MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum
(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
Dr Iwan rare Book Cybermuseum
The Article in Rare German Book 1895 :
Alte Gebrauche Bei Hetrathen,Geburt und Sterberfallen Bei Dem TOUMBULUH STAMM In Der Minahasa North Celebes. von Dr JGF Riedel.
Old Used For Hetrathen, birth and Sterberfallen In The TOUMBULUH Minahasa tribe in the North Celebes
1. Wahren der pafi-Ernte, der passendsten Zeit fur das Anknupfen einer mehr oder minder intimen Bekanntschaft, verabreden die jungen Leute gewonhnlich um zusammenzuwohnen oder umu,wie sie es eigennartig ausdrucken,Heerdgenossen zu werden. Nachdem das Zeichen der Zustimmung,besttehend aus feingeschnittenem Tabak und einem abgetragenen Kleidungsstuck,einander anvertraut ist, unterwirft der Jungling sein Vorhaben der Beschlussnahme seiner Eltern und a’testen Blutsverwandtten.
2. Theil einer Malte von roth,gel und schwarzer Fasser.
3.Nachdem die alteren ihr Sirih-pinang gekaut haben,kommt das Madchen, in PATOLA Tucher gekleidet und mit KDELANA behangt,gleich denen der WALIAN_WEWENE, Tafel X Fig 1 aus dem fur sie bestimmten Gemach zum Vorschein und bietet dem Jungling stillschweigend aus einem geschmackvoll hearbeiten Gefass Pinang,Sirih,Kalk und Tabak an,wahrend sie zu gleicher.
4.Hiernach essen,obgleich dies kein ZWANG ist, die jungen Leute,auch wohl gemeinschaftlich mit dem WALIAN ,Tafel X fig 2.
5.Nach dem Essen vertheilen die Verwandtten des Junglings kleine Geschenke und bereit die Walian-wewene das Opfer fur die Empungs,aus Reis,einem gekochten mit einer neuen Reiswanne Tafel X Fig 3. als Unterlage
6.Wenn sie dies in dder Mitte des Hauses nacht einem der Hauptpfeiler niedergesetz hat,winkt einer der anwesen Walians,Tafel X fig 2. und die Walian-wewene die jumgen Laute zu sich heran,heissen sie vor dem Opfer stehn und lassen sie zugleich die Enden der WOKA und die Hande der beiden Walian festhalten. Diese< SILANAN genante,Feierlichkeit dient zur Bekraftigung des beidderseitingen des SIRIH_PINANG. Nachdem der WZLIAN das Zeichen zum Schweigen gegeben hat, spricht er mit erhobener Stimme :” O Walians,Ihr Empungs,Beschirmgeister der unseren,kommt hienieden und esst vom Reis und Fleische dass Euch durch diese Heerdgenossen geopfert wird; gebet ihnen ein hohes alter und gluck,haltet fern von ihmen alle uebel, Mudigkeit und schlecte Traume,dasselbige fragen wir auch von auch ihr empungs, die dieses haus bewohnen, ihe empung die ihr euch zu kalahwakan,kasosoran,kasedukan und karondoran aufhaltet. ihr empung die im im himmel und auf erden seid,lasset diese jungen heerdgenossen ein langes leben und gluck haben, o walian . beide wAlians werden danach als die zeugen der jungen leute betrachtet,die freiwillig ubereingekommen sind um gegenseiting heerdgenossen zu werden,
Ethnic group of Minahasa Tribes
1. Malesung (Min Nan Tou)
2.Related Minahasa People Terms
The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia (in past called by Portuguese as North Selebes). The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language. (read more)
Tompaso is a highland subdistrict located about 45 km southwest of Manado in Minahasa Regency, North Sulawesi, Indonesia. It also refers to a sub-tribe as part of larger Tontemboan tribe in the Minahasa ethnic group.
According to history, Tompaso is believed to be the origin of Minahasa people before they spread all over the land of Minahasa. One of its villages, Pinabetengan, inherited a megalithic stone about 4 m long and 2 m high tagged with full of carved pictures. The pictures portray some kind of lifetime covenant of how Minahasans were supposed to divide their territory and live peacefully.
Dr. Gerungan Saul Samuel Yacob Ratulangi or Ratu Langie (November 5, 1890 – June 30, 1949), usually known as Sam Ratulangi, was a Minahasa politician, journalist and teacher from North Sulawesi, Indonesia. His famous saying in the Tondano language ‘Si Tou Timou Tumou Tou’ is translated as ‘man lives to educate others’.
3. Minahasa Kabasan Dance
Dancing with the dress all in red, bulging eyes, fierce face, accompanied by drums, carrying swords and sharp spears, making dance kabasaran very different from other dances in Indonesia where they spit smile with graceful movements.
This dance is a dance traditional Minahasa military, who are appointed from the said; Wasal, which means rooster comb is cut so that the chicken becomes more fierce in battle.
This dance is accompanied by the sound of drums and / or a small gong. Percussion instruments like Gong, Tambour or Kolintang called “Pa ‘Wasalen” and the dancers called Kawasalan, which means the dance by imitating the movements of two roosters who are fighting.
Kawasalan word was later developed into Kabasaran which is a combination of two words “ni Kawasal Sarian” “Kawasal” means to accompany and follow the movements of dance, while “Sarian” is a war leader who led traditional Minahasa military dance. Manado Malay language development and then change the letter “W” to “B” so that the word was changed to Kabasaran, which really does not have any connection with the word “great” in Indonesian, but eventually became the dance penjemput for the dignitary-magnifying.
In ancient times the dancers Kabasaran, just as a dancer in traditional ceremonies. However, in their daily life they were farmers. If Minahasa was in a state of war, then the dancers kabasaran be Waranei (warrior). The basic form of this dance is nine sword (santi) or nine spear (wengkouw) with horses step 4 / 4 which consists of two steps to the left, and two steps to the right.
Each dancer kabasaran have a sharp weapon which is the legacy of his old ancestors, because the dancers are dancers who kabasaran hereditary. This dance is generally composed of three parts (in fact there are more than three, only now they are very rarely done). Round – round consists of:
- 1. Cakalele, which comes from the word “saka” which means fight, and “catfish” means chasing jump – jump. This round was once danced when the soldiers would go to war or returning from war. Or, this round showed great ferocity to fight on the guest, to give a sense of security on the great guest who came to visit us that even Satan the great fear of disturbing guest dancer escort Kabasaran.
- 2. The second act is called Kumoyak, which comes from the word “torn” means, swung his sharp sword or spear gun down ride, back and forth to calm himself from the sense of anger when fighting. The word “tear” itself can mean persuading the spirit of the enemy or opponent who has been killed in battle.
- 3. Lalaya’an. In this section the dancers dance free and delighted to escape from feeling angry like dancing “Lionda” by hand dipinggang and other dances of delight. This whole dance is based on cue or command of the leader of a dance called “Tumu-tuzuk” (Tombulu) or “Sarian” (Tonsea). Cue given in the language of sub-ethnic Tombulu, Tonsea, Tondano, Totemboan, Ratahan, Tombatu and Bantik. In this dance, all dancers must be allowed to express Garang without a smile, except at half lalayaan, where the dancers are allowed to spit cheerful smile.
Clothing used in this dance is made of woven fabric and Minahasa original fabric “Patola”, ie red woven fabric of Tombulu and not available in other areas in Minahasa, as written in the book Alfoersche Legenden in writing by the PN. Wilken 1830, where kabasaran Minahasa has basic wear pants and red shirt, then wrapped bond woven fabric. In this case each sub-ethnic Minahasa had a special way of weaving cloth. Special Kabasaran of Remboken and Pareipei, they are more like fashion instead of war and ceremonial clothing, namely by means of moss-lichen trees as camouflage war.
It is unfortunate that since the 1950s, native woven cloth began to disappear so kabasaran Minahasa eventually wear woven cloth Kalimantan and East because of the shape, color and motif resembled Minahasa woven fabrics such as: Kokerah, Tinonton, Pasolongan, Bentenen. Kabasaran hats made of native cloth headband yag ornate rooster feathers, bird feathers and bird Taong Paradise. There is also a flower decoration or Tiwoho canoes. Other decorative ornaments used are “lei-lei” necklaces or neck, “wongkur” cover calf foot, “rerenge’en” or the bells bells (bells made of brass).
In the past the Dutch colonial era, there are local laws regarding Kabasaran contained in the Government Gazette No. 104 B, in 1859 which stipulates that
1. Funeral ceremony the leaders of the country (Law Basar, Kadua Law, Old Law) and public figures, obtained under guard Kabasaran. Also on the country’s leaders a family wedding.
2. Customary celebrations, ceremonies pick up great guest dignitaries Dutch Resident, controller by Kabasaran.
3. Kabasaran assigned as “Opas” (village police).
4. A Kabasaran served to maintain the security checkpoint for 24 days a year.
Kabasaran which has been designated as the village policeman in the Government Gazette of the above, finally forced by the Dutch should be abolished in 1901 because at that time there are 28 prisoners who escaped from prison Manado. To recapture all the prisoners who escaped them, the Dutch police ordered the village, in this case Kabasaran, to arrest those prisoners. But the unfortunate fate of the prisoners, because they were not taken alive but all of them were killed, chopped up by Kabasaran. The Kabasaran at that time located in the village organizations led by the Old Law. Each country or village had ten Kabasaran one of them was the leader of the team is called “Pa’impulu’an ne Kabasaran”. With status as an employee of the village, they would receive benefits in the form of rice, white sugar, and cloth.
It was horrible the Kabasaran at the time, because although only paid with rice, white sugar, and cloth, they were able to slaughter 28 people who all died with terrible injuries.
4. Marawale Moving tradition in Minahasa
Merawale in Minahasa, a tradition of moving house without hereditary dismantled’ve rarely encountered. Communities in Bitung, Amurang, South Minahasa, there seems to maintain the tradition merawale.
Togetherness in social life with diwujutkan one merawale tradition. Both school children, youth and parents are involved in this tradition, regardless of social status.
Merawale, Moving Traditions
Merawale usually commanded by a person to a house or sabuah which are moved can be lifted more easily. Merawale is a symbol of innocence, togetherness without the engineering community in the social life in Minahasa.
People involved in merawale not paid in money but got a ‘gratitude payment’ from the owner of the house, one of the words terimaksih realized by serving drinks, cigarettes, coffee or cake bowsprit, onde onde and nasijaha.
4a. mysteri of Kiowa tribe
K I O W A
“Misteri Pu-purengkey-en e Kiowa”
O-an-oak in Aramaic e Kiowa (Kiowa Cultural Institute), which was pioneered by Tunu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian who was accompanied by Tumu, said Drs. Palar Nico together with the observer and the observer as well as lovers and figures as well as people who never wrestled and participated in cultural rituals Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, Old alUkung Jopie Worotitjan, Ukung Tua Piri Hein, Anthony Nayoan , Nayo Tumober, Adoloph Assa, Albert Salanti, Alex Worotitjan, Narsisus Talumantak, Gustaf Palar, Felix S. Kauanang SE, Drs. Wempie Worotitjan, Jantje A Polii, Ferry Salanti, Hans Worotitjan etc., become a very useful tool for extracting Senduk Ka-cultural roots of Kiowa
From among the oldest sources, the late apo ‘Klaas L. Sajow, who was born and raised in the village Kiawa (which is always called “Puser in Tana ‘Ka-Senduk-an”) and as adults wander (lumantak) to make a living in South Minahasa. later married and settled even Janunri died in 1996 at the age of 100 years, Kroit village, district Motoling, has provided a real participation in the form of feedback about stories “Puser in Tana ‘ancient’ is demonstrated also by the legacy of the ancestral heritage of ethnic Kiowa, that before he died promised to restore it to Puser heritage in Tana ‘, al flag (wirus im banua), the banner of war (wirus tu-turu ‘im Custody e Waraney), weapons (santi, wentir, tu-Tura’), po-Porong, etc., is also an invaluable contribution to the excavation of cultural roots Ka- Senduk-anKiowa. Tumu-Palar said Drs Nico, who has decades of accompanying Tumu-speech Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian (deceased), has a lot of vocabulary and a collection of stories and personal accounts gathered from the old speakers tentenag Ka-Senduk culture of Kiowa, so it helps the business inventory of the necessary data.
The young generation lover and observer and observer of culture, which actively involve themselves and voluntarily explore, learn, examine, examines, traces and relics make the preparation of documentation for the purposes of writing and preserving the cultures of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, among others:
Alex Salanti S.E., Julius Talumantak STH, Drs. Dantje Tumober, Dra Sientje Rondonuwu, Ir. Vivepri Lumanaw, Drs. Max Piri, Drs. Victory Palar, Olly Karinda SH, Grace Worotitjan SE, Dra. Syane Karinda. Dra. Evelyn Kawung, Dra. Jane Karinda etc., is a young generation successor to the ideals of ethnic Kiowa ancestors.
Concrete manifestation of the business re-excavation of cultural roots Ka-Senduk’s, namely the implementation of “Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa” initiated by the lovers and observers and observers Kiowa culture, with the intent and purpose to explore the cultural roots and customs and traditions of ethnic ancestry Kiowa ancestors.
Meeting was conducted from early 1992 until now, as the realization of observer agreement realization that the secret art and mystery “KASENDUKAN Kiowa” needs to be extracted after seeing “KAROT-KAROT” (scratches) on the rocks in the river and around the WATU TU’US IM-PA-AN PEPA’AR Ranowangko river edge (near the lake Tona’as Wellem Rakian) on September 9, 1991, led by Tumu-speech WANGKO ‘UTE’ RAKIAN; the implementation is done routinely and regularly, including the establishment of team- small team, a team of research and development, verification and monitoring team, formulator and author manuscripts and special teams as required for purposes of repair, rectification and adjustment to the new accurate data found.
To complement the data and supporting evidence, also held a review and field research on heritage sites and archaeological sites around Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, as well as interviews and dialogues with the “tu’a im-tu’a banua “and the charcoal-man known as a lover and observer and observer of culture.
Confirmation of the truth of the findings in the field, as well as inputs as well as stories and narrative a person, done with a special interview and exchange ideas and opinions, and dialogue with people who are already quite old and is considered the master and learn the ins and outs and cultural customs and traditions Ka -Senduk’s, then posed as a discussion in the workshop, to then be studied and studied again the truth and authenticity, and then requested to be formulated and made the writing.
Workshop activities and study a special group and small team meetings, as well as review and field research, conducted since mid-1992 to 1999, still continue and run continuously to obtain the findings of a more complete, to enrich the cultural repertory khasana Ka-Senduk of Kiowa.
It is regrettable because the input of workshop participants in the form of original papers from the workshop participants, about what they know or hear or see for yourself from their parents or their ancestors, especially also the resume of the workshop, nearly everything is destroyed and can not be saved, due to because of stagnant water due to floods that hit the residential penyususn, where archives are stored resumme workshop results. Floods that hit Jakarta Metropolitan city on 10 to 13 Februai 1996, has also checked out the house in the area of Green Ville compiler Block T No. 1 Jakarta, where the flood reached a height of approximately 100 centimeter, so the cupboard and filing cabinet located in the Room part below, where the notes and writings as well as casette tape recorded conversations and interviews with the elders, especially Tumu-Ute said ‘that is a résumé archive Senduk Ka-cultural gatherings of Kiowa, and dozens of cassette tape recorder hidden recording ( recorderder tape is stored in a bag) Salanti Ferry interview about the roots of cultural arts Kasendukan Kiowa, the Ute Tumututur ‘Rakian, Anton Nayoan, Welem Rakian, Endie Ponamon, Mark Tinangon, Ansi Lumanaw, Andri Ponamon, Welem Lombok, Peter Walukow, Alex Worotitjan, Ampel Karinda, Eyebrows Karinda, Okta Pioh, Adoloph Assa, Nayo Tumober and other people who were interviewed in secret by Ferry Salanti, also flooded and submerged in water for 4 days, including a collection of “conversations” penyusu with the elders of the Kiowa , including stories that had the “compiler” heard by community leaders, among others, by the late Derek mistaken ex Old Law when he was still alive, who happens to have neighbors with the authors about the year 1962/1963, also with Apo ‘Melius Walukow father from Tuwa ‘Peter Walukow often watched him mix of drugs, Apo’ Tertius Piri (where my brother and I Yull often below by Ito ‘Alex Worotitjan looking concoction of drugs), the late Passport Alphius Wowor, the late Endie Rakian, Deceased singon Alo,, Grandma Dora Walukow, Amarhuma Discard Rimper, especially too late and the late HM Taulu Tona’as Sokoman John Malonda, FS Watuseke, cultural-other culture, especially also Rietje Rawung aunt and uncle Buyung pemiilik Manguni TOMOHON BOOK HOUSE (Importers book Eastern Indonesia’s largest school books and college in the 1950s are still many published and printed in Holland, in addition to books already published and printed in Indonesia) in 1956-1958, where I live and help them maintain bookstore while in school and read books of art and culture, history and other knowledge that there is no guest / customer, including notes I summarize the story that never are told by the late Justus Worotitjan (tete ‘sergeant) badminton field, about Worotitjan village (now named Kapitu), so the total damaged and destroyed by standing water, which can not be rescued by the maids who kept the house, including the aunt and cousin Yetje Assa Dra Siska Worotitjan compiler can not save casette and archives workshops and other goods because of overflow water occurs at night while they lay on the floor above and find out later the house was flooded the next day. But still lucky because the inputs and resume the essentials workshop, an outline has been included by the author in the diskette / computer.
The data and materials written about the culture of the Ka-Senduk remaining Kiowa and stored on disks / computers this reason, the materials the words “Mystery of Pu-en-purengkey e Kiowa”.
Stories about the village or Ro’ong Kiawa Kiowa (Wanua Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), found also in some literature, written and published in the Dutch colonial era, but its content is very much deviated from the actual situation and reality.
Apparently the experts and cultural researcher and writer who authored certtera about the situation and what is related to the history and customs and traditions of society Kiawa (Ka-Senduk of Kiowa), not knowing at all or never perform or review research and field observations, but only heard from the speakers of a third party who only heard from the second party (the adventurous amateurs, which incidentally, to explore the outback “Wanua Kasendukan”), who only knew vaguely about the state of culture and art center Kasendukan Kiowa (Kiawa). The authors do not or have never visited the “national and cultural origins Kasendukan Kiowa, because it was difficult due to go into” navel in tana “, due to its natural condition is still remote and difficult to visit because of natural conditions and terrain that is still covered with dense forest and factors reluctance of the researchers / writers to visit the expedition and the area is still very remote pengungungan time; Moreover, people’s stories about berkunjungnya Whites (SE TOUW Kulo ‘, which is estimated stranded on the beach around Tumpaan Maruasey around the mouth of the river, then their sailors and merchant adventurers who accompanied the missionaries wandered down the river kepegunungan with Maruasey, Nimanga and reached the river and into Wanua Ranowangko Kiowa, Kiowa Wanua because in there are places called TINO’TOKKAN CULO SI (where whites chopped , who estimated a PASTOR because CULO SI ‘referred to, called and calling people with the title “Padre”), including terms as CASTELA, Santa Cruz, TA’SIC ELA (TASIKELA) who used the name of several locations in the plantations and settlements Wanua Kiowa, signaling and indicate that there were people “white skin, which never stopped even settle in Wanua Kiowa, carrying the seeds of plants cloves, cocoa, nutmeg, coffee, and spices and other plants, still exist in Wanua Kiowa It also includes words and terms such as sapeo, kadera, kawayo, nyora, sinyo etc., are still used by residents until now ..
(Last we heard from Pastor Renwarin and his father, who visited La’un Dano, Kiowa, that the files in Tilburg has been taken to Pineleng, by an expert and researcher of ancient art and culture Esa Mina, origin, Father Renwarin Kakaskasen in Seminary Pineleng).
The evidence that a review or research on customs and traditions and the Kiowa culture is not deeply researched and written for not carrying in the literature about the existence of sites and relics of prehistoric prbakala in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa:
Watu So-sio-siouw in La’un Dano
• Tu’us i Loweng e Apo ‘e We-wene.wo Amut the Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuama,
• Pa-an-cone La’un Dano Ma-wara ‘
• Toy Touw Wangko-‘Me-an-upus
• Toy Touw Wiwing-an-
• Toy Touw Sondek i Rorot an arch,
• Toy Touw other-scattered in several places,
• Timbukar (waruga) which amounts to approximately 300 pieces in the ancient times (which is scattered from front of house Family Pieter Walukow arrived at the cemetery on the western village of Kiowa).
• Timbukar Sengkona Wowor (youngest citizens)
• Watu Tumo-Towa, which exist in some places,
• Watu Amian, (justified by a Japanese husband of a woman lecturer in UNSRAT and Mr. HYODO Cs from Japan Tobacco who installed the machines Cigarettes factory in the foothills of navel IN TANA ‘,, who visited WATU AMIAN
• Watu-ta’di Pa-an,
• Kentur Puser in Tana ‘
• Pa-an i-ra’da SOKOPE ‘an Lengko’an. (Paradiso)
Including the data or materials that tell of:
• Angouw e Touw ASIC Amian (Alien Cave of the North).
• Santa Cruz,
• Rio Grande,
• Tino’tok of the Culo ‘
• San Salvador,
• San Padre,
• Ma-gho’gho ‘
• and other ancient relics and sites as well as pre-history that lie in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa. as well as sacred objects and other historical widespread around Wanua Kiowa.
The things mentioned above show and prove, that the writer on matters Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa (now Kiawa) in those days, did not have knowledge about the cultural roots of the Ka-Senduk Kiowa, so the writing is much different from the circumstances and the reality and human remains ancient and pre-history that is in Wanua Kasendukan Kiowa.
Even the impression that the author did not conduct a review and field research, let alone communicate and dialogue with the elders of the Kiowa tradition, perhaps even directly, or do not visit or the introduction of environmental adaptation to feel and explore in depth the approaches and dialogue straight from the heart of what precautionary believed, trusted and felt and known by the Ka-Senduk of Kiowa, even more than that, probably do not know or never saw the sites and ancient relics Kiawa village.
“Mystery of Pu-en-purebgkey e Kiowa” or “Si-en-sisil e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa”, which are told by the ancestors of the ancestors to the parents until the child-great-great-grandchildren for generations, provides a snapshot , on the state and society of ancient life Ka-Senduk of Kiowa as derived Apo ‘Amut e We-Wene and Apo’ Tu’ur e Tuawa under the guidance of Wali’an La’un Dano.
To all participants Ka-Senduk Cultural Meeting of Kiowa, and the persons-source, Tumu-Tumu-said-said, observers and analysts as well as lovers of Kiowa culture and individuals, who have been involved in search and preparation of this paper, the authors ingim express appreciation to the expression of gratitude and a sincere apology, if his name is not or has not been recorded in writing in this paper, even more than that please forgive if this paper is still too far away or less effective.
A strange event occurred in Watu Tu’us I Loweng e Apo-Apo ‘e Kiowa in Kentur La’un Dano, where the trees’ Tawa’ang “show daunya terikat’teranyam nine strands into one (siouw nga-lalay daung in Laughter’ ang had begun esa pules ma-nga-pules), although attempted to be degraded or open braid / knot, still re-woven and bound by nature, these events took place over several months and witnessed by many people.
Strange and bizarre events that happen over and over again ie inside the track and doing research on ancient heritage sites in the Kiowa area, by chance, without any planned or arranged and engineered, the person who collected always consist of nine people, this is beginning on the date 9 September 1993 at Sondek arch (the former site of PA-AN E-PEPA’AR WALI’AN WO WO SE SE TONA’AS IM TETERUSAN Banua KASENDUKAN and once lived APO ‘INA’ ROROT), in which nine people under the leadership Tona’as Wangko ‘Ute’ Rakian plug-li’us Watu Tundek Pa-an (nine men who gathered this is by chance).
(1)Tona’as im pa’seke’an Minahasa 1890
3.The history of Minahasa
|Minahasan tribesman in a parade in Surabaya, East Java.|
|ca. 1 million in North Sulawesi|
|Regions with significant populations|
|Minahasan languages, Manado Malay, Indonesian language|
|Protestantism (89%), Roman Catholicism (10,5%), Islam (0,5%)|
|Related ethnic groups|
|Bolaang Mongondow people, Gorontalo people|
The Minahasa (alternative spelling: Minahassa or Mina hasa) are an ethnic group located in the North Sulawesi province of Indonesia, formerly known as North Celebes. The Minahasa speak Minahasan languages and Manado Malay (also known as Minahasa Malay), a language closely related to the Malay language.
Originally inhabited by Nuclear Malayo-Polynesian languages-speaking peoples, the region was colonized in the 16th century by the Portuguese and Spanish, then the Dutch. In the Dutch East Indies the Minahasa people identified strongly with the Dutch language, culture and the Protestant faith — so strongly, in fact, that when Indonesia became independent in 1945 factions of political elites of the region pleaded with the Dutch to let it become a province of the Netherlands. There is a considerable number of people from the Minahasa living in the Netherlands, as part of the Indo community.
The name of the land of Minahasa has been changed several times: Batacina-Malesung-Minaesa and then finally the current name Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united”. This name dates from the war against the Kingdom of Bolaang Mangondow. However, other sources cite that the original name of Minahasa was Malesung, meaning “paddy rotary”, then changed to Se Mahasa, meaning “they that unite,” and finally Minahasa, meaning “becoming one united.”
North Sulawesi never developed any large empire. In 670, the leaders of the different tribes, who all spoke different languages, met by a stone known as Watu Pinawetengan. There they founded a community of independent states, who would form one unit and stay together and would fight any outside enemies if they were attacked.
The Origin of Minahasa People
It is unknown when the land of Minahasa was first occupied by humans. The Minahasans believe that they are descendants of Toar and Lumimuut. Initially, the descendants of Toar-Lumimuut were divided into 3 groups: Makatelu-pitu (three times seven), Makaru-siuw (two times nine) and Pasiowan-Telu (nine times three). They multiplied quickly. But soon there were disputes among these people. Their leaders (Tona’as) then decided to meet and talk about this. They met in Awuan (north of the current Tonderukan hill). That meeting was called Pinawetengan u-nuwu (dividing of language) or Pinawetengan um-posan (dividing of ritual). At that meeting the descendants were divided into three groups named Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan corresponding to the groups mentioned above. At the place where this meeting took place a memorial stone called Watu Pinabetengan (Stone of Dividing) was then built. It is a favourite tourist destination.
The groups Tonsea, Tombulu, and Tontemboan then established their main territories which were Maiesu, Niaranan, and Tumaratas respectively. Soon several villages were established outside these territories. These new villages then became a ruling center of a group of villages called puak, later walak, comparable to the present-day district.
Subsequently a new group of people arrived in Pulisan peninsula. Due to numerous conflicts in this area, they then moved inland and established villages surrounding a large lake. These people were therefore called Tondano, Toudano or Toulour (meaning water people). This lake is now the Tondano lake.
In the following years, more groups came to Minahasa. There were:
- people from the islands of Maju and Tidore who landed in Atep. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Tonsawang.
- people from Tomori Bay. These were the ancestors of the subethnic Pasam-bangko (Ratahan dan Pasan)
- people from Bolaang Mangondow who were the ancestors of Ponosakan (Belang).
- people from the Bacan archipelago and Sangi, who then occupied Lembeh, Talisei Island, Manado Tua, Bunaken and Mantehage. These were the subethnic Bobentehu (Bajo). They landed in the place now called Sindulang. They then established a kingdom called Manado which ended in 1670 and became walak Manado.
- people from Toli-toli, who in the early 18th century landed first in Panimburan and then went to Bolaang-Mangondow
- and finally to the place where Malalayang is now located. These people were the ancestors of the subethnic Bantik.
These are the nine subethnic groups in Minahasa (which explains the number 9 in Manguni Maka-9): Tonsea, Tombulu, Tontemboan, Tondano, Tonsawang, Pasan Ratahan, Ponosakan, Babontehu and Bantik.
The name Minahasa itself arose at the time the Minahasans fought against Bolaang Mangondow. Among the Minahasan heroes in these wars against Bolaang Mangondow are: Porong, Wenas, Dumanaw and Lengkong (in the war near Lilang village), Gerungan, Korengkeng, Walalangi (near Panasen, Tondano), Wungkar, Sayow, Lumi, and Worotikan (in the war along Amurang Bay).
Until the dominance of Dutch influence in the 17th and 18th century the Minahassans lived in warrior societies that practised headhunting.
The European Era
In the second half of the 16th century, both Portuguese and the Spanish arrived in North Sulawesi. Half-way though the 17th century there was a rapprochement between the Minahasan chiefs and the Dutch VOC (Verenigde Oostindische Compagnie), which was given concrete form in the treaty of 1679 (which can be found in the Corpus Diplomaticus Neerlando-Indicum 1934, vol. III, no 425). From 1801-1816, the Netherlands were occupied by the French imperial forces of Napoleon and the Minahasa came under English control. In 1817 Dutch rule was re-established until 1949.
At the time of the first contact with Europeans the sultanate of Ternate held some sway over North Sulawesi, and the area was often visited by seafaring Bugis traders from South Sulawesi. The Spanish and the Portuguese, the first Europeans to arrive, landed in Minahasa via the port of Makasar, but also landed at Sulu Island (off the north coast of Borneo) and at the port of Manado. The abundance of natural resources in Minahasa made Manado a strategic port for European traders sailing to and from the spice island of Maluku. Although they had sporadic contacts with Minahasa, the Spanish and Portuguese influence was limited by the power of the Ternate sultanate.
The Portuguese and Spaniards left reminders of their presence in the north in subtle ways. Portuguese surnames and various Portuguese words not found elsewhere in Indonesia, like garrida for an enticing woman and buraco for a bad man, can still be found in Minahasa. In the 1560s the Portuguese Franciscan missionaries made some converts in Minahasa.
The Spanish had already set themselves up in the Philippines and Minahasa was used to plant coffee that came from South America because of its rich soil. Manado was further developed by Spain to become the center of commerce for the Chinese traders who traded the coffee in China. With the help of native allies the Spanish took over the Portuguese fortress in Amurang in the 1550s, and Spanish settlers also established a fort at Manado, so that eventually Spain controlled all of the Minahasa. It was in Manado where one of the first Indo-Eurasian (Mestizo) communities in the archipelago developed during the 16th century. The first King of Manado (1630) named Muntu Untu was in fact the son of a Spanish Mestizo. 
Spain renounced to her possessions in Minahasa by means of a treaty with the Portuguese in return for a payment of 350,000 ducats. Minahasan rulers sent Supit, Pa’at dan Lontoh (their statues are located in Kauditan, about 30 km to Bitung) where they made an alliance treaty with the Dutch. Together eventually gained the upper hand in 1655, built their own fortress in 1658 and expelled the last of the Portuguese a few years later.
By the early 17th century the Dutch had toppled the Ternate sultanate, and then set about eclipsing the Spanish and Portuguese. As was the usual case in the 1640s and 50s, the Dutch colluded with local powers to throw out their European competitors. In 1677 the Dutch occupied Pulau Sangir and, two years later, the Dutch governor of Maluku, Robert Padtbrugge, visited Manado. Out of this visit came a treaty with the local Minahasan chiefs, which led to domination by the Dutch for the next 300 years.
The Dutch helped unite the linguistically diverse Minahasa confederacy, and in 1693 the Minahasa scored a decisive military victory against the Bolaang to the south. The Dutch influence flourished as the Minahasans embraced the European goods and Christian religion. Missionary schools in Manado in 1881 were among the first attempts at mass education in Indonesia, giving their graduates a considerable edge in gaining civil service, military and other positions of influence.
Relations with the Dutch were often less than cordial (a war was fought around Tondano between 1807 and 1809) and the region did not actually come under direct Dutch rule until 1870. The Dutch and the Minahasans eventually became so close that the north was often referred to as the 12th province of the Netherlands. A Manado – based political movement called Twaalfde Provincie even campaigned for Minahasa’s integration into the Dutch state in 1947.
Portuguese activity apart, Christianity became a force in the early 1820s when a Calvinist group, the Netherlands Missionary Society, turned from an almost exclusive interest in Maluku to the Minahasa area. The wholesale conversion of the Minahasans was almost complete by 1860. With the missionaries came mission schools, which meant that, as in Ambon and Roti, Western education in Minahasa started much earlier than in other parts of Indonesia. The Dutch government eventually took over some of these schools and also set up others. Because the schools taught in Dutch, the Minahasans had an early advantage in the competition for government jobs and places in the colonial army. Minahasans remain among the educated elite today.
A relatively large number of Minahasans pursued professional military careers in the colonial army (KNIL). Next to the South Moluccan Ambonese, the Minahasa Menadonese were also considered a martial race and therefore particularly competent and trustworthy as soldiers. As KNIL soldiers the Minahasans fought alongside the Dutch to subdue rebellions in other parts of the archipelago, such as for instance the Java War of 1825-30.
As a large percentage of Minahasans was formally equalised to the European legal class, young men were also obliged to serve as conscripts when mandatory military service for Europeans was introduced in 1917. Older men (as off 32) were obliged to join the Home guard (Dutch: Landstorm).
They seemed to gain a special role in the Dutch scheme of things and their loyalty to the Dutch as soldiers, their Christian religion and their geographic isolation from the rest of Indonesia all led to a sense of being ‘different’ from the other ethnic groups of the archipelago.[clarification needed]
Republic of Indonesia
The Japanese occupation of 1942-45 was a period of deprivation, and the Allies bombed Manado heavily in 1945. During the Revolution for independence that followed, there was bitter division between pro-Indonesian Unitarians and those favoring Dutch-sponsored federalism. The appointment of a Manadonese Christian, Sam Ratulangi, as the first republican governor of eastern Indonesia, was decisive in winning Minahasan support for the republic.
As the young republic lurched from crisis to crisis, Jakarta‘s monopoly over the copra trade seriously weakened Minahasa’s economy. Illegal exports flourished and in June 1956 Jakarta ordered the closure of Manado port, the busiest smuggling port in the republic. Local leaders refused and Jakarta backed down. Soon Permesta rebels confronted the central government with demands for political, economic and regional reform. Jakarta responded in Manado by bombing the city in February 1958, and then invading in June 1958.
The Minahasan sense of being different quickly became a problem for the central government after independence. As in Sumatra, there was a general feeling that the central government was inefficient, development was stagnating and money was being plugged into Java. Circumstances favored the spread of communism.
In March 1957, the military leaders of both southern and northern Sulawesi launched a confrontation with the central government, with demands for greater regional autonomy. They demanded more local development, a fairer share of revenue, help in suppressing the Kahar Muzakar rebellion in Southern Sulawesi, and a cabinet of the central government led jointly by Soekarno and Hatta. At least initially the ‘Permesta’ (Piagam Perjuangan Semesta Alam) rebellion was a reformist rather than a separatist movement.
Negotiations between the central government and the Sulawesi military leaders prevented violence in southern Sulawesi, but the Minahasan leaders were dissatisfied with the agreements and the movement split. Inspired, perhaps, by fears of domination by the south, the Minahasan leaders declared their own autonomous state of North Sulawesi in June 1957. By this time the central government had the situation in southern Sulawesi pretty much under control but in the north they had no strong local figure to rely upon and there were rumors that the USA, suspected of supplying arms to rebels in Sumatra, was also in contact with the Minahasan leaders.
The possibility of foreign intervention finally drove the central government to seek military support from southern Sulawesi. Permesta forces were driven out of central Sulawesi, Gorontalo, Sangir island and from Morotai in Maluku (from whose airfield the rebels had hoped to fly bombing raids on Jakarta). The rebels’ few planes (supplied by the USA and flown by Filipino, Taiwanese and US pilots) were destroyed. US policy shifted, favoring Jakarta, and in June 1958 central government troops landed in Minahasa. The Permesta rebellion was finally put down in mid-1961.
The effect of both the Sumatran and Sulawesi rebellions was to strengthen exactly those trends the rebels had hoped to weaken. Central authority was enhanced at the expense of local autonomy, radical nationalism gained over pragmatic moderation, the power of the communists and Soekarno increased while that of Hatta waned, and Soekarno was able to establish guided democracy in 1959.
Recently, the Indonesian government has adopted policies to strengthen local autonomy, the very idea that Permesta fought for.
At 97% of the population, the Minahasa Regency has one of highest proportions of Christianity in Indonesia. It has the highest density of church buildings in Indonesia, with approximately one church for every 100m road. This is due to a successful missionary campaign by European Christians in Northern Sulawesi.
In 1907, Firma P.W.M Trap, Leiden, Holland published a bible in the Tontemboan language, a language of Minahasa. It was edited by M. Adriani-Gunning and J. Regar.
Jehovah’s Witnesses begin their first preaching activity in this province in 1932. The first Minahasa to be baptized was Brother Theo Ratu; he is also claimed as the first Indonesian to be baptized. His son Vicky Ratu was also one of the Jehovah’s Witnesses, now joined in Tangerang Kota Congregation. In the 2007 Service Year in North Sulawesi their peak publisher figures were 2,500 publishers.
Minahasan cuisine is very spicy, and can feature ingredients not typically found in other parts of Indonesia. For example, dog (RW, short for rintek wuuk, or “fine hair” in Tontemboan), cat (tusuk, also known as eveready because of the cat logo used by the battery), forest rat, and fruit bat (paniki) are commonly eaten. The provincial capital Manado is often referred to as Kota Tinutuan, in reference to a popular local dish: a rice porridge made with corn, smoked fish, greens, and chilies. Known outside the province as Bubur Manado, tinutuan is supposed to improve health and vitality.
Kabasaran is the fierce and famous Minahasan wardance which reminds of the old Minahasa warrior societies. The dancers wear red garments which in the old times was a color exclusive for the accomplished headhunter. This dance is similar to the Moluccan Cakalele wardance.
Minahasa music is highly influenced by that of the European colonials; their festivals feature large marching ensembles made up of clarinets, saxophones (source), trumpets, trombones, and tubas, all constructed out of local bamboo.
In the Minahasa, 5 distinct languages are spoken: Tonsawang, Tontemboan, Toulour, Tonsea and Tombulu. In 1996, the Summer Institute of Linguistics in Dallas, published the North Sulawesi Language Survey by Scott Merrifield and Martinus Salea. It gives an overview of the classification and distribution of the languages, based on a detailed study of the phonology and vocabulary.
Influences of Portuguese, Spanish and Dutch can be found in the Indonesian dialect of the Minahasa (Manado Malay or Minahasa Malay):
Chair in Indonesian is kursi, in the Minahasa its called kadera (cadera – Spanish word for hip; cadeira – Portuguese word for chair).
Ever since the overall de-centralisation following the end of Suharto’s New Order era the Minahasa is bolstering its regional autonomy scheme, among others by positioning itself to profile a unique cultural entity & identity. The three main Minahasa NGO’s active in the cultural revival movement are: ‘Yayasan Suara Nurami’ (The Voice from Within Foundation); ‘Minahasa Wangko’ (Minahasa the Great) both founded by Bert Supit and ‘Peduli Minahasa’ (Take care of Minahasa).
National Heroes of Indonesia from Minahasa
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