Author Archives: driwancybermuseum

The Rare Old Indonesia Bandung Historical Picture Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Rare Old Bandung Historical Pictures collections

history dates from 1488 when the first reference to this city exists. But from ancient archeological finds, we know the city was home to Australopithecus, Java Man.

 
Isola Build, NowUPI (university)

Villa Isola/Bumi Siliwangi Gedung: great example of Bandung Art Deco built by an Italian millionare, named D.W. Berrety in 1825. Great views of Bandung are visible from here. Now it is used as UPI Bandung (Bandung Institute of Teacher Training and Education). It is located at Jalan Setiabudi 299, and can be reached by taking public transport from Cicaheum, railway station, or Kebon Kalapa to Ledeng

OLD BRAGA 

Braga street and the older section and particlar were planned by the Dutch when they set up Bandung to be their new capital. The Braga street area was regulated by these authorities to insure its European nature in the building styles. The municipal, regional, and national governments are now intervening in Bandung( I remember the first visit at braga Bandung in 1959 the situation near like this  beside the car-Dr Iwan) 

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Gedung Sate (Sate Building) Build in 1920
* Gedung Sate, the building is called because of its unique distinguished small satay shaped structure on the roof, and used as the head office of West Java provincial government and West Java’s house of representative. Established in 1920 as Gouverments Bedrijven (GB). Location: Diponegoro Street.

 


 

 

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The Best Art Deco

 

Founded by the Dutch in 1810, Bandung became important with the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th cent. It is the center of cultural life for the Sundanese and surrounded by beautiful scenery. It is a center for the study and preservation of Sundanese culture and an educational center. Bandung has served for popular weekend-break destination for people living in Jakarta for many reasons. The cooler climate of highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the friendliness of local people have become the main attraction of the city.* Sovoy Homann Bidakara Hotel, has been maintained as the city’s landmark hotel. The oldest part of the hotel dates back 1880. In 1938 the Savoy Homann Bidakara Hotel got its new design, the classic Art Deco design. Some of the rooms have been left in original state, and offer the unique experience of staying in exactly the same room that Charlie Chaplin stayed in 1925. In 1955, the Asian African Conference was held in the nearby Merdeka Building. There, leaders of Third World countries on initiative of Indonesia’s first president Sukarno, established the alliance of non-aligned countries. Many of the Third World leaders stayed at the Savoy Homann, so next to Nasser and Ho Chi Minh, it can be your turn to enjoy the unique ambiance of this place. The colonial history makes a stay in the Savoy Homann a unique experience. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 112.at 1880

at 1938

at the moment

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

Gedung Merdeka
Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building) which hosted the first Asian African Conference also known as the Bandung Conference in 1955. Built in 1895 for a club house for rich people, named the Concordia Society. In 1921, Societeit Concordia Building was rebuilt in a more functional and structural modern architecture (Art Deco) by designer C. P Wolff Schoemaker. It was renovated again in 1940 with new international style architecture with the help of Architect A. F Aalbers. Now it is a museum for that conference. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 65.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building)
* Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building), established in 1864 as Gubernur Jenderal Ch.F. Pahud instruction and finished in 1867. The architectural style is Indische Empire Stijl (Gaya Empire Hindia). Now is used as West Java Governour residential. Location: Otto Iskandardinata Street No.1

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Vila Isola
This superb example of Art Deco style building is located on the northern part of Bandung. The architect, A.F. Aalbers who also designed the new Savoy Homan, has dedicated his time and creativity in exploring the design, which finally resulted in this distinguished piece of art. Surrounded by a vast area of rectangular form of paddy fields seen from above, the complex had an orderly arrangement of site plan that recalled the regularity of the paddy fields.It was built in 1932 for the Italian millionaire D.W. Berretyan art-critics phillantropist who died shortly after the building finished. Later this building was changed into a villa-hotel, and later as a Teacher Training College.
Villa Isola is located on Northern Bandung. With its splendid site and beautiful view surrounding, this hotel has won a special place among the many hotels existed in Netherlands Indie.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s. This shot shows the old wing.

 

   

 

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Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s.1880

Old wing (after 1920)

 

   

 

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The Aerial Photographs of Bandung
I have some great aerial photographs of the old Bandung (1920’s and 1930’s). By viewing these photo, you can imagine how beautiful Bandung as Parijs van Java in the past.

Atjehstraat – Merdikaweg – Bilitonstraat – Sumatrastraat – Borneostraat – BangkastraatThis view from 1920’s gives a good view of the north east district of the center. The KNIL (Dutch Army) War Department building, right from the middle, is the one that catches attention, in the Kalimantan Street. On the left the Palace of the Army commandant (in the Aceh street) and the Molukkenpark (Taman Maluku), and the HBS (now it is SMU 3 Building) on the right of Bilitonstraat (Belitung Street). In the front of the War Department is the Insulindepark (now Taman Lalulintas), surrounded by all kinds of building and houses of KNIL officers. Behind the War Department are buildings of the the Jaarbeurs, first built in 1920. Down left in the picture is the intersection between Aceh Street and Merdeka Street (BIP). At the background, in the left corner is the Department of Government buildings, betterknown as Gedung Sate.

Old Grand Hotel Homann

This is the view of the old Grand Hotel Homann and surroundings. Hotel Homann was founded around 1870 on the Groote Postweg (now Asia Africa Street) as a simple hotel, but grew to be the most popular hotel of Bandung. Many famous people stayed there, but besides that it was very well known for its rice-table. In 1938 / 1939 the old hotel was replaced by a modern Indonesian new-business-style (art deco style) building by a design of architect Aalbers, with the new name Hotel Savoy Homann. Down right on the picture, dated beginning 1930’s, the Bragaweg ends in the Groote Postweg. The building on the corner, one should see a part of the roof, was part of the famous Concordia Club.

Rembrandtstraat – Tjilakistraat – Tjisankoejstraat – Tjimanoekstraat – Wenckebachstraat – Dagoweg – Progoweg

Five Fokker airplanes of the KNIL airforce are flying above the Department of Government Buildings (Gedung Sate), in 1925. North of this area are no buildings on the picture, only the Geological Laboratory, beside which the Geological Museum later was to be built, is already completed. This city-district mainly was reserved as an building-area for other departments from Batavia, but those transfer-plans were cancelled. South of the Gedung Sateh roads are built and the first country-houses are to be seen. The three-cornered shaped group of houses is the Gempol kampong-district.

Villa Isola – Lembangweg

Villa Isola at Setiabudhi Street, direction Lembang, in 1938. It was built in 1933 ordered by the millionaire Berretty, one of the most famous persons in the Indies newspaper-world en founder of the press agency Aneta. Berretty had this impressive country-house predominantly built in new-business style by the famous architect Wolff Schoemaker, already responsible for the Grand Hotel Preanger, the Jaarbeurs building and the Concordia club. Berretty was only able to enjoy this beautiful posession for one year. December 22, 1934 he crashed with the “Uiver”, a plane of the KLM, the Royal Dutch Airlines. After that Villa Isola was in service as a annex of the Grand Hotel Homann, untill the Second Worldwar. Now, this building is the main office for UPI (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

The Old Soekamiskin Prison

View from 1930 of the Sukamiskin Prison, at Ujungberung street, East of Bandung, on road to Garut. Around the huge, symmetric shaped complex the houses for the personal are built. The small airport Sukamiskin is seen in the background, one can see the landingstrip markings. Sukamiskin was used from the late 1920’s as a prison for Indonesian nationalists and was known to the people as a symbol of colonial suppression. President Sukarno was here in prison, after his conviction in the sensational trial against him and some other Indonesian leaders in december 1930. The irony was that Sukarno some years earlier, during a short period as an architect, probably worked on the building drawings himself. During the Japanese occupation Sukamiskin was a prison for Dutch civil servants, until February 1944.

Bragaweg – Merdikaweg – Soeniaradjaweg – Tamblongweg – Javastraat – Logeweg – Grootepostweg

Another view on the center of Bandung, around 1930, direction north west this time. The upper part of the picture shows the railroad clearly, crossed by the northern part of the Bragaweg. North of this crossing one should see the white buildings of the residence office, the Bank of Java (now Bank Indonesia building), and the Church of Bethel, and the Parc of Pieter Sythof (Taman Balaikota / Taman Merdeka) on the right. Between this Park oand the Cathedral Church is the Schoolroad (now it is the part of Merdeka Street). The name for the School is the Ursulinen Sisters (now St Angela High School), see the high, white building upper right, and the Dutch-Native Training-college for teachers next to it. Along the northern part of the Bragaweg, on the left, old low buildings mostly are being replaced by modern European shops, with multiple floors. Notice the building with the flat roof of the Dutch Indies Gas Company. In the middle of the picture are along the diagonal Oude Hospitaalroad (Lembong Street) the telephone office and the radio-telephone office, in an L-shape.

  

 
 

The History of Bandung

 

 

 
 

Bandung is a city in the western part of Java island in Indonesia. Beside its own city administration, Bandung also serves as the capital of the West Java province and the seat of the chief (bupati) of Bandung regency.

Contents

 Early settlement

Although the oldest written historical reference to the city dates back to 1488, where it was the capital of the Kingdom of Pajajaran, there have been some archaeological findings of Austropithecus or Java Man, in the banks of Cikapunding river and around the old lake of Bandung.[1][2]

 Dutch East Indies Company

Braga Street in the mid-1930s.

The Dutch-built Gedung Sate

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies company (VOC) established a small plantation area in the fertile and properous Bandung area. A supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was built in 1786.

In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defense system of Java island against British. Daendels built a 1000 km road joining the west and east coasts of Java. Since the northern part of West Java at that time was only swamp and marsh, the road was diverted through Bandung.[3][4] The Great Postweg (now Jalan Asia-Afrika) was laid down in 1810.

Local folklore has it that when Daendels was walking along the edge of Cikapundung river, he was amazed by a site he found. He then put a stick at the edge of the Cikapundung and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (‘Attention! If I come again here, a city must be built!’).[5] Today, this site is the geographical center of Bandung. R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the regent of Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), which is today the ‘alun-alun (city square). He built his istana (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (“pavilion”) in the classical orientation.[6] The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahu mountain, who was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was laid down.[7] It boosted light industry in Bandung. Chinese migrants flocked in to help run the facilities, services and vendor machines. A small Chinatown district can still be recognised in the vicinity of the railroad station. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then later as staadsgemeente (city municipality) in 1926.

Bandung’s location, in a low area between two mountainous areas, is strategically advantageous for military defense. In the 1930s, the Dutch East Indies government had planned to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung, and built military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, nicknamed Gedung Sate) and other buildings. This plan did not come to fruition following the failure of the Dutch to reclaim Indonesia after World War II.

The growth of plantation areas

The fertile area of the Parahyangan mountains surrounding Bandung allowed productive tea plantations. In the 19th century, cinchona (kina) plants were introduced by Franz Junghuhn.[8] Cinchona is a plant that can be used for the treatment of malaria and the old pharmacy factory of cinchona still exists in the city.

Bandung had developed itself into an exclusive European resort with hotels, cafes and shops.[1] Rich plantation owners came during the weekends and so did girls and businessmen from the capital, Batavia. The promenade Braga Street grew into an elite area of cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, became two major accommodations there. The Concordia Society (now known as Merdeka Building) was built as a club house of these rich people, complete with a large ballroom and a theater.[7] The title of “Parijs van Java” was given to this city.

Struggle for Independence

Gedung Merdeka during the Asian-African Conference in 1955

Bandung was decided as the provincial capital of West Java, after the independence.

Since October 1945, there had been several extreme Islam groups in West Java with the main goal of establishing an Islamic state in Indonesia (Darul Islam). One of this movements was “Laskar Hitam” a militia group that kidnapped and killed Otto Iskandardinata, RI’s Minister of State (1945). Other victims of similar groups: Poerdiredja, the regent of Priangan, Oekar Bratakoesoemah, the mayor of Bandung and Niti Soemantri, the leader of Indonesian national committee (KNI) in Priangan.

During the Dutch Politionele acties (“police action”), there was an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave. As for the answer, on March 24 1946, the southern part of Bandung was deliberately burned down as they were leaving. This event is known as Bandung Lautan Api or “Bandung as the sea of flame”.[9] A heroic song “Halo-halo Bandung” was sang along by these hundreds of patriots.

During the evacuation process on March 1946, Mohammad Toha, a member of Indonesian militia smuggled several sticks of dynamite to a large scale ammunition dump guarded by Japanese and Dutch troops, near the Dutch military HQ in Dayeuh Kolot.

After overpowering the guards, he put the dynamite in several warehouses full of ammunition. He then committed suicide by igniting the dynamite. The massive explosion killed him and several Dutch, Japanese troops in the area. The explosion created a small lake (“situ”) in Dayeuh Kolot. The main street in the area is called “Mohammad Toha Street”.

Independence

On January 23, 1950, a rebel group called the Just King Armed Forces (Indonesian: Angkatan Perang Ratu Adil, APRA), led by Captain Raymond Westerling (a former Dutch military officer) and King Sultan Hamid II from Kalimantan (Borneo) attacked Indonesian army’s Siliwangi Division HQ in Bandung. Lt. Col. Lembong and 93 other Indonesian soldiers and officers were killed. On January 24, 1950, the rebels tried to attack Jakarta, but the rebellion was quashed in a fierce battle in Pacet, near Jakarta. Sultan Hamid II was arrested, but Capt. Westerling managed to escape to Singapore.

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi Asia-Afrika) was held in Bandung. Twenty-nine countries attended the conference. The Asian-African leaders who attended the summit included Nehru (India), Nasser (Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), Nkrumah (Ghana), U Nu (Myanmar), and others. This conference is one of the preparation for the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement block in Beograd (former Yugoslavia) in 1961.

After being elected in 1955, a new parliament body called the Constitutional Assembly (Indonesian: Konstituante), was established. It was tasked with creating new constitution to replace the Provisional Constitution of 1950. This new body held meetings in Bandung for several years without any result. The Constituent Assembly was dissolved by President Sukarno in a decree issued on July 5, 1959, which also reinstated the 1945 Constitution.

On May 10, 1963, a minor traffic accident (collision between 2 motorcycles) occurred in the campus of Bandung Institute of Technology. Two ITB students were involved in this accident: an ethnic Chinese student and an Indonesian student. The traffic accident turned into a racial brawl on the basketball field. The leaders of “Dewan Mahasiswa” (DM)/student council at ITB such as Muslimin Nasution (later becoming a government minister), Siswono Yudohusodo (later becoming a government minister), and Sutjipto (later becoming a leader of PKS party) used this event as the start of a movement against the establishment of ethnic Chinese tribe by Baperki (an ethnic Chinese organization influenced by Indonesian Communist Party/PKI). This movement was also directed against NASAKOM (Nasionalis, Agama dan Komunis) ideology from President Soekarno. The movement disagree with the Communist part of NASAKOM and they assumed that all ethnic Chinese community supported Baperki/Indonesian Communist Party. The next day, there was a large scale public demonstration by this movement against Baperki and ethnic Chinese. Unfortunately there are other organizations/people who use this event to start a large scale racial riot in Bandung that spread to other cities: Jogjakarta, Surabaya, Malang and Medan. Muslimin Nasution and other leaders of Student Council were arrested by Police. Muslimin was sentenced to 3 years in Prison for starting the riot.

On September 30, 1965, there was a failed coup attempt by revolutionary council (aka G30S). The Military Chief Of Staff, General Nasution escaped and went to Bandung for protection from the loyal Siliwangi division. According to General Nasution, near his mother residence in Bandung, members of Indonesian communist party (PKI) also dig new wells for burying their enemies.

On September 6, 1970 there was a football match between ITB students and cadets from Military academy. The game ended in a riot and brawl. Rene L. Conrad, an ITB student, was kidnapped and murdered by the Military cadets.[citation needed] Unfortunately the case remain unsolved today.

In 1976, Doctor Habibie (later becoming Indonesian President) established a state owned, aircraft manufacturing company called Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN). Later this company was renamed into PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PT DI).

In 1978, after a People Consultative Assembly session in Jakarta, there were demonstrations against the re-election of President Soeharto by ITB students. Police disbanded the “Dewan Mahasiswa” (Student council) movement in ITB and the leaders were arrested. The university was closed for 3 months and the new Minister of Education announced “Normalization of University Life” (NKK) to quell the student movement.

On March 11, 1981, an extreme Moslem group called “Jamaah Imron” attacked Cicendo police station in Bandung. The movement was quashed by Indonesian police, but several members escaped to Medan, North Sumatra and hijacked Garuda airplane to Bangkok 2 weeks later. The passengers and crews were rescued by Indonesian special force in the Don Muang airport, Bangkok, Thailand. The pilot and a soldier were shot death during the rescue attempt.

From April 5, 1982 to January 8, 1983, there were several eruptions at Mt Galunggung in Tasikmalaya and Bandung was buried in several inches of ash.

 21st century

On December 24, 2000, there were bomb attacks against churches in Bandung. The bombs exploded prematurely and the perpetrators were arrested.

On February 21, 2005, a landslide occurred at the garbage dumpsite in Leuwigajah, Bandung. 143 people were killed by the landslide. After this fatal accident, the Leuwigajah dumpsite was closed and Bandung had a major problem in garbage management. The entire city was turned into a giant garbage dump (“kota sampah”). The mayor of Bandung was unable to solve the problem and the governor of West Java was forced to search for new garbage dumpsites. Fortunately the problem is solved now.[citation needed]

Today, Bandung has grown beyond its city core with the Bandung Raya plan. Traffic in Bandung is infamous with its complex, congested and chaotic nature.[10] The city core is practically uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is now bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.[1] However Bandung is always a weekend break destination for people living in Jakarta. A new Cipularang highway was recently completed, reducing travel time from Jakarta. The major attraction to come to Bandung is the food and fashion shopping. The food in Bandung is well known for their wide varieties and taste. Bandung is also a place to do fashion shopping with its numerous factory outlets and stock centres.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c “An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung”. Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian. http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~fujimori/lsai/bandung.html. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  2. ^ Brahmantyo, B.; Yulianto, E.; Sudjatmiko, (2001). “On the geomorphological development of Pawon Cave, west of Bandung, and the evidence finding of prehistoric dwelling cave”. JTM. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080408111619/http://www.geocities.com/ekoy001/PawonJTM-web.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  3. ^ “Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels highway”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-01-08. 
  4. ^ Peter .J.M Nas; Pratiwo (2001) (PDF). Java and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, The High Military Road. University of Leiden. http://www.leidenuniv.nl/fsw/nas/pdf/NasPratiwoPostweg30-10-2001.pdf
  5. ^ “Old Buildings in Bandung Then and Now” (in Indonesian). Bandung Heritage Society. http://www.bandungheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=2. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  6. ^ Kunto, Haryanto (1984). Wajah Bandung Tempoe Doeloe. Granesia. 
  7. ^ a b Soemardi, Ahmad R.; Radjawali, I (2004). “Creative culture and urban planning:The Bandung Experience” (PDF). The 11th International Planning History Conference 2004. http://www.etsav.upc.es/personals/iphs2004/pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  8. ^ “If Only Junghuhn Knows How Cinchona in Indonesia Becomes…” (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. 2004-06-07. Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060517024534/http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/0604/07/0108.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  9. ^ Sitaresmi, Ratnayu (PDF). Social History of Bandung Lautan Api (Bandung Sea of Fire) 24 March 1946. http://www.bandungheritage.org/images/stories/dokumen/bandung_sea_of_fire.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22. [dead link]
  10. ^ “Traffic jams ruin Bandung getaway weekend”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-08-22. http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20060822.A02&irec=1
  11. ^ “Trading and Promising Services of Bandung” (in Indonesian). Kompas. 2004-08-18. http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0408/18/Jabar/1212266.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-22

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy

Koleksi Filateli,Numismatik dan Illustrasi Gambar Sejarah Indonesia Era Hindia Belanda 1900-1910

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

Koleksi  Filateli,Numismatik dan Illustrasi Gambar Sejarah Indonesia Era Hindia Belanda Pada Awal Abad XX(1900-1910)

 

 

1900

 meterai tempel  Hindia Belanda 5 cent,type kedua plakzegel
 
Raja Gianyar di Bali tunduk kepada  Belanda  Sekolah  Tinggi Belanda di Bandung, Magelang dan Probolinggo ditata kembali untuk melatih calon dari Jawa untuk pelayanan sipil lokal.
 

pasukan Tradisional  Nias, 1900.
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  .          

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1901

 The Mentawai Islands are a chain of about seventy islands and islets off the western coast of Sumatra
Desa di Mentawai tahun 1895
. Siberut (4,030 km²) adalah pulau yang terbesar >pulau besar lainnya adalah  Sipora, Pagai Utara dan Pagai Selatan. Pulau-pulau terletak 150 km dari pantai  Sumatra meliwati selat  Mentawai ..sejarah

Kepulauan Mentawai dipisahkan sekali lagi dari daratan Sumatera oleh naiknya permukaan air laut. Orang-orang Mentawai diperkirakan telah tiba di pulau-pulau di suatu tempat antara tahun 2000 dan 500 SM, bermigrasi dari utara melalui Siberut dan kemudian pindah selatan ke Sipora dan pulau-pulau Pagai. .Portugis menyadari pulau-pulau di awal abad ke-17: peta tanggal 1606 menunjukkan Siberut sebagai “Mintaon”. Pada Agustus 1792 John Crisp, seorang pegawai British East India Company, mengunjungi Pagai (“Poggy”) pulau biaya sendiri untuk mempelajari masyarakat Mentawai. Ceritanya diterbitkan pada 1799,  memberikan rincian pertama dari orang Mentawai dalam literatur barat. Kepulauan Mentawai resmi menjadi bagian dari Hindia Belanda pada tanggal 10 Juli 1864, bukan yang telah tunduk pada Perjanjian Anglo-Belanda 1824. Pada tahun 1901 Royal Jerman Missionary Society didirikan kehadiran di pantai selatan pulau Pagai Utara atas undangan pemerintah kolonial Belanda. Misionaris pertama adalah dibunuh, dan itu tidak sampai 1915 bahwa orang pertama dikonversi, dengan program kemudian yang diperluas ke pulau-pulau lain.
Kepulauan Mentawai, gambar yang diambil 1930.
  
    Jambi ditempatkan di bawah kendali Belanda Residen Palembang selama pertanyaan suksesi dan unrest.

  Keris Siginjai

Sultan terakhir yang memegang benda kerajaan diatas  adalah Sultan Achmad Zainuddin pada awal abad ke 20.

Zijlker terkait ‘s Royal perusahaan minyak Belanda mengekspansi Kalimantan.Dutch tempat garnisun di Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno adalah born.Queen Wilhelmina dari Belanda mengumumkan “Politik Etis” terhadap Hindia. Eropa di Hindia, yang menguasai ekonomi dan pemerintah, dibayarkan hanya 20% dari pendapatan pajak Hindia

 Sebagian besar beban pajak masih jatuh pada Indonesia asli, meskipun pembongkaran dari sistem budaya. Pendapatan ini digunakan, antara lain, untuk membiayai penaklukan militer Belanda di islands.But luar itu tidak cukup. Pada saat ini, pemerintah Belanda mengirim lebih banyak uang untuk mendukung Hindia Belanda daripada mengumpulkan dari Hindia pendapatan. Sebagian besar arus kas dari Hindia ke Belanda setelah 1900 berada di tangan usaha swasta.      

 

   

1902

klateklasik.inet col.tanah suci

kaaba.makka tul mukkoromah-1918

pada tahun ini diterbitkan prangko definitif hindia belanda dibawah ini

Postal histori langka sampul tercartat dukirim dari Koedeos ke Negeri Belanda S’gravenhage mempergunakan prangko belanda yang dicetak tindih Ned.Indie.

  Belanda menghentikan pembantasan naik haji ke Mekah(pilgrimage to Mecca).  

 

   

 

1903

Van Heutsz survei pasukan di lapangan di Aceh.
Tiga puluh tahun perang di Aceh biaya hidup 60.000 Aceh, ditambah lebih dari 2.000 tentara Belanda tewas dalam pertempuran, dan lebih dari 10.000 tentara Belanda tewas dari penyakit. Lain 25.000 buruh paksa di bawah Belanda meninggal di Aceh dalam periode ini.
    Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan guerillas.lihatlah panji korps marsose hindia Belanda saat perang aceh

user posted image

 

Netherlands Hindia mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk education.Decentralization dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah held.Netherlands perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan rumah di Belanda.

 
 

 

   Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah pada 1903 yang secara kerajaan telah tunduk kepada belanda, namun perlawanan rakyat tetap berkibar.Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan gerijawan. Hindia Belanda  mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk pendidikan .Desentralisasi dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah  perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan kerajaan di Belanda..

1904

 Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

Kertas Meterai embossed tanpa warna nominal 6 Gld tahun 1904,Sertifikat Tanah disahkan Badan Hukum Pertanahan  Soerabaja  

 
 
 
   
Baru-baru ini Van Heutsz, Gubernur militer Aceh, menjadi Gubernur Jenderal  baru(hingga 1909). Sultan Thaha Jambi dibunuh oleh Belanda.
kapal Belanda .
Mai “Sri Koemala”   hancur  di Sanur , Bali. Warga menyelamatkan bangkai kapal, pemilik kapal  atas  permintaan reparasi  dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Hubungan antara Hindia Belanda dan Raja Badung di Bali memburuk jauh sebagai Hindia result.Netherlands ekspedisi militer mengambil alih wilayah Batak ekspedisi Sumatra di bawah Kapten Van Daalen ke dataran tinggi Aceh membunuh lebih dari 3000 warga desa, termasuk lebih dari 1000 wanita dan anak-anak.
 Pemerintah
Belanda memulai serangkaian hibah dan program pinjaman pengembalian untuk Hindia Belanda .Dewi Sartika mendirikan Sekolah Isteri (Sekolah untuk Perempuan).
 


 “Groepsportret met Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin van Djambi en zijn gevolg”

Potret kelompok Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin Jambi dan rombongannya
             

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1905

  

Sarekat Islam pada awalnya adalah perkumpulan pedagang-pedagang Islam yang diberi nama Sarekat Dagang Islam. Perkumpulan ini didirikan oleh Haji Samanhudi tahun 1905 di kota Solo. Perkumpulan ini semakin berkembang pesat ketika Tjokroaminoto  pada tahun 1911  memegang tampuk pimpinan dan mengubah nama perkumpulan menjadi Sarekat Islam. Sarekat Islam (SI) dapat dipandang sebagai salah satu gerakan yang paling menonjol sebelum Perang Dunia II.

Pendiri Sarekat Dagang Islam, Haji Samanhudi adalah seorang pengusaha batik di Kampung Lawean (Solo) yang mempunyai banyak pekerja, sedangkan pengusaha-pengusaha batik lainnya adalah orang-orang Cina dan Arab.

 

 
  .
JanuaryBelanda memulai lima bulan operasi militer di Kalimantan.
Belanda mengirim kekuatan militer terhadap pemberontakan di darat pasukan Ceram.
August Belanda menduduki   Pare Pare.  Belanda banyak kemajuan  di Sulawesi, Bugis, Makasar, daerah Toraja diambil untuk selamanya. Penguasa Bone adalah resistensi kontak deposed.
Acehnese  meninta  kepada Konsul Jepang di Singapura untuk membantu .
Belanda  menempati Mentawai islands.
First serikat buruh yang didirikan untuk rel kereta api workers.
October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh Kyai Haji Samanhudi, awalnya untuk menjaga kepentingan produsen batik muslim dalam dewan Surakarta.
Municipal didirikan di Batavia dan pemerintah Hindia Bandung.
 
Belanda  mensponsori komunitas petani Jawa transplantasi di Lampung: contoh pertama dari transmigrasi.

 

     
             

 

   

1906

Puputan is a Balinese term that refers to a mass ritual suicide [1] in preference to facing the humiliation of surrender. Notable puputans occurred in 1906 and 1908 when the Balinese were being subjugated by the Dutch.

The Raja of Buleleng killing himself with 400 followers, in a 1849 puputan against the Dutch. Le Petit Journal, 1849.
Puputan Badung 1906Pada tanggal 14 September 1906, sebuah kekuatan besar Belanda mendarat di pantai Sanur, tidak ada perlawanan signifikan dan memaksa berbaris ke Denpasar, Bali, seolah-olah dalam parade gaun. Mereka melewati sebuah kota yang tampak sepi dan mendekati istana kerajaan, mencatat asap mengepul dari puri  yang paling disembunyikan, mereka mendengar pemukulan liar dari gendrang yang datang dari dalam dinding istana.Setelah mereka mencapai istana, prosesi diam muncul, dipimpin oleh Raja yang ditanggung oleh empat pembawa pada sebuah tandu. Raja mengenakan pakaian tradisional kremasi putih, memakai perhiasan megah, dan bersenjata dengan keris upacara. Orang-orang lain dalam prosesi terdiri dari, Raja penjaga pejabat, imam, istri, anak-anak dan pengikut, semuanya s berpakaian yang sama
 
 
.
 

September 15 Tentara Hindia Belanda berhasil maju  di Bali dan  armada Hindia Belanda mendarat dengan lego  jangkar di Sanur.
20 September Pasukan Angkatan Laut Hindia  Belanda  menyerang Denpasar.
 Raja, pasukan dan rakyat Badung melakukan bunuh diri dalam sebuah Puputan, berbaris di jalan utama Denpasar. Lebih dari 3600 adalah dibunuh . 23September pasukan Hindia Belanda maju ke Tabanan, Bali. Raja Tabanan menawarkan untuk menyerah dengan syarat bahwa ia diizinkan untuk mempertahankan gelar dan lahan. Resident Hindia Belanda membawa Raja tabanan  ke dalam tahanan sampai ia dapat menerima jawaban dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda di Batavia. Raja Tabanan melakukan bunuh diri  saat didalam tahanan .
Produksi Karet  di Sumatra meningkat  dengan  variasi tanaman baru .Pemerintah Hindia Belanda memegang kendali langsung di Sumba.
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  mendirikan protektorat atas Berau di 
Kalimantan Timur  .
Sensor Pos terhadap Penerbitan (publikasi) diperkenalkan: semua penerbitan harus diserahkan ke sensor untuk ditinjau dalam waktu 24 jam sebelum peluncurannya
.

1907

 Sisingamangaraja

Raja Si Singamangaraja I : Raja Manghuntal

 di daerah Tapanuli Selatan sedang terjadi wabah penyakit menular (begu antuk) yang juga mengenai/menyerang pasukan Tuanku Rao sehingga kacau balau. Tawanannya tercecer di Tapanuli Selatan. Sebagian dari yang tercecer ini membuat perkampungan di daerah di Tapanuli Selatan ini.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI : Ompu SohahuaonBelum lagi selesai penderitaan akibat serangan si Pokki terjadi pula musim kemarau yang berkepanjangan. Masyarakat Si Onom Ompu bersepakat menyampaikan hal ini kepada boru Situmorang dan memintanya kembali ke Bakara. Setelah boru Situmorang membawa kedua anaknya kembali, masyarakatpun meminta agar Ompu Sohahuaon mereka gondangi untuk turunnya hujan.
Acara margondangpun dipersiapkan dengan baik dan Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil tampil dengan berpakaian ulos Batak. Boru Situmorang dan masyarakat si Onom Ompu kaget dan kagum, karena Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil itu mampu meminta gondang dan mengucapkan tonggo-tonggo untuk turunya hujan. Merekapun mengelu-elukan dengan manortor. Haripun menjadi gelap karena mendung dan hujanpun turun dengan lebat. Ompu Sohahuaon terus manortor sampai berakhir gondang yang dipintanya. Kemudian diserahkan Piso Gaja Dompak kepadanya dan manortor kembali sambil menghunus Piso Gaja Dompak dengan sempurna dan disarungkan kembali. Ompu Sohahuaon dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dalam usia 10 tahun.

Pada masa pemerintahan Raja Si Singamangaraja XI disusunlah  “Pustaha Harajaon (pustaka kerajaan)”  yang ditulis dengan dawat/tinta cina diatas kertas Watermark ukuran folio buatan Itali dalam tulisan dan bahasa Batak. Pustaka ini dibuat atas bimbingan dari Ompu Sohahuaon sendiri. Pustaha harajaon ini terdiri atas 24 jilid, setiap jilidnya tebalnya sekitar 5 Cm yang isinya secara singkat dapat diuraikan sebagai berikut :
  • Jilid 1 s/d 3: Pemerintahan Tuan Sorimangaraja selama 90 turunan mulai dari Putri Tapi Donda Nauasan.
  • Jilid 4 s/d 7: Pemerintahan kerajaan Singamangaraja  I s/d  IX.
  • Jilid 8: Perihal Pedang Padri Tuanku Rao terhadap Tuan Nabolon Sisingamangaraja X.
  • Jilid 9: Perihal Pongkinangolngolan dan Datu Aman Tagor Simanullang.
  • Jilid 11 s/d 12: Perihal Pendeta Pilgram, pembunuhan atas diri Pendeta Lyman dan Munson oleh Raja Panggalamei.
  • Jilid 13-16: Periode pembangunan kembali ibu kota kerajaan Bakara dan daerah-daerah Toba tahun 1835-1845 atas pembumi hangusan perang bonjol.
  • Jilid 17: Perihal Dr. Junghun, van der Tuuk yang datang menjumpai Sisingamangaraja XI dan perihal photonya.
  • Jilid 18 s/d 24: Penobatan Ompu Sohahuaon menjadi Sisingamangaraja XI, pemerintahannya sampai tahun 1886 dan perihal penyakit menular yang dahsyat di tanah Batak.

Pada tahun 1884 Pustaha Harajaon ini ditemukan dari tumpukan rumah kerajaan yang dibakar oleh tentera Belanda. Dibawa ke Holland oleh Pendeta Pilgrams dan sekarang ada di Museum Perpustakaan Pemerintah Belanda di Leiden Holland. Pustaha Harajaon tidak diteruskan penulisannya oleh Sisingamangaraja XII sebab tidak ada kesempatan, karena semenjak awal pemerintahannya, Koloni Belanda telah melancarkan agresinya di tanah Batak dan sekitarnya, sehingga Ompu Pulobatu berperang selama 30 tahun sampai tewasnya dalam usia 59 tahun pada 17 juni 1907.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI Ompu Sohahuaon menikah dengan boru Aritonang sebagai isteri pertama yang melahirkan Raja Parlopuk . Isteri kedua adalah boru Situmorang yang melahirkan Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo Batu. Beda umur Raja Parlopuk dengan Patuan Bosar sangat jauh, ada sekitar 15 tahun.
Ketika Ompu Sohahuaon jatuh sakit, maka jalan pemerintahan dilaksanakan oleh Raja Parlopuk. Cukup lama Raja Parlopuk memegang tugas itu dan dilaksanakannya dengan baik. Tahun 1866 Ompu Sohahuaoan meninggal di Bakara dan dibangun makamnya oleh Raja Parlopuk dengan Si Onom Ompu di Lumban Raja. Makam inilah yang pertama ada di Bakara karena Sisingamangaraja I hingga  IX tidak diketahui meninggal di mana. Waktu Raja Si Singamangaraja XI meninggal, Patuan Bosar sedang merantau ke Aceh.

Makam ini dibongkar oleh Raja Si Singamangaraja XII karena Bakara diserang Belanda. Tulang belulang Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dibawanya ikut berjuang ke hutan, karena tidak ingin tengkorak orang-tuanya diambil oleh Belanda. Semasa perjuangan tulang-belulang ini di titipkan di huta Janji Dolok Sanggul lalu dipindahkan lagi ke Huta Paung. Setelah zaman kemerdekaan, kembali di pindahkan di rumah Soposurung.

Kira-kira 105 tahun kemudian, makam ini dibangun kembali oleh keluarga Raja Sisingamangaraja dan pada tahun 1975 tulang belulang Raja Sisingamangaraja XI dan istrerinya dimakamkan kembali ke makam semula di Bakara. Raja Parlopuk terus melaksanakan pemerintahan Singamangaraja hingga tahun 1871, yaitu setelah dinobatkannya Patuan Bosar sebagai Raja Sisingamangaraja XII.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XII : Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo BatuWalaupun Raja Si Singamangaraja XI telah meninggal, Si Onom Ompu tidak merasa ada yang kurang dalam pemerintahan, karena Raja Parlopuk bekerja dengan cukup baik. Tetapi ketika musim kemarau datang dan membawa penderitaan, mulailah si Onom Ompu berfikir untuk adanya acara margondang. Raja Parlopukpun mereka persilahkan untuk mereka gondangi agar dia martonggo memohon turun hujan. Tetapi hujan tidak turun-turun juga.Mulanya Ompu Pulo Batu tidak bersedia mereka gondangi karena merasa bahwa abangnya itu telah sebagai raja pengganti ayahnya. Akhirnya Ompu Pulo Batu bersedia karena melihat penderitaan yang diderita masyarakat Si Onom Ompu. Setelah melaksanakan upacara seperti yang biasa dilakukan, Ompu Pulobatu berhasil mendatangkan hujan. Ompu Pulo Batupun dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XII pada tahun 1871.Ompu Pulo Batu lahir tahun 1848 dari ibunya boru Situmorang. Pada saat pemuda, Ompu Pulo Batu merantau ke Aceh, disana bergaul dengan pedagang dari Persia dan belajar banyak hal. Karena itu ketika perang melawan Belanda, Raja Si Singamangaraja XII dibantu oleh pejuang-pejuang dari Aceh, dan dalam cap/stempelnya dipakai Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Batak.
Pada tahun 1877 Raja Si Singamangaraja XII menyatakan perang kepada Belanda. Kemudian dia menjalankan perang terhadap Belanda selama 3 dasawarsa.
 

 

  Militer Belanda memadamkan pemberontakan di Flores, menetap pejabat  pengawasan (kontrolier)diwilayah tersebut .Pengamanan  lengkap akhirnya diperoleh  di Jambi. gerilyawan Aceh  menyerang Belanda di Bandar Aceh. Pemberontakan Raja  Sisingamangaraja XII dari Batak  melawan Belanda, dan ditembak saat konflik di Hindia belanda.Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  memperkenalkan pajak atas perdagangan Gula ( businesses.Zijlker ‘s)  Perusahaan minyak Kerajaan Belanda menyatu dengan Shell Transport dan Perdagangan menjadi Royal  Shell.Dutch mengirim polisi ke Kepulauan Tanimbar untuk menghentikan  konflik. pendidikan baru antar suku bertujuan untuk menawarkan sekolah 3-tahun untuk anak-anak di populasi umum. .

Foto tahun 1907. Tentara Belanda mengejar Sisingamangaraja XII di kawasan hutan Tele. Dipimpin Hans Christoffel (memegang tongkat), mereka berpose sejenak di daerah Sagala

 Raja Si singamangaraja dengan  slogan ” Lebih baik Mati dari Hidup Berkalang Tanah Jajahan Kolonial ”  akhirnya dibunuh tahun 1907 setalh tiga pu;luh tahun menyusun pertahanan untuk mengusir  Belanda dari Tapanuli.

 

 

          .        
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1908

20 Mei 1908

 
Budi Utomo adalah organisasi pemuda yang didirikan oleh Dr. Sutomo pada tanggal 20 Mei 1908. Berdirinya Budi Utomo menjadi awal gerakan yang bertujuan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia.Saat ini tanggal berdirinya Budi Utomo, 20 Mei, diperingati sebagai Hari Kebangkitan Nasional.
Latar Belakang
Budi Utomo lahir dari pertemuan-pertemuan dan diskusi yang sering dilakukan di perpustakaan School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen oleh beberapa mahasiswa, antara lain Soetomo, Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemo, Goembrek, Saleh, dan Soeleman. Mereka memikirkan nasib bangsa yang sangat buruk dan selalu dianggap bodoh dan tidak bermartabat oleh bangsa lain (Belanda), serta bagaimana cara memperbaiki keadaan yang amat buruk dan tidak adil itu. Para pejabat pangreh praja(sekarang pamong praja) kebanyakan hanya memikirkan kepentingan sendiri dan jabatan. Dalam praktik mereka pun tampak menindas rakyat dan bangsa sendiri, misalnya dengan menarik pajak sebanyak-banyaknya untuk menyenangkan hati atasan dan para penguasa Belanda.Para pemuda mahasiswa itu juga menyadari bahwa orang-orang lain mendirikan perkumpulan hanya untuk golongan sendiri dan tidak mau mengajak, bahkan tidak menerima, orang Jawa sesama penduduk Pulau Jawa untuk menjadi anggota perkumpulan yang eksklusif, seperti Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan untuk orang Tionghoa dan Indische Bond untuk orang Indo-Belanda. Pemerintah Hindia Belanda jelas juga tidak bisa diharapkan mau menolong dan memperbaiki nasib rakyat kecil kaum pribumi, bahkan sebaliknya, merekalah yang selama ini menyengsarakan kaum pribumi dengan mengeluarkan peraturan-peraturan yang sangat merugikan rakyat kecil.Para pemuda itu akhirnya berkesimpulan bahwa merekalah yang harus mengambil prakarsa menolong rakyatnya sendiri. Pada waktu itulah muncul gagasan Soetomo untuk mendirikan sebuah perkumpulan yang akan mempersatukan semua orang Jawa, Sunda, dan Madura yang diharapkan bisa dan bersedia memikirkan serta memperbaiki nasib bangsanya. Perkumpulan ini tidak bersifat eksklusif tetapi terbuka untuk siapa saja tanpa melihat kedudukan, kekayaan, atau pendidikannya.Pada awalnya, para pemuda itu berjuang untuk penduduk yang tinggal di Pulau Jawa dan Madura, yang untuk mudahnya disebut saja suku bangsa Jawa. Mereka mengakui bahwa mereka belum mengetahui nasib, aspirasi, dan keinginan suku-suku bangsa lain di luar Pulau Jawa, terutama Sumatera, Manado, dan Ambon. Apa yang diketahui adalah bahwa Belanda menguasai suatu wilayah yang disebut Hindia (Timur) Belanda (Nederlandsch Oost-Indie), tetapi sejarah penjajahan dan nasib suku-suku bangsa yang ada di wilayah itu bermacam-macam, begitu pula kebudayaannya. Dengan demikian, sekali lagi pada awalnya Budi Utomo memang memusatkan perhatiannya pada penduduk yang mendiami Pulau Jawa dan Madura saja karena, menurut anggapan para pemuda itu, penduduk Pulau Jawa dan Madura terikat oleh kebudayaan yang sama.Sekalipun para pemuda itu merasa tidak tahu banyak tentang nasib, keadaan, sejarah, dan aspirasi suku-suku bangsa di luar Pulau Jawa dan Madura, mereka tahu bahwa saat itu orang Manado mendapat gaji lebih banyak dan diperlakukan lebih baik daripada orang Jawa. Padahal, dari sisi pendidikan, keduanya berjenjang sama. Itulah sebabnya pemuda Soetomo dan kawan-kawan tidak mengajak pemuda-pemuda di luar Jawa untuk bekerja sama, hanya karena khawatir untuk ditolak.Budi UtomoPada hari Minggu, 20 Mei 1908, pada pukul sembilan pagi, bertempat di salah satu ruang belajar STOVIA, Soetomo menjelaskan gagasannya. Dia menyatakan bahwa hari depan bangsa dan Tanah Air ada di tangan mereka. Maka lahirlah Boedi Oetomo. Namun, para pemuda juga menyadari bahwa tugas mereka sebagai mahasiswa kedokteran masih banyak, di samping harus berorganisasi. Oleh karena itu, mereka berpendapat bahwa “kaum tua”-lah yang harus memimpin Budi Utomo, sedangkan para pemuda sendiri akan menjadi motor yang akan menggerakkan organisasi itu.Sepuluh tahun pertama Budi Utomo mengalami beberapa kali pergantian pemimpin organisasi. Kebanyakan memang para pemimpin berasal kalangan “priayi” atau para bangsawan dari kalangan keraton, seperti Raden Adipati Tirtokoesoemo, bekas Bupati Karanganyar (presiden pertama Budi Utomo), dan Pangeran Ario Noto Dirodjo dari Keraton Pakualaman.Perkembangan
Budi Utomo mengalami fase perkembangan penting saat kepemimpinan Pangeran Noto Dirodjo. Saat itu, Douwes Dekker, seorang Indo-Belanda yang sangat properjuangan bangsa Indonesia, dengan terus terang mewujudkan kata “politik” ke dalam tindakan yang nyata. Berkat pengaruhnyalah pengertian mengenai “tanah air Indonesia” makin lama makin bisa diterima dan masuk ke dalam pemahaman orang Jawa. Maka muncullah Indische Partijyang sudah lama dipersiapkan oleh Douwes Dekker melalui aksi persnya. Perkumpulan ini bersifat politik dan terbuka bagi semua orang Indonesia tanpa terkecuali. Baginya “tanah air” (Indonesia) adalah di atas segala-galanya.Pada masa itu pula muncul Sarekat Islam, yang pada awalnya dimaksudkan sebagai suatu perhimpunan bagi para pedagang besar maupun kecil di Solo dengan nama Sarekat Dagang Islam, untuk saling memberi bantuan dan dukungan. Tidak berapa lama, nama itu diubah oleh, antara lain, Tjokroaminoto, menjadi Sarekat Islam, yang bertujuan untuk mempersatukan semua orang Indonesia yang hidupnya tertindas oleh penjajahan. Sudah pasti keberadaan perkumpulan ini ditakuti orang Belanda. Munculnya gerakan yang bersifat politik semacam itu rupanya yang menyebabkan Budi Utomo agak terdesak ke belakang. Kepemimpinan perjuangan orang Indonesia diambil alih oleh Sarekat Islam dan Indische Partij karena dalam arena politik Budi Utomo memang belum berpengalaman.Karena gerakan politik perkumpulan-perkumpulan tersebut, makna nasionalismemakin dimengerti oleh kalangan luas. Ada beberapa kasus yang memperkuat makna tersebut. Ketika Pemerintah Hindia Belanda hendak merayakan ulang tahun kemerdekaan negerinya, dengan menggunakan uang orang Indonesia sebagai bantuan kepada pemerintah yang dipungut melalui penjabat pangreh praja pribumi, misalnya, rakyat menjadi sangat marah.Kemarahan itu mendorong Soewardi Suryaningrat (yang kemudian bernama Ki Hadjar Dewantara) untuk menulis sebuah artikel “Als ik Nederlander was” (Seandainya Saya Seorang Belanda), yang dimaksudkan sebagai suatu sindiran yang sangat pedas terhadap pihak Belanda. Tulisan itu pula yang menjebloskan dirinya bersama dua teman dan pembelanya, yaitu Douwes Dekker dan Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo ke penjara oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda (lihat: Boemi Poetera). Namun, sejak itu Budi Utomo tampil sebagai motor politik di dalam pergerakan orang-orang pribumi.Agak berbeda dengan Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemoyang lebih mengutamakan kebudayaan dari pendidikan, Soewardi menyatakan bahwa Budi Utomo adalah manifestasi dari perjuangan nasionalisme. Menurut Soewardi, orang-orang Indonesia mengajarkan kepada bangsanya bahwa “nasionalisme Indonesia” tidaklah bersifat kultural, tetapi murni bersifat politik. Dengan demikian, nasionalisme terdapat pada orang Sumatera maupun Jawa, Makassar maupun Ambon.Pendapat tersebut bertentangan dengan beberapa pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa Budi Utomo hanya mengenal nasionalisme Jawa sebagai alat untuk mempersatukan orang Jawa dengan menolak suku bangsa lain. Demikian pula Sarekat Islam juga tidak mengenal pengertian nasionalisme, tetapi hanya mempersyaratkan agama Islam agar seseorang bisa menjadi anggota.Namun, Soewardi tetap mengatakan bahwa pada hakikatnya akan segera tampak bahwa dalam perhimpunan Budi Utomo maupun Sarekat Islam, nasionalisme “Indonesia” ada dan merupakan unsur yang paling penting.
  
 
 
Pemberontakan Klungkung  melawan Belanda; bangsawan bunuh diri dengan Puputan untuk melestarikan pendapatan Hindia Belanda menyebabkan mereka campur tangan dalam konflik-konflik lokal di Sumbawa, mengambil control.Pengawasan  ketat berada di bawah peraturan .VSTP Belanda langsung (serikat pekerja rel) didirikan, menerima anggota Bangsa  Indonesia .20 Mai Budi Utomo didirikan di antara siswa Jawa kelas atas di Jakarta, termasuk masa depan dan Dr Sutomo, Dr  Cipto Mangunkusumo.
October Budi Utomo melaksanakan kongres di Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo meninggalkan organisasi .perhimpunan  Indonesia (Indische Vereeniging ) yang didirikan untuk mahasiswa Indonesia di Netherlands. pemberontakan Kecil di Minangkabau, merupakan suppressed.Netherlands Hindia memperkenalkan pajak penghasilan. Budi Utomo adalah organisasi politik yang kurang, terutama ditujukan untuk promosi budaya Jawa. Bunga ini adalah terbatas pada budaya Jawa. .
Pekerja tembakau di Deli, utara
Pada tahun ini diterbitkan prangko Hindia belanda  dengan cetak tindih Java dan buiten Bezit,silahkan diklik untuk melihat gambar dengan ukuran lebih besar.
 
 

Dewa terakhir Agung kehilangan nyawanya dalam apa yang disebut Puputan Klungkung Palace pada 28 April 1908 selama intervensi Belanda di Bali. Ini adalah serangan bunuh diri ritual sarat oleh dinasti dan pengikut mereka terhadap detasemen bersenjata baik pasukan kolonial Belanda. Pada akhirnya hampir dua ratus Bali dibunuh oleh peluru Belanda.
 
 
 
                .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern
Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.             .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern

1909

 
Uleebalang, atau aristokrasi tradisional Aceh, sekitar 1910. Para uleebalang akan mengembangkan reputasi untuk berkolaborasi dengan Belanda, setelah Perang Dunia I, banyak yang dibantai
  Tjokroaminoto naik ke kepemimpinan Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, sebuah penerbitan untuk wanita, adalah founded.Dutch mengkonsolidasikan kontrol atas Ceram.Dutch menetapkan pengendalian di Buru. .

 

   

1910


Pekerja kebun tembakau deli <Sumatra Utara,sekitar 1910

 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
Karrtu Pos dengan gambar prangko  Hindia belanda terbitan Jerman saat pameran.ada satu gambar keliru yaitu prangko dari Curacao.lihatlah dengan membesarkan gambar curson klik
 

Selesai  @ Hak Cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2011,dilarang repro dalam bentuk apapun,HAKI DILINDUNGI OLEH UNDANG-UNDANG.

The Battaks King Sisingamangaraja picture ,art and document Historic Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Indonesian Battaks King Sisingamangaraja Picture,art and document Historic collections

Frame One : 

The Chronologic Historic of Sisingamangaraja. 

Raja Si Singamangaraja I : Raja Manghuntal

 
King Si Singamangaraja I: King ManghuntalKing Si Singamangaraja I was the son of King Bonanionan Sinambela, namely the third or youngest son. King Boru Pasaribu Bonanionan married. Although they had long been married, but they do not have derivatives. Therefore Boru Pasaribu go to the “Spear-Sulu Sulu” to “marpangir” (wash with lime). Each time you finish marpangir, Boru Pasaribu pray to “Ompunta” above, beg mercy for gifted offspring. On one day, came flying into the light-Sulu Sulu Spear and alighted at altitude is respected in the place. Who came were introducing ourselves, like a flash-light glow that came and it was Ompunta Guru Doli. Ompunta Tuan Guru Boru Pasaribu Doli said that would give birth to a child. He said: “Believe that you will give birth to a child and give his name Singamangaraja”. If your son has grown up, tell him to take the signs of the kingdom of Raja Uti, comprising:1. Piso Gaja densely packed
2. Pungga Haomasan
3. Lage Haomasan
4. Hujur Siringis
5. Podang Halasan
6. Taboos SitarapullangNot long after starting Pasaribupun Boru contain. Once pregnant for 19 months Boru Pasaribu birth to a son. The Son is born with teeth that have grown and hairy tongue. During adolescence Singamangaraja much to do or act strange, especially in people who are not forgiving, who broke his promise, forgetting his compatriot a weak, relieve those who tarbeang losing gamble. The Singamangarajapun never showed amazement of people who partied in which gondangnya be silent and paddy and maize roots turned upward following the Si Singamangaraja when dihariara parjuragatan somersaults. This happened because they were forgotten.After the mother’s adult Singamangaraja Boru Pasaribu convey the message of Guru Ompunta Doli that Singamangaraja should take the signs of the kingdom of King Uti. He did not know where the sacred village of King Uti likewise his mother. He went armed with the show and lead prayer walking into the shrine.In the course of many obstacles as well as arrival at the sacred village of King Uti which turned out to exist in the area of ​​Barus. There also he tried but all can be overcome with good. Sisingamangaraja met with King Uti and they eat together and she said: “It is true this is the King of the Batak people.” When finished eating they ask pedigree (martarombo) and Si Singamangarajapun her point, and besides that Sisingamangaraja ask a few elephants. The purpose Over Singamangaraja, King UTI said it would give such a message was conveyed on condition Si Ompunta Singamangaraja need to submit a banana leaf width of leaf thatch, quail tail and rope made of sand. Conditions that prompted the King Uti to get harajaon signs that can be met all the Singamangaraja. Being on the demand for elephant, Raja Uti gave origin Si Singamangaraja can catch yourself. The Singamangarajapun call the elephant saw the astonished King Uti. And after that he brought the signs were returned to the Bakara harajaon including the elephant. With harajaon signs it, be he a king Singamangaraja, mangalompoi lion, Lion naso halompoan.King Sisingamangaraja I to IX, King Si Singamangaraja not known when the death and where his tomb. The kings of this after having offspring and felt it was his successor go there and wander densely packed Piso Gaja not carried. They certainly have died is through the natural signs that there is a branch of a broken hariara Namarmutiha. If there is a broken branch hariara means any family member who died and if the main branch which means broken Si Singamangaraja King was dead. Namarmutiha hariara is also known as hariara mark and is still growing in Bakara.Usually this condition is followed by the dry weather season, so that the community expects rain through tonggo-tonggo King Sisingamangaraja. The Onom Ompu (Bakara, Sinambela, Sihite, Simanullang, Marbun and Simamora) from Bakara prepare margondang ceremony and asked the son of King Si Singamangaraja willingness for them gondangi.
 
By wearing clothing Batak ulos Jogia Sopipot and lift the dish contains rice bowl magic repose ulos Sande Huliman as conditions martonggo, son of the king even this is welcome to start the show. He also asked gondang and convey tonggo-tonggo (pray) to Ompunta the above to ask for rain, then manortorlah son of this king. At manortor that heaven was overcast and finally heavy rains and society Si Onom Ompupun greeted him with words Horas Horas Horas. Then piso Gaja densely packed even referred to it and removed / drew perfectly from the nest and lifted upward while manortor. Who among the king’s son who can do things on top of it was he who became King Si Singamangaraja the next, so do not have the oldest son.
 
Respectively be the King The next Singamangaraja and approximate year reign is as follows:
Ø Singamangaraja II, King Tinaruan Ompu
Ø Singamangaraja III, King Itubungna
Ø Singamangaraja IV, Sir Sorimangaraja
Ø Singamangaraja V, King Pallongos
Ø Singamangaraja VI, King Pangolbuk
Ø Singamangaraja VII, sir Ompu Lumbut
Ø Singamangaraja VIII, Ompu Sotaronggal
Ø Singamangaraja IX, Ompu Sohalompoan
Ø Singamangaraja X, Ompu Mr. Na Bolon
Ø Singamangaraja XI, Ompu Sohahuaon
Ø Singamangaraja XII, Patuan Bosar, title Ompu Pulo Batu

 
King Si Singamangaraja X: Ompu Tuan Nabolon

King Si Singamangaraja X Ompu Mr. Nabolon died because beheaded by Si Pokki Nangolngolan or Tuanku Rao, who with a sly sense to invite the King Si Singamangaraja X to come to Butar. At a meeting in Butar that the Pokki decapitate King Sisingamangaraja X. Chief King is flying away, flying into the lap of his mother Boru Situmorang. By his mother, secretly buried in a large stone in Lumban King, because earlier he had sensed the events that would befall his son.

The body of King Si Singamangaraja X parhorboan lying on the hill, buried in the earth because of the hill suddenly collapsed. King of the Onom Ompu with the followers who accompanied King Si Singamangaraja X and some friends were against the Pokki it dies. But because the Pokki troops who had been hiding came to help the Pokki and the Pokki become stronger, they fled to Mount Immune am left. The Pokki continued to attack and many ditewaskannya Bakara both adults and young children.

According to the Pokki Nangolngolan (Tuanku Rao), he was the son of the King’s sister Sisingamangaraja X who goes to Bonjol. Pokki Nangolngolan said that he had missed the bone and he’ll feed him (manulangi) and will give the piso-piso (money) as an offering. Because the sweet words of the then King Sisingamangaraja this Pokki X went to butar. Although initially he say why the Pokki not come into Bakara.
Because do not get the corpse of King The Singamangaraja X, Tuanku Rao continued to attack the Bakara. Many residents who were killed. His troops burned the entire area in its path from Butar into Bakara including Pande Lumban palace in Bakara.

Wife of the King The first X Singamangaraja namely Boru Situmorang with 2 small children fled to the village of Boho Daily Lintong parents Situmorang. Being the second wife surnamed Nainggolan Boru and his son King Mangalambung kidnapped the Pokki with other children who had expected a son of King Si Singamangaraja X. They were taken to the southeast on the way back to Bonjol. In his travels in South Tapanuli was an outbreak of infectious disease (begu antuk) are also on / attacking forces so Tuanku Rao mess. Prisoners scattered in the South Tapanuli. Some of these scattered settlements in the area make South Tapanuli this.

King Si Singamangaraja XI: Ompu Sohahuaon

Not to mention over the suffering caused by the attack happened also Pokki prolonged dry season. The Society agreed Onom Ompu convey this to the Boru Situmorang and asked him to return to the Bakara. After Boru Situmorang brought her two children back, masyarakatpun requested that they Sohahuaon Ompu gondangi to rain.

Events margondangpun well prepared and Ompu Sohahuaon little dress comes with Batak ulos. Boru Situmorang and the community was shocked and amazed Onom Ompu, because Ompu Sohahuaon young gondang was able to ask and say tonggo-downs tonggo to rain. They chanted with manortor. Haripun darkened by clouds and fell with a heavy hujanpun. Ompu manortor Sohahuaon continue until the end gondang who asked him to. Then handed over to him and Piso Gaja densely packed manortor back while wielding Piso Gaja densely packed perfectly and sheathed again. Ompu Sohahuaon Singamangaraja crowned king of Si XI at the age of 10 years.

In the reign of King Si Singamangaraja XI drafted “Pustaha Harajaon (royal library),” written with ink / Chinese ink on legal-sized paper-made Italian Watermark in writing and Batak language. This library is made of guidance from Ompu Sohahuaon own. Pustaha harajaon consists of 24 volumes, each about 5 cm thick jilidnya whose contents can be briefly described as follows:
Volume 1 to 3: Government Mr Sorimangaraja for 90 derived from the Princess But Donda Nauasan.
Volumes 4 to 7: Government royal Singamangaraja I s / d IX.
Volume 8: About Sword Padri Tuanku Rao against Mr. Nabolon Sisingamangaraja X.
Volume 9: About Pongkinangolngolan and Datu Safe Tagor Simanullang.
Volumes 11 to 12: About Pastor Pilgram, killing of the Reverend Lyman and Munson by King Panggalamei.
Volumes 13-16: The period of rebuilding the capital of the kingdom of Bakara, and regions in 1835-1845 Toba on pembumi hangusan knurl war.
Volume 17: Subject Dr. Junghun, van der Tuuk who come see Sisingamangaraja XI and about photonya.
Vol 18 s / d 24: Coronation of Ompu Sohahuaon be Sisingamangaraja XI, his government until the year 1886 and about a devastating infectious disease in the land of Batak.

In 1884

 
Pustaha Harajaon is found from the pile being burned by the royal house of the Dutch Military. Brought to Holland by Reverend Pilgrams and now in the Museum Library of the Netherlands in Leiden Holland. Pustaha Harajaon not forwarded by Sisingamangaraja XII writing because there is no chance, because since the beginning of his reign, the Dutch colony has launched its aggression in Batak and surrounding soil, so Ompu Pulobatu fought for 30 years until death at the age of 59 years on 17 June 1907.King Si Singamangaraja XI Ompu Boru Arita Sohahuaon married as first wife who gave birth to King Parlopuk. The second wife gave birth Situmorang Boru Patuan Bosar Pulo Batu Ompu title. Different age of King Parlopuk with Patuan Bosar very far, there are about 15 years.
When Ompu Sohahuaon fell ill, the way the government carried out by King Parlopuk. King Parlopuk long enough to hold the job and properly implemented.
 
1866
 Ompu Sohahuaoan died in Bakara and built his tomb by King Parlopuk with Si Onom Ompu in Lumban King. This is the first tomb in the Bakara because Sisingamangaraja I to IX are not known to have died where. The King Left Singamangaraja XI died, Patuan Bosar being migrated to the Acehnese.The tomb was demolished by King Si Singamangaraja XII because Bakara attacked the Netherlands. King Si Singamangaraja bones XI brought join fight to the forest, because they do not want the skull of her parents were taken by the Dutch. During the struggle of these bones on Leave in huta Promise Dolok Sanggul then moved again to the Huta Paung. After the time of independence, again on the move at home Soposurung.Approximately 105 years later, the tomb was rebuilt by the family of King Sisingamangaraja and in 1975 the bones of King Sisingamangaraja istrerinya XI and returned to the tomb originally buried in Bakara. King Parlopuk continue to implement Singamangaraja government until the year 1871, ie after dinobatkannya Patuan Bosar as King Sisingamangaraja XII.King Si Singamangaraja XII: Patuan Bosar Ompu title Pulo BatuAlthough the king had died The Singamangaraja XI, Si Onom Ompu not feel something is missing in the government, because the King Parlopuk works pretty well. But when the dry season comes and brings suffering, start the Onom Ompu margondang think to the event. King Parlopukpun they invite to their gondangi martonggo begged him to rain. But the rain did not fall down too.Initially Ompu Pulo Batu gondangi because they would not feel that his brother had been substitute father as king. Finally Ompu Pulo Batu willing to see the pain suffered by society Si Onom Ompu. After the ceremony as it is commonly done, Ompu Pulobatu successfully bring rain. Pulo Ompu Batupun crowned king of The Singamangaraja XII in 1871.1848
Pulo Ompu Stone was born in 1848 from his mother Boru Situmorang. At the time of youth, Ompu Pulo Batu traveled to Aceh, there mingle with merchants from Persia and learn many things. Therefore, when the war against the Dutch, King Si Singamangaraja XII aided by fighters from Aceh, and the stamp / stempelnya use of Arabic and Batak.In 1877
King Si Singamangaraja XII declared war on the Netherlands. Then he runs the war against the Netherlands for 3 decades.
 
 
 
FRAME TWO :
THE HISTORY AND BIOGRAFI  OF KING  SISINGAMANGARAJA XII
 

 

 

 

 

Frame Two : The biography of Sisingamangaraja XII

 

 

Sisingamangaraja XII (1849-17 June 1907) is a Batak king who became an Indonesian folk hero for his fight against the Dutch, who killed him in their fight to gain control over the Batak lands

Sumatra Treaty in 1871 marked a new Babakan in the Dutch Colonial government’s ambition to dominate the region of Sumatra. After the Padri War in West sumatra complation. Tapanuli be the next target. Since the Aceh War, most of the area occupied by the army Tapanuli Colonial Occupation. The Dutch also began to put controller in Balige,Tarutung and Sipoholon.

Dutch soldiers lungs kick cuased a strong reaction from si singamaraja XII,King Tapanuli Bosat Patuan Ompu Pulo Batu when seated the throne get the name si Singamagaraja XII was born in Bakkara North Tapanuli 1849. In addition to domicile as a king, he also served as head of the customs as well as religious leader called Parmalin.It provides a high position among his people .this is evident when he took up arms against the Dutch. In that war ,si singamangaraja XII  led his ownself against Dutch resistance. The attack on the Dutch outpost in Tarutung,Balige and Bakkara in 1878.In that war,the king of Battaks was working with sseveral Commanders in Aceh and West sumatra, the most succeessful attack happened at the Stone Staies in 1884. Since many experienced defeat, the Netherlands increase the strenght and perform various acts of intimidation and violence. People suspected of helping Si Singamangaraja captured and killed but the opposition still runs. to influence the parties who do not like the position of The Netherlands,si singamagaraja then provide a cash prize of 2000 guilders burning villages and forcing people to pay high fines. Various effort sudden siege and assault were done by Netherlands but didnot show meaningful results. In 1894,King was with his army to face the Dutch army in the amouth of because imported from Medan and Aceh so that its strength of si Singamangaraja Raja Batak Bakkara is survive in the area and make the area as a center of resistance. Through the fierce fighting that eventually fortifications fell into the enemy hands, Then,the defense moved to Pakpak Dairi, a village in the southwest of Lake Toba. Dutch troops succeeded in entering through the North Tapanuli to a par-prisoner of fighters. The place was finally surrounded Dutch demand for surrender was refused and the king of fierce Fighting took place. The Si singamangaraja the slogan ” better dead than live berkalang colonized land” was dfinally killed in 1907 after long thirty years of formating popular resistance to drive out Dutch Tapanuli.


     
In the Batak Malim religion Sisingamaraja XII is seen as the prophet of God on earth, his spirit still alive in his successors.

ingamangaraja XII

Si Singamangaraja XII

King Sisingamangaraja XII (Bangkara, Tapanuli, 1849 – Simsim, Tano Batak, June 17, 1907); title Ompu Pulo Batu was a ruler in Tapanuli, North Sumatra in the late 19th century. He died on June 17, 1907 while defending itself from attack Dutch troops. His tomb is in Soposurung, Balige after removed from Tarutung. Sisingamangaraja name derived from Sanskrit which means lion and mangaraja (overlord).

Table of contents
1 Origin
2 Royal King Sisingamangaraja XII
3rd Degree
4 Cap Sisingamangaraja XII
5 References
 

 Origin
Sisingamangaraja, Sisingamangaraja XII dynasty, was a descendant of an officer appointed by the king Pagaruyung very powerful when it is, which comes around North Sumatra to place its officers. [1] In a letter to Marsden years 1820, Raffles wrote that the leaders explain Batak him about Sisingamangaraja which is a descendant of Minangkabau, in Silindung dah that there is a statue of human form is very ancient stone that allegedly brought from Pagaruyung. [2] Until the beginning of the 20th century, Sisingamangaraja still send regular tribute to the leader through the intermediary lord Barus Minangkabau who served Pagaruyung submit it to the leader.

Kingdom King Sisingamangaraja XII

Photo 1907. Dutch soldiers chasing Sisingamangaraja Tele XII in forest areas. Led by Hans Christoffel (holding stick), they posed for a moment in the region Sagala.
Sisingamangaraja is a big name in the history of Batak. He unifying figure. Sisingamangaraja dynasty began in the mid-1500s, when King Sisingamangaraja I who was born in 1515 began to reign. He’s not the first king in there. The government before it was known by the name of anesthetic. The anesthetic is a collection of about seven horja. While one horja consists of 20 huta or villages that have their own leadership. There anesthetic Toba, Patane Bolon, Silindung and so forth.

Of the 12 people who continue the dynasty Sisingamangaraja, Singamangaraja XII is the most popular king and was appointed as a national hero since 9 November 1961. The painting itself is made Augustin Sibarani who later printed in the old money of Rp 1,000, is the only “picture” themselves Sisingamangaraja. He ascended the throne in 1876 succeeded his father Singamangaraja XI named Ompu Sohahuaon.

The coronation of Maharaja Singamangaraja XII as in Toba city simultaneously with the start of open door policy (open-door policy). Netherlands felt the need to secure foreign capital operating in Indonesia are not willing to sign Korte Verkaring (short contract) in Sumatra, especially Aceh and Tapanuli. Both consultants are to open trade relations with other European countries. Holland himself tried to instill in the second monopilinya the sultanate. Different political situation encourages further to give birth to a prolonged battle to tens of years.

One that still continues to be a subject of discussion today, is a fad religion Sisingamangaraja XII. Some believe, he adopted the old beliefs most people Batak. Similar to the two major world religions Islam and Christianity, Batak religion knows only one Almighty, Debata Mulajadi Na Bolon or Ompu Mulajadi Nabolon. Now the old Batak religion is obsolete, though of course the traditional belief is still maintained.

Combat power very long time because in Tunjang by religious teachings of Islam. It is rare to rare in pointed by historians, because it was less relevant to the predicate of a National Hero. Or because of other reasons to feel less need membicarakanya. If you anyway want to talk about religion in embraced by Si Singamangaraja XII, they are more likely to recognize the religious Pelbagu Si Singamangaraja XII. Such Pelbagu animist religions worship the god who knows well. Debata Mulajadi as Mahadeva. Also mengaenal teachings Trine: Guru (god of glory), Ser Debata

One thing which is unacceptable when the Si XII Singamangaraja animistic religion, because we look at Cap Si kalu Singamangaraja XII reads Arabic letters that read: This is the Maharaja in the city of Cap Bakara village of Toba city. Hijrah of the Prophet 1304. On the stamp can be seen clearly the use of Hijra the Prophet. This gives an idea of ​​the influence of Islam that animates self-Si Singamangaraja XII. The letter hobo who was also in the capture, is similar to the actions of Prince Diponegoro who still uses the letters of Java to write letters.

Similarly, if we look at the flag of war. Seen the influence of Islam in the picture kelewang, sun and moon. Will be clearer if we follow the description a few magazines or a Dutch newspaper report on religion in embraced by Si Singamangaraja XII, among others; Volgens berichten van de bevolking Moet de togen, woordige titularis not jaren geleden een 5 tot den Islam jizn bekeerd, Doch hij werd en Islamiet fanatiek Geen Geen oefende jizn Druk op om zich uit te ongeving bekeeren. (Sukatulis, 1907, pp, 1)

According to news from the population, the current king (mean Titularis is Singamangaraja Si XII) since five years ago converted to Islam a fanatic, so he meneka so that people around him change his religion. News on this gives us data that Si Singamangaraja XII Muslim. In addition, the add also about the people who are not Muslim, and Si XII Singamangaraja not hold any other force or pressure. This also give an idea also about control Si Singamangaraja XII against religion itself.

Mohammad Said, in his book Sisingamangaraja XII states likely true that Sisingamangaraja a Muslim. Guidelines derived from information in writing Zendeling Dutch, JH Meerwaldt, who had been a teacher at nearby Narumonda Porsea. Meerwaldt hear Sisingamangaja already embraced Islam.

In the magazine Rheinische Missionsgessellschaft published in 1907 in Germany which states, that Sisingamangaraja, despite the super-natural power to say no to him, to fall, and that the same is true with the shift he became a Muslim and its relationship to the people of Aceh.

Relations with the Dutch attacked Aceh occurred in 1877 Tanah Batak. Because of weak tactically, Sisingamangaraja XII relationships with troops in Aceh and the Acehnese figures of Muslim fighters to boost forces combat capability. He went to the Gayo, Alas, Singkel, and Pidie in Aceh and also take part in war exercises Keumala.

Exchange officer conducted. Aceh trained officers participated in the XII Sisingamangaraja troops to help win the war strategy, while officers continue to be trained in Aceh Batak. One Teacher Mengambat, one warlord Sisingamangaraja XII. Teungku earned a Master Mengambat Aceh.

The information was based on resident LC Kort Verslag Welsink on August 16, 1906. In the note mentioned, a commander named Teacher Mengambat Sisingamangaraja XII of Salak (Kab. Pakpak Hasundutan now) had converted to Islam. This information was obtained by Welsink from Ompu Onggung and Defence Batu.

In a confidential letter to the Departement van Oorlog, the Netherlands, Lieutenant L. van Vuuren and Berenshot on 19 July 1907 states, Dat de Oude S vaststaatdat bet. S. M. Met zijn tot zonns Islamic den Waren over gegaan, al zullen zij wel niet Mohamedan in merg en been geworden zijn / That is definitely S. S. M. old with her sons had converted to Islam, although Islam is not just how pervasive they are in his soul.

Dutch Newspapers Algemcene Handeslsblad on July 3, 1907 edition, as stated Mohammad Said in his book, wrote, “According to the news of the occupation, stop right now the king (ie Sisingamangaraja) since five years ago had embraced Islam. But he is not an Islamic fanatic, so he does not push people around him change his religion. “

This information further strengthens allegations Sisingamangaraja XII had embraced Islam. Moreover, Islamic patterns seen in the pattern of government administration, such as flags and seals.

Sisingamangaraja XII flag red and white., Bearing the twin swords, moon and stars, similar to the flag of Saudi Arabia now. The difference in the flag Sisingamangaraja XII are located on the right seblah sword is a full moon or full moon, not a crescent. While the star is located on the left has eight serrations, not five as is commonly seen in mosques in other Islamic tradition symbol. However, eight jagged objects could also be interpreted as the sun.

The outside of the stamp which has 12 serrations Sisingamangaraja periphery also use the Hijri era and Arabic letters. But the Arabic alphabet to write the Batak language, “This is the stamp Maharaja in Negri Toba Bakara Village Name Adorned, Hijrat Prophet 1304″. While the script to write Ahu Sahap bataknya ni mian Tuwan Lion Mangaraja Bakara, which means I Cap Mr. Lion Mangaraja enthroned in Bakara.

“Actually, flags and seals that have characterized the mode of Islam in government Sisingamangaraja. Thus a strong possibility he had embraced Islam, but there is no authentic data so it can not be ascertained the truth, “said Chairman of the Council of North Sumatra Aziz Mahmud H Siregar.

For more in-depth conveyed, Dada Meuraxa in his book History of Culture The tribes in North Sumatra. “Sisingamangaraja XII had converted to Islam and circumcised in Aceh when he came to Banda Aceh to ask for help weapons,” said Meuraxa.

In the book mentions Meuraxa, description, according to a source statement, Tuanku Hashim, who quoted her aunt who is also Commander Polem wife who witnessed the ceremony in Aceh.

“Although it is not enough facts Sisingamangaraja a Muslim, but the movement was strongly influenced his life the story of Islam. Up to stamp his own kingdom Arabic script. Flag using the moon and stars two Arabian swords are also given the fact the light, “wrote Dada Meuraxa. After the pastor Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen open post zending in Silindung then worry about power Singamangaraja Netherlands will soon enter the land of Batak. He became leader of the Batak lands against Dutch colonialism. Feeling threatened by Singamangaraja XII then Nomensen ask for the Dutch to send troops to immediately conquer Silindung. On February 6, 1878 Dutch troops arrived in Pearaja, the residence of Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen evangelists, and together with evangelists Nommensen bahal Dutch troops left for Stone to prepare defenses. The Singamangaraja who felt provoked declares war (peacefully) on 16 February. In a war that became famous with Toba War (also called Batak War or War Singamangaraja), the Dutch troops who assisted by Christian Batak troops to combat resistance Singamangaraja, burned dozens of villages, including Bangkara, Singamangaraja XII own village. Singamangaraja forced to resign to the Dairi and from there she was repeatedly attacked the Dutch Singamangaraja named Ompu Pulobatu XII himself, born on February 18, 1845 and died June 7, 1907 in a battle with the Dutch in the Dairi. A bullet penetrated his chest. By the last breath, by gunfire Dutch troops headed by Captain Hans Christoffel, he still says, “Ahuu Sisingamangaraja”.

Speech is synonymous with persistence berjuang.Turut that time also shot his two sons Patuan Nagari and Patuan Anggi, and her daughter Lopian. While the rest of his family captive in Tarutung. That’s the end of the battle against Dutch colonialism in Batak land since 1877. Sisingamangaraja own later interred in a military Holland on June 22, 1907 at Silindung. His shrine is just moved to Soposurung, Balige like this now since June 17, 1953.

Title

Singamangaraja title is a title of hereditary groups who have the privilege authority (Sahala) king of the branch of the clan Sinambela faith, lived in Bangkara. Because of privileges, advantages, wisdom that goes down through the generations they respected most of the Batak, especially from large parts of the clans of Sumba. Indonesia is the national hero who is also called Pulo Batu Ompu is Singamangaraja the twelfth.

Cap Sisingamangaraja XII
Singamangaraja XII has three stamps that have been studied by Uli Kozok in the book “Letters Batak: Batak History of Writing, Script Writing Guidelines Here Batak and Cap Si Singamangaraja XII. New York: Scholastic. 2009

 

Foto tahun 1907. Tentara Belanda mengejar Sisingamangaraja XII di kawasan hutan Tele. Dipimpin Hans Christoffel (memegang tongkat), mereka berpose sejenak di daerah Sagala.

Sisingamangaraja merupakan nama besar dalam sejarah Batak. Dia tokoh pemersatu. Dinasti Sisingamangaraja dimulai sejak pertengahan tahun 1500-an, saat Raja Sisingamangaraja I yang lahir tahun 1515 mulai memerintah. Dia memang bukan raja pertama di sana. Pemerintahan masa sebelum itu dikenal dengan nama bius. Satu bius merupakan kumpulan sekitar tujuh horja. Sedangkan satu horja terdiri dari 20 huta atau desa yang punya pimpinan sendiri. Ada Bius Toba, Patane Bolon, Silindung dan sebagainya.

Dari 12 orang yang melanjutkan dinasti Sisingamangaraja, Singamangaraja XII merupakan raja paling populer dan diangkat sebagai pahlawan nasional sejak 9 November 1961. Lukisan dirinya yang dibuat Augustin Sibarani yang kemudian tercetak di uang Rp 1.000 yang lama, merupakan satu-satunya “foto” diri Sisingamangaraja. Dia naik tahta pada tahun 1876 menggantikan ayahnya Singamangaraja XI yang bernama Ompu Sohahuaon.

Penobatan Si Singamangaraja XII sebagai Maharaja di negri Toba bersamaan dengan dimulainya open door policy (politik pintu terbuka). Belanda merasa perlu mengamankan modal asing yang beroperasi di Indonesia yang tidak mau menandatangani Korte Verkaring ( perjanjian pendek) di Sumatra terutama Aceh dan Tapanuli. Kedua konsultan ini membuka hubungan dagang dengan negara-negara Eropa lainya. Belanda sendiri berusaha menanamkan monopilinya di kedua kesultanan tersebut. Politik yang berbeda ini mendorong situasi selanjutnya untuk melahirkan peperangan yang berkepanjangan hingga puluhan tahun.

Satu yang masih terus jadi bahan diskusi hingga hari ini, adalah agama yang anutan Sisingamangaraja XII. Sebagian yakin, dia penganut kepercayaan lama yang dianut sebagian besar orang Batak. Mirip dengan dua agama besar dunia Islam dan Kristen, agama Batak hanya mengenal satu Yang Maha Kuasa, Debata Mulajadi Na Bolon atau Ompu Mulajadi Nabolon. Sekarang agama Batak lama sudah ditinggalkan, walau tentu saja kepercayaan tradisional masih dipertahankan.

Daya tempur yang sangat lama ini karena di tunjang oleh ajaran agama islam. Hal ini jarang jarang di kemukakan oleh para sejarawan, karena merasa kurang relevan dengan predikat Pahlawan Nasional. Atau karena alasan-alasan lain merasa kurang perlu membicarakanya. Kalau toh mau membicarakan tentang agama yang di anut oleh Si Singamangaraja XII, mereka lebih cenderung untuk mengakui Si Singamangaraja XII beragama Pelbagu. Pelbagu semacam agama animisme yang mengenal pula pemujaan dewa. Debata Mulajadi sebagai mahadewa. Juga mengaenal ajaran Trimurti: Batara Guru (dewa kejayaan), Debata Ser

Satu hal yang sukar diterima adalah bila Si Singamangaraja XII beragama animisme, karena kalu kita perhatikan Cap Si Singamangaraja XII yang bertuliskan huruf arab berbunyi; Inilah Cap Maharaja di negri Toba kampung Bakara kotanya. Hijrah Nabi 1304. Pada cap tersebut terlihat jelas penggunaan tahun hijriah Nabi. Hal ini memberikan gambaran tentang besarnya pengaruh ajaran Islam yang menjiwai diri Si Singamangaraja XII. Adapun huruf batak yang masih pula di abadikan, adalah sama dengan tindakan Pangeran Diponegoro yang masih mengguakan huruf jawa dalam menulis surat.

Begitu pula kalau kita perhatikan bendera perangnya. Terlihat pengaruh Islam dalam gambar kelewang, matahari dan bulan. Akan lebih jelas bila kita ikuti keterangan beberapa majalah atau koran Belanda yang memberitakan tentang agama yang di anut oleh Si Singamangaraja XII, antara lain; Volgens berichten van de bevolking moet de togen, woordige titularis een 5 tak jaren geleden tot den Islam jizn bekeerd, doch hij werd geen fanatiek Islamiet en oefende geen druk op jizn ongeving uit om zich te bekeeren. ( Sukatulis, 1907, hlm, 1)

Menurut kabar-kabar dari penduduk, raja yang sekarang (maksud Titularis adalah Si Singamangaraja XII) semenjak lima tahun yang lalu memeluk agama Islam yang fanatik, demikian pula dia meneka supaya orang-orang sekelilingnya menukar agamanya. Berita di atas ini memberikan data kepada kita bahwa Si Singamangaraja XII beragama Islam. Selain itu, di tambahkan pula tentang rakyat yang tidak beragama Islam, dan Si Singamangaraja XII tidak mengadakan paksaan atau penekanan lainnya. Hal ini sekaligus memberikan gambaran pula tentang penguasaan Si Singamangaraja XII terhadap ajaran agama itu sendiri.

Mohammad Said, dalam bukunya Sisingamangaraja XII menyatakan kemungkinan benar bahwa Sisingamangaraja seorang Muslim. Pedomannya berasal dari informasi dalam tulisan Zendeling berkebangsaan Belanda, J.H Meerwaldt, yang pernah menjadi guru di Narumonda dekat Porsea. Meerwaldt mendengar Sisingamangaja sudah memeluk Islam.

Di majalah Rheinische Missionsgessellschaft tahun 1907 yang diterbitkan di Jerman yang menyatakan, bahwa Sisingamangaraja, kendati kekuatan adi-alamiah yang dikatakan ada padanya, dapat jatuh, dan bahwa demikian juga halnya dengan beralihnya dia menjadi orang Islam dan hubungannya kepada orang Aceh.

Hubungan dengan Aceh ini terjadi Belanda menyerang Tanah Batak pada tahun 1877. Karena lemah secara taktis, Sisingamangaraja XII menjalin hubungan dengan pasukan Aceh dan dengan tokoh-tokoh pejuang Aceh beragama Islam untuk meningkatkan kemampuan tempur pasukannya. Dia berangkat ke wilayah Gayo, Alas, Singkel, dan Pidie di Aceh dan turut serta pula dalam latihan perang Keumala.

Pertukaran perwira dilakukan. Perwira terlatih Aceh ikut dalam pasukan Sisingamangaraja XII untuk membantu strategi pemenangan perang, sementara perwira Batak terus dilatih di Aceh. Salah satunya Guru Mengambat, salah seorang panglima perang Sisingamangaraja XII. Guru Mengambat mendapat gelar Teungku Aceh.

Informasi itu berdasarkan Kort Verslag Residen L.C Welsink pada 16 Agustus 1906. Dalam catatan itu disebutkan, seorang panglima Sisingamangaraja XII bernama Guru Mengambat dari Salak (Kab. Pakpak Hasundutan sekarang) telah masuk Islam. Informasi ini diperoleh oleh Welsink dari Ompu Onggung dan Pertahan Batu.

Dalam sebuah surat rahasia kepada Departement van Oorlog, Belanda, Letnan L. van Vuuren dan Berenshot pada tanggal 19 juli 1907 menyatakan, Dat bet vaststaatdat de oude S .S. M. Met zijn zonns tot den Islam waren over gegaan, al zullen zij wel niet Mohamedan in merg en been geworden zijn/ Bahwa sudah pasti S. S. M. yang tua dengan putra-putranya telah beralih memeluk agama Islam, walaupun keislaman mereka tidak seberapa meresap dalam sanubarinya.

Surat Kabar Belanda Algemcene Handeslsblad pada edisi 3 Juli 1907, sebagaimana dinyatakan Mohammad Said dalam bukunya, menuliskan, “Menurut kabar dari pendudukan, sudahlah benar raja yang sekarang (maksudnya Sisingamangaraja) semenjak lima tahun yang lalu telah memeluk Islam. Tetapi dia bukanlah seorang Islam yang fanatik, demikian pula dia tidak menekan orang-orang di sekelilingnya menukar agamanya”.

Informasi ini semakin menguatkan dugaan Sisingamangaraja XII telah memeluk Islam. Apalagi terlihat pola-pola Islam dalam pola administrasi pemerintahannya, misalnya bendera dan stempel.

Bendera Sisingamangaraja XII yang berwarna merah dan putih., berlambang pedang kembar, bulan dan bintang, mirip dengan bendera Arab Saudi sekarang. Bedanya bulan dalam bendera Sisingamangaraja XII yang terletak di seblah kanan pedang merupakan bulan penuh atau bulan purnama, bukan bulan sabit. Sedangkan bintang yang terletak di sebelah kiri memiliki delapan gerigi, bukan lima seperti yang biasa terlihat di mesjid dalam lambang tradisi Islam lainnya. Namun benda bergerigi delapan itu bisa juga diartikan sebagai matahari.

Bagian luar stempel Sisingamangaraja yang mempunyai 12 gerigi pinggiran juga menggunakan tarikh Hijriah dan huruf Arab. Namun huruf Arab itu untuk menuliskan bahasa Batak, “Inilah cap Maharaja di Negri Toba Kampung Bakara Nama Kotanya, Hijrat Nabi 1304”. Sedangkan aksara bataknya menuliskan Ahu Sahap ni Tuwan Singa Mangaraja mian Bakara, artinya Aku Cap Tuan Singa Mangaraja Bertakhta di Bakara.

“Sebenarnya bendera dan stempel itu sudah mencirikan corak Islam dalam pemerintahan Sisingamangaraja. Dengan demikian kuat kemungkinan dia sudah memeluk Islam, tetapi tidak ada data otentik jadi tidak bisa dipastikan kebenarannya,” kata Ketua Majelis Ulama Sumut H Mahmud Azis Siregar.

Keterangan lebih mendalam disampaikan, Dada Meuraxa dalam bukunya Sejarah Kebudayaan Suku-suku di Sumatera Utara. “Sisingamangaraja XII sudah masuk Islam dan disunatkan di Aceh waktu beliau datang ke Banda Aceh meminta bantuan senjata,” kata Meuraxa.

Dalam buku itu Meuraxa menyebutkan, keterangan itu berdasarkan pernyataan seorang sumber, Tuanku Hasyim, yang mengutip pernyataan bibi-nya yang juga istri Panglima Polem yang menyaksikan sendiri upacara tersebut di Aceh.

“Walaupun belum cukup fakta-fakta Sisingamangaraja seorang Islam, tetapi gerak hidupnya sangat terpengaruh cerita Islam. Sampai kepada cap kerajaannya sendiri tulisan Arab. Benderanya yang memakai bulan bintang dan dua pedang Arab ini pun memberikan fakta terang,” tulis Dada Meuraxa. Setelah pendeta Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen membuka pos zending di Silindung maka Singamangaraja khawatir kekuasaan Belanda akan segera masuk ke Tanah Batak. Beliau menjadi pemimpin negeri-negeri Batak yang menentang penjajahan Belanda. Karena merasa terancam oleh Singamangaraja XII maka Nomensen minta agar Belanda mengirim pasukan untuk segera menaklukkan Silindung. Pada 6 Februari 1878 pasukan Belanda tiba di Pearaja, kediaman penginjil Ludwig Ingwer Nommensen, dan bersama-sama dengan penginjil Nommensen pasukan Belanda berangkat ke Bahal Batu untuk menyusun benteng pertahanan. Si Singamangaraja yang merasa terprovokasi mengumumkan perang (pulas) pada tanggal 16 Februari. Dalam perang yang menjadi terkenal dengan Perang Toba (juga disebut Perang Batak atau Perang Singamangaraja), pasukan Belanda yang diperbantukan oleh pasukan Batak Kristen untuk memberantas perlawanan Singamangaraja, membakar puluhan kampung, termasuk Bangkara, kampungnya Singamangaraja XII sendiri. Singamangaraja terpaksa mengundurkan diri ke daerah Dairi dan dari situ ia berkali-kali menyerang Belanda Singamangaraja XII sendiri bernama Ompu Pulobatu, lahir pada 18 Februari 1845 dan meninggal 7 Juni 1907 dalam sebuah pertempuran dengan Belanda di Dairi. Sebuah peluru menembus dadanya. Menjelang napas terakhir, akibat tembakan pasukan Belanda yang dipimpin Kapten Hans Christoffel itu, dia tetap berucap, “Ahuu Sisingamangaraja”.

Ucapan itu identik dengan kegigihannya berjuang.Turut tertembak juga waktu itu dua putranya Patuan Nagari dan Patuan Anggi, serta putrinya Lopian. Sedangkan sisa keluarganya ditawan di Tarutung. Itulah akhir pertempuran melawan penjajahan Belanda di tanah Batak sejak tahun 1877. Sisingamangaraja sendiri kemudian dikebumikan Belanda secara militer pada 22 Juni 1907 di Silindung. Makamnya baru dipindahkan ke Soposurung, Balige seperti sekarang ini sejak 17 Juni 1953.

Gelar

Gelar Singamangaraja adalah gelar kelompok turun temurun yang memiliki keistimewaan wibawa (sahala) raja iman dari cabang marga Sinambela, tinggal di Bangkara. Karena keistimewaan, keunggulan, kearifan yang berlangsung turun-temurun mereka dihormati sebagian besar orang Batak, khususnya dari belahan marga besar Sumba. Pahlawan nasional Indonesia ini yang disebut juga Ompu Pulo Batu adalah Singamangaraja yang keduabelas.

Cap Sisingamangaraja XII

Singamangaraja XII memiliki tiga cap yang telah diteliti oleh Uli Kozok dalam buku “Surat Batak: Sejarah Perkembangan Tulisan Batak, Berikut Pedoman Menulis Aksara Batak dan Cap Si Singamangaraja XII. Jakarta : Gramedia. 2009.

 Reference

  1. ^ Brenner, J.F. von. Besuch bei den Kannibalen Sumatras: erste Durchquerung der unabhangigen Batak-Lande. Wurzburg: Wurl. 
  2. ^ Raffles, Stamford. Memoir of the life and public services of Sir Thomas Stamford Raffles. London: John Murray. the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011
 
 

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  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Indonesian Historic Collection 1830 to 1910:

(Map)

A.Table Of Content :

Introduction

The chronologic collections

B.Introduction

1.Dutch Imperialism: 1815-1870

The Dutch fought two major wars in the 1820s. They still did not control many areas in their imagined sphere of influence, including Aceh, Bali, much of Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara.

Leaders among the Indonesians included:

Pattimura in Ambon in 1817

Pangeran Diponegoroin the Java War, 1825-1830

Imam Tuanku Bonjol in the Padri War in the 1830s

2. The KNIL

3.The Revenue History 19Th Century 

1)Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.

2)The Earliest Netherland Oost Indie revenue

(1)The Ned Oost Indie Revenue  sheet , embosed noncolour , nominal:

Quater G

 half G

,one G

,one and  half

two

,four

Six

and 12 guilders.

(3)All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894

, b Land Certificate .countersign by Soerabaja Justice Office 1904 with uncolour embossed revenue 6 gld

 , and c Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)

 

 

2)The Ned Oost  Indie Revenue stamped, I have only found two type , the five cent and overprint 10 cent on 5 cent ,

1) 2.11.1888

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
2. THE OVERPRINT 10 CENT  ON THE FIRST REVENUE FIVE CENT(EMERGENCY REVENUE)
10.5.1893
3)THE 10 CENT PLAKZEGEL VAN NEDERLANSCHE INDIE
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

6.5.1900 nED.iNDIE rEVENUE sTAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

 
THE ORDER(ORDONASI) OF NED.INDIE(DEI) REVENUE:
 1.Ordonasi Revenue 1817-1885,
After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.
2.REVENUE ORDONASI 1885
the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

A

3.) ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858

FRAME FOUR :
THE 19th CENTURY INDONESIA  ‘S HISTORY
1.PREFACE:
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenth century, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.

[7]

Although parts of Java were under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including

Aceh

,

Bali

,

Kalimantan

, and

Lombok

.

[7]

It was not until the early 20th century, that Dutch dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.

[8]

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

INDONESIA UNDER NAOPEON FRENCH DOMINATION(1806-1810)

In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[9]

INDONESIA UNDER BRITISH DENOMINATION (1811-1816)

 In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.

INDONESIA UNDER DUTCH COLONIAL NETHERLAND INDIES

 Dutch control was restored in 1816.[10]Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]

The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[11] The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control.

2.REPUBLIC BATAAV

The Batavian Republic was the successor

Succession of states
Succession of states is a theory in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state…

 of the Republic of the United Netherlands

Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands…

. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795 and ended on June 5, 1806 with the accession of Louis Bonaparte

Louis Bonaparte
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince Français, King of Holland, Comte de Saint-Leu was the fifth surviving child and the fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino…

 to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland

Kingdom of Holland
The Kingdom of Holland 1806–1810 was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country…

.

The new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. Nevertheless, it clearly was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic. The Batavian Republic became a client state of first that “sister-republic

French client republic
During its occupation of neighboring parts of Europe during the French Revolutionary Wars, France established republican regimes in these territories…

“, and later of the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, and its politics was deeply influenced by the French who supported no less than three coups d’état to bring the different political factions to power that France favored at different moments in her own historical development. Nevertheless, the process of creating a written Dutch constitution was mainly driven by internal political factors, not by French influence—until Napoleon forced the Dutch government to accept his brother as monarch.

The political, economic and social reforms that were brought about during the relatively short duration of the Batavian Republic have had a lasting impact. The confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state. For the first time in Dutch history, the constitution that was adopted in 1798 had a genuinely democratic character (despite the fact that it was pushed through after a coup d’état

Coup d’état
A coup d’état —also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extra-legal deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either civil or military…

). For a while the Republic was governed democratically, though the coup d’état of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power, after another change in constitution. Nevertheless, the memory of this brief experiment with democracy helped smooth the transition to a more democratic government in 1848 (the constitutional revision by Thorbecke

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke
Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was a Dutch politician and statesman of Liberal signature who is considered as one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century…

, limiting the power of the King). A type of ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period.

Though the Batavian Republic was a client state, its successive governments tried their best to maintain a modicum of independence and to serve Dutch interests even where those clashed with those of their French overseers. This perceived obduracy led to the eventual demise of the Republic when the short-lived experiment with the (again authoritarian) regime of “Grand Pensionary” Schimmelpenninck produced insufficient docility in the eyes of Napoleon. The new king, Louis Napoleon – Napoleon’s own brother – surprisingly did not slavishly follow French dictates either, leading to his downfall.

Background

The final days of the Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands…

 were quite eventful. Due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
The Fourth Anglo–Dutch War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. The war, tangentially related to the American Revolutionary War, broke out over British and Dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of Dutch trade with Britain’s enemies in that…

 that went disastrously for the Dutch, the Patriot party

Patriots (faction)
The Patriots were a political faction in the Dutch Republic in the second half of the eighteenth century. They were led by Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, gaining power from November 1782….

 staged a revolt against the authoritarian regime of stadtholder

Stadtholder
A Stadtholder in the Low Countries was a medieval function which during the 18th century developed into a rare type of de facto hereditary head of state of the thus “crowned” Dutch Republic…

 William V

William V, Prince of Orange
William V Batavus, Prince of Orange-Nassau was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and between 1795 and 1806 he led the Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile in London. He was succeeded by his son William I.-Earliest years:…

 

 in June 1787. Most Patriots went into exile in France, while the ancien régime strengthened its grip on the government through the Orangist

Orangism (Netherlands)
Orangism is a monarchist political support for the House of Orange-Nassau as monarchy of the Netherlands. It played a significant role in the political history of the Netherlands since the Dutch revolt…

Creation of the Republic

This war also proceeded disastrously for the Stadtholder’s forces, and in the severe winter of 1794/95 a French army under general Charles Pichegru

Charles Pichegru
Jean-Charles Pichegru was a French general and political figure of the French Revolution and Revolutionary Wars.-Early life and career:…

, with a Dutch contingent under general Herman Willem Daendels

Herman Willem Daendels
Herman Willem Daendels was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 – 1811….

, crossed the great frozen rivers that traditionally protected the Netherlands from invasion. Aided by the fact that a substantial proportion of the Dutch population looked favorably upon the French incursion, and often considered it a liberation, the French were quickly able to break the resistance of the forces of the Stadtholder, and his Austrian and British allies. However, in many cities revolution broke out even before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees

1830

 

 

  Johannes van den Bosch arrives as the new Governor-General, begins the “cultuurstelsel” or “culture system”.Forced cultivation of indigo is introduced in the Priangan.First steamboat arrives in the Indies.Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap (Dutch Missionary Society) begins offering education to “native” children.December 4 Van den Bosch officially organizes the Dutch forces from the Java War into the Oost-Indische Leger, or “East Indies Army” (later KNIL).                                  

 

     

 

                     

 

 

             

 

             

 

     

 

                  . .

 

     

 

    .

 

  .          

 

                     

 

     

 

     

 

             

 

                     

 

     

 

  . .

 

                  . .     .  

 

                     

 

                  .  

 

                             

 

             

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1831

  Nederlands-Indië government manages a balanced budget.Dutch forces fighting the Padri in Sumatra reach the Bonjol area.U.S. ships shell coastal villages in Aceh in an action against piracy.
Gov.-Gen. Johannes van den BoschIt was only after the Java War that the Dutch began to think about a real empire in the Indies. From 1830 to the end of the century, the Dutch began a drive to take complete control of the areas from Aceh to New Guinea, and to extract as much profit as possible from the valuable areas, such as the Priangan area of West Java.Revenues from the Indies paid for as much as one-third of the Dutch government’s budget in the mid-1800s. These monies helped to finance the industrialization and development of the Netherlands in the 1800s. The burden fell especially upon the Netherlands Indies, since the Dutch had lost many of their other colonies to the British during the Napoleonic wars (including South Africa and Sri Lanka), and since Belgium with its business and industry broke away from the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830.The government was called the Netherlands Indies, or Nederlands-Indië in Dutch, or Hindia Belanda in Indonesian today

1832

  Dutch depose Sultan of Jailolo and take control of Halmahera. Under the “culture system”, Javanese were required to grow a certain amount of crops for export–more coffee, sugar, spices and indigo, but less rice to feed the people. The system worked without great controversy for the first few years. About 1845, a series of poor harvests led to greater poverty and even famine on Java–famine that was aggravated because the best lands were being used for tobacco, sugar or coffee instead of rice, and because the land in general had been exhausted by overproduction. Van den Bosch had specified that local farmers should be given leeway to grow their own food, but colonial officials under him ignored these orders in pursuit of ever larger cash crops.The products of the culture system were sold through the Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij, run by the Netherlands government, and the profits were kept by the Netherlands. The King of the Netherlands owned significant shares in the NHM, and gained an extra fortune from its profits. (The NHM survives today as the Algemene Bank Nederland.) The Netherlands Indies nearly went bankrupt in the 1820s; after van den Bosch, it returned large budget surpluses to the Netherlands throughout the 1830s (and into the 1870s

1833

  JanuaryMinangkabau villages around Bonjol rise up in popular rebellion; Dutch troops in the area are massacred. Padri war heats up; Dutch seal off the coast. Sentot fights on Dutch side, but was probably not pro-Dutch in his heart. Dutch place Sentot under watch in Bengkulu (until 1855).Sultan of Jambi asks for Dutch help against Palembang.

1834

  Dutch force Sultan Muhammad Fahruddin of Jambi to recognize Dutch sovereignty.Portuguese government expels Dominican friars from East Timor.

1836

  Dutch abandon Fort Du Bus on Irian.(west papua)

 

1837

 

 

  Bonjol in Minangkabau finally falls to the Dutch in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrenders and is sent into minahasa.Tuanku Imam Bonjol was one of the main leaders in the Padri war. Other fighters against the Dutch included the “Harimau Nan Selapan” or “eight tigers”, led by Haji Miskin.Iman Bonjol Padri soldier  with sword and Qour’an inspected Dutch Fort de Kock(now Bukittingi) compare with the lith. illustration from mersedon book the history of sumatra.

1838

  Dutch victory at Daludalu ends the Padri war in Minangkabau. Direct Dutch rule in Minangkabau is enforced (adat law and nobility appear pro-Dutch, Islamic leaders appear anti-Dutch).Dutch expedition against Flores.Bone renewsTreaty of Bungaya; fighting against the Dutch subsides.Dutch establish presence on Nias.Sulaiman inherits rule of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim rules as guardian, ruling Aceh until 1870.Mataram kingdom on Lombok takes control of the whole island, plus Karangasem on Bali

1839

  Danish merchant Mads Lange opens a trading post at Kuta on Bali

1841

  The rajas of Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng on Bali sign treaties recognizing Dutch sovereignty; rajas to keep internal power.James Brooke begins creating private empire for himself in Sarawak.

1842

  Dutch withdraw from east coast of Sumatra north of Palembang due to British worries.The nobility in Surakarta is arrested under suspicion of inciting revolt.

1843

  Raja of Lombok accepts Dutch sovereignty.Famine in Cirebon. By this time, there was a movement of people out of the Priangan, Cirebon, and nearby areas of West Java towards areas that were less strictly controlled by the culture system. Local bupatis and Dutch officials were instructed to send these internal refugees home whenever possible.In the 1840s, as much as two-thirds of the money earned by a Javanese farmer on his crops could be taken by taxes.

1844

  Rajas of Buleleng and Karangasem are dissatisfied with Dutch, and refuse to ratify treaties.

1845

  Vanilla industry started on Java.

1846

  JuneNetherlands Indies force attacks Buleleng; other rajas secretly support the anti-Dutch forces. Palace at Singaraja is destroyed. Raja of Buleleng signs a treaty of submission. Netherlands Indies bases a garrison at Singaraja.Netherlands Indies expedition against Flores.Typhoid epidemic in Java.Netherlands Indies takes control of Samarinda.First commercial coal mine is opened at Martapura, South Kalimantan.Revolt in Banten.It was traditional on Bali for shipwrecks to be salvaged by the local population. The Dutch considered this to be looting and theft. The cultural clash led to continual political and military conflict between the Netherlands Indies government and the rajas on Bali.

1847

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.  

 

  .  

1848

  JuneNetherlands Indies sends a military force to Bali in response to conflicts over the enforcement of treaties with the local rajas. The force is defeated by a Balinese force under Gusti Ketut Jilantik at Jagaraga, and withdraws from the island.New constitution in Netherlands: Dutch States-General has some control over colonial affairs.Revised commercial, civil and criminal codes for the Netherlands Indies are introduced, applicable to people of European descent only.Demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Reformed minister), petitions the King of the Netherlands for freedom of the press, public secondary schools, and representation for the Netherlands Indies in the States General.Regency schools, for the education and training of the children of local rulers and nobles, begin operations.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas  

 

1850

  Dutch begin missionary work among Bataks of north Sumatra.Famine in Central Java.Dutch purchase the remaining Portuguese posts on Flores.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas .

 

     

1851

  “Dokter-Jawa” INDISCHE_ARTS school (STOVIA,now Museum) founded in Gambir NEAR Dutch Army Hospital(now RSPAD Gatot Subroto), Batavia.Billiton Maatschappij begins tin mining on Belitung.at Soegai Liat city , Many Chinese laborers are imported.

1852

  Aceh sends an emissary to Napoleon III of France.Cola trees are introduced on Java.Dutch end the tax on the hajj.                       .       .  

1857

  Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.
Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.  

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.  

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.  

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.  

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends. In 1863, the government of the Netherlands used profits from the exploitation of the Netherlands Indies to compensate former slaveholders in Suriname in South America, after slavery was abolished there.

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864.

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1853

  Dutch begin administering north Bali.Mangkunegara IV takes his title in Surakarta.
A local ruler on Madura, about 1853.

1854

  Netherlands government issues a constitutional reform for the Netherlands Indies (“Regeeringsreglement”). Local rulers in the Indies are to continue to have traditional powers over their subjects, ruling on behalf of the Dutch. A strict separation betweens Europeans and “Inlanders” is recognized in the law.Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies receives the power to exile anyone without appeal or review.Aceh establishes authority over Langkat, Deli and Serdang on east coast of Sumatra (“pepper ports”).Introduction of cinchona (quinine) cultivation to the Priangan, at Cibodas, West Java.
     

 

1855

  Hamengkubuwono VI becomes Sultan of Yogya.Dutch military expedition to Nias.Dutch extend control over western Kalimantan.Dutch East Indie forbiiden circulated all type of coins issued before 1855 included locla and chinese cash coins, and issued first half cent and one cent  copper coincoin (very rare because limited edition only 200.000)

1856

  Regulation on Publications gives the Governor-General authority to conduct prepublication censorship of the press without appeal or review.MarchEduard Douwes Dekker is dismissed from his government post in West Java after accusing local bupatis of corruption. (Later, under the pen name “Multatuli”, he writes the novel “Max Havelaar”, exposing conditions in colonial Java to readers in the Netherlands.)Dutch military expedition to Flores.
Eduard Douwes Dekker, or “Multatuli”

1857

Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

 

  .
          .  

 

   

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.

 

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.
 

 

     

 

     

 

           

 

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.        

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.

 

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends.
          .       .  

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

 

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.               .  

 

                  .               .                          

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch o

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

 

   

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease.
     

 

    .        

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch o

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common
  .  

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.
     

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.

 

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.        

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.
      power passed from traditional rulers to

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia.

 

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.     .  

 

  .  

 

             

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.          

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.
     

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).                 .

 

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.         .

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

 

1890

 

 
 
Zijlker mendirikan perusahaan yang akan menjadi Royal Dutch  Shell2.  Ekspedisi KNIL belanda melawan Flores.
3 HindiaBelanda memper-kenalkan pajak properti.(bangunan)
                         

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1891

  Mengwi  Bali diambil alih oleh Badung.2.Pemberontakan Naqshbandiyya di Lombok menentang hukum masyarakat Mataram Bali ; Dutch 3Pekerja kontral pertama berangkat ke Suriname di Amerika Selatan 
mesjid traditional aceh tahun  1800

 

             

1893

  Pakubuwono X menjadi  Susuhunan  Solo.2.Sekolah pertama untuk penduduk pribumi Indonesia didirikan

.

         

1894

 

 
 
1.intervensi terakhir Belanda di Lombok berhasil; bangsawan turun di Puputan; Karangasem menjadi ketergantungan 2.Pada akhirnya Belanda mengorganisir “Perang Batak” 3..Pemberontakan melawan Portugis di Timor Timor.4.Hindia Belanda monopoli opium yang dikelola dimana  negara  mengontrol perdagangan opium (Opiumregie)..
 
.”Puputan” adalah biaya bunuh diri oleh kaum bangsawan Bali untuk membela kehormatan mereka kapan lagi semua hilang.
.Keluarga  akan memakai pakaian upacara, mempersenjatai diri dengan senjata palsu dan berjalan langsung ke pelluru tembakan.Dilaporkan bahwa   peristiwa mengerikan di Lombok sampai  ke Belanda, dan menyebabkan reaksi yang sangat berbeda di berbagai segmen masyarakat. Pers populer dipromosikan demam perang, dan lebih dari 3000 relawan tentara setuju untuk pergi ke Hindia dan berjuang untuk mahkota Belanda. Namun, pengamat lain terkejut, dan reaksi mereka membantu memulai gerakan menuju reformasi moderat dalam pemerintahan kolonial yang akhirnya akan dikenal sebagai “Politik Etis”.

“.

1895

 
 
1.Jami’at Khair didirikan, organisasi yang berdedikasi ke pendidikan Bahasa Arab
2.Timor Portugis , sebelumnya dikelola dari Macao, menerima persetujuannya administrasi sendiri
3.British-Belanda menetapkan batas antara klaim mereka di Irian (New Guinea).
 
              .  

 

     

1896

 
    1.Raja Chulalongkorn dari Thailand melakukan kunjungan kenegaraan ke Hindia Belanda 2. Belanda menyerangan gerilyawan di Aceh dengan pasukan khusus (Korps Marechaussee).      .  

1898

 

  Belanda mulai menjelajahi Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz menjadi Gubernur Belanda di Aceh. Penasihat-Nya .
Snouck HurgronjeSnouck Hurgronje memperkenalkan “Korte Verklaring”, sebuah perjanjian pendek mengakui pemerintahan Belanda, untuk menggantikan perjanjian yang rumit lebih tua dengan penguasa lokal; Belanda mengejar aliansi dengan uleebalang terhadap Islam leaders.June Van Heutsz mengirim suatu ekspedisi Belanda yang sukses melawan Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje mempelajari Islam di Indonesia sebagai pengamat, dan merupakan penasihat Van Heutsz dan pejabat pemerintah lainnya di Hindia Belanda. Pada 1885, ia pergi diam-diam ke Mekah, dan melaporkan bahwa pada waktu itu, ada sejumlah besar Melayu dan Indonesia yang tinggal there.Starting tentang waktu ini, Belanda mulai mendorong ibadah Islam dan praktek, selama tidak terlibat politik . Tujuannya adalah untuk menyalurkan antusiasme Islam jauh dari politik 

 

1899

    

Raden Ajeng Kartini adalah seorang bangsawan Jawa yang surat-surat itu diterjemahkan dan diterbitkan pada tahun 1976 menjadi sebuah buku berjudul “Door Duisternist tot Licht” Di Indonesia, Kartini dikenal untuk kontribusinya untuk menerapkan doktrin-doktrin yang begitu (Dari Kegelapan ke Light.)- disebut feminisme Eropa kontemporer kepada masyarakat sendiri. Melalui surat menggugah dia, Kartini adalah mempertanyakan banyak hal yang dianggap penting pada saat itu, seperti seni, sastra, dan kesejahteraan ekonomi. Tapi warisan yang terbaik adalah ide tentang mendidik perempuan Jawa yang didasarkan pada pengalaman sendiri sebagai seorang bangsawan Jawa yang mengalami pembatasan yang diberlakukan oleh tradisi Jawa untuk melanjutkan studi-nya [2]. Dengan ayahnya Raden Sosroningrat, Kartini diizinkan belajar sampai dia sekitar 12 tahun yang merupakan hal yang cukup revolusioner untuk melakukannya pada waktu itu. Kartini pergi ke sekolah untuk orang-orang Eropa di mana dia bisa belajar bahasa Belanda dan memberikan dia sebuah pengantar untuk pemikiran Barat. Meskipun keinginannya untuk belajar terpenuhi, Kartini tidak sepenuhnya senang karena ia mengalami tekanan dari teman-teman Eropa dan guru, 3]. , Kartini mulai membangun persahabatan dengan teman-teman beberapa Eropa yang kemudian mendesak ayah Kartini untuk mengizinkan dia melanjutkan studinya ke pendidikan menengah. Tapi Raden Sosroningrat tidak cukup berani untuk memecahkan tradisi,, Kartini mendapat semacam pencerahan tentang perempuan dan tradisi Jawa dengan membaca buku-buku dan surat kabar, mendengarkan pembicaraan ayahnya, dan mengamati perilaku tamu ayahnya dan relatif: “ideal gadis Jawa … sepi, sebagai bergerak sebagai boneka kayu, berbicara hanya jika benar-benar diperlukan dengan suara, berbisik kecil yang tidak dapat didengar oleh semut. Dia berjalan langkah demi langkah seperti bekicot, tertawa tanpa suara tanpa membuka mulutnya, menunjukkan gigi seseorang dianggap sangat jelek, satu tampak seperti rubah. “[4] status perempuan untuk laki-laki karena tingkat kesantunan yang lebih tinggi diharapkan dari bawahan kepada atasan [5] kita adalah manusia sama seperti laki-laki. Mari saya membuktikannya. rantai Loose saya “[6]. , Lembaga pertama yang mengajarkan dia untuk berperilaku tepat sebagai seorang gadis dan seorang wanita [7]. Kartini harus belajar ‘domestik’ tugas-tugas yang secara normatif dipelajari oleh anak perempuan di kelas ‘seperti, memasak, mengurus rumah tangga, dan menyesuaikan (atau membatik). batasan bagi perempuan untuk memperluas ruang privat ke ruang publik [8].
Dia bertekad untuk menikah dengan duda, Raden Adipati Djojodiningrat, yang sudah memiliki tiga istri. Saya menganggap Kartini menangkap ide ini poligami sebagai bentuk penindasan patriarki terhadap perempuan [9) seluruh hidupnya di antara mereka,  perempuan asli benar-benar memiliki hati yang dapat merasakan dan menderita seperti halus, perempuan dibudidayakan dalam masyarakat Anda . Banyak membanggakan diri bahwa mereka disiapkan dengan satu atau lebih wanita dari suami mereka dengan wajah bergeming, tetapi tidak bertanya apa yang tersembunyi di balik topeng ini besi, atau apa dinding rumah mereka bersembunyi dari pandangan. Ada begitu banyak hati perempuan berduka dan jiwa yang menderita malang anak-anak yang tidak bersalah “[10]. Segala sesuatu kepada orang dan tidak ada wanita “[11]. hanya mengalihkan perhatian perempuan terhadap bentuk lain dari penindasan, yaitu patriarki publik. Baik patriarki swasta atau publik membawa pembebasan bagi perempuan [12]. Kartini melihat bahwa hanya  mengajar dan belajar sebagai jalan keluar dari hegemoni tradisi  patriarki

hidup telah datang untuk mengklaim janji itu dariku. Tidak akan terlalu pahit, terlalu sulit, terlalu sulit bagi kita jika kita mampu melalui itu memberikan kontribusi bahkan satu tetes pasir ke gedung itu monumen yang indah: kebahagiaan rakyat “[17]

 
 

1.RA Kartini mulai berkarier dalam mengajar tulis menulis .2.Pesantren Tebuireng, sebuah sekolah Islam yang terkenal, didirikan di Jombang, Timur Java.3.Teuku Umar tewas dalam sebuah ambush.4.Van Deventer Belanda, seorang pembaharu kolonial, menerbitkan “Een Eereschuld”, menuntut agar uang yang dikumpulkan di masa lalu dari Hindia Belanda menjadi direstitusi ke Hindia Belanda untuk membantu melunasi hutang kolonial yang meningkat   .

 

.

 

1900

 
 
Raja Gianyar di Bali tunduk kepada  Belanda  Sekolah  Tinggi Belanda di Bandung, Magelang dan Probolinggo ditata kembali untuk melatih calon dari Jawa untuk pelayanan sipil lokal.
 

pasukan Tradisional  Nias, 1900.
      .

 

  .          

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1901

 The Mentawai Islands are a chain of about seventy islands and islets off the western coast of Sumatra
Desa di Mentawai tahun 1895
. Siberut (4,030 km²) adalah pulau yang terbesar >pulau besar lainnya adalah  Sipora, Pagai Utara dan Pagai Selatan. Pulau-pulau terletak 150 km dari pantai  Sumatra meliwati selat  Mentawai ..sejarah

Kepulauan Mentawai dipisahkan sekali lagi dari daratan Sumatera oleh naiknya permukaan air laut. Orang-orang Mentawai diperkirakan telah tiba di pulau-pulau di suatu tempat antara tahun 2000 dan 500 SM, bermigrasi dari utara melalui Siberut dan kemudian pindah selatan ke Sipora dan pulau-pulau Pagai. .Portugis menyadari pulau-pulau di awal abad ke-17: peta tanggal 1606 menunjukkan Siberut sebagai “Mintaon”. Pada Agustus 1792 John Crisp, seorang pegawai British East India Company, mengunjungi Pagai (“Poggy”) pulau biaya sendiri untuk mempelajari masyarakat Mentawai. Ceritanya diterbitkan pada 1799,  memberikan rincian pertama dari orang Mentawai dalam literatur barat. Kepulauan Mentawai resmi menjadi bagian dari Hindia Belanda pada tanggal 10 Juli 1864, bukan yang telah tunduk pada Perjanjian Anglo-Belanda 1824. Pada tahun 1901 Royal Jerman Missionary Society didirikan kehadiran di pantai selatan pulau Pagai Utara atas undangan pemerintah kolonial Belanda. Misionaris pertama adalah dibunuh, dan itu tidak sampai 1915 bahwa orang pertama dikonversi, dengan program kemudian yang diperluas ke pulau-pulau lain.
Kepulauan Mentawai, gambar yang diambil 1930.
  
    Jambi ditempatkan di bawah kendali Belanda Residen Palembang selama pertanyaan suksesi dan unrest.Zijlker terkait ‘s Royal perusahaan minyak Belanda mengekspansi Kalimantan.Dutch tempat garnisun di Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno adalah born.Queen Wilhelmina dari Belanda mengumumkan “Politik Etis” terhadap Hindia. Eropa di Hindia, yang menguasai ekonomi dan pemerintah, dibayarkan hanya 20% dari pendapatan pajak Hindia  Sebagian besar beban pajak masih jatuh pada Indonesia asli, meskipun pembongkaran dari sistem budaya. Pendapatan ini digunakan, antara lain, untuk membiayai penaklukan militer Belanda di islands.But luar itu tidak cukup. Pada saat ini, pemerintah Belanda mengirim lebih banyak uang untuk mendukung Hindia Belanda daripada mengumpulkan dari Hindia pendapatan. Sebagian besar arus kas dari Hindia ke Belanda setelah 1900 berada di tangan usaha swasta.      

 

   

1902

klateklasik.inet col.tanah suci

kaaba.makka tul mukkoromah-1918

  Belanda menghentikan pembantasan naik haji ke Mekah(pilgrimage to Mecca).  

 

   

 

1903

Van Heutsz survei pasukan di lapangan di Aceh.
Tiga puluh tahun perang di Aceh biaya hidup 60.000 Aceh, ditambah lebih dari 2.000 tentara Belanda tewas dalam pertempuran, dan lebih dari 10.000 tentara Belanda tewas dari penyakit. Lain 25.000 buruh paksa di bawah Belanda meninggal di Aceh dalam periode ini.
    Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan guerillas.Netherlands Hindia mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk education.Decentralization dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah held.Netherlands perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan rumah di Belanda.

 
 

 

   Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah pada 1903 yang secara kerajaan telah tunduk kepada belanda, namun perlawanan rakyat tetap berkibar.Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan gerijawan. Hindia Belanda  mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk pendidikan .Desentralisasi dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah  perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan kerajaan di Belanda..

1904

 Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

 
 
 
   
Baru-baru ini Van Heutsz, Gubernur militer Aceh, menjadi Gubernur Jenderal  baru(hingga 1909). Sultan Thaha Jambi dibunuh oleh Belanda.
kapal Belanda .
Mai “Sri Koemala”   hancur  di Sanur , Bali. Warga menyelamatkan bangkai kapal, pemilik kapal  atas  permintaan reparasi  dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Hubungan antara Hindia Belanda dan Raja Badung di Bali memburuk jauh sebagai Hindia result.Netherlands ekspedisi militer mengambil alih wilayah Batak ekspedisi Sumatra di bawah Kapten Van Daalen ke dataran tinggi Aceh membunuh lebih dari 3000 warga desa, termasuk lebih dari 1000 wanita dan anak-anak.
 Pemerintah
Belanda memulai serangkaian hibah dan program pinjaman pengembalian untuk Hindia Belanda .Dewi Sartika mendirikan Sekolah Isteri (Sekolah untuk Perempuan).
 


 “Groepsportret met Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin van Djambi en zijn gevolg”

Potret kelompok Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin Jambi dan rombongannya
             

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1905

  

Sarekat Islam pada awalnya adalah perkumpulan pedagang-pedagang Islam yang diberi nama Sarekat Dagang Islam. Perkumpulan ini didirikan oleh Haji Samanhudi tahun 1905 di kota Solo. Perkumpulan ini semakin berkembang pesat ketika Tjokroaminoto  pada tahun 1911  memegang tampuk pimpinan dan mengubah nama perkumpulan menjadi Sarekat Islam. Sarekat Islam (SI) dapat dipandang sebagai salah satu gerakan yang paling menonjol sebelum Perang Dunia II.

Pendiri Sarekat Dagang Islam, Haji Samanhudi adalah seorang pengusaha batik di Kampung Lawean (Solo) yang mempunyai banyak pekerja, sedangkan pengusaha-pengusaha batik lainnya adalah orang-orang Cina dan Arab.

 

 
  .
JanuaryBelanda memulai lima bulan operasi militer di Kalimantan.
Belanda mengirim kekuatan militer terhadap pemberontakan di darat pasukan Ceram.
August Belanda menduduki   Pare Pare.  Belanda banyak kemajuan  di Sulawesi, Bugis, Makasar, daerah Toraja diambil untuk selamanya. Penguasa Bone adalah resistensi kontak deposed.
Acehnese  meninta  kepada Konsul Jepang di Singapura untuk membantu .
Belanda  menempati Mentawai islands.
First serikat buruh yang didirikan untuk rel kereta api workers.
October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh Kyai Haji Samanhudi, awalnya untuk menjaga kepentingan produsen batik muslim dalam dewan Surakarta.
Municipal didirikan di Batavia dan pemerintah Hindia Bandung.
 
Belanda  mensponsori komunitas petani Jawa transplantasi di Lampung: contoh pertama dari transmigrasi.

 

     
             

 

   

1906

Puputan is a Balinese term that refers to a mass ritual suicide [1] in preference to facing the humiliation of surrender. Notable puputans occurred in 1906 and 1908 when the Balinese were being subjugated by the Dutch.

The Raja of Buleleng killing himself with 400 followers, in a 1849 puputan against the Dutch. Le Petit Journal, 1849.
Puputan Badung 1906Pada tanggal 14 September 1906, sebuah kekuatan besar Belanda mendarat di pantai Sanur, tidak ada perlawanan signifikan dan memaksa berbaris ke Denpasar, Bali, seolah-olah dalam parade gaun. Mereka melewati sebuah kota yang tampak sepi dan mendekati istana kerajaan, mencatat asap mengepul dari puri  yang paling disembunyikan, mereka mendengar pemukulan liar dari gendrang yang datang dari dalam dinding istana.Setelah mereka mencapai istana, prosesi diam muncul, dipimpin oleh Raja yang ditanggung oleh empat pembawa pada sebuah tandu. Raja mengenakan pakaian tradisional kremasi putih, memakai perhiasan megah, dan bersenjata dengan keris upacara. Orang-orang lain dalam prosesi terdiri dari, Raja penjaga pejabat, imam, istri, anak-anak dan pengikut, semuanya s berpakaian yang sama
 
 
.
 

September 15 Tentara Hindia Belanda berhasil maju  di Bali dan  armada Hindia Belanda mendarat dengan lego  jangkar di Sanur.
20 September Pasukan Angkatan Laut Hindia  Belanda  menyerang Denpasar.
 Raja, pasukan dan rakyat Badung melakukan bunuh diri dalam sebuah Puputan, berbaris di jalan utama Denpasar. Lebih dari 3600 adalah dibunuh . 23September pasukan Hindia Belanda maju ke Tabanan, Bali. Raja Tabanan menawarkan untuk menyerah dengan syarat bahwa ia diizinkan untuk mempertahankan gelar dan lahan. Resident Hindia Belanda membawa Raja tabanan  ke dalam tahanan sampai ia dapat menerima jawaban dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda di Batavia. Raja Tabanan melakukan bunuh diri  saat didalam tahanan .
Produksi Karet  di Sumatra meningkat  dengan  variasi tanaman baru .Pemerintah Hindia Belanda memegang kendali langsung di Sumba.
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  mendirikan protektorat atas Berau di 
Kalimantan Timur  .
Sensor Pos terhadap Penerbitan (publikasi) diperkenalkan: semua penerbitan harus diserahkan ke sensor untuk ditinjau dalam waktu 24 jam sebelum peluncurannya
.

1907

 Sisingamangaraja

Raja Si Singamangaraja I : Raja Manghuntal

 di daerah Tapanuli Selatan sedang terjadi wabah penyakit menular (begu antuk) yang juga mengenai/menyerang pasukan Tuanku Rao sehingga kacau balau. Tawanannya tercecer di Tapanuli Selatan. Sebagian dari yang tercecer ini membuat perkampungan di daerah di Tapanuli Selatan ini.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI : Ompu SohahuaonBelum lagi selesai penderitaan akibat serangan si Pokki terjadi pula musim kemarau yang berkepanjangan. Masyarakat Si Onom Ompu bersepakat menyampaikan hal ini kepada boru Situmorang dan memintanya kembali ke Bakara. Setelah boru Situmorang membawa kedua anaknya kembali, masyarakatpun meminta agar Ompu Sohahuaon mereka gondangi untuk turunnya hujan.
Acara margondangpun dipersiapkan dengan baik dan Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil tampil dengan berpakaian ulos Batak. Boru Situmorang dan masyarakat si Onom Ompu kaget dan kagum, karena Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil itu mampu meminta gondang dan mengucapkan tonggo-tonggo untuk turunya hujan. Merekapun mengelu-elukan dengan manortor. Haripun menjadi gelap karena mendung dan hujanpun turun dengan lebat. Ompu Sohahuaon terus manortor sampai berakhir gondang yang dipintanya. Kemudian diserahkan Piso Gaja Dompak kepadanya dan manortor kembali sambil menghunus Piso Gaja Dompak dengan sempurna dan disarungkan kembali. Ompu Sohahuaon dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dalam usia 10 tahun.

Pada masa pemerintahan Raja Si Singamangaraja XI disusunlah  “Pustaha Harajaon (pustaka kerajaan)”  yang ditulis dengan dawat/tinta cina diatas kertas Watermark ukuran folio buatan Itali dalam tulisan dan bahasa Batak. Pustaka ini dibuat atas bimbingan dari Ompu Sohahuaon sendiri. Pustaha harajaon ini terdiri atas 24 jilid, setiap jilidnya tebalnya sekitar 5 Cm yang isinya secara singkat dapat diuraikan sebagai berikut :
  • Jilid 1 s/d 3: Pemerintahan Tuan Sorimangaraja selama 90 turunan mulai dari Putri Tapi Donda Nauasan.
  • Jilid 4 s/d 7: Pemerintahan kerajaan Singamangaraja  I s/d  IX.
  • Jilid 8: Perihal Pedang Padri Tuanku Rao terhadap Tuan Nabolon Sisingamangaraja X.
  • Jilid 9: Perihal Pongkinangolngolan dan Datu Aman Tagor Simanullang.
  • Jilid 11 s/d 12: Perihal Pendeta Pilgram, pembunuhan atas diri Pendeta Lyman dan Munson oleh Raja Panggalamei.
  • Jilid 13-16: Periode pembangunan kembali ibu kota kerajaan Bakara dan daerah-daerah Toba tahun 1835-1845 atas pembumi hangusan perang bonjol.
  • Jilid 17: Perihal Dr. Junghun, van der Tuuk yang datang menjumpai Sisingamangaraja XI dan perihal photonya.
  • Jilid 18 s/d 24: Penobatan Ompu Sohahuaon menjadi Sisingamangaraja XI, pemerintahannya sampai tahun 1886 dan perihal penyakit menular yang dahsyat di tanah Batak.

Pada tahun 1884 Pustaha Harajaon ini ditemukan dari tumpukan rumah kerajaan yang dibakar oleh tentera Belanda. Dibawa ke Holland oleh Pendeta Pilgrams dan sekarang ada di Museum Perpustakaan Pemerintah Belanda di Leiden Holland. Pustaha Harajaon tidak diteruskan penulisannya oleh Sisingamangaraja XII sebab tidak ada kesempatan, karena semenjak awal pemerintahannya, Koloni Belanda telah melancarkan agresinya di tanah Batak dan sekitarnya, sehingga Ompu Pulobatu berperang selama 30 tahun sampai tewasnya dalam usia 59 tahun pada 17 juni 1907.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI Ompu Sohahuaon menikah dengan boru Aritonang sebagai isteri pertama yang melahirkan Raja Parlopuk . Isteri kedua adalah boru Situmorang yang melahirkan Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo Batu. Beda umur Raja Parlopuk dengan Patuan Bosar sangat jauh, ada sekitar 15 tahun.
Ketika Ompu Sohahuaon jatuh sakit, maka jalan pemerintahan dilaksanakan oleh Raja Parlopuk. Cukup lama Raja Parlopuk memegang tugas itu dan dilaksanakannya dengan baik. Tahun 1866 Ompu Sohahuaoan meninggal di Bakara dan dibangun makamnya oleh Raja Parlopuk dengan Si Onom Ompu di Lumban Raja. Makam inilah yang pertama ada di Bakara karena Sisingamangaraja I hingga  IX tidak diketahui meninggal di mana. Waktu Raja Si Singamangaraja XI meninggal, Patuan Bosar sedang merantau ke Aceh.

Makam ini dibongkar oleh Raja Si Singamangaraja XII karena Bakara diserang Belanda. Tulang belulang Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dibawanya ikut berjuang ke hutan, karena tidak ingin tengkorak orang-tuanya diambil oleh Belanda. Semasa perjuangan tulang-belulang ini di titipkan di huta Janji Dolok Sanggul lalu dipindahkan lagi ke Huta Paung. Setelah zaman kemerdekaan, kembali di pindahkan di rumah Soposurung.

Kira-kira 105 tahun kemudian, makam ini dibangun kembali oleh keluarga Raja Sisingamangaraja dan pada tahun 1975 tulang belulang Raja Sisingamangaraja XI dan istrerinya dimakamkan kembali ke makam semula di Bakara. Raja Parlopuk terus melaksanakan pemerintahan Singamangaraja hingga tahun 1871, yaitu setelah dinobatkannya Patuan Bosar sebagai Raja Sisingamangaraja XII.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XII : Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo BatuWalaupun Raja Si Singamangaraja XI telah meninggal, Si Onom Ompu tidak merasa ada yang kurang dalam pemerintahan, karena Raja Parlopuk bekerja dengan cukup baik. Tetapi ketika musim kemarau datang dan membawa penderitaan, mulailah si Onom Ompu berfikir untuk adanya acara margondang. Raja Parlopukpun mereka persilahkan untuk mereka gondangi agar dia martonggo memohon turun hujan. Tetapi hujan tidak turun-turun juga.Mulanya Ompu Pulo Batu tidak bersedia mereka gondangi karena merasa bahwa abangnya itu telah sebagai raja pengganti ayahnya. Akhirnya Ompu Pulo Batu bersedia karena melihat penderitaan yang diderita masyarakat Si Onom Ompu. Setelah melaksanakan upacara seperti yang biasa dilakukan, Ompu Pulobatu berhasil mendatangkan hujan. Ompu Pulo Batupun dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XII pada tahun 1871.Ompu Pulo Batu lahir tahun 1848 dari ibunya boru Situmorang. Pada saat pemuda, Ompu Pulo Batu merantau ke Aceh, disana bergaul dengan pedagang dari Persia dan belajar banyak hal. Karena itu ketika perang melawan Belanda, Raja Si Singamangaraja XII dibantu oleh pejuang-pejuang dari Aceh, dan dalam cap/stempelnya dipakai Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Batak.
Pada tahun 1877 Raja Si Singamangaraja XII menyatakan perang kepada Belanda. Kemudian dia menjalankan perang terhadap Belanda selama 3 dasawarsa.
 

 

  Militer Belanda memadamkan pemberontakan di Flores, menetap pejabat  pengawasan (kontrolier)diwilayah tersebut .Pengamanan  lengkap akhirnya diperoleh  di Jambi. gerilyawan Aceh  menyerang Belanda di Bandar Aceh. Pemberontakan Raja  Sisingamangaraja XII dari Batak  melawan Belanda, dan ditembak saat konflik di Hindia belanda.Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  memperkenalkan pajak atas perdagangan Gula ( businesses.Zijlker ‘s)  Perusahaan minyak Kerajaan Belanda menyatu dengan Shell Transport dan Perdagangan menjadi Royal  Shell.Dutch mengirim polisi ke Kepulauan Tanimbar untuk menghentikan  konflik. pendidikan baru antar suku bertujuan untuk menawarkan sekolah 3-tahun untuk anak-anak di populasi umum. .

Foto tahun 1907. Tentara Belanda mengejar Sisingamangaraja XII di kawasan hutan Tele. Dipimpin Hans Christoffel (memegang tongkat), mereka berpose sejenak di daerah Sagala

 

 

          .        
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1908

20 Mei 1908

 
Budi Utomo adalah organisasi pemuda yang didirikan oleh Dr. Sutomo pada tanggal 20 Mei 1908. Berdirinya Budi Utomo menjadi awal gerakan yang bertujuan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia.Saat ini tanggal berdirinya Budi Utomo, 20 Mei, diperingati sebagai Hari Kebangkitan Nasional.
Latar Belakang
Budi Utomo lahir dari pertemuan-pertemuan dan diskusi yang sering dilakukan di perpustakaan School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen oleh beberapa mahasiswa, antara lain Soetomo, Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemo, Goembrek, Saleh, dan Soeleman. Mereka memikirkan nasib bangsa yang sangat buruk dan selalu dianggap bodoh dan tidak bermartabat oleh bangsa lain (Belanda), serta bagaimana cara memperbaiki keadaan yang amat buruk dan tidak adil itu. Para pejabat pangreh praja(sekarang pamong praja) kebanyakan hanya memikirkan kepentingan sendiri dan jabatan. Dalam praktik mereka pun tampak menindas rakyat dan bangsa sendiri, misalnya dengan menarik pajak sebanyak-banyaknya untuk menyenangkan hati atasan dan para penguasa Belanda.Para pemuda mahasiswa itu juga menyadari bahwa orang-orang lain mendirikan perkumpulan hanya untuk golongan sendiri dan tidak mau mengajak, bahkan tidak menerima, orang Jawa sesama penduduk Pulau Jawa untuk menjadi anggota perkumpulan yang eksklusif, seperti Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan untuk orang Tionghoa dan Indische Bond untuk orang Indo-Belanda. Pemerintah Hindia Belanda jelas juga tidak bisa diharapkan mau menolong dan memperbaiki nasib rakyat kecil kaum pribumi, bahkan sebaliknya, merekalah yang selama ini menyengsarakan kaum pribumi dengan mengeluarkan peraturan-peraturan yang sangat merugikan rakyat kecil.Para pemuda itu akhirnya berkesimpulan bahwa merekalah yang harus mengambil prakarsa menolong rakyatnya sendiri. Pada waktu itulah muncul gagasan Soetomo untuk mendirikan sebuah perkumpulan yang akan mempersatukan semua orang Jawa, Sunda, dan Madura yang diharapkan bisa dan bersedia memikirkan serta memperbaiki nasib bangsanya. Perkumpulan ini tidak bersifat eksklusif tetapi terbuka untuk siapa saja tanpa melihat kedudukan, kekayaan, atau pendidikannya.Pada awalnya, para pemuda itu berjuang untuk penduduk yang tinggal di Pulau Jawa dan Madura, yang untuk mudahnya disebut saja suku bangsa Jawa. Mereka mengakui bahwa mereka belum mengetahui nasib, aspirasi, dan keinginan suku-suku bangsa lain di luar Pulau Jawa, terutama Sumatera, Manado, dan Ambon. Apa yang diketahui adalah bahwa Belanda menguasai suatu wilayah yang disebut Hindia (Timur) Belanda (Nederlandsch Oost-Indie), tetapi sejarah penjajahan dan nasib suku-suku bangsa yang ada di wilayah itu bermacam-macam, begitu pula kebudayaannya. Dengan demikian, sekali lagi pada awalnya Budi Utomo memang memusatkan perhatiannya pada penduduk yang mendiami Pulau Jawa dan Madura saja karena, menurut anggapan para pemuda itu, penduduk Pulau Jawa dan Madura terikat oleh kebudayaan yang sama.Sekalipun para pemuda itu merasa tidak tahu banyak tentang nasib, keadaan, sejarah, dan aspirasi suku-suku bangsa di luar Pulau Jawa dan Madura, mereka tahu bahwa saat itu orang Manado mendapat gaji lebih banyak dan diperlakukan lebih baik daripada orang Jawa. Padahal, dari sisi pendidikan, keduanya berjenjang sama. Itulah sebabnya pemuda Soetomo dan kawan-kawan tidak mengajak pemuda-pemuda di luar Jawa untuk bekerja sama, hanya karena khawatir untuk ditolak.Budi UtomoPada hari Minggu, 20 Mei 1908, pada pukul sembilan pagi, bertempat di salah satu ruang belajar STOVIA, Soetomo menjelaskan gagasannya. Dia menyatakan bahwa hari depan bangsa dan Tanah Air ada di tangan mereka. Maka lahirlah Boedi Oetomo. Namun, para pemuda juga menyadari bahwa tugas mereka sebagai mahasiswa kedokteran masih banyak, di samping harus berorganisasi. Oleh karena itu, mereka berpendapat bahwa “kaum tua”-lah yang harus memimpin Budi Utomo, sedangkan para pemuda sendiri akan menjadi motor yang akan menggerakkan organisasi itu.Sepuluh tahun pertama Budi Utomo mengalami beberapa kali pergantian pemimpin organisasi. Kebanyakan memang para pemimpin berasal kalangan “priayi” atau para bangsawan dari kalangan keraton, seperti Raden Adipati Tirtokoesoemo, bekas Bupati Karanganyar (presiden pertama Budi Utomo), dan Pangeran Ario Noto Dirodjo dari Keraton Pakualaman.Perkembangan
Budi Utomo mengalami fase perkembangan penting saat kepemimpinan Pangeran Noto Dirodjo. Saat itu, Douwes Dekker, seorang Indo-Belanda yang sangat properjuangan bangsa Indonesia, dengan terus terang mewujudkan kata “politik” ke dalam tindakan yang nyata. Berkat pengaruhnyalah pengertian mengenai “tanah air Indonesia” makin lama makin bisa diterima dan masuk ke dalam pemahaman orang Jawa. Maka muncullah Indische Partijyang sudah lama dipersiapkan oleh Douwes Dekker melalui aksi persnya. Perkumpulan ini bersifat politik dan terbuka bagi semua orang Indonesia tanpa terkecuali. Baginya “tanah air” (Indonesia) adalah di atas segala-galanya.Pada masa itu pula muncul Sarekat Islam, yang pada awalnya dimaksudkan sebagai suatu perhimpunan bagi para pedagang besar maupun kecil di Solo dengan nama Sarekat Dagang Islam, untuk saling memberi bantuan dan dukungan. Tidak berapa lama, nama itu diubah oleh, antara lain, Tjokroaminoto, menjadi Sarekat Islam, yang bertujuan untuk mempersatukan semua orang Indonesia yang hidupnya tertindas oleh penjajahan. Sudah pasti keberadaan perkumpulan ini ditakuti orang Belanda. Munculnya gerakan yang bersifat politik semacam itu rupanya yang menyebabkan Budi Utomo agak terdesak ke belakang. Kepemimpinan perjuangan orang Indonesia diambil alih oleh Sarekat Islam dan Indische Partij karena dalam arena politik Budi Utomo memang belum berpengalaman.Karena gerakan politik perkumpulan-perkumpulan tersebut, makna nasionalismemakin dimengerti oleh kalangan luas. Ada beberapa kasus yang memperkuat makna tersebut. Ketika Pemerintah Hindia Belanda hendak merayakan ulang tahun kemerdekaan negerinya, dengan menggunakan uang orang Indonesia sebagai bantuan kepada pemerintah yang dipungut melalui penjabat pangreh praja pribumi, misalnya, rakyat menjadi sangat marah.Kemarahan itu mendorong Soewardi Suryaningrat (yang kemudian bernama Ki Hadjar Dewantara) untuk menulis sebuah artikel “Als ik Nederlander was” (Seandainya Saya Seorang Belanda), yang dimaksudkan sebagai suatu sindiran yang sangat pedas terhadap pihak Belanda. Tulisan itu pula yang menjebloskan dirinya bersama dua teman dan pembelanya, yaitu Douwes Dekker dan Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo ke penjara oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda (lihat: Boemi Poetera). Namun, sejak itu Budi Utomo tampil sebagai motor politik di dalam pergerakan orang-orang pribumi.Agak berbeda dengan Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemoyang lebih mengutamakan kebudayaan dari pendidikan, Soewardi menyatakan bahwa Budi Utomo adalah manifestasi dari perjuangan nasionalisme. Menurut Soewardi, orang-orang Indonesia mengajarkan kepada bangsanya bahwa “nasionalisme Indonesia” tidaklah bersifat kultural, tetapi murni bersifat politik. Dengan demikian, nasionalisme terdapat pada orang Sumatera maupun Jawa, Makassar maupun Ambon.Pendapat tersebut bertentangan dengan beberapa pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa Budi Utomo hanya mengenal nasionalisme Jawa sebagai alat untuk mempersatukan orang Jawa dengan menolak suku bangsa lain. Demikian pula Sarekat Islam juga tidak mengenal pengertian nasionalisme, tetapi hanya mempersyaratkan agama Islam agar seseorang bisa menjadi anggota.Namun, Soewardi tetap mengatakan bahwa pada hakikatnya akan segera tampak bahwa dalam perhimpunan Budi Utomo maupun Sarekat Islam, nasionalisme “Indonesia” ada dan merupakan unsur yang paling penting.
  
 
 
Pemberontakan Klungkung  melawan Belanda; bangsawan bunuh diri dengan Puputan untuk melestarikan pendapatan Hindia Belanda menyebabkan mereka campur tangan dalam konflik-konflik lokal di Sumbawa, mengambil control.Pengawasan  ketat berada di bawah peraturan .VSTP Belanda langsung (serikat pekerja rel) didirikan, menerima anggota Bangsa  Indonesia .20 Mai Budi Utomo didirikan di antara siswa Jawa kelas atas di Jakarta, termasuk masa depan dan Dr Sutomo, Dr  Cipto Mangunkusumo.
October Budi Utomo melaksanakan kongres di Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo meninggalkan organisasi .perhimpunan  Indonesia (Indische Vereeniging ) yang didirikan untuk mahasiswa Indonesia di Netherlands. pemberontakan Kecil di Minangkabau, merupakan suppressed.Netherlands Hindia memperkenalkan pajak penghasilan. Budi Utomo adalah organisasi politik yang kurang, terutama ditujukan untuk promosi budaya Jawa. Bunga ini adalah terbatas pada budaya Jawa. .
Pekerja tembakau di Deli, utara
 

Dewa terakhir Agung kehilangan nyawanya dalam apa yang disebut Puputan Klungkung Palace pada 28 April 1908 selama intervensi Belanda di Bali. Ini adalah serangan bunuh diri ritual sarat oleh dinasti dan pengikut mereka terhadap detasemen bersenjata baik pasukan kolonial Belanda. Pada akhirnya hampir dua ratus Bali dibunuh oleh peluru Belanda.
 
 
 
                .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern
Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.             .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern

1909

 
Uleebalang, atau aristokrasi tradisional Aceh, sekitar 1910. Para uleebalang akan mengembangkan reputasi untuk berkolaborasi dengan Belanda, setelah Perang Dunia I, banyak yang dibantai
  Tjokroaminoto naik ke kepemimpinan Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, sebuah penerbitan untuk wanita, adalah founded.Dutch mengkonsolidasikan kontrol atas Ceram.Dutch menetapkan pengendalian di Buru. .

 

   

1910


Pekerja kebun tembakau deli <Sumatra Utara,sekitar 1910

 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Selesai  @ Hak Cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2011,dilarang repro dalam bentuk apapun,HAKI DILINDUNGI OLEH UNDANG-UNDANG.

The Toumbolouh Tribe In Minahasa 1895

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

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Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

Showcase:

The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :

Alte Gebrauche Bei Hetrathen,Geburt und Sterberfallen Bei Dem TOUMBULUH STAMM In Der Minahasa North Celebes. von Dr JGF Riedel.

Old Used For Hetrathen, birth and Sterberfallen In The TOUMBULUH Minahasa tribe in the North Celebes

 

1. True padi the crop, the most appropriate time for the Anknupfen a more or less intimate acquaintance will agree the young people to live together or umu gewonhnlich as they print their own manner, Heerdgenossen to be.
 After the sign of assent, besttehend of finely cut tobacco and a worn garment, each entrusted with, and subordinate to the Jungling its proposal to the decision taking his parents and a’testen Blutsverwandtten.2. Part of a Maltese of red, and black gel barrels( Tenun IKat).
 
3.After have older you Sirih-chewed pinang, is the girl in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 
religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
 
 
 
 from the for them some room to light and gives the young Ling implied taste of a vase Pinang, Sirih, lime and tobacco BEITEN to hear, while they at the same.4.Hiernach eat, although this is not a constraint, the young people, even with the most common fig WALIAN, Plate X 25.
 
After distribute the food to the young Verwandtten compact little presents and provides the Walian-sacrifice for the wewene Empungs, from rice, a boiled rice with a new tub Plate X Fig 3 as a base.
 
When  they do in the middle of the night one of the main pillars of the house has settled law, waving to the estate Walians, Plate X Fig 2 and Walian-wewene the jumgen sounds close to him, glad she stand before the victim and let them hold both the ends of the WOKA and the hands of the two Walian.
 
This SILANAN Genant, AFFIRMING the ceremony is for the beidderseitingen SIRIH_PINANG.
 
After the WALIAN gave the signal for silence, he speaks in a loud voice:
 “O Walians, your Empungs, Beschirmgeister ours, come down here and eat the rice and meat that you will be sacrificed by this Heerdgenossen; their prayer a high old and happy , stay away from all evil ihmen, tiredness and bad dream same things we ask of you also empungs that inhabit the house, our Empung their Kalahwakan to you, Kasosoran, Kasedukan Karondoran and may stop. empung her in the sky and on ground are, let these young heerdgenossen live a long and happy, have o walian. Walians both are then as the evidence of young people considered to have voluntarily agreed about heerdgenossen gegenseiting to be,
 
  

1. Wahren der pafi-Ernte, der passendsten Zeit fur das Anknupfen einer mehr oder minder intimen Bekanntschaft, verabreden die jungen Leute gewonhnlich um zusammenzuwohnen oder umu,wie sie es eigennartig ausdrucken,Heerdgenossen zu werden. Nachdem das Zeichen der Zustimmung,besttehend aus feingeschnittenem Tabak und einem abgetragenen Kleidungsstuck,einander anvertraut ist, unterwirft der Jungling sein Vorhaben der Beschlussnahme seiner Eltern und a’testen Blutsverwandtten.

2. Theil einer Malte von roth,gel und schwarzer Fasser.

3.Nachdem die alteren ihr Sirih-pinang gekaut haben,kommt das Madchen, in PATOLA Tucher gekleidet und mit KDELANA behangt,gleich denen der WALIAN_WEWENE, Tafel X Fig 1 aus dem fur sie bestimmten Gemach zum Vorschein und bietet dem Jungling stillschweigend aus einem geschmackvoll hearbeiten Gefass Pinang,Sirih,Kalk und Tabak an,wahrend sie zu gleicher.

4.Hiernach essen,obgleich dies kein ZWANG ist, die jungen Leute,auch wohl gemeinschaftlich mit dem WALIAN ,Tafel X fig 2.

5.Nach dem Essen vertheilen die Verwandtten des Junglings kleine Geschenke und bereit die Walian-wewene  das Opfer fur die Empungs,aus Reis,einem gekochten mit einer neuen Reiswanne Tafel X Fig 3. als Unterlage

6.Wenn sie dies in dder Mitte des Hauses nacht einem der Hauptpfeiler niedergesetz hat,winkt einer der anwesen Walians,Tafel X fig 2. und die Walian-wewene die jumgen Laute zu sich heran,heissen sie vor dem Opfer stehn und lassen sie zugleich die Enden der WOKA und die Hande der beiden Walian festhalten. Diese< SILANAN genante,Feierlichkeit dient zur Bekraftigung des beidderseitingen des SIRIH_PINANG. Nachdem der WZLIAN das Zeichen zum Schweigen gegeben hat, spricht er mit erhobener Stimme :” O Walians,Ihr Empungs,Beschirmgeister der unseren,kommt hienieden und esst vom Reis und Fleische dass Euch durch diese Heerdgenossen geopfert wird; gebet ihnen ein hohes alter und gluck,haltet fern von ihmen alle uebel, Mudigkeit und schlecte Traume,dasselbige fragen wir auch von auch ihr empungs, die dieses haus bewohnen, ihe empung die ihr euch zu kalahwakan,kasosoran,kasedukan und karondoran aufhaltet. ihr empung die im im himmel und auf erden seid,lasset diese jungen heerdgenossen ein langes leben und gluck haben, o walian . beide wAlians werden danach als die zeugen der jungen leute betrachtet,die freiwillig ubereingekommen sind um gegenseiting heerdgenossen zu werden,

Ethnic group of Minahasa Tribes

1. Malesung (Min Nan Tou)


 
Ethnic group Minahasa is the majority tribe who inhabited the city of Manado, the customary law is an area of Minahasa tribe or also known as “Malesung”. Own origins from the opinion of a linguist and the Ancient Chinese characters, called Tandean in 1997 came to examine the “Watu Pinawetengan” through the words “Min Nan Tou” contained in the rock, he reveals, tou Minahasa is derived from the land of Mongolia’s King Ming King who came to immigrate to Minahasa. Meaning of Min Nan Tou are “derived from the island’s  King Ming

2.Related Minahasa People Terms

Minahasa

Minahasa

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia (in past called by Portuguese as North Selebes). The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language. (read more)

Tompaso

Tompaso is a highland subdistrict located about 45 km southwest of Manado in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It also refers to a sub-tribe as part of larger Tontemboan tribe in the Minahasa ethnic group.

According to history, Tompaso is believed to be the origin of Minahasa people before they spread all over the land of Minahasa. One of its villages, Pinabetengan, inherited a megalithic stone about 4 m long and 2 m high tagged with full of carved pictures. The pictures portray some kind of lifetime covenant of how Minahasans were supposed to divide their territory and live peacefully.

Sam Ratulangi

Dr. Gerungan Saul Samuel Yacob Ratulangi or Ratu Langie (November 5, 1890 – June 30, 1949), usually known as Sam Ratulangi, was a Minahasa politician, journalist and teacher from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. His famous saying in the Tondano language ‘Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou’ is translated as ‘man lives to educate others’.

3. Minahasa Kabasan Dance

Kabasaran Dance, a War Dance, traditional dance Minahasa – North Sulawesi, which tells how to maintain soil Minahasa Minahasa tribe from enemies who want to occupy it. Dance Kabasaran or this war dance demonstrated the Sword Shield and Spear. This Kabasaran dance danced for special occasions such as reception room or in different events and cultural tourism.

Kabasaran Dance 2 Kabasaran Dance

Kabasaran Dance 1 Kabasaran Dance

Dancing with the dress all in red, bulging eyes, fierce face, accompanied by drums, carrying swords and sharp spears, making dance kabasaran very different from other dances in Indonesia where they spit smile with graceful movements.

This dance is a dance traditional Minahasa military, who are appointed from the said; Wasal, which means rooster comb is cut so that the chicken becomes more fierce in battle.

This dance is accompanied by the sound of drums and / or a small gong. Percussion instruments like Gong, Tambour or Kolintang called “Pa ‘Wasalen” and the dancers called Kawasalan, which means the dance by imitating the movements of two roosters who are fighting.

Kawasalan word was later developed into Kabasaran which is a combination of two words “ni Kawasal Sarian” “Kawasal” means to accompany and follow the movements of dance, while “Sarian” is a war leader who led traditional Minahasa military dance. Manado Malay language development and then change the letter “W” to “B” so that the word was changed to Kabasaran, which really does not have any connection with the word “great” in Indonesian, but eventually became the dance penjemput for the dignitary-magnifying.

In ancient times the dancers Kabasaran, just as a dancer in traditional ceremonies. However, in their daily life they were farmers. If Minahasa was in a state of war, then the dancers kabasaran be Waranei (warrior). The basic form of this dance is nine sword (santi) or nine spear (wengkouw) with horses step 4 / 4 which consists of two steps to the left, and two steps to the right.

Each dancer kabasaran have a sharp weapon which is the legacy of his old ancestors, because the dancers are dancers who kabasaran hereditary. This dance is generally composed of three parts (in fact there are more than three, only now they are very rarely done). Round – round consists of:

  • 1. Cakalele, which comes from the word “saka” which means fight, and “catfish” means chasing jump – jump. This round was once danced when the soldiers would go to war or returning from war. Or, this round showed great ferocity to fight on the guest, to give a sense of security on the great guest who came to visit us that even Satan the great fear of disturbing guest dancer escort Kabasaran.
  • 2. The second act is called Kumoyak, which comes from the word “torn” means, swung his sharp sword or spear gun down ride, back and forth to calm himself from the sense of anger when fighting. The word “tear” itself can mean persuading the spirit of the enemy or opponent who has been killed in battle.
  • 3. Lalaya’an. In this section the dancers dance free and delighted to escape from feeling angry like dancing “Lionda” by hand dipinggang and other dances of delight. This whole dance is based on cue or command of the leader of a dance called “Tumu-tuzuk” (Tombulu) or “Sarian” (Tonsea). Cue given in the language of sub-ethnic Tombulu, Tonsea, Tondano, Totemboan, Ratahan, Tombatu and Bantik. In this dance, all dancers must be allowed to express Garang without a smile, except at half lalayaan, where the dancers are allowed to spit cheerful smile.

Clothing used in this dance is made of woven fabric and Minahasa original fabric “Patola”, ie red woven fabric of Tombulu and not available in other areas in Minahasa, as written in the book Alfoersche Legenden in writing by the PN. Wilken 1830, where kabasaran Minahasa has basic wear pants and red shirt, then wrapped bond woven fabric. In this case each sub-ethnic Minahasa had a special way of weaving cloth. Special Kabasaran of Remboken and Pareipei, they are more like fashion instead of war and ceremonial clothing, namely by means of moss-lichen trees as camouflage war.

It is unfortunate that since the 1950s, native woven cloth began to disappear so kabasaran Minahasa eventually wear woven cloth Kalimantan and East because of the shape, color and motif resembled Minahasa woven fabrics such as: Kokerah, Tinonton, Pasolongan, Bentenen. Kabasaran hats made of native cloth headband yag ornate rooster feathers, bird feathers and bird Taong Paradise. There is also a flower decoration or Tiwoho canoes. Other decorative ornaments used are “lei-lei” necklaces or neck, “wongkur” cover calf foot, “rerenge’en” or the bells bells (bells made of brass).

In the past the Dutch colonial era, there are local laws regarding Kabasaran contained in the Government Gazette No. 104 B, in 1859 which stipulates that

1. Funeral ceremony the leaders of the country (Law Basar, Kadua Law, Old Law) and public figures, obtained under guard Kabasaran. Also on the country’s leaders a family wedding.
2. Customary celebrations, ceremonies pick up great guest dignitaries Dutch Resident, controller by Kabasaran.
3. Kabasaran assigned as “Opas” (village police).
4. A Kabasaran served to maintain the security checkpoint for 24 days a year.

Kabasaran which has been designated as the village policeman in the Government Gazette of the above, finally forced by the Dutch should be abolished in 1901 because at that time there are 28 prisoners who escaped from prison Manado. To recapture all the prisoners who escaped them, the Dutch police ordered the village, in this case Kabasaran, to arrest those prisoners. But the unfortunate fate of the prisoners, because they were not taken alive but all of them were killed, chopped up by Kabasaran. The Kabasaran at that time located in the village organizations led by the Old Law. Each country or village had ten Kabasaran one of them was the leader of the team is called “Pa’impulu’an ne Kabasaran”. With status as an employee of the village, they would receive benefits in the form of rice, white sugar, and cloth.

It was horrible the Kabasaran at the time, because although only paid with rice, white sugar, and cloth, they were able to slaughter 28 people who all died with terrible injuries.

4. Marawale Moving tradition in Minahasa

 

Merawale in Minahasa, a tradition of moving house without hereditary dismantled’ve rarely encountered. Communities in Bitung, Amurang, South Minahasa, there seems to maintain the tradition merawale.

Togetherness in social life with diwujutkan one merawale tradition. Both school children, youth and parents are involved in this tradition, regardless of social status.

Merawale, Moving Traditions
Merawale usually commanded by a person to a house or sabuah which are moved can be lifted more easily. Merawale is a symbol of innocence, togetherness without the engineering community in the social life in Minahasa.

People involved in merawale not paid in money but got a ‘gratitude payment’ from the owner of the house, one of the words terimaksih realized by serving drinks, cigarettes, coffee or cake bowsprit, onde onde and nasijaha.

 

4a. mysteri of Kiowa tribe

 
 


Si-sisil-en
e Apo-Apo’

im Banua
Ka-senduk-an
K I O W A

“Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”So-Petor!Preparation of “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa” (Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa) is, based on a chain stories, narrated from the mouth kemulut hereditary among ethnic Kiowa, which is still stored or recorded in the public memory of Ka-Senduk KiowaPu-purengkey-en (a chain of mouth stories kemulut similar legend), the collected and edited and summarized, then poured in the form of a written form of stories, written as it is by the editors / authors, based on oral stories from the speakers, as well as findings findings and the formulation of “Meeting the public culture of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa”, which is supported by the evidence in the form of heritage objects and inscriptions and archaeological sites that were around the Ka-Senduk Wanua of Kiowa (Kiawa), which is a witness life history of the past that can provide inspiration to reveal the veil of mystery, which pervade the “Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.Inputs from various parties who are credible sources, particularly the legend and legacy of stories and cultural history of Ka-Senduk communities of Kiowa spoken by “Tumu-said Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian”, is an extremely literature precious and high value for the preparation of this paper (paper is not based on written literature diperpustakaan, therefore there is no official papers which tell of the legend or pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa).The late-Tumu said Ute ‘Rakian is the last elderly speakers are still to hear directly from the Pa-ma’tu’an and the Wali’an and Tona’as, and Te-keep-an and the Ki’i-ki’i- im about Banua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa who lived with the order of life and governance-how as well as rules and the rules of life Ka-Senduk’s, according to the tradition of the elders and the ancestors.Although since the nineteenth century society Ka-Senduk of Kiowa in general have embraced Christianity, both Protestant and Catholic, but most of them, there are those who embrace and maintain the traditions and customs and ancestral cult, so that their spiritual life remains influenced by the “Ka-Senduk cult’s and lifestyle” Mem-pa’ando of “Kiowa.According to accounts from the remnants of cult followers and ancestral traditions and customs here, Tumu-Ute said ‘listen and learn and understand and know about many things related concerning the religious life, spiritual and physical and social life, economy, welfare, leadership, security and order, especially the traditions and customs, and culture of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.Of those parents and observers as well as observers and lovers of Kiowa culture that is still alive or dead, is also obtained valuable inputs are valuable history and high culture, especially after increased efforts and activities of O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), the excavation business development and cultural preservation of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, more and more directed and more stable.
 
 

“Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”

Maka-Petor !

O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), which was pioneered by Tunu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian who was accompanied by Tumu, said Drs. Palar Nico together with the observer and the observer as well as lovers and figures as well as people who never wrestled and participated in cultural rituals Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, Old alUkung Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Piri Hein, Anthony Nayoan , Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan etc., become a very useful tool for extracting Senduk Ka-cultural roots of Kiowa

From among the oldest sources, the late apo ‘Klaas L. Sajow, who was born and raised in the village Kiawa (which is always called “Puser in Tana ‘Ka-Senduk-an”) and as adults wander (lumantak) to make a living in South Minahasa. later married and settled even Janunri died in 1996 at the age of 100 years, Kroit village, district Motoling, has provided a real participation in the form of feedback about stories “Puser in Tana ‘ancient’ is demonstrated also by the legacy of the ancestral heritage of ethnic Kiowa, that before he died promised to restore it to Puser heritage in Tana ‘, al flag (wirus im banua), the banner of war (wirus tu-turu ‘im Custody e Waraney), weapons (santi, wentir, tu-Tura’), po-Porong, etc., is also an invaluable contribution to the excavation of cultural roots Ka- Senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-Palar said Drs Nico, who has decades of accompanying Tumu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian (deceased), has a lot of vocabulary and a collection of stories and personal accounts gathered from the old speakers tentenag Ka-Senduk culture of Kiowa, so it helps the business inventory of the necessary data.

The young generation lover and observer and observer of culture, which actively involve themselves and voluntarily explore, learn, examine, examines, traces and relics make the preparation of documentation for the purposes of writing and preserving the cultures of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, among others:

Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan SE, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda etc., is a young generation successor to the ideals of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.

Concrete manifestation of the business re-excavation of cultural roots Ka-Senduk’s, namely the implementation of “Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa” initiated by the lovers and observers and observers Kiowa culture, with the intent and purpose to explore the cultural roots and customs and traditions of ethnic ancestry Kiowa ancestors.

Meeting was conducted from early 1992 until now, as the realization of observer agreement realization that the secret art and mystery “KASENDUKAN Kiowa” needs to be extracted after seeing “KAROT-KAROT” (scratches) on the rocks in the river and around the WATU TU’US IM-PA-AN PEPA’AR Ranowangko river edge (near the lake Tona’as Wellem Rakian) on September 9, 1991, led by Tumu-speech WANGKO ‘UTE’ RAKIAN; the implementation is done routinely and regularly, including the establishment of team- small team, a team of research and development, verification and monitoring team, formulator and author manuscripts and special teams as required for purposes of repair, rectification and adjustment to the new accurate data found.

To complement the data and supporting evidence, also held a review and field research on heritage sites and archaeological sites around Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, as well as interviews and dialogues with the “tu’a im-tu’a banua “and the charcoal-man known as a lover and observer and observer of culture.

Confirmation of the truth of the findings in the field, as well as inputs as well as stories and narrative a person, done with a special interview and exchange ideas and opinions, and dialogue with people who are already quite old and is considered the master and learn the ins and outs and cultural customs and traditions Ka -Senduk’s, then posed as a discussion in the workshop, to then be studied and studied again the truth and authenticity, and then requested to be formulated and made the writing.

Workshop activities and study a special group and small team meetings, as well as review and field research, conducted since mid-1992 to 1999, still continue and run continuously to obtain the findings of a more complete, to enrich the cultural repertory khasana Ka-Senduk of Kiowa.

It is regrettable because the input of workshop participants in the form of original papers from the workshop participants, about what they know or hear or see for yourself from their parents or their ancestors, especially also the resume of the workshop, nearly everything is destroyed and can not be saved, due to because of stagnant water due to floods that hit the residential penyususn, where archives are stored resumme workshop results. Floods that hit Jakarta Metropolitan city on 10 to 13 Februai 1996, has also checked out the house in the area of ​​Green Ville compiler Block T No. 1 Jakarta, where the flood reached a height of approximately 100 centimeter, so the cupboard and filing cabinet located in the Room part below, where the notes and writings as well as casette tape recorded conversations and interviews with the elders, especially Tumu-Ute said ‘that is a résumé archive Senduk Ka-cultural gatherings of Kiowa, and dozens of cassette tape recorder hidden recording ( recorderder tape is stored in a bag) Salanti Ferry interview about the roots of cultural arts Kasendukan Kiowa, the Ute Tumututur ‘Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Mark Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Peter Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Eyebrows Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober and other people who were interviewed in secret by Ferry Salanti, also flooded and submerged in water for 4 days, including a collection of “conversations” penyusu with the elders of the Kiowa , including stories that had the “compiler” heard by community leaders, among others, by the late Derek mistaken ex Old Law when he was still alive, who happens to have neighbors with the authors about the year 1962/1963, also with Apo ‘Melius Walukow father from Tuwa ‘Peter Walukow often watched him mix of drugs, Apo’ Tertius Piri (where my brother and I Yull often below by Ito ‘Alex Worotitjan looking concoction of drugs), the late Passport Alphius Wowor, the late Endie Rakian, Deceased singon Alo,, Grandma Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Discard Rimper, especially too late and the late HM Taulu Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, FS Watuseke, cultural-other culture, especially also Rietje Rawung aunt and uncle Buyung pemiilik Manguni TOMOHON BOOK HOUSE (Importers book Eastern Indonesia’s largest school books and college in the 1950s are still many published and printed in Holland, in addition to books already published and printed in Indonesia) in 1956-1958, where I live and help them maintain bookstore while in school and read books of art and culture, history and other knowledge that there is no guest / customer, including notes I summarize the story that never are told by the late Justus Worotitjan (tete ‘sergeant) badminton field, about Worotitjan village (now named Kapitu), so the total damaged and destroyed by standing water, which can not be rescued by the maids who kept the house, including the aunt and cousin Yetje Assa Dra Siska Worotitjan compiler can not save casette and archives workshops and other goods because of overflow water occurs at night while they lay on the floor above and find out later the house was flooded the next day. But still lucky because the inputs and resume the essentials workshop, an outline has been included by the author in the diskette / computer.

The data and materials written about the culture of the Ka-Senduk remaining Kiowa and stored on disks / computers this reason, the materials the words “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.

Stories about the village or Ro’ong Kiawa Kiowa (Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), found also in some literature, written and published in the Dutch colonial era, but its content is very much deviated from the actual situation and reality.

Apparently the experts and cultural researcher and writer who authored certtera about the situation and what is related to the history and customs and traditions of society Kiawa (Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), not knowing at all or never perform or review research and field observations, but only heard from the speakers of a third party who only heard from the second party (the adventurous amateurs, which incidentally, to explore the outback “Wanua Kasendukan”), who only knew vaguely about the state of culture and art center Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). The authors do not or have never visited the “national and cultural origins Kasendukan Kiowa, because it was difficult due to go into” navel in tana “, due to its natural condition is still remote and difficult to visit because of natural conditions and terrain that is still covered with dense forest and factors reluctance of the researchers / writers to visit the expedition and the area is still very remote pengungungan time; Moreover, people’s stories about berkunjungnya Whites (SE TOUW Kulo ‘, which is estimated stranded on the beach around Tumpaan Maruasey around the mouth of the river, then their sailors and merchant adventurers who accompanied the missionaries wandered down the river kepegunungan with Maruasey, Nimanga and reached the river and into Wanua Ranowangko Kiowa, Kiowa Wanua because in there are places called TINO’TOKKAN CULO SI (where whites chopped , who estimated a PASTOR because CULO SI ‘referred to, called and calling people with the title “Padre”), including terms as CASTELA, Santa Cruz, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) who used the name of several locations in the plantations and settlements Wanua Kiowa, signaling and indicate that there were people “white skin, which never stopped even settle in Wanua Kiowa, carrying the seeds of plants cloves, cocoa, nutmeg, coffee, and spices and other plants, still exist in Wanua Kiowa It also includes words and terms such as sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo etc., are still used by residents until now ..

 
In our effort to get the data written at the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, (Royal Institute Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Holland, editors who accompanied Po’ouw Tumober Juice, Po’ouw Martin van Broukhoven and Yeyen Liemando, who repeatedly visited kelemaga, we do not or may not have been found, evidence of research or direct search farm sites and archaeological peningglan in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa by experts and researchers from the Dutch archaeological, about archaeological sites and cultural roots as well as indigenous customs and beliefs flow Kasendukan Kiowa, including our search, in the literature that we’ve carefully together in Bibliptheek van het Missiehuis der Missionarisen “Sacre Coeur” Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg Netherlands.
(Last we heard from Pastor Renwarin and his father, who visited La’un Dano, Kiowa, that the files in Tilburg has been taken to Pineleng, by an expert and researcher of ancient art and culture Esa Mina, origin, Father Renwarin Kakaskasen in Seminary Pineleng).

The evidence that a review or research on customs and traditions and the Kiowa culture is not deeply researched and written for not carrying in the literature about the existence of sites and relics of prehistoric prbakala in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu So-sio-siouw in La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo ‘e We-wene.wo Amut the Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-an-cone La’un Dano Ma-wara ‘
• Toy Touw Wangko-‘Me-an-upus
• Toy Touw Wiwing-an-
• Toy Touw Sondek i Rorot an arch,
• Toy Touw other-scattered in several places,
• Timbukar (waruga) which amounts to approximately 300 pieces in the ancient times (which is scattered from front of house Family Pieter Walukow arrived at the cemetery on the western village of Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (youngest citizens)
• Watu Tumo-Towa, which exist in some places,
• Watu Amian, (justified by a Japanese husband of a woman lecturer in UNSRAT and Mr. HYODO Cs from Japan Tobacco who installed the machines Cigarettes factory in the foothills of navel IN TANA ‘,, who visited WATU AMIAN
• Watu-ta’di Pa-an,
• Pa-peku’an,
• Pa-putung’s,
• Tombara’an.
• Pa-an-soring.
• Kentur Puser in Tana ‘
• Pa-an i-ra’da SOKOPE ‘an Lengko’an. (Paradiso)
• etc..

Including the data or materials that tell of:
• Angouw e Touw ASIC Amian (Alien Cave of the North).
• Wo-leley.
• Kastela,
• Ta’sic-ell,
• Santana,
• Guantanamera
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok of the Culo ‘
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho ‘
• Ti-nincas’s,
• and other ancient relics and sites as well as pre-history that lie in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. as well as sacred objects and other historical widespread around Wanua Kiowa.

The things mentioned above show and prove, that the writer on matters Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (now Kiawa) in those days, did not have knowledge about the cultural roots of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, so the writing is much different from the circumstances and the reality and human remains ancient and pre-history that is in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.

Even the impression that the author did not conduct a review and field research, let alone communicate and dialogue with the elders of the Kiowa tradition, perhaps even directly, or do not visit or the introduction of environmental adaptation to feel and explore in depth the approaches and dialogue straight from the heart of what precautionary believed, trusted and felt and known by the Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, even more than that, probably do not know or never saw the sites and ancient relics Kiawa village.

“Mystery of Pu-en-purebgkey e Kiowa” or “Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa”, which are told by the ancestors of the ancestors to the parents until the child-great-great-grandchildren for generations, provides a snapshot , on the state and society of ancient life Ka-Senduk of Kiowa as derived Apo ‘Amut e We-Wene and Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa under the guidance of Wali’an La’un Dano.

To all participants Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa, and the persons-source, Tumu-Tumu-said-said, observers and analysts as well as lovers of Kiowa culture and individuals, who have been involved in search and preparation of this paper, the authors ingim express appreciation to the expression of gratitude and a sincere apology, if his name is not or has not been recorded in writing in this paper, even more than that please forgive if this paper is still too far away or less effective.

A strange event occurred in Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa in Kentur La’un Dano, where the trees’ Tawa’ang “show daunya terikat’teranyam nine strands into one (siouw nga-lalay daung in Laughter’ ang had begun esa pules ma-nga-pules), although attempted to be degraded or open braid / knot, still re-woven and bound by nature, these events took place over several months and witnessed by many people.

Strange and bizarre events that happen over and over again ie inside the track and doing research on ancient heritage sites in the Kiowa area, by chance, without any planned or arranged and engineered, the person who collected always consist of nine people, this is beginning on the date 9 September 1993 at Sondek arch (the former site of PA-AN E-PEPA’AR WALI’AN WO WO SE SE TONA’AS IM TETERUSAN Banua KASENDUKAN and once lived APO ‘INA’ ROROT), in which nine people under the leadership Tona’as Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian plug-li’us Watu Tundek Pa-an (nine men who gathered this is by chance).

 
Maka-Petor !

4.Minahasa Information

 (1)Tona’as im pa’seke’an Minahasa 1890

 
Seorang priester (walian/religious ) Minahasa (Tona’as im pa’seke’an) dalam pakaian kebesarannya berkain patola (tahun 1890an).

(2)  The second Law of Large in Afdeling Manado 1880s

 
Para Hukum Besar/Hukum Kedua se-Minahasa dalam Afdeling Manado sekitar tahun 1880-an di Tikala – Manado.

 3.The history of Minahasa

Minahasa
Minahasan.JPG
Minahasan tribesman in a parade in Surabaya, East Java.
Total population
ca. 1 million in North Sulawesi
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia
(predominantly North Sulawesi)
   
Languages
Minahasan languages, Manado Malay, Indonesian language
Religion
Protestantism (89%), Roman Catholicism (10,5%), Islam (0,5%)
Related ethnic groups
Bolaang Mongondow people, Gorontalo people

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language.

Minahasa Raya is the area covering Bitung City, Manado City and Minahasa Regency, which are three of the seven regional administrations in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Originally inhabited by Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages-speaking peoples, the region was colonized in the 16th century by the Portuguese and Spanish, then the Dutch. In the Dutch East Indies the Minahasa people identified strongly with the Dutch language, culture and the Protestant faith — so strongly, in fact, that when Indonesia became independent in 1945 factions of political elites of the region pleaded with the Dutch to let it become a province of the Netherlands.[1] There is a considerable number of people from the Minahasa living in the Netherlands, as part of the Indo community.[2]

Contents

 

 History

Kabasaran Minahasa.

The name of the land of Minahasa has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and then finally the current name Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united”. This name dates from the war against the Kingdom of Bolaang Mangondow. However, other sources cite that the original name of Minahasa was Malesung, meaning “paddy rotary”, then changed to Se Mahasa, meaning “they that unite,” and finally Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united.”[3]

North Sulawesi never developed any large empire. In 670, the leaders of the different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met by a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they founded a community of independent states, who would form one unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemies if they were attacked.[4]

The Origin of Minahasa People

It is unknown when the land of Minahasa was first occupied by humans. The Minahasans believe that they are descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. Initially, the descendants of Toar-Lumimuut were divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (two times nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes among these people. Their leaders (Tona’as) then decided to meet and talk about this. They met in Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). That meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing of language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing of ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan corresponding to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone of Dividing) was then built. It is a favourite tourist destination.

The groups Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan then established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside these territories. These new villages then became a ruling center of a group of villages called puak, later walak, comparable to the present-day district.

Subsequently a new group of people arrived in Pulisan peninsula. Due to numerous conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages surrounding a large lake. These people were therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is now the Tondano lake.

Minahasa Warriors.

In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were:

  • people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed in Atep. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Tonsawang.
  • people from Tomori Bay. These were the ancestors of the subethnic Pasam-bangko (Ratahan dan Pasan)
  • people from Bolaang Mangondow who were the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang).
  • people from the Bacan archipelago and Sangi, who then occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. These were the subethnic Bobentehu (Bajo). They landed in the place now called Sindulang. They then established a kingdom called Manado which ended in 1670 and became walak Manado.
  • people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first in Panimburan and then went to Bolaang-Mangondow
  • and finally to the place where Malalayang is now located. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.

These are the nine subethnic groups in Minahasa (which explains the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9): Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Pasan Ratahan, Ponosakan, Babontehu and Bantik.

The name Minahasa itself arose at the time the Minahasans fought against Bolaang Mangondow. Among the Minahasan heroes in these wars against Bolaang Mangondow are: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war along Amurang Bay).

Until the dominance of Dutch influence in the 17th and 18th century the Minahassans lived in warrior societies that practised headhunting.[5]

 The European Era

Minahasa Wedding.

In the second half of the 16th century, both Portuguese and the Spanish arrived in North Sulawesi. Half-way though the 17th century there was a rapprochement between the Minahasan chiefs and the Dutch VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which was given concrete form in the treaty of 1679 (which can be found in the Corpus Diplomaticus Neerlando-Indicum 1934, vol. III, no 425). From 1801-1816, the Netherlands were occupied by the French imperial forces of Napoleon and the Minahasa came under English control. In 1817 Dutch rule was re-established until 1949.

At the time of the first contact with Europeans the sultanate of Ternate held some sway over North Sulawesi, and the area was often visited by seafaring Bugis traders from South Sulawesi. The Spanish and the Portuguese, the first Europeans to arrive, landed in Minahasa via the port of Makasar, but also landed at Sulu Island (off the north coast of Borneo) and at the port of Manado. The abundance of natural resources in Minahasa made Manado a strategic port for European traders sailing to and from the spice island of Maluku. Although they had sporadic contacts with Minahasa, the Spanish and Portuguese influence was limited by the power of the Ternate sultanate.

The Portuguese and Spaniards left reminders of their presence in the north in subtle ways. Portuguese surnames and various Portuguese words not found elsewhere in Indonesia, like garrida for an enticing woman and buraco for a bad man, can still be found in Minahasa. In the 1560s the Portuguese Franciscan missionaries made some converts in Minahasa.

The Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[6] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo. [7]

Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[8] Minahasan rulers sent Supit, Pa’at dan Lontoh (their statues are located in Kauditan, about 30 km to Bitung) where they made an alliance treaty with the Dutch. Together eventually gained the upper hand in 1655, built their own fortress in 1658 and expelled the last of the Portuguese a few years later.

By the early 17th century the Dutch had toppled the Ternate sultanate, and then set about eclipsing the Spanish and Portuguese. As was the usual case in the 1640s and 50s, the Dutch colluded with local powers to throw out their European competitors. In 1677 the Dutch occupied Pulau Sangir and, two years later, the Dutch governor of Maluku, Robert Padtbrugge, visited Manado. Out of this visit came a treaty with the local Minahasan chiefs, which led to domination by the Dutch for the next 300 years.

The Dutch helped unite the linguistically diverse Minahasa confederacy, and in 1693 the Minahasa scored a decisive military victory against the Bolaang to the south. The Dutch influence flourished as the Minahasans embraced the European goods and Christian religion. Missionary schools in Manado in 1881 were among the first attempts at mass education in Indonesia, giving their graduates a considerable edge in gaining civil service, military and other positions of influence.

Relations with the Dutch were often less than cordial (a war was fought around Tondano between 1807 and 1809) and the region did not actually come under direct Dutch rule until 1870. The Dutch and the Minahasans eventually became so close that the north was often referred to as the 12th province of the Netherlands. A Manado – based political movement called Twaalfde Provincie even campaigned for Minahasa’s integration into the Dutch state in 1947.

Portuguese activity apart, Christianity became a force in the early 1820s when a Calvinist group, the Netherlands Missionary Society, turned from an almost exclusive interest in Maluku to the Minahasa area. The wholesale conversion of the Minahasans was almost complete by 1860. With the missionaries came mission schools, which meant that, as in Ambon and Roti, Western education in Minahasa started much earlier than in other parts of Indonesia. The Dutch government eventually took over some of these schools and also set up others. Because the schools taught in Dutch, the Minahasans had an early advantage in the competition for government jobs and places in the colonial army. Minahasans remain among the educated elite today.

Armed Forces

Minahasa reserve troops, Tondano Landstorm, 1948.

A relatively large number of Minahasans pursued professional military careers in the colonial army (KNIL). Next to the South Moluccan Ambonese, the Minahasa Menadonese were also considered a martial race and therefore particularly competent and trustworthy as soldiers. As KNIL soldiers the Minahasans fought alongside the Dutch to subdue rebellions in other parts of the archipelago, such as for instance the Java War of 1825-30.

As a large percentage of Minahasans was formally equalised to the European legal class, young men were also obliged to serve as conscripts when mandatory military service for Europeans was introduced in 1917. Older men (as off 32) were obliged to join the Home guard (Dutch: Landstorm).

During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in WWII many Menadonese soldiers were held captive as POW‘s.

They seemed to gain a special role in the Dutch scheme of things and their loyalty to the Dutch as soldiers, their Christian religion and their geographic isolation from the rest of Indonesia all led to a sense of being ‘different’ from the other ethnic groups of the archipelago.[clarification needed]

Republic of Indonesia

The Japanese occupation of 1942-45 was a period of deprivation, and the Allies bombed Manado heavily in 1945. During the Revolution for independence that followed, there was bitter division between pro-Indonesian Unitarians and those favoring Dutch-sponsored federalism. The appointment of a Manadonese Christian, Sam Ratulangi, as the first republican governor of eastern Indonesia, was decisive in winning Minahasan support for the republic.

As the young republic lurched from crisis to crisis, Jakarta‘s monopoly over the copra trade seriously weakened Minahasa’s economy. Illegal exports flourished and in June 1956 Jakarta ordered the closure of Manado port, the busiest smuggling port in the republic. Local leaders refused and Jakarta backed down. Soon Permesta rebels confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform. Jakarta responded in Manado by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

The Minahasan sense of being different quickly became a problem for the central government after independence. As in Sumatra, there was a general feeling that the central government was inefficient, development was stagnating and money was being plugged into Java. Circumstances favored the spread of communism.

In March 1957, the military leaders of both southern and northern Sulawesi launched a confrontation with the central government, with demands for greater regional autonomy. They demanded more local development, a fairer share of revenue, help in suppressing the Kahar Muzakar rebellion in Southern Sulawesi, and a cabinet of the central government led jointly by Soekarno and Hatta. At least initially the ‘Permesta’ (Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam) rebellion was a reformist rather than a separatist movement.

Negotiations between the central government and the Sulawesi military leaders prevented violence in southern Sulawesi, but the Minahasan leaders were dissatisfied with the agreements and the movement split. Inspired, perhaps, by fears of domination by the south, the Minahasan leaders declared their own autonomous state of North Sulawesi in June 1957. By this time the central government had the situation in southern Sulawesi pretty much under control but in the north they had no strong local figure to rely upon and there were rumors that the USA, suspected of supplying arms to rebels in Sumatra, was also in contact with the Minahasan leaders.

The possibility of foreign intervention finally drove the central government to seek military support from southern Sulawesi. Permesta forces were driven out of central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Sangir island and from Morotai in Maluku (from whose airfield the rebels had hoped to fly bombing raids on Jakarta). The rebels’ few planes (supplied by the USA and flown by Filipino, Taiwanese and US pilots) were destroyed. US policy shifted, favoring Jakarta, and in June 1958 central government troops landed in Minahasa. The Permesta rebellion was finally put down in mid-1961.

The effect of both the Sumatran and Sulawesi rebellions was to strengthen exactly those trends the rebels had hoped to weaken. Central authority was enhanced at the expense of local autonomy, radical nationalism gained over pragmatic moderation, the power of the communists and Soekarno increased while that of Hatta waned, and Soekarno was able to establish guided democracy in 1959.

Recently, the Indonesian government has adopted policies to strengthen local autonomy, the very idea that Permesta fought for.

[9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

Culture

Religion

Tontemboan Bible, by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar, published in 1907 by Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland.

At 97% of the population, the Minahasa Regency has one of highest proportions of Christianity in Indonesia. It has the highest density of church buildings in Indonesia, with approximately one church for every 100m road.[citation needed] This is due to a successful missionary campaign by European Christians in Northern Sulawesi.

In 1907, Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland published a bible in the Tontemboan language, a language of Minahasa. It was edited by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar.

Jehovah’s Witnesses begin their first preaching activity in this province in 1932. The first Minahasa to be baptized was Brother Theo Ratu; he is also claimed as the first Indonesian to be baptized. His son Vicky Ratu was also one of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, now joined in Tangerang Kota Congregation. In the 2007 Service Year in North Sulawesi their peak publisher figures were 2,500 publishers.

 Cuisine

Minahasan cuisine is very spicy, and can feature ingredients not typically found in other parts of Indonesia. For example, dog (RW, short for rintek wuuk, or “fine hair” in Tontemboan), cat (tusuk, also known as eveready because of the cat logo used by the battery), forest rat, and fruit bat (paniki) are commonly eaten. The provincial capital Manado is often referred to as Kota Tinutuan, in reference to a popular local dish: a rice porridge made with corn, smoked fish, greens, and chilies. Known outside the province as Bubur Manado, tinutuan is supposed to improve health and vitality.

Dance

Kabasaran war dance, performed at a parade on August 17, 2006

Kabasaran is the fierce and famous Minahasan wardance which reminds of the old Minahasa warrior societies. The dancers wear red garments which in the old times was a color exclusive for the accomplished headhunter. This dance is similar to the Moluccan Cakalele wardance.[15]

 Music

Minahasa music is highly influenced by that of the European colonials; their festivals feature large marching ensembles made up of clarinets, saxophones (source), trumpets, trombones, and tubas, all constructed out of local bamboo.[16]

Languages

In the Minahasa, 5 distinct languages are spoken: Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Toulour, Tonsea and Tombulu. In 1996, the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Dallas, published the North Sulawesi Language Survey by Scott Merrifield and Martinus Salea. It gives an overview of the classification and distribution of the languages, based on a detailed study of the phonology and vocabulary.[17]

Influences of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch can be found in the Indonesian dialect of the Minahasa (Manado Malay or Minahasa Malay):

Chair in Indonesian is kursi, in the Minahasa its called kadera (cadera – Spanish word for hip; cadeira – Portuguese word for chair).

Horse in Indonesian is kuda, a word of Sanscrit origin. In the town of Tomohon, a horse is called kafalio (caballo – Spanish, cavalo – Portuguese).

There is not much known yet about the ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, its origin or translation.[18]

Cultural revival

Ever since the overall de-centralisation following the end of Suharto’s New Order era the Minahasa is bolstering its regional autonomy scheme, among others by positioning itself to profile a unique cultural entity & identity. The three main Minahasa NGO’s active in the cultural revival movement are: ‘Yayasan Suara Nurami’ (The Voice from Within Foundation); ‘Minahasa Wangko’ (Minahasa the Great) both founded by Bert Supit and ‘Peduli Minahasa’ (Take care of Minahasa).[19]

National Heroes of Indonesia from Minahasa

PS. The complete article exist ,but only for the premium member,subscribed via commend with add your ID and profile photos for our security.Thanks

the end @ copyright CDr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Rare Portugeus Book 1955:”The Fourth Eviction”(QUARTA de DESPEJO)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Rare Book in Portugeus :

“Quarta de Despejo.”

or” Fourth Eviction “

 (PENGUSIRAN KEEMPAT)

By Carolina Maria de Jesus

 Dr Iwan Notes

1.The best book for learning Portugeous language

(Buku Yang bagus untuk belajar bahasa Portugis)

2.This Book found in Jakarta Indonesia,maybe before belong by the Ex East Timor People Who move to Indonesia after Timor Leste freedom .

 
 

Introduction

Nossa Irma Carolina

apresentacao de audalio dantas

Prefa’cia nao e’ que prefacio tem regras. E de regras nao gasta,digo logo. Tenho de contar yma historia,conto. Bem contada,no exatoacontevideo,sem inventar nada. Nao e’ no jeito meu,comum de repo’rter,mas o’ uma historia exata de verdade-takvez uma reportagem especial. Conto: a historia de Carolina Maria de Jesus, irma nosea,vizinha nossa, ali da facela do Caninde’,Rua A.barraco numero 9

google translate:

Our Irma Carolinapresentation of Audálio DantasPrefa’cia and not ‘preface that has rules. And the rules do not spend, say soon. I have to tell you my story, tale. Well told, in exatoacontevideo, without inventing anything. It ‘s not in my way, common repo’rter but the ‘ one-story exactly true takvez a special report. Tale: the story of Carolina Maria de Jesus, nosea sister, our neighbor, there’s the Facel Caninde ‘, Street Number 9 A.barracoCHAPTER ONE : JULY 195515 de julho de 1955Aniversario de minha filha Vera Eunice. Eu pretendia um par de sapatos para ela. Mas o custo dos generos alimenticios nos impede a realizacao dos nossos desejos. Atualmente somos escravos do custo de vida. EWu achei um par de sapatos no lixo,lavei e remendel para ela calcar.translate:

July 15, 1955 Birthday of my daughter Vera Eunice. I wanted a pair of shoes for her. But the cost of food keeps us from the realization of our desires. Currently we are slaves of the cost of living. EWU found a pair of shoes in the garbage, and washed her remendel calcar
 
CHAPTER TWO : AUGUST 1955
 
1 de Agosto
Assistencia estava chengando. Vinha examinar o Portugues que vende doces. Dia 28 de julho eu fui visita-lo. E’le queria uma Assistencia. Aludiam que e’le nao paga o IAPTC e nao vinham.Quando cheguei na favela fui visita’-lo.E’le estava gemendo e tinha duas senhoras portugeusas que lhe visitava. Perguntei-lhe se estava melhor. Disse-me que na’o. A putuguesa perguntou-me :
-O que e que a senhora faz ? -Eu cato papel,ferro, e nas horas vagas escrevo.
translate :
  

August 1
Assistance was Cheng. Vineyard examine the Portuguese who sells candy. July 28 I went to visit him. E’le wanted an Assistance. E’le alluded to not pay and not the IAPTC vinham.
Quando arrived in the slum went visita’ it. E’le was moaning and had two ladies who came to her portugeusas. 
I asked him if he was better.
 He told me that na’o.
The portuguesa asked me:
 “What do you do?
 I-cato paper, iron, and in his spare time writing
 
CHAPTER THREE : SEPTEMBER 1955
1 de september Eu fui na feira, comprei uma laranja,Chengquei em casa a Vera estava no quintal. Dei-lhe uma sova
1 september I went to the market, I bought an orange at home Chengquei Vera was in the backyard. I gave him a beating
 
2 de setembre . Acandi o fogo e esquentei comide para as filhas porqueu na’o tinha dinheiro para comprar pa’o. Troquei os filhos que forarn para a escola. E eu sai com a Vara Quese fiquel louca. Porque havia pauco papel na rue.Agora ate’ os lixeiros avancam no que os catadores de papels podem pegar. Eles sa’o egoistas. Na rua Paulino Guimarra’es tem um deposito de ferro. Todos os dias e’les poe a lixo na rua, e lixo tem muito ferro. Eu catava os ferros para vender. Angora, o carro que fax a coleta, antes de iniciar a colete vem na rua Paulino Guinara’es e pege o lixo e po’e no carro. Nogentos.Egoistas. Eles ja’ tem emprego,tem hospital,farmacia,medicos. E ainda vende no ferro velho tudo que encontra no lixo. W ainda vende no ferro velho tudo que encontra no lixo .Podia deixar os ferros para mim
 
Pessei a tarde arranjando as letas. Depois fui na Bela Vista byscar um caixote.Quando eu passava perto do Frigorifico o caminha’o de ossos estava estacionado.Pedi uns ossos para o motorista. E’le deu-me um que eu escolbhi. Tinha muita gordura.
Fiz a sopa e comecei escrever. A noite surgio. O Joa’o jantou-se e deitou-se. Puis a Vera no berco.O Jose’ Carlos estava na rua, com medo de apanhar, porque e’le e’ muita parco.Sujou a camisa de barro. Eu fiz um chuiqueiro e vou por e’le morando com o porco.Hao de dar-se bem.
A Pitoca passou na rua convidando o pavo para ir ver o cineminha.Chamou o Joao.Eu disse que ele ja estava dormindo Fui o cineminha. Era desenho da Igreja.
 
No Play Boy(2) que o Adhemar pois aqui para as criancas , a noite sa’o os marmanjos que brincam. O Bobo fazia tento berulho que deturpava o espetaculo. Os favelados pizam no fio electrico que liga a maquina. E a maquina desligava. Os proprios favelados falam que favelado nao tem iducacao. Pensei : vou escrever.
Quando eu voltava encontrei corn o Paulo que vive com a dona aurora. Ela tem uma filha mulata clara. Ela dix que eu era um anjo.Meu visitido era amplo .Mangas longes cor de rosa. eu ia da terra para o ce’u. E pegava as estrelas. Elas organisaram um espetaculo para homenagear -me. Dancavam ao meu redor e formavam um risco luminoso.
Quancho despertei pensei: eu sou ta’o pobre.Nao posco ir num espetaculo, por isso Deus envia-me estes sonhos deslumbrantes para minh’alma dolorida. Ao Deus que me projede, envio os meus agradecimentos.
 
 
September 2. Acandi the fire and warmed to his daughters because FOO na’o had money to buy pa’o. Forarn swapped the children to school. And I went out with Rod Queso fiquel crazy. Because there was pauci role in rue.Agora up ‘progress on the garbage scavengers papels can get. They sa’o selfish. On the street Guimarra’es Paulino has a deposit of iron. Everyday e’les puts the trash, and trash is too much iron. I was picking the irons for sale. Angora, the car fax collection before starting the vest comes in the street and Paulino Guinara’es pege po’e and trash in the car. Nogentos.Egoistas. They already “have a job, has hospital, pharmacy, medical. And it sells scrap it all in the trash. W still sells all the junk you find in the trash. Podia  hates leaving the anchors to me.

Pessi the afternoon arranging them in Latvia. Then I went to a Bela Vista byscar caixote.Quando I spent close to the Fridge was estacionado.Pedi caminha’o bone bones for the driver. E’le gave me one I escolbhi. He had too much fat.
I made the soup and started writing. The night surgio. The Joa’o dined out and went to bed. I put Vera in berco.O Jose ‘Carlos was on the street, afraid to take because e’le and’ the shirt parco.Sujou lot of clay. I did and go for a chuiqueiro e’le living with porco.Hao to get along.
The Pitoco passed on the street inviting pavo to go see the cineminha.Chamou Joao.Eu said he was already sleeping I was the movie. He was drawing the Church.

In Play Boy (2) that Adhemarbecause here for the kids ,the night sa’o the guys play . The Fool did try berulho that misrepresented the spectacle. Slum-dwellers in pizam electric wire that connects your machine. And the machine off. The squatters say they own slums do not have iducacao. I thought I’ll write.
When I returned I found the corn that Paul lives with his mistress aurora. She has a clear mulatto daughter. She was a dix I visited anjo.Meu was wide. Long sleeves pink. I went from land to ce’u. And the stars picked. They organized a spectacle to honor me. Danced around me and formed a bright risk.
Quancho woke up I thought, I’m going Posco ta’o pobre.Nao a spectacle, so God sent me these beautiful dreams for my soul aching. When I projede God, send my thanks..

 
 3 de setembro.
Ontem comemos mal. E hoje pior
 
8 de setembro
Hoje eu estou alegre.Estou rindo sem motiva. estou cantando. Quando eu canto, eu componho uns versos. Eu canto ate’ aborrecer da cancao. Hoje eu fiz esta cancao :
 
Te mandaram uma macumba
 e eu ja’ sei quem mandou
Foi a Mariazinha
Aquela que voce’ amou
Ela disse que te amava
Voce’ na’o acreditou
 
  

 
September 3.
Yesterday we ate badly. And worse todaySeptember 8
Today I’m laughing alegre.Estou without motivation. I’m singing. When I sing, I write verses. I sing until ‘bored of the song. Today I made ​​this song:Sent you a voodoo
  and I already “know who sent
Gretel was the
The one that you ‘loved
She said I love you
You ‘believe na’o
 
18 de Septembro
Hoje  eu estou alegre. Eu estou procurando viver com o espirito calmo. Acho que e’ porque estes dias eu tenho tido o que comer.
Quando eu vi os empregados da Fabrica os letreidos aue elas trazem nas costas e escrevi estes versos :
ALGUM HOMENS EM SAO PAULO
ANDAM TODOS CARIMBADOS
TRAS UM LETREIRO NAS COSTAS
DISZENDA ONDE E’ EMPREGADO
 

Today I’m happy. I’m trying to live with the spirit calm. And think ‘these days because I’ve had enough to eat.
When I saw the employees of the literati Fabrica aue they bring back and wrote these verses:
NO MEN IN SAO PAULO
WALK ALL STAMPED
A SIGN BACK BACK
WHERE AND DISZENDA ‘EMPLOYEE
 

PS the complete Book only for premium member,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE  VIA COMMENT AND YOU WILL CONTACT YOUR  EMAIL.

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the Basketball NBA Playoff Grand Final and Semifinal liveshow and Rare NBA Card Exhibition (Tayangan Semifinal NBA langsung dari Amerika)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Sport Liveshow

NBA Grand Final and Playoff Semifinal Liveshow and Rare NBA Card Exhibition Comentator Chris Weber, Kenny Smith  

and Charles Barkley.

Frame One :

The NBA Grandfinal 2011 seasons Dallas Maveric vs Miami Heat live now.

 a. Game 1

b.game 2

c.game 3

d.game 4

 

 Frame Two :Westren Semifinal

1 .LA Laker vs Dallas Maverick

 (1) Dallas Marverick Win and enter the NBA semifinal(final Eastren conference)

(2)

 (3) series two

 

 

(4)series one

LA Laker 0- Dallas Maverick 1

2.Memphis Gresielis Vs Oklahoma Thunder

(1) Series Four

(2) Series Three

(3) Series  Two

(4)Series One

 Frame Two: The Eastren Semifinal 1.Chicago Bulls vs Atlanta Hawk

serie five bull leads 3-2

seriefour 2-2,serie three 2-1(bulls leads)

serie two 2-0(bulls leads)

4.Miami Heats Vs Boston Celtic

(5)Miami Heats Win 4-1

(4)Miami Heat Leads 3-1

(3)Miami heat leads 2-1

(2)Miami vs Boston 1-1

(1)Miami leads 1-0

 

 

Frame Three:

NBA Star Players

1.Westren

 (1) Memphis

(a)Young

(b)Marc Gasol 

(c)Randolf

(2) Oklahoma Thunder

(a)Kevin Durant

(b)Russel Wesbrock

 

Atlanta

Jeff Teague

2010/11 Donruss Jeff Teague Autograph Card

Derrick Rose

Chicago Bulls

2.Eastren

(1) LA Lakers

(a) Kobe Bryant

(b) PauGasol

 (c)Lamar Odom

(d) Ron Artest

 

RON ARTEST AUTOGRAPHED BASKETBALL CARD #20811J

(2) Dallas Maverick

(a) Dirk Norwski

(b)Jason Kid

(c) Shawn Marion

Shawn Marion Autographed 2003 UpperDeck SM Basketball Card 

(d) Yao Ming

(3) Boston Celtic

(1) Paul Pierce

(2) Rajon Rondo

(4)Miami Heat

(a) Lebron”King” James

Also featured is a 10-card LeBron James “King On His Court” insert with material and prime material versions saluting 10 great moments in King James’ career. As LeBron James makes his annual assault on the NBA Championship, these cards are sure to be high on set collectors lists.

(b) Chris Bosh

   
     
     

View Details

Chris Bosh autographed Toronto Raptors 8×10 phot…

Price:    $60.00

THE  RARE NBA AUTHOGRAPH CARD EXHIBTION DURING THE PLAYOFF GAMES

 

 

 

 
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310/539 \3150
07/08 Ultimate Collection
Marco Belinelli RC オート #103
71/99 \1890
07/08 Bowman Sterling
Kevin Durant Black Ref
15/25 \6000
07/08 Triple Threads
Bibby/Hawes/Martin
Triple relic 4/9
\6800
07/08 UD Black
Tom Sanders
05/25 \6500
07/08 SP Authentics
Brand Miller By The Number
05/50 \3150
07/08 SP Authentics
Brabdon Roy Chirography
\3150
07/08 SP Authentics
Sean Williams #127
226/599 \5000
07/08 SP Authentics
Jason Smith #129
064/599 \3150
07/08 SP Authentics
Adam Haluska #143
069/599 \3150
07/08 SPx
George Gervin Endorsements
\2500
07/08 SPx
Al Thornton Supper Scripts
\1890
07/08 SPx
kevin Durant Freshman orientation
\2500
07/08 Fleer Hot Prospect
Connie Hawkins
Supreme Court Sig
07/25 \3780
06/07 Finest
Greg Oden
RC Ref #101
319/399 \12600
06/07 Finest
Al Horford RC Ref #103
257/399 \4700
07/08 Bowman Chrome
Greg Oden
Gold Ref RC
37/99 \7200
07/08 SP Game Used
Allen Iverson
パッチ #102
02/25 \6000
07/08 Studium Clum
Rodney Stuckey #115
X-Factor Auto
\5000
07/08 SPx
Glen Davis #124
238/825 \2500
06/07 SP Authentic
Fabric Quad #QF-IGJB
L,James/Z,Ilgauskas/D,Gooden/S,Brown
04/25 \18900
06/07 Triple Threads
Charlie Villanuva Relic #TTR-26
Sapphire 3/3 \5250
06/07 E-X
Rajon Rondo RC Auto
06/07 Topps Full Court
Tyrus Thomas RC Gold Ref
15/50 #122 \2500
06/07 Finest
Kevin Durant
Green Ref #102
174/199 \17600
07/08 Stadium Club
Kevin Durant RC Ref #102
937/999 \2500
06/07 Sweet Shot
Authentic Signatures
\3780
00/01 MVP
Wally Szczerbiak Pro Sig
#WS \1890
02/03 UD
Ron Mercer Game Jersey Auto
#AURM \3000
06/07 SPX
Peja Stojakovic
Flash Back Auto
#FFYK \2500
06/07 SPX
Yaroslav Koroley
Flash Back Auto
#FFPS \2500
06/07 Sweet Shot
Signature SSL-FR
\3150
03/04 SP Game Used
Autographed Double
Dajuan Wagner/Carlos Boozer
02/50 \12600
03/04 SP Game Used
Autographed Double
Jay Williams/Marcus Fizer
23/50 \6300
05/06 Rookie Debut
Debut INK
Marvin Willams
\15000
05/06 Ultimate Collection
Marvin Williams/Raymond Felton
04/25 \10000
04/05 SP Signature Edition
Ruthentic Signature
Alonzo Mourning
\5000
04/05 Trilogy Signs of Stardom
Stephon Marbury
\3150
04/05 SP Signature Edition
SP SIGNS
Dwight Howard 078/100
\10000
04/05 SP Signature Edition
SP SIGNS
Yao Ming 17/50
\10000
04/05 SP Signature Edition
SP SIGNS
Jason Williams 078/100
\7560
04/05 SP Signature Edition
SP SIGNS
Hakeem Olajuwon 39/50
\7560
05/06 Big Game Collection
Shaq
120/199 \10000
06/07 Bowman Chrome
James Augustine RC Auto
#132 \3780
06/07 Sweet Shot
D,Gooden/L,James Dual Jersey Card
082/199 \3150
06/07 SP Signature Edition
Marks of Distinction
Ben Gordon
08/50 \6300
04/05 Ultimate Collection
Amare Stoudemire Signature
\6300
04/05 UD Sweet Shot
Sweet Shot Signature 1:180
Josh Howard \5000
02/03 Hardcourt
Wally Szczerbiak Auto
\3150
05/06 SP Authentic
Sean May RC オート
752/1299 \5000
05/06 SP Authentic
Francisco Garcia RC
0146/1299 \3150
05/06 SP Authentic
Raymond Felton RC
0089/1299 \15800
05/06 SP Signature Edition
Marks of Distinction
Hakim Warrick 05/40
\5000
05/06 Reflections
Signature Toni Kukoc
\5000
01/02 UD Sweet Spot Signature
Julius Erving \26000
04/05 Ultimate Collection
Ultimate Game Patch
048/100 Steve Nash
\5000
01/02 Topps Autographed Jersey
Magic Johnson
Kareem Abdul Jabbar
16/25 \80000
2002 UD Kobe Bryant
ジャージカード \8000
05/06 Reflections
Rashad McCants Autograph 41/50
\6300
04/05 SPX Flashback 202
Lamar Odom
\3780
04/05 Trilogy
Sign of Stardom
S,Livingston \2500
98/99 Thunder
Noyz Boyz Antoine Walker
\1800
05/06 Topps Finest
Allen Iverson
Printing Plate Black
1/1 \18000
04/05 Black Diamond
A,Kirilenko Gemography
\2500
04/05 Topps Finest
Gerald Green #208
RC Black Ref 37/39
\12600
04/05 Skybox Autographics
Carlos Arroyo Auto Jersey
100枚限定 \5000
04/05 SP Signatrure Edi
Jackson Vroman AKA Auto
100 \3150
05/06 UD Reflection Fabrics
Triple Jersey Blue #FR3-AS
Amare Stoudemire 14/20
\5000
01/02 UD Ovation Tremendous
MJ,KG,KB
\50400
00/01 UD
Autographed Game Jersey
Penny \9600
97/98 Skybox Autograph
Reggie Miller \25000
04/05 SPX Winnig Combos
LeBron James Eric Snow
\5000
99/00 UD Ionix
UD Authentic
Steve Francis
\3780
01/02 UD Ultimate Collection
Autographed Buyback 4/4
Kobe Bryant \80000

 the end @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011