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The Korea Historic Collections Part Two:Choson Dynasty 1700-1800

The Choson Historic Coillections 1700-1800

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Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

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Pre Choson Dynasty

918-1392

Goryeo Dynasty

the nearly 500 year-old Goryeo Dynasty established by Wang Geon in 918

1392

Taejo Choson  Dynasty

 

The Choson Dynasty(1392-1910) is the nation’s longest-lived. Its founder, Yi Song­gye, took the dynastic name Taejo (“Great Prog­enitor”),

Early Joseon Dynasty

Founding

King Taejo‘s portrait

Monarchs of Korea
Joseon (Choson) Dynasty
  1. Taejo 1392–1398
  2. Jeongjong 1398–1400
  3. Taejong 1400–1418
  4. Sejong the Great 1418–1450
  5. Munjong 1450–1452
  6. Danjong 1452–1455
  7. Sejo 1455–1468
  8. Yejong 1468–1469
  9. Seongjong 1469–1494
  10. Yeonsangun 1494–1506
  11. Jungjong 1506–1544
  12. Injong 1544–1545
  13. Myeongjong 1545–1567
  14. Seonjo 1567–1608
  15. Gwanghaegun 1608–1623
  16. Injo 1623–1649
  17. Hyojong 1649–1659
  18. Hyeonjong 1659–1674
  19. Sukjong 1674–1720
  20. Gyeongjong 1720–1724
  21. Yeongjo 1724–1776
  22. Jeongjo 1776–1800
  23. Sunjo 1800–1834
  24. Heonjong 1834–1849
  25. Cheoljong 1849–1863
  26. Gojong 1863–1907
  27. Sunjong 1907–1910

1418

 King Sejong the Great

King Sejong‘s portrait

In August of 1418, following Taejong’s abdication two months earlier, Sejong ascended the throne.

 

Middle Joseon monarchs: Seongjong to Injo

Portrait of Emperor Gojong, Yi Haeung wearing Tongcheonggwan and Gangsapo. Portrait painted by Yi Hancheol and Yu Sook.

Portrait of Emperor Gojong, Yi Haeung wearing Tongcheonggwan and Gangsapo. Portrait painted by Yi Hancheol and Yu Sook.

Following Seongjong’s reign, the next six Joseon monarchs ruled for a period of 150 years, most of them staying on the throne much longer than the early Joseon monarchs, characterizing the middle years of the dynasty with a sense a security. When King Sejongjong reach the end of his life, he had to choose an heir. Of Seongjong’s many sons, only two were the sons of queens. One of them, Jungjong, was only six years-old when Seongjong died, so the throne went to 18 year-old Prince Yeonsan (Yeonsangun), the son of a concubine who had become queen shortly before the Prince’s birth. Yeonsan proved a violent monarch, seeking vengeance for the death of his mother who had been exiled and poisoned by rival factions at court, and after 12 years he was removed from the throne and replaced by his half-brother Jungjong, whom everyone in the court recognized as the son of a full Queen. Because he was deposed, Yeonsan was stripped of the title King, and given only the rank of prince. At the same time, Yeonsan’s son, Crown Prince Hwang, became ineligible for the throne when his father was deposed, so the line of succession moved to a different branch of the family.

King Jungjong held the throne for a long time, reigning for nearly 40 years. Jungjong was succeeded by his first son King Injong, who reigned only a year and died without an heir, and then his second son, King Myeongjong, who ascended the throne at 12, with his mother Queen Munjeong as regent. Although King Myeongjong held the throne for 22 years, Munjeong did not give up control when her son reached the age of 20, and he was over 30 before he she died in 1565, giving him a chance to rule on his own. He died two years later, and his only son had already died, leaving him without an heir, so he was succeeded by his nephew, Seonjo, the son of his youngest brother, Prince Deokheung.

King Seonjo’s 41 year reign started out well, but as time went by, he became greedy and corrupt. Toward the end of Seonjo’s reign, he entrusted a lot of responsibility to his two eldest sons, Princes Imhae and Gwanghae, sons of one of Seonjo’s concubines. Gwanghae ran the country while Seonjo fled to safety during the seven years of war with Japan under Hideyoshi. Feeling that Prince Gwanghae had more leadership ability than his elder brother Imhae, King Seonjo directed that Gwanghae should succeed him to the throne. This decision was opposed by the Chinese Emperor, who had some control of Korea throughout almost all of the Joseon Dynasty, and felt that the oldest son, Imhae, should succeed Seonjo. There was also opposition to Gwanghae from elements in the court who felt the crown should go to Seonjo’s youngest son, Prince Youngchang, the only Prince whose mother was a Queen. Seonjo’s wishes prevailed, and Prince Gwanghae ascended the throne and ruled for 15 years, and ruled with skill, but the controversy surrounding his succession eventually caused him to be deposed and replaced by his nephew King Injo, the son of Gwanghae’s younger half-brother Wonjong (Prince Jeonwon). Like Prince Yeonsan, Gwanghae was not given the title ‘King’ because he was deposed, and is referred to as ‘Prince’ (Gun), the title of Crown Prince was taken from his son, and the line of succession passed to his brother Wonjong’s line.

Ninth
King Seongjong
l:1457-1494
r:1469-1494
    Tenth
Prince Yeonsan
l:1476-1506
r:1494-1506
    (demoted)
Crown Prince
Hwang
          Grand Prince
Youngchang
           
            Grand Prince
Cheongnyeong
          Prince
Imhae
           
            Prince
Yangpyeong
          15th
Prince Gwanghae
l:1574-1641
r:1608-1623
    (demoted)
Crown Prince
Jil
           
            Donsu           Prince
Euian
           
                        Prince
Shinseong
    16th
King Injo
l:1595-1649
r:1623-1649
           
      11th
King Jungjong
r:1488-1544
l:1506-1544
    12th
King Injong
l:1515-1545
r:1544-1545
          Wonjong     Prince
Neungwon
               
      Prince
Gyeseong
    13th
King Myeongjong
r:1534-1567
r:1545-1567
    Crown Prince
Sun Hoi
    Prince
Sunhwa
    Prince
Neungchang
                   
      Prince
Anyang
    Prince
Bokseong
          Prince
Inseong
    Prince
Neungpung
               
      Prince
Wanwon
    Prince
Haean
          Prince
Euichang
           
      Prince
Hoesan
    Prince
Geumwon
          Prince
Gyeongchang
           
      Prince
Bongan
    Prince Yeongyang           Prince Heungan
           
      Prince
Jinseong
    Prince
Deokyang
    Prince
Hawon
    Prince
Gyeongpyeong
               
      Prince
Igyang
    Prince
Bongseong
    Prince
Hareum
    Prince
Inheung
               
      Prince
Yiseong
    Deokheung
Daewongun
    14th
King Seonjo
l:1552-1608
r:1567-1608
    Prince
Yeongseong
               
      Prince
Gyeongmyeong
   
      Prince
Jeonseong
   
      Prince
Musan
   
      Prince
Yeongsan
   
      Prince
Woonchan
   
      Prince
Yangwon
   

.

16th
King Injo
l:1595-1649
r:1623-1649
    Crown Prince
Sohyeon
                20th
King Gyeongjong
l:1688-1724
r:1720-1724
    Jinjong
           
      17th
King Hyojong
l:1619-1659
r:1649-1659
    18th
King Hyeonjong
l:1641-1674
r:1659-1674
    19th
King Sukjong
l:1661-1720
r:1674-1720
    21st
King Yeongjo
l:1694-1776
r:1724-1776
    Jangjo
                       
                        Prince
Yeonryeong
         
           
                                   
       
                                 
       
                  Crown Prince
(grandson)
Euiso
    Grand Prince
Munhyo
               
                  22nd
King Jeongjo
l:1752-1800
r:1776-1800
    23rd
King Sunjo
l:1790-1834
r:1800-1834
    King Ikjong
(posthumous title)
    24th
King Heonjong
l:1827-1849
r:1834-1849
                         
           
       
            Prince
Euneon
    Prince
Sanggye
    Prince
Hoepyeong
               
            Prince
Eunsin
    Prince
Punggye
    Prince
Yeongpyeong
               
            Prince
Eunjeon
    Jeongye
Daewongun
    25th
King Cheoljong
l:1831-1863
r:1849-1863
               
     
   
      Grand Prince
Inpyeong
    Prince
Boknyeong
    Prince
Yangwon
           
      Grand Prince
Yongseong
    Prince
Bogchang
    Prince
Euiwon
    Prince
Anheung
    Yi Jinik
                       
      Prince
Sungseon
    Prince
Bogseon
          Prince
Angye
    Yi Jintae    
                   
      Prince
Nakseon
    Prince
Bokpyeong
                     
           
            4 illegitimate
sons
                     
       
                                   
   
                                 
   
      Yi Byeongsun           Prince
Heungnyeong
       
      Yi Byeongwon     Prince
Namyeon
    Prince Heungwan     Yi Jaemyeon
               
      Yi Byeongjun           Prince
Heungin
    26th
Emperor Gojong
l:1852-1919
r:1863-1897
r2:1897-1907
           
                  Heungseon
Daewongun
    Yi Jaeseon
       

 Classic Choson

Korea, 1600–1700 a.d. 

 

포항 중성리신라비20090901And while we’re on the subject… Apparently on the same day as they announced the Munmu stele, the Kyongju museum also announced they had discovered the oldest Silla inscription yet in the P’ohang area. No details yet regarding the contents, but it seems fairly legible… (via 조선일보)

포항 중성리 신라비_이성시_20090903

Here Prof Yi Song-si of Waseda is seen inspecting the new find…

 

Part of King Munmu’s stele

신라문무왕릉비_2009090310320005300_P2

Saw on the KBS evening news yesterday that part of King Munmu’s stele has been rediscovered. It was found in an old hanok in the eastern part of Kyongju. Apparently it had been used in the backyard to make a platform or bassin for the water tap… King Munmu (661-681) is famous as the Silla unifier and also for his ‘underwater tomb’ near Kamp’o on the East Sea coast east of Kyongju. According to the Samguk yusa he was cremated and given a water burial, but at the same time there must also have been a conventional tumulus – a stele such as this one would have been placed near a tumulus. It is also said however that the stele was discovered at Sach’onwang-sa, but it would have been unusual to place a stele of a king in a temple; at least I haven’t seen any other examples of that.

The text is not exactly unknown – the stele had earlier been discovered in 1796, as reported in Hong Yangho (1724-1802)’s Igyejip 耳溪集, and rubbings were sent to China where Liu Xihai (1793-1853) included them in his Haidong jinshi yuan. But the stele itself went missing again; another part was discovered in 1961, and now the top part has been found, though it is not clear how complete the text now is. People at the Kyongju museum seem confident that they can decypher a few more characters – i.e. ones that are not included in the Haidong jinshi yuan edition. 

신라문무왕릉비_경주박물관

This is the part from the Kyongju museum. Not very spectacular… from this very useful website, which brings together all the epigraphy from Korea:)

신라문무왕릉비 20090903

This gives a better idea of how it was found, and how the part really fitted in as a nice flat stone to do your washing on! (via 조선일보)

 

Still exorcizing the past

August 13, 2009It is still a tradition to put to rest some minor remnant of colonial history before the major national holidays in Korea, March 1 and August 15 (Liberation day). Kim Young Sam undoubtedly tops the list of such acts with his demolition of the former government general building, later National Museum, which started on Aug. 15, 1995. However, I was surprised to confirm again the nationalist vigour of the Jogye order. These monks of Beomeosa (i.e. 범어사 – one example of how awful the current romanization system can be) are joyfully tearing down a small ballustrade, apparently in Japanase style, despoiling their pagoda, which is treasure no. 250.  The idea is, as always, to restore it to ‘its original state.’ Not very enlightened behaviour, to say the least:

 범어사)난간 해체20090813MSN

법어사 monks20090813

Another famous example that always shows up is that of the iron rods supposedly driven into the soil to destroy the geomantic power – or prevent the birth of great people, according to an 80-year old villager in Gangcheon, near Yeoju (Gyeonggi-do), where an example was recently recovered:

Iron rod 20090813

According to the report, the rod is about 4-5 cm in diameter and 50 cm out of the earth – it is not known yet how deep it is embedded in the earth. As a perceptive student in one of my classes once pointed out, it resembles a rod used in surveying land or rods used to delineate plots of land… As far as I know, nobody has yet seriously looked at any documentary evidence to back up the popular claims that these were meant to be some kind of voodoo needles to sap the strength out of Korea…

 

Choson royal tombs

Taereung of Q Munjeong_K Jungjons spouse_KR_090624_p25_royal3

As ‘predicted’ in one of the earliest posts on this blog, the royal tombs of Choson kings, queens, and princes (?) have been registered as UNESCO world heritage. The Korean application was approved at the 33rd session of the World Heritage Committee in Seville on June 26. It is number nine on the list for the ROK, and more seem to be planned – Hahoe is one of them.

joseon tombs_KT_090624_p25_royal9

(photos via the Korea Times)

This whole UNESCO business seems to be getting out of hand, with everyone pushing whatever they have in order not to be left behind. A refreshing satire from the Chinese side – where the same thing is happening – can be found here.

 

Colonial era heritage still controversial…

There seems to be a growing acceptance in Korea of the value of colonial-era buildings, with many now being registered with the Cultural Heritage Administration. Thus the former Bank of Chosen building in Kunsan – which has a rich colonial heritage - was registered last year as ‘registered cultural property 등록문화재 no 374′. However, there are still throwbacks to past attitudes,  witness this proposal by Chang Sehwang of the DP to make it impossible to make “exploitative facilities from the colonial period” cultural heritage. He does not seem to advocate their demolition, but wants to put them in a different category of “historical materials to be preserved” (역사적보존자료); apart from the problem of how to distinguish exploitative from non-exploitative facilities, if the law passes it would probably become easier to demolish them anyway. Hence the strong opposition to this law from conservation groups such as the 한국군축역사학회 (Korean architectural history society?) and also the city of Kunsan.

20090405gunsan-chosen-bank

Despite its protected status (see the small board in front of the building), the 1923 former bank of Chosen in Kunsan is obviously in need of some repair.

 


Through Gates of Seoul …

Borrowed this title from an old guide book to Seoul by Edward Adams. It’s exactly a year now since the South gate (Namdaemun/Sungnyemun) burnt down; a tragedy of course for Seoul’s (meagre) heritage, but in a way it seems to tie in well with the city’s plans to restore the city walls. I’ll have to hunt down some evidence for this, but it seems that there are definitely plans to rebuild the walls, and then apply for Unesco heritage status… Even the demolition of the old Tongdaemun stadium seems to be connected to this – underneath it was uncovered some pretty impressive remains, including this water gate:

2008121701406_2

For a good overview of the excavation activities concerning Seoul’s walls and gates, see this article in the Chosun.

 

Relic case discovered at Miruksa

20090119_ebafb8eba5b5ec82acec82aceba6aced95a8Today the munhwajae yon’guso unveiled the sarira (relics) case discovered underneath the central pillar shaft (心柱)at Miruk-sa, the famous Paekche stupa near Iksan. Normally such a case is buried underneath the plinth supporting the central wooden pillar of the pagoda – however, as we all know the Miruk-sa stupa (NT 11) is completely made of stone … (Jonathan Best cites a Chinese source which claims that the originally wooden pagoda was destroyed by lightning in 639; so perhaps the box may indeed have originally been placed under a wooden pagoda)

20090119_ebafb8eba5b5ec82ac-ec8baceca3bced97a4ecb2b4

This picture shows the completely dis-assembled pagoda, with the lid just being taken off the sarira case. (from here) It will be interesting to see how this will affect our knowledge of Paekche history. I haven’t seen any transcription yet of the text, but one thing is clear: the Samguk yusa’s romantic story of how the daughter of Silla king Chinp’yong eloped to marry King Mu of Paekche (600-641) will have to be taken with an extra pinch of salt. It is correct though in saying that the temple was founded by King Mu’s queen, but she was a daughter of a Paekche nobleman.

 

Locks.. but not under lock!

200811060145

150 locks and other small metal objects from the Lock museum (쇳대박물관) are currently on exhibit in Tokyo… although they are ‘undesignated cultural treasures’ (비지정문화재) they need permission from the Cultural Heritage Admin. to travel abroad… Permission which was not applied for, yet they clearly left the country without problem! Pictured is a lock said to date from the Koryo period (via Donga)

 

Destruction of Silla fortress

This story just caught my eye on Daum (via Ohmynews) – apparently the city of Mungyong is destroying the ancient fortress of Komo sansong (Sinhyon-ri, Masong-myon, Mungyong), believed to have been built ca. 470. The reason? To make way for a Confucian Culture zone tourist project – whatever that may be. Despite protests by local cultural protection groups, the work is continuing. Apparently permission was granted, and the Cultural Heritage Administration is powerless because the site is not listed… It is really baffling, all the more so since excavations were carried out last year, by the Chungwon munhwajae yon’guso (presumably yonguwon), which revealed a unique subterranean wooden structure, believed to date to the Silla period:

This image via the Dong-a ilbo. Just imagine what the outcry would have been like if China had touched a Koguryo fortress … From this picture it appears that the purpose is simply to remove the old walls and replace it with a flash new structure as can be seen in the foreground:

 

2–1910

The Manchu invasions of the Korean peninsula and the subsequent establishment of the Qing dynasty in China during the first half of the seventeenth century shape the Joseon elite’s view of its own culture. Scholars and officials increasingly take an interest in Korea’s history, geography, agriculture, literature, and art. The new strain of research, now commonly termed sirhak, or “practical learning,” is in vogue through much of the two centuries between 1600 and 1800. It is manifested in practical legislation that seeks to control and enhance the government’s bureaucratic workings and the lives of the general population, especially the peasants.

Culturally, a similar strain of interest in things Korean finds expression in works of art that explore native vernacular, geography, and social customs. Fiction written in hangeul (Korean writing) explores nontraditional themes that fall outside of yangban (literati) interests, and are often authored by people of the lower classes. Paintings of the eighteenth century depicting famous sites in Korea and the daily lives of people—known as “true-view” landscape painting and genre painting—evidence the vibrant and “Korean” artistic expressions of this period. Ceramic production, having suffered setbacks following major Japanese and Manchu invasions of the peninsula, reemerges with fresh creativity by the second half of the seventeenth century and through the eighteenth century.

Attention to Korea’s history and culture does not mean indifference to foreign stimuli. On the contrary, there is enduring, if selective, interest in and relations with the world outside, alongside discoveries of native potentials. Diplomatic and cultural exchanges with China and Japan continue, despite ambivalence and mistrust, and contribute significantly to shaping Joseon culture. Sporadic and largely accidental contact with the West sparks the two worlds’ awareness of each other.

KOREAN CLASSICS

Woodblock of the Tripitaka Koreana.
Woodblock of the Tripitaka Koreana. The carving of the woodblocks for the Korean Tripitaka (Buddhist canon) began in the early eleventh century and was completed in 1087. The original woodblocks were destroyed during the thirteenth-century Mongol invasions. The Tripitaka Koreana that remains today is a later edition, begun on Kanghwa Island, where the court had taken refuge from the Mongols. It was completed in 1251. Requiring about 81,200 woodblocks, this edition combines accuracy with beauty. This woodblock was presented to then- Librarian of Congress Daniel J. Boorstin by Dr. Hong Joo Moon, President of the Academy of Korean Studies, in 1986. (Korean Collection, Asian Division)

The Library’s Korean collection has made up for a relatively late start and now stands as the largest The Library’s Korean collection has made up for a relatively late start and now stands as the largest and   most comprehensive outside Korea. Although the collection is largely contemporary (this aspect is discussed later), it does contain a number of valuable pre-nineteenth-century publications in traditional format. Korea, like Japan and Vietnam, absorbed early cultural influences from China, including language, and many of its early classics were written in Chinese. Old Korean books, however, are quite different from their counterparts in China and Japan. They tend to be larger and are often printed on tough, durable paper, which is noted for its beauty and uniform whiteness. Because of the paper’s quality, Korean versions of Chinese classics sometimes survived the original printings in China. For example, the only existing version of an important fourteenth-century Chinese map, Sheng-chiao Kuang-pei t’u (Map of the Vast Reach of China’s Moral Teaching), is a fifteenth-century Korean work containing a copy of the original.

The Library has some 422 titles (2,900 volumes) of rare Korean books, printed on mulberry paper in Chinese characters, many of which were obtained in the 1920s. While the majority of the Korean rare books are in the Asian Division, thirteen titles are in the Law Library. There are also rare Korean maps in the Geography and Map Division, including those provided to the Library by the American geographer Shannon McCune. Unique Korean photographs may be found in the Prints and Photographs Division.

Yi Munsun Chip (1241).
Yi Munsun Chip
(1241). The collected works of Yi Munsun (the literary name of Yi Kyu-bo), the great poet, scholar, and statesman of Korea’s Koryo Dynasty (918-1392), were edited and printed with metal movable type by his son Yi Ham in about 1241. This was some 215 years before Gutenberg used a similar process to print his famous Bibles in Germany. Printed on handmade mulberry paper, the eight-volume work contains Yi Munsun’s essays, poetry, descriptions of early printing, warnings against shamanism, and his autobiography. (Korean Collection, Asian Division)

The most important contributor to the Library’s classical Korean book collection was Dr. James S. Gale, a Canadian missionary who arrived in Korea in 1888 and spent the next forty years there. A prodigious scholar, Gale translated many of Korea’s literary classics into English and wrote numerous books on Korean history, literature, and culture. Gale helped the Library procure a number of Korean classics, including rare books from the estate of the Korean scholar Kim To-hui. In 1927, the Library received the major portion of Gale’s own library, more than doubling its Korean holdings.

Korea made a special contribution to the technology of printing by developing movable cast metal type, beginning in 1241. Although China first used movable type made of clay, it was in Korea that printing with movable metal type reached a high point in the fifteenth century. Korean printing technology spread to China and Japan, but movable type was not a commercial success and by the nineteenth century had been almost completely displaced by the older woodblock printing. This technology in turn soon gave way to European typography. The Asian Division holds some fine examples of Korean printing from metal movable type. These include the collected writings, printed in 1744, of the renowned sixteenth-century Confucian scholar and statesman Yi I and the 1834 reprint of the works of the “father of Korean literature,” Ch’oe Ch’i-won (857-915 A.D.). Examples of rare woodblock-printed books include a history of the Koryo Dynasty (Koryð Sa), printed in 1590, and the law code of the Yi Dynasty (Kyongguk Taijon), printed in 1630.

Map of Korean Peninsula.
Map of Korean Peninsula.
This map of Korea is one of twelve handcolored maps in the manuscript atlas, Tae Choson Chido (Great Korean Map). The atlas, dating to circa 1800, has individual maps of the provinces of Korea and maps of the world, China, and Japan. (Geography and Map Division)
Tonqui Pogam (A Valuable Treatise on Oriental Medicine). Tonqui Pogam (A Valuable Treatise on Oriental Medicine).
The Tonqui Pogam was written by the physician Ho Chun at the order of King Sonjo (1567-1608). Completed in 1611, it combines Chinese and Korean medical writings on disease and treatment, and covers topics such as pediatrics, gynecology, acupuncture, surgery, and general medicine. The most important medical compendium of Korea’s Yi Dynasty, the work was widely read in China and Japan. This 1754 edition, consisting of twenty-two volumes, was printed with wood blocks.

Group of miniature funerary vessels, porcelain, Choson dynasty, 1400-1600

Yun Hyu (尹鑴, 윤휴, 1617-1680) was a Chosun dynasty scholar and government official. His ancestral home is Namweon (南原, 남원); his courtesy name was Heuijung (希仲, 희중), which indicates he was the second born son; and his pen names were Baekho (白湖, 백호, “white lake”) and Haheon (夏軒, 하헌, “summer veranda”).  He was nominated to be a Jipyeong (持平, 지평) as a Yebinshijeong (禮賓寺正, 예빈시정) and had served in various other posts, before he left politics to absorb himself in scholarly pursuits. He was a member of the Southerner faction (南人派, 남인파). With the expulsion of that faction, he was exiled to Gapsan (甲山, 갑산) and sentenced to death by poisoning.

陋巷 누항

The Squalid Alley

明着衣冠士子身 명착의관사자신
簞瓢陋巷不厭貧 단표루항불염빈
雲開萬國同看月 운개만국동간월
花發千家共得春 화발천가공득춘
邵子吟中多氣像 소자음중다기상
淵明醉裏樂天眞 연명취리낙천진
從來大隱皆城市 종래대은개성시
何必投竿寂寞濱 하필투간적막빈

Augustly wearing the clothes and hat, a body of a scholar,
On the squalid alley with its bamboo baskets and gourd dippers, does not get annoyed at the poor.
When the clouds open, ten-thousand [1] countries altogether see the moon.
When a flower blossoms, ten-thousand households [2] together have Spring.
In the poems of Soja [3], much of nature and temper.
In the drunkenness of  Yeonmyong [4], the joy of innocence [5].
From times past, large hermits all lived in towns and markets.
Why is it necessary to throw a fishing line from the tranquil water’s edge?

Notes:

  1. That is, everyone or many people.
  2. Again to mean “many people.”
  3. Refers to a Song dynasty scholar and poet by the name of Shao Yong (邵雍, 소옹, So’ong, 1011-1077).
  4. Refers to the Eastern Jin dynasty poet Tao Yuanming(陶淵明, 도연명, Do Yeonmyeong, 365-427).
  5. 天眞 (천진, cheonjin) does not mean “heavenly truth” but “innocence” or “naivete.”

Characters:

  • 陋 (루, ru) – to be squalid (누추하다) or filthy (더럽다).
  • 簞 (단, dan) – bamboo basket (소쿠리) or lunchbox (도시락).
  • 瓢 (표, pyo) – gourd dipper (바가지).
  • 濱 (빈, bin) – water’s edge (물가).

An Jeongbok (安鼎福, 안정복, 1712-1791) was a Chosun dynasty scholar and government official. He was of the Gwangju (廣州 ,광주) An clan. His courtesy name was Baeksun (百順, 백순) and his pen name was Sun’am (順庵, 순암). He belonged to the Southerner’s faction and the Silhak school of thought, and did initially take interest in Catholicism when it was first introduced by Yi Seunghun and other Silhak scholars. However, unlike the others authors covered this week, in the end, An Jeongbok criticized Catholicism and Western thought and warned other scholars who took interest in it in his work, Thoughts on the Study of Heaven (天學考, 천학고, Cheonhakgo).

白雲有起滅 백운유기멸
靑山無改時 청산무개시
變遷非所貴 변천비소귀
特立斯爲奇 특립사위기

white-cloud-to have-to rise-to destroy
blue-mountain-to have not-to change-time
to change-to move-to be not-that/which-value
to be special-to stand-this-to be-commendable

White clouds have risings and vanishings;
Blue mountains do not have changing times.
Transformations and alterations are not something to be valued.
Standing independently — this is [what is] commendable.

     *Han Hyo Joo as DongYi / Choi suk bin
    
11—49 years old. Born on 1670 (11 th year of King Hyunjong)
Later, Mother of King Youngjo. She was honored as Sukbin which is located third level in Chosun lady’s hierarchy system.
She is very bright, smart and witty. Not only smart but also warm heart, she cannot pass poor person freely. After her father and brother was executed bitterly, she became a orphan. As police officer Mr. Seo Yongki chase her continuously, she hide herself in Jangakwon, which is music academy, with the help of Suli. With her born familiarity and wit, she is chosen as a helper in palace from the slave position. Behind her, there is Cha Chunsoo, who gave her a love in spite of all kind of sacrifice. He is best friend of her brother, Dongju.
Later, surprisingly, she was picked up by Sukjong to sleep with. Then, discord against queen Chang Heebin, then, return of queen Inhyun, giving birth to a prince, Yeonanggun. Love from Sukjong, trouble with queen Inhyun. Education of prince Yeonanggun, whose position was always in danger.
Within the difficulty which concubine would face and her son’s royalty to her, her life faced incredible turning point.
    *Ji Jin Hee as King Sukjong
    
24-60 years old. The 19th king of Chosun dynasty (1661—1720)
His- childhood- time name was Soon.
He was absolute monarch of Chosun. He recovered the authority of king which had dropped before. Though he became a king when just 14 years old, with the powerful leadership and wide knowledge, he succeeded and ruled experienced old his subjects. To recover royalty of king which had dropped through 2 times war, he eliminated Song Siyul who was the biggest scholar in Chosun.
With the powerful leadership and gut, he controlled his subjects and used the power game among his subjects.
Though he was scareful king to his subjects, he is delicate and smart. That means, he was smart and fantastic king to the numerous concubine. He met Dongyi first time during palace festival, then, he was impressed by her warmth and smartness.    *Bae Soo Bin as Cha Chun Soo
    
20-55 years old
New leader of Hanyang Gumgae, which is secret swordsman organization.
He worked as corpse inspector during the day and acted as a key member of Gumgae, whose purpose was cleaning the governmental disorder during the night. Though he is in low class person, he has academic ability and can use sword very well.
He is trusted very much by Choi Hyowon, who is father of Dongyi. He was a young staff of Gumgae organization and best friend of Dongju, who is brother of Dongyi. When Mr Choi and Dongju were executed, they ask him to take care of Dongyi. Afterwards, he took care of Dongyi for his whole life. After Choi Hyowon died, he rebuilt Gumgae organization and became a new leader. He never forgets the word of baby Dongyi, which is, “When I grow up, I will marry with Chunsoo”. He loves Dongyi with his whole life.    *Park Ha-sun as Queen In-hyun
    
(1667 – 1701)
First queen of Sukjong, who was 19th king of Chosun dynasty.
She has warm heart , but she was paid no attention by Sukjong. She was expelled out of palace once, then, she came back as a queen again. But she died early. She trusted Dongyi very much and gave many helps to her.    *Lee So-yeon as Lady Jang
    
(1659 –1701)
Second queen of Sukjong.
She entered palace with the help of Cho Sasuk. Her first name was Chang Okjung. She received love of Sukjong, but she was expelled by Sukjong’s mother. When her party, Namin, succeeded to get power, she could come back to palace and succeeded to give birth to prince, Kyun. When her son became a successor of king, her position was upgraded to second queen.
When Sukjong’s first queen, Inhyun was expelled, she became first queen. But, afterwards, Sukjong regrets his mistake, he recovered Inhyun’s position, then, made Heebin Chang to second queen again.From the start to the last, she made rivalry with Dongyi. Finally she died by the penalty of death.

    *Jang Jin Young
    
30 – 60 years old. Police chief.
He has fair and straight personality and careful.
He valued high the ability of Choi Hyowon who was working as a corpse inspector, which is the lowest job. Mr. Seo has treated Mr. Choi as a normal class person in spite of his low society position.But, after his father was killed by Gumgae member, he feel betrayal and swear to clean Gumgae.
When Dongyi became the helper of police, he met her again. At that time, he was high official, then, help her lots of times.

    *Choi Cheol-Ho
    *Jung Yumi

 
 
In full disclosure, unlike many Korean-Americans (“1.5 generation” included), the author of this blog is not a Protestant. In fact, he tries to stay away from Protestantism for the same reasons that he stays away from the beer Keystone. He is Catholic, though not too happy about the state of the Church today, as hopefully made clear in the following post.Yi Byeok (李檗,이벽, 1754-1786) was born into the Gyeongju Yi family clan (慶州李氏, 경주이씨). His pen name was Gwang’am (曠菴, 광암, “empty hermitage”). Although well-versed in Confucian classics like many early Korean Catholics and unlike his brothers, he did not take the civil entrance exam and did not pursue government position. He was Korea’s first Catholic catechist. Unlike many lay catechists today, who teach from books that are no more informative than coloring books, Yi Byeok actually taught Catholicism. One of the remarkable things about the Catholic Church in Korea is that it was not founded by missionaries. Rather, it was started by Korean literati who read Catholic books and wished to pursue the religion on their own. Indeed, as there were no Catholic clergy established in Korea until the mid-18th century, Yi Byeok was baptized by fellow Catholic layman Yi Seunghun. The following is an excerpt from his catechism, The Essential Meaning of the Heavenly Religion, or Seonggyoyoji (聖敎要旨, 성교요지). It is modeled on the poems found in the Classic of Poetry, and was meant to be sung. Most of the early Catholic works written by Korean Catholics were done in Classical Chinese, was only translated into Korean later.未生民來 前有上帝 미생민래 전유상제
唯一眞身 無聖能比 유일진신 무성능비
六日力作 先碧天地 육일역작 선벽천지
萬物多焉 旣希差異 만물다언 기희차이
遂辨和土 將位靈矣 수변화토 장위영의
命處賜薹 千百皆與 명처사대 천백개여

There was not yet life and the advent of mankind; [but] before, there existed the Lord Above [1].
There was only one true body: there was no sage that can be equaled [to Him].
In six days, with His strength, He created: first, the blue heavens and earth [2].
All creation is many; from the beginning, [how] rare and [how] distinct.
At last, He decided, collecting earth, in order to place a soul.
Life and place, He bestowed rapeseed [3]. To thousands and hundred, all He gave [to them].

Notes:

  1.  上帝 (상제, Sangje) – Confucian word for God. Pope Clement XI’s decree Ex Illa Die actually forbid the use of this word among Chinese Catholics in 1705.
  2. Catholic Church does not teach literal six day creationism.
  3. That is, nourishment.
Characters:
  • 薹 (대, dae) – rapeseed

Late Choson Period

DSC00472.JPG (145346 bytes)

The postwar period of the 17th century in Choson witnessed a great deal of social and economic upheavals.  The rise of wealthy merchants contributed to the decline of the yangban society, while financial difficulty drove the government repeatedly to undertake tax reforms and sales of titles.  Upward social mobility, almost unknown in the prewar period, began to take place.  Rich peasants and merchants acquired yangban status, and nobi bondsmen were able to purchase freedom.

Neo-Confucian orthodoxy was called into questions by a rising critical spirit which engendered distrust of the yangban.  The impact of Western culture, entering through China, gave further impetus for the development of pragmatic studies which called for socioeconomic reforms and readjustments.  Factional strife also intensified.  Attention was drawn to agricultural problems as more yangban – dropouts from the struggle for official power – became involved land cultivation issues.  As a result, agromanagerial techniques and production methods were steadily improved  Privately operated handicraft factories replaced government-operated ones, stimulating the production of goods for sale.

The increase in mercantile activities expedited the rise of commercial farming, which in turn began to transform rural life.  The circulation of coin currency spread, provided a bridge between rural life and city economy.  The rise of popular verse and fiction drew the attention of the people to the government abuses and encouraged their participation in social reforms.

 

1585

 

The factional split in 1585 was between a younger and an elder group of scholars, called the Tong-in (Eastern) faction and the Soin (Western) faction, respectively, and this rivalry was intensified under the postwar financial difficulties.  Splits often occurred over issues such as the questions of selection of the crown prince and rituals of royal mourning.

 

TheTong-in faction divided again into the Namin (Southern) faction and the Pugin (Northern) faction, and the latter gained power during the reign of King Kwanghaegun (r. 1608-1623), who made efforts to restore the Confucian state.  When the Manchus rose up against Ming China, who asked Choson for assistance, King Kwanghaegun, mindful of the assistance rendered by the Chinese in Choson’s struggle against the Japanese, promptly sent an army of 10,000.  However, when it became obvious the Manchus would be victorious, the Chosons quickly surrendered thus avoiding any retaliation.

 

In the aftermath of this switch, King Kwanghaegun was deposed by the newly ascendant Soin faction which was pro-Ming.  The insurrection which ensued demonstrated the necessity of strengthening the defense of the capital area.  Accordingly, new camps were built around the capital city, and Namhansansong fortress was constructed for its protection.

 

The Manchus thus felt the need to eliminate any threat from Choson.  The peace treaty concluded after the first Manchu invasion stipulated that Choson would come to the aid of the Manchus, not the Ming.  Upon King Injo’s (r. 1623-1649) refusal to acknowledge a suzerain-vassal relationship in 1636, the Manchu ruler, now enthroned as the Qing Emperor of China, invaded Choson.  King Injo fled to Namhansansong fortress, then capitulated to the invaders on a bank of the Han-gang river.  He agreed to break relations with the defeated Ming and to send princes as hostages.

 

This personal surrender of King Injo was a double blow to the monarchy and yangban, as the nation had  to acknowledge subservience to the “pagan” tribes of the Manchu.  Distrust of the orthodox Neo-Confucian yangban began to grow in the minds of the people, who had been denied an opportunity to resist the Qing army.

 

A deep sense of humiliation and disgrace was felt, and sympathy toward Ming was strong.  The peasants and bondsmen openly ridiculed the yangban; offspring of interclass mating, mostly between yangban men and non-yangban women, also posed a serious social problem.  These illegitimate sons of prominent officials were considered outcasts and banned from governmental service.

 

Resentment of the rigid social stratification as described at the Hong Kil-tong chon spurred the rise of revolutionary ideas.  The basic theme in the novel – that all men were created equal – gave encouragement to the people and further undermined the prestige of the yangban society.

 

Postwar Readjustment

The urgent tasks of the postwar period included the reorganization of defense forces and the increase of state revenues.  The Border Defense Council (Pibyonsa) was elevated to the status of a de facto decision-making body, consisting of state councilors, ministers of the six boards and military staff generals, which made important decisions ranging from war to the selection of the Crown Prince.

The arts of war which had proved to be effective in defense against Japanese pirates on the south China coast were given first priority in the postwar defense activity.  This system of army training, however, required an additional budget which had to be collected as taxes from the peasants.  Privately owned bondsmen, who had previously been exempted from military service, were recruited for training, and had a new reason to consider themselves equal to commoners.

The reconstruction of palace buildings and the printing of lost books, such as duplicate sets of the Choson Wangjo Shillok (Annals of the Choson Dynasty), land ledgers, and census records, all required extra funds.  Wooden printing type was carved because of the metal shortage brought about by arms production.  Books were sold to pay for expenses, contrary to the prewar practice.  Efforts were made to revive the peasant economy, the main source of revenue.

1610

Medical care for the disease-stricken populace was an urgent need and gave impetus to the compilation of medical treatises such as Tong-ui pogam (Exemplar of Korean Medicine), which was completed in 1610.

The system of recruitment for the bureaucracy by merit had long deteriorated, as both civil and military service examinations virtually became levers in the hands of powerful officials and the faction in power.  The irregular special examination graduates created a pressing demand for land, at the same time the practice of holding unregistered land was draining state revenue.  As some yangban sought control of tax-free school land, the number of private schools quadrupled during the 17thcentury alone, multiplying the school estates which sheltered an increasing number of literati and students.

The royal relatives and officials in power accumulated land deserted in wartime and converted it into tax-exempt holdings.  Competition for government office became intense, since a term in office could easily lead to economic advantage. 

1649-1659

Tax Reforms

During this period, there was a gradual rise of subordinate agents of the tribute-tax collector who collected extraordinary additional amounts.  This practice, started during the prewar period, became so rampant that peasants often turned over their land to powerful yangban, who would then help them to withdraw the land from registration so that the yangban could collect the tax themselves.

Attempts to convert the tribute-tax to an additional tax on land were partly successful.  An additional tax on land, Taedongpop (Uniform Land Tax Law), was vigorously advocated by Kim Yuk, the chief minister of King Hyonjong (r. 1649-1659).  Its implementation proved highly advantageous both to state revenues and to the lot of the peasants.  Such an outcome was especially valuable to King Hyojong, whose aim was to strengthen the army and increase national revenue so as to oppose the Qing.  As a further revenue measure, he decreed a universal tax in exchange for exemption from military service to be paid by all males, even monks.

Hyojong’s anti-Qing ideas came to naught, for in 1654 and 1658, he was forced to send trained military men at the request of Qing China to help them fight in Manchuria against Russian invaders.  His economic policies were more effective and the population more than doubled in the ten years after his death.

The increase in the national population from 2,290,000 in 1657 to 5,018,000 in 1669 was remarkable.  The Hanyang population grew from 80,572 to 194,030 in the same period.  The national increase was largely due to the enforcement of tax reforms and the improvement in agromanagerial and agricultural techniques.  The increase in the Hantang population along can be attributed to the influx of merchants dealing in goods no longer paid to the government as tribute-tax.

After the Taedongpop was implemented in most parts of the country the governmental demand for local products in kind was met by merchants who became purchase agents for that purpose.  Acquiring the privilege of monopoly, they set the pattern for the guilds which spread nationwide.  The decline of government-operated workshops and manufacturer stimulated artisans and technicians to create private workshops and to go into business as dealers in their own products, often forming into guilds.

In the provincial towns, markets were held every five days, serving as channels between producers and Hanyang merchants.  The licensed suppliers of local products in Hanyang gradually accumulated capital with their lucrative and guaranteed transactions.

Thus a new notion of wealth came into being: that of mercantile wealth, consisting no longer of land and bondmen but of commodities for quantitative trade in money.  Commercial capital was given a foundation on which to grow, as trade flourished and currency circulated.  However, these efforts, whose purpose was to preserve the Confucian yangban society, led to the erosion of that same society.

Rise of a Reformist School

With the death of King Hyojong, the yangban no longer paid the universal military service tax, and were once again virtually exempted from military service.  A critical attitude developed among the out-of-power yangban.  Yun Hyu and Pak Se-dang were among the prominent scholars who attacked the idolized system of Chu Hsi.  Conservative yangban branded them as heretics, but the time was ripe for the rise of a new school of thought critical of the traditional order.

To the new generation of scholars, the living  conditions of the people meant more than the problems of legitimacy and ritual so head to the literati of Neo-Confucian bureaucracy.  “No nation can survive without the well-being of the peasant, whereas the people can flourish even without a monarch.” Such was the modern thinking that underlay the reformist schools’ pragmatic studies.

Yu Hyong-won in his Pan-gye surok (Essays on Social Reform) suggested the following measures: the establishment of a land system under which benefits could be shared equitably by all; the institution of the recommendation system which would replace civil service examinations; the establishment of equal opportunities for all men; the reform of government organization; and the adoption of new learning.  His proposals found no official acceptance, but his reformist school of thought became the mainstream of pragmatic studies.  Emphasis was given to agriculture, since the success of the suggested reforms depended upon the solution of agricultural problems.  The need for pragmatic studies was keenly felt by scholars who were removed from the bureaucracy.  The latter, on the other hand were preoccupied with internal power struggles, and factions clashed over differing interpretations of Neo-Confucian rites.\

During the latter half of the 17th century,

1669-1717

 the struggle for power among the factions became fierce and more factions split off, among which the Noron faction, or the elder group, and the Soron, the younger group, were prominent.  Such factional strife had nothing to do with the life of the peasant or national interests.  The majority of the younger group began to show concern over the well-being of the peasants, who condition was closer to their own, since many of the yangban engaged in farming and could not even afford to hold bondsmen.

It was in this process of socioeconomic change that the reformist school went with the demands of society.  Mercantile activities continued to grow with the development of government-licensed supplier guilds on a nationwide scale and their transactions accounted for 60 percent of the total government revenue.  Government revenues were constantly growing during this period, and some wealthy farmers converted their status to that of the yangbanKing Yongjo’s Reforms

Realizing detrimental effects, on state administration, of factional strife during the latter half of the 17th century in Choson Dynasty, King Yongjo (r. 1724-1776) attempted to end factional strife as soon as he ascended the throne.  To reinstate the short-lived universal military service tax, he even came out of the palace gate and solicited the opinions of officials, literati, soldiers and peasants.  He reduced the military service tax by half, and ordered the deficiency supplemented by taxes on fisheries, salt, vessels and an additional land tax.  King Yongjo also regularized the financial system of state revenues and expenses by adopting an accounting system.  His realistic policies allowed the payment of taxes in grain in the remote Kyongsang-do province to nearby ports, and payment in cotton or cash for grain in mountainous areas.  The circulation of currency was encourage by increased coin casting.

His concern for the improvement of peasant life was manifest in his eagerness to education the people by distributing important books in Korean script, including books on agriculture.

The pluviometer was again manufactured in quantity and distributed to local offices, and extensive public works were undertaken.  King Yongjo upgraded the status of the offspring of commoners, opening another possibility for upward social mobility.  His policies were intended to reassert the Confucian monarchy and humanistic rule, but they could not stem the tide of social change.

Mercantile activities increased in volume at a rapid rate in the 18th century.  There was accumulation of capital through monopoly and wholesaling that expanded through guild organization.  Many merchants were concentrated in Hanyang.  The traditional divisions of government-chartered shops, the licensed tribute-goods supplier, and the small shopkeepers in the alleys and streets, were integrated into the fabric of a monopoly and wholesale system.  The temporary shops were originally set up to meet the demands of the people on special occasions, such as civil service examinations, royal processions and other national events, but the continued after the events to supply the general populace with groceries and sundry items.  Operated by poor shopkeepers in temporary huts, they were for the most part dependent on the wholesale merchants.  As a result, the wholesale merchant’s price policies had direct impact on the life of the populace of Hanyang.

The artisans often became self-employed producers.  Some even developed into factory owners and obtained charters of monopoly for the sale of their products.  In some cases, it proved more lucrative simply to be a wholesale dealer in certain commodities than to engage in the production of goods.  It was becoming fashionable among merchants and artisans to obtain charters by creating a new commodity through minor refinement of goods already chartered.  The charter ensured monopoly and the protection of the government.

The so-called estuary merchants monopolized commodities from the provinces of Kyonggi-do and Ch’tungch’dong-do, and other wholesale merchants had nationwide networks for the sale of ginseng.  The merchants of Kaeson or Songdo competed vigorously with their Hanyang counterparts in wholesale activities, conducting tripartite international trade between Japan and China; they traded ginseng and other Korean products for Japanese silver and Chinese books and silk.  They even accompanied the envoy missions to China in their quest for gain.  They went into the business of buying up paper for trade to China from the original producers in Buddhist temples, horse hair for hats from the remote southern Chjudo island and otter fur from hunters on the east coast.

The constant movement of trading ships between and among these remote ports is described in Yi Chung-hwan’s T’aengniji (Ecological Guide to Korea) and depicted in Yi In-mun’s painting, the Inexhaustible Rivers and Mountains.

The monopoly and wholesale activities created a larger demand for silver and copper, which in turn gave impetus to the mining industry.  Under strict control of the government in prewar times, mines were turned over to private operators.  In the 17th century, 68 silver mines were in operation but copper mining was not well developed, as copper was supplied by Japan.  In the 18th century, however, copper mines were also developed when the Japanese stopped exporting copper and Qing demanded great supplies of it.

The constant rise in price of commodities would have threatened the livelihood of the populace of Hanyang had they not been involved one way or another in mercantile activities.  Regardless of status, many yangban and commoners engaged in some kind of merchant activity.

Thus Hanyang made great strides as a commercial and industrial city in the 18th century.  The popular demand for handicraft goods such as knives, horsehair hats, dining tables and brassware was ever increasing.  Restrictions on the wearing of the horsehair hat, originally a symbol of yangban status, virtually disappeared.

The increase in the number of yangban had been the root cause of their impoverishment, as their land-holdings had to be divided equally among the sons at the least, and often among daughters as well, whether married or not.  The yangban of declining fortunes had the choice of either engaging in agriculture as an owner-cultivator, or in lucrative enterprises indirectly.  Money-lending was another field they entered as trade and currency circulation expanded.

The traditional Confucian notion that commerce and industry were marginal occupations, unworthy of pursuit by the yangban, also changed, and the necessity for hands-on learning was encouraged by Qing China.  Pak Chi-won, Pak Che-ga and others who had traveled to Qing with the Choson’s envoy missions witnessed the rapid development of commerce and manufacturing industry there.  Upon returning to Choson, they proposed positive policies for the development of commerce, metallurgy, fishing, stock farming, horticulture and mining.

Even pirating of books became commercialized, as competition developed among well-to-do yangban in the publication of collected literary works of renowned ancestors.  This led to the printing of popular fiction and poetry.  The people especially appreciated satire and social criticism.  The Ch’unhyangjon (Tale of Ch’unhyang), about the fidelity of an entertainer’s (kisaeng) daughter, was widely read as a satire aimed to expose the greed and snobbery of government officials.

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Development of Agriculture

The development of trade and manufacturing stimulated agricultural diversity.  Commercial farming of ginseng, hemp, tobacco and medicinal herbs was practiced in various parts of the country.  Improved agricultural techniques increased yields.  For example, transplantation of rice, which ad been common only in the fields of Cholla-do, Kyongsang-do and Kangwon-do provinces, now spread northward to the provinces of Ch’ungch’long-do, Kyonggi-do and Hwanghae-do.  This technique not only yielded more rice but allowed for the harvesting of two crops a year, barley and rice.

The improved ration between productivity and labor gave peasants the incentive to revolutionize agromanagerial procedures, since it ws possible for them to rise to wealth through managerial expansion.  The wealthy yangban and peasants gradually enlarged their farm lands by renting other land.  This drove the poor peasants elsewhere for employment in cities, mining and manufacturing.  Some became mountain recluses living by slash-and-burn agriculture practices.

The land-tax burden was shifted to the tenant farmers.  As in other decaying medieval societies, this sort of socioeconomic change drove the poor peasant further into poverty.  The well-to-do peasants, on the other hand, were able to purchase yangban titles which increased their prestige and power in the local community.

Rules were set for sale of titles, and there was a gradual rise in such sales as the government was often faced with a shortage of revenue.  Bondsmen were emancipated and often became owners of land and other bondsmen.  The increase of yangban from the 1690s to the 1850s was extraordinary.  In these years, the number in some sectors increased from 9.2 to 70.2 percent of the population, whereas the commoners, mostly peasants, decreased from 53.7 to 28.2 percent, and the bondsmen from 37.1 to 1.5 percent.  This upward mobility was a result of the exploitation of newly created wealth by a chronically deficit-ridden government.   The forging and purchase of genealogies conferring social recognition on members of the non-yangban class was prevalent in the 18th century.

There was, however, another side to the picture.  Some yangban actually descended to the status of commoner, and began to intermarry with peasants and other lower classes.  Government offices, unable to afford the support of bondsmen, gradually freed them in return for tribute or a lump-sum tax payment.  The number of office-owned bondsmen decreased from 190,000 in the 17th century to 27,000 in the mid-18th century.  Bondsmen privately owned by yangban numbered 400,000 in 1623, but decreased sharply in the course of social change, and many of the yangban could not afford to hold even a single bondsman.  Under such conditions some private bondsmen became part-tenant and part-free cultivators.  Finally in 1801, all bondsmen registers of government offices and palaces were destroyed by the government to assure their emancipation.

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Pragmatic Studies

The pragmatists’ urge to learn about Qing China in the late Choson period was propelled by the recognition that Korea’s well-being as a nation was in need of dramatic improvement.  Many scholars thus attempted to seek the solution to social problems by administrative reforms in land distribution and thus attempted to seek the solution to social problems by administrative reforms in land distribution and agricultural improvement, emphasizing limitation of landholding and application of egalitarian principles in land tenure.  Yi Ik proposed the creation of an open society by abolishing class distinctions and emancipating all bondsmen.  Pak Chi-won wrote stories ridiculing the idle, unproductive and pretentious way of life of the yangban.  For the social advancement of Choson, he advocated the improvement of agricultural equipment, irrigation systems and new cultivation techniques.  There were scholars like Pak Che-ga, Yi Tok-mu and Hong Tae-yong who recommended that Choson import Western techniques and participate in international trade along with Qing China.  They were the vanguard of a movement that was destined to destroy the traditional yangban attitude toward technology and commerce.

Even while absorbing Western culture and techniques by way of China, concern for Korea’s identity began to revive as Koreans began to study their own history, geography, language and epigraphy.  Painter departed from traditional China-oriented painting styles and began to paint the scenery and life of Choson.  An Chong-bok asserted an independent Korean line in Korea’s historiography by emphasizing Tan-gun and Kija and the first legitimate rules.  This reinterpretation can be seen as parallel to Chu Hsi’s legitimation by Shu Han of China’s San Guo (Three Kingdoms) period.  An’s contribution to the historiography of Korea was his emphasis on the role of the people who expelled foreign invaders.  He reprimanded the ruling classes for having mainly concerned themselves with how best to exploit the people.

His book Tongsa kangmok (Annotated Account of Korean History) made a lasting impression on such modern historians as Pak Un-shik and Shin Ch’ae-ho.  Han Ch’i-yun paid great attention to the kingdoms of Koguryo and Parhae, viewing the latter as an integral part of Korean history.  In the same vein, Yu Tuk-kong, another historian, wrote a monograph on Parhae (Parhaego).

Historical geography kept pace with other branches of historical study, and wood block cartography developed.  Chong Sang-gi’s ingenious scaling device stimulated Korean cartography.  Kim Chong-ho created a scale map of modern cartographic precision on the basis of his indefatigable travels throughout the peninsula.

Compilation of books increased in the 18th century.  Tongguk munhon-pigo (Reference Compilation of Documents on Korea) was supplemented; Taejon t’ongp’yon (Comprehensive National Code) and the Compendium of Korean Music were compiled, as were diplomatic archives.  King Chongjo (r. 1776-1800), himself a scholar, employed young scholars of mixed origin in his newly established Inner Royal Library for such projects.

For the economic publication of fine editions, moveable metal type was repeatedly cast, and the carving of wooden type continued.  The printing of fiction developed into a business enterprise in the late 18th and 19th centuries.

Korean typographical enterprise gave stimulus to developments in Qing China.  The famous Chinese encyclopedia Kuchin Tushu Chich’eng was printed for the first time with moveable copper type in 1772.  Ssuk’i Ch’uanshu, the great Chinese bibliography, was also printed with wooden type when a Korean Manchu, Chin Chien, suggested this economical method to the Ch’ien-lung Emperor.

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Emergence of Modern Culture

The most significant change in this period was the rise of a critical spirit and a new philosophical thinking, which made deep inroads into the traditional Confucian outlook.  The rise of popular novels and mass participation in cultural activities presaged the decline of traditional society.

In his popular novel, The Hong Kil-tong chon, Ho Jyun (1569-1618) advocated popular revolt against misrule.  His hero, Hong Kil-tong, like the virtuous outlaw Im Kkok-chong, was enraged by governmental corruption and rose up against it.  Ho Kyun realized that, if provoked, the lower classes, together with the peasant class, could become a powerful tool in the struggle for social justice.

Like the Renaissance philosophers, he made a bold departure from traditional norms and values, basing his morality on the true nature of man.  It was Ho Kyun’s conviction, eloquently expressed in his pioneering egalitarian novel, that every man was endowed with particular talents to survive, and ought not to be exploited by others.  He found the class-divided, traditional society abominable.

In the Ch’unhyangjon, an unknown author exposed the corrupt magistracy and the decaying yangban ethos.  Giving a happy ending to an interclass mating, he held out the promise of a brighter society characterized by equality and justice.  This popular novel was also dramatized in quasi-operatic style.

Yi Su-gwang (1563-1628), probably the earliest Korean thinker to have contact with Catholic and European culture, stressed the idea that knowledge is of no value unless itresults in action, just as enforcement is an essential part of the law.  His Chibong yusol (Topical Discourses of Chibong) published in 1614, is an encyclopedic effort similar in inspiration to the work of French encyclopedists.  It greatly expanded the knowledge available to Koreans about Europe and Southeast Asia, and explained the nature of Catholicism for the first time.

Pak Chi-won (1737-1805), a thinker comparable to Ho Kyun, declared that Heaven bestows unique talents on all men.  His  Tale of the Yangban describes a yangban who had done nothing but read while subsisting on government provender.  To reimburse the government, the yangban sold his status to a merchant, but the latter discarded it when he realized that the essence of yangban life was idleness, corruption and hypocrisy.  The discrediting of the traditional yangban values left a void that was keenly felt, and it was in response to this need that pragmatic philosophy developed.

Hong Tae-yong (1731-1783), in his scientific quest, declared that “nothing is substantial without a sincere mind.”  He saw in natural science the essence of all spiritual activities, and refuted the traditional Confucian concept that science and technology were marginal branches of knowledge.   The earth’s rotation, the cause of eclipses and the nature of the rainbow were included among his scientifically valid findings, and his work in mathematics was no less noteworthy.  He rated Western science and technology superior to anything Tang or Song civilization could offer, and advocated the pursuit of such learning for the advancement of society.

Remarkable scientific achievements were also made by Chong Yak-yong (Tasan, 1762-1836), who was also know for his deep concern for the peasants and people.  His construction plan for the Hwasong Fortress as Korea’s emergency capital included the use of his own applications: cranes, windlasses, pulleys and specially design vehicles.  Yi Kyu-gyong, another revolutionary thinker, also compiled works on various branches of natural science.  His collected work on astronomical and meteorological development in Korea was published in 1818.

 

Welfare Programs

The ideal of a Confucian welfare state during the Choson Dynasty was conceived and implemented by King Sejong in the 15th century, but it was Yi Su-Gwang who elaborated on the philosophy of welfare in the period following the Hideyoshi invasions.  He expounded the idea that the Way of Heaven was to be found among the people, and its noblest realization was to feed and clothe the people properly.

Pak Se-dang said he would go to the country and engage in manual labor, since Confucius endured labors more onerous than farming.  Since such men espoused egalitarian principles, their concerns were more and more centered upon public welfare programs.

Yi Ik stated that learning or knowledge should not be sought unless it as of benefit to the daily life of the people in general.  His sharp analysis of the causes of factionalism stemmed from a deep-seated concern for the welfare of the people.

Kim Yuk, who is known for his implementation of the Taedongpop, recommended the increased use of vehicles.  Hong Tae-yong and Pak Chi-won also saw increased vehicular traffic as promising great advantage for the national economy.  Pak made a far-sighted statement: “The ruler will be blamed by future generations for not having learned from pragmatic studies.”

Chong Yak-yong was outstanding among the scholars who analyzed the evils of society and made positive proposals for reform.  He advocated a system of land distributions based on egalitarian principles, and the placement of people in professions in accordance with their ability.

Exploitation continued, however, and distressed people sought salvation.  Catholicism met the needs of many, since its tenets accorded with the new egalitarian principles in addition to stressing salvation.

Some scholars converted to Catholicism, and others benefited from the scientific learning that accompanied the religion.  The number of Catholics in Korea gradually increased.

Since Catholicism was opposed both to Confucian ancestral rituals and to rigid social stratification, Catholics were termed criminals by the state.  Many of them, including prominent scholars such as Chong Yak-yong and his brothers, were punished or even executed.

Catholicism prospered secretly nonetheless, especially among artisans such as pottery makers. The negation of traditional values in a quest for salvation was an enigma to the Confucian-oriented yangban officials, and they resorted to various means of suppressing the alien faith.  It was evident that the men in power were far behind the people in their social and intellectual consciousness.

For the welfare of the people, medical jurisprudence was emphasized in order to ensure fair practice of medicine.  Other significant studies related to the welfare of the people included work on therapeutic practices based on the physical features of mankind.  Yi Che-ma (1838-1900) classified men into four different physical types and developed different physical types and developed different therapeutic treatments for each.

Equality, human dignity, opportunity, public welfare, and the advancement of the national economy were conspicuous principles in the philosophy that emerged in this period.  This development of the 17th-18th centuries is in some respects reminiscent of the Renaissance period of Western Europe.

In the literary scene, love stories were popular and sold well.  Since books printed from metal type were far too costly for commoners, popular demand was met by the use of the cheaper clay-carved plates, in addition to wood-type printing.  Anthologies of shijo poems by two intermediary class men were noteworthy.  Kim Ch’long-t’aek assembled 580 poems, from the Koryo period on, in his Ch’eonggu yong-on (Enduring Poetry of Korea), and Kim Su-jang (b. 1690) compiled a similar anthology entitled Haedong kayo (Songs of Korea).  Chong Ch’ool (Songgang, 1534-1593) and Yung Son-do (Kosan, 1587-1671) were talented yangban poets whose individual anthologies were also published.

Korea-centered painting also came into vogue.  Chong Son (Kyomjae, 1676-1759), unlike his predecessors, depicted the landscape of Korea, while Kim Hong-do and Shin Yun-bok concentrated on themes of the daily life of the masses.  White porcelain with underglaze blue-line drawings was produced in quantity to meet public demand.  Modern intellectuality dawned in all sector of 18th century Korea.

 

.

 

 Korea, South THE CHOSoN DYNASTY -

Statue of King Sejong (1418-50), Toksu Palace, Seoul
Courtesy Oren Hadar

At 518 years (1392-1910), the Choson Dynasty is the nation’s longest-lived. Its founder, Yi Song­gye, took the dynastic name Taejo (“Great Prog­enitor”), moved the capital to Hanyang (Seoul), and named the dynasty after the ancient Choson Kingdom. This ended the Koryo Dynasty Wang family’s rule and supplanted it with the Chonju branch of the Yi family. Referring to this family name, the Choson Dynasty is often mistakenly called the Yi Dynasty

 

Middle Joseon Dynasty

1402Kangnido, a Korean-made map of the world was created in 1402 by Kim Sa-hyeong (김사형, 金士衡), Yi Mu (이무, 李茂) and Yi Hoe (이회, 李撓). The map was created in the second year of the reign of Taejong of Joseon. The map was made by combining Chinese, Korean and Japanese maps.

 

The middle period of Joseon dynasty was marked by a series of intense and bloody power struggles between political factions that weakened the country and large-scale invasions by Japan and Manchu that nearly toppled the dynasty.

Factional struggle

Main article: Sarim

The Sarim faction, which suffered a series of political defeats during the reign of Yeonsangun, Jungjong, and Myeongjong gained control of the government in Seonjo‘s reign, but soon split into Western and Eastern factions, the Eastern faction in turn splitting into Northern and Southern factions. The Western faction also eventually split into Old Learning and New Learning factions. The alternations in power among these factions were often accompanied by charges of treason and bloody purges, initiating a cycle of revenge with each change of regime.

1589

One example is Gichuk Treason Case of 1589 (기축옥사), in which Easterner Jeong Yeo-rip was accused of conspiracy to start rebellion. Jeong Yeo-rip had formed a society with group of supporters that also received military training to fight against the Japansese marauders. There is still a dispute about the nature and purpose of his group, which reflected desire for classless society and spread throughout Honam region. Jeong Cheol, head of the Western faction, was in charge of investigating the case and used this event to effect widespread purge of Easterners who had slightest connection with Jeong Yeo-rip. Eventually 1,000 Easterners were killed or exiled in the aftermath.

1592-1598

Early Japanese invasions

The Turtle ship. While the spikes are known to have been made of iron, the historical existence of the ironclad roof is disputed.[9][10][11]

Throughout Korean history, there were frequent pirates attacks on both the sea and land. The only purpose for the Koreans running a navy was to secure the maritime trade against the Wokou pirates. The Korean navy repelled the pirates by using an advanced form of gunpowder technologies (i.e. cannons, fire arrows in form of Singijeon deployed by Hwacha, etc.).

During the Japanese invasions of Korea (1592–1598), Japanese warlord Toyotomi Hideyoshi, plotting the conquest of Ming China with Portuguese guns, invaded Korea with his daimyō and their troops in 1592 and 1597, intending to use Korea as a stepping stone. Factional division in the Joseon court, inability to assess Japanese military capability, and failed attempts at diplomacy led to poor preparation on Joseon’s part. The use of European firearms by the Japanese left most of the southern part of the Korean Peninsula occupied within months, with both Hanseong (present-day Seoul) and Pyongyang captured.

Rear view of the statue of Admiral Yi Sunsin at Busan Tower, in Busan, South Korea.

However the invasion was slowed down due to Admiral Yi Sun-shin destroying the Japanese invasion fleet. The guerrilla resistance that eventually formed also helped. Local resistance slowed down the Japanese advance and decisive naval victories by Admiral Yi Sun-sin left control over sea routes in Korean hands, severely hampering Japanese supply lines. Furthermore, Ming China intervened on the side of the Koreans, sending a large force in 1593 which pushed back the Japanese together with the Koreans.

During the war, Koreans developed powerful firearms and the Turtle ships (right before the war started however). The Joseon and Ming forces defeated the Japanese at a deep price. Following the war, relations between Korea and Japan had been completely suspended until 1609.

1583-1626

Manchu invasions

After the war, Korean peninsula was seriously devastated. Meanwhile Nurhaci (r. 1583–1626), the chieftain of the Jianzhou Jurchens, was unifying the Jurchen tribes of Manchuria into a strong coalition that his son Hung Taiji (r. 1626-–1643) would eventually rename the “Manchus.” After he declared Seven Grievances against the Ming dynasty in 1618, Nurhaci and the Ming engaged in several military conflicts. On such occasions, Nurhaci required help from King Gwanghaegun (r.1608–1623), putting Joseon in a difficult position because the Ming court was also requesting assistance.[12] The Joseon king tried to maintain neutrality, but most of his officials opposed him for not supporting the Ming, which had saved Joseon during Hideyoshi’s invasions.[12]

In 1623 King Gwanghaegun was deposed and replaced by King Injo (r. 1623–1649), who banished Gwanghaejun’s supporters. Reverting his predecessor’s foreign policy, the new king decided to support the Ming openly, but a rebellion led by military commander Yi Gwal erupted in 1624 and wrecked Joseon’s military defenses in the north.[12] Even after the rebellion had been suppressed, King Injo had to devote military forces to ensure the stability of the capital, leaving fewer soldiers to defend the northern borders.[12]

In 1627, a Jurchen army of 30,000 led by Nurhaci’s nephew Amin overran Joseon’s defense.[13] After a quick campaign that was assisted by northern yangban who had supported King Gwanghaegun, the Jurchens imposed a treaty that forced Joseon to accept “brotherly relations” with the Jurchen state.[14] Because King Injo persisted in his anti-Manchu policies, Qing emperor Hong Taiji sent a punitive expedition of 120,000 men to Joseon in 1636.[15] Defeated, King Injo was forced to end his relations with the Ming and recognize the Qing as suzerain instead.[16] Injo’s successor King Hyojong (r. 1649–1659) tried to form an army to chase the enemy away and save China from the Manchus, but could never act on his designs.[17]

Despite becoming a tributary state of the Qing dynasty, Joseon leaders and intellectuals remained resentful for conquest by the Manchus, whom they regarded as barbarians.[14] Long after submitting to the Qing, the Joseon court and many Korean intellectuals kept using Ming reign periods, as when a scholar marked 1861 as “the 234th year of Chongzhen.”[18]

Korea became increasingly isolationist. Its rulers sought to limit contact with foreign countries.

.[citation needed]

 Government

Joseon dynasty was a highly centralized monarchy and neo-Confucian bureaucracy as codified by Gyeongguk daejeon, a sort of Joseon constitution.

The king

The throne of the king of Joseon in Gyeongbokgung.

The king had absolute authority, but his actual power varied with political circumstances. He was bound by tradition, precedents set by earlier kings, Gyeongguk daejeon, and Confucian teachings. The king commanded absolute loyalty from his officials and subjects, but the officials were also expected to persuade the king to the right path if the latter was thought to be mistaken. The natural disasters were thought to be due to the king’s failings, and therefore, Joseon kings were very sensitive to their occurrences. When there was severe drought or a series of disasters, the king often formally sought criticism from both the officials and citizenry, and whatever they said or wrote were protected from prosecution in such cases (although there were few exceptions).

The officials

The government officials were ranked in 18 levels, ranging from first senior rank (정1품, 正一品) down to ninth junior rank (종9품, 從九品) based on seniority and promotion, which was achieved through the royal decree based on examination or recommendation. The officials from 1st senior rank to 3rd senior rank wore red robes while those from 3rd junior rank to 6th junior rank wore blue and those below wore green robes.[21]

Here a government official refers to one who occupied a type of office that gave its holder a yangban status – semi-hereditary nobility that was effective for three generations. In order to become such an official, one had to pass a series of gwageo examinations. There were three kinds of gwageo exams – literary, military, and miscellaneous, among which literary route was the most prestigious. (Many of key posts including all Censorate posts were open only to officials who advanced through literary exam.) In case of literary route, there was a series of four tests, all of which one had to pass in order to qualify to become an official. 33 candidates who were chosen in this manner took the final exam before the king for placement. The candidate with the highest score was appointed to a position of 6th junior rank (a jump of six ranks). Two candidates with the next two highest scores were appointed to a position of 7th junior rank. Seven candidates with next highest scores were assigned to 8th junior rank while the remaining 23 candidates were given 9th junior rank, the lowest of 18 ranks.

The officials of 1st senior rank, 1st junior rank, and 2nd senior rank were addressed with honorific “dae-gam” (대감, 大監) while those of 2nd junior rank and 3rd senior rank were addressed with honorific “yeong-gam” (영감, 令監).[22] These red-robed officials, collectively called “dangsanggwan” (당상관, 堂上官), took part in deciding government policies by attending cabinet meetings. The rest of ranked officials were called “danghagwan” (당하관, 堂下官).

Central government

State Council

Portrait of The Chief State Councillor, Chae Jegong (1720~1799).

State Council (Uijeongbu, 의정부, 議政府) was the highest deliberative body, whose power however declined over the course of dynasty. The Chief State Councillor (Yeonguijeong, 영의정, 領議政), Left State Councillor (Jwauijeong, 좌의정, 左議政), and Right State Councillor (Uuijeong, 우의정, 右議政) were the highest ranking officials in the government (All three were of 1st senior rank). They were assisted by Left Minister (Jwachanseong, 좌찬성, 左贊成) and Right Minister (Uichangseong, 우찬성, 右贊成), both of 1st junior rank, and seven lower ranking officials. The power of State Council was inversely proportional to the king’s power. There were periods when it directly controlled Six Ministires, the chief executive body of Joseon government, but it primarily served in advisory role under stronger kings. State councillors served in several other positions concurrently.

Six Ministries

Six Ministries (Yukjo, 육조, 六曹) make up the chief executive body. Each minister (Panseo, 판서, 判書) was of 2nd senior rank and was assisted by deputy minister (Champan, 참판, 參判), who was of 2nd junior rank. Ministry of Personnel was the most senior office of six ministries. As the influence of State Council waned over time, Minister of Personnel was often de facto head of ministers. Six ministries include in the order of seniority:

  • Ministry of Personnel (Ijo, 이조, 吏曹) – was primarily concerned with appointment of officials
  • Ministry of Taxaton (Hojo, 호조, 戶曹) – taxation, finances, census, agriculture, and land policies
  • Ministry of Rites (Yejo, 예조, 禮曺) – rituals, culture, diplomacy, gwageo exam
  • Ministry of Defence (Byeongjo, 병조, 兵曺) – military affairs
  • Ministry of Justice (Hyeongjo, 형조, 刑曺) – administration of law, slavery, punishments
  • Ministry of Works (Gongjo, 공조, 工曹) – industry, public works, manufacturing, mining

Three Offices

Three Offices, or Samsa (삼사), is a collective name for three offices that functioned as major organ of press and provided checks and balance on the king and the officials. While modeled after Chinese system, they played much more prominent roles in Joseon government than their Chinese counterparts. In their role as organ of press, they did not have actual authority to decide or implement policies, but had influential voice in the ensuing debate. The officials who served in these offices tended to be younger and of lower rank compared to other offices but had strong academic reputation and enjoyed special privileges and great prestige (For instance, censors were permitted to drink during working hours because of their function of criticizing the king). To be appointed, they went through more thorough review of character and family background. Three Offices provided the fastest route of promotion to high posts and was almost a requirement to becoming a State Councillor.

  • Office of Inspector General (Saheonbu·사헌부) – It monitored government administration and officials at each level in both central and local governments for corruption, malfeasance, or inefficiency. It was also in charge of advancing public morals and Confucian customs and redressing grievances of the populace. It was headed by Inspector General (Daesaheon·대사헌), a position of 2nd junior rank, who oversaw 30 largely independent officials.
  • Office of Censors (Saganwon·사간원) – Its chief function was to remonstrate with the king if there was wrong or improper action or policy. Important decrees of the king were first reviewed by censors, who could ask to withdraw them if judged improper. It also issued opinions about the general state of affairs. It was composed of five officials, led by Chief Censor (Daesagan·대사간), of 3rd senior rank.

While the primary focus for Office of Inspector General is the government officials and Office of Censors is focused on the king, two offices often performed each other’s functions, and there was much overlap. Together they were called “Yangsa,” (양사) which literally means “Both Offices,” and often worked jointly especially when they sought to reverse the king’s decision.

  • Office of Special Advisors (Hongmungwan·홍문관 弘文館) – It oversaw the royal library and served as research institute to study Confucian philosophy and answer the king’s questions. Its officials took part in the daily lessons called gyeongyeon (경연), in which they discussed history and Confucian philosophy with the king. Since these discussions often led to commentary on current political issues, its officials had significant influence as advisors. It was headed by Chief Scholar (Daejehak·대제학), a part-time post of 2nd senior rank that served concurrently in another high post (such as in State Council), and Deputy Chief Scholar (Bujehak·부제학), a full-time post of 3rd senior rank that actually ran the office. There was great prestige attached to being Chief Scholar in this deeply Confucian society. (The office was established to replace Hall of Worthies (Jiphyeonjeon·집현전) after the latter was abolished by King Sejo in the aftermath of Six martyred ministers.)

[edit] Other Offices

The major offices include the following:

  • Royal Secretariat (Seungjeongwon·승정원) served as a liaison between the king and Six Ministries. There were six royal secretaries (승지), one for each ministry, and all were of 3rd senior rank. Their primary role was to pass down royal decree to the ministries and submit petitions from the officials and the populace to the king, but they also advised the king and served in other key positions close to the king. In particular Chief Royal Secretary (도승지), a liaison to Ministry of Personnel, served the king in the closest proximity of all government official and often enjoyed great power that was derived from the king’s favor. Hong Guk-yeong (during Jeongjo‘s reign) and Han Myeong-hwe (during Sejo) are some examples of chief royal secretaries who were the most powerful official of their time.
  • Capital Bureau (Hanseungbu·한성부) was in charge of running the capital, Hanyang or present-day Seoul. It was led by Paanyoon(판윤), of 2nd senior second rank equivalent to today’s mayor of Seoul.
  • Royal Investigation Bureau (Uigeumbu·의금부) was an investigative and enforcement organ under direct control of the king. It chiefly dealt with treason and other serious cases that concerned the king and royal family and served to arrest, investigate, imprison, and carry out sentences against the suspected offenders, who were often government officials.
  • Office of Records (Chunchugwan·춘추관) – Its officials wrote, compiled, and maintained the government and historical records. It was headed by State Councillors, and many posts were held by officials serving in other offices concurrently. There were eight historiographers whose sole function was to record the meetings for history.
  • Seonggyungwan or Royal Academy (성균관) – Royal university served to prepare the future government officials. Those who passed first two stages of gwageo examinations (literary exam) were admitted to Seonggyungwan. The class size was usually 200 students, who lived in the residential hall and followed strict routine and school rules. (The tuition, room and board were provided by the government.) It also served as the state shrine for Confucian and Korean Confucian sages. The students’ opinions on government policies, especially collective statements and demonstrations, could be influential as they represented fresh and uncorrupted consesus of young scholars. The official in charge was Daesaseong (대사성), of 3rd senior rank, and 36 other officials including those from other offices were involved in running the academy.

 Local government

The officials of high rank were sent from the central government. Sometimes a secret royal inspector (Amhaeng-eosa·암행어사) was appointed by the king to travel incognito and monitor the provincial officials. These undercover inspectors were generally young officials of lower rank but was invested with the royal authority to dismiss corrupt officials.

  • Provinces (Do·도) – There were eight province, each of which was governed by Governor (Gwanchalsa·관찰사), a position of 2nd junior rank.
  • Bu(부) – administrative offices in charge of major cities in provinces. Each bu was led by Buyoon (부윤), which was equivalent to Governor in rank.
  • Mok (목) – There were twenty moks, which governed large counties named ‘ju'(주). They were run by Moksa (목사), of 3rd senior rank.
  • County (Gun·군) – There were eighty counties in Joseon, each governed by Gunsu (군수), a 4th junior rank.
  • Hyeon (현) – Large hyeons were governed by Hyeongryeong (현령) of 5th junior rank while smaller hyeons were governed by Hyeonggam (현감) of 6th junior rank.

Administrative divisions

During most of the Joseon Dynasty, Korea was divided into eight provinces (do; 도; 道). The eight provinces’ boundaries remained unchanged for almost five centuries from 1413 to 1895, and formed a geographic paradigm that is still reflected today in the Korean Peninsula’s administrative divisions, dialects, and regional distinctions. The names of all eight provinces are still preserved today, in one form or another.

 Society

Social and population structure

The population of Joseon Korea is controversial. Government records of households are considered unreliable in this period.[23] One recent estimate[by whom?] gives 6 million at the start of the dynasty in 1392, growing irregularly to a peak of as many as 18 million by about 1750. Between 1810 and 1850, the population declined approximately 10% and remained stable.[24] By the early 20th century, at the close of the Joseon Dynasty, the average life expectancy for Korean males was 24 and for females 26 years.[25]

Joseon Korea installed a centralised administrative system[when?] controlled by Confucian scholars who were called Yangban. By the end of the 18th century, the yangban had acquired most of the traits of a hereditary nobility except that the status was based on a unique mixture of family position, gwageo examinations for Confucian learning, and a civil service system. The family of a yangban who did not succeed to become a government official for the third generation lost their yangban status and became commoners. For most part, the only way to become a government official was to pass a series of gwageo exams (One had to pass “lesser gwageo” exam (소과) in both of two stages to qualify for greater gwageo exam, which again one had to pass in both of two stages to become a government official.) The yangban and the king, in an uneasy balance, controlled the central government and military institutions. The proportion of yangban may have reached as high as 30% by 1800, although there was considerable local variation.[26] As the government was small, a great many yangban were local gentry of high social status, but not always of high income.[27]

Another 30-40% of the population were slaves (nobi), “low borns” (cheonmin) or untouchable outcastes (baekjeong). Slavery was hereditary, as well as a form of legal punishment. There was a slave class with both government- and privately owned slaves, and the government occasionally gave slaves to citizens of higher rank. Privately owned slaves could be inherited as personal property. During poor harvests, many sangmin people would voluntarily become slaves in order to survive.[citation needed] During the Joseon Dynasty about 30% to 40% of the Korean population consisted of slaves.[28][29][30] However, Joseon slaves could, and often did, own property.[31] Private slaves could buy their freedom.

A Joseon painting which represents the Chungin (literally “middle people”), equivalent to the petite bourgeoisie.

Many of the remaining 40-50% of the population were surely farmers,[32] but recent work has raised important issues about the size of other groups: merchants and traders, local government or quasi-governmental clerks (Chungin), craftsmen and laborers, textile workers, etc.[33] Given the size of the population, it may be that a typical person had more than one role. Most farming was, at any rate, commercial, not subsistence.[34] In addition to generating additional income, a certain amount of occupational dexterity may have been required to avoid the worst effects of an often heavy and corrupt tax system.[35]

During the Late Joseon, the Confucian ideals of propriety and “filial piety” gradually came to be equated with a strict observance to a complex social hierarchy, with many fine gradations. By the early 18th century the social critic Yi Junghwan (1690–1756) sarcastically complained that “[W]ith so many different ranks and grades separating people from one another, people tend not to have a very large circle of friends.”[36] But, even as Yi wrote, the informal social distinctions of the Early Joseon were being reinforced by legal discrimination, such as Sumptuary law[37] regulating the dress of different social groups, and laws restricting inheritance and property ownership by women.[38]

1710

Yet, these laws may have been announced precisely because social mobility was increasing, particularly during the prosperous century beginning about 1710.[39] The original social hierarchy of the Joseon Dynasty was developed based on the social hierarchy of the Goryeo era. In the 14th–16th centuries, this hierarchy was strict and stable. Since economic opportunities to change status were limited, no law was needed.

In the late 17–19th centuries, however, new commercial groups emerged, and the old class system was extremely weakened. Especially, the population of Daegu region’s Yangban class was expected to reach nearly 70 percent in 1858.[40]

177o

King  Jeong Jo

1670

(info from my  korean friend)

 *Han Hyo Joo as DongYi / Choi suk bin      11—49 years old.

*Han Hyo Joo as DongYi / Choi suk bin

Born on 1670 (11 th year of King Hyunjong) Later, Mother of King Yeongjo.

King  Jeong Jo

She was honored as Sukbin which is located third level in Chosun lady’s hierarchy system. She is very bright, smart and witty. Not only smart but also warm heart, she cannot pass poor person freely. After her father and brother was executed bitterly, she became a orphan. As police officer Mr. Seo Yongki chase her continuously, she hide herself in Jangakwon, which is music academy, with the help of Suli. With her born familiarity and wit, she is chosen as a helper in palace from the slave position. Behind her, there is Cha Chunsoo, who gave her a love in spite of all kind of sacrifice. He is best friend of her brother, Dongju.

Later, surprisingly, she was picked up by Sukjong to sleep with. Then, discord against queen Chang Heebin, then, return of queen Inhyun, giving birth to a prince, Yeonanggun. Love from Sukjong, trouble with queen Inhyun. Education of prince Yeonanggun, whose position was always in danger. Within the difficulty which concubine would face and her son’s royalty to her, her life faced incredible turning point.   

 *Ji Jin Hee as King Sukjong      24-60 years old.

Ji Jin-hee as King Sukjong (1661-1720)

The 19th king of Chosun dynasty (1661—1720) His- childhood- time name was Soon. He was absolute monarch of Chosun. He recovered the authority of king which had dropped before. Though he became a king when just 14 years old, with the powerful leadership and wide knowledge, he succeeded and ruled experienced old his subjects. To recover royalty of king which had dropped through 2 times war, he eliminated Song Siyul who was the biggest scholar in Chosun. With the powerful leadership and gut, he controlled his subjects and used the power game among his subjects. Though he was scareful king to his subjects, he is delicate and smart. That means, he was smart and fantastic king to the numerous concubine. He met Dongyi first time during palace festival, then, he was impressed by her warmth and smartness.

In 1801,

 Government-owned slaves were all emancipated, and the institution gradually died out over the next century.[41] The institution was completely abolished as part of a social plan in the Gabo Reform of 1894.

 

 Culture

The Joseon Dynasty presided over two periods of great cultural growth, during which Joseon culture created the first Korean tea ceremony, Korean gardens, and extensive historic works. The royal dynasty also built several fortresses, palaces.

Clothing

Male dress of a Confucian scholar. A portrait painted by Yi Je gwan (1783-1837)

In Joseon Dynasty, jeogori of women’s hanbok became gradually tightened and shortened. In the 16th century, jeogori was baggy and reached below the waist, but by the end of Joseon Dynasty in the 19th century, jeogori was shortened to the point that it did not cover the breasts, so another piece of cloth (heoritti) was used to cover them. At the end of 19th century, Daewon-gun introduced Magoja, a Manchu-style jacket, to Korea, which is often worn with hanbok to this day.

Chima was full-skirted and jeogori was short and tight in the late Joseon period. Fullness in the skirt was emphasized round the hips. Many undergarments were worn underneath chima such as darisokgot, soksokgot, dansokgot, and gojengi to achieve a desired silhouette. Because jeogori was so short it became natural to expose heoritti or heorimari which functioned like a corset. The white linen cloth exposed under jeogori in the picture is heoritti.

The upper classes wore hanbok of closely woven ramie cloth or other high-grade lightweight materials in warm weather and of plain and patterned silks the rest of the year. Commoners were restricted by law as well as resources to cotton at best. The upper classes wore a variety of colors, though bright colors were generally worn by children and girls and subdued colors by middle-aged men and women. Commoners were restricted by law to everyday clothes of white, but for special occasions they wore dull shades of pale pink, light green, gray, and charcoal. Formally, when Korean men went outdoors, they were required to wear overcoats known as durumagi which reach the knees.

[edit] Painting

A late Joseon painting. It shows some influences of the Western painting techniques introduced to Joseon.

The Mid-Joseon dynasty painting styles moved towards increased realism. A national painting style of landscapes called “true view” began – moving from the traditional Chinese style of idealized general landscapes to particular locations exactly rendered. While not photographic, the style was academic enough to become established and supported as a standardized style in Korean painting.

The mid to late Joseon dynasty is considered the golden age of Korean painting. It coincides with the shock of the collapse of Ming dynasty links with the Manchu emperors accession in China, and the forcing of Korean artists to build new artistic models based on an inner search for particular Korean subjects. At this time China ceased to have pre-eminent influence, Korean art took its own course, and became increasingly distinctive to the traditional Chinese painting.

[edit] Architecture

Geunjeongjeon (Throne Hall)

The history of Joseon architecture would be described in three periods of the early, the middle, and the late period, in accordance with the cultural and architectural development. In the early period, the architecture developed as a succession from the cultural inheritance of the previous dynasty with the new political guiding principles of Confucianism that took the place of Buddhism.

Through the influence of Confucianism, a refined aristocratic taste of the previous era was replaced by the characteristics of unsophisticated, simple and humble beauty with the qualities of commonness and steadiness. The intercolumnar bracket set system was used in building the most important edifice on the premises. The columnar bracket set system and the eclectic bracket system, which consists of architectural elements from both columnar and intercolumnar systems, were also used for temples and other important buildings. In the period of the Joseon dynasty, Korean architecture developed further with a unique will to manifest the expression of the ideas and values of the period.

The bracket cluster system, structurally and visually important elements of the buildings, were developed to follow structural function and to express the unique formal beauty of Korean architecture. Architectural ornaments and their symbolic connotation had more variety and richness. Architects of the period intended to express a strong will to form an indigenous style in architecture, and tried to use decorative elements of all kinds. This achieved a kind of symphonic quality with the methods of architectural organization by strong contrast of light and dark, of simplicity and complexity, and then finally reached the definite climax of architectural ingenuity. This tendency of architectural expression of the later period might remind us somewhat similar impressions of the Western Baroque and Rococo style.

Literature

The Annals of the Joseon Dynasty (also known as The True Record of the Joseon Dynasty) are the annual records of the Joseon Dynasty, which were kept from 1413 to 1865. The annals, or sillok, comprise 1,893 volumes and are thought to cover the longest continual period of a single dynasty in the world. With the exception of two sillok compiled during the colonial era, the Annals are the 151st national treasure of Korea and listed in UNESCO‘s Memory of the World registry.

Main article: Uigwe

Uigwe is a collection of royal protocols of the Joseon Dynasty, which records and prescribes through text and stylized illustration the important ceremonies and rites of the royal family.

 

[edit] Science and technology

Korean celestial globe first made by the scientist Jang Yeong-sil during the reign of King Sejong.

The Joseon Dynasty under the reign of Sejong the Great was Korea’s greatest period of scientific advancement. Under Sejong’s new policy Cheonmin (low-status) people such as Jang Yeong-sil were allowed to work for the government. When Jang was very young he built machines to help make work easier, and supervised the building of aqueducts and canals. Jang eventually was allowed to live at the royal palace, where he led a group of scientists to work on advancing Korea’s science.[citation needed]

Some of his inventions were an automated (self-striking) water clock (the Jagyeokru) which worked by activating motions of wooden figures to indicate time visually (invented in 1434 by Jang), a subsequent more complicated water-clock with additional astronomical devices, and an improved model of the previous metal movable printing type created in the Goryeo Dynasty. The new model was of even higher quality and was twice as fast. Other inventions were the sight glass, and the udometer.

Also during the Joseon Dynasty Heo Jun, a court physician, wrote a number of medical texts, his most significant achievement being Dongeui Bogam, which is often noted as the defining text of Traditional Korean medicine. The work spread to China and Japan, where it is still regarded as one of the classics of Oriental medicine today.

The highpoint of Korean astronomy was during the Joseon period, where men such as Jang created devices such as celestial globes which indicated the positions of the sun, moon, and the stars.[42] Later celestial globes (Gyupyo, 규표) were attuned to the seasonal variations.

.

1669

The apex of astronomical and calendarial advances under King Sejong was the Chiljeongsan, which compiled computations of the courses of the seven heavenly objects (five visible planets, the sun, and moon), developed in 1442. This work made it possible for scientists to calculate and accurately predict all the major heavenly phenomena, such as solar eclipses and other stellar movements.[43] Honcheonsigye is an astronomical clock created by Song I-yeong in 1669. The clock has an armillary sphere with a diameter of 40 cm. The sphere is activated by a working clock mechanism, showing the position of celestial objects at any given time

The first soft ballistic vest, Myunjebaegab, was invented in Joseon Korea in the 1860s shortly after the French campaign against Korea. Heungseon Daewongun ordered development of bullet-proof armor because of increasing threats from Western armies. Kim Gi-du and Gang Yun found that cotton could protect against bullets if thick enough, and devised bullet-proof vests made of 30 layers of cotton. The vests were used in battle during the United States expedition to Korea, when the US Navy attacked Ganghwa Island in 1871. The US Army captured one of the vests and took it to the US, where it was stored at the Smithsonian Museum until 2007. The vest has since been sent back to Korea and is currently on display to the public.

Economy

Commerce

During the Goryeo Dynasty, Korea had a healthy trade relationship with the Arabians, Japanese, Chinese, and Manchurians. An example of prosperous, international trade port is Pyongnam. Koreans offered brocades, jewelries, ginseng, silk, and porcelain, renowned famous worldwide. But, during the Joseon Dynasty, Confucianism was adopted as the national philosophy, and, in process of eliminating certain Buddhist beliefs, Goryeo Cheongja porcelains were replaced by white Baekja, which lost favour of the Chinese and the Arabians. Also, commerce became more restricted during this time in order to promote agriculture. In addition to this, constant Chinese request for tribute pushed the Korean policy of ceasing to produce various luxury item elements (i.e. gold, silver), and importing only the necessary amounts from Japan.[citation needed] Because silver was used as currency in China, it played an important role in Korea-China trade.

 

 

 Titles and Styles during Joseon Kingdom

King -1

  • Great Predecessor King (seondaewang, 선대왕, 先大王) or Great King (daewang, 대왕, 大王) used to reference a late monarch.
  • Queen Dowager (daebi, 대비, 大妃), the consort of the deceased King (perhaps the mother of the current king), with the style of Her Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽). Queens dowager often exercised a great deal of influence on the king’s influence through their regencies, which took place when the king was too young to rule in his own name, or simply through their role as the mother or even a senior female relative of the monarch.
  • Royal Queen Dowager (wangdaebi, 왕대비, 王大妃), a former consort preceding a least senior queen dowager or current king’s aunt or grandmother, with the style of Her Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽).
  • Grand Royal Queen Dowager (daewangdaebi, 대왕대비, 大王大妃), a former consort senior to two other queen dowagers or the current king’s great-grandmother, with the style of Her Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽).
  • Grand Internal Prince (daewongun, 대원군, 大院君), the father of a king who was unable to take the throne himself as he was not part of the generation following that of the last incumbent of the throne (kings who are honored at the royal Jongmyo Shrine must be senior generation-wise to the current incumbent of the throne). There have been cases when Grand Internal Prince acted as regent for his son, the last person to do so having been the Regent Heungseon.
  • Grand Internal Princess Consort (budaebuin, 부대부인, 府大夫人), the mother of a king whose father himself never reigned.
  • Internal Prince (buwongun, 부원군, 府院君), the queen consort’s father.
  • Internal Princess Consort (bubuin, 부부인, 府夫人), the queen consort’s mother.

 King -1/2

  • King Former (sangwang, 상왕, 上王), a yet living king who has voluntarily abdicated to the current king. They usually remained influential or even powerful through the remaining years of their lives. The style of His Majesty (jeonha, 전하, 殿下) or, less frequently but yet still quite common, His Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽) was used.
  • Grand King Former (taesangwang, 태상왕, 太上王), an abdicated king whose relinquishment of power precedes that of another former king. The style of His Majesty (jeonha, 전하, 殿下) or, less frequently but yet still quite common, His Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽) was used.

 King

  • King (wang, 왕, 王), the king, with the style of His Majesty (jeonha, 전하, 殿下) or, not as correct but yet still quite common, His Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽). Before the style of “jeonha” were used a variety of titles for the king. Native names such as “naratnim” (나랏님) and “imgeum” (임금) were also used colloquially. For foreign envoys the title used was State King (gugwang, 국왕, 國王); and for those in the court who needed to mention the king outside his presence, and thus more formality was required in addressing the monarch, the title was Current King (geum-sang, 금상, 今上),Sovereign (jusang, 주상 , 主上 or sanggam, 상감 , 上監), or Grand Palace (daejeon, 대전, 大殿). The style remained the same for all titles with the exception of queens dowager and the relatively few kings who abdicated, who simply addressed or mentioned the king without using his style.
  • Queen consort (wangbi, 왕비, 王妃), the queen consort, with the style of Her Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽). The title used in the court language was Center Palace (junggungjeon, 중궁전, 中宮殿 or jungjeon, 중전 , 中殿). Queens consort that remained married to the king until their death were generally given a title consisting of two Hanja in the front and the customary suffix Queen (wanghu, 왕후, 王后) in the back.

King +1/2

  • Royal Prince Successor Brother (wangseje, 왕세제, 王世弟), the younger brother of the king who has been formally invested as heir apparent when the king has no offspring. King +1
  • Prince Royal (wonja, 원자, 元子), the firstborn son of the king before being formally invested as heir apparent, with the style of His Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽). Generally, princes royal were the son who was born first between the king and his official wife, but there were exceptions when the title of Prince Royal was given to the firstborn son of the king through a concubine, the most notable case having occurred in the reign of King Sukjong.
  • Grand Prince (daegun, 대군, 大君), a prince born to the official match between the king and queen with the style of His Young Highness (agissi, 아기씨) before marriage and the style His Excellency (daegam, 대감, 大監) afterward. The title of a grand prince is not inherited and his sons are generally referred to as mere princes.
  • Grand Princess Consort (bubuin, 부부인, 府夫人), the consort of a grand prince.
  • Princess (gongju, 공주, 公主), the daughter of the official match between the king and his official wife, with the style of Her Young Highness (agissi, 아기씨) before marriage and Her Excellency (jaga, 자가) afterward.
  • Prince (gun, 군, 君), a son born to the match between the king and a concubine or a descendant of a grand prince. The style used is His Young Highness (agissi, 아기씨) before marriage and the style His Excellency (daegam, 대감, 大監) afterward.
  • Princess Consort (gunbuin, 군부인, 郡夫人), the consort of a prince.
  • Princess (ongju, 옹주, 翁主), the daughter of the king and one of his concubines, with the style of Her Young Highness (agissi, 아기씨) before marriage and Her Excellency (jaga, 자가) afterward.
  • Royal Prince Successor (wangseja, 왕세자, 王世子) the invested heir apparent to the throne, with the simplified title Prince Successor (seja, 세자, 世子) being frequently used instead of the full name with the style of His Royal Highness (jeoha, 저하, 邸下). Most of the time, he was the eldest son of the current king. In less formal but still official court language, the title Eastern Palace (donggung, 동궁, 東宮) or Spring Palace (chungung, 춘궁, 春宮) and the style His Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽) was used intermittently with “Prince Successor,” although the style was frequently dropped by more senior members of the royal family.
  • Royal Princess Successor Consort (wangsaejabin, 왕세자빈, 王世子嬪), the consort of the heir apparent, or simply Princess Successor Consort (saejabin, 세자빈, 世子嬪), with the style of Her Royal Consort Highness (manora, 마노라 or manura, 마누라).

Later, as the distinction between “Her Royal Highness” and “Her Royal Consort Highness” became unclear due to the influence of the Andong Kim clan, the style Her Royal Highness (mama, 마마, 媽媽) also came to apply to the consort of the heir apparent. The style ~ Royal Highness also came to apply to grand princes, princes, and princess as well for the same reason.

 King +2

  • Royal Prince Successor Descendant (wangseson, 왕세손, 王世孫), the son of the prince successor and the princess successor consort, and the grandson of the king, with the style of His Highness (hap-a, 합하, 閤下).

Titles and Styles during the Korean Empire

  • Hwangje (皇帝 황제), the emperor, with the style of His Imperial Majesty (陛下 폐하 pyeha)
  • Hwanghu (皇后 황후), the empress (consort), with the style of Her Imperial Majesty
  • Hwangtaehu (皇太后 황태후), the empress dowager
  • Taehwangtaehu (太皇太后 태황태후), the empress dowager, current Emperor’s living grandmother
  • Hwangtaeja (皇太子 황태자), the crown prince of the Empire, the eldest son of the emperor, with the style of His Imperial Highness (殿下 전하 jeonha)
  • Hwangtaeja-bi (皇太子妃 황태자비), the crown princess (consort) of Empire, with the style of Her Imperial Highness
  • Chinwang (親王 친왕), the prince (imperial), son of Emperor, with the style of His Imperial Highness
  • Chinwangbi (親王妃 친왕비), the princess (imperial) (consort), with the style of Her Imperial Highness
  • Gongju (公主 공주), the princess of the Empire, the daughter of the emperor and his empress consort, with the style of Her Imperial Highness
  • Ongju (翁主 옹주), the princess of the Empire, the daughter of emperor and one of his concubines, with the style of Her Imperial Highness

 

1700-1740

1710

 

 

 Nu Shi Yun Bing (active 1670-1710)

1717

The population growth kept pace as well, increasing by almost two million in the 48 years from 1669-1717.

 1736

1762

 1762-1836

Jeong Yakyong (丁若鏞, 정약용, 1762–1836) was a Chosun late era philosopher, and is known perhaps better by one of his many pen names Dasan (茶山, 다산, “tea mountain”) . He is of the Naju Jeong clan. Jeong Yakyong passed the civil service examination in 1783. He was a philosopher in the Neo-Confucian movement of Pragmatic Learning (實學, 실학, Silhak), which wanted to reform Neo-Confucianism and return it to its early Confucian roots. Many in this movement became interested in Catholicism, as they rightly viewed Neo-Confucianism as lacking spiritualism. Along with many members of his family, Jeong Yakyong converted to Catholicism and took on the baptism name “John,” or in Korean Yowang (요왕). However, during the Catholic Persecutions of 1801, in which one his brothers was martyred, he renounced the Holy Faith but was nevertheless banished for having participated. Catholicism nevertheless had an effect on his philosophy. The following poem was probably written during his exile.

구우 久雨

The Long Rain

窮居罕人事 궁거한인사
恒日廢衣冠 항일폐의관
敗屋香娘墜 패옥향낭추
荒畦腐婢殘 황휴부비잔
睡因多病減 수인다병감
愁賴著書寬 수뢰저서관
久雨何須苦 구우하수고
晴時也自歎 청시야자탄

Living in destitute, [only] a few times I greeted others.
Everyday, I wore not my attire and hat.
In the dilapidated house, my fragrant wife has fallen.
In the ruined fields, my rotten maid has died.
Slumber reduces many illnesses.
Writing books makes light anxieties.
Why should the long rain be [this] distressing?
Even [1] when [the sky] clears, I will [still] be lamenting.

Notes:

  1. 也 (야, ya) here means “also.” This seems to be a modern usage of that character.

Characters:

  • 罕 (한, han) – to be rare (드물다).
  • 畦 (흉, hyung) – farm field.

1780-1800

the end @ copyright dr iwan suwandy 2011

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 Korea, South THE CHOSoN DYNASTY -

Statue of King Sejong (1418-50), Toksu Palace, Seoul
Courtesy Oren Hadar

At 518 years (1392-1910), the Choson Dynasty is the nation’s longest-lived. Its founder, Yi Song­gye, took the dynastic name Taejo (“Great Prog­enitor”), moved the capital to Hanyang (Seoul), and named the dynasty after the ancient ChosOn Kingdom. This ended the Koryo Dynasty Wang family’s rule and supplanted it with the Chonju branch of the Yi family. Referring to this family name, the Choson Dynasty is often mistakenly called the Yi Dynasty

 

The Koryo Dynasty had suffered from a number of internal problems; Yi and his followers implemented drastic reforms to place the new dynasty on firmer ground. One of these problems revolved around the deterioration of land administration, a basic issue in a predominantly agrarian society. Contrary to the law specifying public (governmental) ownership of land, powerful clans and Buddhist temples had acquired a sizable proportion of farmland. By exacting a disproportionate share of crops in the form of rents, the “landlords” were causing economic destitution and social discontent among the peasants. By illicitly removing the farms from tax rolls, these clans and temples reduced the government’s income, thus straining the treasury. Yi had sided with reformists even before he took power, hence it was natural for him to rectify past inequities after ascending to the throne.

The reform of the land system, however, had direct repercussions on the practice of Buddhism, because Buddhist temples and monks had been among those exacerbating the land problem. The economic influence of the temples was eliminated when they lost vast lands. The rectification went beyond economic reform, however, because the dominant forces in the new dynasty were devout Confucianists who regarded Buddhism as a false creed. The fact that Buddhist monks had wielded a strong influence in politics, the economy, and society during the latter part of the Koryo Dynasty–and that many of them had been corrupted by power and money–strengthened the opposition to Buddhism. Accordingly, the new dynasty launched a sweeping attack on Buddhism and its institutions, an attack that had profound and enduring effects on the character of civilization on the peninsula.

north korea 1800

Many of the outstanding temples were permitted to remain intact; indeed, a few Choson monarchs were devout Buddhists. Nevertheless, Buddhism exerted little influence over the religious life of Korea under the Choson Dynasty; nor did any organized religion replace it. Although many people adhered to shamanism, geomancy, fortunetelling, and superstitions, Korea effectively became a secular society.


Jar, porcelain decorated in underglaze copper red, Choson dynasty. 18th century.

The Choson Dynasty had an auspicious beginning. During the reign of the fourth monarch, King Sejong (1418-50), a Buddhist, enormous strides were made in the arts, science, and technology. The Korean script, known as han’gul(see Glossary), which eventually came into common usage in the twentieth century, was developed by scholars at that time.

After Sejong, however, the dynasty fell into the hands of lesser men, and in the late fifteenth century the country began a long decline. Succession to the throne often caused long and bitter struggles, particularly when a ruler did not leave behind an heir who had reached the age of majority. Members of the Confucian-educated, scholar-official elite yangban(see Glossary) class quarreled over minor points of Confucian ritual and etiquette, especially the proper period of mourning upon the death of a royal personage. Factional groups began vying for power, frequently going to the extreme of exterminating the members of defeated factions. The civil service examination became a sham, and corruption ran rampant. Royal relatives and members of powerful factions increased their landholdings, which became exempt from taxes and thereby reduced the dynasty’s sources of revenue. The farmers suffered more and more from tax burdens and other extractions imposed by greedy officials and landlords. In short, the country was not being effectively governed. To make matters worse, Japanese attacks in 1592 and 1597 and Manchu assaults in 1627 and 1636 ravaged the country’s economy and turned much of the farmland to waste for a long period thereafter.

The resulting social and economic depression of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries fostered the rise of a new intellectual movement advocating the practical use of human knowledge. Pioneered by a Confucian scholar named Yi Su-kwang, the new thought–soon to be called Sirhak (practical learning)–was partly inspired by the firsthand knowledge of occidental sciences that Yi Su-kwang had acquired while on official visits to Beijing. As historian Ki-baik Lee has noted, Sirhak thought encompassed a variety of intellectual activities and several diverse viewpoints. These included proposals for refinement of the traditional administrative and land systems, advocacy of commercial and manufacturing activity, and a renewed interest in Korean history and language. Brought to maturity in the late eighteenth century by Chong Yag-yong, the Sirhak Movement was supported by a group of discontented scholars, petty officials, former bureaucrats, and commoners.

The Sirhak Movement found itself in direct confrontation with the dominant trend in neo-Confucian thought, which stressed the metaphysical and abstract teachings of the renowned Chinese philosopher Zhu Xi (see Traditional Social Structure, ch. 2). Neither the efforts of such wise and able kings as Yongjo (1725-75) and Chongjo (1776-1800), nor those of the Sirhak scholars, were able to reverse the trend against empirical studies and good government.

Western ideas, including Christianity, reached Korea through China in the seventeenth century. By 1785, however, the government had become incensed over the rejection of ancestor worship by Roman Catholic missionaries, and it banned all forms of Western learnin

1801

Archive for the ‘Yi Gahwan (李家煥 이가환)’ Category

Yi Gahwan (李家煥, 이가환, 1742-1801) was a scholar and Chosun government official. He is of the Yeoju Yi clan (驪州李氏, 여주이씨); his courtesy name was Jeongjo (廷藻, 정조, “Water chestnut of the court”); and his pen names were Geumdae (錦帶, 금대, “Silk belt”) and Jeongheon (貞軒, 정헌, “loyal veranda”). In 1771, he passed the civil entrance exams and served on various posts. He was of the Southerners’ faction (南人, 남인) and a member of the Neo-Confucian School of Pragmatic Thought, or Silhak (實學, 실학). Yi Gahwan was also skilled in astronomy and mathematics. He was introduced to Catholicism by Yi Byeok, and studied the new thought with Yi Seunghun, Jeong Yakyong, and Gweon Cheolshin. He was involved in secretly inviting Chinese Catholic priest Ju Munmo (周文謨, 주문모). Yi Gahwan died in prison during the Persecutions of 1801 (辛酉迫害, 신유박해, Shin’yu Bakhae). The following poems (two truncated verses)  are about a pavilion (pictured above) on the Daedong River, which flows through Pyongyang.

練光亭次鄭知常韻 연광정차정지상운

The Yeon’gwang Pavilion Borrows the Tones [1] of Jeong Jisang [2]

江樓四月已無花 강루사월이무화
簾幕薰風燕子斜 렴막훈풍연자사
一色碧波連碧草 일색벽파연벽초
不知別恨在誰家 부지별한재수가

By the river and the pavilion, in April, already does not have flowers.
Upon the hanging bamboo curtains, in the warm breeze, the swallows [fly] crooked.
One color, the blueness of the waves connect with the blueness of the grass [3].
I do not know which house has the grief of separation.

仁聖遺祠歲月多 인성유사세월다
朝天舊石是悲歌 조천구석시비가
大同門外長江水 대동문외장강수
不見迴波見逝波 불견회파견서파

At the Shrine of Benevolent Sage [4], the years and months are many.
Upon the Old Rock of the Morning Sky [5] – this sorrowful song.
Outside the Gate of Grand Union [6], distant are the waters of the river.
I do not see the returning waves; [although] I see the departing waves.

Notes:

  1. 次韻 (차운, Cha’un) – A technique used among Classical Chinese poets in which one poet takes another poet’s poem and changes some or all of the characters with other characters that are homophones or have similar or contrasting meanings.
  2. 鄭知常 (정지상, Jeong Jisang, ?-1135) – A minister and poet during the Goryeo dynasty.
  3. The colors “green” and “blue” are often called “blue” by Koreans.
  4. 仁聖遺祠 (인성유사, Inseong’yusa) – I think this is a name of a shrine. I cannot find any references of it online.
  5. 朝天舊石 (조천구석,  Jocheon’guseok) – Another reference to a geographic location.
  6. 大同門 (대동문, Daedongmun) – A gate in Pyeongyang.
Characters:
  • 簾 (렴, ryeom) – bamboo curtain.
  • 薰 (훈, hun) – to be fragrant; or gently blow.
  • 燕 (연, yeon) – swallows.
 
 

 

- The first one baptished featured below is by Yi Seunghun (李承薰, 이승훈, 1756

 

I.1800-1830

CHOSON DYNASTI 1800-1850


Figure 12 Rank badge, embroidered silk. Choson dynasty;
19th century.

1800

.

Western ships began to approach Korean shores after 1801, seeking trade and other contacts, but the government rejected all overtures from abroad. When news of the Opium War in China (1839-42) reached Korea, the dynasty had all the more reason to shut the doors tightly against Western “barbarians.” III.1870-1900

 

In the meantime, the Choson Dynasty suffered from a series of natural calamities including floods, famines, and epidemics, as well as large-scale revolts of the masses in the northwest (1811-12) and southwest (1862 and 1894-95).

The expansion of Western powers in East Asia in the nineteenth century significantly altered the established order, in which Korea had been dominated by China. China under the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) was in decline; its power waned rapidly under the concerted attacks of such Western nations as France, Britain, and Russia.

1800 – 1822 –

Joseon-do – Ulleungdo (朝鮮圖 – 鬱陵島)

 
The map below is from the atlas “Joseon-do” (朝鮮圖), which is stored in the Osaka Nakanoshima Library (中之島圖書館). It is believed to have been made sometime in the early 1800s.

One of the interesting things about the map is that it shows Ulleungdo (鬱陵島 – 울릉도) with a neighboring island labeled as “Usan” (于山 – 우산). Some Korean historians claim that Usando (于山島 – 우산도) was the old Korean name for “Dokdo” (Liancourt Rocks), but this map and many, many others show that Usando was just a neighboring island of Ulleungdo.
 
 
 
The fact that Usando was drawn just off Ulleungdo’s east shore strongly suggests that it was present-day Jukdo (竹島), which is Ulleungdo’s largest neighboring island and only about two kilometers off Ulleungdo’s east shore.
 

 
 
Notice that the above map of Ulleungdo is very similar to the following map of Ulleungdo in the Dongyeodo (東輿圖) atlas, which is stored in the University of Tsukuba Library (筑波大學附屬圖書館) in Japan. The Dongyeodo is believed to have been made sometime between 1795 and 1800.
 
 
 
Compare the above maps with the following satellite photo of Ulleungdo’s northeast shore. Notice that the location and shape of the small island offshore in the satellite photo is similar to that of the island labeled as “Usan” (于山) on the above maps. The small island offshore in the satellite photo is Ulleungdo’s neighboring island of Jukdo (竹島), which is about two kilometers offshore.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Pos

1801

LIFE IN LATE-CHOSON

 

2. New Trends in Cultural Activities

 

(1) New Directions in Scholarly Activities

During the Choson period, scholarly works were based on the study of Songrihak or Neo-Confucianism. Scholars in metaphysics professed that only metaphysics was correct and dismissed other learnings. They dismissed not only Buddhism, but the philosophy of Wang Yang-ming which was one current in Confucianism, and concentrated on metaphysics alone. As a result, while it is true that metaphysics developed in Choson and obtained deeper roots, it is also true that by placing too much of a bias on the metaphysical theory alone, an atmosphere encouraging the free development of scholarly activities was not present.

In spite of the fact that the country’s social and economic problems were greatly affected by the damage of the two wars of Waeran and Horan and the livelihoods of the people greatly endangered, metaphysics, which concerned itself with philosophical questions, could not provide the answers to these difficult realities.

At this juncture, there arose a new movement in scholarly learning. To rectify the misaligned metaphysical and Yangban-centered reality and to set new directions for the country which would aid the livelihood of the people, new thinking called “Practical Learning” emerged.

 

(2) The Origin and Development of Practical Learning

 

The harbingers of Practical Learning were Han Paek-kyom and Yi Su-kwang; however, the actual leaders of Practical Learning who brought its ideas to fruit as a new thought were Yu Hyong-won and Yi Ik. They did not take positions as government officials, but made efforts in rural communities to nurture disciples in order to create opportunities for the development of this movement. Yu Hyong-won wrote the Pan’gye surok and Yi Ik was the author of Songho sasol, which was written in an encyclopedia form.

In the early 17th and 18th centuries, scholars of Practical Learning dealt mainly with the problems in rural areas, and from the latter 18th century to the early 19th century, scholars dealt with researching economic, technological, and social problems. Furthermore, around the 19th century, these scholars led efforts to build the axes of Han’gukhak (Koreanology) with studies in history, geography, languages, and epigraphy. This branch of Practical Learning led the scholarly world at this time.

So Yu-gu discussed problems in agriculture and showed the way to achieving stability in the livelihoods of the people. Hong Tae-yong, Pak Chi-won and Pak Che-ga insisted that agricultural and commercial industries should be regarded as important, and for that purpose Choson must open its posts to China, import technology and simultaneously increase trade activities.

Chong Yag-yong propagated structural reforms and a theory of industrial restoration based on these two positions. His scholarly activities contributed to the understanding of science, medicine, religion and Confucianism. There was not any field which was left untouched by his scholarly work. He wrote 500 volumes of books including the Mogmin simso, Humhum shinso and Kyongse yup’yo and achieved a synthesis of Practical Learning.

 

(3) Developments in Kukhak (national learning) and the Significance of Practical Learning

 

Scholars of the school of “on-the-spot survey” which was one of the trends in Practical Learning believed that people must achieve an academic understanding of the realities and culture of their country. They strove to conduct academic research concerning the country.

Yi Chong-hwi, Yu Tuk-kong, Han Ch’i-yun, and An Chong-bok studied history, and Sin Kyong-chun, Yi Chung-hwan, Kim Chong-ho studied geography. Chong Sang-ki and Kim Chong-ho drew maps of Korea, but Kim Chong-ho is particularly well known for the creation of a map known as the “Taedong yojido” which was made through actual field studies and had a variety of practical uses.

 

Taedong yojido : Dating back to 1861, it is the oldest detailed map of Korea

Many scholars also studied Korea’s language. The works of Sin Kyongchun and Yu Hui are famous. Springing from an interest in history, Kim Chong-hwi concentrated on studying the epigraphs on stone monuments. As the sphere of cultural activities expanded and scholarly interest in each of the fields increased, many encyclopedia-like books appeared.

Yi Ik’s Songho sasol, Yi Tok-mu’s Ch’ongchanggwan chonso, So Yuku’s Imwon kyongje-chi, Yi Kyu-kyong’s Oju yonmun changjon san’go and the palace-authorized Tongguk munhon pigo are representative examples of such works. Ch’oe Han-ki, during the reign of Honjong, was a scholar comparable to Chong Yag-yong who wrote hundreds of books on the subjects of government, geography, science, medicine, and mathematics.

Through the scholarly activities of these scholars throughout the 18th and 19th centuries, many measures concerning government administration and improvements in the welfare of the people were presented. The activities of field studies also greatly contributed to national development. These scholarly activities displayed an awareness of approaching modern times and a national consciousness, but were still not completely rid of the influence of metaphysics. In addition, because scholars were not in positions to influence policy making, their advancements didn’t affect the actual lives of the people.

 

(4) Developments in Science and Technology

 

As the sphere of cultural activities expanded, various industrial activities became active and developments in science and technology and medicine occurred. In addition, Western technology and medicine were partially accepted.

Books based on studies of agricultural technologies were reprinted. Among them were: Sin Sok’s Nongga chipsong, a technical guide to paddy farming; Pak Se-dang’s Saekkyong, a guide to fruit farming, tree planting, livestock farming, floriculture, irrigation and weather; and So Yu-ku’s Imwon kyongje-chi, a book dealing with agriculture, forestry, livestock farming, sericulture, food processing, food preservation, clothing, eating, and housing. In addition, Haedong nongso came out as a book which systematized the agricultural sciences of Korea on the basis of such theories of agricultural technologies and management.

 

A 1801 report stating the completion of Suwon Castle
Crane : created by Chong Yag-yong
(1752-1836), it’s mechanism is based on the theory of the pinwheel.

 

“Ssirum” or Korean-style wrestling and “Dancing Boy” by Kim Hong-to (1745~after 1814)

Chong Yak-chon, a pragmatist who went to the island of Huksan to study marine products, researched 155 varieties of fish which he collected and catalogued into a book, Chasan obo.

Many new theories also developed in the fields of astronomy and divination, which are closely related to agriculture. Yi Su-kwang introduced new theories based on his observations of solar and lunar eclipses, tides and other natural phenomena. Kim Sok-mun and Hong Tae-yong advocated a theory of heliocentricity and criticized the traditional geocentric world view.

Kim Yuk introduced the Western calendar from China and put it to use. It is a well-known fact that Chong Yag-yong designed a crane based on a book he read which was imported from China. This crane was used in the construction of Suwon Castle.

In traditional Chinese medicine, achievements were also made with regard to its theory and treatment methods. As basic Chinese medical texts, Ho Chun’s Tongui pogam and the Ch’imgu kyonghombang (a book on acupuncture) are famous and influencial even today. Research on the measles were carried out early on and Chong Yag-yong compiled many books on the subject in order to publish the Makwa hoet’ong. He even experimented with vaccinations.

 

(5) Growth in the Activities of Popular Culture

 

“inwang chesekdo : Clear Skies over Mount Inwang.”
by Chong Son(1751)

As industrial activities advanced and the welfare of the people improved with changes in the social status system, the population expressed interest in educational and cultural activities. As their knowledge gradually grew, people displayed creative talents in literature and the arts. Although there were some Sodangs (village schools for the learning of Chinese classics) in the early period of Choson, in the latter period, there was hardly a single village which did not have its own Sodang which was run and maintained by the local population. Sodangs were the institutions of primary education which taught Confucianism and history.

P’ansoris and other songs indigenous to Korea appeared. These accurately reflected the cultural tastes of the people and contained lyrics from novels and folktales. In addition, the Ch’ang-guk developed, a type of operatic theater which the general population greatly enjoyed, and the mask theaters which made fun of the Yangbans were very popular since they expressed the sentiments of the people.

Within the women’s society, traditional social activities were frowned upon. So, some ladies, who were learned, composed novels and short poems for songs in Han’gul.

 

(6) New Movements in Literature

 

“inwang chesekdo : Clear Skies over Mount Inwang.”
by Chong Son(1751)

Illustrious Yangban officials exerted most of their energy studying Chinese literature. In opposition to the Yangban’s interest in Chinese Literature, the pragmatists believed that the origins of Confucianism must be rediscovered. Thus, a movement to restudy the classics arose. There also appeared a new movement to use colloquial and everyday language and throw away the old conventions. Pak Chi-won’s Yolha Diary is a work which was written in this new style.

In the late 18th century, the middle class and illegitimate sons of Yangbans engaged in literary activities in order to raise their social status. They revealed the historical origins of the middle class, composed biographies of representative personages, and published anthologies of poems and songs. The Kyusa (History of the Sun Flower) and Ihyang Kyonmullok (Experiences in Foreign Countries) are representative of such biographies and the Ch’onggu yong’on, Haedong kayo and Haedong yuchu are anthologies of poems and songs.

The most conspicuous features of literary activities during the latter period of Choson are the appearance of works which display a popular consciousness and have been written to meet popular tastes. Examples are narratives, novels and the pansoris.

Tales such as the Taedong yasung and T’aep’yong kwanggi were composed. Among novels, Pak Chi-won’s Hosaeng-jon and Hojilmun (Tiger’s Reprimand) as well as works by Yangbanjon were written in Chinese characters. But Ho Kyun’s Hong Kil-tong-jon, Kim Man-chung’s Kuunmong (Dream in Nine clouds) and Sassi namjonggi (Southern Expedition), Changhwa hongnyon-jon (Rose and the Red Lotus), K’ongjwi P’atjwi-jon, Sim Ch’ong-jon, Hungbu-jon, Sukhyang-jon and Ch’unhyang-jon were written in Han’gul and read widely by women and common men. Pansoris were especially favored during the latter period of Choson. Ch’unhyang-ga, Chokbyok-ga, Simch’ong-ga, T’okki t’aryong (Song of the Hare) are the most popular pansoris. The man who became famous for the creation and arrangement of many Pansoris is Sin Chae-hyo.

 

(7) New Trends in Art Activities

 

In painting, a new trend arose. Korean landscapes in true life form were drawn. This genre of painting of peculiar customs of everyday life was in vogue and tales which were made popular by the common people laid the groundwork for such paintings.

The pioneers of true life landscape paintings were Chong Son and Sim Sa-hong of Hwawon. Kim Hong-to and Sin Yun-bok of Hwawon are also famous as genre painters depicting the lives of the people in the farming villages and cities. Kim Tuk-sin and Kim Sok-sin, two brothers, were also genre painters who possessed similar styles of painting.

Among civilian scholars, there were many who displayed outstanding talents in drawing. Among them, Kang Se-hwang, Sin Wi and Kim Chong-hui were particularly well known. There were also changes in the Yangban culture of calligraphy. Calligraphers of the past were not able to break away from the influence of Chinese calligraphers, but Kim Chong-hui succeeded in developing a peculiar style of calligraphy known as Ch’usa.

 

“Orchids” by Kim Chong-hui (1786~1857). Hanging scroll, ink or paper.
A 16th century white porcelain vase with a pinetree, deer, crane, and clouds, all symbols of longevity.

 

In the latter period of Choson, white porcelain was chiefly developed. Originally, white porcelain was forbidden to the common people, but in the latter period of Choson, white porcelain was freely sold, and even the common people were able to buy and utilize it. Among wares made in white porcelain, landscapes, flowers and grass were drawn on Ch’onghwa paekcha. They were used as jars, flower vases and water bottles. Among wooden goods, stationery cases, cabinets, tables, and small dining tables were the chief items used in everyday life.

Among the architectual works of the latter period of Choson, the most representative with its beautiful and solid structure is the castle of Suwon. Others which still remain today are the Maitreya Palace in the Kumsansa Temple, Taeung-jon in the Sogwangsa Temple, Kakhwang-jon of the Hwaomsa Temple and P’alsang-jon in the Popchusa Temple.

 

The Maitreya Hall at Kumsansa Temple is the only in Korea with a triple stories roof.
P’alsangjon, Popchusa Temple : built during the Shilla Dynasty under King Chinhung,
reconstructed in 1626.
Suwon castle, Suwon city, Kyonggi province. Built from 1794 to 1796, the castle has been designated Historic Site No. 3.

 1812

Peasant Wars of 1812 and 1862

During this period, drought and floods alternately struck the country, causing a succession of bad harvests, which in turn generated a grim cycle of famine.  Excessive tax collection and forced labor ensued.  These adverse natural and social conditions ignited a series of agrarian revolts.  In 1812, Hong Kyong-nae rose up in revolt with the peasants at Kasan, in the northern part of Korea, and held power in that district for some months.  Frightened government officials dispatched the army, and only after waging a hard campaign were they able to suppress the revolt.  In the south, all the way to Chejudo island, as well as in the north, peasants persevered in their struggle against oppression at the hands of the government, the local nobility and the wealthy landlords.

Half a century after Hong Kyong-nae’s well-organized fight, the situation had not improved.  A group of farmers in Chinju, Kyongsang-do province, rebelled against their oppressive overlords, the provincial officials and the wealthy landowners.  THis uprising of 1862 is directly attributable to the exploitation of destitute farmers by Paek Nak-shin, a newly appointed military commander who had jurisdiction over the western half of Kyongsang-do province.

Yu Kye-ch’un, an intellectual native to the district who was outraged by Paek Nak-shin’s rapacious conduct, led the farmers to riot, denouncing corrupt minor officials and wealthy landlords.  The rebels killed local government functionaries, set fire to government buildings and wrought considerable destruction.  The startled Hanyang government hurriedly sent an investigator to the scene.  On the basis of its findings of fraudulent practices by the local officials concerned, the government hastily revised the land, military and grain lending systems in an effort to eliminate such abuses.  From the outset, however, it was unrealistic to expect the ruling class in the central government, which was itself deeply involved in such frauds, to make radical changes.  But at least a superficial attempt at reform was made.

The agrarian revolt in Chinju served as a signal for similar uprisings elsewhere.  In Kyongsang-do, Cholla-do and Ch’ungch’nong-do provinces, on faraway Chejudo island and in Hamgyong-do and P’yong-an-do provinces in the north, groups of farmers rose up, attacking offices in principal towns and routing officials.

Under such social conditions, Ch’oe Che-u (1824-1864) formulated the ideology of Tonghak (Eastern Learning) in order to rescue the farmers from prevalent poverty and unrest, and to restore political and social stability.  His ideas rapidly gained acceptance and he set his doctrines to music so that farmers would understand and accept them more readily.  His teachings were systematized and compiled as a message of salvation to farmers in distress.  The songs he sang were a mixture of traditional elements from Confucianism, Buddhism and Son-gyo (teachings of Shilla’s Hwarang), and to these he added modern humanistic ideas.  Exclusionism was another characteristic of his religion, which incorporated an early form of nationalism and rejected alien thought.

 

 

 

II.1830-1870

1851

 

 Document chest, wood covered with black lacquer, inlaid with mother-of-pearl; Tobacco box, iron inlaid with silver; Tobacco box, green soapstone. Choson dynasty, 19th century. .

 the Korean object, an iron helmet decorated with silver inlay, FOUND  in 1878, it was originally documented as Japanese. Such mis-attribution was a recurring feature in the early acquisitions history for Korea.

 the increase of Westerners travelling or living in Korea and returning with objects . Thomas Watters (1840-1901), the son of a clergyman from County Down, Ireland, resided in Seoul as Acting Consul General after having held the position of British Consul in China.  a substantial collection of Korean objects as well as Chinese artifacts. These included a black lacquer document chest (mun’gap) which would have graced the male quarters of a Korean house during the late Choson period (1392- 1910) (). The top of the chest is ornately decorated with mother-of-pearl inlay featuring deer, cranes, pine and bamboo motifs symbolizing longevity, while the sliding doors bear a complex geometric pattern. Tobacco boxes made from green soapstone and iron inlaid with silver, popular souvenirs often brought back from Korea by Western travellers during this period, .

1852

Emperor Gojong


Gojong and the Korean Empire

26th
Emperor
Gojong

l:1852-1919
r2:1897-1907
    27th
Emperor
Sunjong
l:1874-1926
r:1907-1910
    Prince
Geon
       
      Wanchinwang     Prince
Wu
       
      Euichinwang     Yi Bang
       
            Yi Chang
       
            Yi Ju
       
            Yi Gon
       
            Yi Gwang
       
            Yi Hyun     30th
Yi Won
           
            Yi Gap     Yi Sangwoo
           
            Yi Seuk (Hwangson)
       
            Yi Hwan
       
            Yi Jung
       
     
   
      28th
Eumin taeja
    29th
Yi Gu (1931)
       

War, Chosun was finally free and no longer was a vassal state of China.

the Great Korean Empire (大韓帝國, 대한제국).

For the first time since the Goryeo dynasty’s subjugation to the Mongols, Korea was able to take titles reserved for China and its Emperor. Thus, to usher a new era, King Gojong assumed the title “Emperor” and changed the name of Chosun to the Great Korean Empire (大韓帝國, 대한제국).

 He attempted to put Korea on par with the imperial Western nations and Japan, and introduced reforms by opening port and bringing in both Westerners and the Japanese. Unfortunately, it was too little, too late.

The Japanese, with their aspirations to have a foothold on the Asian mainland, interfered in internal Korean politics and forced Emperor Gojong to abdicted  After the defeat to  the Qing dynasty in the First Sino-Japanese

 

Emperor Gojong – Enjoying Spring

 a poem by Emperor Gojong (高宗光武帝, 고종광무제, r. 1863-1907, 1852-1919), the second to last monarch of the last dynasty.

賞春 상춘Enjoying Spring

花間看蝶舞 화간간접무
柳上聽鶯聲 유상청앵성
群生皆自樂 군생개자락
最是愛民情 최시애민정

flower-between-to see-butterfly-to dance
willows-above-hear-nightingale-sound
group-life-all-by themselves-joy
first-to be-love-people-condition

Between the flowers, I spotted a butterfly dancing.
Above the willows, I hearken the nightingale’s singing.
All sorts of life are all together by themselves enjoyable.
The first of these is to esteem the conditions of [Our country's] people.

Characters:

  • 蝶 (접, jeop) – butterfly (나비).
  • 鶯 (앵, aeng) – nightingale (앵무새).
 
 

1853

Stimulated by these events, Japan proceeded to modernize after having been forced to open its ports by Commodore Matthew C. Perry of the United States Navy in 1853-54. Korea, however, remained dormant, having closed itself to all outside contacts in the early eighteenth century.

1863

 

 Late Joseon period

Heungseon Daewongun

After invasions from Manchuria, Joseon experienced a nearly 200-year period of peace. King Yeongjo and King Jeongjo led a renaissance of the Joseon dynasty. King Sukjong and his son King Yeongjo tried to solve the problems caused by faction politics. Tangpyeong’s policy was to effectively freeze the parties’ disputes.

Yeongjo’s grandson, King Jeongjo enacted various reforms throughout his reign, notably establishing Kyujanggak, a royal library in order to improve the cultural and political position of Joseon and to recruit gifted officers to run the nation. King Jeongjo also spearheaded bold social initiatives, opening government positions to those who would previously have been barred because of their social status. King Jeongjo had the support of the many Silhak scholars, who supported his regal power. King Jeongjo’s reign also saw the further growth and development of Joseon’s popular culture.

In 1863

King Gojong took the throne. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid 1860s the Regent was the main proponent of isolationism and the instrument of the persecution of native and foreign Catholics, a policy that led directly to the French Campaign against Korea, 1866. The early years of his rule also witnessed a large effort to restore the largely dilapidated Gyeongbok Palace, the seat of royal authority. During Heungseon Daewongun‘s reign, factional politics and power wielded by the Andong Kim clan completely disappeared.

 In 1871,

 U.S. and Korean forces clashed in a U.S. attempt at “gunboat diplomacy” following on the General Sherman incident of 1866.

In 1873,

 King Gojong announced his assumption of royal rule. With the subsequent retirement of Heungseon Daewongun, the future Queen Min (later called Empress Myeongseong) gained complete control over her court, placing her family in high court positions.

1885

Decline

Empress Myeongseong.

Deokhye, Princess of Korea

 

 
 
 
Princess Deokhye
Spouse Count Sō Takeyuki
Issue
Countess Sō Masae
Father Gojong of Korea
Mother Lady Bongnyeong
Born 25 May 1912(1912-05-25)
Changdeok Palace, Seoul
Died 21 April 1989(1989-04-21) (aged 76)
Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, Republic of Korea
Burial Hongryureung, Namyangju, Republic of Korea
Deokhye, Princess of Korea
Hangul 덕혜옹주
Hanja 德惠翁主
Revised Romanization Deokhye Ongju
McCune–Reischauer Tŏkhye Ongju

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.

She was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Gwangmu and his concubine, Lady Bongnyeong. In 1917, her name was formally entered into the Imperial Family’s registry. Her father, Emperor Gwangmu, loved her greatly, and established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong hall. Girls her age from noble families attended the kindergarten. In 1919, she was secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwangjin (a court chamberlain).

In 1925, she was taken to Japan under the pretense of continuing her studies. Like her brothers, she attended the Gakushuin. She was described as silent and isolative. Upon the news of her mother’s death in 1929, she isolated herself in her rooms and was eventually given permission to visit Korea temporarily to attend her mother’s funeral in 1930. In the Spring of 1930, upon the onset of mental illness (manifested by sleepwalking), she moved to King Lee’s Palace, her brother Crown Prince Eun‘s house in Tokyo. During this period, she often forgot to eat and drink. Her physician diagnosed her illness as precocious dementia, but by the following year, her condition seemed to have improved.

In May 1931, after “matchmaking” by Empress Teimei, the consort of Emperor Taishō of Japan, she married Count Sō Takeyuki (武志), {1923-1985} a Japanese nobleman. The marriage had in fact been decided in 1930; her brother had protested against it, and it had been postphoned because of her condition, but when she recovered, she was immediately given instructions that the marriage was to take place. She gave birth to a daughter, Masae (正惠) on 14 August 1932. In 1933, Deokhye was again afflicted with mental illness, and after this, she spent many years in various mental clinics. She finally divorced her husband in 1953. Suffering an unhappy marriage, her grief was compounded by the loss of her only daughter who committed suicide by drowning in 1955. After this, her condition deteriorated.

She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government on 26 January 1962. She cried while approaching her motherland, and despite her mental state, accurately remembered the court manners. She lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace, with Crown Prince and Princess Eun, their son Prince Gu, his wife Julia Mullock, and Mrs Byeon Bokdong, her lady-in-waiting. She died on 21 April 1989 at Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, and was buried at Hongryureung in Namyangju, near Seoul.

Japan, after the Meiji Restoration, acquired Western military technology, and forced Joseon to sign the Treaty of Ganghwa in 1876, opening three ports to trade and granting the Japanese extraterritoriality. Port Hamilton was occupied by the British Navy in 1885.

Many Koreans despised Japanese and foreign influences over their land and the corrupt oppressive rule of the Joseon Dynasty. In 1894, the Donghak Peasant Revolution saw farmers rise up in a mass rebellion, with peasant leader Jeon Bong-jun defeating the forces of local ruler Jo Byong-gap at the battle of Go-bu on January 11, 1894; after the battle, Jo’s properties were handed out to the peasants. By May, the peasant army had reached Jeonju, and the Joseon government asked the Qing Dynasty government for assistance in ending the revolt. The Qing sent 3,000 troops and the rebels negotiated a truce, but the Japanese considered the Qing presence a threat and sent in 8,000 troops of their own, seizing the Royal Palace in Seoul and installing a pro-Japanese government on 8 June 1894. This soon escalated into the First Sino-Japanese War (1894–1895) between Japan and Qing China, fought largely in Korea.

Empress Myeongseong[19] had attempted to counter Japanese interference in Korea and was considering turning to Russia or China for support. In 1895, Empress Myeongseong (referred to as “Queen Min”[19]) was assassinated by Japanese agents.[20][20] The Japanese minister to Korea, Miura Goro, orchestrated the plot against her. A group of Japanese agents along with the Hullyeondae Army[20] entered the Royal Palace in Seoul, which was under Japanese control,[20] and Empress Myeongseong was killed and her body desecrated in the North wing of the palace.

The Qing acknowledged defeat in the Treaty of Shimonoseki (17 April 1895), which officially guaranteed Korea’s independence from China. It was a step toward Japan gaining regional hegemony in Korea.

1897

The Joseon court, pressured by encroachment from larger powers, felt the need to reinforce national integrity and declared the Korean Empire in 1897. Emperor Gojong assumed the title of Emperor in order to assert Korea’s independence. In addition, other foreign powers were sought for military technology, especially Russia, to fend off the Japanese.

 

Wongudan, Seoul

 

 An altar site in Seoul built in 1897 as a location for the performance of the rite of heaven

reinstated with the founding of the Korean Empire in 1897

Wongudan, Seoul A 1925 photo of Wongudan, an altar site in Seoul built in 1897 as a location for the performance of the rite of heaven. King Seongjong of the Goryeo Dynasty was the first to perform the rite, designed to ensure a bountiful harvest, in the tenth century. The practice was discontinued by later Goryeo kings, revived briefly in the mid fifteenth century by Sejo of the Joseon Dynasty, then reinstated with the founding of the Korean Empire in 1897. Much of the altar complex was destroyed during the Japanese occupation, and the gate and fountain seen here were also subsequently removed, leaving only the three-storey Hwangungu pagoda remaining

1897

 Technically, 1897 marks the end of the Joseon period, as the official name of the empire was changed; however the Joseon Dynasty would still reign, albeit perturbed by Japan and Russia.

 

In 1863, Prince Yi Ha-ung, better known as the Taewon-gun or Prince Regent, put into effect a series of sweeping reforms encompassing national finance and government administration in order to strengthen the royal authority.  He strongly opposed the increasing infiltration of foreign commercial interests into the country.  In the spring of 1866, the government ordered the rigorous persecution of Catholics.  Aroused by this measure, the French fleet sailed up the Han-gang river and hostilities broke out on Kanghwado island.

Economic and social developments drove the majority of yangban to bankruptcy, while the peasants and merchants were eager to throw off the traditional social constraints.  As these trends developed, the government devised measures to suppress them.  Another impetus to social dynamism was the increase in offspring of the yangban and mothers of lower origin.

Although the emancipation of bondsmen resulted in an increase in the number of taxable people, the exploitation of farmers by the ruling class caused the state’s tax revenues to decline

 

III.1870-1900

A Korean street, late 1800’s. A Korean street, late 1800s

1875

The Japanese were the first foreign power in recent history to succeed in penetrating Korea’s isolation. After a warlike Japanese provocation against Korea in 1875 (when China failed to come to Korea’s aid), the Japanese forced an unequal treaty on Korea in February 1876. The treaty gave Japanese nationals extraterritorial rights and opened up three Korean ports to Japanese trade. In retaliation, China sought to counter Japan by extending Korea’s external relations and playing off one Western power against another. Accordingly, Korea signed treaties with the United States, Britain, Italy, Russia, and other countries were signed within the decade after the one with Japan.

Internally, the Korean court split into rival pro-Chinese, pro-Japanese, and pro-Russian factions, the latter two having more reformist and modernizing orientations. In 1895 the Japanese minister to Korea masterminded the assassination of the Korean queen, who with her clan had opposed reform-oriented, Japanese-supported leaders. The Korean king, however, rejected not only Japan but also the various reform measures and turned for support to one of Japan’s adversaries–Russia. The king fled to the Russian legation in Seoul to avoid possible Japanese plots against him and conducted the nation’s business from there. The Japanese blunder had served the Russians well.

In the meantime, under the leadership of So Chae-p’il, who had exiled himself to the United States after participating in an unsuccessful palace coup in 1884, a massive campaign was launched to advocate Korean independence from foreign influence and controls. As well as supporting Korean independence, So also advocated reform in Korea’s politics and customs in line with Western practices. Upon his return to Korea in 1896, So published Tongnip simmun (The Independent), the first newspaper to use the han’gul writing system and the vernacular language, which attracted an ever-growing audience (see The Korean Language, ch. 2). He also organized the Independence Club to introduce Korea’s elite to Western ideas and practices. Under his impetus and the influence of education provided by Protestant mission schools, hundreds of young men held mass meetings on the streets and plazas demanding democratic reforms and an end to Russian and Japanese domination. But the conservative forces proved to be too deeply entrenched for the progressive reformers who trashed the paper’s offices. The reformers, including Syngman Rhee, then a student leader, were jailed. So was compelled to return to the United States in 1898, and under one pretext or another the government suppressed both the reform movement and its newspaper.

The revolt of 1894-95, known as the Tonghak Rebellion, had international repercussions. Like the Taiping rebels in China thirty years earlier, the Tonghak(see Glossary) participants were fired by religious fervor as well as by indignation about the corrupt and oppressive government. The rebellion spread from the southwest to the central region of the peninsula, menacing Seoul. The Korean court apparently felt unable to cope with the rebels and invited China to send troops to quell the rebellion. This move gave Japan a pretext to dispatch troops to Korea. The two countries soon engaged in the First Sino-Japanese War (1894-95), which accelerated the demise of the Qing Dynasty in China.

The victorious Japanese established their hegemony over Korea via the Treaty of Shimonoseki (1895) and dictated to the Korean government a wide-ranging series of measures to prevent further domestic disturbances. In response, the government promulgated various reforms, including the abolition of class distinctions, the liberation of slaves, the abolition of the ritualistic civil service examination system, and the adoption of a new tax system.

Russian influence had been on the rise in East Asia, in direct conflict with the Japanese desire for expansion. In alliance with France and Germany, Russia had just forced Japan to return the Liaodong Peninsula to China (which Japan had seized during the First Sino-Japanese War) and then promptly leased the territory from China. The secret Sino-Russian treaty signed in 1896 also gave the Russians the right to build and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway across northern Manchuria, which served as a link in the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. Russia proceeded to acquire numerous concessions over Korea’s forests and mines.

The strategic rivalry between Russia and Japan exploded in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, won by Japan. Under the peace treaty signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea. A separate agreement signed in secret between the United States and Japan at this time subsequently aroused anti-American sentiment among Koreans. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was cynical by modern standards, exchanging what amounted to a lack of interest and military capability in Korea on the part of the United States (Japan was given a free hand in Korea) for a lack of interest or capability in the Philippines on the part of Japan (Japanese imperialism was diverted from the Philippines). Given the diplomatic conventions of the times, however, the agreement was a much weaker endorsement of the Japanese presence in Korea than either the Russo-Japanese peace treaty or a separate Anglo- Japanese accord. Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate. Thereafter, a large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but by then Japanese dominance in Korea was a reality. Japan annexed Korea as a colony on August 22, 1910

The Last Empress a historical drama about

Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) , who was assassinated by the Japanese

new information suggest by my friend Yeoung fron turkish site:

 

Princess Deokhye / 덕혜옹주[Resim: princessdeokhye1.png]


Prenses Deokhye(25 Mayıs 1912 – 21 Nisan 1989) Kore’nin son prensesidir.

25 Mayıs 1912’de Seoul’de Changdeok Sarayı’nda doğdu. Hükümdar Gwangmu ile cariyesi Lady Bongnyeong’un en genç çocuklarıydı. Adı, 1917’de İmparatorluk Ailesi kaydına resmi olarak işlendi. Babası hükümdar Gwangmu onu çokça severdi, onun için Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong Salonu’na Deoksu Saray Anaokulu’nu kurdurttu. Onun yaşındaki asil ailelerin kızları bu anaokuluna gitti.1919’da saray nazırı Kim Hwangjin’in yeğeni Kim Jang-han ile gizlice nişanlandırıldı ve eğitimine devam etmesi bahanesiyle Japonya’ya götürüldü. Erkek kardeşleri gibi Gakushuin’e girdi (Gakushuin, Kraliyet Üniversitesi olarak da bilinen eski bir Japon üniversitesidir). 1930 yılının baharında, ruhsal bir bozukluğun baş göstermesi üzerine (uyurgezerlik olarak ortaya çıktı) Kral Lee’nin sarayından erkek kardeşi Veliaht Eun’ın Tokyo’daki evine taşındı. Doktoru erken bunama teşhisi koydu ama ilerleyen yıllarda durumu düzelmiş olarak göründü.

Mayıs 1931’de İmparatoriçe Teimei’nin çöpçatanlığıyla Japonya İmparatoru Taishō’nın arkadaşı, asilzade bir Japon olan Kont Sō Takeyuki(武志) ile evlendi. 14 Ağustos 1932’de kızı Masae’yi (正惠) doğurdu. Mutsuz bir evliliğe katlanırken, buna intihar eden kızını kaybetmenin acısı da eklendi. Bu olaydan sonra durumu kötüleşti ve 1953’de eşinden boşandı.

Kore hükümetinin davetiyle 26 Ocak 1962’de Kore’ye geri döndü.21 Nisan 1989’da Changdeok Sarayı, Sugang Salonu’nda hayatını kaybetti, Namyangju’daki Hongryureung’a defnedildi.

[Resim: princessdeokhye2.jpg] [Resim: princessdeokhye3.jpg]

 

Princess Deokhye of Korea (25 May 1912 – 21 April 1989) was the last Princess of Korea.

She was born on 25 May 1912 at Changdeok Palace in Seoul. She was the youngest daughter of Emperor Gwangmu and his concubine, Lady Bongnyeong. In 1917, her name was formally entered into the Imperial Family’s registry. Her father, Emperor Gwangmu, loved her greatly, and established the Deoksu Palace Kindergarten for her in Jeukjodang, Hamnyeong hall. Girls her age from noble families attended the kindergarten. In 1919, she was secretly engaged to Kim Jang-han, a nephew of Kim Hwangjin (a court chamberlain) and was taken to Japan under the pretense of continuing her studies. Like her brothers, she attended the Gakushuin. In the Spring of 1930, upon the onset of mental illness (manifested by sleepwalking), she moved to King Lee’s Palace, her brother Crown Prince Eun’s house in Tokyo. Her physician diagnosed her illness as precocious dementia, but by the following year, her condition seemed to have improved.

In May 1931, after “matchmaking” by Empress Teimei, the consort of Emperor Taishō of Japan, she married Count Sō Takeyuki (武志), a Japanese nobleman. She gave birth to a daughter, Masae (正惠) on 14 August 1932. Suffering an unhappy marriage, her grief was compounded by the loss of her only daughter who committed suicide by drowning. After this, her condition deteriorated, and she finally divorced her husband in 1953.

She returned to Korea at the invitation of the Korean government on 26 January 1962. She cried while approaching her motherland, and despite her mental state, accurately remembered the court manners. She lived in Nakseon Hall, Changdeok Palace, with Crown Prince and Princess Eun, their son Prince Gu, his wife Julia Mullock, and Mrs Byeon Bokdong, her lady-in-waiting. She died on 21 April 1989 at Sugang Hall, Changdeok Palace, and was buried at Hongryureung in Namyangju, near Seoul.

By the 1880s, court power struggles were no longer a domestic issue and took on international aspects .As a newly emergent country, Japan turned its attention towards Korea. It was vital for Japan, in order to protect its own interests and security, to either annex Korea before it fell prey (or was annexed) to another power or to insure its effective independence by opening its resources and reforming its administration. As one Japanese statesman put it, Korea was “an arrow pointed at the heart of Japan”. Japan felt that another power having a military presence on the Korean peninsula would have been detrimental to Japanese national security, and so Japan resolved to end the centuries-old Chinese suzerainty over Korea. Moreover, Japan realized that Korea’s coal and iron ore deposits would benefit Japan’s increasingly-expanding industrial base.

In 1874, King Kojong began his rule and his wife, Queen Min, gained increasing power, which she used to support reform and use Japanese officers to train a new Korean  army .In 8882 a Japanese military instructor arrived to train Korean soldiers in modern methods .The Korean Daewongun (Prince of the Court) Prince Gung, who rejected modernization, used the discontent of the dismissed soldiers and a food shortage to incite them to attack the palace and the Japanese legation in 1882 .Queen Min barely escaped and seven Japanese officers were killed along with 300 pro-reform Koreans .The Chinese sent Admiral Ding Ju-chang twith six gunboats and two transports of troops to investigate the situation who took steps to avoid Japanese punitive action by having the Daewongun arrested and an indemnity of $550,000 to be paid to Japan.Japan was allowed to station troops at its legation .Queen Min returned, who was now strongly opposed to the Japanese .

 

After the insurrection of 1882, Li Hung-chang took steps to strengthen China’s position in Korea with a commercial treaty, loans and six Chinese battalions to maintain order and check Japanese aggression .Tension mounted between pro-Chinese and pro-Japanese forces. In 1884, China was involved in a war with France and withdrew three battalions. the pro-Japanese faction took this opportunity to launch a coup and captured the king. A pro-Japanese government was sworn in, independence from China was proclaimed and a new Japanese fiance minister was appointed .

The Japanese had been too heavy handed however, and many reformers and pro-Japanese switched to the conservative, pro-Chinese faction .A force of 5,000 Korean and Chinese soldiers under Yuan Shikai fell on the palace The chinese broke through the palace gates, and the Japanese detonated a mine which killed 90 Chinese soldiers .However, there were too many against the Japanese and pro-Japanese forces, and a company of 140 Japanese soldiers and the Japanese minister fought their way to Chemulpo ( Inchon). With the conservatives victorious, the remaing pro-Japanese and progressives were rounded up and executed , along with their families .

An envoy, Ito Hirobumi, was sent to confer with Li Hung-chang, where they reached the Sino-Japanese Tientsin Convention on April 18, 1885. Ito felt that Japan was not yet modernized enough for a war with China .This stipulated that both China and Japan would withdraw their troops from Korea in four months, neither side would train Korean troops and that each would notify the other before dispatching troops to Korea .This in effect made Korea a co-protectorate of China and Japan . Yuan Shi-kai, as chinese pro-consul was very powerful in Korea at this time.and basically ran the Korean government. He dismissed all pro-Japanese advisors, prohibited inland trade with Russia and the sale of rice to Japan, which had in part caused the food shortage before . This greatly angered the Japanese, who granted asylum to progressives who were wanted by the Korean government .There was great anger in the Korean countryside over the abuses of the Yangban ruling class over high taxes, buying land cheap or stealing it, forcing farmers into debt bondage and xenophobia against foreign intrusion in Korea. The Japanese secret society, began to secretly aid a group fighting these injustices, the Tonghaks, hoping Japan could profit from an unstable situation in Korea .

Waning of the Dynasty

uniforms in the late Choson Dynasty

Aside from perceived threats from the West, Korea also faced serious internal problems during the last century of the Choson Dynasty. The 1800s saw increasing corruption and inefficiency in government. The kings were weaklings and policies were made by powerful families or factions of high-ranking individuals at court. Cul­tural and artistic expression flourished, but the country was stunted politically and economically, poorly developed militarily, and naive in in­ternational relations. Voices of dissent were re­pressed and because of yangban oppression of the lower classes, dissatisfaction continued to ferment and sometimes boiled over. An effort, termed the Kabo Revolution, by upper-class pro-Japanese activists in 1884 to bring about drastic changes in government and institute re­forms (similar to those of the Meiji Restoration in Japan a few years earlier) also failed.

In the 1860s, the indigenous religion, Tong­hak(“Eastern learning”), ( more details on the Tonghaks )had been formulated. Combining elements from Buddhism, Confu­cianism, shamanism, and other sources, it es­poused the equality and dignity of all peoples, equal opportunity, national self-sufficiency, and independence from foreign influence. Tonghak followers in 1894 protested against social conditions and the growing dominance of Japanese merchants in the Korean market. They engaged in violent clashes with the Korean army, prompting both China and Japan to send in troops to help suppress the demonstrations. As China and Japan were at this time vying for influence over the Korean Peninsula, the Tong­hak Rebellion brought relations between the two giants to a head and helped spark the Sino­Japanese War (1894-95).

 

The Korean government banned the movement and had its founder Ch’oe Che-u, executed by decapitation in 1864  and the movement was forced to go underground .The Tonghaks, were aided by the Japanese Genyosha secret society, to organize a mass movement with large protests and stage a rebellion .A Korean army sent to attack the Tonghaks was defeated at Gobu in southwest Korea on January 11, 1894 and the Korean court, fearing a Tonghak invasion of Seoul, asked for Chinese aid.

 

The initial success of the revolt led a panic court to seek help from  China .In early June a Chinese force of 2,800 was dispatched from Chefoo ( Yingtan) to Asan under general Yuan Shikai, a port outside of Seoul, where they camped.The arrival of the Chinese forces caused the Tonghaks to call off their attack on Seoul after the Korean government arranged a truce . The Tonghak leader, Chon Pong-chun regarded this as an opportunity to archive his objectives without further recourse to warfare. In consequence hostilities came to an end, on condition that an end also be put to government misrule.  .The Japanese considered this action to be a violation of the Convention, and sent their own expeditionary force of 8,000 troops to Korea. to its legation in Seoul ad the surrounding area .

The Daewongun (Taewongun) (1821-1898) was the father of Kojong and was the de facto ruler of Korea as the regent of the young king till his death in 1898. As an old school Confucianist he promoted isolationism and persecution of Korean Catholics, leading to the French attack of Ganghwa Island in 1866 after the execution of a French priest. In 1882 he was abducted by the Qing General in China, Yuan Shihkai and taken to China. He returned 4 years later.

Partially fought on Korean soil, this was the first modern war engaged in by foreign powers on the peninsula. Japan won, dramatically ending Chinese influence there. Japan subsequently demanded that Korea make sweeping changes in its policies to benefit Japanese interests. Because of its loss in the war, China ceded Taiwan and the Liaotung Peninsula to Japan and was forced to recognize Korea as a fully independent nation, ending its centuries-long domination of the peninsula.

 1882

Gamgok Parish Church

 

From Anseong, we (i.e., Andy Jackson and I) got on a bus to Janghowon in nearby Icheon-si. And from Janghowon, we walked across the river to its sister city, Gamgok-myeon, Eumseong-gun in lovely Chungcheongbuk-do.

Gamgok-myeon is home to one of Korea’s oldest—and certainly one of its most beautiful—Catholic churches, Gamgok Parish Church, or more precisely, Gamgok Maegoe Virgin Mary Catholic Cathedral (maegoe is the Sino-Korean word for the Rosary, so I guess the proper way to translate the name of the church—the English name of the official site not withstanding—would be Gamgok Our Lady of the Rosary Church).

Gamgok Parish Church sits atop a hill overlooking the town of Gamgok like a sentinel. The land where the church is now used to be the owned by Min Eung-sik, a second cousin of Empress Myeongseong and a major late Joseon-era conservative. During the Mutiny of 1882, when old-guard military units rebelled against the government’s military modernization plans, Min offered the empress sanctuary at his palatial home. After Empress Myeongseong’s assassination in 1895, Min was arrested and brought to Seoul. His home was occupied by loyalist militias, which made it a target of the Japanese Army, which proceeded to burn it down.

The upside to this was that when French priest Father Camillus Bouillon of the Paris Foreign Missions Society came around looking for a place to build a church, he could buy the land for a song.  Or a Gregorian chant, as the case may be.

It’s said that when Bouillon first saw the massive house (presumably before the Japanese torched it) and the hillside on which it rested, he prayed that if the Virgin Mary were to give him the house and hill, he would become her humble servant, and she would be the patron saint of the church. Well, as it would turn out, the Blessed Virgin Mary held up her end of the bargain (and even got the Imperial Japanese Army to foot the cleanup bill), so Bouillon kept his, establishing a church in May 1896 and dedicating it to the Virgin Mary.

The current Gothic-style church—a miniature version of Myeongdong Cathedral—was built in 1930 (by Chinese laborers), and was designed by French priest Father Pierre Chizallet.

I’ll say this—Bouillon couldn’t have chosen a better spot to put a church. The place gives off a very happy, loving vibe. The church itself is absolutely beautiful—a red-and-black brick Gothic structure of the kind loved by French missionaries in Korea. It’s the surroundings, however, that make it what it is—how it looks out over the surrounding countryside, the beautiful trees that surround it, how you can feel the spring breeze. It’s just a very peaceful place.

1888

Yi Munsun Chip (1241).

missionary who arrived in Korea in 1888 and spent the next forty years there. A prodigious scholar, Gale translated many of Korea’s literary classics into English and wrote numerous books on Korean history, literature, and culture. Gale helped the Library procure a number of Korean classics, including rare books from the estate of the Korean scholar Kim To-hui

1890


Figure 2 Stacking chest, wood covered with red lacquer, inlaid with mother-of- pearl. Choson dynasty, 1890-1910

1894

1894. before the 1894 version of “Choson Seaway (朝鮮水路誌)”

1893 -

 “The Sea Chart of Hokkaido and Northeastern Islands(北洲及北東諸島)” plots Waywoda Rock far outside of Korean territory

 
Dec. 24th edition of Japan’s San-in Chuo Shimpo(山陰中央新報) (cache)reported that the new evidence which debunks pro-Korean’s distorted claim was found, again.”The Sea Chart of Hokkaido and Northeastern Islands(北洲及北東諸島)” was made by Hydorographic Office of Japan(日本水路部), basing on the British Navy’s seachart, in 1893 originally, just a year before the 1894 version of “Choson Seaway (朝鮮水路誌)” was published. The map plots Waywoda rock near Okushiri island of Japan’s Hokkaido and it also shows the trace Japanese Navy did fathomed to survey around the area, but labelled as “non-existant” just like British “China Sea Directory” reported. The location is exactly the place 1894 “Choson Seaway” reported and it is clearly far outside of Korean territory at a glance.Pro-Korean scholars like Prof. Hori Kazuo(1987) wrongfully claimed as follows and pro-Korean scholars have been blindlessly following his unrealistic claim even up until now.

“しかし、海図は地理的な認識を示すだけなので、海図中の島の所属については、その解説書たる水路誌を重視しなければならない。”(p105)
———————————————-
“However, marine charts usually show geographical features and do not specify sovereign rights to islands in them. As for sovereign rights to islands, therefore, one has to consult a guide to sea routes, an expounder of a chart.(p105)”
“そして他方、日本海軍の『朝鮮水路誌』一八九四年版と九十九年版には、鬱陵島と並んでリアンコールト列岩が載せられている。つまり十九世紀末に、日本海軍の水路部当局が竹島=独島を朝鮮領だと認識していたことは、疑いのないところである。”(p106)
———————————————–
“Moreover, the 1894 and 1897 editions of the Chosen suiroshi (Korea’s Sealanes) by the Japanese Navy show Liancourt Rocks/Tokdo,26) along with Ullungdo. There is no doubt the Japanese naval hydrographic anthorities were aware Takeshima/Tokdo belonged to Korea around the end of the 19th century.”

First of all, waterway magazines are just “guide to sea routes” and they don’t represent the “sovereign rights to islands”. They are written for the safety of the voyages as well as seachart. In fact, Liancourt Rocks was listed along with Matsushima(Ulleungdo) and Waywoda rock as “dangerous rocks in the Sea of Japan(左ニ記載スルモノヲ除ク外日本海内絶エテ暗岩危礁ナシ)” for the safe voyages in 1894 “Choson Seaway”. And Waywoda Rock was reported as situated in lat. 42°16′N., long.137°18′E. , way up north from Korean territorial limit in the first place. Pro-Korean always wrongfully refer to this book as one of the evidences Japanese considered Takeshima as Korean territory only because it was listed in the section “East Coast of Choson” of “Choson Seaway.”, ignoring Waywoda rock, which is clearly outside of Korean territory, was also listed in the same section.

Moreover, the preface of this waterway magazine clearly depicts eastern limit of Korean territory is 130º 35′ E.longitude, under the name of the Kimotsuki Kaneyuki (肝付兼行),a director of Hydrography Department. From this fact, we can see that Kimotsuki clearly recognized that Takeshima/Dokdo was outside of Korean territory when Nakai met him in 1904.

Lastly, Eastern Strait(東水道) of Choson Strait, between Tsushima and Iki(壱岐) of Nagasaki, Japan was also listed in the previous chapter(Chapter 3). You cannot claim that the strait between Tsushima and Iki also belong to Korea only because it is listed in the “Choson Seaway”. It also proves that Liancourt Rocks in this waterway magazines were not for territorial issue, but only for the safety of voyages.

It is funny to see that the Prof. Hori’s old unreliable thesis based on out-of-date resources, written more than 20 years ago, is still keep followed by Korean scholars and made them look stupid worldwidely.

1893 北洲及北東諸島_11893 北洲及北東諸島_221893 北洲及北東諸島_41893 北洲及北東諸島_5

 
Post

 1896

The secret Sino-Russian treaty signed in 1896

also gave the Russians the right to build and operate the Chinese Eastern Railway across northern Manchuria, which served as a link in the Russian Trans-Siberian Railway to Vladivostok. Russia proceeded to acquire numerous concessions over Korea’s forests and mines.

1897

Queen Min

 

Funeral of Queen Min (Empress Myeongseong) in 1895 Seoul. She had been assassinated by Japanese due to her pro-Russian stance.Korea was declared a protectorate in 1905 and annexed in 1910. In 1910 name of the city of Seoul was changed to Keijo (Japanese Korean Hanseong).

 After the Chinese loss to the Japanese in the Sino-Japanese War, the Korean government was forced to declare their independence from the Chinese and no longer being a tributary state King Kojong (Gojong) declared Korea to be the Korean Empire. Many in the Korean court such as Qin Minsought Russian help in thrawrting the growing power of the Japanese. Russia , England and France had recently forced Japan to abandon the Liaodong Peninsula which it had won in the recent war with China.

 

1953 newsreel on Changgyeonggung

 

The  Japanese, wishing to end this meddling sent a new ambassador to Korea, Miura Goro with orders to arrange the assassination of Queen Min which was done on Oct 8, 1895 at Gyeongbokgung. This is known as the Eulmi Incident. After the assassination King Kojong and Crown Prince Sunjong fled to the Russian Legation on Feb 11, 1896

After the murder of Queen Min in 1895, King Kojong and his heir fled to the Russ­ian legation. Emerging about one year later, the king proclaimed himself emperor. The country’s name was changed to Taehan Cheguk, or “Great Han Empire,” symbolically equalizing the status of Korea, China, and Japan. It was an empty honor, however, as Kojong was nearly powerless in the face of foreign imposition; Korea found herself the pawn of foreign governments which had little concern for the people of the peninsula.

  

coins started to be minted from modern presses in 1888, such as this silver 5 Yang (兩liang also known as a tael)

대한제국 (大韓帝國)   Greater Korean Empire   1897-1910

1901

The earliest known footage of Korea from 1901.

1904-1905

 

1904-1907

In a complicated series of maneuvers and counter-maneuvers, Japan pushed back the Russian fleet at the Battle of Port Arthur in 1905. With the conclusion of the 1904–1905 Russo-Japanese War with the Treaty of Portsmouth, the way was open for Japan to take control of Korea. After the signing of the Protectorate Treaty in 1905, Korea became a protectorate of Japan.

1909

Itō Hirobumi was the first Resident-General of Korea, although he was assassinated by Korean independence activist An Jung-geun in 1909 at the train station at Harbin.

 

The strategic rivalry between Russia and Japan exploded in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904-5, won by Japan. Under the peace treaty signed in September 1905, Russia acknowledged Japan’s “paramount political, military, and economic interest” in Korea. A separate agreement signed in secret between the United States and Japan at this time subsequently aroused anti-American sentiment among Koreans. The Taft-Katsura Agreement was cynical by modern standards, exchanging what amounted to a lack of interest and military capability in Korea on the part of the United States (Japan was given a free hand in Korea) for a lack of interest or capability in the Philippines on the part of Japan (Japanese imperialism was diverted from the Philippines). Given the diplomatic conventions of the times, however, the agreement was a much weaker endorsement of the Japanese presence in Korea than either the Russo-Japanese peace treaty or a separate Anglo- Japanese accord. Two months later, Korea was obliged to become a Japanese protectorate. Thereafter, a large number of Koreans organized themselves in education and reform movements, but by then Japanese dominance in Korea was a reality. Japan annexed Korea as a colony on August 22, 1910

1910

In 1910,

although many Koreans opposed the annexation, the Japanese Empire annexed Korea by force

The Japanese Administration of Korea 

Did Japan ruin the economy of Korea during the Japanese Administration? Koreans say that Japan did, and that they even stole all the rice and left people starving. However, there is a lot of evidence to say that was not the case.

During the period of Japanese Administration,

there were great increases in population, unprecendented in Korean history. This is not consistent with a people that are starving, because the population should decrease in that case.

Not only are the Korean claims dubious, but it seems that they benefitted in many ways from the Japanese Administration. Lets take a look at picutures of Korea before and during the Japanese Administration.

slaves
This was the true state of Koreans in the Choson Era.

medicine
Before the Japanese introduced medicine in Korea, Koreans would cure Malaria by writing their names on their feet.

medicine2
Pre-Japanese era Korean medicine. This childs parents are trying to cure this childs disease by throwing away this straw doll. Various diseases could be ‘cured’ by this ‘method’. The average Korea lifespan at this time was around 24 years old. Thanks to Japanese investment in medicine and nutrition in Korea, the lifespan went up to nearly 50 years old by the end of WW2

k
The center of Seoul, Namdemun, Circa 1880. Thatched buildings and shops.

edo
Compare that with 1850′s Tokyo. Korea was a basket case.

k
The common people of the Choson Era lived in a state of slavery, if not in name then in practice. Picture is of Namdemun.

bare breasted woman
Typical Korean Woman of the pre-annexation period. It was common for women to walk around bare breasted in Korea at the time, as in Africa.

Hooker
It is common in Korea to claim that prostitution did not exist in Korea before the Japanese came, but here is a picture of one anyway.

Che Yonhi
Koreans say that they were simply slaves during the Japanese administration, and werent even allowed to have Korean names. I wonder then how they explain the existence of dancer Che Yonhi, who not only became wealthy and famous, but kept her Korean name. Surely if the Japanese wanted to force Koreans to have Japanese names, they would have started with Korean role models? This is a picture of her in a hotel cafe in Seoul.

department
A department store in Seoul for Korean consumers. Picture 1937.

namdaemun
Koreans boldly claim that Japan destroyed many Korean cultural monuments that were in truth destroyed by Korean neglect. The above is a before and after photo of Namdaemun. Is this what Koreans mean by Korea being ‘ruined’ by the Japanese?

Industry
Massive Japanese investment created industry where there was none. The raised living standards and provided housing. The landlords and oppressors of common people lost their legal right to lord it over others.

Hydro
The worlds largest Hydroelectric generator (at the time) was built in Korea by the Japanese, at the expense of the Japanese. This contributed much to Korea’s development.

Pyongyang
This was Pyongyang under Japanese rule.

Pyongyang2
Pyongyang again.

Really, one could go on and on about this. I would conjecture that this kind of information is nowhere to be found in Korean textbooks, based on my conversations with Koreans. Could Korean anti Japanism be mostly founded upon Koreans vain belief in their ‘Great History’

Refrences

Research Articles and Chapters

“Chosŏn hugi ŭi mukwa chedo wa Han’guk ŭi kŭndaesŏng” (The Late Chosŏn Military Examination System and Korean Modernity). In Korean. Han’guk munhwa (Korean Culture) 51 (September 2010): 299–319.

“Saeroun kajoksa ŭi ch’ugu: kŭndae Han’guk ŭi chokpo p’yŏnch’an kwa chungin ch’ŭng ŭi panŭng” [A search for a new family history: genealogy compilation and the reactions of chungin stratum in modern Korea]. In Korean. Trans. Yi Kanghan. Yŏksa munje yŏn’gu (Critical Studies on Modern Korean History) 20 (October 2008): 139–167.

“Imagined Connections in Early Modern Korea, 1600–1894: Representations of Northern Elite Miryang Pak Lineages in Genealogies.” Seoul Journal of Korean Studies 21.1 (June 2008): 1–27.

“Status and ‘Defunct’ Offices in Early Modern Korea: The Case of Five Guards Generals (Owijang), 1864–1910.” Journal of Social History 41.3 (Spring 2008): 737–757.

“War and Peace in Premodern Korea: Institutional and Ideological Dimensions.” In The Military and
South Korean Society, edited by Young-Key Kim-Renaud, R. Richard Grinker, and Kirk W. Larsen, pp. 1–13. The Sigur Center Asia Papers Vol. 26. Washington DC: Sigur Center for Asian Studies, George Washington University, 2006.

“Local Elites, Descent, and Status Consciousness in Nineteenth-Century Korea: Some Observations on the County Notable Listings in the Chosŏn Hwanyŏ Sŭngnam.” In Han’guksa e issŏsŏ chibang kwa chungang [The periphery and the center in Korean history], edited by Chŏng Tuhŭi and Edward J. Shultz, pp. 205–225. Seoul: Sogang University Press, 2003.

“Military Examinations in Sixteenth-Century Korea: Political Upheaval, Social Change, and Security Crisis.” Journal of Asian History 35.1 (2001): 1–57.

“Military Examinations in Late Chosŏn, 1700–1863: Elite Substratification and Non-Elite Accommodation.” Korean Studies 25.1 (2001): 1–50.

“Chosŏn ch’ogi mukwa ch’ulsin ŭi sahoejŏk chiwi: T’aejong-Sŏngjong nyŏn’gan ŭi kŭpcheja rŭl chungsim ŭro” [The social status of early Chosŏn military examination graduates: passers from the reign of T’aejong through that of Sŏngjong]. In Korean. Yŏksa wa hyŏnsil (Quarterly Review of Korean History) 39 (March 2001): 100–126.

“Military Examination Graduates in Early Chosŏn: Their Social Status in the Fifteenth Century.” The Review of Korean Studies 3.1 (July 2000): 123–156.

Between Dreams and Reality: The Military Examination in Late Chosŏn Korea, 1600–1894
 
 

As previously mentioned, Rhee Syngman (李承晩, 이승만/리승만, 1875-1965) was the other South Korean president who wrote Classical Chinese poetry. He was of the Jeonju Yi Clan, the same family clan as the old royal family of the Chosun dynasty. His pen name was U’nam (雩南, 우남). After receiving his education in the US, Rhee Syngman became active in the Korean independence movement and served in the Provisional Government of Korea in Shanghai. As president, he was vigorously anti-Communist and went after the leftist political dissidents. He was also a bit mad with the lust for power and changed the election procedures in his favor. He also had members of the old royal family under house arrest, fearing their popularity. After his fourth re-election, the people started demonstrating and Rhee Syngman was exiled to Hawaii, where he passed away in 1965. The following is a poem, he presumably wrote during wartime, based on the title.

戰時春 전시춘

A War Time Spring

半島山河漲陣烟 반도산하장진연
胡旗洋帆翳春天 호기양범예춘천
彷徨盡是無家客 방황진시무각객
漂泊誰非辟穀仙 표박수비벽곡선
成市遺墟如古壁 성시유허여고벽
山川燒地起新田 산천요지기신전
東風不待干戈息 동풍불대간과식
細草遍生敗壘邊 세초편생패루변

On the mountains and rivers of the peninsula, military camps are full of smoke.
Barbarian [1] banners and Western sails conceal the Spring sky.
Wandering and lost are these exhausted travelers without homes.
Among the drifting and roaming, who is not as if living off of little sustenance [2]?
[Where] markets were open, the remaining ruins are are like old  walls.
In the mountains and streams, lands are being burn to arise [again] as new rice paddies.
The eastern winds do not tarry for resting pikes and shields [3].
On the sides of the defeated forts, small grass have [started to] grow about it.

Notes:

  1. 胡 (호, ho) – refers to the Chinese here. This is the same character that was used referred to the Manchurian Qing Dynasty.
  2. 辟穀 (벽곡, byeokgok) – refers to abstaining (辟, 벽) from grains (穀, 곡).
  3. That is, soldiers.

Characters:

  • 漲 (장, jang) – to be full of water (물이 넘치다); to be much (많은 모양).
  • 翳 (예, ye) – to conceal or cover (가리다).
  • 彷徨 (방황, banghwang) – to be lost or roaming.
  • 墟 (허, heo) – ruins or to be in ruins.
  • 壘 (루, ru) – small military encampment or fort.
Source:
 
 

 

 The last imperial family

This photo, taken about 1915 (actually a compilation of individual photographs taken since the Japanese did not allow them to all be in the same room at the same time, and some were forced to leave Korea) shows the following royal family members, from left: Prince Ui (Ui chinwang 의친왕), the 6th son of Gojong; Sunjong, the 2nd son and the last monarch of Joseon; Prince Yeong (Yeong chinwang 영친왕), the 7th son; Gojong, the former King; Queen Yoon (Yoon daebi), Queen Consort of Sunjong; Deogindang Gimbi, wife of Prince Ui; and Yi Geon, the eldest son of Prince Ui. The seated child in the front row is Princess Deokhye (Deokhye ongju 덕혜옹주), Gojong’s last child.

After the annexation of Korea by Japan in 1910, the Princes and Princesses of the Imperial Family were forced to leave for Japan to be re-educated and married. The Heir to the Throne, Imperial Crown Prince Uimin, married Princess Yi Bang-ja née Nashimoto, and had two sons, Princes Yi Jin and Yi Gu. His elder brother, Imperial Prince Ui had twelve sons and nine daughters from various wives and concubines.

The Crown Prince lost his status in Japan at the end of World War II and returned to Korea in 1963 after an invitation by the Republican Government. He suffered a stroke as his plane landed in Seoul and was rushed to a hospital. He never recovered and died in 1970. His brother, Imperial Prince Ui died in 1955 and the Korean people officially considered this to be the end of the Royal line.[citation needed]

Presently Prince Yi Seok is one of two pretenders[citation needed] to the abolished throne of Korea (the monarchy was abolished in 1910 by Japan and following Japan’s defeat in World War II, North Korea has been organized as a communist regime and South Korea has been organized as a republic). Prince Yi Seok is a son of Prince Gang of Korea, a fifth son of Gojong of Korea and currently a professor of history lecturing at Jeonju University in the Republic of Korea.

Furthermore, many descendants live throughout the United States, Canada and Brazil, having settled elsewhere, outside of Korea.

Today, many tombs of the descendants still exist on top of the mountain in Yangju. According to the pedigree written on the tombstone, it is believed that these descendants are from the great king of Joseon, Seongjeong (The 9th ruler of Joseon Dynasty). It was discovered that this mountain belongs to the member of the royal family named Yi Won (Born in 1958). More details of current descendants of the House of Yi.

 The imperial family

 
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan 2011

Who Is William Colby ? some informations to open mystery

 WHO IS WILLIAM COLBY? THE UNKNOWN MAN

THE ID OF WILLIAM COLBY IN VIETNAM

 Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959

 

Central Intelligence Agency – Saigon Station Chief, William Colby was the key figure in Northern Service Planning and Command Committee.  Captain Ngo The Linh code name was “Mr. Binh”.  He worked very closely with Bill Colby from 1958 until 1964 (when CIA transferred its agent operations to MACV-SOG).  Central Intelligence Agency supplied advanced weapons, equipments and helped trained long-term spy agents and Sea Commandos at Long Thanh, Da Nang, and Nha Trang for missions to the North.
 

latest information by google exploration

old informations

DSCN0037

New York Times report headline reads “Body of William Colby is found on river bank”
May 7, 1996

Former CIA Head William Colby

William Colby standing on NYC street with envelope and trench coat
Late 1980s

colbyimg9460

William Colby, President Gerald Ford and his cabinet with Colby family
In Oval Office receiving the National Secuirty Medal; 1976

colbyimg9050

William Colby with Colby family at home
Washington (front steps); Late 1960s

colbyimg9036

William Colby and Elbridge (not pictured, William Colby’s father)
Washingon DC National Airport.

colbyimg7783

William Colby standing with hands on desk taking oath to tell the truth
Testifying before Congress as CIA Director; 1975

 
colbyimg6827

William Colby in “Wanted Poster”
William Colby as the Ace of Spades anti-Vietnam war poster. Washington, DC; Early 1970s

colbyimg6285

Side angle of William Colby as CIA Director testifying before Congress
1975

colbyimg5073

William Colby and Barbara Colby wedding
New York City; Sept. 15, 1945

colbyimg4522

WEC at cottage winter
Lake Champlain, VT; Early 1980s

colbyimg3633

William Colby, Barbara Colby and two kids
Piazza in San Marco, Venice, Italy; 1950s

colbyimg3143

Young Carl Colby on boat
Lake Champlain, VT; 1950s

colbyimg3044

William Colby Barbara Catherine Carl Jonathan
Lake Champlain cottage, VT; Mid-1950s

colbyimg1888

William Colby as a boy with toy soldiers in bedroom
Early 1930s

colbyimg1372

Farewell tea William Colby, Barbara, Carl, Catherine and Paul with President Ngo Dinh Diem
Presidential Palace, Saigon, Vietnam; 1962

colbyimg1332

Carl and William Colby at William Colby’s birthday
Saigon, Vietnam; Early 1960s

colbyimg1319

Carl with friends by pool
Saigon Le Cercle Sportif – Saigon, Vietnam; Early 1960s

colbyimg615

William Colby testifying before Congress.
1975

colbyimg526

William Colby official passport photo
U.S. State Dept. cover for CIA; 1960s

colbyimg351

William Colby with USMC cap team in Quang Nam Province in Vietnam War
Vitenam; Late 1960s

colbyimg008

William Colby Major, OSS in Norway
With Herbert Helgesson, leader of Norway resistance.

A3720-9

William Colby with briefcase
White House anteroom of the White House – Washington, DC; 1975

Colbyimg95471 copy

New York Times front page article re: WEC death
“Nine days after canoe trip, Colby’s body is found”; May 17, 1996

colbyimg9542

Daniel Ellsberg protesting WEC involvement in Phoenix Program – sign
Early 1970s

colbyimg9536

Frontispiece of William Colby book with dedication to Carl
reads: “A great son, with a great future story to tell. With love, Dad.”; 1978

colbyimg9365

Congressional record – Senate
re: WEC and CIA (Phoenix Program) S15539; August 1, 1973

colbyimg9208

William Colby in black pajamas surrounded by civilian self defense team in Vietnam
Note: “To Carl with love, Dad”; June 9, 1968

colbyimg7052

William Colby U.S. diplomatic passport.
1960s

colbyimg7049

William Colby ID card – Cercle Sportif
Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959

colbyimg6682

Young William Colby at cottage with spyglass looking out to sea
Lake Champlain, VT; Early 1930s

colbyimg6403

OSS application filed by William Colby.
October 20, 1943

colbyimg6179

Cartoon and quote from Ho Chi Minh
(VA006251) – Vietnam; March 17, 1959

colbyimg6039

William Colby major OSS Jedburgh teams and comrades
Fargland, Norway; 1944

colbyimg6017a

Major Colby leading O.S.S. Jedburgh team in WWII
Operation Rype; 1944

colbyimg4790

Colby family on S.S. Constitution
Mediterranean cruise (from Spain to NY); 1962

colbyimg4756

Colby family returning from Vietnam to US
Turkey; 1962

colbyimg4116

Carl drawing on floor at home
Rome, Italy; Mid-1950s

colbyimg4100

Young Carl Colby at Korean DMZ
Demilitarized border of North and South Korea; May 1962

colbyimg4089

William Colby and son Paul in rocking chair
Rome, Italy; Mid-1950s

colbyimg3777

Colby family having picnic (passing a radio to someone)
Stockholm, Sweden; Early 1950s

colbyimg3760

Colby family
Stockholm, Sweden; Early 1950s

colbyimg3564

Colby family
In Florida on holiday, on home leave; Early 1950s

colbyimg3479

Colby Children at the Roman Forum
Rome, Italy; Early 1950s

colbyimg3468

Barbara and Colby children
Saubaudia Beac, Italy; Mid-1950s

colbyimg523

William and Carl Colby
Bogor, Indonesia; 1966

colbyimg217

William and Barbara Colby at Vermont cottage
Lake Champlain

please who know him,be kind to send more informations to open the mystery,thanks,this asking by my friend.

The French Indochina Post WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam Cybermuseum)

THE VIETNAM FRENCH INDOCHINA POST WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

THE FRENCH INDOCHINA POST WW II PART TWO 1950-1954

1.Nha Trang Maritime Academy 1952-1970
skill 4 – small_taskforce_tactics;naval_engineering;naval_tr aining;seamanship
reference : http://haisu.tripod.com/index.htm Vietnamese source

2.Da Lat Military Academy 1930-1954
skill 2 – centralized_execution;small_unit_tactics;training
reference: http://aosauvuon.fortunecity.net/ndsl-tvb.htm Vietnamese source

3.Nguyen Van Hinh 1936 – 1955
skill 2 – decentralized_execution;piloting;fighter_tactics
reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Nguyen_Van_Hinh

 

22.Mining and Plantation Industry Facility 1930 – 1954 <= I can not find exactly company name under French rule in IndoChina, but I have find out the pic that the french have build a lot of plantation and mine so I add this team.
skill 1 – industrial_engineering;mechanics

23.Cam Tiem Power Plant 1930 – 1954
skill 1 – electronic
 

in the French Air Force.( 5)

Indochina 1949-1951

 

 

The S/S Champollion which took me from Bizerte to Saigon , 06/1949 – 07/22/1949

Saigon. First visit of the town.

 

In the mangrove bordering an arroyo (brook) at Bach-Maï

 

Hanoi. At the outdoor cafe, Paul Bert Street. The 421 game is on the table…

On the Doumer Bridge, crossing the Red River. Travelling to Gia-Lam Airbase. Note that even in winter in Tonkin, we must wear the woolen battle-dress uniform as on the mainland.

.

 


The Indochina war broke out in 1945 and escalated quickly. More troops were sent year after year. The 5th Wing based in Sidi-Ahmed (Bizerte) was assigned for a one year tour of duty in south-east Asia. But unlike the previous unit who had to use the equipment already there, the 5th was taking their own planes with them. So the wing would take their American P-63 Kingcobra. The support unit made of mechanics of various trades was constituted. Strangely, one member from the administration office was assigned to the unit. It was the technical supply-accountant which happen to be me ! Thankfully a lot my mechanics buddies from El-Aouina were part of the unit so we had a tight group. All personnels sent to Indochina were career soldier although we had a few draftees who were lured either by the cash bonus or the search for adventure. Before shipping out, I sold my side-car to the first guy with a descent offer. The entire 5th wing (Squadrons 1/5 Vendee and 2/5 Ile de France) and its auxiliary units gathered in Sid-Ahmed before boarding for Saigon. The S/S Champollion would ferry the personnel while the aircraft carrier Dixmude would handle the Kingcobras already partially disassembled and crated. We got on the way on June 30, 1949 for a long cruise with layovers in Port Said (entrance of the Suez canal), Djibouti, Aden, Colombo (Ceylon), Singapore et finally Saigon after a 100 km trip up the Saigon river. Life on board was new for most of us if you exclude the short hop we took to cross the Mediterranean. Except for the officers who had 1st class quarters, us non-Comm and troop were stuck below deck in the cargo space with rudimentary accommodations: a few benches and tables and hooks to setup our hammock for the night. No comfort what-so-ever, just a few sinks for the morning wash-up.
We were in July so the weather was getting hotter as we got closer to Egypt. From the very first day, I found it difficult to sleep below deck because of the heat and smell. I went in search for a better place. The emergency canoes located on the bridge turned out to be the perfect spot. Since they were covered, I was able to spend my nights very comfortably. Actually, a few of my buddies did the same. The only drawback was to make sure that we wouldn’t get caught by the crew. Since they we washing the deck early in the morning, we had to sneak back in at dawn.
We were able to go on shore during some of the layovers. We had 10 hours in the evening in Djibouti, a day in Colombo (Ceylon at the time but now known as Sri Lanka). The 1st and 2nd class passengers had the opportunity to come ashore in Singapore.
The sea had been calm for the first leg of the trip but everything changed once we were in the Indian Ocean. It was the summer monsoon and we were met by big storms and torrential rain. We were able to overcome being sea-sick thanks to a bunch of characters who endlessly entertained us. I’ve always been amazed how much a few distractions could relieve the sickness! A sigh of relief could be heard through out the ship when we finally reached Cap St Jacques at the mouth of the Saigon river. We dock in the Saigon harbor and came ashore under heavy rain and suffocating heat.
In spite of the fact that we were accustomed to the North African lifestyle already different from home, we now had to adjust to another life. Saigon was in the south and we were July 22nd so it was summer: rain and intense heat. After the usual landing inspection, we were trucked to the Tan-Son-Nhut airbase on the north side of town. We were housed in barracks nicknamed Fillod (they were manufactured by the Fillod company in St Amour). Nights had to be spent under the protective cover of mosquito nets listening to the deafening concert of the toads!.
It took several days before I could get ride of the rocking feeling from the ship on which we had spent 3 weeks. Our first few days were spent unloading the equipment from the Champollion and Dixmude. We had to handle ammunition crates and load them on those tall and narrow English made Trucks. The planes, still in crates, were loaded on trailers.
Both squadrons were reinforcements and were in Saigon only until they were operational. Once the planes were in flying order, they would move north. The 1/5 was ready first and left Saigon for Hanoi (Gialam) in September. Our auxiliary unit had to remain until the departure of the second group. During the four months we spend in Tan-Son-Nhut, we were unable to go site seeing. Even simple leaves to go into town were sparse for, they said, safety reasons. Regardless, we used the little free time we had to rest and catch up on sleep. When the last planes and personnel of the 2/5 made their way north, our group (40 strong) started to get ready to move out. Instead of Gia-Lam, our next home was going to be Bach-Mai (still near Hanoi though). We also were assigned an official title. Our unit was the Park 1/482 detached to Bach Mai (the headquarter of the park 482 was in Bien-Hoa). But instead of being flow to our new location like the rest of the wing, it was once again by boat that we made our way. The ship, the S.S Esperance (Hope in French) had a name full of promises. But all it was really, was a coal cargo ship with enough room to qualify as a troop transport. I believe he was ferrying coal from the north and picked up troop and supplies that needed to move from the south. Our trip that should have taken a day or two lasted 11 days! Slowly making its way along the coast with a three-day stopover in Tourane (although we were not allowed off the boat). During this journey, we did everything possible to keep ourselves busy and make time go by quicker. Our unit was the only one on board and the crew was all civilian and mostly Vietnamese. So discipline was lax but food was rather poor. We unloaded in Haiphong and made the last leg of the trip by train.
Weather in Indochina is very different from north to south. We arrived in September 49 at the beginning of winter which is a bit like the one in France, cold with frequent rain or drizzle and temps in the 10-20º C (14-68° F) maximum. On the other hand, the south was in the dry season with temps in the mid 20s to the 30s and sometimes higher.
Our tour of duty was supposed to be for one year unlike the Colonial tour that lasts two. However, we stayed for 18 months.
Our arrival was without celebration. Service personnel in Indochina really lived for the day of their return. Only flying personnel were really involved in military operations. Even the ground crews who were busy with plane maintenance to contend with had nothing else to do. The only military activity around was the base protection against the Viets.
We were pleasantly surprised to be housed outside of the base. Although we were close by, we were none-the-less outside of the guarded perimeter. So we were armed with a machine gun each. It was recommended to sleep with it, not only to keep it handy but also to prevent having it stolen by a night intruder. The Viets were known to be able to sneak everywhere at night. One night as we were sleeping peacefully, they infiltrated our perimeter using tunnels they had dug without anybody noticing. They got close to some planes and succeeded in blowing up a dozen JU-52 by planting mines near them and detonate them as they retreated. Since our duty was to guard our quarter, we were made aware of the result the next day.
From this point on, our off-site quarters became a possible target. So we moved into barracks located inside the base perimeter. Security was tightened as well.
On Saturdays afternoon and Sundays, it was relatively easy to go downtown. However, transportation was sparse. Bicycles and tricycles are very common in the north. There was a bicycle factory near Hanoi. With some friends, we went there and each of us acquired a bike. From this point on, we had more freedom to go into town et even visit our buddies at the 5th wing based out of Giam-Lam field by going across town and crossing the red river on the Doumer bridge (Eiffel design). In the spring, we enjoyed going into town (during the day only) and go shopping Rue de la Soie (Silk street) or any other street with their own specialty, hang out by the little lake in the center of town. There was 2.5 miles between the base and the center of town and the terrain is flat, so this was an easy ride. Other sources of entertainment were rare. There wasn’t even a theater on the base. There was a specialty house 300 feet from the base entrance. Civilians were running it but under the army’s supervision. All branches of the service attended this place, from the foreign legion to regular army, airforce and navy. The locals on the other hand rarely set foot in this place.
My work consisted of the technical equipment accounting. It was neither glorious nor fascinating. But the friendship that existed among us was strong and made up for the frustration of being far from home. We had a number of married guys, some with children and this was especially hard for them, more so than for singles.
I acquired a record player and some hard to come by records of French artists. But it wasn’t long before my buddies got bored to listen to the same tunes over and over. In the end, they started to buy new ones to expend our repertoire.
The favorite moment of the day was the morning meal. It wasn’t too hot yet and our break was long enough that we could make it to the mess for a real meal “a la carte”. We could choose a whole roasted chicken (for two), cold cuts, cheese, bananas or pineapple with a good bottle of Bourgogne to top this off. Often time, we were not hungry by lunchtime, either still full from our break or because the heat.
After a year spent in Indochina, we started to hope that our tour was near the end. But we had to come to the realization that the one-year tour model did not really fit our profile. Even for the non-support units, it was decided that the time spent re-assembling the planes would not be accounted for. Seeing that the situation was getting worse, headquarter didn’t seem ready to let us go. In December 1950, the army had already evacuated most isolated posts in the northern part of the country. All the units that could be spared moved south. Our unit moved to Bien Hoa where the Parc 482 we depended from was stationed. This time we made the trip in a C-47 Dakota. At that time, Bien Hoa (30 km for Saigon) was a small base without any fighting unit stationed. It later became a large US and South Vietnamese airbase. Although we were reunited with our primary unit, our group remained together and was kept apart. That was fine, as our main concern was our pending return.
We were housed in some very exotic looking huts without any facilities. Since we weren’t too busy, we had plenty of time for site seeing or go into the nearby town. This charming community had not yet been damaged by the war.
After two months of this life, the news of our return home came. We moved to Saigon to have our return papers issued. Most of us used this time to hunt for souvenirs and gifts to bring home if that hadn’t been taken care of already. In my case, shopping was take care of quickly as we were not accustomed to bringing souvenirs. The trunks were packed and made ready to ship home via boat while we were flying back.
On February 7th 1951, we boarded a DC-4 Skymaster heading for France. After multiple layovers, we landed at Paris-Orly on the 9th. Having left Saigon during the dry and hot season, we landed in the middle of winter wearing only light civilian clothes. Since we had layovers in foreign countries, wearing our uniform had been forbidden. For most of us, it had been two years since we had seen French soil, as we didn’t get a leave prior to our departure from Tunisia. After all these months of intense camaraderie, emotions were high as we parted company. A friend who was getting married in Pierre-de-Bresse and I took the train together. On the way down, we meet a journalist from Radio Luxembourg. He didn’t miss an opportunity to interview us at length on the war in Indochina. At that time, the war was so far away, most people didn’t care about it. None-the-less, the left wing (mostly communists) was very vocal in their opposition to this conflict, especially the troop deployment. In spite of this opposition, it took another three years, the Dien-Bien-Phu tragedy and the Geneva accords to put an end to it.

f.Bo Dai Saigon Regime in 1950
 

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).

    

(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.

    

(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contempr with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)

 

(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dullblue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official govern-ment seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres faund in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950

 

(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-

5) june 1950

Ban Me Thoot, May 1950. General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (right), commander of French troops in Indochina, and Bao Dai, the former emperor of Vietnam, visit in Ban Me Thoot with the Vietnamese Mois people, who were fghting the communist-dominated Vietminh forces.

Ban Me Thoot, May 1950. General Jean de Lattre de Tassigny (right), commander of French troops in Indochina, and Bao Dai, the former emperor of Vietnam, visit in Ban Me Thoot with the Vietnamese Mois people, who were fghting the communist-dominated Vietminh forces.

6) June 1950

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)

(2)June,29th.1950

     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bo dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)-11) not yet info

1) January 1950

(1)early 1950

(a)United States and Britain recognized Bao dai’s government (D).

(b) The US only recognized by  only several American Official.   

(c) Charlton Oghurn,another State Department ‘s Bureau of Far east Eastren Affairs, excoriated the emperor as “ a figure deserving of the redicule and contemporary with which he generally regarded by the Vietnamese, and any suppsition that he could succeed or that a french army in Indochina could possibly be an asset to us could be entertained only by one totally ignorant of Asian realities,

Another State Department expert, Raymond B.Fosdick, selivered an even more passionate diatribe in a memorandum that Potrayed the Bao Dai regime as “doomed”  and went on to foretell the future with remarkable prescience :”This shabby business probably represent as improvement over the brutal colonialism of early years, but it is now too late in the history of the world to settle of this cheap substitute” (D)

(d) With the recognition of Bo Dai’s regime, The US establised a full-fledge embassy in Saigon headed by Donald Heath , a veteran diplomat entranced by the French cause. They forbade US military advisers to supervise the use of American equipment, and  they barred them from planning sessins. They either refused them intelligence  or fed them misleading information , and they reacted fiercely to sugges-tions that they accord more latitude to Vietnamese nationalist. Top French official even suspected that American’s real aim was not to help them but to supplant French politically and economically.

Nor did the French , despite their’ solemn pledges’ yield more thatn a thin veneer of Independence to Bo Dai’s government.

Though they trained a few Vietnamese officers, they hept control of the army, breweries, and factories as well as imports and exports. They also devised a financial agreement under which piastres, the Vietnamese currency, could be exchanged for French Francs at a radiculously favorable rate, and those with licenses made fortune.

(e)One well-placed figure implicated in the traffic was the son of Vincent Auriol, the president of France.

Not that granting power t Bao dai at this stage mattered. He spent most his time at his lodge in Dalat, having delegated his nominal power to a new prime minister, Tran Van Huu, a rich landowner and Naturalized French Citizen. But the authority in his entourage belong to Nguyen van Tam, his security director, a gnarled creature known as the Tiger of Cailay, his native village in the Mekong Delta, where he had served the French by crushing Communist-led  peasant uprising. The Vietminh had killed two of his sons in retallion, and his speciality in Saigon was tracking down real and inncuos enemies of the French, whom he liquidated brutally.(D)

2) February 1950

     The stamp, a 3-piater value of dull blue color bore the westren attired Chief of State, ex-emperor Bao-Dai (scott#9) along with the stamp on First Day of Issues are the official government seal and Bao Dai’signature .

The South Vietnam  stamps collection began with the Ex emperor Bao-Dai ‘s return to his country as Chief of State, ranging in value from several hundred dollars to thousands od dollars each.  (Nguyen Bao Tung’s collection)

( I have the mint stamps of dullblue emperor Bo dai 3 piastres found in HCM city-auth )

3) March 1950

(1) March,9th .1950

     Acheson advised Truman to allocate $15 million to France for Indochina.(D)

4)-5) Not yet information

6) June 1950

1950 (June 12), Saigon to Paris flight, crashed upon landing at Bahrain, damaged envelope, without stamps and most of reverse missing addressed to Versailles and re-directed to Paris, straight line black “COURRIER ACCIDENTE” cachets (2), on reverse Versailles postmark of July 10 and small fragment of Officially Sealed tape (Nierinck 500612a)

(1)June.28th 1950

     Three days after the Korean war broke out, Achenson persuaded Truman  to order an “ acceleration”  of assistance to the French.(D)

(2)June,29th.1950

     Eight C-47 cargo aircraft flew across the Pacific to Indochina-  not only time that The US to act illegaly in Vietnam.(D)

     (3)Mid 1950

     Washington’s recognation of Bao dai sparked economic and Military-assistance program (MACP-auth) , began in mid-1950.(IMNAHA report the postal used cover of MACP-auth)

7)- 9)no info9

10)October

The first LVT(4)s arrived in Indochina in October 1950 and were assigned to the 1st Cavalry Regiment for operational testing. This resulted in several organizational changes,

11) not yet info

 

 

 

 

12) December 1950

(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,

          LAISSEZ –PASSER(PASS)

           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo(vALID UNTIL NEW ORDO)

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)

                __________________

 

Nome et prenom(NAME) :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

 ..ssance(ADRESS): Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

 . ngay ,than,na’m dao(DAY,MONTH,YEAR)

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.  . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.

___________________

                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau

 

          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU

    “ SUD VIETNAM-

                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG 

 

(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)

Saigon 1950s - Rue Catinat

Saigon 1950s – Rue Catinat

 
Saigon - Une Charette

Saigon – Une Charette

 
SAIGON, Riche enterrement

SAIGON, Riche enterrement

 
SAIGON, marchande ambulante

SAIGON, marchande ambulante

 
SAIGON, Rue Paul Blanchy

SAIGON, Rue Paul Blanchy

ngay nay la duong Hai Ba Trung

Saigon - Vue générale du Port

Saigon – Vue générale du Port

SAIGON. Les petites embarcations sur la rivière de Saïgon. 1951

SAIGON. Les petites embarcations sur la rivière de Saïgon. 1951

Small boats on the Saigon River. 1951

Saigon 1950 - A local citizen driving a crate moved by two bulls through the streets.

Saigon 1950 – A local citizen driving a crate moved by two bulls through the streets.

 
Saigon 1950 - Two brothers bathing in a river while peering into the distance.

Saigon 1950 – Two brothers bathing in a river while peering into the distance.

Anyone can see this photo Proud mother and son sitting near a docking area

Proud mother and son sitting near a docking area

 
Saigon 1950 - Mother and her two children taking a bath in the Saigon river

Saigon 1950 – Mother and her two children taking a bath in the Saigon river

 
Saigon 1950

Saigon 1950

 
Saigon 1950 - A mother carrying her son and fish to a boat.

Saigon 1950 – A mother carrying her son and fish to a boat.

 
Saigon 1950 - A local woman selling oysters while peering into the distance

Saigon 1950 – A local woman selling oysters while peering into the distance

 
Saigon 1950

Saigon 1950

 
Saigon 1950 -

Saigon 1950 -

Anyone can see this photo

Saigon 1950 -

Saigon 1950 -

Anyone can see this photo

Saigon 1950 -

Saigon 1950 -

Anyone can see this photo


 

_____________________________________

g.The last year of Francaise Indochine and the First year Bao Dai regime in 1951

_____________________________________

 

1)-4)

5)May 1951

may,24th.1951

 Pan Am First Air Mail flight from Wake Island to Saigon, Vietman 24 May 1951

6) June 1951

(1) June,6th 1951

The first Vietnamese postage stamp issued in this day, less than two year after the country recovered nominal independence. That date marked the anniversary of the national reuni-fication (Hung-Quoc Khanh-niem) decree by Emperor Gia Long, the founder of the Nguyen Dynasty .

     (The design two types, the low nominal value the emperor building and the high nominal the picture of emperor Bo Dai, this stamps rare mint without hing very find condition , 15 pi red brown and 30  pi blue green, -auth)

7) -12) not yet information.

September 1951

September,12th.1951

 

October 1951

October,23th.1951

 

 November 1951

December 1951

December,24th.1951

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

___________________________________

h.1952-FEDERATION OF INDOCHINE OR ETAT DU VIETNAM, AS INDEPENEDENT COUNTRY UNDER FRANCH BEGUN.

_____________________________________

The Vietnam Postal History 1952  

 




Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace at Hue and 1P Temple at Saigon 1955 Banmethuot, Viet-Nam Printed matter to Vista, Calif. Crease at top. EUROPEAN SIZE.



Vietnam
50c Temple at Saigon (2) and 1.50P Empress Nam-Phuong (2) 1955 Nhatrang, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Crease. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
1P Temple at Saigon (2) and 2P Imperial Palace 1955 Gia Dinh, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
50c and 1P Temple at Saigon, 80c Dragon, and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai c1955 Saigon-R-P, Viet-Nam Airmail to Ramsgate, England. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
50c and 1P (3) Temple at Saigon 1952 Saigon – A, Sud Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked. Crease at right and one 1P stamp damaged.




Vietnam
50c Temple at Saigon (6) 1952 Da Lat, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Shortpaid so rated hs T in triangle. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace (2) and 50c (2) and 1P (2) Temple at Saigon 1952 Hue, Centre Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked.




Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace (4) and 50c and 1P (2) Temple at Saigon 1952 Saigon – R.P. Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Tear at bottom right. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 20c Imperial Palace (2), and 1P Temple at Saigon (3) 1952 Nam – Dinh, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked. Bit reduced at top.




Vietnam
50c Temple at Saigon and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Hai – Phong, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
20c Imperial Palace, 1P Temple at Saigon, and 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai (2) 1952 Gia Dinh, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
50c and 1P Temple at Saigon and 2P Imperial Palace 1952 Hon-Gay, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris France.





Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (2), 20c Imperial Palace (7), 50c Temple at Saigon, and 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Nha Trang, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (6) and 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai (2) 1952 Ha-Noi, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Shortpaid so rated hs T in triangle. France 10F Wheat Sheaves Postage Due added. Crease.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (3) and 1P Temple at Saigon (3) 1952 Ha-Noi, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reduced at top.





Vietnam
3.30P Viet Nam 1952 Ben Tre, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Crease at left. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 20c Imperial Palace, and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Nha Trang, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
1P Temple at Saigon (4) 1952 Cholon, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked.





Vietnam
3.30P Viet Nam 1952 Aero-Port, Hanoi Airmail to Paris, France. Crease at left. EUROPEAN SIZE.





Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (3), 1P Temple at Saigon, and 2P Imperial Palace 1952 Saigon – R.P. Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 20c Imperial Palace (7), and 1P Temple at Saigon (2) 1952 Dalat, Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Reverse franked. EUROPEAN SIZE.






Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls, 1.20P Emperor Bao-Dai, and 2P Imperial Palace 1952 Hue, Viet-Nam to Paris, France. EUROPEAN SIZE.




Vietnam
10c Bongour Falls (3) and 3P Emperor Bao-Dai 1952 Saigon – R.P. Viet-Nam Airmail to Paris, France. Crease at left.





Vietnam
3.30P Viet Nam 1952 Bien Hoa, Vietnam Airmail to Paris, France.

1) January 1952

 

(1)The federation of Indochine consist Republic Vietnam (Annam ,Tonkin ,Cochin China), the Kingdom of Cambodge and Laos.

 The Independence country under the Union of France since 1950.

(2) In 1952 ,

__KGrHqIOKpUE24S3Nw_0BN5UZTU_Ww___12

Sud-Vietnam, Saïgon, Le Trésor, 1952Some of the people want the full free country and they fight against French and their area called “Viet Minh” or Indochine Ho Chi Minh.

 

 

(3) South Vietnam Flag (OP)

(4) National anthem of Viet Nam (Quoc Ca Vietnam (OP)

(5) Vintage Saigon Map & District(Do-Thanh Saigon & Bang Chi Cac Congso) (OP)

(5)In 1952, when Nguyen Van Tam took over as  Bao Dai’s prime minister, he formed a cabinet described by the US consul in Hanoi as composed of “opportunist, nonentities, extreme reactionaries, assassins, hirelings and , finally , men of faded mental powers,”

  

(6)The minister of youth and sports, Vo Hong Khanh, had been responsible for the murder by garrting of no fewer than ten frenchmen some year earlier. Not only would the cabinet serve the vietminh as anindirect “propaganda tool”, the consul concluded , but it was :

“ a poor return for French blood and American money (ibis stenly Karnow ,p-195) 

2)February 1952

    

(1) February,11th 1952

    

(a)The latest used of  Indochine Francaise Timbre Taxes revenue.

Indochine farncaise timbre fiscal revenue, 5 piastres + 4 Piastres used one Hand written “Zuoc gia Vietnam Cho Chia Dat land transaction , the handdrawed map roeu Hin Tri road , R.100.00 Mai v nhan, R 130.00 Phan Mai ran  Louis, R 180.00 Phan Mai lung Chau, 226.00 Phan thai nan Nham, 180.00 Phan Hai thi Kiet.

 Signed  Thai van Nham, Thai San Kie, Mai thi Kiet , Ruong quae Phu, Phan v.Kiem and Chau v,Ruo’ng, fingerprint signed by Dau lang Say ngoui dung Chia dat vu nau ho cac cu con nho moi and Tran thi khuyen Kiu Gu La’ng Nay.

This certificate on double folio writting paper, in the last page

,”Thi Chung”

     Chung toi La Ban quan tri Lang Than Choi Chung

Mai oan Nhan, Mai thi Kiet. Quang quoc Phu Mai ton Luc va Tran thi Khuyuh Ken la Tu dten co Ky te’n va Lang tay truoc

Mat chung toi May nguoi nay dtung lap giao Keo co Khai

Voi chung toi rang hien ro to tren dtay  va ung nhan Y theo

Loi giao Ket trong to Va chung them co 2 nguoi toc nhon la

Phan van Kiem, Chau van Ruong co Ky ten truoc mat chung

Toi va Khai rang su chia dtat dtay vo va con cua Mai

Van Thoi ung thuan nhan.

                                      Thanh  thoi ngay 11.2.1952

          Thuong than                    Xa truong               Thuong hao

Hand signed                 Handsigned             Handsigned

                                      Violet squered stamped

                                      ======================

                    :    NAM-VIET              :

                                :______________________:

:       TINH BENTRE            :

                                :    TONG-MINH HUE       :

                                :   LANG THANH-THOI     :

                           ==================

Hand written          0,6 %  = 162 ‘

Pho beud Naud              11%     = 495   >     837 $

Thue de chung ui dau   4%  = 180  ‘

Red squaered stamped.

            Dong Bang Phan Tai Myto

            Ngay  Thoi ba Shanghai 1952

             Quyen :———–

             Thue : Thau tran ba moi bay dtong bac ,180$

Signed &Red circle stamped :Binh Nam Tha Xuong Mytho. …….not clear…..      

 

(Four same document with same revenue , interseting collection-auth)

 

(b)The earliest Etat du Vietnam Timbre Fiscal revenue

The same document with (a) but  red-green 2×3 Piastres, Etat du Vietnam Timbrefiscal revenue, but signed only by three Dau Ky len cua Ky Lao , Lam thai Lang Banh Thoi ngay 8.2.1952. and the authetication :

               Thi Chung

Chung toi Ban quan tri lang thanh thoi chung

Ong Phan van Kiem-Chau van ruong ho dau

Sach dteu co thy ten truoc mat chung toi ba

Ong Ky Lao Nay la ban than cua gia toc cua

Ngai van Thoi dtung lap to tong chi tren dtay

                            Hanh thoi ngay 11.2.1952

            Houng than     Xa truong   Huong hao

             Signed            Signed        Signen

 

                        Squered black stamped

                               NAM-VIET

                             TINH BENTRE

                        TONG MINH-HUE

                        LANG THAN-HOI

 

( This collections very rare and  best to showed, because four same document with Indochine Francaise timbre fiscal revenue  5 + 4 piastres and one Document with  Etat du vietnam  Timbre fiscal 2 x 3 piastres. The latest and the earliest revenue at the same date february,11th 1952 and with same authentication, will be the historic fact abbout the transition between Indochine Francaises and the unoin France state Vietnam(etat du vietnam), please comment – auth)

3)-

4)April 1952

5-7) not yet information

August 1952

(1)August,15th 1952

     The common Empress Nam Phuong multicolour stamps were issued in this day.(I found this stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(2)August,18th.1952

the first  Vietnam Aermaikl stamps postally used cover send from Saigon Vietnam  to Zurich Switzerland

(3)August.19th 1952

The Receipt of Police D’Abonne-ment A L’eau Portable, Service technique at Saigon, with Indochine Franchaise Timbre Fiscal revenue 5 Piastres. Stamped Prefecture De Saigon Cholon ,Etat Du Vietnam –Suid Vietnam ,signe 19 Aout 1952.

(3)August.21th.1958

The certificate of Indochine Francaise Revenue sheet  16 piaster added revenue ofVietnam  union  (etat du Vietnam) 3 piaster and  3 x4 $dong vietnam thue coniem revenue.

Legalized by Vietnam Naval Chief(Hang Tau Viet Saigon) in 27.2.1958 during Ngo Dinh Diem Era

9)September

 not yet info

10) October 1952

(1)18.10.1952

Indochine 40 cent revenue sheet used added Indochine Francaise 10 cent timbre fiscal and Saigon Cholon taxes  Regionales 10$00 –brown –old chinese style building(the cholon market?) , the revenue sheet used as“To ban nha”  (contract?) between Nguyen van Thoai ,carte de service (Car services) n so 4121 ngay 1-8-1950 with Pham Thi Dieuw “Laisser-passer” so 2108 ngay 8.3.1949 tai  ho 4 Saigon. (The very rare revenue history collection  because in one sheet were found three types revenue, Indochina lettter sheet revenue, & revunue timbrefiscal and Taxes Regional Saigon Cholon revenue. Auth)

 

 

11) November 1952

  

(1) November ,9th 1952

   Original vintage private photo, three native vietnamese lady at the bulding near the beach, back  handwritten  Nha’ Beach , 9-11-52.

     (maybe Nha Thrang ?-auth)

 

12) December 1952

 

(1) December.12th 1952

Vintage Photo” A man rode a Mobilete“ in the Saigon road, always seen an antique  car. Behind the photo “ Sur Mobylete de Luxe te sou du 5/12/52 a’la rue Cabina

( Unique vintage picture of vintage mobylete with written motorbike type information ,date and location, biside that The same antique car now put in the left front near entrace of the Ho Chi Min city Museum, during my last visit in July, 2009 I made my own photo in the front of that antique card help the museum guard, look at that photo -auth   )

(2) By 1952,

 according to a secret US report, Bao Dai was recieving an official stipend of more that $4 million a year.

He was not a big spender- his four private airplanes were his majr expense, and his wife and children lived in relative modesty on the Cote d’Azur,

while his own residence in Dalat was no more Lavish than a house in an affluent New York suburb

Bao Dai palace  where the last Emperor of Vietnam – Bao Dai (1913-1997) stayed and ruled his Vietnam from 1949 to 1954 and then transfer to Mong Mo hill, Love Valley  is beautiful and romantic landscape of Dalat Vietnam. One of highlight in Dalta is Truc Lam Zen Monastery – The largest Zen Monastery of Vietnam in Dalat city. Tuyen Lam Lake – The nicest Lake of Dalat. and then and enjoy Lat Ethnic band
Dalat tour

( I had seen in internet auction the photo of Bao Dai House when he get out of the car and went in the house-auth).

But he was transferring enormous sums to French and Swiss banks and investing extravagantly in real estate in French and Marocco ( I have a letter send from Marocco to Saigon, may be many Rich Vietna-mese stayed at Marocco-auth)

   The annual payment consumed 5 % of the Regime’s total revenue- four times more than the appropriation  for land reform program.

Even so, Bao dai was chronically strapped for funds, and he relied heavily on Bay Vien, the boss of the Binh Xuyen gang, to supplement his finaces handsomely.

He put Bay Vien in charge of Saigon’s casino, bordellos, opium dens, gold  smuggling  and other rackets, and even promoted him to rank of General.

Soon the French sanctioned Bay Vien’s respectability by emplying him hoodlums against the Vietminh and other  nationalist.

The corruption became institutionalizes , making a farce of earnest American hopes for a credible Vietnamese administration that would check the Communist, indeed , the French and Bao dai seemed at that stage to have His reached a tacit understanding : he played the puppet and they indulged his pleasures.

 His inner circle at one point included a spectacular blond French courtesan billed as a : member of the Imperial film unit” Once hearing her disparaged, he remarked “ She is only plying her trade. I’m the real whore”(D)

___________________________________

i. Bo Dai regime in 1953

__KGrHqYOKosE3FRJjW1_BN5UY_n1Fg___12

 Sud-Vietnam, Saïgon, Le Marché de Tân Dinh, 1953

 

1)-3) no info

 

5) April 1953

culminating with the 1st Amphibious Group formed in April 1953. This unit included a “reconnaissance and rapid maneuver element” of 2 squadrons, each with 3 platoons of 10 crabs, and a “shock element” of 3 squadrons, each with 8 LVT(4)s embarking a light rifle company, and 3 LVT(A)4s for direct support. A separate platoon of six LVT(A)4s under group headquarters was provided for general support. A second amphibious group was formed shortly after for service in the north..

These groups had substantial firepower: fifteen 75mm howitzers in the LVT(A)4s, two machineguns in each crab and amtrac, and six 57mm recoilless guns and three 60mm mortars per squadron. The group also had the personnel and communications to operate as two subgroups. This flexibility, and the practice of carrying 3 days of supplies, provided the autonomy and endurance needed for long range operations. Although the group was remarkably versatile, it had limitations. Both amtracs and crabs often had to be moved by tank transporters to assembly points near operational operational areas. Further, the crab’s tracks were easily damaged and the amtracs bogged down in thick, heavy mud. But, when operations were planned with due regard for these factors, the Legion’s amphibious groups yielded spectacular results. They remain among the more innovative amtrac organizations ever conceived.

__________________

(1) 1st  April 1953

Binh Chung Phao Cao Xa, don vi anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng, Vu Trang Nhan Dan

(please tranlate the document-auth)(D)

6) May 1953

(2) May.2nd 1953

The Receipt of electricity “Campagne des Eaux et D’electricite de L’Indochine  52$00, revenue Etat du Viet-nam 30 cent.

(The French electricity compagny still have powered-auth)

5) April  no info

6) May 1953

(1)May 12th 1953

     The latest used Etat du Vietnam  30 cent revenue on The Franch “Compagne des Eaux et D’ellectricity De L’Indochine “ electric recieved  600 $ for instalation (puissance du compteur a instalaller)

Because the same electric recieve in November 1953 the revenue change with Etat du Vietnam Quoc gia –auth)

(2) May.22.1953

The Receipt of Maison WINH-LOI  No 6 rue Minh Mang Dalat, frm Tran Thi Dao for paid 570&00 , used 2 x 20 cent Etat du Vietnam quoc-Gia revenue . (Rare earliest used new second type revenue at Dalat-auth)

 

   (2)May 1953

   The Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina had prepared  the map, described graphically the actualposition of the French in this month, a position that was to worsen rapidly during the course of the next twelve monts (look at the map , ibid Kahin)

 

7)June 1953

june,3rd.1953

       

(1) Mid 1953

   By mid 1953, Most of Annam was solidly under Vietminh, as were the nothern district of Cochin China almost as far as South as Saigon Itself, with the Camau pennisula as well as much of the Mekong delta administered by the Vietminh.

   The map prepared by teh Commander in Chief of French Union Forces in Indochina, General Henri Navarre, described graphically the actual position of the French in May of 1953

 

7) -8) no info

 

9) September 1953

 

   (1) Navarre Plan

France,with strong American encouragement , essayed one final and disastrous effort to recoup her military defeats and achieve a position of strength from which to negotiate with the Vietminh.

   This  Last major military bid, termed the “Navarre Plan”was undertaken at atime when Franch were able to draw on a total of 517.000 men of these ,369.000 were Indochinese , for the most part Vietnamese ; 48.000 were soldiers from  the French’s North African colonies; 20.000 were members of French Foreign Legion ,  and Total of 80,000 were French.

(from the Kahin’s information, we could found the postal history from every kind of Soldiers who send the letters to their family , Vietnamese in saigon, French North Colonies, and to French at this time, I hope someone comment and report that Postal history that I have never found until this day, only one from Marocco but at the Vietnam Liberation war-auth)

10) no info

 

11) November 1953

 

(1) November 6th 1953

The Indochine electricity receipt form still , but in Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia 20 cent revenue.(RH)

( the French electricity compagny changed to Vietnam electricity compagny – the French stated to loss the power, two revenue collection of the reciept of elevtricity paid fro Mai and November will be best for showed because this transition period from Etat du vietnam france Union , to Etat du Vietanm quoc gia, please comment the exact date the transition between the two date – auth)

 

__________________________________

5)1954

photo

Un coin du port de Saïgon 1954

__________________________________

1) January 1954

 1954 – Corpsmen of USS MAGOFFIN (APA-199) 1954 – Corpsmen of USS MAGOFFIN (APA-199) assisted by a Vietnamese male nurse examines an elderly refugee in the ship’s sickbay during operation ‘Passage to Freedom.’

 

2)February 1954

Chinese oversease refugee from Haiphong

 en route to Saigon, Indochina, from Haiphong,

Taking Vietnamese refugees from Haiphong to Saigon ~ 1954

-3) no info

4) April 1954

    

(1) April,6th 1954

     The U.S. announced that its aids to Indochina for  the subsequent fiscal year would run to $ 1.33 billion .This equalled one-third of the entire American foreignaid program and was far its largeres single component.

      Of this amount $800 million was “ allocated through France” for “ direct support” of French Union forces fighting in the Indochina theater, $ 300 million was for economic and tech-nical assistance” (IMNAHA report postal history postal cover from the Technical assistance-auth)

In comparison , this totaled more than eleven time the entire United States economic –aid program   budgeted that year for India (ibid Kahin)

(1)Bao Dai select Ngo Dinh Diem as prime minister

5) May 1954

 

(1) May, 10.1954.

The rare postally cover from V0.v.Luat Elive TC BE 724 Fao (M) , with Marocco stamps 15 F “ Barrage de Bine of OUDANE  CDS Le Noi ELLE Du 8 FES, 10Mai 1954. to  Nguyen Thi Ham Ecole Vo Thanh Phu Nhuon, Sud Vietnam, int the bach destination  postal stamped SAIGON R.P.-VIETNAM 13-5-1954  . Handwritten “Geleco communication”

(many vietnamese have the villa in the French colony like algeria , and also near that country Marocco-auth)

 

6) June 1954

(1)June 1954

     Diem returned to Vietnam as prime minister, he was met at Saigon airport by only a handful of enthusiasts, mosy of them Catholics like himself. Though a veteran nationalist, he was a virtually unknown figure (P)

(2)     June,15th 1954

The crown prince Bao Long with native vietnamese ware’s stamps were issued, the rare stamps  the high nominal value 50 &100 piastres in mint condition or used condition.

(I have found the mint without hings at Hoat Kiem Hanoi during visit 2007, and the used low nominal value found in used condition in Indonesia.-auth)

The vintage crown Prince Bao Long pictures

The Annam Imperial power jewellary pictures

     (3) June,30th 1954

     The Etat Du Vietnam “Sursis Exeptionnel” card of Air-Vietnam  used during Vietnam Cong Hoa this day with  the change of Exceptionel to Professionel

ETAT DU VIET-NAM

        __________                         SURSIS PROFESSIONNEL

                     Valable du 1er/7/1954 au 1er/Ier/1955                                              ______________

REFERENCE : Arrete No.600-VP/QP du 15 Mai 1954 et Decision

                     de la Commission Centrale des Sursis du 19 juin 1954

                                      _________________________

Nom et Prenoms du beneficiance : NGUYEN HUU TAM

Date et lieu de naissance : 21-2-1925 a’Cantho

Emploi occupe :  Comptable

Designation du service employeur : AIR_VIETNAM

                     Saigon, le  30  Juin   1954

                           Le Directeur general des servive de Police

                                             .et de Surete National du Vietnam

Le Chef  du Tu Hoan

Red double circle Stamped                        Violet circle stamped

QUOC PUONG *NHA NHAN-VIEN      “ MYRE VILLERS SAIGON.

                   HAM BAC                            VIETNAM HANG-KHONG

                                                                             AIR VIETNAM”

( The rare “Air Vietnam “ cursus/training ID card , best for thematic of air-pilot-auth)

7)July 1954

July 2, 1954
The agreements of the international peace conference in Geneva, signed July 20, 1954, put an end to the conflict. According to their terms, the French abandoned the control of the entire Vietnamese territory. Vietnam was also divided into two separate states, north and south of 17th parallel, the northern part becoming a republic ruled by the Communist Ho Chi Minh, the southern part, after the deposition of Emperor Bao Dai, a republic enjoying U.S. support.
The involvement of the United States in the war is progressive. After installing the nationalist regime of Ngo Dinh Diem in 1955 with the aim of maintaining anti-regime in the south American involvement began under President Eisenhower set up in Saigon at the outset of the French troops in charge of a military mission assume fully the organization and training of the army of South Vietnam. In 1961, President Kennedy brings to 15,000 the number of male military advisers

 

(1) Diem returns to Saigon

(2)General J.Lawton Collins, Eisen-hower’s special envoy . arrives in Saigon to affirm American Support for Diem, including USD 100 millions in aid. Hundred of thousand Refugees flee from the North to the South with help of US Navy.(Some collections from the refugees have found in South Vietnam like pasport,ID Card , Diploma etc-auth)(D)

(3) In a house in Indochine where the enemies skull were collected for up the famnily power (P)

(4) The Indochine’s student study in Al Azhar University with the albain and Syrian ‘s student(P)

8)-9) no info

10) October 1954

 

(1)October,11th 1954

THE “QUITANCE DE LOYER” paying ’s Receipt 12834$ for August 1954,with 1 piastre and 40 cents revenue Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia

(the rare 1 piastres Quoc-Gia of Etat du Vietnam revenue on Medicine transaction’s receipt ?-auth)

(2)  Nearly a million a large preportion of them Catholic, fleeing from Nothern Vietnam in late 1954 as the Vietminh prepared their take over. In many instances,as here, the evacuation was handled by the US Navy

(I have found Chinese consulat’s Haiphong north Vietnam  passport in HCM city, belong to the Chinese ‘s North Vietnam refugee to Cholon-Saigon, from Chinese overseas(Hoa Kiao) harbor Haiphong in the north flea to Hoa Kiao harbor Cholon Saigon in the South, I will write special book about them in the next times-auth (P)

(3) Not long after his return to Vietnam as prime minister, Ngo Dinh Diem organized a referendum to oust Bao Dai. Diem recieved almost all the votes, and the Bo Dai picture put down in  court’s meeting room (P)

(4) Diem consolidated his power by  defeating the Binh Xuyen, a private gang supporeted by the French’s forces clashed with the Binh Xuyen in the street of Saigon, devasting the city(P)

(5) October ,19th 1954

Original vintage photo, chinese women  with vietnamese gown , seated at the rock near beach, in the back handwritten

nKy ara’n o’ ca’p gnya 19-10-54

(Li van vi).

 

11) November 1954

 

(1)     November,11th 1954

Original small clear Vintage photo of two vietnamese soldier in the ront of statue, in the back handwritten :

“Than Tang Chi em anh, nay dte ky niem dtoi song cui bap cua em, Thang ben.Kia La Nec Toi. Nimy Le 20/11/54.

 

12) December 1954

(1)Cessation of the Indochina War in 1954 left the Associated States of Indochina divided into four countries: Cambodia, Laos, North Viet Nam and South Viet Nam. The Chief of State, Bao Dai, called on Ngo Dinh Diem, to form a government, but although in office, he lacked control, especially over the army. After a time, Diem brought the army under control. Diem turned his attention to his own status and called for a referendum to al1ow Vietnamese to choose between Diem and Emperor Bao Dai. A referendum was ordered for October 23, 1955. Diem’s bid to replace Bao Dai was successful. Official Vietnamese government records showed that 91.8 percent of the voting population participated and that 98.2 percent of the voters chose to replace Bao Dai with Diem.

 

 

_____________________________________

4.2.3.Republic Of Vietnam(Vietnam Cong Hoa )1955-1975

_____________________________________

­­­­­­­­­­­­­­___________________________________

a. the transition Bo Dai-Diem regime in 1955

photo

1955 SAÏGON – Boulevard Bonnard

Tên ông toàn quyền Bonard hay bị các ông Tây viết sai thành bonard

tượng Bá Đa Lộc đã được đưa về Pháp

___________________________________

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

  (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

Not yet info

 

3) March  1955

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

     (2) Ngo Dinh diem stamps were issue in this year but the date not known, the rare stamps were the hign nominal in mint condition 35 pi and 100 pi ( I have found the common used stamps in Indonesia-auth)

(4) April 1955

    

(a) April 1955

Diem crush Binh Xuan sect. The period  end of French forces and their auxillaries to deployed South and for Vietminh  troops to regroup the north,

(5) May & (6) June 1955

No info

(7) July 1955

(a)July.11th 1955

The man of action formally extend-ed Phillipine recognation in a diplo-matic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col .Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969)

 

(b)July,1955

The late used Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60.

 

(c)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(d) July,20th 1955

The mythology turtle (read at the Ancient Vietnam war-auth) stamped issued ( uncommen  in mint condition., I have only the used one found in Indonesia-auth)

(e) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

(*)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

(**) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese nto support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriedly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

(***)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and com-munism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more profitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dan-gerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnam-ese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnamese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

(8)August & (9) September 1955

No info.

(10) October 1955,

 

(a) October 11th 1955

The refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day, the rare mint high nominal value stamps 55 pi and 100 pi.

(b)October 22th,1955

The last day of Bo Dai regime

_______________________________

7) Republic Vietnam Cong Hoa (South Vietnam) 1955-1975.

_______________________________

b.The first year Diem Regime-1955

________________________________

 

(A) Ngo Dinh Regime (1955-1963)

( October 23th 1955-  1963)

(1) October 1955

(a)23th October 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum  and Bo dai official was through down to the floor. (P)

(b) October,26th  1955

(1.1)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

(1.2) Magsasay (Phillipine president ‘s recognation of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime the opposition Recto attack  on his recognations which according to him had been done in obedience to American dictates.

 

(c) October,29th 1955

           Three days after his attack on Magsaysay for the recognition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime,  

Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

(2) November 1955

(a) Novermber,23th 1955

The information  about Magsasay recieved Campaind fund from America had appeared in the today issue of Time Magazine.

Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

     (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information

 The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505. auth)

(b)Ca Ve Cu Booklet

 The small Booklet ’s Covers with red Photo illustration

Ca Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955” and in the back propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

In This cover, handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD)

_______________________________

 Diem’s South Vietnam in1956

_________________________________

1) January 1956

(1)in 1955 and 1956, thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North. The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.

(2)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2)-4) no info

5) May 1956

 

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956. (the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where location ? please comment-auth)

(2)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) -7) no info

August 1956

     (1) August 6th 1956

     The common overprint “Chaou Tu Bu Dien” or Gouverment Post Office building” stamps were issued ( I found this stamps in Indonesia).

9) September no info

10) October 1956

    

(1)  Children stamps were issued , the rare was the violet  35 pi in mint condition ( I found the used one in Indonesia , and the mint 75 cent in Ho Chi Minh city-auth)

(5) 5th October 1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN (OD)

(6) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

12) December 1950

 

(1)December , 4 th 1950

The LAISSEZ-PASSER  ID with native Vietnamese photo,

          LAISSEZ –PASSER

           Valable Jusqu’a nouvei ordo

(Giay thon-ba’nh tam du’ng de’m khi noi linh moi )

(Circulaire No.28 Cir/Mi/Ag du 24-5-46 du Ministre de L’Inte’riem)

                __________________

 

Nome et prenom :  Huynh Ngoc Hoa

________________.  ..ssance: Phu Lun 19 a’Long Chau Vinlong 

.                  . ngay ,than,na’m dao

.        native              .   cua mie : Thai Ti Bich

.    vietnamese        .  Ngieu      : Buon Ban

.         lady’s             .  Village hang : Long cha’u

.  photo      . hai neau : 1” quartier

.                                . Maison  no(na s6) : 46 B Dong Khan.

___________________

                           Vinlong,le 4 December 1950

Lang : Lang-Cheung  4.12..50

        Huong Than               Xuong Truong          Huong-hau

 

          Handsigned            handsigned             handsigned &

  & red squared           round violet stamped

Stamped                DELEGATION DU CHEF -LIEU

    “ SUD VIETNAM-

                                      PROVINCE DE VINLONG

 

(RARE  Document,revenue and postal history collections delegation du Chef-Lieu  Of Sud-Vietnam province Vinlong, the only one ID  found from the year 1950, why?,please comment-auth)
 

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Early Vietnam War 1955-1964

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

                    Please Enter

                    

              DVWC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Vietnam War  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Diem South Vietnam War Document

       and Postal History

               1955-1959

The complete information exist in CD_ROM as the part of Vietnam Indochina hIstoric collections 1800-1964,please subscribed as the premium member via comment to find more informations about the CD-ROM.

This is only the sample of CD-ROM.

 

 DIEM REGIME (1955-1957)

a.TRANSITION PERIOD -1954

4665478542 e03dd28b25 French Indo China Government official Vien Bay reading a prepared speech. O

 

French Indo China Government official Vien Bay reading a prepared speech

1) October    1954

(1)October ,23th 1954

 

(a)The  President Eisenhower’s latter  to Diem :

___________________________________

Dear Mr President,

 

I have been following with great interest the course of developments in Viet-Nam , particularly since the conclusion of the conference at Geneva.

 

The implications of the agreement concerning Viet-Nam have caused grave concern regarding the future of a country temporanly divided by an artificial military grouping, weakened  by a long and exhausting war and faced with enemies without and by their subversive collaborators within.

 

You recent request for and to assist in the formidable project of the movement of several hundred thousand loyal Vietnamese citizen away from areas which are passing under a de facto rule and political ideology which they abhor, are being fulfilled .I am glad this humanitarian effort

 

We have been exploring ways and means to permit our aid to Viet-Nam to be more effective and to make a greater contribution to the welfare and stability of the Government of Viet-Nam.

I am,accordingly, instructing the American Ambassador to Viet-Na,m to examine with you in your capacity as chief of government how an intelligent program of American aid given directly to your Government canserve to assist Viet-Nam in its present hour of trial , provided that your Government is preparedto give assurances as to the standars of performance it would be able t main tain the event such aid were supplied.

 

The purpose of this offer in tp assist the Government of Viet-Nam in developed and maintaining a strong, viable state, capable of resisting attempted subversion or aggresion through military means .

 

The Government  of United States expects that their aid will be met by performance on the part the Government of Viet-Nam in undertaking needed reforms.It hopes that such aid, combined with your own continuing efforts, will contribute effectively toward an independent Viet-Nam endowed with a strong government.

 

Such a government would, I hope, be so responsive to the nationalist aspiration of its people, so enlightened in purpose and effective in performance, that it will be respected both at home and abroad and discourage any who might to impose a foreign idelogy on your free people.

 

Sincerely,

 

Dwight D. Eisenhower.

__________________________________________________

(source : Modern History Sourcebook)

4.Do Cao Tri 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – small_unit_tactics;combined_arms_focus;training

5.Ho Tan Quyen 1955 – 1963
skill 5 – seamanship;naval_training;small_taskforce_tactics

6.Indochina University 1930 – 1956
skill 1 – management;chemistry;mathematics


7. Viet Nam National Military Academy 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – small_unit_tactics;piloting;training;naval_trainin g;decentralized_execution
ref

8.Indochine Raiload Company 1930 – 1954
skill 1 – mechanics;management;industrial_engineering
ref

9.Thu Duc Military Academy 1955 – 1970
skill 3 – combined_arms_focus;centralized_execution;individu al_courage
ref

10.The University of Saigon 1957 – 1970
skill 4 – management;chemistry;electronics;mathematics
ref

11.Vu Quoc Thuc 1956 – 1962
skill 4 – management;industrial_engineering
ref

12.U.S. Army Construction Agency Vietnam 1963 – 1970
skill 6 – management;technical_efficiency;general_equipment; electronics;mechanics
ref

13.David Lilienthal 1963 – 1970
skill 6 – management;mathematics;industrial_engineering
ref

14.U.S. Agency for International Development Vietnam 1961 – 1970
skill 6 – industrial_engineering;general_equipment;chemistry ;management;artillery
ref

15.Republic of Vietnam Navy 1952 – 1970
skill 4 – small_taskforce_tactics;centralized_execution;nava l_engineering;naval_training
ref

16.MAAG Vietnam 1950 – 1960
skill 4 – artillery;training;general_equipment;industrial_en gineering;mechanics
ref

17.U.S. Military Assistance Command Vietnam 1962 – 1970
skill 4 -combined_arms_focus;small_unit_tactics;bomber_tact ics;piloting;naval_training
ref

18.Ba Son Shipyard 1930 – 1954
skill 2 – naval_engineering;industrial_engineering;mechanics
ref

19.Ba Son Shipyard 1955 – 1970 <= duplicated in order to simulate the aid of US navy
skill 4 – technical_efficiency;naval_engineering;naval_artil lery

20.Air Viet Nam 1930 – 1970
skill 3 – aeronautics;technical_efficiency;electronics
ref

21.U.S. Pacific Air Forces 1961 – 1970 <= representative for the US air force in South Viet Nam
skill 5 – rocketry;aeronautics;artillery;chemistry
ref
pic : later

(b)The Photograph of President of South Vietnam  Ngo Dih Diem with President USA Eisenhowrer at Whasington National Airport.

___________________________________

b. The First year of Diem regime-1955

5701937047 445e21f5b6 Saigon 1955 O

 

 Madame Nhu

 
 
In the case of the Vietnam War, most recall only that it was a bad idea for the U.S to become involved. Given the war’s unpopularity and near universal denouncement since, we may tend to forget that our  leaders were sent down the slippery slope with well-intentioned reasons that seemed to make sense to most people at the time.
 
 Vietnam had the alleged Tonkin Gulf attack on the USS Maddox. In each case, there was a President at the ready to pull the trigger. We all recall the details of what lead up to the former, but the details of what led up to the latter remains largely unknown or forgotten to most.
 
The Dragon Lady, although a largely forgotten part of our Vietnam buildup in the early 1960’s, was a key player in a swirling Cold War world of nuclear brinksmanship and complex international relationships. Perhaps from her, we might have learned early on at what masters the Vietnamese were at playing the Americans.
 
Lest we forget, following is her obituary written for the New York Times by Joseph R. Gregory:
 
As the official hostess to the unmarried president of South Vietnam, her brother-in-law, she was formally known as Madame Ngo Dinh Nhu. But to the American journalists, diplomats and soldiers caught up in the intrigues of Saigon in the early 1960s, she was “the Dragon Lady,” a symbol of everything that was wrong with the American effort to save her country from Communism.
 
In those years, before the United States deepened its military involvement in the war, Madame Nhu thrived in the eye of her country’s gathering storm as the wife of Ngo Dinh Nhu, the younger brother and chief political adviser to Ngo Dinh Diem, the president of South Vietnam from 1955 until 1963.
 
While her husband controlled the secret police and special forces, Madame Nhu acted as a forceful counterweight to the diffident president, badgering Diem’s aides, allies and critics with unwelcome advice, public threats and subtle manipulations. Then, after both men were killed in a military coup mounted with the tacit support of the United States, she slipped into obscurity.
 
In her years in the spotlight, when she was in her 30s, she was beautiful, well coiffed and petite. She made the form-fitting ao dai her signature outfit, modifying the national dress with a deep neckline. Whether giving a speech, receiving diplomats or reviewing members of her paramilitary force of 25,000 women, she drew photographers like a magnet. But it was her impolitic penchant for saying exactly what she thought that drew world attention.
 
When, during Diem’s early days in power, she heard that the head of the army, Gen. Nguyen Van Hinh, was bragging that he would overthrow the president and make her his mistress, she confronted him at a Saigon party. “You are never going to overthrow this government because you don’t have the guts,” Time Magazine quoted her as telling the startled general. “And if you do overthrow it, you will never have me because I will claw your throat out first.”
 
Her “capacity for intrigue was boundless,” William Prochnau wrote in “Once Upon a Distant War: Young War Correspondents and the Early Vietnam Battles” (1995). So was her hatred of the American press. “Madame Nhu looked and acted like the diabolical femme fatale in the popular comic strip of the day, ‘Terry and the Pirates,’ ” Mr. Prochnau wrote. “Americans gave her the comic-strip character’s name: the Dragon Lady.”
 
In the pivotal year of 1963, as the war with the North worsened, discontent among the South’s Buddhist majority over official corruption and failed land reform efforts fueled protests that culminated in the public self-immolations of several Buddhist monks. Shocking images of the fiery suicides raised the pressure on Diem, as did Madame Nhu’s well-publicized reaction. She referred to the suicides as “barbecues” and told reporters, “Let them burn and we shall clap our hands.”
 
Tran Le Xuan was the younger daughter of Nam Tran Chuong, herself the daughter of an imperial Vietnamese princess, and Tran Van Chuong, a patrician lawyer who later became Diem’s ambassador to Washington. As a willful girl, she bullied her younger brother, Khiem Van Tran, and was more devoted to the piano and the ballet than to her studies.

She later resisted any arranged marriage, choosing in 1943 to wed one of her mother’s friends, Ngo Dinh Nhu. Fifteen years her senior, he was from a prominent Hue family of Roman Catholics who opposed both French colonial rule and the Communist rebels. Tran Le Xuan, raised a Buddhist, embraced her new family’s faith as well as its politics.
 
As World War II ended, Vietnam’s battle for independence intensified. In 1946, Communist troops overran Hue, taking Madame Nhu, her infant daughter and aging mother-in-law prisoner. They were held for four months in a remote village with little food and no comforts before being freed by the advancing French. After she was reunited with her husband, the family lived quietly for the next few years, an interlude that Madame Nhu would later refer to as her “happy time.” She and her husband would eventually have four children, two boys and two girls.
 
dining with President Diem 
in Saigon in 1957. Madame Nhu does not 
appear to have been present.
In 1955, Diem became president of the newly independent South Vietnam, his authority menaced by private armies, gangsters and disloyal officers like General Hinh. Madame Nhu publicly urged Diem to act. This only embarrassed him, and he exiled her to a convent in Hong Kong. Then he reconsidered, took her advice, smashed his opponents and forced Hinh into exile.
 
Madame Nhu returned, complaining that life in the convent had been “just like the Middle Ages.” But then, so was the lot of most Vietnamese women. After winning a seat in the National Assembly in 1956, Madame Nhu pushed through measures that increased women’s rights. She also orchestrated government moves to ban contraceptives and abortion, outlaw adultery, forbid divorce and close opium dens and brothels. “Society,” she declared, “cannot sacrifice morality and legality for a few wild couples.”
 
Meanwhile, she kept a tight emotional hold on the president. According to a C.I.A. report, Diem came to think of his sister-in-law like a spouse. She “relieves his tension, argues with him, needles him, and, like a Vietnamese wife, is dominant in the household,” the report said. It also said that their relationship was definitely not sexual. When Diem, who was notoriously prudish, once questioned the modesty of Madame Nhu’s low-cut dress, she was said to have snapped back: “It’s not your neck that sticks out, it’s mine. So shut up.”
 
In fact, both their lives were on the line. In 1962, renegade Vietnamese Air Force pilots bombed and strafed the presidential palace. Diem was not hurt. Madame Nhu fell through a bomb hole in her bedroom to the basement two floors below, suffering cuts and bruises.
Vietnamese officers were judged by their loyalty to Diem and Nhu, who kept their best troops close to Saigon, to the exasperation of the Americans. 
 
As Communist strength grew, the South’s internal stresses mounted. Diem sought compromise with dissidents, but he was undercut by the Nhus. In August 1963, thousands of Buddhists were arrested and interned. In Washington, Madame Nhu’s father declared that Diem’s government had done more damage than even the Communists and resigned as ambassador; her mother, South Vietnam’s observer at the United Nations, also quit. 

That fall, Madame Nhu went on an American speaking tour, criticizing Diem’s critics as soft on communism. She was in Los Angeles on Nov. 1 when news flashed that Diem and her husband had been shot to death in a coup. “The deaths were murders,” she told reporters, “either with the official or unofficial blessing of the American government.”
 
Refused permission to return to Vietnam, she and her children moved to Rome to be near her brother-in-law, Archbishop Ngo Dinh Thuc. In July 1966, in a vehemently anti-American interview with a French journalist, she expressed sympathy for the Vietnamese Communists and declared that America preaches “the liberty of the jungle.”

In 1967, her eldest daughter, Le Thuy, was killed in an automobile accident in France. In 1986, her parents were found strangled in their Washington home. Her brother, Khiem, was charged in the killings, motivated, according to the authorities, by the fact that he had been disinherited. In 1993, after seven years in a mental hospital, he was declared incompetent but harmless, and released.
 
As time passed, Madame Nhu declined to be interviewed, but in November 1986 she agreed to answer questions in an exchange of letters with The New York Times. In these statements she continued to blame the United States for the fall of South Vietnam and for her brother’s arrest. Asked to describe her daily life, she wrote, “Outer life such as writing and reading has never seemed interesting enough to be talked about, while inner life, more than a secret, is a mystery that cannot be so easily disclosed.”

Saigon 1955

1)Jan 1955

  

(1)United States begin to funnel aid directly to Saigon government, agree to Train South Vietnamese Army

(Some postal history collections have found as the Military Free stamp and Milirary stamp ‘s Covers were  send from The National Military Accademy at Dalat ,Military training school at Nha Trang  (Dong De), Cam Rahn Naval Training Center and 25th Infantry Training Divison at Binh Thuan,  in South Vietnam. The unique collection will discuss in The Vietnam Liberation war in the next page-auth) (D)

 (2) The Binh Xuyen, a gang of guns were hired by The cao dai, Hoa Hao etc- they would serve the Vietminh and other factions –and even Police to manage bordells,casinos and opium den since 1945,  were eleminated by Ngo Dinh diem in 1955.

2)February 1955

 

5701937549 c6352c02fc Saigon 1955 O

 

 Saigon 1955

5702506600 7e0f870246 Saigon 1955 O

 Saigon 1955
5702506830 7252cc29fe Saigon 1955 O

 

    

5702508344 ccd7f7c86c Saigon 1955 O

 

 (1) February,2th,1955

     The recieved of Rayon Ford Car’s repaired station Saigon  with the earliest used rare Vietnam Thue Coniem brown revenue 0$50 .

 “Nghan do phu tung (Rayon Pieces Detachees) Ford” Saigon 1.2.1955 for  Charger  two charger of car EOA 1130 = 224 $ + Cahes 3$96 total 232$96, revenue 0$60 total 233$56, 

        (Best collection for showed-auth)

3)March 1955

 

(1)March.4th 1955

     After a conference with Secretary of State John Foster Dulles , President Magsaysay expressed himself in favor of extending Philippine recognation to South Vietnam.

 

             

4) April 1955

april,29th.1955

 

April 29, 1955 – A Vietnamese Paratrooper takes cover as refugees flee the Cholon are of Saigon during fighting with rebel Binh Xuyen

Vietnamese fleeing on the street

 (1)Diem crust the Binh Xuyen sect

at the period end of French forces and their Vietnam auxillaries to deploy  to South, and for Vietminh troops to regroup in the North. 

5)May 1955

1718914130 434c3e4dc7 Saigon May 07 1955 - Cao Dai Chief Gen. Nguyen Thanh Phuong Giving a Speech O

 

Saigon May 07 1955 -

 Cao Dai Chief Gen. Nguyen Thanh Phuong Giving a Speech O

5702507252 4692458c8f Saigon 1955 O

 
1718918758 bc97f25928 Binh Xuyen Members Sleeping on the Ground O

 

 Binh Xuyen Members Sleeping on the Ground

1718946284 7148f1772f Saigon 1955 O

 

Saigon 1955

 6) June 1955      

Diem to power, rise of the Southern Republic 1955-1963

 

June 1955 – South Vietnamese Premier Ngo Dinh Diem, fresh from victory in his struggles for power, greets villagers during a visit to the coastal town of Binh Dinh.

..

 

Some 300,000 people applauded Vietnamese army troops during parade to celebrate their victory of the Binh Xuyen rebels in the swamps south of Saigon. The battle was an important victory for the Diem regime

 

June 1955 – South Vietnamese troops train with U.S. weapons.

1955

(1)July.11th 1955) July

 

(a)The man of action formally extended Phillipine recognation in a diplomatic note addressd to Ngo Dinh Diem and hand-carried to saigon by Col.Jose Banzon,Phillipine observer in South Vietnam.(ibid,constantino,1969) 

 

(b)The late used revenue of  Etat du Vietnam  thieu phieu con niem 60 cent, Facture of Ba Quan montres-lignettes-Stylos Saigon, paid the meuble 312$60. with red squered stampedGarantie & Mois- Sauf Cases.” And red round stamped “ Ban Quan horlogerie-97 Boulevard Charner- Saigon.”

 

(2)July.16th 1955

Diem reject the Geneva accords and refuses to participate in nation wide election, a decision backed by the United States

(3) July 22th 1955

Phillipine’s Senator Recto built up a formidable indictment of American imperialism and its puppet ,Diem

He proceeded to prove the following contentions :

 

(a)”That  South Vietnam is neither independent nor possessed of the attributes of sovereignity; that is destinies are being shaped by foreign powers; that the Diem regime is South Vietnam is despotic oligarchy that administers the affairs of the state not only by a civil war but by the rivalies and quarrels of tw foriegn nations fighting there for supremacy and peddling their respective brands of Western colonialism”

 

(b) “For us tu urge, even if indirectly, the South Vietnamese to support Diem’s regime in preference to any other regime for South Vietnam, is downright officiousness, an unfriendly act to the people of South Vietnam , and an undue interference in their country’s internal affairs”

 

(c)” To speak of Diem’s success in resisting both colonialism and communism is to indulge in fiction.

True, Diem is anti-French, but on the other hand , he is helping implant in South Vietnam another form of Westren colonialsm, more prfitable for the colonials perhaps because of prospects of bitter standars of living, civil liberties and political right, but, for that very same reason, more dangerous in its subtlety for the age-long nationalist aspirations of the Vietnamese people.

In other words, Diem made his choice not between nationalism, but between two forms of colonialism.

Among those who took the culgels for Diem were then Undersecretary of foreign Affairs Raul Manglapus and Senator Palaez. In a speech at the University of the Phillipines,Manglapus claimed that Premier Ngo Dinh Diem enjoyed “ general, enthusiactic and overhelming suppot from the Vietnam-ese people”

Pelaez defended Magsaysay’s decision by saying that overhelming public opinion was in favoue of recognation. Lauding Diem as the best man to lead Vietnam to became as independent and free republic. Palaez declared that he had not heard a single Vietnamese complain against the Diem regime. Recto retorted “That ‘s the trouble with you, you read only American papers’

(ibid ,constantino,1969)

August 1955

Not yet information.

 

9) September 1955

    

 

September 1955 – Infantry men stand at attention in water as Premier Ngo Dinh Diem makes a tour of the troops in the Rung Sat swamp to thank the men who defeated the rebel Binh Xuyen forces.

10) October 1955

(1) October.23th 1955

Diem defeats Bao dai in a referen-dum .

(2)October,26th. 1955

(a)Diem become chief of state,proclaims the Republic of Vietnam, with himself as President.

october,26th.1955

 

October 26, 1955 – Premier Ngo Dinh Diem proclaims himself as president during ceremonies in Saigon that followed his victory in a referendum

 

 

October 26, 1955 – A crowd outside Independence Palace in Saigon listens to Ngo Dinh Diem proclaim the new Republic of South Vietnam, with himself as president and prime minister. Ngo received 98 percent of the votes in the referendum against the absentee emperor, Bao Dai.7

(b) Three days after Senator Recto attack on Magsaysay for the recog-nition of Ngo Dinh Diem’s regime, which according to him  had been done in obedience to American dictates, Recto added more fule to the fire with another charge. He disclosed that Magsaysay had recieved $ 250.000 from Americans for his 1953 campaign fund.

       The information had appeared in the November 23.1953, issue of Time Magazine. Recto further revealed that American Military officials assigned here ruting the presidential elections had been posted in strategic parts of the country.

       (The complete RectoVS Magsaysay will put on another book “Phillipine unique collections” and the Recto comment about Ngo Dinh Diem were the rare information-auth)

 

(c) The  Landing Ship transportation (LST)of Phillipine Navy were sent later to Vietnam used as transportation at Nha Trang  with code number HQ 506( I have the postal covers bring by this ship(PH), Cam  ranh(HQ 500), and Thi Nai (HQ 502), also  another type ship like  High Endurance Cutter(WHEC) at Tran Quang Khai –HQ 2,I haved the postal cover brought by this ship, Tran Nhat Duat –HQ 3 , Destroyer escort Radar Picket (DER) at Tran Hung Dao-HQ 1, LSSL-long Ship Support large at Doan Ngoc Tang-HQ 228, Luu Phu Tho-HQ 229, Nguyen Ngoc Long-HQ 230, Nguyen Duc Bong-HQ 231 , LSIL-long ship Infantry large at Thien Kich –HQ 329, Loi Chong –HQ 330. best armed Forces postalhistory of this transpor-tation ship will more interesting with the ship’s photo, I have one photo of LST  at Nathrang, six natives Vietnamese women with their traditional cap just out from LST to the beach HQ 505.(P) 

 

 

(3) 1955

(a)The small Book’s Covers with red native vietnamese ‘s Picture illustrationCa Ve Cu Sau(Sing the pigeon the tettix evened ?), Quyen Thu Bon(Right casing bowl autumnal ?) 1955”, Muc Luc Hieu Tu, Nu tac and Nich ai vong an, and at the back cover propaganda “Hieu Phuc-Hai “Durong Xom Dao. Cuoi Nha Tho Moi Phu nhuan –saigon, Chuyen Ban Anh,Tuong Va Cac Do Tho, Dai Ly Sach, Bao Cong-Giao Theng Viet and Giay Vo Ho-Sinh Dunc-Cu Van-Phong Gia (price) 7 Dong.(OD)

This cover used as the cover of handwritten’s praying :” Kinh cau cho mau an giac”

Chung toi kinh lay @.C.G, kia giac gom hge,cac dan cac mioc luan chuyen cuan phong,lam cho long chung toi tham nao, con mot chon trai tim chua la noi an anh ma thoi, thi chung toi xin chay vao do.

Lay Chua la Chua nhon uc, chung toi khoc loc than van, xin Chua thuong cho an tai ach, Lau Chua.

La vua bang an,cui dau cau khan, xin Chua Cho dang thai binh.

Trai Tin Chua da loa ngon lua men yen, Lam cho the gian chua hem khieh,de mot yue men nhau luon.

Xua chua con o doi, Trai Tim Chua da thon thuc thuong dan khon cuc, xin Trai Tim Chua dong tinh thuong xot gio nay, day su ghen ghet doc ac; xin Chua thuong xot muon van nguon me othang buc tuc boi hoi, so cho con noi chinh chien.

Xin Chua thuong xot tramngan gia that mo coi chang con ai chu truong,xin Chua thuong xot ca2 the gian keo lam hai lo; xinchua soi long vung tuong cung kgap het nguoi doi dang ohuc tinh tu hau;.

Mau thanh Chua da do. Ra ruoi thien ha cho nen con mot nha;xin Chua giai thu ke nghich dang phan re cac dan cho moi nguoi yen nhan hoa hiep.

Xua thanh Pheri keu cung Chua rang :Lay Chua, xin cuuu  chung toi cho khoi chet chim,  thi Chua thuong dep an song bien, nay xin Chua nham loi chung toi cau nguyen mia tha toi nhon dan, cho ban the giai xon xao dang on binh tinh.

Chung toi cung lay Duc Me dong trinh rat thanh.

Me da cun cap chung toi ghe phen khon buc, xin Me cuu giup phu ho bau chua chung toi.Amen.(OD) 

( What the meaning of ca ve cu sau ? please comment and tranlate the handwritten “Kinh cao cho mau an giac “-auth)

 

(b) The best of Nguyen Bao Tung Phillatelic ’s colection  contains stamps from the Government led by the late President Ngo-Dinh-diem from 1955 to 1963 and he had the covers with Diem signed and official sealed stamped

  

11) November 1955

(1)The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese’s soldier party at the restaurant “Nghi Xuan”

The soldier with civil complete dress, and two flag there, Vietnam Cong Hoa ‘s yelow three green strip and the military AVRN flag ,s one bigger star.

     “Buoi tiec dtai chien si Hoang Dieu tai nha hang Nghi Xuan

( best flag thematic photo’s  collec-tions, auth)

12) December 1955

 

(1)     December ,9th.1955

The two original vintage black-white photos of a Vietnamese traveler’s group  to  an ancient building

“ Cuoc du lich o Nam-vian na De Thien De Thu trong 3 ngay 9-10-11 Decembre 1955.”

(Please someone translate, where Thien De Thu trong 3 ? auth)

     

(2)     December,11th 1955

The Refugee on raff stamps were issued in this day , very rare in mint never hinged stamps. 30 and 100 piastres.(the used stamps were found in Indonesia, the mint not yet found, I have seen in HCM city-auth)

 

 

 

 

_______________________________

c.Diem’s Regime in1956

_________________________________

The Canadian Connection

SAIGON, Vietnam — (1956) Cpl Renald Paquette with his "team" in Saigon. Source: Sgt (Ret) R. Paquette.

SAIGON, Vietnam — (1956) Cpl Renald Paquette with his “team” in Saigon. Source: Sgt (Ret) R. Paquette.

1) January 1956

 

(1)in 1955 and 1956,

(a) Thousand of Vietnamese “traitors” , French Sympathiser and “Landlord’ including many pheasant , were killed by the communist in the North.

The entire populations of Catholic villages fled from the North , and altogether  nearly a million refugees headed south when the Nortth Vietnam established.     

(b)Diem began crackdawn on Vietminh suspect s and other dissidents(D)  

2) February

 
photo

Saigon 1956

–4)April 1956

 

     Not yet info

5) May 1956

(1)May.10th 1956

The very rare  Ten Li Vi Phi Bang thue viet 5$ regional revenue with anxient Building, on Chung Thu Thay Giay Khai Sanh sertificate, square box black stamped LIEN –XA HOA-THAI.Lam tai Choi Duong Lien xa 10.5.1956.

The complete Khai Sinh form :

 

————————————————————————

 

Quoc –Gia Viet-Nam                               Chung Thu Thay Giay

          Trung-Viet

         ==ooo===                                             KHAI  SINH

 

Lang  Thun Doang Son va dtoi choi

Quan  Yifoa  Vang

Tinh     Quan Nam

 

Ten ho dua con :  Nguyen Nhan

Trai hay gai        :  Trai

Sinh cho na’e     :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa Vang

Sinh ngay nao    :   Nam 1908 Ngay 16 thang 3

Vung moi Sau thong Ba Nan mot ngau Chin trai le Tam.

Ten Ho Cha         : Nguyen Khue

Nha ciro o’ dau  :  thon duong Son xa Hoa theu quan Hoa vang

Ngep-ngep         :  lam Nong

Ten ho me           :  Dang thi Sifaul

Vo chanh hay thu:  Vo Chanh

Ten ho nguoi khai:  Nguyen Khue

May Toi                 : Sot tam Nuoi tuoi

Ngep-ngep          :  Lam Nong

Nha cua o’ dau   :  Thon Duong Son Xa hoa chai quan Hoa vang

Ten ho nguoi chung thu nhat : Nguyen quan(50t) Nam muoi toi

Tuo,ngep-ngep ,noi o’; thay thuoi Thoi LUONG soi,pa dtoi thai

Ten ho nguoi chung thu’ ba : Nguyen Dui Ngu(60 t) sau muoi tuoi

Tuoi,nge-nghiep ,noi o: Lam Nong thoi Duong Lon Xa Hoa thai

quan Hoi vong.

 

               Lam tai  Thoi Duong son xa ,ngay 10 thang 5 nam 1956.

NGU’OI KHAI             Do’ng Hu’ong-Chinh Xa  Hoa Thoi

Nguyen Khue                 squered stamped “ Thih-Quang Nam-

Quan –Hoa-vang-Hoi Dong Huong

Chinh –Lien Xa-HOA-THAI

Nhung nguoi Chung       Nhan thiet chu ky cua Hoi-Dong Huong

Chinh Xa Hoa Thai

                                          Hoa Vang ngay 11 thang 5 nam 1956

                                                     TINH TRUONG

                                            Signed and red circle stamped

 

————————————————————————

(the very rare regional revenue from Lien Xa, where the location ? please comment-auth)

4) June 1956 no info

5) July 1956

 

 
    
 
    
Images of 1957PA 146524
    Senior military advisors to the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam discuss the location of fixed investigation teams. Left to right: Colonel J.Bryn (Poland), Brigadier M.S. Dunn (Canada), and Major-General D.S. Bar (India), July 16, 1956.
 
 

(1)Diem refused to participate in the Vietnam elections  scheduled for July 1956 under the Geneva Agrrement.

6) August 1956

 

Images of 1957PA 151203
    Members of the Canadian Delegation to the International Commission for Supervision and Control in Vietnam at a headquarters meeting, August 9, 1956.

(1)             Nuoi Ngot 1956

The original vintage photo of the vietnamese lady in the beach of Nuoi Ngot.

 

(2)             Long Hai 1956

The original vintage photo of the Vietnamese lady in the front of the traditional house at Long hai.

7) September 1956

(1) September,17th 1956

The  Admission’s card of Franch –Vietnamese University at President TINH street Saigon.

_______________________________________________ 

UNIVERSITE-POPULAIRE

FRANCO-VIETNAMIENE

   14 Rue President Tinh                           PHOTO

           SAIGON

CARTE D’ADMISSION

M     Do Thin Muoi

Est admis aux Cource de:

  1. Vietnamienen 1 degre A 30
  2. Francais A 66  Age……………………………………………….
  3. Anglais debut A 40   profession ……………………………
  4. ………………………………………………………………………….. 

Saigon ,le 17-9 1956            Adresse………………………….

      Le Directeur                               Le Titulaire

     Hansigned                             Handsigned

____________________________________

10) October 1956

 

(1)  October,5th.1956

     Certificate De Garantie (SAUF CASSE), Object garanti :”une Monntie brachet pour homme De marque “Printania” i’t rubris” Duree de la garanti : denc ano rarf cassa , handsign and red stamped by “Le Directeur de la Maison BAQUAN

In the back , rare ephemera vintage handwatch Pronto automatic ,”Ban va Su’a” and Montresz-Stylos , BAQUAN, 97 Boulevard Charner tel.No 2.414 SAIGON (OD)

 

(2) In the South Vietnam, the locally printed vietnamese notes were issued, altough thei design and marks were different fron Northern area (The Central Government’s notes) and  their signatures came from “The Chairman of the southern Part’s Resistance Commitee “(Vietnam Dan Chu Cong Hoa), who represented teh Minister of Finaces and the Director Of Southern Part’s Treasury acting as representaive for the Director General of National Treasury.

 

November 1956

November,19th.1956

Images of 1957PA 143197
    Paul Martin, Minister of Health and Welfare (left) talking with President Ngo Dinh Diem of the Republic of Vietnam, Saigon, November 19, 1956

9) December 1956

(1) December 7th 1956

The rare  earliest Regional taxes Saigon Cholon revenue, on Health certificate. Sign By  the Chief beraue archive signe Guiges , and sign legalized  7-12-52  with red cross Bac-Si-Nguyen red stamped.

 (Rare health record document with regional saigon cholon 10$00 yellow revenue, because this revenue from 1960 every years was overprint with year to 1975, and unoverprint on piece difficult to find, only three found another  29.4.1957 and 16.3.1959-auth)

____________________________________

 4.3.2 DIEM REGIME   WAR 1957-1963

____________________________________

 

The US supported Diem, a corrupt but anti-Communist dictator of South Vietnam
Ngo Dinh Diem, President of South Vietnam, arrives in Washington in 1957, and is greeted by President Eisenhower

In this photo, US President Dwight D. Eisenhower greets South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem upon his arrival in Washington D.C. in 1957. Diem ruled Vietnam after the French pulled out in 1954; his pro-capitalist stance made him an attractive ally to the United States, which was in the throes of the Red Scare.

 

a) IBID Stanley Karnow & Nguyen  Ngoc Vy

The South vietnamese Communist  ,the Vietcong, began organising in the countryside in 1957 , planning the assasination of Diem’s village headmen and official. But Ho Chi-minh was still holding back.

Diem’s authoritarian rule, his rustlessness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among peasants but among all those groups excluded from power and from a share in the loot.

The Vietcong assasinations soon made themselves felt, exciting deep unease throuhout the country.

Murder of government officials increase from 1200 in 1959 to 4000 a year by 1961.

Diem’s response was to drive the peasant into foryified hamlets, but this proved both ineffective and couter-productive , alienating the peasantry, who objected to being placed under military commanders and were any-way caught between Diem’s reprisals during the day and the Vietcong at night.

The US administration failed to appreciate that the Vietcong were not lackey of the communists in the North but were an expanding and powerfully organisd army of south Vietnam engaged  in a guerrila civil war.

Clearly South Vietnam stability was deteriorating , though Diem was still in control of the cities and much of the countryside of South Vietnam.

That was most unwelcome to the Americans, since the communist regions of the country bordered on North and South Vietnam and so acted as a passage for suplies and men along the maze of Jungle trails as the Ho Chi-minh trail, by which it took two months to reach the South from the North.

This sparsely populated country of some 2,5 million bordered not only on North and south Vietnam , but also on China,Burma, Thailand and Cambodia, and so was a potential cockpit of struggle between more powerful neighbour.

SEATO , “the South –east Asian collec-tive defence treaty”, organised by Dulles in September 1954, onlike NATO had no standing Armies, nor had its signatories promised military support in each other. So,although it as extended to cover the defence of Cambodian  and South Vietnam, it provided no guarantees of help and proved of limited value when the United States did appeal for Military assistance.

The Eisenhower administration also sent military advisers to South Vietnam and to Laos, yet the Laotian Royal Army never became an effective fighting force capable of dealing with the guerilla tactics of the Pathet Lao.

The influx of American and dollars, more, corrupted and undermined the South Vietnamese and the Laotians.

American advisers, in anycase , suffered from one disability  they couldnot overcome : they were foreigners white oustsiders.   

The Vietcong , for all the violence and disorders they bought to their fellow countrymen , were their own people.

An enormous amout of financial aid was poured into South-east Asia ; most of it went to the military or lined the pockets of corrupt officials.

What the pattern of military aid reveal are the priorities of the United States in South-east Asia from mid-1950s to the mid-1960s. By far the largest amount of aid as calculated  per head of population was sent to Laos and south Vietnam during the decade from 1955 to 1963, about half that amount per head went to cambodia and the Phillipines.

Eisenhower was committing technical,financial and military ait to enable the anti-communist forces in South-east Asiato defend themselves against the communist. But he was opposed to using US military forces on the Asian mainland ( except in South Korea). The mighty US Seven Fleet with its nuclear weapons was close by. What if the nuclear threat did not deter the Vietminh, while supplies continued to reach them from China and the Soviet Union ? What if, despite US ait, the anti-communist groups were too weak to resist effectively? That dilemma Eisenhower bequethed to his successors,

In November 1960 the Democratic Senator from Massachusets J.F.Kennedy won the US preidential election.

Indochina lay at the heart of the “Unfinished bussiness” left over from the Eisenhower administration and the issued came to the boil within the fitst sixth months of 1961. A speech by Khrushchev on 6 January 1961, declaring that the Soviet Union would support waht he called “National liberation movement” in the under-developed countries (including South Vietnam-auth)

April 1961 was a critical month for the White House . Vietnam became the focus of crisis management.

Kennedy order  a review of what military,political and economic action-overt and covert- it would be necessary for the United States to undertake to prevent the communist domination of South Vietnam.

There was wild talk by the military of air strikes against North Vietnam and Southern China.

Although Kennedy frequently showed a better sense of propotion than smoke of his advisers about the dangers of escalation following the despatch of US troops, he never departed from his policy of increasing the US Commitment as much as he judge necessary to defeat Viet cong.

First and fore most it was ignorance, a failure to understand the true nature of  the conflict in Vietnam, reducing it to the simple formula that it was part of the worldwide struggle berween the free and the communist.

But it was not a war arising simply out of communist aggression from North Vietnam . The Vietcong were a south Vietnamese force, the expression of political opposition and disaffection with the ruler of South Vietnam.

It was this misreading of the situation that underlay the US decision to intervene on a massive scale,

The belief that superior technology, the bombardement from the air, coul break the will and capacity to fight of the North Vietnamese and the Viercong caused heavy loss of life and terrible destruction, but in the end was in effective.

Nor could the ground forces defeat ab enemy prepared to naswer escalation with escalation.

The military experts were wrong in their optimistic assements and once more President Johnson had engaged America prestige he found it impossible to pull out and to admit defeat.

But meanwhile that war had been Americanised abd, after Tet, the propping up of an unviable South Vietbamese gevrnment became increasingly problematical.

The US had been sucked into a civil war and faced a determined and rushless enemy. Attrition in the end broke the American will to continue fighting in a country thousands of miles away and for a cause that could not be won.

 

b).AIR WAR IN VIETNAM (Above and Beyond,vol.4,New Horizon Publizher Inc.Chicago,1968)

     Airpower has been the critical element in US military operations in Vietnam.

Massive,unprecedented use of airpower has provided important advantages fro US troops that no conventional army ever enjoyed in a large-scale war against well-organized guerilla forces.

 ( This book have written before the fall of Saigon, that is way the writter and US armed forces still have the arogan to win because they don’t understand the Vietcong and vietminh people powers and in the Iraq war the used most modern aircraft and  startegic attack especially the bunkers, read another book “The unique Iraq War’s docu-ment and postal history collection”-auth)

     The main advantages of modern airpower are completely new levels of mobility and firepower, Helicopter, employed by hubdreds, have brought the new mobility to  ground operations. Most US infantry in Vietnam move into position for its sweeps and assaults by helicopter, which is more than ten times faster than any ground trasportation, high speed move,ment of large forces gives US commandrs a much greater opportunity for suprissing the guerillas than was possible in the past.

          More important, in the fact that moving primarly in the air, instead of by road,largely robs the guerrilla of the opportunity for ambush.

          Aerial firepowe, unprecendented in the swiftness, had been turned against the Viet cong and the North Vietnamese(Vietminh-auth) army in South Vietnam.

          Attack aircraft are spread throughot South Vietnam in such numbers that they usually can respond to any call for help in less than 15 minutes and very often within five minutes.

          When the enemy does attempt an ambush of ground forces, or stage a suprise attack on a fortified village, strike fighters can almost immedietely bring tons of the heviest ordnavce down on the attackers.

          The ability to respond quickly, and massively to any assault has been a key factor in stopping the capture of isolated settlements by guerillas, and in keeping small friendly units from being overrun by larger Vietcong forces.

          Bombing by B-52 bombers, the most massive use of firepower in any guerillq war, has been a key US tactic because it deprives the Vietcong of its mountain and jungle sanctuaries.

          Guerilla armies traditionally have operated from a sanctuary in rough country where safe from attack and  could rest, train new troops, prepare their operations and treat their wounded.

          The B-52 raids have knocked out many of the large tunnel complexes in mountains and junges which served as major Viet Cong and Vietminh bases.

          Air supply also has been important in Vietnam. Daily movement of tons of food, ammunition, and fuel is needed to support helicopter-borne troops, and this supply movement is provided mostly by fixed-wing transports. These military air transports also provide what amounts to a scheduled airline service between the major towns of South Vietnams, carrying both and freight war’s 

(including postal, that is way every Vietnam covers were Airmails-auth) .

          The vital role of airpower is Vietnam is best illustrated by contrasting the US position in the late 1960’s with that of the french in the early 1950’s because  the French army had mobility and firepower as same as the guerilla vietminh, they don’t use aircraft helicopters. (very rare airmail potally covers during Vietminh war 1952-1955 aut)

          Most dramatic and important innovation of the Vietnamese war (Vietcong war-auth.) is the mass employment of helicopterss. For the US and South Vietnamese infantry , is often is called the “helicopter war”, for helicopters carry him into battle, provide part of his fire support, usually allmof his resuplly of ammunition and food, and then vacuare him in case he is wounded or when the operation is over.

          More than ten years (situation in 1968 when the information had written-auth),   were required to bring airmobile, helicopter-army from concept to reality.

          A small group of Army Generals, of which Lt.Gen. Hamilton H.Howze was one of the most persistent, fought for the new idea and by 1956 brought about the formation of experimental helicopter (air-cavalary) units at Fort Benning, Georgia technology strongly to the aid of this new concept in form of the long-range, reliable turbine-powered helicopter which appeared in the early 1960’s

 

 

 

 

_____________________________

b. Diem regime war collections.

_________________________________

 

__________________________________

a.)Diem vs Vietcong in 1957

__________________________________

cathedral saigon in 1957 no maria statue

1) Jan 1957

    

(1)Soviet Union, favoring a permanent division of the country , proposes that North and South Vietnam be admitted to United nations as separate states .(D)

 

(2)The Vietcong (South Vietnamese communist) began to organized at countryside in this year.

 

(3)January.2nd 1957

 The receipt of Car service station “  Nhanh do phu tung Ford-Cholon” 1800$00 and the earliest used the bigger Vietnam Cong-Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 and 0$60.

(The early republic of Vietnam -vietnam Cong Hua Con niem/revenue – was the histroric proof that  the  transition period between the Franch power to  Nationalist power in South Vietnam  had finish and thenationalist characters were begun –auth)

 

2) February 1957

 University Of Saigon 1957

  The University of Saigon 1957

(1)February.16th 1957

The earliest used of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 40 cents, on the receipt of car station”Ford” saigon, paid 147$64, RATE REVENUE 40 CENT.

3)March 1957

(1)March, 11th 1957

 – Procession of elephants in the Trung Sisters’s Parade in Saigon, 1957

The original photo of vietnamese lady  at Long Hai.

(2)March,19th 1957

The rare Etat du Vietnam Quc-Gia Con Niem revenue 30 cents on the receipt of car statin”Ford” Saigon, paid 93$- ,revenue rate 0$20,

(Because the 20 cent revenue didn’t exist because too many used as the  postal ‘s porto ,  prevent against the law,  they used 30 cent.  DUE TO THIS SITUATION, the fiscal authoritiest must issued the emergency overprint 0$20 revenue to prevent the people paid more than the law order, look at another collection with that emergency revenue. -auth)

4) April 1957

 

     (1) April, 27 1957

     The Vo Giay Ban Nha  certificate, with Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes Regional 10$00 revenue, the complete document :

_____________________________________________________

(Chong) Toi ten la’ Do-van –Pho , so’ Kiem tra N.1706.A0053 cap tai Quan sau Ngay 13 thang 7 nam 1955.

 

(Vo) Toi ten la Nguyen le Nguyen-thi-kiem lan the kiem tra so 090069. 20 B .003751 cap tai quan Co Vap ngay 18 tahang 5 nam 1955,

 

        Vu  Chong toi ky ten duoi da’y , dong y’ ba’ng lo’ng

Ba’n cho o’ng Tran van-Rue, so keim tra 1703-31-A006414

Mocan nha so 509.8 duong truong Minh Giang noi dai cat tre dat chua cu Tay. Vo chong toi hien ngu tai so nha 183.A duong Yen-ro. Vo chong toi ky ten duoi day co nhan du so tien cua ong Tran-can-Ruo la’ 19.500$00 (MUOI CHIN NGAN TRAN DONG BAC)  de’ ban mot can nha so’ 309.B. Hai ben vach xay gach  va ngang la 3m/2 Be dai la 8 m thuoc ve quyen so huu cua ong Tran-van-ruo so tra du so tien mua can nha 309.B. cho chung toi roi. Khoi su ngay lam to giay nay. Tran –van-Ruo lam chu thiet tho gian nha noi tren, va pha tra tien dat, cho chu dat tuy theo ngieu 1 t  can nha so 30 ma tu tro di khong con quyen so huu cua chang toi moi.

        Hung toi bang long ban gian nha so 309.B. cho

        Tran van Ruo nan san nay co ad lam  ai tro ngai co o

Tran van Ruo thi chung toi xin chiu hoan toan trach nhie.

 

            Lam tai saigon ngay 29 thang 4 nam 1957               

Ong Do-van-pho                   Ba nguyen thi-kim

 

           Ban nay lap thanh hai ban, ban chanh ong Tran-Ruo giu de lam bang, con ben phu thi ong Do-van-Pho va ba Nguyen-thi –kim-lan giu.

 

                                                        On Tran-van-Ruo

 

Thi nhen chu ky ten tren tuy ta cuc

O’ So Van Pho cap

Nguyen thi Kim Lan

Saigon nge 30 thang 4 nam 1957

Truong Saigon-Cholon

Vuong-quan Nha

Blue double circle stampedVIET-NAM CONG-HOA* DO THAN S.C. TRUONG QUAN-RA*”

_______________________________________________________

 (THE LATEST SAIGON-CHOLON TAX REGIONALES REVENUE-AUTH)

5) May 1957

 

(1)May.7th 1957

 

May 7, 1957 – President Ngo Dinh Diem of South Vietnam, on a state visit to the United States, views San Francisco from a sighseeing boat passing beneath the San Francisco-Oakland Bay Bridge. With him are Lt. Gen. John w. O’Daniel (ret.), left, chairman of the American Friends for Vietnam, and Robert Blum, head of the Asia Foundation.

The receipt from Rayon pieces Detachees (nganh do phu tung) ford Sai Gon ,Car repaired 1978$.

  Very rare revenue “Vietnam overprint   0$20” with 3x 0$40  Vietnam Conghoa CON NIEM (THE EARLIEST USED),red ”PAYE” stamped

 

(2)May.8 th.1957

 

(a)The rare Etat du Viet-Nam Quc Gia Con Niem 2 piastres, on the receipt f car statin service “Ford” saigon for paid 994$00, with ravenue rate 2$00.

(The latest used the old franch currency piastres, and etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia very short time, and change to Vietnam Thue To and then Vieetnam Conghoa-auth)

(b) The Vuon-Gia-Can’s Pilot Identity card, signed at Saigon, in the back authetication violet double circle stamped “VIET-NAM CONG-HOA * DO-THANH S.C. QUAN-BA*”, on Yellow Saigon Cholon Taxes regional 10$00 revenue,the complete documen :

_____________________________________

 

ECOLE VUONG-GIA-CAN

 216,Ru Dixmunde-Saigon

     46,Legrand de la Liraye-DAKAO

_____________________________________________________________

 

Certifie l’Authenticitie                  CARTE D’IDENTITE

   de la signature de            le Directeur de L’Ecole VUONG-         PHOTO

Monsieur VUONG-GIA-CAN   GIA-CAN soussigne pertifie

Opposee ci-controle               que le nomme Nguyen tu Sai

Saigon le 21.5.1957                   No M1e 157 ne le 3 Aout 1940

          Stamped                           a’ tan an Vinh Long

Tun Authentic Saigon-Cholon  fils d M,Nguyen van Tri

TRUONG QUAN-BA                     et de Mme Nguyen ngoc Hoa

                                                       Profession  pilote

SIGNED & VIOLET               domicile 30 Bui cheu Saigon  

DOUBLE RING CIRCLE STAMPED est bien eleve du ditetablisment.

“Vietnam Cong Hoa*Do thanh         Saigon, le 8-Mai 1957

S.C. TRUONG QUAN BA*”                           Le Directeur

Signed & Red double circle  stamped

“ VUONG-GIA-CAN * TRUONG –HOC-

TU-THUO* 46 PHAN-THANH-GIAN.

________________________________________________________________

( very rare Pilot ID with the bad official printed revenue,  but because the situation still used .

Later in 1960 the design still used but change from S.C or Saigon-Cholon province to Do-Thanh Saigon ,the new province’s name after assasination Diem.  Taxes regional ,Franch style  was changed to the vietnamese with same meaning   “Niem thue “ .

Due to the bad quality , on the  revenue were surcharged with the year from 1960 -1975 ,except 1963 not yet found-auth) 

(3)May.18th 1957

     Diem arrives in U.S. for ten day visit . President Eisenhower reaffirms support for his regime.(D) and Ngo Dinh Diem waves to New York lunchtime crowd as a parade in his honor proceeds up Broadway. Very few Americans could have then found Vietnam on a map (P)

 

6)June 1957

 

(1)June.7th 1957

     The First Covers of  Stamps” Tem Tho Cau Nguyen “stamps design native army with elephants, CDS Saigon June 7th 1957 found in Indonesia

(After Afro Asia conference in Bandung 1955, many South Vietnam stamps and first day covers send to Indonesia, auth)

 

(2)June,18th 1957

The reciept from Saigon Rayon detachee Ford for car repaired 124$40 with revenue 2x Overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia revenue

 (very rare strip two overprint revenue of Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia ,the transition between Bodia to Ngo dien diem authority-auth)

  

(3)June.8th 1957

The Reciept of Service station Vespa-Ford Saigon , 928$00 with added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem 3 x 0$60 ,rate 1$80

(The earliest  Diem’s revenue of Vietnam Conghoa or the Republic of Vietnam in trhe South ex Cochin Chine -auth).

 

(4)June.18th 1957

The rare combination revenue Vietnam Thue Con Niem 3$(without 00) with emergency overprint 0$20  Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia Con Niem 80 cent.on the receipt of car Service station “Ford” saigon , paid 1561$00 added revenue 3$20.

 (The Serial Reciept with revenue of the Car service station “Ford” Saigon with various type revenue, were the best collection for show –auth)

 

(5)June.21th 1957

The reciept from Rayon Detachee Ford for repiared car, 2.075$20, revenue etat du vietnam Quoc-Gia overprint 0$20 and 5 x new type brown Viet-nam revenue 80 cent (rate 4$20) .(rare transition revenue, the vietnam revenue used very short times -auth).

 

 

 

 

7) July 1957

 

(1) July.16th 1957

The Reciept of Bo Thanh Saigon ,Ty Tai Chanh vung Saigon for 22$10 for Gia moi thuoc khoi,Tien muon thuy luong ke & Tien tu-bo dan nuoc ,thue truong Ba. With overprint 0$20 Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia revenue

(rare revenue, I have only three that kind revenue on complete docu-ment,best variation rate, this the best transition  revenue during the earliest of liberation war-Diem era, I hope one day will put on show in USA and Saigon- auth)  

 

(2)July.12th 1957

The Receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon 2108$00 added Bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 8 x 0$60(rate 4$80) ,

( rare eight revenue, strip of five and three revenue 0$60.-auth)

(3)July.17th.1957

The Receipt of Car service Station Ford Saigon 538$00, added 3 x 0$40 (rate 1$20) bigger type Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue.

 

(4)July.12th 1957

The rare combination common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80 with rare emergency overprint 0$20 on Etat du Vietnam Quoc Gia con niem revenue 80  cent. On the receipt of car servive station for Saigon  470$00, rate revenue 1$00.-

(rare the Quoc Gia revenue 1$00 that time-auth)

 

(5)July.26th 1957

The very rare combination emergency overprint 0$20 Quoc-Gia Etat du vietnam revenue  with 3 x 0$80  Vietnam thue Con Niem revenue 80 cents (rate 2$60), on the receipt of car repaired station “ford” saigon ,for paid 1.220$20.

(unusual revenue rate and cmbination rare type revenue, best collection for show , the late used of vietnam Thue Con Niem sea-fauna type revenue -auth)

(6)July ,30th 1957

The receipt of car&motorbike  service station Vespa&Ford Saigon , Ringlauer cable complete, 87$00, added very rare emergency revenue “ Overprint Etat du Vietnam Quoc-Gia con niem black 0$20 on 0$80 this time difficult to found revenue Etat du Vietnam Quc Gia 0$20”

 

 

August 1957

(1)August.27th 1957

The receipt of Car Service of Ngahn du Phu tung Ford Saigon , 2981$00 added Revenue Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00.

 

(The serial reciept with complete nominal value revenue in 1957 until 1959 will showed us the transition period  including the emergencies overprint revenue were best collection to show  look at that varition revenue-auth)

9)September 1957

Colombo plan conference at Saigon

excellence of government officials in France
at that time, can be seen in this picture taken
in 1957 in Saigon, where  the Colombo Plan
Conference negotiations were held.

 
 
Two more nice pictures, from books by French DS specialist Fabien Sabatès.
On the left, “one of the first DS arrived in Saigon, in 1957″, in “La DS, objet de culte”.

On the right, “the first DS in Saigon, Sept. 1957″, in “Le Guide DS19“.

(1)September.20th 1957

The rare combination between common bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa coniem revenue 0$40 with rare Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue 2 Piastres , on the receipt or car servive statin “Ford” cholon, 1138$ , revenue rate 2$40.

(still used Piastres revenue-at transition period -auth)

 

(2)September.19th 1957

The unusual nominal value of revenue only  2$ without 00 (the right must 2$00) Vietnam Thue Con Niem revenue on the reciept of car station service “Ford” saigon 1012$00, rate revenue 2$00.

(Unusual print without 00 after 2$, only  2$ , the right was 2$00, before another type 3 piastres -auth)

(3)September.26th 1957

The Contant Receipt of Societe Indochinoise De Transport  for car service SIT Saigon &SIT Phon Phenh  “Bobine Lucas 12v-237706” 328$00 with bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 0$80

(The Indochine old form still used-auth)

 

10) October 1957

(1)October 1957

Communist insurgent activity in South Vietnam begins in accordance with decision reched in Hanoi to organized  thirty seven armed companies in Mekong delta.

During the year guerrillas assassinated more than four hundred minor South Vietnamese official.(D)

(2) , The South Vietnam Communist, The Vietcong , began organising  in the countryside, planning the assasination on Diem ‘s village headmen and official,

 

(3) The photo of Diem in the front of Saigon Bishop and another officials, he sat at law chair (TT Diem tam Cao nguyen Trung phan 1957) (P)

11)November 1957


 
 
 
Saigon River enroute Saigon, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Main deck, port side on the Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Roman Catholic cathedral, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Shoppers on a street in Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Shoppers on a street in Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Shoppers in Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
LT John McAuliffe on Rochester, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Fishing boats, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Jungle alongside Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Water ballet at Le Circle Sportif, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Arrival party at dockside, Saigon, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Tug boats and Admiral’s Barge, entering Saigon, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Sailboats on the Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Passing SS President Taylor, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Sailors on deck (note Riddle, C.M.), Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Anchor detail and gawkers, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
LTjg Edmond P. Willis and crew members, Saigon River, 25 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Fountain and vendor stalls, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Presidential Palace, Saigon, with a portrait of Pres. Ngo Dinh Diem, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Water ballet and oglers, Le Circle Sportif, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957
 

 
 
 
Water ballet and oglers, Le Circle Sportif, Saigon, 26 Nov 1957

12)December 1957

________________________________

 b)Diem AVRN vs VIETCONG GUERILLA’S in 1958

_____________________________

1) January 1958

 

(1)Diem in 1958

 Diem’s authoritarian rule, his ruthlesness and his corruption aroused opposition not only among pheasant bu among all those groups excluded from power and from a share .

2) February 1958

(1)February,7th 1958

The receipt of Car service station Ford Saigon, 1667$00, added Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 3$00 + 0$60.(rate 3$60)

3) -4) 1958

     No info

5) May 1958

(1)May.8th.1958

The receipt of Indochine electric company 61$20 with Vietnam Cong Hoa common bigger type 0$20. the form write in Franch langueges.

6) June 1958

(1)Vietcong form a coordinated command structure in eastren Mekong delta .

7) July 1958

(1)July.31th 1958

The receipt of Car Service station Ford Saigon , 800$00 with Bigger Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem revenue 2 x 0$80 (rate 1$20)

August 1958

(1)August.15th 1958

The Military certificate, “ Quan-Doi Vietnam Cong Hoa” De Tam Quan-Khu. “CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN-MON SO 1 Bo-Binh” (Quan/Military certificate/Chung Chi), the complete certificate with armed walfare illustrations. :

_____________________________________

Hoi-Dong Giam Khao ky thi man khoa lai T.T.H.L/SDKC 14 ta ngay 23 thang 6 nam 1958 den 28 thang 6 nam 1958  .

          Chung nhan Binh nat TRAN-VAN-KHIET  so quan 400.052

Ta trung tuyen ky thi CHUNG-CHI NANG-LUC CHUYEN MON S 1/BO-BINH.

          Voi diem trung binh chung 13,23/20 . thung hang 43/71 .

Chuyen mon   :         Bo-Binh

 

Lam Tai KBC 4.061, ngay 15-8-1958

             Chan cu kao

Thieu-Ta Nguyen –Luong-Khuong

 

KBC 4.098 ngay 25/9/1958

Trung –Ta Bui-Huu-Nhon

Q Tu Linh-Do Tam Quan-khu

                             Signed&stamped.

____________________________________________________________________

(the interesting for South Vietnam military document ‘s showed  with the picture of  green black military action around the certificate, sign at KBC 4061(?) and 4098(?) not list in IMNAHA KBC number please comment the complete area from KBC 4027 – Dalat National Military academy to KBC-4100 Thu Duc infantry school.

This was the trung tham certificate? Change thingking? Because only 12 days training,what kind of training and where the location -auth)

9) September 1958

(1) September.27th 1958

Tet Nhi Dong Saigon (Tet New Year Holiday) covers with the tet Stamps and special first day postal stamped In this day 20 years laters Vietcong suprise  attack (PH)

10)-11) 1958 no info

12) December 1958

(1)  by 1958 almost all the residual insurgent had been wiped out.(P)

 

_____________________________________

c) Diem ARVN vs Vietcong  in 1959

________________________________

SAIGON 1959 Postcard Flower Market Tandinh Street Scene

Vintage Old Multiview Colour Hand Tinted Postcard. French Indo-China Indochina, Vietnam. Souvenir de Saigon. Marche aux fleurs, Marchand ambulant de ballons, Le Marche de Tandinh, Bd Kitchner vers Cauonglanh. Little Boy with Balloons. Native Street Scene. Postally Used with Viet-Nam Cong-Hoa stamp 6d Chinh.Publisher: P-C Paris Cliche des Editions P.C.
Series No: 118
Faults: Minor crease at top & bottom right tip
Sent from: Saigon
Addressed to: Brighton Sussex
Stamp: 6d
Condition: UsedSAIGON 1959 Postcard Flower Market Tandinh Street Scene

:

 
 

1) January 1959

(1) Murderer of Gouvernment official by Vietcong 1200 per years.(D)

(2)Since 1959, the best Vietnam phillatelic collector Nguyen Bao Tung was a member of South Vietnam’s council for planning new stamps design and secretary General of the Vietnamese-American Association Stamp Club in Vietnam

( please Mr Tung or his native Vietnam phillatelic ‘s friend help me with more comment and information-auth)

  

     (3) The original vintage photo Vietnamese army (AVRN) wiyh his sister (4 womens) , in the back of photo written “ Ky niem Hoi con tic 1959 Bihuy.”

2) February 1959

(1)February ,18th 1959

The picture postcard of Nha Trang beach ‘Cha”ng ca’nh , Dai ta’nh” postally used (stamp off) CDS NHA TRA(NG) , 18.(2).1959 TO Cholon.

    _____________________________

Nha Trang 14.2.59      cds Nha trang            

Cordial souvenuer                      18.2.1959

Nuedley vocine                   Nguyen Ba Luon

Pour l’annee                         Profeneur

      Ky’ Hoi                                E’cole Francaise de              

                                                        CHOLON

__________________________________

                 

(2)February .6th 1959

The rare reciept of Police D’Abonnement Au Compteur, appreil instalattion than-chan ,Trinh , money 9114$63, with the rare highest nominal value bigger type green Vietnam Cong Hoa Con Niem(revenue) 10$00.

(This revenue document very find condition  and very rare the Police ambonnement of Compteur, for high price installation nine thousand $ , and high nominal 10$00 revenue- the show piece collection-auth)

3) March 1959

(1)   March,1st. 1959

     BINH CHUNG  RA-DA.  Don Vi Anh Hung Luc Lu’o’ng. Vu Trang Nhan Dan (D)

     (2) March,3rd 1959

The HOC CHI of Truong Trung Hoc Tu Thuc Cong-Hoa, 139 ,Duong Pasteur saigon. DE Tu Nhien Khoa 1958-1959.

Signed by Hieu Truong Phan van Van with rede doublke circle official stamped.,

Autheticated  with  regional Cholon-Saigon taxes regional 10$00 yellow revenue. By T.U.N. Do Truong Saigon,Truong Quan cuan Na with official stamped “ Vietnam Cong-Hua* D0-Thanh S.C. Truong Chan Ba.*”

 

(The lattest used of the regional revenue, after this  regional revenue will ovrprinted with year from 1960 to 1975 except 1963, the best serial regional revenue and best for showed-auth)

 

     (3) March 14th 1959

          The stamps of Trung sister on Elephant were issued in this day, the  6 pi uncommon in mint no hings condition.

(The Vietnam hero’s  Trung sister  very popular but the Lady Trieu didn’t issued because the people hate Madame Ngu because she said  that she was the reincarnation of Lady Trieu and she made the statue which broken out after the Diem regime fall, read the chapter I  Ancient Vietnam War, -auth)

MARCH,17th.1959

THE ID OF WILLIAM COLBY IN VIETNAM

 Saigon, Vietnam; March 17, 1959

4) April 1959 no info

5) May 1959

(1) North Vietnam forms Group 559, to begin infiltrating cadres and weapons into Southy Vietnam via the Saigon Trail.(D)

 

6) no info

7) July 1959

(1) July 1959

Group 759 organized by Vietminh to suplies to the south by sea.(D)

july,7th.1959

 
photo

 

(2)July,12th. 1959

        The Dalat” Chuc Pongouh” water-fall vintage picture postcard send from Dalat in French char. In the back in franch:

___________________________________________

                                                                   Dalat le 12.7.50

Monsieur Triat,

 

Alur tres …ne nouvelle a vous

aunoncre, j’ai trouv …..juine (JUNE) fille pour vous et j.

..re, quu’elte vous flavia.Je vous la prisenter , Ju mon retour.Si Vous e les presse, regadez en attenolant la

photo qua Germaine Vous a envorjee.Je cois qu ‘slle yest de dana (Danang)  .

         

#Bientiet et Bon counage.                   Signed

 

______________________________________________________

(Please somone translate this latter ,thanks,auth)

(3)July,15th. 1959

     To Khai Gia Dinh ‘s Bo Thanh Saigon ‘s document from Canh Sat Cuoc Quan ,Khu 7

signed by Gia-truong dung Khai ,ky ten and Kien-thj , le canh sai truong with red double circle Sat quoc quan with bamboo / flora disign.(OD)

 

(4) July 24th 1959

Ban Xa-Hoi Quan Tan-Binh

AU-TRI-VIEN PHU-NHUAN B.N. 10$

Nha Lanh cua Bo Dinh thi Nam SO BAC LA : Mui dtong bac :

____________________________________

Giup vao Quy Au-Tri Vien phunun.

Tan Binh,26.6.1959

T.U.N BAN CHA’P HANH XA HOI

Chu Tieh signed Nguyen –Thi-Lieng

Red Stamped BAN XA-HOI  Tinh Gia-dinh

Quan Tan-Binh.

______________________________

 (What the meaning : “Au-Tri-vien”? auth)

August 1959

 

   (1) August,1st,1959

   The red “The’  Cu’ Tri (election?) Card” in vietnamese language , 1.8.1959 :

 

 

 

       _____________________________________________

                        THE’ CU’ – TRI

          BAU CU’ QUO’C HO’I NAM 1959

                        No. 0634621 A/IX

 

    Ho’ Te’n   Nguyen Thi Thuan

    Ngay sinh va sinh :  29 tuoi

    Dia-chi  9 –B- Be’n Nguyen Duy

    The’ co’n cuo’c so’  B .003.539 nga’y………ca’p toi…..

    Cha ‘ ky’ cu’a       Zua’n Ta’m     ngay  1 Thang 8 na’m 1959

     Nguo co the                                     Chu’ ky’ va’ da’u cu’n

                                                               Nha chue’ tra’ch ca’p tha’i

 

                                                                        Handsigned

  CHU’ Y’ .Ai du”ng the’ cu-tri cu’a ngu’o’i khac’ hoa’c dua the’ cu’-tri cua

                    Minh cho ke’ kha’c du’ng de’u bi truy-tp’ theo hinh-tua’t.

_________________________________________________________________________  

August,7th.1959

 
photo

9) no info

10) October 1959

(1)Notre Dam Basilica (Saigon)

This church up to the Basilica in 1959 during 300 years Saigon Bishop (D- in the front of Basilica no Marie Madona statue) and private photo of the Basilica (OP- i964, there were Madona-Marie statue, may be made after Diem assasination)

When my visit in 2007, in the front of this Basilica I saw the Madonna statue  and  I have prayed at the front of that statue : “Please help me to get the best vietnam war postal history” and when I turned to the right I saw the small native stamps shops where some Vietcong postal history were found-there, difficult to seek the stamps shop in saigon because everybody did.t understand where the antique or phillatelic shop, you must told them Buu chin shop, also the Stamp catalogues.

In my last visit july 2009, I have went  by foot, walking from Phi Vu Hotel Nguyen Trai street , through the street in the front of the Hotel two block –to the right I came to the Back of the Market at front of Saigon Bus station, the to the right two block came to Ho Chi Minh City Museum where show the Vietnam War weapon, helicopter, jet and tank, granat,gun, archive ,photo and document of Vietnam Liberation war including Vietcong collections, but not the revenue and pstal history, also traditional wedding ceremony, and the Vietnam cultural ethnic collection and Saigon history, then   turn to the right found Pasteur street(Duong),

More two block turn left I have seen the Basilica, seen inside , many brides have made the antique photo, a Chinese Oldman help me to take photo of myself , in the front Mary statue at the front of Basilica,  

At left side of the basilica,  I met The Antique Saigon post office where I made two CTO cover, one for my friend Adi Darma with the 2006 sheet stamps chinese shio, and for my collection Ho Chi Minh stamps block four, but very pity I cann’t find the Stamp shop anymore after asking many persons because I still have the name card, after that by bus I go to Saigon bus station and met my friend in the front of that bus station and her husband bring me to her house at Chilon by motorbike, where I found complete revenue , postal and document history’s collections to add what I have found yesterday -auth)  

 

11) November 1959

 

(1) November,28th 1959

The  official first day postcard of first anniversary Republic du Tchad ,first day CDS “Premier Emission”, and the picture of flag blue-white-red, very pity the stamp was taken off.

 This unused postcard issue by “ Aevres sciales, office Equatorial des Postes et Telecommunication. (please told me what kind of stamps, vietnam or Franch stamps? –auth)

(2)Ecole Lamartine L.M.C. Billet D’Inscription Card.

 Aunee Seolaire 1959-1960.

Nom  : Vo Thi Thao

Classe:  10 eiue A

Venant de 11.

12)December 1959

    

(1)Soon after consolidating its power in saigon, the diem regime embarked on a massive campaign to liquidate in South Vietnam.

Many were imprisoned in reeducation Camp “TRUONG TAM “ or Center to Change thought.

(IMNAHA report postally used cover from Truong Tam, look at July,10th 1967-auth)

(3)    December,12th 1959

The traffic accident of two car  NCC 578 and NBO 096  report with the road map of accident’s situation, for repaired.

(If someone will translate the document, the complete document will showed in the blog, very rare accident that time  because not many cars in Saigon-auth)

______________________________

The Diem South Vietnam war 1960-1961

 

 

 
photo

saigon 1960′

Vietnam War (contd-5)

 

 

 

Insurgency in the South, 1956-1960

 

 

The Sino-Soviet split led to a reduction in the influence of the PRC, which had insisted in 1954 that the Viet Minh should accept a division of the country.

 

 

 

Truong Chinh, North Vietnam’s pro-PRC party first secretary, was demoted and Hanoi authorised communists in South Vietnam to begin a low level insurgency in Dec 1956. This insurgency in the south had begun in response to Diem’s Denunciation of Communists campaign, in which thousands of local Viet Minh cadres and supporters had been executed or sent to concentration camps, and was in violation of the Northern Communist party line which had instructed them not to start an insurrection,  but rather engage in a political campaign, agitating for a free all-Vietnam election in accordance with the Geneva accord.

Ho Chi Minh advised, “Do not engage in military  operations, that will lead to defeat. Do not take land from the peasant. Emphasize nationalism rather than communism. Do not antagonise any one if you can avoid it  Be selective in your violence . If an assassination is necessary, use a knife, not a rifle or a grenede. It is easy to kill innocents with guns and bombs, and accidental killing of the of the innocent bystanders will allienate peasants from the revolution. Once an assassination has taken place, make sure peasants know why the killing occurred “. This strategy was referred to as “armed propaganda”.     

1960

October 1960

 

October 28, 1960 – The fifth anniversary of the Republic of South Vietnam is celebrated with a military parade on Thong Nhut Boulevard in Saigon.

 

June 1961 – South Vietnamese militiamen, automatic weapons in hand, stand guard in My Quai, a village about 75 miles southwest of Saigon in an area threatened by guerilla forces.

 

February 26, 1962 – The palace in Saigon is hit by an isolated attack by two members of the South Vietnamese air force. President Ngo Dinh Diem was unhurt.

 

October 1962 – U.S. advisor trains Vietnamese troops in the use of a flame thrower.1961

Tu Do Nightclub – Vũ trường Tự Do, góc Tự Do – Thái Lập Thành
www.flickr.com/photos/13476480@N07/5203227465/in/set-7215…

  • banner appealing the whole people to vote in the Presidential Election – “Tòan dân tham gia bầu cử Tổng Thống – Đi đông hào hứng, bầu đúng cử xứng”
photo

Saigon 1961 – Tu Do Street

Lính gác trên đường Tự Do gần phía trước trụ sở Quốc Hội vào dịp bầu cử Tổng Thống 1961 – Soldiers on guard duty on Tu Do street near the National Assembly building during the 1961 Presidential Election in South Vietnam.

 
photo

Saigon 1961 – General Le Van Ty

Đại tướng Lê Văn Tỵ, Tổng Tham Mưu trưởng Quân đội VNCH

 

 

  1. .Trung tướng Lê Văn Tỵ, giữ chức vụ Tổng Tham mưu trưởng Quân lực Việt Nam Cộng Hòa từ tháng 10 năm 1955 đến tháng 7 năm 1963.

    5-1955 Indo Chinese General Le Van Ty smiling after the arrest of a traitor.

    May 1955 – General Nguyen Van Vy being held at gun point by politician Nhị Lang after the latter attempted to take over the army:

1962

 

47 people were killed at Saigon, in 1962

November 1962

.

a. HISTORICAL BACKGROUND

December’

 

Similar greetings were sent in 1962 from ARVN Brigadier General Van Thanh Cao and his wife to Major Giertsen of the Strategic Hamlets Division. The card was sent postage free via APO 143.

 

 

f). The  crisis escalation 1963 

(Monk burn himself , Student protest and Diem assasination )

________________________________

1) January 1963

(1)Vietcong units defeat South Vietnamese at the battle of Ap Bac .(D)

 

2) February no info

 

3) March 1963

 

     (1) March, 6th.1963

     The very rare Do Than Saigon THE’ CU’-TRI  (election?) card  with  stamped red squared box D.V.16 – cross and  D.V. 19.  signed by Cap tai Saigon , print 16.9.1964 , change with red ink written 6.3.1963. signe by Quan-Truang Quan 8 , Cao Ming Chung with red double circle official stamped of TOA KAHN CHAN QUAN THAY-VIETNAM CONG HUA  D0-THAN SAIGON.

( Why the date of the’ cu’ Tri change from 1964 to 1963, may be the worst situation in 1963 and what the meaning of Stamped D.V. 16 and 19. may be military  areal code,please comment-auth)

 

 

                        VIET NAM CONG HOA

                             DO THENH SAIGON

                                                                                                  __________

                                         THE CU – TRI           : D.V. 19 :

                       So 0735593                             

          Ho te’n       LAM VAN HUE’

       Ngay va noi sinh  1928 Cho Lon

          Nai cu-tri  9 B Nguyen deuy R 11 ky 14

          The’ ca’n cua’c so”   050977    cap tai quan    ngai 1960

 

          Chu ky cua cu-tri     Cap tai Saigon ngay 6 thanh 3 nam 1963  

                                    Quan-Truong Quo’n    8

 

                                                                             CHAU MINH CHUNG

 

                             Chu Y” : 1. The nay duoc cap hoan Toan mien phi

                                                        2. Xin gia the de Quan Trong cac quoc

                                                             Bau cu khac.

                                                        3.Ai dung cu tri cua nguot khac hooc

                                                            Dua the cu-tri cua minh cho ngua khac

                                                            Cung co bi truy to theobhinh tuoi.

             

 

4) no info

 

5) May 1963

 

(1)  May,8th.1963

South Vietnamese troops and police shoot at Buddhist demonstrators in Hue. (D)

6) June 1963

(1)Crisis intensifies as Buddhist monk commits suicide by self –immolation.

A Budihst monk burns himself to death in Saigon in this day ,as a protest against the South Vietnamese governnment ‘s mistreatment of Budhist.

 This suicide , the first of several by Budhist militans as Tri Quang, after that  a Buddhists Monk displayed pheno-menal skill in Mobilizationn south Vietnam ‘s Buddhist to protest against the Diem regime.

 He and  other monks stage a sit down strike on a street in Saigon , then sparked widespread demonstrations against the Govern-ment. Two kind of photo’s angle self immolations, first form the left side and second from the right , also the photo of  Tri Quang sitdown strike  (D & P)

 

7) July 1963

 

(1)  July,1st.1963

 

July 1, 1963 – South Vietnam’s President Ngo Dinh Diem reviews honor troops in Saigon, marking his first appearance in public since the crisis between Diem, a Roman Catholic, and the Buddhists.(2)July,4th. 1963

      CIA agent, informs from South Vietnam General Tran Van Don, officers are plotting against Diem.(D)

     (2) July,7th 1963

     The Vietnamese Emblem and armor defend stamps issued in this day.

 

(3) August 1963

 

(a)August 1963 – Policeman breaks up an advertisement for a beauty parlor because it violates laws for a ‘healthier society.’ Fancy hairdos and seductive smiles were outlawed in ads and other public displays.

 (b)August 5, 1963 – A severely wounded South Vietnamese soldier is comforted in a sugarcane field near Duc Hoa, 12 miles west of Saigon after a Viet Cong ambush. The one-day operation involved about 3,000 troops in tanks, armored river craft, and on foot..

    

(c) Vietnam Special force cordon off the Saigon Market because of student demonstration (P)

(d)Dean of the school of Science and Paedagogy at the center trying to calm student holding a protest demonstration against the repressive measures of the Diem government (photo)

         

(e)Students at the School of Sciences and Paedagogy holding a protest demonstration against the Diem goverment(photo)

                  

(f) Tam Pham Bieu , Dean of the school of Medicine at the University of Saigon, speaking to Students after his arrest by the Diem Government.(photo)

                   

(g) Military Governor of Saigon-Cholon (Gia Dinh) province holding a press conference at the city hall to defend the Diem government’s position during the period of martial law two. Look at the Governor’s photo (D&P)

                  

(h) Anti-Diem goverment demonstration by the student at the University of Saigon School of Sciences and Paedagogy(P)

                  

(i) Demonstration by high school students against Diem Goverment at the Saigon city street (Truong vo Truong Toan, canh ben Truong Trung Vuong, gan so Thu Saigon-P)

(j)August 9th 1963     

(a1)US secretary of Defense Robert S. McNamara visit Saigon , look the photo , he sat behind ARVN Brig.General Do Cao Tri (photo)

         

(b1)General Maxwell D.Taylor also visit South Vietnam and he had made a tour of Inspection with ARVN General Van Minh Duoang, look at his photo when gave military salute (photo)

                   

(c1)The photo of the South Vietnam presidential family , their put the native traditional gown , at left Diem (P)

 

(d1) Madame Dinh Nhu Ngo , ex first lady during Diem regime, waving from the stairs of an airoplane  to went abroad before His husband and her brother in law Ngo Dinh Diem assasination.(photo)

 

(e1) During the period of martial law, Military Governor Ge. Ton That Dinh and General Nguyen van La holding a confrence to defend the Diem Goverment’s position, look at their Photo (D&P)

 

(f1) In this day, Phu Lam SG Budhist monk arrested by Diem regime, being held in guarded compound at Phu Lam (Photo)

 

(g1) The Photo of Rome Italy- Arch-bishop Ngo Dinh Thuc , was taken in this day (P)

 

(h1)The photo of official meeting in Saigon this day, ARVN General Nguyen Dinh Thuan defend the Diem position to the US Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge jr and US secretary of defense  Robert S. McNamara.(P)

         

(i1)  Unidentificated Dean of the School of Sciences and paedagogy attempting to persuaden the security Police of The Diem government no to arrest the student demonstrator (P), but The Student still being taken away in trucks by them(P)

(3)  August,21th 1963

     Ngo Dinh Nu’s forces attack Buddhist temples.(D)

(4) August,22th 1963

Washington recommends tha Nhu be removed; also suggest American support for mutinous generals against Diem.(D)

 

9) September 1963

 

(1) September,2nd 1963

     Kennedy criticized Diem in a television interview.(D)

         

(2) Pres.Ngo Dinh Diem’s brother Ngho Ding Nhu and his younger son  with his wife went to europe by aeroplane (Photo at airport)

         

(3) Us Ambassador Henry Cabot Lodge yunior meeting with President of southnVietnam Ngo Dinh Diem (P)

And he talking with Mr Ngo Dinh Nhu at a diplomatic reception (P), he also talking with acting Foreign Minister Truong Cong Cuu at a diplomatic reception.

         

(4) Us Ambassador H.C.Lodge Jr shaking hands with US Army services on the Saigon city street(P) and he with his wife  leaving St Christopher’s Anglican Episcopal congregation Church after services on Sunday.(P)

 

(5)  The formation of the 11th Air Assault Division.  After  the one year prepared concept tested in two month s of continous maneuver against the 82nd Airborne Division.

 The outcome was strongly vin favor of the helicopter-borne forces and the 82nd was defeated as sound-ly as any division ever was its peace-time maneuvers.(D)

 

 

 

          (6) President Diem talking with a delegation of Budhist monks from the Union Committee for the Defense of Pure Buddhism at Gia Long.(P)

 

          (7) Nhu holding press confrence (P)

 

          (8) Police participating in a Diem government sponsored demonstration (P)

         

(9) Police holding back a crows at the An Quang Pagoda as the Buddhist monk are taken away again by the Diem government(P)

 

          (10) Police hauling away high school student who were demon-strating against the Diem goverment (P)

 

          (11)Pictures of the Buddhist monks who burned themselves to death  prior to the anti-Diem Government revolution in the xa-Loi pagoda (P)

         

(12) Dean of the School of Medicine at the University of Saigon being welcomed back by medical student after his arrest by the Diem government (P)

         

(13) Combat Policemen going to student demonstration (P)

         

(14) Buddhist monk tidying up the vestry rooms in the Xa Loi pagoda at its official reopening by permission of the Diem government(P)

 

          (15) September,13th 1963

The photo at Belgrade,Yugoslavia, where Kennedy,s meet Mrs Nhu, accompanied by  Senator Edward(P)

And Senator Edward M.kennedy tals with Mrs Nhu(P)

 

 

 

10) October 1963

(1)October ,10th 1963

Infantrymen move toward the woodline after being airlifted to a landing zone in Xa Ba Phuic during a search and destroy mission (P)

(2)October 1963, 16.000 US troops  sent more to South Vietnam . The Geneva agreement were dead, as the US responded military to increasing Vietcong activity.(D)

     (3) October,16th.1963

 

October 16, 1963 – Armed South Vietnamese marines march past Saigon’s Xa Loi Pagoda, once headquarters of the Buddhist opposition, as the participate in National Day Thanksgiving Service

(4)October,21th 1963

     Mrs Nhu in Whasington DC ( Ba Ngo Dinh Nhu trong buei hop bao tai Washington DC, Hoa Ky)

11) November 1963

(1)November 1st 1963

(a)A photo of Vietcong army(?) in this day, Cac binh si tham gia cuoc dao chanh (please someone translate to find more information-auth)

         

(b)The Photo of Dinh Gia Long (office) , noi TT Ngo Dinh Diem va ong (overthrew ?)

 

(c)in this day, at The photo we saw the  wrecked Presidential Palaced, gutted & ransacked after military coup that overthrew Diem Goverment(P)

  

(d) Mayor General Van Don Tran with other officers and troops celebreting overthrown in this day(P)

         

(e) General Van Minh Duong leader of military coup that overthrew Diem regime , in this day made a press conference (P)

         

(f) The photo of Monks meeting with Military coup after overthrew Diem Regime (P)

         

(g) In this day , Vietnamese dancing again at night club (after forbidden during the Diem regime ) aftrer overthrew of Diem Regime (P)

__________________________________________

(2) November,2nd. 1963

Diem’s regime became increasingly corrupt and authoritarian until Nov. 2, 1963, when he was assassinated in a coup. He was succeeded by General Duong Van Minh, who orchestrated the coup d’etat

( The Diem and Nhu assasination’s day)

____________________________________

(a)Arrest and Assassination of Diem and Nhu.(source:Wikipedia)

Marked the culmination of a successful CIA-backed coup d’etat led by General  Duong Van Minh in november 1963.

On the morning , November,2nd 1963 , Diem and his adviser, young brother Ngo Dinh Nhu, were arrested after the Army of The Republic of Vietnam (ARVN) had been successful in bloody overnight siege on Gia Long Palace in Saigon.

The coup was the culmination of nine years of autocratic and nepotistic family rule in South Vietnam Dis-comfort with the Diem regime had been simmering below the surface, and exploded  with mass Buddhist protest against long standing religious dicrimination after the government shooting of protesters who defed a ban on the flying of the Budhist flag.

When rebel forces entered the palace, the Ngo brothers were not present, as they escaped the night to the loyalist shelter in Cholon.

 

The brothers had kept in communication with the rebels through a direct link from the shelter to the palace, and misled them into believing that they were still in the palace.

The Ngo brothers agreed to surrender and were promised safe exile, after being arrest,  they were instead    executed in the back of an armoured personnel carrier by ARVN officers on the journy back  to military headquaters at Son Nhut Air Base.

While no formal inquiry was conducted, the responbility for the death of the Ngo brothers in the trip. Minh’s  bodygueard, Captain  Nguyen van Nhung, and on Major Duong Hieu Ngia, both of whom guarded the brothers during the trip.

Minh’s army colleagues and US official in Saigon agreed that Minh ordered the executions.

They postulated various motives, including that the brothers embar-rassed Minh by fleeing the Prseidential Palace, and that the brothers were killed to prevent a later political came back.

 The general initially attempted to cover up the execution by suggesting that the brothers had committed suicide, but this was contradicted when photos of the Ngo’bloofied bodies surfaced in the media.

 

(b) The street of Saigon were littered when opponent of Diem broke into the office of a newspaper sympathetic to the Government Diem’s overthrow was greeted with jubilation by the Saigon populace which had hated his harsh rule(P)

 

(c) In the morning of this day, a mutinous South Vietnamese soldier inside  the presidential palace , after Diem and Nhu had fled to a hiding place on the Saigon suburbs (P)

 

(d) The bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel carrier, in which they were murdered by two insurgent officer after their captutre on this day. They had surrendered, hoping to be permitted to leave the country (P)

 

(e) The book’s illustration of the bodies of Diem and Nhu in the back of an armored personnel courier , in which they were mudered by two insurgent officers after their capture on November 2 1963 ,They had surrendered hoping to be permitted to leave the country (ibid S.Karnow)

 

(f)Nguyen Bao Tung best phillatelic collections aslo contain the stamps of the Founder of the Republic of Vietnam who was assasinated after The military coup on November.1st 1963., the collections bore the signatures of the president Diem and official seals

( very rare collections with original signature and official seals because no one keep the Diem official cover after he was assasinations, please comment –auth)

 

(3)November,22th 1963

(a)Three weeks after Diem’s death  J.F.Kannedy assasination in Dallas, succeeded by Lyndon Johnson.

The death of Kennedy and Diem led to a new phase  in the American involvement in Vietnam (D)   

 

(b)Henry Cabot Lodge, American ambassador to Saigon, with President Diem. Lodge had little patience for Diem, whom he felt was hindering the American effort on help South Vietnam fight the Vietcong (P)

 

(c) An American adviser, leads South Vietnamese troops into action in thge Mekong delta in 1963. America adviser then in Vietnam were suppos-ed to avoid combat, but many parti-cipated in battle neverless(P

 

12)December 1963

 

(1) December,15th 1963

     The Thanh-Minh-Tu, AP PHU HAI, XA PHANRI-CUA “THIEP MOI” invitation(?) letter from Phu-Hot to Kinh Goi Ong Bu “ Quan-Truong Quan(Military) Hoa –Da

__________________________________________

“Trong 9 nam chien tranh tan khuc.Tan-Minh-Tu Phu-Hai pai bj canh tieu tan sup do, mai den nay m duoc co-duyen xay dung hoan thanh, do cung nhoi au giup do cua Chinh-quyen, nho su giup do cua cac nha hao tam ung-ho va duc tin tuong manh liet cua toan dan trong Ap, gop lan cua moi lap nen.

Le Khan thanh se cu hanh trong 3 ngay 12,13, va  14 thang 11 quy –Mao  tuc ngay 27,28,29,29-12-1963 the chuong trinh vach dinh ben canh.

….etc………………………………………….

                                    Tron trong kinh moi

                                    T.M. Ban To-chuc

                                                Truong-Ban

                                                Tran-Van-Ne (OD)

 

(Please native Vietnamese collectors will helping me to translate this  very rare document and also the below document , because the information from this document very useable for postal history colecter and Vietnamese historian-auth)

 

 

(2)December,12th 1963

The very rare official letter send by  Cuorier from Ngoc Bang Saigon double red circle stamped on Covers sending by Courier to Ong Ba,Trung Uy’ Quan Trung. He oa-Da.

        Inside Doan Ca-Kich Ngoc Bang Saigon,Chiep Moi Card used for writting the latter :

 

____________________________________________

     26-12-63

      Kouh Anh!

Doan cua chung toi rui qua din dia phung nay theit bai luon 3 hon’i khy dhuong xoay tu’.

            Itiui guo nay ca 50 doan vien Chua Co buoi au son nai.

            King thi vi hoan caung dien diug cua gauf ceuy dau hiem 3 ngay ray Rly ngoi dan duoa.

            Vay: Vo choy toi nho eum dui thua vio auh nho anth tieui.

            Pheuing hui gi’up do doang ti guing say duo ngay Tet.

            Hoay Rinz. (PH)

 

(Please native Vietnam to help me for translate this interesting informations from this letter, why this cover din’t send by Postal , may be no postal services by the worst situation , if someone have the postal histori covers in 1963 please comment and sho us that rare collection-auth)

 

(2)The meeting between General AVRN Van Minh Duong with American Ambassador Henry Cabot Jr and Robet McNamara,(P),

__________________________________

4.3.3. AVRN  War in 1964-1967

__________________________________

a. AVRN vs Vietcong war 1964

______________________________

General Cao headed up ‘Operation Sunrise’ that oversaw the creation of three strategic hamlets in Binh Duong Province earlier that year. Ultimately, around 14,000 such hamlets were created throughout South Vietnam and populated with forcibly relocated peasants before the program was dismantled in early 1964

1)January 1964

(1)January,30th. 1964

General Nguyen Khan seizes power in Saigon , arrest four ruling generals but allow Minh to remain as figure head chief of State.(D)

(2) In the year after 1963 , Nguyen van Thieu steadily in importance he became the deputy premier and minister of defense.

 

2)February 1964

Not yet info

3) March 1964

(1)US Secretary of Defense, Robert McNamara visit Vietnam , vow support for Khanh.(D)

 

(2) March,20th 1964

The chinese written postally cover from Saigon-Vietnam 20.3.1964 to Saigon-Cholon  Viet-Nam 21.3.1964, with  1d justice emblem and 2d Unesco stamps (rate 3 d) .

( Cholon was the chinese overseas area over the Mekong river in Saigon where I found this posta history , the address in chinese traslate means…….. :……………..auth)

4) April and 5) May 1964 noinfo

 

6) June 1964

 

 

 

(1)June , 2nd . 1964

Pantagon Strategist refine plans for bombing North Vietnam.

(2)Johnson anticipate a large scale US effort:

       (a)The Tonkin Resolution was simply intended to give him the discretion to punish the North Vietnamese, but it was  noneless regarded  as essential to bring stability to an independent

(b) Non-communist  South-Vietnam in order to counter Khruschev’s claim to have the right to support “ war of National Liberation”(D)

7)July 1964, no info

 

August 1964

Wreckage from a Viet Cong Bombing in Saigon, Vietnam (1964)
Wreckage from Viet Cong bombing in Saigon (1964)Bombing in Saigon, Vietnam by Viet Cong

1964 was a key year in the Vietnam War. In August, the United States alleged that one of its ships had been fired on in the Gulf of Tonkin. Although this was not true, it provided the Congress the pretext it needed to authorize full-scale military operations in Southeast Asia.

(1)Vietnam was still seen  by the public as no more than a miror problem : The Us would need only to flex her muscles for the communists to back down.(D)

       

(2)Covert South Vietnamese Maritime operations begin against North Vietnam.(D)

        (3) North Vietnamese patrol boats attack the MADDOX , an US destroyer in Tongkin Gulf, August 2(D).

       

(4) A doubtful second incident report two days later(D)

(5) US aircraft bomb North Vietnam for the first time in this month.(D)

     (6) August, 21st , 1964

      The rare postal history of US’s Kennedy prestamped 11c airmail letter sheet       send from native vietnamese at California CDS “SAN LUIS OBISPRO 1934004, Aug 21 1967” to South Vietnam CDS “Saigon-Vietnam 26-8 1967”

The handwitten latter in vietnamese language:

 

Cal Poly-San Luis Obispro                         Chu nhat 20.8.1967

 

                             Hong mien

          Lan qua khong dube bien y ma Hong, anh ut truong La Hong da quan anh, khong con nho gi dten thang anh xa xoi may nua the roi dong hu do anh nhen duoc the Hong vo nhat la khan quan co do think tay Hong sung tai, va anh thay minh co loi doi nghi oan cho hong, hong chonanh xia nha. Tu nay anh khong dan nghi tam bay tam ba nhu vay  noi dan nhung anh anh hong ung dung bo be anh nuy , moi lan duoi thu van biet chat itoi gia ma viet cho anh doi dong de goi la chanh qua soy am tam long doi coi nay. Anh thang thue cau du truong ve qua tang ma hong, anh vat sung luong va cam doi thay tu nua lanh de anh quang khan cua hong.

Mau ve  kiem day lain anh thich thu nhat day, hop y ve dung la nhy diem anh nhuoc tu lan. Honh khan that, anh ky biet noi sao cho bet sui  biet an cua voi hong duoc, anh nung khong biet hong nuon gi e anh co gi anh ve tang hong theu y hong, thu san hong biet nho, hong muon gi anh nung chra y ca muon la……..etc….

          Hong lua nay ra Sao! Anh rat nay tu Hong, anh khy quan duoc nhy ky vien va thy luong ve Hay chue Hong voi ve, manh an duong man.

                                                                             Signed Hien

______________________________________________________________

( This collection very interesting, because not many communication between Vietnamese who study in California to his friend (Girl?) and writting information and comment about his own country, we will understood about the vietnam information in US –please someone wil kind to translate-auth)

9) September 1964

(1)September,7th 1964

     The South Vietnam first day covers-Premier Jour D’Emmision of Bai Bien (Plaque De) “Ha Tien” stamps, firstday special stamped  Tem Tho “Ba Bien Ha Tien.Saigon , Ngay Bau-Rien 7-9-64. (PH)

10) October 1964

 

(1)October,30th. 1964

     Vietcong attack  Bienhoa air base, but Johnson rejects proposal for   retaliatory raids against North Vietnam .(D)

11) November 1964

(1)Lyndon Johnson defeats Barry Goldwater for the presidency ,November 3(D).

 

(2) Saigon convulsed by Rioters protest Khanh’s rule  and Taylor now ambassador , urges Khanh to leave the country.(D)

12)December 1964

 By the end of 1964, the number of US troops in Vietnam shot up from about 2,000 military advisers to more than 16,500.

(1)  December,24th. 1964

     Vietcong terrorist bomb American military billet in Saigon, but Johnson again rejects proposal for raids against North Vietnam.(D)

(2) December.20th 1964

Bien Lai Khai Sanh- Bo Thanh saigon certificate-without photo(?) ,sign and stamped by Quan-Truong ,vietnam Cong Hoa NAM –PHAN, for Tian boi Phan ,tai quan 4 Saigon durong (street) 9 Le Chach, con (Children) cua :Tian hoc Diec,va cua Ly tu Ky (father & Mother?) 

Trước 1975 là PX của Mỹ, hiện nay là KS Hoàng Đế

PX Mỹ tại số 117 Phan Đình Phùng (nay là Nguyễn Đình Chiểu) Q.3 Sài Gòn
VPA (SRVN)





















ARVN (RVN)











VNAF (RVN)











Sources:

http://forum.axishistory.com/
http://vnaf.net/
http://community.webshots.com/user/hoapham
http://www.vnafmamn.com/

Some of the SU27 pics were borrowed from Carambol. Thank you.

THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011

The Old Fashion In 19th Century

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

Welocome to

Driwancybermuseum Blog

THE OLD FASHION IN 19thCENTURY

Goal of 600 Posts Completed

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That isn’t writing at all, it’s typing. — Truman Capote

THE OLD FASHION IN 19thCENTURY

euro-westren fashion

 

and

 ... afflicted from year to year 12 the cut of a admirer s covering and

Updated: The Easter Parade, alive on the Web from NYC, tiny – Projo …

Updated: The Easter Parade, alive on the Web from NYC, tiny - Projo ...

Christmas and New Year’s Party Appearance 1878-9

Christmas and New Year’s Party Appearance 1878-9

… fashion. The engageantes and stomacher

 ... fashion. The engageantes  and stomacher

Real Dress, c. 1800

Real Dress, c. 1800

Real Dress, c. 1800

Real Dress, c. 1800

… in the 1700&apos;s & 1800&apos;s – National Architecture & Design | Examiner.com

 ... in the 1700&apos;s & 1800&apos;s - National Architecture & Design | Examiner.com

fashion in 1700 1800 001 Appearance in 1700 1800 wallpapers Vinodam …

fashion in 1700 1800 001 Appearance in 1700 1800 wallpapers Vinodam ...

File:1794-1887-Fashion-overview-Alfred-Roller.GIF – Wikimedia Commons

File:1794-1887-Fashion-overview-Alfred-Roller.GIF - Wikimedia Commons

Colouring in Pictures of Late C18 th Children&apos;s Fashions 1775 to 1800

Colouring in Pictures of Late C18 th Children&apos;s Fashions 1775 to 1800

Fashion of the 1800&apos;s | LoveToKnow

Fashion of the 1800&apos;s | LoveToKnow

paris fashions for october 1864

paris fashions for october 1864

Kathy Decker’s Regency Style, year by year

Kathy Decker’s Regency Style, year by year

Mens&apos;Fashion Plates 1800-1900 – Part 13

Mens&apos;Fashion Plates 1800-1900 - Part 13

Dress 1800&apos;s

Dress 1800&apos;s

The accepted trends that are in and appearance forecasts for the New Year …

The accepted trends that are in and appearance forecasts for the New Year ...

avant-garde beheld and actual culture, will analyze how and why appearance

ABORIGIN FASHION 19TH CENTURY

 ... aboriginal photographs of men history of mens appearance affiche boys 1830s 1

afflicted from year to year 12 the cut of a admirer s covering

File:Cicatrices de flagellation sur un esclave.jpg

ASIA FASHION 19th CENTURY

 

 

The Driwancybermuseum ‘s Chritsmas And New Year ExhibitIon

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

Welocome to

Driwancybermuseum Blog

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

The Old Christmas And New Year Collections Exhibition

Dr Iwan suwandy and staf wishing You A Merry Cristmas 2011 and A Happy New Year 2012,specila for Old Pictures Colletors  from all Over The wolrd,special for you Driwancybermuseum blog making a amizing exhibition:

THE OLD CHRISTMAS AND NEW YEaR COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION.

I hope all of the collectoras will enjoy to look this exhibition.

Sincerely

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Christmas Card

Christmas Card Example

Christmas Cards—A Brief History

Christmas cards were partly inspired by Valentine’s Day cards and New Year’s cards, the oldest surviving of which was printed in 1466. Home-made cards were fashioned by children even during the reign of Queen Anne, but the popularized Christmas card as we know it wasn’t invented until the mid 1800s.

A Replica of a William Egley Christmas Card

A Replica of the
Egley Christmas Card

Who Created the First Christmas Card?

The First Egley Christmas Card

There is some debate over who was the “inventor” of the Christmas card. The oldest Christmas card created for general distribution probably was created by William Egley Jr.; a 16 year-old British youth. His 3 1/2-inch- by 5 1/2-inch, preserved in the British Museum, depicts four holiday scenes and a “Merry Christmas and Happy New Year” greeting with blanks after the word “To” on the top and “From” at the bottom. Industrious kid! The date on his card is clearly 1842… or 1849. The last figure is obscure, so it’s difficult to say who was first.

In the year 1843, Sir Henry Cole commissioned John Calcott Horsley to paint a card showing the feeding and clothing of the poor. A center panel displayed a happy family embracing one another, sipping wine and enjoying the festivities. (So much for good intentions. The card drew criticism because showing a child enjoying a sip of wine was considered “fostering the moral corruption of children.”) “A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You” was printed on that first Christmas card. Legend says Sir Henry Cole didn’t send any Christmas cards the following year, but the custom became popular anyway.

The First Horsely Christmas Card

A Replica of the first Christmas Card-- an original John Calcott Horsely

A Replica of the First Horsely Christmas Card

Others say the date of this story was in 1847. They agree that the first Christmas card was produced by Sir Henry Cole who worked for the British Postal Service, and an artist he hired named John Horsley. Cole was too busy to write his own greetings, so he hired Horsley to design a card for him. One thousand of these cards were printed and could be mailed for a penny a piece.

The criticism it drew may have contributed to its popularity. By the Christmas season of 1847, a number of people were giving out Christmas cards of their own. Had it not been for the controversy over Horsley’s card, many of these new card givers may never have considered it.

The “Fad” of the Christmas Card

The early Christmas card manufacturers believed Christmas cards to be a fad that would soon pass. They did not bother to document the cards they produced. However, the Christmas card was destined to become an integral part of the holiday season. By 1880 their manufacture was big business, creating previously unknown opportunities for artists, writers, printers, and engravers.

Three Factors that Contributed to the Success of the Christmas Card.

  1. U.S. postal changes spurred sales of Christmas cards. Until 1855, senders had the option of requiring the recipients to pay the postage on cards and letters, and most did. Also, except in a few of the larger cities, the recipient was required to go to the post office to pick up his or her mail. But in 1855, it became compulsory for the sender to pay the postage. In 1858, collection boxes began appearing in larger cities; therefore, the sender didn’t have to go to the post office, and by 1890 most of the post offices had free city delivery. At the start of the 20th century, the post office began free rural delivery. All these items helped speed the growth in Christmas cards.
  2. The invention of the steam press in the early 1800s made it less expensive to have cards printed.
  3. The design and features of the Christmas cards. Holiday cards designed by Kate Greenaway, the Victorian children’s writer and illustrator, and Frances Brundage and Ellen H. Clapsaddle, were favorites in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Most were elaborate, decorated with fringe, silk and satin. Some were shaped liked fans and crescents; others were cut into the shapes of bells, birds, candles and even plum puddings. Some folded like maps or fitted together as puzzles; other squealed or squeaked. Pop-up Cards reveled tiny mangers or skaters with flying scarves gliding around a mirrored pond.

Christmas Cards in the United States

For more than 30 years, Americans had to import greeting cards from England.

A Replica of a Louis Prang Christmas Card

A Replica of a Louis Prang Christmas Card

The Louis Prang Christmas Card

In 1875, Louis Prang, a German immigrant to the U.S., opened a lithographic shop with $250 and published the first line of U.S. Christmas cards. His initial creations featured flowers and birds, unrelated to the Christmas scene. By 1881, Prang was producing more than five million Christmas cards each year. His Yuletide greetings began to feature snow scenes, fir trees, glowing fireplaces and children playing with toys. His painstaking craftsmanship and lithographic printing have made his cards a favorite of collectors today.

Prang received most of his recognition however from his Christmas card contests that he ran. Every year he would enlist of the help of well-known figures in the American art world to judge the entrants. Winners would receive cash prizes. He further involved the public by allowing them to vote for their favorite cards, as well. This “Public Prize” was conducted apart from the professional judges and the winners were also awarded cash prizes.

When the market was flooded with cheap Christmas cards in the 1890s, Prang abandoned his Christmas card business as a statement of disgust, and perhaps because his sales were dwindling.

Modern Christmas Cards

Holiday cards designed by Kate Greenaway, the Victorian children’s writer and illustrator, and Frances Brundage and Ellen H. Clapsaddle, were favorites in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s. Most were elaborate , decorated with fringe, silk and satin. Some were shaped liked fans and crescents; others were cut into the shapes of bells, birds, candles and even plum puddings. Some folded like maps or fitted together as puzzles; other squealed or squeaked. Pop-up Cards reveled tiny mangers or skaters with flying scarves gliding around a mirrored pond.

Christmas Cards have changed since the days of Sir Henry and Louis Prang. They now sport comics, jokes and clever verses. But those that picture timeless and simple settings such as excited children around a Christmas tree, Nativity scenes, nature scenes and carolers singing in the snow are still in the highest demand today.

Today, over 2.6 billion Christmas cards are mailed annually (over $571 million dollars worth!). This amount is almost twice the volume of the $277 million dollars worth of Valentine cards mailed annually. With the popularity of digital cameras, computers, and the plethora of scrapbook suppliers, home-made Christmas cards are again becoming popular. Some simply mail a picture of their family and a short greeting, while others include a brief write-up, touching on events of the previous year. And, with so many computer users jumping online, electronic cards, or e-cards are also flooding the Internet.

THE EARLY 19th CENTURY COLLECTIONS

1800

THE MID  19th CENTURY COLLECTIONS

1843 

First Known Christmas Card, 1843
© J.C. Horsley from description : Designed by J.C. Horsley

THE LATE 19 th COLLECTIONS

1878 christmas and new year party

112-year-old Christmas pudding found in cupboard

112-year-old Christmas plum pudding

What is probably the oldest Christmas plum pudding in the world, tinned 112 years ago in 1899, has been found at the back of a kitchen cupboard in Poole, Dorset and donated to the National Museum of the Royal Navy at the Portsmouth Historic Dockyard in Hampshire. It was donated by a woman who found it in her cupboard after her husband’s death. She knew nothing about it other than the date stamped on the can — 1900 — and that it had been in her husband’s family for years.

112-year-old Christmas plum pudding tin, back

The handsomely decorated tin marks it as “Peek, Frean & Co’s Teetotal Plum Pudding – London, High Class Ingredients Only.” Instructions on the bottom state “This pudding is ready for use but may be boiled for an hour if required hot.” Peek Frean was a cookies and confectionary company established in 1857. Within a few years they focused on making confections for export to distant locales like Australia and India, hence the sealed tins. The back of the container depicts children holding out plates, presumably to beg for more of that delicious teetotal plum pudding.

This particular pudding was also destined for faraway lands, South Africa specifically. It’s a teetoal pudding because it was a special issue, commissioned by Victorian philanthropist and superintendent of the Royal Naval Temperance Society Agnes “Aggie” Weston. She ordered 1000 tins of brandyless Christmas plum pudding to be sent to Royal Navy sailors fighting in the Boer War. There’s a message from her on the tin as well: “For the Naval Brigade, In the Front, With Miss Weston’s Best Christmas & New Year, 1900, Wishes.” As far as we know, this is the only surviving tin of the 1000

THE EARLY  20thCENTURY COLLECTIONS

From the Middle East

New Year Greeting Card

The New Year Greeting Card was sent in 1900 from the city of Jerusalem by the Great Yeshiva Torath Chaim rabbis to my great grandfather. The Yeshiva building in the old city of Jerusalem is shown in the upper part of the card and the old city of Jerusalem is shown below.

Above the main greeting, “LESHANA TOVA“, there is a quote of blessing from Jerusalem and Zion. Another quote on the right and left sides is from the ancient Talmudic book called “Yerushalmi”, since it was a compilation of thoughts, commentaries and philosophies on Jewish topics generated by the rabbis that remained in the Land of Israel after the destruction of the second Jewish Holy Temple, approximately 2000 years ago.

It was, and still is, customary to decorate “New Year” and other good wishes cards (for weddings, Bar Mitzvah etc.) with quotes about Jerusalem.







 

1900

Spread Cheer with Vintage Christmas Cards

Here you will find a wide assortment of beautiful vintage Christmas cards and Holiday greeting cards. These uniquely designed vintage greeting cards are sure to warm the hearts of all who receive them.

Victorian era stylings and art are all a big part of the ever-growing Steampunk sub-culture. So if you are a part of the Steampunk movement or know someone who is, these cards would be the perfect way of showing a partner, friend, or family member that you remembered them this Holiday season.

Victorian Christmas Cards
Victorian Era Angel Christmas Card This vintage Christmas card features an angel from the Victorian era. The angel is sitting on the moon and holding a star. A lit Christmas tree is shown, and a house is on the horizon.

 

 

 

Victorian Santa Claus Greeting Cards

Old Saint Nick Portrayed in the Victorian Artistic Style

 

Radio Santa Christmas Card card
Radio Santa Christmas Card

This vintage holiday card depicts Santa Claus listening to a vacuum tube type radio. This card design is circa early 1900’s.
 

 

 

Victorian Christmas Cards
Busy Santa Christmas Card

Old Saint Nick is hard at work stuffing stockings in this vintage Victorian era Christmas card design. The central image is of Santa delivering toys and is surrounded by a wood grain pattern decked with Holly.
 

 

 

Steampunk Christmas Cards
Santa with a Sack Christmas Card

Santa with a sack of toys over his shoulder. This card design is circa early 1900’s and features an early version of Saint Nicholas dressed in something other than the traditional red and white suit that we all know so well.
 

 

 

Victorian Christmas Cards
Old Fashion Santa Christmas Card
Here is an vintage card design from 1908. It features an old school Santa from way back. Send some old fashioned holiday cheer with this digitally restored vintage Victorian Christmas card.
 

 

 

Victorian Christmas card
Victorian Santa Claus Christmas Card
This card design is late Victorian circa early 1900’s and features Santa Claus with a staff and a wreath of holly on his hat. The candles on the Christmas tree are indicative of the era in which the original card was made.

 

The Top Five Reasons Why These Victorian Holiday Cards are the Best

A list of the top five reasons this page has the best selection of Victorian style Holiday greeting cards.Victorian Christmas Cards
Curious Cat Christmas Card
  • Beautiful original greeting cards evoke nostalgia as they depict scenes from a simpler time.
  • There are a wide variety of designs to choose from.
  • Holiday cards with a vintage look and feel.
  • Greeting cards that have memorable scenes.
  • Greeting cards suitable for Steampunk fashion sense.

 

Vintage Angel Cards

 

Holy Angel Christmas Card
Holy Angel Christmas Card

This vintage Victorian era card design features an angel in snow white robes holding sheet music next to a vase of holly. This card aged very well and the artwork is incredibly beautiful.
 

 

 

vintage Angel Christmas Card
Angel Snow Scene Christmas Card

This vintage Christmas card design features an angel in a tree hovering over a snow scene. The original card is ca early 1900’s. 

 

 

Victorian Era Angel Christmas Card card
Victorian Era Angel Christmas Card

This is a Vintage Victorian Christmas card design circa early 1900’s. It features an angel holding a star (Presumably the star of Bethlehem) while reclining on a crescent moon

 

 

Vintage Christmas Cards Featuring Kids

 

These cute old-time cards all feature children being children during the holiday season.

Boy with Phone Christmas Card card
Boy with Phone Christmas Card

This vintage Victorian era greeting card has a very simple design. It depicts a boy talking on an antique telephone from the original era of the card. It features a fill in the blank greeting mimicking a telephone call. The card is also decked with a bough of holly.

 

 

 

Chimney Children Christmas Card card
Chimney Children Christmas Card
This very cute vintage Victorian era greeting card features a boy in a Santa costume jumping into a chimney as a little girl watches on with a look of surprise on her face.

 

 

 

Full Stockings Christmas Card card
Full Stockings Christmas Card
This vintage Victorian era greeting card features a girl with a candle walking in front of a fireplace with stockings hung for Santa Claus.

 

 

 

Full Stockings Christmas Card card
Full Stockings Christmas CardMake a personalized note card online at zazzle
This vintage Victorian era greeting card has a very simple design. It depicts two children waking up to stocking filled with toys on Christmas morning.

 

 

 

Cute Girl in Red Dress Christmas Card card
Cute Girl in Red Dress Christmas Card

This early 1900’s vintage card design features an adorable little girl in a red dress dancing. The candles on the Christmas tree reflect the era of this card.

 

 

 

 
 

Season’s Greetings!

For this time of holidays and wintery weather, we offer a sampling of traditional images from the rich image source,

Children wearing festive hats standing by a Christmas tree
North Bennet Street Industrial School (Boston, Mass.), 1932

Christmas card
 

New Year’s Card for 1900

christmas card 1914 during WW I

Woman costumed as a Christmas tree,

Child with Christmas tree

 

The End @ Copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011