Category Archives: Dr Iwan Masterpiene Uniquecollections

The Introduction Of Postal and Document History Republic Indonesia 1950-1955 Exhibiton at Driwancybermuseum (Pameran koleksi Negara Kesatuan RI 1950_55)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Welcome To Driwancybermuseum Blog And Home Office

Selamat Datang Para Kolektor Dari seluruh dunia Ke Museum dunia Maya Dan Homeoffice Dr Iwan Suwandy.

Driwancybermuseum’s Blog

tarian betawi tempo dulu                 

                           hallo  collectors from all over the world

                       WELCOME TO Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

 *ill 001

 *ill 001  THE MUSUEM LOGO IMPERIAL MING  DRAGON FIVE CLOWN*ill 001

           THE FIRST INDONESIAN UNIQOECOLLECTIONS CYBERMUSEUM

                                   THE FOUNDER  Dr IWAN SUWANDY

                                                         

    THE FOUNDER FLOWER IDLE: MING IMPERIAL WANLI CHRYSANTHENUM

  

______________________________________________________________________

                    space for promotional advertisment

_______________________________________________________________________

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                    WELCOME TO THE  MAIN “FREEDOM HALL” 

       

                                                               FOR

                                        INTERNATIONAL OR REGIONAL 

                                           MEETING AND EXHIBITIONS

                                              PERMANENT  EXHIBITION

1.THE SILVER UNIQUECOLLECTION ANNIVERSARY EXHBITIONS

                               

                     

2.THE BETAWI MOSLEM IDULFITRI EXHIBITION(PERMANENT)

 *

               *BETAWI PUPPET SHADOW MAN(DALANG)

3.THE BILITON’S TANG TREASURE CARGO ARTIFACT EXHIBITION

                                   ARTIFACT GOLD CUP AND BARCELET

                                       (*courtecy Singapore National Museum)

                                           

                                         

                                TANG CUP (*courteny Dr Iwan Cybermuseum)

                                 

4.THE EXHIBITION OF YUAN MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC ARTIFACT RECONSTRUCTIONS

                                  THE HALL OF FREEDOM

     YUAN-   MING IMPERIAL CERAMIC DIGITAL RECONSTRACTION EXHIBITION

                        IN ORDER TO SAVE THE HUMAN HERITAGE

I.MING CHENG HUA IMPERIAL RED  AND MOHAMADDAN BLUE INGLAZED SAUCER

                                            BEFORE

                          AFTER RECONSTRACTIONS

THE COMPLETE INFO LOOK AT THE PREMIUM HALL OF CERAMIC

5, THE EXHIBITION OF JAVANESE FUTURE TELLING DJOJOBOJO

                           

*ANCIENT DJOJOBOJO BRONZE STATUE

ALSO ABOUT THE OLD BOOK OF DJOJOBOJO,HIS PETILASAN DAN HISTORY NARRATIONS

6. THE EXHIBITION OF ART PHOTOGRAPY

THE PHOTOGRAPHY COLLECTIONS EXHIBITION

I.FRAME OF OLD CAMERA

1. KODAK 1948*ill 001

*ill 001

2. INDONESIA ETHNIC  STATUE AND FIGURINE ARTPHOTOPICTURE

1) THE OLD BALI STATUE . *ill 006 dan 007

7.THE TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM EXHIBITION

1). THE PICTURE OF CANDI JIWA*ill 001 AND BLONDONGAN *ill 002RELATED WITH TARUMANEGARA KINGDOM

*ill 001

2). THE CANDI JIWA MUSEUM COLLECTIONS*ill 003

*ill 003

3.) THE TARUMANEGARA HISTORY9english version and Indonesia version*ill 004

*ill 004

The complete information of Tarumanegara was available in CR-rom  only for Premium member

More illustration and info please look at the EXHIBITION FRAME TARUMANEGARA

hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

the end@Dr iwan Suwandy 2010

                THANK YOU FOR VISIT  THE  MAIN “FREEDOM HALL” REGIONAL EXHIBITION

       

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                                                               FOR

TO ENTER THIS HALL YOU MUST REGISTER AS THE PREMIUM MEMBER

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                                               Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM      

                                            “INTRODUCTION OFFICE”

                                    

                       Information how to enter the Premium Cybermuseum

                                      And Register for Premium ID

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                                   THE  CYBERMUSEUM TOL GATE

                                              RESTRICTED AREA

                                             

                                    ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBERS

                                          STOP!STOP!STOP!STOP!

                         !!!!!! Your Premium Member ID please!!!!!!!!!!!

       

                            ENTER THE PREMIUM CYBERMUSEUM HALL

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                                                  WELCOME TO

                                “HALL OF HUMAN HERITAGE”

                               BETAWI TRADITIONAL DANCE                                 

              

                  THANK YOU !!TERIMA KASIH !! ARIGATO!! SHE-SE!!DANKE!!

                                               FOR COMING TO

                                       Dr IWAN CYBERMUSEUM

                             THE HALL OF HUMAN HERITAGE

   

                 THE HALL OF DR IWANS MASTERPIECE COLLECTIONS

THE HALL OF PHILLATELLIC COLLECTIONS

THE POSTAL  AND DOCUMENT HISTORY OG NKRI 1950-1955

1950(August-December)1.September 1950

(1) September,4th 1950

Postally used cover from  cds soerabaja 4.9.50 on RIS overprint smelt stamps 1 sen strip three.

(2)September,8th.1950

Return to sender official free stamps homemade cover from balai harta peninggalan semarang to Jatinegara, but not found with two postmarak ” return afzender onbeken” and  Onbekend. Veldpost Batavia.geen adreswijziging door geadreseeth .

2.October 1950

(1) October ,10th.1950

Postally used cover from soerabaja to Sidoardjo with RIS overprint smelt stamps 4 cen.(rare stamp)

(2) October,11th.1950

The Registed postal used cover from Tondano to Djakarta with RIS overprint building 4o cent stamp.

 3.November 1950

 4.december 1950

b. 1951

1.Penemuan Koleksi Langka tjonto prangko jang berlaku di Indonesia dengan stempel tinta violet tjonto (specimen) , oleh kepala kantor pos Bengkulu

Contoh Prangko yang berlaku di Indonesia tahun 1951 termasuk prangko RISprangko RIS Rp.2,-Rp.3.Rp.5 ,-Rp 10.- dan Rp.25. tak dijual diloket,prangko nominal tinggi saat itu langsung dipasang dan di stempel saat pengiriman surat berat atau pospaket.

Koleksi ini hanya baru satu  ditemukan dan dilaporkan, maaf illustrasi kurang jelas,ini disengaja agar tidak di buat palsunya,d an tetap dalam kondisi seperti yang ditemukan di Bengkulu , ini merupakn postal histori sangat langka dan membuktikan bahwa prangko cetak wina tak pernah dijual diloket kantor pos Indonesia,bagi yang memilikinya harap berkenan memberikan informasi liwat comment,terima kasih. Apabila perhimpunan filateli Indonesia atau asia ingin memamerkan koleksi yang sangat langka ini silahkan menghubungi Dr Iwan liwat comment-catatan Dr iwan suwandy)

(the RIS Sample Stamp circulated In Indonesia Until 1951, only one exist in the world,if the Phillatelic Exhibtion want to show this amizing and RRRR collections ,please asked the owner Dr Iwan suwandy via comment.Please donnot tag this collections without the owner permission)

4.April.1951

(1) April,10th.1951

postally used registered homemade cover with RIS overprint building stamps 25 sen,one stamp cutting.

10.OCTOBER 1951

(1) October,24.1950

Postally used cover from  panitia penyelesaian  urusahan pemulihan  jawa tengah semarah cover cds semarang  24,.1o.51 to pekalongan,return to sender witth therare building stamps overprint RIS 30 sen.\

2. January 1951

(1)January,23th.1951

RIS Priting Office cARD OVERPRINT BLOB INK TO COVER THE ris SEND FROM CDS jAKARTA 23,1.51.

3.Akhir 1951

Dr Adnan Kapau Gani pada akhir tahun 1951 sampai Februari 1952 berada di Holland sebagai anggota Delegasi RI pada perundingan Indonesia-Belanda dari hasil KMB, dan mengenai kedaulatan Irian Barat, tepatnya di kota Den Haag.

c.1952

October,23th,952

The first flight cover from bandung via KOLM to Chile with RIS overprint 30 cent building stamps and sukarno first series stamp RP.1 ,RIS eagle stamps .

 D.1953

 E. 1954

F.1955

THE FIRST INDONESIAN GENERAL ELECTIONS 1955 COLLECTIONS
KOLEKSI PEMILU PERTAMA 1955

FRAME ONE :
Dr IWAN COLLECTION
1. head of bailout(bagian atas kartu suara)

2. The picture of Party emblem(Tanda gambar Partai Peserta PEMILU)
a.Hole Party(Seluruh Partai)

b.Close up some pary(tanda Gambar beberapa Partai)

 

THE COMPLETE EXHIBITION ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT AND I WILL SHOW THE EXHIBIITON SPECIAL FOR YOU.GREETING FROM Dr IWAN SUWANDY

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The complete Collections Exist Only for Premium Member.please subscribed Via Comment.)

THE complete collections only for PREMIUM  member , Please subscribed via Comment. 

.

GREATING FROM THE MUSUEM’S FOUNDER AND STAFF

HAPPY TRAVELLIN IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG

WELCOME TO THE HOME OFFICE OF   Driwancybermuseum

hhto://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

__________________________________________________________________________________________
SPACE UNTUK IKLAN SPONSOR,yang berminat kontak liwat comment.

___________________________________________________________________________________________
PEMBINA MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DAN STAF MENGUCAPKAN SELAMAT DATANG DI KANTOR MUSEUM DUNIAMAYA

UNTUK MELIHAT KANTOR DIMANA SELURUH KARYAWAN BEKERJA UNTUK MENINGKATKAN KEPUASAN PARA KOLEKTOR INDONESIA DAN SELURUH DUNIA SEHINGGA KOLEKSI UNIK , KHUSUSNYA PUSAKA NENEK MOYANG INDONESIA DAN ASIA DAPAT DILESTARIKAN UNTUK GENERASI PENERUS.LIHATLAH SECARA LENGKAP DI hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

SELAMAT DATANG DI PINTU MASUK HOMEOFFICE


SILAHKAN MELIHAT TAMAN TANAMAN HIAS HOME OFFICE

 ANDA MEMASUKI RUANG TAMU
 DAN RUANG RAPAT.

SILAHKAN MELIHAT RUANGAN KANTOR ELEKTRONIK INTRENET KOMPUTERISASI HOME OFFICE

RUANGAN PERPUSTAKAAN

RUANGAN DAPUR BERSIH
KAMAR REST ROOM

SELANJUTNYA AND DIPERSILAHKAN MELIHAT MUSEUM MINI KOLEKSI Dr IWAN S PRIBADI, MULAI TANGGA MASUK YANG ARTISTIK DENGAN PELINDUNG CHILLIN DAN KERAMIK CHILLIN DINASTI MING

KOLEKSI MUSEUM MINI PERTAMA ADALAH PATUNG ETHNIS INDONESIA

LEMARI

 DAN KURSI ANTIK


TEMPAT TIDUR ANTIK


 RUANGAN STUDI KOLEKSI

KOLEKSI LUKISAN

GUCI ANTIK

KERAMIK ANTIK,ANTARA LAIN DIDALM LEMARI ES BEKAS  teridiri dari ceret dan mangkuk kecil yang mungih dan indah

, Serta LAMPU-LAMPU ANTIK  yang sangat langka,indah dan menarik.

Selesai Hak Cipta @Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The end@copyright Dr Iwan s 2011

The Introduction From The Founder of Driwancybermuseum Web Blog

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Driwancybermuseum Blog A.Driwancybermuseum homeoffice openhouse

Cybermuseum open house”

Qillin decoration
Postal History and Document History collections in antique cupboard
 Library
Meeting room
working room
dragon boat mini musuem
Ceramic Collection
Ceramic Collections 2
VOC ship tile
VOC Tile&Token
Ngoc San Hanoi tile
Ancient Wayang Petruk
Ancient wayang Semar

Hallo Collector
THe founder and All of UCN uniquecollections cybernews staff send the greatings and Happy Chinese New Year “Gong Hi Fat Choi” .
During this happy seasons, UCM uniquecollection cybermuseum and UCN home office open house , all of our best friend collectors were invited to joint the celebration ceremony of the opening of the home office and small museum .

All the collectors from allover the world Please look at the illustration of the new restored UCM-UCN home office and small musuem:

1. The front of the homeoffice with Qillin staircase or tangga Killin as the protection of uniquecollection cybermuseum homeoffice, constist two Qillin stone statue,two Qillin wooden carving, three artifact Qillin late Ming ceramic , design by Dr Iwan S. built by Mr burhanuddin , the idea from Ming emperor palace forbidden city Beijing @copyright Dr Iwan S.2010 (ill. caption “Qillin decoration”)

2. The vintage Writing desk and cupboard (ill Vintage writingcase), in the cupboard the collector will see the albums of vintage document histories.

3. TheLibrary of uniquecollections literatures (ill.library)

4. The Meeting room

5. The Working room

6. The Small Museum consist :
(1) The Ancient ceramic Collections in two vintage showcase( ill ceramic collection 1 and 2)
(2) The dragon boat style Museum with the uniquecollections show : ceramic,stamps and revenue,martavan,woodencarving,statue,metal collections, cins,ancien smoking Pipes, vintage Labels, vintage paintings (ill Small museum)
(3) special close up illustration of VOC ship multicolour tiles-(ill VOC Gauda tiles), VOC Fort tiles(ill.VOC Delft tiles), Wayang Berber Paintings (ill Wayang berber 1945).
(4) The founder show the very rare handpainted pictures with calligraphy ancient wayang book (ill. Ancietn Wayang Petruk and ill. ancient wayang Semar)

After look of the UCM-UCN home office with small musuem illustrations we hope all the collectors will more closed with the best uniquecollection blog of the world and always click this blog to found anykind of uniquecollections information, if you didn’t found the informations please asked as collector choice via comment lika Fake Coins, the value of Rare stamps, the Indochine coins,stamps and papermoney informations etc.If our visitor near 1 million , uniquecollections blog will develop the uniquecollectins club all over the world, please the collectors of all over the world asking the copyright permission with special regulations via comment and editor will contact you to issued the written permission and regulations. every members will send the UCN and the UCM showed with regular one year or life member operational postal & scanning cost to send that information stright install via the members sms adress.the complete best color illustrations. This only the recent proposal, please comment and suggestions.

UCM-uniquecollections Cybermuseum have announced that this night will show ” The Qing Imperial Collections’consist The Qing imperial Paintings, ceramics , meubeluers, and other kind unique Qing imperial collections , this show sponsored by anonim Chinese Beijing collectors.

 B.Introduction
a.I starting stamps collection during 1955 very young boy. look my vintage photo with mother Diana lanny and father Djohan Oetama at Bukittingi West Sumatra 1955, my father passed away in 1985 and my mother just passed away in june 2011 at  91 years old.

b.Between 1960-1963, during study at Don Bosco high school I had started collected beside stamps all type of informations collections due to my Teacher Frater Servaas told me that I must collected the Informations due to the develping the satellite which made the globalizations which the growing of world cmmunications will became fast and no border between the nations countries, who have the Information he will became the leader and the King in communications, thank you Frater Servaas your info which made me could built the very best informations communications uniquecollection blog in the world.
Look at in memoriam Frater Servaas with my teacher at Frater middle school in memrian Frater Eric at my House during my Sister Erlita 17th years birthday in 1963.


also look my profile with my loving teacher who still alive and stay at Padang city west sumatra Pak Sofjanto at my house in the same time of the photo above


c.Between 1973-1983 many interesting history which related with the stamp and postal history and also with my life :
1. In 1972 I have graduated Medical Doctor(MD)

2.as the temporary assitenst at Pulmonology (Lung Disease) department in Medical faculty

3.In 1973 join the medical officer of Indonesia National Police


4.in September 1973 I was merried with Lily W.


5. in 1974 my first son Albert our photographer was born in November 1974, and later in January 1977 born my second son Anton our Editor .
a. Albert at Solok city west Sumatra 1978

b.Anton at Solok city 1978


6. Between 1975 until 1989 I have travelled around Indonesia myself or officially and I have found many uniquecollections that time.

7.In 1985 I have made a postal communications, I have send the aerogram to all Postal services in the capital city of all oin the world, 90 % send to me back the official cover,this could be done by the helping of Padang postmaster Ahmadsyah Soewil, his father collections I had bought in 1980.
The vintage photo of Soewil St.marajo ,during the chief of Painan West Sumatra Post office
look his photos

During Dai Nippon occupation he still at Painan and during Indonesia Independence war he was the Finance officer of Padang office and later in 1950-1959 the chief of TelukBayur Harbour west Sumatra post office, seme of the rare West sumatra during Dai Nippon occupation and Indonesia Inedependence war were his collectins,thankyou Family Soewil for that rare collections(complete infrmatins source Dai nippon occupatin sumatra under Malaya Singapore or Syonato Dai Nippon military Administrations and Indonesia Independence war collections.

8. Before between 1979-1985 I have joint the postal circuit club and I have found many covers from all over the world especially Latin America.This circuit as the help of my friend Frans,now he was in Bogor.

9.In 1990 I was graduate my Master Hospital Administration.


10.Between 1990-1994
I was n the duty at West Borneo and visit Sarwak,and i have fund some rare Sarawak stamps, revenue there and in Pontianak I have found rare sarawak coins

11.Between 1995 until 2000
I am seeking the postally used cover from the countries I havenot found especailly the new freedom countries.
All the postal stamps and covers I will arranged in the very exciting and unique collections, I will starting with Asia Countries, and later Africa, Australia, America and Euro.
This special collections were built dedicated to my Sons,especially the histrical fact from my vintage books collections as the rememberance what their father collected and I hope they will keep this beautiful and histric collections until put in speciale site in the CyberMuseum.
I hope all the collectors all over the world will help me to complete the collections, frm Asia I donnot have the cover from Bhutan,Mongol, Tibet, and SAfghanistan.but the stamps I have complete from that countries except my thematic bridge on the river kwai from Myanmar and Thailand.
12. In the years of 2000, I was retired from my job
this is my official profile just before retired.


13, Between 2000-2008
I am travelling around Asia,and starting to arranged my travelling unque collections.
14. December,25th 2008
I built the uniquecollection.wordpress.com Blog with articles :
(1). The Unique books collections
(2). The Unique Stamps collectins
(3). The rare Coins collections
(4). The rare ceramic collections
(5.) The Unique label collectins
(6.) The Travelling Unque collections (now changed as the Adventures of Dr iwan S.
(7). The Tionghoa Unique Collections
(8.) The Asia Unique Collections
(9.) The Africa Unique collections
(10). The Padang minangkabau CyberMuseum

15. In 2010

I built another web :

(1) hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com

(2)hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com

In this web the collectors will look the amizing collections:

(1) The Vietnam War 1965-1975, and another Vietnam Historic collections like Vienam during Indochina, Vienam Diem War 1955-1963,etc

(2) The Dai Nippon War 1942-1945, five part in homeland,pasific war,in Korea,in China, in south East Asia including Indonesia.

(3) The Indonesia Independence War  1945,1946,1947,1948,1949 and 1950.

(4) The Uniquecollections from all over the world.

(5) The Icon Cybermuseum, including Bung Karno,Bung Hatta,Sultan Hemangkubuwono, and also from foreign countries Iran,Iraq Sadam huseun ,Palestina jerusalam,turkey,afghanistan, libya Moamer Khadafi, Suriah , etc

(6) The Rare Ceramic Collections found In Indonesia, like China Imperial Tang,Yuan,Ming and Qing; also euro ceramic from delf,dutch maastrict ,etc

(7) and many other collections

AT LEAST AFTER THE ALL OF MY COLLECTIONS ENTER THE CYBERMUSEUM AND OTHER WEB BLOG, I WILL ASKING TO GET  THE MURI CERTIFICATE.(INDONESIAN RECORD MUSEUM)

8. I also built a amizing collections due to my premium member prefered, like The Indonesia Revenue Collections from 19th to 20th century, the mysteri of the Indonesian vienna Printing Stamps, the China  Gold Coins, The Rare Chian imperial ceramic design foun in Indonesia, The Tionghoa (Indonesia Chinese Overseas collection), Penguasa Wanta di dunia(Women in Leaders) etc.

5. At Least thankyou verymuch to all the collectors who have visit my blog and support me, my last prestation in June 2011 (26 years from the first starting to built the e-antique or uniquecollections info in internet) :

(1) hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum : visit 60.000, the highest per day 3200.

(2)hhtp://www.iwansuwandy.wordpress.com:visit 21.000,the highest per day 200.

(3)hhtp://www.uniquecollection.wordpress.com, visit 40.000,the highest per day 210.

Jakarta June 2011

Greatings from teh founder

Dr Iwan Suwandy

the end @copyright XDr Iwan suwandy 2011

I WRITE THIS MEMORABLE STORY WITH RELATED UNIQUECOLLECTIONS ILLUSTRATIONS AS MY HONOR TO MY LOVING FAMILY , ALL MY FRIEND AND MY TEACHERS.BECAUSE WITHOUT YOU I AM NOTHING AT ALL,AND YOU ARE ALWAYS IN MY HEART FOREVER.

THE SAMPLE OF EXHIBTION IN Driwancybermuseum

SELAMAT DATANG DI RUANG PAMERAN KHUSUS

SHOWCASE :

RUANG PAMERAN :

PAMERAN KOLEKSI KERAMIK LANGKA DINASTI MING AKHIR YANG DITEMUI DI INDONESIA

Showcase :

The Rare Late Ming Ceramic Which Foun At Indonesia Exhibition

(Dr Iwan Private Collections)

Frame one:Southern Ming Dynasty

 
 
History of China

History of China

 
 
 
 
 
  *wan li imperial mark and dragon five clow cup below.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
   
 
 
 
 
 
   
   
     
     
 
 
 
 
 
   
 

The Southern Ming Dynasty (Chinese: 南明; pinyin: Nán Míng) refers to the Ming loyalist regimes that existed in Southern China from 1644 to 1662 following the collapse of the Ming Dynasty and the capture of Beijing first by rebel armies led by Li Zicheng, and then by the forces of the Manchu-led Qing dynasty.

On April 24, 1644, Li Zicheng’s rebel soldiers, of the recently proclaimed Great Shun dynasty, breached the walls of Beijing. The Chongzhen Emperor committed suicide the next day to avoid humiliation at their hands. Remnants of the Ming imperial family and some court ministers then sought refuge in the southern part of China and regrouped around Nanjing, the Ming auxiliary capital, south of the Yangzi River. Four different power groups had eventuated:

  • Shun Dynasty led by Li Zicheng, with its power base north of the Huai river, which had been under controlled of the Ming Dynasty.
  • Zhang Xianzhong had established the Great West (Ch:大西) regime controlling Sichuanprovince.
  • Manchu-founded Qing Dynastyhad control of the north-east area beyond Shanhai Pass, at the same times much of the Mongol tribes.
  • The remnants of Ming Dynasty could only survive south of the Huai river.

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showcase:

The Original Dr Iwancybermuseum logo Collections .

Frame one:

INTRODUCTION (PENDAHULUAN)

1.In February.27th 2011 morning 7.30 am west Indonesia Time, during I walking out of Yacobus Church Kelapa Gading North Jakarta Indonesia to my car parking lot beyond the tree, God have send me one very amizing beautiful iron red fruit from the  tree which I donnot know it ‘s name, and  I bring to my cybermuseum home office ,put on my antique pure white stempcup ceramic , made to art photos by my digital camera Olympus, one still original and one was making corrections of the background by digital painting restorarion

2. then I have deciding that this art photography became the logo of my blog “Driwan Cybermuseum.

3.The red and white colour were the same of Indonesian flag colour,the flag of my homeland countries and theiron red and pure white were my favorite colour of my ceramic collections, the background sandtone colour was my favorite colour of my cybermuseum homeoffice.The  Iron red fruit was send to me by the holygod which give my the mercy and lucky in the future.

3.I hove all the collectors from all over the world to honor my logo copyright,please donnot copy.

Jakarta, February.27th 2011

The founder of Cybermuseum Blog

 Dr Iwan Suwandy

Frame Two :

The Original Picture Of Driwancybermuseum Logo1.The Original Photo at Driwancybermuseum

 private home office

 2.The Original Art photography of Driwancybermuseum’s logo(after digital restoration)

CONTOH KOLEKSI DARI SURINAME BEKA SJAJAHAN BELANDA YANG BANYAK ETHNIS JAWA DISANA

 




Suraname Jang Tk Terkenal, karangan Albert Herman, Seri Buku Buku Badjing Untuk Kanak-Kanak, 30 halaman.

the end @ copyright XDr Iwan suwandy

The Unusual Rare Indonesian Phillately,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections(Koleksi Postal,Meterai dan numismatik histori Indonesia Yang aneh dan Langka)

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom : 

 

Dr Iwan Unusual  Indonesian Postal,Revenue and Numismatic Cybermuseum(Koleksi Filateli , Meterai dan  Numismatik Indonesia Yang  Aneh)

1.Kata Pengantar(Introduction)

If you look carefully the postal,revenue and numismatic history collections , one day you will find the images you are not usual or strange, and was never seen anymore  again at this time.

The  unusual collections  is a collection which, when compiled with trim, will be a collection of rare and interesting as the remembrance from the past as our human heritage.

I will starting to reseach  my   privately owned collections in the cybermuseum world and flaunt my period, so that collectors can enjoy them.

If you have a collection like this please willing to flaunt it in Driwancybermuseum, please sent  comment, thanks.

How amazing is not it, I hope to entertain you all

Jakarta, June 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

Apabila anda memperhatikan dengan saksama koleksi sejarah pos,meterai dan numismatik  ,suatu saat anda anda akan menemukan koleksi  yang tak biasanya atau aneh  serta sangat sulit ditemukan lagi pada saat ini.

Koleksi  aneh dan tak biasa tersebut merupakan suatu koleksi yang bila disusun dengan apik akan menjadi suatu koleksi yang langka dan menarik.yang merupakan warisan manusia tempo dulu.

Saya akan mulai mempelajari koleksi  milik pribadi dan memamerkannya dalam museum dunia maya saya, agar para kolektor dapat menikmatinya.

Apabila anda memiliki koleksi seperti ini harap bersedia memamerkannya di Driwancybermuseum, harap dikirimkan liwat comment, terima kasih.

Bagaimana menakjubkan bukan, saya harap dapat menghibur anda semua

Jakarta Juni 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

 The Vintage Indonesian’s Unusual Postal,Revenue and Numismatic History Collections 

 (Koleksi postal,meteri dan numismatik histori Indonesia yang  Aneh Dan Langka)

1.POSTAL HISTORY

1) Koleksi Kartupos Pendudukan Jepang di Jawa dengan stempel pos aneh, ” Tida(tidak) Diperkenanken(diperkenankan) Kombali(Kembali) , hal ini jarang terjadi , hanya apabila  tempelan terlarang di tempelkan  diatas kartupos, sayang tempelan tersebut sudah dilepas, namun hanya satu kartupos saja   yang saya temukan,harap para kolektor yang memiliki stempel pos yang sama melaporkan temuannya.

Japanese Occupation Postcards Collection in Java with a strange postmark, “Tida (not) Diperkenanken (allowed) return  to sender (Back), this rarely happens, only if the patch forbidden of posting the above postcard, darling patch has been released, but only one postcard only I found, hope the collectors who have same postmark reported findings.

2.Unusual Stamps

Prangko Sial

Beberapa tahun sebelum lengser(mundur ) dari Jabatan Presiden, telah ditandai dengan adanya prangko salah cetak dengan tanda-tanda kesialan antara lain Coretan garis di tepi sampai mengenai wajah Pak Harto ,hal sama pada prangko sial Hitler.

Selain itu juga ditemukan prangko pah harto yang kepanasan sehingga mukanya jadi hitam seperti terbakar matahari yang menunjukkan pak harto diserang dari segala lapisan masyarakat dan politik. Bagaimana anehkan.

Damn Stamps
A few years before his resignation (backwards) from Position of President, has been marked by a misprinted stamps with signs of misfortune among other graffiti on the edge of the line until about Soeharto’s face,

 this same shit on stamps of Hitler.

It also found that heat Harto hero stamps so that his face became black like a burning sun which shows Soeharto was burning by the attacking from all walks of life and politics. How amizing.

3.Unusual Atjeh 1 real cenderella stamp 1882

 

 

 

 
File:Atjeh11.jpg

 

Description  

English: Cinderella stamp of Acheh (Indonesia)
 
Date 1882(1882)
 

3a.Used on Money order fragment ,RMS overprint Indonesia numeric smelt

 

and building stamps

3c.Kartupos dulu sangat populer untuk mengirim berita singkat,walaupun saat ini tidak diterbitkan lagi karena ada teknologi SMS ,hal sama juga dengan telegram.Salah satu koleksi aneh dan anda pasti berum pernah lihat adalah kartupos tahun 1953 yang belum digunting (Uncutting) masih satu lembar kartupos proeff dengan empat kartu pos jadi satu, kalau pernah lihat mungkin telat mikir untuk dijadikan koleksi postal history lihatlah illustrasinya dibawah ini :

Selain itu juga ditemui smapul cetakan Pos Udar yang dicetak pada bagian luar dan bagian dalam

Postcards used to be very popular to send brief news, although currently not published anymore because there is SMS technology, the same thing with telegram.Salah a collection of strange and definitely berum you ever see is the postcard of 1953 that have not been cut (Uncutting) is still one sheet postcards proeff with four postcards to be one, if you never see might be late thinkers to be a collection of postal history behold its illustrasi

. Also found the error print of PTT envelope on out and inside .

4.The Postal History could told us the situation like two money order send during The PRRI movement in middle Sumatra, first Money order send one day after Pakanbaru captured by The APRI frm PRRI,send to Sawahlunto still in PRRI hand in March 11 th.1958,return to sender because the communication broken,look at the handwritten”Kembali Perhubungan belum ada”

and the second Money order send from Padang to angkola south tananuli return to sender looh the handwritten”Kembali Untuk sementara perhubungan Terputus”(return for temporary communicationbroken)

5.Cinderella Historic Collections Cinderela adalah label sampul surat yang bentuknya sama seperti prangko tetapi tanpa nominal,digunakan untuk menutup bagian belakang sampul atau sebagai sarana marketing produk. Koleksi cinderal indonesia yang paling aneh dan langka adalah satu sheet lengkap cinderela label promosi Obat Radja dengan perforasi terdiri dari 100 label dengan pembatas kosong diantara 50 label yang dikenal dengan istilah “gutter pair”.menakjubkan bukan.

english version:

Cinderela is a label that looks the same envelope as postage stamps but without par, used to close the back cover or as a means of marketing the product. Collection cinderal Indonesia’s most bizarre and rare is a complete sheet cinderela label drug promotion Radja with perforation consists of 100 blank labels with a divider between the 50 labels are known by the term “Gutter pair”. amazing is not.

 

3..Revenue History Collections

1) METERAI PENDUDUKAN JEPANG ANEH.

Mulai 1 April 1943, meterai seluruh meterai di Indonesia dicetak tindih secara machinal untuk menutup wajah ratu belanda atau aksara belanda yang dianggap milik musuh dengan berbagai bentuk , untuk meterai di pulau jawa di cetak tindih gambar matahari bewarna merah. Salah seorang pedagang di Jawa merasa sayang membuang meterai Hindia belanda yang ia miliki, maka dengan nekat mengambar dengan pena  gambar matahari meniru cetak tindih asli pemerintah balatentara nippon(Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) diatas meterai hindia belanda dan memakainya diatas kwitansi tanggal 1 agustus 1944(2604), sikap ini dikatakan nekat karena bila ketahuan akan ditangkap dan dihukum oleh Kampetai,polisi militer Jepang.

, silahkan melihat illustrasi meterai tersebut dibandingkan dengan yang asli cetak tindih dengan mesin, bagaimana anehkan,bila anda memiliki yang sama harap berkenan melaporkannya.

STRANGE JAPANESE OCCUPATION seal.
Beginning April 1, 1943, the seal of all seals in Indonesia printed in machinal overlapping to cover the queen’s face or script netherlands dutch deemed enemy property in various forms, to seal in the island of Java in the print image superimposed on a red colored sun. One trader in Java feel affection discard seal Dutch East Indies he had, then with reckless drawing with pen drawings mimic the sun original print overlapping government army nippon (Dai Nippon Gunseikanbu) above the seal of the Dutch East Indies and wear it on a receipt dated August 1, 1944 (2604) , is said to be reckless attitude because if caught would be arrested and punished by Kampetai, the Japanese military police.

, please see the illustration of the seal is compared to the original print overlapping with the machine, how anehkan, if you have the same hope is pleased to report it.

2)

2)

3. Numismatic History collections

1).

2.The International Unusual Stamps Collections

Unusual Stamps

Here are three examples of unusual stamps from my collection.

cloth

This is a set of five stamps issued by four countries, Grenada, the Gambia, Sierra Leone and Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, commemorating the teddy bear. What I find interesting about this set is that:

  • the stamps are made of cloth!
  • four different countries cooperated to produce a single set of commemorative stamps with almost identical designs
  • despite being part of Grenada, a local group of islands, Carriacou and Petite Martinique, were permitted by the government of Grenada to issue a separate cloth stamp

 

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan

This is one of the most unusual sets of stamps that were ever issued. This set of seven stamps issued by the Kingdom of Bhutan in 1973 are also phonograph records! When played on a record player, the stamps play folk songs as well as provide an oral history (in Bhutanese and English) of Bhutan!

phonograph record stamps issued by Bhutan CD stamps issued by Bhutan

In 2008, Bhutan decided to update the phonograph record stamps it issued thirty-five years earlier by issuing a set of two CD stamps! Actually, as you can see, the CD’s are enclosed in a CD envelope that acts as the postage stamp (the envelope is self-adhesive on the back, so that, in theory, someone in Bhutan could stick the CD envelope onto a larger envelope or package that needed to be mailed). Like the phonograph stamp issue, when played on a record player, the CD stamps, when played on a CD player, will play folk songs as well as provide an oral history of Bhutan.

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Pameran Permainan Catur Dan Mahjong Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan Di Indonesia

 MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DTC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Tionghoa   Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

Pameran Catur  dan Majong Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan Di Indonesia

Frame Satu :

Koleksi Alat Permainan Catur Tionghoa Antik.(HO )

 

SEJARAH Catur Tionghoa  (Xiangqi)

Di Tiongkok, ada sebuah permainan bernama Xiangqi (atau Xiangxi), tanggal kembali ke selambat-lambatnya periode negara berperang. [Rujukan?] Hal ini diyakini akan ditemukan di Tiongkok  selatan. Permainan ini dijelaskan dalam Chu Ci dan buku dinasti Han [rujukan?] Buku-buku Cina pertama pada strategi xiangqi ditulis pada abad ke-5.. [rujukan?] Dalam bentuk kuno, Xiangqi memiliki enam potong (Sejarah Xiangqi (Cina )). Beberapa percaya bahwa catur berasal dari India xiangqi (Asal-usul Catur). Beberapa percaya bahwa xiangqi telah berasal dari India Chaturanga [26] Teori ini berjalan sebagai berikut: Chaturanga berubah dan berasimilasi ke dalam xiangqi permainan di mana potongan-potongan ditempatkan pada titik persimpangan dari garis-garis papan bukan dalam kotak.. [7] Objek variasi Tionghoa  mirip dengan Chaturanga, yaitu untuk membuat tidak berdaya raja lawan, kadang-kadang dikenal secara umum. [26] catur Tionghoa  juga meminjam elemen-elemen dari permainan Go, yang dimainkan di Tiongkok  sejak setidaknya abad ke-6 SM. [26] Karena pengaruh Go, catur Tionghoa  diputar pada persimpangan dari garis-garis di papan, bukan di kotak [26] lembar catur Tionghoa . biasanya rata dan menyerupai yang digunakan di dam, dengan potongan dibedakan dengan menulis nama mereka di permukaan datar. [26]

Sebuah teori asal-usul catur berpendapat alternatif yang muncul dari Xiangqi atau pendahulunya daripadanya, yang ada di Tiongkok  sejak abad ke-2 SM [27] David H. Li, seorang akuntan pensiunan, profesor akuntansi dan penerjemah teks-teks Tiongkok  kuno, hipotesis. Bahwa Han umum Xin menarik pada permainan awal Liubo untuk mengembangkan bentuk awal catur Cina di musim dingin tahun 204-203 SM [27] catur Jerman sejarawan Peter Banaschak., bagaimanapun, dari poin yang hipotesis utama Li “didasarkan pada hampir tidak ada” . Dia mencatat bahwa “lu Xuanguai,” ditulis oleh menteri Dinasti Tang Niu Sengru (779-847), tetap merupakan sumber nyata pertama di xianggqi varian catur Cina, LIHAT DI LUAR NEGERI Tiongkok pada etnis  TIONGHOA INDONESIA  XIANFQI DEWAN bawah ini.

 
 

FRAME DUA

 “Permainan  DAM(HO) Tionghoa Antik Yang ditemukan di Indonesia

FRAME TIGA : PERMAINAN MAHJONG TIONGHOA ANTIK

THE TIONGKOK MAHJONG GAMES HISTORY

THE OLD CHINESE OVERSEAS INDONESIA ” TIONGHOA” ‘S MAHJONG GAMES COLLECTIONS.

The Type Of Mahjong Tiles: 

Examples of winning hands (split into melds and pair for clarity):

  • MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png
  • MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Please compare the new tiles

with the old Majong Tiles below

 

1.The small dice

 

2.The lucky stick and coins

3.The mahjong tiles

(1) Kaligrafi Tiongkok

 Hóng Zhōng (紅中 MJd1.png, red middle), Fā Cái (發財 MJd2.png, prosperity), and Bái Ban (白板 MJd3.png, white board) represent benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety, respectively

 (2) Bulat Seperti Domino 

(a) mahyong antik

(b) Mahjong Baru

 

MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

(3) Gambar (Pictorial)

(4) Hanya Mahyong Asing yang meiliki Yoker(Joker only foreign mahjong), Mahyong tiongkok tanpa Yoker(Chinese mahjong without Joker.)

(5) Jubin Antik dibuat dari (The tiles made from) Keramik( ceramic),

ivory(Gading)

 

,stone(batu),

wood(kayu),

and Mahyong Baru Dari Plastik(new one plastic). MJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

Frame Lima:

SEJARAH MAHJONG

sejarah Mahjong

Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
 

Mahjong
 
Sebuah permainan mahjong yang dimainkan di Hangzhou, Cina
Nama cina
Cina Tradisional 麻将
Cina Sederhana 麻将
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
Hakka
- Romanisasi ma jiong3
Jeruk keprok
- Hanyu Pinyin Ma jiang
Wu
- Romanisasi mu Ciang (麻雀 儿 / 麻将)
Kanton
- Jyutping maa4 zoeng3
- Romanisasi Yale ma4 jeung3
 
Cina alternatif nama
Cina Tradisional 麻雀
Cina Sederhana 麻雀
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
Hakka
- Romanisasi ma4 jiok3
Jeruk keprok
- Hanyu Pinyin que MA
Min
- Hokkien POJ MOA-chhiok
Wu
- Romanisasi mu ciah
Kanton
- Jyutping maa4 zoek3
- Romanisasi Yale ma4 jeuk3
 
Jepang nama
Kanji 麻雀
Kana マージャン
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
- Majan Romaji
 
Nama korea
Hangul 마작
Hanja 麻雀
[Tampilkan] transliterasi
- Revisi
Romanisasi majak
- McCune-
Reischauer machak
 
Nama Vietnam
Vietnam tikar chược
Mahjong Pemain 4
Rentang usia 4 tahun dan lebih tua
Setup waktu 2-10 menit
Bermain Tergantung pada variasi waktu dan / atau rumah / aturan turnamen
Random kesempatan Ya
Keterampilan yang diperlukan Taktik, observasi, memori
 Artikel ini berisi teks Cina. Tanpa dukungan rendering yang tepat, Anda mungkin melihat tanda tanya, kotak, atau simbol lain bukan karakter Cina.

Mahjong (Cina: 麻将; pinyin: jiang ma) adalah permainan yang berasal dari Cina, biasanya dimainkan oleh empat pemain (dengan beberapa variasi tiga pemain yang ditemukan di Korea dan Jepang). Mahjong adalah permainan keterampilan, strategi dan perhitungan dan melibatkan tingkat tertentu kebetulan. Di Asia, mahjong juga populer dimainkan sebagai permainan perjudian (meskipun mungkin hanya dengan mudah dimainkan recreationally).

Permainan ini dimainkan dengan satu set 152 ubin berdasarkan karakter Cina dan simbol, meskipun beberapa variasi regional menggunakan nomor yang berbeda ubin. Pada sebagian besar variasi, setiap pemain mulai dengan menerima ubin tiga belas. Pada gilirannya pemain menarik dan membuang ubin sampai mereka menyelesaikan tangan hukum menggunakan ubin ditarik keempat belas untuk membentuk empat kelompok (melds) dan sepasang (kepala). Ada aturan yang cukup standar tentang bagaimana sepotong diambil, dicuri dari pemain lain (menyatu), penggunaan dasar (nomor ubin) dan kehormatan (angin dan naga), jenis-jenis melds, dan urutan menangani dan bermain. Namun ada variasi regional yang mungkin berbeda-beda aturan ini, di samping itu, sistem penilaian, tangan minimum yang diperlukan untuk memenangkan bervariasi berdasarkan aturan lokal yang digunakan.

Isi
 

1 Nama
2 Sejarah
2.1 Mahjong di Cina
2.2 Mahjong di dunia Barat
2.3 pengembangan Lancar
3 Jenis permainan
4 Varian
4.1 Deskripsi
4.2 Dipilih Variasi Dibandingkan
5 aturan persaingan Mahjong
6 Peralatan
6.1 Sejarah
6.2 Jenis cocok
6.2.1 Simples
6.2.2 Honours
6.2.3 Bonus Ubin
6.2.4 Wild Ubin
6.3 Individu Setelan
6.4 Honors
6.5 Bunga
7 Menyiapkan papan
7.1 Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
7.2 Dealing ubin
7.3 Charleston
8 Gameplay
8.1 melds
8.2 Bunga
8.3 Jokers
8.4 Menang
Siap 8,5 tangan
8.6 Menggambar
8.7 Abortive menarik
Ternyata 8,8 dan putaran
9 Scoring
10 Mahjong dalam Unicode
11 Lihat juga
12 Catatan kaki
13 Bacaan lebih lanjut
14 Pranala luar
 

 Nama
Permainan ini disebut 麻雀 (pinyin: ma que), yang berarti burung pipit di Cina, yang masih nama yang paling umum digunakan dalam beberapa dialek Cina selatan seperti Kanton dan Min Nan, dan juga di Jepang. Namun, sebagian besar Cina berbahasa Mandarin sekarang panggilan jiang ma game (麻将). Dalam Wu Utara Cina (Shanghai dan kerabat), itu diucapkan sebagai [mu tsiaŋ] 麻将, tetapi dalam kenyataannya, 麻将 adalah bentuk kecil dari 麻雀, ditulis sebagai 麻雀 [mu tsiaʔ n] 儿, karena acara erhua. Ini adalah melalui pengucapan Wu Cina 儿 麻雀 bahwa bentuk kecil dari 麻雀 dalam dialek Wu Utara dikenal sebagai 麻将 baik dalam bahasa Mandarin dan Wu.

Sejarah
Mahjong di Cina
Salah satu mitos tentang asal-usul mahjong menunjukkan bahwa Konfusius, [1] filsuf Cina, mengembangkan permainan pada sekitar 500 SM. Pernyataan ini mungkin akan apokrif. Menurut mitos ini, munculnya permainan di berbagai negara Cina bertepatan dengan perjalanan Konfusius ‘pada saat itu ia sedang mengajar doktrin barunya. Ketiga naga (kardinal) ubin juga setuju dengan tiga kebajikan kardinal diwariskan oleh Konfusius. Hong Zhong (红 中, tengah merah), Fa Cai (发财, kemakmuran), dan Bai Ban (白板, papan tulis) merupakan kebajikan, ketulusan, dan kasih sayang, masing-masing.

Mitos ini juga mengklaim bahwa Konfusius suka burung, yang akan menjelaskan nama “mahjong” (麻雀 maque = burung pipit). Namun, tidak ada bukti keberadaan mahjong sebelum era Taiping pada abad ke-19, yang menghilangkan Konfusius sebagai penemu mungkin.

Banyak sejarawan percaya hal itu didasarkan pada permainan kartu Cina disebut Mǎdiào (马 吊) (juga dikenal sebagai Ma Tiae, tergantung kuda, atau Yèzí [叶子], daun) pada awal dinasti Ming [2] Permainan ini dimainkan dengan 40. kertas semacam itu dalam tampilannya kartu yang digunakan dalam permainan Ya Pei kartu. Ini 40 kartu diberi nomor 1 sampai 9 di empat setelan yang berbeda, bersama dengan empat kartu bunga tambahan. Ini cukup mirip dengan penomoran mahjong ubin hari ini, meskipun mahjong hanya memiliki tiga jas dan, pada dasarnya, menggunakan empat bungkus kartu Ya Pei.

Masih ada perdebatan tentang siapa yang menciptakan permainan. Satu teori adalah bahwa perwira tentara Cina yang melayani selama Pemberontakan Taiping menciptakan permainan untuk melewatkan waktu. Teori lain adalah bahwa seorang bangsawan yang tinggal di daerah Shanghai menciptakan permainan antara 1870 dan 1875. Lain percaya bahwa dua bersaudara dari Ningpo dibuat mahjong sekitar tahun 1850, dari game sebelumnya Mǎdiào.

Game ini dilarang oleh pemerintah Republik Rakyat Cina ketika itu mengambil alih kekuasaan tahun 1949. [3] Pemerintah Komunis baru melarang kegiatan perjudian ada, yang dianggap sebagai simbol korupsi kapitalis. Setelah Revolusi Kebudayaan, permainan ini dihidupkan kembali, tanpa unsur judi (lihat di bawah), dan larangan itu dicabut tahun 1985. [4] Hari ini, ini merupakan hobi favorit di Cina dan masyarakat Tionghoa berbahasa lainnya.

Mahjong di dunia Barat

Siswa di Amerika Serikat belajar cara bermain mahjong

Pada tahun 1895, Stewart Culin, seorang antropolog Amerika, menulis sebuah makalah yang mahjong disebutkan. Ini adalah account tertulis pertama dikenal mahjong dalam bahasa lain selain Cina. Pada 1910, ada ditulis akun dalam berbagai bahasa, termasuk Perancis dan Jepang.

Pertandingan itu diimpor ke Amerika Serikat pada 1920-an. [5] pertama menentukan mahjong dijual di AS telah dijual oleh Abercrombie & Fitch dimulai pada tahun 1920. [6] Ini menjadi sukses di New York, dan pemilik perusahaan , Ezra Fitch, dikirim utusan ke desa Cina untuk membeli setiap set mahjong bisa mereka temukan. Abercrombie & Fitch dijual sebanyak 12.000 set. [6]

Juga pada tahun 1920, Joseph Park Babcock menerbitkan bukunya Peraturan Mah-Jongg, juga dikenal sebagai “buku merah”. Ini adalah versi awal mahjong dikenal di Amerika. Babcock telah belajar mahjong ketika tinggal di Cina. aturan permainan Babcock’s disederhanakan untuk memudahkan Amerika untuk mengambil, dan versi-nya adalah umum melalui mode mahjong tahun 1920-an. Kemudian, ketika mode tahun 1920-an mati, banyak penyederhanaan Babcock ditinggalkan.

Permainan ini telah diambil pada sejumlah nama merek dagang, seperti “Pung Chow” dan “Game Seribu Kecerdasan”. Mahjong malam di Amerika sering terlibat rias dan dekorasi kamar dalam gaya Cina [7] lagu-lagu hit Beberapa juga tercatat selama mode mahjong, terutama “Sejak Ma Bermain Mah Jong” oleh Eddie penyanyi.. [8]

Banyak varian mahjong dikembangkan selama periode ini. Pada tahun 1930-an, banyak revisi aturan yang dikembangkan yang secara substansial berbeda dari versi klasik Babcock’s (termasuk beberapa fundamental yang dipertimbangkan dalam varian lainnya, seperti gagasan tangan standar). Bentuk yang paling umum, yang akhirnya menjadi “mahjong Amerika”, yang paling populer di kalangan wanita Yahudi [9] Standardisasi datang dengan pembentukan National Mah Jongg League (NMJL) pada tahun 1937, bersama dengan buku aturan mahjong pertama Amerika, Maajh.: Versi Amerika Game Cina Kuno.

Sementara mahjong diterima oleh pemain AS dari semua latar belakang etnis selama era Babcock, banyak mempertimbangkan versi Amerika modern remake dari permainan Yahudi, [10] karena banyak pemain mahjong Amerika keturunan Yahudi. Ini NMJL didirikan oleh pemain Yahudi dan dianggap sebuah organisasi Yahudi. Selain itu, pemain biasanya menggunakan permainan Amerika sebagai suatu kegiatan sosial yang ramah keluarga, bukan sebagai perjudian. Pada tahun 1986, National Mah Jongg League dilakukan pertama mereka Mah Jongg Cruise Tournament, dalam conjuction dengan Mah Jongg Madness. Pada tahun 2010, ini skala besar berlayar di laut host acara Silver-25 HUT Cruise, dengan pemain dari seluruh Amerika dan Kanada berpartisipasi.

Dalam beberapa tahun terakhir, sebuah organisasi kedua telah terbentuk, American Association Mah Jongg. Para AMJA saat host turnamen di seluruh Amerika Utara, dengan acara tanda tangan mereka berada di Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort di Atlantic City, New Jersey.

Inggris penulis Alan D. Millington menghidupkan kembali permainan klasik Cina dari tahun 1920-an dengan bukunya Kitab Lengkap Mah-jongg (1977). Buku panduan ini mencakup aturan formal ditetapkan untuk permainan. Banyak pemain di negara-negara Barat menganggap karya Millington’s otoritatif.

Mahjong bukan kembali penampilan pertama dari permainan Cina di dunia barat. Ia juga diperkenalkan pada bentuk bermain kartu oleh pejabat Pelayanan Konsuler Inggris bernama William Henry Wilkinson, penulis “asal Cina bermain kartu,” dengan nama Khanhoo. Permainan kartu ini tampaknya tidak membuat kesan banyak. Keberhasilan mahjong datang kemudian sebagian dari keanggunan mekanisme sebagai tercantum dalam potongan seperti domino.

Saat ini pembangunan
Saat ini, popularitas dan karakteristik pemain mahjong bervariasi dari satu negara ke negara. Ada juga banyak badan pemerintah, yang seringkali tuan rumah pameran permainan dan turnamen. Ini masih jauh lebih populer di Asia daripada di Barat.

. Mahjong, pada 2010, adalah meja permainan yang paling populer di Jepang [11] Di Jepang, ada penekanan tradisional pada judi [meragukan - mendiskusikan], dan pemain khas adalah laki-laki. Banyak umat percaya ada permainan ini kehilangan popularitas dan telah mengambil upaya untuk menghidupkan kembali itu. [rujukan?] Ada beberapa manga dan anime (misalnya Saki dan Akagi) ditujukan untuk situasi dramatis dan komik yang melibatkan mahjong [12] Selain itu,. video Jepang arcade telah memperkenalkan mahjong mesin arcade yang dapat dihubungkan kepada orang lain melalui Internet. Ada juga versi video game mahjong strip.

Mahjong budaya masih sangat tertanam dalam masyarakat Tionghoa. Sam Hui menulis lagu Cantopop menggunakan mahjong sebagai tema mereka, dan Hong Kong film sering termasuk adegan permainan mahjong. Banyak film perjudian telah difilmkan di Hong Kong, dan sub-genre baru-baru ini adalah film mahjong.

Seperti permainan lainnya, seperti catur, Mastermind, catur dan permainan kartu, bermain mahjong berkepanjangan dapat memicu serangan epilepsi. Jumlah kasus tersebut, namun jarang terjadi. Menurut sebuah studi 2007, [13] [14] sampai saat ini hanya ada 23 dilaporkan kasus kejang yang disebabkan mahjong dalam literatur medis Inggris.

Studi yang dilakukan oleh dokter juga telah menunjukkan di Hong Kong bahwa permainan ini bermanfaat bagi individu yang menderita dari demensia atau kesulitan memori kognitif, mengarah ke pengembangan terapi mahjong. [15]

Pada tahun 2008, terdapat sekitar 7,6 juta pemain Mahjong di Jepang. Sebuah 8.900 Diperkirakan Mahjong salon di Jepang melakukan 300000000000 ¥ penjualan tahun yang sama itu. [16]

 Jenis permainan
Karena bentuk padat dari ubin, mahjong kadang-kadang diklasifikasikan sebagai permainan domino. Namun, jauh lebih mirip dengan permainan kartu gaya Barat seperti pedagang minuman keras.

Varian
Ada banyak variasi mahjong. Di banyak tempat, pemain sering mengamati satu versi dan tidak menyadari variasi lain atau mengklaim bahwa versi yang berbeda tidak benar. Meskipun banyak variasi saat ini berbeda hanya dengan mencetak, ada beberapa varietas utama:

Deskripsi
mahjong klasik Cina adalah berbagai tertua mahjong dan versi diperkenalkan ke Amerika pada tahun 1920 di bawah berbagai nama. Memiliki berikut, kecil setia di Barat, meskipun hanya sedikit bermain di Asia.
Mahjong Hong Kong atau mahjong Kanton mungkin merupakan bentuk yang paling umum mahjong, berbeda dalam rincian penilaian minor dari berbagai Klasik Cina. Tidak memungkinkan beberapa pemain untuk menang dari satu membuang.
mahjong Korea adalah unik dalam banyak hal dan merupakan versi yang sangat baik untuk pemula dan tiga pemain. Satu gugatan dihilangkan sama sekali (biasanya Bambu set) serta musim. Penilaian tersebut lebih sederhana dan bermain lebih cepat. Tidak Chows menyatu yang diijinkan dalam dan tersembunyi tangan yang umum. Riichi (seperti sepupu Jepang) merupakan bagian integral dari permainan juga. Aturan korea
mahjong Sichuan merupakan varietas berkembang, khususnya di Cina bagian selatan, pelarangan chi melds, dan hanya menggunakan ubin cocok. Hal ini dapat dimainkan dengan sangat cepat.
mahjong Taiwan adalah berbagai lazim di Taiwan dan melibatkan tangan 16 ubin (yang bertentangan dengan tangan 13-genteng di versi lain), fitur bonus untuk dealer dan dealer berulang, dan memungkinkan pemain ganda untuk memenangkan dari satu membuang.
mahjong Jepang adalah bentuk standar mahjong di Jepang dan juga ditemukan prevalently dalam permainan video. Selain skor perubahan, aturan Richi (tangan siap) dan dora (ubin bonus) yang unik highlights dari varian ini. Selain itu, ada variasi yang disebut Sanma (三 麻) berdasarkan semacam ini, yang dimodifikasi untuk bermain dengan tiga pemain, dan perbedaan utama dari satu standar yang chi (Chow) adalah dibolehkan dan ubin sederhana (nomor dua melalui delapan) dari satu setelan (biasanya karakter) dihapus.
mahjong klasik Barat adalah keturunan versi mahjong diperkenalkan oleh Babcock ke Amerika pada tahun 1920. Hari ini, istilah ini sebagian besar mengacu pada aturan “Wright-Patterson”, yang digunakan dalam militer AS, dan varian buatan Amerika yang sama yang lebih dekat dengan aturan Babcock.
mahjong Amerika adalah bentuk mahjong standar oleh National Mah Jongg League [17] dan American Mah-Jongg Asosiasi [18]. ini menggunakan ubin joker, Charleston, ditambah melds lima atau lebih genteng, dan eschews Chow dan gagasan tangan standar. Puritan mengklaim bahwa ini membuat Amerika mahjong permainan terpisah. Selain itu, NMJL dan variasi AMJA, yang berbeda dengan perbedaan skor kecil, biasanya disebut sebagai Mahjongg atau Mah-jongg (dengan dua Gs, sering ditulis dgn tanda penghubung).
Tiga pemain mahjong (atau tiga-ka) adalah tiga orang mahjong disederhanakan yang melibatkan tangan 13 ubin (dengan total 84 ubin di atas meja) dan dapat menggunakan pelawak tergantung pada variasi. Setiap set aturan bisa diadaptasi untuk tiga pemain, namun hal ini jauh lebih umum dan diterima di Jepang, Korea, Malaysia dan Filipina. Biasanya menghilangkan satu setelan seluruhnya atau ubin 2-8 dalam satu setelan hanya meninggalkan terminal. Perlu lebih sedikit orang untuk memulai permainan dan waktu perputaran permainan pendek-sehingga dianggap permainan cepat. Dalam beberapa versi ada jackpot untuk menang di mana siapapun akumulasi titik 10 dianggap memukul jackpot atau siapa pun skor tiga tangan tersembunyi pertama. Versi Malaysia dan Korea menjatuhkan salah angin dan mungkin termasuk naga kursi. Jepang Korea tiga pemain varian.
mahjong Singapura / Malaysia adalah varian mirip dengan mahjong Kanton dimainkan di Malaysia. elemen unik dari mahjong Singapura / Malaysia adalah empat ubin hewan (kucing, tikus, seekor ayam jantan muda, dan lipan) serta alternatif tertentu dalam aturan penilaian, yang memungkinkan tengah pembayaran melalui permainan jika kondisi tertentu (seperti kang a) terpenuhi .
Fujian mahjong, dengan joker 带 百搭 Dàidì 弟.
Vietnam chược tikar, dengan 16 berbagai jenis pelawak.
mahjong Thailand, termasuk ubin Vietnam dengan yang lain delapan dengan total 168 ubin.
Filipina mahjong, dengan Joker Window.
tulang Pussers merupakan varian yang bergerak cepat yang dikembangkan oleh para pelaut dalam Angkatan Laut Australia. Ia menggunakan kosa kata alternatif yang kreatif, seperti Eddie, Sammy, Wally, dan Normie, bukan Timur, Selatan, Barat, dan Utara.
Mahjong Solitaire melibatkan menumpuk ubin Mahjong dalam berbagai konfigurasi dan kemudian melalui tindakan eliminasi penemuan pasangan ubin dan penghilangan orang-orang pasangan dari stack. Permainan komputer yang awalnya diciptakan oleh Brodie Lockard pada tahun 1981 pada sistem PLATO. Microsoft Corporation merilis sebuah permainan Mahjong solitaire komputerisasi disebut “Mahjong Titans” awalnya dibundel dengan Windows Vista dan kemudian juga dengan Windows 7. Activision Sebelumnya pada tahun 1986 merilis sebuah permainan Mahjong solitaire terkomputerisasi untuk Amiga, Macintosh dan IIgs komputer Apple dan juga Sega Master System berjudul Shanghai.
Variasi Dipilih Dibandingkan
Mahjong Variasi Variasi Hong Kong HK Klasik Baru Taiwan Jepang Korea Malaysia / Singapura player Tiga mahjong J / K Amerika
Bunga Ya Ya Ya Ya Ya Opsional Ya Ya Ya
Seasons Ya Ya Ya Jarang Ya Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Bambu Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak atau hanya terminal Ya Ya Tidak atau Terminal hanya Ya
Hewan Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Jokers Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak Ya
Scoring Pengganda Faan Base Faan Pengganda Amerika Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia Wikipedia
Scoring Winner Winner Semua Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner
Ganda Timur Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Ya
Buang Suci Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Tidak Ya Tidak
Menyatu Chows Ya Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Ya Tidak Ya
Riichi Tidak Tidak Tidak Ya Ya Ya Tidak Ya Tidak
Poin minimum (dalam satuan variasi) 3f 3f 5f 1Y 2p 7/10t 2u 3 + Bervariasi

 Mahjong aturan persaingan

Bagian atas tiga di Dunia Mahjong Championship di Tokyo, Oktober 2002. Di tengah-tengah: Mai juara dunia Hatsune, dari Jepang

Terbuka Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama, Nijmegen, Belanda, Juni 2005

Pemenang Eropa Terbuka kedua Kejuaraan Mahjong, Kopenhagen, Denmark, Juni 2007. Dari kiri: Kohichi Oda (2), Martin Wedel Jacobsen (1), dan Benyamin Boas (3)

Pada tahun 1998, untuk kepentingan memisahkan perjudian ilegal dari mahjong, China Olahraga Negara Komisi menerbitkan seperangkat aturan baru, sekarang umumnya disebut sebagai aturan resmi Cina atau Turnamen Internasional aturan (lihat Guobiao Majiang). Prinsip-prinsip mahjong, baru sehat adalah: tidak berjudi, tidak minum, dan tidak merokok. Dalam turnamen internasional, pemain sering dikelompokkan dalam tim untuk menekankan bahwa mahjong mulai sekarang dianggap olahraga.

Aturan baru sangat pola berbasis. buku aturan berisi 81 kombinasi, berdasarkan pola dan unsur-unsur penilaian populer di kedua varian klasik dan modern Cina daerah; praktek tabel beberapa Jepang juga telah diadopsi. Poin untuk ubin bunga (bunga masing-masing bernilai satu poin) tidak dapat ditambahkan sampai pemain telah mencetak 8 poin. Pemenang dari permainan menerima skor dari pemain yang membuang genteng menang, ditambah 8 poin dasar dari masing-masing pemain, dalam kasus zimo (self-ditarik menang), ia menerima nilai putaran ini ditambah 8 poin dari semua pemain .

Aturan baru pertama kali digunakan dalam sebuah turnamen internasional di Tokyo, di mana, pada tahun 2002, Kejuaraan Dunia pertama di Mahjong diselenggarakan oleh Museum Mahjong, Jepang Mahjong Panitia, dan dewan kota Ningbo, Cina. Seratus pemain berpartisipasi, terutama dari Jepang dan China, tetapi juga dari Eropa dan Amerika Serikat. Mai Hatsune, dari Jepang, menjadi juara dunia pertama. Tahun berikutnya melihat tahunan pertama Cina Majhong Kejuaraan, yang diadakan di Hainan, dua berikutnya turnamen tahunan yang diadakan di Hong Kong dan Beijing. Sebagian besar pemain Cina, tapi pemain dari negara-negara lain hadir juga.

Pada tahun 2005, Open Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama [19] diadakan di Belanda, dengan 108 pemain. Lomba ini dimenangkan oleh Masato Chiba dari Jepang. Kejuaraan Eropa kedua [20] di Kopenhagen (2007) dihadiri oleh 136 pemain dan dimenangkan oleh pemain Denmark Martin Wedel Jacobsen. Online Mahjong Kejuaraan Eropa pertama diadakan pada server Sisa Mahjong pada tahun 2007, dengan 64 pemain, dan pemenangnya adalah Juliani Leo, dari Amerika Serikat, dan Eropa Best Player telah Gerda van Oorschot, dari Belanda. Ketiga Buka Eropa Mahjong Championship 2009 [21] di Baden / Wina, Austria, dimenangkan oleh pemain Jepang Koji Idota, sedangkan runner-up Bo Lang dari Swiss menjadi Juara Eropa. Ada 152 peserta.

Pada tahun 2006, World Mahjong Organization (WMO) didirikan di Beijing, Cina, dengan kerjasama, antara lain, Jepang Mahjong Panitia (JMOC) dan Eropa Mahjong Association (EMA). Organisasi ini diadakan pertama Kejuaraan Dunia pada bulan November 2007 di kota Cina Chengdu, dihadiri oleh 144 peserta dari seluruh dunia. Hal itu dimenangkan oleh Li Li, seorang mahasiswa Cina di Tsinghua University. Kejuaraan Dunia berikutnya akan berlangsung di Utrecht, Belanda, di musim panas 2010.

Beberapa pihak lain juga berusaha untuk menciptakan aturan persaingan internasional. Yang paling terlihat adalah Jung Zung (中庸) Mahjong Scoring System, yang diciptakan oleh sarjana Hong Kong mahjong Alan Kwan. Berbeda dengan aturan resmi Cina, Zung Jung dirancang dengan kesederhanaan sebagai salah satu tujuan desain, dan bertujuan untuk menjadi cocok untuk hiburan santai serta bermain turnamen. Zung Jung diadopsi oleh World Series acara Mahjong diadakan setiap tahun di Macau. World Series of Mahjong terakhir diadakan pada bulan September 2008, di mana 302 peserta ambil bagian. Acara utama memiliki kolam renang hadiah sebesar US $ 1-juta, yang memenangkan lebih dari tiga hari bermain oleh Alex Ho, dari Hong Kong. Ia meraih US $ 500K dari kolam hadiah dan kalung mahjong dirancang oleh Steela + Steelo. [22]

Barat, atau Amerika gaya Mah Jongg turnamen yang diselenggarakan di hampir setiap negara – yang terbesar di Las Vegas, NV dua kali setahun, dan di Atlantic City, NJ, oleh Mah JOngg Madness, dan pelayaran tahunan yang diselenggarakan oleh National Mah JOngg Liga dan Madness Jongg Mah (MJM). MJM turnamen host antara 150 dan 500 peserta pada acara-acara yang lebih besar, dan ada beberapa skala yang lebih kecil, tapi juga sukses turnamen yang diselenggarakan setiap tahun oleh host lain. Hadiah kolam didasarkan pada jumlah yang berpartisipasi. Aturan didasarkan pada Mah Jongg Nasional Liga aturan baku.

Peralatan
Artikel utama: ubin Mahjong

Dasar peralatan: keripik, ubin, dan dadu

Mahjong dapat dimainkan baik dengan satu set ubin mahjong atau satu set kartu bermain mahjong (kadang-kadang dieja “kards” untuk membedakan mereka dari daftar standar yang digunakan di tangan mahjong Amerika). Bermain kartu sering digunakan ketika bepergian, saat mereka mengambil banyak ruang lebih sedikit dan lebih ringan daripada rekan-rekan genteng mereka, namun mereka biasanya dari kualitas yang lebih rendah. Pada artikel ini, “ubin” akan digunakan untuk menunjukkan kartu bermain baik dan ubin.

set mahjong Banyak juga akan menyertakan sekumpulan chip atau ubin tulang untuk penilaian, serta indikator yang menunjukkan dealer dan Wind berlaku bundar. Beberapa set juga mungkin termasuk rak untuk menahan ubin atau keripik (meskipun dalam banyak set, ubin umumnya cukup tebal sehingga mereka dapat berdiri sendiri), dengan salah satu dari mereka menjadi berbeda untuk menunjukkan rak dealer.

implementasi Komputer mahjong juga tersedia. Hal ini memungkinkan Anda untuk bermain melawan lawan komputer, atau terhadap lawan manusia di Internet.

Satu set ubin mahjong biasanya akan berbeda dari satu tempat ke tempat. Biasanya memiliki setidaknya 136 ubin (paling sering 144), walaupun set yang berasal dari Amerika atau Jepang akan memiliki lebih. ubin Mahjong dibagi ke dalam kategori: pakaian, kehormatan, dan bunga.

[Sunting] Sejarah
Yang cocok dari ubin adalah uang berbasis. Di Cina kuno, koin-koin tembaga memiliki lubang persegi di tengah; orang melewati tali melalui lubang-lubang untuk mengikat koin ke string. String ini biasanya dalam kelompok 100 koin, Diao disebut (吊, atau 吊 varian), atau 1000 koin, Guan disebut (贯). koneksi Mahjong terhadap sistem mata uang kuno Cina ini konsisten dengan dugaan derivasi dari permainan bernama mǎ Diao (马 吊).

Dalam sesuai mahjong, para tembaga mewakili koin, tali sebenarnya string dari 100 koin, dan karakter berbagai mewakili 10.000 koin atau 100 string. Ketika tangan menerima maksimum yang diperbolehkan memenangkan bulat, hal itu disebut Guan mǎn (满贯, secara harfiah, “penuh string koin”.)

[Sunting] Jenis cocok
Ada empat kategori sesuai yang keempat “ubin liar” digunakan hanya dalam beberapa variasi lokal (Amerika dan Singapura aturan).

[Sunting] Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.

[Edit] Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.

[Sunting] Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

[Sunting] Wild Ubin
Juga dikenal sebagai Joker ubin. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam beberapa variasi dan bukan merupakan gugatan melainkan dapat digantikan untuk setiap ubin yang diinginkan berdasarkan aturan tertentu dari variasi.

[Sunting] Suits Individu
Stones (alternatif roda atau lingkaran): satu sampai sembilan (🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟 🀠 🀡). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah kalangan. Setiap lingkaran dikatakan untuk mewakili bisa (筒, Tong) koin dengan lubang persegi di tengah.

Bambu: satu sampai sembilan (🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari beberapa tongkat bambu. Setiap tongkat dikatakan untuk mewakili string (索, sǔo) yang memegang seratus koin. Perhatikan bahwa 1 Bambu adalah pengecualian: memiliki burung duduk di bambu, untuk mencegah perubahan.

Karakter (alternatif nomor): satu sampai sembilan (🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing mewakili sepuluh ribu (万, WAN) koin, atau seratus string dari seratus koin.

[Sunting] Honors
ubin Angin: 🀀 Timur Angin (东, dong timur), 🀁 Angin Selatan (南, selatan nan), 🀂 Angin Barat (西, XI barat), dan 🀃 Angin Utara (北, bei Utara).

Dragon ubin: 🀄 Red Dragon, Green Dragon 🀅, dan 🀆 White Dragon. Ubin naga Istilah konvensi Barat diperkenalkan oleh Joseph Park Babcock pada tahun 1920 bukunya memperkenalkan mahjong ke Amerika. Awalnya, ubin ini dikatakan memiliki sesuatu untuk dilakukan dengan Pemeriksaan Kekaisaran Cina. Ubin merah (“中” 榜, zhōngbǎng) berarti lulus ujian untuk menghapus cara untuk kepegawaian. Ubin hijau (“发” 财, facai, secara harfiah “menjadi kaya”) berarti kekayaan. Ubin putih (白板, báibǎn, secara harfiah “sabak bersih”) berarti bebas dari korupsi. Biasanya memiliki garis tepi biru untuk membedakan dari ubin penggantian dan mencegah perubahan. Dalam mahjong Cina asli, potongan-potongan ini disebut Jian (箭), yang mewakili memanah, dan merah “中” merupakan hit pada target. Dalam panahan Cina kuno, orang akan menaruh “中” merah untuk menandakan bahwa target dipukul. Putih “白” mewakili kegagalan, dan hijau “发” berarti bahwa satu akan merilis menarik. [Rujukan?]

[Sunting] Bunga
Kategori terakhir, dan komponen biasanya opsional untuk satu set mahjong ubin, ubin ini sering mengandung karya seni. Banyak orang memilih untuk tidak menggunakan ubin, karena mereka membuat lebih mudah untuk menang dan mendapatkan poin bonus. Misalnya, jika Anda tidak memiliki bunga di tangan Anda, Anda mendapatkan hanya satu titik bonus, tapi jika Anda memegang dua ubin bunga yang sesuai dengan kursi Anda / arah angin, Anda berhak untuk dua poin bonus, karena bunga sesuai dengan arah angin. Sebagai contoh, memegang sepasang bunga 3 simbol saat Anda berada di posisi Angin Barat memperoleh 2 poin bonus untuk tangan itu, karena bunga 3 dikaitkan dengan Angin Barat.

set aturan Jepang menghambat penggunaan bunga dan musim. Korea aturan dan tiga pemain mahjong dalam tradisi / Korea Jepang menggunakan bunga saja. Di Singapura dan Malaysia satu set ekstra bonus ubin dari empat binatang yang digunakan. Peraturan yang ditetapkan meliputi fungsi unik yang pemain yang mendapatkan dua hewan spesifik mendapatkan satu kali pembayaran langsung dari semua pemain. Dalam mahjong Taiwan, mendapatkan semua delapan bunga dan musim merupakan kemenangan otomatis tangan dan pembayaran tertentu dari semua pemain.

Empat dari ubin bunga mewakili empat pabrik mulia Konfusianisme perhitungan: prem 🀢, 🀣 anggrek, krisan 🀥, dan 🀤 bambu.

Ubin bunga lainnya empat (atau musim ubin) merupakan musim: 🀦 musim semi, panas 🀧, musim gugur 🀨, dan 🀩 musim dingin.

ubin hewan yang digunakan di Malaysia, Singapura dan variasi lokal adalah binatang. Mereka mewakili kucing, tikus, ayam jantan dan kelabang.

[Sunting] Menyiapkan papan
Urutan berikut ini untuk mengatur Hong Kong standar (atau Singapura) permainan. Casual atau pemain mulai mungkin ingin melanjutkan langsung ke gameplay. Menyeret ubin diperlukan sebelum menumpuk.

[Sunting] Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
Untuk menentukan Player Game Angin (门 风 atau 自 风), masing-masing pemain melempar tiga dadu (dua di beberapa varian) dan pemain dengan total tertinggi dipilih sebagai dealer atau bankir (庄家). Angin adalah dealer Timur; pemain di sebelah kanan dealer telah angin Selatan; pemain sebelah kanan memiliki Barat, dan pemain keempat telah Utara (bayangkan peta terbalik). Game angin perubahan setelah setiap tangan, kecuali dealer menang. Dalam beberapa variasi, semakin lama dealer tetap dealer, semakin tinggi nilai masing-masing tangan.

Angin yang berlaku (场 风) selalu diatur ke Timur ketika memulai. Ini perubahan setelah angin Game telah diputar di sekitar papan, yaitu setelah setiap pemain telah kehilangan sebagai dealer. dealer selalu Timur. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berlangsung sampai berlaku Angin telah berputar melalui keempat.

Sebuah mahjong set dengan Angin dalam bermain biasanya akan menyertakan penanda berlaku terpisah Angin (biasanya mati ditandai dengan karakter Angin di pemegang) dan sebuah penunjuk yang dapat berorientasi pada dealer untuk menunjukkan Player Game Angin. Dalam set dengan rak, rak mungkin ditandai berbeda untuk menunjukkan dealer.

Angin ini juga signifikan, seperti Angin yang sering dikaitkan dengan seorang anggota dari kelompok ubin Bunga, biasanya 1 dengan Timur, 2 dengan Selatan, 3 dengan Barat, dan 4 dengan Utara.

[Sunting] Menangani ubin
Semua ubin ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah dan dikocok. Setiap pemain kemudian tumpukan deretan ubin dua ubin tinggi di depannya, panjang baris tergantung pada jumlah ubin yang digunakan:

136 ubin: 17 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Setelan titik, bambu, dan karakter + angin + naga
144 ubin: 18 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
148 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk berlawanan dealer dan pemain, 18 untuk beristirahat
152 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Dealer melempar tiga dadu dan meringkas total. Menghitung berlawanan sehingga dealer adalah 1, baris pemain dipilih.

 

the history of Mahjong

 

Mahjong
Mahjong in Hangzhou.jpg
A game of mahjong being played in Hangzhou, China
Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麻將
Simplified Chinese 麻将
[show]Transliterations
Hakka
- Romanization ma jiong3
Mandarin
- Hanyu Pinyin Má jiàng
Wu
- Romanization mu ciang (麻雀兒/麻將)
Cantonese
- Jyutping maa4 zoeng3
- Yale Romanization ma4 jeung3
alternative Chinese name
Traditional Chinese 麻雀
Simplified Chinese 麻雀
[show]Transliterations
Hakka
- Romanization ma4 jiok3
Mandarin
- Hanyu Pinyin Má què
Min
- Hokkien POJ Moâ-chhiok
Wu
- Romanization mu ciah
Cantonese
- Jyutping maa4 zoek3
- Yale Romanization ma4 jeuk3
Japanese name
Kanji 麻雀
Kana マージャン
[show]Transliterations
- Romaji mājan
Korean name
Hangul 마작
Hanja 麻雀
[show]Transliterations
- Revised
Romanization
majak
- McCune-
Reischauer
machak
Vietnamese name
Vietnamese mạt chược
Mahjong
Players 4
Age range 4 years and older
Setup time 2–10 minutes
Playing time Dependent on variation and/or house/tournament rules
Random chance Yes
Skills required Tactics, observation, memory
This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.

Mahjong (Chinese: 麻將; pinyin: má jiàng) is a game that originated in China, commonly played by four players (with some three-player variations found in Korea and Japan). Mahjong is a game of skill, strategy and calculation and involves a certain degree of chance. In Asia, mahjong is also popularly played as a gambling game (though it may just as easily be played recreationally).

The game is played with a set of 152 tiles based on Chinese characters and symbols, although some regional variations use a different number of tiles. In most variations, each player begins by receiving thirteen tiles. In turn players draw and discard tiles until they complete a legal hand using the fourteenth drawn tile to form four groups (melds) and a pair (head). There are fairly standard rules about how a piece is drawn, stolen from another player (melded), the use of basic (numbered tiles) and honours (winds and dragons), the kinds of melds, and the order of dealing and play. However there are many regional variations which may vary these rules; in addition, the scoring system, the minimum hand necessary to win varies significantly based on the local rules being used.

 

 Name

The game was called 麻雀 (pinyin: má què), meaning sparrow in Chinese, which is still the name most commonly used in some southern Chinese dialects such as Cantonese and Min Nan, as well as in Japanese. However, most Mandarin-speaking Chinese now call the game má jiàng (麻將). In Northern Wu Chinese (Shanghainese and its relatives), it is pronounced as 麻將 [mu tsiaŋ], but in actuality, 麻將 is the diminutive form of 麻雀, written as 麻雀兒 [mu tsiaʔ ŋ], due to an erhua event. It is through the Wu Chinese pronunciation of 麻雀兒 that the diminutive form of 麻雀 in Northern Wu dialect became known as 麻將 in both Mandarin and Wu.

History

Mahjong in China

One of the myths of the origin of mahjong suggests that Confucius,[1] the Chinese philosopher, developed the game in about 500 BC. This assertion is likely to be apocryphal. According to this myth, the appearance of the game in the various Chinese states coincided with Confucius’ travels at the time he was teaching his new doctrines. The three dragon (cardinal) tiles also agree with the three cardinal virtues bequeathed by Confucius. Hóng Zhōng (紅中 MJd1.png, red middle), Fā Cái (發財 MJd2.png, prosperity), and Bái Ban (白板 MJd3.png, white board) represent benevolence, sincerity, and filial piety, respectively.

The myth also claims that Confucius was fond of birds, which would explain the name “mahjong” (maque 麻雀 = sparrow). However, there is no evidence of mahjong’s existence before the Taiping era in the 19th century, which eliminates Confucius as a likely inventor.

Many historians believe it was based on a Chinese card game called Mǎdiào (馬吊) (also known as Ma Tiae, hanging horse; or Yèzí [葉子], leaf) in the early Ming dynasty.[2] This game was played with 40 paper cards similar in appearance to the cards used in the game Ya Pei. These 40 cards are numbered 1 to 9 in four different suits, along with four extra flower cards. This is quite similar to the numbering of mahjong tiles today, although mahjong only has three suits and, in effect, uses four packs of Ya Pei cards.

There is still some debate about who created the game. One theory is that Chinese army officers serving during the Taiping Rebellion created the game to pass the time. Another theory is that a nobleman living in the Shanghai area created the game between 1870 and 1875. Others believe that two brothers from Níngpō created mahjong around 1850, from the earlier game of Mǎdiào.

This game was banned by the government of People’s Republic of China when it took power in 1949.[3] The new Communist government forbade any gambling activities, which were regarded as symbols of capitalist corruption. After the Cultural Revolution, the game was revived, without gambling elements (see below), and the prohibition was revoked in 1985.[4] Today, it is a favorite pastime in China and other Chinese-speaking communities.

Mahjong in the Western world

Students in the United States learning how to play mahjong

In 1895, Stewart Culin, an American anthropologist, wrote a paper in which mahjong was mentioned. This is the first known written account of mahjong in any language other than Chinese. By 1910, there were written accounts in many languages, including French and Japanese.

The game was imported to the United States in the 1920s.[5] The first mahjong sets sold in the U.S. were sold by Abercrombie & Fitch starting in 1920.[6] It became a success in New York, and the owner of the company, Ezra Fitch, sent emissaries to Chinese villages to buy every set of mahjong they could find. Abercrombie & Fitch sold a total of 12,000 sets.[6]

Also in 1920, Joseph Park Babcock published his book Rules of Mah-Jongg, also known as the “red book”. This was the earliest version of mahjong known in America. Babcock had learned mahjong while living in China. Babcock’s rules simplified the game to make it easier for Americans to take up, and his version was common through the mahjong fad of the 1920s. Later, when the 1920s fad died out, many of Babcock’s simplifications were abandoned.

The game has taken on a number of trademarked names, such as “Pung Chow” and the “Game of Thousand Intelligences”. Mahjong nights in America often involved dressing and decorating rooms in Chinese style.[7] Several hit songs were also recorded during the mahjong fad, most notably “Since Ma is Playing Mah Jong” by Eddie Cantor.[8]

Many variants of mahjong developed during this period. By the 1930s, many revisions of the rules developed that were substantially different from Babcock’s classical version (including some that were considered fundamentals in other variants, such as the notion of a standard hand). The most common form, which eventually became “American mahjong”, was most popular among Jewish women.[9] Standardization came with the formation of the National Mah Jongg League (NMJL) in 1937, along with the first American mahjong rulebook, Maajh: The American Version of the Ancient Chinese Game.

While mahjong was accepted by U.S. players of all ethnic backgrounds during the Babcock era, many consider the modern American version a remake of a Jewish game,[10] as many American mahjong players are of Jewish descent. The NMJL was founded by Jewish players and is considered a Jewish organization. In addition, players usually use the American game as a family-friendly social activity, not as gambling. In 1986, the National Mah Jongg League conducted their first Mah Jongg Cruise Tournament, in conjuction with Mah Jongg Madness. In 2010, this large scale seagoing event hosts its 25th Silver Anniversary Cruise, with players from all over the States and Canada participating.

In recent years, a second organization has formed, the American Mah Jongg Association. The AMJA currently hosts tournaments all across North America, with their signature event being at the Trump Taj Mahal Casino Resort in Atlantic City, New Jersey.

British author Alan D. Millington revived the Chinese classical game of the 1920s with his book The Complete Book of Mah-jongg (1977). This handbook includes a formal rules set for the game. Many players in Western countries consider Millington’s work authoritative.

Mahjong is not the first re-appearance of the Chinese game in the western world. It was also introduced in playing card form by an official of Britain‘s Consular Service named William Henry Wilkinson, author of “Chinese origin of playing cards,” under the name of Khanhoo. This card game does not seem to have made much impression. The later success of mahjong came in part from the elegance of its mechanism as embodied in the domino-like pieces.

Current development

Today, the popularity and the characteristics of players of mahjong vary from country to country. There are also many governing bodies, which often host exhibition games and tournaments. It remains far more popular in Asia than in the West.

Mahjong, as of 2010, is the most popular table game in Japan.[11] In Japan, there is a traditional emphasis on gambling[dubiousdiscuss], and the typical player is male. Many devotees there believe the game is losing popularity and have taken efforts to revive it.[citation needed] There are several manga and anime (e.g. Saki and Akagi) devoted to dramatic and comic situations involving mahjong.[12] In addition, Japanese video arcades have introduced mahjong arcade machines that can be connected to others over the Internet. There are also video game versions of strip mahjong.

Mahjong culture is still deeply ingrained in the Chinese community. Sam Hui wrote Cantopop songs using mahjong as their themes, and Hong Kong movies have often included scenes of mahjong games. Many gambling movies have been filmed in Hong Kong, and a recent sub-genre is the mahjong movie.

Like other games, such as chess, Mastermind, checkers and card games, prolonged playing of mahjong may trigger epileptic seizures. The number of such cases, however, are rare. According to a 2007 study,[13][14] to date there are only 23 reported cases of mahjong-induced seizures in the English medical literature.

Studies by doctors have also shown in Hong Kong that the game is beneficial for individuals suffering from dementia or cognitive memory difficulties, leading to the development of mahjong therapy.[15]

As of 2008, there were approximately 7.6 million Mahjong players in Japan. An estimated 8,900 Mahjong parlors in Japan did ¥300 billion in sales that same year.[16]

 Type of game

Because of the solid form of the tiles, mahjong is sometimes classified as a domino game. However, it is much more similar to Western-style card games such as rummy.

Variants

There are many variations of mahjong. In many places, players often observe one version and are either unaware of other variations or claim that different versions are incorrect. Although many variations today differ only by scoring, there are several main varieties:

Descriptions

  • Chinese classical mahjong is the oldest variety of mahjong and was the version introduced to America in the 1920s under various names. It has a small, loyal following in the West, although few play it in Asia.
  • Hong Kong mahjong or Cantonese mahjong is possibly the most common form of mahjong, differing in minor scoring details from the Chinese Classical variety. It does not allow multiple players to win from a single discard.
  • Korean mahjong is unique in many ways and is an excellent version for beginners and three players. One suit is omitted completely (usually the Bamboo set) as well as the seasons. The scoring is simpler and the play is faster. No melded chows are allowed in and concealed hands are common. Riichi (much like its Japanese cousin) is an integral part of the game as well. Korean Rules
  • Sichuan mahjong is a growing variety, particularly in southern China, disallowing chi melds, and using only the suited tiles. It can be played very quickly.
  • Taiwanese mahjong is the variety prevalent in Taiwan and involves hands of 16 tiles (as opposed to the 13-tile hands in other versions), features bonuses for dealers and recurring dealerships, and allows multiple players to win from a single discard.
  • Japanese mahjong is a standardized form of mahjong in Japan and is also found prevalently in video games. In addition to scoring changes, the rules of rīchi (ready hand) and dora (bonus tiles) are unique highlights of this variant. Besides, there is a variation called sanma (三麻) based on this sort, which is modified for playing by three players, and its main differences from the standard one are that chī (Chow) is disallowed and the simple tiles (numbers two through eight) of one suit (usually characters) are removed.
  • Western classical mahjong is a descendant of the version of mahjong introduced by Babcock to America in the 1920s. Today, this term largely refers to the “Wright-Patterson” rules, used in the U.S. military, and other similar American-made variants that are closer to the Babcock rules.
  • American mahjong is a form of mahjong standardized by the National Mah Jongg League[17] and the American Mah-Jongg Association.[18] It uses joker tiles, the Charleston, plus melds of five or more tiles, and eschews the Chow and the notion of a standard hand. Purists claim that this makes American mahjong a separate game. In addition, the NMJL and AMJA variations, which differ by minor scoring differences, are commonly referred to as mahjongg or mah-jongg (with two Gs, often hyphenated).
  • Three player mahjong (or three-ka) is a simplified three-person mahjong that involves hands of 13 tiles (with a total of 84 tiles on the table) and may use jokers depending on the variation. Any rule set can be adapted for three players, however this is far more common and accepted in Japan, Korea, Malaysia and the Philippines. It usually eliminates one suit entirely or tiles 2-8 in one suit leaving only the terminals. It needs fewer people to start a game and the turnaround time of a game is short—hence, it is considered a fast game. In some versions there is a jackpot for winning in which whoever accumulates a point of 10 is considered to hit the jackpot or whoever scores three hidden hands first. The Malaysian and Korean versions drop one wind and may include a seat dragon. Korean Japanese three player variant.
  • Singaporean/Malaysian mahjong is a variant similar to the Cantonese mahjong played in Malaysia. Unique elements of Singaporean/Malaysian mahjong are the four animal tiles (cat, mouse, cockerel, and centipede) as well as certain alternatives in the scoring rules, which allow payouts midway through the game if certain conditions (such as a kang) are met.
  • Fujian mahjong, with a Dàidì joker 帶弟百搭.
  • Vietnamese mạt chược, with 16 different kinds of jokers.
  • Thai mahjong, includes the Vietnamese tiles with another eight for a total of 168 tiles.
  • Filipino mahjong, with the Window Joker.
  • Pussers bones is a fast-moving variant developed by sailors in the Royal Australian Navy. It uses a creative alternative vocabulary, such as Eddie, Sammy, Wally, and Normie, instead of East, South, West, and North.
  • Mahjong Solitaire involves stacking the Mahjong tiles in various configurations and then through an act of elimination the discovery of tile pairs and the removal of those pairs from the stack. The computer game was originally created by Brodie Lockard in 1981 on the PLATO system. Microsoft Corporation released a computerized Mahjong solitaire game called “Mahjong Titans” originally bundled with Windows Vista and later also with Windows 7. Previously Activision in 1986 released a computerized Mahjong solitaire game for the Amiga, Macintosh and Apple IIgs computers and also the Sega Master System entitled Shanghai.

Selected Variations Compared

Mahjong Variations
Variation Hong Kong HK New Classical Japanese Korean Taiwan Malaysia/ Singapore Three player mahjong J/K American
Flowers Yes Yes Yes Optional Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Seasons Yes Yes Yes Uncommon Yes No Yes No Yes
Bamboo Yes Yes Yes Yes No or only terminals Yes Yes No or only Terminals Yes
Animals No No No No No No Yes No Yes
Jokers No No No No No No Yes No Yes
Scoring Base Faan Faan Multipliers Multipliers Simple Simple Simple Simple American
Scoring Winner Winner All Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner Winner
East Doubles Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Sacred Discard No No No Yes Yes No No Yes No
Melded Chows Yes Yes Yes Yes No Yes Yes No Yes
Riichi No No No Yes Yes Yes No Yes No
Minimum Points (in variations units) 3f 5f 3f 1y 2p 7/10t 2u 3+ Varies

 Mahjong competition rules

The top three in the World Mahjong Championship in Tokyo, October 2002. In the middle: world champion Mai Hatsune, from Japan

The first Open European Mahjong Championship, Nijmegen, the Netherlands, June 2005

The winners of the second Open European Mahjong Championship, Copenhagen, Denmark, June 2007. From left: Kohichi Oda (2), Martin Wedel Jacobsen (1), and Benjamin Boas (3)

In 1998, in the interest of dissociating illegal gambling from mahjong, the China State Sports Commission published a new set of rules, now generally referred to as Chinese Official rules or International Tournament rules (see Guobiao Majiang). The principles of the new, wholesome mahjong are: no gambling, no drinking, and no smoking. In international tournaments, players are often grouped in teams to emphasize that mahjong from now on is considered a sport.

The new rules are highly pattern-based. The rulebook contains 81 combinations, based on patterns and scoring elements popular in both classic and modern regional Chinese variants; some table practices of Japan have also been adopted. Points for flower tiles (each flower is worth one point) may not be added until the player has scored 8 points. The winner of a game receives the score from the player who discards the winning tile, plus 8 basic points from each player; in the case of zimo (self-drawn win), he receives the value of this round plus 8 points from all players.

The new rules were first used in an international tournament in Tokyo, where, in 2002, the first World Championship in Mahjong was organized by the Mahjong Museum, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee, and the city council of Ningbo, China. One hundred players participated, mainly from Japan and China, but also from Europe and the United States. Mai Hatsune, from Japan, became the first world champion. The following year saw the first annual China Majhong Championship, held in Hainan; the next two annual tournaments were held in Hong Kong and Beijing. Most players were Chinese, but players from other nations attended as well.

In 2005, the first Open European Mahjong Championship[19] was held in the Netherlands, with 108 players. The competition was won by Masato Chiba from Japan. The second European championship[20] in Copenhagen (2007) was attended by 136 players and won by Danish player Martin Wedel Jacobsen. The first Online European Mahjong Championship was held on the Mahjong Time server in 2007, with 64 players, and the winner was Juliani Leo, from the U.S., and the Best European Player was Gerda van Oorschot, from the Netherlands. The Third Open European Mahjong Championship 2009[21] at Baden/Vienna, Austria, was won by Japanese player Koji Idota, while runner-up Bo Lang from Switzerland became European Champion. There were 152 participants.

In 2006, the World Mahjong Organization (WMO) was founded in Beijing, China, with the cooperation of, amongst others, the Japan Mahjong Organizing Committee (JMOC) and the European Mahjong Association (EMA). This organization held its first World Championship in November 2007 in the Chinese town of Chengdu, attended by 144 participants from all over the world. It was won by Li Li, a Chinese student at Tsinghua University. The next World Championship will take place in Utrecht, the Netherlands, in Summer 2010.

Some other parties have also attempted to create international competition rules. The most noticeable one is the Zung Jung (中庸) Mahjong Scoring System, created by Hong Kong mahjong scholar Alan Kwan. Unlike the Chinese Official rules, Zung Jung is designed with simplicity as one of its design goals, and aims to be suitable for casual entertainment as well as tournament play. Zung Jung is adopted by the World Series of Mahjong event held annually in Macau. The World Series of Mahjong was last held in September 2008, in which 302 participants took part. The main event had a prize pool of US$1-million, which was won over three days of play by Alex Ho, from Hong Kong. He won US$500K from the prize pool and a mahjong necklace designed by Steela+Steelo.[22]

Western, or American-style Mah Jongg tournaments are held in virtually every state – the largest in Las Vegas, NV twice a year, and in Atlantic City, NJ, by Mah JOngg Madness; and the annual cruise hosted by the National Mah JOngg League and Mah Jongg Madness (MJM). MJM tournaments host between 150 and 500 participants at these larger events; and there are several smaller scale, but equally successful tournaments held annually by other hosts. Prize pools are based on the number participating. Rules are based on the National Mah Jongg League standard rules.

Equipment(PERALATAN)

 ubin Mahjong
 
Dasar peralatan: keripik, ubin, dan daduMahjong dapat dimainkan baik dengan satu set ubin mahjong atau satu set kartu bermain mahjong (kadang-kadang dieja “kards” untuk membedakan mereka dari daftar standar yang digunakan di tangan mahjong Amerika). Bermain kartu sering digunakan ketika bepergian, saat mereka mengambil banyak ruang lebih sedikit dan lebih ringan daripada rekan-rekan genteng mereka, namun mereka biasanya dari kualitas yang lebih rendah. Pada artikel ini, “ubin” akan digunakan untuk menunjukkan kartu bermain baik dan ubin.set mahjong Banyak juga akan menyertakan sekumpulan chip atau ubin tulang untuk penilaian, serta indikator yang menunjukkan dealer dan Wind berlaku bundar. Beberapa set juga mungkin termasuk rak untuk menahan ubin atau keripik (meskipun dalam banyak set, ubin umumnya cukup tebal sehingga mereka dapat berdiri sendiri), dengan salah satu dari mereka menjadi berbeda untuk menunjukkan rak dealer.implementasi Komputer mahjong juga tersedia. Hal ini memungkinkan Anda untuk bermain melawan lawan komputer, atau terhadap lawan manusia di Internet.Satu set ubin mahjong biasanya akan berbeda dari satu tempat ke tempat. Biasanya memiliki setidaknya 136 ubin (paling sering 144), walaupun set yang berasal dari Amerika atau Jepang akan memiliki lebih. ubin Mahjong dibagi ke dalam kategori: pakaian, kehormatan, dan bunga.[Sunting] Sejarah
Yang cocok dari ubin adalah uang berbasis. Di Cina kuno, koin-koin tembaga memiliki lubang persegi di tengah; orang melewati tali melalui lubang-lubang untuk mengikat koin ke string. String ini biasanya dalam kelompok 100 koin, Diao disebut (吊, atau 吊 varian), atau 1000 koin, Guan disebut (贯). koneksi Mahjong terhadap sistem mata uang kuno Cina ini konsisten dengan dugaan derivasi dari permainan bernama mǎ Diao (马 吊).Dalam sesuai mahjong, para tembaga mewakili koin, tali sebenarnya string dari 100 koin, dan karakter berbagai mewakili 10.000 koin atau 100 string. Ketika tangan menerima maksimum yang diperbolehkan memenangkan bulat, hal itu disebut Guan mǎn (满贯, secara harfiah, “penuh string koin”.)[Sunting] Jenis cocok
Ada empat kategori sesuai yang keempat “ubin liar” digunakan hanya dalam beberapa variasi lokal (Amerika dan Singapura aturan).[Sunting] Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.[Edit] Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.[Sunting] Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

 
 

Basic equipment: chips, tiles, and dice

Mahjong can be played either with a set of mahjong tiles or a set of mahjong playing cards (sometimes spelled “kards” to distinguish them from the list of standard hands used in American mahjong). Playing cards are often used when travelling, as they take up less space and are lighter than their tile counterparts; however, they are usually of a lower quality. In this article, “tile” will be used to denote both playing cards and tiles.

Many mahjong sets will also include a set of chips or bone tiles for scoring, as well as indicators denoting the dealer and the Prevailing Wind of the round. Some sets may also include racks to hold tiles or chips (although in many sets, the tiles are generally sufficiently thick so that they can stand on their own), with one of them being different to denote the dealer’s rack.

Computer implementations of mahjong are also available. These allow you to play against computer opponents, or against human opponents on the Internet.

A set of mahjong tiles will usually differ from place to place. It usually has at least 136 tiles (most commonly 144), although sets originating from America or Japan will have more. Mahjong tiles are split into these categories: suits, honor, and flowers.

 History

The suits of the tiles are money-based. In ancient China, the copper coins had a square hole in the center; people passed a rope through the holes to tie coins into strings. These strings are usually in groups of 100 coins, called diào (弔, or variant 吊), or 1000 coins, called guàn (貫). Mahjong’s connection to the ancient Chinese currency system is consistent with its alleged derivation from the game named mǎ diào (馬弔).

In the mahjong suits, the coppers represent the coins, the ropes are actually strings of 100 coins, and the character myriad represents 10,000 coins or 100 strings. When a hand receives the maximum allowed winning of a round, it is called mǎn guàn (滿貫, literally, “full string of coins”.)

 Kinds of suits

There are four categories of suits of which the fourth “wild tiles” is used in only a few local variations (American and Singapore rules).

 Simples

Simples
Ada tiga setelan sederhana yang berbeda nomor 1-9. Mereka adalah bambu, koin dan karakter. Mereka universal digunakan dengan pengecualian terbatas atau tidak ada bambu dalam aturan Korea dan penghilangan satu setelan atau 2-8 dari satu setelan dalam tiga versi pemain. Simples Hanya dapat digunakan untuk membuat sebuah chow.

 Honours
Ada dua setelan jas kehormatan yang berbeda. Angin yang ada utara selatan timur dan barat dan naga yang terdapat Merah, Hijau dan Putih. Honours tidak dapat terbentuk Chows.

 Bonus Ubin
Ada sampai 16 ubin bonus mungkin. Dalam beberapa variasi mereka kecewa seperti riichi dan variasi Jepang lainnya. Yang paling umum digunakan adalah bunga-bunga. Musim digunakan dalam variasi Cina yang paling (Hong Kong, Taiwan, shanghai). Di Singapura dan variasi Malaysia ada juga setelan hewan. Ada setelan keempat yang dapat digunakan terdiri dari moda transportasi yang mungkin (yaitu becak). Hal ini jarang digunakan. Ada empat sesuai dengan masing-masing dan setiap ubin unik. Mereka diberi nomor 1 sampai 4.

 Wild Ubin
Juga dikenal sebagai Joker ubin. Mereka hanya digunakan dalam beberapa variasi dan bukan merupakan gugatan melainkan dapat digantikan untuk setiap ubin yang diinginkan berdasarkan aturan tertentu variasi

  
 Setelan Individu (Individual Suit)
Stones (alternatif roda atau lingkaran): satu sampai sembilan (🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟 🀠 🀡). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari sejumlah kalangan. Setiap lingkaran dikatakan untuk mewakili bisa (筒, Tong) koin dengan lubang persegi di tengah.

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Setelan  Bambu:

 Bambu satu sampai sembilan (🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing terdiri dari beberapa tongkat bambu. Setiap tongkat dikatakan untuk mewakili string (索, sǔo) yang memegang seratus koin. Perhatikan bahwa 1 Bambu adalah pengecualian: memiliki burung duduk di bambu, untuk mencegah perubahan

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  • Karakter (alternatif nomor): satu sampai sembilan (🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏). Dinamakan sebagai ubin masing-masing mewakili sepuluh ribu (万, WAN) koin, atau seratus string dari seratus koin.

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 Honors

  •  

    Ubin Angin: 🀀 Timur Angin (东, dong timur), 🀁 Angin Selatan (南, selatan nan), 🀂 Angin Barat (西, XI barat), dan 🀃 Angin Utara (北, bei Utara

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  • Dragon ubin: 🀄 Red Dragon, Green Dragon 🀅, dan 🀆 White Dragon. Ubin naga Istilah konvensi Barat diperkenalkan oleh Joseph Park Babcock pada tahun 1920 bukunya memperkenalkan mahjong ke Amerika. Awalnya, ubin ini dikatakan memiliki sesuatu untuk dilakukan dengan Pemeriksaan Kekaisaran Cina. Ubin merah (“中” 榜, zhōngbǎng) berarti lulus ujian untuk menghapus cara untuk kepegawaian. Ubin hijau (“发” 财, facai, secara harfiah “menjadi kaya”) berarti kekayaan. Ubin putih (白板, báibǎn, secara harfiah “sabak bersih”) berarti bebas dari korupsi. Biasanya memiliki garis tepi biru untuk membedakan dari ubin penggantian dan mencegah perubahan. Dalam mahjong Cina asli, potongan-potongan ini disebut Jian (箭), yang mewakili memanah, dan merah “中” merupakan hit pada target. Dalam panahan Cina kuno, orang akan menaruh “中” merah untuk menandakan bahwa target dipukul. Putih “白” mewakili kegagalan, dan hijau “发” berarti bahwa satu akan merilis menarik

 

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 Flowers

Bunga-bunga
Kategori terakhir, dan komponen biasanya opsional untuk satu set mahjong ubin, ubin ini sering mengandung karya seni. Banyak orang memilih untuk tidak menggunakan ubin, karena mereka membuat lebih mudah untuk menang dan mendapatkan poin bonus. Misalnya, jika Anda tidak memiliki bunga di tangan Anda, Anda mendapatkan hanya satu titik bonus, tapi jika Anda memegang dua ubin bunga yang sesuai dengan kursi Anda / arah angin, Anda berhak untuk dua poin bonus, karena bunga sesuai dengan arah angin. Sebagai contoh, memegang sepasang bunga 3 simbol saat Anda berada di posisi Angin Barat memperoleh 2 poin bonus untuk tangan itu, karena bunga 3 dikaitkan dengan Angin Barat.

Set aturan Jepang menghambat penggunaan bunga dan musim. Korea aturan dan tiga pemain mahjong dalam tradisi / Korea Jepang menggunakan bunga saja. Di Singapura dan Malaysia satu set ekstra bonus ubin dari empat binatang yang digunakan. Peraturan yang ditetapkan meliputi fungsi unik yang pemain yang mendapatkan dua hewan spesifik mendapatkan satu kali pembayaran langsung dari semua pemain. Dalam mahjong Taiwan, mendapatkan semua delapan bunga dan musim merupakan kemenangan otomatis tangan dan pembayaran tertentu dari semua pemain.

Empat dari ubin bunga mewakili empat pabrik mulia Konfusianisme perhitungan: prem 🀢, 🀣 anggrek, krisan 🀥, dan 🀤 bambu.

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Empat Ubin Bunga lainnya  (atau ubin musim )mengambarkan musim   :

🀦 spring, 🀧 summer, 🀨 autumn, and 🀩 winter.

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Ubin Binatang digunakan di Malaysia, Singapore dan variasi  binatang lokal . dalam bentuk Kucing,Tikus  cat, dan  centipede.

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 Setting up the board

Menyiapkan papan
Urutan berikut ini untuk mengatur Hong Kong standar (atau Singapura) permainan. Casual atau pemain mulai mungkin ingin melanjutkan langsung ke gameplay. Menyeret ubin diperlukan sebelum menumpuk.

Game Angin dan Angin Berlaku
Untuk menentukan Player Game Angin (门 风 atau 自 风), masing-masing pemain melempar tiga dadu (dua di beberapa varian) dan pemain dengan total tertinggi dipilih sebagai dealer atau bankir (庄家). Angin adalah dealer Timur; pemain di sebelah kanan dealer telah angin Selatan; pemain sebelah kanan memiliki Barat, dan pemain keempat telah Utara (bayangkan peta terbalik). Game angin perubahan setelah setiap tangan, kecuali dealer menang. Dalam beberapa variasi, semakin lama dealer tetap dealer, semakin tinggi nilai masing-masing tangan.

Angin yang berlaku (场 风) selalu diatur ke Timur ketika memulai. Ini perubahan setelah angin Game telah diputar di sekitar papan, yaitu setelah setiap pemain telah kehilangan sebagai dealer. dealer selalu Timur. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berlangsung sampai berlaku Angin telah berputar melalui keempat.

Sebuah mahjong set dengan Angin dalam bermain biasanya akan menyertakan penanda berlaku terpisah Angin (biasanya mati ditandai dengan karakter Angin di pemegang) dan sebuah penunjuk yang dapat berorientasi pada dealer untuk menunjukkan Player Game Angin. Dalam set dengan rak, rak mungkin ditandai berbeda untuk menunjukkan dealer.

Angin ini juga signifikan, seperti Angin yang sering dikaitkan dengan seorang anggota dari kelompok ubin Bunga, biasanya 1 dengan Timur, 2 dengan Selatan, 3 dengan Barat, dan 4 dengan Utara.

 Dealing ubin
Semua ubin ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah dan dikocok. Setiap pemain kemudian tumpukan deretan ubin dua ubin tinggi di depannya, panjang baris tergantung pada jumlah ubin yang digunakan:

136 ubin: 17 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Setelan titik, bambu, dan karakter + angin + naga
144 ubin: 18 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
148 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk berlawanan dealer dan pemain, 18 untuk beristirahat
152 ubin: 19 tumpukan untuk setiap pemain
Dealer melempar tiga dadu dan meringkas total. Menghitung berlawanan sehingga dealer adalah 1, baris pemain dipilih. Mulai di tepi kanan, “jumlah” ubin dihitung dan bergeser ke kanan.

dealer sekarang mengambil blok empat ubin di sebelah kiri membagi.

Pemain ke kanan dealer mengambil empat ubin ke kiri, dan pemain (berlawanan) mengambil blok empat ubin (searah jarum jam) sampai semua pemain memiliki 12 ubin (untuk variasi 13-ubin) atau 16 (untuk variasi 16-ubin). Dalam variasi 13-ubin, masing-masing pemain kemudian mengambil satu genteng, untuk membuat tangan 13-ubin. Dalam prakteknya, untuk mempercepat prosedur berurusan, dealer sering mengambil satu genteng ekstra selama prosedur menangani untuk memulai gilirannya.

Dewan ini sekarang sudah siap, dan ubin baru akan diambil dari dinding di mana dealing tinggalkan, melanjutkan searah jarum jam. Dalam beberapa kasus khusus dibahas kemudian, ubin diambil dari ujung dinding, sering disebut sebagai bagian belakang dinding. Dalam beberapa variasi, sekelompok ubin di bagian belakang, yang dikenal sebagai dinding mati, disediakan untuk tujuan ini sebagai gantinya. Dalam variasi seperti, dinding mati mungkin secara visual dipisahkan dari dinding utama, tapi tidak diperlukan.

Kecuali dealer telah memenangkan (lihat di bawah), dealer kemudian mengabaikan ubin. Proses berurusan dengan ubin adalah ritual dan kompleks untuk mencegah kecurangan. Casual pemain, atau pemain dengan bermain kartu mahjong, mungkin ingin untuk hanya shuffle baik dan kesepakatan keluar ubin dengan prosedur upacara yang lebih sedikit.

Charleston
Dalam variasi Amerika, diperlukan bahwa sebelum masing-masing tangan dimulai, Charleston diundangkan. Di babak pertama, tiga ubin dilewatkan ke pemain di sebelah kanan seseorang, di babak berikutnya, ubin dioper ke pemain lawan, diikuti oleh tiga ubin dilewatkan ke kiri. Jika semua pemain dalam perjanjian, sebuah Charleston kedua dilakukan, namun setiap pemain dapat memutuskan untuk menghentikan lulus setelah Charleston pertama selesai. Charleston diikuti oleh lulus opsional untuk pemain di satu,, dua atau tiga ubin. Charleston, ciri khas mahjong Amerika, mungkin telah dipinjam dari permainan kartu seperti Hearts.

 Gameplay
Setiap pemain ditangani baik tiga belas ubin (untuk variasi 13-ubin) atau enam belas ubin (untuk variasi 16-ubin). Jika seorang pemain ditangani tangan ubin yang bertekad untuk menjadi tangan menang (dikenal sebagai “surgawi menang”, 天 胡), ia dapat menyatakan kemenangan segera sebelum pertandingan bahkan dimulai. Namun, ini skenario kemenangan terjadi sangat jarang.

gilirannya Sebuah melibatkan pemain gambar ubin dari dinding (atau menggambar tumpukan) dan kemudian menempatkannya di tangan nya, pemain kemudian membuang ubin ke meja. Ini menandakan akhir giliran nya, mendorong pemain ke kanan untuk bergerak nya. Beberapa varian mendorong masing-masing pemain untuk keras mengumumkan nama genteng yang sedang dibuang sebagai bentuk kesopanan. Banyak variasi mengharuskan ubin dibuang ditempatkan secara teratur di depan pemain, sementara beberapa mengharuskan mereka ditempatkan menghadap ke bawah.

Selama gameplay, jumlah ubin dikelola oleh masing-masing pemain harus selalu sama, yakni, tiga belas atau enam belas. Pemain harus membuang genteng setelah mengambil satu. Kegagalan untuk melakukannya aturan bahwa pemain secara efektif keluar dari menang, karena kombinasi yang unggul tidak akan pernah bisa dibangun dengan satu ubin ekstra atau lebih sedikit, namun pemain berkewajiban untuk terus sampai orang lain menang.

Salah satu ciri khas ubin Barat: ketika tiga pemain drop ubin Barat, pemain keempat biasanya akan menghindari membuang Barat lain di giliran berikut. Hal ini disebabkan oleh takhayul yang mengatakan, ketika semua pemain membuang Barat (“西”) bersama-sama, semua pemain akan mati (“归西”) atau dikutuk dengan nasib buruk (lihat tetraphobia). Selama putaran angin Barat yang berlaku, pemain juga akan menghindari melemparkan di Satu Lingkaran pada langkah pertama, karena Satu Circle terdengar seperti “bersama” dalam bahasa Kanton dan Mandarin, dengan demikian, “mati semua bersama-sama” (“一同 归西”). Bahkan, karena takhayul ini, beberapa varian memerlukan pemain untuk me-restart permainan ketika semua ubin dari satu jenis angin dibuang baik dalam empat putaran pertama, atau selama empat putaran selama pertandingan. [Rujukan?]

[Sunting] melds
Ketika seorang pemain membuang ubin, setiap pemain lainnya dapat “panggilan” atau “tawaran” untuk itu dalam rangka untuk menyelesaikan berbaur (satu set tertentu ubin) di tangannya sendiri. Kelemahan melakukan hal ini adalah bahwa pemain sekarang harus mengekspos selesai berbaur dengan pemain lain, memberikan gambaran tentang apa jenis tangan ia menciptakan. Hal ini juga menciptakan unsur strategi sebagai, dalam banyak variasi, membuang sebuah ubin yang memungkinkan pemain lain untuk memenangkan permainan ini membutuhkan pemain membuang kehilangan poin, atau membayar pemenang lebih, dalam permainan uang.

Kebanyakan varian, dengan pengecualian mahjong Amerika, memungkinkan tiga jenis melds. Ketika berbaur dinyatakan melalui membuang, pemain harus menyatakan jenis berbaur dapat dinyatakan dan tempat berbaur menghadap ke atas. (Adapun varian Jepang, pemanggilan untuk membuat melds berbeda dari nama-nama yang sebenarnya dari jenis melds, mendukung nama-nama Cina yang asli dari terjemahan Jepang.) Pemain kemudian harus membuang genteng, dan bermain terus ke kanan. Karena itu, ternyata bisa dilewati dalam proses.

Pong, atau Pung (碰 pinyin Peng, Jepang: 刻 子 kōtsu)-A Pong, atau Pung, adalah satu set tiga ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.
Dalam mahjong Amerika, mana adalah mungkin untuk berbaur ubin Bunga, sebuah Pong juga dapat merujuk kepada sebuah menyatukan tiga dari empat ubin Bunga dalam satu kelompok. mahjong Amerika juga mungkin memiliki tangan yang memerlukan triplet rajutan-tiga ubin peringkat identik tetapi berbeda sesuai.
Kong (杠 / 杠 pinyin geng, Jepang: kantsu 杠子)-A Kong adalah satu set empat ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;.
Karena semua lainnya melds mengandung tiga ubin, suatu Kong harus segera terkena saat eksplisit dinyatakan. Jika genteng keempat terbentuk dari membuang, dikatakan menjadi terkena Kong (明 杠 / 明 杠, pinyin geng ming). Jika semua empat ubin dibentuk di tangan, dikatakan menjadi Kong disembunyikan (暗 杠 / 暗 杠, pinyin geng). Dalam beberapa bentuk permainan, dua luar ubin dari Kong tersembunyi yang membalik untuk menunjukkan statusnya tersembunyi. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk membentuk sebuah Kong terkena jika pemain memiliki Pung terbuka dan menarik ubin keempat. Dalam kasus apapun, pemain harus menggambar genteng ekstra dari ujung belakang dinding, atau dari dinding mati, jika ada, dan buang seperti biasa. Play kemudian berlanjut ke kanan. Setelah Kong terbentuk, tidak dapat dibagi, yaitu, untuk menggunakan satu ubin sebagai bagian dari Chow, dan dengan demikian, mungkin tidak menguntungkan untuk segera mendeklarasikan Kong.
Sheung, atau Chow (上, dalam beberapa versi 吃 chi, Jepang: shuntsu 顺子)-A Sheung atau Chow adalah berbaur dari tiga ubin cocok secara berurutan.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.
Tidak seperti melds, sebuah Sheung terbuka hanya dapat dinyatakan dari membuang dari pemain di sebelah kiri. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah ketika pemain kebutuhan yang ubin untuk membentuk sebuah Sheung untuk menang. Dalam hal ini, Sheung yang dapat dideklarasikan pada gilirannya setiap lawan. mahjong Amerika tidak memiliki Sheung formal (Sheungs tidak dapat dideklarasikan), tetapi beberapa tangan mungkin mengharuskan bahwa urutan serupa dibangun di tangan. Beberapa variasi Amerika juga mungkin memiliki urutan rajutan, dimana tiga ubin dari tiga setelan yang berbeda. Urutan panjang yang lebih tinggi biasanya tidak diperbolehkan, kecuali bentuk lebih dari satu berbaur.
Mata (将 jiang, dalam beberapa versi yǎn 眼, Jepang: 対 子 Toitsu atau 头 雀 Janto; juga Pair)-Pasangan ini, sementara tidak berbaur (dan dengan demikian tidak dapat dideklarasikan atau dibentuk dengan membuang, kecuali jika menyelesaikan pasangan selesai tangan), adalah komponen terakhir ke tangan standar. Ini terdiri dari dua ubin identik.
Misalnya, tangan ini menggunakan dua sebagai mata.
Mahjongg tangan Amerika mungkin memiliki konstruksi genteng yang tidak melds, seperti “NEWS” (satu dari masing-masing memiliki Angin). Karena mereka tidak melds, mereka tidak dapat dibentuk off membuang, dan dalam beberapa variasi, tidak dapat dibangun di sebagian atau seluruhnya oleh ubin Joker. Dalam pejabat China (dan beberapa lainnya) mengetahui aturan, ada tangan lebih lanjut, seperti Tujuh Pasangan atau Tiga Belas Yatim.

Ketika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan untuk ubin dibuang, pemain mengambil ubin untuk memenangkan tangan memiliki hak atas semua orang lain, diikuti oleh Pong atau deklarasi Kong, dan terakhir, Chows. Dalam mahjong Amerika, di mana dimungkinkan untuk dua pemain membutuhkan ubin yang sama untuk melds, yang berbaur dari jumlah yang lebih tinggi ubin identik diutamakan. Jika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan untuk berbaur dari prioritas yang sama (atau untuk menang), pemain terdekat ke kanan menang keluar. Secara khusus, jika panggilan untuk memenangkan override panggilan untuk membentuk suatu kong, seperti bergerak disebut “merampok Kong”, dan mungkin memberikan bonus skor. Permainan mungkin mengumumkan menarik gagal jika dua atau lebih pemain panggilan ubin untuk menang meskipun, sekali lagi tergantung pada variasi.

Ada umumnya merupakan konvensi informal untuk jumlah waktu yang diperbolehkan untuk membuat panggilan untuk ubin dibuang sebelum pemain berikutnya mengambil gilirannya mereka. Dalam mahjong Amerika, ini “jendela kesempatan” secara eksplisit dinyatakan dalam aturan, sedangkan di varian lain, umumnya dianggap bahwa ketika memulai gilirannya pemain depan, yaitu, ubin dinding daun, kesempatan telah hilang.

[Sunting] Bunga
ubin Bunga, ketika ditangani atau ditarik, harus segera diganti dengan genteng dari dinding mati (atau jika tidak ada dinding mati ada, bagian belakang dinding). Dengan pengecualian mahjong Amerika, mereka segera terbuka, ditempatkan di tampilan atas meja di depan ubin pemain. Pada awal setiap putaran, dimana dua atau lebih pemain mungkin memiliki ubin Flower, ubin Bunga mulai diganti dengan dealer dan bergerak ke kanan. ubin Bunga mungkin atau mungkin tidak memiliki nilai titik, dalam beberapa variasi, memiliki semua ubin Bunga memenangkan putaran tanpa isi sebenarnya tangan.

Dalam mahjong Amerika, ubin Bunga juga tidak langsung terkena dan diganti, karena mungkin akan menyatu dengan ubin Flower lain dalam kelompok yang sama (pada intinya, mereka diperlakukan seolah-olah mereka satu set ubin kehormatan) atau digunakan sebagai persyaratan tangan menang. Versi awal mahjong Amerika digunakan ubin ubin Flower sebagai Joker.

[Sunting] Jokers
Sebuah fitur beberapa variasi mahjong, variasi Amerika terutama, adalah gagasan dari beberapa jumlah ubin 🀪 Joker. Mereka dapat digunakan sebagai kartu liar: pengganti ubin pun di tangan, atau, dalam beberapa variasi, ubin hanya dalam melds. Variasi lainnya adalah bahwa Joker ubin tidak boleh digunakan untuk penyatuan. Tergantung pada variasi, pemain mungkin mengganti ubin Joker yang merupakan bagian dari terkena berbaur milik setiap pemain dengan ubin yang diwakilinya.

Aturan yang mengatur ubin membuang Joker juga ada, beberapa variasi mengizinkan ubin Joker untuk mengambil identitas setiap ubin, dan lain-lain hanya mengizinkan ubin Joker untuk mengambil identitas genteng sebelumnya dibuang (atau tidak adanya ubin, jika adalah yang pertama buang).

ubin Joker mungkin atau mungkin tidak berdampak pada penilaian, tergantung pada variasi. Beberapa tangan khusus mungkin memerlukan penggunaan ubin Joker (misalnya, untuk mewakili “ubin kelima” dari suatu tertentu cocok atau kehormatan genteng).

Dalam mahjong Amerika, adalah ilegal untuk lulus Jokers selama Charleston.

[Sunting] Menang
Seorang pemain menang bulat dengan menciptakan tangan mahjong standar, yang terdiri dari sejumlah tertentu melds (yaitu, empat untuk variasi 13-ubin dan lima untuk variasi 16-ubin) dan sepasang. Jika seorang pemain hanya membutuhkan satu lebih ubin untuk menyelesaikan tangan pemenang dan pemain lain membuang genteng yang dia butuhkan, dia dapat mengklaim segera, terlepas dari yang dibuang atau bagian apa dari tangannya itu selesai.

Contoh tangan menang (dibagi menjadi melds dan pasangan untuk kejelasan):

 - – - -
 - – - -
Dalam varian klasik Barat, ini dikenal sebagai menciptakan mahjong, dan proses memenangkan disebut akan mahjong.

Variasi mungkin memiliki tangan yang tidak standar khusus yang pemain dapat membuat (dalam pengertian ini, mahjong Amerika adalah varian mana hanya tangan khusus ada).

Beberapa variasi mungkin mengharuskan tangan menang menjadi beberapa nilai titik. Jika seorang pemain menyatakan kemenangan tetapi tidak ditemukan akan memegang tangan menang, ia menderita hukuman harus membayar semua pemain lawan (disebut zaa3 wu2, atau Zha hu [诈 胡] dalam bahasa Kanton dan Mandarin, masing-masing, atau secara harfiah diterjemahkan, “tangan palsu”). Dalam beberapa versi pemain membutuhkan tangan pemenang yang sangat menuntut untuk menang seperti 5 mahjong fan Hong Kong.

Winning disebut Hu (胡) dalam bahasa Cina, dan agari (アガリ) atau hora (和 了) dalam bahasa Jepang. Jika pemain menang dengan menggambar ubin dari dinding saat gilirannya, nama khusus diberikan untuk jenis ini menang dalam bahasa Cina dan Jepang: zìmō (自摸) di Cina dan tsumo (自摸, ツモ) dalam bahasa Jepang, sedangkan bila pemain menang dengan mengambil genteng cast off oleh pemain lain, dalam bahasa Jepang disebut ron (栄, ロン).

[Sunting] tangan Ready
Ketika tangan merupakan salah satu ubin pendek untuk menang (misalnya:, menunggu:,, atau, seperti yang dapat mata), tangan dikatakan tangan siap (Cina Tradisional: 牌 听; Cina Sederhana: 牌 听; Jepang : tenpai [聴 牌]), atau lebih kiasan, “di pot”. Pemain memegang tangan siap dikatakan menunggu untuk ubin tertentu. Hal ini umum harus menunggu dua atau tiga ubin, dan beberapa poin penghargaan variasi untuk tangan yang sedang menunggu untuk satu ubin. Pada 13-ubin mahjong, jumlah terbesar ubin yang seorang pemain bisa menunggu adalah 13 (tiga belas keajaiban, atau tiga belas anak yatim, tangan khusus tidak standar). Siap tangan harus dinyatakan dalam beberapa variasi mahjong, sedangkan variasi lainnya melarang sama.

Beberapa variasi mahjong, yang paling terutama Jepang dan Korea, memungkinkan pemain untuk menyatakan Richi (立 直, kadang-kadang dikenal sebagai dijangkau, seperti yang fonetis serupa). Sebuah pernyataan dari Richi adalah janji bahwa setiap ubin yang ditarik oleh pemain segera dibuang kecuali merupakan menang. persyaratan standar untuk Richi adalah bahwa tangan ditutup atau tidak memiliki melds menyatakan (selain kong tersembunyi) dan bahwa pemain sudah memiliki poin untuk deklarasi Richi. Seorang pemain yang menyatakan Richi dan menang biasanya menerima bonus poin untuk tangan mereka secara langsung, dan pemain yang menang dengan Richi juga memiliki keuntungan untuk membuka dora bagian dalam (ドラ, dari “dra” gon) yang mengarah ke kemungkinan lebih tinggi untuk mencocokkan seperti kartu, sehingga memiliki lebih banyak kesempatan untuk memberikan bonus tambahan. Namun, pemain yang menyatakan Richi dan kehilangan biasanya dihukum dengan cara tertentu. Mendeklarasikan sebuah Richi tidak ada juga dihukum dalam beberapa cara.

Dalam beberapa variasi, situasi di mana semua empat pemain menyatakan Richi adalah sebuah game dibuat otomatis, karena mengurangi permainan ke keberuntungan murni, yaitu, siapa yang mendapat genteng diperlukan mereka terlebih dahulu.

[Sunting] Menggambar
Kalau saja dinding mati tetap (atau jika tidak ada dinding mati ada dan dinding habis) dan tidak ada yang menang, bundar digambar (流 局 liu ju, 黄庄 Zhuang Huang, ryūkyoku Jepang), atau “goulashed”. Sebuah babak baru dimulai, dan tergantung pada varian, Angin Game dapat berubah. Sebagai contoh, di sebagian kalangan bermain di Singapura, jika ada setidaknya satu Kong saat putaran adalah menggambar, pemain berikut dealer menjadi dealer berikutnya, jika tidak, dealer tetap dealer.

mahjong Jepang memiliki aturan khusus yang disebut sanchahō (三家 和), yang, jika tiga pemain membuang klaim yang sama untuk menang, putaran digambar. Salah satu alasannya adalah bahwa ada kasus-kasus di mana batang 1.000 poin untuk Richi menyatakan tidak dapat dibagi tiga. Aturannya diperlakukan sama dengan “gagal menarik”.

[Sunting] Abortive menarik
Dalam mahjong Jepang, aturan memungkinkan gagal menarik dapat dinyatakan sementara ubin masih tersedia. Mereka dapat dinyatakan dengan ketentuan sebagai berikut:

九种 么 九 牌 倒 牌 (Kyushu yaochūhai tōhai): Pada giliran pertama pemain ketika tidak berbaur telah dinyatakan belum, jika pemain memiliki sembilan terminal yang berbeda atau ubin kehormatan, pemain dapat menyatakan putaran untuk ditarik (misalnya, , tapi juga bisa pergi untuk tangan keajaiban tiga belas tidak standar juga).
四 风 子 连 打 (renda sūfontsu): Pada giliran pertama tanpa berbaur deklarasi, jika semua empat pemain membuang genteng Angin yang sama, bulat digambar.
四 家 立 直 (sūcha Richi): Jika semua empat pemain menyatakan Richi, bundar digambar.
四 杠 算了 (sūkan sanra): bulat itu diambil ketika Kong keempat dinyatakan, kecuali keempat Kongs telah dinyatakan oleh seorang pemain tunggal. Namun, bulat ini diambil ketika pemain lain mendeklarasikan Kong kelima.
[Sunting] Ternyata dan putaran
Jika dealer memenangkan permainan, ia akan tetap dealer. Jika tidak, pemain ke kanan menjadi dealer, dan Wind bahwa pemain menjadi Angin Game, di urutan Timur-Selatan-Barat-Utara.

Setelah kembali Angin Timur (yaitu, setiap pemain telah dealer), putaran selesai dan Angin berlaku akan berubah, lagi di urutan Timur-Selatan-Barat-Utara. Sebuah permainan penuh mahjong berakhir setelah ketika berlaku Utara putaran angin adalah berakhir. Hal ini sering dianggap sebagai tindakan beruntung untuk menghentikan permainan di putaran Barat, sebagai kata Cina untuk Barat (西) memiliki suara yang mirip dengan kata kematian (死), dan juga dunia setelah dalam Buddhisme / Taoisme adalah wasit sebagai bahagia dunia barat.

Namun, variasi Jepang berbeda dalam permainan dimulai pada putaran Timur, di mana meja Wind khusus ditugaskan untuk semua game di putaran tersebut. dealer ini juga selalu dianggap kursi Timur, jadi ketika dealer beralih kepada pemain berikutnya, itu semua reassigns Angin kursi ke pemain berikutnya, meskipun tidak ada yang benar-benar bergerak di sekitar. Setelah setiap pemain telah Timur setidaknya sekali, putaran Timur selesai dan putaran Selatan dimulai. Play biasanya berakhir setelah putaran Selatan, namun jika tidak ada pemain memiliki lebih dari jumlah tertentu, biasanya 30.000, kemudian bermain akan terus ke Barat, dan mungkin bahkan ke babak Utara.

Variasi Korea mirip dengan Jepang, meskipun timur membayar ganda adalah opsional. Dalam beberapa tiga versi pemain (tiga versi pemain tidak disukai di Korea) dua ubin Utara dihapus, berarti hanya dapat digunakan sebagai pasangan. Hal ini meninggalkan tiga putaran tiga pertandingan. Hal ini sering dua kali lipat [Sunting] Penimenjadi 18 pertandingan terakhir, yang dapat diputar sangat cepat dalam permainan tiga pemain.

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Artikel utama: Scoring di mahjong
Mencetak gol di mahjong melibatkan poin, dengan nilai moneter untuk titik yang telah disepakati oleh pemain. Meskipun dalam banyak variasi tangan kosong-kosong yang mungkin, banyak mengharuskan tangan menjadi beberapa nilai titik untuk memenangkan putaran.

Sedangkan gameplay dasar kurang lebih sama di seluruh mahjong, maka perbedaan terbesar antara variasi terletak pada sistem penilaian. Seperti gameplay, ada sistem umum dari penilaian, berdasarkan metode tangan menang dan menang, dari mana Cina dan Jepang (di antara sistem penting) akar dasar mereka. mahjong Amerika umumnya memiliki aturan skor sangat berbeda, serta aturan permainan sangat berbeda.

Karena perbedaan besar antara berbagai sistem penilaian (terutama untuk varian China), kelompok pemain akan sering menyetujui aturan skoring tertentu sebelum pertandingan. Seperti permainan, banyak usaha telah dilakukan untuk menciptakan standar internasional penilaian, tetapi kebanyakan tidak diterima secara luas.

Poin (terminologi yang berbeda dari variasi untuk variasi) diperoleh dengan cara mencocokkan tangan menang dan kondisi menang dengan satu set kriteria tertentu, dengan kriteria yang berbeda skoring nilai yang berbeda. Beberapa kriteria mungkin himpunan bagian dari kriteria lain (misalnya, memiliki berbaur satu Dragon versus memiliki berbaur dari semua itu), dan dalam kasus ini, hanya kriteria yang paling umum adalah mencetak gol. Poin yang diperoleh dapat diterjemahkan ke dalam skor untuk setiap pemain menggunakan beberapa (biasanya eksponensial) fungsi. Ketika judi dengan mahjong, skor ini biasanya langsung diterjemahkan ke dalam jumlah uang. Beberapa kriteria mungkin juga baik dari segi poin dan skor.

 
 

The following sequence is for setting up a standard Hong Kong (or Singapore) game. Casual or beginning players may wish to proceed directly to gameplay. Shuffling the tiles is needed before piling up.

Game Wind and Prevailing Wind

To determine the Player Game Wind (門風 or 自風), each player throws three dice (two in some variants) and the player with the highest total is chosen as the dealer or the banker (莊家). The dealer’s Wind is East; the player to the right of the dealer has South wind; the next player to the right has West; and the fourth player has North (imagine a reversed map). Game Wind changes after every hand, unless the dealer wins. In some variations, the longer the dealer remains dealer, the higher the value of each hand.

The Prevailing Wind (場風) is always set to East when starting. It changes after the Game Wind has rotated around the board; that is, after each player has lost as the dealer. The dealer is always East. A full game of mahjong lasts until the Prevailing Wind has cycled through all four.

A mahjong set with Winds in play will usually include a separate Prevailing Wind marker (typically a die marked with the Wind characters in a holder) and a pointer that can be oriented towards the dealer to show Player Game Wind. In sets with racks, a rack may be marked differently to denote the dealer.

These Winds are also significant, as Winds are often associated with a member of a Flower tile group, typically 1 with East, 2 with South, 3 with West, and 4 with North.

 Dealing tiles

All tiles are placed face down and shuffled. Each player then stacks a row of tiles two tiles high in front of him, the length of the row depending on the number of tiles in use:

  • 136 tiles: 17 stacks for each player
    • Suits of dots, bamboos, and characters + winds + dragons
  • 144 tiles: 18 stacks for each player
  • 148 tiles: 19 stacks for dealer and player opposite, 18 for rest
  • 152 tiles: 19 stacks for each player

The dealer throws three dice and sums up the total. Counting counterclockwise so that the dealer is 1, a player’s row is chosen. Starting at the right edge, “sum” tiles are counted and shifted to the right.

The dealer now takes a block of four tiles to the left of the divide.

The player to the dealer’s right takes four tiles to the left, and players (counterclockwise) take blocks of four tiles (clockwise) until all players have 12 tiles (for 13-tile variations) or 16 (for 16-tile variations). In 13-tile variations, each player then takes one more tile, to make a 13-tile hand. In practice, in order to speed up the dealing procedure, the dealer often takes one extra tile during the dealing procedure to start his turn.

The board is now ready, and new tiles will be taken from the wall where the dealing left off, proceeding clockwise. In some special cases discussed later, tiles are taken from the other end of the wall, commonly referred to as the back end of the wall. In some variations, a group of tiles at the back end, known as the dead wall, is reserved for this purpose instead. In such variations, the dead wall may be visually separated from the main wall, but it is not required.

Unless the dealer has already won (see below), the dealer then discards a tile. The dealing process with tiles is ritualized and complex to prevent cheating. Casual players, or players with mahjong playing cards, may wish to simply shuffle well and deal out the tiles with fewer ceremonial procedures.

Charleston

In the American variations, it is required that before each hand begins, a Charleston is enacted. In the first round, three tiles are passed to the player on one’s right; in the next round, the tiles are passed to the player opposite, followed by three tiles passed to the left. If all players are in agreement, a second Charleston is performed; however, any player may decide to stop passing after the first Charleston is complete. The Charleston is followed by an optional pass to the player across of one, two, or three tiles. The Charleston, a distinctive feature of American mahjong, may have been borrowed from card games such as Hearts.

 Gameplay

Each player is dealt either thirteen tiles (for 13-tile variations) or sixteen tiles (for 16-tile variations). If a player is dealt a hand of tiles that is determined to be a winning hand (known as a “heavenly win”, 天胡), he or she may declare victory immediately before the game even begins. However, this scenario of victory occurs very rarely.

A turn involves a player’s drawing a tile from the wall (or draw pile) and then placing it in his or her hand; the player then discards a tile onto the table. This signals the end of his or her turn, prompting the player to the right to make his or her move. Some variants encourage each player to loudly announce the name of the tile being discarded as a form of courtesy. Many variations require that discarded tiles be placed in an orderly fashion in front of the player, while some require that they be placed face down.

During gameplay, the number of tiles maintained by each player should always be the same; i.e., thirteen or sixteen. A player must discard a tile after picking up one. Failure to do so rules that player effectively out of winning, since a winning combination could never be built with one extra tile or fewer, but the player is obliged to continue until someone else wins.

A distinctive feature of West tiles: when three players drop the West tile, the fourth player will usually avoid discarding another West in the following turn. This is caused by a superstition that says, when all the players discard a West (“西”) together, all players will die (“歸西”) or be cursed with bad luck (see tetraphobia). During the West Prevailing Wind round, players will also avoid throwing in the One Circle during the first move, because One Circle sounds like “together” in Cantonese and Mandarin; thus, “to die all together” (“一同歸西”). In fact, because of this superstition, some variants require players to restart the game when all tiles of one kind of wind are discarded either in the first four turns, or during any four turns during the game.[citation needed]

 Melds

When a player discards a tile, any other player may “call” or “bid” for it in order to complete a meld (a certain set of tiles) in his own hand. The disadvantage of doing this is that the player must now expose the completed meld to the other players, giving them an idea of what type of hand he or she is creating. This also creates an element of strategy as, in many variations, discarding a tile that allows another player to win the game requires the discarding player to lose points, or pay the winner more, in a game for money.

Most variants, with the notable exception of American mahjong, allow three types of melds. When a meld is declared through a discard, the player must state the type of meld to be declared and place the meld face up. (As for the Japanese variant, callings to make melds are different from the actual names of the types of melds, favoring the original Chinese names over the Japanese translation.) The player must then discard a tile, and play continues to the right. Because of this, turns may be skipped in the process.

Pong, atau Pung (碰 pinyin Peng, Jepang: 刻 子 kōtsu)-A Pong, atau Pung, adalah satu set tiga ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;,,.: MJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png; MJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.png; MJf2.pngMJf2.pngMJf2.png; MJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png.
Dalam mahjong Amerika, mana adalah mungkin untuk berbaur ubin Bunga, sebuah Pong juga dapat merujuk kepada sebuah menyatukan tiga dari empat ubin Bunga dalam satu kelompok. mahjong Amerika juga mungkin memiliki tangan yang memerlukan triplet rajutan-tiga ubin peringkat identik tetapi berbeda sesuai.
Kong (杠 / 杠 pinyin geng, Jepang: kantsu 杠子)-A Kong adalah satu set empat ubin identik.
Sebagai contoh:;.MJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png; MJs7.pngMJs7.pngMJs7.pngMJs7.png.
Karena semua lainnya melds mengandung tiga ubin, suatu Kong harus segera terkena saat eksplisit dinyatakan. Jika genteng keempat terbentuk dari membuang, dikatakan menjadi terkena Kong (明 杠 / 明 杠, pinyin geng ming). Jika semua empat ubin dibentuk di tangan, dikatakan menjadi Kong disembunyikan (暗 杠 / 暗 杠, pinyin geng). Dalam beberapa bentuk permainan, dua luar ubin dari Kong tersembunyi yang membalik untuk menunjukkan statusnya tersembunyi. Hal ini juga memungkinkan untuk membentuk sebuah Kong terkena jika pemain memiliki Pung terbuka dan menarik ubin keempat. Dalam kasus apapun, pemain harus menggambar genteng ekstra dari ujung belakang dinding, atau dari dinding mati, jika ada, dan buang seperti biasa. Play kemudian berlanjut ke kanan. Setelah Kong terbentuk, tidak dapat dibagi, yaitu, untuk menggunakan satu ubin sebagai bagian dari Chow, dan dengan demikian, mungkin tidak menguntungkan untuk segera mendeklarasikan Kong.
Sheung, atau Chow (上, dalam beberapa versi 吃 chi, Jepang: shuntsu 顺子)-A Sheung atau Chow adalah berbaur dari tiga ubin cocok secara berurutan.
Sebagai contoh:;,,MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.png; MJs3.pngMJs4.pngMJs5.png; MJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.png; MJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.png.
.
Tidak seperti melds, sebuah Sheung terbuka hanya dapat dinyatakan dari membuang dari pemain di sebelah kiri. Satu-satunya pengecualian adalah ketika pemain kebutuhan yang ubin untuk membentuk sebuah Sheung untuk menang. Dalam hal ini, Sheung yang dapat dideklarasikan pada gilirannya setiap lawan. mahjong Amerika tidak memiliki Sheung formal (Sheungs tidak dapat dideklarasikan), tetapi beberapa tangan mungkin mengharuskan bahwa urutan serupa dibangun di tangan. Beberapa variasi Amerika juga mungkin memiliki urutan rajutan, dimana tiga ubin dari tiga setelan yang berbeda. Urutan panjang yang lebih tinggi biasanya tidak diperbolehkan, kecuali bentuk lebih dari satu berbaur.
Mata (将 jiang, dalam beberapa versi yǎn 眼, Jepang: 対 子 Toitsu atau 头 雀 Janto; juga Pair)-Pasangan ini, sementara tidak berbaur (dan dengan demikian tidak dapat dideklarasikan atau dibentuk dengan membuang, kecuali jika menyelesaikan pasangan selesai tangan), adalah komponen terakhir ke tangan standar. Ini terdiri dari dua ubin identik.
Misalnya, tangan ini menggunakan dua sebagai mata

 MJf4.pngMJf4.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJt5.pngMJs5.pngMJs5.pngMJs5.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.png digunakan dua MJf4.png sebagai mata

American mahjongg hands may have tile constructions that are not melds, such as “NEWS” (having one of each Wind). As they are not melds, they cannot be formed off discards, and in some variations, cannot be constructed in part or in whole by Joker tiles. In the Chinese official (and several other) rulesets, there are further hands, such as Seven Pairs or Thirteen Orphans.

When two or more players call for a discarded tile, a player taking the tile to win the hand has precedence over all others, followed by Pong or Kong declarations, and lastly, Chows. In American mahjong, where it may be possible for two players needing the same tile for melds, the meld of a higher number of identical tiles takes precedence. If two or more players call for a meld of the same precedence (or to win), the player closest to the right wins out. In particular, if a call to win overrides a call to form a kong, such a move is called “robbing the Kong”, and may give a scoring bonus. The game may be declared an abortive draw if two or more players call a tile for the win though, again depending on the variation.

There is generally an informal convention as to the amount of time allowed to make a call for a discarded tile before the next player takes their turn. In American mahjong, this “window of opportunity” is explicitly stated in the rules; whereas in other variants, it is generally considered that when the next player’s turn starts, i.e., the tile leaves the wall, the opportunity has been lost.

Flowers

Flower tiles, when dealt or drawn, must be immediately replaced by a tile from the dead wall (or if no dead wall exists, the back end of the wall). With the exception of American mahjong, they are immediately exposed, placed in view on the table on front of the player’s tiles. At the start of each round, where two or more players may have Flower tiles, Flower tiles are replaced starting with the dealer and moving to the right. Flower tiles may or may not have point value; in some variations, possession of all the Flower tiles wins the round regardless of the actual contents of the hand.

In American mahjong, Flower tiles are not instantly exposed and replaced, as they may be melded with other Flower tiles in the same group (in essence, they are treated as if they were another set of honor tiles) or be used as a requirement of a winning hand. Early versions of American mahjong used Flower tiles as Joker tiles.

Jokers

A feature of several variations of mahjong, most notably American variations, is the notion of some number of 🀪 Joker tiles. They may be used as a wild card: a substitute for any tile in a hand, or, in some variations, only tiles in melds. Another variation is that the Joker tile may not be used for melding. Depending on the variation, a player may replace a Joker tile that is part of an exposed meld belonging to any player with the tile it represents.

Rules governing discarding Joker tiles also exist; some variations permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of any tile, and others only permit the Joker tile to take on the identity of the previously discarded tile (or the absence of a tile, if it is the first discard).

Joker tiles may or may not have an impact on scoring, depending on the variation. Some special hands may require the use of Joker tiles (for example, to represent a “fifth tile” of a certain suited or honor tile).

In American mahjong, it is illegal to pass Jokers during the Charleston.

Winning

A player wins the round by creating a standard mahjong hand, which consists of a certain number of melds (namely, four for 13-tile variations and five for 16-tile variations) and a pair. If a player needs only one more tile to complete his winning hand and another player discards the tile he needs, he may claim it immediately, regardless of who discarded it or what part of his hand it completes.

Examples of winning hands (split into melds and pair for clarity):

  • MJf1.pngMJf1.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJs3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd3.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.png
  • MJt1.pngMJt2.pngMJt3.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt6.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt7.pngMJt8.pngMJt8.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.pngMJt9.png

In Western Classical variants, this is known as creating a mahjong, and the process of winning is called going mahjong.

Variations may have special nonstandard hands that a player can make (in this sense, American mahjong is a variant where only special hands exist).

Some variations may require that winning hands be of some point value. If a player declares victory but is discovered not to be holding a winning hand, he or she suffers a penalty of having to pay all the opposing players (called a zaa3 wu2, or zhà hú [詐胡] in Cantonese and Mandarin, respectively, or literally translated, “fake hand”). In some versions a player needs a very demanding winning hand to win such as 5 fan Hong Kong mahjong.

Winning is called (胡) in Chinese, and agari (アガリ) or hōra (和了) in Japanese. If the player wins by drawing a tile from a wall during his turn, a special name is given to this type of win in Chinese and Japanese: zìmō (自摸) in Chinese and tsumo (自摸, ツモ) in Japanese, while when the player wins by taking a tile cast off by another player, in Japanese it is called ron (栄, ロン).

Ready hands

When a hand is one tile short of winning (for example: MJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs1.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs2.pngMJs3.pngMJs7.pngMJs8.pngMJs9.pngMJd2.pngMJd2.png, waiting for: MJs1.png, MJs4.png, or MJd2.png, as MJs1.png can be eyes), the hand is said to be a ready hand (Traditional Chinese: 聽牌; Simplified Chinese: 听牌; Japanese: tenpai [聴牌]), or more figuratively, “on the pot”. The player holding a ready hand is said to be waiting for certain tiles. It is common to be waiting for two or three tiles, and some variations award points for a hand that is waiting for one tile. In 13-tile mahjong, the largest number of tiles for which a player can wait is 13 (the thirteen wonders, or thirteen orphans, a nonstandard special hand). Ready hands must be declared in some variations of mahjong, while other variations prohibit the same.

Some variations of mahjong, most notably Japanese and Korean ones, allow a player to declare rīchi (立直; sometimes known as reach, as it is phonetically similar). A declaration of rīchi is a promise that any tile drawn by the player is immediately discarded unless it constitutes a win. Standard requirements for rīchi are that the hand be closed or have no melds declared (other than a concealed kong) and that players already have points for declaration of rīchi. A player who declares rīchi and wins usually receives a point bonus for their hand directly, and a player who won with rīchi also has the advantage to open the inner dora (ドラ, from “dra”gon) which leads to higher possibilities to match such a card, thus has more chance to grant additional bonus. However, a player who declares rīchi and loses is usually penalized in some fashion. Declaring a nonexistent rīchi is also penalized in some way.

In some variations, a situation in which all four players declare a rīchi is an automatic drawn game, as it reduces the game down to pure luck, i.e., who gets their needed tile first.

Draws

If only the dead wall remains (or if no dead wall exists and the wall is depleted) and no one has won, the round is drawn (流局 liú jú, 黃莊 huáng zhuāng, Japanese ryūkyoku), or “goulashed“. A new round begins, and depending on the variant, the Game Wind may change. For example, in most playing circles in Singapore, if there is at least one Kong when the round is a draw, the following player of the dealer becomes the next dealer; otherwise, the dealer remains dealer.

Japanese mahjong has a special rule called sanchahō (三家和), which is, if three players claim the same discard in order to win, the round is drawn. One reason for this is that there are cases in which bars of 1,000 points for declaring rīchi cannot be divided by three. The rule is treated the same as “abortive draws”.

 Abortive draws

In Japanese mahjong, rules allow abortive draws to be declared while tiles are still available. They can be declared under the following conditions:

  • 九種么九牌倒牌 (kyūshu yaochūhai tōhai): On a player’s first turn when no meld has been declared yet, if a player has nine different terminal or honor tiles, the player may declare the round to be drawn (for example, MJt1.pngMJt4.pngMJt5.pngMJt9.pngMJs1.pngMJs4.pngMJs6.pngMJs9.pngMJw1.pngMJf1.pngMJf3.pngMJd1.pngMJd1.pngMJd3.png, but could also go for the nonstandard thirteen wonders hand as well).
  • 四風子連打 (sūfontsu renda): On the first turn without any meld declarations, if all four players discard the same Wind tile, the round is drawn.
  • 四家立直 (sūcha rīchi): If all four players declare rīchi, the round is drawn.
  • 四槓算了 (sūkan sanra): The round is drawn when the fourth Kong is declared, unless all four Kongs were declared by a single player. Still, the round is drawn when another player declares a fifth Kong.

Turns and rounds

If the dealer wins the game, he will remain the dealer. Otherwise, the player to the right becomes dealer, and that player’s Wind becomes the Game Wind, in the sequence East-South-West-North.

After the Wind returns to East (i.e., each player has been the dealer), a round is complete and the Prevailing Wind will change, again in the sequence East-South-West-North. A full game of mahjong ends after when the North Prevailing Wind round is over. It is often regarded as an unlucky act to stop the gameplay at the West round, as the Chinese word for West (西) has a similar sound to the word for death (死), and also the after-world in Buddhism/Taoism is refereed as the blissful western world.

However, the Japanese variation differs in that the game starts on the East round, where a special table Wind is assigned to all games in that round. The dealer is also always considered East seat, so when the dealership passes to the next player, it reassigns all the seat Winds to the next player, although nobody actually moves around. After every player has been East at least once, the East round is over and the South round begins. Play usually ends after the South round; however, if none of the players has more than a certain amount, usually 30,000, then play will continue to the West, and possibly even to the North round.

The Korean variation is similar to the Japanese one, though east paying double is optional. In some three player versions (three player versions not being frowned upon in Korea) two North tiles are removed, meaning it can only be used as a pair. This leaves three rounds of three games. This is often doubled to last 18 games, which can be played surprisingly fast in a three player game.

Scoring

Main article: Scoring in mahjong

Scoring in mahjong involves points, with a monetary value for points agreed upon by players. Although in many variations scoreless hands are possible, many require that hands be of some point value in order to win the round.

While the basic gameplay is more or less the same throughout mahjong, the greatest divergence between variations lies in the scoring systems. Like the gameplay, there is a generalized system of scoring, based on the method of winning and the winning hand, from which Chinese and Japanese (among notable systems) base their roots. American mahjong generally has greatly divergent scoring rules, as well as greatly divergent gameplay rules.

Because of the large differences between the various systems of scoring (especially for Chinese variants), groups of players will often agree on particular scoring rules before a game. As with gameplay, many attempts have been made to create an international standard of scoring, but most are not widely accepted.

Points (terminology of which differs from variation to variation) are obtained by matching the winning hand and the winning condition with a specific set of criteria, with different criteria scoring different values. Some of these criteria may be subsets of other criteria (for example, having a meld of one Dragon versus having a meld of all of them), and in these cases, only the most general criterion is scored. The points obtained may be translated into scores for each player using some (typically exponential) functions. When gambling with mahjong, these scores are typically directly translated into sums of money. Some criteria may be also in terms of both points and score.

 Mahjong in Unicode

The Unicode range for mahjong is U+1F000 .. U+1F02F. Grey areas indicate non-assigned code points.

Mahjong Tiles
Unicode.org chart (PDF)
  0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 A B C D E F
U+1f00x 🀀 🀁 🀂 🀃 🀄 🀅 🀆 🀇 🀈 🀉 🀊 🀋 🀌 🀍 🀎 🀏
U+1f01x 🀐 🀑 🀒 🀓 🀔 🀕 🀖 🀗 🀘 🀙 🀚 🀛 🀜 🀝 🀞 🀟
U+1f02x 🀠 🀡 🀢 🀣 🀤 🀥 🀦 🀧 🀨 🀩 🀪 🀫        

[edit] See also

This article contains Chinese text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Chinese characters.
Wikimedia Commons has media related to: mahjong

[edit] Footnotes

  1. ^ Butler, Jonathan. The Tiles of Mah Jong. 1996.
  2. ^ Yèzí in Ming Dynasty Chinese only
  3. ^ Carlisle, Rodney P. (2009). Encyclopedia of Play in Today’s Society. SAGE. p. 133. ISBN 9781412966702
  4. ^ “转发公安部关于废止部分规范性文件的通知”. Guangdong Provincial Public Security Department. http://dangan.jianghai.gov.cn/Article_Show.asp?ArticleID=12251. Retrieved 25 October 2009. 
  5. ^ “Recalling the Craze for a Game of Chance” By Steven Heller New York Times, March 15, 2010 online version
  6. ^ a b [1], A&F Careers, History, “1920″
  7. ^ Bill Bryson, Made in America. Harper, 1996, ch. 16.
  8. ^ Eddie Cantor and his mahjong song
  9. ^ Why do so many Jewish women play mah jongg?
  10. ^ [unreliable source?] Why are so many players of American mah-jongg Jewish?
  11. ^ Pakarnian, John, “Game Boy: Glossary of Japanese Gambling Games”, Metropolis, January 22, 2010, p. 15.
  12. ^ Schodt, Frederik, Manga! Manga! The World of Japanese Comics. Kodansha, 1986, Chapter 5
  13. ^ Richard SK Chang, Raymond TF Cheung, SL Ho, and Windsor Mak (2007), “Mah-jong–induced seizures: case reports and review of twenty-three patients”, Hong Kong Med J 13 (4): 314–318, http://www.hkmj.org/article_pdfs/hkm0708p314.pdf 
  14. ^ Vaudine England (4 August 2007), Mahjong game can induce epileptic seizures, BBC News
  15. ^ An exploratory study of the effect of mahjong on the cognitive functioning of persons with dementia
  16. ^ Matsutani, Minoru, “Mah-jongg ancient, progressive“, Japan Times, June 15, 2010, p. 3.
  17. ^ National Mahjjong League
  18. ^ Amja
  19. ^ Mahjong News
  20. ^ Mahjong News
  21. ^ Mahjong News
  22. ^ “World Series of mahjong”. http://www.online-mahjong.com

Further reading

Historical research
  • Culin, Stewart, ‘The Game of Ma-Jong, its Origin and Significance’. In: Brooklyn Museum Quarterly, Brooklyn, NY, Vol. XI, 1924, p. 153-168. Also found at;

http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Culin/Majong1924/index.html

  • Depaulis, Thierry, ‘Embarrassing Tiles: Mahjong and the Taipings’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 35, No. 3, 2007, pp. 148 – 153.
  • Ebashi, Takashi, ‘Proto Mahjong. Mahjong Tiles in the 19th Century’. In: Mahjong Museum Report, Vol. 5, No.2, Issue 9, April, 2005, pp. 14 – 17 (in Japanese).
  • Lo, Andrew, ‘China’s Passion for Pai: Playing Cards, Dominoes, and Mahjong’. In: Asian Games: The Art of Contest, Colin Mackenzie and Irving Finkel, eds. Asia Society. 2004. pp. 217–231. ISBN 0-87848-099-4
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g) Before Mahjong(g): Part 1’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 32, No. 4, 2004, pp. 153–162.
  • Stanwick, michael, ‘Mahjong(g) Before Mahjong(g): Part 2’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 32, No. 5, 2004, pp. 206–215.
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g), Before and After Mahjong(g): Part 1’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 34, No. 4, 2006, pp. 259–268.
  • Stanwick, Michael, ‘Mahjong(g), Before and After Mahjong(g): Part 2’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 35, No. 1, 2006, pp. 27–39.
  • Stanwick, Michael and Xu, Hongbing, ‘Flowers nad Kings: A Hypothesis of their Function in Early Ma Que’. In: The Playing-card, Vol. 37, No. 1, 2008, pp. 29–40.
  • Wilkinson, William H.,(1890): Published in 1901 as pp 184–194 of Catalogue of the Collection of Playing Cards Bequeathed to the Trustees of the British Museum, F. M. O’Donoghue.
  • Wilkinson, William H.,(1893): Published in Culin, Games of the Orient, Tuttle, 1958. First published under the title Korean Games, with Notes on the Corresponding Games of China and Japan, University of Pennsylvania, 1895.
  • Wilkinson, William H., ‘Chinese Origin of Playing Cards’, in The American Anthropologist, Volume VIII, 1895, pp. 61–78. Also found at;

http://www.gamesmuseum.uwaterloo.ca/Archives/Wilkinson/Wilkinson.html

Chinese classical
  • Babcock, Joseph Park, Babcock’s Rules for Mah-jongg. Mah-jongg Sales Company of America: 1923.
  • Babcock, Smith, Hartman, Work, and Foster, The American Code Of Laws For Mah-Jongg. Standardization Committee: 1924.
  • Millington, A.D., Complete Book of Mah Jong. Weidenfeld & Nicolson: 1993. ISBN 0-297-81340-4.
Chinese official
Others
  • Lo, Amy. The Book of Mah jong: An Illustrated Guide. Tuttle Publishing: 2001. ISBN 0-8048-3302-8.
  • Oxfeld, Ellen, Blood, Sweat, and Mahjong: Family and Enterprise in an Overseas Chinese Community. Cornell University Press: 1993. ISBN 0-8014-9908-9.
  • Pritchard, David B.,Teach Yourself mahjong. McGraw-Hill/Contemporary: 2001. ISBN 0-658-02147-8.
  • Sloper, Tom., Mah-Jongg: Game of the Orient. Self-published: n.d.
  • Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group, Mah Jongg; Wright-Patterson Rules. Wright Patterson Mah Jongg Group: 1963.

External links

THE END@COPYRIGHT Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Rare Old Indonesia Bandung Historical Picture Collections

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

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   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)

Showcase:

The Rare Old Bandung Historical Pictures collections

history dates from 1488 when the first reference to this city exists. But from ancient archeological finds, we know the city was home to Australopithecus, Java Man.

 
Isola Build, NowUPI (university)

Villa Isola/Bumi Siliwangi Gedung: great example of Bandung Art Deco built by an Italian millionare, named D.W. Berrety in 1825. Great views of Bandung are visible from here. Now it is used as UPI Bandung (Bandung Institute of Teacher Training and Education). It is located at Jalan Setiabudi 299, and can be reached by taking public transport from Cicaheum, railway station, or Kebon Kalapa to Ledeng

OLD BRAGA 

Braga street and the older section and particlar were planned by the Dutch when they set up Bandung to be their new capital. The Braga street area was regulated by these authorities to insure its European nature in the building styles. The municipal, regional, and national governments are now intervening in Bandung( I remember the first visit at braga Bandung in 1959 the situation near like this  beside the car-Dr Iwan) 

Driwancybermuseum 
   

 

 
 
 

 

 
 
 
 

Gedung Sate (Sate Building) Build in 1920
* Gedung Sate, the building is called because of its unique distinguished small satay shaped structure on the roof, and used as the head office of West Java provincial government and West Java’s house of representative. Established in 1920 as Gouverments Bedrijven (GB). Location: Diponegoro Street.

 


 

 

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The Best Art Deco

 

Founded by the Dutch in 1810, Bandung became important with the arrival of the railroad in the late 19th cent. It is the center of cultural life for the Sundanese and surrounded by beautiful scenery. It is a center for the study and preservation of Sundanese culture and an educational center. Bandung has served for popular weekend-break destination for people living in Jakarta for many reasons. The cooler climate of highland plantation area, the varieties of food, the cheaper fashion shops located in factory outlets and distros, golf courses, and the friendliness of local people have become the main attraction of the city.* Sovoy Homann Bidakara Hotel, has been maintained as the city’s landmark hotel. The oldest part of the hotel dates back 1880. In 1938 the Savoy Homann Bidakara Hotel got its new design, the classic Art Deco design. Some of the rooms have been left in original state, and offer the unique experience of staying in exactly the same room that Charlie Chaplin stayed in 1925. In 1955, the Asian African Conference was held in the nearby Merdeka Building. There, leaders of Third World countries on initiative of Indonesia’s first president Sukarno, established the alliance of non-aligned countries. Many of the Third World leaders stayed at the Savoy Homann, so next to Nasser and Ho Chi Minh, it can be your turn to enjoy the unique ambiance of this place. The colonial history makes a stay in the Savoy Homann a unique experience. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 112.at 1880

at 1938

at the moment

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

Gedung Merdeka
Gedung Merdeka (Independence Building) which hosted the first Asian African Conference also known as the Bandung Conference in 1955. Built in 1895 for a club house for rich people, named the Concordia Society. In 1921, Societeit Concordia Building was rebuilt in a more functional and structural modern architecture (Art Deco) by designer C. P Wolff Schoemaker. It was renovated again in 1940 with new international style architecture with the help of Architect A. F Aalbers. Now it is a museum for that conference. Location: Asia Afrika Street No. 65.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building)
* Gedung Pakuan (Pakuan Building), established in 1864 as Gubernur Jenderal Ch.F. Pahud instruction and finished in 1867. The architectural style is Indische Empire Stijl (Gaya Empire Hindia). Now is used as West Java Governour residential. Location: Otto Iskandardinata Street No.1

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Vila Isola
This superb example of Art Deco style building is located on the northern part of Bandung. The architect, A.F. Aalbers who also designed the new Savoy Homan, has dedicated his time and creativity in exploring the design, which finally resulted in this distinguished piece of art. Surrounded by a vast area of rectangular form of paddy fields seen from above, the complex had an orderly arrangement of site plan that recalled the regularity of the paddy fields.It was built in 1932 for the Italian millionaire D.W. Berretyan art-critics phillantropist who died shortly after the building finished. Later this building was changed into a villa-hotel, and later as a Teacher Training College.
Villa Isola is located on Northern Bandung. With its splendid site and beautiful view surrounding, this hotel has won a special place among the many hotels existed in Netherlands Indie.

 

   

 

 
 
 

 

 

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Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s. This shot shows the old wing.

 

   

 

hhtp ://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
 
 

 

 

Driwancybermuseum  
 
 

 
 
Preanger HotelThe famous Preanger Hotel of Bandung, first built in the 1880s and
subsequently redesigned with Art Deco flourishes in the 1920s by the famed
architect, Professor Wolfe Shoemaker. The young Sukarno who was his student
at the Technische Hogeschool (now Institut Teknologi Bandung), is believed
to have assisted Shoemaker in the endeavour. The hotel was renovated again
in the 1980s.1880

Old wing (after 1920)

 

   

 

Dr Iwan Cybermuseum
 
 

 

 

 
 
 

 
 

The Aerial Photographs of Bandung
I have some great aerial photographs of the old Bandung (1920′s and 1930′s). By viewing these photo, you can imagine how beautiful Bandung as Parijs van Java in the past.

Atjehstraat – Merdikaweg – Bilitonstraat – Sumatrastraat – Borneostraat – BangkastraatThis view from 1920′s gives a good view of the north east district of the center. The KNIL (Dutch Army) War Department building, right from the middle, is the one that catches attention, in the Kalimantan Street. On the left the Palace of the Army commandant (in the Aceh street) and the Molukkenpark (Taman Maluku), and the HBS (now it is SMU 3 Building) on the right of Bilitonstraat (Belitung Street). In the front of the War Department is the Insulindepark (now Taman Lalulintas), surrounded by all kinds of building and houses of KNIL officers. Behind the War Department are buildings of the the Jaarbeurs, first built in 1920. Down left in the picture is the intersection between Aceh Street and Merdeka Street (BIP). At the background, in the left corner is the Department of Government buildings, betterknown as Gedung Sate.

Old Grand Hotel Homann

This is the view of the old Grand Hotel Homann and surroundings. Hotel Homann was founded around 1870 on the Groote Postweg (now Asia Africa Street) as a simple hotel, but grew to be the most popular hotel of Bandung. Many famous people stayed there, but besides that it was very well known for its rice-table. In 1938 / 1939 the old hotel was replaced by a modern Indonesian new-business-style (art deco style) building by a design of architect Aalbers, with the new name Hotel Savoy Homann. Down right on the picture, dated beginning 1930′s, the Bragaweg ends in the Groote Postweg. The building on the corner, one should see a part of the roof, was part of the famous Concordia Club.

Rembrandtstraat – Tjilakistraat – Tjisankoejstraat – Tjimanoekstraat – Wenckebachstraat – Dagoweg – Progoweg

Five Fokker airplanes of the KNIL airforce are flying above the Department of Government Buildings (Gedung Sate), in 1925. North of this area are no buildings on the picture, only the Geological Laboratory, beside which the Geological Museum later was to be built, is already completed. This city-district mainly was reserved as an building-area for other departments from Batavia, but those transfer-plans were cancelled. South of the Gedung Sateh roads are built and the first country-houses are to be seen. The three-cornered shaped group of houses is the Gempol kampong-district.

Villa Isola – Lembangweg

Villa Isola at Setiabudhi Street, direction Lembang, in 1938. It was built in 1933 ordered by the millionaire Berretty, one of the most famous persons in the Indies newspaper-world en founder of the press agency Aneta. Berretty had this impressive country-house predominantly built in new-business style by the famous architect Wolff Schoemaker, already responsible for the Grand Hotel Preanger, the Jaarbeurs building and the Concordia club. Berretty was only able to enjoy this beautiful posession for one year. December 22, 1934 he crashed with the “Uiver”, a plane of the KLM, the Royal Dutch Airlines. After that Villa Isola was in service as a annex of the Grand Hotel Homann, untill the Second Worldwar. Now, this building is the main office for UPI (Universitas Pendidikan Indonesia

The Old Soekamiskin Prison

View from 1930 of the Sukamiskin Prison, at Ujungberung street, East of Bandung, on road to Garut. Around the huge, symmetric shaped complex the houses for the personal are built. The small airport Sukamiskin is seen in the background, one can see the landingstrip markings. Sukamiskin was used from the late 1920′s as a prison for Indonesian nationalists and was known to the people as a symbol of colonial suppression. President Sukarno was here in prison, after his conviction in the sensational trial against him and some other Indonesian leaders in december 1930. The irony was that Sukarno some years earlier, during a short period as an architect, probably worked on the building drawings himself. During the Japanese occupation Sukamiskin was a prison for Dutch civil servants, until February 1944.

Bragaweg – Merdikaweg – Soeniaradjaweg – Tamblongweg – Javastraat – Logeweg – Grootepostweg

Another view on the center of Bandung, around 1930, direction north west this time. The upper part of the picture shows the railroad clearly, crossed by the northern part of the Bragaweg. North of this crossing one should see the white buildings of the residence office, the Bank of Java (now Bank Indonesia building), and the Church of Bethel, and the Parc of Pieter Sythof (Taman Balaikota / Taman Merdeka) on the right. Between this Park oand the Cathedral Church is the Schoolroad (now it is the part of Merdeka Street). The name for the School is the Ursulinen Sisters (now St Angela High School), see the high, white building upper right, and the Dutch-Native Training-college for teachers next to it. Along the northern part of the Bragaweg, on the left, old low buildings mostly are being replaced by modern European shops, with multiple floors. Notice the building with the flat roof of the Dutch Indies Gas Company. In the middle of the picture are along the diagonal Oude Hospitaalroad (Lembong Street) the telephone office and the radio-telephone office, in an L-shape.

  

 
 

The History of Bandung

 

 

 
 

Bandung is a city in the western part of Java island in Indonesia. Beside its own city administration, Bandung also serves as the capital of the West Java province and the seat of the chief (bupati) of Bandung regency.

Contents

 Early settlement

Although the oldest written historical reference to the city dates back to 1488, where it was the capital of the Kingdom of Pajajaran, there have been some archaeological findings of Austropithecus or Java Man, in the banks of Cikapunding river and around the old lake of Bandung.[1][2]

 Dutch East Indies Company

Braga Street in the mid-1930s.

The Dutch-built Gedung Sate

During the 17th and 18th centuries, the Dutch East Indies company (VOC) established a small plantation area in the fertile and properous Bandung area. A supply road connecting Batavia (now Jakarta), Bogor, Cianjur, Bandung, Sumedang and Cirebon was built in 1786.

In 1809, Louis Napoleon, the ruler of the Netherlands and its colonies, ordered the Dutch Indies Governor H.W. Daendels to increase the defense system of Java island against British. Daendels built a 1000 km road joining the west and east coasts of Java. Since the northern part of West Java at that time was only swamp and marsh, the road was diverted through Bandung.[3][4] The Great Postweg (now Jalan Asia-Afrika) was laid down in 1810.

Local folklore has it that when Daendels was walking along the edge of Cikapundung river, he was amazed by a site he found. He then put a stick at the edge of the Cikapundung and said: “Zorg, dat als ik terug kom hier een stad is gebouwd!” (‘Attention! If I come again here, a city must be built!’).[5] Today, this site is the geographical center of Bandung. R.A. Wiranatakusumah II, the regent of Bandung regency at that time, moved its office from Krapyak, in the south, to a place near a pair of holy city wells (sumur Bandung), which is today the ‘alun-alun (city square). He built his istana (palace), masjid agung (the grand mosque) and pendopo (“pavilion”) in the classical orientation.[6] The pendopo faces Tangkuban Perahu mountain, who was believed to have a mystical ambience.

In 1880, the first major railroad between Batavia and Bandung was laid down.[7] It boosted light industry in Bandung. Chinese migrants flocked in to help run the facilities, services and vendor machines. A small Chinatown district can still be recognised in the vicinity of the railroad station. In 1906, Bandung was given the status of gemeente (municipality) and then later as staadsgemeente (city municipality) in 1926.

Bandung’s location, in a low area between two mountainous areas, is strategically advantageous for military defense. In the 1930s, the Dutch East Indies government had planned to move the capital from Batavia to Bandung, and built military barracks, the central government building (Gouvernments Bedrijven, nicknamed Gedung Sate) and other buildings. This plan did not come to fruition following the failure of the Dutch to reclaim Indonesia after World War II.

The growth of plantation areas

The fertile area of the Parahyangan mountains surrounding Bandung allowed productive tea plantations. In the 19th century, cinchona (kina) plants were introduced by Franz Junghuhn.[8] Cinchona is a plant that can be used for the treatment of malaria and the old pharmacy factory of cinchona still exists in the city.

Bandung had developed itself into an exclusive European resort with hotels, cafes and shops.[1] Rich plantation owners came during the weekends and so did girls and businessmen from the capital, Batavia. The promenade Braga Street grew into an elite area of cafes, restaurants and boutique shops. Two art-deco style hotels, Savoy Homann and Preanger, became two major accommodations there. The Concordia Society (now known as Merdeka Building) was built as a club house of these rich people, complete with a large ballroom and a theater.[7] The title of “Parijs van Java” was given to this city.

Struggle for Independence

Gedung Merdeka during the Asian-African Conference in 1955

Bandung was decided as the provincial capital of West Java, after the independence.

Since October 1945, there had been several extreme Islam groups in West Java with the main goal of establishing an Islamic state in Indonesia (Darul Islam). One of this movements was “Laskar Hitam” a militia group that kidnapped and killed Otto Iskandardinata, RI’s Minister of State (1945). Other victims of similar groups: Poerdiredja, the regent of Priangan, Oekar Bratakoesoemah, the mayor of Bandung and Niti Soemantri, the leader of Indonesian national committee (KNI) in Priangan.

During the Dutch Politionele acties (“police action”), there was an ultimatum for the Indonesian combatants in Bandung to leave. As for the answer, on March 24 1946, the southern part of Bandung was deliberately burned down as they were leaving. This event is known as Bandung Lautan Api or “Bandung as the sea of flame”.[9] A heroic song “Halo-halo Bandung” was sang along by these hundreds of patriots.

During the evacuation process on March 1946, Mohammad Toha, a member of Indonesian militia smuggled several sticks of dynamite to a large scale ammunition dump guarded by Japanese and Dutch troops, near the Dutch military HQ in Dayeuh Kolot.

After overpowering the guards, he put the dynamite in several warehouses full of ammunition. He then committed suicide by igniting the dynamite. The massive explosion killed him and several Dutch, Japanese troops in the area. The explosion created a small lake (“situ”) in Dayeuh Kolot. The main street in the area is called “Mohammad Toha Street”.

Independence

On January 23, 1950, a rebel group called the Just King Armed Forces (Indonesian: Angkatan Perang Ratu Adil, APRA), led by Captain Raymond Westerling (a former Dutch military officer) and King Sultan Hamid II from Kalimantan (Borneo) attacked Indonesian army’s Siliwangi Division HQ in Bandung. Lt. Col. Lembong and 93 other Indonesian soldiers and officers were killed. On January 24, 1950, the rebels tried to attack Jakarta, but the rebellion was quashed in a fierce battle in Pacet, near Jakarta. Sultan Hamid II was arrested, but Capt. Westerling managed to escape to Singapore.

In 1955, the first Asian-African Conference (Indonesian: Konferensi Tingkat Tinggi Asia-Afrika) was held in Bandung. Twenty-nine countries attended the conference. The Asian-African leaders who attended the summit included Nehru (India), Nasser (Egypt), Tito (Yugoslavia), Nkrumah (Ghana), U Nu (Myanmar), and others. This conference is one of the preparation for the establishment of the Non-Aligned Movement block in Beograd (former Yugoslavia) in 1961.

After being elected in 1955, a new parliament body called the Constitutional Assembly (Indonesian: Konstituante), was established. It was tasked with creating new constitution to replace the Provisional Constitution of 1950. This new body held meetings in Bandung for several years without any result. The Constituent Assembly was dissolved by President Sukarno in a decree issued on July 5, 1959, which also reinstated the 1945 Constitution.

On May 10, 1963, a minor traffic accident (collision between 2 motorcycles) occurred in the campus of Bandung Institute of Technology. Two ITB students were involved in this accident: an ethnic Chinese student and an Indonesian student. The traffic accident turned into a racial brawl on the basketball field. The leaders of “Dewan Mahasiswa” (DM)/student council at ITB such as Muslimin Nasution (later becoming a government minister), Siswono Yudohusodo (later becoming a government minister), and Sutjipto (later becoming a leader of PKS party) used this event as the start of a movement against the establishment of ethnic Chinese tribe by Baperki (an ethnic Chinese organization influenced by Indonesian Communist Party/PKI). This movement was also directed against NASAKOM (Nasionalis, Agama dan Komunis) ideology from President Soekarno. The movement disagree with the Communist part of NASAKOM and they assumed that all ethnic Chinese community supported Baperki/Indonesian Communist Party. The next day, there was a large scale public demonstration by this movement against Baperki and ethnic Chinese. Unfortunately there are other organizations/people who use this event to start a large scale racial riot in Bandung that spread to other cities: Jogjakarta, Surabaya, Malang and Medan. Muslimin Nasution and other leaders of Student Council were arrested by Police. Muslimin was sentenced to 3 years in Prison for starting the riot.

On September 30, 1965, there was a failed coup attempt by revolutionary council (aka G30S). The Military Chief Of Staff, General Nasution escaped and went to Bandung for protection from the loyal Siliwangi division. According to General Nasution, near his mother residence in Bandung, members of Indonesian communist party (PKI) also dig new wells for burying their enemies.

On September 6, 1970 there was a football match between ITB students and cadets from Military academy. The game ended in a riot and brawl. Rene L. Conrad, an ITB student, was kidnapped and murdered by the Military cadets.[citation needed] Unfortunately the case remain unsolved today.

In 1976, Doctor Habibie (later becoming Indonesian President) established a state owned, aircraft manufacturing company called Industri Pesawat Terbang Nusantara (IPTN). Later this company was renamed into PT Dirgantara Indonesia (PT DI).

In 1978, after a People Consultative Assembly session in Jakarta, there were demonstrations against the re-election of President Soeharto by ITB students. Police disbanded the “Dewan Mahasiswa” (Student council) movement in ITB and the leaders were arrested. The university was closed for 3 months and the new Minister of Education announced “Normalization of University Life” (NKK) to quell the student movement.

On March 11, 1981, an extreme Moslem group called “Jamaah Imron” attacked Cicendo police station in Bandung. The movement was quashed by Indonesian police, but several members escaped to Medan, North Sumatra and hijacked Garuda airplane to Bangkok 2 weeks later. The passengers and crews were rescued by Indonesian special force in the Don Muang airport, Bangkok, Thailand. The pilot and a soldier were shot death during the rescue attempt.

From April 5, 1982 to January 8, 1983, there were several eruptions at Mt Galunggung in Tasikmalaya and Bandung was buried in several inches of ash.

 21st century

On December 24, 2000, there were bomb attacks against churches in Bandung. The bombs exploded prematurely and the perpetrators were arrested.

On February 21, 2005, a landslide occurred at the garbage dumpsite in Leuwigajah, Bandung. 143 people were killed by the landslide. After this fatal accident, the Leuwigajah dumpsite was closed and Bandung had a major problem in garbage management. The entire city was turned into a giant garbage dump (“kota sampah”). The mayor of Bandung was unable to solve the problem and the governor of West Java was forced to search for new garbage dumpsites. Fortunately the problem is solved now.[citation needed]

Today, Bandung has grown beyond its city core with the Bandung Raya plan. Traffic in Bandung is infamous with its complex, congested and chaotic nature.[10] The city core is practically uprooted, old faces are torn down, lot sizes regrouped, and what was idyllic residence is now bustling chain supermarkets and rich banks.[1] However Bandung is always a weekend break destination for people living in Jakarta. A new Cipularang highway was recently completed, reducing travel time from Jakarta. The major attraction to come to Bandung is the food and fashion shopping. The food in Bandung is well known for their wide varieties and taste. Bandung is also a place to do fashion shopping with its numerous factory outlets and stock centres.[11]

References

  1. ^ a b c “An Extremely Brief Urban History of Bandung”. Institute of Indonesian Architectural Historian. http://www.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp/~fujimori/lsai/bandung.html. Retrieved 2006-08-20. 
  2. ^ Brahmantyo, B.; Yulianto, E.; Sudjatmiko, (2001). “On the geomorphological development of Pawon Cave, west of Bandung, and the evidence finding of prehistoric dwelling cave”. JTM. Archived from the original on 2008-04-08. http://web.archive.org/web/20080408111619/http://www.geocities.com/ekoy001/PawonJTM-web.htm. Retrieved 2008-08-21. 
  3. ^ “Pramoedya sheds light on dark side of Daendels highway”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-01-08. 
  4. ^ Peter .J.M Nas; Pratiwo (2001) (PDF). Java and De Groote Postweg, La Grande Route, The High Military Road. University of Leiden. http://www.leidenuniv.nl/fsw/nas/pdf/NasPratiwoPostweg30-10-2001.pdf
  5. ^ “Old Buildings in Bandung Then and Now” (in Indonesian). Bandung Heritage Society. http://www.bandungheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&task=view&id=56&Itemid=2. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  6. ^ Kunto, Haryanto (1984). Wajah Bandung Tempoe Doeloe. Granesia. 
  7. ^ a b Soemardi, Ahmad R.; Radjawali, I (2004). “Creative culture and urban planning:The Bandung Experience” (PDF). The 11th International Planning History Conference 2004. http://www.etsav.upc.es/personals/iphs2004/pdf. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  8. ^ “If Only Junghuhn Knows How Cinchona in Indonesia Becomes…” (in Indonesian). Pikiran Rakyat. 2004-06-07. Archived from the original on 2006-05-17. http://web.archive.org/web/20060517024534/http://www.pikiran-rakyat.com/cetak/0604/07/0108.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-21. 
  9. ^ Sitaresmi, Ratnayu (PDF). Social History of Bandung Lautan Api (Bandung Sea of Fire) 24 March 1946. http://www.bandungheritage.org/images/stories/dokumen/bandung_sea_of_fire.pdf. Retrieved 2008-08-22. [dead link]
  10. ^ “Traffic jams ruin Bandung getaway weekend”. The Jakarta Post. 2006-08-22. http://www.thejakartapost.com/detailheadlines.asp?fileid=20060822.A02&irec=1
  11. ^ “Trading and Promising Services of Bandung” (in Indonesian). Kompas. 2004-08-18. http://www.kompas.com/kompas-cetak/0408/18/Jabar/1212266.htm. Retrieved 2006-08-22

the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy

The Natalie Portman Entertainer Art Photography(Koleksi Foto seni aktris nominasi oscar Natalie Portman)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Driwan’s Art Photyography Cybermuseum

(Museum Koleksi Seni Fotografi Dr Iwan )

Showcase :

The Famous Actress Art Phtography

Frame One :

The Actrees Natalie Portman Art Photography

Natalie Portman(American actress)

Natalie Portman
Birth name: Natalie Hershlag
Born: June 9, 1981 (1981-06-09) Flag of Israel Jerusalem, Israel

Frame Two :

The Natalie Portman Biography

Natalie Portman

Portman at the premiere of Black Swan during the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival
Born Natalie Hershlag
(Hebrew: נטלי הרשלג‎)
June 9, 1981 (1981-06-09) (age 29)
Jerusalem, Israel
Education Bachelor’s degree
Alma mater Harvard University
Occupation Actress
Years active 1994–present
Partner Benjamin Millepied
(2010–present)

Natalie Hershlag[1][2] (Hebrew: נטלי הרשלג‎; born June 9, 1981), better known by her stage name Natalie Portman, is an Israeli and American actress. Her first role was as an orphan taken in by a hitman in the 1994 French action film Léon. During the 1990s, Portman had major roles in films including Beautiful Girls and Anywhere but Here, before being cast for the role as Padmé Amidala in the Star Wars prequel trilogy.[3] In 1999, she enrolled at Harvard University to study psychology while she was working on the Star Wars films.[4] She completed her bachelor’s degree in 2003.

In 2001, Portman opened in New York City’s Public Theater production of Anton Chekhov‘s The Seagull.[3] In 2005, Portman received a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress as well as winning the Golden Globe Award for Best Supporting Actress – Motion Picture for the drama Closer. She shaved her head and learned to speak with a British accent for her starring role in V for Vendetta (2006), for which she won a Constellation Award for Best Female Performance, and a Saturn Award for Best Actress. She played leading roles in the historical dramas Goya’s Ghosts (2006) and The Other Boleyn Girl (2008). In May 2008, she served as the youngest member of the 61st Annual Cannes Film Festival jury.[5] Portman’s directorial debut, Eve, opened the 65th Venice International Film Festival‘s shorts competition in 2008.[6]

In 2011, Portman won the Academy Award, the Golden Globe Award, the Screen Actors Guild Award, and the BAFTA Award for her lead performance as Nina in Black Swan.

Early life

Portman was born in Jerusalem, Israel.[7][8][9] She is the only child of Shelley (née Stevens), an American homemaker who works as Portman’s agent,[10][11][12][13] and Israeli citizen Avner Hershlag, a fertility specialist and gynecologist.[14][12][15][13] Portman’s maternal ancestors were Jewish immigrants to the United States, from Austria and Russia (her mother’s family had changed their surname from “Edelstein” to “Stevens”).[16] Her paternal ancestors were Jews who moved to Israel from Poland and Romania. Her paternal grandfather, whose parents died at Auschwitz, was an economics professor in Israel, and her Romanian-born great-grandmother was a spy for British Intelligence during World War II.[17][18]

Portman’s parents met at a Jewish student center at Ohio State University, where her mother was selling tickets. They corresponded after her father returned to Israel, and were married when her mother visited a few years later. In 1984, when Portman was three years old, the family moved to the United States, where her father received his medical training.[19] Portman, a dual citizen of the United States and Israel,[20] has said that although she “really love[s] the States… my heart’s in Jerusalem. That’s where I feel at home.”[17]

Portman and her family first lived in Washington, D.C., but relocated to Connecticut in 1988, and then settled on Long Island, New York, in 1990.[3]

Education

In Washington, D.C., Portman attended Charles E. Smith Jewish Day School. Portman learned to speak Hebrew [21] in addition to English and attended a Jewish elementary school, the Solomon Schechter Day School of Glen Cove, New York.[22] She graduated from Syosset High School in Syosset, Long Island, in 1999.[23][24][25] Portman skipped the premiere of her film Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace so she could study for her high school final exams.[26]

In 2003, Portman graduated from Harvard College with a B.A. degree in psychology.[27][28][29][25] “I don’t care if [college] ruins my career,” she told the New York Post, according to a Fox News Channel article. “I’d rather be smart than a movie star.”[30][31] At Harvard, Portman was Alan Dershowitz‘s research assistant[32] in a psychology lab. While attending Harvard, she was a resident of Lowell House [33] and wrote a letter to the Harvard Crimson in response to an essay critical of Israeli actions toward Palestinians.[34]

Portman took graduate courses at the Hebrew University of Jerusalem in the spring of 2004.[35] In March 2006, she appeared as a guest lecturer at a Columbia University course in terrorism and counterterrorism, where she spoke about her film V for Vendetta.[36]

Portman has professed an interest in foreign languages since childhood and has studied French,[37] Japanese,[37] German,[38] and Arabic.[39]

As a student, Portman co-authored two research papers that were published in professional scientific journals. Her 1998 high school paper, “A Simple Method to Demonstrate the Enzymatic Production of Hydrogen from Sugar,” co-authored with scientists Ian Hurley and Jonathan Woodward, was entered in the Intel Science Talent Search, in which she was named a semifinalist.[40][28][25] In 2002, she contributed to a study on memory called “Frontal Lobe Activation During Object Permanence” during her psychology studies at Harvard.[41][42]

Due to her scientific publications, Portman is among a very small number of professional actors with a finite Erdős–Bacon number, a concept that reflects the “small world phenomenon” in academia and entertainment by measuring the “collaborative distance” between that person and Hungarian mathematician Paul Erdős—and the number of links, through roles in films, by which the individual is separated from American actor Kevin Bacon.[41][43][44][45][46][47][48][49][50][51]

Career

Early work

Portman started dancing lessons at age four[3] and performed in local troupes. At the age of ten, a Revlon agent asked her to become a child model,[3][52] but she turned down the offer to focus on acting. In a magazine interview, Portman said that she was “different from the other kids. I was more ambitious, I knew what I liked and what I wanted, and I worked very hard. I was a very serious kid.”[53]

Portman spent her school holidays attending theater camps. When she was ten, she auditioned for the Off-Broadway show Ruthless!, a musical about a girl who is prepared to commit murder to get the lead in a school play. Portman and future pop star Britney Spears were chosen as the understudies for star Laura Bell Bundy.[35] In 1994, she auditioned for the role of a child who befriends a middle-aged hitman in Luc Besson‘s film, Léon (aka The Professional). Soon after getting the part, she took her grandmother’s maiden name “Portman” as her stage name, in the interest of privacy and to protect her family’s identity.[3][54] Léon opened on November 18, 1994, marking her feature film debut at age 13. That same year she appeared in the short film Developing, which aired on television.

1995–1999

During the mid-1990s, Portman had roles in the films Heat, Everyone Says I Love You, and Mars Attacks!, as well as a major role in Beautiful Girls.[3] She was the first choice to play Juliet in William Shakespeare’s Romeo + Juliet, but producers felt her age wasn’t suitable.[52] In 1997, Portman played the role of Anne Frank in a Broadway adaptation of The Diary of Anne Frank.

She initially turned down the lead role in the film Anywhere but Here after learning it would involve a sex scene, but director Wayne Wang and actress Susan Sarandon demanded a rewrite of the script; Portman was shown a new draft, and she decided to be in the film.[3] The film opened in late 1999, and she received a Golden Globe nomination for Best Supporting Actress for her role as Ann August.[55] Critic Mary Elizabeth Williams of Salon called Portman “astonishing” and said that “[u]nlike any number of actresses her age, she’s neither too maudlin nor too plucky.”[56] In the late 1990s, Portman was cast as Padmé Amidala in the Star Wars prequel trilogy. The first part, The Phantom Menace, opened in early 1999.[3] She then signed on to play the lead role of a teenaged mother in Where the Heart Is.

2000–2005

After filming Where the Heart Is, Portman moved into the dorms of Harvard University to pursue her bachelor’s degree in psychology.[3] She said in a 1999 interview that, with the exception of the Star Wars prequels, she would not act for the next four years in order to concentrate on studying.[57] During the summer break from June to September 2000, Portman filmed Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones in Sydney, along with additional production in London.[citation needed]

In July 2001, Portman opened in New York City’s Public Theater production of Chekhov’s The Seagull, directed by Mike Nichols; she played the role of Nina alongside Meryl Streep, Kevin Kline, and Philip Seymour Hoffman.[3] The play opened at the Delacorte Theater in Central Park.[58] That same year, she was one of many celebrities who made cameo appearances in the 2001 comedy Zoolander. Portman was cast in a small role in the film Cold Mountain alongside Jude Law and Nicole Kidman.[3]

In 2004, Portman appeared in the independent movies Garden State and Closer.[3] Garden State was an official selection of the Sundance Film Festival and won Best First Feature at the Independent Spirit Awards. Her performance as Alice in Closer earned her a Supporting Actress Golden Globe as well as a nomination for the Academy Award for Best Supporting Actress.[59][60]

The final Star Wars prequel, Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith, was released on May 19, 2005. The film was the highest grossing domestic film of the year,[61] and was voted Favorite Motion Picture at the People’s Choice Awards. Also in 2005, Portman filmed Free Zone and director Miloš Forman‘s Goya’s Ghosts. Forman had not seen any of her work but thought she looked like a Goya painting, so he requested a meeting.[62]

2006–2009

Portman hosted Saturday Night Live on March 4, 2006.[63] In a SNL Digital Short,[64] she portrays herself as an angry gangsta rapper (with Andy Samberg as her Flavor Flav-esque partner in Viking garb) during a faux-interview with Chris Parnell, saying she cheated at Harvard University while high on marijuana and cocaine.[65] The song, titled “Natalie’s Rap,” was released – alongside other sketches from the show – in 2009 on Incredibad, an album by the Lonely Island.[66] In another sketch, she portrays a student named Rebecca Hershlag (her actual surname) attending a Bar Mitzvah, and in an installment of the recurring sketch The Needlers (also known as Sally and Dan, The Couple That Should Be Divorced), plays a fertility specialist (her father’s profession).

V for Vendetta opened in early 2006. Portman portrayed Evey Hammond, a young woman who is saved from the secret police by the main character, V. Portman worked with a voice coach for the role, learning to speak with an English accent, and she famously had her head shaved.[67]

Portman has commented on V for Vendetta‘s political relevance and mentioned that her character, who joins an underground anti-government group, is “often bad and does things that you don’t like” and that “being from Israel was a reason I wanted to do this because terrorism and violence are such a daily part of my conversations since I was little.” She said the film “doesn’t make clear good or bad statements. It respects the audience enough to take away their own opinion”.[68]

Both Goya’s Ghosts and Free Zone received limited releases in 2006. Portman starred in the children’s film Mr. Magorium’s Wonder Emporium, which began filming in April 2006 and was released in November 2007; she has said that she was “excited to do a kids’ movie.”[67] In late 2006, Portman filmed The Other Boleyn Girl, a historical drama in which she plays Anne Boleyn; Eric Bana and Scarlett Johansson co-starred. She was named one of the hottest women of film and TV by Blender Magazine.[69]

In 2006, she filmed Wong Kar-wai‘s road movie My Blueberry Nights. She won acclaim for her role as gambler Leslie, because “[f]or once she’s not playing a waif or a child princess but a mature, full-bodied woman… but she’s not coasting on her looks… She uses her appeal to simultaneously flirt with and taunt the gambler across the table.”[70] Portman voiced Bart Simpson‘s girlfriend Darcy in the episode “Little Big Girl” of The Simpsons18th season.[71]

She appeared in Paul McCartney‘s music video “Dance Tonight” from his 2007 album Memory Almost Full, directed by Michel Gondry.[72] Portman co-starred in the Wes Anderson short film Hotel Chevalier, opposite Jason Schwartzman, in which she performed her second nude scene (her first being Goya’s Ghosts).[73] In May 2008, Portman served as the youngest member of the 61st Annual Cannes Film Festival jury,[5] and in 2009, she starred opposite Tobey Maguire and Jake Gyllenhaal in the drama film Brothers, a remake of the 2004 Danish film of the same name.[74]

In 2008, Portman at age 27 made her directorial debut at the Venice Film Festival. “Eve”, a short movie about a young woman who is dragged along on her grandmother’s romantic date, was screened out of competition. Portman said she had always had a fascination with the older generation, and drew inspiration for the character from her own grandmother.[75]

2010–present

Portman being interviewed at the premiere of No Strings Attached, January 11, 2011

Portman played a veteran ballerina in Darren Aronofsky‘s 2010 film Black Swan,[76] a role of which critic Kurt Loder wrote: “Portman gives one of her most compelling performances in this film, which is saying something.”[77] To prepare for the role, she went through five to eight hours of dance training each day for six months and lost 20 lb.[78] In 2011, she won both the Golden Globe Award and the Academy Award for best lead actress.[79][80] After her Oscar win, controversy arose over who performed the bulk of the on-screen dancing in Black Swan.[81] Sarah Lane, one of Portman’s dancing double in the film, claimed that Portman performed only about 5 percent of the full-body shots, adding that she was asked by the film’s producers not to speak publicly about it during the Oscar season.[82] Director Aronofsky defended Portman by issuing a statement insisting that Portman performed 80% of the on-screen dancing in the movie.[82]

Portman’s next film was No Strings Attached, which was released on January 21, 2011. She has also played the role of Jane Foster in Kenneth Branagh‘s upcoming film adaptation of Thor.[83] In 2010, Portman dropped out of the lead role of Elizabeth Bennet in the novel adaptation Pride and Prejudice and Zombies, but she continues as producer.[84]

Social and political causes

Portman at the 2010 Toronto International Film Festival, presenting Black Swan

Portman, who is an advocate for animal rights, has been a vegetarian since childhood.[85] She became a vegan in 2009 after reading Jonathan Safran Foer‘s Eating Animals.[86] She does not eat animal products or wear fur, feathers, or leather. “All of my shoes are from Target and Stella McCartney,” she has said.[87] In 2007, she launched her own brand of vegan footwear.[88]

In 2007, Portman traveled to Rwanda with Jack Hanna, to film the documentary Gorillas on the Brink. Later, at a naming ceremony, Portman christened a baby gorilla Gukina, which means “to play.”[89] Portman has been an advocate of environmental causes since childhood, when she joined an environmental song and dance troupe known as World Patrol Kids.[90] She is also a member of the One Voice movement.[91]

Portman has also supported antipoverty activities. In 2004 and 2005, she traveled to Uganda, Guatemala, and Ecuador as the Ambassador of Hope for FINCA International, an organization that promotes micro-lending to help finance women-owned businesses in developing countries.[92] In an interview conducted backstage at the Live 8 concert in Philadelphia and appearing on the PBS program Foreign Exchange with Fareed Zakaria, she discussed microfinance.[93] Host Fareed Zakaria said that he was “generally wary of celebrities with fashionable causes,” but included the segment with Portman because “she really knew her stuff.”[94]

In the “Voices” segment of the April 29, 2007, episode of the ABC Sunday morning program This Week with George Stephanopoulos, Portman discussed her work with FINCA and how it can benefit women and children in Third World countries.[95] In fall 2007, she visited several university campuses, including Harvard, USC, UCLA, UC Berkeley, Stanford, Princeton, New York University, and Columbia, to inspire students with the power of microfinance and to encourage them to join the Village Banking Campaign to help families and communities lift themselves out of poverty.[96]

In 2010, Portman’s activist work and popularity with young people earned her a nomination for VH1‘s Do Something Awards, which is dedicated to honoring individuals who do good.[97]

Portman is a supporter of the Democratic Party, and in the 2004 presidential race she campaigned for the Democratic nominee, Senator John Kerry. In the 2008 presidential election, Portman supported Senator Hillary Clinton of New York in the Democratic primaries. She later campaigned for the eventual Democratic nominee, Senator Barack Obama of Illinois, during the general election.[98] However, in a 2008 interview, she also said: “I even like John McCain. I disagree with his war stance – which is a really big deal – but I think he’s a very moral person.”[99]

Personal life

In the May 2002 issue of Vogue, Portman called actor/musician Lukas Haas and musician Moby her close friends.[100] After starring in the video for his song “Carmensita”, she began a relationship with American folk singer Devendra Banhart,[101] which ended in September 2008.[102] She met ballet dancer Benjamin Millepied in late 2009, on the set of her film Black Swan, for which Millepied acted as choreographer.[103] By at least New Year’s Eve 2009, the two had begun dating.[104] On December 27, 2010, a Portman representative told the press that Portman and Millepied are engaged and expecting a child,[105] due in the summer of 2011.[106]

On the concept of the afterlife, Portman has said, “I don’t believe in that. I believe this is it, and I believe it’s the best way to live.”[17] She has said that she feels more Jewish in Israel and that she would like to raise her children in the Jewish religion: “A priority for me is definitely that I’d like to raise my kids Jewish, but the ultimate thing is to have someone who is a good person and who is a partner.”[107]

Filmography

Natalie Portman at the Toronto International Film Festival’s 2009 premiere of Love and Other Impossible Pursuits, directed by Don Roos.

Film roles
Year↓ Title↓ Role↓ Notes↓
1994 Léon Mathilda Also known as The Professional
1994 Developing Nina 23-minute short film
1995 Heat Lauren Gustafson  
1996 Beautiful Girls Marty  
1996 Everyone Says I Love You Laura Dandridge  
1996 Mars Attacks! Taffy Dale  
1999 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Padmé Amidala  
1999 Anywhere but Here Ann August  
2000 Where the Heart Is Novalee Nation  
2001 Zoolander Herself Cameo
2002 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Padmé Amidala  
2003 Cold Mountain Sara  
2004 Garden State Samantha  
2004 Closer Alice Ayres  
2005 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Padmé Amidala  
2005 Free Zone Rebecca  
2006 V for Vendetta Evey Hammond  
2006 Paris, je t’aime Francine  
2006 Goya’s Ghosts Inés Bilbatúa & Alicia  
2007 My Blueberry Nights Leslie  
2007 The Darjeeling Limited Jack’s Ex-Girlfriend  
2007 Hotel Chevalier Jack’s Ex-Girlfriend 13-minute short companion piece to The Darjeeling Limited
2007 Mr. Magorium’s Wonder Emporium Molly Mahoney  
2008 The Other Boleyn Girl Anne Boleyn  
2009 Love and Other Impossible Pursuits Emilia Greenleaf[108] Retitled The Other Woman[109]
2009 New York, I Love You Rifka  
2009 Brothers Grace Cahill  
2010 Hesher Nicole  
2010 Black Swan Nina Sayers  
2011 No Strings Attached Emma Kurtzman  
2011 Your Highness Isabel Completed
2011 Thor Jane Foster Post-production
Television roles
Year↓ Title↓ Role↓ Notes↓
2003-2004 Sesame Street Herself/Natalie Season 34, Episode “Oscar Needs a Change of Scenery”[110]
Season 35, Episode “Alan’s Vacation Replacement”[110]
2006 Saturday Night Live Host Season 31, Episode 13
2007 The Simpsons Darcy Season 18, Episode “Little Big Girl” (Voice)[71]
Theatrical roles
Year↓ Title↓ Role↓ Notes↓
1994 Ruthless!    
1997 The Diary of Anne Frank Anne Frank  
2001 The Seagull    

Awards

Year↓ Film↓ Award↓ Category↓ Notes↓ Result↓
1996 Beautiful Girls Chicago Film Critics Association Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
1996 Beautiful Girls Chicago Film Critics Association Most Promising Actress   Nominated
1999 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Golden Raspberry Award Worst Screen Couple (shared with Jake Lloyd) Nominated
2000 Anywhere but Here Golden Globe Award Best Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture   Nominated
2000 Star Wars Episode I: The Phantom Menace Saturn Award Best Young Actress   Nominated
2000 Where the Heart Is Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actress   Nominated
2000 Anywhere but Here Young Artist Award Best Young Actress   Nominated
2001 Where the Heart Is Young Artist Award Best Young Actress   Nominated
2002 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actress: Drama/Action Adventure   Won
2002 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Teen Choice Awards Choice Chemistry (shared with Hayden Christensen) Nominated
2003 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Golden Raspberry Award Worst Supporting Actress   Nominated
2003 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Golden Raspberry Award Worst Screen Couple (shared with Hayden Christensen) Nominated
2003 Star Wars Episode II: Attack of the Clones Saturn Award Best Actress   Nominated
2004 Closer National Board of Review of Motion Pictures Best Acting by an Ensemble[111] (shared with Jude Law, Clive Owen, and Julia Roberts) Won
2004 Closer San Diego Film Critics Society Best Supporting Actress[112]   Won
2005 Closer Golden Globe Award Best Supporting Actress in a Motion Picture[113]   Won
2005 Closer Academy Award Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2005 Closer BAFTA Award Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2005 Closer Broadcast Film Critics Association Award Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2005 Closer Broadcast Film Critics Association Award Best Acting Ensemble (shared with Jude Law, Clive Owen, and Julia Roberts) Nominated
2005 Garden State Irish Film and Television Awards Best International Actress   Nominated
2005 Closer London Film Critics’ Circle Actress of the Year   Nominated
2005 Garden State MTV Movie Awards Best Female Performance   Nominated
2005 Garden State MTV Movie Awards Best Kiss (shared with Zach Braff) Nominated
2005 Closer Online Film Critics Society Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2005   People’s Choice Awards Favorite Leading Lady   Nominated
2005 Closer Satellite Award Best Supporting Actress in a Drama   Nominated
2005 Garden State Satellite Award Best Actress in a Comedy or Musical   Nominated
2005 Closer Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actress: Drama   Nominated
2005 Garden State Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actress: Drama   Nominated
2005 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actress: Action/Adventure   Nominated
2005 Garden State Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Liar   Nominated
2005 Garden State Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Liplock   Nominated
2005 Garden State Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Love Scene   Nominated
2005 Closer Vancouver Film Critics Circle Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2005 Garden State Vancouver Film Critics Circle Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2006 Star Wars Episode III: Revenge of the Sith Saturn Award Best Actress   Nominated
2006 V for Vendetta Teen Choice Awards Choice Movie Actress: Drama/Action Adventure   Nominated
2006 V for Vendetta Saturn Award Best Actress   Won
2009 Brothers Chicago Film Critics Association Best Supporting Actress   Nominated
2010 Black Swan Boston Society of Film Critics Best Actress[114]   Won
2010 Black Swan New York Film Critics Online Best Actress[115]   Won
2010 Black Swan Online Film Critics Society Best Actress[116]   Won
2010 Brothers Saturn Award Best Actress   Nominated
2010 Black Swan Satellite Award Best Actress in a Drama   Nominated
2010 Black Swan Washington D.C. Area Film Critics Association Best Actress   Nominated
2011 Black Swan Academy Award Best Actress[80]   Won
2011 Black Swan BAFTA Award Best Actress in a Leading Role[117]   Won
2011 Black Swan Broadcast Film Critics Association Award Best Actress[118]   Won
2011 Black Swan Golden Globe Award Best Actress in a Motion Picture – Drama[79]   Won
2011 Black Swan Independent Spirit Awards Best Female Lead[119]   Won
2011 Black Swan Screen Actors Guild Award Outstanding Performance by a Female Actor in a Leading Role[120]   Won
2011 Black Swan Alliance of Women Film Journalists Best Actress   Nominated
2011 Black Swan London Film Critics’ Circle Actress of the Year   Nominated
2011 Black Swan Saturn Award Best Actress[121]   Nominated
2011 Black Swan Toronto Film Critics Association Best Actress   Nominated
2011 Black Swan Vancouver Film Critics Circle Best Actress   Nominated

the end @ copyright Dr iwan suwandy 2011

Driwanmasterpiece Cybermuseum:”The Art and Value Of Poster Collections”(Karya seni dan nilai investasi Koleksi Poster Internasional)

 Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 048

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

Showroom :

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

 

                    Please Enter

                   

              DMC SHOWROOM

(Driwan Masterpiece  Cybermuseum)Showcase:

The Value Of Propaganda Label  collections

 

Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 034
034/ Social development – the people’s right    €284 (original)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 035silk
035/ silkscreen Hatuey El Primero  €498 Thick paper, hand-printed original  by Gladys Acosta, OSPAAAL    :: From Wikipedia:
Hatuey (d. February 2, 1512) was a Taíno Cacique (chief) from the island of Hispaniola, who lived in the early sixteenth century. He has attained legendary status for leading a group of natives in a fight against the invading Spanish, and thus becoming the second fighter against colonialism in the New World after Anacaona. He is celebrated as “Cuba’s First National Hero.
s177.jpg (8561 bytes)
177/ Che Guevara. Warning: this is not a Cuban original, it is a reprint! 
Buy thru other site:
normal size 24″x34″   $ 7,99
giant size cca 40″x60″   $16,99
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 036
036/ For a Vietnam ten times more beautiful (Ho-Chi-Minh)   €317 (original, 1980)      ::
From Wikipedia:
(19 May 1890 – 2 September 1969) was a Vietnamese Communist revolutionary and statesman who was prime minister (1946–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam).
Hồ led the Viet Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-governed Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at Dien Bien Phu. He lost political power inside North Vietnam in the late 1950s, but remained as the highly visible figurehead president until his death. The former capital of South Vietnam, Saigon, after the Fall of Saigon, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City in his honor.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 039
039/ South Africa. Against apartheid €249 (original, 1982)     :: design: Morante
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 040
040/ Central America: No to imperial bases   €187 (original, 1983)      ::
Czech propaganda posters.....   click to enlarge
889/ The socialism opened the path to the liberation of the nations from colonies. Fidel Castro marching with some communist leaders from Asia.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 038
038/ Freedom now! For the Wilmington 10. €189 (original, 1979)     :: From Wikipedia:
The Wilmington Ten were a group of civil rights activists who spent nearly a decade in jail after being convicted of arson and conspiracy in 1971. The case became an international cause celebre amidst widespread beliefs that the individuals in the case were only guilty of holding dissenting political beliefs.[1] Amnesty International took up the case in 1976 and the convictions were finally overturned on a technicality in 1980.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 045
045/ Coated paper   World solidarity with Cuba.  €169 (original, 1980)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 043
043/ Camilo Torres    €326 (original, 1981)     :: From Wikipedia:
Father Camilo Torres Restrepo (born in Bogotá, Colombia on 3 February 1929 – died in Santander on 15 February 1966) was a Colombian socialist, Roman Catholic priest, a predecessor of liberation theology and a member of the National Liberation Army (ELN) guerrilla organisation. During his life, he tried to reconcile revolutionary Marxism and Catholicism.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 042
042/ South Africa. The writing Whites Only in his eyes €337 (original, 1983)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 048
048/ Che Guevara €339 (original, 1968)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 049
049/ US president Nixon presented as vampire (we will cite one of the visitors to this page: “Nixon is best and most fondly remembered for his overwhelming paranoia, secret bombings of Laos & Cambodia during his massive escalation of the Vietnam war (note poster 049 shows the “hawkish” Nixon sinking his talons into southern Laos)” . Thin paper, folded. €375 (original, 1971)design: Mederos     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 046
046/ No economic blockade of Cuba! Foreign exchange, petroleum, medicaments, imported and exported goods (disappearing in the US hat) €174 (original, 1991)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 047
047/ He who plunders… …always lives in terror €208 (original, 1982)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 051view1
051/ US president Nixon. Poster that was originally made for an attachment to a magazine. It unfolds dramatically…     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 051view2
051/ next view     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 051view3
051/ next view     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 051view4
051/ full view    €540 (original, 1972)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 052
052/ Tricontinental conference anniversary  €283 (original)      ::From Wikipedia: The OSPAAAL was founded in Havana in January 1966, after the Tricontinental Conference, a meeting of leftist delegates from Guinea, the Congo, South Africa, Angola, Vietnam, Syria, North Korea, the Palestine Liberation Organization, Cuba, Puerto Rico, Chile and the Dominican Republic. Mehdi Ben Barka, the Moroccan leader of the Tricontinental Conference, was murdered the year before, allegedly with complicity of the CIA.
One of the main purposes of the organisation is to promote the causes of freedom fighters in the Third World; for example, OSPAAAL strongly supports Hugo Chávez and demands that the Cuban Five be released. Social development is a recurring theme in OSPAAAL publications, it is called a human right by the organization.
s193.jpg (12557 bytes)
193/ Che Guevara. Warning: this is not a Cuban original! 
Buy thru other site:
normal size 24″x34″   $ 8,99
giant size cca 38″x54″   $17,99
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 057
057/ Central America has said: enough! (Salvator Allende)   €167 (original, 1989)      ::  From Wikipedia: Salvador Isabelino Allende Gossens (Spanish pronunciation: (June 26, 1908 – September 11, 1973) was a physician and the first democratically elected Marxist socialist to become president of a state in the Americas.
Allende’s involvement in Chilean political life spanned a period of nearly forty years. As a member of the Socialist Party, he was a senator, deputy and cabinet minister. He unsuccessfully ran for the presidency in the 1952, 1958, and 1964 elections, but was appointed in 1970.
Allende served as the President of Chile from November 4, 1970 until the U.S.-backed September 11, 1973 coup d’état that ended his democratically elected Popular Unity government. During the air raids and ground attacks that preceded the coup, Allende gave his last speech where he vowed to stay in the presidential palace. The cause of death was suicide.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 059
059/ Silkscreen Lebanon. Unity is victory.   €389 (original, 1978)   Thick paper, hand-printed original   ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 056
056/ Vietnam is winning. 2000. This number relates to the number of US planes shot down in Vietnam. Every round number was celebrated…  €331, very bad condition of the poster (original, 60′s)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 053
053/ Grenada   €244 (original, 1984)From Wikipedia: The Invasion of Grenada, codenamed Operation Urgent Fury, was an invasion ordered by U.S. President Ronald Reagan of the nation of Grenada, an island in the Caribbean Sea, 100 miles (160 km) north of Venezuela, and over 1,500 miles (2,400 km) southeast of the United States. After an internal power struggle on the island (which has a population of just over 100,000) ended with the deposition and execution of Grenadian Prime Minister Maurice Bishop, the invasion began on October 25, 1983. A combined force of troops from the United States (nearly 10,000 troops), Jamaica and members of the Regional Security System (RSS) (approximately 300 troops) defeated Grenadian resistance and the military government of Hudson Austin was deposed.
The invasion was criticised by the United Kingdom, Canada and the United Nations General Assembly, which condemned it as “a flagrant violation of international law”.     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 058silk.jpg (93160 bytes)
058/ silkscreen Fidayin €485 (original, 1968)   Thick paper, hand-printed :: From Wikipedia:
Fedayeen are a group of people known to be volunteers, not connected to an organized government or military, in the Arab and Muslim world. They are usually deployed for a cause where the government has been viewed as failure or non-existent. They are associated with the role of resistance against occupation or tyranny. The name “fedayeen” is used to refer to armed struggle against any form of enslavement basing their actions on resistance. Armed militias known as the fedayeen, grew from militant elements within the Palestinian refugee population.The Fedayeen made efforts to infiltrate and strike against Israelis and their allies due to the Israeli occupation of their lands. Members of these groups were largely based within the refugee communities living in Egyptian-controlled Gaza, Jordanian-controlled West Bank, or in neighboring Lebanon, and Syria.
During this time (1948-c.1965), the word entered international usage and was frequently used in newspaper articles and political speeches as a synonym for great militancy.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 050
050/ Palestina. Solidarity with the struggle of the people of Palestine. €187 (original, 1979)  Poster was originally distributed folded => creases. But we also have one that was collected BEFORE the folding.   ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 062
062/ Solidarity with Syria   €359 (original, 1971)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 060
060/ Day of solidarity with the people of Palestine. May 15th. €366 (original, 1968)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 063
063/ Unity of the Arab people. Nationalization of oil. €269 (original, 1972)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 064
064/ IMF-WB [International monetary fund - World bank]. Neoliberalism, plunder and unemployment. €188 (original, 1994)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 066.jpg (72833 bytes)
066/ Chile: will win The swastika is crumbling…  €228 (poster was folded originally – so it has creases from that) (original, 70′s)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 067
067/ World day of solidarity with the struggle of the people of Puerto Rico. September 23rd. €287 (poster was folded by OSPAAAL since it was distributed by shipping, that means creases.  price after  €244(original, 1974)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 065
065/ Haiti. Solidarity with the suffering people.   €230 (original, 1983)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 070
070/ No to the Guantanamo naval base  €268 (original, 1971)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 071
071/ Portrait of Amilcar Cabral, coated paper  €329 (original, 1978)     ::
From Wikipedia: Amílcar Lopes Cabral (12 September 1924 – 20 January 1973) was an African agronomic engineer, writer, Marxist and nationalist guerrilla and politician. Also known by his nom de guerre Abel Djassi, Cabral led African nationalist movements in Guinea-Bissau and the Cape Verde Islands and led Guinea-Bissau’s independence movement. He was assassinated in 1973 by Guinea-native agents of the Portuguese colonial authorities, just months before Guinea-Bissau declared unilateral independence.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 073
073/ Undertaking history. €173 (original, 1993)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 068
068/ (these posters were folded originally to be distributed with the Tricontinental magazine – that left creases on them) July 26th. The day of world’s solidarity with the cuban revolution. €252 (original, 1975)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 069.jpg (102955 bytes)
069/ No to militarism and hunger   €178 (original, 1982)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 072.jpg (86033 bytes)
072/ “CHILE. A people in struggle” €248 (original, 1983)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 076.jpg (73230 bytes)
076/ Korea   €224 (original, 1988)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 074.jpg (62926 bytes)
074/ Comandante Carlos Fonseca (Nicaragua)   €198 (original, 1986)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 079.jpg (73050 bytes)
079/ Guatemala. Solidarity with guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity, URNG    €264 (original, 1982)      :: From Wikipedia:
The Guatemalan National Revolutionary Unity (in Spanish: Unidad Revolucionaria Nacional Guatemalteca, URNG-MAIZ or most commonly URNG) is Guatemalan political party that started as a guerrilla movement but laid down its arms in 1996 and became a legal political party in 1998 after the peace process after the Guatemalan Civil War .
The URNG was formed as guerrilla umbrella organization on February 7 by four revolutionary groups active in Guatemala: the Guerrilla Army of the Poor (EGP), the Revolutionary Organization of the People in Arms (ORPA), the Rebel Armed Forces (FAR), and the National Directing Nucleus of PGT (PGT-NDN).
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 080.jpg (113130 bytes)
080/ Stop repression in Guatemala  €191 (original, 1980)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 077.jpg (84132 bytes)
077/ Afghanistan defends its revolution   €378 (original, 1983)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 078.jpg (87157 bytes)
078/ We’ll create two, three, more Vietnams….   Little pictures of Che Guevara  €427 (original, 1967)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 075.jpg (88667 bytes)
075/ …. Puerto Rico   €394 (original, 1967)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 082.jpg (89287 bytes)
082/ €177 (original, 70′s)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 083silk.jpg (97949 bytes)
083/ Silkscreen  El Salvador. €430   Thick paper, hand-printed original, 1981   ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 084.jpg (83562 bytes)
084/ Sandino is alive   €325 (Also smaller and much cheaper version is available – see below) (original, 1984)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 085.jpg (91397 bytes)
085/ Farabundo is El Salvador. €227 (original, 1982)     :: From Wikipedia: Augustín Farabundo Martí Rodríguez (May 5, 1893 – February 1, 1932) was a social activist and Communist leader in El Salvador. He helped start a guerrilla revolt of indigenous farmers. In the government reprisals against the movement, over 30,000 indigenous people were killed in 1932, which became known as La Matanza (The Slaughter). The peasant uprising against dictator Maximiliano Hernández Martínez was crushed by the Salvadoran military ten days after it had begun. The Communist-led rebellion, fomented by collapsing coffee prices, enjoyed some initial success, but was soon drowned in a bloodbath. President Hernández Martínez, who had himself toppled an elected government only weeks earlier, had the defeated Martí shot after a perfunctory hearing. Martí remains a martyr figure for El Salvador’s Left, and he is the namesake of the leftist Salvadoran political party Farabundo Martí National Liberation Front (FMLN) (Frente Farabundo Martí para la Liberación Nacional), which fought a bloody guerrilla war against the Salvadoran military government (backed by the U.S.) in the 1980s. That war is to this day renowned for grave human rights violations committed by both sides. The FMLN is today one of El Salvador’s two major political parties.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 089.jpg (110079 bytes)
089/ …The day of world solidarity with the struggle of people of Palestina  €229 (original, 1975)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 087.jpg (73756 bytes)
087/ Long live free Zimbabwe   €305 (original, 1980)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 081.jpg (83329 bytes)
081/ The 25th anniversary of International solidarity. €186 (original, 1991)      :: From Wikipedia: The OSPAAAL was founded in Havana in January 1966, after the Tricontinental Conference
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 090.jpg (120786 bytes)
090/ Che Vive    €377 (from Cuba, possibly reprint -  but definitely Cuban made, before 1997)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 086.jpg (90476 bytes)
086/ Nasir… Egypt    €181 (original, 1982)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 088.jpg (83687 bytes)
088/ The 5th anniversary – F. Polisario   €212 (original, 1981)      :: From Wikipedia:
The Polisario, Polisario Front, or Frente Polisario, from the Spanish abbreviation of Frente Popular de Liberación de Saguía el Hamra y Río de Oro (“Popular Front for the Liberation of Saguia el-Hamra and Río de Oro”) is a Sahrawi rebel movement working for the independence of Western Sahara from Morocco. The Polisario is an observer member of Socialist International.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 095.jpg (80643 bytes)
095/ World solidarity with the Cuban revolution   €316133
 (original, 1980)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 091silk.jpg (86018 bytes)
091/ Silkscreen. Apartheid – no. €239 (original, 1977)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 093.jpg (74986 bytes)
093/ …January 1975. Second anniversary of his assassination  €189 (original, 1975)      :: Assassination of Amilcar Cabral, leader of the African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (PAIGC) on January 20, 1973
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 094.jpg (78474 bytes)
094/ International campaign of solidarity with the people of Korea  €395 (original, 1973)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 096.jpg (104353 bytes)
096/ Vietnam Build and defend the new life  €287 (original, 1982)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 099.jpg (104341 bytes)
099/ For The Falklands / Malvinas €195 (original)     :: design: Morante
From Wikipedia:
The Falklands War (Spanish: Guerra de las Malvinas/Guerra del Atlántico Sur), also called the Falklands Conflict/Crisis, was fought in 1982 between Argentina and the United Kingdom (UK) over the disputed Falkland Islands and South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands. The Falkland Islands consist of two large and many small islands in the South Atlantic Ocean east of Argentina; their name and sovereignty over them have long been disputed.
The Falklands War started on Friday, 2 April 1982 with the Argentine invasion and occupation of the Falkland Islands and South Georgia, and ended with the Argentine surrender on 14 June 1982. The war lasted 74 days, and resulted in the deaths of 255 British and 649 Argentine soldiers, sailors, and airmen, and three civilian Falklanders.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 098.jpg (78624 bytes)
098/ Sandino presente   €215 (original, 1989)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 092.jpg (65313 bytes)
092/ Che Guevara   €272 (coated paper)    Printed in Cuba in 90′s. Very representative portrait of Che   ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 101.jpg (63397 bytes)
101/ OSPAAAL The 30th anniversary  €232 (original)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 100.jpg (68749 bytes)
100/ Solidarity with the people of Haiti  €193 (original, 1983)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 104.jpg (81974 bytes)
104/ Panama: to resist is to win   €149 (original, 1989)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 097.jpg (82767 bytes)
097/  Stop Yankee attacks on Nicaragua.  €170 (original, 1985)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 106.jpg (95667 bytes)
106/ El Salvador. €279 (original, 1984)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 107.jpg (90088 bytes)
107/ This poster is too rare ,still could not to estimate the valeu. (original)    
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 103.jpg (78104 bytes)
103/ International solidarity with the Lebanese people’s struggle.  €212 (original)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 105.jpg (88020 bytes)
105/ OSPAAAL. 15 years of tricontitental solidarity   €324 (original)      :: From Wikipedia: The OSPAAAL was founded in Havana in January 1966, after the Tricontinental Conference
s858.jpg (33411 bytes)
858/ We greet the heroic Cuban nation. Slovakian poster. More still couldnot estimate the value
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 112.jpg (96016 bytes)
112/ et cette… Nothing will stop the march of gigants  €175 (original, 60′s)     :: From Wikipedia: Les Géants is the title of a novel by Jean-Marie Gustave Le Clézio (born 13 April 1940), usually identified as J. M. G. Le Clézio – a globetrotting French author, professor, and Nobel laureate. The author of over forty works, he was awarded the 1963 Prix Renaudot for his novel Le Procès-Verbal.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 110.jpg (115775 bytes)
110/ €553 (original, 1971)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 102.jpg (70856 bytes)
102/ Uruguay. Freedom for political prisoners. €182 (original, 1980)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 108.jpg (91476 bytes)
108/ Giron. 20th anniversary  €188 (original, 1981)     :: From Wikipedia: The Bay of Pigs Invasion (known as La Batalla de Girón, or Playa Girón in Cuba), was an unsuccessful attempt by a CIA-trained force of Cuban exiles to invade southern Cuba with support from US government armed forces, to overthrow the Cuban government of Fidel Castro.
The plan was launched in April 1961, less than three months after John F. Kennedy assumed the presidency in the United States. The Cuban armed forces, trained and equipped by Eastern Bloc nations, defeated the exile combatants in three days. Bad Cuban-American relations were made worse by the 1962 Cuban Missile Crisis.
s884.jpg
884/ Homeland or death. We will win. Czech poster. value caanot estimate
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 114.jpg (90296 bytes)
114/ International campaign of solidarity with the people of Korea. June 25 – July 27    €322 (original, 1968)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 115.jpg (90922 bytes)
115/ Korea. Month of solidarity with Korea. June 25 to July 27.  €309 (original, 1968)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 113.jpg (113116 bytes)
113/ Victory or death   €390 (original, 1971)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 120.jpg (76180 bytes)
120/ 4000. Vietnam. Tomb of imperialism. €430 (original, 1972)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 109.jpg (68272 bytes)
109/ Power to the people. George.   (original, 1971)   €590  :: From Wikipedia:
In 1966, George Jackson formed the Black Guerilla Family in the California prison of San Quentin. The goal of this group was to overthrow the white-run government in America and the prison system in general. In 1970, this group displayed their dedication after a white prison guard was found not guilty for shooting three black prisoners from the prison tower. The guard was found cut to pieces, and a message was sent throughout the whole prison of how serious the group was.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 117.jpg (86444 bytes)
117/ Guinea. €330 (original, 1972)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 119.jpg (124050 bytes)
119/ Zimbabwe   €328 (original, 1972)     :: From Wikipedia: The white-minority government declared itself a “republic” in 1970. A civil war ensued, with Joshua Nkomo’s ZAPU and Robert Mugabe’s ZANU using assistance from the governments of Zambia and Mozambique. Although Smith’s declaration was not recognised by the United Kingdom nor any other significant power, Southern Rhodesia dropped the designation ‘Southern’, and claimed nation status as the Republic of Rhodesia in 1970. The Smith administration declared itself a republic in 1970 which was recognised only by South Africa, then governed by its apartheid administration. Over the years, the guerrilla fighting against Smith’s UDI government intensified…
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 121.jpg (90436 bytes)
121/ Solidarity with… Palestina   €226 (original, 1979)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 123.jpg (63963 bytes)
123/ Apartheid cannot be reformed. It has to be eliminated. Olof Palme. €76 (original, 1986)   (Swedish prime minister killed possibly for political reasons. Palme said, “Apartheid cannot be reformed, it has to be eliminated.” on February 21, 1986 — a week before he was murdered, but no evidence was found by Swedish police investigators to support this theory)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 118.jpg (49821 bytes)
118/ Day of solidarity with The Congo. February 15th.  (Note that the English and French translations on the poster got partially switched.)  €259 (original, 1972)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 125.jpg (117138 bytes)
125/ Unity in the face of imperialist aggression against Nicaragua. Central Intelligence agency. United States of America.  €178 (original, 1985)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 116.jpg (109047 bytes)
116/ Month of solidarity with the people of Korea…  €580 (original, 1972)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 122.jpg (102434 bytes)
122/ Nelson Mandela. €246 (original, 1986)     :: From Wikipedia:
Nelson Rolihlahla Mandela; born 18 July 1918 in Transkei, South Africa)[1] is a former President of South Africa, the first to be elected in a fully representative democratic election, who held office from 1994–99. Before his presidency, Mandela was an anti-apartheid activist, and the leader of the African National Congress’s armed wing Umkhonto we Sizwe. The South African courts convicted him on charges of sabotage, as well as other crimes committed while he led the movement against apartheid. In accordance with his conviction, Mandela served 27 years in prison, spending many of these years on Robben Island. He is currently a celebrated elder statesman who continues to voice his opinion on topical issues. In South Africa he is often known as Madiba, an honorary title adopted by elders of Mandela’s clan. The title has come to be synonymous with Nelson Mandela.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 124.jpg (71519 bytes)
124/ Sandino vive   €144 (original, 1984)     :: From Wikipedia:
Augusto Nicolás Calderón Sandino (May 18, 1895 Niquinomo – February 21, 1934 Managua) was a Nicaraguan revolutionary and leader of a rebellion against the U.S. military presence in Nicaragua between 1927 and 1933. He was labeled as a bandit by the U.S. government, and his exploits made him a hero throughout much of Latin America, where he became a symbol of resistance to U.S. domination. Drawing the United States Marines into an undeclared guerrilla war, his guerrilla organization suffered many defeats, but he successfully evaded capture. US troops withdrew from the country after overseeing the inauguration of President Juan Bautista Sacasa. Sandino was assassinated by General Anastasio Somoza García, who went on to seize power in a coup d’état two years later, establishing a family dynasty that would rule Nicaragua for over forty years. Sandino’s legacy was claimed by the Sandinista National Liberation Front (FSLN), which overthrew the Somoza government in 1979.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 129.jpg (99111 bytes)
129/ Namibia. Power to the people. €238 (original, 1981)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 130.jpg (86982 bytes)
130/ Israel: a wound in Lebanon’s side  €179 (original, 1983)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 127.jpg (83017 bytes)
127/ Solidarity with the African Northamerican people. August 18th, 1968     977 (original, 1968)     €594::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 132.jpg (64071 bytes)
132/ Apartheid   €214 (original, 1984)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 131.jpg (83742 bytes)
131/ Africa  €223 (original, 1973)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 128.jpg (76531 bytes)
128/ Day of the world solidarity with the people of Mosambique   €187 (original, 1973)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 133.jpg (133235 bytes)
133/ Namibia. For its total independence    €274 (original, 1986)      :: From Wikipedia:
In 1966, uprisings and demands by African leaders led the United Nations to assume direct responsibility over the territory, changing the name to Namibia in 1968 and recognizing South West Africa People’s Organization (SWAPO) as official representative of the Namibian people in 1973. Namibia, however, remained under South African administration during this time. Following internal violence, South Africa installed an interim administration in Namibia in 1985. Namibia obtained full independence from South Africa in 1990
s191.jpg (41963 bytes)
191/ Che Guevara. Many faces of his. Warning: this is not a Cuban original!   
24×36″…..   $7.99
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 135.jpg (76554 bytes)
135/ Fidel Castro. One of the few posters with his face… There is reportedly a law in Cuba that prohibits making posters with images of the politicians that are still in the office. So the frequently depicted guy on the Cuban posters is not Castro, but Che Guevara. €822 (original, 1985)     €457::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 134.jpg (87871 bytes)
134/ Libya   €216 (original, 1983)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 138.jpg (111602 bytes)
138/ €199 (original, 1971)     ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 142.jpg (78682 bytes)
142/ On saving herself, she saves. Jose Marti.  €164 (original, 1992)      :: From Wikipedia: José Julián Martí Pérez (January 28, 1853–May 19, 1895) was a Cuban national hero and an important figure in Latin American literature. In his short life he was a poet, an essayist, a journalist, a revolutionary philosopher, a translator, a professor, a publisher, and a political theorist. Through his writings and political activity, he became a symbol for Cuba’s bid for independence against Spain in the 19th century, and is referred to as the “Apostle of Cuban Independence”. He also fought against the threat of United States expansionism into Cuba. From adolescence, he dedicated his life to the promotion of liberty, political independence for Cuba and intellectual independence for all Spanish Americans.
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 139.jpg (91513 bytes)
139/ Solidarity with the people of Palestine   €189 (original, 1971)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 154ads.jpg (74545 bytes)
154/ doublesided Sabra y Chatila  (€179) (original, 1983)      :: This refers to Sabra and Shatila Massacre, 1983, Lebanese Civil War
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 154bds.jpg (100932 bytes)
154/ doublesided Sabra y Chatila  (original, 1983)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 037
037/ Solidarity with the people of South Africa. APARTHEID.  €229 (original, printed 1978)      ::
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 054
054/    €199 (original, 1971. These posters were originally distributed folded = creases)     ::
s180.jpg (11637 bytes)
180/ Till the victory, always! Che Guevara. Warning: this is not a Cuban original!                 
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 137.jpg (66834 bytes)
137/ €274 (original, 1970)     ::
Che Guevara original poster
190/ Che Guevara. (Czech original, recent) 12      ::

AFTER NOW THE VALUE OF PROPAGANDA POSTER, PLEASE STARTING

TO BUILT YOUR COLLECTIONS.

Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 041
041/ [Patricio] Lumumba. 20th anniversary.  €205 (original, 1981)      :: From Wikipedia:
Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925–11 February 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. Only ten weeks later, Lumumba’s government was deposed in a coup during the Congo Crisis.[1] He was subsequently imprisoned and murdered in circumstances suggesting the support and complicity of the governments of Belgium and the United States.
THE END @ COPYRIGHT Dr IWAN SUWANDY 2011
Click on the image to enlarge it. Poster # 033
033/ Nguyen Trai 1380-1980. 6th century.  Vietnamese motiff €177 (original, 1980)      :: From Wikipedia:
Nguyen Trai – an illustrious Vietnamese Confucian scholar, a noted poet, a skilled politician and a master tactician. He was inspiring the Vietnamese populace to support open rebellion against the Ming Dynasty rulers. He is also the author of the declaration of independence from China

 

FRAME TWO:

THE INTERNATIONAL POSTER COLLECTIONS

pposter – An advertisement, generally printed on a large piece of paper, which is posted on a wall in a public place. A poster may or may not be intentionally produced to become an art commodity as well as an advertisement (ephemera).

A printed reproduction of a two-dimensional work of art should not be called a poster unless it’s intended to be an advertisement.

Examples of posters:

Listed chronologically by artist’s birth year 

  

Use ctrl-F (PC) or command-F (Mac) to search for a name 

 

see thumbnail to rightNathaniel Currier (American, 1813-1888), Grand National Democratic Banner, 1844, hand-colored lithograph, 11 3/4 x 8 3/8 inches, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC. Promoting James K. Polk for president, George M. Dallas for vice-president.

see thumbnail to leftLouis John Rhead (American, 1857-1926) for The New York Sun, Read the Sun, 1895, color lithograph, 46 13/16 x 29 inches (118.9 x 73.7 cm), Metropolitan Museum of Art, NY.

see thumbnail to rightAdolphe Crespin (Belgium, 1859-1944), Poster for ’Paul Hankar, Architect’, 1897, color lithograph, 15 1/2 x 11 1/8 inches (40 x 29 cm), Los Angeles County Museum of Art. See architect and pattern.

see thumbnail to leftThéophile Alexandre Steinlen (French, 1859-1923), Chat Noir, color lithograph, a poster advertising an event at the Chat Noir, a Paris cabaret from 1881 to 1897. See Art Nouveau.

see thumbnail to rightHenri de Toulouse-Lautrec (French, 1864-1901), Divan Japonais, 1893, color lithograph, complete: 31 5/8 x 23 7/8 inches (80.3 x 60.7 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY. This poster advertises a cabaret in Montmartre, Paris. In the center sits the famous cancan dancer Jane Avril, whose elegant black silhouette dominates the scene. Lithographed posters proliferated during the 1890s due to technical advances in color printing and the relaxation of laws restricting the placement of posters. Dance halls, café-concerts, and festive street life invigorated nighttime activities. Toulouse-Lautrec’s brilliant posters, made as advertisements, captured the vibrant appeal of the prosperous Belle Époque. See Art Nouveau, and a page about Toulouse-Lautrec and Post-Impressionism.

see thumbnail to leftWilliam H. Bradley (American, 1868-1962) for Stone & Kimball (Chicago), The Chap Book: Thanksgiving Number, 1895, color lithograph, 19 5/8 x 18 7/8 inches (49.9 x 33.8 cm), Baltimore Museum of Art. See Art Nouveau.

see thumbnail to rightWilliam H. Bradley, Narcoti Chemical Co. (Springfield, Massachusetts), Narcoti-Cure, 1895, color lithograph, 20 x 13 1/2 inches (50 x 34 cm), Baltimore Museum of Art. The product advertised here was promoted as a cure for the cigarette smoking habit, although the curative value of using a narcotic to do it remains suspect.

see thumbnail to leftMaxfield Parrish (American, 1870-1966) for The Century Co. (New York), printed by the Thomas & Wylie Lithographic Co., The Century Midsummer Holiday Number, 1897, color lithograph, 47.1 x 30.6 cm (18 9/16 x 12 inches), Delaware Art Museum.

see thumbnail to rightStrobridge Lithography Company (American), Lillian Russell (American actress, 1861-1922), c. 1900, chromolithograph, National Portrait Gallery, Washington, DC.

see thumbnail to leftLudwig Hohlwein (German) designer, Zoologischer Garten München, 1912, lithograph, 49 1/4 x 35 3/8 inches, (125.1 x 89.9 cm), Museum of Modern Art, NY.

see thumbnail to rightSavile Lumley (British, 20th century), Daddy What Did You Do in the Great War? about 1915, lithograph, Hood Museum of Art, Dartmouth College, NH.

see thumbnail to leftJames Montgomery Flagg (American, 1877-1960), I Want You for U.S. Army, 1917, chromolithograph, 39 1/2 x 29 1/8 inches (100.4 x 73.8 cm), National Museum of American Art. Flagg’s version of Uncle Sam is a self-portrait. Used for recruitment during World War I and again during World War II, his popular poster demonstrates the commanding effectiveness of a strong design and simple message. See icon and illustration.

see thumbnail to rightRussian, Literacy is the path to communism, 1920, Gosizdat, publisher, Moscow, lithographed poster, 72 x 54 cm. See propaganda and Russian art.

see thumbnail to leftA. M. Cassandre [pseudonym of Adolphe Jean-Marie Mouron] (born in the Ukraine 1901, died 1968, worked in France and the USA), L´Intransigeant, Le plus fort, 1925, lithograph in black, blue, red and gold inks, Kunstbibliothek, Berlin.

see thumbnail to rightAmerican, Warner Brothers Motion Picture Studios, The Jazz Singer, 1927. This poster advertises the first major “talking picture.” It starred Al Jolson, and was directed by Alan Crosland.

see thumbnail to leftAmerican, for Walt Disney (American, ), Joseph M. Schenck Presents Walt Disney’s Mickey Mouse in “Ye Olden Days,” 1933, color lithograph, 41 x 27 inches (104.1 x 68.6 cm).

see thumbnail to rightJ. Howard Miller (American), for the Westinghouse War Production Co-Ordinating Committee, We Can Do It!, c. 1942, poster.

see thumbnail to leftBritish, One is Either a German or a Christian, c. 1942-43, poster, Number 14 in a series. See propaganda.

Norman Rockwell (American, 1894-1978), Save Freedom of Speech, Buy War Bonds, 1943. A young blue-color worker stands up to express his opinion at a New England town meeting. This is one of a set of pictures Rockwell painted on the “Four Freedoms” — freedom of speech, freedom of worship, freedom from want, and freedom from fear.

see thumbnail to rightGlenn Grohe (American, 1912-1956), He`s Watching You, c. 1942, gouache on cardboard, poster commissioned by USA government, National Archives and Records Administration, Washington, DC. See propaganda.

see thumbnail to leftMilton Glaser (American, 1929-), Bob Dylan, color lithograph, 1967. Milton Glaser may be the most influential graphic designer of our time.

see thumbnail to rightWes Wilson (American, 1937-), West Coast Lithograph Co. (San Francisco), Bill Graham Presents . . . at the Fillmore Auditorium, 1966, color lithograph, 19 x 13 3/4 inches (48.3 x 34.9 cm).

see thumbnail to leftChina, Masses of the People March in support of the revolution, holding the red flag and the red book of Mao’s writings, from the People’s Republic of China‘s period known as the Cultural Revolution, 1966-1976, poster, Burke Museum, U of WA, Seattle. See Chinese art.

see thumbnail to rightLorraine Schneider (American, 1925-1972), for the Los Angeles organization Another Mother for Peace (AMP), war is not healthy for children and other living things, a Vietnam War protest poster, 1967, offset lithograph.

see thumbnail to leftArt Workers Coalition, Q. And babies? A. And babies, a Vietnam War protest poster, 1969.


TBWA Chiat/Day (American advertising agency), Apple Computers “Think different” advertising campaign, 1980s and 1990s.
Images of fourteen posters Apple distributed as part of that campaign: Mohammed Ali 1 and 2, Neil Armstrong on the Moon, Joan Baez, Maria Calas, Dalai Lama, Miles Davis, Bob Dylan, Albert Einstein, Mahatma Gandhi, Jim Hensen, Alfred Hitchcock, John Lennon and Yoko Ono, and see thumbnail to leftPablo Picasso 1 and 2. See different.

Fallon McElligott, The one on the left will finish high school before the one on the right, Children’s Defense Fund poster, 1984.

see thumbnail to rightDavid Lance Goines (American, 1945-), Chez Panisse Café & Restaurant, Twenty-First Birthday, 1992, photo-offset lithograph, 60.9 x 44.4 cm (24 x 17 1/2 inches), Smithsonian American Art Museum, gift of the artist.

see thumbnail to leftCoalition For The Homeless, How Can You Worship A Homeless Man On Sunday And Ignore One On Monday?, offset lithograph, 1990s?, New York, NY.

see thumbnail to rightAmerican, Bush-Cheney Campaign Poster: Negative 2.6 Million Jobs Created and Counting, 2004. This is a satirical poster produced by an opponent to President George W. Bush. The unnamed designer was a visitor to the White House Web site who added the text at the top by using the “Sloganator” software posted there (but no longer). See subliminal message.


see thumbnail to leftHuanwu Zhai (American, contemporary), What will you remember most about turning 18?, 2004, poster. Click on the title to download an 11 x 17 inch PDF file. You’ll need Adobe’s free Acrobat Reader software to open and read this file. If you don’t have it, download it by clicking here. This poster is one of numerous “get out the vote” posters designed by members of AIGA. The fraction of registered 18-24 year old American voters who actually voted in the November 2004 election was 25%. If 50% had voted, George W. Bush would not have been elected to a second term. .

// //


Related Links:

 

 

the end @ copyeight Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Driwanmasterpiece Cybermuseum:”The Dai Nippon Handgun Exhibition”(Koleksi Pistol Balatentara Nippon)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Driwan’s Masterpiece Uniquecollections Cybermuseum

(Museum Koleksi Unik Dr Iwan )Showcase : The Dai Nippon Military Handgun Collections exhibition(Pameran Koleksi Pistol Balatentara Nippon Milik Kolektor Asing).

Frame One :

Introduction

1.The first public display of my collection was at the Alberta Arms and Cartridge Collectors Association (AACCA) Spring Gun Show, April 9-10, 2004, at the Round-up Centre on the Stampede Grounds here in Calgary, Alberta. It is Canada’s largest gun show, with approximately 500 tables, and I won one of eight “Judges’ Awards”, sort of like “Honourable Mention”. It was a small, seven-gun, two-table exhibit .

 2. For 2005 the owner had   doubled the size of my display from two to four tables (4 X 8’=32’). This involved building a bunch more display cases and creating eight more display panels. The debut took place at the Canadian Historial Arms Society Show in Edmonton, February 12-13, 2005. By that time the collectors  had 16 guns. Edmonton, the provincial capital of Alberta, is about three hours’ drive north of Calgary–except we had car problems so it took us seven hours! The show is average in size, about 200 tables.The collectors have I won Best in Show.

  3.The Calgary show is held on Easter weekend, which fell early in 2005. Set-up was Thursday, March 24 and then the show ran Friday-Saturday, March 25-26. By this time the collector  had bought a small collection of six guns and two was importing from the USA arrived, so the collector was up to 24 guns, but the display cases and panels were the same, so look at   the details of the Calgary display.

   4.The show was even larger this year, with 544 tables. it is the largest gun show in Canada. the collectors  won Best in Show, which came with a cheque for C$750 (=US$600). The judging was done by five independent judges, one of whom was a female reporter with the Calgary Herald. Another was a curator at the main museum in Calgary. The local CFCN Evening News covered the show on TV, including shots of the winner collections display and mention that it won first prize. Here is an overall shot of the display. The table skirt is burlap, which was also used to line the cases and as background in the display panels.

5. I think many International Gun  collectors especially the Dai Nippon Handgun which used during WW II from all over the  world will like to look this exhibtion, my friend Have send to me the informations for all colletors from all over the wolrd,

6.for the winner ,congratulations your collection very rare,interesting and amizing , I hope you donnot mind your best collections put on my cybermuseum shaw.

7. kHUSUS UNTUK KOLEKTOR SENJATA DI iNDONESIA, PAMERAN KOLEKSI PISTOL BALATENTARA nIPPON INI TENTU AND BELUM PERNAH LIHAT TERMASUK SAYA SENDIRI, OLEH KARENA ITU SAYA ANGGAP PERLU DIPAMERKAN KHUSUS BUAT ANDA BIAR TIDAK KETINGGALAN INFORMASI DARI DUNIA INTERNASIONAL,SELAMAT MELIHAT PAMERAN YANG LANGKA DAN MENARIK INI.

Greating from

Dr Iwan suwandy

FRAME TWO:

THE CANADA DAI NIPPON HANDGUN SHOW’S WINNER COLLECTIONS .

 1.SHOWCASE ONE

 The first set of cases and display panels provided background on the soldiers who used these guns and the society they came from. The first panel was labelled “Cultivating Fanaticism” and discussed the militarization of pre-war Japanese society, with particular emphasis on the role of the Imperial Reservists’ Association (Teikoku zaigo gunjinkai). The second panel was entitled “Women and Youths” and covered the role of women’s organizations and the training centres and special schools set up to draw women and youths into this process of militarization. The third panel was entitled “A Japanese Soldier Goes to War” and dealt with the preparations his family made to wish him well as he headed off to do his service. The large banner on the right is a shussei nobori, or “send-off banner”, used in parades organized to send the new recruits off to war. The name on the banner is Mr. Toshimasa Kurita and the banner was a gift of the Tachibana Billiard Hall (small writing on the lower left of the banner).

            The first display case had items from the Imperial Reservists’ Association (IRA) and other items reservists often had, such as rule books, reservists’ record books, a military qualification certificate, sake cups, service record bags, address tags (for sending civilian clothes home), a savings passbook and membership badges. In the lower left is the bereavement medal, certificate, service record book and valuables bag of a soldier who was killed in the China War. The IRA and related organizations organized funerals and assistance to bereaved families. Sorry for the reflections from the plexiglass in the cases.

 2.SHOWCASE TWO

  The second case has items from women’s organizations and youth institutions. On the left are sashes, membership badges and a notebook from the Dai nippon aikoku fujinkai (Greater Japan Patriotic Women’s Association) and the Dai nippon kokubo fujinkai (Greater Japan Defense Women’s Association). The magazine in the centre shows a woman wearing the membership patch of the Dai nippon fujinkai (Greater Japan Women’s Organization), formed in 1942 from the merger of these and similar organizations. Just below it is such a cloth membership patch. On the right are record books, a bag, sake cup and membership pin from the youth organizations.

            The theme of the items in the third case was “Supporting the Troops”. In the upper left are two imonbukuro (comfort bags) used to send gifts to the troops. In the upper right are photos of soldiers at send-off ceremonies and posing with their autographed “good luck” flags. Bottom right is a senninbari, or “thousand stitch belt”. In the lower left is an unfinished version of a similar item where they collected 1,000 versions of the character chikara, meaning power (this character is also pronounced riki). Both were supposed to bring good luck and protection in battle.

   3.SHOWCASE FOUR

The next group of display panels relate to the guns themselves and Japanese handgun ammunition. From left to right, the panels are entitled: “Type 26 Revolver”, “Nambu-Type Pistols” (Grandpa, Papa & Baby), “Ammunition”, and “Type 14 Pistol”. Each was directly behind the case with the relevant items. Each type of handgun was displayed with items from the war in which it was the primary handgun used.

            The Type 26 case had two pistols, one with original finish and one arsenal-rework, two holsters, a cleaning rod and various items from the Sino-Japanese War (1894-95) and Russo-Japanese War (1904-05). These included R&R passes, sake cups, a silver one-yen coin dated Meiji 26, a record book from a soldier who won two medals in the Russo-Japanese War, service medals from the Sino-Japanese and Russo-Japanese Wars, and a phrase book from the Russo-Japanese war. It is unclear whether any Type 26s actually saw service during the Sino-Japanese War, but at least they were being finalized at that time. In the middle left is a modern ema, or prayer board, from Togo Jinja, a Shinto shrine in south-west Tokyo dedicated to the spirit of Admiral Togo, whose defeat of the Russian Baltic Fleet clinched Japan’s victory.

            The Nambu-Type pistols were state-of-the-art in WWI, when Japan was on the Allied side. The service medals in the upper left are for the early part of the war, when Japan seized Germany’s Pacific possessions, while the one n the right also covers the period when Japan sent a small force to the Mediterranean and intervened in Siberia against the Bolshevik Revolution. The photo in the upper right shows Grandpa Nambu serial number one, which belongs to Mr. Shin Nimura (I don’t have a Grandpa Nambu, and I don’t even know if there is one in Canada, so a photo is the best I could do). Below the Papa and spare mag are my two Baby Nambus (both Tokyo Arsenal), two Baby Nambu holsters and spare mag and cleaning rod. The sake cups in the middle are from the Siberian Expedition, the Navy (since most Papas were used by the Navy), and the 80th Regiment, which served in Taegu, Korea in the late 1920s-early 30s. The dog tag in the lower right sits atop a class list of the Officer’s School class of 1919 and indicates that in 1931 Captain (later Major) Fukuzo Kimura was serving with that regiment in Korea. The collar insignia in the lower left are from a second lieutenant.

            The “Ammuntion” case uses bamboo mats for rolling sushi to keep the cartridges in place (neat, eh?). In the upper right are an original 15-round box of 8mm Nambu rounds and just below that, an empty 50-round box for .32ACP cartridges (called “cartridges for the medium-sized Mauser pistol” on the label).

            Below that are a .22 conversion kit and ammo and component boxes from various post-war manufacturers.

            The “Small Trigger-Guard Type 14” was the most modern handgun the Japanese had during the campaigns in Manchuria (1931-34) and China (1937-45). The guns are a 4.2 date Tokyo; 11.1 date Kokubunji; 12.3 date Kokubunji and a 13.10 date Kokubunji. They are accompanied by a manual showing the stance for shooting a small trigger guard Type 14, and an original period photo of a soldier shooting one; a record book from a soldier who fought in the China War, service medals for the Manchurian and Chinese campains, currency overstamped “military use” for use in China, and sake cups from the Manchurian and Chinese Campaigns. You may have noticed the brass rods in the barrels. I had three levels of security. First, each gun had a special locking device which I designed and had my husband Stephen make (he’s a handy guy to have around!). The brass rod fits in from the breech end and then a lock fits through a hole in the end that sticks out the muzzle. Second, each case was locked. Third, all the cases were locked to the table with a length of plastic-coated wire rope.   

            In the cente of the display was the title board with an autographed “good-luck flag” (hinomaru yosegaki). To the right are display panels entitled “Type 14 Holsters”, “Kijiro Nambu: Japan’s John Browning?”, and “Frequently Asked Questions”. The cases underneath show Type 14 holsters.

            The first one starts with leather Type 14 holsters. I have them in order of their type classfication according to JMCH by Dreby & Brown. The third one from the left shows the placement of the cleaning rod and spare stiker. I used a small block of two-by-four under the holster body when showing a holster open in order to keep it fairly flat and reduce the stress on the hinge.

            This is the right side of that huge, five-foot case. Besides the remaining leather Type 14 holsters, there is a Japanese holster for the Model 1914 Mauser .32ACP pistol marked Showa 15 (1940). The Mauser was a popular private-purchase weapon among Japanese officers. The lower right has three postcards from Japanese soldiers stationed in China.

            a four-foot case for the rubberized canvas holsters. The holsters require a case six inches deep rather than the usual four if they are going to be shown open. At the top is a rubberized canvas shoulder strap.

            The holster on the far right has a Showa 18.9 Toriimatsu First Series Type 14 in it to show one of the benefits of lanyard use: the guns fit so low in the holster it is hard to get a grip on them unless they are first pulled up a bit with the lanyard.

           The last part of the display has display panels labelled “Japanese Handgun Training and Usage” and “Type 94 Pistol”, as well as a TV/VCR set up to run videos on Japanese weapons and Japan in WWII. The document holder on top of the TV lists the videos and indicates which one is playing. The one to the left of the TV is a “Did You Know?” listing facts about Japanese attacks on North America and what Canada’s involvement was in the Pacific War. The one to the right of the TV/VCR explains how I came to collect Japanese handguns, a question I was frequently asked.

            The first case in this section shows Kokubunji Type 14s (“Nagoya Nambus”), including a 14.11 “transitional” (large trigger guard but no mag retention spring and still with 25-groove grips) in the upper left, 15.11 in the upper right and 19.6 “First Series”. Below that is a 15.12 disassembled to show the mechanism. Other items are an example of “bring-back” papers, three major variations of magazines (nickel, nickel with cut-out and blued), nickeled and blued cleaning rods, and medals from the three Orders often awarded to soldiers: the Order of the Sacred Treasure (8th class), Order of the Rising Sun (8th class) and the Order of the Golden Kite (7th class).

            The Toriimatsu display case begins with 18.6 First Series, a 19.1 Second Series with finely-knurled cocking knob, 19.5 with coarsely-knurled knob, 19.9 to show the left side, 19.11 and 20.5 with slab grips (no grooves), and at the bottom, two 20.7 dates. These July, 1945 guns are referred to as “last ditch”. These two are the lowest serial number for the month and the highest consecutive number for the month. In the lower left is occupation scrip and a pair of one-yen war-time “savings certificates”. The lower right has soldiers’ notebooks from this period, an anti-aircraft defense volunteer’s pin, and a sake cup commemorating service in the “Greater East Asia War”, Japan’s wartime term for the Pacific War.

            The final case has my two Type 94s, an 18.7 “off-date” and a 19.3.

 The second row has three major magazine variations (nickeled, blued with rectangular follower button and blued with round rectangular button) and a five-yen wartime bond. At the bottom are a cleaning rod, pigskin holster and leather holster with pigskin strap.

 The trophies always seem to have a Western theme to them. THE WINNER kind of hope they didn’t buy this plaque just for  her. The badge under the man’s photo says “Brothel Inspector” and the brass tokens under the woman’s photo are for “screws” at various houses of ill repute.

            The pseudo-license at the bottom is in a similar vein. At least now if anyone ever sees me acting as a “Lewd and Abandoned Woman”, I can say I have a permit! Realistically, I doubt anyone gave any thought to the possibility a woman would win the prize or how inappropriate this would be in such an eventuality.

I WANT TO THANK TOU VERYMUCH TO MY FRIEND FOR THE AMIZING,INTERESTING AAND RARE DAI NIPPON HANDGUN PICTURES EXHIBITTION, AND ALSO CONGRATULATION TO THE WINNERVYOUR COLLECTIONS VERY VERY RARE.

           the end @ copyright Dr Iwan suwandy 2011

Driwan Masterpiece Cybermuseum:”The Dai nippon Military Power Belt Collections”(Koleksi Ikat Pinggang Balatentara Dai Nippon)

 

MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.

Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM

 THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM

  MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA

   DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI

     PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE

      THE FOUNDER

    Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA

                     

     WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM               

  SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA

The Driwan’s  Cybermuseum

                    

(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)

Showroom :

The Driwan’s Masterpiece Uniquecollections Cybermuseum

(Museum Koleksi Unik Dr Iwan )Showcase :

The Dai Nippon Military Thousand Stitch Belt (Senninbari) Collections.

Frame One :

 Introductions

1.Pameran Koleksi Dai Nippon Yang unik ini, khusus dalam rangkan mengenang koleksi unik yang terkait dengan para BalatentaraDai Nippon pada Perang Dunia Kedua, sebagai pernyataan hormat kepada mereka dan juga para keluarganya yang saat ini mengalami musibah Gempa Bumi dan Tsunami yang sangat dahsyat semoga keluarga yang ditinggal senantiasa tabahn menghadapinya. Mana yang lebih dahsyat silahkan anda menilainya.

This Special Dai Nippon Military Collections during WWII exhibituion were add dedicated to the Dai Nippon  Military family which now they had another disaster earthquae and tsunami , which more worst please they estimate themself.

2.Ketika para Tentara Dai Nippon dipangil untuk melaksanakan tugas, para wanita dalam keluargan mereka melaksanakan dua hal baginya untuk tetap selamat dalam melaksanakan tugas. Pertama membuat bendera hinomaru dengan tanda tangan 

dan yang lainnya menyiapkan ikat pinggang keselamatan yang dalam bahasa jepang disebut Senninbari kendatipuh banyak veteran dai nippon tidak percaya terhadap kekuatan spiritualnya.

arti senninbari adalah ” sulaman seribu orang” yang diterjemahkan ikat pinggang jahitan seribu yang dikenakan dipinggang atau kadang-kadang bila diikatkan kekepala dinamakan Hachimaki. selanjutnya pengantar dalam bahasa inggris agar dapat dibaca oleh kolektor seluruh dunia.

When a Japanese soldier was called to active duty, the women in his family or community usually made two things for him to take along as good luck mementoes. One was an autographed flag . The other was a senninbari. This term literally means “thousand-person-stitches”, but is usually translated into English as “thousand stitch belt”. They were usually cloth strips of a size to be worn around the waist, or sometimes around the head as a headband (hachimaki). More rarely, they were not belts at all, but vests or caps. Those worn around the waist sometimes had straps for fastening them attached directly to the part with the stitches, while in other cases the strip with the stitches was enclosed in a cloth cover with straps on the ends sort of like a money belt.

The ones shown in the movie Letters from Iwo Jima (see image above) were in the form of waistbands.

Whatever form was chosen, a woman from the family or a community group like the Women’s Patriotic Association (Aikoku Fujinkai) or the National Defense Women’s Association (Kokubo Fujinkai) would stand in a busy location like the entrance to a train station and entreat passersby to add one stitch each. When one thousand stitches had been collected, the belt was believed by some to have special power to protect the bearer from the hazards of battle.

Some Japanese veterans have reported they didn’t actually believe these belts had such power, but they wore or carried them to respect the devotion showed by their womenfolk who did the work of preparing them.

 The stitches are usually just arranged in multiple rows, but some were also done in patterns like the flag, a patriotic slogan or a tiger. Tigers were a popular motif because they were believed to have the power to roam far from home and return safely, which of course is what people were hoping for on behalf of the soldiers. As a result of this belief, women born in the Year of the Tiger (one of the twelve years in the Chinese zodiac cycle) were allowed to add either twelve stitches or one stitch for each year of their age (accounts differ), rather than just one. Judging from the belts I have seen personally, the stitches did not always number exactly 1,000. Also, to add to their efficacy in bringing good luck they often had coins attached or small pockets into which good luck charms purchased at shrines and temples could be inserted (more on these below).

Jakarta April 2011

Dr Iwan Suwandy

FRAME TWO :

THE JAPANESE HOMELAND COLLECTIONS

   1.     First, though, here are some images of the making of senninbari. All of these are images from period postcards in my personal collection.

        This first image shows women in front of a busy train station gathering stitches. The back indicates it was issued in connection with the Navy Ministry’s Sailor’s Relief Fund. The title of the image is simply “senninbari“. I am not sure whether it is based on a photograph, but it certainly has an ultra-realistic style if it is not. The original image is 86mm X 136mm plus a white border.

 

   2. SECOND,    

 This next image is a similar scene, but done in a more artistic fashion. The caption in the upper border of this one is also “senninbari”. At the bottom is the name of the artist, Naoshi Kushida. On the back it indicates it was printed by Toppan Printing (a large company that still exists today) and was issued by the Osaka Branch of the Soldier’s Relief League (Gunjin engokai). The original image is 82mm X 130mm plus the border.

 

  3,THREE.

This postcard shows a close-up of a woman wearing a sash of the Dai-nippon kokubo fujinkai, the Greater Japan National Defense Women’s Association. It was established in 1932 and quickly grew to 8 million members, before being merged with the Aikoku fujinkai (Women’s Patriotic Association) in January-February 1942 (the resulting organization was called simply the Greater Japan Women’s Association, Dai-nippon fujinkai). The writing gives the lyrics to the third verse of the Association’s song, which sings of the members being the flowers of the home front, young and old with their needles. Note that the cloth she is holding in her left hand has pre-printed circles on it. It was common for senninbari to be based on cloth with pre-printed designs with circles indicating the necessary places for the stitches, sort of like paint-by-numbers kits. This one is 89mm X 139mm with no border. The back just indicates “military mail” (gunji yubin) and “postcard” (yubin hagaki).

 FRAME THREE:

 THE INTERNATIONAL COLLECTIONS

 1.       Now let’s look at my thousand stitch belts. Here is the first one was  bought it on eBay in March, 2004. It was much bigger than the collector had expected. he had thought it would be headband (hachimaki) size, but actually it is about  140cm by 33cm (55″ long by 13″ wide).

            The name on it (right column of black characters, read top to bottom) says Kuwa-hara Takashi-kun, i.e Mr. Takashi Kuwahara. The slogan written next to the name (left column, read top to bottom) is the most common one: bu-un cho-kyu, or “eternal good luck in war”. In the upper right is a stamp (see next photo).

        The stamp indicates it was inspected in the field by (US) Army Intelligence. This means it was probably taken in battle, likely off a fallen Japanese soldier. US troops who found souvenirs on the battlefield were supposed to have them reviewed by Intelligence officers to make sure they did not contain information of military significance (they didn’t want some GI mailing Tojo’s battle plans home to his mother in Kansas).

            In the middle of the stitches is a five sen coin firmly sewn on. The date would be on the other side, and can’t be seen, but it looks like the series of coins that was issued from 1938 to 1940. A sen is one one-hundredth of a yen. They no longer make coins in this denomination. I am no expert in needlework, but I believe this kind of stitch is called a “French stitch” in English.

            A common question is the significance of the practice of attaching coins. The idea is based on a play on words. Shisen is one way of pronouncing “four sen“; it could also mean “deadly battle/war” if written with different kanji characters. Five sen is beyond shisen (four sen), so it signifies “beyond [i.e. surviving] deadly war”. I have also seen ten sen coins attached (usually with a five sen coin as well). Kusen is one way of pronouncing “nine sen“; it could also mean “hardships of war” if written with different kanji characters. Ten sen is beyond kusen (nine sen), so it signifies “beyond [i.e. surviving] the hardships of war”.

             Something that surprised me is that this belt does not have 1,000 stitches, but 1,100. This cannot have been an accident, as there are 1,100 circles pre-marked on the cloth with one stitch in each. Well, actually I just counted the rows and multiplied by the number of columns, since it is very regular (55X20=1,100). As noted below, none of my three belts has exactly 1,000 stitches, so I think it is just sort of a figurative usage meaning “lots”.

            Here is the back of the belt. The stitches are not one uninterrupted thread, but many several very long threads appear to have been used, each accounting for many stitches.

Here is a close-up of the middle of the back. The star-shaped group of stitches in the middle are the ones holding the coin on.

             The stains, which I am pretty sure are blood, give a clue to how the belt was folded. The stains are clearly all images of the main stain. Ordering them from darkest to lightest shows which parts would have been in closest contact with one another.

 

   2.     Smaller Sannibari

This is a much smaller belt that I got in 2007. It measures 12.5 cm by 59 cm (5″ by 23-1/4″). The left photo shows the front and the right, the back. The characters form the slogan mamore gunkoku, “protect our country at war”. Note that this one also has a coin attached to the front (middle of left photo). I counted the stitches and they appear to number 965. The deviation from 1,000 appears to have a couple of causes. In a few places it looks like a stitch came out. In others, someone placed a stitch between two circles, so there is only one stitch where there should have been two. The belt is made of two layers of cloth that have been folded over (the fold is on the left). Neither the belt nor the wallet it came in bears a name, but I suspect this may have belonged to a soldier named Mr. Takeichi Matsuura, because I got them with a number of other effects belonging to him, including his service record book (guntai techo). He was born in Taisho 3 (1914) and lived in Okayama Prefecture.

Here is a close-up of the coin. It is also a five-sen coin, but of slightly earlier issue, dating from 1933 to 1937. It is about 20mm (3/4″) in diameter. In this photo you can also faintly see the circles that were the guidelines for the design.

 

       This belt was so small it appears not to have been worn around the waist, but rather was probably carried in this small, field-made wallet that could easily fit into a pocket. The characters on the wallet it came in indicate the wallet was made from an imonbukuro (comfort bag), a sort of care package sent to the troops by women’s groups, schools, etc. back home. These bags were often the only source of cloth for soldiers in the field, and they turned them into everything from underwear to yukata (sort of like a bathrobe). The wallet is 9cm by14.5cm (3.5″ by 5″).

 

        The markings in green in the lower left indicate the wallet belonged to someone in the “Sakai unit, 1-3″.

 Sakai is a family name; Japanese military units often bore their commander’s name rather than a numerical designation. The 1-3 would be an indicator of the specific sub-unit, perhaps third squad of the first platoon.

 

The inside of the wallet was stiffened with pieces of cardboard still bearing colourful designs.

 

3.    THE  third belt.

This one is rather large,  32 cm X 130 cm (12.5″ by 51″). The left photo shows the front and the right one, the back. It has 1,095 stitches. Below the crossed flags are three columns of characters. The middle one has the main slogan: Dai-nippon teikoku bu-un cho-kyu o inoru, “we pray that the Empire of Greater Japan will always be lucky in war” (actually it is a little vague which part is the subject of the sentence, so it could also be “The Empire of Greater Japan prays that you will always be lucky in war”). The left column gives the name of the recipient, “Gun-i tai-i Hara Yasuo“, “Military Doctor Captain Yasuo Hara”. The right column is the date, Showa ju-ni nen, hachi-gatsu kichi-nichi, “an auspicious day in August, 1937″. This one is much cleaner than my other two. Perhaps Captain Hara got posted to a military hospital and so wasn’t dragging his belt around in the mud like the average infantryman.

        Closely related to the senninbari is the senninriki. This is a cloth artifact similar to the thousand stitch belt, but with 1,000 written copies of the character “chikara” (power”) instead of stitches. The “riki” in “senninriki” is another pronunciation of the character chikara. I have one, partially completed senninriki. It is 32 cm by 65 cm (12-3/4″ by 25-1/2″). About 3cm (a little over an inch) has been folded over and sewn like a hem on each end. This must have been done after work on it ended as a couple of rows of characters got lost in the fold. The four characters on the left are that ubiquitous wartime slogan bu-un-cho-kyu (eternal good luck in war). The columns of characters on the right are chikara (riki).

 

Here is a close-up of the upper right corner. You can see the pre-printed circles, the character chikara repeated numerous times, and the stitches from that 3cm “hem” I mentioned above.

 

       There is very little detailed, published information about thousand stitch belts to guide collectors, just fragmentary references to the practice and a few pictures in books on the Japanese military. For example, there are a couple of pictures on pages 218-219 of the Nakata book Imperial Japanese Army and Navy Uniforms and Equipment (in Japanese, but with a brief English insert) and on pages 273 and 275 of the Mike Hewitt book Uniforms and Equipment of the Imperial Japanese Army in World War II. Fortunately that should change soon. In May, 2008 Schiffer Publishing is scheduled to release Imperial Japanese Good Luck Flags and Thousand Stitch Belts by Dr. Mike Bortner, ISBN 978-0-7643-2927-2. The projected cost is US$79.95. Schiffer has done a lot of great books for collectors. I have corresponded with Dr. Bortner, a US dentist, and he is a very knowledgeable collector with hundreds of these artifacts, so the book should represent a quantum leap in our knowledge of the field.

There are also a couple of books in Japanese by Ms. Namiko Mori, Senninbari, and a couple of variations on that title, but they are not really directed at collectors and have only a few, small, black-and-white photos. The one I have is more stories based on family reminiscences.

        As noted above, senninbari often had pockets for good luck charms. I have a number of these charms. Though the ones I have did not come from senninbari, you may find the page I have created on them interesting if you want to understand the significance of these items. Nambu World: O-mamori (Good Luck Charms)

 

       4.  senninbari-related item.

 It is an imonbukuro, or “comfort bag”, used to send small gifts to the troops. Hewitt (p. 261) indicates such items included “tins of crabmeat, razors, blank postcards, sake and cigarettes”, etc. The three characters across the top read from right to left and say i-mon-bukuro, or “comfort bag”. The scene on the bag shows a small boy adding a stitch to a senninbari. The two-column caption to the right of the tree says Mon-chan no sen-nin-bari, or “Little Mon’s thousand stitch belt”. The woman is wearing a traditional Japanese coverall/apron for housework or cooking called a kappogi. The character in the small circle in the lower left is toku (special), and the column of two characters to the lower right of the tree says Ryu-hei, a name (probably that of the artist). The bag is made out of a fairly stiff, shiny material, and measures about 22cm X 33cm (8.75” X 12.75”). I think this bag is a reproduction. Although it was sold to me as an original in my early days of collecting, I have since seen many bags of this design for sale on-line in Japan as props for school teachers doing history classes on the war.

5.The Sannibari Display Wins Best of Show at the

Military Collectors Club of Canada 2006 Show!

            The Military Collectors Club (MCC) of Canada is Canada’s main organization for collectors of militaria like medals, badges, insignia, uniforms, etc. It has chapters across the country .

 Each year one chapter hosts the annual convention and show. my friend  Calgary Chapter hosted the 2006 convention and show August 12-13, 2006 at the Sheraton Cavalier Hotel. he won a Gold Award and Best of Show for my display entitled “A Japanese Soldier Goes to War”.

It showcased artifacts related to the ceremonies held when Japanese soldiers were called up for active duty during the period ending in 1945. the collectors  had limited space to accommodate all the exhibitors, so I took only two, six-foot tables (he only   had three). Here is an overall  shot of his  display. The table skirts were supplied and applied in such a way that he could not use his usual burlap for this purpose.

            The long banners at the ends and the three smaller ones in the centre are shussei nobori, send-off banners that were carried in the parades held to send off the troops. The big writing down the middle of each banner is a soldier’s name. The flag with the rayed sun and purplish-blue bottom (lower left) served a similar purpose but was made in rare flag format. The two red-sun-on-a-white-background (“meatball”) flags are hinomaru yosegaki, or good luck flags decorated with slogans and signatures of well-wishers. The bluish flag with the strange white symbol in the middle in the lower right is the flag of the Dai nippon fujinkai, or Greater Japan Women’s Association, one of the groups that helped organize the ceremonies. I constructed a bamboo frame to hang the cloth artifacts and used pairs of tiny rare earth magnets to suspend them from ribbons wrapped around the horizontal bamboo poles.

The first case has service medals from Japan’s wars during the 1894-1945 period; badges from the Teikoku zaigo gunjinkai, or Imperial Reservists’ Association,

the key group that ran the send-off ceremonies; a hokobukuro, or service records bag; and some of the items that would be in such a bag (soldiers and reservists had to keep the items at the ready in these bags in case of call-up). In the middle there are some period photos of Japanese soldiers and of a soldier’s funeral. Along the bottom are wound and bereavement medals as well as cigarettes with the Imperial chrysanthemum crest that were sometimes given to returning soldiers.

            The second case featured items from a Corporal Yonejiro Ogita, a machine gunner born in 1916 in Hikone, Shiga Prefecture. He was called up in 1937 and killed in action near Shanghai in 1938. Besides his good luck flag the display includes his service record book, some of his documents, the wooden plaque his parents put on their door frame to indicate they had a soldier at the front, and the ribbons they wore at his funeral. The hokobukuro in the previous case was also his.

            The third case features a thousand-stitch belt (senninbari) prepared to bring a soldier good luck, comfort bags (imonbukuro) used to send treats to soldiers at the front, and original photos of soldiers at their send-off ceremonies.

           The last case had items from the women’s and youth associations who assisted in organizing the send-off ceremonies. Notable amongst these are the sashes from women’s organizations and the medal in the upper left, which was the highest merit award given by the Dai nippon aikoku fujinkai (Greater Japan Patriotic Women’s Association), a very rare medal.

                     . Here is the Best of Show plaque and the Gold Award. The Gold Award was a lead soldier under glass. This medal  is a replica of a Britain’s lead soldier of the 195th series from the 1930s.

 the end @ copyrignt Dr iwan Suwandy 2011