Sasando Gong (Sasando Haik)
Sasando Biola (Violin Sasando)

Sasando With Tehyan played Amazing Grace

The Sasando Artists

Mr. Yusuf Nggebu amirsodikin.com

1. Mr Yusuf Nggebu ( 82 years old), he is a famous Sasando artist and maker in Rote. He is a maestro in Sasando. Because of age, he is no longer play the Sasando. For him, Sasando is not just a music instrument, Sasando is a Rote’s identity. He could play the Sasando Haik or Sasando Biola (Violin Sasando) perfectly. Now, in Rote the Sasando maker is rare. This makes me sad. It hard to play Sasando and Sasando Biola is the hardest one. Only Mr. Yusuf Nggebu could play the instrument.

2. Mr. Jeremias Ougust Pah (70 years old)



He is another famous of Sasando artist. An Indonesian maestro that really cares of Sasando. The Indonesian Culture and Tourism Minister, Mr. Jero Wacik (2007) gives him an award for caring and developing the Sasando as a traditional music instrument.

He lives in Timor Raya Km 22 Street, in Oebelo, Central Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. “I want that young people in Timor will always love and learn about Sasando.” said Jeremias. Why ? Because the young people tend to leave the Sasando and love western rock music more than its own culture.  He said that Australian and Japanese tourists have more interested in Sasando than his own youngsters. He was surprised by the visiting of one Japanese man named Masamu Takashi that is specially visit him to learn how to play the Sasando.

Jeremias Ougust has been played the Sasando in front of Japanese people in Yokohama and got high appreciation. The appreciation made him proud but a little sad. “If foreign people could appreciate my culture, the Timor people should love it more.”

Beside Sasando, Jeremias Ougust also developing the Rote traditional woven cloth.

3. Mr. Arnoldus Edon, deceased
Mr. Arnoldus is the inventor of Electric Sasando. He modified Sasando and combined it with modern music instruments like guitar, drum, organ, and many more. Then, Sasando could be played like an orchestra. He got the patent rights in June 14, 2009.

Korbafo chief with warriors, 1900.

References

  1. ^ http://ntt.bps.go.id/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=120%3Ahasil-sensuspenduduk-2010&catid=1%3Aberita&Itemid=8
  2. ^ Jill Elliott, 1996, “Fishing in Australian Waters,” Inside Indonesia vol. 46 http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit46/elliott.htm; Richard Tanter, 2000, “After fear, before justice: Indonesia and Australia over the long haul, as if ethics mattered.” Inside Indonesia vol. 61 http://www.insideindonesia.org/edit61/richard.htm

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THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan Suwandy  2011

The American Idol 10 semifinal best three Recap lifeshow now(Siaran langsung American Idol semifinal tiga penyanyi)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

Dr Iwan Music Record  Cybermuseum

Showcase:

The American Idol 10 Semifinal Best Three Lifeshow now(Siaran Langsung American Idol 10 semifinal Tiga Penyanyi terbaik)

At this time ongoing event recap the best singer American Idol three 10 which  under 60 million telephone voters who will enter the final. The host Mr Ryan Seacrest

and the judge Stephen Tyler of Aerosmith, Jenifer Lopez and Randy Jackson

The three best singers are:

1.Scotty

2.Laureen

3.Helley

, earlier in the show broadcast a recording singer’s third weekend to their hometown:

1.Helley

2.Lauren

 

3.Scotty

;

 and punctuated by two spectacular performances boiling namely:

1.O Solo Mio by Il Volvio

 and 2.Singing with very amizing dance .

 

The last  arrived at the event who entered the final determination as follows:

1. Scotty and 2.Lauren

while the losers are Helley

 

, and then she sang for the separation with his parent

 and friend

 also the judge.

 

 that is all the show today, and do not forget to watch next week’s American Idol final pegelaran 10 between Scotty and. Do not forget to watch this spectacular event. Done @ Copyright 2011 Dr. Iwan suwandy

____________________________________________________________________

Pada saat ini sedang berlangsung acara recap tiga penyanyi terbaik American Idol 10 berdasarkan 60 juta pemilih liwat telpon siapa yang akan masuk final. Ketiga penyanyi terbaik adalah : 1.Scotty 2. 3.Helley, sebelumnya di tampilkan siaran rekaman kunjungan ketiga penyanyi tersebut ke kampung halamannya: 1.2.3. dan diselingi oleh dua pertunjukan yangsangat spektakuler yaitu : 1.Lagu O solo Mio oleh Il Volvo dan 2.Nyanyi dan tarian yang sangat indah.Akhirnya sampailah pada acara terakhir penetapan siapa yang masuk final yaitu : 1. Scotty dan 2. sedangkan yang kalah yaitu Helley, dan kemudian ia menyanyi untuk perpisahan .Sekianlah pertunjukan pada hari ini, dan jangan lupa minggu depan menyaksikan pegelaran final American Idol 10 antara Scotty dan  . Jangan Lupa saksikanlah acara yang sangat spektakuler ini. Selesai @Hak Cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

                     

   P

THE DAI NIPPON PRISONER OF WAR IN INDONESIA 1942-1945 iNFORMATIONS COLLECTIONS PART ONE(KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI INDONESIA)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG DAI NIPPON DI iNDONESIA

(THE STORY OF DAI NIPPON PRISONER OF WAR )

BAGIAN PERTAMA 

BAGIAN SATU

Elizabeth Van Kampen Tawanan Perang Dai nippon  di “de Wijk Camp”
dan kamp Banjoe biroe 10

Pengantar

Pada tahun 1928, pada usia satu setengah tahun, Elizabeth van Kampen, putri seorang manajer perkebunan Belanda, tiba dengan orang tuanya di Sumatra di wilayah Hindia Belanda (sekarang Indonesia), suatu negeri yang ia membangkitkan dari memori masa kecil sebagai “surga di bumi.” Tapi serangan terhadap Pearl Harbor pada tanggal 7 Desember 1941, ketika dia berumur empat belas, segera diikuti oleh invasi Jepang dari koloni Belanda dan mimpi buruk untuk mengikuti.

 Elizabeth dan keluarganya mengalami masa-masa luar biasa antara dua kerajaan, yaitu Belanda di Asia pada akhir zaman 400 tahun, dan bahwa seorang militer meningkat Jepang. Gambar berikut menyampaikan rasa berbagai pengalaman kehidupan perkebunan melalui lensa para pekebun Belanda.

Mobil kepala perkebunan Subam Ayam, Benculu, 1929.

ayah Elizabeth memeriksa biji kopi.

 
 

Sebuah rumah di lingkungan Elizabeth. Banyak rumah yang dibangun di atas panggung.

Disinfeksi pohon-pohon karet di perkebunan.

Kopi pabrik tempat buah yang disortir, kering dan panggang.

Sepasang suami-istri muda dalam pernikahan perkebunan.

Bagi gadis muda, itu adalah bagian dari surga ke neraka, tetapi sebuah pengalaman yang ia dihadapkan pada ketahanan semangat seorang pemuda . Dengan kapitulasi Jepang pada bulan Agustus 1945, Elizabeth akhirnya dibebaskan setelah dalam  tahananselama  tiga tahun di penjara ,dari mana sang ayah tidak akan kembali hidup.

Penyerahan tiba-tiba Tentara Kekaisaran Jepang di seluruh Asia Tenggara menempati menciptakan kekosongan kekuasaan dan hiatus untuk calon nasionalis Asia dari Vietnam, ke Malaya, ke Indonesia, bahkan sebelum kembalinya tentara kolonial.

 Seperti yang disaksikan oleh Elizabeth di masa pasca-penyerahan  yang  memabukkan, nasionalis Indonesia di sekitar Sukarno memproklamasikan Kemerdekaan (17 Agustus 1945), agak anehnya di rumah  seorang Admiral Jepang di Jkaarta . Sebelum kedatangan kembali pasukan Inggris dan Belanda, unit Jepang menyerah senjata untuk pasukan kemerdekaan. Dalam hal apapun, Elizabeth menyaksikan pemuda Indonesia atau kelompok pemuda pro-kemerdekaan , dengan atau tanpa dukungan dari pembantu heiho Jepang bersenjata, mengambil kekuasan hukum ke tangan mereka sendiri.

Pada tahun 2008, pada usia 81 tahun, Elizabeth van Kampen menawarkan sebuah refleksi pribadi tentang pengalaman muda nya rentang tahun-tahun hak istimewa sebagai anak tumbuh dalam masyarakat kolonial Belanda, orang-orang dari trauma di penjara Jepang, dan ketidakpastian dari awal Indonesia revolusi 1945. tulisan yang luar biasa, yang ditulis pertama di Belanda pada tahun 2006, terutama instruktif untuk memihak nya, meskipun sedih, reportase saksi mata, salah satu yang berusaha untuk menemukan baik di tengah-tengah kesulitan dan kekejaman, seperti rekening dari dokter “baik” Jepang yang bertindak untuk menyelamatkan nyawa adiknya dan jenis dan merawat keluarga Jawa yang dilindungi di situasi yang penuh gejolak. Dia juga menceritakan hal yang tak dapat dijelaskan, seperti kisah keranjang manusia-babi yang  menakutkan, kekejaman, pemisahan anak laki-laki dari ibu di kamp penjara, dan kekuasaan yang  lebih besar dari kehidupan oleh  Kempeitai mana-mana.

Lima puluh tahun setelah perang, Elizabeth kembali ke situs penjara  Jawa Timur untuk  mencari petunjuk ke makam ayahnya yang  hilang, tidak ada yang ia   temukan karena  Kempeitai telah menghancurkan semua catatan. Dia juga pergi ke Jepang mengunjungi baik simpatisan dan belajar bahwa orang Jepang juga telah menderita dari ekses militeristik. Seperti diuraikan di bawah ini, dia adalah bagian dari kelompok yang tahap demonstrasi berkala di depan Kedutaan Besar Jepang di Belanda mencari pengakuan resmi dari kejahatan perang Jepang yang dilakukan di Hindia Belanda, tidak hanya terhadap orang-orang Belanda, tapi bahasa Indonesia juga.

Kami menawarkan di bawah ini kutipan dan foto-foto dari sebuah catatan harian  pribadi yang panjang dan berlapis, bersama-sama dengan tanggapan Elizabeth untuk pertanyaan tentang pengalamannya, yang penuh teks.

foto-foto sejarah Tambahan ditambahkan. situs cerita bilingual Elizabeth Inggris-Indonesia terus menimbulkan komentar tertarik dan simpatik dari berbagai penonton di Indonesia modern dan di seluruh dunia.

Hindia Belanda akan hilang selamanya

Pada tanggal 10 Januari 1942, Jepang menyerbu Hindia Belanda. Surat kabar membawa kita banyak berita buruk. Ayah saya sudah lama menyarankan saya untuk membaca beberapa artikel yang saya suka dari Malanger dan Javabode dimulai sejak saya sudah hampir sebelas tahun, jadi sekarang aku bisa membaca semua berita buruk di koran ketika aku berada di kami Sumber Sewu, perkebunan rumah dekat kota Malang Jawa Timur selama akhir pekan.

Sekarang dan kemudian kami melihat pesawat Jepang terbang di atas Jawa. Saya menemukan itu semua nyata dan sangat aneh. Satu-satunya Jepang aku tahu di mana mereka yang tinggal di Malang, mereka selalu sangat sopan dan ramah terhadap kita. Tapi dari sekarang di Jepang adalah musuh kita.

Pada hari Sabtu tanggal 14 Februari 1942, ayah saya datang untuk menjemput Henny (adikku) dan aku dari-sekolah asrama kami untuk akhir pekan. Kami pergi ke kota di mana kita melakukan belanja untuk ibu saya dan selanjutnya kami pergi ke Javasche Bank. Ketika ayah saya keluar dari bank, kami mendengar dan kemudian melihat pesawat datang ke Jepang. Kali ini mereka mesin-ditembak Malang. Aku melihat dua orang yang bekerja, yang memukul, jatuh dari atap tempat mereka sibuk. Mereka sudah mati, kita melihat mereka berbaring dalam darah mereka di jalan. Aku belum pernah melihat orang mati sebelum, Henny dan aku sangat terkejut. Henny mulai menangis, ayah saya mengajak kami berdua cepat menjauh dari pemandangan yang sangat menyedihkan.

Pada hari Minggu tanggal 15 Februari kami menerima kabar buruk lewat radio bahwa Singapura telah jatuh ke tangan Jepang. Memang, itu hari Minggu sangat sedih. Siapa yang pernah berpikir bahwa Singapura bisa jatuh? Apakah orang Jepang jauh lebih kuat dibanding Sekutu? Dan kemudian terjadi Pertempuran Laut Jawa dari 27 Februari – 1 Maret 1942. Ruyter kapal perang Belanda dan Jawa terkena torpedo Jepang, mereka tenggelam dengan kerugian besar kehidupan. Sekutu kalah perang ini. Tanggal 8 Maret 1942, tentara Belanda di Jawa menyerah kepada tentara Jepang.

Tanggal 9 Maret, ketika kami berada di ruang rekreasi dari-sekolah asrama kami sementara semua gadis-gadis itu melihat melalui jendela ke jalan-jalan, Jepang masuk Malang. Henny dan aku berdiri di sana bersama-sama.

Mereka datang dengan kendaraan sepeda atau hanya berjalan. Mereka tampak mengerikan, semua dengan beberapa kain dipasang pada bagian belakang topi mereka, mereka tampak sangat aneh bagi kami. Ini adalah tipe Jepang kami belum pernah melihat sebelumnya. Banyak kemudian saya mengetahui bahwa banyak orang Korea juga menjabat sebagai shock-pasukan dalam Angkatan Darat Jepang.

Para biarawati pergi ke kapel untuk berdoa bagi semua orang yang tinggal di Hindia Belanda. Tetapi Hindia Belanda akan hilang selamanya.

Bahasa Belanda dilarang

Ayahku menemukannya terlalu berbahaya untuk ibu saya dan adik bungsu Jansje untuk tinggal bersamanya di Sumber Sewu, karena masih ada kelompok-kelompok kecil dari pertempuran militer Australia, Inggris dan Belanda di pegunungan di Jawa Timur melawan pasukan Jepang, meskipun fakta bahwa Hindia Belanda pemerintah dan Angkatan Darat telah menyerahkan diri.

Ibuku dan Jansje datang untuk tinggal di asrama kami sekolah [di Malang], di mana ada kamar tamu kecil. Kita semua tinggal di dalam gedung, hanya orang Indonesia yang bekerja untuk para biarawati pergi ke luar untuk melakukan belanja.

Beberapa hari kemudian kami menerima perintah bahwa semua sekolah Belanda harus ditutup, maka beberapa orang tua datang untuk mengambil anak perempuan mereka. Sekolah ini tampak kosong dan ditinggalkan. Kami semua merasa sangat sedih, bahagia masih sekolah kami sudah berakhir.

Belanda menjadi sebuah bahasa dilarang keras. Untungnya kami memiliki perpustakaan besar di sekolah jadi aku punya banyak buku untuk dibaca di hari-hari.

Beberapa minggu kemudian ayah saya menelepon ibu saya dan mengatakan bahwa kami berempat harus kembali ke Sumber Sewu karena ia mendengar bahwa Malang tidak lagi menjadi tempat yang aman bagi kita untuk tinggal.

Aku benar-benar sangat senang bisa kembali ke rumah. Rasmina, masak kami, dan Pa Min, tukang kebun kami, senang punya ibu saya kembali lagi. Sama sekali tidak perlu takut di perkebunan tersebut, “Indonesia” (sebenarnya Jawa dan Madura) di perkebunan yang bagus seperti dulu dan kami tidak melihat tentara Jepang di sekitar.

Memang kita lebih aman di Sumber Sewu. Hidup mulai merasa seperti liburan,

Aku mulai berjalan dengan ayah saya lagi dan mengunjungi kampung setempat (desa) dan karena kami tidak punya koran lagi untuk membaca, saya mulai membaca beberapa buku-buku tua saya.

Kami menerima bendera Jepang, bersama dengan urutan bahwa bendera harus dihormati dan harus menggantung di kebun di depan rumah kami.

Ayah saya tidak lagi menerima gaji, persis seperti semua yang lain, Belanda Inggris, Amerika dan Australia, tinggal di Indonesia. Semua rekening bank kami diblokir, tidak ada bahkan diizinkan untuk menyentuh uang mereka sendiri.

Kami masih memiliki kelinci dan telur untuk makan, dan beberapa sayuran ibu saya dan Pa Min sudah ditanam jauh sebelum perang di taman dapur, dan kami memiliki banyak pohon buah-buahan.

Pemikiran bahwa kita mungkin harus meninggalkan Sumber Sewu membuat saya merasa sangat sedih. Bagi saya perkebunan ini adalah surga nyata di bumi, dengan kolam di depan rumah dengan dua pohon beringin bangga, taman yang indah ibuku dan Pa Min telah dibuat, dapur di mana Rasmina membuat makanan lezat begitu banyak. Suara pagi-pagi, dan suara di malam hari juga sangat khusus, saya masih bisa mengingatnya dengan baik.

Tentu saja kami berharap bahwa ini pendudukan Jepang akan segera berakhir. Ayahku telah melanggar meterai radio, berharap bahwa ia bisa mendapatkan berita lebih banyak dari luar Jawa.

Saya ibu dan ketiga putrinya.

Keranjang Bambu

Dan kemudian suatu hari pada akhir Oktober 1942, ketika ayah saya dan saya berjalan kembali ke rumah untuk makan siang, kami mendengar banyak suara. Itu adalah suara truk datang ke arah kami ketika kami sedang berjalan di jalan utama. Jadi kita cepat berjalan dari jalan dan bersembunyi di balik semak-semak kopi. Kami melihat lima truk datang dan kami mendengar orang-orang berteriak. Ketika truk berlalu, kami bisa melihat dan mendengar segala sesuatu, terutama karena kami duduk lebih tinggi dari jalan. Apa yang kita lihat datang sebagai kejutan nyata bagi kami berdua.

Kami melihat bahwa platform truk terbuka adalah sarat dengan keranjang bambu, jenis keranjang yang digunakan untuk mengangkut babi. Namun keranjang bambu kami melihat hari yang tidak digunakan untuk babi tapi untuk laki-laki. Mereka berbaring dijejalkan di keranjang tersebut, semua menumpuk 3-4 lapisan keranjang tinggi. pandangan ini sangat mengejutkan kami, namun teriakan semua orang miskin, untuk membantu dan untuk air, dalam bahasa Inggris dan Belanda, terkejut kami bahkan lebih. Aku mendengar ayahku berkata lembut, “Oh, Tuhan?”

Kami berjalan pulang tanpa mengucapkan sepatah kata pun. Kami baru saja keluar dari mimpi buruk. Bahkan hari ini aku masih bisa mendengar suara keras dari orang-orang miskin menangis dan berteriak minta tolong dan air.

Pada saat makan siang ayah saya menyuruh ibu saya seluruh cerita – dia hampir tidak percaya bahwa orang bisa melakukan hal-hal seperti itu. Dia bertanya yang mengemudi truk. Ayah saya mengatakan kepadanya bahwa di setiap truk dia telah melihat pembalap Jepang dan lain Jepang duduk di samping mereka.

Ini tragedi yang aku melihat bersama-sama dengan ayah saya terjadi di pegunungan Jawa Timur.

Hanya lama kemudian pada 11 Agustus pada tahun 1990 yang saya baca di koran Belanda, De Telegraaf, bahwa lebih banyak orang melihat apa yang ayah saya dan saya menyaksikan hari itu pada tahun 1942. Orang lain telah melihat banyak orang-orang ini diangkut dalam keranjang bambu tidak hanya dalam truk tetapi juga di kereta. Artikel tersebut mengatakan bahwa laki-laki telah didorong ke keranjang bambu, diangkut, dan kemudian, sementara masih di keranjang tersebut, dilemparkan ke dalam Laut Jawa. Sebagian besar pria di keranjang bambu militer Australia.

Saya sering bertanya-tanya: Apakah ayah saya belajar apa yang terjadi pada orang-orang miskin yang kita lihat hari itu? Apakah masyarakat setempat melihatnya juga? Aku tidak pernah akan tahu.

Ayo! Mari kita berjalan pulang

Sungguh aneh bahwa kami tidak mendapatkan pengunjung militer Jepang di Sumber Sewu karena mereka pergi ke Wonokerto perkebunan kepala dan perkebunan lain juga, dan bertanya banyak pertanyaan di sana. Orang tua saya tentu saja lebih dari senang bahwa Jepang tidak mengunjungi Sumber Sewu belum.

Tapi kemudian suatu hari pada November 1942 orang tua saya menerima telepon dari polisi di Ampelgading dekatnya. Ayahku harus membawa mobilnya ke kantor polisi. Itu ringkasnya disita. Namun, dia senang memiliki perusahaan saya di sore ini sangat sulit. Kami pergi dengan mobil tapi-suatu penghinaan nyata – kami harus berjalan kembali ke rumah.

Ketika ayah saya pulang dari kerja, dia mengatakan bahwa dia benar-benar berharap bahwa Amerika dan Aussies akan segera datang untuk menyelamatkan kita semua dari pendudukan Jepang di Indonesia. Banyak orang sipil Belanda sekarang diinternir di seluruh Jawa, tapi tidak hanya laki-laki, seperti Jepang juga mulai membuka kamp bagi perempuan dengan anak-anak mereka juga.

Kami masih “bebas” tapi untuk berapa lama?

Natal 1942

Ibu saya tidak sepenuhnya di dapur untuk menyiapkan hidangan Natal yang bagus. Dan kemudian di terakhir itu adalah 25 Desember 1942. Pasti sekitar 12 siang ketika kami mulai hidangan yang lezat Natal kita, duduk di sana semua enam bahagia sekeliling meja.

Tiba-tiba kami mendengar Pa Min memanggil; “Orang Nippon, Orang Nippon.” (Lit. Jepang). Ayahku berdiri dan pergi ke pintu depan, ibu saya mengambil Jansje sedikit demi tangannya dan mereka pergi ke ruang tamu. Cora pergi ke kamar tidur kami dengan buku, dia sangat takut. Henny dan aku berdiri di belakang rumah dan sehingga kita bisa melihat bahwa ada sekitar enam atau tujuh Jepang militer keluar dari dua mobil. Salah satunya adalah seorang perwira. Langsung mendekati ayah saya, dia mengatakan bahwa anak buahnya telah menerima perintah untuk menggeledah rumah untuk senjata. Ayah saya mengatakan kepadanya bahwa tidak ada senjata tersembunyi di rumah.

Itu adalah Natal terakhir kami secara keseluruhan keluarga bersama. Aku masih bisa merasakan kehangatan khusus yang mengumpulkan kami hari itu karena, meskipun kunjungan militer Jepang, kami masih bersama-sama.

Seorang tentara Jepang di luar tangki minyak dekat Jakarta dihancurkan oleh pasukan Belanda Maret 1942

Jungle dan Samudera Hindia

Segera itu adalah Tahun Baru. Kami tidak memiliki banyak pengunjung Jepang. Tidak ada Belanda atau Eropa lainnya di luar kamp. Di Malang sudah ada kamp untuk pria disebut Marine Camp. Dan kamp lain, kami diberitahu, yang disebut De Wijk, siap untuk perempuan rumah dan anak-anak. Berjalan-jalan, panjang terakhir melalui perkebunan karet dan hutan, ayah saya dan saya melihat Samudera Hindia. Ayahku menatapku dan berkata, “Aku harus menanyakan sesuatu, Anda hampir 16 jadi anda cukup tua. Saya ingin anda untuk melihat setelah Mama dan saudara anda ketika saya harus pergi Sumber Sewa. Apakah Anda menjanjikan saya bahwa? “Saya membantah, tapi dia bersikeras dan saya setuju.

Maka, pada awal bulan Februari 1942, ayah saya menerima panggilan telepon memerintahkan dia untuk meninggalkan rumah kami di Sumber Sewu dalam waktu enam hari dan melaporkan kepada Marinir Camp di Malang. Ini akan menjadi pemisahan yang menentukan. Sekarang, kebanyakan pria Belanda interniran.

Seorang pengunjung Jepang

ulang tahun ke-16 saya meninggal. Kami sangat merindukan Bapa dan tidak tampak seolah-olah ia akan pulang dalam waktu dekat, meskipun ia selalu menulis kartu pos kita optimis. Ibu saya kurang optimis, dia sangat khawatir tentang masa depan.

Suatu pagi Mei 1943 ibu saya menerima panggilan telepon dari Mrs Sloekers, yang mengatakan bahwa dia hanya memiliki seorang pengunjung Jepang yang sangat sopan dan ramah. Pengunjung bertanya apakah dia bisa bermain piano, ia berkata bahwa dia tidak bisa bermain dengan baik tetapi Mrs van Kampen (ibu saya) bermain luar biasa. Pria Jepang sedang dalam perjalanan ke rumah kami, ia mengatakan kepada ibu saya.

Ibu saya tidak senang sama sekali. Dia sangat marah dengan Mrs Sloekers. Cora dan aku mencoba menenangkannya, karena kita tidak akan melakukan apapun yang baik untuk menjadi begitu marah sebelum pengunjung Jepang kami.

Seorang perwira tinggi Jepang melangkah keluar dari mobilnya ketika sopirnya membuka pintu. Aku masih bisa melihat dia berjalan menaiki tangga ucapan ibu saya yang sangat sopan dan mengatakan bahwa ia menyukai ruang tamu yang indah.

Untungnya ibu saya tidak marah lagi jadi dia bertanya apa yang dia mau minum dan saya ingat bahwa ia meminta jus lemon. Sementara ia duduk ia memandang kita semua dan bertanya pada ibuku jika kami semua keempat anak-anaknya.

“Tidak,” kata ibuku, “dia (sambil menunjuk Cora) adalah teman saya putri sulung tinggal bersama kami untuk sementara waktu. Saya memiliki tiga anak perempuan. “

Dia kemudian bertanya kepada ibu saya apakah dia keberatan sesuatu yang bermain sangat berat baginya di pianonya. “Ya, saya berharap bahwa saya dapat menyimpan piano saya, saya memiliki piano ini sejak aku berusia 8 tahun,” jawab ibuku. Tamu kami hanya tersenyum dan ibu saya mulai untuk bermain sebagai indah seperti biasa.

Sementara ibu saya memainkan piano pengunjung Jepang kami memejamkan mata sekarang dan kemudian. Dia benar-benar tampaknya seperti cara ibuku bermain. Tapi ia juga melihat beberapa kali Henny dan yang mulai mengkhawatirkan saya. Setelah beberapa saat ibu saya berhenti bermain dan pengunjung Jepang kami berdiri dan bertepuk tangan nya. Dia mengatakan bahwa dia benar-benar bermain sangat baik, dan mengucapkan terima kasih.

Kemudian dia menuliskan sesuatu dalam bahasa Jepang pada selembar kertas dan memberikannya kepada ibuku. Dia mengatakan bahwa ia menyarankan untuk pergi ke Klinik Lavalette (yang rumah sakit kami di Malang) dengan Henny. Ibuku kemudian bisa menyerahkan catatan-Nya dan mereka akan meminta dia karena ia adalah seorang dokter bekerja di rumah sakit ini. Dia memberitahu ibu saya bahwa dia ingin memeriksa adik saya, saat ia menemukan dia abnormal kurus.

Ibu saya bertanya kapan dia bisa datang dan ia mengatakan bahwa ia akan teleponnya.

Dia memberi ibu saya tangannya, mengucapkan terima kasih lagi untuk musik indah ia bermain untuk dia, mengelus rambut Jansje’s, melambaikan tangan untuk Henny, Cora dan aku dan meninggalkan kita semua heran, hanya berdiri di sana.

Dalam seminggu ibuku telepon-telepon dari Klinik Lavelette. Mereka mengatakan kepadanya bahwa Henny harus tinggal dua minggu di rumah sakit, dan bahwa dokter Jepang, pengunjung kami, telah mengatur bahwa Henny harus mendapatkan sinar matahari buatan sejak ia didiagnosis adik saya sebagai menderita rakhitis dalam tahap awal.

Ibuku disarankan untuk tinggal di Malang selama dua minggu, dan begitu dia. Dia juga mengunjungi ayah saya beberapa kali sementara ia berada di Malang.

Sebelum Henny meninggalkan Klinik Lavalette dokter berbicara sekali lagi dengan ibu saya dan memberikan sebuah kotak kecil dia dengan segala macam obat, seperti kina, aspirin, yodium, dan sebagainya. Aku tidak tahu ini tentu saja, tapi ia mengatakan kepada saya bahwa beberapa tahun setelah perang, ketika saya pernah disebutkan bahwa saya telah menemukan tamu Jepang kami hari itu Mei 1943 seorang pria baik dan ramah.

Dokter ini seperti Jepang telah memberi kakak saya kesempatan untuk melewati perang. Dengan memberikan mereka itu dua minggu pengobatan dan memberikan ibuku sebuah kotak kecil dengan obat-obatan, dia pasti membantu kami sedikit ketika kemudian pendudukan Jepang menjadi neraka yang nyata di bumi. Saya sering bertanya-tanya apakah pengunjung Jepang tahu apa yang akan terjadi. Apakah dia tahu bahwa kami akan menderita sangat dan bahwa anak-anak Belanda banyak yang akan mati?

Saya tidak tahu namanya, tapi saya ingin mengatakan: “. Terima kasih pengunjung Jepang, terima kasih banyak untuk bantuan dokter Jepang Anda”

“De Wijk,” kamp interniran pertama saya

Pada awal Juni 1943 ibu saya menerima berita buruk yang kita akan harus meninggalkan Sumber Sewu pada tanggal 11. Bahkan ibu saya berharap bahwa perang akan berakhir sebelum kami harus meninggalkan rumah kita.

Truk yang mendorong kita dari Sumber Sewu ke Malang berhenti di depan Welirang Street 43a, jalan aku tahu dengan sangat baik. koper kami dimasukkan di trotoar dan ibu saya, Henny dan aku membawa segala sesuatu di dalam.

Kami menerima satu kamar untuk kami berempat. Ini tidak tampak terlalu buruk di mata saya. Sebelum perang, rumah itu milik Hooglands. Mr Hoogland telah dikirim ke kamp di Bandung. Kami berbagi rumah ini dengan beberapa keluarga, menempati semua kamar rumah cantik Mrs Hoogland’s.

Itu bagus untuk ibu saya karena sekarang bahwa dia telah beberapa wanita di sekelilingnya ia bisa berbicara dengan, dia tidak lagi kesepian seperti pada perkebunan. Sebuah titik yang baik adalah bahwa ayah saya juga tinggal di Malang, tidak jauh dari kamp kami. Dia masih menulis kita, tetapi kita tidak bisa melihat atau mengunjungi satu sama lain.

Seperti untuk saya, saya cukup senang bisa kembali di Malang, saya telah menemukan beberapa teman saya kembali, tapi aku merindukan ayah saya dan saya merindukan Sumber Sewu di mana aku merasa begitu bebas, begitu bahagia.

“De Wijk” kamp terdiri dari banyak rumah dengan kawat berduri di sekitar dan beberapa penjaga-kotak dengan tentara Jepang atau bahasa Indonesia di sana-sini, untuk menjaga bahwa kita tidak mencoba untuk melarikan diri. Ada sekitar 7.000 perempuan, anak-anak dan beberapa orang ditahan dalam “De Wijk” dari Malang. Orang Jepang disebut kamp kamp perlindungan terhadap masyarakat lokal yang melihat Belanda sebagai “musuh” mereka (musuh). Yang digunakan banyak propaganda Jepang melawan Belanda, Inggris, Australia dan Amerika. Ini bekerja, terutama di kalangan kaum muda Jawa dan Madura lokal di Malang.

De kamp Wijk berada di tangan warga sipil Jepang, Jepang “ekonom” karena mereka disebut. Itu berarti bahwa tidak ada kebijakan yang terlalu ketat terhadap para tahanan Belanda. Tapi Malang memiliki manajemen Kempeitai sangat ketat dan sangat kejam. Kita semua tahu bahwa kami harus tetap keluar dari tangan Kempeitai terkenal. Kadang-kadang kita mendengar cerita paling mengerikan dari beberapa Indo yang masih di luar kamp. Bahkan penduduk setempat sangat takut dari Kempeitai. Malang menjadi sama sekali berbeda dari kota saya sebelumnya telah dikenal.

Pada bulan November 1943, ibuku pengunjung. Dia datang dengan sepeda dari kamp “Marine” mana ayah saya tinggal. Dia memberitahu ibu saya bahwa dia membawa kabar buruk. Dia telah dikirim oleh militer di kamp laut untuk memberitahu ibu saya bahwa ayah saya telah diambil oleh Kempeitai. Tampaknya bahwa ayahku telah menyembunyikan senjata dan amunisi di Sumber Sewu. Ini adalah mimpi buruk. Apakah ayah saya harus tinggal di penjara Lowok Kempeitai Waryu? Apakah kita pernah akan kembali ke Sumber Sewu? Sayangnya cukup ada rumor benar banyak tentang bagaimana memperlakukan tahanan Kempeitai mereka.

 
 

Welirang Street 43A

Saya penjara di Banyu Biru

Tidak ada berita lebih lanjut tentang ayah saya, ada surat lagi. Keheningan lengkap sangat menakutkan. Dia telah menulis kita begitu banyak surat ketika ia berada di Camp Kelautan dan sebagian besar surat-surat itu telah cukup optimis.

Natal datang, Tahun Baru datang dan jadi sudah 1944, hampir dua tahun sejak saya telah melihat tentara Jepang pertama berjalan ke Malang. Bagi saya tampaknya tahun yang lalu dan sementara aku merasa benar-benar aman di Sumber Sewu, aku sekarang mulai merasa cukup aman di Malang karena semakin banyak orang diangkut ke kamp lain.

Desas-desus itu bahwa kita semua akan diangkut ke Jawa Tengah. Tapi karena saya kakak Henny sakit, empat dari kita tidak bisa pergi sampai dia lebih baik lagi. Sayangnya, pada 13 Februari 1944, kami harus meninggalkan Malang. Kami harus berkemas barang-barang kami dan ibu saya, Henny, Jansje, dan aku harus berdiri dengan banyak orang lain pada sebuah truk ketika sedang didorong ke stasiun Malang.

 
 

Invincible Jepang. Poster menunjukkan kekuatan militer Jepang untuk Indonesia

Sepanjang pinggir jalan banyak anak muda memanggil kita segala macam nama. Mereka berteriak pada kami bahwa mereka senang bahwa Belanda telah ditangkap oleh Jepang. Air mata menggenang perlahan-lahan di mataku dan Aku menunduk.

Hal ini terjadi di Malang, kota tempat saya telah ke sekolah. Sekarang aku harus meninggalkan kota pegunungan yang indah, aku harus meninggalkan ayah saya yang luar biasa di belakang di sebuah penjara Kempeitai “Malang saya.”. Aku tidak bisa menghentikan air mata jatuh di pipiku.

 
 

Kempeitai di Indonesia

Kata perpisahan Ayah, kata perpisahan Malang.

Di stasiun, kami mendorong ke lama dibutakan-kereta api barang, kami harus duduk di lantai kotor, dan tidak ada toilet juga. Tidak ada makanan dan, lebih buruk lagi, tidak ada air untuk minum. Untungnya ibu saya telah mengambil beberapa pisang dan sesuatu untuk minum dengan dia untuk kami berempat. Dia juga telah mengambil toilet-pot dengan dia dan itu sangat membantu untuk beberapa dari kami. anak-anak kecil mulai menangis, terutama ketika kereta masih berdiri (jam terkadang beberapa) dan bahwa sementara matahari bersinar di atap, itu tak tertahankan. Kami tidak tahu di mana kami dibawa, kami tak bisa melihat apa-apa. Perjalanan mengerikan waktu lebih dari 24 jam.

Saat itu di sore hari dari tanggal 14 Februari bahwa kami tiba di stasiun Ambarawa, di Jawa Tengah. Sebuah pengangkutan 680 perempuan Belanda dan anak-anak dari Malang melangkah keluar dari kereta, senang untuk mendapatkan udara segar. Militer Jepang berteriak pada kami, dan yang berteriak diterjemahkan bagi kita dengan penerjemah. Kita semua harus memanjat di truk, menunggu kami di luar stasiun. Semua orang panik tentang koper ibu mereka, saya juga. Dia berharap untuk menemukan empat kami kasur, sehingga setidaknya kita bisa tidur nyenyak malam itu. Tapi kami tidak melihat barang-barang kami sama sekali.

Truk-truk melewati pemandangan yang indah. Setidaknya kali ini kami tidak harus berdiri karena kami harus di Malang. Kami semua lelah, lapar dan haus.

Ketika kami tiba di Banyu Biru, kita melihat tempat yang dikelilingi oleh dinding yang sangat tinggi. Apa yang bisa? Ketika kami berjalan menuju pintu masuk saya membaca: Roemah PENDJARA, yang berarti Penjara. Ibu miskin saya hampir pingsan dan dia berkata; “! Oh Tuhan, oh Tuhan, betapa mengerikan”

 
 

Banyu Biru lanskap

 
 

Saya dipenjara

The Banyu Biru tidur-bug dan kengerian lainnya

Pintu dibuka oleh sekelompok lusuh pria Indonesia mencari yang sangat terkejut ketika mereka melihat semua wanita-wanita Belanda dan anak-anak. Perlahan kami berjalan ke penjara, menjadi mimpi buruk yang baru. Itu adalah penjara sangat tua dan sangat kotor. Kemudian, ketika kami tinggal di sana dengan 5.000 wanita dan anak-anak, kami mengetahui bahwa penjara ini dibangun hanya 1.000 tahanan.

Ibuku, Henny, dan Jansje adik dan aku dibawa ke bangsal 14, sebuah bangsal kosong. Kami disuruh menunggu untuk kasur kita sehingga kita hanya berdiri di sana, lelah karena kami berasal dari perjalanan mengerikan kami.

Syukurlah koper-koper kami tiba, jadi kami menemukan beberapa lembar bersih untuk menutupi bau tersebut kasur. Kami berbaring, Henny, ibu saya, Jansje dan aku, kami berempat berdekatan. Kami sangat lapar sekarang dan ketakutan karena Jepang telah melarang pintu lingkungan kami dan yang telah membuat seorang wanita tua, Mrs Schaap menangis. Dia terus berkata bahwa hatinya sakit dan bahwa dia tidak bisa bernapas dengan baik. Kami semua merasa sangat kasihan padanya, tapi kami tidak bisa membantunya. Dia tampak begitu tak berdaya di kasur, wanita miskin.

Akhirnya pintu dibuka dan penduduk setempat, juga tahanan, membawa kita semacam sup dalam tong besar. Semua orang di bangsal 14 mengatakan “selamat malam” satu sama lain, tetapi hampir tidak ada dari kita tidur malam itu. Wanita tua sedang sekarat, dan ia terus menangis dari rasa sakit. Dia meninggal sekitar pukul 5 pagi dan mati adalah wanita pertama di penjara ini. Semuanya begitu sangat sedih, dan membuat kesan mendalam pada Henny dan aku. Aku sudah setengah tertidur ketika Mrs Schaap diambil dari lingkungan kami.

Mimpi buruk lain: semua orang di lingkungan kita digigit oleh ribuan tidur-bug! Jadi kita semua mulai membunuh orang bug dan ketika kami keluar bangsal sementara matahari terbit kami melihat bahwa seluruh perkemahan telah memiliki jenis yang sama pengunjung malam itu.

Aku menatap dinding-dinding tinggi di sekitar saya. Apakah ini akan menjadi hidup kita dan untuk berapa lama? Beruntung bagi saya dan orang lain, kita belum tahu berapa lama kami harus tinggal di tempat ini. Itu adalah 15 Februari 1944, bagi Jepang tahun 2604.

Tiga hari kemudian, tanggal 18 Februari, kita mendengar banyak suara dan orang-orang berbicara di luar dinding dan kemudian ketika gerbang dibuka, kami melihat 950 lebih banyak wanita dan anak-anak berjalan ke dalam penjara kita. Mereka datang dari Kediri dan Madiun, di Jawa Timur. Salah satunya adalah Miep bibi kami. Dia memberitahu ibu saya bahwa saya paman Pierre telah dibawa ke penjara Kempeitai di Batavia, yang sekarang disebut Jakarta.

Ini berarti bahwa kedua saudara sekarang dipenjarakan oleh Kempeitai. Aku merasa sangat sedih hari itu.

 
 

Dua saudara Pierre dan Theo di kali lebih baik

Pertama saya Banyu Biru kamp kerja

Kita semua usia lima belas dan sampai harus bekerja. Aku sudah hampir 17 tahun jadi aku harus bergabung dengan kelompok pemotong rumput di kamp kami. Itu bukan tapi berat suatu pekerjaan yang sangat melelahkan. Seorang tentara Jepang, Mr Ito, berdiri di sana dengan cambuk di tangannya mengawasi kami. Kami tidak diizinkan untuk berbicara atau untuk duduk di tanah. Kami hanya bisa jongkok di paha kita, dan itu menyakitkan setelah beberapa jam. Pada awalnya kami harus bekerja tiga jam saja, tapi setelah beberapa saat itu menjadi empat sampai lima jam sehari.

Anak-anak usia kami harus melakukan kerja keras di dapur, dan mereka menerima beberapa makanan tambahan. Anak-anak juga harus mengosongkan kotoran-barel, pekerjaan yang sangat kotor. Anak-anak harus mengosongkan selokan yang berasal dari toilet menjadi mereka barel kotoran-dan membawa mereka di luar perkemahan. Kemudian, ketika anak laki-laki harus meninggalkan kamp kami, pekerjaan itu diambil alih oleh perempuan muda dan perempuan. Di sore hari “makan siang” kita dan kemudian makan terakhir harian kami “sup pati” dibawa kepada kami oleh anak laki-laki dan dished up oleh salah satu wanita dapur.

Rumah kami sekarang hanya tidur, papan di lantai dan kasur kotor di atas mereka dan kemudian mereka tidur bug. Kita sering mencoba untuk membersihkan kasur dan udara mereka untuk di luar sebentar. Setiap pagi kita membunuh beberapa bug. Banyak dari kita telah kelambu tapi itu tidak melindungi kita terhadap nyamuk malaria. Banyu Biru adalah daerah malaria nyata, kita kemudian mengetahui.

Karena kita hidup begitu dekat bersama, orang-orang mulai bertengkar, kebanyakan tentang anak-anak.

Pada 10 Juni tahun yang sama, 400 perempuan dan anak-anak diangkut ke kamp Biru, Banyu 11 yang merupakan kompleks militer. Kamp itu balik kamp kami 10, tidak terlalu jauh. Tentu saja mereka senang untuk meninggalkan penjara dengan dinding-dinding tinggi dan itu memberi kami, yang harus tinggal di belakang, ruang sedikit lebih.

Ibu saya bertanya apakah dia bisa mendapatkan sel untuk kami berempat. Syukurlah kami dapat meninggalkan bangsal 14 dan pindah ke sel dalam kelompok “C-D”. Itu memberi kami lebih privasi setidaknya, meskipun kami memiliki ruang sangat sedikit untuk bergerak. Kami meletakkan dua kasur pada tiga batang kabin, untuk ibu saya dan Jansje, dan dua di lantai untuk Henny dan aku.

Sebuah kehidupan normal jahitan begitu jauh, kehidupan penjara begitu nyata. Saya sangat sering bertanya pada diri sendiri apakah saya akan melihat Sumber Sewu lagi, jika saya pernah bisa berjalan lagi melalui hutan dengan ayah saya. Saya sering bermimpi bahwa saya dengan ayah saya, tapi ketika aku terbangun di pagi hari ia pergi.

 
 

Banjoe Biroe 10

The Banyu Biru kamp menu

Setiap pagi kami roll sebut saja setelah kami menerima teh kami. Kami diizinkan untuk makan pati kita, sarapan kami, sebelum memulai berbagai pekerjaan kita sehari-hari. Di penjara Banyu Biru, camp10, menu selalu sama dari 15 Februari 1944 kiri sampai akhir November 1945.

MENU

Teh pagi-pagi sebelum panggilan roll

Sarapan: semangkuk pati

Makan siang: secangkir nasi, yang menumpuk sendok makan kubis hijau rebus dan ditumpuk sendok teh sambal, semacam lada Spanyol

Teh di sore hari

Makan malam: sup pati dengan beberapa daun kubis. Orang bisa menghitung potongan kecil

Sebagai ibu saya benar mengatakan, itu hanya cukup untuk tidak mati terlalu cepat.

Namun sementara itu kami menemukan masalah lain dan itu adalah nyamuk malaria. Banyak dari kita jatuh sakit, ibu saya, Jansje dan aku di antara mereka. Kami menemukan sedikit kemudian mengapa Henny tidak mendapatkan malaria, ketika kita melihat bahwa dia telah sakit kuning.

Tidak ada obat-obatan dan tidak ada buah untuk membantu kami sedikit lebih baik baik. Ada tiga dokter, Dr De Kock seorang ahli bedah dari Surabaya, istri dokter anak, dan kemudian ada Dr Kruine.

Saya penjara di Banyu Biru

Tidak ada berita lebih lanjut tentang ayah saya, ada surat lagi. Keheningan lengkap sangat menakutkan. Dia telah menulis kita begitu banyak surat ketika ia berada di Camp Kelautan dan sebagian besar surat-surat itu telah cukup optimis.

Natal datang, Tahun Baru datang dan jadi sudah 1944, hampir dua tahun sejak saya telah melihat tentara Jepang pertama berjalan ke Malang. Bagi saya tampaknya tahun yang lalu dan sementara aku merasa benar-benar aman di Sumber Sewu, aku sekarang mulai merasa cukup aman di Malang karena semakin banyak orang diangkut ke kamp lain.

Desas-desus itu bahwa kita semua akan diangkut ke Jawa Tengah. Tapi karena saya kakak Henny sakit, empat dari kita tidak bisa pergi sampai dia lebih baik lagi. Sayangnya, pada 13 Februari 1944, kami harus meninggalkan Malang. Kami harus berkemas barang-barang kami dan ibu saya, Henny, Jansje, dan aku harus berdiri dengan banyak orang lain pada sebuah truk ketika sedang didorong ke stasiun Malang.

 
Invincible Jepang. Poster menunjukkan kekuatan militer Jepang untuk Indonesia

Sepanjang pinggir jalan banyak anak muda memanggil kita segala macam nama. Mereka berteriak pada kami bahwa mereka senang bahwa Belanda telah ditangkap oleh Jepang. Air mata menggenang perlahan-lahan di mataku dan Aku menunduk.

Hal ini terjadi di Malang, kota tempat saya telah ke sekolah. Sekarang aku harus meninggalkan kota pegunungan yang indah, aku harus meninggalkan ayah saya yang luar biasa di belakang di sebuah penjara Kempeitai “Malang saya.”. Aku tidak bisa menghentikan air mata jatuh di pipiku.

 
Kempeitai di Indonesia

Kata perpisahan Ayah, kata perpisahan Malang.

Di stasiun, kami mendorong ke lama dibutakan-kereta api barang, kami harus duduk di lantai kotor, dan tidak ada toilet juga. Tidak ada makanan dan, lebih buruk lagi, tidak ada air untuk minum. Untungnya ibu saya telah mengambil beberapa pisang dan sesuatu untuk minum dengan dia untuk kami berempat. Dia juga telah mengambil toilet-pot dengan dia dan itu sangat membantu untuk beberapa dari kami. anak-anak kecil mulai menangis, terutama ketika kereta masih berdiri (jam terkadang beberapa) dan bahwa sementara matahari bersinar di atap, itu tak tertahankan. Kami tidak tahu di mana kami dibawa, kami tak bisa melihat apa-apa. Perjalanan mengerikan waktu lebih dari 24 jam.

Saat itu di sore hari dari tanggal 14 Februari bahwa kami tiba di stasiun Ambarawa, di Jawa Tengah. Sebuah pengangkutan 680 perempuan Belanda dan anak-anak dari Malang melangkah keluar dari kereta, senang untuk mendapatkan udara segar. Militer Jepang berteriak pada kami, dan yang berteriak diterjemahkan bagi kita dengan penerjemah. Kita semua harus memanjat di truk, menunggu kami di luar stasiun. Semua orang panik tentang koper ibu mereka, saya juga. Dia berharap untuk menemukan empat kami kasur, sehingga setidaknya kita bisa tidur nyenyak malam itu. Tapi kami tidak melihat barang-barang kami sama sekali.

Truk-truk melewati pemandangan yang indah. Setidaknya kali ini kami tidak harus berdiri karena kami harus di Malang. Kami semua lelah, lapar dan haus.

Ketika kami tiba di Banyu Biru, kita melihat tempat yang dikelilingi oleh dinding yang sangat tinggi. Apa yang bisa? Ketika kami berjalan menuju pintu masuk saya membaca: Roemah PENDJARA, yang berarti Penjara. Ibu miskin saya hampir pingsan dan dia berkata; “! Oh Tuhan, oh Tuhan, betapa mengerikan”

 
Banyu Biru lanskap

 
Saya penjara

The Banyu Biru tidur-bug dan kengerian lainnya

Pintu dibuka oleh sekelompok lusuh pria Indonesia mencari yang sangat terkejut ketika mereka melihat semua wanita-wanita Belanda dan anak-anak. Perlahan kami berjalan ke penjara, menjadi mimpi buruk yang baru. Itu adalah penjara sangat tua dan sangat kotor. Kemudian, ketika kami tinggal di sana dengan 5.000 wanita dan anak-anak, kami mengetahui bahwa penjara ini dibangun hanya 1.000 tahanan.

Ibuku, Henny, dan Jansje adik dan aku dibawa ke bangsal 14, sebuah bangsal kosong. Kami disuruh menunggu untuk kasur kita sehingga kita hanya berdiri di sana, lelah karena kami berasal dari perjalanan mengerikan kami.

Syukurlah koper-koper kami tiba, jadi kami menemukan beberapa lembar bersih untuk menutupi bau tersebut kasur. Kami berbaring, Henny, ibu saya, Jansje dan aku, kami berempat berdekatan. Kami sangat lapar sekarang dan ketakutan karena Jepang telah melarang pintu lingkungan kami dan yang telah membuat seorang wanita tua, Mrs Schaap menangis. Dia terus berkata bahwa hatinya sakit dan bahwa dia tidak bisa bernapas dengan baik. Kami semua merasa sangat kasihan padanya, tapi kami tidak bisa membantunya. Dia tampak begitu tak berdaya di kasur, wanita miskin.

Akhirnya pintu dibuka dan penduduk setempat, juga tahanan, membawa kita semacam sup dalam tong besar. Semua orang di bangsal 14 mengatakan “selamat malam” satu sama lain, tetapi hampir tidak ada dari kita tidur malam itu. Wanita tua sedang sekarat, dan ia terus menangis dari rasa sakit. Dia meninggal sekitar pukul 5 pagi dan mati adalah wanita pertama di penjara ini. Semuanya begitu sangat sedih, dan membuat kesan mendalam pada Henny dan aku. Aku sudah setengah tertidur ketika Mrs Schaap diambil dari lingkungan kami.

Mimpi buruk lain: semua orang di lingkungan kita digigit oleh ribuan tidur-bug! Jadi kita semua mulai membunuh orang bug dan ketika kami keluar bangsal sementara matahari terbit kami melihat bahwa seluruh perkemahan telah memiliki jenis yang sama pengunjung malam itu.

Aku menatap dinding-dinding tinggi di sekitar saya. Apakah ini akan menjadi hidup kita dan untuk berapa lama? Beruntung bagi saya dan orang lain, kita belum tahu berapa lama kami harus tinggal di tempat ini. Itu adalah 15 Februari 1944, bagi Jepang tahun 2604.

Tiga hari kemudian, tanggal 18 Februari, kita mendengar banyak suara dan orang-orang berbicara di luar dinding dan kemudian ketika gerbang dibuka, kami melihat 950 lebih banyak wanita dan anak-anak berjalan ke dalam penjara kita. Mereka datang dari Kediri dan Madiun, di Jawa Timur. Salah satunya adalah Miep bibi kami. Dia memberitahu ibu saya bahwa saya paman Pierre telah dibawa ke penjara Kempeitai di Batavia, yang sekarang disebut Jakarta.

Ini berarti bahwa kedua saudara sekarang dipenjarakan oleh Kempeitai. Aku merasa sangat sedih hari itu.

 
Dua saudara Pierre dan Theo di kali lebih baik

Pertama saya Banyu Biru kamp kerja

Kita semua usia lima belas dan sampai harus bekerja. Aku sudah hampir 17 tahun jadi aku harus bergabung dengan kelompok pemotong rumput di kamp kami. Itu bukan tapi berat suatu pekerjaan yang sangat melelahkan. Seorang tentara Jepang, Mr Ito, berdiri di sana dengan cambuk di tangannya mengawasi kami. Kami tidak diizinkan untuk berbicara atau untuk duduk di tanah. Kami hanya bisa jongkok di paha kita, dan itu menyakitkan setelah beberapa jam. Pada awalnya kami harus bekerja tiga jam saja, tapi setelah beberapa saat itu menjadi empat sampai lima jam sehari.

Anak-anak usia kami harus melakukan kerja keras di dapur, dan mereka menerima beberapa makanan tambahan. Anak-anak juga harus mengosongkan kotoran-barel, pekerjaan yang sangat kotor. Anak-anak harus mengosongkan selokan yang berasal dari toilet menjadi mereka barel kotoran-dan membawa mereka di luar perkemahan. Kemudian, ketika anak laki-laki harus meninggalkan kamp kami, pekerjaan itu diambil alih oleh perempuan muda dan perempuan. Di sore hari “makan siang” kita dan kemudian makan terakhir harian kami “sup pati” dibawa kepada kami oleh anak laki-laki dan dished up oleh salah satu wanita dapur.

Rumah kami sekarang hanya tidur, papan di lantai dan kasur kotor di atas mereka dan kemudian mereka tidur bug. Kita sering mencoba untuk membersihkan kasur dan udara mereka untuk di luar sebentar. Setiap pagi kita membunuh beberapa bug. Banyak dari kita telah kelambu tapi itu tidak melindungi kita terhadap nyamuk malaria. Banyu Biru adalah daerah malaria nyata, kita kemudian mengetahui.

Karena kita hidup begitu dekat bersama, orang-orang mulai bertengkar, kebanyakan tentang anak-anak.

Pada 10 Juni tahun yang sama, 400 perempuan dan anak-anak diangkut ke kamp Biru, Banyu 11 yang merupakan kompleks militer. Kamp itu balik kamp kami 10, tidak terlalu jauh. Tentu saja mereka senang untuk meninggalkan penjara dengan dinding-dinding tinggi dan itu memberi kami, yang harus tinggal di belakang, ruang sedikit lebih.

Ibu saya bertanya apakah dia bisa mendapatkan sel untuk kami berempat. Syukurlah kami dapat meninggalkan bangsal 14 dan pindah ke sel dalam kelompok “C-D”. Itu memberi kami lebih privasi setidaknya, meskipun kami memiliki ruang sangat sedikit untuk bergerak. Kami meletakkan dua kasur pada tiga batang kabin, untuk ibu saya dan Jansje, dan dua di lantai untuk Henny dan aku.

Sebuah kehidupan normal jahitan begitu jauh, kehidupan penjara begitu nyata. Saya sangat sering bertanya pada diri sendiri apakah saya akan melihat Sumber Sewu lagi, jika saya pernah bisa berjalan lagi melalui hutan dengan ayah saya. Saya sering bermimpi bahwa saya dengan ayah saya, tapi ketika aku terbangun di pagi hari ia pergi.

 
Banjoe Biroe 10

The Banyu Biru kamp menu

Setiap pagi kami roll sebut saja setelah kami menerima teh kami. Kami diizinkan untuk makan pati kita, sarapan kami, sebelum memulai berbagai pekerjaan kita sehari-hari. Di penjara Banyu Biru, camp10, menu selalu sama dari 15 Februari 1944 kiri sampai akhir November 1945.

MENU

Teh pagi-pagi sebelum panggilan roll

Sarapan: semangkuk pati

Makan siang: secangkir nasi, yang menumpuk sendok makan kubis hijau rebus dan ditumpuk sendok teh sambal, semacam lada Spanyol

Teh di sore hari

Makan malam: sup pati dengan beberapa daun kubis. Orang bisa menghitung potongan kecil

Sebagai ibu saya benar mengatakan, itu hanya cukup untuk tidak mati terlalu cepat.

Namun sementara itu kami menemukan masalah lain dan itu adalah nyamuk malaria. Banyak dari kita jatuh sakit, ibu saya, Jansje dan aku di antara mereka. Kami menemukan sedikit kemudian mengapa Henny tidak mendapatkan malaria, ketika kita melihat bahwa dia telah sakit kuning.

Tidak ada obat-obatan dan tidak ada buah untuk membantu kami sedikit lebih baik baik. Ada tiga dokter, Dr De Kock seorang ahli bedah dari Surabaya, istri dokter anak, dan kemudian ada Dr Kruine.

Semua tiga dari mereka berdiri dengan tangan kosong. Ada sangat banyak yang bisa mereka lakukan untuk membuat semua orang hidup. Dr.de Kock dioperasikan pada satu anak kecil dengan pisau cukur dan air matang, dan operasi berhasil. Itu adalah mukjizat yang nyata.

 
Banjoe Biroe 10

Kerja keras dan kelompok moi!

Pada 18 September 1944, sekelompok anak laki-laki antara dua belas dan tujuh belas tahun, beberapa biarawati dan beberapa orang tua, semuanya 217 orang, diangkut ke Camp 8 di Ambarawa, tidak jauh dari Banyu Biru. Itu hari yang sama 200 wanita dan anak-anak dari kamp Ambarawa 8 diangkut ke penjara kita Banyu Biru 10.

Banyak gadis umur saya harus mengambil alih pekerjaan anak-anak dari 16 dan 17 digunakan untuk melakukannya, dan jadi aku datang untuk berada dalam kerja keras dan kelompok moi. Kami harus bekerja di luar perkemahan membajak ladang, atau berjalan ke Ambarawa dengan beberapa gerobak tua kavaleri Belanda sarat dengan segala macam barang, atau kita harus membawa batu dari satu tempat ke tempat lain, hanya untuk disimpan sibuk.

Itu sering bekerja sangat keras tapi aku juga senang bahwa saya bisa berjalan di luar penjara yang setiap pagi setelah apel dan setelah makan yang memuakkan mangkuk kecil pati. Setidaknya kita punya udara segar, panorama indah dan kita bisa melihat dunia nyata lagi dengan semua warna yang indah.

Para komandan kamp Jepang

komandan kamp pertama kami adalah Sakai. Pada November 1944 Suzuki menjadi komandan kedua kami dan, pada bulan Februari 1945, Yamada menjadi komandan kamp ketiga dan terakhir kami. Mereka tidak hanya memiliki penjara Banyu Biru di bawah perintah mereka tetapi juga kamp 6, 7 dan 9 di Ambarawa serta kamp 11 di Banyu Biru. Para komandan kamp datang sekarang dan kemudian untuk memberikan beberapa perintah dan untuk memberitahu kita apa yang harus kami lakukan serta apa yang tidak diperbolehkan.

penjaga kamp pertama kami adalah Ochiai, yang kedua dari Mei 1944 adalah Ito sangat ketat, yang ketiga dari Desember 1944 adalah Hashimoto, yang tinggal bersama kami hanya untuk bulan Desember 1944. Kemudian Ishikawa tinggal satu bulan Januari 1945, dan pada bulan Februari Hashimoto kembali lagi dan tinggal sampai Mei. penjaga kamp terakhir kami adalah Wakita, yang meninggalkan kami pada bulan Agustus 1945.

Kami diberitahu bahwa dari Januari 1944, kami tidak interniran lagi. Dari tanggal kami telah dianggap tahanan, bahkan anak-anak bungsu. Maka, dari Januari 1944 kami diperlakukan sebagai POW.

Itu adalah situasi yang aneh, karena di Malang kami telah diberitahu bahwa militer Jepang telah menempatkan kita di kamp-kamp untuk melindungi kita terhadap Indonesia. Sekarang di Banyu Biru kita belajar cerita yang berbeda.

serangan malaria saya datang lebih sering, lebih atau kurang setiap dua minggu. Dengan setiap pertarungan saya memiliki suhu yang sangat tinggi, yang membuat “pekerjaan” saya jauh lebih sulit.

Ibuku dan adikku Henny tumbuh sangat tipis, dan Jansje adik bungsu saya hampir tidak bermain sama sekali. Dia memiliki cukup beberapa serangan malaria juga. Ibu miskin saya juga mulai kehilangan beberapa giginya, dan saya merasa sedih melihat keluarga saya perlahan-lahan menjadi lebih sakit dan sakit.

Sementara itu lebih banyak perempuan dan anak-anak masuk penjara kita. Pada 19 November 1944, 600 berasal dari Karees dan di 21stt November, 350 perempuan dan anak-anak datang dari kamp Tjihapit. Masalahnya tentu saja bahwa ketika lebih banyak orang datang ke penjara kami, ada sedikit makanan, ruang kurang, sedikit air.

Setiap orang berjalan ke penjara kita mengatakan hal yang sama: “Apa sebuah kamp mengerikan.”

Elizabeth menyarankan bahwa hanya lama setelah perang ia mengetahui bahwa Korea menggunakan mengadopsi nama Jepang juga ditugaskan sebagai penjaga kamp, ​​terutama karena ada kehormatan besar bagi militer Jepang untuk melakukan peran ini. Meskipun demikian, para komandan kamp adalah Jepang dan semua kamp di wilayah itu berada di bawah kendali Kempeitei Ambarawa berbasis.

Natal 1944

Ada banyak rumor di kamp Banyu Biru 10. Jepang kalah perang. Amerika, Inggris dan Australia menang.

Penjaga kamp Jepang dan tentaranya dengan cepat menjadi marah tentang apa-apa. Berteriak menjadi perempuan Belanda keras, dan lebih banyak ditampar di wajah. Itu pasti, kami pikir, tanda positif karena sangat jelas bahwa Jepang kita menderita kehilangan semangat. Tapi tentu saja kami tidak yakin, karena kami tidak memiliki kontak dengan Indonesia baik, dan Heiho [draft buruh-wajib militer Bahasa Indonesia] berada di bawah pengawasan ketat komandan kamp Jepang dan tentaranya.

 
Heiho wajib militer

Natal datang, sebuah, lapar kotor, Natal sedih pada tahun 1944.

Bagaimana Anda bermimpi saat Anda terkunci di penjara, kotor penuh sesak, saat Anda berbaring di atas kasur kotor penuh bug? Bagaimana Anda bermimpi saat perut Anda menangis untuk makanan? Bagaimana anda bermimpi tanpa musik?

Aku sudah tujuh belas tahun, tapi saya menjadi agak takut untuk bermimpi sama sekali.

 
Banyu Biru 10. Gambar ini diambil setelah Perang Dunia Kedua.

 
Banyu Biru 10, rumah kami, sel-sel itu dimaksudkan untuk 1 orang saja, tetapi semua 4 dari kami tinggal di sana.

 
Banyu Biru 10, sel-sel kita. Saya menerima foto dari Mrs.Wood.

Donata desu ka?

Semua orang di atas 15 tahun ditempatkan pada daftar untuk tugas jaga malam. Aku sedang bertugas setiap dua minggu 02:00-4:00 malam. Itu adalah waktu yang tepat mengerikan di tengah malam.

Selalu ada kami berdua berjalan bersama-sama pada malam hari, dan setiap pasangan pengamat memiliki wilayah mereka sendiri. Kami seharusnya untuk menghentikan penyelundupan dekat dinding, tapi kami biasanya melakukan sebaliknya. Kami memperingatkan penyelundup ketika tentara Jepang datang.

Ketika seorang tentara Jepang akan berlalu pada malam hari ia akan meminta kami; “Donata desu ka? [Siapa itu?] “Kita harus belajar kata-kata bahasa Jepang tapi saya masih tidak tahu apa yang mereka benar-benar berarti.

Tapi sebagian besar waktu tidak ada kontrol Jepang sama sekali. Kami hanya melihat banyak wanita dan anak-anak berlari untuk toilet pada malam hari karena begitu banyak dari kita mengalami diare. Itu cukup dingin pada malam hari, terutama dalam pakaian kami lusuh. Tidak ada untuk menghangatkan kami baik, tidak ada teh atau kopi.

 Bagi saya selalu ada secercah harapan ketika berjalan ke Ambarawa dengan kelompok kerja saya. Tentu saja lama berjalan tanpa alas kaki kanan di atas jalan aspal panas, namun tetap ketika kami tiba di stasiun di Ambarawa kita datang ke dunia lain.

Hari ini stasiun Ambarawa adalah sebuah museum.

Elizabeth menjelaskan bahwa, berbeda dengan kamp laki-laki di mana beberapa jenis indoktrinasi pro-Jepang norma, tidak ada program pendidikan yang sistematis di semua di kamp-kamp perempuan. Bahkan itu dilarang keras untuk mengajar anak-anak. Walaupun perintah itu membentak atau berteriak dalam bahasa Jepang, baik itu adalah para wanita diizinkan untuk belajar bahasa Jepang. “Tidak ada pendidikan sama sekali, hanya kerja keras.” Setiap pagi, bagaimanapun, para tahanan membungkuk mendalam terhadap kaisar di Jepang.

 
Stasiun Ambarawa. Gambar ini diambil oleh adik bungsu saya.

Enam puluh lima sedikit Boys

Pada 16 Januari 1945, 65 anak laki-laki harus meninggalkan ibu mereka. Anak-anak itu 10 dan beberapa dari mereka bahkan 9 tahun. Mereka dibawa ke Camp 7, sebuah kamp untuk anak laki-laki dan laki-laki tua. ayah mereka di suatu tempat di Burma, Jepang atau di tempat lain dan dari hari itu, mereka juga tanpa ibu mereka. Ini adalah mimpi buruk yang nyata untuk ibu mereka. Orang Jepang berbalik lebih dan lebih jahat. Sudah jelas bahwa Jepang kalah perang.

Sebuah mimpi buruk

Ketika kami kembali dari pekerjaan kami di luar penjara, kami melihat beberapa mobil berdiri di luar penjara, sehingga kami memahami bahwa kami telah pengunjung Jepang penting. Ketika kita berjalan melewati pintu gerbang penjara, kita tidak bisa percaya mata kita. Remaja-gadis dan perempuan muda berdiri dalam antrian, sementara perwira Jepang sedang mencari mereka atas dari atas hingga kaki.

Kami diperintahkan untuk berdiri di garis juga. Aku bisa merasakan serangan malaria datang, jadi aku mulai gemetar sedikit. Saya tidak ingat berapa lama kami berdiri di sana, saya takut bahwa saya akan pingsan dan hanya satu pikiran; “. Mari saya tolong berbaring di kasur saya” Ketika perwira Jepang berlalu, aku tidak berani melihat ke atas. Aku terus menunduk putus asa.

Para perempuan sangat muda yang dibawa pergi oleh Jepang menangis. Ini adalah mimpi buruk nyata, setelah semua kami telah melalui begitu jauh. Ini terlalu mengerikan untuk kata-kata. Ketika kita bisa pergi “rumah” akhirnya, aku menemukan ibuku sangat marah, tapi ia lebih dari senang ketika dia melihat saya datang kembali. Dia begitu takut bahwa Jepang akan membawaku pergi. Dia ingin memberitahu mereka bahwa mereka bisa membawanya bukan aku. Tapi untungnya beberapa yang lain telah diadakan kembali, mengatakan bahwa ia hanya akan memperburuk keadaan. Dan akhirnya aku bisa berbaring. Aku punya demam tinggi waktu itu, tapi aku begitu lelah dan aku tertidur segera. Kemudian saya mendengar bahwa beberapa perempuan muda yang telah diambil harus meninggalkan anak-anak mereka di belakang. Anak-anak dipelihara oleh ibu-ibu lain. Ini adalah mimpi buruk yang nyata!

Tidak lama setelah drama ini, rumor pergi sekitar kita Penjara: “Semua gadis-gadis dari sepuluh tahun akan tinggal di Banyu Biru dan Ambarawa dan ibu dengan anak-anak yang lebih muda akan dikirim ke Kalimantan.” Untungnya, hal ini tidak terjadi.

Pada tanggal 3 Mei 1945, 600 perempuan dan anak-anak dari kamp Ambarawa 9 tiba di kaki, dan pada tanggal 31 Mei, 350 perempuan dan anak-anak yang datang dari Solo. Hari berikutnya, tanggal 1 Juni, 150 lebih banyak perempuan dan anak-anak tiba dari Solo. Pada tanggal 4 Juni, 21 perempuan dan anak-anak datang dari kamp Ambarawa 6 dan, pada tanggal 3 Juli, 47 datang dari Jawa Barat. Kemudian, pada tanggal 3 Agustus, 50 wanita meninggalkan penjara dan diangkut ke kamp Ambarawa 9 dan pada tanggal 8 Agustus, 2094 perempuan dan anak-anak masuk ke penjara kami. (Data dari Japanse burgerkampen di Nederlands-Indië).

Ini menjadi sangat ramai. Kami bernomor beberapa 5.300 perempuan dan anak berusaha untuk tetap hidup dalam peringkat ini, penjara kotor. Ini benar-benar menjijikkan. Saya berpikir bahwa itu hanya untuk menyiksa kami. Aku benar-benar yakin bahwa Jepang akan kalah perang melawan Sekutu. Tentunya ini tidak bisa berlangsung selamanya?

Ibu dan Henny tampak sakit. Mereka pellagra. Big bintik merah pecah, terutama pada lengan dan kaki, karena kekurangan vitamin. Jansje benar-benar apatis, gadis malang hanya duduk di depan sel kami, menunggu sampai makanan dibawa ke kami. Dan aku telah beri-beri, juga merupakan penyakit kekurangan vitamin. Wajahku dan perut bengkak, penuh dengan air, atau setidaknya itu adalah bagaimana rasanya. Ibu saya kehilangan beberapa giginya, yang memberikan banyak nya masalah, dan tidak ada yang dapat kami lakukan untuk menghentikan ini.

miskin saya kakak Henny tampak berbahaya kuning dari kuning, dan ibu miskin saya seikat saraf. Saya sangat khawatir tentang dia. Ibuku hanya harus lebih baik pada akhir perang ketika ayah saya akan mencoba untuk menemukan kami. Kami benar-benar harus berjuang untuk tetap hidup, hari demi hari.

Elizabeth menginformasikan bahwa semua wanita muda dan anak perempuan yang diambil dari kamp-kamp itu dikirim ke Semarang, sebuah kota pelabuhan besar di pantai utara Jawa Tengah, dari mana mereka dikirim ke pelacuran sampai dua bulan pada suatu waktu. Dari pemahamannya, sekitar 200 perempuan Belanda dan gadis dipaksa bekerja sebagai “wanita penghibur,” di samping tentu saja banyak orang Indo, Cina dan perempuan lokal. Salah satu Belanda mantan “wanita penghibur adalah anggota aktif dari Yayasan Utang Kehormatan Jepang, seperti yang dijelaskan di bawah ini.

Penyerahan Jepang

Sesuatu yang aneh sedang terjadi. Kami menerima sedikit makanan lebih dari biasanya, dan mungkin itu hanya sedikit lebih baik dalam kualitas maupun. Ini sangat diam di sudut Jepang. Kita bisa melihat mereka bergerak, tapi selama beberapa hari mereka tidak datang di dekat kita.

Akhirnya kami diberitahu bahwa perang berakhir. Jepang telah menyerah kepada Sekutu pada tanggal 15 Agustus, sembilan hari sebelumnya. Sembilan hari lama Jepang terus ini berita bagus bagi diri mereka sendiri. Mereka tahu bahwa mereka telah kalah perang dan bahwa mereka seharusnya telah memberikan tahanan Belanda mereka kebebasan mereka, tetapi mereka tidak.

Kami gratis di terakhir dan namun kita masih tidak bisa percaya.

Sementara itu, beberapa wanita setempat datang ke penjara kami, mencari pekerjaan. Tetangga kami menasehati ibuku untuk tidak mengambil salah satu wanita untuk membantunya, karena dia memakai lencana merdeka, yang berarti bahwa ia menentang penjajahan Belanda. Merdeka berarti kemerdekaan. Untungnya ibu saya tidak mendengarkan, dan ia dipercaya seorang wanita Jawa cantik yang membawa kita segala macam makanan dari rumahnya, karena ia merasa sangat kasihan kami berempat.

Suatu hari dia bertanya kepada ibu saya apakah dia bisa mengambil Henny, Jansje dan saya ke rumahnya di kampung terdekat. Dan kami bertiga pergi dengan sangat baik nyonya rumah Jawa kita yang benar-benar memanjakan kita. Seluruh keluarganya sangat baik untuk kita juga. Kami memiliki sore yang indah.

Saya tidak ingat nama malaikat Indonesia kami, tetapi saya tidak akan pernah melupakan kebaikan dia!

 
Fort Willem Saya adik bungsu saya mengambil gambar ini pada tahun 2003

Sekali lagi kita adalah tahanan

Tidak lama kemudian, kami diperintahkan untuk tinggal di dalam penjara karena kelompok pemuda, atau pemuda membela Republik Indonesia yang baru diproklamasikan, berusaha untuk membunuh tahanan Belanda, atau jadi kami diberitahu. Dengan Sukarno sekarang Presiden memproklamirkan Republik, pendukungnya antara pemuda dan lain-lain menolak untuk menerima kekuasaan Belanda. Sekali lagi pintu gerbang penjara kami ditutup. Kami sekarang memiliki tentara Jepang melindungi kita melawan nasionalis muda marah. Wanita Jawa yang cantik yang telah begitu baik terhadap, saudara ibu saya dan saya tidak lagi diperkenankan masuk penjara kami, kami merindukannya.

 
Pro-Kemerdekaan Rally Agustus 1945

Saya juga mulai khawatir bagaimana ayah saya bisa menemukan kita sekarang bahwa penjara itu terkunci lagi. Tapi kemudian saya melihat beberapa laki-laki Belanda berjalan melalui pintu gerbang dan sehingga aku mengerti bahwa Belanda bebas bisa melakukan perjalanan keliling Jawa untuk melakukan kontak dengan keluarga mereka, meskipun ini sangat beresiko. Saya juga melihat beberapa wanita meninggalkan penjara, mengatakan bahwa mereka akan “pulang,” dan yang terdengar benar-benar baik. Setelah perang kita belajar bahwa ribuan mantan tahanan dibunuh oleh pemuda, bukan tentara reguler dari tentara Indonesia yang baru terbentuk (TNI).

Suatu pagi Henny dan aku melihat salah satu tentara Jepang yang melindungi kita terhadap pemuda menangis hatinya. Seseorang bertanya kepada Jepang mengapa ia menangis. Mereka mengatakan kepada kami bahwa bom yang mengerikan telah membunuh seluruh anggota keluarganya. Kami merasa sangat kasihan padanya, tapi kami tidak tahu apa-apa tentang bom besar yang mereka bicarakan. Lama kemudian yang kita pelajari tentang bom atom dijatuhkan di Hiroshima dan Nagasaki.

lain hari ibuku dan aku membawa bak cuci kami untuk mengambil air dari penjara kita dengan baik, ketika beberapa pemuda bersembunyi di rambut panjang di luar dinding mulai menembaki kami.

Sekitar dua minggu kemudian tentara Jepang kiri dan Gurkha tentara, melayani di tentara Inggris, datang untuk melindungi kita.

Ya, hidup ini pasti lebih baik dari sebelumnya. Satu-satunya masalah adalah bahwa kita masih hidup di balik tembok meskipun perang berakhir.

Aku mulai membantu membersihkan gudang (toko) dimana Jepang telah membuang semua jenis hal. Kami menemukan bahwa ada banyak kotak penuh dengan tablet anti-malaria, kina, dan obat-obatan beberapa yang bisa menyelamatkan kehidupan banyak orang yang mati di penjara ini. Kami benar-benar terkejut, bahkan lebih jadi ketika kami menemukan beberapa kartu yang telah ditulis untuk beberapa wanita tinggal di penjara kami. Bahkan, mereka tidak pernah menerima kartu mereka selama perang. Ini menjijikkan dan sangat sedih.

Ayah kami tidak datang lagi, dan kami tidak ada kabar darinya. Tapi tentu saja dia berada di sebuah penjara Kempeitai di Malang, yang bisa membuatnya lebih rumit untuk datang ke Banyu Biru. Dia juga harus bepergian sendiri. Orang-orang lain datang dari kamp di lingkungan kita dan mereka biasanya datang berjalan dalam kelompok. Mungkin ayah saya mencoba mengatur sesuatu untuk mendapatkan ibu saya, dua adik perempuan saya dan saya ke Malang.

Mungkin ibu saya akan segera menerima surat dari dia.

 
Banyu Biru, gambar diambil setelah perang

Kita menjadi pengungsi

Ini menjadi terlalu berbahaya di penjara di Banyu Biru. Para interniran dari Ambarawa dan dua kamp lainnya di Banyu Biru dievakuasi sebelum kita. Mungkin karena penjara kami memiliki dinding yang tinggi, kami adalah yang terakhir yang diselamatkan.

Pada bulan Oktober 1945 Gurkha Inggris mulai mengevakuasi perempuan pertama dan anak-anak dari penjara kita, dan tentu saja mereka lebih dari lega untuk dapat meninggalkan penjara ini di belakang mereka.

Barulah pada akhir November 1945, bahwa kami berempat akhirnya meninggalkan dengan kelompok terakhir wanita dan anak-anak, kotor mengerikan, penjara berbau busuk. Dan begitu kelompok kecil ini terakhir berjalan melewati gerbang ke dalam dunia kebebasan, udara segar.

Tapi sekali lagi tidak ada berita tentang ayah saya.

 
Halmaheira, gambar yang diambil oleh adik bungsu saya

Akhir pengakuan dari kematian ayah tercinta

Menjelang akhir Januari 1945 di Kandy di Ceylon (sekarang Sri Lanka), di mana kita sembuh perjalanan ke Belanda, ibu saya menerima surat dari bibi saya di Belanda menyampaikan berita sedih sedih bahwa dia menemukan nama ayah saya di daftar kematian dari Hindia Belanda Timur. Sekitar tanggal 15 Mei kami berlayar dari Colombo menuju Belanda, sebuah negara yang saya tidak tahu. Setelah kembali ke Belanda, seperti yang saya temukan, tidak semua dibuang untuk menyambut kembali rumah seperti diri kita dari Hindia Belanda. Barulah pada Februari 1947 bahwa ibu saya menerima pemberitahuan resmi dari kematian ayah tercinta saya.

Elizabeth dan “Yayasan Utang Kehormatan Jepang”

Elizabeth tidak tetap tidak aktif. Justru sebaliknya. Dalam kehidupan selanjutnya, seperti yang disebutkan, ia kembali mengunjungi situs masa kecilnya di Jawa serta menyakitkan, tetapi tidak berhasil mencari informasi tentang keberadaan kuburan ayahnya. Setelah bercakap korespondensi dengan teman-teman pena Jepang, dia juga mengunjungi Jepang untuk pertama kalinya merenungkan kepada masyarakat sesudah perang Jepang dan jenis penderitaan yang biasa Jepang juga mengalami. Meski begitu, sebagai rahasia, dia masih tetap bingung untuk Jepang pasca perang mengingat atau pemahaman tentang konsekuensi penuh dari pendudukan masa perang Hindia Belanda.

Diantara kegiatan lain, Elizabeth adalah anggota aktif dari organisasi berbasis Holland disebut “Foundation untuk Jepang Hutang Kehormatan.” Ketika ia mengatakan kepada Jepang Fokus dalam, hujan es wawancara, atau salju, ia dan sesama anggota secara teratur piket Kedutaan Besar Jepang di Den Haag. Diantara pertanyaan lain, kami bertanya tentang tujuan Yayasan.

G.G. Tolong beritahu kami lebih lanjut tentang “Yayasan Utang Kehormatan Jepang,” misalnya, tujuan, prestasi, serta masalah.

Elizabeth van K. Tujuan Yayasan Utang Kehormatan Jepang adalah (untuk menuntut) suatu pengakuan bersalah dan ekspresi penyesalan dari Pemerintah Jepang kepada korban perang Belanda di Hindia Belanda, yang diduduki oleh militer Jepang dari Maret 1942 hingga Agustus 1945 15. Kita semua masih berharap kompensasi goodwill dari Jepang untuk rasa sakit dan penderitaan korban perang Belanda, pria, wanita dan anak-anak menderita selama pendudukan Jepang.

G.G. Apakah korban semua anggota langsung? Atau apakah Anda memiliki anggota simpatisan? Memang, apakah Anda memiliki pendukung bahasa Indonesia? Apakah Anda bisa membuat link dengan organisasi-organisasi di Jepang, jika demikian nama mereka?

Elizabeth van K. Ya seluruh anggota Yayasan adalah korban langsung. Saya tidak tahu berapa banyak yang masih hidup, tapi aku tahu bahwa banyak dari kita telah meninggal selama lima tahun terakhir. Kami memiliki donor yang bukan korban perang, tetapi mereka tentu saja tidak dihitung sebagai korban. Ya, kami memiliki anggota dari Yayasan Indonesia. Mereka adalah dari Maluku. Mereka adalah prajurit dalam tentara Hindia Belanda mantan Timur. Tidak, tidak ada link nyata dengan organisasi Jepang sejauh yang saya tahu. Yayasan tidak pergi untuk PBB di Jenewa sekarang dan kemudian, di mana mereka mendapatkan beberapa menit untuk menceritakan kisah mereka.

G.G. Setiap mantan “wanita penghibur” anggota? Bagaimana pemaparan dari “wanita penghibur” masalah berdampak pada masyarakat Belanda?

Elizabeth van K. Ya, kami memiliki beberapa perempuan Belanda mantan-kenyamanan, sebagai anggota dari Yayasan. Kami Belanda Menteri Luar Negeri, Mr M. Verhagen telah memberikan pidato yang baik. Sementara ia berada di Jepang [ia mengangkat pertanyaan] tentang wanita-wanita miskin dan meminta maaf dan kompensasi bagi para wanita. Orang-orang Belanda pada umumnya tidak benar-benar tertarik dengan apa yang terjadi selama Perang Dunia II di Timur Jauh di mana orang diduduki oleh Jepang. Belanda diduduki oleh Jerman selama lima tahun lama. Musuh Perang Dunia II adalah Jerman di mata Belanda, bukan Jepang.

G.G. Apa jawaban standar yang ditawarkan oleh Duta Besar Jepang atau pejabat lain ketika Anda berbicara dengan mereka?

Elizabeth van K. Hanya dua anggota, ketua Foundation, Mr JF van Wagtendonk dan sekretaris panitia, masuk ke dalam Kedutaan Besar Jepang, sementara yang lainnya berdiri di luar pintu gerbang untuk setidaknya satu jam. Duta Besar tidak apa-apa kecuali menunjuk ke San Francisco Perjanjian! Kedutaan Besar Jepang tidak senang sama sekali dengan kita berdiri di sana dengan papan pengumuman kami, karena cukup menarik beberapa orang lewat yang bertanya kepada kami apa yang sedang terjadi.

G.G. Ada komentar lain yang ingin anda buat?

Elizabeth van K. Anda melihat kami juga ingin meminta maaf Belanda dan kompensasi yang kecil dari pemerintah Belanda, sehingga Yayasan masih berjuang di dua front. Kita tahu bahwa Australia, Inggris, Kanada dan Norwegia dibayar perang mereka korban dari Timur Jauh, tetapi tidak Belanda. Cukup sedih memang, sejak Belanda menyatakan perang terhadap Jepang sementara dia benar-benar mengecewakan semua penduduk (Indonesia, Cina dan Belanda) dari koloni Belanda.

Yayasan untuk Utang Kehormatan Jepang telah mempersiapkan sebuah buku kecil dalam bahasa Belanda dan Inggris dengan 60 cerita oleh atau tentang pengalaman orang-orang Belanda di Jepang menduduki Hindia Belanda. Cerita-cerita termasuk yang dari laki-laki dan perempuan di Jawa dan Sumatra tetapi juga akun dari kereta api Burma. Versi bahasa Inggris buku ini berjudul Saksi mata perjuangan Perang

KISAH TAWANAN PERANG BANJOBIROE LAINNYA LISA SAMETHINI,SEKARANG MASIH HIDUP DI AUSTRALIA.

Lisa Samethini (now in Australia)

Jun 1944 – Semua dari seratus tiba-tiba dari kami dikirim ke kamp lain yang disebut “Banjoebiroe”. Kami harus berjalan. Saat itu sekitar 5 kilometer dan membawa kami sekitar tiga jam karena anak-anak, dan kami harus membawa bagasi kita sendiri. ME sangat gembira karena dia tidak melihat apapun di luar perkemahan sebelumnya. Para wanita Indonesia bekerja di sawah dan karena itu begitu jauh, ia memanggil mereka anak-anak kecil. Dia telah lepuh dan jari kakinya berdarah, tetapi tidak air mata atau menangis. Dia tampak tidak merasakannya. Dia yang senang berada di luar perkemahan. Keesokan harinya dia sakit, muntah dan sakit perut. Dia tidak pernah menangis, hanya Askin untuk “Mummy”.

sarapan kami bubur dari tepung tapioka. Rasanya seperti mangkuk besar jelly dan ME tidak bisa menelannya. roti itu dibuat dari pati. Ini camp kita sekarang dalam adalah sebuah kamp tentara. Itu kamar besar yang bisa muat sekitar 40 wanita dan anak-anak. Ada kamar mandi begitu besar, dan ketika Anda mandi dengan 15 wanita-wanita lain pada saat yang sama, itu sangat memalukan. Itu juga sedih melihat para wanita tua dengan semua kulit mereka menggantung sehingga lepas dari semua penurunan berat badan. Aku kurus sendiri, tapi aku tidak ingin diingatkan kenyataan.

Orang Jepang punya ide. Kami harus mencari siput di halaman belakang besar dan memakannya. Kami mendapat ember penuh dan kami membawa mereka ke dapur, di mana para wanita terbuat dari pure dari mereka. Kami punya satu sendok masing-masing. Aku memberi Mary-em sendok saya karena dia butuh lebih. Dia memiliki mulut penuh luka yang saya dilap dengan yodium. Ini adalah sebuah drama besar tentu saja, karena sakit begitu banyak. Kita semua menggunakan garam dicampur dengan air untuk menyembuhkan luka kita dan itu bekerja dengan baik.

Ada sedikitnya lima kamp-kamp lain di sekitar, dan satu hari seorang wanita telah diselundupkan catatan ke kamp lain. Dia ditemukan keluar, dan kami harus menonton sebagai Jap terayun di sekeliling dan sekitar oleh rambutnya. Beberapa orang lain telah diselundupkan makanan keluar dan mereka tertangkap, dan harus berlutut dengan tongkat bambu di bawah lutut mereka dan tinggal di sana selama berjam-jam. Jika seseorang pingsan, maka seember air akan dilemparkan atas dirinya karena jika salah satu pingsan yang lain akan jatuh juga, karena mereka semua diikat pada bambu satu.

Ada rumor terjadi di sekitar bahwa perang itu segera akan berakhir. Suatu hari orang Jepang mengatakan bahwa kami harus berjalan ke stasiun untuk membawa bagasi perempuan lain yang sedang dipindahkan ke dekat kamp oleh kepada kami. Ida dan aku pergi, sekitar 50 perempuan di semua. Kami berjalan ke stasiun, yang 5 km, dan ketika kereta tiba sekitar 115 perempuan dan anak-anak keluar. Tentu saja kami bertanya ke mana mereka berasal dari. Setelah beberapa minggu melakukan ini saya mulai bertanya setelah ibu saya dan adik. Suatu hari seseorang berseru bahwa mereka tahu ibu saya dan adik, dan bahwa mereka keluar pada transportasi terakhir. Saya sangat senang bahwa akhirnya aku akan melihat mereka lagi, tapi aku jatuh sakit lagi dengan diare dan harus tinggal di tempat tidur. Setiap kali saya bertanya apakah ada yang tahu kapan pengangkutan terakhir datang. Ida kembali suatu hari dan mengatakan kepada saya berikutnya

Mum hari dan Tiny akan tiba. Jadi aku pergi hari berikutnya tapi kami tidak diperbolehkan untuk bergaul dengan wanita lain. Jadi kami berdiri pada satu sisi stasiun, dan ketika para wanita keluar dari kereta, saya melihat dan melihat, dan tiba-tiba aku melihat mereka dan mulai menelepon mereka. Mereka mendengar saya tapi tidak bisa melihat saya, dan wanita-wanita lain di sekitar saya mulai memanggil juga, “Mum, Tiny!” Dan kemudian mereka melihat saya dan saya tidak bisa pergi ke mereka. Kita semua menangis dan melambaikan tangan sampai tiba waktunya untuk memuat bagasi dan yang lain dibuat Mum yakin dan Tiny berada di kelompok terakhir, jadi kami bisa bicara. Kami menangis tentu saja, dan ketika kami datang ke kamp, ​​Mum memberiku telur dan gula, lalu kami berpisah lagi. Tapi aku tahu di mana mereka, sekitar 10 menit berjalan kaki dari kamp kami.

Mereka masih hidup! Tiny begitu besar. Dia harus bekerja sangat keras untuk Jepang. Dia adalah bagian dari apa yang akan mereka sebut “kelompok kerja”. Itu termasuk memindahkan perabotan, membajak ladang, dan dia tertabrak oleh Jepang. Pada saat yang sama ia harus menjaga Mum, yang sering sakit, mencuri makanan untuknya, dan kelaparan dan penyakit selalu ada. Saya pikir ini April 1945. Saya tidak yakin, saya lupa banyak hal. Aku tidak lebih banyak kontak dengan mereka tentunya.

Pada bulan Agustus hal yang lucu mulai terjadi. Kami tidak perlu bekerja di luar lagi. Desas-desus pergi sekitar bahwa perang sudah berakhir tetapi kami tidak bisa percaya. Kenapa tidak ada yang memberitahu kita itu? Semuanya berkata dengan nada berbisik dan kita melihat Jepang datang dan pergi. Mereka tampaknya menghilang dan itu sangat masih. Dan kemudian, sekitar 6:00 itu datang, kata-kata kami menunggu, perang berakhir. Tidak ada yang melompat-lompat, tidak ada yang mengatakan kepada kami apa yang harus dilakukan. Perempuan dipanggil ke kantor dan mengatakan bahwa suami mereka telah mati, dan mereka kembali menangis. Kemudian, sekitar seminggu kemudian, sebuah daftar panjang telah diposting di luar kantor dengan nama

dari orang-orang yang sudah mati. Nama Frank tidak di atasnya dan jadi aku tahu dia masih hidup, tetapi di mana aku tidak tahu.

Saya meminta izin untuk pergi ke kamp ibuku dan diberitahu oleh kantor itu ada jalan, tapi kemudian seminggu kemudian saya diberitahu aku bisa pergi, dan aku harus pergi dalam waktu dua jam dan mendapatkan diriku di sana. Aku mengemasi barang kami dan setelah waktu yang lama mengemis troli untuk menaruh barang-barang kami, dan setelah semua aku Mary-em juga. Tidak ada yang mengangkat jari untuk membantu saya. Akhirnya, istri menteri mengatakan bahwa dia akan membantu saya mendorong troli, dan begitu saya dengan Mary-em pada satu lengan, saya datang ke perkemahan. Di sana saya menunggu lagi izin masuk ke sana dan saraf saya berada di titik puncaknya. Dan kemudian Mum dan Tiny ada di sana dan mereka telah membantu saya masuk Mereka tidak tahu bahwa saya akan datang, dan sekarang AKU dan aku tidak sendiri lagi.

Dalam waktu singkat orang Indonesia datang untuk menjual sayuran dan daging. Kami tidak melihat daging selama tiga tahun dan kami tidak punya uang, jadi kita bertukar gaun untuk daging dan sebagainya. Mum dan aku keluar dari kamp (yang merupakan bagian dari hari-hari pertama kebebasan) ke desa untuk menjual beberapa gaun. Kami menjual semua yang kami miliki dan pergi dengan gembira kembali ke perkemahan. Yang tidak kami sadari adalah bahwa kita bisa saja ditembak oleh Indonesia. Ada banyak orang Indonesia yang sekarang enemies.We kami mendengar bahwa kamp tua saya di Ambawara telah diserbu oleh 800 Indonesia dan mereka telah membunuh ratusan perempuan dan anak. Setelah beberapa minggu kami tidak diizinkan untuk pergi ke luar perkemahan lagi. Kami tidak mengerti apa yang sedang terjadi.

Kemudian kami diberitahu orang Indonesia yang akan menyerang kita. Sepuluh Gurkha (ini adalah tentara India yang melayani di bawah Angkatan Darat Inggris, red.) Datang untuk melindungi kita. Kami semua dalam keadaan shock. Aku terperangah melihat pikiran saya dan Mum berkeliling ke desa-desa lain untuk menjual beberapa pakaian. Sekarang aku mengerti mengapa mereka memandang kami begitu aneh seperti yang kita

berjalan melewati kampung semua sendiri. Jadi sekarang kita terkunci lagi, untuk melindungi kita. Tepat di luar jendela saya adalah salah satu Gurkha tentara dengan senapan mesin dan granat tangan, dan menunjukkan pada saya melalui teropong dari mana orang Indonesia datang. Ketika penembakan itu dimulai, seorang wanita tewas dan beberapa terluka. Untuk sampai ke dapur, Anda harus menjebol tembok karena terlalu berbahaya untuk pergi keluar. Anda harus bebek untuk menutupi, peluru terbang di sekitar ke dalam drum memasak. Satu Gurkha tewas. saraf saya begitu buruk sehingga saya kehilangan kendali atas diriku sendiri dan aku mulai menjerit dan tidak bisa berhenti. Akhirnya, mereka menenangkan saya dan saya merasa begitu lemah, aku tidak bisa bergerak.

Beberapa minggu kemudian, tentara Inggris datang untuk menyelamatkan kami dengan truk besar. Mereka harus berjuang melalui untuk sampai ke kita. Kami semua dikemas ke truk, sekitar 20 dalam sebuah truk, dengan kasur kami di atas atap. Sepanjang jalan rumah-rumah terbakar. Kemudian hujan mulai, dan mattreses kami basah dan mulai bocor dan kami basah, sehingga kasur itu terlempar ke jalan. Setelah sekitar tiga jam kami tiba di kamp lain. Beberapa Indonesia mati masih tergeletak di jalan. Alarm akan tetap pergi dan Gurkha lebih meninggal. Kami dikelilingi oleh tentara Inggris dengan 14 meriam. Pesawat udara desa dibom dan 10 hari kemudian kami diangkut ke kamp di Semarang. Di sana kami tidak menyambut dan itu perlu beberapa kali sebelum kita punya satu kamar. Akhirnya, kami memiliki ruangan yang besar dimana kami tidur, Mum, ME, Tiny, seorang teman baik Mum (Mrs Bavan namanya, dan meskipun ibu saya telah mengenalnya selama seratus tahun, mereka masih disebut satu sama lain, bahkan seluruh segalanya, Mrs Boerman dan Mrs Bavan, di Belanda itu Mevrouw Bavan dll), dua anaknya dan aku. Kami tidur, di lantai, semua dalam satu baris. Hal yang konyol adalah bahwa sekarang Jepang juga harus melindungi kita dari Indonesia. Kami aman di sana.

Kami harus memutuskan apa yang kami lakukan dan ke mana harus pergi. Kami memutuskan hal yang terbaik adalah pergi ke Jakarta. Kami tidak bisa pergi ke sana dengan pesawat, orang Indonesia telah bandara, sehingga Inggris memutuskan bahwa kita bisa pergi dengan kapal transportasi. Sekarang yang mengambil beberapa lakukan. Kami berangkat lagi dalam truk. Jika Anda berada di sebuah kapal transportasi bagi tentara Anda tidak mendapatkan tempat tidur. Kami berada di bawah di kapal dan tidur di tikar menggantung. Jika Anda ingin mandi itu hanya air garam. M.E. punya bisul dan itu panas. Untuk mendapatkan makanan kita kami harus berdiri di garis, deretan panjang perempuan dan anak, dan dengan sedikit menggoda, saya mendapat mentega ekstra.

Setelah tiga hari kami tiba di Jakarta. Kami masuk ke truk lagi dan kami tiba di kamp terakhir kami, yang disebut Adek. Kamar-kamar sangat besar, 50 perempuan dan anak-anak bisa masuk ke dalam ruangan. Kami bebas, tanpa menembak satu pada kami, dan setiap malam kami memiliki bermain band dan menari. Banyak tentara Inggris datang setiap malam. I, sementara itu, telah menemukan bahwa Frank di Manila (dia telah diangkut dari Jepang), dan kami menulis kepada satu sama lain. Dia berusaha untuk mendapatkan ke Jakarta. Sementara itu ia dikirim ke Balikpapan dan dia bilang dia punya tenda tentara yang besar bagi kita untuk hidup, karena tidak ada rumah tinggal masuk Tampaknya Aussies telah dibom hingga merata. Tapi aku memiliki waktu yang baik dan segala sesuatu tampak berbeda. Suatu hari mereka berjanji saya perahu ke Balikpapan. Aku sedang menunggu berjam-jam dan perahu tidak datang. Mereka telah lupa memberitahu saya bahwa perahu tidak akan. Ketika saya menulis ini kepada Frank dia menjadi sangat marah dan membujuk seorang teman pilot untuk membawanya ke Jakarta. Dia mendapat izin dan satu hari saya sudah keluar di jalan pisang membeli dan truk berhenti, dan yang keluar, Frank. Kami saling memandang dan aku tidak bisa bicara banyak, itu seperti mengejutkan, jadi saya berkata, “Jadi Anda akhirnya berhasil.” Apa hal yang bodoh untuk mengatakan setelah tiga tahun. Dia menciumku dan aku membawanya ke ruang di mana Mary-em telah dengan Tiny dan Mum. Ketika ME melihatnya, ia melompat dari tempat tidur dan berlari ke

Frank dan berkata, “Itu Pappie saya!” Dia langsung mengenalinya dari foto dia biasa mencium selamat malam setiap malam di kamp. Itu adalah saat Anda tidak pernah lupa.

Frank tidur dengan laki-laki dan punya uang itu dicuri, tapi setelah beberapa minggu kami pergi dengan pesawat kembali ke Balikpapan pada bidang tanpa kursi. Kami duduk di airsick kami koper dan ME punya tapi tak ada yang benar-benar penting. Ketika kami tiba di Balikpapan kami menemukan tenda yang indah Frank dicuri. Ada sebuah kamp bagi wanita yang sedang menunggu tenda yang akan didirikan dan mereka ingin saya dan ME untuk pergi ke sana. Saya katakan kepada mereka saya sudah 3 tahun di sebuah kamp dengan 3.000 wanita dan anak-anak, dan tidak ada cara aku akan di sana. Setelah banyak berbicara dan aku berteriak-teriak mereka memberi kami sebuah pondok dua kamar yang dimaksudkan untuk perwira. Aku mendapatkannya dengan cara saya dan kita pindah ke sini Kami punya apa-apa. Mereka harus membawa tempat tidur dan segala sesuatu dan saya pikir mereka senang untuk menyingkirkan saya, tetapi saya telah belajar banyak dalam tiga tahun. Aku bukan gadis kecil lugu lagi. Saya telah belajar dengan cara yang keras untuk berdiri sendiri.

Kami punya apa-apa, tapi kami sangat bahagia. Saya punya satu gaun terbuat dari bahan parasut, dibuat dengan tangan, satu celana pendek, satu rok dan satu blus. Frank hanya pakaian tentaranya. Kami tinggal di sana selama dua tahun dan dua kali kami pindah ke tenda yang lebih baik. Sementara itu, kami punya anak kami yang kedua, Fransje dicintai kita.

Saya masih bisa menceritakan banyak lagi, tetapi ini adalah hal penting yang terjadi pada waktu itu. Bertahun-tahun kemudian kami memiliki dua lagi gadis cantik, Christine dan Sandra

 
 

 English version:

PART ONE

Elizabeth Van Kampen POW at “de Wijk Camp”

Introduction

In 1928, at the age of one and a half years, Elizabeth van Kampen, daughter of a Dutch plantation manager, arrived with her parents in Sumatra in the former Dutch East Indies (today’s Indonesia),  a land which she evokes from childhood memory as “paradise on earth.” But the attack on Pearl Harbor of December 7, 1941, when she was fourteen, was quickly followed by Japanese invasion of the Dutch colony and the nightmare to follow.

 

  

Elizabeth and her family experienced extraordinary times between two empires, that of Holland in Asia at the end of a 400-year epoch, and that of a rising militarist Japan. The following images convey a sense of a range of experiences of plantation life through the lens of the Dutch planters.

 

Car of the head of the plantation Subam Ayam, Benculu, 1929.


 

Elizabeth’s father inspecting coffee seeds.

 

A home in Elizabeth’s neighborhood. Many houses were built on stilts.


 

Disinfecting rubber trees on the plantation.


 

Coffee factory where berries were sorted, dried and roasted.


 

A young married couple in a plantation wedding.

For the young girl, it was a passage from heaven to hell, but an experience that she faced with the resilience of a spirited youth.  With Japan’s capitulation in August 1945, Elizabeth was finally released following a three year incarceration in a prison-gulag from which her beloved father would not return alive.

The abrupt surrender of the Japanese Imperial Army all across occupied Southeast Asia created a power vacuum and hiatus for aspiring Asian nationalists from Vietnam, to Malaya, to Indonesia, even before the return of colonial armies.  As witnessed by Elizabeth in the heady post-surrender days, Indonesian nationalists around Sukarno declared independence (August 17, 1945), somewhat incongruously in the Jakarta-house of a Japanese Admiral. Before the arrival of returning British and Dutch forces, Japanese units surrendered arms to the independence forces.  In any case, Elizabeth witnessed Indonesian pemuda or pro-independence youth groups, with or without support of Japanese-armed heiho auxiliaries, taking the law into their own hands.

In 2008, at 81 years of age, Elizabeth van Kampen offers a personal reflection on her youthful experiences spanning the years of privilege as a child growing up in Dutch colonial society, those of trauma in a Japanese prison, and the uncertainties of the early Indonesian revolution of 1945. Her remarkable account, written first in Dutch in 2006, is especially instructive for its dispassionate, albeit wistful, eyewitness reportage, one that strives to find good in the midst of adversity and cruelty, as with her account of the “good” Japanese doctor who acted to save her sister’s life and the kind and caring Javanese families who protected her in tumultuous times. She also recounts the inexplicable, as with the frightening human-pig basket story, the heartless separation of boys from mothers in the prison camp, and the larger-than-life grotesqueries of the ubiquitous kempeitai. 

Fifty years after the war, Elizabeth returned to the East Java prison sites seeking clues as to her father’s missing grave only to find that the Kempeitai had destroyed all records. She also traveled on to Japan visiting well-wishers and learning that Japanese people too had suffered from militaristic excesses. As elaborated below, she is part of a group that stages periodic demonstrations in front of the Japanese Embassy in the Netherlands seeking official acknowledgment of Japanese war crimes committed in the Dutch East Indies, not only against Dutch but Indonesian people as well.

We offer below excerpts and photographs from a long and layered personal diary, together with Elizabeth’s responses to questions about her experience, whose full text .  Additional historical photographs added. Elizabeth’s bilingual English-Indonesian website story continues to evoke interested and sympathetic comment from a variety of audiences in modern-day Indonesia and around the world.

The Dutch East Indies is lost forever

On the 10th of January 1942, the Japanese invaded the Dutch East Indies. The newspapers brought us a lot of bad news. My father had long ago advised me to read some of the articles I liked from the Malanger and the Javabode starting since I was almost eleven years old, so now I could read all the bad news in the papers when I was at our Sumber Sewu, plantation home near the East Java city of Malang during the weekends.

Now and then we saw Japanese planes flying over Java. I found it all strange and very unreal. The only Japanese I knew where those living in Malang; they were always very polite and friendly towards us. But from now on Japan was our enemy.

On Saturday the 14th of February 1942, my father came to fetch Henny (my younger sister) and I from our boarding-school for the weekend. We went into town where we did some shopping for my mother and next we went to the Javasche Bank. When my father came out of the bank, we heard and then saw Japanese planes coming over. This time they machine-gunned Malang. I saw two working men, who were hit, falling from the roof where they were busy. They were dead, we saw them lying in their blood on the street. I had never seen dead people before; Henny and I were deeply shocked. Henny started crying, my father took us both quickly away from this very sad sight.

On Sunday the 15th of February we received the bad news over the radio that Singapore had fallen into Japanese hands. Indeed, that was a very sad Sunday. Who had ever thought that Singapore could fall? Were the Japanese so much stronger than the Allies? And then there was the Battle of the Java Sea from 27 February to 1 March 1942. The Dutch warships Ruyter and Java were hit by Japanese torpedoes; they sunk with a huge loss of life. The Allies lost this battle. The 8th of March 1942, the Dutch Army on Java surrendered to the Japanese Army.

The 9th of March, when we were in the recreation-room from our boarding-school while all the girls were looking through the windows into the streets, the Japanese entered Malang. Henny and I stood there together.

They came on bicycles or were just walking. They looked terrible, all with some cloth attached at the back of their caps, they looked very strange to us. This was a type of Japanese we had never seen before. Much later I learnt that many Koreans also served as shock-troops in the Japanese Army.

The nuns went to the chapel to pray for all those living in the Dutch East Indies.  But the Dutch East Indies is lost forever.

Dutch a forbidden language

My father found it too dangerous for my mother and youngest sister Jansje to stay with him at Sumber Sewu, because there were still small groups of Australian, English and Dutch military fighting in the mountains in East Java against the Japanese troops, notwithstanding the fact that the Dutch East Indies government and Army had surrendered.

My mother and Jansje came to stay at our boarding school [at Malang], where there were small guest rooms. We all stayed inside the building, only the Indonesians working for the nuns went outside to do the shopping.

A few days later we received the order that all Dutch schools had to be closed down, so several parents came to take their daughters. The school looked empty and abandoned. We all felt very sad, our happy schooldays were over.

Dutch became a strictly forbidden language. Luckily we had a huge library at school so I had lots of books to read in those days.

A few weeks later my father phoned my mother and said that the four of us should return to Sumber Sewu as he had heard that Malang was no longer a safe place for us to stay.

I was really very happy to be back home. Rasmina, our cook, and Pa Min, our gardener, were happy to have my mother back again. There was absolutely nothing to fear on the plantation, the “Indonesians” (actually Javanese and Madurese) on the plantation were nice as ever and we didn’t see any Japanese soldiers around.

Indeed we were safer at Sumber Sewu. Life began to feel like a vacation,

I started walking with my father again and visited the local kampung (village) and since we had no more newspapers to read, I started reading several of my parent’s books.

We received a Japanese flag, together with the order that the flag had to be respected and had to hang in the garden in front of our house.

My father no longer received his salary, just like all the other Dutch, British, Americans and Australians, living in Indonesia. All our bank accounts were blocked; no one was even allowed to touch their own money.

We still had rabbits and eggs to eat, and several vegetables my mother and Pa Min had planted long before the war in the kitchen garden, and we had many fruit trees.

The thought that we might have to leave Sumber Sewu made me feel very sad. To me this plantation was a real paradise on earth, with its pond in front of the house with the two proud banyan trees, the lovely garden my mother and Pa Min had made, the kitchen where Rasmina made so many delicious meals. The sounds early in the morning, and the sounds in the evening were also very special, I can still remember them so well.

Of course we hoped that this Japanese occupation would soon be over. My father had broken the seal of the radio, hoping that he could get some more news from outside Java.

 

 

My mother and her three daughters.

Bamboo Baskets

And then one day at the end of October 1942, when my father and I walked back home for lunch, we heard a lot of noise. It was the sound of trucks coming in our direction as we were walking on a main road. So we quickly walked off the road and hid behind some coffee bushes. We saw five trucks coming and we heard people screaming. When the trucks passed we could see and hear everything, especially since we were sitting higher than the road. What we saw came as a real shock to both of us.

We saw that the open truck platforms were loaded with bamboo baskets, a type of basket used to transport pigs. But the bamboo baskets we saw that day were not used for pigs but for men. They were lying crammed in those baskets, all piled up three to four layers of baskets high. This sight shocked us deeply, but the screaming of all those poor men, for help and for water, in English and Dutch, shocked us even more. I heard my father softly saying; “Oh my God?”

We walked home without saying a word. We had just come out of a nightmare. Even today I can still hear the harsh voices of these poor men crying and screaming for help and for water.

At lunch time my father told my mother the whole story — she could hardly believe that people could do such things. She asked who were driving the trucks. My father told her that in each truck he had seen a Japanese driver and another Japanese sitting next to them.

This tragedy that I saw together with my father happened in the mountains of East Java.

It was only much later on the 11th of August in 1990 that I read in the Dutch newspaper, De Telegraaf, that many more people had seen what my father and I witnessed that day in 1942.  Other people had seen many of these men transported in bamboo baskets not only in trucks but also in trains. The article said that the men had been pushed into the bamboo baskets, transported, and then, while still in those baskets, thrown into the Java Sea. Most of the men in the bamboo baskets were Australian military.

I have often wondered: Did my father learn what happened to those poor men we saw that day? Did   the local people see it as well? I shall never know.

Come! Let’s walk home

It was strange that we didn’t get Japanese military visitors at Sumber Sewu since they went to Wonokerto the head plantation and other plantations as well, and asked many questions there. My parents were of course more than pleased that the Japanese hadn’t visited Sumber Sewu yet.

But then one day in November 1942 my parents received a phone call from the police in nearby Ampelgading. My father had to bring his car to the police station. It was summarily confiscated. Still, he was happy to have my company on this very difficult afternoon.  We went by car but– a real humiliation – we had to walk back home.

When my father came back from work, he said that he really hoped that the Americans and Aussies would come soon to rescue us all from this Japanese occupation of Indonesia.  Many Dutch civilian men were now interned all over Java, but not only men, as the Japanese had also started to open camps for women with their children as well.

We were still “free” but for how long?

Christmas 1942

My mother did her utmost in the kitchen to prepare a nice Christmas meal. And then at last it was the 25th of December, 1942. It must have been around 12 noon when we started our delicious Christmas meal, sitting there all six happy around the table.

All of a sudden we heard Pa Min calling; “Orang Nippon, orang Nippon.” (lit. Japanese).  My father stood up and went to the front door, my mother took little Jansje by her hand and they went to the living room. Cora went to our bedroom with a book; she was very scared.  Henny and I stood at the back of the house and so we could see that there were about six or seven Japanese military getting out of two cars. One of them was an officer. Directly approaching my father, he said that his men had received an order to search the house for weapons. My father told him that there were no weapons hidden in the house. 

It was our last Christmas as a whole family together. I can still feel the special warmth of that gathering we had that day because, notwithstanding the Japanese military visit, we were still together.

 

A Japanese soldier outside oil tanks near Jakarta destroyed by Dutch forces in March 1942

Jungle and Indian Ocean

Soon it was the New Year. We had no more Japanese visitors. There were not many Dutch or other Europeans outside of camps. In Malang there was already a camp for men called Marine Camp. And another camp, we were told, called De Wijk, prepared to house women and children. Taking a long, last walk through the rubber plantations and jungle, my father and I beheld the Indian Ocean. My father looked at me and said, “I have to ask you something, you are almost 16 so you are old enough. I want you to look after Mama and your sisters when I have to leave Sumber Sewa. Will you promise me that?” I remonstrated, but he insisted and I agreed.

And so, at the beginning of February 1942, my father received a phone call ordering him to leave our home in Sumber Sewu within six days and report to the Marine Camp in Malang. This would be a fateful separation. By now, most Dutch men were internees.

A Japanese visitor

My 16th birthday passed. We missed Father terribly and it didn’t look as if he were coming home any time soon, although he always wrote us optimistic postcards. My mother was much less optimistic; she was very worried about the future.

One morning in May 1943 my mother received a phone call from Mrs. Sloekers, who told her that she just had a Japanese visitor who was very polite and friendly. The visitor had asked her if she could play the piano, she told him that she couldn’t play well but that Mrs. van Kampen (my mother) played wonderfully. The Japanese gentleman was on his way to our house, she told my mother.

My mother was not pleased at all. She was very angry with Mrs. Sloekers. Cora and I tried to calm her down, because it wouldn’t do us any good to be so angry before our Japanese visitor.

A tall Japanese officer stepped out of his car when his driver opened the door. I can still see him walking up the stairs greeting my mother very politely and saying that he liked her beautiful living room.

Luckily my mother wasn’t angry anymore so she asked him what he would like to drink and I remember that he asked for a lemon juice. While he sat down he looked at us all and asked my mother if we were all four her daughters.

“No,” my mother said, “she (pointing at Cora) is my eldest daughter’s friend staying with us for a while. I have three daughters.”

He then asked my mother if she would mind very much playing something for him on her piano. “Yes, I hope that I may keep my piano, I have had this piano since I was 8 years old,” my mother answered. Our visitor just smiled and my mother started to play as beautifully as always.

While my mother played the piano our Japanese visitor closed his eyes now and then. He really seems to like the way my mother played. But he also looked at Henny several times and that started worrying me. After a while my mother stopped playing and our Japanese visitor stood up and applauded her. He said that she really played very well, and thanked her.

Then he wrote down something in Japanese on a piece of paper and gave it to my mother. He said that he advised her to go to the Lavalette Clinic (that was our hospital in Malang) with Henny. My mother could then hand over his note and they would call for him because he was a doctor working at this hospital. He told my mother that he wanted to examine my sister, as he found her abnormally skinny.

My mother asked when she could come and he told her that he would phone her.

He gave my mother his hand, thanked her again for the lovely music she had played for him, stroked Jansje’s hair, waved good-bye to Henny, Cora and me and left us all astonished, just standing there.

Within a week my mother had a phone-call from the Lavelette Clinic. They told her that Henny had to stay two weeks in the hospital, and that the Japanese doctor, our visitor, had arranged that Henny should get artificial sunlight since he had diagnosed my sister  as suffering from rickets in an early stage.

My mother was advised to stay in Malang during these two weeks, and so she did. She also visited my father several times while she was in Malang.

Before Henny left the Lavalette Clinic the doctor spoke one more time with my mother and gave her a small box with all sorts of medicines, such as quinine, aspirin, iodine, and so on. I didn’t know this of course, but she told me that many years after the war, when I once mentioned that I had found our Japanese visitor that day in May 1943 a nice and friendly man.

This kind Japanese doctor has given my sister a chance to get through the war. By giving her those two weeks of treatment and giving my mother a small box with medicines, he most certainly helped us a little when later the Japanese occupation became a real hell on earth. I have often wondered whether the Japanese visitor know what was coming. Did he know that we were going to suffer terribly and that many Dutch children were going to die?

I don’t know his name, but I would like to say: “Thank you Japanese visitor, thank you very much for your help Japanese doctor.”

“De Wijk,” my first internment camp

In early June 1943 my mother received the bad news that we would have to leave Sumber Sewu on the 11th.  Even my mother had hoped that the war would be over before we had to leave our home.

The truck that drove us from Sumber Sewu to Malang stopped in front of Welirang Street 43A, a street I knew very well. Our luggage was put on the pavement and my mother, Henny and I brought everything inside.

We received one room for the four of us. It didn’t look too bad in my eyes. Before the war, the house had belonged to the Hooglands. Mr. Hoogland had been sent to a camp in Bandung. We shared this house with several families, occupying all the rooms of Mrs. Hoogland’s pretty home.

It was nice for my mother because now that she had several women around her she could talk with, she was no longer lonely as on the plantation. A good point was that my father also stayed in Malang, not far away from our camp. He was still writing us but we couldn’t see or visit each other.

As for me, I was quite happy to be back in Malang, I had found some of my friends back, but I missed my father and I missed Sumber Sewu where I had felt so free, so happy.

“De Wijk” camp consisted of many houses with barbed wire all around and some sentry-boxes with Japanese or Indonesian soldiers here and there, to take care that we didn’t try to escape. There were about 7,000 women, children and a few men interned in “De Wijk” from Malang. The Japanese called the camp a protection camp against the local people who saw the Dutch as their “musuh” (enemy). The Japanese used lots of propaganda against the Dutch, British, Australians and Americans. It worked, especially among the local Javanese and Madurese youth in Malang.

De Wijk camp was in hands of Japanese civilians, Japanese “economists” as they were called. That meant that there wasn’t too strict a policy towards the Dutch prisoners.  But Malang had a very strict and very cruel Kempeitai management. We all knew that we had to stay out of the hands of the infamous Kempeitai. Sometimes we heard the most horrible stories from some of the Eurasians who were still outside the camps. Even the locals were very scared of the Kempeitai. Malang became completely different from the town I previously had known.

In November 1943, my mother had a visitor. He came by bicycle from the “Marine” camp where my father stayed. He told my mother that he was bringing bad news. He had been sent by the military at the marine camp to tell my mother that my father had been taken by the Kempeitai. It seems that my father had hidden weapons and ammunition at Sumber Sewu. This was a nightmare. Would my father have to stay at the Kempeitai prison Lowok Waryu? Were we ever going back to Sumber Sewu? Sadly enough there were many true rumours about how the Kempeitai treated their prisoners.

 

 

Welirang Street 43A

My prison in Banyu Biru

There was no more news about my father, no more letters. The complete silence was very frightening. He had written us so many letters while he was in the Marine Camp and most of those letters had been quite optimistic.

Christmas came, New Year came and so it was already 1944, almost two years since I had seen the first Japanese troops walking into Malang. To me it seemed many years ago and while I had felt absolutely safe at Sumber Sewu, I was now beginning to feel quite insecure at Malang because more and more people were transported to other camps.

The rumours were that we would all be transported to Central Java. But since my sister Henny was ill, the four of us could not go until she was better again. Alas, on the 13th of February 1944, we had to leave Malang. We had to pack our luggage and my mother, Henny, Jansje, and I had to stand with many others on a truck while being driven to Malang station.

 

 

Invincible Japan. Poster demonstrating Japan’s military strength to Indonesians

Along the roadside many young people called us all sorts of names. They shouted at us that they were happy that the Dutch had been captured by the Japanese. Tears welled up slowly in my eyes and I bowed my head.

This was happening in Malang, the town where I had been to school. Now I had to leave this beautiful mountain town, “my Malang.” I had to leave my wonderful father behind in a Kempeitai prison. I couldn’t stop the tears falling on my cheeks.

 

 

Kempeitai in Indonesia

Adieu Daddy, adieu Malang.

At the station, we were pushed into long blinded goods-trains, we had to sit on dirty floors, and there was no toilet either. There was no food and, worse, there was no water to drink. Luckily my mother had taken some bananas and something to drink with her for the four of us. She also had taken a toilet-pot with her and that was a great help for several of us. Little children started crying, especially when the train stood still (sometimes several hours) and that while the sun was shining on the roof; it was unbearable. We didn’t know where we were being brought; we could hardly see anything at all. This horrible journey took more than 24 hours.

It was in the late afternoon of the 14th of February that we arrived at the station of Ambarawa, in Central Java. A transport of 680 Dutch women and children from Malang stepped out of the train, happy to get some fresh air. The Japanese military yelled at us, and that yelling was translated for us by an interpreter. We all had to climb in the trucks, waiting for us outside the station. Everybody panicked about their luggage, my mother too. She hoped to find our four mattresses, so that at least we could sleep well that night. But we didn’t see our luggage at all.

The trucks drove through a beautiful landscape. At least this time we didn’t have to stand as we had to in Malang. We were all dead tired, hungry and thirsty.

When we arrived at Banyu Biru, we saw a place surrounded by very high walls. What could that be?  When we walked towards the entrance I read: ROEMAH PENDJARA, which means Prison.  My poor mother almost fainted and she said; “Oh my God, oh my God, how horrible!”

 

 

Banyu Biru landscape

 

 

My prison

The Banyu Biru bed-bugs and other horrors

The gate was opened by a group of shabby looking Indonesian men who were very surprised when they saw all those Dutch women and children. Slowly we walked into the prison, into a new nightmare. It was a very old and very dirty prison. Later, when we lived there with 5,000 women and children, we learned that this prison was built for just 1,000 prisoners.

My mother, Henny, and little sister Jansje and I were brought to ward 14, an empty ward. We were told to wait for our mattresses so we just stood there, tired as we were from our horrible journey.

Thank goodness our trunks arrived, so we found some clean sheets to cover those stinking mattresses. We lay down, Henny, my mother, Jansje and I, the four of us close together. We were very hungry by now and frightened because the Japanese had barred the door of our ward and that had made an elderly lady, Mrs. Schaap cry. She kept saying that her heart was hurting her and that she couldn’t breathe well. We all felt very sorry for her, but we couldn’t help her. She looked so helpless on her mattress, the poor woman.

At last the door was opened and locals, also prisoners, brought us some sort of a soup in a big barrel. Everybody in ward 14 said “good night” to each other but hardly any of us slept that night. The elderly lady was dying, and she kept on crying from pain. She died around 5 o’clock in the morning and was the first dead woman in this prison. It was all so terribly sad, and made a deep impression on Henny and me. I was half asleep when Mrs. Schaap was taken away from our ward.

Another nightmare: everybody in our ward was bitten by thousands of bed-bugs! So we all started killing those bugs and when we went outside the ward while the sun was rising we saw that the whole camp had had the same type of visitors that night.

I looked up at those high walls around me. Was this going to be our life and for how long? Luckily for me and everyone else, we didn’t know yet how long we had to stay in this place. It was the 15th of February 1944, for the Japanese the year 2604.

Three days later, the 18th of February, we heard a lot of noise and people talking outside the walls and then when the gate was opened, we saw 950 more women and children walking into our prison. They came from Kediri and Madiun, in East Java. One of them was our aunt Miep. She told my mother that my uncle Pierre had been taken to the Kempeitai prison in Batavia, now called Jakarta.

This meant that both brothers were now imprisoned by the Kempeitai. I felt very sad that day.

 

 

Two brothers Pierre and Theo in better times

My first Banyu Biru camp job

All of us age fifteen and up had to work. I was almost 17 years old so I had to join the group of grass cutters in our camp. It was not a heavy but a very tiring job.  A Japanese soldier, Mr. Ito, stood there with a whip in his hand watching us. We were not allowed to talk or to sit on the ground. We could only squat on our haunches, and that was painful after a few hours. In the beginning we had to work three hours only, but after a while it became four to five hours a day.

The boys of our age had to do the hard work in the kitchen, and they received some extra food. The boys also had to empty the poop-barrels, an extremely dirty job. The boys had to empty the sewers coming from the toilets into those poop-barrels and take them outside the camp. Later on, when the boys had to leave our camp, the work was taken over by the young women and girls. In the afternoon our “lunch” and then our last daily meal of  “starch soup” was brought to us by the boys and dished up by one of the kitchen ladies.

Our home was now only a bed, planks on the floor and the dirty mattresses on top of them and then those bed bugs. We often tried to clean the mattresses and air them for a short while outside. Every morning we killed some bugs. Many of us had mosquito nets but that didn’t protect us against the malaria mosquitoes. Banyu Biru was a real malaria region, we later learned.

Because we were living so close together, people began to quarrel, mostly about the children.

On the 10th of June that same year, 400 women and children were transported to Banyu Biru camp 11, which was a military complex. The camp was behind our camp 10, not too far away. Of course they were happy to leave this prison with those high walls and it gave us, who had to stay behind, a little more room.

My mother asked if she could get a cell for the four of us. Thank goodness we were able to leave ward 14 and move to a cell in group “C- D”. That gave us more privacy at least, though we had very little room to move around. We put two mattresses on the three cabin trunks, for my mother and Jansje, and two on the floor for Henny and me.

A normal life seamed so far away, this prison life so unreal. I very often asked myself if I would ever see Sumber Sewu again, if I could ever walk again through the jungle with my father. I often dreamed that I was with my father, but when I woke up in the morning he was gone.

 

 

Banjoe Biroe 10

The Banyu Biru camp menu

Every morning we had roll call just after we had received our tea. We were allowed to eat our starch, our breakfast, before starting our various daily jobs.  At the prison Banyu Biru, camp10, the menu was always the same from the 15th of February 1944 right until the end of November 1945.

MENU

Tea early in the morning before roll call

Breakfast: a bowl of starch

Lunch: a cup of boiled rice, a heaped tablespoon of boiled green cabbage and a heaped teaspoon of sambal, a sort of Spanish pepper

Tea in the afternoon

Dinner: starch soup with a few leaves of cabbage. One could count the small pieces

As my mother rightly said, it was just enough not to die too soon.

But in the meantime we discovered another problem and that was the malaria mosquito. Many of us fell ill, my mother, Jansje and I among them. We found out a little later why Henny didn’t get malaria, when we saw that she had jaundice.

There were no medicines and no fruit to help us get a bit better either. There were three doctors, Dr. De Kock a surgeon from Surabaya, his pediatrician wife, and then there was Dr. Kruine.

All three of them stood with empty hands. There was extremely little they could do to keep everyone alive. Dr.de Kock operated on one little boy with a razor blade and boiled water, and the operation succeeded. It was a real miracle.

 

 

Banjoe Biroe 10

The toil and moil group

On the 18th of September, 1944, a group of boys between twelve and seventeen years old, several nuns and several old men, altogether 217 people, were transported to Camp 8 in Ambarawa, not far from Banyu Biru.  That very same day 200 women and children from camp Ambarawa 8 were transported to our prison Banyu Biru 10.

Many girls of my age had to take over the jobs the boys of 16 and 17 used to do, and so I came to be in a toil and moil group. We had to work outside the camp ploughing the fields, or walk to Ambarawa with several old Dutch cavalry carts loaded with all sorts of luggage, or we had to carry stones from one place to another, just to be kept busy.

It was often very hard work but I was also happy that I could walk outside of that prison every morning after roll call and after eating that sickening small bowl of starch.  At least we had fresh air, a beautiful panorama and we could see the real world again with all its wonderful colours.

The Japanese camp commandants

Our first camp commandant was Sakai. In November 1944 Suzuki became our second commandant and, in February 1945, Yamada became our third and last camp commander. They not only had the Banyu Biru prison under their commands but also camps 6, 7 and 9 in Ambarawa as well as camp 11 in Banyu Biru. The camp commandants came now and then to give some orders and to tell us what we had to do as well as what was not allowed.

Our first camp keeper was Ochiai; the second one from May 1944 was the very strict Ito; the third one from December 1944 was Hashimoto, who stayed with us just for the month December 1944. Then Ishikawa stayed one month, January 1945, and in February Hashimoto came back again and stayed until May. Our last camp keeper was Wakita, who left us in August 1945.

We were told that from January 1944, we were no longer Internees. From that date on we were considered Prisoners of War, even the youngest children. And so, from January 1944 we were treated as POWs.

It was a strange situation, because in Malang we had been told that the Japanese military had put us in camps to protect us against the Indonesians. Now in Banyu Biru we learnt a different story.

My malaria attacks came more often, more or less every two weeks. With each bout I had a very high temperature, which made my “job” much harder.

My mother and my sister Henny grew very thin, and my youngest sister Jansje hardly played at all. She had quite a few malaria attacks as well. My poor mother also began to lose some of her teeth, and I felt sad to see my family slowly become sicker and sicker.

In the meantime more women and children entered our prison. On the 19th of November 1944, 600 came from Kareës and on the 21stt of November, 350 women and children came from the Tjihapit camp. The trouble was of course that when more people came to our prison, there was less food, less space, less water.

Everyone walking into our prison said the same thing: “What a horrible camp.”

Elizabeth advises that only long after the war she learnt that Koreans using adopted Japanese names were also deployed as camp guards, especially as it was no great honor for the Japanese military to perform this role. Even so, the camp commanders were Japanese and all camps in her region were under the control of the Ambarawa-based Kempeitei.

Christmas 1944

There were many rumours in Banyu Biru camp 10. The Japanese were losing the war. The Americans, British and Australians were winning.

The Japanese camp keeper and his soldiers were quick to be angered about next to nothing. The yelling became louder, and more Dutch women were slapped in the face. That must be, we thought, a positive sign since it was very clear that our Japanese suffered from loss of morale. But of course we were not sure, as we had no contact with the Indonesians either, and the Heiho [Indonesian draft laborer-conscripts] were under strict control of the Japanese camp commandant and his soldiers.

 

Heiho conscripts

Christmas came, a hungry, filthy, sad Christmas in 1944.

How can you dream while you are locked up in a dirty, overcrowded prison, when you are lying on a filthy mattress full of bugs? How can you dream while your stomach cries for food? How can you dream without music?

I was seventeen years old, but I became a little scared to dream at all.

 

 

Banyu Biru 10. This picture was taken after World War Two.

 

Banyu Biru 10 , our home, the cells were meant for 1 person only, but all 4 of us stayed there.

 

 

Banyu Biru 10 , our cells. I received the photos from Mrs.Wood.

Donata desu ka?

Everyone above 15 years old was placed on the list for night watch duty. I was on duty every fortnight between two and four o’clock at night. It was a horrible time right in the middle of the night.

There were always two of us walking together during the night, and each pair of watchers had their own territory. We were supposed to stop smuggling near the wall, but we usually did the opposite. We warned smugglers when Japanese soldiers were coming.

When a Japanese soldier would pass at night he would ask us; “Donata desu ka? [Who’s there?]”  We had to learn these Japanese words but I still have no idea what they really mean.

But most of the time there was no Japanese control at all. We only saw many women and children running for the toilets at night since so many of us had diarrhea. It was quite cold at night, especially in our worn-out clothes. There was nothing to warm us up either, no tea or coffee.

 For me there was always a ray of hope when walking to Ambarawa with my working group. Of course it was a long walk barefoot right over the hot asphalt road, but still when we arrived at the station in Ambarawa we came into another world.

Today the Ambarawa station is a museum.

Elizabeth clarifies that, in contrast to the men’s camps where some kind of pro-Japan indoctrination was the norm, there was no systematic education program at all in the women’s camps. In fact it was strictly forbidden to teach the children. Even though orders were barked or shouted in Japanese, neither were the women allowed to learn Japanese. “No education at all, just hard work.” Every morning, however, the prisoners bowed deeply toward the emperor in Japan.

 

 

Ambarawa station. This picture was taken by my youngest sister.

Sixty-five little Boys

On the 16th of January, 1945, 65 little boys had to leave their mothers. The boys were 10 and some of them even 9 years old. They were taken to Camp 7, a camp for boys and old men. Their fathers were somewhere in Burma, Japan or elsewhere and, from that day on, they were also without their mothers. This was a real nightmare for their mothers.  The Japanese turned more and more nasty. It was clear that Japan was losing the war.

A nightmare

When we came back from our work outside the prison, we saw some cars standing outside the prison, so we understood that we had important Japanese visitors. When we walked through the gate of our prison, we couldn’t believe our eyes. Teenage-girls and young women stood in a queue, while Japanese officers were looking them over from top to toe.

We were ordered to stand in the line as well. I could feel a malaria attack coming up, so I started to tremble a little. I can’t remember how long we stood there, I was afraid that I would faint and had only one thought; “Let me please lie down on my mattress.” When the Japanese officers passed, I didn’t dare look up. I kept my head down in despair.

The very young women who were taken away by the Japanese were crying. This was a real nightmare, after all we had been through so far. This was just too horrible for words. When we could go “home” at last, I found my mother very upset, but she was more than happy when she saw me coming back. She had been so scared that the Japanese would take me away. She had wanted to tell them that they could take her instead of me. But luckily some of the others had held her back, saying that she would only make things worse. And at last I could lie down. I had a high fever by then, but I was so tired that I fell asleep right away. Later on I heard that several of the young women who had been taken away had to leave their children behind. The children were looked after by other mothers. This was a real nightmare!

Not long after this drama, rumors went around our Prison: “All the girls from ten years old would stay in Banyu Biru and Ambarawa and the mothers with the younger children would be sent to Borneo.” Luckily, this didn’t happen.

On the 3rd of May 1945, 600 women and children from Ambarawa camp 9 arrived on foot, and on the 31st of May, 350 women and children came in from Solo. The next day, the 1st of June, 150 more women and children arrived from Solo. On the 4th of June, 21 women and children came in from Ambarawa camp 6 and, on the 3rd of July, 47 came in from West Java. Then, on the 3rd of August, 50 women left the prison and were transported to Ambarawa camp 9 and on the 8th of August, 2,094 women and children walked into our prison. (Data from Japanse burgerkampen in Nederlands-Indië).

It became extremely crowded. We numbered some 5,300 women and children trying to stay alive in this rank, filthy prison. It was really disgusting. I think that it was just to torment us. I was absolutely convinced that Japan was going to lose this war against the Allied Powers. Surely this couldn’t go on forever?

My mother and Henny looked ill. They had pellagra. Big red spots broke out, especially on their arms and legs, because of a vitamin deficiency. Jansje was completely apathetic, the poor girl just sat there in front of our cell, waiting until some food was brought to us. And I had beri-beri, also a vitamin deficiency disease. My face and belly were swollen, full of water, or at least that was how it felt. My mother was losing some of her teeth, which gave her lots of trouble, and there was nothing we could do to stop this.

My poor sister Henny looked dangerously yellow from jaundice, and my poor mother was a bundle of nerves. I was quite worried about her. My mother just had to be better by the end of the war when my father would try to find us. We really had to fight to stay alive, day after day.

Elizabeth informs that all the young women and girls taken from the camps were sent to Semarang, a large port city on the north central coast of Java, from where they were dispatched to brothels for up to two months at a time. From her understanding, around 200 Dutch women and girls were forced to work as “comfort women,” alongside of course numerous Eurasians, Chinese and local women. One of the former Dutch “comfort women is an active member of the Foundation for Japanese Honorary Debt, as explained below.

The Japanese Surrender

Something strange was going on. We received a little more food than usual, and maybe it was just a tiny bit better in quality as well. It was very silent in the Japanese corner. We could see them moving, but for several days they didn’t come anywhere near us.

At last we were told that the war was over. Japan had surrendered to the Allies on the 15th of August, nine days earlier. Nine long days the Japanese had kept this wonderful news to themselves. They knew that they had lost the war and that they should have given their Dutch prisoners their freedom, but they didn’t.

We were free at last and yet we still couldn’t believe it.

In the meantime, several local women came into our prison, looking for work. Our neighbours advised my mother not to take one of the women to help her, because she wore a merdeka badge, which meant that she opposed Dutch rule. Merdeka means independence. Luckily my mother didn’t listen, and she trusted this lovely Javanese lady who brought us all sorts of food from her home, because she felt so sorry for the four of us.

One day she asked my mother if she could take Henny, Jansje and me to her home in the nearby kampung. And so the three of us went with our very nice Javanese hostess who really spoiled us. Her whole family was so nice to us as well. We had a wonderful afternoon.

I can’t remember the name of our Indonesian angel, but I shall never forget her kindness!

 

Fort Willem I    My youngest sister took this picture in 2003

Again we are prisoners

Not long after, we were ordered to stay inside the prison because groups of pemuda, or youth defending the newly proclaimed Indonesian Republic, were trying to kill Dutch prisoners, or so we were told. With Sukarno now the proclaimed President of the Republic, his supporters among the pemuda and others refused to accept Dutch rule. Again the gate of our prison was closed. We now had Japanese soldiers protecting us against angry young nationalists. The lovely Javanese lady who had been so kind towards my mother, sisters and me was no longer allowed to enter our prison; we missed her.

 

 

Pro-Independence Rally, August 1945

I also began to worry how my father could find us now that the prison was locked again. But then I saw several Dutch men walk through the gate and so I understood that the Dutch could freely travel around Java to make contact with their families, although this was very risky. I also saw some women leaving the prison, saying that they were going “home,” and that sounded really good. After the war we learnt that thousands of ex-prisoners were killed by the pemuda, not regular soldiers from the newly formed Indonesian army (TNI).

One morning Henny and I saw one of the Japanese soldiers who was protecting us against the pemuda crying his heart out. Someone asked the Japanese why he was crying. They told us that a terrible bomb had killed his whole family. We felt very sorry for him, but we didn’t know anything about the big bomb they were talking about. Only much later did we learn about the atom bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.

Another day my mother and I were carrying our washtub to fetch water from our prison well, when some pemuda hiding in the tress outside the wall started shooting at us.

About two weeks later the Japanese soldiers left and Gurkha soldiers, serving in the British army, came to protect us. 

Yes, life was definitely better than before. The only trouble was that we were still living behind walls even though the war was over.

I started helping to clean up the gudang (store) where the Japanese had dumped all sort of things. We found out that there were many boxes full with anti-malaria tablets, quinine, and several other medicines that could have saved the lives of the many who died in this prison. We were really shocked, even more so when we found a few cards that had been written to some of the women staying in our prison. In fact, they had never received their cards during the war.  This was disgusting and very sad.

Our father didn’t come yet, and we had no news from him. But of course he was in a Kempeitai prison in Malang, which could make it more complicated to come over to Banyu Biru. He also had to travel alone. The other men came from camps in our neighborhood and they usually came walking in a group. Maybe my father was trying to organize something to get my mother, my two younger sisters and me to Malang.

Maybe my mother would soon receive a letter from him.

 

 

Banyu Biru, picture was taken after the war

We become refugees

It became far too dangerous in the prison at Banyu Biru. The internees from Ambarawa and the two other camps in Banyu Biru were evacuated before us. Perhaps because our prison had high walls, we were the last to be rescued.

In October 1945 the British Gurkhas started evacuating the first women and children from our prison, and of course they were more than relieved to be able to leave this prison behind them.

It was only at the end of November 1945, that the four of us finally left with the last group of women and children the horrible, dirty, foul-smelling prison. And so this last small group walked through the gate into a world of freedom, of fresh air.

But once again there was no news about my father.

 

 

Halmaheira, picture taken by my youngest sister

Final acknowledgment of the death of my beloved father

Towards the end of January 1945 in Kandy in Ceylon (now Sri Lanka), where we recuperated en route to Holland, my mother received a letter from my aunt in Holland conveying the sad sad news that she found my  father’s name on  the death list from the Dutch East Indies. Around the 15th of May we sailed from Colombo bound for the Netherlands, a country I hardly knew.  Upon return to the Netherlands, as I discovered, not all were disposed to welcome home such returnees as ourselves from the Dutch East Indies. It was only in February 1947 that my mother received official notice of my beloved father’s death.

Elizabeth and the Foundation for Japanese Honorary Debt”

Elizabeth has not remained inactive. Quite the contrary. In later life, as mentioned, she re-visited the site of her childhood in Java as well as painfully but unsuccessfully seeking out information on the whereabouts of her father’s gravesite. Having struck up correspondence with Japanese pen-friends, she also visited Japan for a first time pondering upon Japan’s postwar society and the kind of sufferings that ordinary Japanese also endured. Even so, as confided, she still remains perplexed as to Japan’s  postwar remembering or understanding of  the full consequences of  the wartime occupation of the Dutch East Indies.

Among other activities, Elizabeth is an active member of the Holland-based organization called the “Foundation for Japanese Honorary Debts.”  As she told Japan Focus in an interview, rain, hail or snow, she and fellow members regularly picket the Japanese Embassy in The Hague. Among other questions, we asked her about the goals of the Foundation.

G.G.   Please tell us more about the “Foundation for Japanese Honorary Debt,” for example, its goals, achievements, as well as problems.

Elizabeth van K.  The aim of the Foundation for Japanese Honorary Debts is (to demand)  an admission of guilt and an expression of regret from the Japanese Government towards the Dutch war victims of the former Dutch East Indies, that was occupied by the Japanese military from March 1942 till August the 15th 1945. We are all still hoping for a goodwill compensation from Japan for the pain and distress of the Dutch war victims, men, women and children suffered during the Japanese occupation.

G.G.   Are all the members direct victims? Or do you have sympathizer members?  Indeed, do you have any Indonesian supporters? Have you been able to make links with organizations in Japan, if so name them?

Elizabeth van K.   Yes all members of the Foundation are direct victims. I do not know how many are still alive, but I do know that many of us have died during the last five years.  We do have donors who were not war victims, but they are of course not counted as victims.  Yes, we do have Indonesian members of the Foundation.  They are from the Moluccas. They were soldiers in the former Dutch East Indies army.  No, there are no real links with Japanese organizations as far as I know.  The Foundation does go to the United Nations in Geneva now and then, where they get a few minutes to tell their story. 

G.G.  Any ex-”comfort women” members?   How has the exposure of the “comfort women” issue impacted on the Dutch public?

Elizabeth van K.  Yes, we do have several Dutch ex-comfort women, as members of the Foundation. Our Dutch Minister of Foreign Affairs, Mr. M. Verhagen has given a good speech.  While he was in Japan [he raised the question] about those poor women and asked for an apology and compensation for these ladies. The Dutch people are in general not really interested in what happened during WWII in the Far East where people were occupied by Japan. The Netherlands was occupied by Germany for five long years.  The WWII enemy was Germany in the Dutch eyes, not Japan.

G.G.   What are the standard answers offered by the Japanese Ambassador or other officials when you speak with them?

Elizabeth van K.  Only two members, the Foundation’s chairman, Mr. J. F. van Wagtendonk and the secretary of the committee, go inside the Japanese Embassy, while all others stand outside the gate for at least one hour.  The Ambassador does nothing except point to the San Francisco Treaty!  The Japanese Embassy is not happy at all with us standing there with our notice boards, because it attracts quite a few passers-by who ask us what is going on.

G.G.  Any other comment you wish to make?

Elizabeth van K.  You see we also want Dutch apologies and a small compensation from the Dutch government, so the Foundation is still fighting on two fronts.  We know that Australia, Great Britain, Canada and Norway paid their war victims from the Far East, but not Holland. Quite sad really, since Holland declared war on Japan while she completely let down all the residents (Indonesians, Chinese and Dutch) from the Dutch colony. 

 

The Foundation for Japanese Honorary Debt has edited a small book in Dutch and English with 60 stories by or about the experiences of Dutch people in Japanese-occupied Dutch East Indies. The stories include those from men and women in Java and Sumatra but also accounts from the Burma railroad. The English version of the book is titled Eyewitness to War.


 

   
 
 

 
THE OTHER POW OF BANJOEBIRU DAI NIPPON CAMP
 
1..STORY OF WAR PRISONER OF OTHER BANJOBIROE LISA SAMETHINI, NOW STILL LIVING IN AUSTRALIA.Samethini Lisa (now in Australia)June 1944 – All of a sudden a hundred of us were sent to another camp called “Banjoebiroe”. We had to walk. It was about 5 miles and took us about three hours because of the kids, and we must bring our own baggage. ME very happy because he did not see anything outside the camp previously. The Indonesian women working in the field and because it is so far away, he called them little kids. He had blisters and bleeding toes, but no tears or crying. He seemed not to feel it. He is happy to be outside the camp. The next day he was sick, vomiting and abdominal pain. He never cried, just askin for “Mummy”.Our breakfast porridge from tapioca flour. It was like a big bowl jelly and ME can not swallow. bread was made from starch. This camp we are now in is an army camp. That’s a big room that can fit about 40 women and children. There’s so big bathroom, and when you shower with 15 other women at the same time, it was very embarrassing. It’s also sad to see the old lady with all the skin so that they hang off of all the weight loss. I’m skinny myself, but I do not want to be reminded of reality.The Japanese had an idea. We have to find a snail in a large backyard and eat them. We got a bucket full and we took them to the kitchen, where women made of pure from them. We had one scoop of each. I gave Mary-em spoon me because she needed more. She has a mouth full of sores that I wiped with iodine. This is a great drama, of course, because it hurts so much. We all use salt mixed with water to heal our wounds and it worked fine.There are at least five other camps in the vicinity, and one day a woman had smuggled a note to another camp. He was found out, and we must watch as Jap swung around and around by her hair. Several other people have been smuggled food out and they get caught, and had to kneel with a bamboo stick under their knees and stay there for hours. If someone is unconscious, then a bucket of water will be thrown on him because if one fainting others will fall too, because they are all tied to a bamboo one.There are rumors going around that the war would soon end. One day the Japanese say that we had to walk to the station to carry the baggage of another woman who is being moved to close the camps by us. Ida and I went, about 50 women at all. We walked to the station, which is 5 km away, and when the train arrived about 115 women and children out. Of course we were asked where they came from. After several weeks of doing this I began to ask after my mother and sister. One day someone shouted that they knew my mother and sister, and that they are out on the last transport. I am very happy that finally I will see them again, but I got sick with diarrhea and had to stay in bed. Every time I asked if anyone knew when the last carriage came. Ida back one day and told me nextMum day and Tiny will arrive. So I went the next day but we were not allowed to mingle with other women. So we stood on one side of the station, and when the women came out of the train, I looked and looked, and suddenly I saw them and started to call them. They heard me but could not see me, and the other women around me began to call, too, “Mum, Tiny!” And then they see me and I can not go to them. We all cried and waved his hand until it was time to load the baggage and the other made sure Mum and Tiny in the last group, so we can talk. We cried, of course, and when we came into camp, my mum gave me the egg and sugar, then we parted again. But I know where they are, about 10 minutes walk from our camp.They’re still alive! Tiny is so big. He had to work very hard for Japan. He is part of what they call “working groups”. That includes moving furniture, plowing the fields, and he was hit by the Japanese. At the same time he should keep mum, who is often sick, stealing food for him, and hunger and disease are always there. I think that this April 1945. I’m not sure, I forgot many things. I have no more contact with their course.

In August a funny thing started happening. We do not have to work outside again. A rumor went around that the war was over but we could not believe it. Why did not anyone tell us that? Everything is said with a whisper and we see the Japanese come and go. They seem to disappear and it was very still. And then, around 6:00 came, the words we wait, the war ended. No one jumped up and down, no one told us what to do. Women called to the office and said that their husbands were dead, and they come back crying. Then, about a week later, a long list has been posted outside the office with the name

from people who have died. Frank’s name was not on it and so I knew he was alive, but where I do not know.

I asked permission to go to camp and my mother was told by the office there is a way, but then a week later I was told I could go, and I must go within two hours and get myself there. I packed up our stuff and after a long time begging cart to put our stuff, and after all I’m Mary-em, too. No one lifted a finger to help me. Finally, the minister’s wife said that she would help me push the trolley, and so I’m with Mary-em on one arm, I came to the camp. There I waited for another permit to go in there and my nerves were at breaking point. And then Mum and Tiny were there and they helped me in. They did not know that I was coming, and now ME and I’m not alone anymore.

In a short time Indonesian people come to sell vegetables and meat. We did not see meat for three years and we have no money, so we exchange the dress for meat and so forth. Mum and I walked out of camp (which is part of the first days of freedom) to the village to sell some dresses. We sold everything we had and went happily back to camp. What we did not realize is that we could have been shot by Indonesian. There are many people of Indonesia who now enemies.We we heard that my old camp had been raided by 800 Ambawara Indonesia and they have killed hundreds of women and children. After several weeks we were not allowed to go outside the camp again. We do not understand what was happening.

Then we were told an Indonesian who would attack us. Ten Gurkha (this is the Indian soldier serving under the British Army, ed.) Came to protect us. We were all in shock. I shuddered at my mind and my mum around to other villages to sell some clothes. Now I understand why they looked at us like we are so weird

walked through the village all its own. So now we are locked again, to protect us. Just outside my window is one of the Gurkha soldiers with machine guns and hand grenades, and showed me through binoculars from Indonesia where people come. When the shooting started, a woman was killed and several injured. To get to the kitchen, you have to break down the wall because it was too dangerous to go outside. You have to duck for cover, bullets flying around into the cooking drum. One Gurkha was killed. my nerves so bad that I lost control of myself and I started screaming and could not stop. Eventually, they calmed me down and I felt so weak, I could not move.

A few weeks later, British soldiers came to our rescue with a big truck. They had to fight through to get to us. We all packed into a truck, about 20 in a truck, with our mattress on the roof. Along the way the houses on fire. Then the rain started, and we mattreses wet and started to leak and we were wet, so that the mattress was thrown into the street. After about three hours we arrived at another camp. Some Indonesian dead still lying in the street. The alarm will still go and Gurkha more died. We were surrounded by British troops with 14 cannons. Aircraft bombed the village and 10 days later we were transported to camps in Semarang. There, we were not welcome and it took some time before we have one room. Finally, we have a large room where we sleep, Mum, ME, Tiny, a good friend of my mum (Mrs. Bavan name, and although my mother has been known for a hundred years, they still called each other, even all things, Mrs. Boerman and Mrs. Bavan, in the Netherlands was Mevrouw Bavan etc.), two children and me. We sleep on the floor, all in one line. It is ridiculous is that the Japanese now also have to protect us from Indonesia. We were safe there.

We must decide what we do and where to go. We decided the best thing is to go to Jakarta. We can not go there by plane, Indonesian people have airports, so the British decided that we could go by ship transportation. Now that takes some doing. We set off again in a truck. If you are in a transport ship for troops You do not get a bed. We were under the boat and sleep on mats hanging. If you want a shower that only salt water. M.E. have ulcers and it was hot. To get our food we had to stand in line, long line of women and children, and with a little tease, I got the extra butter.

After three days we arrived in Jakarta. We went into the truck again and we arrived at our last camp, called Adek. The rooms are very large, 50 women and children can go into the room. We are free, without a single shot at us, and every night we had a band playing and dancing. Many British soldiers came every night. I, meanwhile, has found that Frank in Manila (he had been transported from Japan), and we wrote to each other. He tried to get to Jakarta. Meanwhile, he was sent to Balikpapan and he said he had a large army tent for us to live, because no homes to live in. It seems that Aussies have bombed it flat. But I had a good time and everything looks different. One day they promised me a boat to Balikpapan. I’m waiting for hours and the boat did not come. They have forgotten to tell me that the boat will not. As I write this to Frank he became very angry and persuaded a pilot friend to take him to Jakarta. He got permission and one day I was out on the road and the truck stop to buy bananas, and that came out, Frank. We looked at each other and I can not say much, it’s like a surprise, so I said, “So you finally made it.” What a stupid thing to say after three years. He kissed me and I took him to the room where Mary-em has been with Tiny and Mum. When the ME saw him, she leapt out of bed and ran to

Frank and said, “That Pappie me!” She immediately recognized him from pictures he used to kiss goodnight every night in the camp. That is the moment you never forget.

Frank slept with men and have no money was stolen, but after a few weeks back we went by plane to Balikpapan on the field without a chair. We sat on our suitcases and ME airsick have but nothing really important. When we arrived at Aberdeen we found a beautiful tent Frank stolen. There is a camp for women who are waiting for tents to be set up and they want me and ME to go there. I told them I was already 3 years in a camp with 3,000 women and children, and no way I’ll be there. After much talking and I was shouting they gave us a two-bedroom cottage that is intended for officers. I get it my way and we moved here we have nothing. They must bring bed and everything and I think they were glad to get rid of me, but I have learned a lot in three years. I’m not a naive little girl anymore. I’ve learned the hard way to stand on its own.

We have nothing, but we are very happy. I have a dress made from parachute material, made by hand, one shorts, one skirt and a blouse. Frank just clothes army. We stayed there for two years and both times we moved to a better tent. Meanwhile, we have our second child, we loved Fransje.

I still can tell a lot more, but these are the important things that happened at that time. Many years later we have two more beautiful girls, Christine and Sandra

Listen
Read phonetically
 
 
 
2.Tetske T. van der Wal

My mother and I were taken to Banjoebiroe at the beginning of August 1945. Her name was Sietske van der Wal-Sijtsma. My name Is Thea van der Wal. We came from Moentilan from Xavier college, where we had been prisoners for 2.1/2 years. We used to live in Bandoeng. but my mother had gone to Surabaya to be with her sister Eke van Driel-Sijtsma, because her brother in law Tobias van Driel had been killed on the 016. My mother never was able to return to Bandoeng, because the Japanese entered Soerabaja. My aunt was pregnant at the time. She gave birth to a little girl in May 1942.  in camp they called me Thea. My mother became very sick in Banjoebiroe and finally in November 1945 she was transported to the Java Centre in Bandoeng. She had jaundice and all kinds of other problems. She has never talked about her life in prison camp. She was in denial. Her husband Klaas van der Wal died on the Burma railroad tracks in Kuie. His remains were transported to Kanchanaburi. My mother passed away in 2003, and I now understand that she must have suffered from a terrible war trauma. She often cried and had nightmares. I found lots of letters after her passing in 2003 from people who were in camp with her. One name on a letter was miss. Hennie, one was a mrs. Tuurink. there was a letter from Mien van Goedang. Marijtje Seijderveld-Postma. Elizabeth van Vaas- Thiel. Any of these names are familiar to you? There were so many people in that prison, it would be a needle in a hay stack. But you never know.  we were in Banjoebiroe 10, the same camp as you.

 
There are very few people I know coming from the prison Banjoe Biroe 10. I hope this note will reach you through Japan Focus.  
 
THE DUTCH KNIL POEM AND  POW CARD IN DAI NIPPON PRISONER OF WAR CAMPS
 
Poems written by my grandfather in japanese POW camp

DROOM
Ik vloeg en steeg en vloeg
Tot dat eek niet hooger kommt

De aarde zag mijn spiedend oog als speel goed in de zoon

Ik zags opeen een van blonde schijn Een licht vrouwen hoof

En dacht nu dalen en we zijn . Im ‘t land  zoo lang beloof

Ik circle de oomlag oomlag. toon ik beneden was

Zat er wand beer in de kraag.Van mij doorweekte  jag

ENGLISH VERSION:

DREAM
Vloeg and I rose and vloeg
Until  I came  no higher

The earth saw my eye and peering into the toy son

I saw a sequence of a light blond appearance main Women

And valleys and we thought now. Im the land so long promise

I circle the oomlag oomlag. show I was downstairs

Was there beer in the wall  FROM my jug.

versi Indonesia

MIMPI
Vloeg dan aku bangkit dan vloeg
Sampai saya tidak datang   lebih tinggi
Bumi melihat mata saya dan mengintip ke mainan anak

Aku zags urutan penampilan cahaya Perempuan pirang  utama

Dan lembah-lembah dan kami pikir sekarang. Im tanah janji begitu lama

Aku lingkaran oomlag oomlag. menunjukkan bahwa aku ada di bawah

Apakah ada bir di dinding kraag.Van saya ledakan basah kuyup

 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
 

 
 
Poems written by my grandfather in japanese POW camp