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Koleksi Filateli,Dokumen Dan Gambar Sejarah Indonesia Masa Hindia Belanda Tahun 1890-1910

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DIHC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Indonesia Historic  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Indonesian Historic Collection 1830 to 1910:

(Map)

A.Table Of Content :

Introduction

The chronologic collections

B.Introduction

1.Dutch Imperialism: 1815-1870

The Dutch fought two major wars in the 1820s. They still did not control many areas in their imagined sphere of influence, including Aceh, Bali, much of Sulawesi and Nusa Tenggara.

Leaders among the Indonesians included:

Pattimura in Ambon in 1817

Pangeran Diponegoroin the Java War, 1825-1830

Imam Tuanku Bonjol in the Padri War in the 1830s

2. The KNIL

3.The Revenue History 19Th Century 

1)Earliest Nederland and South Holland revenue handstamped (1841) on law magazine from nederland sent to Indonesia.

2)The Earliest Netherland Oost Indie revenue

(1)The Ned Oost Indie Revenue  sheet , embosed noncolour , nominal:

Quater G

 half G

,one G

,one and  half

two

,four

Six

and 12 guilders.

(3)All the uncolour embosed Revenue  in complete Document :

a.Land Certificate (Eigendom) Bought,consist three uncolour embosed revenue sheet 12 gld, 2 gld and 1 gld , courter sign by the land of justice Soerabaja 1894

, b Land Certificate .countersign by Soerabaja Justice Office 1904 with uncolour embossed revenue 6 gld

 , and c Leasing certificate (Surat Hutang ) 600 gld, uncolour embosed revenue sheet  one and half gld,1893 added revenue ovpt 10 cent on 5 cent nedl.oost revenue for countersign(tanda tangan pengesahan)

 

 

2)The Ned Oost  Indie Revenue stamped, I have only found two type , the five cent and overprint 10 cent on 5 cent ,

1) 2.11.1888

2.11.1888 Dutch East indie(DEI) first issued revenue stamp 5 cent , please report the earliest used and another high nominal revenue issued like 10 gld .
The latset used of five cent nedl Oost Indie  Revennue stamp in 1889
2. THE OVERPRINT 10 CENT  ON THE FIRST REVENUE FIVE CENT(EMERGENCY REVENUE)
10.5.1893
3)THE 10 CENT PLAKZEGEL VAN NEDERLANSCHE INDIE
(1)  6.5.1899(earliest date)

6.5.1900 nED.iNDIE rEVENUE sTAMP 10 CENT  DEI 2nd issued revenue , (please report the HIGNHEST NOMINAL )

 
THE ORDER(ORDONASI) OF NED.INDIE(DEI) REVENUE:
 1.Ordonasi Revenue 1817-1885,
After the 80 th year war, the revenue tax still exist which never in the same type. from Nederland the regulation bring to Indonesia.the oldest regulation in 19th century was “de heffing van recht van the kleine zegel van 1817′(Thre order of samll revenue stamped of 1817).the revenue depend on the type of the agreement on the acta, the reality this was the cost of subscribed.This regulation difficult to action and in 1885 had changed with the new order.
2.REVENUE ORDONASI 1885
the new order of Revenue stamped in 1885 had changed to the newe order”ordonatie op de heffing van Zege recht van nederlandch Indie” in this ordonatie there were practise revenue with the same (seragam) Reveneu from one and half G and from 10 cent.This ordonatie still used until the new ordonatie in 1921. please look at the regulation in Indonesia language below,

A

3.) ORDONASI REVENUE ON INSURANCE POLISH  1858

FRAME FOUR :
THE 19th CENTURY INDONESIA  ‘S HISTORY
1.PREFACE:
From the arrival of the first Dutch ships in the late sixteenth century, Dutch control over the Indonesian archipelago was tenuous.

[7]

Although parts of Java were under Dutch domination for most of the 350 years of the combined VOC and Dutch East Indies era, many areas remained independent for much of this time including

Aceh

,

Bali

,

Kalimantan

, and

Lombok

.

[7]

It was not until the early 20th century, that Dutch dominance was extended across what was to become the territory of modern-day Indonesia. There were numerous wars and disturbances across the archipelago as various indigenous groups resisted efforts to establish a Dutch hegemony, which weakened Dutch control and tied up its military forces.

[8]

The submission of Prince Diponegoro to General De Kock at the end of the Java War in 1830

INDONESIA UNDER NAOPEON FRENCH DOMINATION(1806-1810)

In 1806, with the Netherlands under French domination, Napoleon appointed his brother, Louis to the Dutch throne which led to the 1808 appointment of Marshall Herman Willem Daendels to Governor General of the Dutch East Indies.[9]

INDONESIA UNDER BRITISH DENOMINATION (1811-1816)

 In 1811, British forces occupied several Dutch East Indies ports including Java and Thomas Stamford Raffles became Lieutenant Governor.

INDONESIA UNDER DUTCH COLONIAL NETHERLAND INDIES

 Dutch control was restored in 1816.[10]Under the 1824 Anglo-Dutch Treaty, the Dutch secured British settlements in Indonesia, such as Bengkulu in Sumatra, in exchange for ceding control of their possessions in the Malay Peninsula and Dutch India. The resulting borders between British and Dutch possessions remain between Malaysia and Indonesia. As exploitation of Indonesian resources expanded off Java, most of the outer islands came under direct Dutch government control or influence. Significant Indonesian piracy remained a problem for the Dutch until the mid-19th century.[7]

The Dutch subjugated the Minangkabau of Sumatra in the Padri War (1821–38) and the Java War (1825–30) ended significant Javanese resistance.[11] The Banjarmasin War (1859–1863) in southeast Kalimantan resulted in the defeat of the Sultan. After failed expeditions to conquer Bali in 1846 and 1848, an 1849 intervention brought northern Bali under Dutch control.

2.REPUBLIC BATAAV

The Batavian Republic was the successor

Succession of states
Succession of states is a theory in international relations regarding the recognition and acceptance of a newly created state by other states, based on a perceived historical relationship the new state has with a prior state…

 of the Republic of the United Netherlands

Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands…

. It was proclaimed on January 19, 1795 and ended on June 5, 1806 with the accession of Louis Bonaparte

Louis Bonaparte
Louis Napoléon Bonaparte, Prince Français, King of Holland, Comte de Saint-Leu was the fifth surviving child and the fourth surviving son of Carlo Buonaparte and Letizia Ramolino…

 to the throne of the Kingdom of Holland

Kingdom of Holland
The Kingdom of Holland 1806–1810 was set up by Napoleon Bonaparte as a puppet kingdom for his third brother, Louis Bonaparte, in order to better control the Netherlands. The name of the leading province, Holland, was now taken for the whole country…

.

The new Republic enjoyed widespread support from the Dutch population and was the product of a genuine popular revolution. Nevertheless, it clearly was founded with the armed support of the revolutionary French Republic. The Batavian Republic became a client state of first that “sister-republic

French client republic
During its occupation of neighboring parts of Europe during the French Revolutionary Wars, France established republican regimes in these territories…

“, and later of the French Empire of Napoleon Bonaparte, and its politics was deeply influenced by the French who supported no less than three coups d’état to bring the different political factions to power that France favored at different moments in her own historical development. Nevertheless, the process of creating a written Dutch constitution was mainly driven by internal political factors, not by French influence—until Napoleon forced the Dutch government to accept his brother as monarch.

The political, economic and social reforms that were brought about during the relatively short duration of the Batavian Republic have had a lasting impact. The confederal structure of the old Dutch Republic was permanently replaced by a unitary state. For the first time in Dutch history, the constitution that was adopted in 1798 had a genuinely democratic character (despite the fact that it was pushed through after a coup d’état

Coup d’état
A coup d’état —also known as a coup, putsch, and overthrow—is the sudden, extra-legal deposition of a government, usually by a small group of the existing state establishment—typically the military—to replace the deposed government with another body; either civil or military…

). For a while the Republic was governed democratically, though the coup d’état of 1801 put an authoritarian regime in power, after another change in constitution. Nevertheless, the memory of this brief experiment with democracy helped smooth the transition to a more democratic government in 1848 (the constitutional revision by Thorbecke

Johan Rudolph Thorbecke
Johan Rudolph Thorbecke was a Dutch politician and statesman of Liberal signature who is considered as one of the most important Dutch politicians of the 19th century…

, limiting the power of the King). A type of ministerial government was introduced for the first time in Dutch history and many of the current government departments date their history back to this period.

Though the Batavian Republic was a client state, its successive governments tried their best to maintain a modicum of independence and to serve Dutch interests even where those clashed with those of their French overseers. This perceived obduracy led to the eventual demise of the Republic when the short-lived experiment with the (again authoritarian) regime of “Grand Pensionary” Schimmelpenninck produced insufficient docility in the eyes of Napoleon. The new king, Louis Napoleon – Napoleon’s own brother – surprisingly did not slavishly follow French dictates either, leading to his downfall.

Background

The final days of the Dutch Republic

Dutch Republic
The Dutch Republic — officially known as the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands , the Republic of the United Netherlands, or the Republic of the Seven United Provinces — was a republic in Europe existing from 1581 to 1795, preceding the modern Kingdom of the Netherlands…

 were quite eventful. Due to the Fourth Anglo-Dutch War

Fourth Anglo-Dutch War
The Fourth Anglo–Dutch War was a conflict between the Kingdom of Great Britain and the Dutch Republic. The war, tangentially related to the American Revolutionary War, broke out over British and Dutch disagreements on the legality and conduct of Dutch trade with Britain’s enemies in that…

 that went disastrously for the Dutch, the Patriot party

Patriots (faction)
The Patriots were a political faction in the Dutch Republic in the second half of the eighteenth century. They were led by Joan van der Capellen tot den Pol, gaining power from November 1782….

 staged a revolt against the authoritarian regime of stadtholder

Stadtholder
A Stadtholder in the Low Countries was a medieval function which during the 18th century developed into a rare type of de facto hereditary head of state of the thus “crowned” Dutch Republic…

 William V

William V, Prince of Orange
William V Batavus, Prince of Orange-Nassau was the last Stadtholder of the Dutch Republic, and between 1795 and 1806 he led the Government of the Dutch Republic in Exile in London. He was succeeded by his son William I.-Earliest years:…

 

 in June 1787. Most Patriots went into exile in France, while the ancien régime strengthened its grip on the government through the Orangist

Orangism (Netherlands)
Orangism is a monarchist political support for the House of Orange-Nassau as monarchy of the Netherlands. It played a significant role in the political history of the Netherlands since the Dutch revolt…

Creation of the Republic

This war also proceeded disastrously for the Stadtholder’s forces, and in the severe winter of 1794/95 a French army under general Charles Pichegru

Charles Pichegru
Jean-Charles Pichegru was a French general and political figure of the French Revolution and Revolutionary Wars.-Early life and career:…

, with a Dutch contingent under general Herman Willem Daendels

Herman Willem Daendels
Herman Willem Daendels was a Dutch politician who served as the 36th Governor General of the Dutch East Indies between 1808 – 1811….

, crossed the great frozen rivers that traditionally protected the Netherlands from invasion. Aided by the fact that a substantial proportion of the Dutch population looked favorably upon the French incursion, and often considered it a liberation, the French were quickly able to break the resistance of the forces of the Stadtholder, and his Austrian and British allies. However, in many cities revolution broke out even before the French arrived and Revolutionary Committees

1830

 

 

  Johannes van den Bosch arrives as the new Governor-General, begins the “cultuurstelsel” or “culture system”.Forced cultivation of indigo is introduced in the Priangan.First steamboat arrives in the Indies.Nederlands Zendelinggenootschap (Dutch Missionary Society) begins offering education to “native” children.December 4 Van den Bosch officially organizes the Dutch forces from the Java War into the Oost-Indische Leger, or “East Indies Army” (later KNIL).                                  

 

     

 

                     

 

 

             

 

             

 

     

 

                  . .

 

     

 

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  . .

 

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1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1831

  Nederlands-Indië government manages a balanced budget.Dutch forces fighting the Padri in Sumatra reach the Bonjol area.U.S. ships shell coastal villages in Aceh in an action against piracy.
Gov.-Gen. Johannes van den BoschIt was only after the Java War that the Dutch began to think about a real empire in the Indies. From 1830 to the end of the century, the Dutch began a drive to take complete control of the areas from Aceh to New Guinea, and to extract as much profit as possible from the valuable areas, such as the Priangan area of West Java.Revenues from the Indies paid for as much as one-third of the Dutch government’s budget in the mid-1800s. These monies helped to finance the industrialization and development of the Netherlands in the 1800s. The burden fell especially upon the Netherlands Indies, since the Dutch had lost many of their other colonies to the British during the Napoleonic wars (including South Africa and Sri Lanka), and since Belgium with its business and industry broke away from the Kingdom of the Netherlands in 1830.The government was called the Netherlands Indies, or Nederlands-Indië in Dutch, or Hindia Belanda in Indonesian today

1832

  Dutch depose Sultan of Jailolo and take control of Halmahera. Under the “culture system”, Javanese were required to grow a certain amount of crops for export–more coffee, sugar, spices and indigo, but less rice to feed the people. The system worked without great controversy for the first few years. About 1845, a series of poor harvests led to greater poverty and even famine on Java–famine that was aggravated because the best lands were being used for tobacco, sugar or coffee instead of rice, and because the land in general had been exhausted by overproduction. Van den Bosch had specified that local farmers should be given leeway to grow their own food, but colonial officials under him ignored these orders in pursuit of ever larger cash crops.The products of the culture system were sold through the Nederlandse Handel-Maatschappij, run by the Netherlands government, and the profits were kept by the Netherlands. The King of the Netherlands owned significant shares in the NHM, and gained an extra fortune from its profits. (The NHM survives today as the Algemene Bank Nederland.) The Netherlands Indies nearly went bankrupt in the 1820s; after van den Bosch, it returned large budget surpluses to the Netherlands throughout the 1830s (and into the 1870s

1833

  JanuaryMinangkabau villages around Bonjol rise up in popular rebellion; Dutch troops in the area are massacred. Padri war heats up; Dutch seal off the coast. Sentot fights on Dutch side, but was probably not pro-Dutch in his heart. Dutch place Sentot under watch in Bengkulu (until 1855).Sultan of Jambi asks for Dutch help against Palembang.

1834

  Dutch force Sultan Muhammad Fahruddin of Jambi to recognize Dutch sovereignty.Portuguese government expels Dominican friars from East Timor.

1836

  Dutch abandon Fort Du Bus on Irian.(west papua)

 

1837

 

 

  Bonjol in Minangkabau finally falls to the Dutch in the Padri War. Tuanku Imam Bonjol surrenders and is sent into minahasa.Tuanku Imam Bonjol was one of the main leaders in the Padri war. Other fighters against the Dutch included the “Harimau Nan Selapan” or “eight tigers”, led by Haji Miskin.Iman Bonjol Padri soldier  with sword and Qour’an inspected Dutch Fort de Kock(now Bukittingi) compare with the lith. illustration from mersedon book the history of sumatra.

1838

  Dutch victory at Daludalu ends the Padri war in Minangkabau. Direct Dutch rule in Minangkabau is enforced (adat law and nobility appear pro-Dutch, Islamic leaders appear anti-Dutch).Dutch expedition against Flores.Bone renewsTreaty of Bungaya; fighting against the Dutch subsides.Dutch establish presence on Nias.Sulaiman inherits rule of Aceh, but Tuanku Ibrahim rules as guardian, ruling Aceh until 1870.Mataram kingdom on Lombok takes control of the whole island, plus Karangasem on Bali

1839

  Danish merchant Mads Lange opens a trading post at Kuta on Bali

1841

  The rajas of Badung, Klungkung, Karangasem and Buleleng on Bali sign treaties recognizing Dutch sovereignty; rajas to keep internal power.James Brooke begins creating private empire for himself in Sarawak.

1842

  Dutch withdraw from east coast of Sumatra north of Palembang due to British worries.The nobility in Surakarta is arrested under suspicion of inciting revolt.

1843

  Raja of Lombok accepts Dutch sovereignty.Famine in Cirebon. By this time, there was a movement of people out of the Priangan, Cirebon, and nearby areas of West Java towards areas that were less strictly controlled by the culture system. Local bupatis and Dutch officials were instructed to send these internal refugees home whenever possible.In the 1840s, as much as two-thirds of the money earned by a Javanese farmer on his crops could be taken by taxes.

1844

  Rajas of Buleleng and Karangasem are dissatisfied with Dutch, and refuse to ratify treaties.

1845

  Vanilla industry started on Java.

1846

  JuneNetherlands Indies force attacks Buleleng; other rajas secretly support the anti-Dutch forces. Palace at Singaraja is destroyed. Raja of Buleleng signs a treaty of submission. Netherlands Indies bases a garrison at Singaraja.Netherlands Indies expedition against Flores.Typhoid epidemic in Java.Netherlands Indies takes control of Samarinda.First commercial coal mine is opened at Martapura, South Kalimantan.Revolt in Banten.It was traditional on Bali for shipwrecks to be salvaged by the local population. The Dutch considered this to be looting and theft. The cultural clash led to continual political and military conflict between the Netherlands Indies government and the rajas on Bali.

1847

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.  

 

  .  

1848

  JuneNetherlands Indies sends a military force to Bali in response to conflicts over the enforcement of treaties with the local rajas. The force is defeated by a Balinese force under Gusti Ketut Jilantik at Jagaraga, and withdraws from the island.New constitution in Netherlands: Dutch States-General has some control over colonial affairs.Revised commercial, civil and criminal codes for the Netherlands Indies are introduced, applicable to people of European descent only.Demonstration in Batavia, led by Baron van Hoevell (a Dutch Reformed minister), petitions the King of the Netherlands for freedom of the press, public secondary schools, and representation for the Netherlands Indies in the States General.Regency schools, for the education and training of the children of local rulers and nobles, begin operations.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas  

 

1850

  Dutch begin missionary work among Bataks of north Sumatra.Famine in Central Java.Dutch purchase the remaining Portuguese posts on Flores.The Netherlands Indies government prohibited Catholic missionaries from visiting the Bataks on Sumatra or the Toraja on Sulawesi. Only Protestant missionaries were allowed in those areas .

 

     

1851

  “Dokter-Jawa” INDISCHE_ARTS school (STOVIA,now Museum) founded in Gambir NEAR Dutch Army Hospital(now RSPAD Gatot Subroto), Batavia.Billiton Maatschappij begins tin mining on Belitung.at Soegai Liat city , Many Chinese laborers are imported.

1852

  Aceh sends an emissary to Napoleon III of France.Cola trees are introduced on Java.Dutch end the tax on the hajj.                       .       .  

1857

  Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.
Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.  

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.  

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.  

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.  

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends. In 1863, the government of the Netherlands used profits from the exploitation of the Netherlands Indies to compensate former slaveholders in Suriname in South America, after slavery was abolished there.

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864.

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870.

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.  

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease. The Dutch would waste over 30 years trying to take full control of Aceh, and would never fully succeed.

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common fighters.

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch officials.

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.  

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.  

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.  

1891

  Mengwi in Bali is taken over by Badung.Naqshbandiyya rebel in Lombok against Mataram-Balinese rule; Dutch intervene.First contract workers leave Java for Surinam in South America.
A traditional masjid in Aceh from the late 1800s.

1893

  Pakubuwono X becomes Susuhunan of Solo.”First Class” schools for native Indonesians are established.  

1894

  Final Dutch intervention in Lombok is successful; nobility goes down in puputan; Karangasem becomes Dutch dependency.”Batak War” ends.Rebellion against Portuguese in East Timor.Netherlands Indies organizes a state-run opium monopoly to control the opium trade (Opiumregie). A “puputan” was a suicide charge by Balinese nobility to defend their honor when all else was lost. The families of the court would put on ceremonial clothes, arm themselves with false weapons and walk directly into enemy gunfire.Reports of the terrible events on Lombok reached back to the Netherlands, and caused very different reactions in different segments of society. The popular press promoted war fever, and over 3000 army volunteers agreed to go to the Indies and fight for the Netherlands crown. However, other observers were shocked, and their reactions helped start the movement towards moderate reform in the colonial government that would eventually be known as the “Ethical Policy”.

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1853

  Dutch begin administering north Bali.Mangkunegara IV takes his title in Surakarta.
A local ruler on Madura, about 1853.

1854

  Netherlands government issues a constitutional reform for the Netherlands Indies (“Regeeringsreglement”). Local rulers in the Indies are to continue to have traditional powers over their subjects, ruling on behalf of the Dutch. A strict separation betweens Europeans and “Inlanders” is recognized in the law.Governor-General of the Netherlands Indies receives the power to exile anyone without appeal or review.Aceh establishes authority over Langkat, Deli and Serdang on east coast of Sumatra (“pepper ports”).Introduction of cinchona (quinine) cultivation to the Priangan, at Cibodas, West Java.
     

 

1855

  Hamengkubuwono VI becomes Sultan of Yogya.Dutch military expedition to Nias.Dutch extend control over western Kalimantan.Dutch East Indie forbiiden circulated all type of coins issued before 1855 included locla and chinese cash coins, and issued first half cent and one cent  copper coincoin (very rare because limited edition only 200.000)

1856

  Regulation on Publications gives the Governor-General authority to conduct prepublication censorship of the press without appeal or review.MarchEduard Douwes Dekker is dismissed from his government post in West Java after accusing local bupatis of corruption. (Later, under the pen name “Multatuli”, he writes the novel “Max Havelaar”, exposing conditions in colonial Java to readers in the Netherlands.)Dutch military expedition to Flores.
Eduard Douwes Dekker, or “Multatuli”

1857

Netherlands Indies 1/2 cent from 1857 showing both Malay/Arabic script and “huruf jawa” Javanese characters.

Dutch intervene in succession to Sultanate of Banjarmasin, support Tamjidillah over more popular Hidayatullah.First telegraph line is laid from Batavia to Buitenzorg.

 

  .
          .  

 

   

1858

  Dutch expedition against south Sulawesi.Ratu Taha Saifuddin of Jambi refuses treaty with Dutch, flees into jungle with pusaka (emblems or heirlooms of his house), fights until 1904.Dutch take Siak in north Sumatra by treaty, and move troops in to prevent British adventurers from gaining a foothold there. The boundary of Siak is defined to include Langkat and Deli, infringing on Acehnese territory.Nederlands-Indië government running at a deficit due to military expenses.Pakubuwono VIII becomes Susuhunan of Solo.

1859

  Banjarmasin War led by Pangeran Antasari; Dutch withdraw support for Tamjidillah, send him to Bogor.Portuguese sign accord with the Dutch: Portuguese abandon outposts and claims on Flores and Solor to the Dutch, and retain possession of Portuguese Timor. Division between West and East Timor is set.Dutch government bans slavery in the Netherlands Indies.Dutch military expedition to Bone to depose Queen Basse Kajuara.Telegraph cable is laid from Batavia to Singapore.

 

1860

  “Max Havelaar” is published.Dutch open Savu.Dutch abolish the Sultanate of Banjarmasin, and enforce direct colonial rule.Dutch extend protectorate over Wajo in Sulawesi. “Max Havelaar” exposed the abuses of Dutch colonial rule on Java, and put political pressure on the Netherlands government to make reforms in the colonies.
 

 

     

 

     

 

           

 

1861

  Pakubuwono IX becomes Susuhunan of Solo.German Protestant missionaries begin working around Lake Toba in northern Sumatra.        

1862

  Hidayatullah surrenders in Banjarmasin, and is exiled to Java. Antasari dies of smallpox, guerilla war continues.Compulsory pepper cultivation ends.

 

1863

  Dutch military expedition to Nias.British send gunboats to Langkat and other “pepper ports” on Sumatra.July 1Slavery officially ends in the Netherlands Indies.Tobacco cultivation is introduced to Northern Sumatra.Fransen van de Putte, a former plantation owner on Java and opponent of the culture system, becomes Netherlands Minister of Colonies.Compulsory clove and nutmeg cultivation ends.
          .       .  

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.  

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.  

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors. In 1869, the Suez Canal opened, which greatly reduced the travel time and effort between Europe and Asia by sea, and gave places such as Aceh much more strategic importance.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about

1864

  April 1First Netherlands Indies postage stamp is issued.Dutch experiment with rubber cultivation in Java and Sumatra.Dutch claim Mentawai Islands.The last Sultan of Siak abdicates.
First Netherlands Indies postage stamp, 1864

1865

  Compulsory cultivation of tea, cinnamon, cochineal and indigo ends.Dutch introduce tobacco to Deli and northern Sumatra.Dutch institute direct rule in the Sultanate of Asahan in northern Sumatra and remove the Sultan to Riau.New forestry laws and regulations are introduced.
The Raja of Buleleng on Bali, in an 1865 photo.

 

1866

  Compulsory tobacco cultivation ends.Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule on Sumba.               .  

 

                  .               .                          

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch o

1867

  Gunung Merapi erupts near Yogya; 1000 are killed.”Accountability Law” prescribes that the finances of the Netherlands Indies should be separate from those of the Netherlands.Netherlands Indies Department of Education is organized.
Mangkunegara IV is remembered for his promotion of traditional Javanese culture, philosophy, and mysticism, especially in his literary works.

1868

  Dutch tighten control over Bengkulu.

1869

  1/3 of the population of Savu dies from smallpox.Aceh appeals to the Ottoman Empire for protection.Deli Maatschappij is founded by private investors.

1870

  Minahasa area comes under direct Dutch rule.Sultan Mahmud Syah rules Aceh until 1874.Sugar Act begins a period of agricultural reform.Coffee blight afflicts Java.Regular steamship service to the Netherlands through the Suez canal begins.
Street vendor in Batavia selling soup, about 1870

1871

  Agrarian Act encourages privatization of agriculture, starts to dismantle many practices of the “culture system”.Smallpox kills 18,000 in Bali.Telegraph cable is laid from Banyuwangi, Java to Australia.November Treaty of Sumatra between British and Dutch: Dutch give Gold Coast to British; Dutch may send contract labor from India to Dutch Guiana; Dutch get free hand in Sumatra, British and Dutch both have trade rights in Aceh. Effect of this treaty: there is no more foreign objection to the Dutch taking Aceh.
A Bugis house, rebuilt for the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

 

   

1872

  Batak war begins in north Sumatra, lasting until 1895.

1873

  January 25Emissary from Aceh holds talks with the American consul in Singapore, but USA help is rejected by Washington. The Dutch respond with war.March 26Dutch bombard Banda Aceh.April 8Dutch land troops at Banda Aceh.April 25Acehnese force the Dutch to withdraw.Sultan of Kutai signs a treaty recognizing the Dutch.Assam tea plants from India are introduced to replace Chinese tea plants, which had been disappointing. Tea production starts to rise.First railways are built on Java.November 11 Dutch invade Aceh again, and maintain their positions, but would sustain heavy losses due to disease.
     

 

    .        

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.  

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch o

1874

  January 24Acehnese abandon Banda Aceh and retreat to the hills. Dutch announce that Sultanate of Aceh is ended.Sultan Mahmud Syah of Aceh dies in the jungle; Sultan Ibrahim Mansur Syah heads sultanate in hills until 1907. Teuku Umar of the Acehnese nobility leads the Acehnese forces.Dutch expedition to Flores.Dutch send an official to the Aru Islands.
Teuku UmarIn the mid-1880s, and again in the mid-1890s, Teuku Umar would briefly switch sides in the Aceh war. This sort of behavior lessened the reputation of the nobility in Aceh among the common
  .  

1875

  The Netherlands Indies, Australia, and Germany set a boundary between their claims on New Guinea.
Palace guards for the Sultan of Ternate, 1875.
     

1876

  Introduction of rubber cultivation to Java.Baba Hassan leads revolt on Halmahera.

 

1877

  Hamengkubuwono VII becomes Sultan of Yogya. After this point, the Nederlands-Indië government operates at a loss.        

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia. The legal reforms of this period meant that feudal rights and privileges of the nobility were cancelled. The average person won a few freedoms, but many changes simply meant that power passed from traditional rulers to Dutch

1878

  Compulsory sugar and coffee cultivation starts to be eliminated.Expedition under Gen. Van der Heijden burns 500 villages in Aceh to the ground.Teungku Cik di Tiro, an Islamic ulama, starts leading the resistance in Aceh.
Teungku Cik di Tiro

1879

  R. A. Kartini born at Jepara.Coca cultivation is introduced on Java.
Raden Adjeng Kartini
R. A. Kartini is remembered today for her collected letters, works of high literary quality. Far ahead of her time, Kartini was an early advocate both for Indonesia and for the interests of women everywhere.
      power passed from traditional rulers to

1880

  Rail line completed from Batavia to Bandung.Koelie Ordonnantie (“Coolie Ordinance”) specifies the law of employment contracts: employers must provide adequate housing and medical care, workers are bound to a plantation only for the duration of the contract. Contracts must be signed before a magistrate, and can be disputed in court.First condensed milk in cans is imported from Australia.

 

1881

  Minahasa chiefs are made salaried officials of the Netherlands Indies.Mangkunegara IV passes away. In the early 1880s, a resident of Kudus named Haji Jamahri took up the habit of mixing cloves into a hand-rolled cigarette to relieve the symptoms of asthma. This was the origin of the “kretek” or clove cigarette. Commercial manufacture of kretek, however, would not start in earnest until the 1930s.     .  

 

  .  

 

             

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).  

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.  

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

1890

  Zijlker founds company that would become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch expedition against Flores.Netherlands Indies introduces a property tax.

1882

  Netherlands Indies institutes direct rule in Buleleng and Jembrana on Bali.Netherlands Indies takes control of Karangasem and Gianyar on Bali. Bali and Lombok become a single Residency; the rajas of south Bali are unhappy, but continue to fight among themselves.Aru and Tanimbar islands come under Dutch administration.August 6Tjokroaminoto born.Sugar blight hits Java.Dutch military expedition on Seram.Oil found around Kutai on Kalimantan.Islamic courts are given limited authority on Java (“Priesterraden”). Their jurisdiction is limited to family law.          

1883

  Sisingamangaraja XII is expelled from the Batak region.Krakatau erupts; 36,000 are killed in West Java and Lampung.A. J. Zijlker gets approval from Dutch to start drilling for oil in Langkat, north Sumatra.Revolt in favor of Pangeran Suryengalaga fails in Yogya.
Musicians from Java at the Colonial Exposition in Amsterdam, 1883.

1884

  Guerilla war heats up in Aceh. Dutch build “Geconcentreerde Linie” in Aceh: a series of 16 forts designed to contain guerillas.Dutch institute direct rule in Deli.Communications services are consolidated by the government into PTT (Post Telegraaf Telefoon).
Dutch-led troops in Aceh stand over the bodies of guerilla fighters. Many of the common soldiers in the Netherlands Indies forces were not Dutch, but were recruited from Java, Sulawesi, and other parts of Indonesia.The Netherlands Indies government-run PTT would become the ancestor of Indonesia’s state-run phone companies after independence, and today’s Telkom.
     

1885

  Sultan of Asahan is returned from exile to his territory to rule for the Dutch.Dutch institute direct rule in Madura.Persons of Chinese descent in the Netherlands Indies are classified as “Europeans” for purposes of commercial law only.

1886

  Modern harbor is built at Tanjung Priok, Batavia (today’s Jakarta).                 .

 

1887

  Sultans of Madura have been reduced to bupati status.Economic depression in Java.         .

1888

  Earthquake hits Bali.Dutch Resident in Surakarta takes control of the finances of the Mangkunegara house.Revolt in Banten led by the Qadiriyya order.North Borneo (Sabah) becomes a British protectorate.Koninklijke Paketvaart Maatschappij is founded as the major inter-island shipping and passenger line. On Java in this period, there were over 80 local rulers keeping the title of “Sultan”, “Susuhunan” or “Bupati” ruling in theory, while the Dutch held the real power.The status of Sabah or North Borneo went back and forth between 1865 and 1888, as different colonial interests bought and sold claims to the territory. The eventual winner was the British North Borneo company, but the confusion over claims to the area would reappear during the creation of Malaysia in the 1960s.

 

1890

 

 
 
Zijlker mendirikan perusahaan yang akan menjadi Royal Dutch  Shell2.  Ekspedisi KNIL belanda melawan Flores.
3 HindiaBelanda memper-kenalkan pajak properti.(bangunan)
                         

1895

  Jami’at Khair founded; organization dedicated to Arabic education.Portuguese Timor, formerly administered from Macao, receives its own administration.British-Dutch agreement sets the boundary between their claims on Irian (New Guinea).  

1896

  King Chulalongkorn of Thailand makes a state visit to the Netherlands Indies.Dutch go on attack against guerillas in Aceh with special forces (Korps Marechaussee).  

1898

  Dutch begin exploring Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz becomes Dutch Governor of Aceh. His advisor Snouck Hurgronje introduces “Korte Verklaring”, a short treaty recognizing Dutch rule, to replace older complicated agreements with local rulers; Dutch pursue alliance with uleebalangs against Islamic leaders.June Van Heutsz sends a successful Dutch expedition against Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje studied Islam in Indonesia as an observer, and was an advisor to Van Heutsz and other government officials in the Netherlands Indies. In 1885, he travelled secretly to Mecca, and reported that at that time, there was a significant number of Malays and Indonesians living there.Starting about this time, the Dutch began to encourage Islamic worship and practice, as long as politics were not involved. The goal was to channel Islamic enthusiasm away from politics and nationalism.

1899

  R. A. Kartini begins letter-writing career.Pesantren Tebuireng, a famous Islamic school, is founded at Jombang, East Java.Teuku Umar is killed during a Dutch ambush.Van Deventer, a colonial reformer, publishes “Een Eereschuld”, demanding that monies collected in the past from the Netherlands Indies be restituted to the Indies to help pay off the rising colonial debt.   (Map)

Dutch Imperialism: 1870-1910

During this period the Dutch tried to take complete control of all the areas they claimed. This was the era of “high imperialism”, when powers such as Britain and France were facing competition from new colonial powers such as Germany and Italy, and most unclaimed parts of Africa, Asia and the Pacific were being taken by one power before another could get an opportunity. The “Netherlands Indies” were vital to the Dutch economy: the profits from coffee, tobacco, oil, and other products helped finance the industrialization of the Netherlands.

1900

  Raja of Gianyar on Bali submits to Dutch authority.Upper schools at Bandung, Magelang and Probolinggo reorganized to train Javanese candidates for local civil service.
Traditional warriors on Nias, 1900.

1901

  Jambi placed under control of Dutch Resident of Palembang during succession question and related unrest.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company expands to Kalimantan.Dutch place a garrison on the Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno is born.Queen Wilhelmina of the Netherlands announces “Ethical Policy” towards the Indies. Europeans in the Indies, who controlled the economy and government, paid only 20% of the tax revenues of the Indies. Most of the tax burden still fell on native Indonesians, in spite of the dismantlement of the culture system. These revenues were used, among other things, to finance Dutch military conquests in the outer islands.But it was not enough. By this time, the Dutch government was sending more money to support the Netherlands Indies than it was collecting from the Indies in revenues. Most of the cash flow from the Indies to the Netherlands after 1900 was in the hands of private businesses.

1902

  Dutch end restrictions on the hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca).  

1903

  Sultan of Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, surrenders to the Dutch, but keeps secret contact with guerillas.Netherlands Indies begins opening MULO schools for elementary education.Decentralization Act gives a small number of seats in local and provincial governments to natives of the Indies. First elections ever on Java are held.Netherlands Indies treasury gets a treasury separate from the home treasury in the Netherlands.
Van Heutsz surveys troops in the field in Aceh.
Thirty years of war in Aceh cost 60,000 Acehnese lives, plus over 2,000 Dutch soldiers killed in battle, and over 10,000 Dutch soldiers dead from disease. Another 25,000 forced laborers under the Dutch died in Aceh in this period.

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

 

1891

  Mengwi  Bali diambil alih oleh Badung.2.Pemberontakan Naqshbandiyya di Lombok menentang hukum masyarakat Mataram Bali ; Dutch 3Pekerja kontral pertama berangkat ke Suriname di Amerika Selatan 
mesjid traditional aceh tahun  1800

 

             

1893

  Pakubuwono X menjadi  Susuhunan  Solo.2.Sekolah pertama untuk penduduk pribumi Indonesia didirikan

.

         

1894

 

 
 
1.intervensi terakhir Belanda di Lombok berhasil; bangsawan turun di Puputan; Karangasem menjadi ketergantungan 2.Pada akhirnya Belanda mengorganisir “Perang Batak” 3..Pemberontakan melawan Portugis di Timor Timor.4.Hindia Belanda monopoli opium yang dikelola dimana  negara  mengontrol perdagangan opium (Opiumregie)..
 
.”Puputan” adalah biaya bunuh diri oleh kaum bangsawan Bali untuk membela kehormatan mereka kapan lagi semua hilang.
.Keluarga  akan memakai pakaian upacara, mempersenjatai diri dengan senjata palsu dan berjalan langsung ke pelluru tembakan.Dilaporkan bahwa   peristiwa mengerikan di Lombok sampai  ke Belanda, dan menyebabkan reaksi yang sangat berbeda di berbagai segmen masyarakat. Pers populer dipromosikan demam perang, dan lebih dari 3000 relawan tentara setuju untuk pergi ke Hindia dan berjuang untuk mahkota Belanda. Namun, pengamat lain terkejut, dan reaksi mereka membantu memulai gerakan menuju reformasi moderat dalam pemerintahan kolonial yang akhirnya akan dikenal sebagai “Politik Etis”.

“.

1895

 
 
1.Jami’at Khair didirikan, organisasi yang berdedikasi ke pendidikan Bahasa Arab
2.Timor Portugis , sebelumnya dikelola dari Macao, menerima persetujuannya administrasi sendiri
3.British-Belanda menetapkan batas antara klaim mereka di Irian (New Guinea).
 
              .  

 

     

1896

 
    1.Raja Chulalongkorn dari Thailand melakukan kunjungan kenegaraan ke Hindia Belanda 2. Belanda menyerangan gerilyawan di Aceh dengan pasukan khusus (Korps Marechaussee).      .  

1898

 

  Belanda mulai menjelajahi Irian Jaya.Van Heutsz menjadi Gubernur Belanda di Aceh. Penasihat-Nya .
Snouck HurgronjeSnouck Hurgronje memperkenalkan “Korte Verklaring”, sebuah perjanjian pendek mengakui pemerintahan Belanda, untuk menggantikan perjanjian yang rumit lebih tua dengan penguasa lokal; Belanda mengejar aliansi dengan uleebalang terhadap Islam leaders.June Van Heutsz mengirim suatu ekspedisi Belanda yang sukses melawan Pidie, Aceh.
Snouck Hurgronje mempelajari Islam di Indonesia sebagai pengamat, dan merupakan penasihat Van Heutsz dan pejabat pemerintah lainnya di Hindia Belanda. Pada 1885, ia pergi diam-diam ke Mekah, dan melaporkan bahwa pada waktu itu, ada sejumlah besar Melayu dan Indonesia yang tinggal there.Starting tentang waktu ini, Belanda mulai mendorong ibadah Islam dan praktek, selama tidak terlibat politik . Tujuannya adalah untuk menyalurkan antusiasme Islam jauh dari politik 

 

1899

    

Raden Ajeng Kartini adalah seorang bangsawan Jawa yang surat-surat itu diterjemahkan dan diterbitkan pada tahun 1976 menjadi sebuah buku berjudul “Door Duisternist tot Licht” Di Indonesia, Kartini dikenal untuk kontribusinya untuk menerapkan doktrin-doktrin yang begitu (Dari Kegelapan ke Light.)- disebut feminisme Eropa kontemporer kepada masyarakat sendiri. Melalui surat menggugah dia, Kartini adalah mempertanyakan banyak hal yang dianggap penting pada saat itu, seperti seni, sastra, dan kesejahteraan ekonomi. Tapi warisan yang terbaik adalah ide tentang mendidik perempuan Jawa yang didasarkan pada pengalaman sendiri sebagai seorang bangsawan Jawa yang mengalami pembatasan yang diberlakukan oleh tradisi Jawa untuk melanjutkan studi-nya [2]. Dengan ayahnya Raden Sosroningrat, Kartini diizinkan belajar sampai dia sekitar 12 tahun yang merupakan hal yang cukup revolusioner untuk melakukannya pada waktu itu. Kartini pergi ke sekolah untuk orang-orang Eropa di mana dia bisa belajar bahasa Belanda dan memberikan dia sebuah pengantar untuk pemikiran Barat. Meskipun keinginannya untuk belajar terpenuhi, Kartini tidak sepenuhnya senang karena ia mengalami tekanan dari teman-teman Eropa dan guru, 3]. , Kartini mulai membangun persahabatan dengan teman-teman beberapa Eropa yang kemudian mendesak ayah Kartini untuk mengizinkan dia melanjutkan studinya ke pendidikan menengah. Tapi Raden Sosroningrat tidak cukup berani untuk memecahkan tradisi,, Kartini mendapat semacam pencerahan tentang perempuan dan tradisi Jawa dengan membaca buku-buku dan surat kabar, mendengarkan pembicaraan ayahnya, dan mengamati perilaku tamu ayahnya dan relatif: “ideal gadis Jawa … sepi, sebagai bergerak sebagai boneka kayu, berbicara hanya jika benar-benar diperlukan dengan suara, berbisik kecil yang tidak dapat didengar oleh semut. Dia berjalan langkah demi langkah seperti bekicot, tertawa tanpa suara tanpa membuka mulutnya, menunjukkan gigi seseorang dianggap sangat jelek, satu tampak seperti rubah. “[4] status perempuan untuk laki-laki karena tingkat kesantunan yang lebih tinggi diharapkan dari bawahan kepada atasan [5] kita adalah manusia sama seperti laki-laki. Mari saya membuktikannya. rantai Loose saya “[6]. , Lembaga pertama yang mengajarkan dia untuk berperilaku tepat sebagai seorang gadis dan seorang wanita [7]. Kartini harus belajar ‘domestik’ tugas-tugas yang secara normatif dipelajari oleh anak perempuan di kelas ‘seperti, memasak, mengurus rumah tangga, dan menyesuaikan (atau membatik). batasan bagi perempuan untuk memperluas ruang privat ke ruang publik [8].
Dia bertekad untuk menikah dengan duda, Raden Adipati Djojodiningrat, yang sudah memiliki tiga istri. Saya menganggap Kartini menangkap ide ini poligami sebagai bentuk penindasan patriarki terhadap perempuan [9) seluruh hidupnya di antara mereka,  perempuan asli benar-benar memiliki hati yang dapat merasakan dan menderita seperti halus, perempuan dibudidayakan dalam masyarakat Anda . Banyak membanggakan diri bahwa mereka disiapkan dengan satu atau lebih wanita dari suami mereka dengan wajah bergeming, tetapi tidak bertanya apa yang tersembunyi di balik topeng ini besi, atau apa dinding rumah mereka bersembunyi dari pandangan. Ada begitu banyak hati perempuan berduka dan jiwa yang menderita malang anak-anak yang tidak bersalah “[10]. Segala sesuatu kepada orang dan tidak ada wanita “[11]. hanya mengalihkan perhatian perempuan terhadap bentuk lain dari penindasan, yaitu patriarki publik. Baik patriarki swasta atau publik membawa pembebasan bagi perempuan [12]. Kartini melihat bahwa hanya  mengajar dan belajar sebagai jalan keluar dari hegemoni tradisi  patriarki

hidup telah datang untuk mengklaim janji itu dariku. Tidak akan terlalu pahit, terlalu sulit, terlalu sulit bagi kita jika kita mampu melalui itu memberikan kontribusi bahkan satu tetes pasir ke gedung itu monumen yang indah: kebahagiaan rakyat “[17]

 
 

1.RA Kartini mulai berkarier dalam mengajar tulis menulis .2.Pesantren Tebuireng, sebuah sekolah Islam yang terkenal, didirikan di Jombang, Timur Java.3.Teuku Umar tewas dalam sebuah ambush.4.Van Deventer Belanda, seorang pembaharu kolonial, menerbitkan “Een Eereschuld”, menuntut agar uang yang dikumpulkan di masa lalu dari Hindia Belanda menjadi direstitusi ke Hindia Belanda untuk membantu melunasi hutang kolonial yang meningkat   .

 

.

 

1900

 
 
Raja Gianyar di Bali tunduk kepada  Belanda  Sekolah  Tinggi Belanda di Bandung, Magelang dan Probolinggo ditata kembali untuk melatih calon dari Jawa untuk pelayanan sipil lokal.
 

pasukan Tradisional  Nias, 1900.
      .

 

  .          

1904

  Van Heutsz, recently military Governor of Aceh, becomes Governor-General (until 1909).Taha of Jambi is killed by the Dutch.MayThe ship “Sri Koemala” is wrecked off Sanur, Bali. Locals salvage the wreck; the ship’s owners demand reparations from the Netherlands Indies government. Relations between the Netherlands Indies and the Raja of Badung on Bali worsen considerably as a result.Netherlands Indies military expedition takes control of the Batak region of Sumatra.An expedition under Capt. Van Daalen to the uplands of Aceh kills over 3000 villagers, including over 1000 women and children.Netherlands government starts a series of grants and loan repayment programs for the Netherlands Indies.Dewi Sartika founds Sekolah Isteri (Schools for Women).
Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

1905

  JanuaryDutch begin five months of military operations on Kalimantan.Dutch send a military force against a rebellion on Ceram.AugustDutch forces land at Pare Pare. Major Dutch advance on Sulawesi; Bugis, Makasar, Toraja areas are taken for good. Ruler of Bone is deposed.Acehnese resistance contacts Japanese consul in Singapore for help.Dutch occupy Mentawai islands.First trade union is founded for railway workers.October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah founded by Kyai Haji Samanhudi, originally to look after the interests of Muslim batik producers in Surakarta.Municipal councils set up at Batavia and Bandung.Netherlands Indies government sponsors a community of transplanted Javanese farmers in Lampung: first example of transmigrasi.  

1906

  September 15Major Dutch advance on Bali begins; Netherlands Indies fleet anchors off Sanur.September 16Netherlands Indies forces invade at Sanur.September 20Dutch naval force shells Denpasar.Nobility of Badung commits suicide in a puputan, marching down the main street of Denpasar. Over 3600 are killed.September 23Dutch advance on Tabanan, Bali. Raja of Tabanan offers to surrender on condition that he be allowed to retain his title and lands. The Dutch resident takes the Raja into custody until he can receive a reply from the Netherlands Indies government in Batavia. The Raja of Tabanan commits suicide while in custody.Rubber production takes off in Sumatra with new plant varieties.Dutch take direct control of Sumba.Dutch establish a protectorate over Berau in east Kalimantan.Postpublication censorship is introduced: all publications must be submitted to a censor for review within 24 hours of release.  

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1901

 The Mentawai Islands are a chain of about seventy islands and islets off the western coast of Sumatra
Desa di Mentawai tahun 1895
. Siberut (4,030 km²) adalah pulau yang terbesar >pulau besar lainnya adalah  Sipora, Pagai Utara dan Pagai Selatan. Pulau-pulau terletak 150 km dari pantai  Sumatra meliwati selat  Mentawai ..sejarah

Kepulauan Mentawai dipisahkan sekali lagi dari daratan Sumatera oleh naiknya permukaan air laut. Orang-orang Mentawai diperkirakan telah tiba di pulau-pulau di suatu tempat antara tahun 2000 dan 500 SM, bermigrasi dari utara melalui Siberut dan kemudian pindah selatan ke Sipora dan pulau-pulau Pagai. .Portugis menyadari pulau-pulau di awal abad ke-17: peta tanggal 1606 menunjukkan Siberut sebagai “Mintaon”. Pada Agustus 1792 John Crisp, seorang pegawai British East India Company, mengunjungi Pagai (“Poggy”) pulau biaya sendiri untuk mempelajari masyarakat Mentawai. Ceritanya diterbitkan pada 1799,  memberikan rincian pertama dari orang Mentawai dalam literatur barat. Kepulauan Mentawai resmi menjadi bagian dari Hindia Belanda pada tanggal 10 Juli 1864, bukan yang telah tunduk pada Perjanjian Anglo-Belanda 1824. Pada tahun 1901 Royal Jerman Missionary Society didirikan kehadiran di pantai selatan pulau Pagai Utara atas undangan pemerintah kolonial Belanda. Misionaris pertama adalah dibunuh, dan itu tidak sampai 1915 bahwa orang pertama dikonversi, dengan program kemudian yang diperluas ke pulau-pulau lain.
Kepulauan Mentawai, gambar yang diambil 1930.
  
    Jambi ditempatkan di bawah kendali Belanda Residen Palembang selama pertanyaan suksesi dan unrest.Zijlker terkait ‘s Royal perusahaan minyak Belanda mengekspansi Kalimantan.Dutch tempat garnisun di Mentawai Islands.June 6Sukarno adalah born.Queen Wilhelmina dari Belanda mengumumkan “Politik Etis” terhadap Hindia. Eropa di Hindia, yang menguasai ekonomi dan pemerintah, dibayarkan hanya 20% dari pendapatan pajak Hindia  Sebagian besar beban pajak masih jatuh pada Indonesia asli, meskipun pembongkaran dari sistem budaya. Pendapatan ini digunakan, antara lain, untuk membiayai penaklukan militer Belanda di islands.But luar itu tidak cukup. Pada saat ini, pemerintah Belanda mengirim lebih banyak uang untuk mendukung Hindia Belanda daripada mengumpulkan dari Hindia pendapatan. Sebagian besar arus kas dari Hindia ke Belanda setelah 1900 berada di tangan usaha swasta.      

 

   

1902

klateklasik.inet col.tanah suci

kaaba.makka tul mukkoromah-1918

  Belanda menghentikan pembantasan naik haji ke Mekah(pilgrimage to Mecca).  

 

   

 

1903

Van Heutsz survei pasukan di lapangan di Aceh.
Tiga puluh tahun perang di Aceh biaya hidup 60.000 Aceh, ditambah lebih dari 2.000 tentara Belanda tewas dalam pertempuran, dan lebih dari 10.000 tentara Belanda tewas dari penyakit. Lain 25.000 buruh paksa di bawah Belanda meninggal di Aceh dalam periode ini.
    Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan guerillas.Netherlands Hindia mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk education.Decentralization dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah held.Netherlands perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan rumah di Belanda.

 
 

 

   Sultan Muhammad Daud Syah pada 1903 yang secara kerajaan telah tunduk kepada belanda, namun perlawanan rakyat tetap berkibar.Sultan Aceh, Tuanku Daud Syah, menyerah kepada Belanda, tetapi tetap kontak rahasia dengan gerijawan. Hindia Belanda  mulai membuka sekolah MULO untuk pendidikan .Desentralisasi dasar Undang-Undang memberikan sejumlah kecil kursi dalam pemerintah daerah dan propinsi untuk penduduk asli Hindia. Pertama pemilu yang pernah di Jawa adalah  perbendaharaan Hindia mendapat perbendaharaan yang terpisah dari perbendaharaan kerajaan di Belanda..

1904

 Van Heutsz as Governor-General.

 
 
 
   
Baru-baru ini Van Heutsz, Gubernur militer Aceh, menjadi Gubernur Jenderal  baru(hingga 1909). Sultan Thaha Jambi dibunuh oleh Belanda.
kapal Belanda .
Mai “Sri Koemala”   hancur  di Sanur , Bali. Warga menyelamatkan bangkai kapal, pemilik kapal  atas  permintaan reparasi  dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda. Hubungan antara Hindia Belanda dan Raja Badung di Bali memburuk jauh sebagai Hindia result.Netherlands ekspedisi militer mengambil alih wilayah Batak ekspedisi Sumatra di bawah Kapten Van Daalen ke dataran tinggi Aceh membunuh lebih dari 3000 warga desa, termasuk lebih dari 1000 wanita dan anak-anak.
 Pemerintah
Belanda memulai serangkaian hibah dan program pinjaman pengembalian untuk Hindia Belanda .Dewi Sartika mendirikan Sekolah Isteri (Sekolah untuk Perempuan).
 


 “Groepsportret met Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin van Djambi en zijn gevolg”

Potret kelompok Sultan Thaha Syaifuddin Jambi dan rombongannya
             

1907

  Dutch military puts down rebellion in Flores, taking complete control.Unrest is finally put down in Jambi.Aceh guerillas attack Dutch in Banda Aceh.King Sisingamangaraja XII of the Bataks revolts against the Dutch, and is shot in the conflict.Netherlands Indies introduces a tax on businesses.Zijlker’s Royal Dutch oil company merges with Shell Transport and Trading to become Royal Dutch Shell.Dutch send police to the Tanimbar Islands to stop intertribal conflict.New education program aims to offer 3-year schools for children in the general population.  

1908

  Klungkung revolts against the Dutch; nobility commits suicide by puputan to preserve their honor.Dutch intervene in local conflicts on Sumbawa, take tighter control.Butung comes under direct Dutch rule.VSTP (rail workers union) founded, accepts Indonesian members.May 20Budi Utomo is founded among upper-class Javanese students in Jakarta, including the future Dr. Sutomo and Cipto Mangunkusumo.OctoberBudi Utomo holds congress in Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo leaves the organization.Indische Vereeniging founded for Indonesian students in the Netherlands.Minor uprising in Minangkabau is suppressed.Netherlands Indies introduces income tax. Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.

1909

  Tjokroaminoto rises to leadership of Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, a publication for women, is founded.Dutch consolidate control over Ceram.Dutch establish control on Buru.
Uleebalangs, or traditional aristocracy of Aceh, about 1910. The uleebalangs would develop a reputation for collaborating with the Dutch; after World War II, many were massacred.

1910

  Islamic resistance in Aceh is decimated.Jami’at Khair replaced by Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organization for Arab Muslims in Indonesia.Rebellion in East Timor under Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie founds Perserikatan Minahasa, social organization for Minahasans.Dutch expedition to Komodo reports on Komodo dragons to Europe for the first time.
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1905

  

Sarekat Islam pada awalnya adalah perkumpulan pedagang-pedagang Islam yang diberi nama Sarekat Dagang Islam. Perkumpulan ini didirikan oleh Haji Samanhudi tahun 1905 di kota Solo. Perkumpulan ini semakin berkembang pesat ketika Tjokroaminoto  pada tahun 1911  memegang tampuk pimpinan dan mengubah nama perkumpulan menjadi Sarekat Islam. Sarekat Islam (SI) dapat dipandang sebagai salah satu gerakan yang paling menonjol sebelum Perang Dunia II.

Pendiri Sarekat Dagang Islam, Haji Samanhudi adalah seorang pengusaha batik di Kampung Lawean (Solo) yang mempunyai banyak pekerja, sedangkan pengusaha-pengusaha batik lainnya adalah orang-orang Cina dan Arab.

 

 
  .
JanuaryBelanda memulai lima bulan operasi militer di Kalimantan.
Belanda mengirim kekuatan militer terhadap pemberontakan di darat pasukan Ceram.
August Belanda menduduki   Pare Pare.  Belanda banyak kemajuan  di Sulawesi, Bugis, Makasar, daerah Toraja diambil untuk selamanya. Penguasa Bone adalah resistensi kontak deposed.
Acehnese  meninta  kepada Konsul Jepang di Singapura untuk membantu .
Belanda  menempati Mentawai islands.
First serikat buruh yang didirikan untuk rel kereta api workers.
October 16Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah didirikan oleh Kyai Haji Samanhudi, awalnya untuk menjaga kepentingan produsen batik muslim dalam dewan Surakarta.
Municipal didirikan di Batavia dan pemerintah Hindia Bandung.
 
Belanda  mensponsori komunitas petani Jawa transplantasi di Lampung: contoh pertama dari transmigrasi.

 

     
             

 

   

1906

Puputan is a Balinese term that refers to a mass ritual suicide [1] in preference to facing the humiliation of surrender. Notable puputans occurred in 1906 and 1908 when the Balinese were being subjugated by the Dutch.

The Raja of Buleleng killing himself with 400 followers, in a 1849 puputan against the Dutch. Le Petit Journal, 1849.
Puputan Badung 1906Pada tanggal 14 September 1906, sebuah kekuatan besar Belanda mendarat di pantai Sanur, tidak ada perlawanan signifikan dan memaksa berbaris ke Denpasar, Bali, seolah-olah dalam parade gaun. Mereka melewati sebuah kota yang tampak sepi dan mendekati istana kerajaan, mencatat asap mengepul dari puri  yang paling disembunyikan, mereka mendengar pemukulan liar dari gendrang yang datang dari dalam dinding istana.Setelah mereka mencapai istana, prosesi diam muncul, dipimpin oleh Raja yang ditanggung oleh empat pembawa pada sebuah tandu. Raja mengenakan pakaian tradisional kremasi putih, memakai perhiasan megah, dan bersenjata dengan keris upacara. Orang-orang lain dalam prosesi terdiri dari, Raja penjaga pejabat, imam, istri, anak-anak dan pengikut, semuanya s berpakaian yang sama
 
 
.
 

September 15 Tentara Hindia Belanda berhasil maju  di Bali dan  armada Hindia Belanda mendarat dengan lego  jangkar di Sanur.
20 September Pasukan Angkatan Laut Hindia  Belanda  menyerang Denpasar.
 Raja, pasukan dan rakyat Badung melakukan bunuh diri dalam sebuah Puputan, berbaris di jalan utama Denpasar. Lebih dari 3600 adalah dibunuh . 23September pasukan Hindia Belanda maju ke Tabanan, Bali. Raja Tabanan menawarkan untuk menyerah dengan syarat bahwa ia diizinkan untuk mempertahankan gelar dan lahan. Resident Hindia Belanda membawa Raja tabanan  ke dalam tahanan sampai ia dapat menerima jawaban dari pemerintah Hindia Belanda di Batavia. Raja Tabanan melakukan bunuh diri  saat didalam tahanan .
Produksi Karet  di Sumatra meningkat  dengan  variasi tanaman baru .Pemerintah Hindia Belanda memegang kendali langsung di Sumba.
Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  mendirikan protektorat atas Berau di 
Kalimantan Timur  .
Sensor Pos terhadap Penerbitan (publikasi) diperkenalkan: semua penerbitan harus diserahkan ke sensor untuk ditinjau dalam waktu 24 jam sebelum peluncurannya
.

1907

 Sisingamangaraja

Raja Si Singamangaraja I : Raja Manghuntal

 di daerah Tapanuli Selatan sedang terjadi wabah penyakit menular (begu antuk) yang juga mengenai/menyerang pasukan Tuanku Rao sehingga kacau balau. Tawanannya tercecer di Tapanuli Selatan. Sebagian dari yang tercecer ini membuat perkampungan di daerah di Tapanuli Selatan ini.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI : Ompu SohahuaonBelum lagi selesai penderitaan akibat serangan si Pokki terjadi pula musim kemarau yang berkepanjangan. Masyarakat Si Onom Ompu bersepakat menyampaikan hal ini kepada boru Situmorang dan memintanya kembali ke Bakara. Setelah boru Situmorang membawa kedua anaknya kembali, masyarakatpun meminta agar Ompu Sohahuaon mereka gondangi untuk turunnya hujan.
Acara margondangpun dipersiapkan dengan baik dan Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil tampil dengan berpakaian ulos Batak. Boru Situmorang dan masyarakat si Onom Ompu kaget dan kagum, karena Ompu Sohahuaon yang masih kecil itu mampu meminta gondang dan mengucapkan tonggo-tonggo untuk turunya hujan. Merekapun mengelu-elukan dengan manortor. Haripun menjadi gelap karena mendung dan hujanpun turun dengan lebat. Ompu Sohahuaon terus manortor sampai berakhir gondang yang dipintanya. Kemudian diserahkan Piso Gaja Dompak kepadanya dan manortor kembali sambil menghunus Piso Gaja Dompak dengan sempurna dan disarungkan kembali. Ompu Sohahuaon dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dalam usia 10 tahun.

Pada masa pemerintahan Raja Si Singamangaraja XI disusunlah  “Pustaha Harajaon (pustaka kerajaan)”  yang ditulis dengan dawat/tinta cina diatas kertas Watermark ukuran folio buatan Itali dalam tulisan dan bahasa Batak. Pustaka ini dibuat atas bimbingan dari Ompu Sohahuaon sendiri. Pustaha harajaon ini terdiri atas 24 jilid, setiap jilidnya tebalnya sekitar 5 Cm yang isinya secara singkat dapat diuraikan sebagai berikut :
  • Jilid 1 s/d 3: Pemerintahan Tuan Sorimangaraja selama 90 turunan mulai dari Putri Tapi Donda Nauasan.
  • Jilid 4 s/d 7: Pemerintahan kerajaan Singamangaraja  I s/d  IX.
  • Jilid 8: Perihal Pedang Padri Tuanku Rao terhadap Tuan Nabolon Sisingamangaraja X.
  • Jilid 9: Perihal Pongkinangolngolan dan Datu Aman Tagor Simanullang.
  • Jilid 11 s/d 12: Perihal Pendeta Pilgram, pembunuhan atas diri Pendeta Lyman dan Munson oleh Raja Panggalamei.
  • Jilid 13-16: Periode pembangunan kembali ibu kota kerajaan Bakara dan daerah-daerah Toba tahun 1835-1845 atas pembumi hangusan perang bonjol.
  • Jilid 17: Perihal Dr. Junghun, van der Tuuk yang datang menjumpai Sisingamangaraja XI dan perihal photonya.
  • Jilid 18 s/d 24: Penobatan Ompu Sohahuaon menjadi Sisingamangaraja XI, pemerintahannya sampai tahun 1886 dan perihal penyakit menular yang dahsyat di tanah Batak.

Pada tahun 1884 Pustaha Harajaon ini ditemukan dari tumpukan rumah kerajaan yang dibakar oleh tentera Belanda. Dibawa ke Holland oleh Pendeta Pilgrams dan sekarang ada di Museum Perpustakaan Pemerintah Belanda di Leiden Holland. Pustaha Harajaon tidak diteruskan penulisannya oleh Sisingamangaraja XII sebab tidak ada kesempatan, karena semenjak awal pemerintahannya, Koloni Belanda telah melancarkan agresinya di tanah Batak dan sekitarnya, sehingga Ompu Pulobatu berperang selama 30 tahun sampai tewasnya dalam usia 59 tahun pada 17 juni 1907.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XI Ompu Sohahuaon menikah dengan boru Aritonang sebagai isteri pertama yang melahirkan Raja Parlopuk . Isteri kedua adalah boru Situmorang yang melahirkan Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo Batu. Beda umur Raja Parlopuk dengan Patuan Bosar sangat jauh, ada sekitar 15 tahun.
Ketika Ompu Sohahuaon jatuh sakit, maka jalan pemerintahan dilaksanakan oleh Raja Parlopuk. Cukup lama Raja Parlopuk memegang tugas itu dan dilaksanakannya dengan baik. Tahun 1866 Ompu Sohahuaoan meninggal di Bakara dan dibangun makamnya oleh Raja Parlopuk dengan Si Onom Ompu di Lumban Raja. Makam inilah yang pertama ada di Bakara karena Sisingamangaraja I hingga  IX tidak diketahui meninggal di mana. Waktu Raja Si Singamangaraja XI meninggal, Patuan Bosar sedang merantau ke Aceh.

Makam ini dibongkar oleh Raja Si Singamangaraja XII karena Bakara diserang Belanda. Tulang belulang Raja Si Singamangaraja XI dibawanya ikut berjuang ke hutan, karena tidak ingin tengkorak orang-tuanya diambil oleh Belanda. Semasa perjuangan tulang-belulang ini di titipkan di huta Janji Dolok Sanggul lalu dipindahkan lagi ke Huta Paung. Setelah zaman kemerdekaan, kembali di pindahkan di rumah Soposurung.

Kira-kira 105 tahun kemudian, makam ini dibangun kembali oleh keluarga Raja Sisingamangaraja dan pada tahun 1975 tulang belulang Raja Sisingamangaraja XI dan istrerinya dimakamkan kembali ke makam semula di Bakara. Raja Parlopuk terus melaksanakan pemerintahan Singamangaraja hingga tahun 1871, yaitu setelah dinobatkannya Patuan Bosar sebagai Raja Sisingamangaraja XII.

Raja Si Singamangaraja XII : Patuan Bosar gelar Ompu Pulo BatuWalaupun Raja Si Singamangaraja XI telah meninggal, Si Onom Ompu tidak merasa ada yang kurang dalam pemerintahan, karena Raja Parlopuk bekerja dengan cukup baik. Tetapi ketika musim kemarau datang dan membawa penderitaan, mulailah si Onom Ompu berfikir untuk adanya acara margondang. Raja Parlopukpun mereka persilahkan untuk mereka gondangi agar dia martonggo memohon turun hujan. Tetapi hujan tidak turun-turun juga.Mulanya Ompu Pulo Batu tidak bersedia mereka gondangi karena merasa bahwa abangnya itu telah sebagai raja pengganti ayahnya. Akhirnya Ompu Pulo Batu bersedia karena melihat penderitaan yang diderita masyarakat Si Onom Ompu. Setelah melaksanakan upacara seperti yang biasa dilakukan, Ompu Pulobatu berhasil mendatangkan hujan. Ompu Pulo Batupun dinobatkan menjadi Raja Si Singamangaraja XII pada tahun 1871.Ompu Pulo Batu lahir tahun 1848 dari ibunya boru Situmorang. Pada saat pemuda, Ompu Pulo Batu merantau ke Aceh, disana bergaul dengan pedagang dari Persia dan belajar banyak hal. Karena itu ketika perang melawan Belanda, Raja Si Singamangaraja XII dibantu oleh pejuang-pejuang dari Aceh, dan dalam cap/stempelnya dipakai Bahasa Arab dan Bahasa Batak.
Pada tahun 1877 Raja Si Singamangaraja XII menyatakan perang kepada Belanda. Kemudian dia menjalankan perang terhadap Belanda selama 3 dasawarsa.
 

 

  Militer Belanda memadamkan pemberontakan di Flores, menetap pejabat  pengawasan (kontrolier)diwilayah tersebut .Pengamanan  lengkap akhirnya diperoleh  di Jambi. gerilyawan Aceh  menyerang Belanda di Bandar Aceh. Pemberontakan Raja  Sisingamangaraja XII dari Batak  melawan Belanda, dan ditembak saat konflik di Hindia belanda.Pemerintah Hindia Belanda  memperkenalkan pajak atas perdagangan Gula ( businesses.Zijlker ‘s)  Perusahaan minyak Kerajaan Belanda menyatu dengan Shell Transport dan Perdagangan menjadi Royal  Shell.Dutch mengirim polisi ke Kepulauan Tanimbar untuk menghentikan  konflik. pendidikan baru antar suku bertujuan untuk menawarkan sekolah 3-tahun untuk anak-anak di populasi umum. .

Foto tahun 1907. Tentara Belanda mengejar Sisingamangaraja XII di kawasan hutan Tele. Dipimpin Hans Christoffel (memegang tongkat), mereka berpose sejenak di daerah Sagala

 

 

          .        
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern Sumatra, about 1910

1908

20 Mei 1908

 
Budi Utomo adalah organisasi pemuda yang didirikan oleh Dr. Sutomo pada tanggal 20 Mei 1908. Berdirinya Budi Utomo menjadi awal gerakan yang bertujuan mencapai kemerdekaan Indonesia.Saat ini tanggal berdirinya Budi Utomo, 20 Mei, diperingati sebagai Hari Kebangkitan Nasional.
Latar Belakang
Budi Utomo lahir dari pertemuan-pertemuan dan diskusi yang sering dilakukan di perpustakaan School tot Opleiding van Inlandsche Artsen oleh beberapa mahasiswa, antara lain Soetomo, Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemo, Goembrek, Saleh, dan Soeleman. Mereka memikirkan nasib bangsa yang sangat buruk dan selalu dianggap bodoh dan tidak bermartabat oleh bangsa lain (Belanda), serta bagaimana cara memperbaiki keadaan yang amat buruk dan tidak adil itu. Para pejabat pangreh praja(sekarang pamong praja) kebanyakan hanya memikirkan kepentingan sendiri dan jabatan. Dalam praktik mereka pun tampak menindas rakyat dan bangsa sendiri, misalnya dengan menarik pajak sebanyak-banyaknya untuk menyenangkan hati atasan dan para penguasa Belanda.Para pemuda mahasiswa itu juga menyadari bahwa orang-orang lain mendirikan perkumpulan hanya untuk golongan sendiri dan tidak mau mengajak, bahkan tidak menerima, orang Jawa sesama penduduk Pulau Jawa untuk menjadi anggota perkumpulan yang eksklusif, seperti Tiong Hoa Hwee Koan untuk orang Tionghoa dan Indische Bond untuk orang Indo-Belanda. Pemerintah Hindia Belanda jelas juga tidak bisa diharapkan mau menolong dan memperbaiki nasib rakyat kecil kaum pribumi, bahkan sebaliknya, merekalah yang selama ini menyengsarakan kaum pribumi dengan mengeluarkan peraturan-peraturan yang sangat merugikan rakyat kecil.Para pemuda itu akhirnya berkesimpulan bahwa merekalah yang harus mengambil prakarsa menolong rakyatnya sendiri. Pada waktu itulah muncul gagasan Soetomo untuk mendirikan sebuah perkumpulan yang akan mempersatukan semua orang Jawa, Sunda, dan Madura yang diharapkan bisa dan bersedia memikirkan serta memperbaiki nasib bangsanya. Perkumpulan ini tidak bersifat eksklusif tetapi terbuka untuk siapa saja tanpa melihat kedudukan, kekayaan, atau pendidikannya.Pada awalnya, para pemuda itu berjuang untuk penduduk yang tinggal di Pulau Jawa dan Madura, yang untuk mudahnya disebut saja suku bangsa Jawa. Mereka mengakui bahwa mereka belum mengetahui nasib, aspirasi, dan keinginan suku-suku bangsa lain di luar Pulau Jawa, terutama Sumatera, Manado, dan Ambon. Apa yang diketahui adalah bahwa Belanda menguasai suatu wilayah yang disebut Hindia (Timur) Belanda (Nederlandsch Oost-Indie), tetapi sejarah penjajahan dan nasib suku-suku bangsa yang ada di wilayah itu bermacam-macam, begitu pula kebudayaannya. Dengan demikian, sekali lagi pada awalnya Budi Utomo memang memusatkan perhatiannya pada penduduk yang mendiami Pulau Jawa dan Madura saja karena, menurut anggapan para pemuda itu, penduduk Pulau Jawa dan Madura terikat oleh kebudayaan yang sama.Sekalipun para pemuda itu merasa tidak tahu banyak tentang nasib, keadaan, sejarah, dan aspirasi suku-suku bangsa di luar Pulau Jawa dan Madura, mereka tahu bahwa saat itu orang Manado mendapat gaji lebih banyak dan diperlakukan lebih baik daripada orang Jawa. Padahal, dari sisi pendidikan, keduanya berjenjang sama. Itulah sebabnya pemuda Soetomo dan kawan-kawan tidak mengajak pemuda-pemuda di luar Jawa untuk bekerja sama, hanya karena khawatir untuk ditolak.Budi UtomoPada hari Minggu, 20 Mei 1908, pada pukul sembilan pagi, bertempat di salah satu ruang belajar STOVIA, Soetomo menjelaskan gagasannya. Dia menyatakan bahwa hari depan bangsa dan Tanah Air ada di tangan mereka. Maka lahirlah Boedi Oetomo. Namun, para pemuda juga menyadari bahwa tugas mereka sebagai mahasiswa kedokteran masih banyak, di samping harus berorganisasi. Oleh karena itu, mereka berpendapat bahwa “kaum tua”-lah yang harus memimpin Budi Utomo, sedangkan para pemuda sendiri akan menjadi motor yang akan menggerakkan organisasi itu.Sepuluh tahun pertama Budi Utomo mengalami beberapa kali pergantian pemimpin organisasi. Kebanyakan memang para pemimpin berasal kalangan “priayi” atau para bangsawan dari kalangan keraton, seperti Raden Adipati Tirtokoesoemo, bekas Bupati Karanganyar (presiden pertama Budi Utomo), dan Pangeran Ario Noto Dirodjo dari Keraton Pakualaman.Perkembangan
Budi Utomo mengalami fase perkembangan penting saat kepemimpinan Pangeran Noto Dirodjo. Saat itu, Douwes Dekker, seorang Indo-Belanda yang sangat properjuangan bangsa Indonesia, dengan terus terang mewujudkan kata “politik” ke dalam tindakan yang nyata. Berkat pengaruhnyalah pengertian mengenai “tanah air Indonesia” makin lama makin bisa diterima dan masuk ke dalam pemahaman orang Jawa. Maka muncullah Indische Partijyang sudah lama dipersiapkan oleh Douwes Dekker melalui aksi persnya. Perkumpulan ini bersifat politik dan terbuka bagi semua orang Indonesia tanpa terkecuali. Baginya “tanah air” (Indonesia) adalah di atas segala-galanya.Pada masa itu pula muncul Sarekat Islam, yang pada awalnya dimaksudkan sebagai suatu perhimpunan bagi para pedagang besar maupun kecil di Solo dengan nama Sarekat Dagang Islam, untuk saling memberi bantuan dan dukungan. Tidak berapa lama, nama itu diubah oleh, antara lain, Tjokroaminoto, menjadi Sarekat Islam, yang bertujuan untuk mempersatukan semua orang Indonesia yang hidupnya tertindas oleh penjajahan. Sudah pasti keberadaan perkumpulan ini ditakuti orang Belanda. Munculnya gerakan yang bersifat politik semacam itu rupanya yang menyebabkan Budi Utomo agak terdesak ke belakang. Kepemimpinan perjuangan orang Indonesia diambil alih oleh Sarekat Islam dan Indische Partij karena dalam arena politik Budi Utomo memang belum berpengalaman.Karena gerakan politik perkumpulan-perkumpulan tersebut, makna nasionalismemakin dimengerti oleh kalangan luas. Ada beberapa kasus yang memperkuat makna tersebut. Ketika Pemerintah Hindia Belanda hendak merayakan ulang tahun kemerdekaan negerinya, dengan menggunakan uang orang Indonesia sebagai bantuan kepada pemerintah yang dipungut melalui penjabat pangreh praja pribumi, misalnya, rakyat menjadi sangat marah.Kemarahan itu mendorong Soewardi Suryaningrat (yang kemudian bernama Ki Hadjar Dewantara) untuk menulis sebuah artikel “Als ik Nederlander was” (Seandainya Saya Seorang Belanda), yang dimaksudkan sebagai suatu sindiran yang sangat pedas terhadap pihak Belanda. Tulisan itu pula yang menjebloskan dirinya bersama dua teman dan pembelanya, yaitu Douwes Dekker dan Tjipto Mangoenkoesoemo ke penjara oleh Pemerintah Hindia Belanda (lihat: Boemi Poetera). Namun, sejak itu Budi Utomo tampil sebagai motor politik di dalam pergerakan orang-orang pribumi.Agak berbeda dengan Goenawan Mangoenkoesoemoyang lebih mengutamakan kebudayaan dari pendidikan, Soewardi menyatakan bahwa Budi Utomo adalah manifestasi dari perjuangan nasionalisme. Menurut Soewardi, orang-orang Indonesia mengajarkan kepada bangsanya bahwa “nasionalisme Indonesia” tidaklah bersifat kultural, tetapi murni bersifat politik. Dengan demikian, nasionalisme terdapat pada orang Sumatera maupun Jawa, Makassar maupun Ambon.Pendapat tersebut bertentangan dengan beberapa pendapat yang mengatakan bahwa Budi Utomo hanya mengenal nasionalisme Jawa sebagai alat untuk mempersatukan orang Jawa dengan menolak suku bangsa lain. Demikian pula Sarekat Islam juga tidak mengenal pengertian nasionalisme, tetapi hanya mempersyaratkan agama Islam agar seseorang bisa menjadi anggota.Namun, Soewardi tetap mengatakan bahwa pada hakikatnya akan segera tampak bahwa dalam perhimpunan Budi Utomo maupun Sarekat Islam, nasionalisme “Indonesia” ada dan merupakan unsur yang paling penting.
  
 
 
Pemberontakan Klungkung  melawan Belanda; bangsawan bunuh diri dengan Puputan untuk melestarikan pendapatan Hindia Belanda menyebabkan mereka campur tangan dalam konflik-konflik lokal di Sumbawa, mengambil control.Pengawasan  ketat berada di bawah peraturan .VSTP Belanda langsung (serikat pekerja rel) didirikan, menerima anggota Bangsa  Indonesia .20 Mai Budi Utomo didirikan di antara siswa Jawa kelas atas di Jakarta, termasuk masa depan dan Dr Sutomo, Dr  Cipto Mangunkusumo.
October Budi Utomo melaksanakan kongres di Yogya. Cipto Mangunkusumo meninggalkan organisasi .perhimpunan  Indonesia (Indische Vereeniging ) yang didirikan untuk mahasiswa Indonesia di Netherlands. pemberontakan Kecil di Minangkabau, merupakan suppressed.Netherlands Hindia memperkenalkan pajak penghasilan. Budi Utomo adalah organisasi politik yang kurang, terutama ditujukan untuk promosi budaya Jawa. Bunga ini adalah terbatas pada budaya Jawa. .
Pekerja tembakau di Deli, utara
 

Dewa terakhir Agung kehilangan nyawanya dalam apa yang disebut Puputan Klungkung Palace pada 28 April 1908 selama intervensi Belanda di Bali. Ini adalah serangan bunuh diri ritual sarat oleh dinasti dan pengikut mereka terhadap detasemen bersenjata baik pasukan kolonial Belanda. Pada akhirnya hampir dua ratus Bali dibunuh oleh peluru Belanda.
 
 
 
                .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern
Budi Utomo was a less political organization, primarily devoted to the promotion of Javanese culture. It’s interest was limited to Javanese culture.             .
Tobacco workers in Deli, northern

1909

 
Uleebalang, atau aristokrasi tradisional Aceh, sekitar 1910. Para uleebalang akan mengembangkan reputasi untuk berkolaborasi dengan Belanda, setelah Perang Dunia I, banyak yang dibantai
  Tjokroaminoto naik ke kepemimpinan Sarekat Dagang Islamiyah.Putri Hindia, sebuah penerbitan untuk wanita, adalah founded.Dutch mengkonsolidasikan kontrol atas Ceram.Dutch menetapkan pengendalian di Buru. .

 

   

1910


Pekerja kebun tembakau deli <Sumatra Utara,sekitar 1910

 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Perlawanan Islam di Aceh dipadamkan .Jami ‘di Khair digantikan oleh Al-Irsyad (Jamiat Islam al Irsyad al Arabia), organisasi Arab Muslim di Indonesia.Pemberontakan  di Timor Portugis  di bawah Dom Boaventura.Ratulangie mendirikan Perserikatan Minahasa, organisasi sosial untuk Minahasa. Belanda ekspedisi untuk laporan binatang langka Komodo di pulau  Komodo ke Eropa untuk pertama kalinya
 

Selesai  @ Hak Cipta Dr Iwan suwandy 2011,dilarang repro dalam bentuk apapun,HAKI DILINDUNGI OLEH UNDANG-UNDANG.

The Toumbolouh Tribe In Minahasa 1895

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

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     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

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Showroom : 

Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum

Showcase:

The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :

Alte Gebrauche Bei Hetrathen,Geburt und Sterberfallen Bei Dem TOUMBULUH STAMM In Der Minahasa North Celebes. von Dr JGF Riedel.

Old Used For Hetrathen, birth and Sterberfallen In The TOUMBULUH Minahasa tribe in the North Celebes

 

1. True padi the crop, the most appropriate time for the Anknupfen a more or less intimate acquaintance will agree the young people to live together or umu gewonhnlich as they print their own manner, Heerdgenossen to be.
 After the sign of assent, besttehend of finely cut tobacco and a worn garment, each entrusted with, and subordinate to the Jungling its proposal to the decision taking his parents and a’testen Blutsverwandtten.2. Part of a Maltese of red, and black gel barrels( Tenun IKat).
 
3.After have older you Sirih-chewed pinang, is the girl in Patola Tucher dressed and KELANA behangt, like those of WALIAN ( 
religious leaders)Plate X Fig 1
 
 
 
 from the for them some room to light and gives the young Ling implied taste of a vase Pinang, Sirih, lime and tobacco BEITEN to hear, while they at the same.4.Hiernach eat, although this is not a constraint, the young people, even with the most common fig WALIAN, Plate X 25.
 
After distribute the food to the young Verwandtten compact little presents and provides the Walian-sacrifice for the wewene Empungs, from rice, a boiled rice with a new tub Plate X Fig 3 as a base.
 
When  they do in the middle of the night one of the main pillars of the house has settled law, waving to the estate Walians, Plate X Fig 2 and Walian-wewene the jumgen sounds close to him, glad she stand before the victim and let them hold both the ends of the WOKA and the hands of the two Walian.
 
This SILANAN Genant, AFFIRMING the ceremony is for the beidderseitingen SIRIH_PINANG.
 
After the WALIAN gave the signal for silence, he speaks in a loud voice:
 “O Walians, your Empungs, Beschirmgeister ours, come down here and eat the rice and meat that you will be sacrificed by this Heerdgenossen; their prayer a high old and happy , stay away from all evil ihmen, tiredness and bad dream same things we ask of you also empungs that inhabit the house, our Empung their Kalahwakan to you, Kasosoran, Kasedukan Karondoran and may stop. empung her in the sky and on ground are, let these young heerdgenossen live a long and happy, have o walian. Walians both are then as the evidence of young people considered to have voluntarily agreed about heerdgenossen gegenseiting to be,
 
  

1. Wahren der pafi-Ernte, der passendsten Zeit fur das Anknupfen einer mehr oder minder intimen Bekanntschaft, verabreden die jungen Leute gewonhnlich um zusammenzuwohnen oder umu,wie sie es eigennartig ausdrucken,Heerdgenossen zu werden. Nachdem das Zeichen der Zustimmung,besttehend aus feingeschnittenem Tabak und einem abgetragenen Kleidungsstuck,einander anvertraut ist, unterwirft der Jungling sein Vorhaben der Beschlussnahme seiner Eltern und a’testen Blutsverwandtten.

2. Theil einer Malte von roth,gel und schwarzer Fasser.

3.Nachdem die alteren ihr Sirih-pinang gekaut haben,kommt das Madchen, in PATOLA Tucher gekleidet und mit KDELANA behangt,gleich denen der WALIAN_WEWENE, Tafel X Fig 1 aus dem fur sie bestimmten Gemach zum Vorschein und bietet dem Jungling stillschweigend aus einem geschmackvoll hearbeiten Gefass Pinang,Sirih,Kalk und Tabak an,wahrend sie zu gleicher.

4.Hiernach essen,obgleich dies kein ZWANG ist, die jungen Leute,auch wohl gemeinschaftlich mit dem WALIAN ,Tafel X fig 2.

5.Nach dem Essen vertheilen die Verwandtten des Junglings kleine Geschenke und bereit die Walian-wewene  das Opfer fur die Empungs,aus Reis,einem gekochten mit einer neuen Reiswanne Tafel X Fig 3. als Unterlage

6.Wenn sie dies in dder Mitte des Hauses nacht einem der Hauptpfeiler niedergesetz hat,winkt einer der anwesen Walians,Tafel X fig 2. und die Walian-wewene die jumgen Laute zu sich heran,heissen sie vor dem Opfer stehn und lassen sie zugleich die Enden der WOKA und die Hande der beiden Walian festhalten. Diese< SILANAN genante,Feierlichkeit dient zur Bekraftigung des beidderseitingen des SIRIH_PINANG. Nachdem der WZLIAN das Zeichen zum Schweigen gegeben hat, spricht er mit erhobener Stimme :” O Walians,Ihr Empungs,Beschirmgeister der unseren,kommt hienieden und esst vom Reis und Fleische dass Euch durch diese Heerdgenossen geopfert wird; gebet ihnen ein hohes alter und gluck,haltet fern von ihmen alle uebel, Mudigkeit und schlecte Traume,dasselbige fragen wir auch von auch ihr empungs, die dieses haus bewohnen, ihe empung die ihr euch zu kalahwakan,kasosoran,kasedukan und karondoran aufhaltet. ihr empung die im im himmel und auf erden seid,lasset diese jungen heerdgenossen ein langes leben und gluck haben, o walian . beide wAlians werden danach als die zeugen der jungen leute betrachtet,die freiwillig ubereingekommen sind um gegenseiting heerdgenossen zu werden,

Ethnic group of Minahasa Tribes

1. Malesung (Min Nan Tou)


 
Ethnic group Minahasa is the majority tribe who inhabited the city of Manado, the customary law is an area of Minahasa tribe or also known as “Malesung”. Own origins from the opinion of a linguist and the Ancient Chinese characters, called Tandean in 1997 came to examine the “Watu Pinawetengan” through the words “Min Nan Tou” contained in the rock, he reveals, tou Minahasa is derived from the land of Mongolia’s King Ming King who came to immigrate to Minahasa. Meaning of Min Nan Tou are “derived from the island’s  King Ming

2.Related Minahasa People Terms

Minahasa

Minahasa

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia (in past called by Portuguese as North Selebes). The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language. (read more)

Tompaso

Tompaso is a highland subdistrict located about 45 km southwest of Manado in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It also refers to a sub-tribe as part of larger Tontemboan tribe in the Minahasa ethnic group.

According to history, Tompaso is believed to be the origin of Minahasa people before they spread all over the land of Minahasa. One of its villages, Pinabetengan, inherited a megalithic stone about 4 m long and 2 m high tagged with full of carved pictures. The pictures portray some kind of lifetime covenant of how Minahasans were supposed to divide their territory and live peacefully.

Sam Ratulangi

Dr. Gerungan Saul Samuel Yacob Ratulangi or Ratu Langie (November 5, 1890 – June 30, 1949), usually known as Sam Ratulangi, was a Minahasa politician, journalist and teacher from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. His famous saying in the Tondano language ‘Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou’ is translated as ‘man lives to educate others’.

3. Minahasa Kabasan Dance

Kabasaran Dance, a War Dance, traditional dance Minahasa – North Sulawesi, which tells how to maintain soil Minahasa Minahasa tribe from enemies who want to occupy it. Dance Kabasaran or this war dance demonstrated the Sword Shield and Spear. This Kabasaran dance danced for special occasions such as reception room or in different events and cultural tourism.

Kabasaran Dance 2 Kabasaran Dance

Kabasaran Dance 1 Kabasaran Dance

Dancing with the dress all in red, bulging eyes, fierce face, accompanied by drums, carrying swords and sharp spears, making dance kabasaran very different from other dances in Indonesia where they spit smile with graceful movements.

This dance is a dance traditional Minahasa military, who are appointed from the said; Wasal, which means rooster comb is cut so that the chicken becomes more fierce in battle.

This dance is accompanied by the sound of drums and / or a small gong. Percussion instruments like Gong, Tambour or Kolintang called “Pa ‘Wasalen” and the dancers called Kawasalan, which means the dance by imitating the movements of two roosters who are fighting.

Kawasalan word was later developed into Kabasaran which is a combination of two words “ni Kawasal Sarian” “Kawasal” means to accompany and follow the movements of dance, while “Sarian” is a war leader who led traditional Minahasa military dance. Manado Malay language development and then change the letter “W” to “B” so that the word was changed to Kabasaran, which really does not have any connection with the word “great” in Indonesian, but eventually became the dance penjemput for the dignitary-magnifying.

In ancient times the dancers Kabasaran, just as a dancer in traditional ceremonies. However, in their daily life they were farmers. If Minahasa was in a state of war, then the dancers kabasaran be Waranei (warrior). The basic form of this dance is nine sword (santi) or nine spear (wengkouw) with horses step 4 / 4 which consists of two steps to the left, and two steps to the right.

Each dancer kabasaran have a sharp weapon which is the legacy of his old ancestors, because the dancers are dancers who kabasaran hereditary. This dance is generally composed of three parts (in fact there are more than three, only now they are very rarely done). Round – round consists of:

  • 1. Cakalele, which comes from the word “saka” which means fight, and “catfish” means chasing jump – jump. This round was once danced when the soldiers would go to war or returning from war. Or, this round showed great ferocity to fight on the guest, to give a sense of security on the great guest who came to visit us that even Satan the great fear of disturbing guest dancer escort Kabasaran.
  • 2. The second act is called Kumoyak, which comes from the word “torn” means, swung his sharp sword or spear gun down ride, back and forth to calm himself from the sense of anger when fighting. The word “tear” itself can mean persuading the spirit of the enemy or opponent who has been killed in battle.
  • 3. Lalaya’an. In this section the dancers dance free and delighted to escape from feeling angry like dancing “Lionda” by hand dipinggang and other dances of delight. This whole dance is based on cue or command of the leader of a dance called “Tumu-tuzuk” (Tombulu) or “Sarian” (Tonsea). Cue given in the language of sub-ethnic Tombulu, Tonsea, Tondano, Totemboan, Ratahan, Tombatu and Bantik. In this dance, all dancers must be allowed to express Garang without a smile, except at half lalayaan, where the dancers are allowed to spit cheerful smile.

Clothing used in this dance is made of woven fabric and Minahasa original fabric “Patola”, ie red woven fabric of Tombulu and not available in other areas in Minahasa, as written in the book Alfoersche Legenden in writing by the PN. Wilken 1830, where kabasaran Minahasa has basic wear pants and red shirt, then wrapped bond woven fabric. In this case each sub-ethnic Minahasa had a special way of weaving cloth. Special Kabasaran of Remboken and Pareipei, they are more like fashion instead of war and ceremonial clothing, namely by means of moss-lichen trees as camouflage war.

It is unfortunate that since the 1950s, native woven cloth began to disappear so kabasaran Minahasa eventually wear woven cloth Kalimantan and East because of the shape, color and motif resembled Minahasa woven fabrics such as: Kokerah, Tinonton, Pasolongan, Bentenen. Kabasaran hats made of native cloth headband yag ornate rooster feathers, bird feathers and bird Taong Paradise. There is also a flower decoration or Tiwoho canoes. Other decorative ornaments used are “lei-lei” necklaces or neck, “wongkur” cover calf foot, “rerenge’en” or the bells bells (bells made of brass).

In the past the Dutch colonial era, there are local laws regarding Kabasaran contained in the Government Gazette No. 104 B, in 1859 which stipulates that

1. Funeral ceremony the leaders of the country (Law Basar, Kadua Law, Old Law) and public figures, obtained under guard Kabasaran. Also on the country’s leaders a family wedding.
2. Customary celebrations, ceremonies pick up great guest dignitaries Dutch Resident, controller by Kabasaran.
3. Kabasaran assigned as “Opas” (village police).
4. A Kabasaran served to maintain the security checkpoint for 24 days a year.

Kabasaran which has been designated as the village policeman in the Government Gazette of the above, finally forced by the Dutch should be abolished in 1901 because at that time there are 28 prisoners who escaped from prison Manado. To recapture all the prisoners who escaped them, the Dutch police ordered the village, in this case Kabasaran, to arrest those prisoners. But the unfortunate fate of the prisoners, because they were not taken alive but all of them were killed, chopped up by Kabasaran. The Kabasaran at that time located in the village organizations led by the Old Law. Each country or village had ten Kabasaran one of them was the leader of the team is called “Pa’impulu’an ne Kabasaran”. With status as an employee of the village, they would receive benefits in the form of rice, white sugar, and cloth.

It was horrible the Kabasaran at the time, because although only paid with rice, white sugar, and cloth, they were able to slaughter 28 people who all died with terrible injuries.

4. Marawale Moving tradition in Minahasa

 

Merawale in Minahasa, a tradition of moving house without hereditary dismantled’ve rarely encountered. Communities in Bitung, Amurang, South Minahasa, there seems to maintain the tradition merawale.

Togetherness in social life with diwujutkan one merawale tradition. Both school children, youth and parents are involved in this tradition, regardless of social status.

Merawale, Moving Traditions
Merawale usually commanded by a person to a house or sabuah which are moved can be lifted more easily. Merawale is a symbol of innocence, togetherness without the engineering community in the social life in Minahasa.

People involved in merawale not paid in money but got a ‘gratitude payment’ from the owner of the house, one of the words terimaksih realized by serving drinks, cigarettes, coffee or cake bowsprit, onde onde and nasijaha.

 

4a. mysteri of Kiowa tribe

 
 


Si-sisil-en
e Apo-Apo’

im Banua
Ka-senduk-an
K I O W A

“Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”So-Petor!Preparation of “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa” (Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa) is, based on a chain stories, narrated from the mouth kemulut hereditary among ethnic Kiowa, which is still stored or recorded in the public memory of Ka-Senduk KiowaPu-purengkey-en (a chain of mouth stories kemulut similar legend), the collected and edited and summarized, then poured in the form of a written form of stories, written as it is by the editors / authors, based on oral stories from the speakers, as well as findings findings and the formulation of “Meeting the public culture of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa”, which is supported by the evidence in the form of heritage objects and inscriptions and archaeological sites that were around the Ka-Senduk Wanua of Kiowa (Kiawa), which is a witness life history of the past that can provide inspiration to reveal the veil of mystery, which pervade the “Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.Inputs from various parties who are credible sources, particularly the legend and legacy of stories and cultural history of Ka-Senduk communities of Kiowa spoken by “Tumu-said Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian”, is an extremely literature precious and high value for the preparation of this paper (paper is not based on written literature diperpustakaan, therefore there is no official papers which tell of the legend or pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa).The late-Tumu said Ute ‘Rakian is the last elderly speakers are still to hear directly from the Pa-ma’tu’an and the Wali’an and Tona’as, and Te-keep-an and the Ki’i-ki’i- im about Banua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa who lived with the order of life and governance-how as well as rules and the rules of life Ka-Senduk’s, according to the tradition of the elders and the ancestors.Although since the nineteenth century society Ka-Senduk of Kiowa in general have embraced Christianity, both Protestant and Catholic, but most of them, there are those who embrace and maintain the traditions and customs and ancestral cult, so that their spiritual life remains influenced by the “Ka-Senduk cult’s and lifestyle” Mem-pa’ando of “Kiowa.According to accounts from the remnants of cult followers and ancestral traditions and customs here, Tumu-Ute said ‘listen and learn and understand and know about many things related concerning the religious life, spiritual and physical and social life, economy, welfare, leadership, security and order, especially the traditions and customs, and culture of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.Of those parents and observers as well as observers and lovers of Kiowa culture that is still alive or dead, is also obtained valuable inputs are valuable history and high culture, especially after increased efforts and activities of O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), the excavation business development and cultural preservation of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, more and more directed and more stable.
 
 

“Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”

Maka-Petor !

O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), which was pioneered by Tunu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian who was accompanied by Tumu, said Drs. Palar Nico together with the observer and the observer as well as lovers and figures as well as people who never wrestled and participated in cultural rituals Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, Old alUkung Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Piri Hein, Anthony Nayoan , Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan etc., become a very useful tool for extracting Senduk Ka-cultural roots of Kiowa

From among the oldest sources, the late apo ‘Klaas L. Sajow, who was born and raised in the village Kiawa (which is always called “Puser in Tana ‘Ka-Senduk-an”) and as adults wander (lumantak) to make a living in South Minahasa. later married and settled even Janunri died in 1996 at the age of 100 years, Kroit village, district Motoling, has provided a real participation in the form of feedback about stories “Puser in Tana ‘ancient’ is demonstrated also by the legacy of the ancestral heritage of ethnic Kiowa, that before he died promised to restore it to Puser heritage in Tana ‘, al flag (wirus im banua), the banner of war (wirus tu-turu ‘im Custody e Waraney), weapons (santi, wentir, tu-Tura’), po-Porong, etc., is also an invaluable contribution to the excavation of cultural roots Ka- Senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-Palar said Drs Nico, who has decades of accompanying Tumu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian (deceased), has a lot of vocabulary and a collection of stories and personal accounts gathered from the old speakers tentenag Ka-Senduk culture of Kiowa, so it helps the business inventory of the necessary data.

The young generation lover and observer and observer of culture, which actively involve themselves and voluntarily explore, learn, examine, examines, traces and relics make the preparation of documentation for the purposes of writing and preserving the cultures of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, among others:

Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan SE, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda etc., is a young generation successor to the ideals of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.

Concrete manifestation of the business re-excavation of cultural roots Ka-Senduk’s, namely the implementation of “Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa” initiated by the lovers and observers and observers Kiowa culture, with the intent and purpose to explore the cultural roots and customs and traditions of ethnic ancestry Kiowa ancestors.

Meeting was conducted from early 1992 until now, as the realization of observer agreement realization that the secret art and mystery “KASENDUKAN Kiowa” needs to be extracted after seeing “KAROT-KAROT” (scratches) on the rocks in the river and around the WATU TU’US IM-PA-AN PEPA’AR Ranowangko river edge (near the lake Tona’as Wellem Rakian) on September 9, 1991, led by Tumu-speech WANGKO ‘UTE’ RAKIAN; the implementation is done routinely and regularly, including the establishment of team- small team, a team of research and development, verification and monitoring team, formulator and author manuscripts and special teams as required for purposes of repair, rectification and adjustment to the new accurate data found.

To complement the data and supporting evidence, also held a review and field research on heritage sites and archaeological sites around Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, as well as interviews and dialogues with the “tu’a im-tu’a banua “and the charcoal-man known as a lover and observer and observer of culture.

Confirmation of the truth of the findings in the field, as well as inputs as well as stories and narrative a person, done with a special interview and exchange ideas and opinions, and dialogue with people who are already quite old and is considered the master and learn the ins and outs and cultural customs and traditions Ka -Senduk’s, then posed as a discussion in the workshop, to then be studied and studied again the truth and authenticity, and then requested to be formulated and made the writing.

Workshop activities and study a special group and small team meetings, as well as review and field research, conducted since mid-1992 to 1999, still continue and run continuously to obtain the findings of a more complete, to enrich the cultural repertory khasana Ka-Senduk of Kiowa.

It is regrettable because the input of workshop participants in the form of original papers from the workshop participants, about what they know or hear or see for yourself from their parents or their ancestors, especially also the resume of the workshop, nearly everything is destroyed and can not be saved, due to because of stagnant water due to floods that hit the residential penyususn, where archives are stored resumme workshop results. Floods that hit Jakarta Metropolitan city on 10 to 13 Februai 1996, has also checked out the house in the area of ​​Green Ville compiler Block T No. 1 Jakarta, where the flood reached a height of approximately 100 centimeter, so the cupboard and filing cabinet located in the Room part below, where the notes and writings as well as casette tape recorded conversations and interviews with the elders, especially Tumu-Ute said ‘that is a résumé archive Senduk Ka-cultural gatherings of Kiowa, and dozens of cassette tape recorder hidden recording ( recorderder tape is stored in a bag) Salanti Ferry interview about the roots of cultural arts Kasendukan Kiowa, the Ute Tumututur ‘Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Mark Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Peter Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Eyebrows Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober and other people who were interviewed in secret by Ferry Salanti, also flooded and submerged in water for 4 days, including a collection of “conversations” penyusu with the elders of the Kiowa , including stories that had the “compiler” heard by community leaders, among others, by the late Derek mistaken ex Old Law when he was still alive, who happens to have neighbors with the authors about the year 1962/1963, also with Apo ‘Melius Walukow father from Tuwa ‘Peter Walukow often watched him mix of drugs, Apo’ Tertius Piri (where my brother and I Yull often below by Ito ‘Alex Worotitjan looking concoction of drugs), the late Passport Alphius Wowor, the late Endie Rakian, Deceased singon Alo,, Grandma Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Discard Rimper, especially too late and the late HM Taulu Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, FS Watuseke, cultural-other culture, especially also Rietje Rawung aunt and uncle Buyung pemiilik Manguni TOMOHON BOOK HOUSE (Importers book Eastern Indonesia’s largest school books and college in the 1950s are still many published and printed in Holland, in addition to books already published and printed in Indonesia) in 1956-1958, where I live and help them maintain bookstore while in school and read books of art and culture, history and other knowledge that there is no guest / customer, including notes I summarize the story that never are told by the late Justus Worotitjan (tete ‘sergeant) badminton field, about Worotitjan village (now named Kapitu), so the total damaged and destroyed by standing water, which can not be rescued by the maids who kept the house, including the aunt and cousin Yetje Assa Dra Siska Worotitjan compiler can not save casette and archives workshops and other goods because of overflow water occurs at night while they lay on the floor above and find out later the house was flooded the next day. But still lucky because the inputs and resume the essentials workshop, an outline has been included by the author in the diskette / computer.

The data and materials written about the culture of the Ka-Senduk remaining Kiowa and stored on disks / computers this reason, the materials the words “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.

Stories about the village or Ro’ong Kiawa Kiowa (Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), found also in some literature, written and published in the Dutch colonial era, but its content is very much deviated from the actual situation and reality.

Apparently the experts and cultural researcher and writer who authored certtera about the situation and what is related to the history and customs and traditions of society Kiawa (Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), not knowing at all or never perform or review research and field observations, but only heard from the speakers of a third party who only heard from the second party (the adventurous amateurs, which incidentally, to explore the outback “Wanua Kasendukan”), who only knew vaguely about the state of culture and art center Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). The authors do not or have never visited the “national and cultural origins Kasendukan Kiowa, because it was difficult due to go into” navel in tana “, due to its natural condition is still remote and difficult to visit because of natural conditions and terrain that is still covered with dense forest and factors reluctance of the researchers / writers to visit the expedition and the area is still very remote pengungungan time; Moreover, people’s stories about berkunjungnya Whites (SE TOUW Kulo ‘, which is estimated stranded on the beach around Tumpaan Maruasey around the mouth of the river, then their sailors and merchant adventurers who accompanied the missionaries wandered down the river kepegunungan with Maruasey, Nimanga and reached the river and into Wanua Ranowangko Kiowa, Kiowa Wanua because in there are places called TINO’TOKKAN CULO SI (where whites chopped , who estimated a PASTOR because CULO SI ‘referred to, called and calling people with the title “Padre”), including terms as CASTELA, Santa Cruz, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) who used the name of several locations in the plantations and settlements Wanua Kiowa, signaling and indicate that there were people “white skin, which never stopped even settle in Wanua Kiowa, carrying the seeds of plants cloves, cocoa, nutmeg, coffee, and spices and other plants, still exist in Wanua Kiowa It also includes words and terms such as sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo etc., are still used by residents until now ..

 
In our effort to get the data written at the Royal Institute of Linguistics and Anthropology, (Royal Institute Voor Taal, Land, en Volkenkunde), KITLV, Reuvensplaats 2. P.O. Box 9515.2300 RA, Leiden, Holland, editors who accompanied Po’ouw Tumober Juice, Po’ouw Martin van Broukhoven and Yeyen Liemando, who repeatedly visited kelemaga, we do not or may not have been found, evidence of research or direct search farm sites and archaeological peningglan in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa by experts and researchers from the Dutch archaeological, about archaeological sites and cultural roots as well as indigenous customs and beliefs flow Kasendukan Kiowa, including our search, in the literature that we’ve carefully together in Bibliptheek van het Missiehuis der Missionarisen “Sacre Coeur” Bredaseweg 204, Tilburg Netherlands.
(Last we heard from Pastor Renwarin and his father, who visited La’un Dano, Kiowa, that the files in Tilburg has been taken to Pineleng, by an expert and researcher of ancient art and culture Esa Mina, origin, Father Renwarin Kakaskasen in Seminary Pineleng).

The evidence that a review or research on customs and traditions and the Kiowa culture is not deeply researched and written for not carrying in the literature about the existence of sites and relics of prehistoric prbakala in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu So-sio-siouw in La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo ‘e We-wene.wo Amut the Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-an-cone La’un Dano Ma-wara ‘
• Toy Touw Wangko-‘Me-an-upus
• Toy Touw Wiwing-an-
• Toy Touw Sondek i Rorot an arch,
• Toy Touw other-scattered in several places,
• Timbukar (waruga) which amounts to approximately 300 pieces in the ancient times (which is scattered from front of house Family Pieter Walukow arrived at the cemetery on the western village of Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (youngest citizens)
• Watu Tumo-Towa, which exist in some places,
• Watu Amian, (justified by a Japanese husband of a woman lecturer in UNSRAT and Mr. HYODO Cs from Japan Tobacco who installed the machines Cigarettes factory in the foothills of navel IN TANA ‘,, who visited WATU AMIAN
• Watu-ta’di Pa-an,
• Pa-peku’an,
• Pa-putung’s,
• Tombara’an.
• Pa-an-soring.
• Kentur Puser in Tana ‘
• Pa-an i-ra’da SOKOPE ‘an Lengko’an. (Paradiso)
• etc..

Including the data or materials that tell of:
• Angouw e Touw ASIC Amian (Alien Cave of the North).
• Wo-leley.
• Kastela,
• Ta’sic-ell,
• Santana,
• Guantanamera
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok of the Culo ‘
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho ‘
• Ti-nincas’s,
• and other ancient relics and sites as well as pre-history that lie in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. as well as sacred objects and other historical widespread around Wanua Kiowa.

The things mentioned above show and prove, that the writer on matters Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (now Kiawa) in those days, did not have knowledge about the cultural roots of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, so the writing is much different from the circumstances and the reality and human remains ancient and pre-history that is in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.

Even the impression that the author did not conduct a review and field research, let alone communicate and dialogue with the elders of the Kiowa tradition, perhaps even directly, or do not visit or the introduction of environmental adaptation to feel and explore in depth the approaches and dialogue straight from the heart of what precautionary believed, trusted and felt and known by the Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, even more than that, probably do not know or never saw the sites and ancient relics Kiawa village.

“Mystery of Pu-en-purebgkey e Kiowa” or “Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa”, which are told by the ancestors of the ancestors to the parents until the child-great-great-grandchildren for generations, provides a snapshot , on the state and society of ancient life Ka-Senduk of Kiowa as derived Apo ‘Amut e We-Wene and Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa under the guidance of Wali’an La’un Dano.

To all participants Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa, and the persons-source, Tumu-Tumu-said-said, observers and analysts as well as lovers of Kiowa culture and individuals, who have been involved in search and preparation of this paper, the authors ingim express appreciation to the expression of gratitude and a sincere apology, if his name is not or has not been recorded in writing in this paper, even more than that please forgive if this paper is still too far away or less effective.

A strange event occurred in Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa in Kentur La’un Dano, where the trees’ Tawa’ang “show daunya terikat’teranyam nine strands into one (siouw nga-lalay daung in Laughter’ ang had begun esa pules ma-nga-pules), although attempted to be degraded or open braid / knot, still re-woven and bound by nature, these events took place over several months and witnessed by many people.

Strange and bizarre events that happen over and over again ie inside the track and doing research on ancient heritage sites in the Kiowa area, by chance, without any planned or arranged and engineered, the person who collected always consist of nine people, this is beginning on the date 9 September 1993 at Sondek arch (the former site of PA-AN E-PEPA’AR WALI’AN WO WO SE SE TONA’AS IM TETERUSAN Banua KASENDUKAN and once lived APO ‘INA’ ROROT), in which nine people under the leadership Tona’as Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian plug-li’us Watu Tundek Pa-an (nine men who gathered this is by chance).

 
Maka-Petor !

4.Minahasa Information

 (1)Tona’as im pa’seke’an Minahasa 1890

 
Seorang priester (walian/religious ) Minahasa (Tona’as im pa’seke’an) dalam pakaian kebesarannya berkain patola (tahun 1890an).

(2)  The second Law of Large in Afdeling Manado 1880s

 
Para Hukum Besar/Hukum Kedua se-Minahasa dalam Afdeling Manado sekitar tahun 1880-an di Tikala – Manado.

 3.The history of Minahasa

Minahasa
Minahasan.JPG
Minahasan tribesman in a parade in Surabaya, East Java.
Total population
ca. 1 million in North Sulawesi
Regions with significant populations
Indonesia
(predominantly North Sulawesi)
   
Languages
Minahasan languages, Manado Malay, Indonesian language
Religion
Protestantism (89%), Roman Catholicism (10,5%), Islam (0,5%)
Related ethnic groups
Bolaang Mongondow people, Gorontalo people

The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language.

Minahasa Raya is the area covering Bitung City, Manado City and Minahasa Regency, which are three of the seven regional administrations in the province of North Sulawesi, Indonesia.

Originally inhabited by Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages-speaking peoples, the region was colonized in the 16th century by the Portuguese and Spanish, then the Dutch. In the Dutch East Indies the Minahasa people identified strongly with the Dutch language, culture and the Protestant faith — so strongly, in fact, that when Indonesia became independent in 1945 factions of political elites of the region pleaded with the Dutch to let it become a province of the Netherlands.[1] There is a considerable number of people from the Minahasa living in the Netherlands, as part of the Indo community.[2]

Contents

 

 History

Kabasaran Minahasa.

The name of the land of Minahasa has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and then finally the current name Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united”. This name dates from the war against the Kingdom of Bolaang Mangondow. However, other sources cite that the original name of Minahasa was Malesung, meaning “paddy rotary”, then changed to Se Mahasa, meaning “they that unite,” and finally Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united.”[3]

North Sulawesi never developed any large empire. In 670, the leaders of the different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met by a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they founded a community of independent states, who would form one unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemies if they were attacked.[4]

The Origin of Minahasa People

It is unknown when the land of Minahasa was first occupied by humans. The Minahasans believe that they are descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. Initially, the descendants of Toar-Lumimuut were divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (two times nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes among these people. Their leaders (Tona’as) then decided to meet and talk about this. They met in Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). That meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing of language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing of ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan corresponding to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone of Dividing) was then built. It is a favourite tourist destination.

The groups Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan then established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside these territories. These new villages then became a ruling center of a group of villages called puak, later walak, comparable to the present-day district.

Subsequently a new group of people arrived in Pulisan peninsula. Due to numerous conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages surrounding a large lake. These people were therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is now the Tondano lake.

Minahasa Warriors.

In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were:

  • people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed in Atep. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Tonsawang.
  • people from Tomori Bay. These were the ancestors of the subethnic Pasam-bangko (Ratahan dan Pasan)
  • people from Bolaang Mangondow who were the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang).
  • people from the Bacan archipelago and Sangi, who then occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. These were the subethnic Bobentehu (Bajo). They landed in the place now called Sindulang. They then established a kingdom called Manado which ended in 1670 and became walak Manado.
  • people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first in Panimburan and then went to Bolaang-Mangondow
  • and finally to the place where Malalayang is now located. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.

These are the nine subethnic groups in Minahasa (which explains the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9): Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Pasan Ratahan, Ponosakan, Babontehu and Bantik.

The name Minahasa itself arose at the time the Minahasans fought against Bolaang Mangondow. Among the Minahasan heroes in these wars against Bolaang Mangondow are: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war along Amurang Bay).

Until the dominance of Dutch influence in the 17th and 18th century the Minahassans lived in warrior societies that practised headhunting.[5]

 The European Era

Minahasa Wedding.

In the second half of the 16th century, both Portuguese and the Spanish arrived in North Sulawesi. Half-way though the 17th century there was a rapprochement between the Minahasan chiefs and the Dutch VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which was given concrete form in the treaty of 1679 (which can be found in the Corpus Diplomaticus Neerlando-Indicum 1934, vol. III, no 425). From 1801-1816, the Netherlands were occupied by the French imperial forces of Napoleon and the Minahasa came under English control. In 1817 Dutch rule was re-established until 1949.

At the time of the first contact with Europeans the sultanate of Ternate held some sway over North Sulawesi, and the area was often visited by seafaring Bugis traders from South Sulawesi. The Spanish and the Portuguese, the first Europeans to arrive, landed in Minahasa via the port of Makasar, but also landed at Sulu Island (off the north coast of Borneo) and at the port of Manado. The abundance of natural resources in Minahasa made Manado a strategic port for European traders sailing to and from the spice island of Maluku. Although they had sporadic contacts with Minahasa, the Spanish and Portuguese influence was limited by the power of the Ternate sultanate.

The Portuguese and Spaniards left reminders of their presence in the north in subtle ways. Portuguese surnames and various Portuguese words not found elsewhere in Indonesia, like garrida for an enticing woman and buraco for a bad man, can still be found in Minahasa. In the 1560s the Portuguese Franciscan missionaries made some converts in Minahasa.

The Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century.[6] The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo. [7]

Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats.[8] Minahasan rulers sent Supit, Pa’at dan Lontoh (their statues are located in Kauditan, about 30 km to Bitung) where they made an alliance treaty with the Dutch. Together eventually gained the upper hand in 1655, built their own fortress in 1658 and expelled the last of the Portuguese a few years later.

By the early 17th century the Dutch had toppled the Ternate sultanate, and then set about eclipsing the Spanish and Portuguese. As was the usual case in the 1640s and 50s, the Dutch colluded with local powers to throw out their European competitors. In 1677 the Dutch occupied Pulau Sangir and, two years later, the Dutch governor of Maluku, Robert Padtbrugge, visited Manado. Out of this visit came a treaty with the local Minahasan chiefs, which led to domination by the Dutch for the next 300 years.

The Dutch helped unite the linguistically diverse Minahasa confederacy, and in 1693 the Minahasa scored a decisive military victory against the Bolaang to the south. The Dutch influence flourished as the Minahasans embraced the European goods and Christian religion. Missionary schools in Manado in 1881 were among the first attempts at mass education in Indonesia, giving their graduates a considerable edge in gaining civil service, military and other positions of influence.

Relations with the Dutch were often less than cordial (a war was fought around Tondano between 1807 and 1809) and the region did not actually come under direct Dutch rule until 1870. The Dutch and the Minahasans eventually became so close that the north was often referred to as the 12th province of the Netherlands. A Manado – based political movement called Twaalfde Provincie even campaigned for Minahasa’s integration into the Dutch state in 1947.

Portuguese activity apart, Christianity became a force in the early 1820s when a Calvinist group, the Netherlands Missionary Society, turned from an almost exclusive interest in Maluku to the Minahasa area. The wholesale conversion of the Minahasans was almost complete by 1860. With the missionaries came mission schools, which meant that, as in Ambon and Roti, Western education in Minahasa started much earlier than in other parts of Indonesia. The Dutch government eventually took over some of these schools and also set up others. Because the schools taught in Dutch, the Minahasans had an early advantage in the competition for government jobs and places in the colonial army. Minahasans remain among the educated elite today.

Armed Forces

Minahasa reserve troops, Tondano Landstorm, 1948.

A relatively large number of Minahasans pursued professional military careers in the colonial army (KNIL). Next to the South Moluccan Ambonese, the Minahasa Menadonese were also considered a martial race and therefore particularly competent and trustworthy as soldiers. As KNIL soldiers the Minahasans fought alongside the Dutch to subdue rebellions in other parts of the archipelago, such as for instance the Java War of 1825-30.

As a large percentage of Minahasans was formally equalised to the European legal class, young men were also obliged to serve as conscripts when mandatory military service for Europeans was introduced in 1917. Older men (as off 32) were obliged to join the Home guard (Dutch: Landstorm).

During the Japanese occupation of the Dutch East Indies in WWII many Menadonese soldiers were held captive as POW‘s.

They seemed to gain a special role in the Dutch scheme of things and their loyalty to the Dutch as soldiers, their Christian religion and their geographic isolation from the rest of Indonesia all led to a sense of being ‘different’ from the other ethnic groups of the archipelago.[clarification needed]

Republic of Indonesia

The Japanese occupation of 1942-45 was a period of deprivation, and the Allies bombed Manado heavily in 1945. During the Revolution for independence that followed, there was bitter division between pro-Indonesian Unitarians and those favoring Dutch-sponsored federalism. The appointment of a Manadonese Christian, Sam Ratulangi, as the first republican governor of eastern Indonesia, was decisive in winning Minahasan support for the republic.

As the young republic lurched from crisis to crisis, Jakarta‘s monopoly over the copra trade seriously weakened Minahasa’s economy. Illegal exports flourished and in June 1956 Jakarta ordered the closure of Manado port, the busiest smuggling port in the republic. Local leaders refused and Jakarta backed down. Soon Permesta rebels confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform. Jakarta responded in Manado by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.

The Minahasan sense of being different quickly became a problem for the central government after independence. As in Sumatra, there was a general feeling that the central government was inefficient, development was stagnating and money was being plugged into Java. Circumstances favored the spread of communism.

In March 1957, the military leaders of both southern and northern Sulawesi launched a confrontation with the central government, with demands for greater regional autonomy. They demanded more local development, a fairer share of revenue, help in suppressing the Kahar Muzakar rebellion in Southern Sulawesi, and a cabinet of the central government led jointly by Soekarno and Hatta. At least initially the ‘Permesta’ (Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam) rebellion was a reformist rather than a separatist movement.

Negotiations between the central government and the Sulawesi military leaders prevented violence in southern Sulawesi, but the Minahasan leaders were dissatisfied with the agreements and the movement split. Inspired, perhaps, by fears of domination by the south, the Minahasan leaders declared their own autonomous state of North Sulawesi in June 1957. By this time the central government had the situation in southern Sulawesi pretty much under control but in the north they had no strong local figure to rely upon and there were rumors that the USA, suspected of supplying arms to rebels in Sumatra, was also in contact with the Minahasan leaders.

The possibility of foreign intervention finally drove the central government to seek military support from southern Sulawesi. Permesta forces were driven out of central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Sangir island and from Morotai in Maluku (from whose airfield the rebels had hoped to fly bombing raids on Jakarta). The rebels’ few planes (supplied by the USA and flown by Filipino, Taiwanese and US pilots) were destroyed. US policy shifted, favoring Jakarta, and in June 1958 central government troops landed in Minahasa. The Permesta rebellion was finally put down in mid-1961.

The effect of both the Sumatran and Sulawesi rebellions was to strengthen exactly those trends the rebels had hoped to weaken. Central authority was enhanced at the expense of local autonomy, radical nationalism gained over pragmatic moderation, the power of the communists and Soekarno increased while that of Hatta waned, and Soekarno was able to establish guided democracy in 1959.

Recently, the Indonesian government has adopted policies to strengthen local autonomy, the very idea that Permesta fought for.

[9] [10] [11] [12] [13] [14]

Culture

Religion

Tontemboan Bible, by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar, published in 1907 by Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland.

At 97% of the population, the Minahasa Regency has one of highest proportions of Christianity in Indonesia. It has the highest density of church buildings in Indonesia, with approximately one church for every 100m road.[citation needed] This is due to a successful missionary campaign by European Christians in Northern Sulawesi.

In 1907, Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland published a bible in the Tontemboan language, a language of Minahasa. It was edited by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar.

Jehovah’s Witnesses begin their first preaching activity in this province in 1932. The first Minahasa to be baptized was Brother Theo Ratu; he is also claimed as the first Indonesian to be baptized. His son Vicky Ratu was also one of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, now joined in Tangerang Kota Congregation. In the 2007 Service Year in North Sulawesi their peak publisher figures were 2,500 publishers.

 Cuisine

Minahasan cuisine is very spicy, and can feature ingredients not typically found in other parts of Indonesia. For example, dog (RW, short for rintek wuuk, or “fine hair” in Tontemboan), cat (tusuk, also known as eveready because of the cat logo used by the battery), forest rat, and fruit bat (paniki) are commonly eaten. The provincial capital Manado is often referred to as Kota Tinutuan, in reference to a popular local dish: a rice porridge made with corn, smoked fish, greens, and chilies. Known outside the province as Bubur Manado, tinutuan is supposed to improve health and vitality.

Dance

Kabasaran war dance, performed at a parade on August 17, 2006

Kabasaran is the fierce and famous Minahasan wardance which reminds of the old Minahasa warrior societies. The dancers wear red garments which in the old times was a color exclusive for the accomplished headhunter. This dance is similar to the Moluccan Cakalele wardance.[15]

 Music

Minahasa music is highly influenced by that of the European colonials; their festivals feature large marching ensembles made up of clarinets, saxophones (source), trumpets, trombones, and tubas, all constructed out of local bamboo.[16]

Languages

In the Minahasa, 5 distinct languages are spoken: Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Toulour, Tonsea and Tombulu. In 1996, the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Dallas, published the North Sulawesi Language Survey by Scott Merrifield and Martinus Salea. It gives an overview of the classification and distribution of the languages, based on a detailed study of the phonology and vocabulary.[17]

Influences of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch can be found in the Indonesian dialect of the Minahasa (Manado Malay or Minahasa Malay):

Chair in Indonesian is kursi, in the Minahasa its called kadera (cadera – Spanish word for hip; cadeira – Portuguese word for chair).

Horse in Indonesian is kuda, a word of Sanscrit origin. In the town of Tomohon, a horse is called kafalio (caballo – Spanish, cavalo – Portuguese).

There is not much known yet about the ideogramatical Minahasa writing system, its origin or translation.[18]

Cultural revival

Ever since the overall de-centralisation following the end of Suharto’s New Order era the Minahasa is bolstering its regional autonomy scheme, among others by positioning itself to profile a unique cultural entity & identity. The three main Minahasa NGO’s active in the cultural revival movement are: ‘Yayasan Suara Nurami’ (The Voice from Within Foundation); ‘Minahasa Wangko’ (Minahasa the Great) both founded by Bert Supit and ‘Peduli Minahasa’ (Take care of Minahasa).[19]

National Heroes of Indonesia from Minahasa

PS. The complete article exist ,but only for the premium member,subscribed via commend with add your ID and profile photos for our security.Thanks

the end @ copyright CDr Iwan suwandy 2011

The Rare Portugeus Book 1955:”The Fourth Eviction”(QUARTA de DESPEJO)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Rare Book in Portugeus :

“Quarta de Despejo.”

or” Fourth Eviction “

 (PENGUSIRAN KEEMPAT)

By Carolina Maria de Jesus

 Dr Iwan Notes

1.The best book for learning Portugeous language

(Buku Yang bagus untuk belajar bahasa Portugis)

2.This Book found in Jakarta Indonesia,maybe before belong by the Ex East Timor People Who move to Indonesia after Timor Leste freedom .

 
 

Introduction

Nossa Irma Carolina

apresentacao de audalio dantas

Prefa’cia nao e’ que prefacio tem regras. E de regras nao gasta,digo logo. Tenho de contar yma historia,conto. Bem contada,no exatoacontevideo,sem inventar nada. Nao e’ no jeito meu,comum de repo’rter,mas o’ uma historia exata de verdade-takvez uma reportagem especial. Conto: a historia de Carolina Maria de Jesus, irma nosea,vizinha nossa, ali da facela do Caninde’,Rua A.barraco numero 9

google translate:

Our Irma Carolinapresentation of Audálio DantasPrefa’cia and not ‘preface that has rules. And the rules do not spend, say soon. I have to tell you my story, tale. Well told, in exatoacontevideo, without inventing anything. It ‘s not in my way, common repo’rter but the ‘ one-story exactly true takvez a special report. Tale: the story of Carolina Maria de Jesus, nosea sister, our neighbor, there’s the Facel Caninde ‘, Street Number 9 A.barracoCHAPTER ONE : JULY 195515 de julho de 1955Aniversario de minha filha Vera Eunice. Eu pretendia um par de sapatos para ela. Mas o custo dos generos alimenticios nos impede a realizacao dos nossos desejos. Atualmente somos escravos do custo de vida. EWu achei um par de sapatos no lixo,lavei e remendel para ela calcar.translate:

July 15, 1955 Birthday of my daughter Vera Eunice. I wanted a pair of shoes for her. But the cost of food keeps us from the realization of our desires. Currently we are slaves of the cost of living. EWU found a pair of shoes in the garbage, and washed her remendel calcar
 
CHAPTER TWO : AUGUST 1955
 
1 de Agosto
Assistencia estava chengando. Vinha examinar o Portugues que vende doces. Dia 28 de julho eu fui visita-lo. E’le queria uma Assistencia. Aludiam que e’le nao paga o IAPTC e nao vinham.Quando cheguei na favela fui visita’-lo.E’le estava gemendo e tinha duas senhoras portugeusas que lhe visitava. Perguntei-lhe se estava melhor. Disse-me que na’o. A putuguesa perguntou-me :
-O que e que a senhora faz ? -Eu cato papel,ferro, e nas horas vagas escrevo.
translate :
  

August 1
Assistance was Cheng. Vineyard examine the Portuguese who sells candy. July 28 I went to visit him. E’le wanted an Assistance. E’le alluded to not pay and not the IAPTC vinham.
Quando arrived in the slum went visita’ it. E’le was moaning and had two ladies who came to her portugeusas. 
I asked him if he was better.
 He told me that na’o.
The portuguesa asked me:
 “What do you do?
 I-cato paper, iron, and in his spare time writing
 
CHAPTER THREE : SEPTEMBER 1955
1 de september Eu fui na feira, comprei uma laranja,Chengquei em casa a Vera estava no quintal. Dei-lhe uma sova
1 september I went to the market, I bought an orange at home Chengquei Vera was in the backyard. I gave him a beating
 
2 de setembre . Acandi o fogo e esquentei comide para as filhas porqueu na’o tinha dinheiro para comprar pa’o. Troquei os filhos que forarn para a escola. E eu sai com a Vara Quese fiquel louca. Porque havia pauco papel na rue.Agora ate’ os lixeiros avancam no que os catadores de papels podem pegar. Eles sa’o egoistas. Na rua Paulino Guimarra’es tem um deposito de ferro. Todos os dias e’les poe a lixo na rua, e lixo tem muito ferro. Eu catava os ferros para vender. Angora, o carro que fax a coleta, antes de iniciar a colete vem na rua Paulino Guinara’es e pege o lixo e po’e no carro. Nogentos.Egoistas. Eles ja’ tem emprego,tem hospital,farmacia,medicos. E ainda vende no ferro velho tudo que encontra no lixo. W ainda vende no ferro velho tudo que encontra no lixo .Podia deixar os ferros para mim
 
Pessei a tarde arranjando as letas. Depois fui na Bela Vista byscar um caixote.Quando eu passava perto do Frigorifico o caminha’o de ossos estava estacionado.Pedi uns ossos para o motorista. E’le deu-me um que eu escolbhi. Tinha muita gordura.
Fiz a sopa e comecei escrever. A noite surgio. O Joa’o jantou-se e deitou-se. Puis a Vera no berco.O Jose’ Carlos estava na rua, com medo de apanhar, porque e’le e’ muita parco.Sujou a camisa de barro. Eu fiz um chuiqueiro e vou por e’le morando com o porco.Hao de dar-se bem.
A Pitoca passou na rua convidando o pavo para ir ver o cineminha.Chamou o Joao.Eu disse que ele ja estava dormindo Fui o cineminha. Era desenho da Igreja.
 
No Play Boy(2) que o Adhemar pois aqui para as criancas , a noite sa’o os marmanjos que brincam. O Bobo fazia tento berulho que deturpava o espetaculo. Os favelados pizam no fio electrico que liga a maquina. E a maquina desligava. Os proprios favelados falam que favelado nao tem iducacao. Pensei : vou escrever.
Quando eu voltava encontrei corn o Paulo que vive com a dona aurora. Ela tem uma filha mulata clara. Ela dix que eu era um anjo.Meu visitido era amplo .Mangas longes cor de rosa. eu ia da terra para o ce’u. E pegava as estrelas. Elas organisaram um espetaculo para homenagear -me. Dancavam ao meu redor e formavam um risco luminoso.
Quancho despertei pensei: eu sou ta’o pobre.Nao posco ir num espetaculo, por isso Deus envia-me estes sonhos deslumbrantes para minh’alma dolorida. Ao Deus que me projede, envio os meus agradecimentos.
 
 
September 2. Acandi the fire and warmed to his daughters because FOO na’o had money to buy pa’o. Forarn swapped the children to school. And I went out with Rod Queso fiquel crazy. Because there was pauci role in rue.Agora up ‘progress on the garbage scavengers papels can get. They sa’o selfish. On the street Guimarra’es Paulino has a deposit of iron. Everyday e’les puts the trash, and trash is too much iron. I was picking the irons for sale. Angora, the car fax collection before starting the vest comes in the street and Paulino Guinara’es pege po’e and trash in the car. Nogentos.Egoistas. They already “have a job, has hospital, pharmacy, medical. And it sells scrap it all in the trash. W still sells all the junk you find in the trash. Podia  hates leaving the anchors to me.

Pessi the afternoon arranging them in Latvia. Then I went to a Bela Vista byscar caixote.Quando I spent close to the Fridge was estacionado.Pedi caminha’o bone bones for the driver. E’le gave me one I escolbhi. He had too much fat.
I made the soup and started writing. The night surgio. The Joa’o dined out and went to bed. I put Vera in berco.O Jose ‘Carlos was on the street, afraid to take because e’le and’ the shirt parco.Sujou lot of clay. I did and go for a chuiqueiro e’le living with porco.Hao to get along.
The Pitoco passed on the street inviting pavo to go see the cineminha.Chamou Joao.Eu said he was already sleeping I was the movie. He was drawing the Church.

In Play Boy (2) that Adhemarbecause here for the kids ,the night sa’o the guys play . The Fool did try berulho that misrepresented the spectacle. Slum-dwellers in pizam electric wire that connects your machine. And the machine off. The squatters say they own slums do not have iducacao. I thought I’ll write.
When I returned I found the corn that Paul lives with his mistress aurora. She has a clear mulatto daughter. She was a dix I visited anjo.Meu was wide. Long sleeves pink. I went from land to ce’u. And the stars picked. They organized a spectacle to honor me. Danced around me and formed a bright risk.
Quancho woke up I thought, I’m going Posco ta’o pobre.Nao a spectacle, so God sent me these beautiful dreams for my soul aching. When I projede God, send my thanks..

 
 3 de setembro.
Ontem comemos mal. E hoje pior
 
8 de setembro
Hoje eu estou alegre.Estou rindo sem motiva. estou cantando. Quando eu canto, eu componho uns versos. Eu canto ate’ aborrecer da cancao. Hoje eu fiz esta cancao :
 
Te mandaram uma macumba
 e eu ja’ sei quem mandou
Foi a Mariazinha
Aquela que voce’ amou
Ela disse que te amava
Voce’ na’o acreditou
 
  

 
September 3.
Yesterday we ate badly. And worse todaySeptember 8
Today I’m laughing alegre.Estou without motivation. I’m singing. When I sing, I write verses. I sing until ‘bored of the song. Today I made ​​this song:Sent you a voodoo
  and I already “know who sent
Gretel was the
The one that you ‘loved
She said I love you
You ‘believe na’o
 
18 de Septembro
Hoje  eu estou alegre. Eu estou procurando viver com o espirito calmo. Acho que e’ porque estes dias eu tenho tido o que comer.
Quando eu vi os empregados da Fabrica os letreidos aue elas trazem nas costas e escrevi estes versos :
ALGUM HOMENS EM SAO PAULO
ANDAM TODOS CARIMBADOS
TRAS UM LETREIRO NAS COSTAS
DISZENDA ONDE E’ EMPREGADO
 

Today I’m happy. I’m trying to live with the spirit calm. And think ‘these days because I’ve had enough to eat.
When I saw the employees of the literati Fabrica aue they bring back and wrote these verses:
NO MEN IN SAO PAULO
WALK ALL STAMPED
A SIGN BACK BACK
WHERE AND DISZENDA ‘EMPLOYEE
 

PS the complete Book only for premium member,PLEASE SUBSCRIBE  VIA COMMENT AND YOU WILL CONTACT YOUR  EMAIL.

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the Basketball NBA Playoff Grand Final and Semifinal liveshow and Rare NBA Card Exhibition (Tayangan Semifinal NBA langsung dari Amerika)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan Sport Liveshow

NBA Grand Final and Playoff Semifinal Liveshow and Rare NBA Card Exhibition Comentator Chris Weber, Kenny Smith  

and Charles Barkley.

Frame One :

The NBA Grandfinal 2011 seasons Dallas Maveric vs Miami Heat live now.

 a. Game 1

b.game 2

c.game 3

d.game 4

 

 Frame Two :Westren Semifinal

1 .LA Laker vs Dallas Maverick

 (1) Dallas Marverick Win and enter the NBA semifinal(final Eastren conference)

(2)

 (3) series two

 

 

(4)series one

LA Laker 0- Dallas Maverick 1

2.Memphis Gresielis Vs Oklahoma Thunder

(1) Series Four

(2) Series Three

(3) Series  Two

(4)Series One

 Frame Two: The Eastren Semifinal 1.Chicago Bulls vs Atlanta Hawk

serie five bull leads 3-2

seriefour 2-2,serie three 2-1(bulls leads)

serie two 2-0(bulls leads)

4.Miami Heats Vs Boston Celtic

(5)Miami Heats Win 4-1

(4)Miami Heat Leads 3-1

(3)Miami heat leads 2-1

(2)Miami vs Boston 1-1

(1)Miami leads 1-0

 

 

Frame Three:

NBA Star Players

1.Westren

 (1) Memphis

(a)Young

(b)Marc Gasol 

(c)Randolf

(2) Oklahoma Thunder

(a)Kevin Durant

(b)Russel Wesbrock

 

Atlanta

Jeff Teague

2010/11 Donruss Jeff Teague Autograph Card

Derrick Rose

Chicago Bulls

2.Eastren

(1) LA Lakers

(a) Kobe Bryant

(b) PauGasol

 (c)Lamar Odom

(d) Ron Artest

 

RON ARTEST AUTOGRAPHED BASKETBALL CARD #20811J

(2) Dallas Maverick

(a) Dirk Norwski

(b)Jason Kid

(c) Shawn Marion

Shawn Marion Autographed 2003 UpperDeck SM Basketball Card 

(d) Yao Ming

(3) Boston Celtic

(1) Paul Pierce

(2) Rajon Rondo

(4)Miami Heat

(a) Lebron”King” James

Also featured is a 10-card LeBron James “King On His Court” insert with material and prime material versions saluting 10 great moments in King James’ career. As LeBron James makes his annual assault on the NBA Championship, these cards are sure to be high on set collectors lists.

(b) Chris Bosh

   
     
     

View Details

Chris Bosh autographed Toronto Raptors 8×10 phot…

Price:    $60.00

THE  RARE NBA AUTHOGRAPH CARD EXHIBTION DURING THE PLAYOFF GAMES

 

 

 

 
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37/99 \7200
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\1800
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\2500
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97/98 Skybox Autograph
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04/05 SPX Winnig Combos
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\5000
99/00 UD Ionix
UD Authentic
Steve Francis
\3780
01/02 UD Ultimate Collection
Autographed Buyback 4/4
Kobe Bryant \80000

 the end @ Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

 

THE EAST ASIA TRIBES ART PHOTOGRAPHY

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

 

Dr Iwan E_Book :

The East Asia  Tribes Art  Photography

Frame One :

The Old East Asia Tribes Pictures

  Indonesian tribes

Sasando a Traditional Music Instrument from Rote – Indonesian Heritage Series

Posted in Culture on December 30, 2010 by mannaismayaadventure

Sasando a Traditional Music Instrument from Rote – East Nusa Tenggara  (NTT)  Indonesian Heritage Series

Rote island map

Rote Island, East Nusa Tenggara. Indonesia



What is Sasando ?

Sasando is a stringed musical instrument or cordophone type musical instrument. It comes from the island of Rote, East Nusa Tenggara Indonesia. The most southern island in Indonesia archipelago.
Sasando word comes from Rote word sasandu. It means vibrant instrument

Sasando form is similar to other stringed instruments such as guitar, violin and harp.

A man wearing Tiilangga (traditional hat) with Sasando beritadaerah.com

A man wearing Tiilangga (traditional hat) with Sasando

Sasando(Rote Island Tribes Music Instrument)

The main part of the long tubular Sasando commonly made from bamboo. Then in the middle, circling from top to bottom is placed some lumps in which the strings that stretched across the tube, from top to bottom resting. The wedge gives different tone  to each passage of the string. Then this Sasando tube placed in a container made from a kind of woven palm leaves (Lontar leaves ) like a fan made. This container is the place of Sasando resonance

Sasando indonesiaculturalnews.blogspot.com

The composition of the notation is irregular and you can not see it because it is wrapped.  Sasando is played with both hands from the opposite direction. From left to right and left to right. Left hand plays the melody and bass, while right hand plays the accord. That makes Sasando unique because somebody could play the melody, bass, and accord at once. And the harmony is awesome.

Sasando’s sound is very unique. Compare to guitar, Sasando’s sound is more various. Sasando has 28 strings and it hard to play. Sasando player should have the ability to combine and make the right rythm and feeling from the whole strings.

The History of Sasando

Sasando  indonesiaculturalnews.blogspot.com

Ana Sanggu created the early shape of Sasando in the 15th century on a small island near the island of Rote, the Dana Island , which then controlled by the Taka La’a King. Sanggu is citizen on the island of Nusa Ti’i Southwest Rote. He was arrested by the King  when stranded on the island while searching for fish with his friend, Mankoa. In addition to a fisherman, Sanggu also an artist.

The King at that time had a daughter. Princess in love with Sanggu. To Sanggu, the Princess requests for a new instrument created by Sanggu that could entertain people. Princess likes to entertain  people when the moon is full.

Sanggu then created the Sari Sando, an instrument that is vibrating when picked. As with seven ropes made from wooden roots. The Princess relationship with Sanggu was discovered by King . The King Taka La’a was furious and executed Sanggu.

Sanggu mate who could run away, Mankoa, reported it to the Nusa Ti’i. Sanggu’s son in Ti’i, Nale Sanggu, angry at his father died. Nale revenge with 25 knights Ti’i. He destroyed the whole Dana island, only the children and musical instruments Sasando inherited from his father who rescued to Ti’i.

In  Ti’i, Sasando was modified, the string added to nine. “The music only consist of five notes mi, sol, la, do, re. Si and fa did not exist.

In the Dutch period, 18th century, the number of strings added to 10 strings. After independence again amended by adding a string to 11 string. In the 19th century, Sasando (Sasando haik)  was modified into a violin by Ti’i son named Kornelis Frans. Called Sasando violin because when it created the tone is adjusted like the violin tone. Number of ropes become 39 pieces and the main tone become 7 notes.

Type of Sasando

Sasando Engkel : Sasando that has 28 strings
Sasando Dobel  :  Sasando that has 56 strings, some type has 84 strings.
Sasando Gong (Sasando Haik)
Sasando Biola (Violin Sasando)

Sasando With Tehyan played Amazing Grace

The Sasando Artists

Mr. Yusuf Nggebu amirsodikin.com

1. Mr Yusuf Nggebu ( 82 years old), he is a famous Sasando artist and maker in Rote. He is a maestro in Sasando. Because of age, he is no longer play the Sasando. For him, Sasando is not just a music instrument, Sasando is a Rote’s identity. He could play the Sasando Haik or Sasando Biola (Violin Sasando) perfectly. Now, in Rote the Sasando maker is rare. This makes me sad. It hard to play Sasando and Sasando Biola is the hardest one. Only Mr. Yusuf Nggebu could play the instrument.

2. Mr. Jeremias Ougust Pah (70 years old)



He is another famous of Sasando artist. An Indonesian maestro that really cares of Sasando. The Indonesian Culture and Tourism Minister, Mr. Jero Wacik (2007) gives him an award for caring and developing the Sasando as a traditional music instrument.

He lives in Timor Raya Km 22 Street, in Oebelo, Central Kupang, East Nusa Tenggara. “I want that young people in Timor will always love and learn about Sasando.” said Jeremias. Why ? Because the young people tend to leave the Sasando and love western rock music more than its own culture.  He said that Australian and Japanese tourists have more interested in Sasando than his own youngsters. He was surprised by the visiting of one Japanese man named Masamu Takashi that is specially visit him to learn how to play the Sasando.

Jeremias Ougust has been played the Sasando in front of Japanese people in Yokohama and got high appreciation. The appreciation made him proud but a little sad. “If foreign people could appreciate my culture, the Timor people should love it more.”

Beside Sasando, Jeremias Ougust also developing the Rote traditional woven cloth.

3. Mr. Arnoldus Edon, deceased
Mr. Arnoldus is the inventor of Electric Sasando. He modified Sasando and combined it with modern music instruments like guitar, drum, organ, and many more. Then, Sasando could be played like an orchestra. He got the patent rights in June 14, 2009.

Korbafo chief with warriors, 1900.

 

More Pictures of Indonesian Tribes’ Traditional & Wedding Dress

Additional Traditional wedding dress of indonesian Tribes

 

Aneuk Jamee, Nangroe Aceh Darussalam

Alas traditional costume, NAD

Mandailing, North Sumatera

Karo, North Sumatera

Nias, North Sumatera

Kerinci traditional dress, Jambi

Bengkulu Malay                               Pasemah, South Sumatera


Solok style, West Sumatera      Rejang costume, Bengkulu

Palembang wedding dress

Palembang wedding dress with hijab

Jambi

Lampung girl

Betawian wedding dress

Combination between Arabic, Chinese, Javanese, Malay, European and Sundanese elements

 

Classical Sundanese wedding dress

Other Sundanese wedding dress

Sumedang Larang wedding dress, West – Java

Abah-abah bondan, Cirebon

Royal Cirebon wedding dress

Yogyakarta wedding dress (basahan)

Jogjakarta Wedding dress


Yogyakarta traditional dress

Kudus traditional dress, Central Java

Mojoputri wedding dress, East Java

It is originated of Mojokerto regency, East Java. Based on Majapahit culture

Osing wedding dress, Banyuwangi –  East Java

Banyuwangi brides

Sumenep Madurese wedding dress

Madurese traditional dress


Kolonedale, Central Sulawesi


Assorted from South East Sulawesi


Pamona girls, Central Sulawesi

Bugis costumes, South Sulawesi

Mamasa costume, West Sulawesi

Balinese traditional dress

Gandrung Lombok dress

Sasak dress, W. Nusa Tenggara

Bima traditional dress, NTB

Dompu traditional dress, NTB

Sumbawa wedding dress, NTB

Kutai royal wedding dress, East Kalimantan

Samarinda Buginese dress

Buginese in East Kalimantan developed their own style in wedding dress, and different to their ancestral land
West Kalimantan Dayak dress
Central Kalimantan Dayak dress
Banjarese costumes, South Kalimantan
Banjarese
Malay and Dayak, West Kalimantan
Ambonese
South East Moluccas
South East Maluku
North Moluccas
North Moluccas
Papua
Papua
 

 

Reog Ponorogo(ponorogo Tribes Dance)

REOG PONOROGO

 

 

Old Pictures of Philippine Tribes

 
 
 
Kalinga Man – 1911
Kalinga Woman – 1911

 
Bagobo Woman (Mindanao Rgeion) – 1914
Tinguian Women
A Benguet Brave
Weaving Cloth Machine In Bontoc Province
Ethnic Bamboo Band
Head Hunters
Ifugao Head Hunter – 1911
Native Ifugao Tribe Dance
Igorot Tribes Men
Igorot Deer and Dog Hunters
Igorot Native Rain Coats
Moro Soldiers 1909
Negrito Cheif with His Family 1909
Tattooed Kalinga Man 1911
 

Frame Two :

The India Hindustan Tribe- 1868

 
The people of India : A series of photographic illustrations, with descriptive letterpress, of the races and tribes of Hindustan, originally prepared under the authority of the government of India, and reproduced. by J. Forbes Watson and John William Kaye between 1868 – 1875.

Cole christians, aboriginal, Chota Nagpoor
 
 DO YOU KNOW THE NAME OF TRIBES BELOW?
 photo
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 IF YOU DONNOT KNOW, STILL LOOKING THE INFORMATIONS BELOW THE PHOTO GALERY.
 
 sumatra, tribes, alas, aceh
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 sumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam
 
 
 
 
 sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, suku
 
 
 
 
 
 
 

Frame Two:

The Indonesian tribes

The Aceh Tribes

 sumatra, tribes, alas, aceh

 

   
The majority of the Alas people live in villages and make their living from farming and raising livestock. The Alas area is considered the lumbung padi (rice storehouse) of the Aceh area. Other agricultural products include rubber, coffee, and kemiri (a local spice) as well as other forest products such as wood, rattan, resin, and incense.Neighborhoods or villages of the Alas are called kute. One kute usually consists of one or more clans that are called a merge. Extended families will live in one house and submit to the authority of the parents. They are a patrilineal society, which means they measure descent through the father’s family. Their culture emphasizes two types of law. The first type consists of religious laws that are given by God and cannot be changed. The second type consists of traditional laws, which include rules that have been made by the leaders of the community and can be changed according to the times.According to marriage customs, an engagement lasts from one to three years due to the necessity of the man acquiring the bride price, and the woman the groom price. When an Alas man and woman marry, they live near the husband’s family. After they have children, the young family will usually move and live separately (jawe) from the parents but stay in the same area and community of the merge. Polygamous marriages are permitted when the marriage has produced only boys, only girls, or no children at all (adak meu keu dueu).
Generally, the Alas people are followers of Islam, but they still seek the assistance of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist). They perform ceremonies so that their crops will prosper and be protected from plague. The dukun reads his mantra and uses magical potions of leaves and flowers that are considered powerful to ward off plagues.
The Aneuk Jamee people are one of the people groups that live on the western coastline of the Indonesian province of Aceh. They tend to live around the small bays found along the coast. They are also spread out over the low plains hemmed in by the Bukit Barisan mountain range. The Aneuk Jamee are located primarily in West Aceh Regency in the five districts of Tapak Tuan, Samadua, Susoh, Manggeng, and Labuhan Haji. There are smaller concentrations of them in South Aceh Regency in the three districts of Johan Pahlawan, Kaway XVI, and Kuala.The name aneuk jamee in the Aceh language means, “visiting child” or “newcomer.” The name was used to describe Minang people from Lubuk Sikaping, Pariaman, Rao, and Pasaman who began migrating to the area in the 17th century. Gradually, they assimilated with Aceh people in the area, a process facilitated by a common Islamic faith. Eventually, they came to feel that they were neither Aceh nor Minangkabau but rather a new people group with their own distinct culture and language. The Aneuk Jamee language is called Jamee or Jamu. For the Aceh in southern Aceh, this Jamee language is understandable because the Minangkabau vocabulary mixed with Aceh is similar to the national Indonesian language. However, the Aneuk Jamee do not understand or use the Aceh language.
Many Aneuk Jamee are fishermen, while others work in irrigated rice farming (basawah), unirrigated agriculture (baladang), and growing fruits (bakabun). There are some Aneuk Jamee who are permanent traders (baniago), but others, known as penggaleh, sell goods from village to village.The Aneuk Jamee have three levels of society. The nobles (datuk) form the highest level. The middle level is formed by district chiefs (hulu baling) and religious leaders (ulama), such as the prayer leaders (tengku), priests (imam), and Islamic judges (kadi). The common people are the lowest level. Traditional leadership in a village contains a combination of Minangkabau and Aceh elements. These leaders are the village headman (kecik), prayer-house leader (tuangku manasah), and youth leader (tuangku surau). This is somewhat different from the district level leadership, which is the same as traditional Aceh leadership patterns. This pattern consists of an area headman (mukim), village headman (kecik), street leader (ketua jurong) and elder (tuha peut).
Islam is the religion followed by the Aneuk Jamee people. As among other Indonesian peoples, the Aneuk Jamee also exhibit some elements of previous beliefs that are not easily forgotten. The services of a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) are still frequently used for various things. For example, a dukun is sometimes asked to put a love spell (sijundai) on a girl or to recover a girl who has been bewitched in this manner
sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, suku.
 
 
The Gayo of Indonesia live in the remote central highlands of Aceh Province on the island of Sumatera. Their homeland lies across the Bukit Barisan Range (“Parade of Mountains”), which reaches heights of over 12,000 feet and runs for over a thousand miles. The Gayo mainly live in Central Aceh Regency and Southeast Aceh Regency. Their language is Gayo with two dialects, Gayo Lut and Gayo Luwes. The Gayo do not have a written language. Folk tales and oral stories are passed down in the form of poetry.The Gayo are close neighbors to the radical Islamic Aceh people, and in the past, the sultans of Aceh conquered the Gayo region and made the Gayo slaves. After an initial resistance (during which many Gayo were killed), the Dutch occupation from 1904-1942 resulted in the Gayo developing a thriving cash crop economy in vegetables and coffee. During the occupation and during the 50 years of Indonesian independence, the Gayo have gained access to higher levels of education, and participated to some degree in the Islamicization and modernization of their country.
The main source of income for the Gayo people is farming with the main crop being coffee. Other sources of income are fishing and gathering forest products. They also have developed skills in ceramics, weaving mats and weaving cloth. Another well known handicraft, called Kerawang Gayo, is embroidery with gold/colorful designs. In a traditional Gayo house (umah) uses palm thatch and wood. Several related families typically live together. There is also a meresah where older boys, bachelors, widowers, and male visitors sleep. This is also used for studying and religious activities. Gayo arts include saman and didong, which are mixtures of movement, literature, poetry, and singing. Apart from entertainment and recreation, these arts have ritual, educational, and informational functions, as well as being a means of maintaining balance sumatra, tribes, gayo, aceh, sukuin the social structure.
       The Gayo marriage pattern calls for marriage outside one’s own family. However, marriage between cousins is not forbidden. Most men marry women from the same area. This is done so that the man will already know the woman and the woman’s family can continue to look after her. A first marriage must be approved by both families (polygamy is rare, but allowed). Divorce and remarriage are quite common.
The Gayo people are mostly Muslim, but their understanding and conviction are lacking. Most Gayo still believe in good and bad spirits and holy men both dead and alive. They also continue to worship and make offerings to spirits, saints, and their ancestors.
Alas Kuet Tribe 20.000
The Kluet people are one of eight people groups that live in the Indonesian special province of Aceh. They are found in two districts of South Aceh Regency, namely North Kluet District and South Kluet District. These two districts are divided by the Krueng Kluet River, which has its source in the Leuser Mountains and empties into the Indian Ocean. The area where the Kluet people live is remote, about 20 kilometers from the main road, 50 kilometers from the city of Tapak Tuan and 500 kilometers from Banda Aceh, the provincial capital.The Kluet language is divided into 3 dialects, the Paya Dapur dialect, the Meunggamat dialect, and the Krueng Kluet dialect. Apparently the language has evolved from a combination of the Alas, Kuo, Aceh, and Minangkabau languages.
The Kluet area is very fertile, and most Kluet make their living from farming irrigated and unirrigated rice fields or growing crops such as coffee, patchouli (which produces fragrant oils), and all sorts of vegetables. Other means for livelihood include raising livestock and fishing. Fish are either eaten fresh or preserved for storage. One way of preserving the fish is by smoking it. This type of preserved or dried fish, called ikan saleh, is a specialty of the Kluet people.The Kluet people are famous for hunting, since they live at the edge of the jungle. During the time of Dutch colonialism, this people group was often noted for their skill on the battlefield. Their skill as hunters made them able fighters. They often employed guerrilla tactics to fight their enemies.The Kluet prefer to live in groups and only in certain areas. They have a strong sense of ethnic identity, and, therefore, they do not spread out very far from each other. They find it difficult to mix with other people groups, and as a result, their culture is rather closed to outsiders. Kluet villages are comprised of houses and a number of other buildings, including rice barns, a meeting center, women’s centers, religious schools, and mosques. The meeting center, called a meursah has a variety of purposes. It is used as a place to read the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book), say daily prayers, hold special Islamic celebrations, as well as a place to meet or for young men to sleep if there is no religious school in the village. The women’s center, or deyah, is a place where women may go to worship.
Most Kluet are followers of Islam. However, traditional animistic beliefs have not totally disappeared and often have significant impact. This can be seen in routines of daily life, especially in various special ceremonies. Many are afraid of supernatural ghosts (setan). They also believe one of the graves in their area has magic powers. According to the Kluet, this grave can be seen at certain times while at other times it disappears. Magic talismans are used so that evil spirits will not hurt them. The use of such talismans helps them feel calmer and more protected.
Sikule 27.000 Christian
 
Central Simeulue Island. Alternate names: Sichule, Sikhule, Wali Banuah. Dialects: Lekon, Tapah. Similar to Nias [nia].Simeulue Tribe 107.000
The Simeulue people live on Simeulue Island located 200 kilometers off the western coast of Aceh Province. Their largest towns are named Sibigo, Sigulai, and Lamame. On Simeulue Island there is no land transport available and the only means of travel is walking.Simeulue people are known as being friendly and brave. Their physical appearance is sometimes described as being more similar to northern Asian peoples because they are often of lighter skin than other Indonesians. This is different from the general appearance of the Aceh people on the mainland. The Simeulue speak Ulau, which means “island,” and it has two dialects. Sigulai is used in western Simeulue and Salang, and Devayan is used in eastern Simeulue, central Simeulue, and southern Tepang. In general the Simeulue can speak the Aceh language because of the strong influence of Aceh culture on the Simeulue.
Generally, the Simeulue make a living from planting cloves and coconuts as well as fishing. Each village usually has one mesjid (mosque) or musholla (prayer-house). Beside using it for prayer, the mesjid is also used for discussing religious issues, holding social functions, providing information from the government, and encouraging the community to work together on community projects. The village head in Simeulue is called a kecik. Previously, the Simeulue were ruled by a king before they were conquered by the king of Aceh and became part of that kingdom. The Simeulue house is built on stilts. Typically, the parents live in a large house with their unmarried children and the families of their sons. This group is called walli or walli akrab. Heredity is patrilineal (tracing descent from the father).Living arrangements after marriage are of three types. In the first pattern, the couple lives near the husband’s family. The second pattern is called paladangan sataun duo in the Devayan dialect or beladang sataun duo in the Sigulai dialect. In this pattern, the couple lives for a few years with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. After this, they live with the husband’s family for the rest of their lives. In the third pattern, which is called mafanofano, the couple always lives with the wife’s family and the husband must help his in-laws. This usually happens because the wife is an only child.
Although most Simeulue embrace Islam, many are still influenced by animistic beliefs and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spiritsTamiang Tribe 6.800sumatra, tribes, tamiang, aceh, suku
 

The Tamiang live in the southeast part of East Aceh Regency, in the Aceh Province. Previously this area was the Tamiang administrative district with a very large area of 7,760 square kilometers. Now the district has been divided into six districts, Kuala Simpang, Bendahara, Karangbaru, Seuruway, Kejuruanmuda, and Tamiang Hulu. One legend states that the name Tamiang comes from the words itam and mieng. Itam means “black” and mieng means “cheek.” This appellation supposedly arose because a king of Tamiang named Raja Muda Sedia (1332-1362) had a black mark on his cheek. Another story says that the name Tamiang comes from the name of an island in the Riau Archipelago, which was the original dwelling place of the Tamiang people’s ancestors. The Tamiang people have their own language with an 87% vocabulary similarity to the Melayu (Malay) Riau language.
The main source of income for Tamiang people is planting rice in both irrigated and unirrigated fields. Other crops which they plant are corn, cassava, tomatoes, chili peppers, and eggplant. They also grow fruits such as oranges, mangoes, durian, and langsat. Those who live on the coast fish and make coal from mangrove trees. Some become plantation workers and traders. The Tamiang rarely leave their area because their agricultural land is extensive and fertile enough to support them. At the beginning of the twentieth century, this area received many migrants from other areas because of the opening of rubber and palm oil plantations and oil wells.The Tamiang people are controlled by the “Law of the Four Peoples.” This means that the highest traditional leader is the “Datuk of the Four Peoples.” The word datuk comes from the word ndatu, which signifies the first person to open a settlement (rebas tebang). Those who came later were placed below the existing Datuk. In the ensuing process, the four Datuks united their areas and chose a king (raje) as leader. This decision was established and sealed with an agreement called Kate Tetuhe. The four datuks were titled Datuk Imam Balai, Datuk Penghulu, Datuk Hakim, and Datuk Setia Maha Raja. For the king there was a proverb: “raje adil raje disembah, raje lalin raje disangah” (A fair king will be worshipped, a cruel king will be dethroned). In upholding that role, Tamiang leaders hold onto a vow that states “kasih papa setia mati” (a father’s love is faithful to death). Traditional law was effectively carried out with the philosophy “adat dipangku, syarat dijunjung, resam dijalin, kanun diatur” (traditional law is administered but religious law is respected customary ways are formed but canon law is organized).
Tamiang people are followers of Islam, which has penetrated various aspects of their lives. However, many still carry out the ceremonies of their old beliefs. They hold certain ceremonies connected with their everyday lives, such as ceremonies held for blessing the planting of the rice (kenduri blang), the harvesting of the rice, and ceremonies to protect them for disasters (tula bala).
 

Nias Tribe

Nias Island in SumatraNias Island in Sumatra

 

  The Nias island lies off West Sumatra in the Indian Ocean.The villages of Bawomataluo and Hilisimae are curious places , where you can see performances of traditional Nias tribes war-dances and thrilling high- jump sports, i.e. people making dangerous leaps over 2 meter-high stones. Typical scenes are dancers clad in traditional costumes with bird feathers on their heads, a hall for the Chief-of Tribe built on wooden logs with stone chairs weighing up to 18 tons.

 

Mentawai tribe

 
photo

Mentawai tribe woman

This photo was taken in 1994 in Siberut Island in Indonesia. This lady was from the Mentawai tribe. This photo  took  in one of their huts, the light is coming through a small window hole in the hut

Kubu Jambi Tribe

Kubu people

 
 
  (Redirected from Suku Anak Dalam)
 

 

A group of Kubu people in the 1930’s in Jambi, Sumatra

 


Ethnic Child / Kubu

Kubu tribe or also known as the Ethnic Child In The Woods or one ethnic minorities living on the island of Sumatra, precisely in the provinces of Jambi and South Sumatra. They are the majority living in the provinces of Jambi, with an estimated total population of about 200,000 people.

According to oral traditions of tribes Child is Wrong Maalau people, who fled into the jungle around the Black Water, the Park Hill Twelve. They then called Ancestors Segayo. Another tradition says they came from Pagaruyung, who fled to Jambi. This reinforced the fact indigenous tribes Child have in common language and customs with Minangkabau tribe, such as matrilineal system.

Broadly speaking in Jambi they live in 3 different ecological regions, namely the People faction in the north province of Jambi (surrounding the Park Hill 30), Park Hill 12, and the southern province of Jambi (Sumatra along the causeway). They live a nomadic and basing his life on hunting and gathering, although many of them now have a rubber and other agricultural land.

Their lives are so pathetic as the loss of existing forest resources in Jambi and South Sumatra, and the processes of marginalization by the government and dominant ethnic groups (Malay People) in Jambi and South Sumatra.

 
 
 

 
 

 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

Tribe Aneuk JameeJamee Aneuk tribe is a tribe that spread along the western and southern coast of Aceh. In terms of language, thought is still the Minangkabau dialect of the language. However, due to the influence of cultural assimilation process is quite long, most of the Tribe Aneuk Jamee, especially those that inhabit the area that is dominated by a tribe of Aceh, for example in the area of West Aceh Regency, Jamee Aneuk language is spoken only among elderly people alone and now generally they more commonly use the language of Aceh as the lingua franca of everyday (lingua franca). The origin of the mention of “Aneuk Jamee” allegedly made famous by the local Acehnese, as a form of openness in glorifying the people of Aceh who came to evacuate residents Minangkabau (exodus) of ancestral land which was then under Dutch colonial grip. Literally, the term Aneuk Jamee language originated from Aceh, which means “child guest.”Spare Aneuk Jamee mainly found in South Aceh district (approximately 50% of the population) and some parts of Southwest Aceh district, West Aceh

 

 

 

 
 

     

 

 

 

 
 

 

Ethnic Arab-Indonesia

Ethnic Arab-Indonesia is the Indonesian population that has ethnic Arab and ethnic descent native of Indonesia. At first they generally live in Arab villages scattered in various cities in Indonesia. In the Dutch colonial era, they are regarded as foreign Asian nation along with the ethnic Chinese-Indonesian and Indonesian-Indian tribes. But as the ethnic Chinese and Indians, not a few of the Arab-Indonesia to help Indonesia’s independence struggle.

History arrival

In the aftermath of major divisions among Muslims that led to the killing of the fourth Caliph Ali ibn Abi Talib, begin to occur displacement (hijrah), large quantities from the offspring to various parts of the world. When Imam Ahmad Al-Muhajir migrated from Iraq to the Hadramaut region of Yemen about a thousand years ago, the descendants of Ali bin Abi Talib and the 70 people brought their families and followers.

Since then the developing offspring to become the largest tribes in the Hadramaut, and from the Hadramaut town is the main origins of the Arab colony who settled and mixed into a citizen of Indonesia and other Asian countries. Besides Indonesia, the people of Hadramaut is also widely available in Oman, India, Pakistan, South Philippines, Malaysia, and Singapore.

There is also a citizen of Arab descent who come from Middle Eastern countries and Africa in Indonesia, for example, from Egypt, Saudi Arabia, Sudan or Morocco, but fewer in number than those who came from Hadramaut.

Developments in Indonesia

The arrival of Arabs from Hadramaut colony into Indonesia is estimated to occur in three main waves.

Ages 9-11 AD

The oldest historical record is the founding of the kingdom Perlak I (East Aceh) on 1 Muharram 225 H (840 M). Only two centuries after the death of the Prophet, one of the descendants of Sayyid Ali bin Muhammad bin Ja’far Sadeq Dibaj moved to the kingdom Perlak. He later married the younger brother of King Perlak Syahir Nuwi. From this marriage was born as the Sultan Abdul Aziz Shah (Raja Islam) Perlak I. The historical record is officially owned by East Aceh Ulema Council and strengthened in the seminar as a paper ‘History Log and the development of Islam in Aceh’ July 10, 1978 by (the late) Professor Ali Hasymi.

Ages 12-15 AD

This period is the arrival of the progenitor of Walisongo pioneered by Sheikh Jamaluddin Akbar large family from Gujarat, are still descendants of Sheikh Muhammad Syahib Mirbath of Hadramaut. He besama preaching sons away to all corners of Southeast Asia to the archipelago with the main strategy of spreading Islam through marriage with local people mainly from the Hindu palaces.

Ages 17-19 AD

This century is marked by the last wave of mass migration of Hadramaut sayyids who spread Islam while trade in the archipelago. The latest arrivals can be characterized his descendants until now because unlike its predecessor, not a lot of intermarrying with the indigenous population. Moreover, it can be marked with the clan that we know today as Alatas, Assegaf, Al Jufri, Alaydrus, Syihab, Syahab, etc.. This is understandable because these clans newly formed later. Recorded in the history of Hadramaut, is the oldest clan As Saqqaf (Assegaf) which became the title of Sheikh Abdurrahman bin Mohammed Al Mauladdawilah after he died in 731 H or century AD 14-15 While the other clans are formed even more recently, generally in the 16th century. Usually the clan name is taken from the title of a local cleric who is widely respected. Based on the estimate in 1366 H (or about 57 years ago), they now number not less than 70 thousand inhabitants. It consists of approximately 200 genera.

Clans are up to now have a hereditary leader who holds “munsib”. The munsib live in the greatest family environment in their previous homes or families. All munsib recognized as leader by the tribes who live around them. In addition, they are also regarded as the ruler of the area where they reside. Among the most prominent munsib munsib Alatas, munsib Binsechbubakar and munsib Al Bawazier.

It is estimated that the number of Arab descent in Indonesia Hadramaut larger when compared with their numbers in place of his own ancestors. Hadramaut own population is only about 1.8 million inhabitants. Even a number of clans which in Hadramaut itself already extinct – like Basyeiban and Haneman – in Indonesia the numbers are still quite a lot. Many Arab villages scattered in various cities in Indonesia, for example in Jakarta (Pekojan), Bogor (Pond), Surakarta (Market POND), Surabaya (Ampel), Gresik (Gate), Malang (Jagalan), Cirebon (Kauman), Mojokerto ( Kauman), Yogyakarta (Kauman), Probolinggo (Diponegoro), Bondowoso, and Banjarmasin (Kampung Arab), and many more are scattered in other cities such as Palembang, Banda Aceh, Sigli, Medan, Makasar, Gorontalo, Ambon, Mataram , Ampenan, Sumbawa, Dompu, Bima, Kupang, and Papua.

Hadramaut Arab descent in Indonesia, such as his home country of Yemen, comprising two major groups: the group or Sayyidi Alawi, and Qabili group. In Indonesia, there is sometimes a distinction between groups that generally adherents Sayyidi organization Jamiat al-Kheir, with the Sheikh or Masyaikh also commonly called Irsyadi or followers of al-Ershad organization.

People and Roles

In Indonesia, since time immemorial have been a lot of people of Arab descent who became fighters, alim-ulama and preachers. Among the prominent propagator of religion who is Walisongo, who allegedly (Van Den Berg, 1886) are of Arab descent Hadramaut and / or are their students. Hadramaut Arabs who came around the 15th century and earlier have fundamental differences with those who come in the next wave (18th century and thereafter). As mentioned by Van Den Berg, the predecessor is widely assimilated with the indigenous population, mainly from the Hindu royal family. This is done in order to accelerate the spread of Islamic religion, so that their offspring are almost unrecognizable as Hadramaut Arab descent.

Among the clans of Hadramawt who were the first to Indonesia is Basyaiban family, namely Sayyid Abdul Rahman bin Abu Hafs Umar Basyaiban BaAlawi in the 17th century AD.

In the glory days of Islamic sultanates in Indonesia, some Arab descent dirajakan by local communities, among others, in Java (Demak, Cirebon and Banten), Sumatra (Aceh and Siak), and Kalimantan (Sambas, Pontianak, Kubu, and Sand) . In addition, since the longer the lot of Arab descent who became traders, and they are scattered in various parts of the archipelago of Indonesia.

Hadramaut Arabs who came in the 18th century and thereafter, not a lot of marriages with the natives as the previous wave arrival. They come already carry the name of the clans that formed later (around centuries 16-17). The descendants of Arabs who came lately Hadramaut, still easily recognizable by distinctive names of their clans. Arab-Indonesia is actively involved in the field of Islamic religious and various other aspects of life in Indonesia.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 

 

Toraja tribe

 

 

The Toraja Tribe of South Sulawesi, Indonesia, is known for the cheerful way of treating death, and its unique burial grounds carved in sheer rock.

 

 
Asmat

Asmat is a tribe in Papua. Asmat tribe known as the result of a unique wood carvings. Asmat population is divided into two, namely those living in coastal areas and those living in the hinterland. Both populations are mutually different from each other in dialect, way of life, social structure and ritual. Coastal populations further divided into two parts, namely Bisman tribe that lies between the river and river Sinesty Nin and spare Shimei.

There are many contradictions between different villages Asmat. The most horrible is the way the Asmat used to kill his enemy. When the enemy was killed, his body was taken to the village, then cut and distributed to all residents to eat together. They sing songs of death and memenggalkan head. His brain is wrapped in sago leaves are roasted and eaten.

Now usually, about 100 to 1000 people living in one village. Each village had one house Bujang and many family homes. Bujang house used for ceremonial and religious ceremonies. Family houses inhabited by two to three families, who have their own bathroom and kitchen. Today, there are approximately 70,000 Asmat live in Indonesia. The majority of children already in school Asmat.

 

 

 

 
 

 

 
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ethnic BaliBali is the ethnic tribes who inhabited the island of Bali, the Balinese language and follow the Balinese culture. Most of the ethnic Balinese Hindus, approximately 90%. While the rest are Buddhists, Muslims and Christians.There are approximately 5 million people of Bali. Most of them live on the island of Bali, but they also spread all over Indonesia.The Balinese are also contained in P. Western Lombok. There are also immigrated to Lampung, South Kalimantan, Central Sulawesi and South Sulawesi and Papua. There are two groups of ethnic Balinese. The first group are the Bali Aga, they are indigenous people who inhabit the mountains. The second group is Bali Majapahit, namely migrants from Java (Hindu Majapahit kingdom) that live in most of the island of Bali, especially in the lowlands.Livelihoods and Bali Majapahit Bali Aga is farming in rice fields. Their irrigation system known as Subak. Bonds of solidarity among members of the Subak (the same water source) water control system looks at the meeting or during a special religious ceremony, there are also ties dadia. A Dadia usually occupies a complex of houses built with walls of about 2m with an entrance is decorated with arch and stairs. Inside was a shrine where the family worship. Another bond is based on the Balinese religious ties are Hindu Balinese. There is also a bond based on the activities, livelihoods and the bonds between the citizens of caste.

 

 

 

 

 
 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bedouin Tribe / People Kanekes

The person or persons Kanekes Baduy / Bedouin are an indigenous group in the Sunda region Kendeng Mountains, Lebak regency, Banten. Their population of about 5000-8000 people and they are one of the tribes who apply isolation from the outside world. In addition they also have a taboo to be photographed.

The term “Bedouin” is the name given by residents outside the community groups, the term originated from the Dutch researchers who seem to equate them with Badawi Arab groups who are sedentary societies (nomadic). Another possibility is that because of the River and Mountain Bedouin Bedouin in the northern part of the region. They themselves prefer to call themselves as urang Kanekes or “people Kanekes” according to their region name, or title that refers to the name of their village as Urang Cibeo (Garna, 1993).

Region

Wilayah Kanekes secara geografis terletak pada koordinat 6°27’27” – 6°30’0” LS dan 108°3’9” – 106°4’55” BT (Permana, 2001). Mereka bermukim tepat di kaki pegunungan Kendeng di desa Kanekes, Kecamatan Leuwidamar, Kabupaten Lebak-Rangkasbitung, Banten, berjarak sekitar 40 km dari kota Rangkasbitung. Wilayah yang merupakan bagian dari Pegunungan Kendeng dengan ketinggian 300 – 600 m di atas permukaan laut (DPL) tersebut mempunyai topografi berbukit dan bergelombang dengan kemiringan tanah rata-rata mencapai 45%, yang merupakan tanah vulkanik (di bagian utara), tanah endapan (di bagian tengah), dan tanah campuran (di bagian selatan). suhu rata-rata 20 °C.

The three main villages of Kanekes In the Cikeusik, CIkertawana, and Cibeo.

Language

The language they use is the language of Sunda Sunda-Banten dialect. To communicate with people outside of their current use Indonesian language, although they do not get that knowledge from school. People do not know the culture Kanekes In writing, so that the customs, beliefs / religion, and ancestor stories stored only in oral speech only.

Kanekes people do not know the school, because formal education as opposed to their customs. They reject the government proposal to build school facilities in their villages. Even to this day, although since the Suharto era, the government has tried to force them to change their way of life and build modern school facilities in their areas, people still refuse Kanekes such government efforts. As a result, the majority of people Kanekes can not read or write.

Community groups

People Kanekes still had historic links with the Sundanese. Physical appearance and their language is similar to Sundanese people in general. The only difference is their beliefs and way of life. Kanekes people shut themselves from the influence of the outside world and strictly maintain their traditional way of life, while the Sundanese are more open to foreign influences and the majority embraced Islam.

Community Kanekes generally divided into three groups: tangtu, panamping, and dangka (Permana, 2001).

Tangtu group is a group known as Kanekes In (Baduy In), the most closely followed the custom, the people living in three villages: Cibeo, Cikertawana, and Cikeusik. Typical Kanekes People are dressed in white, natural and dark blue and wearing a white headband. They are prohibited by customary to meet with foreigners (non-citizen)

Kanekes In is part of the whole person Kanekes. Unlike Kanekes Outside, residents Kanekes In still adhere to the customs of their ancestors.

Most of the rules adopted by the tribe Kanekes In include:

  • Not allowed to use vehicles for transportation
  • Not allowed to use footwear
  • The door should face north / south (except home chairman of the Pu’un or custom)
  • Prohibition of use of electronic tools (technology)
  • Using a cloth black / white as the clothes that are woven and sewn himself, and not allowed to use modern clothing.

The second community group called panamping are those known as Kanekes Outer (Outer Baduy), who lived in various villages scattered around the region Kanekes In such Cikadu, Kaduketuk, Kadukolot, Gajeboh, Cisagu, and so forth. Society of Foreign Kanekes distinctively dressed and black headband.

Foreign Kanekes are people who have been out of the peoples and regions Kanekes In. There are several things that cause the release of citizens to Kanekes Kanekes In Outer:

  • They have violated the customs of society Kanekes In.
  • Desiring to get out of Kanekes In
  • Married to a member of Foreign Kanekes

The characteristics of the person of Foreign Kanekes

  • They have known technologies, such as electronic equipment, although its use remains a Kanekes ban to every citizen, including citizens of foreign Kanekes. They use the equipment in a way secretly to escape detection from Kanekes Within supervisor.
  • The process of building houses for Foreign Kanekes been using assistive devices, such as saws, hammers, nails, etc., that were previously prohibited by customary Kanekes In.
  • Using traditional clothes with black or dark blue (for men), indicating that they are not sacred. Sometimes using modern clothes such as T-shirts and jeans.
  • Using modern household appliances, such as mattresses, pillows, plates & cups glass & plastic.
  • They live outside the area Kanekes In.

If Kanekes In and Out Kanekes Kanekes lived in the area, then “Kanekes Dangka” Kanekes live outside the region, and currently lives in the remaining two villages, namely Padawaras (Cibengkung) and Sirahdayeuh (Cihandam). Kampung Dangka functions as a kind of buffer zone on outside influences (Permana, 2001).

The origin

According to the belief that they profess, people Kanekes claimed descent from ancestors Batara, one of the seven gods or a god who is sent to earth. The origin is often attributed to the Prophet Adam as the first ancestor. According to their belief, Adam and his descendants, including the citizen has the duty Kanekes be imprisoned or ascetic (mandita) to maintain the harmony of the world.

Opinions about the origin of the Kanekes differ with the opinion of historians, who based his opinion by way of synthesis of some historical evidence in the form of inscriptions, travel records of Portuguese and Chinese sailors, and folklore of the ‘Tatar Sunda’, which was minimal existence. Community Kanekes associated with the Kingdom of Sunda that before its collapse in the 16th century centered on Pakuan Pajajaran (around Bogor now). Before the founding of the Sultanate of Banten, the western tip of Java island is an important part of the Kingdom of Sunda. Banten is a fairly large trading port. Ciujung River are navigable various types of boats, and crowded is used to transport agricultural products from rural areas. Thus the ruler area, which is called the Prince of shoot General considers that the sustainability of the river should be maintained. For that diperintahkanlah royal army that is trained to maintain and manage the heavily wooded and hilly area in the region of Mount Kendeng. The existence of a special task forces with the Society seems to be the forerunner Kanekes that still inhabit the upper river at Mount Kendeng Ciujung the (Adimihardja, 2000). Differences of opinion was brought to the allegation that in the past, their historical identity and accidentally closed, which probably is to protect communities from attacks Kanekes own Pajajaran enemies.

Van Tricht, a physician who had conducted health research in 1928, refuting the theory. According to him, people Kanekes is a native of the area which has a strong thrust towards external influences (Garna, 1993b: 146). Kanekes own people even refuse to say that they come from people escape from Pajajaran, the capital of the Kingdom of Sunda. According Danasasmita and Djatisunda (1986: 4-5) is the local Bedouin people who made the mandala ‘(sacred area) formally by the king, because the population is obliged to maintain kabuyutan (place of ancestor worship or ancestor), rather than Hinduism or Buddhism. Principal in this area known as Jati Sunda kabuyutan or ‘Sunda Asli’ or Sundanese wiwitan (wiwitan = original, origin, principal, teak). Hence their original religion was given the name Sunda wiwitan. The king who makes the Bedouin as a mandala is Rakeyan Darmasiksa.

Trust

Kanekes public trust which is called the Sunda wiwitan rooted in the worship of ancestral spirits (animism) which on subsequent development was also influenced by Buddhism, Hinduism, and Islam. The core belief is shown by the absolute pikukuh or customary provisions adopted in the daily life of people Kanekes (Garna, 1993). The most important contents of the ‘pikukuh’ (compliance) Kanekes is the concept of “without changing anything”, or a change in as little as possible:

Lojor heunteu beunang cut, short-jointed heunteu beunang.

(Length can not / should not be cut, the short can not / should not be connected)

Taboo in everyday life are interpreted literally. In agriculture, pikukuh form is by not changing the contour of the land for the fields, so how berladangnya very simple, do not cultivate the land with a plow, do not create a terracing, planted only with Portugal, which is a sharpened piece of bamboo. In housing construction also contour the ground surface is left untouched, so that a pillar of the house Kanekes often not equal in length. Words and their actions were honest, innocent, without further ado, even in their trade did not haggle.

The object of trust is important for the community Kanekes Arca Domas, the location kept secret and is considered the most sacred. Kanekes people visit these locations to conduct worship once a year in Kalima, which in 2003 coincided with the month of July. Only the highest indigenous Pu’un or chairman and several members of selected communities who follow the cult group. In the complex there are Arca Domas stone mortar that holds rain water. If at the temple was found a stone mortar is in a state full of clear water, then for the people Kanekes it is a sign that the rain of the year will be a lot down, and harvest will work well. Conversely, if the stone mortar dry or watery cloudy, it is a sign of crop failure (Permana, 2003a).

For some people, related to the persistence society, indigenous beliefs embraced this Kanekes reflect the religious beliefs of Sundanese people in general prior to the entry of Islam.

Governance

Kanekes society recognizes two systems of government, namely the national system, which follows the rules of the Indonesian state, and customary systems which are believed to follow the customs of society. Both systems were merged or diakulturasikan such that there is no conflict. Nationally, the population Kanekes led by the village head called Jaro pamarentah, which is under the sub-district, while customarily subject to the customary leader Kanekes the highest, namely “Pu’un”.


Kanekes governance structure

The highest indigenous leaders in the community Kanekes is “Pu’un” in three villages tangtu. Position lasted down through the generations, but not automatically from father to son, but can also other relatives. The term of office Pu’un not specified, only based on one’s ability to hold the position.

Executing everyday customs administration kapu’unan (kepu’unan) implemented by Jaro, which is divided into four positions, namely tangtu Jaro, Jaro dangka, Jaro dependents, and Jaro pamarentah. Jaro tangtu responsible for the implementation of customary law on citizens tangtu and various other affairs. Jaro dangka duty to maintain, administer, and maintain a deposit of ancestral land that exist within and outside Kanekes. Jaro dangka of 9 people, which when added to the 3 people called Jaro Jaro tangtu twelve. Chairman of twelve Jaro Jaro is known as a dependent. The Jaro pamarentah customarily served as a liaison between indigenous Kanekes with national governments, which in their duties aided by pangiwa, torn, and kokolot overtime or village elders (Makmur, 2001).

Livelihood

As has happened for hundreds of years, the community’s main livelihood is farming Kanekes cultivating rice. In addition they also receive additional income from selling fruit they get in the forest such as durian and keranji acid, and wild honey.

Interaction with the outside community

Kanekes society that until now strictly follow the customs is not an isolated communities, remote or isolated communities from the development of the outside world. The establishment of the Sultanate of Banten, which automatically enter into the realm Kanekes was not separated from their consciousness. As a sign of compliance / confession to authorities, the public routinely perform seba Kanekes to the Sultanate of Banten (Garna, 1993). Until now, the ceremony seba continues to take place once a year, be brought crops (rice, pulses, fruits) to the Governor of Banten (previously the Governor of West Java), through the Lebak district. In agriculture, the inhabitants of Foreign Kanekes interact closely with the community outside, for example in land leases, and labor.

Trade that in the past conducted barter, now has used ordinary rupiah currency. People Kanekes sell their fruits, honey, and sugar kawung / palm through the middlemen. They also buy the necessities of life that are not produced in the market. Market for people located outside the territory Kanekes Kanekes like Kroja market, Cibengkung, and Ciboleger.

At this time the outsiders who visit the region Kanekes increasing up to hundreds of people per visit, usually a teenager from the school, students, and other adult visitors. They receive the visitors, even to stay one night, with the proviso that visitors comply with the customs prevailing there. Customary rules, among others, should not be photographed in the region Kanekes In, do not use soap or toothpaste in a river. However, the region Kanekes remain off limits to foreigners (non-citizen). Several foreign journalists who tried to enter until now always been denied entry.

At work in the fields is not too much, people Kanekes also happy to travel to major cities around the area on condition that they must walk. Generally they go in small groups consisting of 3 to 5 people, a visit to the house of acquaintances who had come to Kanekes while selling honey and handicrafts. During the visit they usually get extra money for their daily lives.

References

  • Adimihardja, K. (2000). Bedouin people in South Banten: Human water river keepers, Indonesia Journal of Anthropology, Th. XXIV, No. 61, Jan-April 2000, p. 47-59.
  • Garna, Y. (1993). Bedouin community in Banten, in Isolated Communities in Indonesia, Editor: Koentjaraningrat & Simorangkir, Indonesia Ethnography Series No.4. Jakarta: Ministry of Social Affairs and the Indonesian National Council for Social Welfare by Gramedia Pustaka Utama.
  • Iskandar, J. (1991). An evaluation of the shifting cultivation systems of the Bedouin society in West Java using the system modeling, Thesis Abstract of AGS Students,.
  • Makmur, A. (2001). Pamarentahan Kanekes Bedouin Village: Perspectives kinship.
  • Nugraheni, E. & Winata, A. (2003). Environmental conservation and plasma nutfah according to traditional wisdom Kasepuhan Mountain Mist, Journal of Indonesian Studies, Volume 13, Number 2, September 2003, pages 126-143.
  • Permana, CE (2001). Gender equality in the core universe Bedouin custom, London: Wedatama Widya Sastra.
  • Permana, CE (2003). Arca Domas Bedouin: A reference in the interpretation of archaeological megalithic community space, Indonesian Arheology on the Net,
  • Permana, CE (2003). Religion in the tradition of simple farming, Indonesian Arheology on the Net,
  • Ascher, Robert, 1971 Analogy in Archaeological Interpretation, in James Deetz (ed.) Imprint Mans from the Past. Boston: Little Brown. Page: 262 271.
  • Danasasmita, Saleh and Anis Djatisunda,., 1986 Kanekes Society. New York: Sundanologi.
  • Ekadjati, Edi S., 1995 Cultural Sundanese (A Historical Approach). Jakarta: Pustaka Jaya.
  • Garna, Judhistira, 1988 Social Change in Nurhadi Rangkuti Bedouin Culture (Peny.). Bedouin people of the Core Jagat. Bentara Culture, KOMPAS, Yogyakarta: Etnodata Prosindo.
  • 1993 Bedouin Community in Banten, in Koentjaraningrat (ed.) Isolated Communities in Indonesia. New York: Scholastic. Hal. 120-152)
  • Hoevell, WR van, 1845 Bijdrage tot de kennis der der Badoeinen in het zuiden residentie Bantam. TNI, VII: 335-430.
  • Iskandar, Johan, 1992 Ecology fields in Indonesia: A Case Study of Bedouin Region, South Banten, West Java. London: Djambatan.
  • Jacobs, J. and JJ Meijer, 1891 De Badoejs. s-Grahenhage: Martinus Nijhoff.
  • Koorders, D., 1869 Losse tijdens het bezoek bij Aantekeningeng de Badois, BKI, LVI: 335-341.
  • Kramer, C., 1979 Etnoarchaeology: Implication of Ethnography for Archaeology. New York: Columbia University Press.
  • Mundardjito., 1981 Etnoarkeologi: Its role in the Development of Archaeology in Indonesia, the magazine Archaeology 1-2, IV :17-29
  • Permana, R. Cecelia Eka, 1996 Spatial Bedouin Society. Thesis Anthropology Graduate Program, University of Indonesia.
  • Pleyte, CM, 1909 Artja Domas, het zielenland der Badoejs. Tijdschrift voor Indishe Taal, Land en Volkenkunde. LI: AFL. 6: 494-526.
  • Tricht, B. van, 1929 Levende Antiquiteiten in West-Java. Java IX: 43-120.

 

 

 

 

 
 
 

     

 

 

 

 

 

 

Bajau tribe

Bajau tribe is a land of ethnic origin Sulu Archipelago, southern Philippines. This is a tribe of nomadic tribes who live on the sea, so-called sea gypsies. Bajau tribe Sama-Bajau language. Bajau tribe since hundreds of years ago has spread to the land of Sabah and other parts of Indonesia. Bajau tribe is also a country boy in Sabah. The tribes in Kalimantan is expected to migrate from the north (Philippines) in prehistoric times. Muslim Bajau tribe that this is the last wave of migration from the north coast of Borneo which entered East Kalimantan to South Kalimantan and occupied the surrounding islands, earlier than the arrival of the Muslim tribes of the family ie Bugis Bugis, Makassar tribe, tribal Mandar.

Bajau tribe territory contained, among others:

1. East Kalimantan (Berau, Bontang, etc.)
2. South Kalimantan (New City) is called the Bajau Rampa Kapis
3. South Sulawesi (Selayar)
4. Southeast Sulawesi
5. West Nusa Tenggara
6. East Nusa Tenggara (Komodo Island)

Dani Tribes  West Papua

 
 

Dani tribesmen attack the Damal tribe during intertribal wars in Indonesia

Sakai Riauw ,south sumatra and banka belliton Island Tribes

Riau 6 Tribes

 
Riau, Tribes

 

Banka Tribe 340.000 Islam
Bangka Island. Dialects: Urban (Jakarta), North, Central, South, Lom (Belom, Mapor).
The Bangka people live on Bangka Island in the South China Sea to the east of Sumatera, specifically in Bangka Regency and Pangkal Pinang Municipality in Bangka-Belitung Province. Indonesians often visit this island because it has beautiful beaches and is easy to reach from the capital of South Sumatera (Palembang). 60% of the inhabitants of Bangka Island are Melayu (Malay) and about 25% are descendants of Chinese, who migrated to the island. The Bangka language is a branch of the Melayu language cluster.
Bangka Island is known for its large tin mining industry, which was developed during the 18th and 19th centuries. Bangka Island was influenced by the Hindu kingdoms in Indonesia. This is seen in the archaeological remains of various ancient inscriptions, which have been found there. For example, the “Kota Kapur Plaque” has been found, which dates back to 686 A.D. This island is also famous for its pepper plantations, which reached their height of prosperity in 1987. However, in the 1990’s the price of pepper declined drastically and was followed by a drop in the price of tin, which seriously impacted the Bangka.The Bangka people make their living in a variety of ways. Many of the island’s inhabitants are laborers in the tin mines. In addition, many are also farmers, fishermen, and boat builders. They produce many crafts, such as cane work, plaited mats, porcelain, ceramics, and carvings from tin. Many people who live around the cities have become traders and merchants; particularly those of Chinese descent. The lineage of descent is bilateral (traced through both parents). According to tradition, after marriage, the couple does not live near either set of parents. As a result, there are many mixed marriages between the Bangka and other ethnic groups that have come to the area. This outside influence can be seen in their wedding customs. The engagement is initiated by the man’s family giving gifts to the bride. The engagement ceremony is typically done in a berbalas pantun (traditional singing dialogue). Islamic influence is also shown in the public wedding procession which is accompanied by tambourines and drums. Another regional art form is called the Sepintu Segudan. This Bangka drama tells the story of the community’s attitude of gotong royong (mutual assistance).
The majority of the people on Bangka Island are Muslims, particularly those of Melayu descent, whereas those who are of Chinese descent follow Buddhist or Confucius beliefs. The ethnic Bangka people mix Islam and traditional animistic beliefs that still flourish among the community.
Belide Tribe 22.000
The Belide live southwest of Palembang along the Musi River. One of the greatest kingdoms in the region’s history, the Buddhist Empire of Sriwijaya, prospered and grew along the banks of the Musi River in South Sumatera over a thousand years ago. The Sriwijaya Kingdom was a major maritime power that controlled the nearby Straits of Malacca, which is a key waterway between Asia and Europe.The region’s historical background is rich and colorful. The Sriwijaya kingdom practiced a bustling and lucrative trade with ancient China during its era of powerful dynasties, and in 672, the Chinese scholar I Tsing recorded that a thousand monks and scholars could be seen studying Sanskirt in what is now the regional capital of Palembang. However, few relics of this memorable era remain.
The Belide are not nomadic, but they tend to live in the same area their entire lives. The total Belide people group is comprised of about 20 villages. Traditional houses are made of wood with palm leaf roofs. The houses are built on wooden or brick columns above ground level. Their Belide language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster.Approximately 60% of Belide men work as rubber tree tappers or laborers in pineapple plantations. Others work as traders or government employees. The Belide communities are typically lead by three men. A political leader is appointed and paid by the government, and a village chief is chosen by the people. The village chief is not paid, but does receive a 10% tax on land sales within the village. However, the third man, the religious leader, apparently has greater influence than the other two.Family conflicts are solved by the head of the family, and a spiritual leader may handle village level problems. Punishment for minor offenses is handled by the citizens of the village, but more serious crimes are referred to the police.Belide youth may choose their own mates with agreement from their family. If there is a member of the family that does not agree, the village chief is asked to decide. If he agrees, the family must allow the wedding to proceed. The groom must pay a bride’s price. The bride then uses this money to purchase their household essentials. Spiritual leaders are consulted to determine the best day for the wedding. It is common for Belide wedding feasts to last two to three days. Belide men may practice polygamy, but while it is permitted, it seldom occurs.
Customs and traditions have been passed down over many generations and have been harmonized with Islamic law. Although the Belide are Muslims, many of them still believe in superstition and evil spirits. For instance, some believe that whistling in a home at night calls forth evil spirits or that walking in circles on a person’s birthday brings bad luck to the person. Many write verses from the Qur’an (Islamic Holy Book) on small pieces of paper and carry them as protection against evil. A dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) is often called to heal the sick and exorcise evil spirits.
Belitung Tribe 163.000
The Belitung live on the island of Belitung (sometimes called Bilton island) in the province of Bangka-Belitung. This island is located in the South China Sea on the east of Sumatera to the southwest of Bangka Island. The island is mostly lowlands with some hills, such as Tajam Laki and Tajam Bini. In some areas there are small rivers, and some small lakes can be found in old tin quarries on the island. The Belitung people’s term for themselves is Urang Belitong. The Belitung language is a branch of the Melayu (Malay) language cluster. A distinctive feature of their language is that it does not have the letter ‘h’ and they use ‘e’ at the end of the word rather than ‘a’. For example, jauh (far) becomes jao; hujan (rain) becomes ujan; putih (white) becomes pute; and apa becomes ape. Another distinctive feature is that they use terms that come from joining two or more words, such as hendak kemana (where are you going) becomes nakmane.
The islands are considered important for their tin mines. Many earn their livelihood from mining tin and kaolin (a fine white clay). Other occupations include trade, fishing, boat building, iron working, and general office work. Only a small part of the land is suitable for rice cultivation. Planting rice is usually done by cutting and burning an area of the forest. Besides dry rice crops, the people in this area also grow corn, cassava, sweet potato, and banana. Other crops include rubber, pepper, cloves, coconut, sweet potatoes, and bananas. Handicraft industries developed by the Belitung include porcelain ceramics and woven rattan. The traditional Belitung house is built on a raised platform with bark walls and roofs of sago palm leaves. They also have temporary villages used during harvest. These houses are built at the edge of the forest and are usually lived in during the time the people work in the field. After the harvest, the people move back to their main village.The ancestry of the Belitung can be traced through either the line of the father or the mother. A village is formed by a group of families, termed a keleka. The keleka, lead by a traditional chief along with his assistants, has its own rules and accepted boundaries. The religious leader is a dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) whose duty is to lead the ceremonies of the community.
The Belitung adhere to Islam which came to the area around the 17th century. In spite of their dedication to Islam, many Belitung people are still influenced by animistic belief in spirits and various superstitions. These beliefs are focused upon seeking protection through magic by either appeasing or controlling both good and bad spirits. This can be seen in their ceremonies for working the rice fields (maras taun), fishing (buang jong), and weddings (gawai pengantin). They still believe in magical forces that inhabit sacred objects. Many things are forbidden by taboos.
Duano 19.000 Islam
19,000 (Seidlitz). Population total all countries: 15,500. West Riau archipelago and east coast of Riau, Daratan Province. Also in Malaysia (Peninsular). Alternate names: Duano’, Orang Kuala, Desin Dolak, Desin Duano, Orang Laut. 
Malay
sumatra, tribes, riau, suku,malay
Musi Sekayu Tribe 160.000 Islam
The Musi Sekayu people group generally build houses on the banks of the Musi River. Because of this, the Musi Sekayu are often called manusia sungai (river people). The literal meaning of sekayu is “one wood.” The phrase refers to a piece of long fabric that is spread out for people to sit on while eating together. The standard measurement of this long piece of cloth is designated as a musi sekayu. Unlike other people groups in Indonesia, such as the Bugis, Minangkabau or Jawa, the Musi Sekayu seldom move to a faraway place. Their desire to progress and search for their fortune is carried out only as far as the capital city of the province. This place can be reached by car in less than three hours. Their means of livelihood includes agriculture, forestry, labor, fishing, public transportation, construction, and government jobs such as teaching. The Musi Sekayu people living in the city of Palembang occupy a variety of work sectors, beginning with university professors, research specialists, land developers, shipyard workers, and pedicab drivers.
Most families of the Musi Sekayu wish for a male child. They perceive that sons are a guarantee for the country’s future power (bakal negeri) as well as guaranteeing the continuation of their hereditary line (negakke jurai).
Almost all of the Musi Sekayu people embrace the religion of Islam. Every Musi Sekayu village has a mesjid (mosque) or langgar (Muslim prayer house). Some villages have Islamic schools and musholla (small public buildings or rooms for performing religious duties) as teaching and education centers for the Islamic religion. In spite of this, the people also still consult a local dukun (shaman/healer/occultist) for treatment or to have their fortunes told.
Sakai and Talang Mamak Tribe 6.400
Thesumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam indigenous Sakai people in Riau province, for example, who used to live in lush green jungles, now have to dwell in nearly barren areas in Bengkalis. Another tribe, the Talang Mamak in Indragiri Hilir, Indragiri Hulu and Jambi, are facing similar situations as their forested surroundings, too, have been cut down for oil palm plantations or have been turned into industrial forests.
Despite their nomadic life, to these people, the earth and forests are part of their lives and something they must care for. They know how to manage their lands and forests, a knowledge that is passed down from their ancestors, which has enabled them to coexist harmoniously with nature and maintain their environs for many generations.
The majority of the Talang Mamak tribe, which comprises only 6,400 or so people, are illiterate. Most of them live in the districts of Seberida, Kelayang and Rengat Barat in Indragiri Hilir, and a small number of them live in Surnai, Bangko Tebo and Bukit 30 National Park, bordering Jambi province.
The Talang Mamak are currently languishing: the presence of forest concessionaires has been detrimental to their way of life and rendered it barely sustainable.
The state schools located far from their villages still remain a luxury for the animist tribespeople and, to make matters worse, many of them refuse to go to school, arguing that conventional, modern education would mean a departure from their long-maintained customs and traditions. They fear modern education will change their beliefs. According to tradition, converts are no longer regarded as members of the tribe.
Quite a few have embraced Christianity, but they still practice their indigenous customs, such as worshiping the animist spirits at sacred places. Others have converted to Islam, after which they become known as “Malay people” among the Talang Mamak.
  sumatra, tribes, riau, Sakai, Talang Mamak, suku, anak dalam
The Sakai, Bonai, Talang Mamak and Duano tribes are socio-culturally and ethnically Malay, but have not been exposed to the Hindu, Islamic and European cultures. These people were segregated by the Malays for their “unhygienic” way of life.
Most Talang Mamak people are reluctant to become Muslims, because Islamic teachings, according to them, are contrary to their customs and traditions. For example, pork is traditional fare at wedding parties. They still use bark and leaves for clothing.
Being nomadic, they are able to prevent the government from annexing their ancestral lands and still lead a simple way of life, unaffected by external impurities. Their huts, usually measuring 3 meters by 4 meters, are built on stilts and have walls made of bark. It is in these homes that they cook, receive guests and chat. They cultivate the land around the huts — usually less than 1 square hectare, to grow cassava and sweet potatoes as their staple foods.
“We have planted cassava and sweet potatoes all our lives for many ages,” said Mohammad Supermi, 34, village chief of Durian Cacar.
Apart from farming, some of the tribespeople go to the forest to harvest rattan and honey from trees, which they call sialang. They sell the honey at the market or drink it with traditional herbal medicines.
Now, however, the ancestral forests, on which they depend their lives, are about to disappear, with the forests, the Talang Mamak way of life.

frame Three:

The Malaysian Tribes

Frame Four :Ex Indochina tribe

 1.The Vietnamese tribe

 
   

 

Vietnam has 54 tribes, they live together friendly in Vietnam nation.
   
Vietnam has 54 tribes, they live together friendly in Vietnam nation.
 

Vietnam has 54 tribes, they live together friendly in Vietnam nation.

 

 

Each tribe has particular culture form traditional costume to living habits. Hereafter we introduce to you the typical characteristic of Viet nam tribe.

Chut tribe

Muong tribe

Tho tribe

Lu tribe

Tay (Thai Nguyen) traditional costume 

Nung’s costume

Pa Then’s costume


 

 ,cambodge

and Laos Tribes

 

Traditional clothes of different hill tribes in LaosOn a terrace along the river we are given a note. It announces an evening with traditional dance, and we decide to go. Strange enough, the audience consists of 9 people, including us, but we have a great time. While we enjoy some good food the show starts with an old woman singing with 2 of her grand children. After that there are girls performing different dances and different traditional clothes, from the surrounding hill tribes in Laos. We also recognise one of the dances from the Gawai festival on Sarawak, proof of the migration and the shared heritage of different tribes in Southeast Asia.

cambodge tribe

 

   Ratanakiri in Cambodia  
  One hour by plane or 2 days by boat and bus is necessary to go in Ratanakiri, a province different of the others. Not much populated and isolated, with some very beautiful landscapes, forests, small ponds, waterfalls, and life in slow motion. The roads of Ratanakiri are in red ground and we can circulate in it only in “pick up” car any ground. Different tribal ethnic groups live there in small villages spread on hills and they go in the only big village of the region, Baglung, to sell here their thin harvests of vegetables or wild fruits and the products of their hunting.  
     
    Tribal Market in Ratanakiri  
     
     
     
   The tribals of Ratanakiri carry on their back, a particular and very beautiful basket, of different colors braided in reeds, basket of different size according to their age old. They transport there all their products. Most of the women wear on the head a turban made with their “Sarong”, piece of cotton tissues, generally with small squares at red based.  
     
   

 

     
     
  They sell or exchange on markets, any sorts of products of their crop or of their hunting  
     
   

 

     
     
     
   

 

     
     
     
     
   

 

     
  Some very simple and very reserved people that some tourists frighten a little. They live in small isolated villages. Ratanakiri has a very small population.  
     
     
   

 

     
     

frame Five: The Myanmar Tribes

1. Karen long neck Hill Tribes or Paduang

 
photo

Karen Hill Tribe Young Lady 18yrs Old

Along the border of Northern Thailand and Myanmar (Burma) live small tribes known as the Paduang and Karen or long necks, who Migrated from Burma to Thailand to which practice the custom of neck stretching which involves brass rings being placed around the women necks, there are also other tribes such as the Karen hill tribes, Hmong,hill tribes,and many more other villages, that we visited last week in Thailand.

Karen women are skilled in sewing and dyeing and weaving, they usually wear, white “V” neck blouse with combinations very colourful patterns and beads for decoration. They wear their long hair tied in a bun and covered with scarves.

The Karen are gentle, peaceful, who, like all the Hill tribes, have their highest respect for their ancestors and living elders.

2.Myanmar frontier tribes Naga

  

There is no scholarly consensus regarding the early origins of the Nagas and very little is known of the Mongoloid

groups whose southwesterly migration brought them to the sub Himalayan region of north-eastern India and north-western Myanmar. These tribes speak Tibeto-Burman dialects and it is probable that their original homeland was in the region between the Huang Ho and Yangtze (Ch’ang) rivers in northwestern China and that they came in successive waves of migration spreading over centuries.[1]
Although the presence of Mongoloid groups in the region had been attested as early as 10 B.C. the Nagas had maintained little outside contact till the later part of the 13th century. Their existence was mentioned by Ptolemy in about 150 A.D.[2] Oral traditions abound among the many tribes regarding how they came, dispersed, etc., but such accounts are steeped in myth and superstition and hence no concrete facts about their arrival to the region can emerge.
Curious coincidences of culture and language through the Pacific led some scholars to suggest that the Nagas were an off-shoot of groups which had originally descended from the central Asian plateau. Their burial customs, ornamentation, agricultural practices and even games and crafts, linked them strongly to the tribal peoples of Borneo and the Philippines

3.

Typical Mon-Khmeric look like this:Senoic tribe of Mon-Khmer raceA women of Semelai tribe of Mon-Khmer race

 

4.The Hill Tribes of Myanmar

‘Myanmar’ is the new name of Burma. In 1989, the political leaders of the country changed it (in “Burmese”, the national language of the country, Burma is spelled as ‘Myanmar’). Located in the South East Asia, Burma is also known as the land of Pagodas. There are many Buddhist shrines spanning the mainland. Burma is naturally alienated by mountains on its three sides.

Bagan, the capital city of Burma is perhaps the most affluent places of the country. It is loaded with over 2000 Stupas and pagodas. After the devastating earthquake in 1975, the restorations of the historical structures have not been completed till date.

The Burmans comprise the two third of the total population in Myanmar. It is said that about a thousand years ago, the precursors of the Burmans came down, from the mountains of southern China, to Myanmar. They started living with the people previously dwelling in the land harmoniously.

Apart from the Burmans, there are also other ethnic tribes in Myanmar. The Chin, the Kachin, the Shan, the Karen and the Mon are the other groups of ethnic tribes who live in the hilly regions of the land. Most of them do not subscribe to the Central Government of Myanmar (erstwhile Burma). However, the total population of the country also encompasses other ethic groups such as Indians, Bangladeshis and Chinese.

 

Frame Six: The China Tribes

 

YUNNAN PROVINCE is a land of rain forests, snow-capped Himalayan peaks, the Shangri-La lifestyle, minority rushing mountain rivers and some of the world’s most spectacular scenery and unusual culture. Cover about 240,000 suare kilometers, it contains half of China’s plant and animal species, including 7,000 endemic plant species and 30 endangered animal species, among them, including snow leopards, clouded leopards, Yunnan golden monkeys, red pandas., a handful of tigers and about 200 wild elephants,.

The 26 ethnic minorities that make their home in Yunnan are the Achang, Bai, Benglong, Bonan, Bulang, Dai, De’ang, Drung, Dulong. Hani (Akha), Hui, Jinuo, Jingpo (Kachin in Burma), Lahu, Lisu, Miao (Hmong), Mongols, Naxi, Nu, Pumi, She, Tibetans, Wa, Yao, Yi, and Zhuang.


Yi girls

Each minority has its own distinctive costumes, culture and language, and many of them are related to the hill tribes found Laos, Burma, Vietnam and Thailand. It is mostly the women that wear traditional costumes. Yao girls, for example, wear black and blue tunic dresses and silver hoops around their necks and wrists. Their headdresses, which are often decorated with silver, looks a deflated turban wrapped with seashells and a scarf. Men like to play checkers and sit around smoking tobacco from bongs.

Bordered by Tibet, Sichuan, Burma, Laos and Vietnam, Yunnan means “south of the clouds.” The southern part of the province is covered with green mountains, remote cultivated valley, and forested ridges with elephants, tigers, leopards and golden haired monkeys. Many of the people that live here are extremely poor and members of ethnic groups similar to those found in Southeast Asia. Over the last decade it has become a heroin and smuggling region. Marijuana grows wild.

Frame seven :

The Sinkiang tribes

Minority Tribes
     China means “the country in the centre” in Chinese. During 5000 years’ history, 24 dynasties founded and fell, a big family with 56 minorities formed finally. As a part of China, minorities have their unique custom and develop their own culture and form part of the diverse Chinese culture. When you go into those areas such as Sinkiang, Tibet or Yunnan, you may feel the great differences from others areas, since the unique geographic location, climate, and colorful folk traditions create their own characteristics. To understand China and Chinese culture better, it’s always worthy exploring those minority tribes in China.
   
 
 
Private tour to Guizhou
Guizhou “Noble Prefecture” ,located in south-central China covers an area of over 176,000 square kilometers , with a population of 35,600,000. About 65% of the dwellers are Han Chinese, with the rest are all ethnic minorities including the Miao, Bouyei, Dong Yi, Shui, Hui, Zhuang

Frame Six :

The Japan Tribes (1)

(2) Masa sensei tribe

mr-trashcan masa sensei
On Sunday afternoon photo shoots at Harajuku’s cosplay Bridge, I often meet my crazy photographer buddy, Masa-sensei “ninja shooting” the freakaziods (as shown below).

masa-photo

Another Japanese subculture that Masa-sensei likes to shoot are the bosozoku, the “violent running tribes,” who he captured last weekend. I first I thought this photo was a weaponized bosozoku sling shot car.
slingshot car japan

However, the yellow slingshot turns out to be two huge collapsable flag poles that the bosozoku use to fly their gang flags and banners during their terror runs through the neighborhoods.

terror flags
rear end of custom japanese car

The Violent Running Tribe’s main entertainment is to modify their exhaust systems to be extra loud and drive through town late at night, waving imperial Japanese flags and shouting obscenities, occasionally throwing Molotov cocktails and carrying swords spears, and generally having noisy fun.

Frame seven: The Bhutan tribes

(1) Toto Tribe

 (2) Bopak tribe

Victor in Bhutan Just back from an assignment in Bhutan, Victor sports the nomadic Bopak tribes’ contribution to humanity: a rainhat made of yak hair, making it totally water-proof.

 (3)

Frame eight :

The Mongolian Tribes

 

 

img_3506.jpg

Horsemen on the grasslands of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region

By now you’re probably starting to get to know a little bit about the wall – how it was constructed, where it was constructed, what material it was made from and some unique things about the places it passes through. But do you know why the wall was built? Was it designed to keep someone out or to keep someone in?

The traditional story is that the Great Wall was built to protect peace-loving Chinese farmers from war-crazed Mongols like Genghis Khan and his plundering hordes. The truth is a tad more complicated. In the first place, the Chinese were building changcheng, or long walls, for military purposes long before Genghis got his first pony. More generally, the Chinese built long walls for offensive purposes as well as defensive, and they often provoked Mongolian raids by refusing to engage in peaceful trade or interfering in internal Mongolian politics.

Still, academics generally agree that the wall was designed to separate the agricultural Han Chinese south of the wall from the nomadic Mongols to the north. And the stereotype of the bloodthirsty Mongols is alive and well.

img_3349.jpg

Don’t be fooled by their smiles, this is actually a Mongolian version of the haka

We wanted to see for ourselves just who these “fierce” Mongolians were, these men of astounding horsemanship who had the Chinese trembling in their boots. So we took a few days off the wall and hopped on up to Hohhot, the capital of the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, where we got a car ride to the grasslands and entry to the annual Mongolian festival, Naadam.

img_3471.jpg

Buddhist monks bless the start of the festival

In the past, Naadam was an economic and social gathering, a time for Mongolian tribes to get together, trade goods, show off some of their best horses, and who knows, maybe plot their next raid against the Chinese. Eventually competitions in the warrior sports of horse racing, archery and wrestling became central to the festivities.

Today, Naadam is more of an all-around cultural festival, with music, eating and fashion as well as the traditional sporting contests. In the country of Mongolia, Naadam is celebrated at the same time every year; in the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China, Naadam takes place when the grasses of the high plateau turn green.

img_3529.jpg

The women of the steppes were known for their beauty

If you’re nearby when the authorities decide the grass is green enough, one or two days at Naadam are worth the effort to take it all in. Even if you’re just there for the opening ceremony, you can still see a lot – exotic dancers, beautiful singers, really strong men and some pretty cool horsemanship.

img_3537.jpg

The two-stringed morin khuur’s neck is in the shape of a horse’s head

During the couple of days we spent in the grasslands we stayed in the traditional Mongolian dwelling, a yurt. This is a round, tent-like structure of wooden beams and felt that the nomads would carry with them and erect where they settled. Nowadays, the fancier yurts built for tourists are fixed structures that include glass windows, sliding doors and TVs (but still no corners).

img_3553.jpg

The five-star yurts at Naadam (much nicer than the one we stayed in)

 

And finally, what do Mongolian men need to keep up their wrestling strength? Food, and lots of it. Below is something that got wheeled past us in the corridors of the dining hall.

img_3462.jpg

 Frame nine : The Tibet Tribes

 

Tibetan is one of the most important minority groups in China…Tibetan is one of the most important minority groups in China. The ancestors of the Tibetan race who lived there struck up links with the Han in the Central Plains long before the Christian era. Later, over a long period of years, the numerous tribes scattered on the Tibet Plateau became unified to form the present Tibetan race. By the Tang Dynasty (618-907), the Tibetans and Hans had, through marriage between royal families and meetings leading to alliances, cemented political and kinship ties of unity and political friendship and formed close economic and cultural relations, laying a solid foundation for the ultimate founding of a unified nation. In the mid-13th century, Tibet was officially incorporated into the territory of China’s Yuan Dynasty. Since then, although China experienced several dynastic changes, Tibet has remained under the jurisdiction of the central government of China

Frame Ten : The Thailand Tribes

1.the Yao tribe

 

A Thai Yao woman in traditional wear
One of Thailand’s major tribes, the Yao, migrated from southern China at the end of the 19th century. Farming remains the predominant occupation among the Yao, known to be the only Thai tribe to possess command over the written language.

. Various tribes such as the Akha, Karen, Hmong, Yao, and Lisu have their own unique and diverse way of life –which all contribute to the rich cultural tapestry of Thailand.

 

 

2.Thailand hill karen long neck tribes

 
photo

Thailand Hill Tribes

In Thailand they would say she’s from the: “Long Neck Tribe…”

3.Chiang Rai tribe

Chiang Rai – lies in the very heart of the fabled “Golden Triangle” – the mystical meeting point of three national borders (Thailand, Laos and Myanmar). Majestic mountain scenery abounds. The area has more than its share of natural attractions and antiquities. It is also home to many high altitude hill villages where the tribes follow a way of life from a time past.

Chiang Rai, the northernmost province of Thailand is about 785 kilometres north of Bancock. Situated on the Kok River basin, Chiang Rai covers an area of approximately 11,678 square meters with an average elevation of 580 meters above sea level. The province, which is located within the renowned Golden Triangle area where Myanmar, Laos and Thailand converge.

 Hill tribe ladies - hill country - chiangmai thailand - chang thailand - elephant trekking tours

Chiang Rai, which was founded in 1262 by King Meng Rai, was the first capital of the Lanna Thai Kingdom which was later conquered by Burma. It was not until 1786 that Chiang Rai became a Thai territory and was proclaimed a province during the reign of King Rama VI in 1910

Frame eleven :

The Phillipine Tribes 1.2.3.

4Baguio Ifugao Tribe

baguio ifugao tribes
Baguio Ifugao Tribe 
   

 the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

 

Dr Iwan E-book:”The Malacca Tribes Historic Collections in 1892″

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Rare Germany Book  1892:

” Materialen zur Kenntniss Der Wilden Stamme auf der Halbinsel Malaka”

“Materials to the knowledge of the savage tribes on the peninsula of Malacca in 1892″

 Vorrede

Die folgende Materialien stammen von der Hand des Reissenden Hrolf Vaughan Stevens,welcher un Auftrage des Koniglichen Museum fur Volkerkunde und de Virchowstiftung eine mehrjahrige Reise zu den “wilden”Stammen der malaischen Halbinsel unternommen hat zum Zweck ethnologischer anthropologischer Arbeiten.

Neben den ethnologiscen Sammlungen hat derselbe eine Reihe von zusammenfassenden Berichten eingesandt, von welchen die ersten hiemit dem Druck ubergeben werden. Vor allem muss der Heransgeber betonnen, dass Herr Steven seine Arbeiten als noch micht abgeschlossen bezeichnet: die Verantwortung fur das Gegebene bleibt ihm allein vorbehalten.

Es erubright noch, zu erwahnen, dass ich die in Context vorkommenden malaiiischen Worter,welche im original in englischer Orrthographie gegeben sind,in deutcher Schreibung geb,entsprechen der im Koniglichen Museum unlichen schreibung. Die Originalsschreibung wurde dabei stets mit angefuhrt, wo es von Werth zu sein schien. Manchen guten Wink verdanke ich dabei Herrn Dr Friedrich Muller. Worte,weilche ganz neu sind, oder deren malaiische Orthographie ich nicht festellen konnte, sind mit,, ” und Zusatze von meiner Hand mit( ) bezeichnet worden.

Berlin, in Mars 1892

Albert Grunwedel

  Preface
The following materials are taken from the hands of travelers Hrolf Vaughan Stevens, who behalf of the Royal Museum for Ethnology and de Virchow Foundation mehrjahrige a trip to the “wild” strains of the Malay Peninsula for the purpose of anthropological anthropological work.

In addition to the collections of the same ethnologiscen a series of summary reports, sent, of which the first herewith the pressure be handed over. Betonnen Above all, the pre-encoder, that Mr Steven called his work be completed micht: the responsibility for what is given it is only reserved

Erubright it still may mention that I present in the context malay words that are in the original, in English Orrthographie, born in Deutcher letters that match the description in the Royal Museum of dissimilar ones. The original spelling was always related with where it seemed to be of value.
Many a good sign I owe it to Dr Frederick Muller. Words while, are brand new, or the Malay spelling fixed ellen I could not have been with, “and added my hand with () called.Berlin, Mars 1892
 
 Albert Grunwedel

Chapter One:

Share and master Stamme

Stammsagen und Stammmesgliederung

Die sogenannten wilde” Stamme auf der Halbinsel Malaka von Johor bis Petani zerfallen in vier Haupistamme , namlich :

die Orang Benda

die Orang “Blandaa”

die Orang “Tummeor”

die Orang “Pangghan”

The so-called wild “tribe on the peninsula of Malacca to Johor Petani stamme divided into four, namely:the orang Bendathe orang “Blandaa”the orang “Tummeor”the orang “Pangghan”

 

Chapter Two:

The blast pipe (Sumpitan) and his Zubeho’r

Das Blasrohr (Sumpitan) und sein Zubeho’r

1.The blowpipe the orang Benda(Das Blasrohr der Orang Benda)

2. The arrow maker of Orang Benua ( Timlahan Benua’s name)

Dei Pfeilkocher der orang Benua(Benua name Timlahan)

2a.The  arrow cooker orang “Kuantan”(Des Pfeilkocher der orang “Kuantan”)

3.The production of bamboo-sumpitans the orang Mentera
(Die Anfertigung der bambus-sumpitans der Orang Mentera)

4.Herstellung the maker of the orang orang Mentera Gift (Herstellung der Kocher der Orang Mentera)

 5.The Gift Of Orang mantera(Das Gift der Orang Mantera)

 

Chapter Three :

The Religious Of the Orang Blandaa

Religiose Vorstellungen der Orang Blandaa

 

Chapter Four:

The Malacca tribes

Chapter five :

The history of Malacca

 
 
Malacca
Melaka
—  State  —
Melaka Negeri Hang Tuah/Melaka Negeri Bersejarah

Flag

Coat of arms
Motto: Bersatu Teguh
Anthem: Melaka Maju Jaya

      Malacca in       Malaysia

Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.2°N 102.25°E / 2.2; 102.25Coordinates: 2°12′N 102°15′E / 2.2°N 102.25°E / 2.2; 102.25
Capital Malacca City
Government
 – Yang di-Pertua Negeri Mohd Khalil Yaakob
 – Chief Minister Mohd Ali Rustam (BN)
Area[1]
 – Total 1,664 km2 (642.5 sq mi)
Population (2010)[2]
 – Total 788,706
 - Density 474/km2 (1,227.6/sq mi)
Human Development Index
 – HDI (2010) 0.742 (high) (4rd)
Postal code 75xxx to 78xxx
Calling code 06
Vehicle registration M
Malacca Sultanate 15th century
Portuguese control 24 August 1511
Dutch control 14 January 1641
British control 17 March 1824
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Accession into Federation of Malaya 1948
Website http://www.melaka.gov.my

Malacca dubbed The Historic State or Negeri Bersejarah among locals) is the third smallest Malaysian state, after Perlis and Penang. It is located in the southern region of the Malay Peninsula, on the Straits of Malacca. It borders Negeri Sembilan to the north and the state of Johor to the south. The capital is Malacca City, which is 148 km south east of Malaysia’s capital city Kuala Lumpur, 235 km north west to Johor’s largest city Johor Bahru and 95 km north west to Johor’s second largest city Batu Pahat. This historical city centre has been listed as a UNESCO World Heritage Site since 7 July 2008.

Although it was the location of one of the earliest Malay sultanates, the monarchy was abolished when the Portuguese conquered it in 1511. The Yang di-Pertua Negeri or Governor, rather than a Sultan, acts as the head of state now.

Contents

 History

Incorporated into Date
Malacca Sultanate ≈1400
Portuguese Empire 1511
Dutch Empire 1641
British Empire 1824
Straits Settlements 1826
Crown Colony 1867
Japanese occupation 15 January 1942
Malayan Union 1 April 1946
Federation of Malaya 31 January 1948
Independence 31 August 1957
Malaysia 16 September 1963

Sultanate of Malacca

Main article: Malacca Sultanate

Before the arrival of the first Sultan, Malacca was a fishing village inhabited by local Malays. Malacca was founded by Parameswara, also called Iskandar Shah or Sri Majara, the last Raja of Singapura (present day Singapore) following a Majapahit attack in 1377. He found his way to Malacca around 1400 where he found a good port—it was accessible in all seasons and on the strategically located narrowest point of the Malacca Straits.[3]

According to a popular legend, Parameswara was resting under a tree near a river while hunting, when one of his dogs cornered a mouse deer. In self-defence, the mouse deer pushed the dog into the river. Impressed by the courage of the deer, and taking it as a propitious omen of the weak overcoming the powerful, Parameswara decided on the spot to found an empire on that very spot. He named it ‘Melaka’ after the tree under which he had taken shelter. Another version of the story says that Parameswara chose the name ‘Malacca’ from the Tamil word ‘mallakka’ which means upside down or on ones back. Old illustrations of the scene where the mousedeer kicks the dog shows the dog falling on its back into the river, hence the inspiration.

In collaboration with allies from the sea-people (orang laut), the wandering proto-Malay privateers of the Straits, he established Malacca as a major international port by compelling passing ships to call there, and establishing fair and reliable facilities for warehousing and trade.[3] Mass settlement of Chinese, mostly from the imperial and merchant fleet occurred during the reign of Parameswara in the vicinity of Bukit China (“Chinese Hill”) , which was perceived as having excellent Feng Shui (geomancy). Sultan Iskandar Shah died in 1424. The prosperity of Malacca attracted the attention of the Siamese. Attempts at invasion made in 1446 and 1456, however, were warded off by Tun Perak, the then Bendahara (a position similar to Prime Minister). The development of relations between Malacca and China was a strategic decision to ward off further Siamese attacks. pore) and was succeeded by his son, Sri Maharaja also called Sultan Muhammad Shah.

Palace of Malacca’s Malay Sultanate

Because of its strategic location, Malacca was an important stopping point for Zheng He‘s fleet. To enhance relations, Hang Li Po, a princess of the Ming Emperor of China, arrived in Malacca, accompanied by 500 attendants, to marry Sultan Manshur Shah who reigned from 1456 until 1477. Her attendants married the locals and settled mostly in Bukit China (Bukit Cina). (See Zheng He in Malacca). Scholars have disputed Hang Li Po’s status, as the Ming Chronicles in China do not mention her as a princess in the Chinese court of the Ming Dynasty. At the time of the arrival of the Sultan’s envoy, the reigning Ming Emperor was Jingtai Emperor. Since records of his reign were expunged following Tianshun‘a ascension to the throne in 1457, it is likely that records of Hang Li Po’s status might no longer exist. Other historical texts do mention that she was a princess in the court of the Yongle Emperor(1402–1424).

A cultural result of the vibrant trade was the expansion of the Peranakan people, who spread to other major settlements in the region.

During its prime, Malacca was a powerful Sultanate which extended its rule over the southern Malay Peninsula and much of Sumatra. Its rise helped to hold off the Thai’s southwards encroachment and arguably hasten the decline of the rival Majapahit Empire of Java which was in decline as Malacca rose. Malacca was also pivotal in the spread of Islam in the Malay Archipelago.

After Vietnam destroyed Champa in the 1471 Vietnamese invasion of Champa, they proceeded to engage in hostilities with Malacca with the intent of conquest. The Chinese government sent a censor, Ch’en Chun, to Champa in 1474 to install the Champa King, but he discovered Vietnamese soldiers had taken over Champa and were blocking his entry. He proceeded to Malacca instead and its ruler sent back tribute to China.[4] Malacca again sent envoys to China in 1481 to inform the Chinese that, while returning to Malacca from China in 1469, the Vietnamese attacked them, castrating the young and enslaving them. The Malaccans reported that Vietnam was not in control of Champa but sought to conquer Malacca, but the Malaccans did not fight back due to lack of permission from the Chinese to engage in war. The Chinese Emperor scolded them, ordering the Malaccans to strike back with violent force if the Vietnamese attacked.[5]

European colonization

1630 map of the Portuguese fort and the city of Malacca

In April 1511, Afonso de Albuquerque set sail from Goa to Malacca with a force of some 1200 men and seventeen or eighteen ships.[6] They conquered the city on August 24, 1511. It became a strategic base for Portuguese expansion in the East Indies. Sultan Mahmud Shah, the last Sultan of Malacca, took refuge in the hinterland, and made intermittent raids both by land and sea, causing considerable hardship for the Portuguese. In the meantime, the Portuguese built the fort named A Famosa to defend Malacca (its gate is all that remains of the ruins at present). “In order to appease the King of Ayudhya (Siam), the Portuguese sent up an ambassador, Duarte Fernandes, who was well received by Ramathibodi.” in 1511. Finally in 1526, a large force of Portuguese ships, under the command of Pedro Mascarenhas, was sent to destroy Bintan, where Sultan Mahmud was based. Sultan Mahmud fled with his family across the Straits to Kampar in Sumatra, where he died five years later.

It soon became clear that Portuguese control of Malacca did not also mean they controlled Asian trade centred there. Their Malaccan rule was severely hampered by administrative and economic difficulties.[7] Rather than achieving their ambition of dominating Asian trade, the Portuguese had disrupted the organisation of the network. The centralised port of exchange of Asian wealth had now gone, as was a Malay state to police the Straits of Malacca that made it safe for commercial traffic. Trade was now scattered over a number of ports among bitter warfare in the Straits.[7]

Ruins of Fort A Famosa attracts millions of tourists to Malacca every year

The Jesuit missionary Francis Xavier spent several months in Malacca in 1545, 1546 and 1549. In 1641, the Dutch defeated the Portuguese in an effort to capture Malacca, with the help of the Sultan of Johore. The Dutch ruled Malacca from 1641 to 1798 but they were not interested in developing it as a trading centre, placing greater importance to Batavia (Jakarta) on Java as their administrative centre. However they still built their landmark, better known as the Stadthuys or Red Building.

Malacca was ceded to the British in the Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 in exchange for Bencoolen on Sumatra. From 1826 to 1946 Malacca was governed, first by the British East India Company and then as a Crown Colony. It formed part of the Straits Settlements, together with Singapore and Penang. After the dissolution of this crown colony, Malacca and Penang became part of the Malayan Union, which later became Malaysia.

Geography

The state of Malacca covers an area of 1,664 km2 (642 sq mi).[1] The state is divided into 3 districts: Central Malacca (Melaka Tengah) (314 km²), Alor Gajah (660 km²), and Jasin (676 km²). Malacca sits upon the southwestern coast of the Malay Peninsula opposite Sumatra, with the state of Negeri Sembilan to the north and Johor to the east. Malacca is also situated roughly two-thirds of the way down the west coast, 148 km south of Kuala Lumpur, the capital of Malaysia and 245 km north of Singapore and commands a central position on the Straits of Malacca. The state capital, Malacca Town, is strategically located between the two national capitals of Malaysia and Singapore, and connected with excellent roads and highways. Malacca still harbours no train station, though the terminal at Tampin, Negeri Sembilan is easily accessible. However, a domestic airport terminal rests in Batu Berendam.

The offshore Pulau Besar, Pulau Upeh and the exclave Tanjung Tuan are also parts of Malacca.

State government

 

Malacca is administered by its local State Legislative Assembly and Executive Committee (EXCO). The State Assembly represents the highest authority in the state and decides on policy matters. The EXCO is responsible to the State Assembly and comprises members who are appointed every five years by the political party in power. It is headed by the Governor (Yang Di-Pertua Negeri) who is appointed by the Yang di-Pertuan Agong of Malaysia.

The Chief Minister‘s Department is responsible for the overall administration of the State, as well as its political interest. The administrative complex houses the Chief Minister’s office, as well as the office of the State Secretariat. For administrative purposes, Malacca is divided into three districts under separate jurisdiction:

  • Malacca Central District & Land Office
  • Alor Gajah District & Land Office
  • Jasin District & Land Office

These offices render various services and facilities to the people in their daily lives.

District and Local Authority

Malacca is divided into 3 districts and 4 local authorities.

Rank↓ District↓ Area (kmsq)↓ Population (2008)↓ District Seat↓ Local Government↓
!000001 Central Malacca 279.85 473,700 Malacca City Majlis Bandaraya Melaka Bersejarah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
 
!000002 Alor Gajah 660.00 167,600 Alor Gajah Majlis Perbandaran Alor Gajah
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya
!000003 Jasin District 676.07 128,000 Jasin Majlis Perbandaran Jasin
Majlis Perbandaran Hang Tuah Jaya

 Economy

The tourism and manufacturing sectors are the two most important sectors in the state economy. Malacca has adopted as its slogan, “Visiting Malacca Means Visiting Malaysia” (“Melawat Melaka Bererti Melawati Malaysia“). It is rich in cultural heritage and bears several places of historical interest.

Malacca is home to several modern shopping complexes, hypermarts and department stores.

Apart from tourism, Malacca is also a manufacturing centre for products ranging from food and consumer products, through high-tech weaponry and automotive components to electronic and computer parts.

Demographics

City of Malacca

Canals in Malacca

Malacca has a population of 788,706 as of 2010.[2] In 2007, the racial composition of the area was:

Besides Malacca City, other major Malacca townships include Alor Gajah, Masjid Tanah, Jasin, Merlimau, Batu Berendam and Ayer Keroh.

Education

The establishment of the Malacca Manipal Medical College in Bukit Baru provided quality medical education. It has produced many doctors who are serving the country or working abroad since its inception in 1997.

The state has a number of reputable colleges, universities and other higher learning institutions.

Malacca has a boarding school, Sekolah Berasrama Penuh Integrasi Selandar (SBPIS). The Ministry of Education of Malaysia enrols students based on their Ujian Penilaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) and Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR).

A center for juvenile convicts, Henry Gurney Prisoners School, is also situated in Telok Mas, Malacca. Established in 1949 as High Moral School, it was renamed School of Henry Gurney at 15 May 1950. This center runs rehabilitation programs for male juvenile criminals in which they are exposed to living skills such as sewing and cooking and vocational skills such as mechanical repairing.

Malacca also has one international school called Melaka International School, which caters to the expatriate community in Malacca.

 Health care

Hospitals in Malacca state are listed below:

  • Private Hospitals
    • Putra Hospital (formerly known as Southern Hospital, owned by the state government)
    • Pantai Ayer Keroh
    • Mahkota Medical Centre

Culture

Baba Nyonya house in Malacca

The historic centre of Malacca was inscribed on the World Heritage List on 7 July 2008 together with George Town, the capital of Penang.

The Malays, settled in Malacca since 1400, form the largest community and have a distinctive culture.

Two of the most important museums in Malacca are the Baba Nyonya Heritage Museum and the Malacca Sultanate Palace Museum.

Malacca is well-known for its food; Malay dishes include ikan asam pedas, sambal belacan and cencaluk.

Belacan, a Malay variety of shrimp paste, is prepared from fresh shrimp of a species known as keragu in Malay. These are mashed into a paste and dried in lumps, pounded and formed into large balls, dried again for a week or so, wrapped in plastic and stored for future use. It is in this form that most of these blachan balls are sold. Belacan is used as an ingredient in many dishes, or eaten on its own with rice. A common preparation is sambal belacan, made by mixing belacan with chili peppers, minced garlic, shallot paste and sugar and then fried. The aroma from the frying mixture can be unpalatable to Westerners who have not become accustomed to it, but is an absolute delight to the Asian connoisseur.

Malacca is also famous for satay celup. Raw fish and meat are skewered onto sticks which is then cooked in a peanut sauce; this is often sold in individual sticks.

Nyonya-Baba cuisine is a fusion of Chinese (mostly southern Hokkien or Fujian influence), Portuguese, Dutch, Indian, British and Malay cooking with most dishes being spicy in nature. Peranakan dishes include Itik Tim (a soup containing duck and salted vegetables), Ayam Pong Teh (chicken casserole with salted brown-bean sauce usually served with potatoes) as well as the famous Nyonya Laksa. Chicken Rice Ball is another dish popular with domestic Chinese tourists.

Heavily decorated bicycle rickshaw in Malacca

Malacca’s ethnic Portuguese population are the descendants of Portuguese colonists from the 16th and 17th centuries. Even to this day, many of the traditions originating with the Portuguese occupation are still practised, i.e. “Intrudu” from Portuguese word “Entrudo” (a water festival that marks the beginning of Lent, the Catholic fasting period), “branyu” (traditional dance), “Santa Cruz” (a yearly Festival of street celebrations).

The Portuguese colonists contributed dishes like Devil’s Curry and Portuguese egg tarts to the town’s cuisine. Ikan Bakar (roasted fish) restaurants in Umbai, Serkam and Alai are also popular.

There is also a sizeable amount of Sikhs residing in Malacca, and Sikhs from Malacca and abroad congregate in the gurdwara (Sikh temple) situated in Jalan Temenggong during the last weekend of May, to commemorate the death of its former priest, Sant Baba Sohan Singh Ji, who was elevated to a saint upon passing away. Visitors are welcome but are advised to follow rules and common practices within the premises. Typical vegetarian punjabi cuisine will be served to everyone visiting the gurdwara.

 Transport

Pulau Sebang in Alor Gajah district, 30 km north of Malacca, is the nearest train station that serves Malacca. There were railway tracks from Pulau Sebang to Malacca before World War II but these were dismantled by the Japanese for the construction of the Burmese Death Railway. It was never rebuilt after the war, though traces of the line remain.

Malacca has a bus station, Melaka Sentral which has inter and intracity bus lines. Batu Berendam Airport in Batu Berendam mainly serves chartered flights from around the region. It also serves as a flight school for Malaysia Flying Academy.

The Ayer Keroh exit at the North-South highway is the main entry to Malacca. There are two additional exits along the North-South highway, namely the Simpang Ampat and Jasin exits.

Popular historical attractions

St. John’s Fort in Malacca

Christ Church, Malacca

Example of a gravestone from St. Francis Xavier Church.

  • Fort A Famosa: Constructed by the Portuguese in 1511, it suffered severe structural damage during the Dutch invasion. The plan by the British to destroy it was aborted as a result of the intervention of Sir Stamford Raffles in 1808.
  • St. John’s Fort: Reconstructed by the Dutch in the third quarter of the 18th century, the cannons in this fort point inland because at that time, the threat to Malacca was mainly from inland rather than the sea.
  • St. Peter’s Church: Constructed in 1710 under the Dutch administration, the church is the oldest Catholic church in Malaysia. Its facade and decorative embellishment is a mix of both eastern and western architecture. Its bell was delivered from Goa in 1608.
  • St. Paul’s Church: Constructed by the Portuguese captain, Duarte Coelho, this church was named “Our Lady of The Hill”, but was later turned into a burial ground by the Dutch for their noble dead, and renamed “St. Paul’s Church”. Currently the church is part of the Malaccan Museums Complex. The body of St. Francis Xavier was interred here temporarily before it was taken to Goa, India.
  • Christ Church: Constructed in 1753, the structure reflects original Dutch architecture. The building houses hand-crafted church benches, jointless ceiling skylights, a copper replica of the Bible, a headstone written in the Armenian language, and a replica of “The Last Supper“.
  • Francis Xavier Church: This Gothic church was built by a French priest, Rev. Fabre, in 1849, to commemorate St. Francis Xavier who is also known as the “Apostle of the East”. St. Francis Xavier is credited for his Catholic missionary work in Southeast Asia during the 16th century.
  • Stadthuys: Constructed in 1650 as the residence of the Dutch Governor and his deputy, the structure reflects Dutch architecture. It is today the “Museum of History and Ethnography“. The museum exhibits traditional wedding clothes and artifacts of Melaka, dating back to its days of glory.
  • Cheng Hoon Teng Temple: Located along Jalan Tokong (formerly Temple Street) in the core zone of the Malacca Unesco World Heritage Site. It is the oldest functioning temple in Malaysia and grandest temple in Malacca.
  • Jonker Street (Jalan Hang Jebat): This street is known for its antique goods.
  • Portuguese Square: Located within the Portuguese Settlement, the square is the culmination of Portuguese culture in its full splendour and colours.
  • Tranquerah Mosque: The oldest mosque in Malacca.

Key people from Malacca

The following is a list of historically significant as well as well-known contemporary personages who are either born in Malacca, or otherwise linked to the history of Malacca:

 Image gallery

  • Christ Church Malacca

  • Statue of St. Francis Xavier

  • Tan Beng Swee Clocktower

  • Kampong Kling’s Mosque

  • Orang Utan House

  • Historical Buildings

  • Cheng Hoon Teng Temple

  • Malacca Big Market

  • St Francis Xavier Church

  • Statue of St Francis Xavier in his Church

[edit]

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Dr Iwan E-Book:” CONTRIBUTIONS TO THE FOLKLORE OF BRAZIL IN 1891″

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

Dr Iwan e-Book:”Contributions to the folklore of Brazil In 1891″

Based On the Germany Book :

” Beitrage zur Volkenkunde Brasiliens”

Frame one :

Vorbemerkung(Preface)

 Frame  two :

 Die Karayastamme Am rio Araguya (Goyaz)

The Ethnic Am Rio Araguya (Goyaz)

1.Historisches

2.Aeusseres,Kleidung.Zierrats

Fig 1. Ke’rper bemanlung( development)

Fig.2.Lippern ornament.

Fig.3. Hu’tten constraction

Fig4.Tobbakspfeife(Tobbak constraction)

 Fig 5.Thongefass typen(barrel types)

fig.6. Cuyenscale mit  Ornamenten. Fig.7.Spindeln

Fig 8.Federschmuck auf dem Kopfwirbel zu  tragen (Federschmuck to wear on the head vortex)

Fig.9.kamm

Fig.10. ornamente des Guyengefasses Taf(ornaments of Guyenge barrel Taf) 

 Fig.11.Kamm muster (pattern

fig.13. Schemmel in Thierform( Schemmel in animal form)

Fig.14.Geschnitzte Holztoffel(Wood Toffel)

Fig.15.Grabaussttaung

Chapter Three: 

 Uber Einige Volker Am Rio Purus(Amazonas)

 

Tafelerklarung(Pannel Clarification)

THE LIMITED COMPLETE BOOK 100 EXPL ARE EXIST, ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER,PLEASE SUBSCRIPE VIA COMMENT.

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