Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Jerusalem Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




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                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


Showcase :

The Jerusalem Collections Exhibition

Jerusalem (Hebrew: יְרוּשָׁלַיִם‎‎ About this sound (audio) (help·info), Yerushaláyim; Arabic: القُدس About this sound (audio) (help·info), al-Quds al-Sharif, “The Holy Sanctuary”)[ii] is the capital of Israel, though not internationally recognized as such.[iii] If the area and population of East Jerusalem is included,[citation needed] it is Israel’s largest city[1] in both population and area,[2] with a population of 763,800 residents over an area of 125.1 km2 (48.3 sq mi).[3][4][iv] Located in the Judean Mountains, between the Mediterranean Sea and the northern edge of the Dead Sea, modern Jerusalem has grown far beyond the boundaries of the Old City.

Jerusalem is a holy city to the three major Abrahamic religionsJudaism, Christianity and Islam. In Judaism, Jerusalem has been the holiest city since, according to the Torah, King David of Israel first established it as the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel in c. 1000 BCE, and his son Solomon commissioned the building of the First Temple in the city.[5] In Christianity, Jerusalem has been a holy city since, according to the New Testament, Jesus was crucified in c. 30 CE and 300 years later Saint Helena found the True Cross in the city. In Islam, Jerusalem is the third-holiest city.[6] It became the first Qibla, the focal point for Muslim prayer (Salah) in 610 CE,[7] and, according to Islamic tradition, Muhammad made his Night Journey there ten years later.[8][9] As a result, and despite having an area of only 0.9 square kilometres (0.35 sq mi),[10] the Old City is home to sites of key religious importance, among them the Temple Mount, the Western Wall, the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque.

During its long history, Jerusalem has been destroyed twice, besieged 23 times, attacked 52 times, and captured and recaptured 44 times.[11] The oldest part of the city was settled in the 4th millennium BCE, making Jerusalem one of the oldest cities in the world.[12] The old walled city, a World Heritage site, has been traditionally divided into four quarters, although the names used today—the Armenian, Christian, Jewish, and Muslim Quarters—were introduced in the early 19th century.[13] The Old City was nominated for inclusion on the List of World Heritage Sites in Danger by Jordan in 1982.[14]

Today, the status of Jerusalem remains one of the core issues in the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. After the 1967 Arab Israeli War, Israel annexed East Jerusalem (which was controlled by Jordan) and considers it a part of Israel, although the international community has rejected the annexation as illegal and considers East Jerusalem to be Palestinian territory held by Israel under military occupation.[15][16][17][18][19] The international community does not recognise Jerusalem as Israel’s capital and most foreign embassies are located in Tel Aviv and its suburbs.[20][21] According to Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics 208,000 Palestinians live in East Jerusalem, which is sought as a future capital of a future Palestinian state.[22][23][24] Israel, however, considers the entire city to be a part of Israel following its annexation of East Jerusalem through the Jerusalem Law of 1980.

All branches of the Israeli government are located in Jerusalem, including the Knesset (Israel’s parliament), the residences of the Prime Minister and President, and the Supreme Court. Jerusalem is home to the Hebrew University and to the Israel Museum with its Shrine of the Book. The Jerusalem Biblical Zoo has ranked consistently as Israel’s top tourist attraction for Israelis.[25][26]


A city called Rušalimum or Urušalimum (Foundation of Shalem)[27] appears in ancient Egyptian records as the first two references to Jerusalem, in c. 2000 BCE and c. 1330 BCE respectively.[28][29][30] The form Yerushalayim (Jerusalem) first appears in the Bible, in the book of Joshua. This form has the appearance of a portmanteau (blend) of Yireh (an abiding place of the fear and the service of God)[31] and the original root S-L-M and is not a simple phonetic evolution of the form in the Amarna letters. The meaning of the common root S-L-M is unknown but is thought to refer to either “peace” (Salam or Shalom in modern Arabic and Hebrew) or Shalim, the god of dusk in the Canaanite religion.[32][33][34]

Typically the ending -im indicates the plural in Hebrew grammar and -ayim the dual thus leading to the suggestion that the name refers to the fact that the city sits on two hills.[35][36] However the pronunciation of the last syllable as -ayim appears to be a late development, which had not yet appeared at the time of the Septuagint.

The tradition names the oldest settled neighborhood of Jerusalem the City of David.[citation needed]Zion” initially referred to part of the city, but later came to signify the city as a whole and as a metophor for the Biblical Land of Israel. In Greek and Latin the city’s name was transliterated Hierosolyma (Ἱεροσόλυμα), although the city was renamed Aelia Capitolina for part of the Roman period of its history. In Arabic, Jerusalem is most commonly known as القُدس, transliterated as al-Quds and meaning “The Holy”.



Further information: Names of Jerusalem

Given the city’s central position in both Israeli nationalism (Zionism) and Palestinian nationalism, the selectivity required to summarise more than 5,000 years of inhabited history is often[37][38] influenced by ideological bias or background (see Historiography and nationalism). For example, the Jewish periods of the city’s history are important to Israeli nationalists (Zionists), whose discourse suggests that modern Jews descend from the Israelites and Maccabees,[39][40] whilst the Islamic, Christian and other non-Jewish periods of the city’s history are important to Palestinian nationalism, whose discourse suggests that modern Palestinians descend from all the different peoples who have lived in the region.[41][42] As a result, both sides claim the history of the city has been politicized by the other in order to strengthen their relative claims to the city,[37][38][43][44][45] and that this is borne out by the different focuses the different writers place on the various events and eras in the city’s history.

 Overview of Jerusalem’s historical periods

 Canaanite Period

Main article: City of David

Stepped Stone Structure, City of David

Ceramic evidence indicates the occupation of City of David, within present-day Jerusalem, as far back as the Copper Age (c. 4th millennium BCE),[12][46] with evidence of a permanent settlement during the early Bronze Age (c. 3000–2800 BCE).[46][47] The Execration Texts (c. 19th century BCE), which refer to a city called Roshlamem or Rosh-ramen[46] and the Amarna letters (c. 14th century BCE) may be the earliest mention of the city.[48][49] Some archaeologists, including Kathleen Kenyon, believe Jerusalem[50] as a city was founded by Northwest Semitic people with organized settlements from around 2600 BCE. According to Jewish tradition, the city was founded by Shem and Eber, ancestors of Abraham. In the biblical account, Jerusalem (“Salem”) when first mentioned is ruled by Melchizedek, an ally of Abraham (identified with Shem in legend). Later, in the time of Joshua, Jerusalem lay within territory allocated to the tribe of Benjamin (Joshua 18:28), but continued to be under the independent control of the Jebusites until it was conquered by David and made into the capital of the united Kingdom of Israel (c. 11th century BCE).[51][52][v] Recent excavations of a Large Stone Structure and a nearby Stepped Stone Structure are widely believed to be the remains of King David’s palace. The excavations have been interpreted by some archaeologists as lending credence to the biblical narrative.[53]

Temple periods

Main article: City of David

According to Hebrew scripture, King David reigned until 970 BCE. He was succeeded by his son Solomon,[54] who built the Holy Temple on Mount Moriah. Solomon’s Temple (later known as the First Temple), went on to play a pivotal role in Jewish history as the repository of the Ark of the Covenant.[55] For more than 400 years, until the Babylonian conquest in 587 BCE, Jerusalem was the political capital of the united Kingdom of Israel and then the Kingdom of Judah. During this period, known as the First Temple Period,[56] the Temple was the religious center of the Israelites.[57] On Solomon’s death (c. 930 BCE), the ten northern tribes split off to form the Kingdom of Israel. Under the leadership of the House of David and Solomon, Jerusalem remained the capital of the Kingdom of Judah.[58]

When the Assyrians conquered the Kingdom of Israel in 722 BCE, Jerusalem was strengthened by a great influx of refugees from the northern kingdom. The First Temple period ended around 586 BCE, as the Babylonians conquered Judah and Jerusalem, and laid waste to Solomon’s Temple.[56] In 538 BCE, after 50 years of Babylonian captivity, Persian King Cyrus the Great invited the Jews to return to Judah to rebuild the Temple.[59] Construction of the Second Temple was completed in 516 BCE, during the reign of Darius the Great, 70 years after the destruction of the First Temple.[60][61] In about 445 BCE, King Artaxerxes I of Persia issued a decree allowing the city and the walls to be rebuilt.[62] Jerusalem resumed its role as capital of Judah and center of Jewish worship. When Macedonian ruler Alexander the Great conquered the Persian Empire, Jerusalem and Judea came under Macedonian control, eventually falling to the Ptolemaic dynasty under Ptolemy I. In 198 BCE, Ptolemy V lost Jerusalem and Judea to the Seleucids under Antiochus III. The Seleucid attempt to recast Jerusalem as a Hellenized city-state came to a head in 168 BCE with the successful Maccabean revolt of Mattathias the High Priest and his five sons against Antiochus Epiphanes, and their establishment of the Hasmonean Kingdom in 152 BCE with Jerusalem again as its capital. In 63 BCE, Pompey the Great intervened in a Hasmonean struggle for the throne and captured Jerusalem, incorporating Judea into the Roman Republic.[63]

 Jewish–Roman wars

Roman siege and destruction of Jerusalem (David Roberts, 1850)

As Rome became stronger it installed Herod as a Jewish client king. Herod the Great, as he was known, devoted himself to developing and beautifying the city. He built walls, towers and palaces, and expanded the Temple Mount, buttressing the courtyard with blocks of stone weighing up to 100 tons. Under Herod, the area of the Temple Mount doubled in size.[54][64][65] Shortly after Herod’s death, in 6 CE Judea came under direct Roman rule as the Iudaea Province,[66] although Herod’s descendants through Agrippa II remained client kings of neighbouring territories until 96 CE. Roman rule over Jerusalem and the region began to be challenged with the First Jewish–Roman War, which resulted in the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE. Jerusalem once again served as the capital of Judea during the three-year rebellion known as the Bar Kokhba revolt, beginning in 132 CE. The Romans succeeded in suppressing the revolt in 135 CE. Emperor Hadrian romanized the city, renaming it Aelia Capitolina,[67] and banned the Jews from entering it. Hadrian renamed the entire Iudaea Province Syria Palaestina, after the biblical Philistines, in an attempt to de-Judaize the country.[68][69] The enforcement of the ban on Jews entering Aelia Capitolina continued until the 4th century CE.

In the five centuries following the Bar Kokhba revolt, the city remained under Roman then Byzantine rule. During the 4th century, the Roman Emperor Constantine I constructed Christian sites in Jerusalem, such as the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. Jerusalem reached a peak in size and population at the end of the Second Temple Period, when the city covered two square kilometers (0.8 sq mi.) and had a population of 200,000.[68][70] From the days of Constantine until the 7th century, Jews were banned from Jerusalem.[71]

 Roman-Persian wars

The eastern continuation of the Roman Empire, the Byzantine Empire, maintained control of the city for years. Within the span of a few decades, Jerusalem shifted from Byzantine to Persian rule and returned to Roman-Byzantine dominion once more. Following Sassanid Khosrau II‘s early 7th century push into Byzantine, advancing through Syria, Sassanid Generals Shahrbaraz and Shahin attacked the Byzantine-controlled city of Jerusalem (Persian: Dej Houdkh). They were aided by the Jews of Palestine, who had risen up against the Byzantines.[72]

In the Siege of Jerusalem (614), after 21 days of relentless siege warfare, Jerusalem was captured. The Byzantine chronicles relate that the Sassanid army and the Jews slaughtered tens of thousands of Christians in the city, an episode which has been the subject of much debate between historians.[73] The conquered city would remain in Sassanid hands for some fifteen years until the Byzantine Emperor Heraclius reconquered it in 629.[72]

Arab rule

Dome of the Rock viewed through Cotton Gate

Jerusalem is considered Islam’s third holiest city after Mecca and Medina. Among Muslims of an earlier era it was referred to as Bayt al-Maqdes; later it became known as al-Quds al-Sharif. The Islamization of Jerusalem began in the first year A.H. (620 CE), when Muslims were instructed to face the city while performing their daily prostrations and, according to Muslim religious tradition, Muhammad’s night journey and ascension to heaven took place. After 16 months, the direction of prayer was changed to Mecca.[74] In 638 the Islamic Caliphate extended its dominion to Jerusalem.[75] With the Arab conquest, Jews were allowed back into the city.[76] The Rashidun caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab signed a treaty with Monophysite Christian Patriarch Sophronius, assuring him that Jerusalem’s Christian holy places and population would be protected under Muslim rule.[77] When led to pray at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, the holiest site for Christians, the caliph Umar refused to pray in the church so that Muslims would not request converting the church to a mosque. He prayed outside the church, where the Mosque of Umar (Omar) stands to this day, opposite the entrance to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. According to the Gaullic bishop Arculf, who lived in Jerusalem from 679 to 688, the Mosque of Umar was a rectangular wooden structure built over ruins which could accommodate 3,000 worshipers.[78] When the Muslims went to Bayt Al-Maqdes for the first time, They searched for the site of the Far Away Holy Mosque (Al-Masjed Al-Aqsa) that was mentioned in Quran and Hadith according to Islamic beliefs. They found the site full of rubbish, they cleaned it and started using it for prayers thereafter. The Umayyad caliph Abd al-Malik commissioned the construction of the Dome of the Rock in the late 7th century.[79] The 10th century historian al-Muqaddasi writes that Abd al-Malik built the shrine in order to compete in grandeur with Jerusalem’s monumental churches.[78] Over the next four hundred years Jerusalem’s prominence diminished as Arab powers in the region jockeyed for control.[80]

Crusader, Ayyubid, and Mamluk period

Medieval illustration of capture of Jerusalem during the First Crusade, 1099

In 1099, The Fatimid ruler expelled the native Christian population before Jerusalem was conquered by the Crusaders, who massacred most of its Muslim and Jewish inhabitants when they took the solidly defended city by assault, after a period of siege; later the Crusaders created the Kingdom of Jerusalem. By early June 1099 Jerusalem’s population had declined from 70,000 to less than 30,000.[81]

In 1187, the city was wrested from the Crusaders by Saladin who permitted Jews and Muslims to return and settle in the city.[82] Under the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin, a period of huge investment began in the construction of houses, markets, public baths, and pilgrim hostels as well as the establishment of religious endowments. However, for most of the 13th century, Jerusalem declined to the status of a village due to city’s fall of strategic value and Ayyubid internecine struggles.[83]

In 1244, Jerusalem was sacked by the Khwarezmian Tartars, who decimated the city’s Christian population and drove out the Jews.[84] The Khwarezmian Tartars were driven out by the Ayyubids in 1247. From 1250 to 1517, Jerusalem was ruled by the Mamluks. During this period of time many clashes occurred between the Mamluks on one side and the crusaders and the Mongols on the other side. The area also suffered from many earthquakes and black plague.

Ottoman era

David’s Citadel and the Ottoman walls

In 1517, Jerusalem and environs fell to the Ottoman Turks, who generally remained in control until 1917.[82] Jerusalem enjoyed a prosperous period of renewal and peace under Suleiman the Magnificent – including the rebuilding of magnificent walls around the Old City. Throughout much of Ottoman rule, Jerusalem remained a provincial, if religiously important center, and did not straddle the main trade route between Damascus and Cairo.[85] However, the Muslim Turks brought many innovations: modern postal systems run by the various consulates; the use of the wheel for modes of transportation; stagecoach and carriage, the wheelbarrow and the cart; and the oil-lantern, among the first signs of modernization in the city.[86] In the mid 19th century, the Ottomans constructed the first paved road from Jaffa to Jerusalem, and by 1892 the railroad had reached the city



With the annexation of Jerusalem by Muhammad Ali of Egypt in 1831, foreign missions and consulates began to establish a foothold in the city. In 1836, Ibrahim Pasha allowed Jerusalem’s Jewish residents to restore four major synagogues, among them the Hurva.[87] In the 1834 Arab revolt in Palestine, Qasim al-Ahmad led his forces from Nablus and attacked Jerusalem, aided by the Abu Ghosh clan, entered the city on May 31, 1834. The Christians and Jews of Jerusalem were subjected to attacks. Ibrahim’s Egyptian army routed Qasim’s forces in Jerusalem the following month.[88]

Ottoman rule was reinstated in 1840, but many Egyptian Muslims remained in Jerusalem and Jews from Algiers and North Africa began to settle in the city in growing numbers.[87] In the 1840s and 1850s, the international powers began a tug-of-war in Palestine as they sought to extend their protection over the region’s religious minorities, a struggle carried out mainly through consular representatives in Jerusalem.[89] According to the Prussian consul, the population in 1845 was 16,410, with 7,120 Jews, 5,000 Muslims, 3,390 Christians, 800 Turkish soldiers and 100 Europeans.[87] The volume of Christian pilgrims increased under the Ottomans, doubling the city’s population around Easter time.[90]

In the 1860s, new neighborhoods began to develop outside the Old City walls to house pilgrims and relieve the intense overcrowding and poor sanitation inside the city. The Russian Compound and Mishkenot Sha’ananim were founded in 1860.[91] In 1867 an American Missionary reports an estimated population of Jerusalem of ‘above’ 15,000. With 4,000 to 5,000 Jews and 6,000 Muslims. Every year there were 5,000 to 6,000 Russian Christian Pilgrims.[92]

British Mandate and 1948 War

”The British Mandate Palestine War Collections”


Ottoman Turkey Stamp
Ottoman Palestine Stamp
Ottoman Palestine stamp
French Libanon Stamp
British Soldier WW I
Mufti al Huseini
al Huseini and Hitler
Hitler and Mussolini
British Palestine soldier
British Palestine Police
Vintage British Aircraft WWI
British leader inspection
British Patrol Car
British ID Check
Jewish immigran
Yewish immigran
Palestine Postcard 1930
Palestine label 1934
Palestina coin 1927
Palestine coin 1931
Palestine coin 1935
Palestine coin 1950
British Palestine Medal
Palestine medal 1935
Palestine revenue
Palestine revenue
Palestine revenue
Palestine stamp 100C
Palestine stamp 50 C
Palestine Postage due
Palestine CDS Tel Aviv 1945
YMCA Australia Map Palestine 1942
British Malta ArmyPO 1943
British Australia ArmyPO 1943
British Egypt ArmyPO 1944
Registered Cairo 1944
British Ceylon ArmyPO 1945
British Canada ArmyPO 1941
British Africa ArmyPO 1941
British India Army PO1941
Transjordan Used cover 1948
Used Cover Liban 1950
Syrie Used cover 1949
Jerusalem Map 1916
Vintage Jeusalem
Ancient Jerusalem
UN Jerusalem postmark
Gaza Map 1916
Gaza Postmark 1942
Vintage Gaza postcard
Vintage Gaza
Vintage Jaffa
Vintage Jaffa
Tiberias postmark 1942
Holy Tiberias lake
Vintage Tiberias
Israel Independent 1948
Ben Guiron
Israel First Leader
Egypt ovpt Palestine


Map 1917-1922
British Palestine flag

UCM CyberMuseum
special show in chronologic historic collections related
during Palestine under British occupation created by
@copyright Dr Iwan S. compile from UCM vintage books
postal, revenue and numismatic collections.
The first and best showed in the Cyber space.


1. 1914
(1)The World War I 1914-1918 , Gaza fell to British Forces and becomes a
part of the British Mandate of Palestine.
(2)in 1914 WW I , Turkey (Ottoman) vs Germany as a result it was embroiled in a conflict to realese Palestine from the control
of the Ottoman Empire , let the Jewish population and the Arab population in Palestine to support the aligument of the United Kingdom , France and Russia during WW I.
(look the illustrations of the last ottoman King stamps and the earliest Ottoman Palestine stamps)

2. 1916
(1)The Anglo-French Skyes-Picot agreement allocated the British empire the area of present day Jordan (that time Transjordan), the area between Jordan river , the mediteranian sea and Iraq.
(UCM have Transjordania Postally used cover, if collectors want to see please asking via comment.
(2) The vintage Gaza and Jerusalem Map 1916 collections
(look the map illustration combined with the vintage city photo , Postally used cover via or from the City with cancellation postmark)

(1)The Mandated formalized British rules in Palestine, the bounderies
of the new states laid down within the territory of the Mandate Palestine, Transjordania and French territory in Middle East
(look at the British Mandate of Palestine Map 1917-1922 illustr. and Tranjodarnia Postally used covers 1948)
(2)The British Forces managed to defeat the Ottoman Turkyes forces and Occupied Palestine, and that area reamined under British Military Administrations until the WW I end.
(3) Balfour declaration
This declaration to favour establisment in palestine of a national home for the Jeiwsh people but that nothing should be done to prejudice the cure and religion right to the existing non Jewish communication in Palestina. This declaration was seen by Yewish Nationalist as the conerstone of a future Jewish Homeland.

The Faizal-Weizman Agreement for Arab-Jewish cooperation in which Faizal(King of Iraq) conditionally accepted the Balfour declaration.
(look the postal used cover of King Faizal iraq 1938 illustration)

5. 1920
(1)Palestine Riots
(2) After WW I and the Collaps of the Ottoman empire, in this year the League of Nation formally assigned the Palestine mandate to United Kingdom.

5. 1921
(1) Palestine Riots in Jaffa
(2) The Haganah was fourted a defence Forces for the Jewish population at the British Mandate of Palestine.
(3) From this year until 1948, the Grand Mufti of Jerusalem , Amin al Husaeni became the leader of the Palestinean National Movement and played a key role in the Palestinean opposition.

6.June 1922
(1) The British Mandate of Palestine was a legal instrument for
administration of Plaestine formally approved by The Leaguaed
Nation base on a draft by the principal Allied and associated
power after WW I.
(2) The British Mandate Palestine Map collection (ill caption
Map 1917-1922) with the border of Franch Mandate Libanon and British Mandate Egypt.
Look at the France Mandate Libanon stamps , and Libanon postally used cover after the war 1950.

From 1919 until 1926 90.000 Jewish immigrant arrived in Palestine.
look the illustration of Jewish immigrant Pasport.

Palestine Arab Riots.
In this religious-Nationalist riots, Yew were massacred in Hebron and the survivors were expelled from the town . Devastation also
took place in Safed and Jerusalem.

9. 1930
Visit Palestine picture postcard collection (ill.caption Visit Palestine Card 1930)

10 1931
British mandate Palestine Coin 1931(ill capt. Palestine coin 1931)

British Mandate Palestine fair at Tel Aviv in this year, look at the Tel Aviv Fair flying Label collection (ill cap. Palestine label 1934)

Palestine Medal 1935

13 1936
Arab Revolt in Palestine from 1936 until 1939..
As the Europe was preparing for war, the Supreme Muslim Council in Palestine led by Amin al Hussaeni instigated his Arab revolt. This revolt were made by the Arab leader in Palestine and the Nazi Movement in Germany.
(Look illustration of Al Huseini profile and Hitler with him photo).

The Peel proposed accepted in this year which included a Jewish state in Part of Palestine.

Postally used cover send from Iraq with King Faizal stamp, postal cacelletion (marK) CDS Baghdad Sep.10.38 to Palestine. In 1919 the King Faizal agree with The Arab-Jewish cooperation of Faizal-Weizman Balfour declaration. (Ironically later Sadam Husein after beat Faizal and he was against the Israel Jews)

(1)The White paper of 1939.
The British respond to the ooutbreaks of Violent with white paper, sought a One State Solution. established a quota for Jewish imigration set by the British in the short term and by the Arab population in the long term placed restriction on the rights of Jews to buy land from Arab in attempt to limit the Social Political demage.
These restriction reamined until the end of the Mandate period which occured in paralel WW II and the holocaust during which many Jewish refugee tried to escape from Europe.
As a resultduring 1930-1940 the leader of Yishui arranged a couple of illegal immigration waves of Jews to the British Mandate of Palestine.
(2) Ben Gurion, the famous Jews leader, said he wanted to concentrated the masses of his Jews people in this country (Palestine) and its environments.(look at Ben Gurion profile vintage photo ills.)


1. 1940
(1) June,10th.1940
The Kingdom of Italy declared war on the French Republic and
the United Kingdom.
During the battle of Franch, the French country had already beaten by the German Hitler Nazi soldiers, and at that time
Italy Mossulini soldiers joined the war.The Italy invasion French was short time life.
(look the Mussolini and Hitler photo illustration)
(2) June,25th.1940
The British and the Force of the Commonwealth nation joined
the war in Middle east.
( look The British and Commenwealth nation Forces postally used
cover to Middle east including Palestine, during the WWII in Middles east including Palestine :
b1. The postally military covers from Tanganjika African forces
b.2. The postally used Free Military postal cover from British Middle east Forces send registered from Cairo.
b.3. The postally used Military cover from British India forces
b.4. The postally used cover from British Canada Forces
b.5. The Postally used cover from British Australia Forces
(3) July 1940
Italian bombing British Mandate Palestine centered on tel Aviv and Haifa such Acre and Jaffa also suffered.
(look at the Tel Aviv vintage picture, palestine stamp postally used CDS Tel Aviv 1945, Haifa and Jaffa vintage picture illustr.)
Mid 1940, Italian also bombing America operated oil refineries in the British Protectorated Bahrain.

(1)The connections led to cooperation between Palestinian National Movement and the Axis Hitler Germany powers during WWII .
(2) May 1941
Amin al Husayani issued a Fatwa for a holy war against British Forces. During his meeting with Adolf Hitler, Amin asked Germany to opposed, as part of the Arab struggle for independence.
He recieved a promise from Hitler that Germany would eliminate the existing Jews foundation in Palestine after the German would gain Victory in the WW II.During the WWII Amin joined the Nazis ,serving with the Wafen SS in Bosnia.
(3) The establisment of a Jewish National home in Palestine.

3.August,13th .1942.
The very rare Australia YMCA NGO organization official free
postal cover send to Tiberias, via CDS Gaza and Jaffa. 13.AUG.42.
(look at the vintage map 1916 and picture illustration of the Palestine city Gaza,Jaffa,Tiberias and jerusalem )

5. 1945
(1)British Mandate Palestine stamp still used CDS Tel Aviv 10.JY.45.
(illustration Tel Aviv CDS 10.JY.45 and Tel Aviv vintage Photo illustrations.)
(2) As a result of the British policies ,the Jewish Resistance Organization united and established the the Jewish Resistance Movement with coordinated armed attack against the British military which took place between 1945-1946.


The British Mandate Palestine stamp still used CDS Tel Aviv 10 JY 45. (illustrated)

2. 1946
(1)Following the King David Hotel Jerusalem bombing, in which the irgun blew up this hotel, the Head Quaters of British Administration , have Shocked the public because of the death of many innocent Civilian.
(2) In this year the Jewish Resistance Movement was disassambled . The leader of the Yishui decided instead to concentrate their effort on the illegal immigration and began to organized a massive Jewish immigration of European Jewuh refugee to Palestina using small boat operating in secrecy, many of which imprisoned in Camps on Cyprus. (UCM have the Cyprus pstally used cover during WW II, asked the ill. via comment)
(3) Details of the Holocaust had a major effect on the situation in Palestine and propelled large support for the Zionist cause in addition.(look illustration of Holocaust photo)
(4) The newly formed United Nation recommanded that Mandate Palestine WILL SPLIT INTO THREE PARTS :
(a) A Jewish State with a majority Jewish population
(b) An Arab State with a majority Arab population
(c) An International Zone comprising Jerusalem and the surrounding area where the Jews and Arab population would be roughly equal.
(d) The British government which tried to resolve the issued throughout the years, in the means of diplomacy eventually decided to return the written Mandate of Palestine to the Council of the United Nation.

(1)A previous phase of Civil war in Middle east including Palestine between 1947-1948 because Arab rejection of the 1947 United nation Petition plan of Palestine. UN General Assembly Resolution 181 that woud have created an Arab state and a Jewish State side by side, five Arab states invaded the territory of the former British mandate palestine.
(2)May ,14th 1947
One day before the British Mandate expired, DAVID BEN GURION declared the establisment of the State of Israel. Declaration refined to the decission of the UN General assembly as a legal justification for thr Establisment of the State of Israel.
(look The Irael Proclamation vintage picture and the news papers about this Independence proclamation.)

(1)May 14th 1948
In this day the termination of the British Mandate of Palestine over and the declaration of the establisment of the State of Israel by Israel first leader Ben Gurion and this declaration sparked a full scale war.
(Look illustration of the local news paper about The New Israel state is born , combined with Vintage Ben Guiron photo and painted label.)
(2) May 15th 1948
Arab Israel war was erupted the four armiest of Jordan,Egypt and Iraq invaded the newly self-declared State (Israel) followed not long after by units from Lebanon.
The war resulted in an Israeli victory with Israel annexing territories beyond the partition borders for a proposed Jewish State and into the orders for a proposed Palestinian Arab State Jordan,syria and Lebanon.
(3)During Arab Israel war about 856.000 Jews fled or were expelled from their homes in Arab countries , and most were forced to abandon their property .Jews from libya , Iraq ,Yemen ,Syria, Lebanon and North Africa left due to physical and Political insecurity.
After the war, some of the Palestinian refugee whom lived in Camps in the West bank within Jordan, controlled territory, and the Gaza strip Egyptian controlled territory
(look Egypt stamps overprint Palestina were used in this area ill) Syria tried to return by infiltration into the Israeli territory.
(4) July,30th.1948
The rare Postally Used Amman Registered cover send just after the Arab-Israel war and the Jews living in the camp at the Westbank Palestine near Transjordan, send from Transjordnan to United stated Salem city with via several city postmarked CDS Amman 30 July 48,Amman sencored stamped, CDS Bairout (lebanon) 2.8.48 and CDS Salem (USA) 10.8.48.
This cover was sent between two Arab-Israel war in Mei 1948 and 1949.

(1)Egypt ,Iraq,Jordan, Lebanon and Syria attacked the State of Israel, leading to fight mostly on the former territory of the British mandate Palestine and for a short time also on the Sinai Penisulla and southern Lebanon.
The war concluded with the 1949 Armistice Agreement but it didnot mask the end of Arab-Israel conflict.
(2) Arab Egypt signed the 1949 Armistice Agreement with Israel. The remaining territories, the Gaza strip and the west Bank, were occupied by Egypt and TRansjordania.
(look at the Egypt stamps overprint Palestine ill and the very rare vintage book With palestine gaza and Jerusalem Map ,and the vintage picture photo book illustration of Jerusalem, and other holy city Tabor ,Samaria , Nazareth ,Bethelhem , Jericho , Kapernaun , hebron, Juda, Garizim, Ebal, Jesreel, and Karmel .(illustration only Jerusalem and Bethelhem , the other will installed if the collectors asked via comment).

The installed still in processing, after 100% installed will
anounced at The UCN-uniquecollection Cyber News.UCM
informations. after this will show The Palestine Liberation
war Collections.

After this year 1950-2000, please look at The Palestine Liberation War Collection will installed later.

Further information: British Mandate of Palestine, 1947-1948 Civil War in Mandatory Palestine, 1948 Arab-Israeli War, and Siege of Jerusalem (1948)

General Edmund Allenby enters the Old City of Jerusalem on December 11, 1917

In 1917 after the Battle of Jerusalem, the British Army, led by General Edmund Allenby, captured the city,[93] and in 1922, the League of Nations at the Conference of Lausanne entrusted the United Kingdom to administer the Mandate for Palestine, the neighbouring mandate of Transjordan to the east across the River Jordan, and the Iraq Mandate beyond it.

From 1922 to 1948 the total population of the city rose from 52,000 to 165,000 with two thirds of Jews and one-third of Arabs (Muslims and Christians).[94] The situation between Arabs and Jews in Palestine was not quiet. At Jerusalem, in particular riots occurred in 1920 and in 1929. Under the British, new garden suburbs were built in the western and northern parts of the city[95][96] and institutions of higher learning such as the Hebrew University were founded

:”The Rare Palestina Book 1938″ March 22, 2010 by uniquecollection

Palestina Book 1938
PalestineWar Map
Jerusalem at night
Jerusalem morning
Jerusalem Picture
Jerusalem Map
Jerusalem Map
Jerusalem city
Jaffa city
Islamic Jerusalem
Jews Colonies
Talpiot Tomb
Aim Harod
Cave Tel Aviv
Palestine Post Jerusalem
Mufti Jerusalem
King Ibn Saud
Balfour declaretion
Mr Balfour
British Indian soldier
British Australian Troops
Vintage Hebron picture
Jews Independent Proclamation
Palestine Book 1938

Created by Dr iwan S. based on the vintage Book written by Pierre van Passei, Days of our Years 1903-1938. arranged in chrnologic historic information added UCM collections illustration(The writer only told the story and Dr Iwan S. arranged chronologic historic in systematic informations,please colectors read before The British Prtectorate Palestine War Collections.)

1.Palestine 1907
In the country where Mark Twain saw nothing but sackcloth and ashes, and where in 1907 the Prime Minister of Holand, Dr Abraham Kuyper wept over the poverty and the godforsaken loneliness of the Landscape.

2.Jerusalem 1914
The general atmosphere here in Jerusalem is reminiscent of 1914 behind the lines in the cities of France and Belgium.

3.Turkey attack n the Suez Canal in 1915
Jemal Pashas attack n the Suez Canal in 1915 at the head f a german-Turkish army and the Turkish commanders declaratin that after the war he prpsed to return to Constantineple via Alexandria made the bjective of the Central Pwers in the part of the world perilously clear. The Germano-Turkish campaign on the brders of the Red Sea was nt primarily a manuever to lessen British power f resistent n the Westren frnt: it was a threat to the mst vulnerable link in Britains imperial line of cmmunication.

4.The Allenbys gesture 1917
I could well understand Allenby gesture in 1917 when he and his officers walked bareheaded through the gates of Jerusalem.

5. Jerusalem 1921
Those who remembered what had happened eight years earlier realized at once the party of Arab Landlords, headed by the Mufti of Jerusalem who had been sentenced to ten years of hard labor in 1921 for incitement to riot and soon thereafter amnestied by a Jewish High Commisioner, had returned to the attack. The flag-waving incident at the Wall had been as good a device as any to throw sand in the eyes of public opinion. Clever propagandist sould easily-and did-magnify this intrinsically insignifivant demonstration on the part of children into a challenge of jewish chauvinists.

5.The Riot 1921 and King Feisal.
The riots of 1921 had given a first intimation the certain influential Palestinian Arabs were not in agreement with King Feisal of Iraq, who, as chief spokesman of the Arabic peoples at the peace Conference in Paris, had expressed his entire satisfaction with the International plan to set aside Palestina as a national home for the Jews people. Feizal,who was unquestionably the ablest of the Arab chiefs, had welcomed the Jew back to the near East, convinced that his return would prove a real blessing to the Arabs.Scarcely had Feisal spoken when the Palestinian Arab rioted.


1.The First Visit to Palestine in 1926
On my first visit to Palestine in 1926 , I raced over the splendid asphalt road which links the Mediterranean with Jerusalem, and covered in less that two hours what took Chanteaubriand nearly a week of travel. That road was built by Jewish pioneers. It is part of a system of modern highways that cover the Holy Land like a net-all of it work of the last fifteen years. There stand today a living monument to the revival of JUdaism- a land of pleasant gardens interspersed with cities teeming with every bracnch of modern human endeavor.
The transformation of Palestine is one of the wnder of our age.The all-engulfing desert had been pushed back : the wasteland have been reclaimed , and the sick soil has been nourish back to health. It is a miracle of creative love. For with that rare selfless devotion to which mas has risen in great moment of history, bands of Jewish boy and girls from the squalid ghettos of eastren Europre have redeemed for the coming generations of their people what had been lost for centuries.
When I landed,dynamos were zooming their deep basso on the spot where Jonah took ship in Jaffa. An entire city, Tel Aviv, spot less and white , had sprouted from the barren aand dunes to the north. in the seaboard region I walked through an endless array of of orange groves whose parfume in springtime mingled with that of the rose field of Sharon.
Olive skinned jewish boys were dragging baskets of earth up the mountain slopes and restoring the vine terraces and the hanging gardens of Solomon.
A hydraulic pump plunked out its rhytmic singsong at that ford on the Yarmuk river where, the legend says, the Majestic figure of Abraham entere history. There where wheat fields on Armagedon , a diary farm in bogs below Gilboa where disaster overtook Saul and Jonathan, prospectors at work in the blood -drenched land of the Philistines, surveyrs setting up their instrument in Ramoth Gilead, telephone wires being strung out to Jerico, a hydroelectric station rearing its steel towers where the Baptist met Jesus. There was talk of a real-estate boom in Sodom. Costly machinery was being installed on the shores of the Dead Sea to extract the sixteen-billion-dolars chemical treasure in the accured lake.That was the Palestine I saw.

2.Travel Around The Holyland
(1)Travel in Holyland does not mean the same thing to everybody. In our time, to feel that there is a tie which binds all of us Westren-ers to that little notch of land on the eastren shore of the Mediterranean. Yet, it was in this insignificant country,from the heart of an insignificant tribe of nomads, that there sprang the impulse which gave humanity a new hope and a new vision , annihilating the ancients gruesme wheel of fate and put in its place the conception of the oneness, the holiness and the abso-luteness God, which is the final condition of the oneness of man and the vital source of History wherein grows the root of freedom and humanity.
It was not Palestines natural beauty which attracted me, the amizing white light of the sun, the magic night when the stars swayed to and fro like lightships dancing on the swell of darkened sea and heaven seemed so near that you felt like reaching out and touching it with your fingers.It was the mystery of it all-the mysery of Israel, the mystery of taht people whose history is a series of Gesta Dei per Hebraeos, a people, as Danis de Rouge-mont said, Like no other in that it has sacrificed philosophy, fine arts , sciense, industry , all culture, in fact, for the accomp-lishments of one thing, a spiritual vocation. If the Palestine is the Jews national home , it is my spiritual home.
The Alps are undoubtedly more impressive than Hermon and the Lebanon. The Jordan cannot be compared with the majesty of the Danube, the mississippi or Rhine. By the side of Baalbek and the Acropolis, the Holylands ruin are lowly heaps of dust. I met tourists, among the Jews, to whom a visit to palestine seemed a waste of time and money. They found that there was little to please the eye and yet. Jerusalem was and remains the city of cities, the Holy City, the heart and soul of humanity. Deeper than any other motif, that of religion has been woven into the texture of mankinmds evolution. That motif came from Jerusalem.
(2) I went the rounds of the holy places like any other pilgrim. Their gaudiness dismayed me. The commercialization of sacred shrines of dubious authenticity . A Franciscan monk led me, half-a;dollar taper in gand, up a stairway in the basilica of the Tomb and said we stood on Calvary. I saw a goat nibbling grass next t the chapel erected on the spot where once, my guide explained , stood the veritable cross. An Abyssinian priest, sutprised in his morming ablutions on the roof, grinned in a friendly fashion and dressed hastilly to collect a few coppers.
Through the thorns and weed of Gethsemane’s garden, I waded to a cave said to be The Real Grave prepared by Joseph f Arimathea. I put my hand, for half a shilling, on an imprint in a wall on the Via Dolorosa where Christ supported himself on the way to Golgotha.
I saw Greek and Latin monk chase each other around with brooms in the holiest shrine of Christendoom. I sat with a local English official who explained his presence in the basilica as the end of a search for the coolest place in twn ; I attended a Mass celebrated by the Latin Patriach and heard the Greek clergy, before the Patriach had intoned the Ite,Missa est, start a racket with bells and gongs because the Latin service had that day impinged for half a minute on the time allotted the Eastren rite.
I stuck it out to the bitterend and viewed the basin made in Germany, in which Jesus was said to have washed the feet of his diciples at the Last Supper; I beheld the saddle-yes,the saddle- on which He rode into Jerusalem on Palm Sunday, and I came away with the coin (sold to me by a sly Arab for ten Piasters) lost by the women in the parable. When I scraped the dirt off it later, I saw the rubiscund effigy of King Carlos of Portugal and the date 1898.

That was the Old city, the Jerusalem of the past, of moldering ruins and sacred sites, f fakirs and beggars, pilgrims and tourists, crumbling synagogues monasteries, of the Wailing Wall and the multitudinus bazaars. There, in a perpetual twilight, in the Stables of Solomon, brown men and Black men, men with green turbans and dirty headclthes, men with fuzzy bonners of rabbitskin-all push and stumble their way foward over the slippery cobblestone in a Labyrinthine maze f alleys, rubbing elbow with English soldier in tropical uniform.
Greek priests with parasols and cylindrical hats, Protestant pastords with Roman collars, Dominican monks with Bombay hats, veiled women in soiled clothes that drag in the filth, half naked camel drivers, Badouin peasants, Chasidic rabbis, Mohammedan ulemas (Ulama), blind mendicants rattling jingling silver bells, hashis peddlers. Levantine guides , Russian nuns, Syrian money-changers, Ethiopian manuscript writers, Turkish dragonmans, Arabian Sheiks, Greek tourist agent, Armenian prelated and egyptian porters.
Every second hole in the wall is a refresment parlor with a gramaphone going full blast. From an early hour the bazaar roars with the shouting and bellwing of Marchants, huckters and beggars. Each guild or confraternity has its own destinctive call. A camel drivers demand for passage in an unerthly searching yell, a blind man announces his approach with the monotonous singsong call of the hoot owl, while the porters , bent low under staggering lads, emit growls like wild beast if they do not simply rely n bumping thei way through.
Every transaction before the vegetable stalls make you think of preliminary sparring in a prize fight. instead of the American rule that the customer is alway right, the bazaars fundamental principle seems to require a demonstration of blazing enmity towards a prospective client,
A Policeman elbows his way through the crwd and traffics begins to mve again. Life ges on , Moslem, Believers. beloved of Allah, take a look at these gift from God. They can he had for asking. Brighten the eyes of your spuses. Take a pound of grapes from my stores.

4.Under the Jaffa Gate
Under the high vault of the Jaffa Gate, acoal-black storyteller hunched down, put his begging bowl in front on the flagstone and waits for some customers to collect. Presently a group of strolling Bedouins , on a visit to Jerussalem, click their coins in the box and squat down in a semicircle arun the Nubian. He begins talking to them in a whisper so that they have to bend their heads fward to catch his word.That story will be retold tonight in the villages of the Plain.

5.Watch a cockfighting
On a quet side street men and women are squatting in a circle to watch a cockfight. They laungh like happy children as one rooster picks out his opponents left eye.The spectacle is interrupted by the arrival of individual who is rolling ver the ground.

6.The boy and a Islamic Holy man
A boy calls out that we are in the presence of a holy man. He expects to roll all the way to Mecca. The holy roller bellows at the top of his voice that Allah is God and Mohammed Gods prophet. He has accumulated so much dirt n his garment that he looks like animated bale of dung. His wife brings up the rear guard, clinking the collection box and toting a sleeping baby on her back. The child is almst hidden under a quivering mass of verdigris -flies.

7. Call to prayer
Just before sunset, when the muezzins sing out theirulutating call to prayer, the bazaar suddenly grows silent as a tmb. In less tha an hour all activities ceases, the shop are made invisible by the row of shutters, and the only sound in the night is the echo of the slow step of the military watchmen in the vaulted passages.

III.Palestina in 1929

1. The New Jerusalem
The new jerusalem lies outside the walls.Spread out over a dozen hills, it has grown far beyond the limits of the city of both the Solomonian or the Herodian epoch. Brand-new suburbs encompass it. These are inhabited by the jewish intelligensia, the modern businessman and officialdom. Jaffa road, with its European cafes, restaurants, movies, concert halls, bookshops, bankimg houses, art exhibits and shop, is the central artery where a cosmoplitan night life is developing. In daytime this district is teeming with activity. A distinctive Hebraic style of architecture had not yet made its appearance. The influence of Le Corbusier and Berlage was predominant in the suburbs, while in the more elaborate ediffices culd be detected. Building, making room,redeeming the soil , creating possibilities for the steady flow of newcomers, setting up new industies-these were the major objectives when first i visit the land in 1926.

3.Visit to Hulda
In the mnth f June,1929, the gvernment’s inspectr came n his usual mnthly visit t Hulda and tld the headman of the clny :’I have rders to take these rifles away’ “Why,? asked the Jews.’Did we ever misuse them?’ ‘No, I d not think you ever took them out of the box except n the occasion when I came here to inspect them’ replied the inspector,’But it is a general rule. All these armories are to be called in’ ‘But’ , stameed the Jew,’these guns are our nly guarantee of security. The Arabs in the neighbring villages knw ftheir presence. If they get t knw that the guns are gne, we will be in danger. No! I will not give up these riffles withut a written rder frm the chief of the military department in Jerusalem.’
‘The Inspector shrugged his shulders. But on his next visit, he had the written rder from the government , signed by the chief inspector of His Majesty’s military frces in palestine. “If yu must tahe away is ur nly prtectin.’ sain the Jew to the englishman,’please take them away in the night so that the Arabs ut there in the surrunding villages will nt know they have been remved. Desd that sund fair t yu?’ “Very fair’ said the Inspector.
4.Visit the Zionist colonies
The Zionist or Jewish colonization wrk in Palestine was distinguished frm all other enterprises of a similar character in the wrld by the daring nature and the greet freedom of it social and ecnomic experiment. Man may make his chice f a half dozen different scialist and c-perative formulas before entering as established colony or founding a new settlement.

5.Arabs Attack Talpiot
We fund work going n normally in the colonies. The Arabs had only attacked places where they knew that n or little resistance culd be offered, for instance in Talpiot, aresidential suburb of Jerusalem, where many of the professrs f the Hebrew university lived.

6.Village Aim Harod
The central village, Ain Harod, which gives its name t the cantn, is the largest single socialistic agricultural experiment carried n in Palestine. In 1929 Ain Harod was already entirely self-sustaining and self-sufficinet. It pssessed a small canning plant, a shoe factry, abrick factry, acommunal bakery and a clothing factory. At Aim Harod we found the ancient Tomb of Harod

7. Habima the National Hebrew Theater
The Habima, the national Hebrew theater, agrup f the mst talented artist in the world , fmerly of Moscw aaand Paris, andnow established in Tel Aviv, gave regular performances in thecommunal halls f thse colonies in Esdraelon, where lecture cuorses on every conceivable subject in the world wre currently given.

8.Jews al cafes of Tel Aviv
When this type of Jewish burgeis consents to visit Palestine-for in the end they all cme, he prefered to sit in the boardwalk cafes of Tel Aviv and discuss the fall and rise of real estate, the perfrmance of the habima Theater and the latest developments of the Arab question.

9.The Christian Pilgrim
Tourist seldom visit those Socialist clnies, Christian pilgrimages t the holy land nt at all. The pilgrims, of whom there are still thousands going to the Holy land each year in spite of Russia’s elimination frm the pius traffic, spend a few dayss around the holy places; Naxareth, Bethany, Bethlehem, Eammaus. They never bother to look at one of the most modernistic colonization schemes in the world. And this is nt merely indifference. Many of the leaders f pilgrimage, whether frm France, Belgium, Ireland, Germany and Pland, I met on boats caoming from or ging t the Holyland on my annual visits t Palestine were deeply indignant over the fact that Jews were fishing in the Lake of Tiberias, fr instance, or that adiary farm had been laid ut r a hydroelectric statin put up near sme spot were christ nce lingered. Galilee, intheir idea , should have remained as it was , undisturbed and petic, as in the days when the Lord walked n earth.

10.Hotel Amdursky in Jerusalem
AsI alighted from my car ne evening, shaking the dust off my feet in front of the Hotel Amdursky in Jerusalem after a sizzlingly hot trip frm Galilee, the proprietor of the establishment, an old man with a beard like Aarn’s, wh was of the establisment, an old of evening n the prch with some fellw patriarchs, walked up t me swiftly and, talking me aside with a great ado of mystery, whispered in my ear,’There are a cuple of Jews waiting t see you’
“What? A cuple of Jews in Jerusalem ? surely that is nothing t get excited about.
“Wait till you see this delegation and yu will change your opinion’ he assure me.
‘Where are they?’
“In the parlr n the first flor. They have been waiting since eleven ‘clck this morning. They say they must see you n a most urgent matter’ He chuckeld and ndded his head meaningfully as he stumbled up the stairs in his embridered slippers to annunce my arrival. We followed the proprietor t the parlor, Marek Schwartz and i.
two men rse frm the red plush divan as we entered the room. They came fward, bowing several times in grave salutain :’Shalom! peace upon You!’ One was a youth with a cal-black beard and hollow cheeks. He had the largest pair f eyes I ever saw in ahuman being, except the Negus of Ethipia-the kind of eyes Max Band likes to paint : shimmering pol f Jet with a flame in the pupils. I nticed that he kept his hands in the sleeves of his violet caftan like a Chines mandarin.
Kis cmpanion was an old man who n a stick and whose beard almost came down to his waist. Bth wre the fuzzy bonnets which the CHasidim have brught with them from carpatho-Russia: those strange cntraptions f yellow bushy fur which seemed the most incongruos headgear a man could possibly wear in the blistering heat f a Judean summer.
“Please be seated, Father’ Marek Schwartz , who was to serve as interpreter, said in Hebrew.
The oldman looked at him reproachfully ‘ We do not use the holy language in day life’ he said “we are nt Zinist!’
“That makes it easier, for then we’ll all speak yiddish’ I interupted. ‘Kabbalist’ whispered Marek. “what can I do for you,sir?’ I asked , when the ldman refused a glass of tea, althugh he must have been starving. He signified his intentin to remain standing during the interview.
‘Are yu Mr van Paasen?’ he began. “That is my name’.”Yu are a friend f the Jewish people?’ ‘I dnot like the expression, Master’ I said.”Has anyone ever heard f afriend f the bulgarian peple r f a friend f Albania.There t ften an element f cndescensin in that term” ‘ Yu have spken well’ he answered,’But yu are nevertheless a friend. Were yu not instrumental in having some Jews set free from Jail’. ‘ I may have had smething to do with that.’ ‘yu are a friend f Israel then. We cannt repay you fr yur arvices.’ ‘h, that is all right,Father. I have dne nothing-I only wish i culd…’ ‘The Eternal ne, blessed be He, will himself reward yu. It is said: the holy nes amongst the Gentliles…..’
‘Please , Master, d nt include me in their cmpany. I assue yu I am nt worthy’ ‘ Yu are in positin t do smething for Israel.’ he resumed after pause. ‘ I would be most happy to do that.’ ‘It may be difficult for yu, for I do nt know yur circumstances.’ He went n’ But we think yu can be f immense services to us the Jews here in Palestine and to all the world.You must leave the Holuland at nce!” ‘Leave Palestine?At nce?’ I gasped i n amazement.” How can I be f the slightest service to yu if I leave this cunty. D yu mean that I shuld go to England r Geneva and relate the plight f the Jews?’
The oldman made a gesture of annyance.’God forbid!’ he said, thrwing up his hand.” That wuld be wrse than remaining here.’ ‘The what is it?’ “Yu see , it is this way.’ he said, moving a little clser and talking with great earnestness.”We are Kabbalists. We have a hly bk called Zar, the bok f light. Now there is a prophecy in that bok which has bearing n the very time we are living. The prphecy says that there will cme a day when three rabbis wil be slain in a city f the south’ He came still closer until ur faces were but a few inches apart.’ Now, in the book f Zar it is further said that seven times seven weeks after the slaying f these Rabonim , Messiah will come.’
‘Yes?’ ‘ But in the interval the Jews must suffer and suffer as they have never suffered befre. They must suffer till their cries f pain are heard in heaven, till the external ne blessed be HE, takes pity n them’. He paused a mment and lked at me appealingly.’Donnot you see.’ He said.’ what you are doing? If you succeed, yu delay the coming of Messiah. You see ? wonnot you plese go away, leave this country s that yu will nt to be tempted t help the jews. The best way to help the jewish peple is to let them suffer. You would not stand in the way f Messiah , wuld you?. “God frbid!’ I said in turn.’ I prmise yu t leave in a few days!’ The yungman kissed my hands in gratitude,

10.The Palestine Post of Jerusalem
By a freak f circumstances I was the nly correspondent whose reports and observatin on the disturbances in Palestie were published in Jerusalem itself. They were relayed from Newyork to London , whence a syndicate distributed them t its member papers in Europe and asia , of which The Palestine Post of Jerusalem was one. Every word I wrote therefre culd be srutinized daily by Arab, Jews and british alike.
11.Omar Mosque Jerusalem
Falsified photgraphs showing the mar mosque of Jeusalem in ruins, with an inscriptin that the edifice had been bombed by the Zionist, were handed out to the Arabs of Hebron as they were leaving their place of worship n Friday evening. August the twentythird. a Jew passing by n his way to the synagogue was stabbed to death. When he learned f the murder, Rabbi Slonim, a man born and bred in the city and afriend of the Arab ntables, notified the British Police commander that the Arabs seemed t be strangely excited.He was told t mind his own bussiness. An hur later the synagogue was attacked by a mob, and the Jews at preywr were slaughtered. n the saturday morning following, the Yeshiva r theological seminary, which stand away from the center of the town on the road to Jerusalem, was put to the sack, and thestudents were slain. A delegation of Jewish citizen thereuponset out to visit the police station, but was met by the Lynchers. The jews returned and tok refuge in the huse of Rabbi Slonim, where they remained until evening, when the mob appeared before the door. Unable to batter it down, the Arabs climbed up the trees at the rear f the huse and, dropping onto the balcony,entered through the windows on the first floor.
Mounted police-Arab troopers in the service of the government- had appeared outside by this time, and sme of the Jews ran down the stairs of Slonims house and out into the roadway. They implored the policemen to dismount and protect their friends and realtives inside the house and clung around the necks of the horses. From upper windows came the terrifying screms of the old people, but the police galloped off, leaving the boys in the road to be cut down by Arabs arriving frm all side for the orgy of blood. When I visited the place in the company f captai marek Schwarts, a former Austrian artilerry officer and Mr Erns Davies ,correspondent of the ld Berliner Tageblatt, the blood stdnin ahuge on the slightly stonefloor of the house. Clocks,crockery, tables and windows had beens smasahed to smithereens. Of the unlted articles, not a single item had been left intact except a large black-and-white photograph f Dr Theodore Herzl, the founder of plitical Zionism. Around the pictures frame the murderes had draped the blood-drenched underwear of a women,
We stod silently contemplating the scene of slaughter when the door was flung open bu a British soldier with fixed bayonet. (oh my God why must that happened between the same humans, only because the different religious , I prayed to God with hope no more murdered anymore in Palestine)


(1)Ai Hameen el Husseini,Grand Mufti f Jerusalem proved to be an amiable youngmab with a sikken red beard, a disharming smile and big blue saucer-eyes. Ein gemutlichcher Viennese one might have said, had he been dressed in a frock cat striped trosers. Only he was not attired in the European stylist. He wore a gown of dark red silk and on his head a white cloth wrapped around a green fez, in token of an accomplished pilgrimage to Mecca. His strinkingly Nordic features clothes in that Oriental costume made him look like a European dressed up for a masquerade ball. I had waited for ten minutes in an antechamber where a mixed crowd of ulemas, eunuchs, beggars and bodyguards was poosted to impress the stranger with the importance of the man who was about to recieve me in audience.Before being ushered into a high-ceilinged chamber overlooking the garden of the mosque of Omar.

(2)I had also been prompted to address the Grand Mufti with the title of Eminence. The advice came from Jamal el Husseini, the Grand Muftis cousin and chief secretary. Once inthe great mans presence, I was informed by Jamal that His Eminence was a direct lineal descendant of Mohammeds only daughter, Fatima , and a prospective candidate for the office of Khalif-ul-Islam.
When I opened my eyes rather incredulously at this startling announcement, the secretary went on to say that it was generally recognized in the Mohammedan world that since the apostasy of Kemal Pasha and his deposition of the Turkish Sultan, the office of supreme spiritual head of islam should be more suitable for the positian than -? He bowed in the direction of his smiling cousin. I also bowed. I coul seen Ai Hameen liked the Idea tremendously.

(3) But, I asked naively, isnot His Majesty Ibn Saud of the Wahabites also candidate? But that is neither here nor there, the mufti interupted in a pompous Levantine French. He wanted to know where I was staying. He hoped that I had found confertable quaters, for my stayin in the Holyland, he thought,was going to be a long one. We were in for quite a spell of restlessmess- in fact, the disturbances, he brusquely announced, wouldnot terminate till both the Jews and the English had evacuated Palestine. When I said that I was stopping atvthe Hotel Allenby, the two cusin threw up their hand in consternation and said, What, in a Jewish Hotel? In that breeding nest of anti Arabic intreque?. I ttold him that all the correspondents I knew were staying there and that we had the acting High Commissioner for dinner on the previous evening.
‘Incredible!, came the reply. ‘What seems more incredible to me’I said. ‘is that your Eminence should think that the English are ever going to go home or that the Zionist will give up their plan for redeeming the land of Israel’.
‘There will be no peace in this country until they go’,declared the Mufti.’In the English we recognize our real enemies. It is the British government and not the Jews who have foisted the snadalous Balfour declaration on us. It is Ramsay Mac Donald who has misrepresented the situation in this Holy Land in his book Palestine. We have clearly shown the world out attitude in this issue and we are determined t fight in ut to the end’ , he added,
‘The British will have to put a soldier with a bayonet in front of every Jews if they want peace without a whlesale oxodus of the jews. Our peple are at the end of their patience. They cannot bear the sight of the Jews any longer’
“The outbreaks are to be taken as an organized attempt on the part of the arabs, under the leadership of Your Eminence, to
thwart the establishment of a Jewish home in Palestine?’ I asked.
Hameen was on the point of replying in this question, when Jamal stayed him. The two cousins exchanged a few remarks in Arabic.
At the end of their consultation Jamal informed me that His Eminence was going to furnish me with a written declaration at the close of the audience. I wan now asked tohonor him by accepting a cup of coffee.

(4) The Grand Mufti was toying with a gold box of cigarettes. He eyed me from the side, but when I turned my head and loked him in the face he smiled-the same candid baby smile he had worn when I entered. He asked me to step over to the open window to take a look at the garden while a black servant in awhite gown arranged the trays on the low table of carved ivory

(5)’Please tell me’,resumed the Grand Mufti, when we had taken our seat again and he hat lit a fresh cigaret,’What is the general impression in the world on the present deplrable situation in Palestine/what is your personal view? You have been in Palestine before; I understand you live in Paris. Surely, you have formed an opinion? Who is held responsible for these horrible outbreaks? the French people do understand, I trust!’
‘It is my personal opinin’I said. ‘that these riot were an attept to strike terror in the hearts of the Zionists at amoment when they had secured the co-operatin of an influential section of Jewry to speed up Palestines industrial and agricultural develpment.This bloodshed was intended t patalyze the process of building a Jewish National Home.Am I right?’
The Mufti did not reply,’cntinuez, je vous prie’ he said.
‘As to the respnsibility’Icontinued,’for what Your Wminence calls these horrible utbreaks, public pinion in france and in America, I am sorry to say, points directly to yourself and nt only in those distant countries, the most influential newspaper in Egypt, La Bourse Egyptiene, inone of its latest issues to arrive here in Jerusalem, declares that the murder of the Palestine Jews in an echo of the Muftis inflmmatory exhorations in themosque’.
At these words the grandon of the Prophet jumpede up from the divan, threw his cigaret away, and quickly walked toward
s me, his eyes blazing with anger, Jamal casually uncovered his belt so that two silver-handled daggers came into view. The Mufti was striding up and down the room with quick nervous steps. His fury made him gnash his teeth.’Your Eminence asked me a question’I said, ‘ I answered truthfully. Why grow angry? I came here to find out to what extent the foreign public opinion is in terror’.
His Eminence calmed dwn at once.He lit a new cigaret,’Lok at these hands’ he said dramatically, stretching ut his rose-perfumed palms,’These is no blood n these hands. I declare before God that I have n share in the shedding f Jewish blood.Moreover’, he went on,’it is nt true that foreign public pinion favors the Jews. We have distinct evidence to the contrary. We have telegrams from Moscow upholding our stand. nly this morning we had awire from henri Barbusse, president of the Antiimperialist League in Paris, assuring us of the sympathy of the members of his organization in our struggle agains the Balfur declaration and Jews usurpation.Why,’ He went on,’the whole Moslem world is solidity behind the Arab people of Palestine. Mass demonstrations of prtest are held every day in the large egyptian cities. I have a telegraphic offer from his Majesty,King Ibn Saud of Hejaz, so send an army of a hundred thousand men across Trans-Jordan to chase the Jews out of Palestine.’
‘However, we donot need the Kings aid’ the Mufti went on,’We will win by means of an economic bycott. The Jewish industries in Palestine cannot exist without the market of the surrounding Arabic countries. We have proclaimed a world boycott against Jewish goods. That boyctt is growing tighter every day. we will nt rest till the Jewish industries are broken and the English, in pity, tke their Jewish proteges away on thei battleships’
‘It is a horrible shame t put responsibility of these riots at the feet of the Arabs. it is crime. a dstardly ignominy. The Arab is a kind and loyal creature. The Jews, frtunetely, cannot easily forget what Colonel Lawrence has said of the Arabs. We are not murderers or fiends. I would have you understand, Why do you say Arabs are responsible for this slaughter?’
‘Did those Jewish women , children and old men in Hebron , Lifta and Safed commitsuicide ?’ I asked.
‘No’, snapped the Mufti,’we were provoked . We were challenged in our hliest pssesions. The Hebron Arabs learned that the Jews had decided to drive them out, to push them into the sea. The Jews are syealing our land. They want everythng we have’ The Mufti broke down and buried his head in his hands,’My country is being runined by the Jews,’ he turned up a dramatically tearful face,’ My country,Palestine, just when we had shaken off the Turkish yoke and turned up the rad of freedom’
‘The Turkish yoke?’ Iasked,’ Did your Eminence not serve a volunteer in the Turkish army?
At this question the Mufti looked straight at his cusin, said something in Arabic, and left the room.
‘Could I see the telegram from Barbuse and from King Ibn Saud?’ Iasked Jamal.”Cpies will be attached to the document yu will find at your hotel later in the day’,he replied.
‘one more question pleas ‘, I said, turning to Jamal:’on that fateful Friday in august, when the rioting broke out in Jerusalem after the morning service in the msque, where was His Eminence?’
‘He was in Amman ,capital of TransJordan . Why do yu asked?’
‘The Egyptian press avers that His Eminence applied for a visa to go to Syria to escape a possible accusation that his sermon that mrning had incited the Moslems to draw the sword, but he was refused by the French authorities’.
‘ His Eminence was in Amman, I tell you. Why do yu pay attention to the gossip column in an egyptian newspaper? I thought you had cometo find out the truth’
“Quite,’ I said,’that is what I have come for, but it is true, is it not, that alarge number of out-of-town Moslems attended the service in te mosque that morning?’ “There were some,ndoubt’ ,’Peasant frm the Muftis family estates?’ “I cannt tell, why do you aske?’ “I ask because the sentence f seven years at hard labor which the gvernment of Palestine impsed his Eminence in 1920 was to punish him fr previous seditious sermon in which he called upon village leaders to bring their men into Jerusalem to exterminate the jews’
‘His eminence never was in prison’. ‘I know that he fled to damascus. It was sir Herbert Samuel wh amnestied him two years later.’
‘You ught to be careful’ warned Jamal, as i wnet out,’that you do not get poisoned in that Jewish hotel’
‘Or shot frmambush on the road t Bethelhem?’ I retorted,


1.The Balfour declaration
Why were these bloody outbreaks agains the Jews inPalestine occuring at almost regular intervals? Who was the Mufti ? Why did England permit this upstart madman, who was a government officeholder, to wreck a scheme that England had promised to bring to a successful isue? Were the Zionist trying to force something down the Arabs throat?Was the Jew pushing the Arab off the land/ And If so, was the british overlord permitting that in justice to be perpetrated on the original inhibitants ofthe country, the people whose civic and religious rights he was pledge to protect undre the very terms of the balfour Declaration? What role was England playing in Palestine/ and finally,was british power,which hold miilions in India within bounds of law and order, insufficient to cople with a few thousand riots Arabs in Palestine? I had been sent to investigate the questions in 1929. I admit that I was symphatic to the aims of the Jewish national movement of which the rebuilding of Palestine is the central motif. The idea of Palestines redemption seemed a fascinating adventure to me. To behold the land of Jesus rise again from the dust was something to which I looked foward with anticipation. In order to wrest this land from the hands of the Moslem, all Christendom had once faced East. Of course, I wa not looking foward to a new Crusade. I entertained no feeling f antipathy towards the Arabs. On the contrary, I commiserated deeply with their hard lot under Turkish domination and under a rapacious landlord class of feudal nobles.BUt I agreed with Lord Cecil, Smuts, and Lloyd George that Palestines liberation from the tUrkish yoke was one of the few relly wort-while things horn out of the Great War. As the son of a Bible people, I looked foward with lively anticipation towards the fulfillment of the age-old dream of the jewish people. But I was upwilling that the Hebraic Renaissance should come about at the expense of the palestinian Arabs. If Jewish nationalism should have attempted to grow strong by discriminating against the Arabs, I would have been willing to champion the cause of the Arabs.
It will perhaps be argued that the objectivity of my approach to the Plaestinian problem was vitiated by a pre-existent symphaty with the aims of the Jewish national movement. The Arab leader took this view at once when they became aware of the nature of my published observation in the American press. The Mufti of jerusalem led off with a vehement denuciation in the Arabic newspapers of Palestine ,Syria and Egypt. I was called a hireling of the jews who had been sent to concoct anti Arabic propaganda. The press campaign for my expulsion from the holy Land was too clearly an attempt to divert public attention from the implications of the murderous assault upo peaceful Jewish settlements to have merited a refutation. Not my journalistic activity in the holyland, but, rather, the muftis personal share of responsibility in the massacre wa one of the things that required investigation. I would therefore not have paid the slightest notice to the personages verbal fuminations,considering that I had merely done my duty in pointing to him as the evil puppeteer in the bloody disturbance, if it were not that I began to recieve telephone calls and anonymous letters threating me with violence and even death.There were not idle thraets,either.On two occasions I was fired on by Arab snipers. I oqed my life the presnce of mind of my friend, Captai Marck Schwartz and his chauffeur, Menachen Katan, who had managed to circumvent one ambush which had been prepared in ths neighborhood of Lifta and another one near bethelhem. On bth occasions we had come safely through the shower of bullets that bet downon our car. But when I reported the second attack to the commander of the british police post in Hebron, this gentleman, a certain Captain Saunders, remarked : I should think that half the fun of being a journalist is to go about unarmed and still comethrough these scrapes unscathed. Moreever, he added, Why do these thing happen to you ? I have recieved no complaints from your colleagues ofthe press in jerusalem.
upon my return to Jerusalem that day something flew past my head as I was about to enter the hotel. I saw a dagger quivering in the doorpst. Had it not been that some boys ofthe Haganah, the Jewish self-defense Corps, voluntarily constituted themselves into abodyguard, the intimation ofthe palestine government that my further presence in Palestine was undesirable would, I feel , have been quite unnecesssary.
I believe my offense was that I tok either the jewish or the Arabic propaganda bureus. I questioned everybody, from the Mufti down to the mst destitue Arabic peasants in the country and the murderous hooligans in the jails of hebron and jerusalem who had been caught, their blooddripping knives in hand. Only when I refused to accepttbthe explanations of a spontaneous uprising aginst the Jews, with which the Mufti and his agents and spokeman sought to impress foreign correspondents, in several instances quite successfylly, did the mufti denounce me as a hireling of the Jews and did I become persona non grata at Govermen House. The conincidence was significant!.

(The Balfour declaration informations, please click The Bristish Mandate Palestine War in this blog)

2.Britain parried that threat with a concentartion in Egypt of Indian and Australian Troops
Britain parried the threat of The Germano Turkish army with a concentratin in Egypt of Indian and Australian trops, who first repulsed the Turkish attack and the crossed to the Arabian penisula where, two year later, after certain Arabic tribes had been persuaded by Colonel T.E.Lawrence, on the prmise of boundless lot, t revolt against the Turk, the age-old Ottoman dminion over Arabia was brken by General Allenby. In this campaign Palestine fell into British hand in the latter part f 1917, ahortly after lord balfour, the British Foreingn Secretatry. made public his famous note , known as the balfour Declaration, whein the British gvernemnt declare itself favrly disposed towards the establisment of a National Home for the Jewish people in Palestine.
The Holyland ccupation by the British armies was the culmination f a struggle for supremacy between rival imperialism in the Near and Middle East.
At the request of the Jewish people, represent by the Zionist rganization, Britain was charged by the League of Nations t assume the mandate over the Holyland. at the cnference of San Remo in 1920, the mandate was ratified by all the Leagues members, fifty-three states in all, and subsequently under the terms f a saparate diplmatic instrument by the USA. Befre ratifying, the then Secretary f States, Mr Bainbridge Colby, specifically asked Britain whar her intentions were in the Hly Land, and the answer Lord Curzn gave was that England had but ne objective-the facilitatin of the building of a National Home for the Jewish people. However,even before the ratification of the mandate, Britain had taken charge of Palestine and had placed the administratin f the cuntry in the hands of the Colnial Office, instead of the Foreign ffice as France had done in the case Syria.

2. Mossulini occupation Ethopia
For Mussolini’s conquest of Ethopia has made f Eritrea a most frmidable ptential threat to British communication with India, the far East and the antipodean dominins of Australia and New zealand. Before Ethiopia passed into Italian hands the value of Eritre as a military and naval basa on the Red Sea was nullified by an Ethiopia that was friendly to Britain and that could, in the event of a war between Britain and Italy, be quickly militarized thrugh Kenya and the Sudan, and thus become a threat in Mussolini’s Back (click The British Mandate palestine in this blg thoe lok at the illustration of British Kenya Army . British Australia and India army postal History).
Mossulini was therefore nt wrng when he denunced the Ethiopian Empire as a menace to Italy’s imperium, and his ccupation of that land was amaster stroke f imperialist maneuvering. Furthermore , the installatin of Italian gun emplacements at Ceuta n the North Afican coast opposite Gibraltar has seriusly dimished the value f that ancient rck as a key position of British imperial power, it become clear that palestine and Cyprus are britain’s nly remaining bases for the naval, aerial and land defense of the Suez Canal.

1.The Peel Commision’sInvetigatin 1937
Without a word of warning, Britain cut down the propsal f a Jewish state in a partitioned Palestine, made by and adopted by Briatin after the Peel Commision’s inverstigatin in 1937- a scheme under which the Jews were to contrl no mre that four hundred square miles. Not only did this encourage the Arab natinalist t keep up the campaign of terrorism but it may well have provoked the jews, in turn, to measures f violence. A full-fledged civil war in Palestine wuld given Britain the excuse to say that neither f the two parties is mature for self-gvernment-and the Jewish Natinal Hme shuld be allowes t stagnate.

Of an abandonment or even a curtailment f the scpe of the Jewish nationalHome, by a cessatin or a limitation f Jewish immigartion into Palestine, there must be and there can be n quesrion. It is true that if brstruction be England’s plan-all signs point t such an eventuality-the Zinist mvement and the Jewish peple will probably have neither the strength nor the plitical influence to parry so cruel and so undeserved a blow. But other have. And ther must act. for the Jewish problem, of which Palestine is the kernel, in no longer an academic question on which men can afford t debate and discourse at Leissure. By their stracism of the Jew, the Fascist states have made of the Jewish question an integral and inseparable part of the greater problem confrontating civilization one that can no longer solved by the establisment of partial or rtemprary havens of refuge.

3. Not All Jewish People were expect to come to Palestine
Not all Jewish people were expected to come to Palestine because the geographical limits f the cuntry wuld nt have permitted the settlement of so great a number. nly a kernel f the jewish people,withdrawn from the galuth, wa to there build a civilizatin marked by the ethos f the hebraic spirit and make a cntribution t the sum ttal f human civilization in accordance with the natinal character and the natinal genius of the Jewish people.


As the British Mandate for Palestine was expiring, the 1947 UN Partition Plan recommended “the creation of a special international regime in the City of Jerusalem, constituting it as a corpus separatum under the administration of the United Nations.”[98] The international regime (which also included the city of Bethlehem) was to remain in force for a period of ten years, whereupon a referendum was to be held in which the residents were to decide the future regime of their city. However, this plan was not implemented, as the 1948 war erupted, while the British withdrew from Palestine and Israel declared its independence.[99] The war led to displacement of Arab and Jewish populations in the city. The 1,500 residents of the Jewish Quarter of the Old City were expelled and a few hundred taken prisoner when the Arab Legion captured the quarter on 28 May.[100][101] The Arab Legion also attacked Western Jerusalem with snipers.[102]

Division and reunification 1948–1967

Further information: Positions on Jerusalem
See also: UN General Assembly Resolution 194 and Occupation of the West Bank and East Jerusalem by Jordan

Israeli policemen meet a Jordanian Legionnaire near the Mandelbaum Gate

The war of 1948 resulted in Jerusalem being divided, with the old walled city lying entirely on the Jordanian side of the line. A no-man’s land between East and West Jerusalem came into being in November 1948: Moshe Dayan, commander of the Israeli forces in Jerusalem, met with his Jordanian counterpart Abdullah el Tell in a deserted house in Jerusalem’s Musrara neighborhood and marked out their respective positions: Israel’s position in red and Jordan’s in green. This rough map, which was not meant as an official one, became the final line in the 1949 Armistice Agreements, which divided the city and left Mount Scopus as an Israeli exclave inside East Jerusalem.[103] Barbed wire and concrete barriers ran down the center of the city, passing close by Jaffa Gate on the western side of the old walled city, and a crossing point was established at Mandelbaum Gate slightly to the north of the old walled city. Military skirmishes frequently threatened the ceasefire. After the establishment of the State of Israel, Jerusalem was declared its capital. Jordan formally annexed East Jerusalem in 1950, subjecting it to Jordanian law.[99][104] Only the United Kingdom and Pakistan formally recognized such annexation, which, in regard to Jerusalem, was on a de facto basis.[105] Also, it is dubious if Pakistan recognized Jordan’s annexation.[106][107]

After 1948, since the old walled city in its entirety was to the east of the armistice line, Jordan was able to take control of all the holy places therein, and contrary to the terms of the armistice agreement, Israelis were denied access to Jewish holy sites, many of which were desecrated. 34 of the 35 synagogues in the Old City ,including the Hurva and the Tiferet Yisrael Synagogue, were destroyed over the course of the next 19 years, either razed or used as stables and hen-houses. Many other historic and religiously significant buildings were replaced by modern structures.

Jordan allowed only very limited access to Christian holy sites.[109] During this period, the Dome of the Rock and al-Aqsa Mosque underwent major renovations.[110]

Map of East Jerusalem

In 1967, the Six-Day War saw hand to hand fighting between Israeli and Jordanian soldiers on the Temple Mount, and it resulted in Israel capturing East Jerusalem. Hence Jewish and Christian access to the holy sites inside the old walled city was restored, while the Temple Mount remained under the jurisdiction of an Islamic waqf. The Moroccan Quarter, which was located adjacent to the Western Wall, was vacated and razed[111] to make way for a plaza for those visiting the wall.[112] Since the war, Israel has expanded the city’s boundaries and established a ring of Jewish neighbourhoods on land east of the Green Line. Since 1967, Israel has gone to considerable lengths to make the sections of Jerusalem it captured in the Six Day War more Jewish.[113]

IDF Paratroopers at Western Wall shortly after its capture.[a]

However, the takeover of East Jerusalem was met with international criticism. Following the passing of Israel’s Jerusalem Law, which declared Jerusalem, “complete and united”, the capital of Israel,[114] the United Nations Security Council passed a resolution that declared the law “a violation of international law” and requested all member states to withdraw all remaining embassies from the city.[115]

The status of the city, and especially its holy places, remains a core issue in the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. The Israeli government has approved building plans in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City[116] in order to expand the Jewish presence in East Jerusalem, while prominent Islamic leaders have made claims that Jews have no historical connection to Jerusalem, alleging that the 2,500-year old Western Wall was constructed as part of a mosque.[117] Palestinians envision East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state,[118][119] and the city’s borders have been the subject of bilateral talks. A strong longing for peace is symbolized by the Peace Monument (with farming tools made out of scrap weapons), facing the Old City wall near the former Israeli-Jordanian border and quoting from the book of Isaiah in Arabic and Hebrew.[120]


View of Jerusalem Forest from Yad Vashem

Jerusalem is situated on the southern spur of a plateau in the Judean Mountains, which include the Mount of Olives (East) and Mount Scopus (North East). The elevation of the Old City is approximately 760 m (2,490 ft).[121] The whole of Jerusalem is surrounded by valleys and dry riverbeds (wadis). The Kidron, Hinnom, and Tyropoeon Valleys intersect in an area just south of the Old City of Jerusalem.[122] The Kidron Valley runs to the east of the Old City and separates the Mount of Olives from the city proper. Along the southern side of old Jerusalem is the Valley of Hinnom, a steep ravine associated in biblical eschatology with the concept of Gehenna or Hell.[123] The Tyropoeon Valley commenced in the northwest near the Damascus Gate, ran south-southeasterly through the center of the Old City down to the Pool of Siloam, and divided the lower part into two hills, the Temple Mount to the east, and the rest of the city to the west (the lower and the upper cities described by Josephus). Today, this valley is hidden by debris that has accumulated over the centuries.[122]

In biblical times, Jerusalem was surrounded by forests of almond, olive and pine trees. Over centuries of warfare and neglect, these forests were destroyed. Farmers in the Jerusalem region thus built stone terraces along the slopes to hold back the soil, a feature still very much in evidence in the Jerusalem landscape.[citation needed]

Water supply has always been a major problem in Jerusalem, as attested to by the intricate network of ancient aqueducts, tunnels, pools and cisterns found in the city.[124]

Jerusalem is 60 kilometers (37 mi)[125] east of Tel Aviv and the Mediterranean Sea. On the opposite side of the city, approximately 35 kilometers (22 mi)[126] away, is the Dead Sea, the lowest body of water on Earth. Neighboring cities and towns include Bethlehem and Beit Jala to the south, Abu Dis and Ma’ale Adumim to the east, Mevaseret Zion to the west, and Ramallah and Giv’at Ze’ev to the north.[127][128][129]

Panorama of the Temple Mount, including Al-Aqsa Mosque, and Dome of the Rock, from the Mount of Olives

The city is characterized by a Mediterranean climate, with hot, dry summers, and mild, wet winters. Snow usually occurs once or twice a winter, although the city experiences heavy snowfall every three to four years on average. January is the coldest month of the year, with an average temperature of 9.1 °C (48.4 °F); July and August are the hottest months, with an average temperature of 24.2 °C (75.6 °F), and the summer months are usually rainless. The average annual precipitation is around 550 mm (22 in), with rain occurring mostly between October and May.[130]

Most of the air pollution in Jerusalem comes from vehicular traffic.[131] Many main streets in Jerusalem were not built to accommodate such a large volume of traffic, leading to traffic congestion and more carbon monoxide released into the air. Industrial pollution inside the city is sparse, but emissions from factories on the Israeli Mediterranean coast can travel eastward and settle over the city.[131][132]

[hide]Climate data for Jerusalem (1881-2007)
Month Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Year
Record high °C (°F) 23.4
Average high °C (°F) 11.8
Daily mean °C (°F) 9.1
Average low °C (°F) 6.4
Record low °C (°F) -6.7
Rainfall mm (inches) 133.2
Avg. rainy days 12.9 11.7 9.6 4.4 1.3 0 0 0 0.3 3.6 7.3 10.9 62
Source: Israel Meteorological Service [133][134]


Population of Jerusalem
Year Total
1844 15,510
1876 25,030
1896 45,420
1922 62,578
1931 90,053
1944 157,000
1948 165,000
1967 263,307
1980 407,100
1985 457,700
1990 524,400
1995 617,000
2000 657,500
2005 706,400
2010 776,000

In December 2007, Jerusalem had a population of 747,600—64% were Jewish, 32% Muslim, and 2% Christian.[3] At the end of 2005, the population density was 5,750.4 inhabitants per square kilometer (14,893.5/sq mi).[2][135] According to a study published in 2000, the percentage of Jews in the city’s population had been decreasing; this was attributed to a higher Muslim birth rate, and Jewish residents leaving. The study also found that about nine percent of the Old City’s 32,488 people were Jews.[136]

In 2005, 2,850 new immigrants settled in Jerusalem, mostly from the United States, France and the former Soviet Union. In terms of the local population, the number of outgoing residents exceeds the number of incoming residents. In 2005, 16,000 left Jerusalem and only 10,000 moved in.[2] Nevertheless, the population of Jerusalem continues to rise due to the high birth rate, especially in the Arab and Haredi Jewish communities. Consequently, the total fertility rate in Jerusalem (4.02) is higher than in Tel Aviv (1.98) and well above the national average of 2.90. The average size of Jerusalem’s 180,000 households is 3.8 people.[2]

In 2005, the total population grew by 13,000 (1.8%)—similar to Israeli national average, but the religious and ethnic composition is shifting. While 31% of the Jewish population is made up of children below the age fifteen, the figure for the Arab population is 42%.[2] This would seem to corroborate the observation that the percentage of Jews in Jerusalem has declined over the past four decades. In 1967, Jews accounted for 74 percent of the population, while the figure for 2006 is down nine percent.[137] Possible factors are the high cost of housing, fewer job opportunities and the increasingly religious character of the city, although proportionally, young Haredim are leaving in higher numbers.[citation needed] Many people are moving to the suburbs and coastal cities in search of cheaper housing and a more secular lifestyle.[138]

In 2009, the percentage of Haredim in the city is increasing. As of 2009, out of 150,100 schoolchildren, 59,900 or 40% are in state-run secular and National Religious schools, while 90,200 or 60% are in Haredi schools. This correlates with the high number of children in Haredi families.[139][140]

While many Israelis see Jerusalem as poor, rundown and riddled with religious and political tension, the city has been a magnet for Palestinians, offering more jobs and opportunity than any city in the West Bank or Gaza Strip. Palestinian officials have encouraged Arabs over the years to stay in the city to maintain their claim.[141][142] Palestinians are attracted to the access to jobs, healthcare, social security, other benefits, and quality of life Israel provides to Jerusalem residents.[143] Arab residents of Jerusalem who choose not to have Israeli citizenship are granted an Israeli identity card that allows them to pass through checkpoints with relative ease and to travel throughout Israel, making it easier to find work. Residents also are entitled to the subsidized healthcare and social security benefits Israel provides its citizens. Arabs in Jerusalem can send their children to Israeli-run schools, although not every neighborhood has one, and universities. Israeli doctors and highly regarded hospitals such as Hadassah Medical Center are available to residents.[144]

Demographics and the Jewish-Arab population divide play a major role in the dispute over Jerusalem. In 1998, the Jerusalem Development Authority proposed expanding city limits to the west to include more areas heavily populated with Jews.[145]

East Jerusalem, 2006

Criticism of urban planning

Critics of efforts to promote a Jewish majority in Israel say that government planning policies are motivated by demographic considerations and seek to limit Arab construction while promoting Jewish construction.[146] According to a World Bank report, the number of recorded building violations between 1996 and 2000 was four and half times higher in Jewish neighborhoods but four times fewer demolition orders were issued in West Jerusalem than in East Jerusalem; Arabs in Jerusalem were less likely to receive construction permits than Jews, and “the authorities are much more likely to take action against Palestinian violators” than Jewish violators of the permit process.[147] In recent years, private Jewish foundations have received permission from the government to develop projects on disputed lands, such as the City of David archaeological park in the 60% Arab neighborhood of Silwan (adjacent to the Old City),[148] and the Museum of Tolerance on Mamilla cemetery (adjacent to Zion Square).[147][149] Opponents view such urban planning moves as geared towards the Judaization of Jerusalem.[150][151][152]

 Local government

Safra Square, Jerusalem City Hall

The Jerusalem City Council is a body of 31 elected members headed by the mayor, who serves a five-year term and appoints six deputies. The former mayor of Jerusalem, Uri Lupolianski, was elected in 2003.[153] In the November 2008 city elections, Nir Barkat came out as the winner and is now the mayor. Apart from the mayor and his deputies, City Council members receive no salaries and work on a voluntary basis. The longest-serving Jerusalem mayor was Teddy Kollek, who spent 28 years—-six consecutive terms-—in office. Most of the meetings of the Jerusalem City Council are private, but each month, it holds a session that is open to the public.[153] Within the city council, religious political parties form an especially powerful faction, accounting for the majority of its seats.[154] The headquarters of the Jerusalem Municipality and the mayor’s office are at Safra Square (Kikar Safra) on Jaffa Road. The municipal complex, comprising two modern buildings and ten renovated historic buildings surrounding a large plaza, opened in 1993.[155] The city falls under the Jerusalem District, with Jerusalem as the district’s capital.

Political status

The Knesset Building in Jerusalem, home to the legislative branch of the Israeli government

Under the United Nations Partition Plan for Palestine passed by the United Nations in 1947, Jerusalem was envisaged to become a corpus separatum administered by the United Nations. While the Jewish leaders accepted the partition plan, the Arab leadership (the Arab Higher Committee in Palestine and the Arab League) rejected it, opposing any partition.[156][157] In the war of 1948, the western part of the city was occupied by forces of the nascent state of Israel, while the eastern part was occupied by Jordan. The international community largely considers the legal status of Jerusalem to derive from the partition plan, and correspondingly refuses to recognize Israeli sovereignty in the city.

On December 5, 1949, the State of Israel’s first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, proclaimed Jerusalem as Israel’s capital,[158] and since then all branches of the Israeli governmentlegislative, judicial, and executive—have resided there, except for the Ministry of Defense, located at HaKirya in Tel Aviv.[159] At the time of the proclamation, Jerusalem was divided between Israel and Jordan and thus only West Jerusalem was considered Israel’s capital. Immediately after the 1967 Six-Day War, however, Israel took control of East Jerusalem, making it a de facto part of the Israeli capital. Israel enshrined the status of the “complete and united” Jerusalem—west and east—as its capital, in the 1980 Basic Law: Jerusalem, Capital of Israel.[160]

The status of a “united Jerusalem” as Israel’s “eternal capital”[158][161] has been a matter of immense controversy within the international community. Although some countries maintain consulates in Jerusalem, all embassies are located outside of the city proper, mostly in Tel Aviv.[20][162] Due to the non-recognition of Jerusalem as Israel’s capital, non-Israeli press use Tel Aviv as a metonym for Israel.[163][164][165][166]

The non-binding United Nations Security Council Resolution 478, passed on August 20, 1980, declared that the Basic Law was “null and void and must be rescinded forthwith.” Member states were advised to withdraw their diplomatic representation from the city as a punitive measure. Most of the remaining countries with embassies in Jerusalem complied with the resolution by relocating them to Tel Aviv, where many embassies already resided prior to Resolution 478. Currently there are no embassies located within the city limits of Jerusalem, although there are embassies in Mevaseret Zion, on the outskirts of Jerusalem, and four consulates in the city itself.[162] In 1995, the United States Congress had planned to move its embassy from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem with the passage of the Jerusalem Embassy Act.[167] However, former U.S. President George W. Bush has argued that Congressional resolutions regarding the status of Jerusalem are merely advisory. The Constitution reserves foreign relations as an executive power, and as such, the United States embassy is still in Tel Aviv.[168]

On 28 October 2009, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-moon warned that Jerusalem must be the capital of both Israel and Palestine if peace is to be achieved.[169]

View of modern Jerusalem

Israel’s most prominent governmental institutions, including the Knesset,[170] the Supreme Court,[171] and the official residences of the President and Prime Minister, are located in Jerusalem. Prior to the creation of the State of Israel, Jerusalem served as the administrative capital of the British Mandate, which included present-day Israel and Jordan.[172] From 1949 until 1967, West Jerusalem served as Israel’s capital, but was not recognized as such internationally because UN General Assembly Resolution 194 envisaged Jerusalem as an international city. As a result of the Six-Day War in 1967, the whole of Jerusalem came under Israeli control. On June 27, 1967, the government of Levi Eshkol extended Israeli law and jurisdiction to East Jerusalem, but agreed that administration of the Temple Mount compound would be maintained by the Jordanian waqf, under the Jordanian Ministry of Religious Endowments.[173] In 1988, Israel ordered the closure of Orient House, home of the Arab Studies Society, but also the headquarters of the Palestine Liberation Organization, for security reasons. The building reopened in 1992 as a Palestinian guesthouse.[174][175] The Oslo Accords stated that the final status of Jerusalem would be determined by negotiations with the Palestinian National Authority, which regards East Jerusalem as the capital of a future Palestinian state.[22] Mahmoud Abbas has said that any agreement that did not not include East Jerusalem as the capital of Palestine would be unacceptable.[176]

 Religious significance

The Western Wall, known as the Kotel

The al-Aqsa Mosque, a sacred site for Muslims

Jerusalem plays an important role in Judaism, Christianity, and Islam. The 2000 Statistical Yearbook of Jerusalem lists 1204 synagogues, 158 churches, and 73 mosques within the city.[177] Despite efforts to maintain peaceful religious coexistence, some sites, such as the Temple Mount, have been a continuous source of friction and controversy.

Church of the Holy Sepulchre

Jerusalem has been sacred to the Jews since King David proclaimed it his capital in the 10th century BCE. Jerusalem was the site of Solomon’s Temple and the Second Temple.[5] It is mentioned in the Bible 632 times. Today, the Western Wall, a remnant of the wall surrounding the Second Temple, is a Jewish holy site second only to the Holy of Holies on the Temple Mount itself.[178] Synagogues around the world are traditionally built with the Holy Ark facing Jerusalem,[179] and Arks within Jerusalem face the “Holy of Holies”.[180] As prescribed in the Mishna and codified in the Shulchan Aruch, daily prayers are recited while facing towards Jerusalem and the Temple Mount. Many Jews have “Mizrach” plaques hung on a wall of their homes to indicate the direction of prayer.[180][181]

Christianity reveres Jerusalem not only for its Old Testament history but also for its significance in the life of Jesus. According to the New Testament, Jesus was brought to Jerusalem soon after his birth[182] and later in his life cleansed the Second Temple.[183] The Cenacle, believed to be the site of Jesus’ Last Supper, is located on Mount Zion in the same building that houses the Tomb of King David.[184][185] Another prominent Christian site in Jerusalem is Golgotha, the site of the crucifixion. The Gospel of John describes it as being located outside Jerusalem,[186] but recent archaeological evidence suggests Golgotha is a short distance from the Old City walls, within the present-day confines of the city.[187] The land currently occupied by the Church of the Holy Sepulchre is considered one of the top candidates for Golgotha and thus has been a Christian pilgrimage site for the past two thousand years.[187][188][189]

Jerusalem is considered by some as the third-holiest city in Sunni Islam.[6] For approximately a year, before it was permanently switched to the Kabaa in Mecca, the qibla (direction of prayer) for Muslims was Jerusalem.[190] The city’s lasting place in Islam, however, is primarily due to Muhammad‘s Night of Ascension (c. CE 620). Muslims believe Muhammad was miraculously transported one night from Mecca to the Temple Mount in Jerusalem, whereupon he ascended to Heaven to meet previous prophets of Islam.[191][192] The first verse in the Qur’an’s Surat al-Isra notes the destination of Muhammad’s journey as al-Aqsa (the farthest) mosque,[193] in assumed reference to the location in Jerusalem. Today, the Temple Mount is topped by two Islamic landmarks intended to commemorate the event—al-Aqsa Mosque, derived from the name mentioned in the Qur’an, and the Dome of the Rock, which stands over the Foundation Stone, from which Muslims believe Muhammad ascended to Heaven.[194]


The Shrine of the Book, housing the Dead Sea Scrolls, at the Israel Museum

Although Jerusalem is known primarily for its religious significance, the city is also home to many artistic and cultural venues. The Israel Museum attracts nearly one million visitors a year, approximately one-third of them tourists.[195] The 20-acre (81,000 m2) museum complex comprises several buildings featuring special exhibits and extensive collections of Judaica, archaeological findings, and Israeli and European art. The Dead Sea scrolls, discovered in the mid-20th century in the Qumran caves near the Dead Sea, are housed in the Museum’s Shrine of the Book.[196] The Youth Wing, which mounts changing exhibits and runs an extensive art education program, is visited by 100,000 children a year. The museum has a large outdoor sculpture garden, and a scale-model of the Second Temple.[195] The Rockefeller Museum, located in East Jerusalem, was the first archaeological museum in the Middle East. It was built in 1938 during the British Mandate.[197][198]

The Jerusalem Theater at night

Yad Vashem, Israel’s national memorial to the victims of the Holocaust, houses the world’s largest library of Holocaust-related information,[199] with an estimated 100,000 books and articles. The complex contains a state-of-the-art museum that explores the genocide of the Jews through exhibits that focus on the personal stories of individuals and families killed in the Holocaust and an art gallery featuring the work of artists who perished. Yad Vashem also commemorates the 1.5 million Jewish children murdered by the Nazis, and honors the Righteous among the Nations.[200] The Museum on the Seam, which explores issues of coexistence through art, is situated on the road dividing eastern and western Jerusalem.[201]

The Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra, established in the 1940s,[202] has appeared around the world.[202] Other arts facilities include the International Convention Center (Binyanei HaUma) near the entrance to city, where the Israel Philharmonic Orchestra plays, the Jerusalem Cinemateque, the Gerard Behar Center (formerly Beit Ha’am) in downtown Jerusalem, the Jerusalem Music Center in Yemin Moshe,[203] and the Targ Music Center in Ein Kerem. The Israel Festival, featuring indoor and outdoor performances by local and international singers, concerts, plays and street theater, has been held annually since 1961; for the past 25 years, Jerusalem has been the major organizer of this event. The Jerusalem Theater in the Talbiya neighborhood hosts over 150 concerts a year, as well as theater and dance companies and performing artists from overseas.[204] The Khan Theater, located in a caravansarai opposite the old Jerusalem train station, is the city’s only repertoire theater.[205] The station itself has become a venue for cultural events in recent years, as the site of Shav’ua Hasefer, an annual week-long book fair, and outdoor music performances.[206] The Jerusalem Film Festival is held annually, screening Israeli and international films.[207]

Syrian bears at Jerusalem’s Biblical Zoo

The Ticho House, in downtown Jerusalem, houses the paintings of Anna Ticho and the Judaica collections of her husband, an ophthalmologist who opened Jerusalem’s first eye clinic in this building in 1912.[208] Al-Hoash, established in 2004, is a gallery for the preservation of Palestinian art.[209]

Jerusalem was declared the Capital of Arab Culture in 2009.[210] Jerusalem is home to the Palestinian National Theatre, which engages in cultural preservation as well as innovation, working to rekindle Palestinian interest in the arts.[211] The Edward Said National Conservatory of Music sponsors the Palestine Youth Orchestra[212] which toured the Gulf states and other Middle East countries in 2009.[213] The Islamic Museum on the Temple Mount, established in 1923, houses many Islamic artifacts, from tiny kohl flasks and rare manuscripts to giant marble columns.[214] While Israel approves and financially supports Arab cultural activities, Arab Capital of Culture events were banned because they were sponsored by the Palestine National Authority.[210] In 2009, a four-day culture festival was held in the Beit ‘Anan suburb of Jerusalem, attended by more than 15,000 people[215]

The Abraham Fund [216] and the Jerusalem Intercultural Center] (JICC) [217] promote joint Jewish-Palestinian cultural projects. The Jerusalem Center for Middle Eastern Music and Dance [218] is open to Arabs and Jews, and offers workshops on Jewish-Arab dialogue through the arts.[219] The Jewish-Arab Youth Orchestra performs both European classical and Middle Eastern music.[220]

In 2008, the Tolerance Monument, an outdoor sculpture by Czesław Dźwigaj, was erected on a hill between Jewish Armon Hanatziv and Arab Jebl Mukaber as a symbol of Jerusalem’s quest for peace.[221]


Hadar Mall, Talpiot

Historically, Jerusalem’s economy was supported almost exclusively by religious pilgrims, as it was located far from the major ports of Jaffa and Gaza.[222] Jerusalem’s religious landmarks today remain the top draw for foreign visitors, with the majority of tourists visiting the Western Wall and the Old City,[2] but in the past half-century it has become increasingly clear that Jerusalem’s providence cannot solely be sustained by its religious significance.[222]

Malcha technology park

Although many statistics indicate economic growth in the city, since 1967 East Jerusalem has lagged behind the development of West Jerusalem.[222] Nevertheless, the percentage of households with employed persons is higher for Arab households (76.1%) than for Jewish households (66.8%). The unemployment rate in Jerusalem (8.3%) is slightly better than the national average (9.0%), although the civilian labor force accounted for less than half of all persons fifteen years or older—lower in comparison to that of Tel Aviv (58.0%) and Haifa (52.4%).[2] Poverty in the city has increased dramatically in recent years; between 2001 and 2007, the number of people below the poverty threshold increased by forty percent.[223] In 2006, the average monthly income for a worker in Jerusalem was NIS5,940 (US$1,410), NIS1,350 less than that for a worker in Tel Aviv.[223] During the British Mandate, a law was passed requiring all buildings to be constructed of Jerusalem stone in order to preserve the unique historic and aesthetic character of the city.[96] Complementing this building code, which is still in force, is the discouragement of heavy industry in Jerusalem; only about 2.2% of Jerusalem’s land is zoned for “industry and infrastructure.” By comparison, the percentage of land in Tel Aviv zoned for industry and infrastructure is twice as high, and in Haifa, seven times as high.[2] Only 8.5% of the Jerusalem District work force is employed in the manufacturing sector, which is half the national average (15.8%). Higher than average percentages are employed in education (17.9% vs. 12.7%); health and welfare (12.6% vs. 10.7%); community and social services (6.4% vs. 4.7%); hotels and restaurants (6.1% vs. 4.7%); and public administration (8.2% vs. 4.7%).[224] Although Tel Aviv remains Israel’s financial center, a growing number of high tech companies are moving to Jerusalem, providing 12,000 jobs in 2006.[225] Northern Jerusalem’s Har Hotzvim industrial park is home to some of Israel’s major corporations, among them Intel, Teva Pharmaceutical Industries, Ophir Optronics and ECI Telecom. Expansion plans for the park envision one hundred businesses, a fire station, and a school, covering an area of 530,000 m² (130 acres).[226]

Since the establishment of the State of Israel, the national government has remained a major player in Jerusalem’s economy. The government, centered in Jerusalem, generates a large number of jobs, and offers subsidies and incentives for new business initiatives and start-ups.[222]

In 2010, Jerusalem was named the top leisure travel city in Africa and the Middle East by Travel + Leisure magazine.[227]


Jerusalem’s Central Bus Station

The airport nearest to Jerusalem is Atarot Airport, which was used for domestic flights until its closure in 2001. Since then it has been under the control of the Israel Defense Forces due to disturbances in Ramallah and the West Bank. All air traffic from Atarot was rerouted to Ben Gurion International Airport, Israel’s largest and busiest airport, which serves nine million passengers annually.[228]

Egged Bus Cooperative, the second-largest bus company in the world,[229] handles most of the local and intercity bus service out of the city’s Central Bus Station on Jaffa Road near the western entrance to Jerusalem from highway 1. As of 2008, Egged buses, taxicabs and private cars are the only transportation options in Jerusalem. This is expected to change with the completion of the Jerusalem Light Rail, a new rail-based transit system currently under construction.[230] According to plans, the first rail line will be capable of transporting an estimated 200,000 people daily, and will have 24 stops.[231] It is scheduled for completion in 2010.[232]

Another work in progress[231] is a new high-speed rail line from Tel Aviv to Jerusalem, which is scheduled to be completed in 2011. Its terminus will be an underground station (80 m (262.47 ft) deep) serving the International Convention Center and the Central Bus Station,[233] and is planned to be extended eventually to Malha station. Israel Railways operates train services to Malha train station from Tel Aviv via Beit Shemesh.[234][235]

Begin Expressway is one of Jerusalem’s major north-south thoroughfares; it runs on the western side of the city, merging in the north with Route 443, which continues toward Tel Aviv. Route 60 runs through the center of the city near the Green Line between East and West Jerusalem. Construction is progressing on parts of a 35-kilometer (22-mile) ring road around the city, fostering faster connection between the suburbs.[236][237] The eastern half of the project was conceptualized decades ago, but reaction to the proposed highway is still mixed.[236]


Jerusalem is home to several prestigious universities offering courses in Hebrew, Arabic and English. Founded in 1925, the Hebrew University of Jerusalem has been ranked among the top 100 schools in the world.[238] The Board of Governors has included such prominent Jewish intellectuals as Albert Einstein and Sigmund Freud.[97] The university has produced several Nobel laureates; recent winners associated with Hebrew University include Avram Hershko,[239] David Gross,[240] and Daniel Kahneman.[241] One of the university’s major assets is the Jewish National and University Library, which houses over five million books.[242] The library opened in 1892, over three decades before the university was established, and is one of the world’s largest repositories of books on Jewish subjects. Today it is both the central library of the university and the national library of Israel.[243] The Hebrew University operates three campuses in Jerusalem, on Mount Scopus, on Giv’at Ram and a medical campus at the Hadassah Ein Kerem hospital.

Al-Quds University was established in 1984[244] to serve as a flagship university for the Arab and Palestinian peoples. It describes itself as the “only Arab university in Jerusalem”.[245] New York Bard College and Al-Quds University agreed to open a joint college, to operate in a building originally build to house the Palestinian Parliament and Yasir Arafat’s office. The college is scheduled to open in fall 2010 and also have plans to provide a master of arts in teaching (M.A.T.) degree.[246] Al-Quds University resides southeast of the city proper on a 190,000 square metres (47 acres) Abu Dis campus.[244] Other institutions of higher learning in Jerusalem are the Jerusalem Academy of Music and Dance[247] and Bezalel Academy of Art and Design,[248] whose buildings are located on the campuses of the Hebrew University.

The Jerusalem College of Technology, founded in 1969, combines training in engineering and other high-tech industries with a Jewish studies program.[249] It is one of many schools in Jerusalem, from elementary school and up, that combine secular and religious studies. Numerous religious educational institutions and Yeshivot, including some of the most prestigious yeshivas, among them the Brisk, Chevron, Midrash Shmuel and Mir, are based in the city, with the Mir Yeshiva claiming to be the largest.[250] There were nearly 8,000 twelfth-grade students in Hebrew-language schools during the 2003–2004 school year.[2] However, due to the large portion of students in Haredi Jewish frameworks, only fifty-five percent of twelfth graders took matriculation exams (Bagrut) and only thirty-seven percent were eligible to graduate. Unlike public schools, many Haredi schools do not prepare students to take standardized tests.[2] To attract more university students to Jerusalem, the city has begun to offer a special package of financial incentives and housing subsidies to students who rent apartments in downtown Jerusalem.[251]

Schools for Arabs in Jerusalem and other parts of Israel have been criticized for offering a lower quality education than those catering to Israeli Jewish students.[252] While many schools in the heavily Arab East Jerusalem are filled to capacity and there have been complaints of overcrowding, the Jerusalem Municipality is currently building over a dozen new schools in the city’s Arab neighborhoods.[253] Schools in Ras el-Amud and Umm Lison opened in 2008.[254] In March 2007, the Israeli government approved a 5-year plan to build 8,000 new classrooms in the city, 40 percent in the Arab sector and 28 percent in the Haredi sector. A budget of 4.6 billion shekels was allocated for this project.[255] In 2008, Jewish British philanthropists donated $3 million for the construction of schools in Arab East Jerusalem.[254] Arab high school students take the Bagrut matriculation exams, so that much of their curriculum parallels that of other Israeli high schools and includes certain Jewish subjects.[252]


Teddy Kollek Stadium

The two most popular sports are football (soccer) and basketball.[256] Beitar Jerusalem Football Club is one of the most well-known in Israel. Fans include political figures who often attend its games.[257] Jerusalem’s other major football team, and one of Beitar’s top rivals, is Hapoel Jerusalem F.C. Whereas Beitar has been Israel State Cup champion seven times,[258] Hapoel has only won the Cup once. Beitar has won the top league six times, while Hapoel never succeeded. Beitar plays in the more prestigious Ligat HaAl, while Hapoel is in the seconed division Liga Leumit. Since its opening in 1992, Teddy Kollek Stadium has been Jerusalem’s primary football stadium, with a capacity of 21,600.[259]

The popular Palestinian football team is called Jabal Al-Mokaber (since 1976) which plays in West Bank Premier League. The team hails from Mount Scopus at Jerusalem, part of the Asian Football Confederation, and plays at the Faisal Al-Husseini International Stadium at Al-Ram, across the West Bank Barrier.[260][261]

In basketball, Hapoel Jerusalem plays in the top division. The club has won the State Cup three times, and the ULEB Cup in 2004.[262]

The Jerusalem Half Marathon is an annual event in which runners from all over the world compete on a course that takes in some of the city’s most famous sights. In addition to the 21.1 km (13.1 miles) Half Marathon, runners can also opt for the shorter 10 km (6.2 miles) Fun Run. Both runs start and finish at the stadium in Givat Ram.[263][264]

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The Lebanon Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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Showcase :

The Lebanon Collections Exhibition

Frame One :Ancient Lebanon



Main Article Phoenicia.

Map of Phoenicia.

The coastal plain of Lebanon is the historic home of a string of coastal trading cities of Semitic culture, which the Greeks termed Phoenicia, whose maritime culture flourished there for more than 2,000 years. Ancient ruins in Byblos, Berytus (Beirut), Sidon, Sarepta (Sarafand), and Tyre show a civilized nation, with urban centres and sophisticated arts. Present-day Lebanon was a cosmopolitan centre for many nations and cultures. Its people roamed the Mediterranean seas, skilled in trade and in art, and founded trading colonies. They were also the creators of the oldest known 24-letter alphabet, a shortening of earlier 30-letter alphabets such as Proto-Sinaitic and Ugaritic.

The ancient Lebanese set for sail and colonized overseas. Their most famous colonies were Cadiz in today’s Spain and Carthage in today’s Tunisia.

Phoenicia maintained an uneasy tributary relationship with the neo-Assyrian and neo-Babylonian empires; it was conquered outright by the Achaemenid dynasty of Persia, which organized it as a satrapy. It was added to the empire of Alexander the Great, who notably conquered Tyre (332 BC) by extending a still-extant causeway from the mainland in a seven-month effort. It fell to the Seleucid Empire after Alexander’s death. The area was conquered by the Roman Empire in the first century and remained Roman until the advent of the Caliphate. Christianity was introduced to Phoenicia from neighboring Galilee soon after the time of Jesus of Nazareth; the Arab advances brought Islam soon after the death of Muhammad. Muslim influence increased greatly in the seventh century when the Umayyad capital was established at nearby Damascus.

Arab rule and the Middle Ages

During the Middle Ages, Lebanon was heavily involved in the Crusades. Lebanon was in the main path of the First Crusade‘s advance on Jerusalem. Later, Frankish nobles occupied present-day Lebanon as part of the southeastern Crusader States. The southern half of present-day Lebanon formed the northern march of the Kingdom of Jerusalem; the northern half was the heartland of the County of Tripoli. Although Saladin eliminated Christian control of the Holy Land around 1190, the Crusader states in Lebanon and Syria were better defended. Muslim control of Lebanon was reestablished in the late 13th century under the Mamluk sultans of Egypt. Lebanon was later contested between Muslim rulers until the Ottoman Empire solidified authority over the eastern Mediterranean. Ottoman control was uncontested during the early modern period, but the Lebanese coast became important for its contacts and trades with Venice and other Italian city-states.

The mountainous territory of Mount Lebanon has long been a shelter for minority and persecuted groups, including its historic Maronite Christian majority along with Druze, and local Shi’a Muslims. It was an autonomous Druze region of the Ottoman empire.

2. Ottoman rule

The Ottoman Turks formed an empire starting from the 14th century which came to encompass the Balkans, Middle east and North Africa. The Ottoman sultan, Selim I (1516–20), after defeating the Persians, conquered the Mamluks. His troops, invading Syria, destroyed Mamluk resistance in 1516 at Marj Dabaq, north of Aleppo.[1]

During the conflict between the Mamluks and the Ottomans, the amirs of Lebanon linked their fate to that of Ghazali, governor (pasha) of Damascus. He won the confidence of the Ottomans by fighting on their side at Marj Dabaq and, apparently pleased with the behavior of the Lebanese amirs, introduced them to Salim I when he entered Damascus. Salim I, moved by the eloquence of the Lebanese ruler Amir Fakhr ad Din I (1516–44), decided to grant the Lebanese amirs a semiautonomous status. The Ottomans, through two great Druze feudal families, the Maans and the Shihabs, ruled Lebanon until the middle of the nineteenth century. It was during Ottoman rule that the term Greater Syria was coined to designate the approximate area included in present-day Lebanon, Syria, Jordan, and Israel.[1]

3. The Maans, 1120-1697

The Maan family, under orders from the governor of Damascus, came to Lebanon in 1120 won against the invading Crusaders. They settled on the southwestern slopes of the Lebanon Mountains and soon adopted the Druze religion. Their authority began to rise with Fakhr ad-Din I, who was permitted by Ottoman authorities to organize his own army, and reached its peak with Fakhr ad-Din II (1570–1635).[1]

Although Fakhr ad-Din II’s aspirations toward complete independence for Lebanon ended tragically, he greatly enhanced Lebanon’s military and economic development. Noted for religious tolerance , Fakhr ad-Din attempted to merge the country’s different religious groups into one Lebanese community. In an effort to attain complete independence for Lebanon, he concluded a secret agreement with Ferdinand I, grand duke of Tuscany in Italy, the two parties pledging to support each other against the Ottomans. Informed of this agreement, the Ottoman ruler in Constantinople reacted violently and ordered Ahmad al-Hafiz, governor of Damascus, to attack Fakhr ad-Din. Realizing his inability to cope with the regular army of Al-Hafiz, the Lebanese ruler went to Tuscany in exile in 1613. He returned to Lebanon in 1618, after his good friend Muhammad Pasha became governor of Damascus.[1]

Following his return from Tuscany, Fakhr ad-Din II, realizing the need for a strong and disciplined armed force, channeled his financial resources into building a regular army. This army proved itself in 1623, when Mustafa Pasha, the new governor of Damascus, underestimating the capabilities of the Lebanese army, engaged it in battle and was decisively defeated at Anjar in the Biqa Valley. Impressed by the victory of the Lebanese ruler, the sultan of Constantinople gave him the title of Sultan al Barr (Sultan of Land).[1]

In addition to building up the army, Fakhr ad-Din II, who became acquainted with Italian culture during his stay in Tuscany, initiated measures to modernize the country. After forming close ties and establishing diplomatic relations with Tuscany, he brought in architects, irrigation engineers, and agricultural experts from Italy in an effort to promote prosperity in the country. He also strengthened Lebanon’s strategic position by expanding its territory, building forts as far away as Palmyra in Syria, and gaining control of Palestine. Finally, the Ottoman sultan Murad IV of Constantinople, wanting to thwart Lebanon’s progress toward complete independence, ordered Kutshuk, then governor of Damascus, to attack the Lebanese ruler. This time Fakhr ad-Din was defeated, and he was executed in Constantinople in 1635. No significant Maan rulers succeeded Fakhr ad-Din II.[1]

4.The Shihabs, 1697-1842

The Shihabs succeeded the Maans in 1697. They originally lived in the Hawran region of southwestern Syria and settled in Wadi at Taim in southern Lebanon. The most prominent among them was Bashir Shihab II, who was much like his predecessor, Fakhr ad Din II. His ability as a statesman was first tested in 1799, when Napoleon besieged Acre, a well-fortified coastal city in Palestine, about forty kilometers south of Tyre. Both Napoleon and Al Jazzar, the governor of Acre, requested assistance from the Shihab leader; Bashir, however, remained neutral, declining to assist either combatant. Unable to conquer Acre, Napoleon returned to Egypt, and the death of Al Jazzar in 1804 removed Bashir’s principal opponent in the area. The Shihab’s were originally a Shi’a Muslim family.[1]

FRAME TWO :  19th century

During the nineteenth century the town of Beirut became the most important port of the region, supplanting Acre further to the south. This was mostly because Mount Lebanon became a centre of silk production for export to Europe. This industry made the region wealthy, but also dependent on links to Europe. Since most of the silk went to Marseille, the French began to have a great impact in the region.

1,The rise and fall of Emir Bashir II

In 1788 Bashir Shihab II (sometimes spelled Bachir in French sources) would rise to become the Emir. Born into poverty, he was elected emir upon the abdication of his predecessor, and would rule under Ottoman suzerainty, being appointed wali or governor of Mt Lebanon, the Biqa valley and Jabal Amil. Together this is about two thirds of modern day Lebanon. He would reform taxes and attempt to break the feudal system, in order to undercut rivals, the most important of which was also named Bashir: Bashir Jumblatt, whose wealth and feudal backers equaled or exceeded Bashir II – and who had increasing support in the Druze community. In 1822 the Ottoman wali of Damascus went to war with Acre, which was allied with Muhammad Ali, the pasha of Egypt. As part of this conflict one of the most remembered massacres of Maronite Christians by Druze forces occurred, forces that were aligned with the wali of Damascus. Jumblatt represented the increasingly disaffected Druze, who were both shut out from official power and angered at the growing ties with the Maronites by Bashir II, who was himself a Maronite Christian.

Bashir II was overthrown as wali when he backed Acre, and fled to Egypt, later to return and organize an army. Jumblatt gathered the Druze factions together, and the war became sectarian in character: the Maronites backing Bashir II, the Druze backing Bashir Jumblatt. Jumblatt declared a rebellion, and between 1821 and 1825 there were massacres and battles, with the Maronites attempting to gain control of the Mt. Lebanon district, and the Druze gaining control over the Biqa valley. In 1825 Bashir II defeated his rival and killed him after the battle of al Simqaniya. Bashir II was not a forgiving man and repressed the Druze, particularly in and around Beirut.

Bashir II, who had come to power through local politics and nearly fallen from power because of his increasing detachment from them, reached out for allies, allies who looked on the entire area as “the Orient” and who could provide trade, weapons and money, without requiring fealty and without, it seemed, being drawn into endless internal squabbles. He disarmed the Druze and allied with France, governing in the name of the Egyptian Pasha Muhammad Ali, who entered Lebanon and formally took overlordship in 1832. For the remaining 8 years, the sectarian and feudal rifts of the 1821–1825 conflict were heightened by the increasing economic isolation of the Druze, and the increasing wealth of the Maronites.

2. Sectarian conflict: European Powers begin to intervene

The discontent grew to open rebellion, fed by both Ottoman and British money and support: Bashir II fled, the Ottoman empire reasserted control and Mehmed Hüsrev Pasha, whose sole term as Grand Vizier ran from 1839 to 1841, appointed another member of the Shihab family, who styled himself Bashir III. Bashir III, coming on the heels of a man who by guile, force and diplomacy had dominated Mt Lebanon and the Biqa for 52 years, did not last long. In 1841 conflicts between the impoverished Druze and the Maronite Christians exploded: There was a massacre of Christians by the Druze at Deir al Qamar, and the fleeing survivors were slaughtered by Ottoman regulars. The Ottomans attempted to create peace by dividing Mt Lebanon into a Christian district and a Druze district, but this would merely create geographic powerbases for the warring parties, and it plunged the region back into civil conflict which included not only the sectarian warfare but a Maronite revolt against the Feudal class, which ended in 1858 with the overthrow of the old feudal system of taxes and levies. The situation was unstable: the Maronites lived in the large towns, but these were often surrounded by Druze villages living as perioikoi.

Christian refugees during the 1860 strife between Druze and Maronites in Lebanon

In 1860, this would boil back into full scale sectarian war, when the Maronites began openly opposing the power of the Ottoman Empire. Another destabilizing factor was France’s support for the Maronite Christians against the Druze which in turn led the British to back the Druze, exacerbating religious and economic tensions between the two communities. The Druze took advantage of this and began burning Maronite villages. The Druze had grown increasingly resentful of the favoring of the Maronites by Bashir II, and were backed by the Ottoman Empire and the wali of Damascus in an attempt to gain greater control over Lebanon; the Maronites were backed by the French, out of both economic and political expediency. The Druze began a military campaign that included the burning of villages and massacres, while Maronite irregulars retaliated with attacks of their own. However, the Maronites were gradually pushed into a few strongholds and were on the verge of military defeat when the Congress of Europe intervened and established a commission to determine the outcome. The French forces deployed there were then used to enforce the final decision. The French accepted the Druze as having established control and the Maronites were reduced to a semi-autonomous region around Mt Lebanon, without even direct control over Beirut itself. The Province of Lebanon that would be controlled by the Maronites, but the entire area was placed under direct rule of the governor of Damascus, and carefully watched by the Ottoman Empire.

The long siege of Deir al Qamar found a Maronite garrison holding out against Druze forces backed by Ottoman soldiers; the area in every direction was despoiled by the besiegers. In July 1860, with European intervention threatening, the Turkish government tried to quiet the strife, but Napoleon III of France sent 7,000 troops to Beirut and helped impose a partition: The Druze control of the territory was recognized as the fact on the ground, and the Maronites were forced into an enclave, arrangements ratified by the concert of Europe in 1861. They were confined to a mountainous district, cut off from both the Biqa and Beirut, and faced with the prospect of ever-growing poverty. Resentments and fears would brood, ones which would resurface in the coming decades.

It is estimated that more than 4,000 Christians were killed in the conflict, with another 4,000 dying of destitution. Furthermore, more than 100,000 were made homeless.[2]

Lebanese soldiers, 1861-1914.

3. Rising prosperity and peace

Lebanese dress from the late 19th century.

The remainder of the 19th century saw a relative period of stability, as Islamic, Druze and Maronite groups focused on economic and cultural development which saw the founding of the American University of Beirut and a flowering of literary and political activity associated with the attempts to liberalize the Ottoman Empire. Late in the century there was a short Druze uprising over the extremely harsh government and high taxation rates, but there was far less of the violence that had scalded the area earlier in the century.

In the approach to World War I, Beirut became a center of various reforming movements, and would send delegates to the Arab Syrian conference and Franco-Syrian conference held in Paris. There was a complex array of solutions, from pan-Arab nationalism, to separatism for Beirut, and several status quo movements that sought stability and reform within the context of Ottoman government. The Young Turk revolution brought these movements to the front, hoping that the reform of Ottoman Empire would lead to broader reforms. The outbreak of hostilities changed this, as Lebanon was to feel the weight of the conflict in the Middle East more heavily than most other areas occupied by the Syrians.

 4.League of Nations Mandate

Greater Lebanon (yellow) in the Mandate of Syria

Following the collapse of the Ottoman Empire after World War I, the League of Nations mandated the five provinces that make up present-day Lebanon to the direct control of France. Initially the division of the Arabic-speaking areas of the Ottoman Empire were to be divided by the Sykes-Picot Agreement; however, the final disposition was at the San Remo conference of 1920, whose determinations on the mandates, their boundaries, purposes and organization was ratified by the League in 1921 and put into effect in 1922.

According to the agreements reached at San Remo, France had its control over what was termed Syria recognised, the French having taken Damascus in 1920. However, Syria was scheduled to be an independent country, a so called Class A Mandate, and the rights granted to France were far less than over other mandate territories. A Class B mandate granted the right to administer the territories. The entire mandate area was termed “Syria” at the time, including the administrative districts along the Mediterranean coast. Wanting to maximize the area under its direct control, contain an Arab Syria centered on Damascus, and insure a defensible border, France established the Lebanon-Syrian border to the “Anti-Lebanon” mountains, on the far side of the Beqaa Valley, territory which had belonged to the province of Damascus for hundreds of years, and was far more attached to Damascus than Beirut by culture and influence. This doubled the territory under the control of Beirut, at the expense of what would become the state of Syria.

Consequently, the demographics of Lebanon were profoundly altered, as the territory added contained people who were predominantly Muslim or Druze: Lebanese Christians, of which the Maronites were the largest subgrouping, now constituted barely more than 50% of the population, while Sunni Muslims in Lebanon saw their numbers increase eightfold, Shi’ite Muslims fourfold. Modern Lebanon’s constitution, drawn up in 1926, specified a balance of power between the various religious groups, but France designed it to guarantee the political dominance of its Christian allies. The president was required to be a Christian (in practice, a Maronite), the prime minister a Sunni Muslim. On the basis of the 1932 census, parliament seats were divided according to a six-to-five Christian/Muslim ratio. The constitution gave the president veto power over any legislation approved by parliament, virtually ensuring that the 6:5 ratio would not be revised in the event that the population distribution changed. By 1960, Muslims were thought to constitute a majority of the population, which contributed to Muslim unrest regarding the political system.

FRAME THREE : Independence


Lebanon gained independence in 1943, while France was occupied by Germany. General Henri Dentz, the Vichy High Commissioner for Syria and Lebanon, played a major role in the independence of both nations. The Vichy authorities in 1941 allowed Germany to move aircraft and supplies through Syria to Iraq where they were used against British forces. Britain, fearing that Nazi Germany would gain full control of Lebanon and Syria by pressure on the weak Vichy government, sent its army into Syria and Lebanon.

After the fighting ended in Lebanon, General Charles de Gaulle visited the area. Under various political pressures from both inside and outside Lebanon, de Gaulle decided to recognize the independence of Lebanon. On November 26, 1941, General Georges Catroux announced that Lebanon would become independent under the authority of the Free French government. Elections were held in 1943 and on November 8, 1943 the new Lebanese government unilaterally abolished the mandate. The French reacted by throwing the new government into prison. In the face of international pressure, the French released the government officials on November 22, 1943 and accepted the independence of Lebanon. The allies kept the region under control until the end of World War II. The last French troops withdrew in 1946.


Lebanon’s history from independence has been marked by alternating periods of political stability and turmoil interspersed with prosperity built on Beirut‘s position as a freely trading regional center for finance and trade. Beirut became a prime location for institutions of international commerce and finance, as well as wealthy tourists, and enjoyed a reputation as the “Paris of the Middle East” until the outbreak of the Lebanese Civil War.

3.Regional conflict

See also: Israel-Lebanon conflict

Meanwhile, in the aftermath of the 1948 Arab-Israeli War, Lebanon became home to more than 110,000 Palestinian refugees.

In 1958, during the last months of President Camille Chamoun‘s term, an insurrection broke out, and 5,000 United States Marines were briefly dispatched to Beirut on July 15 in response to an appeal by the government. After the crisis, a new government was formed, led by the popular former general Fuad Chehab.

During the 1960s, Lebanon enjoyed a period of relative calm, with Beirut-focused tourism and banking sector-driven prosperity. Lebanon reached the peak of its economic success in the mid-1960s – the country was seen as a bastion of economic strength by the oil-rich Persian Gulf Arab states, whose funds made Lebanon one of the world’s fastest growing economies. This period of economic stability and prosperity was brought to an abrupt halt with the collapse of Yousef BeidasIntra Bank, the country’s largest bank and financial backbone, in 1966.

Additional Palestinian refugees arrived after the 1967 Arab-Israeli War. Following their defeat in the Jordanian civil war, thousands of Palestinian militiamen regrouped in Lebanon, led by Yasser Arafat‘s Palestine Liberation Organization, with the intention of replicating the modus operandi of attacking Israel from a politically and militarily weak neighbour. Starting in 1968, Palestinian militants of various affiliations began to use southern Lebanon as a launching pad for attacks on Israel. Two of these attacks led to a watershed event in Lebanon’s inchoate civil war. In July 1968, a faction of George Habash‘s Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP) hijacked an Israeli El Al civilian plane en route to Algiers; in December, Habash himself oversaw an attack on an El Al plane in Athens, resulting in two deaths.

Later that month, Israeli agents flew into Beirut’s international airport and destroyed 13 civilian airliners belonging to various Arab carriers. Israel defended its actions by informing the Lebanese government that it was responsible for encouraging the PFLP. The retaliation, which was intended to encourage a Lebanese government crackdown on Palestinian militants, instead polarized Lebanese society on the Palestinian question, deepening the divide between pro- and anti-Palestinian factions, with the Muslims leading the former grouping and Maronites primarily constituting the latter. This dispute reflected increasing tensions between Christian and Muslim communities over the distribution of political power, and would ultimately foment the outbreak of civil war in 1975.

In the interim, while armed Lebanese forces under the Maronite-controlled government sparred with Palestinian fighters, Egyptian leader Gamal Abd al-Nasser helped to negotiate the 1969 “Cairo Agreement” between Arafat and the Lebanese government, which granted the PLO autonomy over Palestinian refugee camps and access routes to northern Israel in return for PLO recognition of Lebanese sovereignty. The agreement incited Maronite frustration over what were perceived as excessive concessions to the Palestinians, and pro-Maronite paramilitary groups were subsequently formed to fill the vacuum left by government forces, which were now required to leave the Palestinians alone. Notably, the Phalange, a Maronite militia, rose to prominence around this time, led by members of the Gemayel family.[3]

For its part, the PLO used its new privileges to establish an effective “mini-state” in southern Lebanon, and to ramp up its attacks on settlements in northern Israel. Compounding matters, Lebanon received an influx of armed Palestinian militants, including Arafat and his Fatah movement, fleeing the 1970 Jordanian crackdown. The PLO’s “vicious terrorist attacks in Israel” [4] dating from this period were countered by Israeli bombing raids in southern Lebanon, where “150 or more towns and villages…have been repeatedly savaged by the Israeli armed forces since 1968,” of which the village of Khiyam is probably the best-known example.[5]. Palestinian terror claimed 106 lives in northern Israel from 1967, according to official IDF statistics, while the Lebanese army had recorded “1.4 Israeli violations of Lebanese territory per day from 1968–74″ [6] Where Lebanon had no conflict with Israel during the period 1949–1968, after 1968 Lebanon’s southern border began to experience an escalating cycle of attack and retaliation, leading to the chaos of the civil war, foreign invasions and international intervention. The consequences of the PLO’s arrival in Lebanon continue to this day.

The Lebanese Civil War: 1975–1990

Main article: Lebanese Civil War

The Lebanese Civil War (1975–1990) had its origin in the conflicts and political compromises of Lebanon‘s colonial period and was exacerbated by the nation’s changing demographic trends, inter-religious strife, and proximity to Syria, the Palestine Liberation Organization, and Israel. By 1975, Palestinians in Lebanon numbered more than 300,000.

Events and political movements that contributed to Lebanon’s violent implosion include, among others, the departure of European colonial powers, the emergence of Arab Nationalism, Arab Socialism in the context of the Cold War, the Arab-Israeli Conflict, Ba’athism, the Iranian Revolution, Palestinian militants, Black September in Jordan, Islamic fundamentalism, and the Iran–Iraq War.

In all, it is estimated that more than 100,000 were killed, and another 100,000 handicapped by injuries, during Lebanon’s 16-year war. Up to one-fifth of the pre-war resident population, or about 900,000 people, were displaced from their homes, of whom perhaps a quarter of a million emigrated permanently. Thousands of people lost limbs during many stages of planting of land-mines.

The War can be divided broadly into several periods: The initial outbreak in the mid-1970s, the Syrian and then Israeli intervention of the late 1970s, escalation of the PLO-Israeli conflict in the early 1980s, the 1982 Israeli invasion, a brief period of multinational involvement, and finally resolution which took the form of Syrian occupation.

 Initial outbreak, 1975–76 and Syrian intervention

Constitutionally guaranteed Christian control of the government had come under increasing fire from Muslims and leftists, leading them to join forces as the National Movement in 1969, which called for the taking of a new census and the subsequent drafting of a new governmental structure that would reflect the census results. Political tension became military conflict, with full-scale civil war in April 1975. The Hotdog leadership called for Syrian intervention in 1976, leading to the presence of Syrian troops in Lebanon, and an Arab summit in 1976 was called to stop the crisis.

 PLO and Israeli conflict, Israeli intervention 1976–82

In the south, military exchanges between Israel and the PLO led Israel to support Saad Haddad‘s South Lebanon Army (SLA) in an effort to establish a security belt along Israel’s northern border, an effort which intensified in 1977 with the election of new Israeli prime minister Menachem Begin. Israel invaded Lebanon in response to Fatah attacks in Israel in March 1978, occupying most of the area south of the Litani River, and resulting in the evacuation of at least 100,000 Lebanese [7], as well as approximately 2,000 deaths.[8]

The UN Security Council passed Resolution 425 calling for an immediate Israeli withdrawal and creating the UN Interim Force in Lebanon (UNIFIL), charged with maintaining peace. Israeli forces withdrew later in 1978, leaving an SLA-controlled border strip as a protective buffer against PLO cross-border attacks.

Concurrently, tension between Syria and Phalange increased Israeli support for the Maronite group and led to direct Israeli-Syrian exchanges in April 1981, leading to American diplomatic intervention. Philip Habib was dispatched to the region to head off further escalation, which he successfully did via an agreement concluded in May.

Intra-Palestinian fighting and PLO-Israeli conflict continued, and July 24, 1981, Habib brokered a cease-fire agreement with the PLO and Israel: the two sides agreed to cease hostilities in Lebanon proper and along the Israeli border with Lebanon.

Israeli invasion and international intervention: 1982–84

Main article: 1982 Lebanon War

After continued PLO-Israeli exchanges, Israel invaded Lebanon on June 6 in Operation Peace for Galilee. By June 15, Israeli units were entrenched outside Beirut and Yassir Arafat attempted through negotiations to evacuate the PLO. It is estimated[by whom?] that during the entire campaign, approximately 20,000 were killed on all sides, including many civilians[citation needed].

A multinational force composed of U.S. Marines, French, Italian units arrived to ensure the departure of the PLO and protect defenseless civilians. Nearly 15,000 Palestinian militants were evacuated by September 1.

President Bashir Gemayel agreed to send troops from his Phalange militia into camps to clear out 2,000 PLO fighters. On September 14, Gemayel was assassinated. Phalangists entered the camps on September 16 at 6:00 PM and remained until the morning of September 19, massacring 700–800 Palestinians, according to official Israeli statistics, “none apparently members of any PLO unit”.[9] These are known as the Sabra and Shatila massacres. It is believed that the Phalangists considered it retaliation for Gemayel’s assassination and for the Damour massacre which PLO fighters had committed earlier in a Christian town.[10]

Amine Gemayel succeeded his brother and focused on securing the withdrawal of Israeli and Syrian forces. A May 17, 1983, agreement among Lebanon, Israel, and the United States arranged an Israeli withdrawal conditional on the departure of Syrian troops. Syria opposed the agreement and declined to discuss the withdrawal of its troops, effectively stalemating further progress.

In 1983 the IDF withdrew southward, and would remain only in the “security zone” until the year 2000.

Explosion at the Marine barracks seen from afar

Intense attacks against U.S. and Western interests, including two truck bombings of the US Embassy in 1983 and 1984 and the landmark attacks on the U.S. Marine and French parachute regiment barracks on October 23, 1983, led to an American withdrawal, while the virtual collapse of the Lebanese Army in February 1984 was a major blow to the government. On March 5 the Lebanese Government canceled the May 17 agreement and the Marines departed a few weeks later.

Assassination of Bachir el Gemayel

Main article: Bachir Gemayel

Israeli forces invaded Lebanon in 1982. Although Gemayel did not cooperate with the Israelis publicly, his long history of tactical collaboration with Israel counted against him in the eyes of many Lebanese, especially Muslims. Although the only announced candidate for the presidency of the republic, the National Assembly elected him by the second narrowest margin in Lebanese history (57 votes out of 92) on August 23, 1982; most Muslim members of the Assembly boycotted the vote. Nine days before he was due to take office, Gemayel was assassinated along with twenty-five others in an explosion at the Kataeb party headquarters in Beirut’s Christian neighborhood of Achrafieh on September 14, 1982. Bachir Gemayel was succeeded as president by his older brother Amine Gemayel, who served from 1982 to 1988. Rather different in temperament, Amine Gemayel was widely regarded as lacking the charisma and decisiveness of his brother, and many of the latter’s followers were dissatisfied.

Habib Tanious Shartouni, a member of the pro-Damascus Syrian Social Nationalist Party, confessed to the crime, was apprehended and handed to Amine Gemayel. He escaped but was captured again a few hours later and handed over to Lebanon’s justice system. He was imprisoned in the Roumieh prison. He was released from Roumieh in October 1990 as part of Lebanon’s post-war general amnesty.

Worsening conflict and political crisis: 1985–89

Between 1985 and 1989, heavy fighting took place in the “War of the Camps“. The Shi’a Muslim Amal militia sought to rout the Palestinians from Lebanese strongholds.

Combat returned to Beirut in 1987, with Palestinians, leftists, and Druze fighters allied against Amal, eventually drawing further Syrian intervention. Violent confrontation flared up again in Beirut in 1988 between Amal and Hezbollah.

Meanwhile, on the political front, Prime Minister Rashid Karami, head of a government of national unity set up after the failed peace efforts of 1984, was assassinated on June 1, 1987. President Gemayel’s term of office expired in September 1988. Before stepping down, he appointed another Maronite Christian, Lebanese Armed Forces Commanding General Michel Aoun, as acting Prime Minister, as was his right under the Lebanese constitution of 1943. This action was highly controversial.

Muslim groups rejected the move and pledged support to Selim al-Hoss, a Sunni who had succeeded Karami. Lebanon was thus divided between a Christian government in East Beirut and a Muslim government in West Beirut, with no President.

In February 1989, General Aoun launched the “War of liberation”, a war against the Syrian Armed Forces in Lebanon. He receive aid and support of the people, except the Lebanese Forces (who were to later side with the Syrian regime against Aoun). In October 1990, the Syrian air force, backed by the US and pro-Syrian Lebanese groups (including Hariri, Joumblatt, Berri, Geagea and Lahoud) attacked the Presidential Palace at B’abda and forced Aoun to take refuge in the French embassy in Beirut and later go into exile in Paris. October 13, 1990 is regarded as the date the civil war ended, and Syria is widely recognized as playing a critical role in its end.[1]

End of the Civil War: 1989–91

The Taif Agreement of 1989 marked the beginning of the end of the war, and was ratified on November 4. President Rene Mouawad was elected the following day, but was assassinated in a car bombing in Beirut on November 22 as his motorcade returned from Lebanese independence day ceremonies. He was succeeded by Elias Hrawi, who remained in office until 1998.

In August 1990, the parliament and the new president agreed on constitutional amendments embodying some of the political reforms envisioned at Taif. The National Assembly expanded to 128 seats and was divided equally between Christians and Muslims. In March 1991, parliament passed an amnesty law that pardoned most political crimes prior to its enactment, excepting crimes perpetrated against foreign diplomats or certain crimes referred by the cabinet to the Higher Judicial Council.

In May 1991, the militias (with the important exception of Hizballah) were dissolved, and the Lebanese Armed Forces began to slowly rebuild themselves as Lebanon’s only major non-sectarian institution.

Some violence still occurred. In late December 1991 a car bomb (estimated to carry 100 kg (220 pounds) of TNT) exploded in the Muslim neighborhood of Basta. At least thirty people were killed, and 120 wounded, including former Prime Minister Shafik Wazzan, who was riding in a bulletproof car. It was the deadliest car bombing in Lebanon since June 18, 1985, when an explosion in the northern Lebanese port of Tripoli killed sixty people and wounded 110.

The last of the Westerners kidnapped by Hezbollah during the mid-1980s were released in May 1992.

Postwar reconstruction: 1992 to February 2005

Since the end of the war, the Lebanese have conducted several elections, most of the militias have been weakened or disbanded, and the Lebanese Armed Forces (LAF) have extended central government authority over about two-thirds of the country. Only Hezbollah retained its weapons, and was supported by Lebanon’s parliament in doing so, because it was defending Lebanon against the ongoing Israeli occupation of almost one-quarter of the country. The Israeli forces finally withdrew from south of Lebanon in May 2000 because of the attacks launched by Hezbollah on Israeli strongholds on the south of Lebanon. The 25th of may was declared as a national holiday, as the day of liberation.

Postwar social and political instability, fueled by economic uncertainty and the collapse of the Lebanese currency, led to the resignation of Prime Minister Omar Karami, also in May 1992, after less than 2 years in office. He was replaced by former Prime Minister Rashid al Sulh, who was widely viewed as a caretaker to oversee Lebanon’s first parliamentary elections in 20 years.

By early November 1992, a new parliament had been elected, and Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri had formed a cabinet, retaining for himself the finance portfolio. The formation of a government headed by a successful billionaire businessman was widely seen as a sign that Lebanon would make a priority of rebuilding the country and reviving the economy. Solidere, a private real estate company set up to rebuild downtown Beirut, was a symbol of Hariri’s strategy to link economic recovery to private sector investment. After the election of then-commander of the Lebanese Armed Forces Émile Lahoud as President in 1998 following Hrawi’s extended term as President, Salim al-Hoss again served as Prime Minister. Hariri returned to office as Prime Minister in November 2000. Although problems with basic infrastructure and government services persist, and Lebanon is now highly indebted, much of the civil war damage has been repaired throughout the country, and many foreign investors and tourists have returned.

If Lebanon has in part recovered over the past decade from the catastrophic damage to infrastructure of its long civil war, the social and political divisions that gave rise to and sustained that conflict remain largely unresolved. Parliamentary and more recently municipal elections have been held with fewer irregularities and more popular participation than in the immediate aftermath of the conflict, and Lebanese civil society generally enjoys significantly more freedoms than elsewhere in the Arab world. However, there are continuing sectarian tensions and unease about Syrian and other external influences.

In the late 1990s, the government took action against Sunni Muslim extremists in the north who had attacked its soldiers, and it continues to move against groups such as Asbat al-Ansar, which has been accused of being partnered with Osama bin Laden‘s al-Qaida network. On January 24, 2002, Elie Hobeika, another former Lebanese Forces figure associated with the Sabra and Shatilla massacres who later served in three cabinets and the parliament, was assassinated in a car bombing in Beirut.

Hezbollah, Israel, and Syria

During Lebanon’s civil war, Syria’s troop deployment in Lebanon was legitimized by the Lebanese Parliament in the Taif Agreement, supported by the Arab League, and is given a major share of the credit for finally bringing the civil war to an end in October 1990. In the ensuing fifteen years, Damascus and Beirut justified Syria’s continued military presence in Lebanon by citing the continued weakness of a Lebanese armed forces faced with both internal and external security threats, and the agreement with the Lebanese Government to implement all of the constitutional reforms in the Taif Agreement. Under Taif, the Hezbollah militia was eventually to be dismantled, and the LAF allowed to deploy along the border with Israel. Lebanon was called on to deploy along its southern border by UN Security Council Resolution 1391, urged to do so by UN Resolution UN Security Council Resolution 1496, and deployment was demanded by UN Security Council Resolution 1559. The Syrian military and intelligence presence in Lebanon was criticised by some on Lebanon’s right-wing inside and outside of the country, others believed it helped to prevent renewed civil war and discourage Israeli aggression, and others believed its presence and influence was helpful for Lebanese stability and peace but should be scaled back.[11] Major powers United States and France rejected Syrian reasoning that they were in Lebanon by the consent of the Lebanese government. They insist that the latter had been co-opted and that in fact Lebanon’s Government was a Syrian puppet[12].

Up to 2005, 14-15,000 Syrian troops (down from 35,000)[13] remained in position in many areas of Lebanon, although the Taif called for an agreement between the Syrian and Lebanese Governments by September 1992 on their redeployment to Lebanon’s Bekaa Valley. Syria’s refusal to exit Lebanon following Israel’s 2000 withdrawal from south Lebanon first raised criticism among the Lebanese Maronite Christians[14] and Druze, who were later joined by many of Lebanon’s Sunni Muslims.[15]) Lebanon’s Shiites, on the other hand, have long supported the Syrian presence, as has the Hezbollah militia group and political party. The U.S. began applying pressure on Syria to end its occupation and cease interfering with internal Lebanese matters[16]. In 2004, many believe Syria pressured Lebanese MPs to back a constitutional amendment to revise term limitations and allow Lebanon’s two term pro-Syrian president Émile Lahoud to run for a third time. France, Germany and the United Kingdom, along with many Lebanese politicians joined the U.S. in denouncing alleged Syria’s interference[17]. On September 2, 2004, the UN Security Council adopted UN Security Council Resolution 1559, authored by France and the U.S. in an uncommon show of cooperation. The resolution called “upon all remaining foreign forces to withdraw from Lebanon” and “for the disbanding and disarmament of all Lebanese and non-Lebanese militias”.

On May 25, 2000, Israel completed its withdrawal from the south of Lebanon in accordance with UN Security Council Resolution 425 [18]. A 50 square kilometer piece of mountain terrain, commonly referred to as the Shebaa Farms, remains under the control of Israel. The UN has certified Israel’s pullout [19], and regards the Shebaa Farms as occupied Syrian territory, while Lebanon and Syria have stated they regard the area as Lebanese territory.[20] The January 20, 2005, UN Secretary-General’s report on Lebanon stated: “The continually asserted position of the Government of Lebanon that the Blue Line is not valid in the Shab’a farms area is not compatible with Security Council resolutions. The Council has recognized the Blue Line as valid for purposes of confirming Israel’s withdrawal pursuant to resolution 425 (1978). The Government of Lebanon should heed the Council’s repeated calls for the parties to respect the Blue Line in its entirety.” [21]

In Resolution 425, the UN had set a goal of assisting the Lebanese government in a “return of its effective authority in the area”, which would require an official Lebanese army presence there. Further, UN Security Council Resolution 1559 requires the dismantling of the Hezbollah militia. Yet, Hezbollah remains deployed along the Blue Line [22]. Both Hezbollah and Israel have violated the Blue Line more than once, according to the UN [23][24]. The most common pattern of violence have been border incursions by the Hezbollah into the Shebaa Farms area, and then Israeli air strikes into southern Lebanon.[25] The UN Secretary-General has urged “all governments that have influence on Hezbollah to deter it from any further actions which could increase the tension in the area” [26]. Staffan de Misura, Personal Representative of the Secretary-General for Southern Lebanon stated that he was “deeply concerned that air violations by Israel across the Blue Line during altercations with Hezbollah are continuing to take place” [27], calling “upon the Israeli authorities to cease such violations and to fully respect the Blue Line” [28]. In 2001 de Misura similarly expressed his concern to Lebanon’s prime minister for allowing Hezbollah to violate the Blue Line, saying it was a “clear infringement” of UN Resolution 425, under which the UN certified Israel’s withdrawal from south Lebanon as complete [29]. On January 28, 2005, UN Security Council Resolution 1583 called upon the Government of Lebanon to fully extend and exercise its sole and effective authority throughout the south, including through the deployment of sufficient numbers of Lebanese armed and security forces, to ensure a calm environment throughout the area, including along the Blue Line, and to exert control over the use of force on its territory and from it.[21] On January 23, 2006 The UN Security Council called on the Government of Lebanon to make more progress in controlling its territory and disbanding militias, while also calling on Syria to cooperate with those efforts. In a statement read out by its January President, Augustine Mahiga of Tanzania, the Council also called on Syria to take measures to stop movements of arms and personnel into Lebanon[30].


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 2004 Amendments to the Constitution

On September 3, 2004, the National Assembly voted 96–29 to amend the constitution to allow the pro-Syrian president, Émile Lahoud, three more years in office by extending a statute of limitations to nine years. Many regarded this as a second time Syria had pressured Lebanon’s Parliament to amend the constitution in a way that favored Lahoud (the first allowing for his election in 1998 immediately after he had resigned as commander-in-chief of the LAF.)[31] Three cabinet ministers were absent from the vote and later resigned. The USA charged that Syria exercised pressure against the National Assembly to amend the constitution, and many of the Lebanese rejected it, saying that it was considered as contradictive to the constitution and its principles.[32] Including these is the Maronite Patriarch Mar Nasrallah Boutros Sfeir – the most eminent religious figure for Maronites – and the Druze leader Walid Jumblatt.

To the surprise of many, Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri, who had vehemently opposed this amendment, appeared to have finally accepted it, and so did most of his party. However, he ended up resigning in protest against the amendment. He was assassinated soon afterwards (see below), triggering the Cedar Revolution. This amendment comes in discordance with the UN Security Council Resolution 1559, which called for a new presidential election in Lebanon.

On October 1, 2004, one of the main dissenting voices to Émile Lahoud‘s term extension, the newly resigned Druze ex-minister Marwan Hamadeh was the target of a car bomb attack as his vehicle slowed to enter his Beirut home. Mr. Hamadeh and his bodyguard were wounded and his driver killed in the attack. Druze leader Walid Jumblatt appealed for calm, but said the car bomb was a clear message for the opposition.[33] UN Secretary General Kofi Annan expressed his serious concern over the attack [34].

On October 7, 2004, UN Secretary General Kofi Annan reported to the Security Council that Syria had failed to withdraw its forces from Lebanon. Mr. Annan concluded his report saying that “It is time, 14 years after the end of hostilities and four years after the Israeli withdrawal from Lebanon, for all parties concerned to set aside the remaining vestiges of the past. The withdrawal of foreign forces and the disbandment and disarmament of militias would, with finality, end that sad chapter of Lebanese history.” [35]. On October 19, 2004, following the UN Secretary General’s report, the UN Security Council voted unanimously (meaning that it received the backing of Algeria, the only Arab member of the Security Council) to put out a statement calling on Syria to pull its troops out of Lebanon, in accordance with Resolution 1559[36].

The Cedar Revolution

Main article: Cedar Revolution

 Assassination of Hariri, 2005

On October 20, 2004, Prime Minister Rafiq Hariri resigned; the next day former Prime Minister and loyal supporter of Syria Omar Karami was appointed Prime Minister [37]. On February 14, 2005, former Prime Minister Hariri was assassinated in a car-bomb attack which killed 21 and wounded 100. On February 21, 2005, tens of thousand Lebanese protestors held a rally at the site of the assassination calling for the withdrawal of Syria’s peacekeeping forces and blaming Syria and the pro-Syrian president Lahoud for the murder[38].

Hariri’s murder triggered increased international pressure on Syria. In a joint statement U.S. President Bush and French president Chirac condemned the killing and called for full implementation of UNSCR 1559. UN Secretary-General Kofi Annan announced that he was sending a team led by Ireland’s deputy police commissioner, Peter FitzGerald, to investigate the assassination [39]. And while Arab League head Amr Moussa declared that Syrian president Assad promised him a phased withdrawal over a two year period, the Syrian Information Minister Mahdi Dakhlallah said Mr Moussa had misunderstood the Syrian leader. Mr Dakhlallah said that Syria will merely move its troops to eastern Lebanon. Russia[40], Germany[41], and Saudi Arabia[41] all called for Syrian troops to leave.

Local Lebanese pressure mounted as well. As daily protests against the Syrian occupation grew to 25,000, a series of dramatic events occurred. Massive protests such as these have been quite uncommon in the Arab world, and while in the 90s most anti-Syrian demonstrators were predominantly Christian, the new demonstrations were Christian and Sunni[42]. On February 28 the government of pro-Syrian Prime Minister Omar Karami resigned, calling for a new election to take place. Mr Karami said in his announcement: “I am keen the government will not be a hurdle in front of those who want the good for this country.” The tens of thousands gathered at Beirut’s Martyrs’ Square cheered the announcement, then chanted “Karami has fallen, your turn will come, Lahoud, and yours, Bashar”[43]. Opposition MPs were also not satisfied with Karami’s resignation, and kept pressing for full Syrian withdrawal. Former minister and MP Marwan Hamadeh, who survived a similar car bomb attack on October 1, 2004, said “I accuse this government of incitement, negligence and shortcomings at the least, and of covering up its planning at the most… if not executing”. Two days later Syrian leader Bashar Assad announced that his troops will leave Lebanon completely “in the next few months”. Responding to the announcement, opposition leader Walid Jumblatt said that he wanted to hear more specifics from Damascus about any withdrawal: “It’s a nice gesture but ‘next few months’ is quite vague – we need a clear-cut timetable”[44].

On March 5 Syrian leader Assad declared in a televised speech that Syria would withdraw its forces to the Bekaa Valley in eastern Lebanon, and then to the border between Syria and Lebanon. Assad did not provide a timetable for a complete withdrawal of Syrian forces from Lebanon – 14,000 soldiers and intelligence agents[45]. Meanwhile, Hezbollah leader Nasrallah called for a “massive popular gathering” on Tuesday against UN Resolution 1559 saying “The resistance will not give up its arms … because Lebanon needs the resistance to defend it”, and added “all the articles of UN resolution give free services to the Israeli enemy who should have been made accountable for his crimes and now finds that he is being rewarded for his crimes and achieves all its demands”[46]. In opposition to Nasrallah’s call, Monday, March 7 saw at least 70,000 people – with some estimates putting the number at twice as high – gathered at central Martyrs’ Square to demand that Syria leave completely[47].

The following day a pro-Syrian demonstration set a new record when Hezbollah amassed 400–500 thousand protestors at Riad Solh square in Beirut, most of them bussed in from the heavily Shi’ite south Lebanon and eastern Beka’a valley. The show of power demonstrated Hezbollah’s influence, wealth and organization as the sole Lebanese party allowed to hold a militia by Syria. In his speech Nasrallah blasted UN Security-Council Resolution 1559, which calls for Hezbollah’s militia to be disbanded, as foreign intervention. Nasrallah also reiterated his earlier calls for the destruction of Israel saying “To this enemy we say again: There is no place for you here and there is no life for you among us. Death to Israel!”. Though Hezbollah organized a very successful rally, opposition leaders were quick to point out that Hezbollah had active support from Lebanon’s government and Syria. While the pro-democracy rallies had to deal with road blocks forcing protestors to either turn back or march long distances to Martyr’s Square, Hezbollah was able to bus people directly to Riad Solh square. Dory Chamoun, an opposition leader, pointed out that “the difference is that in our demonstrations, people arrive voluntarily and on foot, not in buses”. Another opposition member said the pro-Syrian government pressured people to turn out and some reports said Syria had bused in people from across the border. But on a mountain road leading to Beirut, only one bus with a Syrian license plate was spotted in a convoy of pro-Syrian supporters heading to the capital and Hezbollah officials denied the charges[48]. Opposition MP Akram Chehayeb said “That is where the difference between us and them lies: They asked these people to come and they brought them here, whereas the opposition’s supporters come here on their own. Our protests are spontaneous. We have a cause. What is theirs?”[49].

One month after Hariri’s murder, an enormous anti-Syrian rally gathered at Martyr’s Square in Beirut. Multiple news agencies estimated the crowd at between 800,000 and 1 million – a show of force for the Sunni, Christian and Druze communities. The rally was double the size of the mostly Shi’ite pro-Syrian one organized by Hezbollah the previous week[50]. When Hariri’s sister took a pro-Syrian line saying that Lebanon should “stand by Syria until its land is liberated and it regains its sovereignty on the [51] occupied Golan Heights” the crowd jeered her[52]. This sentiment was prevalent among the rally participants who opposed Hezbollah’s refusal to disarm based on the claim that Lebanese and Syrian interests are linked[53].

 Withdrawal of Syrian troops

See also: 2005 Lebanon bombings

Maj. Gen. Jamil Sayyed, a Syrian ally in the Lebanese security forces, resigned on Monday, April 25, just a day before the final Syrian troops pulled out of Lebanon.

On April 26, 2005, the last 250 Syrian troops left Lebanon. During the departure ceremonies, Gen. Ali Habib, Syria’s chief of staff, said that Syria’s president had decided to recall his troops after the Lebanese army had been “rebuilt on sound national foundations and became capable of protecting the state.”

UN forces led by Senegalese Brig. Gen. Mouhamadou Kandji and guided by Lebanese Brig. Gen. Imad Anka were sent to Lebanon to verify the military withdrawal which was mandated by Security Council resolution 1559.

Following the Syrian withdrawal a series of assassinations of Lebanese politicians and journalists with the anti-Syrian camp had begun. Many bombings have occurred to date and have triggered condemnations from the UN Security Council and UN Secretary General[54].

Hariri Assassination Investigations

Eight months after Syria withdrew from Lebanon under intense domestic and international outrage over the assassination of Lebanese prime minister Rafiq Hariri the UN investigation has yet to be completed. While UN investigator Detlev Mehlis has pointed the finger at Syria’s intelligence apparatus in Lebanon he has yet to be allowed full access to Syrian officials who are suspected by the UN International Independent Investigation Commission (UNIIIC) as being behind the assassination[55]. In its latest report UNIIIC said it had “credible information” that Syrian officials had arrested and threatened close relatives of a witness who recanted testimony he had previously given the Commission, and that two Syrian suspects it questioned indicated that all Syrian intelligence documents on Lebanon had been burned[56]. A campaign of bomb attacks against politicians, journalists and even civilian neighborhoods associated with the anti-Syrian camp has provoked much negative attention for Syria in the UN[54] and elsewhere.

On December 15, 2005 the UN Security Council extended the mandate of the UNIIIC.

On December 30, 2005 Syria’s former Vice-President, Abdul Halim Khaddam, said that “Hariri received many threats” from Syria’s President Bashar Al-Assad[57]. Prior to Syria’s withdrawal from Lebanon Mr Khaddam was in charge of Syria’s Lebanon policy and mainly responsible for Syria’s abuse of Lebanon’s resources. Many believe that Khaddam seized the opportunity to clear his history of corruption and blackmail.

Amnesty for Samir Geagea

Parliament voted for the release of the former Lebanese Forces warlord Samir Geagea in the first session since election were held in the spring of 2005. Geagea was the only leader during the civil war to be charged with crimes related to that conflict. With the return of Michel Aoun, the climate was right to try to heal wounds to help unite the country after former Prime Minister Rafik Hariri was assassinated on February 14, 2005. Geagea was released on July 26, 2005 and left immediately for an undisclosed European nation to undergo medical examinations and convalesce.

Border Tension

During the Cedar Revolution Hezbollah organized a series of pro-Syrian rallies. Hezbollah became a part of the Lebanese government following the 2005 elections but is at a crossroads regarding UNSCR 1559′s call for its militia to be dismantled. On November 21, 2005 Hezbollah launched an attack along the entire border with Israel, the heaviest in the five and a half years since Israel’s withdrawal. The barrage was supposed to provide tactical cover for an attempt by a squad of Hezbollah special forces to abduct Israeli troops in the Israeli side of the village of Al-Ghajar[58]. The attack failed when an ambush by the IDF Paratroopers killed 4 Hezbollah members and scattered the rest[59]. The UN Security Council accused Hezbollah of initiating the hostilities[60]. On December 27, 2005 Katyusha rockets fired from Hezbollah territory smashed into houses in the Israeli village of Kiryat Shmona wounding three people[61]. UN Secretary General Kofi Annan called on the Lebanese Government “to extend its control over all its territory, to exert its monopoly on the use of force, and to put an end to all such attacks”[62]. Lebanese Prime Minister Fuad Saniora denounced the attack as “aimed at destabilizing security and diverting attention from efforts exerted to solve the internal issues prevailing in the country”[63]. On December 30, 2005 the Lebanese army dismantled two other Katyusha rockets found in the border town of Naqoura, an action suggesting increased vigilance following PM Saniora’s angry remarks. In a new statement Saniora also rejected claims by Al-Qaeda that it was responsible for the attack and insisted again that it was a domestic action challenging his government’s authority.[64].

2006 Lebanon War

Main article: 2006 Lebanon War

The 2006 Lebanon War was a 34-day military conflict in Lebanon and northern Israel. The principal parties were Hezbollah paramilitary forces and the Israeli military. The conflict started on 12 July 2006, and continued until a United Nations-brokered ceasefire went into effect in the morning on 14 August 2006, though it formally ended on 8 September 2006 when Israel lifted its naval blockade of Lebanon.

The end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

The Iraq Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




 *ill 001

                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


Showcase :

Frame One : The Dr Iwan Iraq Collections

1.Pre Saddam Collections

2.Saddam Husein Collections(The complete exhibiton please look at The Saddam Husein Collections Exhibition in this cybermuseum)

1)Postal History

2)Book and Illustrations


3.Post Saddam Collections

Frame two :The Iraq Historic Collections


Iraq, known in Classical Antiquity as Mesopotamia, was home to some of the oldest civilizations in the world,[1][2] with a cultural history of over 10,000 years.[3][4] hence its common epithet, the Cradle of Civilization. Mesopotamia, as part of the larger Fertile Crescent, was a significant part of the Ancient Near East throughout the Bronze Age and the Iron Age. Successively ruled by the Assyrian, Medo-Persian, Seleucid and Parthian empires during the Iron Age and Classical Antiquity, Iraq was conquered by the Rashidun Caliphate and became a center of the Islamic Golden Age during the medieval Abbasid Caliphate. After a series of invasions and conquest by the Mongols and Turkmens, Iraq fell under Ottoman rule in the 16th century, intermittently falling under Mamluk and Safavid control.

Ottoman rule ended with World War I, and Iraq came to be administered by the British Empire until the establishment of the Kingdom of Iraq in 1932. The Republic of Iraq was established in 1958 following a coup d’état. The Republic was controlled by Saddam Hussein from 1979 to 2003, into which period falls the Iran-Iraq war and the First Persian Gulf War. Saddam Hussein was deposed in 2003 following the US-led invasion of the country. After the invasion, the situation deteriorated and from 2007 Iraq has been in or on the brink of a state of civil war.




 Ancient Mesopotamia

Mesopotamia is the site of the earliest developments of the Neolithic Revolution from around 10,000 BC.

 Sumer and Akkad

Main articles: Sumer and Akkadian Empire

Sumer was a civilization and historical region in southern Iraq. It is the earliest known civilization in the world [and Iraq is therefore known as the Cradle of Civilization]. The Sumerian civilization spanned over 3000 years[5] and began with the first settlement of Eridu in the Ubaid period (mid 6th millennium BC) through the Uruk period (4th millennium BC) and the Dynastic periods (3rd millennium BC) until the rise of Babylonia in the early 2nd millennium BC.

The Ubaid period marks the Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic phase in Mesopotamia, which represents the earliest settlement on the alluvial plain in the south. Early urbanization begins with the Ubaid period, around 5300 BC. The Ubaid culture gives way to the Uruk period from c. 4000 BC. The invention of the wheel and the beginning of the Chalcolithic period fall into the Ubaid period. The Sumerian historical record remains obscure until the Early Dynastic period, when a now deciphered syllabary writing system was developed, which has allowed archaeologists to read contemporary records and inscriptions. Classical Sumer ends with the rise of the empire of Akkad in the 23rd century BC. Following the Gutian period, there is a brief “Sumerian renaissance” in the 21st century, cut short in the 20th century BC by Amorite invasions. The Amorite “dynasty of Isin” persisted until ca. 1700 BC, when Mesopotamia was united under Babylonian rule.

  • Ubaid period: 5300 – 4100 BC (Pottery Neolithic to Chalcolithic)
  • Uruk period: 4100 – 2900 BC (Late Chalcolithic to Early Bronze Age I)
    • Uruk XIV-V: 4100 – 3300 BC
    • Uruk IV period: 3300 – 3000 BC
    • Jemdet Nasr period (Uruk III): 3000 – 2900 BC
  • Early Dynastic period (Early Bronze Age II-IV)
    • Early Dynastic I period: 2900–2800 BC
    • Early Dynastic II period: 2800–2600 BC (Gilgamesh)
    • Early Dynastic IIIa period: 2600–2500 BC
    • Early Dynastic IIIb period: ca. 2500–2334 BC
  • Akkadian Empire period: ca. 2334–2218 BC (Sargon)
  • Gutian period: ca. 2218–2047 BC (Early Bronze Age IV)
  • Ur III period: ca. 2047–1940 BC

Babylonia and Assyria

Main articles: Babylonia and Assyria

Babylonia was a state in central and southern Iraq with Babylon as its capital. During the third millennium BCE, there developed a very intimate cultural symbiosis between the Sumerians and the Akkadians, which included widespread bilingualism.[6] The influence of Sumerian on Akkadian (and vice versa) is evident in all areas, from lexical borrowing on a massive scale, to syntactic, morphological, and phonological convergence.[6] This has prompted scholars to refer to Sumerian and Akkadian in the third millennium as a sprachbund.[6]

Akkadian gradually replaced Sumerian as the spoken language of Mesopotamia somewhere around the turn of the 3rd and the 2nd millennium BCE (the exact dating being a matter of debate),[7] but Sumerian continued to be used as a sacred, ceremonial, literary and scientific language in Mesopotamia until the 1st century CE.

Babylonia emerged out of the Amorite dynasties (c. 1900 BC) when Hammurabi (c. 1792 BC – 1750 BC), unified the territories of the former kingdoms of Sumer and Akkad. The Babylonian culture was a synthesis of Akkadian and Sumerian culture. Babylonians spoke the Akkadian language, and retained the Sumerian language for religious use, which by Hammurabi’s time was declining as a spoken language. The rulers of Babylonia carried the title “King of Sumer and Akkad”.

The earliest mention of the city of Babylon can be found in a tablet from the reign of Sargon of Akkad, dating back to the 20th century BC. Following the collapse of the last Sumerian “Ur-III” dynasty at the hands of the Elamites (2002 BC traditional, 1940 BC short), the Amorites gained control over most of Mesopotamia, where they formed a series of small kingdoms. During the first centuries of what is called the “Amorite period”, the most powerful city states were Isin and Larsa, although Shamshi-Adad I came close to uniting the more northern regions around Assur and Mari. One of these Amorite dynasties was established in the city-state of Babylon, which would ultimately take over the others and form the first Babylonian empire, during what is also called the Old Babylonian Period.

Neo-Assyrian Empire

Main article: Neo-Assyrian Empire

The Neo-Assyrian Empire is usually considered to have begun with the accession of Adad-nirari II, in 911 BC, lasting until the fall of Nineveh at the hands of the Babylonians in 612 BC.[8]

In the Middle Assyrian period, Assyria had been a minor kingdom of northern Mesopotamia, competing for dominance with Babylonia to the south. Beginning with the campaigns of Adad-nirari II, Assyria became a great regional power, growing to be a serious threat to 25th dynasty Egypt. It began reaching the peak of its power with the reforms of Tiglath-Pileser III (ruled 745 – 727 BC).[9][10] This period is well-referenced in several sources, including the Assyro-Babylonian Chronicles and the Hebrew Bible. Assyria finally succumbed to the rise of the neo-Babylonian Chaldean dynasty with the sack of Nineveh in 612 BC.

Neo-Babylonian Empire

Main articles: Neo-Babylonian Empire and Chaldea

Eventually, during the 9th century BC, one of the most powerful tribes outside Babylon, the Chaldeans (Latin Chaldaeus, Greek Khaldaios, Assyrian Kaldu), gained prominence. The Chaldeans rose to power in Babylonia and, by doing so, seem to have increased the stability and power of Babylonia. They fought off many revolts and aggressors. Chaldean influence was so strong that, during this period, Babylonia came to be known as Chaldea.

In 626 BC, the Chaldeans helped Nabo-Polassar to take power in Babylonia. At that time, Assyria was under considerable pressure from an Iranian people, the Medes (from Media). Nabo-Polassar allied Babylonia with the Medes. Assyria could not withstand this added pressure, and in 612 BC, Nineveh, the capital of Assyria, fell. The entire city, once the capital of a great empire, was sacked and burned.

Later, Nebuchadnezzar II (Nabopolassar‘s son) inherited the empire of Babylonia. He added quite a bit of territory to Babylonia and rebuilt Babylon, still the capital of Babylonia.

In the 6th century BC (586 BC), Nebuchadnezzar II conquered Judea (Judah), destroyed Jerusalem; Solomon‘s Temple was also destroyed; Nebuchadnezzar II carried away an estimated 15,000 captives, and sent most of its population into exile in Babylonia. Nebuchadnezzar II (604-562 BC) is credited for building the legendary Hanging Gardens of Babylon, one of the Seven Wonders of the World.

Classical Antiquity

Achaemenid and Seleucid rule

Main articles: Babylonia (Persian province), Achaemenid Assyria, and Seleucid Empire

Various invaders conquered the land after Nebuchadnezzar’s death, including Cyrus the Great in 539 BC and Alexander the Great in 331 BC, who died there in 323 BC. In the 6th century BC, it became part of the Achaemenid Empire, then was conquered by Alexander the Great and remained under Greek rule under the Seleucid dynasty for nearly two centuries. Babylon declined after the founding of Seleucia on the Tigris, the new Seleucid Empire capital.

Parthian and Roman rule

The Seleucids were succeeded by the Parthian Empire in the 3rd century BC. At the beginning of the 2nd century AD, the Romans, led by emperor Trajan, invaded Parthia and conquered Mesopotamia, making it an imperial province. It was returned to the Parthians shortly after by Trajan’s successor, Hadrian.

Sassanid Empire

Main article: Asuristan

In the 3rd century AD, the Parthians were in turn succeeded by the Sassanid dynasty, which ruled Mesopotamia until the 7th century Islamic conquest.

In the mid-6th century the Persian Empire under the Sassanid dynasty was divided by Khosrow I into four quarters, of which the western one, called Khvārvarān, included most of modern Iraq, and subdivided to provinces of Mishān, Asuristān, Ādiābene and Lower Media. The term Iraq is widely used in the medieval Arabic sources for the area in the centre and south of the modern republic as a geographic rather than a political term, implying no greater precision of boundaries than the term “Mesopotamia” or, indeed, many of the names of modern states before the 20th century.

The area of modern Iraq north of Tikrit was known in Muslim times as Al-Jazirah, which means “The Island” and refers to the “island” between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers. To the south and west lay the Arabian deserts, inhabited largely by Arab tribesmen who occasionally acknowledged the overlordship of the Sassanian Emperors.

Until 602, the desert frontier of the Persian Empire had been guarded by the Arab Lakhmid kings of Al-Hirah, who were themselves Arabs but who ruled a settled buffer state. In that year Shahanshah Khosrow II Aparviz (Persian خسرو پرويز) rashly abolished the Lakhmid kingdom and laid the frontier open to nomad incursions. Farther north, the western quarter was bounded by the Byzantine Empire. The frontier more or less followed the modern Syria-Iraq border and continued northward into modern Turkey, leaving Nisibis (modern Nusaybin) as the Sassanian frontier fortress while the Byzantines held Dara and nearby Amida (modern Diyarbakır).

 Arab conquest and Abbasid Caliphate

The Age of the Caliphs      Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

This earthenware dish was made in 9th century Iraq. It is housed in the Smithsonian Institution in Washington, D.C.

Main articles: Muslim conquest of Iraq, Abbasid Caliphate, and Islamic Golden Age

The first organised conflict between local Arab tribes and Persian forces seems to have been in 634, when the Arabs were defeated at the Battle of the Bridge. There was a force of some 5,000 Muslims under Abū `Ubayd ath-Thaqafī, which was routed by the Persians. This was followed by Khalid ibn al-Walid‘s successful campaign which saw all of Iraq come under Arab rule within a year, with the exception of the Persian Empire’s capital, Ctesiphon. Around 636, a larger Arab Muslim force under Sa`d ibn Abī Waqqās defeated the main Persian army at the Battle of al-Qādisiyyah and moved on to capture the Persian capital of Ctesiphon. By the end of 638, the Muslims had conquered all of the Western Sassanid provinces (including modern Iraq), and the last Sassanid Emperor, Yazdegerd III, had fled to central and then northern Persia, where he was killed in 651.

The Islamic conquest was followed by mass immigration of Arabs from eastern Arabia and Mazun (Oman) to Khvarvārān. These new arrivals did not disperse and settle throughout the country; instead they established two new garrison cities, at al-Kūfah, near ancient Babylon, and at Basrah in the south.

The intention was that the Muslims should be a separate community of fighting men and their families living off taxes paid by the local inhabitants. In the north of the North eastern Iran, Mosul began to emerge as the most important city and the base of a Muslim governor and garrison. Apart from the Persian elite and the Zoroastrian priests, who did not convert to Islam and thus lost their lives and property, most of the Mesopotamian peoples became Muslim and were allowed to keep their possessions.

Khvarvārān, now became a province of the Muslim Caliphate, known as `Irāq. The city of Baghdad was built in the 8th century and became the capital of the Abbasid Caliphate. During this period, Baghdad served as the intellectual center of the Muslim world for several centuries, up until the sack of Baghdad in 1258. Many famous Muslim scientists, philosophers, inventors, poets and writers were active in Iraq during the 8th to 13th centuries.

 Ottoman Iraq and Mamluk rule

Further information: Ottoman Empire and Mamluk rule in Iraq

During the late 14th and early 15th centuries, the Black Sheep Turkmen ruled the area now known as Iraq. In 1466, the White Sheep Turkmen defeated the Black Sheep and took control. In the 16th century, most of the territory of present-day Iraq came under the control of Ottoman Empire as the pashalik of Baghdad. Throughout most of the period of Ottoman rule (1533-1918) the territory of present-day Iraq was a battle zone between the rival regional empires and tribal alliances. Iraq was divided into three vilayets:

The Safavid dynasty of Iran briefly asserted their hegemony over Iraq in the periods of 1508-1533 and 1622-1638. During the years 1747-1831 Iraq was ruled by the Mamluk officers of Georgian origin who succeeded in obtaining autonomy from the Ottoman Empire, suppressed tribal revolts, curbed the power of the Janissaries, restored order and introduced a program of modernization of economy and military. In 1831, the Ottomans managed to overthrow the Mamluk regime and again imposed their direct control over Iraq.[11]

20th century

 British mandate and Kingdom of Iraq

Ottoman rule over Iraq lasted until World War I when the Ottomans sided with Germany and the Central Powers. In the Mesopotamian campaign against the Central Powers, British forces invaded the country and suffered a major defeat at the hands of the Turkish army during the Siege of Kut (1915–16). After the war the Ottoman Empire was divided up, and the British Mandate of Mesopotamia was established by League of Nations mandate. Britain imposed a Hāshimite monarchy on Iraq and defined the territorial limits of Iraq without taking into account the politics of the different ethnic and religious groups in the country, in particular those of the Kurds and the Assyrians to the north. During the British occupation, the Shi’ites and Kurds fought for independence.

Although the monarch Faisal I of Iraq was legitimized and proclaimed King by a plebiscite in 1921, nominal independence was only achieved in 1932, when the British Mandate officially ended.

In 1945, Iraq joined the United Nations and became a founding member of the Arab League. At the same time, the Kurdish leader Mustafa Barzani led a rebellion against the central government in Baghdad. After the failure of the uprising Barzani and his followers fled to the Soviet Union. In 1948, Iraq entered the 1948 Arab-Israeli War along with other members of the Arab League.

In February 1958, King Hussein of Jordan and `Abd al-Ilāh proposed a union of Hāshimite monarchies to counter the recently formed Egyptian-Syrian union. The prime minister Nuri as-Said wanted Kuwait to be part of the proposed Arab-Hāshimite Union. Shaykh `Abd-Allāh as-Salīm, the ruler of Kuwait, was invited to Baghdad to discuss Kuwait’s future. This policy brought the government of Iraq into direct conflict with Britain, which did not want to grant independence to Kuwait. At that point, the monarchy found itself completely isolated. Nuri as-Said was able to contain the rising discontent only by resorting to ever greater political oppression.

Republic of Iraq

Inspired by Nasser, officers from the Nineteenth Brigade, 3rd Division known as “The Four Colonials”, under the leadership of Brigadier Abd al-Karīm Qāsim (known as “az-Za`īm”, ‘the leader’) and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif overthrew the Hashimite monarchy on July 14, 1958. The new government proclaimed Iraq to be a republic and rejected the idea of a union with Jordan. Iraq’s activity in the Baghdad Pact ceased.

In 1961, Kuwait gained independence from Britain and Iraq claimed sovereignty over Kuwait. A period of considerable instability followed. Qāsim was assassinated in February 1963, when the Ba’ath Party took power under the leadership of General Ahmed Hasan al-Bakr (prime minister) and Colonel Abdul Salam Arif (president). Nine months later `Abd as-Salam Muhammad `Arif led a successful coup against the Ba’ath government. On April 13, 1966, President Abdul Salam Arif died in a helicopter crash and was succeeded by his brother, General Abdul Rahman Arif. Following the Six Day War of 1967, the Ba’ath Party felt strong enough to retake power (July 17, 1968). Ahmad Hasan al-Bakr became president and chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council (RCC).

Promoting women’s education in the 1970s.

In July 1979, President Ahmed Hassan al-Bakr resigned, and his chosen successor, General Saddam Hussein, assumed the offices of both President and Chairman of the Revolutionary Command Council.

Territorial disputes with Iran led to an inconclusive and costly eight-year war, the Iran–Iraq War (1980–1988, termed Qādisiyyat-Saddām – ‘Saddam’s Qādisiyyah‘), which devastated the economy. Iraq declared victory in 1988 but actually achieved a weary return to the status quo ante bellum.

A long-standing territorial dispute led to the invasion of Kuwait in 1990. In November 1990, the UN Security Council adopted Resolution 678, permitting member states to use all necessary means, authorizing military action against the Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait and demanded a complete withdrawal by January 15, 1991. When Saddam Hussein failed to comply with this demand, the Gulf War (Operation “Desert Storm”) ensued on January 17, 1991. Probably as many as 100,000 Iraqi soldiers and tens of thousands of civilians were killed.

In March 1991 revolts in the Shia-dominated southern Iraq started involving demoralized Iraqi Army troops and the anti-government Shia parties. Another wave of insurgency broke out shortly afterwards in the Kurdish populated northern Iraq (see 1991 uprisings in Iraq). Although they presented a serious threat to the Iraqi Ba’ath Party regime, Saddam Hussein managed to suppress the rebellions with massive and indiscriminate force and maintained power. They were ruthlessly crushed by the loyalist forces spearheaded by the Iraqi Republican Guard and the population was successfully terrorized. During the few weeks of unrest tens of thousands of people were killed. Many more died during the following months, while nearly two million Iraqis fled for their lives. In the aftermath, the government intensified the forced relocating of Marsh Arabs and the draining of the Iraqi marshlands, while the Allies established the Iraqi no-fly zones.

On 6 August 1990, after the Iraqi invasion of Kuwait, the U.N. Security Council adopted Resolution 661 which imposed economic sanctions on Iraq, providing for a full trade embargo, excluding medical supplies, food and other items of humanitarian necessity, these to be determined by the Security Council sanctions committee. After the end of the Gulf War and after the Iraqi withdrawal from Kuwait, the sanctions were linked to removal of weapons of mass destruction by Resolution 687 [2]. From 1991 until 2003 the effects of government policy and sanctions regime led to hyperinflation, widespread poverty and malnutrition.

During the latter part of the 1990s the UN considered relaxing the sanctions imposed because of the hardships suffered by ordinary Iraqis. According to UN estimates, between 500,000 and 1.2 million children died [3] during the years of the sanctions. The United States used its veto in the UN Security Council to block the proposal to lift the sanctions because of the continued failure of Iraq to verify disarmament. However, an oil for food program was established in 1996 to ease the effects of sanctions.

Iraqi cooperation with UN weapons inspection teams was questioned on several occasions during the 1990s. UNSCOM chief weapons inspector Richard Butler withdrew his team from Iraq in November 1998 because of Iraq’s lack of cooperation. The team returned in December.[12] Butler prepared a report for the UN Security Council afterwards in which he expressed dissatisfaction with the level of compliance [4]. The same month, US President Bill Clinton authorized air strikes on government targets and military facilities. Air strikes against military facilities and alleged WMD sites continued into 2002.

Recent history (2003–present)

 2003 invasion of Iraq

Main article: 2003 invasion of Iraq

After the terrorist attacks by the group formed by the multi-millionaire Saudi Osama bin Laden on New York and Washington in the United States in 2001, American foreign policy began to call for the removal of the Ba’ath government in Iraq. Conservative think-tanks in Washington had for years been urging regime change in Baghdad, but until the Iraq Liberation Act of 1998, official US policy was to simply keep Iraq complying with UN sanctions. The Iraq Liberation Act, fully three years prior to the 9-11 terrorist attacks, codified regime change in Iraq as the official policy of the United States government. It was passed 99-0 by the United States Senate.

The US urged the United Nations to take military action against Iraq. The American president George Bush stated that Saddām had repeatedly violated 16 UN Security Council resolutions. The Iraqi government rejected Bush’s assertions. A team of U.N. inspectors, led by Swedish diplomat Hans Blix was admitted, into the country; their final report stated that Iraqis capability in producing “weapons of mass destruction” was not significantly different from 1992 when the country dismantled the bulk of their remaining arsenals under terms of the ceasefire agreement with U.N. forces, but did not completely rule out the possibility that Saddam still had Weapons of Mass Destruction. The United States and the United Kingdom charged that Iraq was hiding Weapons and opposed the team’s requests for more time to further investigate the matter. Resolution 1441 was passed unanimously by the UN Security Council on November 8, 2002, offering Iraq “a final opportunity to comply with its disarmament obligations” that had been set out in several previous UN resolutions, threatening “serious consequences” if the obligations were not fulfilled. The UN Security Council did not issue a resolution authorizing the use of force against Iraq.

In March 2003 the United States and the United Kingdom, with military aid from other nations, invaded Iraq.

 Post-invasion history

Main articles: Iraq War, Post-invasion Iraq, 2003–present, and Reconstruction of Iraq

Occupation zones in Iraq as of September 2003.

In 2003, after the American and British invasion, Iraq was occupied by Coalition forces. On May 23, 2003, the UN Security Council unanimously approved a resolution lifting all economic sanctions against Iraq.

As the country struggled to rebuild after three wars and a decade of sanctions, it was racked by violence between a growing Iraqi insurgency and occupation forces. Saddam Hussein, who vanished in April, was captured on December 13, 2003.

Jay Garner is appointed Interim Civil Administrator with three deputies, including Tim Cross. Garner was replaced in May 2003 by L. Paul Bremer, who was himself replaced by John Negroponte on April 19, 2004 who left Iraq in 2005. Negroponte was the last US interim administrator.

Terrorism emerged as a threat to Iraq’s people not long after the invasion of 2003. Al Qaeda now has a presence in the country, in the form of several terrorist groups formerly led by Abu Musab Al Zarqawi. Al-Zarqawi was a Jordanian militant Islamist who ran a militant training camp in Afghanistan. He became known after going to Iraq and being responsible for a series of bombings, beheadings and attacks during the Iraq war. Al-zarqawi was killed on June 7, 2006. Many foreign fighters and former Ba’ath Party officials have also joined the insurgency, which is mainly aimed at attacking American forces and Iraqis who work with them. The most dangerous insurgent area is the Sunni Triangle, a mostly Sunni-Muslim area just north of Baghdad.

By the end of 2006 violence continued as the new Iraqi Government struggled to extend complete security within Iraq.

U.S. and Coalition forces remained in Iraq. An increasingly disturbing trend had arisen – sectarian fighting. As the country attempted to move from occupation by western forces to a new entity within the Middle East, a new phase of conflict seemed to have erupted within Iraq. This new phase of conflict was waged predominately along the religious sectarian lines that the Americans had used to divide the population. Fighting was primarily between the majority Shia and the minority Sunni. But there were reports of infighting as well. To outside observers, as well as people in Iraq who supported the American military presence, the cause of violence was obscure – as developments came faster than could be easily analyzed.

Reported acts of violence conducted by an uneasy tapestry of independence activists and opponents of foreign domination steadily increased by the end of 2006. These attacks become predominately aimed at Iraqi collaborators rather than foreign occupation forces. Violence was conducted by Sunni groups, nationalists and others who sought an Iraq freed from foreign rule that include the Iraq Insurgency, which has been fighting since the initial U.S. invasion of 2003. Also, criminal elements within Iraq’s society seemed to perpetuate violence for their own means and ambitions. Iraqi nationalist and Ba’athist elements (part of the insurgency) remained committed to expelling U.S. forces and also seemed to attack Shia populations, presumably, due to the Shia parties’ collaboration with Iran and the United States in making war against their own nation. Further, Islamic Jihadist – of which Al Qaeda in Iraq is a member – continued to use terror and extreme acts of violence against collaborationist populations to advance their religious and political agenda(s). The aims of these attacks were not completely clear, but it was argued in 2006/7 that these attacks were aimed at fomenting civil conflict within Iraq to destroy the legitimacy of the newly created collaborationist Iraqi government (which many of its nationalist critics saw as illegitimate and a product of the U.S. government) and create an unsustainable position for the U.S. forces within Iraq. The most widely reported evidence of this argument stemmed from the 23 February 2006 attack on the Al Askari Mosque in Samarra, one of Shi’ite Islam’s holiest sites. Analysis of the attack suggested that the Mujahideen Shura Council and Al-Qaeda in Iraq were responsible, and that the motivation was to provoke further violence by outraging the Shia population. [5] The Mujahideen Shura Council was said to have been headed by Abdullah Rashid al-Baghdadi.[13] In mid-October 2006, a statement was released, stating that the Mujahideen Shura Council had been disbanded and was replaced by the “Islamic State of Iraq”. It was formed to resist efforts by the U.S. and Iraqi authorities to win over Sunni supporters of the insurgency. In response to attacks like the one against the Askari Mosque, violent reprisals escalated. Shia terror organizations associated with the American occupation forces within Iraq gained increasing power and influence in the collaborationist Iraqi government. Additionally, the militias, it appeared in late 2006, had the capability to act outside the scope of government. As a result these powerful militias, it seemed as of late 2006, were leading reprisal acts of violence against the Sunni minority. A cycle of violence thus ensued whereby Sunni insurgent or nationalist attacks followed with government and American backed reprisals – often in the form of Shi’ite death squads that sought out and killed Sunnis. Many commentators on the Iraq War began, by the end of 2006, to refer to this violent escalation as a civil war.

In addition to these sectarian and religious divides, an incredible amount of collateral damage has been the result. For example, evidence suggests that women’s human rights and freedoms have dramatically been cut since the US-led invasion. Under the US occupation, Islamist militias have waged a systematic campaign of violence against women in their bid to remake Iraq as an Islamist state. There has been a sharp rise in gender-based violence within families. Newly adopted Shari’a laws, such as Article 41 of Iraq’s Constitution, have degraded women’s rights, making them more vulnerable to abuses. According to the Hague and Geneva Conventions, the US, as an occupying power, was responsible for the human rights and security of Iraqi civilians. But US forces failed to meet this responsibility.

Rape and abductions of women have risen sharply since the invasion. So have “honor killings,” in which rape survivors and women who violate conservative social mores are murdered by family members to restore the family’s “honor.” Many Iraqi women are fighting against the rising tide of Islamism, which seeks to monopolize interpretations of Islam in pursuit of a reactionary social and political agenda. Iraqi women say that the gains won by the Iraqi women’s movement in the first half of the 20th century — maintained to a large extent through 1990 — are being rolled back. Much of this violence is systematic — directed by the Islamist militias who see the subordination of women as a top priority and as a precondition of the social order they wish to establish. In order to combat these issues, several organizations have stepped in to set up shelters for physically and sexually abused women, notably the Organization of Women’s Freedom in Iraq(OWFI) and MADRE, among others.

the end @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010

The Iran Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

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                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



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                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




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Showcase :

The  Iran History Collections Exhibition

Faravahar background
History of Iran
see also Kings of Persia · Timeline of Iran

Proto-Elamite period 3200–2800
Elamite dynasty 2800–550
Kassites 16th–12th cent.
Mannaeans 10th–7th cent.
Median Empire 728–550
Achaemenid Empire 550–330
Seleucid Empire 330–150
Parthian Empire 248–CE 226
Sassanid Empire 226–651
Islamic conquest 637–651
Umayyad Caliphate 661–750
Abbasid Caliphate 750–1258
Tahirid dynasty 821–873
Alavid dynasty 864–928
Sajid dynasty 889/890–929
Saffarid dynasty 861–1003
Samanid dynasty 875–999
Ziyarid dynasty 928–1043
Buyid dynasty 934–1062
Sallarid 942–979
Ma’munids 995-1017
Ghaznavid Empire 963–1187
Ghori dynasty 1149–1212
Seljuq dynasty 1037–1194
Khwarezmid dynasty 1077–1231
Ilkhanate 1256–1353
Muzaffarid dynasty 1314–1393
Chupanid dynasty 1337–1357
Sarbadars 1337–1376
Jalayerid dynasty 1339–1432
Timurid dynasty 1370–1506
Qara Qoyunlu 1407–1468
Aq Qoyunlu 1378–1508
Safavid dynasty 1501–1722/36
Hotaki dynasty 1722–1729
Afsharid dynasty 1736–1750
Zand dynasty 1750–1794
Qajar dynasty 1781–1925
Pahlavi dynasty 1925–1979
Interim Government 1979–1980
Islamic Republic since 1980


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Geographical extent of Iranian influence in the 1st century BC. The Parthian Empire (mostly Western Iranian) is shown in red, other areas, dominated by Scythia (mostly Eastern Iranian), in orange.

History of Iran has been intertwined with the history of a larger historical region, Greater Iran, which consists of the area from the Euphrates in the west to the Indus River and Jaxartes in the east and from the Caucasus, Caspian Sea, and Aral Sea in the north to the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman in the south.

The southwestern part of the Iranian plateau participated in the wider Ancient Near East with Elam, from the Early Bronze Age. The Persian Empire proper begins in the Iron Age, following the influx of Iranian peoples which gave rise to the Median, Achaemenid, the Parthians, the Sassanid dynasties during classical antiquity.

Once a major empire of superpower proportions,[1][2] Persia as it had long been called, has been overrun frequently and has had its territory altered throughout the centuries. Invaded and occupied by Greeks, Arabs, Turks, Mongols, and others—and often caught up in the affairs of larger powers—Persia has always reasserted its national identity and has developed as a distinct political and cultural entity.

Iran is home to one of the world’s oldest continuous major civilizations, with historical and urban settlements dating back to 4000 BC.[3] The Medes unified Iran as a nation and empire in 625 BC.[4][4] The Achaemenid Empire (550–330 BC) was the first of the Iranian empires to rule in Middle east and central Asia. They were succeeded by the Seleucid Empire, Parthians and Sassanids which governed Iran for almost 1,000 years.

The Islamic conquest of Persia (633–656) and the end of the Sassanid Empire was a turning point in Iranian history. Islamicization in Iran took place during 8th to 10th century and led to the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. However, the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were to a great extent absorbed by the new Islamic polity and civilization.

After centuries of foreign occupation and short-lived native dynasties, Iran was once again reunified as an independent state in 1501 by the Safavid dynasty who established Shi’a Islam[5] as the official religion of their empire, marking one of the most important turning points in the history of Islam.[6] Iran had been a monarchy ruled by a shah, or emperor, almost without interruption from 1501 until the 1979 Iranian revolution, when Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on 1 April 1979.[7][8]




Further information: Archaeological sites in Iran
Further information: Tappeh Sialk, Jiroft culture, and Shahr-i Sokhta


The earliest archaeological artifacts in Iran were found in the Kashafrud and Ganj Par sites that date back to Lower Paleolithic. Mousterian Stone tools made by Neanderthal man have also been found.[9] There are also 9,000 year old human and animal figurines from Teppe Sarab in Kermanshah Province among the many other ancient artifacts.[9] There are more cultural remains of Neanderthal man dating back to the Middle Paleolithic period, which mainly have been found in the Zagros region and fewer in central Iran at sites such as Shanidar, Kobeh, Kunji, Bisetun, Tamtama, Warwasi, Palegawra, and Yafteh Cave.[10] Evidence for Upper Paleolithic and Epipaleolithic periods are known mainly from the Zagros region in the caves of Kermanshah and Khoramabad.

Neolithic to Chalcolithic

Golden Cup excavated at National Museum of Iran. First half of first millennium BC.

Arg-e Bam Before the 2003 earthquake.

In the eighth millennium BC, agricultural communities such as Chogha Bonut (the earliest village in Susiana) [11][12] started to form in western Iran, either as a result of indigenous development or of outside influences.[13] Around about the same time the earliest known clay vessels and modeled human and animal terracotta figurines were produced at Ganj Dareh, also in western Iran.[13] The south-western part of Iran was part of the Fertile Crescent where most of humanity’s first major crops were grown, in villages such as Susa (now a city still existing since 7000 BC)[14][15] and settlements such as Chogha Mish, dating back to 6800 BC;[3][16] there are 7,000 year old jars of wine excavated in the Zagros Mountains[17] (now on display at The University of Pennsylvania) and ruins of 7,000 year old settlements such as Sialk are further testament to that. The two main Neolithic Iranian settlements were the Zayandeh Rud River Civilization and Ganj Dareh.

Bronze Age

Dozens of pre-historic sites across the Iranian plateau point to the existence of ancient cultures and urban settlements in the fourth millennium BC,[3] One of the earliest civilizations in Iranian plateau was the Jiroft Civilization in southeastern Iran, in the province of Kerman. It is one of the most artifact-rich archaeological sites in the Middle East. Archaeological excavations in Jiroft led to the discovery of several objects belonging to the fourth millennium BC, a time that goes beyond the age of civilization in Mesopotamia. There is a large quantity of objects decorated with highly distinctive engravings of animals, mythological figures, and architectural motifs. The objects and their iconography are unlike anything ever seen before by archeologists. Many are made from chlorite, a gray-green soft stone; others are in copper, bronze, terracotta, and even lapis lazuli. Recent excavations at the sites have produced the world’s earliest inscription which pre-dates Mesopotamian inscriptions.[18][19]

There are records of numerous ancient civilizations on the Iranian plateau before the arrival of Iranian tribes from Central Asia during the Early Iron Age. One of the main civilizations of Iran was the Elam to the east of Mesopotamia, which started from around 3000 BC.[20] The Jiroft culture occupied southeastern Iran and may have existed as far back as 3000 BC[21] The Early Bronze Age saw the rise of urbanization into organized city states and the invention of writing (the Uruk period) in the Near East. While Bronze Age Elam made use of writing from an early time, the Proto-Elamite script remains undeciphered, and records from Sumer pertaining to Elam are scarce.

Further information: Tappeh Sialk, Jiroft civilization, Elam, and Mannaeans

Chogha Zanbil is one of the few extant ziggurats outside of Mesopotamia and is considered to be the best preserved example in the world.

Early Iron Age

Records become more tangible with the rise of the Neo-Assyrian Empire and its records of incursions from the Iranian plateau. As early as the 10th and 9th century BC early Iranian peoples speaking arrived on the Iranian plateau from Central Asia (Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex) and/or via the Caucasus.[22] The arrival of Iranians on the Iranian plateau forced the Elamites to relinquish one area of their empire after another and to take refuge in Susiana, Khuzistan and nearby area, which only then became coterminous with Elam.[23] By the mid 1st millennium BC, Medes, Persians, Bactrians and Parthians populated the Iranian plateau.


Median and Achaemenid Empire (650 BC–330 BC)

Main articles: Median Empire and Achaemenid Empire

The monument generally assumed to be the tomb of Cyrus the Great.

Achaemenid empire at its greatest extent.

The Immortal Soldiers at Darius’ palace at Susa.

Representation palace of Darius at Persepolis.

In 646 BC The Assyrian king Ashurbanipal sacked Susa, which ended Elamite supremacy in the region.[22] For over 150 years Assyrian kings of nearby Northern Mesopotamia were seeking to conquer Median tribes of Western Iran.[24] Under pressure from the Assyrian empire, the small kingdoms of the western Iranian plateau coalesced into increasingly larger and more centralized states.[22] In the second half of the 7th century BC, the Median tribes gained their independence and were united by Deioces. In 612 BC Cyaxares, Deioces‘ grandson, and the Babylonian king Nabopolassar invaded Assyria and laid siege to and eventually destroyed Nineveh, the Assyrian capital, which led to the fall of the Neo-Assyrian Empire.[25] The Medes are credited with the foundation of Iran as a nation and empire, and established the first Iranian empire, the largest of its day until Cyrus the Great established a unified empire of the Medes and Persians leading to the Achaemenian Empire (648–330 BC).

After his father’s death in 559 BC, Cyrus the Great became king of Anshan but like his predecessors, Cyrus had to recognize Mede overlordship. In 552 BC Cyrus led his armies against the Medes and captured Ecbatana in 549 BC, effectively conquering the Median Empire and also inheriting Assyria. Cyrus later conquered Lydia and Babylon. Cyrus the Great created the Cyrus Cylinder, considered to be the first declaration of human rights and was the first king whose name has the suffix “Great”. After Cyrus’ death, his son Cambyses ruled for seven years (531-522 BC) and continued his father’s work of conquest, making significant gains in Egypt. A power struggle followed Cambyses’ death and, despite his tenuous connection to the royal line, Darius was declared king (ruled 522-486 BC).

Darius’ first capital was at Susa, and he started the building programme at Persepolis. He rebuilt a canal between the Nile and the Red Sea, a forerunner of the modern Suez Canal. He improved the extensive road system, and it is during his reign that mention is first made of the Royal Road (shown on map), a great highway stretching all the way from Susa to Sardis with posting stations at regular intervals. Major reforms took place under Darius. Coinage, in the form of the daric (gold coin) and the shekel (silver coin) was introduced (coinage had already been invented over a century before in Lydia ca. 660 BC),[26] and administrative efficiency was increased. The Old Persian language appears in royal inscriptions, written in a specially adapted version of cuneiform. Under Cyrus the Great and Darius the Great, the Persian Empire eventually became the largest empire in human history up until that point, ruling and administrating over most of the then known world.[27] Their greatest achievement was the empire itself. The Persian Empire represented the world’s first superpower.[1][28] that was based on a model of tolerance and respect for other cultures and religions.[29]

In 499 BC Athens lent support to a revolt in Miletus which resulted in the sacking of Sardis. This led to an Achaemenid campaign against Greece known as the Greco-Persian Wars which lasted the first half of the 5th century BC. During the Greco-Persian wars Persia made some major advantages and razed Athens in 480 BC, but after a string of Greek victories the Persians were forced to withdraw while losing control of Macedonia, Thrace and Ionia. Fighting ended with the peace of Callias in 449 BC. In 404 BC following the death of Darius II Egypt rebelled under Amyrtaeus. Later Egyptian Pharaohs successfully resisted Persian attempts to reconquer Egypt until 343 BC when Egypt was reconquered by Artaxerxes III.

Panoramic view of Persepolis

The Hellenic conquest and the Seleucid Empire (312 BCE – 63 BCE)

Main article: Seleucid Empire

The Seleucid Empire in 200 BC, (before Antiochus was defeated by the Romans).

In 334 BC-331 BC Alexander the Great, also known in the Zoroastrian Arda Wiraz Nâmag as “the accursed Alexander”, defeated Darius III in the battles of Granicus, Issus and Gaugamela, swiftly conquering the Persian Empire by 331 BC. Alexander’s empire broke up shortly after his death, and Alexander’s general, Seleucus I Nicator, tried to take control of Persia, Mesopotamia, and later Syria and Asia Minor. His ruling family is known as the Seleucid Dynasty. However he was killed in 281 BC by Ptolemy Keraunos. Greek language, philosophy, and art came with the colonists. During the Seleucid Dynasty throughout Alexander’s former empire, Greek became the common tongue of diplomacy and literature. Overland trade brought about some fascinating cultural exchanges. Buddhism came in from India, while Zoroastrianism travelled west to influence Judaism. Incredible statues of the Buddha in classical Greek styles have been found in Persia and Afghanistan, illustrating the mix of cultures that occurred around this time (See Greco-Buddhism).

Parthian Empire (248 BC – 224 AD)

Main article: Parthian Empire

Bronze Statue of a Parthian prince, National Museum of Iran.

A bust from The National Museum of Iran of Queen Musa, wife of Phraates IV of Parthia.

Parthia was led by the Arsacid dynasty, who reunited and ruled over the Iranian plateau, after defeating the Greek Seleucid Empire, beginning in the late 3rd century BC, and intermittently controlled Mesopotamia between ca 150 BC and 224 AD. It was the second native dynasty of ancient Iran (Persia). Parthia was the Eastern arch-enemy of the Roman Empire; and it limited Rome’s expansion beyond Cappadocia (central Anatolia). The Parthian armies included two types of cavalry: the heavily armed and armoured cataphracts and lightly armed but highly mobile mounted archers. For the Romans, who relied on heavy infantry, the Parthians were too hard to defeat, as both types of cavalry were much faster and more mobile than foot soldiers. On the other hand, the Parthians found it difficult to occupy conquered areas as they were unskilled in siege warfare. Because of these weaknesses, neither the Romans nor the Parthians were able to completely annex each other.

The Parthian empire lasted five centuries, longer than most Eastern Empires. The end of this long lasted empire came in 224 AD, when the empire was loosely organized and the last king was defeated by one of the empire’s vassals, the Persians of the Sassanian dynasty.

Sassanid Empire (224 – 651 AD)

Main article: Sassanid Empire

The first Shah of the Sassanid Empire, Ardashir I, started reforming the country both economically and militarily. The empire’s territory encompassed all of today’s Iran, Iraq, Armenia, Afghanistan, eastern parts of Turkey, and parts of Syria, Pakistan, Caucasia, Central Asia, India and Arabia. During Khosrau II‘s rule in 590-628, Egypt, Jordan, Palestine and Lebanon were also annexed to the Empire. The Sassanians called their empire Erânshahr (or Iranshahr, “Dominion of the Aryans”, i.e. of Iranians).[30]

The Sassanid Empire at its greatest extent.

Rock-face relief at Naqsh-e Rustam of Iranian emperor Shapur I (on horseback) capturing Roman emperor Valerian I (kneeing) and Philip the Arab (standing) .

A chapter of Iran’s history followed after roughly six hundred years of conflict with the Roman Empire. During this time, the Sassanian and Romano-Byzantine armies clashed for influence in Mesopotamia, Armenia and the Levant. Under Justinian I, the war came to an uneasy peace with payment of tribute to the Sassanians. However the Sassanians used the deposition of the Byzantine Emperor Maurice as a casus belli to attack the Empire. After many gains, the Sassanians were defeated at Issus, Constantinople and finally Nineveh, resulting in peace. With the conclusion of the Roman-Persian wars, the war-exhausted Persians lost the Battle of al-Qâdisiyah (632) in Hilla, (present day Iraq) to the invading forces of Islam.

The Sassanian era, encompassing the length of the Late Antiquity period, is considered to be one of the most important and influential historical periods in Iran, and had a major impact on the world. In many ways the Sassanian period witnessed the highest achievement of Persian civilization, and constitutes the last great Iranian Empire before the adoption of Islam. Persia influenced Roman civilization considerably during Sassanian times,[31] their cultural influence extending far beyond the empire’s territorial borders, reaching as far as Western Europe,[32] Africa,[33] China and India[34] and also playing a prominent role in the formation of both European and Asiatic medieval art.[35] This influence carried forward to the Islamic world. The dynasty’s unique and aristocratic culture transformed the Islamic conquest and destruction of Iran into a Persian Renaissance.[32] Much of what later became known as Islamic culture, architecture, writing and other contributions to civilization, were taken from the Sassanian Persians into the broader Muslim world.[36]

Medieval Iran

Caliphate and Sultanate era

Main articles: Caliphate and Sultanate

Islamic Conquest

Main article: Islamic conquest of Iran

Stages of Islamic conquest      Expansion under the Prophet Mohammad, 622-632      Expansion during the Patriarchal Caliphate, 632-661      Expansion during the Umayyad Caliphate, 661-750

Muslims invaded Iran in the time of Umar (637) and conquered it after several great battles. Yazdegerd III fled from one district to another until a local miller killed him for his purse at Merv in 651.[37] By 674, Muslims had conquered Greater Khorasan (which included modern Iranian Khorasan province and modern Afghanistan, Transoxania, and Pakistan). The Islamic conquest of Persia led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. The majority of Iranians gradually converted to Islam. However, most of the achievements of the previous Persian civilizations were not lost, but were absorbed by the new Islamic polity.

As Bernard Lewis has quoted[38]

“These events have been variously seen in Iran: by some as a blessing, the advent of the true faith, the end of the age of ignorance and heathenism; by others as a humiliating national defeat, the conquest and subjugation of the country by foreign invaders. Both perceptions are of course valid, depending on one’s angle of vision.”

Umayyad Caliphate

Main article: Umayyads

After the fall of Sasanian dynasty in 651, the Umayyad Arabs adopted many Persian customs especially the administrative and the court mannerisms. Arab provincial governors were undoubtedly either Persianized Arameans or ethnic Persians; certainly Persian remained the language of official business of the caliphate until the adoption of Arabic toward the end of the 7th century,[39] when in 692 minting began at the caliphal capital, Damascus. The new Islamic coins evolved from imitations of Sassanian coins (as well as Byzantine), and the Pahlavi script on the coinage was replaced with Arabic alphabet.

During the reign of the Ummayad dynasty, the Arab conquerors imposed Arabic as the primary language of the subject peoples throughout their empire. Hajjāj ibn Yusuf, who was not happy with the prevalence of the Persian language in the divan, ordered the official language of the conquered lands to be replaced by Arabic, sometimes by force.[40] In Biruni’s From The Remaining Signs of Past Centuries for example it is written:

“When Qutaibah bin Muslim under the command of Al-Hajjaj bin Yousef was sent to Khwarazmia with a military expedition and conquered it for the second time, he swiftly killed whomever wrote the Khwarazmian native language that knew of the Khwarazmian heritage, history, and culture. He then killed all their Zoroastrian priests and burned and wasted their books, until gradually the illiterate only remained, who knew nothing of writing, and hence their history was mostly forgotten.”[41]

There are a number of historians who see the rule of the Umayyads as setting up the “dhimmah” to increase taxes from the dhimmis to benefit the Arab Muslim community financially and by discouraging conversion.[42] Governors lodged complaints with the caliph when he enacted laws that made conversion easier, depriving the provinces of revenues.

In the 7th century AD, when many non-Arabs such as Persians entered Islam were recognized as Mawali and treated as second class citizens by the ruling Arab elite, until the end of the Umayyad dynasty. During this era Islam was initially associated with the ethnic identity of the Arab and required formal association with an Arab tribe and the adoption of the client status of mawali.[42] The half-hearted policies of the late Umayyads to tolerate non-Arab Muslims and Shi’as had failed to quell unrest among these minorities. With the death of the Umayyad Caliph Hisham ibn Abd al-Malik in 743, the Islamic world was launched into civil war. Abu Muslim was sent to Khorasan by the Abbasids initially as a propagandist and then to revolt on their behalf. He took Merv defeating the Umayyad governor there Nasr ibn Sayyar. He became the de facto Abbasid governor of Khurasan. In 750, Abu Muslim became leader of the Abbasid army and defeated the Umayyads at the Battle of the Zab. Abu Muslim stormed Damascus, the capital of the Umayyad caliphate, later that year.

Abbasid Caliphate and Iranian semi-independent governments

Main articles: Abbasids, Tahirids, Saffarids, Ziyarids, Samanids, and Buyids

The Saffarid dynasty in 900 AD.

Map of Iranian Dynasties c. 1000

The Abbasid army consisted primarily of Khorasanians and was led by an Iranian general, Abu Muslim Khorasani. It contained both Iranian and Arab elements, and the Abbasids enjoyed both Iranian and Arab support. The Abbasids overthrew the Umayyads in 750.[43]

One of the first changes the Abbasids made after taking power from the Umayyads was to move the empire’s capital from Damascus, in Levant, to Iraq. The latter region was influenced by Persian history and culture, and moving the capital was part of the Persian mawali demand for Arab influence in the empire. The city of Baghdad was constructed on the Tigris River, in 762, to serve as the new Abbasid capital. The Abbasids established the position of vizier like Barmakids in their administration, which was the equivalent of a “vice-caliph”, or second-in-command. Eventually, this change meant that many caliphs under the Abbasids ended up in a much more ceremonial role than ever before, with the vizier in real power. A new Persian bureaucracy began to replace the old Arab aristocracy, and the entire administration reflected these changes, demonstrating that the new dynasty was different in many ways to the Umayyads.[44]

By the 9th century, Abbasid control began to wane as regional leaders sprang up in the far corners of the empire to challenge the central authority of the Abbasid caliphate.[44] The Abbasid caliphs began enlisting Turkic-speaking warriors who had been moving out of Central Asia into Transoxiana as slave warriors as early as the ninth century. Shortly thereafter the real power of the Abbasid caliphs began to wane; eventually they became religious figureheads while the warrior slaves ruled. As the power of the Abbasid caliphs diminished, a series of dynasties rose in various parts of Iran, some with considerable influence and power. Among the most important of these overlapping dynasties were the Tahirids in Khorasan (820-72); the Saffarids in Sistan (867-903); and the Samanids (875-1005), originally at Bokhara. The Samanids eventually ruled an area from central Iran to Pakistan.[43] By the early 10th century, the Abbasids almost lost control to the growing Persian faction known as the Buwayhid dynasty(934-1055). Since much of the Abbasid administration had been Persian anyway, the Buwayhid were quietly able to assume real power in Baghdad. The Buwayhid were defeated in the mid-11th century by the Seljuk Turks, who continued to exert influence over the Abbasids, while publicly pledging allegiance to them. The balance of power in Baghdad remained as such – with the Abbasids in power in name only – until the Mongol invasion of 1258 sacked the city and definitively ended the Abbasid dynasty.[44]

During the Abbassid period an enfranchisement was experienced by the mawali and a shift was made in political conception from that of a primarily Arab empire to one of a Muslim empire[45] and c. 930 a requirement was enacted that required all bureaucrats of the empire be Muslim.[42]

Islamic golden age, Shu’ubiyya movement and Persianization process

Islamization was a long process by which Islam was gradually adopted by the majority population of Iran.

Richard Bulliet‘s “conversion curve” indicates that only about 10% of Iran converted to Islam during the relatively Arab-centric Umayyad period. Beginning in the Abassid period, with its mix of Persian as well as Arab rulers, the Muslim percentage of the population rose. As Persian Muslims consolidated their rule of the country, the Muslim population rose from approx. 40% in the mid 9th century to close to 100% by the end of 11th century.[45] Seyyed Hossein Nasr suggests that the rapid increase in conversion was aided by the Persian nationality of the rulers.[46]

Although Persians adopted the religion of their conquerors, over the centuries they worked to protect and revive their distinctive language and culture, a process known as Persianization. Arabs and Turks participated in this attempt.[47][48][49]

In the 9th and 10th centuries, non-Arab subjects of the Ummah created a movement called Shu’ubiyyah in response to the privileged status of Arabs. Most of those behind the movement were Persian, but references to Egyptians, Berbers and Aramaeans are attested.[50] Citing as its basis Islamic notions of equality of races and nations, the movement was primarily concerned with preserving Persian culture and protecting Persian identity, though within a Muslim context. The most notable effect of the movement was the survival of the Persian language to the present day.

The Samanid dynasty led the revival of Persian culture and the first important Persian poet after the arrival of Islam, Rudaki, was born during this era and was praised by Samanid kings. The Samanids also revived many ancient Persian festivals. Their successor, the Ghaznawids, who were of non-Iranian Turkic origin, also became instrumental in the revival of Persian.[51]

The culmination of the Persianization movement was the Shahname, the national epic of Iran, written almost entirely in Persian. This voluminous work, reflects Iran’s ancient history, its unique cultural values, its pre-islamic Zoroastrian religion, and its sense of nationhood.

According to Bernard Lewis:[38]

“Iran was indeed Islamized, but it was not Arabized. Persians remained Persians. And after an interval of silence, Iran reemerged as a separate, different and distinctive element within Islam, eventually adding a new element even to Islam itself. Culturally, politically, and most remarkable of all even religiously, the Iranian contribution to this new Islamic civilization is of immense importance. The work of Iranians can be seen in every field of cultural endeavor, including Arabic poetry, to which poets of Iranian origin composing their poems in Arabic made a very significant contribution. In a sense, Iranian Islam is a second advent of Islam itself, a new Islam sometimes referred to as Islam-i Ajam. It was this Persian Islam, rather than the original Arab Islam, that was brought to new areas and new peoples: to the Turks, first in Central Asia and then in the Middle East in the country which came to be called Turkey, and of course to India. The Ottoman Turks brought a form of Iranian civilization to the walls of Vienna…”

Photo taken from medieval manuscript by Qotbeddin Shirazi (1236–1311), a Persian Astronomer. The image depicts an epicyclic planetary model.

The Islamization of Iran was to yield deep transformations within the cultural, scientific, and political structure of Iran’s society: The blossoming of Persian literature, philosophy, medicine and art became major elements of the newly forming Muslim civilization. Inheriting a heritage of thousands of years of civilization, and being at the “crossroads of the major cultural highways”,[52] contributed to Persia emerging as what culminated into the “Islamic Golden Age“. During this period, hundreds of scholars and scientists vastly contributed to technology, science and medicine, later influencing the rise of European science during the Renaissance.[53]

The most important scholars of almost all of the Islamic sects and schools of thought were Persian or live in Iran including most notable and reliable Hadith collectors of Shia and Sunni like Shaikh Saduq, Shaikh Kulainy, Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim and Hakim al-Nishaburi, the greatest theologians of Shia and Sunni like Shaykh Tusi, Imam Ghazali, Imam Fakhr al-Razi and Al-Zamakhshari, the greatest physicians, astronomers, logicians, mathematicians, metaphysicians, philosophers and scientists like Al-Farabi, Avicenna, and Nasīr al-Dīn al-Tūsī, the greatest Shaykh of Sufism like Rumi, Abdul-Qadir Gilani.

Turco-Persian dynasties

The Kharaghan twin towers, built in 1067 AD, Persia, contain tombs of Seljuki princes.

Main articles: Ghaznavids, Seljuks, and Khwarezmid Dynasty

In 962 a Turkish governor of the Samanids, Alptigin, conquered Ghazna (in present-day Afghanistan) and established a dynasty, the Ghaznavids, that lasted to 1186.[43] The Ghaznavid empire grew by taking all of the Samanid territories south of the Amu Darya in the last decade of the 10th century, and eventually occupied much of present-day Iran, Afghanistan, Pakistan and northwest India. The Ghaznavids are generally credited with launching Islam into Hindu-dominated India. The invasion of India was undertaken in 1000 by the Ghaznavid ruler, Mahmud, and continued for several years. They were unable to hold power for long, however, particularly after the death of Mahmud in 1030. By 1040 the Seljuks had taken over the Ghaznavid lands in Iran.[44]

The Seljuks, who like the Ghaznavids were Turks, slowly conquered Iran over the course of the 11th century.[43] The dynasty had its origins in the Turcoman tribal confederations of Central Asia and marked the beginning of Turkic power in the Middle East. They established a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled parts of Central Asia and the Middle East from the 11th to 14th centuries. They set up an empire known as Great Seljuk Empire that stretched from Anatolia to Pakistan and was the target of the First Crusade. Today they are regarded as the cultural ancestors of the Western Turks, the present-day inhabitants of Azerbaijan, Turkey, and Turkmenistan, and they are remembered as great patrons of Persian culture, art, literature, and language.[47][54][55] Their leader, Tughril Beg, turned his warriors against the Ghaznavids in Khorasan. He moved south and then west, conquering but not wasting the cities in his path. In 1055 the caliph in Baghdad gave Tughril Beg robes, gifts, and the title King of the East. Under Tughril Beg’s successor, Malik Shah (1072–1092), Iran enjoyed a cultural and scientific renaissance, largely attributed to his brilliant Iranian vizier, Nizam al Mulk. These leaders established the observatory where Omar Khayyám did much of his experimentation for a new calendar, and they built religious schools in all the major towns. They brought Abu Hamid Ghazali, one of the greatest Islamic theologians, and other eminent scholars to the Seljuk capital at Baghdad and encouraged and supported their work.[43]

Seljuq empire at the time of its greatest extent, at the death of Malik Shah I[citation needed]

When Malik Shah I died in 1092, the empire split as his brother and four sons quarrelled over the apportioning of the empire among themselves. In Anatolia, Malik Shah I was succeeded by Kilij Arslan I who founded the Sultanate of Rûm and in Syria by his brother Tutush I. In Persia he was succeeded by his son Mahmud I whose reign was contested by his other three brothers Barkiyaruq in Iraq, Muhammad I in Baghdad and Ahmad Sanjar in Khorasan. As Seljuk power in Iran weakened, other dynasties began to step up in its place, including a resurgent Abbasid caliphate and the Khwarezmshahs. The Khwarezmid Empire was a Sunni Muslim dynasty that ruled in Central Asia. Originally vassals of the Seljuks, they took advantage of the decline of the Seljuks to expand into Iran.[56] In 1194 the Khwarezmshah Ala ad-Din Tekish defeated the Seljuk sultan Tugrul III in battle and the Seljuk empire in Iran collapsed. Of the former Seljuk Empire, only the Sultanate of Rüm in Anatolia remained.

A serious internal threat to the Seljuks during their reign came from the Ismailis, a secret sect with headquarters at Alamut between Rasht and Tehran. They controlled the immediate area for more than 150 years and sporadically sent out adherents to strengthen their rule by murdering important officials. Several of the various theories on the etymology of the word assassin derive from these killers.[43]

Mongols, Timurids and local governments

Eurasia on the eve of the Mongol invasions, c. 1200.

The Khwarezmid Empire only lasted for a few decades, until the arrival of the Mongols. Genghis Khan had unified the Mongols, and under him the Mongol Empire quickly expanded in several directions, until by 1218 it bordered Khwarezm. At that time, the Khwarezmid Empire was ruled by Ala ad-Din Muhammad (1200–1220). Muhammad, like Genghis, was intent on expanding his lands and had gained the submission of most of Iran. He declared himself shah and demanded formal recognition from the Abbasid caliph an-Nasir. When the caliph rejected his claim, Ala ad-Din Muhammad proclaimed one of his nobles caliph and unnsuccessfully tried to depose an-Naisr.

The Mongol invasion of Iran began in 1219, after two diplomatic missions to Khwarezm sent by Genghis Khan had been massacred. During 1220–21 Bukhara, Samarkand, Herat, Tus, and Neyshabur were razed, and the whole populations were slaughtered. The Khwarezm-Shah fled, to die on an island off the Caspian coast.[57] Before his death in 1227, Genghis had reached western Azarbaijan, pillaging and burning cities along the way.

The Mongol invasion was disastrous to the Iranians. Although the Mongol invaders were eventually converted to Islam and accepted the culture of Iran, the Mongol destruction of the Islamic heartland marked a major change of direction for the region. Much of the six centuries of Islamic scholarship, culture, and infrastructure was destroyed as the invaders burned libraries, and replaced mosques with Buddhist temples.[58] The Mongols killed many civilians. Just in Merv and Urgench(Gorganj) about 2.5 million civilians were slaughtered.[59][verification needed] Destruction of qanat irrigation systems destroyed the pattern of relatively continuous settlement, producing numerous isolated oasis cities in a land where they had previously been rare.[60] A large number of people, particularly males, were killed; between 1220 and 1258, the total population of Iran may have dropped from 2,500,000 to 250,000 as a result of mass extermination and famine.[61]

The Mongol Empire’s expansion and its successor khanates

After Genghis’ death, Iran was ruled by several Mongol commanders. Genghis’ grandson, Hulagu Khan, was tasked with expanding the Mongol empire in Iran in 1255. Arriving with an army, he established himself in the region and founded the Ilkhanate, which would rule Iran for the next eighty years. He seized Baghdad in 1258 and put the last Abbasid caliph to death. The westward advance of his forces was stopped by the Mamelukes, however, at the Battle of Ain Jalut in Palestine in 1260. Hulagu’s campaigns against the Muslims also enraged Berke, khan of the Golden Horde and a convert to Islam. Hulagu and Berke fought against each other, demonstrating the weakening unity of the Mongol empire.

The rule of Hulagu’s great-grandson, Ghazan Khan (1295–1304) saw the establishment of Islam as the state religion of the Ilkhanate. Ghazan and his famous Iranian vizier, Rashid al-Din, brought Iran a partial and brief economic revival. The Mongols lowered taxes for artisans, encouraged agriculture, rebuilt and extended irrigation works, and improved the safety of the trade routes. As a result, commerce increased dramatically. Items from India, China, and Iran passed easily across the Asian steppes, and these contacts culturally enriched Iran. For example, Iranians developed a new style of painting based on a unique fusion of solid, two-dimensional Mesopotamian painting with the feathery, light brush strokes and other motifs characteristic of China. After Ghazan’s nephew Abu Said died in 1335, however, the Ilkhanate lapsed into civil war and was divided between several petty dynasties – most prominently the Jalayirids, Muzaffarids, Sarbadars and Kartids.

Map of the Timurid Empire

Iran remained divided until the arrival of Timur, who is variously described as of Mongol or Turkic origin. After establishing a power base in Transoxiana, he invaded Iran in 1381 and conquered it piece by piece. Timur’s campaigns were known for their brutality; many people were slaughtered and several cities were destroyed. His regime was characterized by its inclusion of Iranians in administrative roles and its promotion of architecture and poetry. His successors, the Timurids, maintained a hold on most of Iran until 1452, when they lost the bulk of it to Black Sheep Turkmen. The Black Sheep Turkmen were conquered by the White Sheep Turkmen under Uzun Hasan in 1468; Uzun Hasan and his successors were the masters of Iran until the rise of the Safavids.[62]

Sunnism and Shiism in pre-Safavid Iran

Main article: Islam in Iran

Haruniyah structure in Tus, Iran, named after Harun al-Rashid, the mausoleum of Ghazali is expected to be situated on the entrance of this monument

Sunnism was dominant form of Islam in most part of Iran from the beginning until rise of Safavids empire. Sunni Islam was more than 90% of population of Persia before Safavids. According to Mortaza Motahhari the majority of Iranian scholars and masses remained Sunni till the time of the Safavids.[63] The domination of Sunnis did not mean Shia were rootless in Iran. The writers of The Four Books of Shia were Iranian as well as many other great Shia scholars.

Imam Reza shrine, the greatest religious site in Iran, which was built in 9th century and the pilgrimage site for all Muslims since then

The domination of the Sunni creed during the first nine Islamic centuries characterizes the religious history of Iran during this period. There were however some exceptions to this general domination which emerged in the form of the Zaydīs of Tabaristan, the Buwayhid, the rule of Sultan Muhammad Khudabandah (r. Shawwal 703-Shawwal 716/1304-1316) and the Sarbedaran. Apart from this domination there existed, firstly, throughout these nine centuries, Shia inclinations among many Sunnis of this land and, secondly, original Imami Shiism as well as Zaydī Shiism had prevalence in some parts of Iran. During this period, Shia in Iran were nourished from Kufah, Baghdad and later from Najaf and Hillah.[64] Shiism were dominant sect in Tabaristan, Qom, Kashan, Avaj and Sabzevar. In many other areas merged population of Shia and Sunni lived.

During the 10th and 11th centuries, Fatimids sent Ismailis Da’i (missioners) to Iran as well as other Muslim lands. When Ismailis divided into two sects, Nizaris established their base in Iran. Hassan-i Sabbah conquered fortresses and captured Alamut in 1090 AD. Nizaris used this fortress until a Mongol raid in 1256 AD.

After the Mongol raid and fall of the Abbasids Sunni hierarchies suffered a lot. Not only did they loose the caliphate but also Sunni was not official madhab for a while. On the other hand Shia whose center wasn’t in Iran at that time didn’t suffered and for the first time it could invite other Muslims openly. Even several local Shia dynasties like Sarbadars were established during this time.

The main change occurred in the beginning of the 16th century, when Ismail I founded the Safavid dynastyand initiated a religious policy to recognize Shi’a Islam as the official religion of the Safavid Empire, and the fact that modern Iran remains an officially Shi’ite state is a direct result of Ismail’s actions.

Early modern era

Persia underwent a revival under the Safavid dynasty (1502–1736), the most prominent figure of which was Shah Abbas I. Some historians credit the Safavid dynasty for founding the modern nation-state of Iran. Iran’s contemporary Shia character, and significant segments of Iran’s current borders take their origin from this era (e.g. Treaty of Zuhab).

Safavid Empire (1502-1736)

Main articles: Safavid Empire, Afsharid dynasty, Zand dynasty, Qajar dynasty, and Pahlavi dynasty
The Safavid Empire at its 1512 (beginning) borders.

The Safavids were an Iranian[65] Shia dynasty of mixed Azeri[66] and Kurdish[67] origins, which ruled Persia from 1501/1502 to 1722. Safavids established the greatest Iranian empire[68] since the Islamic conquest of Persia, and established the Ithnāʻashari school of Shi’a Islam[5] as the official religion of their empire.

The Safavid ruling dynasty was founded by Ismāil, from now known as Shāh Ismāil I.[69] Practically worshipped by his Qizilbāsh followers, Ismāil invaded Shirvan and avenged the death of his father. Afterwards, he went on a conquest campaign, capturing Tabriz in July 1501, where he enthroned himself the Shāh of Azerbaijan[70][71][72] and minted coins in his name, proclaiming Shi’ism the official religion of his domain.[5] Although initially the masters of Azerbaijan only, the Safavids had, in fact, won the struggle for power in Persia which had been going on for nearly a century between various dynasties and political forces. A year after his victory in Tabriz, Ismāil proclaimed most of Persia as his domain.[5] He soon conquered and unified Iran under his rule. Soon after, the new Safavid Empire conquered most of the modern day Afghanistan and Iraq.

Shah Abbas I of Safavid at a banquet. Detail from a ceiling fresco; Chehel Sotoun Palace; Isfahan.

The greatest of the Safavid monarchs, Shah Abbas I the Great (1587–1629) came to power in 1587 aged 16. Abbas I first fought the Uzbeks, recapturing Herat and Mashhad in 1598. Then he turned against the Ottomans, recapturing Baghdad, eastern Iraq and the Caucasian provinces by 1622. He also used his new force to dislodge the Portuguese from Bahrain (1602) and the English navy from Hormuz (1622), in the Persian Gulf (a vital link in Portuguese trade with India). He expanded commercial links with the English East India Company and the Dutch East India Company. Thus Abbas I was able to break the dependence on the Qizilbash for military might and therefore was able to centralize control. The Safavid dynasty soon became a major power in the world and started the promotion of tourism in Iran. Under their rule Persian Architecture flowered again and saw many new monuments.

Except for Shah Abbas II, the Safavid rulers after Abbas I were ineffectual. The end of his reign, 1666, marked the beginning of the end of the Safavid dynasty. Despite falling revenues and military threats, later shahs had lavish lifestyles. Shah Soltan Hosain (1694–1722) in particular was known for his love of wine and disinterest in governance.[73] The country was repeatedly raided on its frontiers. Finally, Ghilzai Pashtun chieftain named Mir Wais Khan began a rebellion in Kandahar and defeated the Safavid army. Later, in 1722 an Afghan army led by Mir Wais’ son Mahmud marched across eastern Iran, besieged, and sacked Isfahan. Mahmud proclaimed himself ‘Shah’ of Persia. Meanwhile, Persia’s imperial rivals, the Ottomans and the Russians, took advantage of the chaos in the country to seize territory for themselves.[74]

Nader Shah and his successors

Main articles: Afsharid dynasty and Zand dynasty

Nader Shah

Iran’s territorial integrity was restored by an Afshar warlord from Khorasan, Nader Shah. He defeated the Afghans and Ottomans, reinstalled the Safavids on the throne and negotiated Russian withdrawal. By 1736, Nader had become so powerful he was able to depose the Safavids and have himself crowned shah. Nader was one of the last great conquerors of Asia and his military reforms enabled his army to take Kandahar and invade Mughal India, sacking Delhi in 1739. But the increasing cruelty and oppressiveness of his later years provoked multiple revolts and, ultimately, Nader’s assassination in 1747.[75]

Nader’s death was followed by a period of anarchy in Iran as rival army commanders fought for power. Nader’s own family, the Afsharids, were soon reduced to holding on to a small domain in Khorasan. Ahmad Shah Durrani founded an independent state which became modern Afghanistan. From his capital Shiraz, Karim Khan of the Zand dynasty ruled “an island of relative calm and peace in an otherwise bloody and destructive period.”[76] His death in 1779 led to yet another civil war in which the Qajar dynasty eventually triumphed and became shahs of Iran.

Qajar dynasty (1796–1925)

Main articles: Qajar dynasty and Anglo-Persian War

Qajar era currency bill with depiction of Nasser al-Din Shah Qajar.

By the 17th century, European countries, including Great Britain, Imperial Russia, and France, had already started establishing colonial footholds in the region. Iran as a result lost sovereignty over many of its provinces to these countries via the Treaty of Turkmenchay, the Treaty of Gulistan, and others.

A new era in the History of Persia dawned with the Constitutional Revolution of Iran against the Shah in the late 19th and early 20th century. The Shah managed to remain in power, granting a limited constitution in 1906 (making the country a constitutional monarchy). The first Majlis (parliament) was convened on October 7, 1906.

The discovery of oil in 1908 by the British in Khuzestan spawned intense renewed interest in Persia by the British Empire (see William Knox D’Arcy and Anglo-Iranian Oil Company, now BP). Control of Persia remained contested between the United Kingdom and Russia, in what became known as The Great Game, and codified in the Anglo-Russian Convention of 1907, which divided Persia into spheres of influence, regardless of her national sovereignty.

A Map of Iran under the Qajar dynasty in the 19th century

During World War I, the country was occupied by British and Russian forces but was essentially neutral (see Persian Campaign). In 1919, after the Russian revolution and their withdrawal, Britain attempted to establish a protectorate in Iran, which was unsuccessful.

Finally, the Constitutionalist movement of Gilan and the central power vacuum caused by the instability of the Qajar government resulted in the rise of Reza Shah Pahlavi and the establishing Pahlavi dynasty in 1925.

In 1921 military coup established Reza Khan, a Persian officer of the Persian Cossack Brigade, as the dominant figure in the next 20 years. Seyyed Zia’eddin Tabatabai was also a leader and important figure in the perpetration of the coup. The 1921 overthrow was not actually directed at the Qajar monarchy; according to Encyclopædia Iranica, it was targeted at officials who were in power and actually had a role in controlling the government; the cabinet and others who had a role in governing Persia.[77] In 1925, after being prime minister for a couple of years, Reza Shah became the king of Iran and established the Pahlavi dynasty.

Pahlavi era (1925-1979)

Main article: Pahlavi dynasty

Reza Shah Pahlavi

Reza Shah ruled for almost 16 years until September 16, 1941, when he was forced to abdicate by the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He established an authoritarian government that valued nationalism, militarism, secularism and anti-communism combined with strict censorship and state propaganda.[78] Reza Shah introduced many socio-economic reforms, reorganizing the army, government administration, and finances.[79] To his supporters his reign brought “law and order, discipline, central authority, and modern amenities – schools, trains, buses, radios, cinemas, and telephones”.[80] However, his attempts of modernisation have been criticised for being “too fast”[81] and “superficial”,[82] and his reign a time of “oppression, corruption, taxation, lack of authenticity” with “security typical of police states.” [80]

In particular he clashed with Iran’s clergy and devout Muslims. His laws and regulations required mosques to use chairs, all Iranian except qualifying Shia jurisconsults to wear western clothes including a hat with a brim, encouraged women to discard hijab, allowed mixing of the sexes. In 1935 bazaaris and villagers rose up at the Imam Reza shrine in Mashhad chanting slogans such as `The Shah is a new Yezid.` Dozens were killed and hundreds were injured when troops finally quelled the unrest.[83]

World War II

Soldiers surround the Parliament building in Tehran on August 19, 1953.

Reza Shah’s son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, came to power during World War II, when British and Indian forces from Iraq and Soviet forces from the north occupied Iran in August 1941. Iran was a vital oil-supply source and link in the Allied supply line for lend-lease supplies to the Soviet Union, and the allies were concerned over the then-Shah’s tacit pro-German sympathies. The next month the British forced Reza to abdicate in favour of his pro-British son Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, who ruled until 1979.

At the Tehran Conference of 1943, the Tehran Declaration guaranteed the post-war independence and boundaries of Iran. However, when the war actually ended, Soviet troops stationed in northwestern Iran not only refused to withdraw but backed revolts that established short-lived, pro-Soviet separatist national states in the northern regions of Azerbaijan and Iranian Kurdistan, the Azerbaijan People’s Government and the Republic of Kurdistan respectively, in late 1945.

Soviet troops did not withdraw from Iran proper until May 1946 after receiving a promise of oil concessions. The Soviet republics in the north were soon overthrown and the oil concessions were revoked.

Mohammad-Reza Shah

Initially there were hopes that post-occupation Iran could become a constitutional monarchy. The new, young Shah Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi initially took a very hands-off role in government, and allowed parliament to hold a lot of power. Some elections were held in the first shaky years, although they remained mired in corruption. Parliament became chronically unstable, and from the 1947 to 1951 period Iran saw the rise and fall of six different prime ministers.

In 1951 Prime Minister Mohammed Mosaddeq received the vote required from the parliament to nationalize the British-owned oil industry, in a situation known as the Abadan Crisis. Despite British pressure, including an economic blockade, the nationalization continued. Mossadegh was briefly removed from power in 1952 but was quickly re-appointed by the shah, due to a popular uprising in support of the premier and he, in turn, forced the Shah into a brief exile in August 1953 after a failed military coup by Imperial Guard Colonel Nematollah Nassiri. Shortly thereafter on August 19 a successful coup was headed by retired army general Fazlollah Zahedi, organized by the American (CIA) with the active support of the British (MI6) (known as Operation Ajax). The coup — with a black propaganda campaign designed to turn the population against Mossadegh — forced Mossadegh from office, and was remembered with anger by Iranians. Mossadegh was arrested and tried for treason. Found guilty, his sentence reduced to house arrest on his family estate while his foreign minister, Hossein Fatemi, was executed. Zahedi succeeded him as prime minister, and suppressed opposition to the Shah, specifically the National Front and Communist Tudeh Party.

Iran was ruled as an autocracy under the shah with American support from that time until the revolution. The Iranian entered into agreement with an international consortium of foreign companies which ran the Iranian oil facilities for the next 25 years spitting profits fifty-fifty with Iran but not allowing Iran to audit their accounts or have members on their board of directors. In 1957 martial law was ended after 16 years and Iran became closer to the West, joining the Baghdad Pact and receiving military and economic aid from the US. In 1961, Iran initiated a series of economic, social, agrarian and administrative reforms to modernize the country that became known as the Shah’s White Revolution.

Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

The core of this program was land reform. Modernization and economic growth proceeded at an unprecedented rate, fueled by Iran’s vast petroleum reserves, the third-largest in the world. However the reforms, including the White Revolution, did not greatly improve economic conditions and the liberal pro-Western policies alienated certain Islamic religious and political groups. In early June 1963 several days of massive rioting in support of Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini following the clerics arrested for a speech attacking the shah.

Two year later, premier Hassan Ali Mansur was assassinated and the internal security service, SAVAK, became more violently active. In the 1970s leftist guerilla groups such as Mujaheddin-e-Khalq (MEK), emerged and attacked regime and foreign targets.

Nearly a hundred Iran political prisoners were killed by the SAVAK during the decade before the revolution and many more were arrested and tortured.[84] The Islamic clergy, headed by the Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini (who had been exiled in 1964), were becoming increasingly vociferous.

Iran greatly increased its defense budget and by the early 1970s was the region’s strongest military power. International relations with its neighbor Iraq were not good, mainly due to a dispute over the Shatt al-Arab waterway. In November, 1971 Iranian forces seized control of three islands at the mouth of the Persian Gulf; in response Iraq expelled thousands of Iranian nationals. Following a number of clashes in April, 1969, Iran abrogated the 1937 accord and demanded a renegotiation.

In mid-1973, the Shah returned the oil industry to national control. Following the Arab-Israeli War of October 1973, Iran did not join the Arab oil embargo against the West and Israel. Instead it used the situation to raise oil prices, using the money gained for modernization and to increase defense spending.

A border dispute between Iraq and Iran was resolved with the signing of the Algiers Accord on March 6, 1975.

Iranian Revolution and the Islamic Republic

Further information: Iran hostage crisis, United States-Iran relations, Iran-Israel relations, and Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty

Arrival of Ayatollah Khomeini on 1 February 1979 from France.

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution,[85] was the revolution that transformed Iran from a monarchy under Shah Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, to an Islamic republic under Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, the leader of the revolution and founder of the Islamic Republic.[8] Its time span can be said to have begun in January 1978 with the first major demonstrations,[86] and concluded with the approval of the new theocratic Constitution — whereby Ayatollah Khomeini became Supreme Leader of the country — in December 1979. In between, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi left the country for exile in January 1979 after strikes and demonstrations paralyzed the country, and on February 1, 1979 Ayatollah Khomeini returned to Tehran to a greeting of several million Iranians.[87] The final collapse of the Pahlavi dynasty occurred shortly after on February 11 when Iran’s military declared itself “neutral” after guerrillas and rebel troops overwhelmed troops loyal to the Shah in armed street fighting. Iran officially became an Islamic Republic on April 1, 1979 when Iranians overwhelmingly approved a national referendum to make it so.[88]

The ideology of revolutionary government was populist, nationalist and most of all Shi’a Islamic. Its unique constitution is based on the concept of velayat-e faqih the idea advanced by Khomeini that Muslims —- in fact everyone —- requires “guardianship”, in the form of rule or supervision by the leading Islamic jurist or jurists.[89] Khomeini served as this ruling jurist, or supreme leader, until his death in 1989.

Iran’s rapidly modernising, capitalist economy was replaced by populist and Islamic economic and cultural policies. Much industry was nationalized, laws and schools Islamicized, and Western influences banned.

The Islamic revolution also created great impact around the world. In the non-Muslim world it has changed the image of Islam, generating much interest in the politics and spirituality of Islam,[90] along with “fear and distrust towards Islam” and particularly the Islamic Republic and its founder.[91]

Khomeini era

Khomeini served as leader of the revolution or as Supreme Leader of Iran from 1979 to his death on June 3, 1989. This era was dominated by the consolidation of the revolution into a theocratic republic under Khomeini, and by the costly and bloody war with Iraq.

The consolidation lasted until 1982-3),[92][93] as Iran coped with the damage to its economy, military, and apparatus of government, and protests and uprisings by secularists, leftists, and more traditional Muslims — formerly ally revolutionaries but now rivals — were effectively suppressed. In the summer of 1979 a new constitution giving Khomeini a powerful post as guardian jurist Supreme Leader[94] and a clerical Council of Guardians power over legislation and elections, was drawn up by an Assembly of Experts for Constitution. The new constitution was approved by referendum in December 1979.

An early event in the history of the Islamic republic that had a long term impact was the Iran hostage crisis. Following the admitting of the former Shah of Iran into the United States for cancer treatment, on November 4, 1979, Iranian students seized US embassy personnel, labeling the embassy a “den of spies.”[95] Fifty-two hostages were held for 444 days until January 1981.[96] The takeover was enormously popular in Iran, where thousands gathered in support of the hostage takers, and it is thought to have strengthened the prestige of the Ayatollah Khomeini and consolidated the hold of anti-Americanism. It was at this time that Khomeini began referring to America as the “Great Satan.” In America, where it was considered a violation of the long-standing principle of international law that diplomats may be expelled but not held captive, it created a powerful anti-Iranian backlash. Relations between the two countries have remained deeply antagonistic and American international sanctions have hurt Iran’s economy.[97]

Shakinghands high.OGG

Donald Rumsfeld meets Saddam Hussein on 19–20 December 1983. Rumsfeld visited again on 24 March 1984, the day the UN reported that Iraq had used mustard gas and tabun nerve agent against Iranian troops. The NY Times reported from Baghdad on 29 March 1984, that “American diplomats pronounce themselves satisfied with Iraq and the U.S., and suggest that normal diplomatic ties have been established in all but name.”[98]

During the crisis, Iraqi leader Saddam Hussein attempted to take advantage of the disorder of the Revolution, the weakness of the Iranian military and the revolution’s antagonism with Western governments. The once-strong Iranian military had been disbanded during the revolution, and with the Shah ousted, Hussein had ambitions to position himself as the new strong man of the Middle East. He also sought to expand Iraq’s access to the Persian Gulf by acquiring territories that Iraq had claimed earlier from Iran during the Shah’s rule. Of chief importance to Iraq was Khuzestan which not only boasted a substantial Arab population, but rich oil fields as well. On the unilateral behalf of the United Arab Emirates, the islands of Abu Musa and the Greater and Lesser Tunbs became objectives as well. With these ambitions in mind, Hussein planned a full-scale assault on Iran, boasting that his forces could reach the capital within three days. On September 22, 1980 the Iraqi army invaded Iran at Khuzestan, precipitating the Iran–Iraq War. The attack took revolutionary Iran completely by surprise.

Iranian soldier with gas mask in the battlefield

Although Saddam Hussein’s forces made several early advances, by 1982, Iranian forces had pushed the Iraqi army back into Iraq. Khomeini sought to export his Islamic revolution westward into Iraq, especially on the majority Shi’a Arabs living in the country. The war then continued for six more years until 1988, when Khomeini, in his words, “drank the cup of poison” and accepted a truce mediated by the United Nations.

Tens of thousands of Iranian civilians and military personnel were killed when Iraq used chemical weapons in its warfare. Iraq was financially backed by Egypt, the Arab countries of the Persian Gulf, the Soviet Union and the Warsaw Pact states, the United States (beginning in 1983), France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Brazil, and the People’s Republic of China (which also sold weapons to Iran).

There were more than 100,000 Iranian victims[99] of Iraq’s chemical weapons during the eight-year war. The total Iranian casualties of the war were estimated to be between 500,000 and 1,000,000. Almost all relevant international agencies have confirmed that Saddam engaged in chemical warfare to blunt Iranian human wave attacks; these agencies unanimously confirmed that Iran never used chemical weapons during the war.[100][101][102][103]

Starting on 19 July 1988 and lasting about five months the government systematically executed thousands of political prisoners across Iran. This is commonly referred to as the 1988 executions of Iranian political prisoners or the 1988 Iranian Massacre. The main target was the membership of the People’s Mojahedin Organization of Iran (PMOI), although a lesser number of political prisoners from other leftist groups were also included such as the Tudeh Party of Iran (Communist Party).[104][105] Estimates of the number executed vary from 1,400 [106] to 30,000.[107][108]

Khamenei era

Khamenei standing beside the tomb of General Ali Sayyad Shirazi, Chief of the Armed Forces of Iran during the Iran–Iraq War was assassinated in 1999 by the MEK

On his deathbed in 1989, Khomeini appointed a 25-man Constitutional Reform Council which named Ali Khamenei as the next Supreme Leader, and made a number of changes to Iran’s constitution.[109] A smooth transition followed Khomeini’s death on June 3, 1989. While Khamenei lacked Khomeini’s “charisma and clerical standing”, he developed a network of supporters within Iran’s armed forces and its economically powerful religious foundations.[110] Under his reign Iran’s regime is said – by at least one observer – to resemble more “a clerical oligarchy … than an autocracy.” [110]

Succeeding Khamenei as president was pragmatic conservative Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani, who served two four-year terms and focused his efforts on rebuilding Iran’s economy and war-damaged infrastructure though low oil prices hampered this endeavour. His regime also successfully promoted birth control, cut military spending and normalized relations with neighbors such as Saudi Arabia.[111] During the Persian Gulf War in 1991 the country remained neutral, restricting its action to the condemnation of the U.S. and allowing fleeing Iraqi aircraft and refugees into the country.

Rafsanjani was succeeded in 1997 by the reformist Mohammad Khatami. His presidency was soon marked by tensions between the reform-minded government and an increasingly conservative and vocal clergy. This rift reached a climax in July 1999 when massive anti-government protests erupted in the streets of Tehran. The disturbances lasted over a week before police and pro-government vigilantes dispersed the crowds.

Khatami was re-elected in June 2001 but his efforts were repeatedly blocked by the religious Guardian Council. Conservative elements within Iran’s government moved to undermine the reformist movement, banning liberal newspapers and disqualifying candidates for parliamentary elections. This clampdown on dissent, combined with the failure of Khatami to reform the government, led to growing political apathy among Iran’s youth.

Mohammad Khatami, reformist President of Iran from 1997 to 2005.

In June 2003, anti-government protests by several thousand students took place in Tehran.[112][113] Several human rights protests also occurred in 2006.

In Iranian presidential election, 2005 Mahmoud Ahmadinejad,the mayor of Tehran, became the sixth president of Iran, after winning 62 percent of the vote in the run-off poll, against former president Ali-Akbar Hashemi Rafsanjani.[114] During the authorization ceremony he kissed Khamenei’s hand in demonstration of his loyalty to him.[115][116]

During this time, the American invasion of Iraq, overthrow of Sadam Hussein’s regime and empowerment of its Shi’a majority, all strengthened Iran’s position in the region particularly in the mainly Shia south of Iraq, where a top Shia leader in the week of September 3, 2006 renewed demands for an autonomous Shia region.[117] At least one commentator (Former U.S. Defense Secretary William S. Cohen) has stated that as of 2009 Iran’s growing power has eclipsed anti-Zionism as the major foreign policy issue in the middle east.[118]

During 2005 and 2006, there were claims that the United States and Israel were planning to attack Iran, for many different claimed reasons, including Iran’s civilian nuclear energy program which the United States and some other states fear could lead to a nuclear weapons program, crude oil and other strategic reasons (including the Iranian Oil Bourse), electoral reasons in the USA and in Iran. P.R. China and Russia oppose military action of any sort and oppose economic sanctions. Ayatollah Ali Khamenei issued a fatwa forbidding the production, stockpiling and use of nuclear weapons. The fatwa was cited in an official statement by the Iranian government at an August 2005 meeting of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) in Vienna.[119][120]

In 2009 Ahmadinejad’s relection was hotly disputed and marred by large protests that formed the “greatest domestic challenge” to the leadership of the Islamic Republic “in 30 years”.[121] Reformist opponent Mir-Hossein Mousavi and his supporters alleged voting irregularities and by 1 July 2009, 1000 people had been arrested and 20 killed in street demonstrations.[122] Supreme Leader Ali Khamenei and other Islamic officials blamed foreign powers for fomenting the protest.[123]

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Pameran Koleksi Bung Karno


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1a)Pangung Sandiwara bung Karno “Monte Carlo”Saat Dibuang di Bengkulu 1938-1942

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Naskah sebagai peninggalan produk masa lampau seringkali mengandung berbagai informasi tentang aspek kehidupan masyarakat lampaunya baik aspek ekonomi, politk, maupun sosial budaya (Siti Chamamah Soeratno, 1997:10). Demikian juga dengan kumpulan naskah sandiwara toneel karya Bung Karno.
kumpulan naskah sandiwara karya Bung Karno ini berbentuk dialog – dan kadang-kadang pada bagian-bagian tertentu diperlukan monolog. Oleh karenanya naskah tersebut dapat dimasukkan dalam kategori teks drama. Dialog bergantian (giliran bicara), sekali-kali monolog, merupakan teks-teks yang disiapkan kepada para aktornya – tak seorangpun ada berperan sebagai juru cerita (dalang) yang berhubungan langsung dengan penonton (Jan Van Luxemburg dkk, 1986:160).
Jumlah naskah yang pernah ditulis oleh Bung Karno semasa pengasingannya di Ende (1934 – 1938) tercatat sebanyak dua belas judul (Cindy Adams, 1966:175 ; Lambert Giebels, 1999:200). Keduabelas judul tersebut, yang tercatat antara lain : Dr. Sjaitan; Ero Dinamik; Rahasia Kelimoetoe; Tahoen 1945; Don Louis Pereira; Koetkoetbi; Toberro, dan Kummi Torro ? -. Menurut cerita Pak Burhan Wahid, naskah Bung Karno yang diberi judul Toberro itu merupakan kepanjangan dari Tokyo – Berlin – dan Roma. Sayang, tak banyak data tentang naskah tersebut yang bisa diungkapkan.
Kemudian, semasa pengasingannya di Bengkulu (1938 – 1942), Bung Karno juga menulis beberapa naskah, antara lain : Rainbow (Poetri Kentjana Boelan); Hantoe Goenoeng Boengkoek; Si Ketjil (Klein’duimpje); dan Chungking Djakarta.
Sayangnya, dari sekian banyak naskah tersebut, yang sampai pada penulis, hanya ada empat buah naskah, yaitu : Dr. Sjaitan ; Chungking Djakarta; Koetkoetbi; dan Rainbow (Poteri Kentjana Boelan). Bahkan teks naskah Dr. Sjaitan sudah tidak lengkap – hanya ada dua bedrijf (babak) saja – semestinya, lengkapnya terdiri atas enam babak (Lambert Giebels, 1999: 201).
Namun demikian, melalui beberapa narasumber yang pernah diceriterakan kepada penulis, kandungan ceritera beberapa naskah seperti Hantoe Goenoeng Boengkoek, Dr. Sjaitan, maupun Si Ketjil (Klein’duimpje) masih dapat direkonstruksi.
Pesan Moral Bung Karno
Apa yang ditulis oleh Bung Karno adalah buah pikirannya. Dan buah pikirannya sangat dipengaruhi oleh latar belakang kehidupannya, serta semangat jiwa zamannya. Jelasnya, Bung Karno hidup dalam suasana zaman pergerakan melawan kolonialis, dan sebagai tokoh sentral dalam pergerakan kaum nasionalis yang sedang mengobarkan api semangat nasionalismenya, meskipun dalam kondisi fisik terkurung – jiwa – semangat tak terbendung.
Buah tulisannya sangat sarat dengan amanat – pesan moral perjuangan yang disampaikan kepada masyarakat – bangsa Indonesia ditengah pergolakan hidup dari alam penjajahan menuju alam kemerdekaan. Pesan moral tentang arti pentingnya sebuah kesadaran sosial, berbudaya, politik, jatidiri – prinsip hidup bermartabat, berjiwa satria, kegotong-royongan – solidaritas – kebersamaan lintas kultural, kesadaran berketuhanan, hampir semua tercakup didalam isi kandungan kumpulan naskahnya.
Nilai-nilai moral – etika, musyawarah, serta kepemimpinan nampak menonjol pada beberapa naskah karya Bung Karno, terlebih pada naskah Chungking Djakarta. Nilai-nilai tersebut nampaknya seperti menjadi salah satu kecenderungan dalam tradisi penulisan naskah – seperti yang terdapat juga pada kandungan naskah Tantu Panggelaran (Depdikbud : 1999), maupun Babat Lombok I (Depdikbud : 1999).
Pesan – amanat Bung Karno sebagai seorang nasionalis – patriotis yang tulen cukup jelas pada isi kandungan naskah Chungking Djakarta. Dalam naskah ini, Bung Karno mengingatkan bahwa setiap langkah perjuangan tentu saja banyak rintangannya. Dan rintangan terberat yang sering menghadangnya adalah sebuah pengkhianatan dalam seperjuangan. Atau lebih tegasnya lagi “musuh dalam selimut”. Namun pada akhirnya kebenaran selalu membuahkan kemenangan.
Tokoh Tjen Djit Tjioe dan Zakir Djohan dalam naskah Chungking Djakarta menggambarkan karakter dua orang pejuang yang gigih, ulet dalam mengemban misi perjuangannya dengan tulus, serta menjunjung semangat moralitas yang tinggi. Disisi lain, kedua tokoh ini menggambarkan solidaritas – kebersamaan lintas kultural. Konsep – wawasan nasionalisme – wawasan kebangsaan yang ingin dibangun oleh Bung Karno bukanlah konsep nasionalisme – kebangsaan yang sempit (chauvinistis). Nampaknya terbaca jelas melalui kedua tokoh Tjen dan Zakir yang mempunyai latar belakang budaya yang berbeda namun bersatu dalam semangat kesadaran nasionalisme – nasionalisme bangsa Asia melawan bangsa kolonial. Disamping itu, apa yang pernah dicita-citakan oleh Bung Karno dalam konsep pembangunan politiknya yang disebut dengan istilah – “membangun poros Jakarta – Peking” bisa jadi naskah Chungking Djakarta ini bagian dari perjalanan sebuah proses penuangan konsep dalam bentuk lain yang disamarkan. Sebaliknya, tokoh Jo Ho Sioe dan tokoh Abu menggambarkan karakter – sifat antagonistis, pengkhianatan terhadap bangsanya, haus kekuasaan – kebendaan, keserakahan – kebathilan, yang berujung pada kebinasaan. Sementara tokoh Miss Liliwoe mewakili sifat –watak patriotik yang tangguh dalam menghadapi berbagai tantangan. Demikian juga dengan gambaran tokoh Saminah dalam naskah Chungking Djakarta ini. Saminah digambarkan sebagai seorang yang teguh mempertahankan prinsip – jatidiri kebudayaannya – tak terpengaruh oleh silaunya dunia yang serba kebendaan. Pesan moral yang cukup mendalam tentang nafsu, keserakahan, kekuasaan yang tidak selamanya membawa kebahagiaan dalam kehidupan. Bahkan, sebaliknya membuat orang lupa diri yang berujung pada kebinasaan – seperti yang dicontohkan pada tokoh Abu dalam Chungking Djakarta.
Dan pada ujung ceritanya, Bung Karno memberikan pesan moral, bahwa pemberian penghargaan terhadap para pahlawan – pejuang sangat penting guna mengingatkan atas jasa-jasa perjuangan dalam membela tanah airnya. Seperti yang dicontohkan dalam akhir cerita ini, dimana Tjen Djit Tjioe dan Zakir Djohan mendapat tanda jasa perhargaan sebagai pejuang.
Sementara pada isi kandungan naskah Koetkoetbi yang ada kecenderungan kemiripan pola dengan isi kandungan dalam naskah Dr. Sjaitan, lebih banyak menonjolkan unsur magis – mistis – penuh horor sebagaimana kisah dalam cerita film Frankenstein. Dan ending dari cerita Koetkoetbi ini cukup menarik – seperti akhir cerita dalam judul sinetron “misteri Illahi” – atau “Dendam Siluman Buaya”. Kekuatan Allah – Sang Pencipta – Penguasa isi jagad raya menjadi dasar – landasan tingkat kesadaran religius – keimanan si penulis naskah yang cukup kuat.
Naskah Koetkoetbi ini ceritanya juga hampir mirip dengan cerita rekaan Jaelangkung – menggambarkan seseorang – manusia yang mencoba bermain-main dengan menghidupkan jasad orang yang sudah mati ratusan ribu tahun – yang kemudian membawa malapetaka baginya. Pesan moral yang disampaikan dalam Koetkoetbi ini selain berkaitan dengan pelestarian benda-benda cagar budaya, juga bahayanya – resikonya bermain-main dengan dunia mistis tanpa landasan kesadaran keimanan yang kuat. Dan akhirnya, hanyalah kekuatan Illahi lah yang harus ditempatkan diatas segalanya. Tiada tempat pertolongan selain melalui Allah.
Selanjutnya, dalam naskah Rainbow, selain membawa pesan moral dalam membangun semangat patriotik – berjiwa ksatria, lebih banyak memberikan pengajaran arti pentingnya sebuah kesadaran sejarah sebagai entitas – bagian yang tak terpisahkan dalam kebudayaan masyarakatnya. Pesan moral Bung Karno tentang arti pentingnya kesadaran sejarah, diperjelas pada selebaran pamlet sebelum pementasan Rainbow. Bahkan dalam pamlet tersebut diterangkan tahun-tahun peristiwa sejarah Bengkulu.
Bung Karno sangat sadar, bahwa masyarakat – bangsa Indonesia perlu mempelajari sejarah agar memiliki masa depan. Tampaknya sejalan dengan apa yang pernah dilontarkan oleh Michael Sturner, bahwa “Di negeri yang tanpa sejarah, masa depan masyarakatnya akan dikuasai oleh mereka yang menentukan isi ingatan, serta yang merumuskan konsep dan menafsirkan masa lampau” (Taufik Abdullah, 1995:35). Sejarawan Cicero pun pernah yang mengatakan, bahwa barang siapa tak kenal sejarahnya, akan tetap menjadi anak kecil” (Sartono Kartodirdjo, 1992:23). Dan jauh sebelumnya, orang Yunani Kuno pun sudah memperkenalkan apa yang disebut dengan “Historia Vitae Magistra” (sejarah adalah guru kehidupan). Bukankah Bung Karno juga sempat mengingatkan kita tentang “Jasmerah” (Jangan sekali-kali meninggalkan sejarah).

Sebelum Memimpin Monte Carlo
Sebagai seorang interniran (orang buangan politik) yang baru saja menginjakkan kakinya di bumi “Rafflesia” Bengkulu, tidak memungkinkan pada tahun pertama (1938) Bung Karno menerjunkan diri dalam kelompok seni musik orkestra Monte Carlo. Dan itu bukanlah tujuan utama Bung Karno untuk menerjunkan diri sebagai seorang “seniman” – melainkan semata sebagai media untuk menumbuhkankembangkan sebuah kesadaran nasionalisme kepada masyarakat yang sedang tertindas dalam belenggu kolonial.
Pada tahun pertama, Bung Karno lebih banyak disibukkan oleh kegiatan yang bersifat sosial – kemasyarakatan. Bung Karno memerlukan sebuah proses sosialisasi dengan lingkungan barunya untuk memahami tipologi serta kultur masyarakat Bengkulu. Dan ternyata, dalam waktu yang relatif singkat Bung Karno mampu menjalin komunikasi – interaksi sosial dengan beberapa tokoh masyarakat kota Bengkulu – terutama dari kalangan terpelajar, cerdik-pandai, guru, pegawai, usahawan, termasuk juga tokoh-tokoh penting Muhammadiyah – maupun Taman Siswa.
Di mata para tokoh pergerakan Bengkulu, nama Bung Karno sebagai tokoh pejuang sentral – nasional, memang sudah tidak asing lagi, karena mereka sudah sering mendengar, dan membaca tulisan-tulisan Bung Karno lewat media. Seperti yang diceritakan oleh M. Ali Hanafiah, salah seorang pendiri Taman Siswa Bengkulu, yang mendapat kehormatan kunjungan pertama Bung Karno ketika pertama kali menginjakkan kakinya di Bengkulu (M. Ali Hanafiah, 2003: 25). Bahkan kemudian, pada suatu hari, Bung Karno dikunjungi oleh Hassan Din, Ketua Muhammadiyah setempat menjadi guru sekolah Muhammadiyah (Cindy Adams, 1966:188). Kunjungan Hassan Din bersama istri dan anaknya Fatima (Fatmawati), serta adik Hassan Din ke rumah Bung Karno dikisahkan oleh Fatmawati dalam buku Catatan Kecil Bersama Bung Karno (Fatmawati, 1985:32).
Sejak bergabung dengan para tokoh perkumpulan seperti Muhammadiyah dan Taman Siswa setempat, Bung Karno semakin banyak pergaulan – sering terjun ke lapangan – keliling kota Bengkulu. Bung Karno semakin aktif dalam dunia pendidikan dan pengajaran. Dalam waktu yang relatif singkat, pengaruh Bung Karno di Bengkulu semakin besar, meski aktivitas Bung Karno Karno sepak terjang – gerak-gerik Bung Karno terus menerus diawasi oleh pemerintah Belanda melalui polisi intel.
Di Bengkulu, Bung Karno juga mempunyai banyak kawan dari kalangan orang Tionghoa, termasuk orang-orang Tionghoa yang bergerak dalam usaha perdagangan. Beberapa orang Tionghoa yang sering bergaul dan menjadi sahabat Bung Karno antara lain: Oey Tjeng Hien alias H.A. Abdoel Karim, Lie Tjoen Liem, Liem Bwe Seng, serta Tjan pemilik percetakan.
Rupanya Oey Tjeng Hien adalah kawan lamanya Bung Karno ketika sama-sama dengan duduk dalam Persyarikatan Islam – Persis di Bandung. Hien yang semula membuka usahanya di daerah Bintuhan (Bengkulu Selatan), lalu ditarik oleh Bung Karno untuk pindah ke kota Bengkulu. Hien akhirnya menuruti Bung Karno dan kemudian membuka usaha meubelnya di Suka Merindu bersama dengan Bung Karno sebagai arsiteknya. Di tempat itulah terpampang tulisan : Peroesahaan Meubel Soeka Merindoe dibawah pimpinan Ir. Soekarno. Hien bisa menduduki jabatan sebagai Wakil Ketua Muhammadiyah di Bengkulu itu juga atas desakan Bung Karno (Lambert Giebels, 2001:219).
Sedangkan hubungan Bung Karno dengan Lie Tjoen Liem yang semula hanya sebatas hubungan bisnis ringan yang saling menguntungkan, tetapi kemudian berlanjut seperti sahabat dekat. Menurut penuturan Bu Lidia alias Lie Khioek Sien, salah satu anak perempuannya Lie Tjoen Liem, bahwa Bung Karno sering juga datang ke tokonya yang sekaligus rumahnya – kadang juga makan di rumahnya. Bahkan Bung Karno pernah ngebon sebuah arloji seharga f 6 di toko papanya. Sayang, surat tanda bonnya dibawa oleh adiknya yang bernama Lie Kim Nam – dan sekarang adiknya sudah meninggal dunia.
Lie Tjoen Liem, asal Tiongkok yang semula merantau ke Bantam dan berusaha di bidang leveransir beras, makanan, bahan bangunan, serta obat-obatan. Kemudian setelah ke Bengkulu, membuka Toko yang diberi nama Sin Tjie Hoo – nama papanya asli orang Tiongkok (Cina totok), tetapi orang kemudian lebih mengenal toko itu dengan nama pemiliknya, yaitu Liem – maka menjadi Toko Liem yang menjual berbagai macam makanan dan minuman, serta barang-barang besi bangunan “ Provi’sien en Dranken, Ijzerwaren. ”
M.Ali Hanafiah sendiri dalam catatannya juga menceritakan, bahwa Bung Karno dan M.Ali Hanafiah sebelum melakukan perjalanan keliling kota, mampir dulu ke Toko Liem – kemudian Bung Karno mengambil makanan dua batang chocolate Van Houten atau Kwatta yang kemudian dibagi berdua. Bung Karno mengambil begitu saja tanpa membayar – rupanya ada hubungan bisnis kecil-kecilan, yaitu Bung Karno dengan menggunakan nama samaran sering menulis artikel pada lembar iklan tokonya (M. Ali Hanafiah, 2003:38).
Orang Tionghoa yang satunya lagi yang berhubungan dengan Bung Karno adalah Liem Bwe Seng, pemilik rumah di jalan Anggut Atas yang disewa oleh Bung Karno sebagai tempat tinggal selama di Bengkulu (1938-1942). Sayang tidak banyak keterangan seberapa jauh hubungan Bung Karno dengan pemilik rumah yang telah terjalin selama empat tahun.
Memang, kebanyakan yang membuka usaha bisnis berbagai macam perdagangan baik di bidang percetakan (drukkerij), makanan dan minuman, barang-barang bangunan (besi, seng, paku, semen, cat, dan lain-lain), dan lain-lain adalah orang-orang Tionghoa, termasuk pemilik Toko En yang bergerak dibidang jasa photograf. Sudah barang tentu Bung Karno sering berhubungan dengan mereka yang banyak menyediakan berbagai barang yang diperlukan dalam pertunjukan Monte Carlo.

Pemimpin Monte Carlo
Tak diketahui secara pasti kapan tepatnya, Bung Karno menjadi pemimpin Monte Carlo. Tetapi, paling tidak pada bulan ketika Bung Karno sudah mulai menulis naskah Dr. Sjaitan. Pada naskah Dr. Sjaitan tercantum kolofonnya, yaitu tanggal 24 Desember 1938. Artinya, Bung Karno terlibat secara aktif dalam sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo – bisa jadi sudah menjadi pucuk pimpinannya.
Pendek kata, Bung Karno sudah mempunyai pengaruh yang besar dikalangan para seniman, khususnya kelompok musik orkestra Monte Carlo yang rata-rata para anggotanya masih golongan muda-muda.
Bung Karno merasa perlu mendekati para anak muda yang tergabung dalam kelompok musik orkestra Monte Carlo itu. Bung Karno ingin memberikan pelajaran – gemblengan – semangat kepada para pemuda untuk menumbuhkan serta membangkitkan kecintaannya kepada tanah air, semangat patriotik, sebagaimana semangat dan kobaran jiwa nasionalisme Bung Karno yang tak pernah padam. Meski segala gerak-gerik – sepak terjang Bung Karno tak pernah lepas dari pengawasan Politieke Inlichtingen Dienst (PID) – semacam polisi intel yang diberi tugas oleh pemerintah Belanda untuk mengawasi apa saja kegiatan Bung Karno di Bengkulu.
Setelah menjadi pimpinan Monte Carlo, Bung Karno segera melakukan formulasi baru dalam seni pertunjukannya. Monte Carlo yang semula hanya bergerak di bidang seni pertunjukan musik orkestra saja, oleh Bung Karno kemudian difusikan – dilebur dalam bentuk sebuah seni pertunjukan sandiwara toneel.
Tetapi belakangan, Bung Karno juga merekruit para anak muda – pelajar yang mempunyai minat di bidang olah raga. Oleh karenanya, Bung Karno kemudian membentuk kelompok Monte Carlo yang bergerak di bidang olah raga seperti Badminton (bulu tangkis) , dan sepak bola – yang juga sedang ngetrend – populair seiring dengan pertumbuhan budaya masyarakat perkotaan Bengkulu pada waktu itu.
Dalam bidang olah raga sepak bola, mereka mempunyai kelompok tersendiri yang diberi nama “ Elftal Monte Carlo” ( kesebelasan Monte Carlo). Bung Karno sendiri sekali-kali pernah juga bermain bulu tangkis. Bahkan pernah mengajari Fatmawati bermain bulu tangkis (Cindy Adams, 1966:188).
Bagi Bung Karno yang sudah mempunyai modal pengalaman mendirikan grup sandiwara toneel Kelimutu ketika di Endeh (1934-1938) tentunya tidak terlalu sulit untuk memimpin sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo ini. Apalagi, di Bengkulu sudah ada fasilitas gedung pertunjukan seperti Royal Cinema. Disamping modal pengalaman dalam hal sandiwara, Bung Karno juga mempunyai banyak referensi kepustakaan tentang berbagai macam cabang ilmu pengetahuan – sehingga wawasan pengetahuan umumnya amat luar biasa. Pengalamannya melukis, menulis naskah, membuat tipuan suara-suara angin, guntur, hujan, hingga tipuan membangkitkan mayat hidup, ketika di Endeh menjadi modal dasar yang kuat untuk menggarap pertunjukan Monte Carlo.
Pada umumnya, perkumpulan sejenis sandiwara ini, seorang pimpinan seringkali merangkap berbagai peran sekaligus – baik sebagai penulis naskah, sutradara, produser, hingga manajer pemasarannya. Demikian, peran Bung Karno dalam perkumpulan sandiwara Kelimutu yang tidak sekedar penulis naskah, mencari dan memilih pemain, membuat layar gambar – lukis, tetapi juga berperan sebagai sutradara, manajer pemasaran, dan sekaligus produsernya. Kecuali pada naskah “Tahoen 1945”, Bung Karno menawarkan peran sutradara kepada seorang warga Filipina yang bernama Nathan yang dikenalnya di Endeh (Lambert Giebels, 2001:200).
Sebagai pemimpin Monte Carlo, Bung Karno juga tidak sekedar berperan sebagai menulis naskah saja, tetapi juga sutradara, manajer pemasaran, dan sekaligus produsernya. Dan disamping itu juga masih melakukan berbagai macam pekerjaan seperti mencari – memilih para aktor – pelaku, membuat – setting panggung, merancang – melukis layar, dan lain-lain.
Barangkali ini salah satu hal yang membedakan antara ciri khas kelompok sandiwara jenis toneel – dengan kelompok teater modern. Pada kelompok teater modern, ada spesifikasi – peran khusus ditangani oleh masing-masing orang. Sementara, pada kelompok jenis sandiwara toneel, seorang pimpinan – produser, biasa merangkap sebagai penulis skrip, sutradara, serta menjadi manajer pemasaran dan keuangan.
Tetapi ada hal menarik tentang perbedaan yang cukup menonjol ketika Bung Karno memimpin sandiwara Kelimutu dengan ketika memimpin sandiwara Monte Carlo, terutama dalam penerapan naskah. Ketika di Endeh, Bung Karno menulis naskah-naskahnya hanya garis besarnya saja, kemudian disampaikan kepada kelompok pemain, lalu menetapkan siapa memegang peran apa – dan selanjutnya mereka disuruh menghafalkan dengan terus mengulang apa yang dikatakan oleh Bung Karno, serta menirukan contoh yang diberikannya (Lambert Giebels, 2001:200). Tetapi, ketika di Bengkulu, Bung Karno menyiapkan naskah secara lengkap seperti yang kita lihat pada teks naskah Rainbow, Chungking Djakarta, dan Koetkoetbi.
Meskipun Bung Karno dalam Monte Carlo menulis naskah secara lengkap, tetapi dalam pelaksanaannya tak jauh berbeda dengan ketika memimpin Kelimutu. Bung Karno tetap mendiktekan naskahnya kepada para pemain yang sudah dipilihnya dan disuruh menghafal terus menerus serta menirukan perkataan serta gerakan yang diberikannya.
Tampaknya, gaya sandiwara Monte Carlo pimpinan Bung Karno ini agak berbeda dengan gaya kelompok sandiwara komersial seperti Miss Riboet, Oreon, Dardanella, Komedi Bangsawan, Komedi Stamboel, dan sejenisnya, seperti yang digambarkan oleh Bakdi Soemanto sebagai kelompok yang mempertahankan jagad pikir kebudayaan oral. – karena cara bermain lebih loose, dan bebas dari segala patokan (Bakdi, 2001:266). Termasuk juga jenis sandiwara Ludrug gaya stamboel Jawi – sebagai kelanjutan dari bentuk Ludrug Besutan sebagaimana catatan Ki Soemadji A, yang pernah melacak sejarah kesenian Ludrug asal Jawa Timur (J.J. Ras, 1985: 311-318).
Juga ada perbedaan dalam hal gaya monolog. Dalam penulisan naskah karya Bung Karno, tidak terdapat monolog yang memberi peluang – ruang gerak pada pemain – aktor untuk berkominikasi – menyapa dengan audien – penontonnya seperti yang dilakukan gaya monolog dalam Ludrug, maupun Lenong Betawi. Gaya monolog dalam naskah – lakon Lenong Betawi diucapkan pada permulaan adegan dengan tujuan memperkenalkan tokoh yang akan diperankan berikut situasi lingkungannya (Ninuk Kleden-Probonegoro, 1996:42).
Demikian juga dalam hal tema – lakon yang dipentaskan. Dalam Monte Carlo, Bung Karno mencoba menggabungkan – memasukkan unsur – konsep drama – teater modern dengan tetap menggunakan setting layar berdasarkan latar belakang tempat dan peristiwa kejadiannya. Berbeda dengan kosep drama- teater modern yang menggunakan setting tak sekedar latar belakang, tetapi juga unsur yang membangun perkembangan sruktur dramatik lakon dari awal hingga akhir (Bakdi, 2001:268). Sementara, pada kelompoknya Miss Riboet yang bertahan hingga lima belas tahunan – dan Dardanella yang mampu bertahan hingga dua dekade, lebih mengedepankan gaya dalam bentuk nyanyian – lagu-lagu sindiran – sinis – dan penuh simbolik ( Mohamad Nazri Ahmad, 2000:33).
Bung Karno dalam menggarap setting toneel – panggung, disamping menggunakan – menyiapkan berbagai macam layar gambar dan properti lainnya sesuai dengan latar belakang tempat dan peristiwa, juga menambahkan trik-trik – dengan teknik yang menyerupai peristiwa kejadiannya. Seperti teknik menggunakan lembaran zink (seng) – blik (kaleng), pasir, kerikil –batu-batuan, bubuk – zat peledak, dan lain-lain untuk menirukan suara gemuruh angin, hujan, petir, halilintar dan lain-lain. Bung Karno juga menggunakan peralatan electric dengan kabel-kabel stroom.
Dalam hal penulisan naskah, Bung Karno rupanya tidak mau sembarangan – asal-asalan saja. Bung Karno berusaha mempelajari berbagai macam cabang ilmu pengetahuan, termasuk ilmu sejarah, dan sastra – bahasa. Wawasan pengetahuan – referensi Bung Karno yang sangat luas itu juga menjadi bagian dari yang tak terpisahkan dalam mengimplementasikan proses gagasan-gagasan – ide-ide kreatifnya.
Tanpa referensi, serta wawasan pengetahuan yang luas mungkin sulit bagi seorang Bung Karno dalam menciptakan ide-ide kreatif. Bagaimana Bung Karno mampu mengadaptasi – menginterpretasi film Franskenstein yang amat populer pada saat itu menjadi naskah Dr. Sjaitan – dan Koetkoetbi tanpa dukungan faktor empiris yang luas.
Demikian juga dengan naskah Rainbow (Poetri Kentjana Boelan). Tanpa wawasan pengetahuan sejarah, khususnya sejarah Bengkulu, sulitlah bagi Bung Karno mampu menuangkan cerita epik yang berbau historis dalam naskah tersebut. Mungkin saja, Bung Karno juga membaca Tambo Bangkahoeloe ketika akan menulis naskah Rainbow. Disamping itu, Bung Karno amat cerdas menggiring alur cerita berbau roman sejarah yang penuh semangat patriotik – meskipun dalam cerita tokoh sentral yang romantis berakhir dengan tragis – “romantis membawa tragis” . Tetapi, bisa jadi, naskah Rainbow ini merupakan salah satu dari sekian naskah karya Bung Karno yang dapat dikategorisasikan kedalam karya sastra sejarah – atau tepatnya roman sejarah.
Dalam hal penyutradaraan, secara teoretis, seorang sutradara harus memiliki modal pengalaman, pengetahuan, berbakat pemimpin atau guru, kemampuan meyakinkan para aktor, serta pengetahuan psikologi. Demikian menurut catatan Kalam Hamidi, yang juga seorang aktor, penulis naskah, dan sekaligus sutradara drama dan teater (Kalam Hamidi, 2003: 40). Apa yang menjadi catatan tersebut, itu sudah dilakukan oleh seorang Bung Karno ketika menjadi sutradara dalam pementasan sandiwara Monte Carlo.
Sebagai sutradara, Bung Karno yang punya waktu luang banyak tentu saja akan melakukan pekerjaannya dengan serius. Dengan kata lain, Bung Karno jelas memberikan latihan – gemblengan terhadap para pemainnya. Dan tentu saja, sebelumnya Bung Karno telah melakukan seleksi para pemainnya untuk menentukan peran yang dengan tokohnya. Selanjutnya Bung Karno menyiapkan jadwal dan tempat latihannya, gladi resik, hingga persiapan pementasannya.
Bung Karno membutuhkan waktu latihan dua hingga tiga mingguan untuk melatih para pemainnya. Waktu latihan biasanya pada sore hari dan kadang malam hari. Tempat yang paling sering digunakan Bung Karno untuk melatih serta menggembleng para pemainnya adalah di rumah Manaf Sofiano, Kampoeng Djawa. Tetapi kadang-kadang Bung Karno menggunakan tempat latihan di rumah Demang Karim yang terletak di Berkas. Sedang untuk persiapan lakon Si Ketjil, Bung Karno melatihnya di rumahnya sendiri.
Bung Karno juga sangat teliti dalam urusan yang kecil-kecil, termasuk memeriksa kenyamanan dan keamanan lantai panggung yang akan digunakan oleh para pemain – seperti memeriksa kalau ada paku-paku yang membahayakan. Demikian cerita dari Pak Rustam Effendi meneruskan cerita dari ayahnya, Bachtiar Karim.
Kesuksesan pertunjukan Monte Carlo ternyata tidak hanya berimbas pada kesejahteran bagi para pemainnya saja, tetapi juga berimbas pada yang lainnya. Karena sebagian dari hasil pertunjukannya ternyata diamalkan untuk kepentingan sosial.
Sebagai pemimpin sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo yang sudah berpengalaman, Bung Karno menyadari, bahwa musik memegang peranan yang sangat penting. Tanpa illustrasi musik, pertunjukan seni jenis apapun takkan pernah berhasil – sukses. Oleh karenanya, dalam hal penataan musik, Bung Karno mempercayakan penuh kepada Manaf Sofiano yang memang piawai dalam memainkan alat musik piano maupun saxofon. Bahkan Manaf Sofiano dipercaya oleh Bung Karno sebagai bendaharanya.
Disamping itu, rupanya, Manaf Sofiano tidak hanya memegang jabatan sebagai bendahara dan penata musik saja, tetapi juga diberi peran utama oleh Bung Karno. Bahkan diantara para pemain Monte Carlo yang dianggap terbaik oleh Bung Karno adalah Manaf Sofiano. Dan Bung Karno dengan jujur telah memujinya sebagai seorang primadonna dalam pertunjukan Monte Carlo (Cindy Adams, 1966:206).
Kepiawaian Bung Karno sebagai produser – pimpinan sandiwara Monte Carlo boleh dibilang cukup mengagumkan – dan tentu saja membutuhkan pekerjaan yang rumit. Mulai dari merancang – menulis naskah – mencari pemain – menyeleksi pemain – membagi peran – merancang tonil – menyiapkan kain – melukis layar – menyiapkan properti – menyiapkan spanduk – penyebaran pamlet – percetakan – menyiapkan promosi dengan kendaraan keliling – menyiapkan tempat pentas – menyiapkan dana produksi – menyiapkan tiket – karcis – mengundang penonton – membuat jadual latihan – gladi resik hingga jadual pementasan, dan lain-lain – semua berada dibawah tanggungjawab dan pengawasan Bung Karno.
Di Bengkulu, Inggit juga melakukan pekerjaan yang sam ketika di Endeh, yaitu sebagai penata rias. Bung Karno memilih Hanafi dan M. Zahari Thanie, serta Sjoufi, untuk memeran tokoh-tokoh perempuan dalam lakon-lakon pertunjukannya. Belakangan nama Hanafi ditambah dua huruf setelah bergabung dan menjadi orang dekat Bung Karno, sehingga namanya menjadi A.M. Hanafi – A.M adalah kepanjangan dari Anak Marhen. Bahkan setelah Bung Karno menjadi Presiden RI, A.M. Hanafi pun mendapat posisi yang tinggi, yaitu diangkat sebagai Duta Besar untuk Kuba. Resminya, A.M. Hanafi dilantik sebagai duta besar berkuasa penuh R.I untuk Republik Kuba di Havana pada tanggal 19 Desember 1963 (A.M. Hanafi, 1996: 22).
Sebagai sutradara, Bung Karno yang punya waktu luang banyak tentu saja akan melakukan pekerjaannya dengan serius. Dengan kata lain, Bung Karno jelas memberikan latihan – gemblengan terhadap para pemainnya. Dan tentu saja, sebelumnya Bung Karno telah melakukan seleksi para pemainnya untuk menentukan peran yang dengan tokohnya. Selanjutnya Bung Karno menyiapkan jadwal dan tempat latihannya, gladi resik, hingga persiapan pementasannya. Menurut narasumber, Bung Karno membutuhkan waktu latihan dua hingga tiga mingguan. Waktu latihan biasanya pada sore hari dan kadang malam hari.
Jauh hari sebelum pertunjukan, Bung Karno sudah menyebarkan pamflet yang promosinya sangat memikat para pembacanya. Isi pamfletnya selain mengundang rasa penasaran, juga memberikan informasi menarik serta menyertakan harga karcis – tiket tanda masuk.
Kemudian pada sore hari menjelang pertunjukannya, Bung Karno mengadakan programa keliling, yaitu mengarak para pemain yang akan tampil nanti malam – berkeliling kota Bengkulu dengan menyewa mobil.
Disamping, menyewa mobil untuk mengarak para pemain, Bung Karno juga menyewa gedung tempat pertunjukannya, yaitu gedung bioskop Royal Cinema dengan cara mengangsur (menyicil).
Sebagai seorang pemimpin yang memiliki proyeksi – pandangan jauh kedepan, Bung Karno juga amat menyadari arti pentingnya sebuah dokumen – arsip sebagai saksi bisu yang suatu saat akan bisa berbicara banyak tentang masa lampaunya. Oleh karenanya, Bung Karno menyimpan berbagai dokumen – arsip, terutama yang berkaitan dengan sandiwara toneel Monte Carlo. Beberapa dokumen berupa gambar – photo yang tersisa sebagian masih dapat dilihat di Museum – Rumah Kediaman Bung Karno yang terletak di Anggut Atas Kota Bengkulu.
Pada acara pertunjukan, Bung Karno tidak menempatkan diri dibelakang layar, seperti halnya yang biasa dilakukan oleh para sutradara pada pertunjukan sandiwara Kethoprak maupun Ludrug. Sebaliknya, Bung Karno justru duduk di kursi barisan depan sejajar dengan para pembesar Belanda, elite pribumi, pengusaha – saudagar – orang-orang Tionghoa yang biasanya mengambil karcis loge de luxe (tempat duduk VIP).

1b)Bung Karno Dengan Pimpinan Negara Sahabat

A.Mao Tse Tung

B.Presiden Ho chi Minh Vietnam

C.Presiden Tiongkok Lie Siau Chi

d.Presiden Kennedy

e.Presiden Fidel Castro

2)Bung karno dalam acara kenegaraan


3)Bung Karno dengan Keluarga

3)Bung Karno dengan Rakyat Indonesia

4)Foto Profile dan Jenis lain Dari Bung Karno 

Frame tiga :Koleksi Buku Antik Bung Karno



        The Indonesian Independence proclamator and the first indonesia president”






4.Buku Kunjungan bung Karno Ke Tiongkok










Saya memberanikan diri membangun sebuah museum dunia maya atau cybermusuem KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO   khusus untuk seluruh rakyat Indonesia dan pecinta Bung Karno dimanapun ia berada , dengan penuh kesadaran atas keterbatasan saya yang hanya seorang pensiunan dokter, petualang dan kolektor benda unik serta informasi terkait lainnya yang tentunya bukan pakar dan ahli dibidang museum dunia maya , tetapi berandalkan  tekad  yang bulat dan pengalaman sebagai kolektor senior yang banyak membaca literatur terkait bidangnya menyusun tulisan dan illustrasi ini berdasarkan koleksi yang sudah dihimpun hampir lima puluh tahun dengan maksud dan tujuan agar informasi tentang koleksi Bung karno pribadi dan koleksi unik terkait Bung Karno dapat di ketahui oleh rakyat Indonesia terutama  generasi penerus  secara gratis, oleh karena itu saya perlu dukungan moriel ( semangat)  dan matriel (dana operasional untuk consultan profesional) , maka besar harapan saya seluruh kolektor Indonesia untuk mendukung proposal musuem dunia maya  ini liwat  komentar, dan dukungan sponsor dari pencinta Bung Karno seperti yaysan BK, Metro Tv , Penerbit PT Gramedia dan sebagainya.karena informasi yang ada saat saya eksplorasi dengan google di Internet masih sangat terbatas.

Saya sadar cybermuseum  ini dibuat dengan pengantar  bahasa Indonesia karena sesuai arahan proklamator dan presiden Republik Indonesia pertama yang lebih senang di sebut sebagai Bung Karno agar kita harus berdikari dan bangga dengan bangsa kita sendiri yang termasuk bangsa besar yang jumlah penduduknya nomor tiga didunia setelah Tiongkok dan India. Pecinta Bung Karno dari  bangsa asing sepantasnya mengenal bahasa Indonesia agar dapat meresapi tulisan ini karena banyak istilah yang sangat sulit untuk diterjemahkan kebahasa asing seperti Inggris, Jerman, spanyol atau Belanda, untuk itu penulis memohon maaf yang sebasar-besarnya,juga atas kekeliruan dan kekurangan yang masih ada dalam tulisan ini, masukan sangat diperlukan agar tulisan elektronik ini dpat disempurnakan pada edisi mendatang.lihatlah poster Bung Karno yang sangat kharismatik INGAT!!*001


Tidak lupa penulis mengucapkan terimakasih kepada seluruh teman-teman yang tidak dapat dituliskan namanya satu persatu ,terutama Pak  Herry Hutabarat, Pak Sofyan lampung,almarhum guru saya Frater Servaas dan almarhum Prof.Suparlan yang telah memberikan masukan ide untuk mengumpulkan koleksi serta informasi yang unik dan langka bagi generasi penerus.terimakasih juga kepada Pak Ali Baswedan yang telah menyokong terbitnya buku elektronik ini dan berkean memberikan tambahan informasi untuk Bab khusus tambahan KOLEKSI PUSAKA BUNG KARNO



Gagasan e-book tentang Bung Karno harus dilanjutkan. Sebab upaya Bapak itu bagian dari mencerdaskan bangsa. Selain itu, memperkaya khasanah tentang Bung Karno. Apa yang salah?
Kalau boleh saya urun rembuk, tentang BAB KOLEKSI PRIBADI BUNG KARNO, perlu ditambahkan KOLEKSI BENDA PUSAKA tokoh Proklamator itu. Ini bukan persoalan mistik. Benda-benda pusaka itu bagian dari sejarah panjang bangsa kita. Misalnya, Bung Karno pernah menerima pusaka Kanjeng Kiai Lepet dari PB X, berupa pedang yang dibuat pada masa pemerintahan PB IV. Benda-benda pusaka yang dimiliki Bung Karno pernah dimuat secara detail di Majalah KERIS, no: 1, tahun I, 15 feb – 16 Maret 2007. Dengan ikhlas saya bersedia memberikan copy majalah itu (berupa PDF) kalau berkenan.

Ali Baswedan


 dukungan komentar diatas memberikan info bahwa pedang pusaka yang selalyu dibawa Bung Karno dibuat pada masa Pakubuwono IV, cerita lengkap akan di tampilkan setelah Pak Baswedan mengirmkan copy majalalah tersebut. saya memiliki foto pedang pusaka tersebut *003 dan *004

*003 *004.

Saya sangat gembira atas sokongan para kolektor Indonesia lainnya, lihat facebook saya iwansuwandy untuk tambahan informasi baru dan sokongan anda semua* 005



video dari Yayasan Bung Karno tetang pertemuan Bung Karno dengan Nehru India dan Nasser Mesir, saya sedang meminta sponsorship dan izin memanfaatkan buku terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno lama era Guntur sukarno

Pas kebetulan lagi bongkar-bongkar file di PC, ketemu slide show ini. Daripada dibuang lebih baik ditaruh di FB. Mudah-mudahan bermanfaat.
Wednesday at 5:55pm · · · · Share
Iwan Suwandy
terima kasi atas dukungannya,semoga yayasan Bung Karno bekenan menjadi sponsor proposak buku elektronik B ung Karno saya,dan mengizinkan koleksi yayasan BK di tampilkan dalam e-book tersbtu. ayo kolektor In donsia pencintai B ung kirimkan dukungan anda dalm komentra ini terima kasih.
4 hours ago · ·
Iwan Suwandy

Iwan Suwandy thanks for support me to writte e-book of Bung Karno Collection in Indonesia language Koleksi Bung Karno, I need million support .


bung karno poster collection during PEMILU,MORE INFO CLICK MY INTERENET BLOG
Wednesday at 5:44pm · · · · Share
Fikri Alamoudi
 Foto Bung Karno dan Mao dikirim oleh teman saya

 agar saya segera dapat mengirimkan surat resmi kepada Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno untuk memeperoleh izi memanfaatkan informasi mereka dalam MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO  ini, dan apabila ada sponsor mungkin saya akan mengubah dari Premium E-BOOK  menjadi Free CYBER MUSEUM , silahkan kirim komentar sokongan terhadap gagasan  ini liwat blog internet dan facebook saya dengan nama yang sama iwansuwandy. 



Selanjutnya bacalah Catatan saya tentang pribadi Bung Karno dan Koleksi pribadi Bung Karno sebagai  Pengantar buku elektronik  yang saat ini telah saya tingkatkan jadi MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA CYBERMUSEUM KOLSI BUNG KARNO  karena sangat banyak dukungan dan klik.dari pecinta Bung Karno.

Para teman-teman yang ingin melihat kolesi pribadi Dr Iwan yang terkait Bung Karno, silahkan melihat di msueum dunia Maya Dr Iwan , klik hhtp// terima kasih atas perhatiannya.

Jakarta  ,Juli 2010


PS Apabila sudah banyak komentar dukungan dan ada sponsor yang lambangnya  akan di catumkan dalam proposal ini, maka secara bertahap daftar koleksi dan illustrasi akan diinstall dalam proposal buku elektr0nik ini,oleh karena itu kirimkan segera dukungan dan sponsor anda liwat komentar di Blog ini dan Facebook saya. terima kasih atas dukungan dan sponsorshipnya.




 saya dilahirkan dan dibesarkan di Tanah Minangkabau sumatera Tengah dulunya sekarang Sumatera barat, sehingga tokoh proklamator yang lebih dikenal adalah Bung Hatta,lihat foto kunjungan Bung Hatta ke Padang  tahun 1977 dismabut gubernur SUMBAR Haroen Zein dan Walikotanya Achiroel Yahya *005a foto ini karya Indra Sanusi dan sudah diberikan izin pengunaannya.


  . Bung Karno pertama kali saya lihat tahun 1955 saat berkampanye dilapangan Tugu didepan SMA Don Bosco, saat ini  didepan Pengadilan negeri Padang yang sekarang sudah dibangun Museum Kota Padang, beliau berada diatas panggung tenda terpal persis saat itu saya sekolah di SD Andreas yang lokasinya disamping SMA Don Bosco ,kelas lima SD, kami beramai-ramai murid SD melihat Bung Karno pidoto,  beliau sangat pandai mempengaruhi semangat pendengar dengan jel jel Merdeka nya,sekali Merdeka Tetap merdeka tetapi apa yang dikatan beliau pupus dari ingatan saya.Saya telah banyak membaca literatur terkait beliau,sehingga saya mengerti bagaimana besarnya cinta Bung karno terhadap seni,sehingga beliau sering bertemu dengan seniman seperti seniman pelukis seperti Affandi, Basuki Abdullah,Dezentje,Le Man Fong,Henk Ngantung,Hendra Gunawan dan Sudjono, malah Henk Ngantung dipercayai menjadi Gubernur DKI tahun 1964*005aa

*005aa henk dan lukisannya pasar Jakarta.

, sayang beberapa dari pelukis tersebut ikut lembaga kesenian PKI(LEKRA)  sehingga hidup mereka sangat sengsara pada masa orde baru( Saya juga mengumpulkan koleksi masa Pak Harto,nanti kan saya tulis buku elektronik pada saat yang tepat).profil para pelukis senior tersebut umumnya saya kenal setelah melihat beberapa foto Bung Karno dengan mereka di istana Merdeka saat menyusun koleksi istana tersebut, juga difoto rumah Bung Karno pertama di jalan Pegangsaan didalam rumah tahun 1945 saat wawancara dengan wartawan terlihat lukisan Basuki Abdullah pantai Ternate berdasar lukisan cair air Bung Karno didinding dan disampingnya dipajang lukisan Fatmawati yang juga dilukis Basuki Abdullah yang sudah ada sejak masa revolusi kemerdekaan *002


Saya masih menyimpan tulisan Bung Karno tahun 1942 saat tentara Dai nippon baru membebaskan beliau dari Bengkulu ke Sumatera Barat dalam bentuk kliping,tidak jelas dari majalah mana, selain itu juga teman saya memberikan sebuah cetakan surat pribadi Bung Karno kepada para prajurit yang bertugas diperbatasan saat Konfrontasi Malaysia saat Hari raya Lebaran yang menurut informasi surat itu berada dalam bingkisan dari Bung Karno kepada prajurit tersbut,sungguh besar perhatian beliu kepada para para prajurit pejuang, pada saat masa perang kemerdekaan pernah ditenirt almanak dengan gambar bungakarno tahun 1946 dengan berbagai promosi perjuangan yang saat itu sangat riskan untuk memilikinya karena dapat ditangkap Belanda ,sungguh istimewa saya memiliki koleksi almanak perjuangan tersebut, juga kartupos peringatan satu tahun medreda 17 agustus 1946 *002asayang tidak memakai gambar profile Bung Karno tetapi merupakan temuan saya yang sangat spektakuler,begitu juga dengan berbagai koleksi lain yang dapat dilihat dan dibaca pada bab berikutnya.


Pada saat Sumatera Barat bergolak terhadap pemrintahan Pusat tahun 1957, istilah versi dari PRRI yang dipimhan Ahmad Husein dan Sjaruddin Prawira Negara (koleksi pribadi saya tentang  PRRI akan diteritkan pada masa mendatang) dan versi Pusat disebut pembrontak, Bung Karno pamornya sangat menurun dimata Rakyat Sumatera Barat, sehingga banyak arsip beliau dimusnahkan, tetapi sebagian telah saya selamatkan dan tersimpan rapi saat ini, apalagi ketika terjadinya peristiwa G30PKI 1965, masih terbayang saat Pak Harto Mengambil alih kekuasan dan saat beliau dilantik *002b dengan pidato yang sangat sederhana yang berbeda dengan pidato Bung Karno yang lebih kharismatik.

Saya melihat Bung Karno kedua kalinya dan terakhir pada saat beliau berpidato dalam upacara pembukaan Pekan Olah Raga  Nasional(PON) di Bandung tahun 1961, saya peserta PON cabang Tennis Lapangan, beliau sangat kharismatik, saya masih ingat sebelum mulai berpidato, Bung Karno meminta peserta dan penonton agar diam, beliau berkata Saya minta supaya Diam sebelum saya mengucapkan kata pembukaan, kemudian beliu menghardik dengan suara mengeleganr sebanyak lima kali DIAM!!! DIAM!!!DIAM!!! DAIM!!!DIAM!!! saya sungguh terpeosna akhirnya semuanya diam, tapi saya lupa apa yang beliau katakan, karena itu saya berusaha memiliki koleksi buku pidato Bung Karno,dan yang paling langka adalah terbitan tahun 1954 tentan Pindato-pidato Bung Karno dari 17 agustus 1945 sampai 17 agust 1954, banyak dari pidato tersebut tidak pernah diterbitkan,mungkin atas alasan politik, juga kata sambutan Bung Karno pada saat peringatan enam bulan Merdeka dalam Buku khusus terbiitan Harian Merdeka dengan judul Merdeka dengan illustrasi sampul depan KEPALAN BERWARNA MERAH DENGAN TULISAN MERDEKA*002c

 buku ini  sangat historik dan langka. Tahun 2009 saya kembali menemukan buku langka  yang berhubungan dengan pidato Bung Karno saat har Kemerdekaan RI dari proklamasi 1945 sampai 1954 oleh Kementerian Penerangan RI bagian dokumentasi dengan judul  8  x 17 Agustus, karena dalam Bunku Bung Karno Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jilid kedua tidak dicantumkan pidato Bung Karno saat proklamsi kemerdekaan tujuh belas Agustus 1945, apa sebabnya slah dikomentari didalam hati pembaca  sendiri karena dapat menimb ulkan polemik dan diskusi yang tidak akan selesai, ini adalah fakta sejarah , yah diendapkan saja dalam memori anda, silahkan baca bersama dengan bab buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi Jilid kedua .  

Saya hanya menyampaikan kesan yang sebenarnya berada dalam pikiran saya, tentanh hal lain sebaiknya saya tanpa komentar karena berbagai alasan, tetapi yang pasi bilau adalah proklamator,bapak bangsa  yang sangat kharismatik,energik, dan memiliki koleksi Bung Karno merupakan suatu Kebanggaan tersendiri,saya usulkan Yayasan Bung Karno mendirikan suatu museum yang megah untuk peringatan bagi Bung Karno dan saya bersedia menyumbangkan seluruh koleksi saya kepada museum tersebut ,tentunya harus berisi lengka[p baik sisi terang maupun gelap dari Beliau,kita menyadari mana ada manusia yang sempurna,tetapi yang jelas beliau telah memerdekakan Bangsa Indonesian yang sama-sama kita cintai.


Koleksi Pribadi Bung Karno tentunya masih berada pada Yayasan Bung Karno yang tahun 1979 dengan ketua putra pertama Bung Karno ,Guntur Sukarno, lihat illustrasi  Kata Pengantar Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno PADA BUKU BUNG KARNO & SENI  edisi pertama,terbitan Yayasan Bung Karno,Jakarta 1979,semoga yaysan tersebut tidak keberatan ditampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini.sebelumnya terimakasih Bung Guntur.(apabila sesudah satu bulan info ini ditayangkan tidak ada tegoran,maka illustrasi akan ditampilkan). Apabila ada izin,mungkin sebagian foto yang di close up dengan ukuran  lebih kuang 30% aslinya akan ditampilkan juga. Apabila tidak diizinkan terpaksa anggota melihatnya langsung pada buku aslinya atau dapat melihat diperpustakaan club.

 Dalam buku aslinya  berisi Prawacana Penyusun Soedarmadji J.H. Damais dan para penulis Sitor Situmorang,Wiyoso Yudoseputro dan sudarmadji.Samburtan Ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Guntur Sukarno,Sambutan Ketua Dewan Kesenian Jakarta Ajip Rosidi,Kata sambutan wakil PresideRepublik Indonesia Adam Malik,Kata Sambutan Menteri Kesejahteraan Rakyat Republik Indonesia Surono , Kata sambutan Kepala  daerak Khusus Ibukota Jakarta Tjokropranolo, Bung Karno Dan Seniman olh Sitor Situmorang, Bung Karno Dengan seni Oleh Wiyoso Yudoseputro, Bung Karno  Dengan Seni Rupa Oleh Sudarmaji, Daftar Benda Benda Pameran, Kepustakaan Pilihan , Ucapan terima Kasih.

Dalam era ketua Yayasan Bung Karno Bapak Guruh Sukarno Putra, ada sebuah video koleksi foto Bung karno yang sangat penting dilestarikan, beberapa foto tersebut ada dalam koleksi saya pribadi seperti foto kunjungan Bung Karno ke Amerika serikat.*002d bung Karno dan Guntur di Dyasney land naik kereta.


Saya sangat berharap agar koleksi yayasan Bung Karno ini dapat dizinkan untuk di tampilkan dalam buku elektronik ini dan mungkin nantinya berkemband menjadi suatu blog tersendiri dengan nama museum duniamaya koleksi Bung Karno dan juga dalam bahasa inggris CYBER MUSEUM BUNG KARNO’S COLLECTIONS , saya telah meng add video koleksi foto Bung Karno era Bapak Guruh , karena tidak dicantumkan hak cipta ,mohon maaf jika yayasan BK tidak berkenan, maka video tersebut dengan segera saya hapus, sebagai bahan pertimbangan Bung Karno tidak hanya milik yayasan Bung Karno dan keluarga Besar tetapi milik seluruh bangsa Indonesia dan dunia jadi termasuk barang pusaka dunia atau World Heritage jadi tidak dapat dijadikan Hak Cipta seseorang atau kelompok, saya saran UNESCO juga berkenan menjadi sponsor dalam melestarikan warisan Budaya Bangsa dunia ini.


1)Koleksi benda-benda Pusaka milik Bung karno, berdsarakan majalah lama milik teman saya bapak Ali Baswedan yang disumbangkan secara gratis untuk dimuat dalam buku elektronik KOLEKSI BUNG KARNO*TP-001.(sampai saat ini belum dikirimkan via e-mail dr Iwan s)

2) Photo Keris pusaka Bung Karno: a)*ill KP-002 pada masa perang Kemerdekaan Ri 1945-1950 ternyata berbentuk Keris.(dimana benda ini berada sekarang?)


 dan b)* ill TP-003 beberapa foto Tongkat pusaka Bung Karno pada masa Orde Lama 1951-1965, apabila diperhatikan dengan saksama ternyata ada dua jenis


Dimanakah benda pusaka keris dan kedua jenis tongkat pusaka Bung KARNO tersebut diatas? perlu diteliti lebih lanjut yang merupakan PR Yayasan Bung Karno atau para pakar sejarah Indonesia  dan ini merupakan informasi pertama di dunia maya berdasarkan fot0 asli BUNG KASRNO yang diclose up , bagaimana manakjubkan bukan !!!!!


Secara kronologis akan saya informasikan perkembangan koleksi pribadi saya terkait bung Karno, tulisan ini akan saya tampilan secara bertahap disertai ilkustrasi, satu persatu menunggu komentar baik dari yaysan Bung Karno,keluarga besar mantan Presiden RI Ibu Megawati Sukarno Putri dan keluarga besar Bung Karno,serta para kolektor pencinta Bung Karno, harap setiap inifo dibaca dan dilihat dengan saksama,bila tidak berkenan harap kirim komentar via comment dan bila disetujui akan saya hapus dari tayangan, saya sadar berbicara teng Bapak bangsa  dan Proklamator itu sangat peka, makanya saya sang hati-hati, mohon komentar dan koreksi apakah buku elektronok ini perlu diteruskan atau dihentikan,saya sangat menunggu komentar, bila tidak segera saya hilangkan dari tayangan,bila ya mari sokong saya dengan komentar anda.terima kasih.Saya belum pernah lihat tayangan pribadi seperti ini di dalam maupun luar negeri. ok segara kirim komentar.

BAB SATU : KOLEKSI PRIBADI MILIK  BUNG KARNO(YAYASAN BUNG KARNO DAN KELUARGA BESAR BUNG KARNO dalam buku BUNG KARNO DAN SENI  TERBITAN PERTAMA YAYASAN BUNGKARNO KETUA GNTUR SUKARNO TAHUN 1979 (  dengan izin dari pemilik-masih menunggu perseutjuan, e-mail sudah dikirimkan belum ada jawaban sampai saat ini)










*BR1-002 gambar asli dalam buku Dibawah Bendera Revolusi jidid satu halaman depan,bila diperhatikan close upnya dengan saksama ternyata Bung Karno memiliki tahi lalat diaats bibir kiri,pantas jago sebagai orator.foto ini dibuat saatBung Karno   lulus sekolah HBS.





hal 652  JUDUL RUBRIK PERAJAAN MIRADJ isinya antara lain :

 ” Malam minggoe jl mesdjid  Kwitang penoeh dengan oemat Islam yang ingin toeroet merajakan  hari Mi’radj Nabi Besar kita Moehammad s.a.w.  dari kalangan oelama  ada terdengar chotbah  yang berharga malam itu.  Poen Ir  Sukarno ada djoega hadir  pada malam itoe  dan toroet memberikan pemandangan.”

hal 653  berisi berita : “Komite perajaan itoe (Mi’rajd )  serta Pergerakan Tiga A tjabang Djakarta. Foto  Oemat berdoejoen-doejoen membandjiri Keboen Binatang  terlihat didepan rombongan Bung Karno * 005

dan foto Ir soekarno lagi berchotbah dengan penoeh semangat dalam perajaan Mi’radj di Keboen Binatang*006



(Kebun binatang yang dimaksud adalah kebun binatang yang didirikan oleh pelukis Raden Saleh dibelakang Rumah Pribadinya-saat ini jadi rumah sakit Cikini dan kebun binatang berada   dijalan Cikini Raya Jakarta Pusat, saat ini sudah dipindahkan keluar kota Pasar Minggu dan di tempat tersebut didirikan Taman Ismael Marzuki.-Dr Iwan )




4)FOTO BUNG KARNO DENGAN JENDRAL TOYO DI JEPANG *DN OO3 (Kejujuran Saudara Tua,majalah Tempo,13 Desember   1986,hal 20)


5) INFORMASI PERTEMUAN BUNG KARNO DENGAN MAHASISWA SOEJATMIKO,SOEDARPO DAN SOEBADIO DIRUMAH BELIAU  PADA TAHUN 1943TANPA ILLUSTRASI *DN004( Soedjatmiko,Pilihan Dan peluang revolusi Indonesia setelah 45 tahun .Beberapa refleksi pribadi,Sejarah Pemikiran,Rekonstruki ,Persepsi no 1. MSI & GRamedia Pustaka Umum Jakarta 1991)

6) foto Bung Karno Ikut latihan Militer Tentara Pendudukan Jepang dalam majallah bahasa Belanda  ( Mr Mas slamet,Japamsche Intrigues,Buijten $Schipperhijn,Amsterdam,26 januari 1946,ex perpustakaan Biara Padua Tjitjurug,saat ini koleksi pribadi Dr IWAN S):

(1) foto illustrasi buku halaman  9, Bung Karno belajar hormat senjata kepada prajurit Dai Nippon *DN005


(2) Foto illustrasi buku halaman 10, BungKarno belajar menembaksenapan karaben kepada tenetara Dai Nippon*DN006


7) foto klipping karangan Bung Karno Judul Djawa Senotai! *o12 dan  foto lain dalam buku fatmawati anatara lain Foto Bung Karno berpidato  di Gang Kenari Djakarta *DN008 , Foto Bung Karno dan pemimpin pemerinatahan pendudukan Jepang Gunseikan *DN009, Bung Karno dan romusha *DN0010, Foto Bung Karno dan Ibu Fatmawati ketika lagu Indonesia Raya dinyanyikan dalam sebuah pertunjukan sandiwara “Fadjar Telah Menjinsing” dalam rangka memperinagti berdirinya Perserikatan Oesaha Sandiweara Jawa*DN 011,Foto Bung Karno Menyambut adanya Janji kemerdekaan dikemudian hari bersama pemuda-pemudi Djakarta *DN012, foto surat kabar Asia Raya  mengenai Indonesia Merdeka ,Kemerdekaan kemoedian didjanjikan Dai Nippon Taikoku*DN013, dan Foto Ibu Fatmawati menjahit bendera pusaka Merah Putih *DN014 ,Foto Bung Karno memimpin kerja bakti bersama para Romusha didaerah banten *DN015   ( buku  Bunga  rampai ?Karangan Ibu Fatmawati,kulit buku sudah hilang sehingga  info tak lengkap)

8)Dokumen asli Anggota Tjoeoe Sangi -In 2603(1943)*DN TSI001 dan oo2


(1) lembar pertama  foto Bung Karno sebagai Ketua *DN 016 dibagian tengah


 dan 20 foto anggota di pingir dokumen *020  dan Dr Boentara *DN017 serta  dua puluh  anggota (nomor 21 -40) *DN018, serta tokoh terkenal BUng Hatta sebagai anggota no tiga puluh * DN019, Oto Iskandar Dinata no  tiga delapan*020, Profesor Hoesaein Djajadiningrat no anggota tiga *021 dan Wachid Hasyim (ayah alm Gus Dur) anggota nomor enam belas *022

(2) lembaran kedua foto dua orang wakil Ketua KOesoemo Oetojo *DN023




 1) Pidato Presiden Soekarno Dalam mengumumkan Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia Pada Tanggal 17 Agustus 1945 (8X17 Agustus,bag.dokumentasi,Kementrian Penerangan RI,Jakarta,Stensilan Asli,1954), bukuDBR jilid dua tidak dicantumkan.Sesuai dengan ejaan aslinya :  Saudara-saudara sekalian! Saja telah minta saudara-saudara hadir disini untuk menjaksikan satu peristiwa maha-penting dalam sedjarah kita. Berpuluh-puluh tahun kita bangsa Indonesia telah berdjoang,untuk kemerdekaan tanah air kita.Bahkan telah beratus-ratus tahun! Gelombangnja aksi kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan kita itu ada naiknja dan ada turunnja,tetapi djiwa jita tetap menudju kearah tjita-tjita. Djuga didalam djaman Djepang,usaha kita untuk mentjapai kemerdekaan-nasional tidak berhenti-berhenti. Di dalam djaman Djepang ini,tampaknja sadja kita menjandarkan diri kepada mereka.Tetapi pada hakekatnja , tetap kita menjusun tenaga kita sendiri,tetap kita pertjaja kepada kekuatan sendiri. Sekarang tibalah saatnj kita benar-benar mengambil nasib bangsa dan nasib tanah air kita didalam tangan kita sendiri.Hanja bangsa jang berani mengambil nasib dalam tangan sendiri,akan dapat berdiri dengan kuatnja. Maka kami,tadi malam telah mengadakan musjawarat dengan pemuka-pemuka rakjat Indonesia, dari seluruh Indonesia. Permusjawaratan itu seia-sekata berpendapat,bahwa sekaranglah datang saatnja untuk menjatakan kemerdekaan kita. Saudara-saudara! Dengan ini kami menjatakan kebulatan tekad itu.Dengarkanlah proklamasi kami : PROKLAMASI. Kami bangsa Indonesia dengan ini menjatakan KEMERDEKAAN INDONESIA.  Hal-hal jang mengenai pemindahan kekuasaan dan lain-lain, diselenggarakan dengan tjara saksama dan dalam tempo jang sesingkat-singkatnja. Djakarta ,17 Agustus 05 ,Atas nama bangsa Indonesia SOEKARNO-HATTA. Demikianlah,saudara-saudara! Kita sekarang telah merdeka! Tidak ada satu ikatan lagi jang mengikat tanah air kita dan bangsa kita! Mulai saat ini kita menjusun Negara kita! Negara Merdeka, Negara Republik Indonesia- merdeka kekal dan abadi.Insja Allah,Tuhan memberkati kemerdekaan kita itu!

( Pidato ini diketik tanpa spasi   sesuai kalimat aslinya, agar tidak ditambah atau dikurangi dari aslinya-Dr Iwan S)





(1) REPRO SURAT KABAR SOEARA ASIA TENTANG PROKLAMSI INDONESIA MERDEKA De ngan  narasi :  MAKA  TERSIARLAH PROKLAMASI INDONESIA MERDEKA -dalam soesana tekanan militer Djepang- diseloeroeh Tanah Air, bahkan diseloeroeh doenia melaloei lima  boeawana dan empat samoedra.


(3) tulisan hal -11 judul ” MENOEDJOE KE PARLEMEN SEMPOERNA,’  dengan illustrasi  foto bung karno dengan kabninet soekarno sebelah kiri dan  kabinet Sjahrir sebelah kanan(baca tulisan prof soedjatmiko  tentsang kolaburator Jepang dibaba masa pendudukan Jepang sbelum ini-pen) dengan narasi dibawah foto : PADA TABNGGAL 23 NOVEMBER 1945  KABINET SOEKARNO(KIRI)  MENYERAHKAN KEKUASAAN  KEPADA (KANAN) KABINET SJAHRIR ,  bung karno berada ditengah.

(4) hal 64 illustrasi foto Buung Karno,Bung Hatta dan Jendral Sudirman men injau Kapal perang Angkstsn Laut NRI, narasi :” ANGKATAN LAOET REPUBLIK INDONESIA MENDJAMIN KESELAMATAN NEGARA,NOEASA DAN BANGSA”



*ill.Bung Karno dan Pangeran Diponegoro



5) 28 JULI 1947


4. MASA ORDE LAMA 1951-1965


3.BUKU TERBITAN KEMENTERIAN PENERANGAN TAHUN 1958 BERJUDUL  Beberapa fikiran dan pandangan :DUA PEDJUANG NASIONAL INDONESIA-YUGOSLAVIA Josip Broz-Tito  -Dr I r Hadji Soekarno, Pertjetakan Negara-Djakrta-443/B-1958. Buyku ini dengan gambar kulit depan kedua pejuang Nasional tersebut.

4.Buku terbitan Kedutaan Amerika Serikat Jakarta ,judul Foto=foto  dan Reportase tentang Perjalanan  PRESIDEN SOEKARNO DI AMERIKA SERIKAT, FOTO KULIST DEPAN  Bung Karno yang memegang tongkat pusakanya dan Guntur Sukarno didepan patung Abrahan Lincoln di tugu Lincoln Memorial ,Washington .D.C.  dan gambar halaman belakang di Pennsylvania Avenue di Washington ,sebuah panggung didirikan untuk menyambut kedatangan Presiden Soekarno setinggi kira-kira 10 meter,didampinggi oleh bendera-bendera Indonesia dan Amerika setinggi 10 meter. Dia ats panggung ini kepada Presiden Soekarno diserahkan Kunci Kota , ialah sebagai pernyataan selamat datang.

Buku brosur ini siterbitkan untuk memringati kunjungan Presiden Soekarno ke Amerika Serikat yang telah menimbulkan pengartian yang lebih baik dari tanggal 16 Mei – 3 Juni 1956.

Buku brosur  ini sangat menarik karena dilengkapi dengan  gambar peta perjalanan bung Karno, dan  illustrasi foto hitam putih dan berwarna sebanyak delan puluh satu gambar ilustrasi buku , dan pada kulit belakang bagian dlam tertulis ucapan bung karno dengan foto Bung Karnoi melambaikan tanggan :




2  MASA RIS(1949-1950)

3. MASA ORDE LAMA (1951-1965)





 1) Pernikahan Kartika Soekarno


“Mas… tulis dong tentang Karina Soekarno…,” begitu permintaan seseorang yang termasuk golongan orang-orang yang rajin berkunjung ke blog ini…. Yang terlintas di benak saya adalah serentet peristiwa terkait Kartika Sari Soekarno atau yang akrab disapa Karina. Dialah buah cinta Bung Karno dan Ratna Sari Dewi, wanita cantik asal Jepang, yang bernama asli Naoko Nemoto.

Ada sekelebat peristiwa ketika Karina kecil dituntun-tuntun di antara kerumuman pelayat jenazah Bung Karno di Wisma Yaso tahun 1971. Ada pula lintasan peristiwa manakala Karina diajak ibundanya berziarah ke makam ayahandanya di Blitar, beberapa tahun kemudian. Dan… tentu saja yang masih lekat adalah peristiwa pernikahan Karina dengan seorang bankir Belanda.

Pernikahan Karina dengan Frits Frederik Seegers berlangsung 2 Desember 2005 di hotel Continental, Amsterdam, Belanda. Frits adalah President Citibank wilayah Eropa. Saat itu, saya masih mengelola Tabloid Cita-Cita dan mendapat sumbangan materi foto-foto eksklusif dari Guruh Soekarnoputra di Yayasan Bung Karno.


Megawati sebagai saksi

Dalam pernikahan itu, Megawati Soekarnoputri, kakak Karina dari ibu Fatmawati, bertindak selaku saksi. Tampak Mega tengah menandatangani dokumen pernikahan adiknya. Megawati sendiri hadir bersama putrinya, Puan Maharani, dan adik bungsunya, Guruh Soekarnoputra.


Pasca upacara pernikahan, Frits Frederik Seegers dan Karina bergambar bersama Guruh Soekarnoputra, Cindy Adams, dan Megawati Soekarnoputri.

guruh-cindy-mega-ratna sari dewi


Guruh - Kartika

Dalam resepsi itu, hadir sejumlah orang dekat mempelai, tak terkecuali hadirnya Cindy Adams, penulis biografi Bung Karno. Tak ayal, momentum pernikahan Karina – Seegers menjadi ajang kangen-kangenan di antara kerabat yang sehari-hari terpisah bentang jarak ribuan mil.

tari bali di resepsi

Di hotel Continental pula, pada malamnya langsung digelar resepsi. Selain gala dinner yang eksklusif, Karina juga mendatangkan para penari Bali untuk menghibur para tamu.

Usai menikah, pasangan pengantin baru langsung kembali ke London, Inggris, dan menetap di sana. Karina kembali ke rutinitasnya sebagai aktivis sosial dengan bendera Kartika Soekarno Foundation, sementara suaminya, kembali ke Citibank. (roso daras)



tarian betawi tempo dulu


PS. THE CD-rom of Bung Karno Museum are availabele ,buy via comment.

@corpyright Dr Iwan s 2010.

Pameran Keramik Langka Kerajaan Tiongkok produksi De Hua

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




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                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




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Showcase :

 Pameran Keramik Langka Produksi De Hua

Frame satu : Pengantar

Pabrik keramik De Hua lokasinya di propinsi Fukien,dekat kota Changzhou(Tjiangtjioe) tanah kelahiran Kakek saya.

Tahun 2008 saya sempat mengunjungi kota tersebut dan melihat temple Kai Yuan yang sangat indah dan menyaksikan tanah kelahiran suku hokian termasuk wilayah kelahiran kakek saya,  lihat di webblok saya

 ,silahkan klik hhtp:// karena keterbatasan waktu saya  tidak berhasil menemukan lokasi pabrik tersebut.apakah mungkin berada diprovinsi lain,harap yang pernah ke pabrik De Hua berkenan memberikan info.

Artifact keramik De Hua yang bewarna putih dengan atau tanpa dekorasi ditemukan di Indonesia,keramik ini tergolong langka .

Silahkan melihat koleksi pribadi saya dibawah ini.

Salam dari penemu Cybermuseum blog

Dr Iwan Suwandy


Frame dua : De Hua Biru Putih

Frame tiga :

De Hua Putih “Blanc de Chine”






Statue of Guan Yin, Ming Dynasty (Shanghai Museum)

Blanc de Chine (French for “Chinese white”) is the traditional European term for a type of white Chinese porcelain, made at Dehua in the Fujian province, otherwise known as Dehua porcelain or similar terms. It has been produced from the Ming Dynasty (1368–1644) to the present day. Large quantities arrived in Europe as Chinese Export Porcelain in the early 18th century and it was copied at Meissen and elsewhere. It was also exported to Japan in large quantities.

Dehua porcelain, Wade-Giles romanization Te-hua, Chinese porcelain made at Dehua in Fujian province. Although the kiln began production some time during the Song period (960–1279), most examples of the porcelain are attributed to the Ming dynasty (1368–1644). The characteristic product of Dehua was the white porcelain known to the French as blanc de chine, which had the appearance of blancmange, or milk jelly. Figures of Buddhist deities, vases, and stoves with molded reliefs of plum blossom were common forms. Dehua ware was exported in large quantities to Southeast Asia and, starting in the 18th century, to Europe, where it .

The first Dehua Kiln, whose white porcelain became a representative genre of the Chinese porcelain industry, was a famous kiln that specialized in white porcelain making. Its sites spread about within the scope of today’s Dehua County, in East China’s Fujian Province.

Dehua County in central Fujian Province is known as one of the Three Porcelain Capitals in China, together with Jingdezhen in East China’s Jiangxi Province and Liling in Central China’s Hunan Province.

Dehua porcelain dates back to the Song Dynasty (960-1279). Solid and smooth, Dehua porcelain is resistant to both heat and cold. One type of “Jianbai” porcelain in particular has a sparkle and luster even more stunning than white jade, and its ivory-white color and superb workmanship make it a favorite of art lovers.

The body of its white porcelain was low in iron but high in potassium, while the color of the glazed surface was of a bright, smooth luster, as milky as frozen fat. It was thus often called “lard white” or “ivory white.” Dehua white porcelain used to be one of the major export varieties in various dynasties. In the West it was called the “Chinese white porcelain” or “Marco Polo porcelain.”

The most common objects of Dehua porcelain were a burner, cup, bottle, plate, tin, Zun (a kind of wine vessel), and Ding (an ancient cooking vessel), which were often decorated with appliqués (kinds of ornament) and stamps; the porcelain figurine was also remarkably exquisite. In fact, the masterpiece of Dehua porcelain was the white porcelain figure of Buddha.

Among Dehua porcelains, white Buddha figures, the most famous, represented the highest firing technique of Dehua kilns at that time. With a refined design and an elegant touch, the white porcelain of Dehua kilns became a representative genre of Chinese porcelain industry in that period and was reputed as the Bright Pearl of Porcelain in the World.

Although by the Song and Yuan dynasties (960-1368), Dehua porcelains were already being exported to other countries and regions, it was during the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) that Dehua porcelain gradually developed its own techniques and styles and enjoyed great development.

In modern times, quite a few Dehua porcelains of the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911) have won gold prizes in expositions held both at home and abroad, such as Shanghai (East China), Taiwan Province, Japan, and Britain; in addition, Dehua porcelain is one of the main products of the national porcelain export, being exported to more than 80 countries and regions.

Keramik Yang ditemukan dari Kapal Karam Termasuk dari De Hua


The number of ceramic pieces of each type recovered from the Desaru ship is listed at the end of this section.

Type number & description
Lion-dog dish
1: Lion dog dish
Large porcelain dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue and copper red, and depicts a lion dog playing with a brocade ball. Four bands of stylised Tibetan characters decorate the cavetto. The lion dog, or dog of fu, is the Buddhist guardian lion; it looks like a Pekinese dog with a brushy tail. It is often shown playing with a ball and ribbons. It appears in the Ming dynasty but also used in Qing dynasty. The base is unglazed.
Size: 27-29 cm diameter.
Flower dish
2 & 2.1: Flower dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemum blossoms amidst scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship, associated with a life of ease and retirement. The flower can be used as a tonic or cosmetic. It appears in decorations from the Yuan dynasty (1280-1368) onwards.
2 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
2.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
Longevity dish
3 & 3.1: Longevity dish
Large dish from Jingdezhen; rounded sides with a well-mended low foot-ring and unglazed base. Infrequent chatter marks can be seen in the base. The dish is decorated in underglaze cobalt blue. It shows the Chinese character shou (for long life) at the centre with bands of a stylised Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable) on the cavetto. The longevity mark promises a long happy life, full of good luck and happy circumstances.
3 – large: 27-29 cm diameter.
3.1 – medium: 23-25 cm diameter.
Small flower dish, face & base 4: Small flower dish
Small dish with rounded sides and a well-made low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features stylised chrysanthemums altering with various scroll motifs. The chrysanthemum flower is the emblem of autumn and steadfast friendship. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
Character dish 5: Character dish
Small dish with rounded sides and low foot-ring. Probably manufactured at one of the Dehua kilns. The centre medallion is decorated in cobalt blue, and features the Sanskrit character for om (sacred syllable), and three tiers of a stylised version of the same character on the cavetto. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 17-19 cm diameter.
Flower plate 7: Flower plate
Small well-made dish with flat rim, decorated in cobalt blue oxides, with a stylised chrysanthemum flower surrounded by a flower spray in the medallion. The plate is probably made in the Jingdezhen area. The base, which is low and well-mended, is glazed, and shows the manufacturer’s mark in cobalt blue.
Size: 18-21 cm diameter.
Flower saucer 8: Flower saucer
Similar design as the above flower plate: exterior decorated in cobalt blue with a lingzhi fungus motif connected by a scroll of fungus. The base is glazed and shows the mark of its manufacturer.
Size: 9-11 cm diameter.
Flower bowl 9: Flower bowl
Bowl with everted mouth rim, decorated with cobalt blue oxide, showing a lingzhi fungus motif at the centre bottom, a fungus scroll at the mouth rim, and lotus scroll above a band of lotus panels on the exterior. The base is glazed and shows the manufacturer’s name.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
lotus-shape flower bowl 10: Lotus-shape flower bowl
Blue and white decorated bowl with straight mouth rim. The decoration, a lotus flower and scrolls, is drawn only in outline, not filled with the traditional wash. The foot-ring is well-mended, glazed and shows the manufacturer’s mark in the glazed base.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
celadon white bowl 11: Celadon-white bowl
Chinese bowl from the Jingdezhen area with a translucent glaze on the interior and celadon glaze on the exterior. The foot-ring and manufacturer’s mark are similar to those of the bowls listed above.
Size: 13-15 cm diameter.
qing bowl 12: Qing bowl
Chinese bowl from Guangdong province. The underglaze blackish-blue decoration includes floral motifs equally spaced round the exterior. The interior has an unglazed stacking ring.
Size: 13-15cm diameter.
13: Spoon
More than 50,000 spoons were found on the ship. There were three main designs and qualities. The ‘nice’ spoon was perfectly moulded and finished, and decorated with a finely drawn floral motif. Another design included the Chinese symbols for yin and yang. Most spoons however were decorated with a simple floral scroll. The base is usually rather rough and has a low unglazed foot-ring.
Size: 10-11 cm long.
covered bowl
14: Covered bowl
Chinese blue and white covered bowl from Jingdezhen. This example is decorated with four double-happiness characters, alternating with geometric motifs, equally spaced around the exterior of the body. Other covered bowls of the same size and form have similar exterior decoration featuring various flower motifs. The base is very low and glazed but does not show any mark of the manufacturer. The foot-ring is thin and free from glaze and grits.
Size: 10-12 cm high.
yixing teapot
15, 15.1 & 15.2: Yixing teapot
Chinese Yixing teapots from Jiangsu province. Various potters’ marks and seals appear on the base. These pots are handmade and beaten into the desired shape, usually by famous potters specializing in teapot making.
15 – Small: 4-6 cm high.
15.1 – Medium: 8-10 cm high.
15.2 – Large: 10-12 cm high.
teapot with cover
16: Teapot with cover
Chinese blue and white teapot with recessed lid, probably made at one of the Jingdezhen kilns. The clay is white, glaze is clear and transparent, and the foot-ring is low but well mended. Decorations around the body are made within a centralized band of medallions, separated by two bands of stylized lappets. The missing handle was probably made of double brass wires, fitting into the double bracket. The base is glazed but shows no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 16-18 cm high.
black-glazed basin
17: Black-glazed basin
‘Flowerpot’ from southern China, thrown on a wheel. A number of carved, horizontal lines high on the body terminate at the rounded mouth rim. Black-glazed, with no other decoration. These pots were fired on spur discs; many show spur marks from rectangular discs.
Size: 12-14cm high.
black-glazed covered box
18: Black-glazed covered box
Yixing covered boxes: in sets of four, of different sizes, fitting one inside the other. Originally green-glazed, many of the boxes had turned black due to oxidation. These pots are light due to their porous clay and thin walls. They are handmade in traditional Yixing manner. The box and lid form imitate ‘Jun’ ware dating from the Song dynasty.
Size: 9-22cm high.
brown-glazed basin
19: Brown-glazed basin
Brown-glazed garden pot from southern China, made of coarse clay thrown on a wheel in diminishing sizes (sets of three). The exterior is decorated with various stamped motifs. A light brownish glaze ends well above the foot-ring. The mouth rim and foot-ring are cut flat.
Size: 7, 10 and 11 cm high.
brown-glazed bowls
20: Brown-glazed bowls
Garden pots made from Yixing clay. These pots, like all other Yixing wares, are assembled from a round handmade base and rectangular side pieces, assembled into a desired shape and then beaten into the final form. These pots are extremely light in weight. The joint between the side and bottom piece can often be seen.
Size: 11- 24 cm diameter.
brown-glazed jar
21: Brown-glazed jar
Brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 18-20 cm high.
brown-glazed storage jar
22: Brown-glazed storage jar
Larger brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. Jars of this type were stored below deck, and accommodated smaller pots of various types. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines.
Size: 49-51cm high.
brown-glazed urn
23: Brown-glazed urn
Smaller brown-glazed storage jar from southern China, of very coarse clay and roughly finished. These jars were stored below deck, filling the cargo space between larger jars. The shoulder and upper body are decorated with crossing horizontal and vertical carved lines. The glaze ends above the base.
Size: 15-17 cm high.
brown-glazed kendi
24: Brown-glazed kendi
Unusual type of kendi, apparently of the same rough clay as the storage jars and probably made in southern China. The kendis are likely to have been used for wine or other relatively valuable drinks, rather than water. These kendis belong to the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) and ring-handled spouted jar (33).
Size: 24 cm high.
guan covered jar
25: ‘Guan’ covered jar
This type of jar is often referred to as a Kamcheng and was made at Jingdezhen. The lid handle is moulded in the form of a Buddhist lion (lion dog or ‘dog of fu’), and the cobalt blue decoration includes sweet pea blossoms on a ground of sweet pea foliage. Pairs of small handles are set below the shoulder. The form of the Kamcheng is derived from the ‘Guan’ shaped jar of the Yuan dynasty.
Size: 20-25 cm high.
enamel-decorated covered bowl
26: Enamel-decorated covered bowl
Thin-walled white porcelain bowl, made at Jingdezhen, and often used for serving wine. The lid is ‘reversible’ and can be used to serve smaller dishes. The bowl has an overglaze enamel motif, depicting anything from bamboo to dragons. A few of these bowls show calligraphic characters often quoting famous Chinese poems.
Size: 8.5cm high.
water pot
27: Water pot
Yixing chamber pot or water pot assembled from handmade pieces of clay. The colour of the clay, as with other Yixing wares, varies greatly. Water pots seen elsewhere are mostly green-glazed, while many pots on the Desaru ship were black-glazed. The green-glazed pots are often oxidized, appearing black.
Size: 13.5 cm high.
spouted jar
28: Spouted jar
Brown-glazed spouted jar made at Yixing, assembled from individual pieces of clay, and used to store and serve wine. Four lug handles are distributed evenly around the flattened shoulder. These jars are most commonly black-glazed, and have no decoration of any kind.
Size: 14cm high.
tall basin
29: Tall basin
Yixing jar, unusual for the carved vertical striations on the exterior. These basins were found with lids, stored in separate areas. As with other Yixing wares, the basins are assembled from individual pieces of clay. Originally covered with green and black glaze, some of the green-glazed basins appear black due to oxidation.
Size: 22cm high.
wine cup
30: Wine cup
Wine or tea cup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are straight with a rounded mouth rim. Geometric motifs are painted in cobalt oxide. The base is glazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4 -5 cm high.
tea bowl
31: Tea bowl
Teacup from Dehua or other Fukien kilns. The sides are everted and end with a slightly rounded attachment to the foot-ring. The bowls are plain or show light cobalt blue decorations. The base is unglazed, with no manufacturer’s mark.
Size: 4-5 cm high.
brown-glazed spouted jar
32: Brown-glazed spouted jar
These urns of rather rough clay are probably made in southern China and belong to the same group as the brown-glazed kendis (24) and ring-handled spouted jar (33). The spout resembles the traditional Arabic style, but is crudely attached to the body. The glaze ends well above the base.
Size: 25 cm high.
ring-handled spouted jar
33: Ring-handled spouted jar
One of these jars was found. It probably comes from southern China, and is of the same group as the brown-glazed urns (32) but with a refinement: an additional pad below the handles, attached high on the shoulder. The glaze terminates in the middle of the body. The jar is likely to have been used to hold and serve water.
Size: 25 cm high.
shanghai jar
34: Shanghai jar
The ‘Shanghai jars’, actually made at Suzhou, are of coarse clay, similar to that used in the brown-glazed kendis and urns. The exterior is glazed in yellow-brown slip over hand-formed and carved motifs which include flowers, birds, bamboo and dragons. A key fret normally decorated the shoulder. Jars of this type were once used to store preserved eggs.
Size: 75 cm high.
green-glazed storage jar
35: Green-glazed storage jar
These storage jars are of a clay apparently identical to that of the Shanghai jars, so are probably from Suzhou. They were originally green-glazed, and have no decoration.
Size: 75 cm high.
large beaker
36: Large beaker
These beakers are made from coarse clay with frequent grits of stones. They probably come from southern China, and are rather heavy for wheel-thrown pots. They have no decoration, but the mouth rim is well mended.
Size: 47 cm diameter.
gunpowder urn
37: Gunpowder urn
Globular, black-glazed stoneware jar with short neck and four small lug handles placed high on the shoulder. Two were found; they are thought to have contained gunpowder.
Size: 35 cm high.
spring dish
38: Spring dish
These dishes, made at Jingdezhen, are decorated with blue cobalt oxide and red copper oxides below a clear glaze. The design features birds and prunus blossoms against a backdrop of a lake and what may be a pavilion in the foreground.
Size: 24.5 cm diameter.
mineral water bottle
39: Mineral water bottle
Light-brown stoneware bottle. On the shoulder is a stamped medallion showing a lion rampant encircled by the letters ‘SELTERS’. This may be the name of the German manufacturer. Under this is a horizontal inscription ‘HERZUGTHUM NASSAU’. The bottle is dated to c.1800(1).
Size: 29 cm high.



 Dehua porcelain

The area along the Fujian coast was traditionally one of the main ceramic exporting centers. Over one-hundred and eighty kiln sites have been identified extending in historical range from the Song period to present. The two principal kiln sites were those of Qudougong 屈斗宫 and Wanpinglun 碗坪仑. The Wanpinglun site is the older of the two and manufactured pressed wares and others. The kilns of Dehua also produced other ceramic wares, including some with under glaze blue decoration.

Tripod Early 17th Century, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

From the Ming period porcelain objects were manufactured that achieved a fusion of glaze and body traditionally referred to as “ivory white” and “milk white.” The special characteristic of Dehua porcelain is the very small amount of iron oxide in it, allowing it to be fired in an oxidising atmosphere to a warm white or pale ivory color. This color makes it instantly recognizable and quite different from the porcelain from the Imperial kilns of Jingdezhen, which contains more iron and has to be fired in reduction (i.e., an atmosphere with carbon dioxide) if it is not to appear an unpleasant straw color.[1]

The unfired porcelain body is not very plastic but vessel forms have been made from it. Donnelly lists the following types of product: figures, boxes, vases and jars, cups and bowls, fishes, lamps, cup-stands, censers and flowerpots, animals, brush holders, wine and teapots, Buddhist and Taoist figures, secular figures and puppets. There was a large output of figures, especially religious figures, e.g. Guanyin, Maitreya, Lohan and Ta-mo figures. Guanyin, the Goddess of Mercy, was particularly revered in Fujian and there exist innumerable figures of her. Donnelly says, “There is no doubt that figures constitute the great glory of blanc de Chine.” Some have been produced with little modification from the late 16th or early 17th century.[2] Crisply modeled figures with a smooth white glaze were popular as were joss-stick holders, brush pots, Dogs of Fo, libation cups and boxes.

The devotional objects produced at Dehua (incense burners, candlesticks, flower vases and statuettes of saints) “conformed to the official stipulations of the early Ming period, not only in their whiteness but also in imitating the shape of archaic ritual objects”.[3] They were probably used in the domestic shrines that every Chinese home possessed. However, one Confucian polemicist, Wen Zhenheng (1585–1645), specifically forbade the use of Dehua wares for religious purposes, presumably for their lack of antiquity: “Among the censers the use of which should be specifically forbidden are those recently made in the kilns of Fujian (Dehua).”[3]

The numerous Dehua porcelain factories today make figures and tableware in modern styles. During the Cultural Revolution “Dehua artisans applied their very best skills to produce immaculate statuettes of the Great Leader and the heroes of the revolution. Portraits of the stars of the new proletarian opera in their most famous roles were produced on a truly massive scale.”[3] Mao figures later fell out of favor but have been revived for foreign collectors.

Precise dating of blanc de Chine of the Ming and Qing (1644–1911) dynasties is often difficult because the conservatism of the Dehua potters led them to produce similar pieces for decades or even for centuries. There are blanc de Chine figures being made in Dehua today (e.g. the popular Guanyin and Maitreya figures) little different from those made in the Ming dynasty.

Notable artists in blanc de Chine, such as the late Ming period He Chaozong, signed their creations with their seals. Wares include crisply modeled figures, cups, bowls and joss stick-holders.


Dehua is a town near Quanzhou in Fujian.

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 In Japan

Maria Kannon, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

Tripod Box Cover Edo Period, Nantoyōsō Collection, Japan

Many of the best examples of blanc de Chine are found in Japan where they are used in family altars (butsudan) and other funerary and religious uses. In Japan the white variety was termed hakugorai or “Korean white”, a term often found in tea ceremony circles. The British Museum in London has a large number of blanc de Chine pieces, having received as a gift in 1980 the entire collection of P.J.Donnelly.[4]

Dehua white porcelain in Japan was traditionally known among Japanese as hakugorai or “Korean White Ware.” Although Korai was a term for an ancient Korean kingdom, the term also functioned as a ubiquitous term for various products from the Korean peninsula.

This is not to suggest that historically Japanese were entirely oblivious to the existence of the Fujian province kilns and their porcelain, now known as Dehua or Blanc de Chine ware. The Dehua kilns are located in Fujian province opposite the island of Taiwan. Coastal Fujian province was traditionally a trade center for the Chinese economy with its many ports and urban centers. Fujian white ware was meant for all of maritime Asia.

However a large quantity of these ceramics was intended for a Japanese market before drastic trade restrictions by the mid 17th century. Items were largely Buddhist images and ritual utensils utilized for family altar use. Associations with funerals and the dead have perhaps led to a certain disinterest in this ware among present day Japanese, despite an intense interest in other aspects of Chinese ceramic culture and history.

Many examples of great beauty of this ware have made their way to collections in the west from Japan. Among the countless Buddhist images meant for the Japanese market are those that with strongly stylized robes that show an influence from the Kano School of painting that dominated Tokugawa Japan. It seems a certainty that Dehua white ware was made with Japanese tastes in mind.

Perhaps also likely is Japanese taste in the very plain white incense tripods and associated objects for Japanese religious and ritual observance. Of interest also are the Buddhist Goddesses of Mercy with child figures that close resembled Christian figurines. Such figurines were known as Maria Kannon or “Blessed Virgin Goddesses of Mercy” and were part of the “hidden Christian” culture of Tokugawa Japan which had strictly banned the religion.

White porcelain Buddhist statuary was extensively produced in Japan at the Hirado kilns and elsewhere. The two wares can be easily distinquished. Japanese figures are usually closed on the base and a small hole for ventilation can be seen. Hirado Ware also displays a slightly orange tinge on unglazed areas.


  • Ayers, J and Kerr, R., (2000), Blanc de Chine Porcelain from Dehua, Art Media Resources Ltd.
  • Moujian, S., (1986) An Encyclopedia of Chinese Art, p. 292.
  • Shanghai Art Museum, Fujian Ceramics and Porcelain, Chinese Ceramics, vol. 27, Kyoto, 1983.
  • Kato Tokoku, Genshoku toki daijiten (A Dictionary of Ceramics in Color), Tokyo, 1972, p. 777.


  1. ^ Wood, N., Chinese Glazes: Their Chemistry, Origins and Re-creation, A & C Black, London, and University of Pennsylvania Press, USA, 2007
  2. ^ Donnelly, P.J., Blanc de Chine, Faber and Faber, London, 1969
  3. ^ a b c Ayers, J. and Bingling, Y., Blanc de Chine: Divine Images in Porcelain, China Institute, New York, 2002
  4. ^ Harrison-Hall, J., Ming Ceramics in the British Museum, British Museum, London, 2001



Chinese porcelain · Chinese export porcelain · Chinese influences on Islamic pottery

Types: Proto-celadon (16th century BCE) · Celadon (1st century) · Yue (2nd century) · Jingdezhen (6th century) · Sancai (8th century) · Ding (10th century) · Qingbai (12th century) · Blue and white (14th century) · Blanc de Chine (14th century) · Kraak (16th century) · Swatow (16th century) · Kangxi (17th century) · Famille jaune, noire, rose, verte (17th century) · Tenkei (17th century) · Canton (18th century)

Ming plate 15th century Jingdezhen kilns Jiangxi
Meissen hard porcelain vase 1735

Korean porcelain

Types: Joseon (14th century)


Japanese porcelain

Types: Imari (17th century) · Kakiemon (17th century) · Kutani (17th century)


French porcelain · Chinese porcelain in European painting

Types: Fonthill Vase (1338) · Medici (1575) · Rouen (1673) · Nevers · Saint-Cloud (1693) · Meissen (1710) · Chantilly (1730) · Vincennes (1740) · Chelsea (1743) · Oranienbaum (1744) · Mennecy (1745) · Bow (1747) · Plymouth (1748) · Worcester (1751) · Sèvres (1756) · Derby (1757) · Wedgwood (1759) · Etiolles (1770) · Limoges (1771) · Clignancourt (1775) · Revol (1789)


the end@ copyright  Dr Iwan suwandy 2010

The Austria Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 



                                                AT DR IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                                          DI MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.




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                      *ill 001  LOGO MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.*ill 001

                                THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM



                                        PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

                                                     THE FOUNDER

                                            Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA




                         WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               


Showcase :

The Austria Historic Collections Exhibition


During the Neolithic, the territory of modern-day Austria was home to the Linear pottery culture, one of the first agrarian cultures in Europe.

Ötzi the Iceman, a well-preserved mummy of a man frozen in Austrian Alps, is dated around 3300 BC.

 Celts and Romans

Wiki letter w.svg This section requires expansion.

Early Middle Ages

During the Migration Period, the Slavic tribe of the Carantanians migrated into the Alps in the wake of the expansion of their Avar overlords during the 7th century, mixed with the Celto-Romanic population, and established the realm of Carantania, which covered much of eastern and central Austrian territory. In the meantime, the Germanic tribe of the Bavarians had developed in the 5th and 6th century in the west of the country and in Bavaria, while what is today Vorarlberg had been settled by the Alemans. Those groups mixed with the Rhaeto-Romanic population and pushed it up into the mountains.

Carantania, under pressure of the Avars, lost its independence to Bavaria in 745 and became a margraviate. During the following centuries, Bavarian settlers went down the Danube and up the Alps, a process through which Austria was to become the mostly German-speaking country it is today.

The Bavarians themselves came under the overlordship of the Carolingian Franks and subsequently a Duchy of the Holy Roman Empire. Duke Tassilo III, who wanted to maintain Bavarian independence, was defeated and displaced by Charlemagne in 789

An Eastern March (marchia orientalis) was established in Charlemagne’s time, but it was overrun by the Hungarians in 909.

Babenberg Austria

Ostarrîchi from Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor

After the defeat of the Hungarians by Emperor Otto the Great in the Battle of Lechfeld (955), new Marches were established in what is today Austria. The one known as the marchia orientalis was to become the core territory of Austria and was given to Leopold of Babenberg in 976 after the revolt of Henry II, Duke of Bavaria.

The Marches were overseen by a comes or dux as appointed by the Warlord. The most normal translation of these offices is count or duke, but these titles conveyed very different meanings in the Early Middle Ages, and the Latin terminology is preferable to any modern translation. In lumbardi-speaking countries, the title was eventually regularized to Margrave (German: Markgraf). (i.e. “Count of the Mark”).

The first record showing the name Austria is 996 were it is written as Ostarrîchi, referring to the territory of the Babenberg March. The term Ostmark is not historically ascertained and appears to be a translation of marchia orientalis that came up only much later.

The following centuries were characterized first by the settlement of the country, when forests were cleared and towns and monasteries were founded. In 1156 the Privilegium Minus elevated Austria to the status of a duchy. In 1192, the Babenbergs also acquired the Duchy of Styria through the Georgenberg Pact. At that time, the Babenberg Dukes came to be one of the most influential ruling families in the region, peaking in the reign of Leopold VI (1198–1230).

However, with the slaughter of his son Frederick II in 1246, the line went extinct, which resulted in the interregnum, a period of several decades during which the status of the country was disputed. Otakar II Přemysl of Bohemia effectively controlled the duchies of Austria, Styria and Carinthia. His reign came to an end with his defeat in the battle of Dürnkrut and Jedenspeigen at the hand of Rudolf of Habsburg in 1278.

 The Habsburg Monarchy (13th century–1918)

Beginnings (1278–1526)

Following the extinction of the Babenbergs in the 13th century, Austria came briefly under the rule of the Czech King Otakar II. Contesting the election of Rudolf I of Habsburg as Emperor, Otakar was defeated and killed by the German King, who took Austria and gave it to his sons in 1278. Austria was ruled by the Habsburgs for the next 640 years. In the 14th and 15th centuries, the Habsburgs began to accumulate other provinces in the vicinity of the Duchy of Austria, which remained a small Duchy along the Danube, and Styria, which they had acquired from Ottokar alongside with Austria. Carinthia and Carniola came under Habsburg rule in 1335, Tyrol in 1363. These provinces, together, became known as the Habsburg Hereditary Lands, although they were sometimes all lumped together simply as Austria.

The history of the following two centuries had many ups and downs. Following the notable, but short rule of Rudolf IV, his brothers Albert III and Leopold III split the realms in the Treaty of Neuberg in 1379. Albert retained Austria proper, while Leopold took the remaining territories. In 1402, there was another split in the Leopoldian line, when Ernest the Iron took Inner Austria (Styria, Carinthia and Carniola) and Frederick IV became ruler of Tyrol and Further Austria. The territories were only reunified by Ernest’s son Frederick V (Frederick III as Holy Roman Emperor), when the Albertinian line (1457) and the Elder Tyrolean line (1490) had become extinct.

In 1438, Duke Albert V of Austria was chosen as the successor to his father-in-law, Emperor Sigismund. Although Albert himself only reigned for a year, from then on, every emperor was a Habsburg, with only one exception. The Habsburgs began also to accumulate lands far from the Hereditary Lands. In 1477, the Archduke Maximilian, only son of Emperor Frederick III, married the heiress of Burgundy, thus acquiring most of the Low Countries for the family. His son Philip the Fair married the heiress of Castile and Aragon, and thus acquired Spain and its Italian, African, and New World appendages for the Habsburgs. The Habsburgs’ hereditary territories, however, were soon separated from this enormous empire when, in 1520, Emperor Charles V left them to the rule of his brother, Ferdinand.

Austria and The Reformation (1526–1618)

In 1526, following the Battle of Mohács, in which Ferdinand’s brother-in-law Louis II, King of Hungary and Bohemia, was killed, Ferdinand expanded his territories, bringing Bohemia and that part of Hungary not occupied by the Ottomans under his rule. Habsburg expansion into Hungary, however, led to frequent conflicts with the Turks, particularly the so-called Long War of 1593 to 1606.

Austria and the other Habsburg hereditary provinces (and Hungary and Bohemia, as well) were much affected by the Reformation. Although the Habsburg rulers themselves remained Catholic, the provinces themselves largely converted to Lutheranism, which Ferdinand I and his successors, Maximilian II, Rudolf II, and Mathias largely tolerated.

In the late 16th century, however, the Counter-Reformation and the Society of Jesus began to make its influence felt, and the Jesuit-educated Archduke Ferdinand of Austria, who ruled over Styria, Carinthia, and Carniola before becoming Holy Roman Emperor, was energetic in suppressing heresy in the provinces which he ruled.

Austria and The Thirty Years’ War (1618–1648)

When, in 1619, he was elected Emperor to succeed his cousin Mathias, the ultra-pious and intransigent Ferdinand II, as he became known, embarked on an energetic attempt to re-Catholicize not only the Hereditary Provinces, but Bohemia and Habsburg Hungary as well as most of Protestant Europe within the Holy Roman Empire. Outside his lands, his reputation for strong headed uncompromising intolerance had triggered the Thirty Years’ War in May of 1618 in the polarizing first phase, known as the Revolt in Bohemia. After several initial reverses, he became accommodating but as the Catholics turned things around and began to enjoy a long string of successes at arms he set forth the Edict of Restitution in 1629 vastly complicating the politics of settlement negotiations and prolonging the rest of the war; encouraged by the mid-war successes, he became even more forceful leading to infamies by his armies such as the Sack of Magdeburg.

His forced conversions or evictions carried out in the midst of the Thirty Years’ War, which with the later general success of the Protestants therefore had greatly negative consequences for Habsburg control of the Holy Roman Empire itself, while these campaigns within the Habsburg hereditary lands were largely successful in religiously purifying his demesnes, leaving the Austrian Emperors thereafter with much greater control within their hereditary power base— although Hungary was never successfully re-Catholicized—but one much reduced in population and economic might while less vigorous and weakened as a nation-state.

In terms of human costs, the Thirty Years’ wars many economic, social, and population dislocations caused by the hardline methods adopted by Ferdinand’s strict counter-reformation measures and almost continual employment of mercenary field armies contributed significantly to the loss of life and tragic depopulation of all the German states, during a war which some estimates put the civilian loss of life as high as fifty-percent overall. Studies mostly cite the causes of death due to starvation or as caused (ultimately by the lack-of-food induced) weakening of resistance to endemic diseases which repeatedly reached epidemic proportions amongst the general Central European population—the German states were the battle ground and staging areas for the largest mercenary armies theretofore, and the armies “foraged” amongst the many provinces stealing the food of those people forced onto the roads as refugees, or still on the lands, regardless of their faith and allegiances. Both townsmen and farmers were repeatedly ravaged and victimized by the armies on both sides leaving little for the populations already stressed by the refugees from the war or fleeing the Catholic counter-reformation repressions under Ferdinand’s governance.

Austria’s Rise to Power (1657–1714)

The long reign of Leopold I (1657–1705) saw the culmination of the Austrian conflict with the Turks. Following the successful defense of Vienna in 1683 led by King of Poland John III Sobieski, a series of campaigns resulted in the return of all of Hungary to Austrian control by the Treaty of Carlowitz in 1699. At the same time, Austria was becoming more involved in competition with France in Western Europe, with Austria fighting the French in the Third Dutch War (1672–1679), the War of the League of Augsburg (1688–1697) and finally the War of the Spanish Succession (1701–1714), in which the French and Austrians (along with their British, Dutch and Catalonian allies) fought over the inheritance of the vast territories of the Spanish Habsburgs. Although the French secured control of Spain and its colonies for a grandson of Louis XIV, the Austrians also ended up making significant gains in Western Europe, including the former Spanish Netherlands (now called the Austrian Netherlands, including most of modern Belgium), the Duchy of Milan in Northern Italy, and Naples and Sardinia in Southern Italy. (The latter was traded for Sicily in 1720).

Charles VI and Maria Theresa (1711–1780)

Maria Theresa of Austria as a young woman in 1727

The later part of the reign of Emperor Charles VI (1711–1740) saw Austria relinquish many of these fairly impressive gains, largely due to Charles’s apprehensions at the imminent extinction of the House of Habsburg. Charles was willing to offer concrete advantages in territory and authority in exchange for other powers’ worthless recognitions of the Pragmatic Sanction that made his daughter Maria Theresa his heir. The most notable instance of this was in the War of the Polish Succession whose settlement saw Austria cede Naples and Sicily to the Spanish Infant Don Carlos in exchange for the tiny Duchy of Parma and Spain and France’s adherence to the Pragmatic Sanction. The latter years of Charles’s reign (1736–1739) also saw an unsuccessful war against the Turks, which resulted in the Austrian loss of Belgrade and other border territories.

And, as many had anticipated, when Charles died in 1740, all those assurances from the other powers proved of little worth to Maria Theresa. The peace was initially broken by King Frederick II of Prussia, who invaded Silesia. Soon other powers began to exploit Austria’s weakness. The Elector of Bavaria claimed the inheritance to the hereditary lands and Bohemia, and was supported by the King of France, who desired the Austrian Netherlands. The Spanish and Sardinians hoped to gain territory in Italy, and the Saxons hoped to gain territory to connect Saxony with the Elector’s Polish Kingdom. Austria’s allies—Britain, Holland, and Russia, were all wary of getting involved in the conflict. Thus began the War of the Austrian Succession (1740–1748), one of the more confusing and less eventful wars of European history, which ultimately saw Austria holding its own, despite the permanent loss of most of Silesia to the Prussians. In 1745, following the reign of the Bavarian Elector as Emperor Charles VII, Maria Theresa’s husband Francis of Lorraine, Grand Duke of Tuscany, was elected Emperor, restoring control of that position to the Habsburgs (or, rather, to the new composite house of Habsburg-Lorraine).

For the eight years following the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle that ended the War of the Austrian Succession, Maria Theresa plotted revenge on the Prussians. The British and Dutch allies who had proved so reluctant to help her in her time of need were dropped in favour of the French in the so-called Reversal of Alliances of 1756. That same year, war once again erupted on the continent as Frederick, fearing encirclement, launched a pre-emptive invasion of Saxony. The Seven Years’ War, too, was indecisive, and saw Prussia holding onto Silesia, despite Russia, France, and Austria all combining against him, and with only Hanover as a significant ally on land.

The end of the war saw Austria, exhausted, continuing the alliance with France (cemented in 1770 with the marriage of Maria Theresa’s daughter Archduchess Maria Antonietta to the Dauphin), but also facing a dangerous situation in Central Europe, faced with the alliance of Frederick the Great of Prussia and Catherine the Great of Russia. The Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774 caused a serious crisis in east-central Europe, with Prussia and Austria demanding compensation for Russia’s gains in the Balkans, ultimately leading to the First Partition of Poland in 1772, in which Maria Theresa took Galicia from Austria’s traditional ally.

Over the next several years, Austro-Russian relations began to improve. When the War of Bavarian Succession erupted between Austria and Prussia in 1777 following the extinction of the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbach dynasty, Russia refused to support its ally, and the war was ended, after almost no bloodshed, on May 13, 1779 when Russian and French mediators at the Congress of Teschen negotiated an end to the war. In the agreement Austria receive the Innviertel from Bavaria.

The Reigns of Joseph II and Leopold II (1780–1792)

[Joseph II (right) with his brother and successor Leopold II (left)

On Maria Theresa's death in 1780, she was succeeded by her son Joseph II, already Holy Roman Emperor since Francis I's death in 1765. Joseph was a reformer, and is often considered the foremost example of an eighteenth century enlightened despot. Joseph attempted to bring under control the Roman Catholic Church and the various provincial nobilities of his lands, which led to widespread resistance, especially in Hungary and the Austrian Netherlands, which were used to their traditional liberties.

Joseph's foreign policy was equally ambitious, and equally unsuccessful. He pursued a policy of alliance with Catherine the Great's Russia, which led to a war with the Ottoman Empire in 1787. Austria's performance in the war was distinctly unimpressive, and the expense involved led to further resistance. By the time of Joseph's death in 1790, all his plans seemed ruined, with both Hungary and the Netherlands in open revolt and the war in the Balkans dragging on and seeming impossible to finish, given Russia's commitment to continuing the war.

Joseph's death proved a boon for Austria, as he was succeeded by his more sensible brother, Leopold II, previously the reforming Grand Duke of Tuscany. Leopold knew when to cut his losses, and soon cut deals with the revolting Netherlanders and Hungarians. He also managed to secure a peace with Turkey in 1791, and negotiated an alliance with Prussia, which had been allying with Poland to press for war on behalf of the Ottomans against Austria and Russia.

Leopold's reign also saw the acceleration of the French Revolution. Although Leopold was sympathetic to the revolutionaries, he was also the brother of the French queen. Furthermore, disputes involving the status of the rights of various imperial princes in Alsace, where the revolutionary French government was attempting to remove rights guaranteed by various peace treaties, involved Leopold as Emperor in conflicts with the French. The Declaration of Pillnitz, made in late 1791 jointly with the Prussian King Frederick William II and the Elector of Saxony, in which it was declared that the other princes of Europe took an interest in what was going on in France, was intended to be a statement in support of Louis XVI that would prevent the need from taking any kind of action. However, it instead inflamed the sentiments of the revolutionaries against the Emperor. Although Leopold did his best to avoid war with the French, he died in March of 1792. The French declared war on his inexperienced son Francis II a month later.

 The Era of the French Revolution and Napoleon (1792–1814)

Victorious Archduke Charles of Austria during the Battle of Aspern-Essling (May 21–22, 1809)

The war with France, which lasted until 1797, proved unsuccessful for Austria. After some brief successes against the utterly disorganized French armies in early 1792, the tide turned, and the French overran the Austrian Netherlands in the last months of 1792. While the Austrians were so occupied, their erstwhile Prussian allies stabbed them in the back with the Second Partition of Poland, from which Austria was entirely excluded. This led to the dismissal of Francis's chief minister, Philipp von Cobenzl, and his replacement with Franz Maria Thugut.

At around the same time, the increasing radicalization of the French Revolution, as well as the French occupation of the Low Countries, brought Britain, the Dutch Republic, and Spain into the war, which became known as the War of the First Coalition. Once again, there were initial successes against the disorganized armies of the French Republic, and the Netherlands were recovered. But in 1794 the tide turned once more, and Austrian forces were driven out of the Netherlands again—this time for good. Meanwhile, the Polish Crisis again became critical, resulting in a Third Partition (1795), in which Austria managed to secure important gains. The war in the west continued to go badly, as most of the coalition made peace, leaving Austria with only Britain and Piedmont-Sardinia as allies. In 1796, the French Directory planned a two-pronged campaign in Germany to force the Austrians to make peace, with a secondary thrust planned into Italy. Although Austrian forces under Archduke Charles, the Emperor's brother, were successful in driving the French back in Germany, the French Army of Italy, under the command of the young Corsican General Napoleon Bonaparte, was brilliantly successful, forcing Piedmont out of the war, driving the Austrians out of Lombardy and besieging Mantua. Following the capture of Mantua in early 1797, Bonaparte advanced north through the Alps against Vienna, while new French armies moved again into Germany. Austria sued for peace. By the terms of the Treaty of Campo Formio of 1797, Austria renounced its claims to the Netherlands and Lombardy, in exchange for which it partitioned the territories of the Republic of Venice with the French. The Austrians also provisionally recognized the French annexation of the Left Bank of the Rhine, and agreed in principle that the German princes of the region should be compensated with ecclesiastical lands on the other side of the Rhine.

The peace did not last for long. Soon, differences emerged between the Austrians and French over the reorganization of Germany, and Austria joined Russia, Britain, and Naples in the War of the Second Coalition in 1799. Although Austro-Russian forces were initially successful in driving the French from Italy, the tide soon turned—the Russians withdrew from the war after a defeat at Zürich (1799) which they blamed on Austrian recklessness, and the Austrians were defeated by Bonaparte, now First Consul at Marengo, which forced them to withdraw from Italy, and then in Germany at Hohenlinden. These defeats forced Thugut's resignation, and Austria, now led by Ludwig Cobenzl, to make peace at Lunéville in early 1801. The terms were surprisingly mild—the terms of Campo Formio were largely reinstated, but now the way was clear for a reorganization of the Empire on French lines. By the Imperial Deputation Report of 1803, the Holy Roman Empire was entirely reorganized, with nearly all of the ecclesiastical territories and free cities, traditionally the parts of the Empire most friendly to the House of Austria, eliminated.

Map of Europe in 1811 after several French victories

With Bonaparte's assumption of the title of Emperor of the French in 1804, Francis, seeing the writing on the wall for the old Empire, took the new title of Emperor of Austria as Francis I, in addition to his title of Holy Roman Emperor. Soon, Napoleon's continuing machinations in Italy, including the annexation of Genoa and Parma, led once again to war in 1805—the War of the Third Coalition, in which Austria, Britain, Russia, and Sweden took on Napoleon. The Austrian forces began the war by invading Bavaria, a key French ally in Germany, but were soon outmaneuvered and forced to surrender by Napoleon at Ulm, before the main Austro-Russian force was defeated at Austerlitz on December 2. By the Treaty of Pressburg, Austria was forced to give up large amounts of territory—Dalmatia to France, Venetia to Napoleon's Kingdom of Italy, the Tyrol to Bavaria, and Austria's various Swabian territories to Baden and Württemberg, although Salzburg, formerly held by Francis's younger brother, the previous Grand Duke of Tuscany, was annexed by Austria as compensation.

The defeat meant the end of the old Holy Roman Empire. Napoleon's satellite states in southern and Western Germany seceded from the Empire in the summer of 1806, forming the Confederation of the Rhine, and a few days later Francis proclaimed the Empire dissolved, and renounced the old imperial crown.

Over the next three years Austria, now led by Philipp Stadion, attempted to maintain peace with France, but the overthrow of the Spanish Bourbons in 1808 was deeply disturbing to the Habsburgs, who rather desperately went to war once again in 1809, this time with no continental allies. Stadion's attempts to generate popular uprisings in Germany were unsuccessful, and the Russians honored their alliance with France, so Austria was once again defeated, although at greater cost than Napoleon, who suffered his first battlefield defeat in this war, at Aspern-Essling, had expected. The terms of the Treaty of Schönbrunn were quite harsh. Austria lost Salzburg to Bavaria, some of its Polish lands to Russia, and its remaining territory on the Adriatic (including much of Carinthia and Styria) to Napoleon's Illyrian Provinces.

Klemens von Metternich, the new Austrian foreign minister, aimed to pursue a pro-French policy. The Emperor's daughter, Marie Louise, was married to Napoleon, and Austria contributed an army to Napoleon's invasion of Russia in 1812. With Napoleon's disastrous defeat in Russia at the end of the year, and Prussia's defection to the Russian side at the beginning of 1813, Metternich began slowly to shift his policy. Initially he aimed to mediate a peace between France and its continental enemies, but when it became apparent that Napoleon was not interested in compromise, Austria joined the allies and declared war on France in August 1813. The Austrian intervention was decisive. Napoleon was defeated at Leipzig in October, and forced to withdraw into France itself. As 1814 began, the Allied forces invaded France. Initially, Metternich remained unsure as to whether he wanted Napoleon to remain on the throne, a Marie Louise regency for Napoleon's young son, or a Bourbon restoration, but he was eventually brought around by British Foreign Secretary Lord Castlereagh to the last position. Napoleon abdicated on April 3, 1814, and Louis XVIII was restored, soon negotiating a peace treaty with the victorious allies at Paris in June.

The Nineteenth Century (1815–1918)

Austro-Hungarian prisoners of war in Russia, 1915

Under the control of Metternich, the Austrian Empire entered a period of censorship and a police state in the period between 1815 and 1848 (Biedermaier or Vormärz period). However, both liberalism and nationalism were on the rise, which resulted in the Revolutions of 1848. Metternich and the mentally handicapped Emperor Ferdinand I were forced to resign to be replaced by the emperor's young nephew Franz Joseph. Separatist tendencies (especially in Lombardy and Hungary) were suppressed by military force. A constitution was enacted in March 1848, but it had little practical impact. However, one of the concessions to revolutionaries with a lasting impact was the freeing of peasants in Austria. This facilitated industrialization, as many flocked to the newly industrializing cities of the Austrian domain (in the industrial centers of Bohemia, Lower Austria, Vienna, and Upper Styria). Social upheaval led to increased strife in ethnically mixed cities, leading to mass nationalist movements.

In 1859, the defeats at Solférino and Magenta against the combined forces of France and Sardinia led to the loss of Lombardy and Tuscany to the Kingdom of Sardinia, which was striving to create a unified national Italian state.

The defeat at Königgrätz in the Austro-Prussian War of 1866 resulted in Austria's exclusion from Germany; the German Confederation was dissolved. The monarchy's weak external position forced Franz Joseph to concede internal reforms. To appease Hungarian nationalism, Franz Joseph made a deal with Hungarian nobles, which led to the creation of Austria-Hungary through the Austro-Hungarian Compromise of 1867. The western half of the realm (Cisleithania) and Hungary (Transleithania) now became two realms with different interior policy, but with a common ruler and a common foreign and military policy.

Austrian 100 Years of Universal Male Suffrage coin, depicting a historic photo of the Parliament in 1907, right after the elections.

The Austrian half of the dual monarchy began to move towards constitutionalism. A constitutional system with a parliament, the Reichsrat, was created, and a bill of rights was enacted in 1867. Suffrage to the Reichstag's lower house was gradually expanded until 1907, when equal suffrage for all male citizens was introduced. However, the effectiveness of parliamentarism was hampered by conflicts between parties representing different ethnic groups, and meetings of the parliament ceased altogether during World War I.

The decades until 1914 generally saw a lot of construction, expansion of cities and railway lines, and development of industry. During this period, now known as Gründerzeit, Austria became an industrialized country, even though the Alpine regions remained characterized by agriculture.

In 1878, Austria-Hungary occupied Bosnia and Herzegovina, which had been cut off from the rest of the Ottoman Empire by the creation of new states in the Balkans. The territory was annexed in 1908 and put under joint rule by the governments of both Austria and Hungary.

Map showing Austrian German–inhabited areas (in rose) in western Austro-Hungarian Empire in 1911

Nationalist strife increased during the decades until 1914. The assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand, who was the presumed heir of Franz Joseph as Emperor, in Sarajevo by a Serb nationalist group triggered World War I. The defeat of the Central Powers in 1918 resulted in the disintegration of Austria-Hungary. Emperor Karl of Austria, who had ruled since 1916, went into exile.

 German Austria and the First Republic (1918–1934)

Following the defeat of Austria-Hungary in World War I, in the Aftermath of World War I the Empire was broken up based loosely on national grounds. Austria, with its modern borders, was created out of the main German speaking areas. On 12 November 1918, Austria became a republic called German Austria. The newly formed Austrian parliament asked for union with Germany. Article 2 of its provisional constitution stated: Deutschösterreich ist ein Bestandteil der Deutschen Republik (German Austria is part of the German Republic). Plebiscites in the countries of Tyrol and Salzburg 1919–21 yielded majorities of 98 and 99% in favour of a unification with Germany. It was feared that small Austria was not economically viable. In the end France and Italy prevented the merger, and demanded the construction of an independent Austria that had to remain autonomous for at least 20 years. The Treaty of Saint Germain included a provision that prohibited political or economic union with Germany and forced the country to change its name from the "Republic of German Austria" to the "Republic of Austria," i.e. the First Republic. The German-speaking bordering areas of Bohemia and Moravia (later called the "Sudetenland") were allocated to the newly founded Czechoslovakia. Many Austrians and Germans regarded this as hypocrisy since U.S. president Woodrow Wilson had proclaimed in his famous "Fourteen Points" the "right of self-determination" for all nations. In the democratic German Weimar constitution the aim of unification was codified in article 61: „Deutschösterreich erhält nach seinem Anschluß an das Deutsche Reich das Recht der Teilnahme am Reichsrat mit der seiner Bevölkerung entsprechenden Stimmenzahl. Bis dahin haben die Vertreter Deutschösterreichs beratende Stimme.“ (German Austria has the right to participate in the Reichsrat (Germany) (the constitutional representation of the federal German states) with a consulting role according to its number of inhabitants until the unification with Germany.").

Territorial claims of Austria 1918/19

Although Austria-Hungary had been one of the Central Powers, the allied victors were much more lenient with a defeated Austria than either Germany or Hungary. Representatives of the new Republic of Austria convinced them that it was unfair to penalize Austria for the actions of a now dissolved Empire, especially as other areas of the Empire were now perceived to be on the "victorious" side, simply because they had renounced the Empire at the end of the war. Austria never did have to pay reparations because allied commissions determined that the country could not afford to pay. It was also the only defeated country to acquire additional territory as part of border adjustments: the Burgenland, a small land tract to the east that despite its German-speaking majority had belonged to Hungary. The area had been discussed as the site of a Czech Corridor to Yugoslavia.

On 20 October 1920, a plebiscite in the Austrian state of Carinthia was held in which the population chose to remain a part of Austria, rejecting the territorial claims of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes to the state. The German-speaking parts of western Hungary, now christened Burgenland, joined Austria as a new state in 1921, with the exception of the city of Sopron, whose population decided in a referendum (which is sometimes considered by Austrians to have been rigged) to remain with Hungary. However, the Treaty of Saint Germain also meant that Austria lost significant German-speaking territories, in particular the southern part of Tyrol (now the province of Bolzano-Bozen), to Italy and the German-speaking areas within Bohemia and Moravia to Czechoslovakia.

Between 1918 and 1920, there was a coalition government including both left and right-wing parties, which enacted progressive socio-economic and labour legislation. In 1920, the modern Constitution of Austria was enacted. The interwar years were socio-economically difficult for Austria, partly because the newly created borders tore apart what had been a common economic area.

High inflation led to a change of currency from the old Krone (here marked as German-Austrian) to the new Schilling in 1925

Austrian politics were characterized by intense and sometimes violent conflict between left and right from 1920 onwards. The Social Democratic Party of Austria, which pursued a fairly left-wing course known as Austromarxism at that time, could count on a secure majority in "Red Vienna", while right-wing parties controlled all other states. Since 1920, Austria was ruled by the Christian Socialist Party, which had close ties to the Roman Catholic Church. It was headed by a Catholic priest named Ignaz Seipel (1876–1932), who served twice as Chancellor (1922–1924 and 1926–1929). While in power, Seipel was working for an alliance between wealthy industrialists and the Roman Catholic Church.

Both left-wing and right-wing paramilitary forces were created during the 20s, namely the Heimwehr in 1921–1923 and the Republican Schutzbund in 1923. A clash between those groups in Schattendorf, Burgenland, on 30 January 1927 led to the death of a man and a child. Right-wing veterans were indicted at a court in Vienna, but acquitted in a jury trial. This led to massive protests and fire at the Justizpalast in Vienna. In the July Revolt of 1927, 89 protesters were killed by the Austrian police forces.

Political conflict escalated until the early 1930s. Engelbert Dollfuß of the Christian Social Party became Chancellor in 1932.

[edit] Austrofascism (1934–1938)

Under the Christian Social Party, the Austrian government was moving towards centralization of power in the Fascist model.

David Low’s cartoon shows Micky Mouse (Dollfuss) seeking protection from a cat representing Hitler in the clutches of a cat representing Mussolini.

In March 1933 the Dollfuss cabinet took advantage of a formal error during a vote on a bill in parliament. As the vote was very narrow, all of the three presidents of the National Council stepped down because they were not allowed to vote themselves while in office. This was an unforeseen event but it could have been resolved according to the rules of procedure. However, the cabinet declared that the parliament had ceased to function and forcibly prevented the National Council from reassembling. The executive then took over legislative power by using an emergency provision which had been enacted during World War I. Even after this putsch, the socialist party hesitated and tried to resolve the crisis in a peaceful way.

On 12 February 1934 the new Austrofascist regime provoked the Austrian Civil War by ordering search warrants for the headquarters of the socialist party. At that time the socialist party structures were already weakened and the uprising of its supporters was quickly defeated. Subsequently the socialist party and all its ancillary organisations were banned.

On 1 May 1934, the Dollfuss cabinet approved a new constitution that abolished freedom of the press, established one party system (known as “The Patriotic Front”) and created a total state monopoly on employer-employee relations. This system remained in force until Austria became part of the Third Reich in 1938. The Patriotic Front government frustrated the ambitions of pro-Hitlerite sympathizers in Austria who wished both political influence and unification with Germany, leading to the assassination of Dollfuss on 25 July 1934. His successor Schuschnigg maintained the ban on pro-Hitlerite activities in Austria, but was forced to resign on 11 March 1938 following a demand by Hitler for power-sharing with pro-German circles. Following Schuschnigg’s resignation, German troops occupied Austria with no resistance.

[edit] Part of Nazi Germany (1938–1945)

Main articles: Anschluss and Nazi Germany

Although the Treaty of Versailles and the Treaty of St. Germain had explicitly forbidden the unification of Austria and Germany, the native Austrian Hitler was striving to annex Austria during the late 1930s, which was fiercely resisted by the Austrian Schuschnigg dictatorship. When the conflict was escalating in early 1938, Chancellor Schuschnigg announced a plebiscite on the issue on March 9, which was to take place on 13 March. On 12 March, German troops entered Austria, who met celebrating crowds, in order to install Nazi puppet Arthur Seyss-Inquart as Chancellor. With a Nazi administration already in place and the country integrated into the Third Reich as so-called Ostmark, a referendum on 10 April approved of the annexation with a majority of 99.73%. This referendum is, however, believed by many observers and historians to have been rigged.

As a result, Austria ceased to exist as an independent country. This annexation was enforced by military invasion but large parts of the Austrian population were in favour of the Nazi regime, many Austrians would participate in its crimes. There was a Jewish population of about 200,000 then living in Vienna, which had contributed considerably to science and culture and very many of these people, with socialist and Catholic Austrian politicians were deported to concentration camps, murdered or forced into exile.

Just before the end of the war, on 28 March 1945, American troops set foot on Austrian soil and the Soviet Union’s Red Army crossed the eastern border two days later, taking Vienna on 13 April. American and British forces occupied the western and southern regions, preventing Soviet forces from completely overrunning and controlling the country.

[edit] The Second Republic (since 1945)

[edit] Allied occupation

Occupation zones in Austria

Main article: Allied-administered Austria

In April 1945 Karl Renner, an Austrian elder statesman, declared Austria separate from Germany and set up a government which included socialists, conservatives and communists. A significant number of these were returning from exile or Nazi detention, having thus played no role in the Nazi government. This contributed to the Allies treating Austria more as a liberated, rather than defeated, country, and the government was recognized by the Allies later that year. The country was occupied by the Allies from 9 May 1945 and under the Allied Commission for Austria established by an agreement on 4 July 1945, it was divided into Zones occupied respectively by American, British, French and Soviet Army personnel, with Vienna being also divided similarly into four sectors—with an International Zone at its heart.

Though under occupation, this Austrian government was officially permitted to conduct foreign relations with the approval of the Four Occupying Powers under the agreement of 28 June 1946. As part of this trend, Austria was one of the founding members of the Danube Commission formed on 18 August 1948. Austria would benefit from the Marshall Plan but economic recovery was very slow—as a result of the State’s 10 year political overseeing by the Allied Powers.[citation needed]

Unlike the First Republic, which had been characterized by sometimes violent conflict between the different political groups, the Second Republic became a stable democracy. The two largest leading parties, the Christian-conservative Austrian People’s Party (ÖVP) and the Social Democratic Party (SPÖ) remained in a coalition led by the ÖVP until 1966. The Communist Party of Austria (KPÖ), who had hardly any support in the Austrian electorate[citation needed], remained in the coalition until 1950 and in parliament until 1959. For much of the Second Republic, the only opposition party was the Freedom Party of Austria (FPÖ), which included pan-German and liberal political currents. It was founded in 1955 as a successor organisation to the short-lived Federation of Independents (VdU).

[edit] Independence and political development during the Second Republic

The two major parties strove towards ending allied occupation and restoring a fully independent Austria. The Austrian State Treaty was signed on 15 May 1955. Upon the termination of allied occupation, Austria was proclaimed a neutral country, and “everlasting” neutrality was incorporated into the Constitution on 26 October 1955.

The political system of the Second Republic came to be characterized by the system of Proporz, meaning that posts of some political importance were split evenly between members of the SPÖ and ÖVP. Interest group representations with mandatory membership (e.g. for workers, businesspeople, farmers etc.) grew to considerable importance and were usually consulted in the legislative process, so that hardly any legislation was passed that did not reflect widespread consensus. The Proporz and consensus systems largely held even during the years between 1966 and 1983, when there were non-coalition governments.

The ÖVP-SPÖ coalition ended in 1966, when the ÖVP gained a majority in parliament. However, it lost it in 1970, when SPÖ leader Bruno Kreisky formed a minority government tolerated by the FPÖ. In the elections of 1971, 1975 and 1979 he obtained an absolute majority. The 70s were then seen as a time of liberal reforms in social policy. Today, the economic policies of the Kreisky era are often criticized, as the accumulation of a large national debt began, and non-profitable nationalized industries were strongly subsidized.

Following severe losses in the 1983 elections, the SPÖ entered into a coalition with the FPÖ under the leadership of Fred Sinowatz. In Spring 1986, Kurt Waldheim was elected president amid considerable national and international protest because of his possible involvement with the Nazis and war crimes during World War II. Fred Sinowatz resigned, and Franz Vranitzky became chancellor.

In September 1986, in a confrontation between the German-national and liberal wings, Jörg Haider became leader of the FPÖ. Chancellor Vranitzky rescinded the coalition pact between FPÖ and SPÖ, and after new elections, entered into a coalition with the ÖVP, which was then lead by Alois Mock. Jörg Haider’s populism and criticism of the Proporz system allowed him to gradually expand his party’s support in elections, rising from 4% in 1983 to 27% in 1999. The Green Party managed to establish itself in parliament from 1986 onwards.

[edit] Recent years

The SPÖ–ÖVP coalition persisted until 1999. Austria joined the European Union in 1995 (Video of the signing in 1994), and Austria was set on the track towards joining the Eurozone, when it was established in 1999.

In 1993, the Liberal Forum was founded by dissidents from the FPÖ. It managed to remain in parliament until 1999. Viktor Klima succeeded Vranitzky as chancellor in 1997.

In 1999, the ÖVP fell back to third place behind the FPÖ in the elections. Even though ÖVP chairman and Vice Chancellor Wolfgang Schüssel had announced that his party would go into opposition in that case, he entered into a coalition with the FPÖ – with himself as chancellor – in early 2000 under considerable national and international protest. Jörg Haider resigned as FPÖ chairman, but retained his post as governor of Carinthia but kept substantial influence within the FPÖ.

In 2002, disputes within the FPÖ resulting from losses in state elections caused the resignation of several FPÖ government members and a collapse of the government. Wolfgang Schüssel’s ÖVP emerged as the winner of the subsequent election, ending up in first place for the first time since 1966. The FPÖ lost more than half of its voters, but reentered the coalition with the ÖVP. Despite the new coalition, the voter support for the FPÖ continued to dwindle in all most all local and state elections. Disputes between “nationalist” and “liberals” wings of the party resulted in a split, with the founding of a new liberal party called the Alliance for the Future of Austria (BZÖ) and led by Jörg Haider. Since all FPÖ government members and most FPÖ members of parliament decided to join the new party, the Schüssel coalition remained in office (now in the constellation ÖVP–BZÖ, with the remaining FPÖ in opposition) until the next elections. On 1 October 2006 the SPÖ won a head on head elections and negotiated a grand coalition with the ÖVP. This coalition started its term on 11 January 2007 with Alfred Gusenbauer as Chancellor of Austria. For the first time, the Green Party of Austria became the third largest party in a nation-wide election, overtaking the FPÖ by a narrow margin of only a few hundred votes.

The grand coalition headed by Alfred Gusenbauer collapsed in the early summer of 2008 over disagreements about the country’s EU policy. The early elections held on September 28 resulted in extensive losses for the two ruling parties and corresponding gains for Heinz-Christian Strache‘s FPÖ and Jörg Haider‘s BZÖ (the Green Party was relegated to the 5th position). Nevertheless, SPÖ and ÖVP renewed their coalition under the leadership of the new SPÖ party chairman Werner Faymann. In 2008 Jörg Haider died in a car accident and was succeeded as BZÖ party chairman by Herbert Scheibner and as governor of Carinthia by Gerhard Dörfler

the end @copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2010.

The Germany(Deutschland) Collections Exhibition

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

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Showcase :The Germany (Deutschland) Historic Collections Exhibition


The earliest hominid fossils found in what is now Germany are Homo heidelbergensis (500,000 years old) and the Steinheim Skull (300,000 years old). The Neanderthals, named for Neander Valley, flourished around 100,000 years ago. The region was glaciated from 30,000 years ago to about 10,000 years ago. The Nebra sky disk, dated 1600 BC, is one of the oldest known astronomical instruments found anywhere. Northern Germany experienced the Nordic Bronze Age from 1700BC to 450BC and thereafter the Pre-Roman Iron Age. Differences between artifacts from northern Germany and those from southern Germany suggest the beginning of differentiation between the Germanic and Celtic peoples. In the 1st century BC, the Germanic tribes began expanding south, east, and west.[1]

Early history (56 BC to 260 AD)

Main article: Germanic peoples
Germanic tribes in 50 AD (not including most of Scandinavia)
Early Old High German runic inscription on the Pforzen buckle

Germany entered recorded history in June 56 BC, when Roman commander Julius Caesar crossed the Rhine. His army built a huge wooden bridge in only ten days. He retreated back to Gaul upon learning that the Suevi tribe was gathering to oppose him. The English word “Germany” is derived from the Latin Germania, a word first recorded in Caesar’s writings.[2]

Under Augustus, the Roman General Publius Quinctilius Varus began to invade Germania (to the Romans, an area running roughly from the Rhine to the Ural Mountains), and it was in this period that the Germanic tribes became familiar with Roman tactics of warfare while maintaining their tribal identity. In AD 9, three Roman legions led by Varus were defeated by the Cheruscan leader Arminius in the clades Variana (“Battle of the Teutoburg Forest”). Arminius later suffered a defeat at the hands of the Roman general Germanicus at the Battle of the Weser River or Idistaviso in AD 16, but the Roman victory was not followed up after the Roman Emperor Tiberius recalled Germanicus to Rome in AD 17. Tiberius wished that the Roman frontier with Germania be maintained along the Rhine. Modern Germany, as far as the Rhine and the Danube, thus remained outside the Roman Empire. By AD 100, the time of TacitusGermania, Germanic tribes settled along the Rhine and the Danube (the Limes Germanicus), occupying most of the area of modern Germany. The 3rd century saw the emergence of a number of large West Germanic tribes: Alamanni, Franks, Chatti, Saxons, Frisians, Sicambri, and Thuringii. Around 260, the Germanic peoples broke through the Limes and the Danube frontier into Roman-controlled lands.[3]


Six great German tribes, the Visigoths, Ostrogoths, Vandals, Burgundians, Lombards and the Franks took part in the fragmentation and the collapse of the Western Roman Empire. The vandals were two tribes, Hasdingi and the Silingi. Several other tribes were also involved, the Alans and the Suebi in particular, but the Alans were an Iranian people steppe, not Germans. The six major tribes found major kingdoms. All of them disappeared with one exception, the Franks, which gave its name to Western Europe in languages such as Arabic. The diagram shows the fate of kingdoms, two of the Franks, two from Romania, and overthrown by Islam. The parts of Italy from the Lombards by the Romans who obtained naturally fell to the Franks (if then ceded to the pope) and North Africa, the Romans called up from the Vandals, then went to Islam. The Frankish kingdom is divided into the elements of the medieval history of Europe. Although Burgundy and Lorraine, now, as such, Switzerland and Monaco are gone modern pieces of the former and the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg are modern pieces of the latter.

Besides the German tribes, and was captured and damaged the Western Roman Empire, there were the tribes that stayed back in Germany proper. These were the Saxons, Alemanni, and the Thuringian Rugier. If the Rugier were Odoacer in 487, destroyed formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and finally the Saxons of 804th When Germany finally separated as the East Franks, took over the old tribal identities as a new stem duchies.

The Stem Duchies & Marches

The Stem Duchies (tribal duchies) in Germany was mainly the areas of the old German tribes of the region. These strains were originally the Franks, the Saxons, the Alemanni, the Burgundians, the Thuringians, and the Rugians. In the 5th Century the Burgundians moved into Roman territory and would have been in 443 and 458 in the area, then Lower Burgundy. The area they had occupied in Germany, along with the Saxons, was occupied by the Franks. The Rugians which Odoacer destroyed in 487 formed a new confederation of Germans in their place, the Bavarians. All of these strains in Germany were finally subdued by the Franks, the Alamanni in 496 and 505, the Thuringia in 531, the Bavarians after a certain point 553, and then the Saxons, in a lengthy campaign of Charles himself, from 804. When Germany finally separated as the East Francia, took over the tribal areas of new identities as the subdivisions of the Empire, joining Lorraine (right Francia Media). For the ruler of this ancient Roman title dux (“the leader”) was adopted. It was originally a Roman frontier military commander used. In German, however, the corresponding title, Herzog, more like a translation of a Greek, , stratêlatês, “army” (stratos) “leader” (elaunein, “to lead”). Thus, the Old High German title of herizoho, from heri, “army,” and ziohan, “to lead.” This looks very much like a similar title, voivode, maybe a translation into Slavic languages.

 The Franks

The Merovingian kings of the Germanic Franks conquered northern Gaul in 486 AD. In the 5th and 6th centuries the Merovingian kings conquered several other Germanic tribes and kingdoms and placed them under the control of autonomous dukes of mixed Frankish and native blood. Frankish Colonists were encouraged to move to the newly conquered territories. While the local Germanic tribes were allowed to preserve their laws, they were pressured into changing their religion.

Frankish Empire

Main article: Frankish Empire

Frankish Empire: Realm of Pippin III in 758 (blue), expansion under Charlemagne until 814 (red), marches and dependencies (yellow)

After the fall of the Western Roman Empire the Franks created an empire under the Merovingian kings and subjugated the other Germanic tribes. Swabia became a duchy under the Frankish Empire in 496, following the Battle of Tolbiac. Already king Chlothar I ruled the greater part of what is now Germany and made expeditions into Saxony while the Southeast of modern Germany was still under influence of the Ostrogoths. In 531 Saxons and Franks destroyed the Kingdom of Thuringia. Saxons inhabit the area down to the Unstrut river. During the partition of the Frankish empire their German territories were a part of Austrasia. In 718 the Franconian Mayor of the Palace Charles Martel made war against Saxony, because of its help for the Neustrians. The Franconian Carloman started in 743 a new war against Saxony, because the Saxons gave aid to Duke Odilo of Bavaria. In 751 Pippin III, mayor of the palace under the Merovingian king, himself assumed the title of king and was anointed by the Church. The Frankish kings now set up as protectors of the Pope, Charlemagne launched a decades-long military campaign against their heathen rivals, the Saxons and the Avars. The Saxons (by the Saxon Wars (772-804)) and Avars were eventually overwhelmed and forcibly converted, and their lands were annexed by the Carolingian Empire.

 Middle Ages

Main article: Holy Roman Empire
The prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire. (left to right: Archbishop of Cologne, Archbishop of Mainz, Archbishop of Trier, Count Palatine, Duke of Saxony, Margrave of Brandenburg and King of Bohemia)
Holy Roman Empire, 10th century
Marienburg (Malbork) castle of the Teutonic Knights
Holy Roman Empire, 14th century

In 768 the Frankish king died, leaving his kingdom to his two sons—Charles and Carloman.[4] When Carloman suddenly died in 771, Charles seized his brother’s lands and made them part of his own kingdom. During the next two years, Charles consolidated his control over his kingdom and became more commonly known as “Charles the Great” or “Charlemagne.” From 771 until his death in 814, Charlemagne extended the Carolingian empire into northern Italy and the territories of all west Germanic peoples, including the Saxons and the Bajuwari (Bavarians). In 800, Charlemagne’s authority was confirmed by his coronation as emperor in Rome. The Frankish empire was divided into counties, and its frontiers were protected by border marches. Imperial strongholds (Kaiserpfalzen) became economic and cultural centres (Aachen being the most famous[5]).

Between 843 and 880, after fighting between Charlemagne’s grandchildren, the Carolingian empire was partitioned into several parts in the Treaty of Verdun (843), the Treaty of Meerssen (870) and the Treaty of Ribemont[6] The German region developed out of the East Frankish kingdom, East Francia. From 919 to 936 the Germanic peoples (Franks, Saxons, Swabians and Bavarians) were united under Duke Henry of Saxony, who took the title of king. For the first time, the term Kingdom (Empire) of the Germans (“Regnum Teutonicorum”) was applied to a Frankish kingdom, even though Teutonicorum at its founding originally meant something closer to “Realm of the Germanic peoples” or “Germanic Realm” than realm of the Germans.[7]

Otto the Great

In 936 , Otto I the Great was crowned at Aachen. He strengthened the royal authority by re-asserting the old Carolingian rights over ecclesiastical appointments.[8] Otto wrested from the nobles the powers of appointment of the bishops and abbots, who controlled large land holdings. Additionally, Otto revived the old Carolingian program of appointing missionaries in the border lands. Otto continued to support the celibacy rule for the higher clergy. Thus, the ecclesiastical appointments never became hereditary. By granting land to the abbotts and bishops he appointed, Otto actually made these bishops into “princes of the Empire” (Reichsfürsten).[9] In this way, Otto was able to establish a national church. In 951 Otto the Great married the widowed Queen Adelheid, thereby winning the Lombard crown. Outside threats to the kingdom were contained with the decisive defeat of the Magyars of Hungary near Augsburg at the Battle of Lechfeld in 955. The Slavs between the Elbe and the Oder rivers were also subjugated. Otto marched on Rome and drove John XII from the papal throne and for years controlled the election of the pope, setting a firm precedent for imperial control of the papacy for years to come. In 962, Otto I was crowned emperor in Rome, taking the succession of Charlemagne, and this also helped establish a strong Frankish influence over the Papacy.

During the reign of Conrad II’s son, Henry III (1039 to 1056 ), the Holy Roman Empire supported the Cluniac reform of the Church – the Peace of God, the prohibition of simony (the purchase of clerical offices) and the celibacy of priests. Imperial authority over the Pope reached its peak. In the Investiture Controversy which began between Henry IV and Pope Gregory VII over appointments to ecclesiastical offices, the emperor was compelled to submit to the Pope at Canossa in 1077, after having been excommunicated. In 1122 a temporary reconciliation was reached between Henry V and the Pope with the Concordat of Worms. The consequences of the investiture dispute were a weakening of the Ottonian church (Reichskirche), and a strengthening of the Imperial secular princes.[10]

The time between 1096 and 1291 was the age of the crusades. Knightly religious orders were established, including the Templars, the Knights of St John and the Teutonic Order[11] .


From 1100, new towns were founded around imperial strongholds, castles, bishops’ palaces and monasteries. The towns began to establish municipal rights and liberties (see German town law), while the rural population remained in a state of serfdom. In particular, several cities became Imperial Free Cities, which did not depend on princes or bishops, but were immediately subject to the Emperor. The towns were ruled by patricians (merchants carrying on long-distance trade). The craftsmen formed guilds, governed by strict rules, which sought to obtain control of the towns. Trade with the East and North intensified, as the major trading towns came together in the Hanseatic League, under the leadership of Lübeck.[12]

Wars and expansion

The German colonisation and the chartering of new towns and villages began into largely Slav-inhabited territories east of the Elbe, such as Bohemia, Silesia, Pomerania, and Livonia (see also Ostsiedlung).[13]

Henry V, great-grandson of Conrad II became Holy Roman Emperor in 1106 upon the death of his father, Henry IV. Henry V’s reign was born into a civil war which had continued from his fathers’ reign.[14] Hoping to gain complete control over the church inside the Empire, Henry V appointed Adalbert of Saarbruken as archbishop of Mainz in 1111 However, like Becket in England some fifty years later, once appointed as archbishop, Adalbert began to take his position seriously and began to assert the powers of the Church against secular authorities, that is, the Emperor. This precipitated the “Crisis of 1111″. Henry, Duke of Bavaria, known as Henry the Proud, became heir to the duchy of Saxony, making him the most powerful lord in the kingdom, as well as the logical successor of Lothair as the Holy Roman Emperor. However in 1137 the magnates turned back to the Hohenstaufen family for a candidate, Conrad III. Conrad III tried to Henry the Proud of his two duchies, leading to war in southern Germany as the Empire divided into two factions. The first faction called themselves the “Welfs” after Henry the Proud’s family name which was the ruling dynasty in Bavaria. The other faction was known as the “Waiblings.” In this early period, the Welfs generally represented ecclesiastical independence under the papacy plus “particularism” (a strengthening of the local duchies against the central imperial authority). The Waiblings on the other hand stood for control of the Church by a strong central Imperial government.[15]

Between 1152 and 1190, during the reign of Frederick I (Barbarossa), of the Hohenstaufen dynasty, an accommodation was reached with the rival Guelph party by the grant of the duchy of Bavaria to Henry the Lion, duke of Saxony. Austria became a separate duchy by virtue of the Privilegium Minus in 1156.[16] Barbarossa tried to reassert his control over Italy. In 1177 a final reconciliation was reached between the emperor and the Pope in Venice.

In 1180 Henry the Lion was outlawed and Bavaria was given to Otto of Wittelsbach (founder of the Wittelsbach dynasty which was to rule Bavaria until 1918), while Saxony was divided.

From 1184 to 1186 the Hohenstaufen empire under Barbarossa reached its peak in the Reichsfest (imperial celebrations) held at Mainz and the marriage of his son Henry in Milan to the Norman princess Constance of Sicily. The power of the feudal lords was undermined by the appointment of “ministerials” (unfree servants of the Emperor) as officials. Chivalry and the court life flowered, leading to a development of German culture and literature (see Wolfram von Eschenbach).

Between 1212 and 1250 Frederick II established a modern, professionally administered state in Sicily. He resumed the conquest of Italy, leading to further conflict with the Papacy. In the Empire, extensive sovereign powers were granted to ecclesiastical and secular princes, leading to the rise of independent territorial states. The struggle with the Pope sapped the Empire’s strength, as Frederick II was excommunicated three times. After his death, the Hohenstaufen dynasty fell, followed by an interregnum during which there was no Emperor.

Beginning in 1226 under the auspices of Emperor Frederick II, the Teutonic Knights began their conquest of Prussia after being invited to Chelmno Land by the Polish Duke Konrad I of Masovia. The native Baltic Prussians were conquered and Christianized by the Knights with much warfare, and numerous German towns were established along the eastern shore of the Baltic Sea. From 1300, however, the Empire started to lose territory on all its frontiers.

The failure of negotiations between Emperor Louis IV with the papacy led in 1338 to the declaration at Rhense by six electors to the effect that election by all or the majority of the electors automatically conferred the royal title and rule over the empire, without papal confirmation.

Between 1346 and 1378 Emperor Charles IV of Luxembourg, king of Bohemia, sought to restore the imperial authority.

Around the middle of the 14th century, the Black Death ravaged Germany and Europe. From the Dance of Death by Michael Wolgemut (1491)

Around 1350 Germany and almost the whole of Europe were ravaged by the Black Death. Jews were persecuted on religious and economic grounds; many fled to Poland.

The Golden Bull of 1356 stipulated that in future the emperor was to be chosen by four secular electors (the King of Bohemia, the Count Palatine of the Rhine, the Duke of Saxony, and the Margrave of Brandenburg) and three spiritual electors (the Archbishops of Mainz, Trier, and Cologne).

After the disasters of the 14th century, early-modern European society gradually came into being as a result of economic, religious and political changes. A money economy arose which provoked social discontent among knights and peasants. Gradually, a proto-capitalistic system evolved out of feudalism. The Fugger family gained prominence through commercial and financial activities and became financiers to both ecclesiastical and secular rulers.

The knightly classes found their monopoly on arms and military skill undermined by the introduction of mercenary armies and foot soldiers. Predatory activity by “robber knights” became common. From 1438 the Habsburgs, who controlled most of the southeast of the Empire (more or less modern-day Austria and Slovenia, and Bohemia and Moravia after the death of King Louis II in 1526), maintained a constant grip on the position of the Holy Roman Emperor until 1806 (with the exception of the years between 1742 and 1745). This situation, however, gave rise to increased disunity among the Holy Roman Empires territorial rulers and prevented sections of the country from coming together and forming nations in the manner of France and England.

During his reign from 1493 to 1519, Maximilian I tried to reform the Empire: an Imperial supreme court (Reichskammergericht) was established, imperial taxes were levied, the power of the Imperial Diet (Reichstag) was increased. The reforms were, however, frustrated by the continued territorial fragmentation of the Empire.

 Early modern Germany

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Reformation and Thirty Years War

Around the beginning of the 16th century there was much discontent in the Holy Roman Empire caused by abuses such as indulgences in the Catholic Church and a general desire for reform.

In 1515 the Frisian peasants rebellion took place. Led by Pier Gerlofs Donia and Wijard Jelckama, thousands of Frisians (a Germanic race) fought against the suppression of their lands by Charles V. The hostilities ended in 1523 when the remaining leaders were captured and decapitated.

In 1517 the Reformation began with the publication of Martin Luther‘s 95 Theses; he had posted them in the town square, and gave copies of them to German nobles, but it is debated whether he nailed them to the church door in Wittenberg as is commonly said. The list detailed 95 assertions Luther believed to show corruption and misguidance within the Catholic Church. One often cited example, though perhaps not Luther’s chief concern, is a condemnation of the selling of indulgences; another prominent point within the 95 Theses is Luther’s disagreement both with the way in which the higher clergy, especially the pope, used and abused power, and with the very idea of the pope.

Statue of Pier Gerlofs Donia, self acclaimed “King of all Frisians”. Famous rebel and freedom fighter of legendary strength and size.

In 1521 Luther was outlawed at the Diet of Worms. But the Reformation spread rapidly, helped by the Emperor Charles V‘s wars with France and the Turks. Hiding in the Wartburg Castle, Luther translated the Bible from Latin to German, establishing the basis of the German language. A curious fact is that Luther spoke a dialect which had minor importance in the German language of that time. After the publication of his Bible, his dialect suppressed the others and evolved into what is now the modern German.

“The Holy Roman Empire, 1512.

In 1524 the German Peasants’ War broke out in Swabia, Franconia and Thuringia against ruling princes and lords, following the preachings of Reformist priests. But the revolts, which were assisted by war-experienced noblemen like Götz von Berlichingen and Florian Geyer (in Franconia), and by the theologian Thomas Münzer (in Thuringia), were soon repressed by the territorial princes. It is estimated that as many as 100,000 German peasants were massacred during the revolt,[17] usually after the battles had ended.[18] With the protestation of the Lutheran princes at the Reichstag of Speyer (1529) and rejection of the Lutheran “Augsburg Confession” at Augsburg (1530), a separate Lutheran church emerged.

From 1545 the Counter-Reformation began in Germany. The main force was provided by the Jesuit order, founded by the Spaniard Ignatius of Loyola. Central and northeastern Germany were by this time almost wholly Protestant, whereas western and southern Germany remained predominantly Catholic. In 1547, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V defeated the Schmalkaldic League, an alliance of Protestant rulers.

The Peace of Augsburg in 1555 brought recognition of the Lutheran faith. But the treaty also stipulated that the religion of a state was to be that of its ruler (Cuius regio, eius religio).

In 1556 Charles V abdicated. The Habsburg Empire was divided, as Spain was separated from the Imperial possessions.

In 1608/1609 the Protestant Union and the Catholic League were formed.

From 1618 to 1648 the Thirty Years’ War ravaged in the Holy Roman Empire. The causes were the conflicts between Catholics and Protestants, the efforts by the various states within the Empire to increase their power and the Emperor’s attempt to achieve the religious and political unity of the Empire. The immediate occasion for the war was the uprising of the Protestant nobility of Bohemia against the emperor (Defenestration of Prague), but the conflict was widened into a European War by the intervention of King Christian IV of Denmark (1625–29), Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden (1630–48) and France under Cardinal Richelieu, the regent of the young Louis XIV (1635–48). Germany became the main theatre of war and the scene of the final conflict between France and the Habsburgs for predominance in Europe. The war resulted in large areas of Germany being laid waste, a loss of approximately a third of its population, and in a general impoverishment.

The war ended in 1648 with the Peace of Westphalia, signed in Münster and Osnabrück: Imperial territory was lost to France and Sweden and the Netherlands left the Holy Roman Empire after being de facto seceded for 80 years already. The imperial power declined further as the states’ rights were increased.

End of the Holy Roman Empire

The German Empire in 1705, map “L’Empire d’Allemagne” from Nicolas de Fer
After the Peace of Hubertsburg in 1763, Prussia became a European great power. The rivalry between Prussia and Austria for the leadership of Germany began

From 1640, Brandenburg-Prussia had started to rise under the Great Elector, Frederick William. The Peace of Westphalia in 1648 strengthened it even further, through the acquisition of East Pomerania. A system of rule based on absolutism was established.

In 1701 Elector Frederick of Brandenburg was crowned “King in Prussia“. From 1713 to 1740, King Frederick William I, also known as the “Soldier King”, established a highly centralised state.

Meanwhile Louis XIV of France had conquered parts of Alsace and Lorraine (1678–1681), and had invaded and devastated the Palatinate (1688–1697) in the War of Palatinian Succession. Louis XIV benefited from the Empire’s problems with the Turks, which were menacing Austria. Louis XIV ultimately had to relinquish the Palatinate.

In 1683 the Ottoman Turks were defeated outside Vienna by a Polish relief army led by King Jan Sobieski of Poland while the city itself was defended by Imperial and Austrian troops under the command of Charles IV, Duke of Lorraine, accompanied by Prince Eugene of Savoy and elector Maximilian Emanuel of Bavaria, the “liberator of Belgrade”. Hungary was reconquered, and later became a new destination for German settlers. Austria, under the Habsburgs, developed into a great power.

In the War of Austrian Succession (1740–1748) Maria Theresa fought successfully for recognition of her succession to the throne. But in the Silesian Wars and in the Seven Years’ War she had to cede Silesia to Frederick II, the Great, of Prussia. After the Peace of Hubertsburg in 1763 between Austria, Prussia and Saxony, Prussia became a European great power. This gave the start to the rivalry between Prussia and Austria for the leadership of Germany.

From 1763, against resistance from the nobility and citizenry, an “enlightened absolutism” was established in Prussia and Austria, according to which the ruler was to be “the first servant of the state”. The economy developed and legal reforms were undertaken, including the abolition of torture and the improvement in the status of Jews; the emancipation of the peasants slowly began. Education began to be enforced under threat of compulsion.

In 1772-1795 Prussia took part in the partitions of Poland, occupying western territories of Polish-Lithuanian commonwealth, which led to centuries of Polish resistance against German rule and persecution.

The French Revolution began in 1789. In 1792, Prussia and Austria were the first countries to declare war on France. By 1795, the French had overrun the Austrian Netherlands and the left bank of the Rhine and Prussia had dropped out of the war. Austria continued to fight until 1797 when it was defeated by Napoleon Bonaparte in Italy and signed the Treaty of Campo Formio, whereby it gave up Milan and recognised the loss of the Austrian Netherlands and the left bank of the Rhine, but gained Venice.

In 1799, hostilities with France resumed in the War of the Second Coalition. The conflict terminated with the Peace of Luneville in 1801. In 1803, under the “Reichsdeputationshauptschluss” (a resolution of a committee of the Imperial Diet meeting in Regensburg), Napoleon abolished almost all the ecclesiastical and the smaller secular states and most of the imperial free cities. New medium-sized states were established in southwestern Germany. In turn, Prussia gained territory in northwestern Germany.

In 1805, the War of the Third Coalition began. The main Austrian army under general Karl Mack was trapped at Ulm by Napoleon and forced to capitulate. The French then occupied Vienna, and routed a combined Austrian and Russian army at Austerlitz in December 1805. Afterwards, Austria ceded Venice and the Tirol to France and recognised the independence of Bavaria.

French provinces, kingdoms and dependencies in Germany during the Napoleonic Wars

The Holy Roman Empire was formally dissolved on 6 August 1806 when the last Holy Roman Emperor Francis II (from 1804, Emperor Francis I of Austria) resigned. Francis II’s family continued to be called Austrian emperors until 1918. In 1806, the Confederation of the Rhine was established under Napoleon’s protection, which comprised all the minor states of Germany.

Prussia now felt threatened by the large concentration of French troops in Germany and demanded their withdrawal. When France refused, Prussia declared war. The result was a disaster. The Prussian armies were routed at Auerstedt and Jena. The French occupied Berlin and crossed east into Poland. When the Treaty of Tilsit terminated the war, Prussia had lost 40% of its territory, including its recently acquired section of Poland, and had to reduce its army to 45,000 men. There was no popular uprising against the French invasion, and the Prussian populace in fact showed complete apathy.

From 1808 to 1812 Prussia was reconstructed, and a series of reforms were enacted by Freiherr vom Stein and Freiherr von Hardenberg, including the regulation of municipal government, the liberation of the peasants and the emancipation of the Jews. These reforms were designed to encourage the spirit of nationalism in the people and give them something worth fighting for. A reform of the army was undertaken by the Prussian generals Gerhard von Scharnhorst and August von Gneisenau. The army was brought out of the 18th century. Mercenary troops were discarded, and discipline made more humane. Soldiers were encouraged to fight for their country and not merely because a commanding officer told them to.

In 1813 the Wars of Liberation began, following the destruction of Napoleon’s army in Russia (1812). After the Battle of the Nations at Leipzig, Germany was liberated from French rule. The Confederation of the Rhine was dissolved.

In 1815 Napoleon was finally defeated at Waterloo by the Britain‘s Duke of Wellington and by Prussia’s Gebhard Leberecht von Blücher. Prussia was considerably expanded after the war, gaining a large part of western Germany, including much of the Rhineland. In the east, it absorbed most of Saxony and also got back some of the Polish territory that had been lost in 1806, although the central part of Poland was left under Russian control.

 German Confederation

Restoration and Revolution

Frankfurt 1848

Liberal and nationalist pressure led to the Revolution of 1848 in the German states

After the fall of Napoleon, European monarchs and statesmen convened in Vienna in 1814 for the reorganisation of European affairs, under the leadership of the Austrian Prince Metternich. The political principles agreed upon at this Congress of Vienna included the restoration, legitimacy and solidarity of rulers for the repression of revolutionary and nationalist ideas.

On the territory of the former “Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation”, the German Confederation (Deutscher Bund) was founded, a loose union of 39 states (35 ruling princes and 4 free cities) under Austrian leadership, with a Federal Diet (Bundestag) meeting in Frankfurt am Main. While this was a great improvement over the 300+ political entities that comprised the old Holy Roman Empire, it was still not satisfactory to many nationalists, and within a few decades, the advent of industrialisation made the German Confederation unworkable. Moreover, not everyone was satisfied with Austria’s leading role in the Confederation. Some argued that it made sense as Austria had been the most powerful German state for more than 400 years, but others said that it was too much of a polyglot nation to be acceptable for such a role, and that Prussia was the natural leader of Germany.

In 1817, inspired by liberal and patriotic ideas of a united Germany, student organisations gathered for the “Wartburg festival” at Wartburg Castle, at Eisenach in Thuringia, on the occasion of which reactionary books were burnt.

In 1819 the student Karl Ludwig Sand murdered the writer August von Kotzebue, who had scoffed at liberal student organisations. Prince Metternich used the killing as an occasion to call a conference in Karlsbad, which Prussia, Austria and eight other states attended, and which issued the Karlsbad Decrees: censorship was introduced, and universities were put under supervision. The decrees also gave the start to the so-called “persecution of the demagogues”, which was directed against individuals who were accused of spreading revolutionary and nationalist ideas. Among the persecuted were the poet Ernst Moritz Arndt, the publisher Johann Joseph Görres and the “Father of Gymnastics” Ludwig Jahn.

In 1834 the Zollverein was established, a customs union between Prussia and most other German states, but excluding Austria. As industrialisation developed, the need for a unified German state with a uniform currency, legal system, and government became more and more obvious.

Growing discontent with the political and social order imposed by the Congress of Vienna led to the outbreak, in 1848, of the March Revolution in the German states. In May the German National Assembly (the Frankfurt Parliament) met in St. Paul’s Church in Frankfurt to draw up a national German constitution.

But the 1848 revolution turned out to be unsuccessful: King Frederick William IV of Prussia refused the imperial crown, the Frankfurt parliament was dissolved, the ruling princes repressed the risings by military force and the German Confederation was re-established by 1850.

The 1850s were a period of extreme political reaction. Dissent was vigorously suppressed, and many Germans emigrated to America following the collapse of the 1848 uprisings. Frederick William IV became extremely depressed and melancholy during this period, and was surrounded by men who advocated clericalism and absolute divine monarchy. The Prussian people once again lost interest in politics. In 1857, the king had a stroke and remained incapacitated until his death in 1861. His brother William succeeded him. Although conservative, he was far more pragmatic and rejected the superstitions and mysticism of Frederick.

William I’s most significant accomplishment as king was the nomination of Otto von Bismarck as chancellor in 1862. The combination of Bismarck, Defense Minister Albrecht von Roon, and Field Marshal Helmut von Moltke set the stage for the unification of Germany.

In 1863-64, disputes between Prussia and Denmark grew over Schleswig, which – unlike Holstein – was not part of the German Confederation, and which Danish nationalists wanted to incorporate into the Danish kingdom. The dispute led to the Second War of Schleswig, which lasted from February–October 1864. Prussia, joined by Austria, defeated Denmark easily and occupied Jutland. The Danes were forced to cede both the duchy of Schleswig and the duchy of Holstein to Austria and Prussia. In the aftermath, the management of the two duchies caused growing tensions between Austria and Prussia. The former wanted the duchies to become an independent entity within the German Confederation, while the latter wanted to annex them. The Seven Weeks War broke out in June 1866. There was widespread opposition to the war in Prussia, as few believed that Austria could be defeated. On 3 July, the two armies clashed at Sadowa-Koniggratz in Bohemia in an enormous battle involving half a million men. The Prussian breech-loading needle guns carried the day over the Austrians with their slow muzzle-loading rifles, who lost a quarter of their army in the battle. Austria ceded Venice to Italy, but did not lose any other territory and had to only pay a modest war indemnity. The defeat came as a great shock to the rest of Europe, especially France, who’s leader Napoleon III had hoped the two countries would exhaust themselves in a long war, after which France would step in and help itself to pieces of German territory. Now the French faced an increasingly strong Prussia.

 North German Federation

Main article: North German Federation

In 1866, the German Confederation was dissolved. In its place the North German Federation (German Norddeutscher Bund) was established, under the leadership of Prussia. Austria was excluded from it. The Austrian hegemony in Germany that had begun in the 15th century finally came to an end.

The North German Federation was a transitional organisation that existed from 1867 to 1871, between the dissolution of the German Confederation and the founding of the German Empire. The unification of the German states into a single economic, political and administrative unit excluded the Austrian territories and the Habsburgs.


Political disunity of three dozen states and a pervasive conservatism made it difficult to build railways in the 1830s. However, by the 1840s, trunk lines did link the major cities; each German state was responsible for the lines within its own borders. Economist Friedrich List summed up the advantages to be derived from the development of the railway system in 1841:

1/ as a means of national defence, it facilitates the concentration, distribution and direction of the army.2/ It is a means to the improvement of the culture of the nation…. It brings talent, knowledge and skill of every kind readily to market.3/ It secures the community against dearth and famine, and against excessive fluctuation in the prices of the necessaries of life.

4/ It promotes the spirit of the nation, as it has a tendency to destroy the Philistine spirit arising from isolation and provincial prejudice and vanity. It binds nations by ligaments, and promotes an interchange of food and of commodities, thus making it feel to be a unit. The iron rails become a nerve system, which, on the one hand, strengthens public opinion, and, on the other hand, strengthens the power of the state for police and governmental purposes.[19]

Lacking a technological base at first, the Germans imported their engineering and hardware from Britain, but quickly learned the skills needed to operate and expand the railways. In many cities, the new railway shops were the centres of technological awareness and training, so that by 1850, Germany was self sufficient in meeting the demands of railroad construction, and the railways were a major impetus for the growth of the new steel industry. Observers found that even as late as 1890, their engineering was inferior to Britain’s. However, German unification in 1870 stimulated consolidation, nationalisation into state-owned companies, and further rapid growth. Unlike the situation in France, the goal was support of industrialisation, and so heavy lines crisscrossed the Ruhr and other industrial districts, and provided good connections to the major ports of Hamburg and Bremen. By 1880, Germany had 9,400 locomotives pulling 43,000 passengers and 30,000 tons of freight, and forged ahead of France[20]

German Empire

Main article: German Empire

After Germany was united by Bismarck into the Second German Reich, Bismarck determined German politics until 1890. Bismarck tried to foster alliances in Europe, on one hand to contain France, and on the other hand to consolidate Germany’s influence in Europe. On the domestic front Bismarck tried to stem the rise of socialism by anti-socialist laws, combined with an introduction of health care and social security. At the same time Bismarck tried to reduce the political influence of the emancipated Catholic minority in the Kulturkampf, literally “culture struggle”. The Catholics only grew stronger, forming the Center (Zentrum) Party. Germany grew rapidly in industrial and economic power, matching Britain by 1900. Its highly professional army was the best in the world, but the navy could never catch up with Britain’s Royal Navy.

In 1888, the young and ambitious Kaiser Wilhelm II became emperor. He could not abide advice, least of all from the most experienced politician and diplomat in Europe, so he fired Bismarck. The Kaiser opposed Bismarck’s careful foreign policy and wanted Germany to pursue colonialist policies, as Britain and France had been doing for decades, as well as build a navy that could match the British. The Kaiser promoted active colonization of Africa and Asia for those areas that were not already colonies of other European powers; his record was notoriously brutal and set the stage for genocide. The Kaiser took a mostly unilateral approach in Europe with as main ally the Austro-Hungarian Empire, and an arms race with Britain, which eventually led to the situation in which the assassination of the Austrian-Hungarian crown price could spark off World War I.

Age of Bismarck

On 18 January 1871, the German Empire is proclaimed in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles. Bismarck appears in white.

The German Empire of 1871. By excluding Austria, Bismarck chose a “little German” solution.

Disputes between France and Prussia increased. In 1868, the Spanish queen Isabella II was expelled by a revolution, leaving that country’s throne vacant. When Prussia tried to put a Hohenzollern candidate, Prince Leopold, on the Spanish throne, the French angrily protested. In July 1870, France declared war on Prussia (the Franco-Prussian War). The debacle was swift. A succession of German victories in northeastern France followed, and one French army was besieged at Metz. After a few weeks, the main army was finally forced to capitulate in the fortress of Sedan. French Emperor Napoleon III was taken prisoner and a republic hastily proclaimed in Paris. The new government, realising that a victorious Germany would demand territorial acquisitions, resolved to fight on. They began to muster new armies, and the Germans settled down to a grim siege of Paris. The starving city surrendered in January 1871, and the Prussian army staged a victory parade in it. France was forced to pay indemnities of 5 billion francs and cede Alsace-Lorraine. It was a bitter peace that would leave the French thirsting for revenge.

During the Siege of Paris, the German princes assembled in the Hall of Mirrors of the Palace of Versailles and proclaimed the Prussian King Wilhelm I as the “German Emperor” on 18 January 1871. The German Empire was thus founded, with 25 states, three of which were Hanseatic free cities, and Bismarck, again, served as Chancellor. It was dubbed the “Little German” solution, since Austria was not included. The new empire was characterised by a great enthusiasm and vigor. There was a rash of heroic artwork in imitation of Greek and Roman styles, and the nation possessed a vigorous, growing industrial economy, while it had always been rather poor in the past. The change from the slower, more tranquil order of the old Germany was very sudden, and many, especially the nobility, resented being displaced by the new rich. And yet, the nobles clung stubbornly to power, and they, not the bourgeois, continued to be the model that everyone wanted to imitate. In imperial Germany, possessing a collection of medals or wearing a uniform was valued more than the size of one’s bank account, and Berlin never became a great cultural center as London, Paris, or Vienna were. The empire was distinctly authoritarian in tone, as the 1871 constitution gave the emperor exclusive power to appoint or dismiss the chancellor. He also was supreme commander-in-chief of the armed forces and final arbiter of foreign policy. But freedom of speech, association, and religion were nonetheless guaranteed by the constitution.

Otto von Bismarck

Bismarck’s domestic policies as Chancellor of Germany were characterised by his fight against perceived enemies of the Protestant Prussian state. In the so-called Kulturkampf (1872–1878), he tried to limit the influence of the Roman Catholic Church and of its political arm, the Catholic Centre Party, through various measures—like the introduction of civil marriage—but without much success. The Kulturkampf antagonised many Protestants as well as Catholics, and was eventually abandoned. Millions of non-Germans subjects in the German Empire, like the Polish, Danish and French minorities, were discriminated against [1][2] and a policy of Germanisation was implemented.

The other perceived threat was the rise of the Socialist Workers’ Party (later known as the Social Democratic Party of Germany), whose declared aim was the establishment of a new socialist order through the transformation of existing political and social conditions. From 1878, Bismarck tried to repress the social democratic movement by outlawing the party’s organisation, its assemblies and most of its newspapers. Through the introduction of a social insurance system, on the other hand, he hoped to win the support of the working classes for the Empire.

Bismarck’s post-1871 foreign policy was conservative and basically aimed at security and preventing the dreaded scenario of a Franco-Russian alliance, which would trap Germany between the two in a war.

The Three Emperor’s League (Dreikaisersbund) was signed in 1872 by Russia, Austria and Germany. It stated that republicanism and socialism were common enemies and that the three powers would discuss any matters concerning foreign policy. Bismarck needed good relations with Russia in order to keep France isolated. In 1877-1878, Russia fought a victorious war with the Ottoman Empire and attempted to impose the Treaty of San Stefano on it. This upset the British in particular, as they were long concerned with preserving the Ottoman Empire and preventing a Russian takeover of the Bosporous Straits. Germany hosted the Congress of Berlin, whereby a more moderate peace settlement was agreed to. Afterwards, Russia turned its attention eastward to Asia and remained largely inactive in European politics for the next 25 years. Germany had no direct interest in the Balkans however, which was largely an Austrian and Russian sphere of influence, although King Carol of Romania was a German prince.

In 1879, Bismarck formed a Dual Alliance of Germany and Austria-Hungary, with the aim of mutual military assistance in the case of an attack from Russia, which was not satisfied with the agreement reached at the Congress of Berlin.

The establishment of the Dual Alliance led Russia to take a more conciliatory stance, and in 1887, the so-called Reinsurance Treaty was signed between Germany and Russia: in it, the two powers agreed on mutual military support in the case that France attacked Germany, or in case of an Austrian attack on Russia.

In 1882, Italy joined the Dual Alliance to form a Triple Alliance. Italy wanted to defend its interests in North Africa against France’s colonial policy. In return for German and Austrian support, Italy committed itself to assisting Germany in the case of a French military attack.

For a long time, Bismarck had refused to give in to Crown Prince Wilhelm II’s aspirations of making Germany a world power through the acquisition of German colonies (“a place in the sun”, originally a statement of Bernhard von Bülow). Bismarck wanted to avoid tensions between the European great powers that would threaten the security of Germany at all cost. But when, between 1880 and 1885, the foreign situation proved auspicious, Bismarck gave way, and a number of colonies were established overseas: in Africa, these were Togo, the Cameroons, German South-West Africa and German East Africa; in Oceania, they were German New Guinea, the Bismarck Archipelago and the Marshall Islands. In fact, it was Bismarck himself who helped initiate the Berlin Conference of 1885. He did it “establish international guidelines for the acquisition of African territory,” (see Colonisation of Africa). This conference was an impetus for the “Scramble for Africa” and “New Imperialism“.

In 1888, the old emperor William I died at the age of 90. His son Frederick III, the hope of German liberals, succeeded him, but was already stricken with throat cancer and died three months later. Frederick’s son William II then became emperor at the age of 29. He was the antithesis of old, conservative Germans like Bismarck, addicted to the new imperialism that was taking place in Asia and Africa. He sought to make Germany a great world power with a navy to rival Britain’s. Bismarck hoped to marginalise him just as he had marginalised his grandfather, but William II was on to Bismarck’s tricks, and desired to be his own master. Having a left arm withered by childhood polio, he was painfully insecure and desired above all to be loved by the people. Bismarck’s schemes to dominate the emperor and hold onto his own power failed, and he was forced to resign in March 1890. He died in 1898, spending his last years writing his memoirs and attacking William II (despite the latter’s attempts at reconciliation).

 Wilhelminian Era

Alliances and colonies

A postage stamp from the Carolines, dating back to the time when the islands were ruled by the German Empire. The new Weltpolitik of Kaiser Wilhelm II led to frictions with other imperialist powers.

When Bismarck resigned, Wilhelm II had declared that he would continue the foreign policy of the old chancellor. But soon, a new course was taken, with the aim of increasing Germany’s influence in the world (Weltpolitik). The Reinsurance Treaty with Russia was not renewed. Instead, France formed an alliance with Russia, against the Triple Alliance of Germany, Austria-Hungary and Italy. The Triple Alliance itself was undermined by differences between Austria and Italy.

From 1898, German colonial expansion in East Asia (Jiaozhou Bay, the Marianas, the Caroline Islands, Samoa) led to frictions with the United Kingdom, Russia, Japan and the United States. The construction of the Baghdad Railway, financed by German banks and heavy industry, and aimed at connecting the North Sea with the Persian Gulf via the Bosporus, also collided with British and Russian geopolitical and economic interests.

To protect Germany’s overseas trade and colonies, Admiral von Tirpitz started a programme of warship construction in 1898. In 1890, Germany had purchased the island of Heligoland in the North Sea from Britain in exchange for the African island of Zanzibar and proceeded to construct a great naval base there. This posed a direct threat to British hegemony on the seas, with the result that negotiations for an alliance between Germany and Britain broke down. Germany was increasingly isolated. Otto von Bismarck’s son Herbert, a member of the Reichstag since 1893, was one of the loudest anti-British voices in Germany until his death in 1904.

In 1905, Germany nearly came to blows with Britain and France when the latter attempted to establish a protectorate over Morocco. The Germans were upset at having not been informed about French intentions, and declared their support for Moroccan independence. William II made a highly provocative speech regarding this. The following year, a conference was held in which all of the European powers except Austria-Hungary (by now little more than a German satellite) sided with France. A compromise was agreed to where the French relinquished some, but not all, control over Morocco.

1911 saw another dispute over Morocco erupt when France tried to suppress a revolt there. Germany, still smarting from the previous quarrel, agreed to a settlement whereby the French ceded some territory in central Africa in exchange for Germany renouncing any right to intervene in Moroccan affairs. This confirmed French control over Morocco, which became a full protectorate of that country in 1912.

World War I and revolution

Imperialist power politics and the determined pursuit of national interests ultimately led to the outbreak in 1914 of the First World War, sparked by the assassination, on 28 June 1914, of the Austrian heir-apparent Franz Ferdinand and his wife at Sarajevo, in the capital of Bosnia and Herzegovina by a Serbian nationalist. The theorised underlying causes have included the opposing policies of the European states, the armaments race, German-British rivalry, the difficulties of the Austro-Hungarian multinational state, Russia’s Balkan policy and overhasty mobilisations and ultimatums (the underlying belief being that the war would be short). Germany fought on the side of Austria-Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire against Russia, France, Great Britain, Italy, Japan and several other smaller states. Fighting also spread to the Near East and the German colonies.

In the west, Germany fought a war of attrition with bloody battles. After a quick march through Belgium, German troops were halted on the Marne, north of Paris. The frontlines in France changed little until the end of the war. In the east there were decisive victories against the Russian army, the trapping and defeat of large parts of the Russian contingent at the Battle of Tannenberg, followed by huge Austrian and German successes led to a breakdown of Russian forces and an imposed peace on the newly created USSR under Lenin. Churchill ordered a naval blockade in the North Sea which lasted until 1919, crippling Germany’s supplies of raw materials and foodstuffs. The entry of the United States into the war in 1917 following Germany’s declaration of unrestricted submarine warfare marked a decisive turning-point against Germany.

The end of October 1918, in Kiel, in northern Germany, saw the beginning of the German Revolution of 1918–19. Units of the German Navy refused to set sail for a last, large-scale operation in a war which they saw as good as lost, initiating the uprising. On 3 November, the revolt spread to other cities and states of the country, in many of which so-called workers’ and soldiers’ councils were established.

Kaiser Wilhelm II and all German ruling princes abdicated. On 9 November 1918, the Social Democrat Philipp Scheidemann proclaimed a Republic. On 11 November, the Compiègne armistice ending the war was signed. In accordance with the Social Democratic government by early 1919 the revolution was violently put down with the aid of the nascent Reichswehr and the Freikorps.

 Weimar Republic

Main article: Weimar Republic

States of Germany at the time of the Weimar Republic, with Prussia in blue

On 28 June 1919 the Treaty of Versailles was signed. Germany was to cede Alsace-Lorraine, Eupen-Malmédy, North Schleswig, and the Memel area. All German colonies were to be handed over to the British and French. Poland was restored and most of the provinces of Posen and West Prussia, and some areas of Upper Silesia were reincorporated into the reformed country after plebiscites and independence uprisings. The left and right banks of the Rhine were to be permanently demilitarised. The industrially important Saarland was to be governed by the League of Nations for 15 years and its coalfields administered by France. At the end of that time a plebiscite was to determine the Saar’s future status. To ensure execution of the treaty’s terms, Allied troops would occupy the left (German) bank of the Rhine for a period of 5–15 years. The German army was to be limited to 100,000 officers and men; the general staff was to be dissolved; vast quantities of war material were to be handed over and the manufacture of munitions rigidly curtailed. The navy was to be similarly reduced, and no military aircraft were allowed. Germany and its allies were to accept the sole responsibility of the war, in accordance with the War Guilt Clause, and were to pay financial reparations for all loss and damage suffered by the Allies.

The humiliating peace terms provoked bitter indignation throughout Germany, and seriously weakened the new democratic regime.

On 11 August 1919 the Weimar constitution came into effect, with Friedrich Ebert as first President.

The two biggest enemies of the new democratic order, however, had already been constituted. In December 1918, the Communist Party of Germany (KPD) was founded, followed in January 1919 by the establishment of the German Workers’ Party, later known as the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (NSDAP). Both parties would make reckless use of the freedoms guaranteed by the new constitution in their fight against the Weimar Republic.

In the first months of 1920, the Reichswehr was to be reduced to 100,000 men, in accordance with the Treaty of Versailles. This included the dissolution of many Freikorps – units made up of volunteers. Some of them made difficulties.[clarification needed] The discontent was exploited by the extreme right-wing politician Wolfgang Kapp. He let the rebelling Freikorps march on Berlin and proclaimed himself Reich Chancellor (Kapp Putsch). After only four days the coup d’état collapsed, due to lack of support by the civil servants and the officers. Other cities were shaken by strikes and rebellions, which were bloodily suppressed.

Faced with animosity from Britain and France and the retreat of American power from Europe, in 1922 Germany was the first state to establish diplomatic relations with the new Soviet Union. Under the Treaty of Rapallo, Germany accorded the Soviet Union de jure recognition, and the two signatories mutually cancelled all pre-war debts and renounced war claims.

When Germany defaulted on its reparation payments, French and Belgian troops occupied the heavily industrialised Ruhr district (January 1923). The German government encouraged the population of the Ruhr to passive resistance: shops would not sell goods to the foreign soldiers, coal-mines would not dig for the foreign troops, trams in which members of the occupation army had taken seat would be left abandoned in the middle of the street. The passive resistance proved effective, insofar as the occupation became a loss-making deal for the French government. But the Ruhr fight also led to hyperinflation, and many who lost all their fortune would become bitter enemies of the Weimar Republic, and voters of the anti-democratic right. See 1920s German inflation.

In September 1923, the deteriorating economic conditions led Chancellor Gustav Stresemann to call an end to the passive resistance in the Ruhr. In November, his government introduced a new currency, the Rentenmark (later: Reichsmark), together with other measures to stop the hyperinflation. In the following six years the economic situation improved. In 1928, Germany’s industrial production even regained the pre-war levels of 1913.

On the evening of 8 November 1923, six hundred armed SA men surrounded a beer hall in Munich, where the heads of the Bavarian state and the local Reichswehr had gathered for a rally. The storm troopers were led by Adolf Hitler. Born in 1889 in Austria, a former volunteer in the German army during WWI, now a member of a new party called NSDAP, he was largely unknown until then. Hitler tried to force those present to join him and to march on to Berlin to seize power (Beer Hall Putsch). Hitler was later arrested and condemned to five years in prison, but was released at the end of 1924 after less than one year of detention.

The national elections of 1924 led to a swing to the right (Ruck nach rechts). Field Marshal Hindenburg, a supporter of the monarchy, was elected President in 1925.

In October 1925 the Treaty of Locarno was signed between Germany, France, Belgium, the United Kingdom and Italy, which recognised Germany’s borders with France and Belgium. Moreover, Britain, Italy and Belgium undertook to assist France in the case that German troops marched into the demilitarised Rheinland. The Treaty of Locarno paved the way for Germany’s admission to the League of Nations in 1926.

The stock market crash of 1929 on Wall Street marked the beginning of the Great Depression. The effects of the ensuing world economic crisis were also felt in Germany, where the economic situation rapidly deteriorated. In July 1931, the Darmstätter und Nationalbank – one of the biggest German banks – failed, and, in early 1932, the number of unemployed rose to more than 6,000,000.

In addition to the flagging economy came political problems, due to the inability by the political parties represented in the Reichstag to build a governing majority. In March 1930, President Hindenburg appointed Heinrich Brüning Chancellor. To push through his package of austerity measures against a majority of Social Democrats, Communists and the NSDAP, Brüning made use of emergency decrees, and even dissolved Parliament. In March and April 1932, Hindenburg was re-elected in the German presidential election of 1932.

Of the many splinter parties the NSDAP was the largest in the national elections of 1932. The Prussian government had been ousted by a coup (Preussenschlag) in 1932. On 31 July 1932 the NSDAP had received 37.3% of the votes, and in the election on 6 November 1932 it received less, but still the largest share, 33.1, making it the biggest party in the Reichstag. The Communist KPD came third, with 15%. Together, the anti-democratic parties of right and left were now able to hold the majority of seats in Parliament. The NSDAP was particularly successful among young voters, who were unable to find a place in vocational training, with little hope for a future job; among the petite bourgeoisie (lower middle class) which had lost its assets in the hyperinflation of 1923; among the rural population; and among the army of unemployed.

On 30 January 1933, pressured by former Chancellor Franz von Papen and other conservatives, President Hindenburg finally appointed Hitler Chancellor.

Weimar Republic Results of Elections 1919-1933, Electiontions 1932, 1933

Graff Zepellin Postal History

Id/Pic Title/Description Price
Extremely rare flown, dropped, and returned Zeppelin ‘finder’ card. The Graf and hsis crew are pictured and identified on the front, and the reverse of the Deutsche Luftschiffsfahrts-A-G card has form for the finder of the dropped card to fill out. This one was found by Carl Riel of Renchen in the state of Baden. With Oos circular date cancel.
(ca EUR1047)
Private Real Photo RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin flying over the center of old-town Wien / Vienna, framed by the spire of the Stefansdom / St Stephen’s Cathedral and the crowd below. With on-board / Bordpost cancel.
(ca EUR104.03)
Real Photo RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin and its Friedrichshafen hangar inset into a world map, with a Zeppelin stamp image off to the left. With on-board / Bordpost cancel.
(ca EUR89.06)
Real Photo RPPC of the Graf Zeppelin landed in a field next to some palm trees. Brazil franking with cachet and multiple way/arrival cancels.
(ca EUR96.54)
Real Photo RPPC taken from the Zeppelin itself, then flown back on the Zeppelin to Germany. Bent corner. Brazil franking with cachet and multiple way/arrival cancels.
(ca EUR96.54)
Real Photo RPPC of the Zeppelin over its hangar, flown on the 1930 Hollandfahrt.
(ca EUR81.57)
Flown card franked with 3L Zeppelin stamp and cachet of the 1933 Italienfahrt
(ca EUR126.48)
Graf Zeppelin II (LZ130) flown Leipzigfahrt 1939, one of the last Zeppelin flights before the LZ130 was trashed at the start of WWII. Franked with a pair of Graf Zeppelin 25pf stamps.
(ca EUR89.06)
PPC of Dessau flown from Berlin to Dessau, with colorful Hindenburg and Ebert franking.
(ca EUR66.61)
Group of four German Empire WWI-era postcards from a patriotic / soldier series, all used as feldpost from Kaiserlich Deutsche Feldpost Nr 101, Feld-Luftschiffer-Abteilung Nr.10, 5th Landwehr Division. Nice grouping in good condition
(ca EUR74.09)
Scarce Schweizer Kurzfahrt Bordpost / On Board Mail in 1934; one day short flight Friedrichshafen to Switzerland (you could almost throw a rock that far). On nice Delag card of Buehl.
(ca EUR193.83)
Graf Zeppelin flown mail Leipzig-Basel, CV EUR225. Slightly rough around the edges as per scan. Large counterstamp reverse from Luwdwig Bernstein Cigarren-Tabak (Cigars and Tobacco)
(ca EUR148.93)
Group of five German Empire WWI-era postcards from a patriotic / soldier series, all used as feldpost from Kaiserlich Deutsche Feldpost Nr 101, Feld-Luftschiffer-Abteilung Nr.10, 5th Landwehr Division. Nice grouping in good condition
(ca EUR163.9)
Card flown on the Graf Zeppelin’s Kurzfahrt in die Schweiz / short flight to Switzerland on Aug 4, 1932. On a very scarce (as flown) RPPC of the Zeppelin’s pilot room. Only 186 cards/covers on board — this might be the only such. Yeah baby!
(ca EUR336.03)
Graf Zeppelin Bordpost / On Board Mail card — great picture of the Graf’s underside — for the interrupted America flight of 1929. Single franking of Michel 423Y (CVEUR120).
(ca EUR111.51)
DELAG postcard of the airship over Bergedorf; sent Bordpost / on board mail from the short flight from Freidrichshafen-Frankfurt.
(ca EUR96.54)
Graf Zeppelin card for the interrupted America flight of 1929. Single franking of Michel 383.
(ca EUR111.51)
Flown card from the airship sent Bordpost / On Board mail on the return flight to Lorch. Franked with the 1937 Hitler souvenir sheet (Mi Block 7) and Hindenburg stamps. Has the old style Bordpost cancel — both the return flight and the old-style cancel carry a premium, but are uncatalogued in combination.

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(ca EUR96.54)
Flown cover with all markings, including Berlin-Friedrichshafen. The first flight is EUR500 in Sieger, much more than the later flights.
(ca EUR298.61)
Registered cover from Morocco Agencies (British) to Rio de Janeiro, sent to Freidrichshafen and then on the Graf Zeppelin to Rio. With multiple way cancels including Registered British PO Tangiers. Sieger CV650
(ca EUR448.29)
Hungarian franking on Graf Zeppelin mail from Budapest to Freidrichshafen and further forwarding to Bloetberget, Sweden. On preprinted Zeppelin cachet card.
(ca EUR118.99)
Real Photo RPPC showing the Graf Zeppelin in flight, used on the Balkanfahrt / Balkans Flight, with Bukarest / Bucharest and Prague arrival cancels.
(ca EUR186.35)
Real Photo RPPC showing the Graf Zeppelin in flight, used on the Hollandfahrt / Holland Flight, with Amsterdamarrival cachet / cancel.
(ca EUR171.38)
German card sent on the Graf Zeppelin from Friedrichshafen to Copenhagen, Denmark, collected at the collectors station in Denmark and handstamped ‘Ekstra Bladet’ and ‘Mit Luftschiff ” Graf Zeppelin” zu befoerdern’. On RPPC of mansion in Copenhagen and sent onto Cleveland, Ohio.
(ca EUR133.96)
Graf Zeppelin Bordpost / On Board Mail on the return flight from Meiningen to Friedrichshafen with further forwarding on to Lucerne, Switzerland. The passenger, apparently an ardent Nazi, has added a swastika to the hull and added the message ‘Heartfelt Greetings and a Hitler Salute from the Zeppelin’.
(ca EUR111.51)
Feldpost card sent from the Schuette-Lanz 7 (SL7) crewmember stationed with the airship in Koenigsberg, Preussen / Prussia. Hand-written note mentioning the SL7, and with sender as J.H. (Auemin?), as crew of the airship. Schuette-Lanz airship feldposts are much rarer than their more recognizable Zeppelin counterparts.
(ca EUR298.61)
Real Photo RPPC of the Graf ready to depart, used as a Bordpost / on board mail on the 3rd Swiss flight of the Graf Zeppelin in 1929.
(ca EUR223.77)
Scarce pioneer Zeppelin airship Schwaben post with 3 copies of the 30pf green dove (MiIII) card with Flugpost am Rhein und Main Darmstadt cancels. Michel CV EUR400, Sieger CV EUR335.
(ca EUR216.28)
Graf Zeppelin Pendelfahrt / shuttle flight between Recife and Bathurst in British Gambia. From crew member, with Via Zeppelin etiquette overprinted An Bord Luftschiff Graf Zeppelin. Rare usage on RPPC showing the tethered airship discharging water.
(ca EUR298.61)
Hindenburg Zeppelin Rundfahrt nach Nuernberg / Round-trip to Nuremberg for the 1935 Reichsparteitag / Party Day Rally, on RPPC of the airship over Freirchshafen. Franked with two Paul von Hindenburg stamps (nicely centered Hindenburg cancel on them) and a block of four 1936 Party Day stamps.
(ca EUR186.35)
Graf Zeppelin II (LZ130) flown Leipzigfahrt 1939, one of the last Zeppelin flights before the LZ130 was trashed at the start of WWII. Franked with a pair of Graf Zeppelin 25pf stamps.
(ca EUR96.54)
Rare Hindenburg Zeppelin flown from El Salvador. The date was mistakenly stamped as 1935 and then corrected by hand, a Sieger listed error variety. Besides a creased lower right corner the card is in excellent condition. Sieger CV EUR937.
(ca EUR590.48)
Graf Zeppelin Suedwestdeutschlandfahrt / Southwest Germany flight, dropped over Mannheim in 1929 on RPPC card with photo of the airship over its hangar.
(ca EUR186.35)
Graf Zeppelin Ruckfahrt Leipzig/ Leipzig return flight, and sent to Bern in 1930 on RPPC card with photo of the airship.
(ca EUR171.38)
Graf Zeppelin Deutschlandfahrt / Germany flight, dropped over Dueseldorf in 1929 on RPPC card with photo of the airship.
(ca EUR163.9)
Graf Zeppelin flown cover with Liechtenstein 2Franc Zeppelin stamp. Sieger cv EUR425.
(ca EUR261.19)