THIS TH4E SAMPLE OF E-BOOK IN CD-ROM,THE COMPLETE CD WITH ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUMMMEMBER
The Riau Archiphelago
Postal History and Related Collections
Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA
Private Limited Edition E-Book In CD Rom Edition
Until this day not many Indonesian scholar made study of the Riouw Archiphelago,especially the Postal History.
I am starting to collected the postal history of Riouw Arciphelago almost 50 years and the basic RIOUW overprint stamps which issued during 1960-11970 co0mplete,also the postmark from all area near complete.
The ealiest postmark during Colonial time very difficult ot founf,I have the earliest RIOUW postmark date 17.3.1901,
After made stuidy ,Ihave found more informations , many early Riauw archiphelaho manuscript bought by Malaysian beacaus emany related with the Malay kingdom in that country.
I understand that this study still lack many 9nformations,that is why I hope corrections and added info from the scholar and another reader.
Jakarta March 2012
Dr Iwan suandy,MHA
Riau Islands Province
Riau Islands Province
— Province —
Motto: Berpancang Amanah Bersauh Marwah (Malay)
Location of Riau Islands in Indonesia
8,201.72 km2 (3,166.70 sq mi)
210/km2 (530/sq mi)
, from the scope of history, cannot be separated from its main regency that is Riau islands.
Based on the decree of delegation of the Republic of Indonesia, the province of central Sumatra on may 18, 1956 joined the republic of Indonesia, and Riau island were given the status as level II autonomy region which is led by a regent as head of the region who supervised 4 (four) districts, that are:
- Tanjung Pinang District, which covered sub district of South Bintan (incoming East Bintan, Galang, West Tanjung Pinang and East Tanjung Pinang now).
- Karimun District which covered sub district of Karimun, Kundur and Moro.
- Lingga District which covered sub district of Lingga, Singkep and Senayang.
Tujuh Island District which covered sub district of Jemaja, Siantan, Midai, Serasan, Tambelan, West Bunguran and East Bunguran The islands of the Tudjuh Archipelago, located between mainland Malaysia and Borneo, were attached to the new province, although they were not geographically part of the Riau Archipelago. The major island groups are the Riau Archipelago south of Singapore,
the Lingga Islands
extending southward of the Riau Arch., parallel the Sumatran Coast, and
The Tudjuh Archipelago.
Batam has a majority of the province’s population
Other populated major islands include Bintan
also Galang island
Sizewise, however, the sparsely populated
Natuna Islands are larger. There are around 3,200 islands in the province.
Since Batam is part of a booming special economic region, it has experienced high population growth rates. The province’s population is at 1,685,698 as of 2010, with more than 2/3 of the population under 30.
(I also found the postallynused cover during Dai Nippon Occupation from
Kijang Island Riau in 1944
and also the money order fragment with riu overprint stamps from
Tanjung Batu riau in 1958
The official language of the Riau Islands is Riau. The Riau Islands are considered the birthplace of the modern Malay language. It is the official standard for Malay, as agreed upon by Indonesia, Malaysia and Brunei
Today Riau is controlled by TNI
Kodam I/Bukit Barisan
From Srivijayan times until the 16th century,
Riau Arciphelago during srivijaya
. Candi Muara Takus can be reached in 118 kilometers from Pekanbaru. It was built by red bricks and sand.
The temple is believed to have built at around the 9th century AD when the power of the Sriwijaya Empire was at its peak.
Head on Riau Archipelago with Tanjung Pinang on Bintan Island as the capital city, there is Natuna Archipelago. It is a part of the vast province, which embrace all of the islands off the Riau mainland.
Riau was a natural part of greater Malay kingdoms or sultanates,
in the heart of what is often called the Malay World, which stretches from eastern Sumatra to Borneo.
The Malay-related Orang Laut tribes
inhabited the islands and formed the backbone of most Malay kingdoms from Srivijaya,
Si Kitol dan Sultan Melaka ….
. Si Kitol adalah rakyat yang membelot dan memainkan peranan kepada kehancuran Melaka. Si Kitol lah yang berperanan menabur fitnah dan memecah belahkan orang melayu mengakibatkan kemusnahan kerajaan Melaka yang dulunya terkenal di seluruh pelosok dunia..
dalam hal kejatuhan Melaka, bukan Si Kitol saja yang jadi penyebabnya. Sultan Melaka yang pada masa itu sangat lemah dan buta mata hati juga terlebih dahulu patut disalahkan. Kezaliman raja dan pengabaian terhadap rakyat oleh raja itu terlebih dahulu patut dikecam. Baginda tidak tahu menilai yang mana intan yang mana kaca . Raja yang tidak mempercayai kejujuran bendaharanya dengan mudah menerima fitnah tanpa mau terlebih dahulu untuk menyelidiki asal muasalnya adalah raja yang tiada keadilan. Raja itu juga tidak teliti apabila menggantikan pembesar-pembesar yang baik di Melaka dengan mereka yang rendah moral dan menyalah gunakan kuasa menjadi pembantu baginda adalah penyebab kemusnahan baginda sendiri.
Bayangkan Raja Melaka langsung tidak peka pada perubahan di Melaka. Baginda terpengarug dengan kemewahan dunia dan banyak beristirahat di istana. Sedangkan di kalangan rakyat Melaka pengamalan Islam mereka semakin lama semakin pudar. Rusuh, fitnah, dendam, permusuhan dan pecah belah semakin menular di kalangan rakyatnya…..suara rakyat yang menentang kezaliman baginda langsung tidak diindahkan kerena tenggelam dalam nafsu ‘rajanya’.
Akhirnya bila Melaka di ambang kemusnahan barulah baginda Raja sadar bahawa Si Kitol dan Raja Mendeliar telah mendorongnya melakukan banyak kezaliman. Orang yang baik, beriman, jujur dan taat setia seperti bendahara Tun Mutahir telah menjadi mangsa baginda. Baginda mula mengeluh mengatakan sepatutnya baginda teliti dan selidiki dahulu sesuatu perkara sebelum menetapkan keputusan darinya. Ketika baginda menangis kesal di atas dosa-dosanya, sudah tidak apa lagi yang boleh baginda ubah. Nasi bukan sahaja menjadi bubur, tetapi turut basi dan tiada dapat dimanfaatkan lagi. Baginda hilang takhta dan kerajaannya. Kedua-duanya sekali.
. Sultan Mahmud Shah mengharapkan masa dapat diundur ke belakang agar baginda dapat menebus semula dosa-dosanya. Tapi apa yang berlaku baginda tetap terpaksa belayar ke Kampar melintasi selat Melaka dengan linangan airmata . “ Selamat tinggal Melaka. Negeri yang dulunya makmur kini terjajah akibat kesilapan seorang sultan” kata sultan Mahmud Shah.
to the Sultanate of Johor
for the control of trade routes going through the straits.
Sultan Mahmud Shah of Malacca
Johor was founded in the early 16th century by the son of Sultan Mahmud Shah,
Sultan Abu Bakar
the last Sultan of Melaka when the capital was captured by the Portuguese. At its peak, the Johor empire stretched to the Riau Archipelago.
In the 18th century,
the Bugis of Celebes
The Bugis are the most populous of four ethnic groups of southern Sulawesi, the island east of Borneo known during colonial times as Celebes. Late converts to Islam, the Bugis dominated maritime trade in the East Indies and were considered pirates by the invading Dutch. Wars with their colonial adversaries and later efforts by Indonesia’s government to encourage settlement in less populated parts of the country encouraged waves of Bugis migrations, and the Bugis diaspora can be found as far away as here and Malaysia.
Like other immigrant communities, the Bugis were resented for their economic success and failure to assimilate, and have been at the center of ethnic conflicts in Borneo, Timor and Maluku, forcing many to return to Sulawesi.
and the Minangkabaus of Sumatra
controlled the political powers in the Johor-Riau empire, but
in the early 19th century,
Malay and Bugis rivalry dominated the scene. Even today, Johor, and Riau lie on the strategic sea route passing from the South China Sea to the Indian Ocean, through the Straits of Malacca.
Stamford Raffles capitalised on their inter-faction rivalry to acquire Singapore for the British.
Temenggong Abu Bakar elevated himself to Sultan. He was succeeded by his son,
the British Adviser Campbell to administer Johor
until the Japanese Occupation in 1945. In 1957, Johor joined the federation of Malaya.
Read more info
Campbell served as its state’s General Adviser until his death in June 1918, and between June 1918 until December 1920, five General Advisers were appointed in succession, each of whom only took office for a few months. As the colonial government lacked a decisiveness in the state administration, Sultan Ibrahim attempted to extend his influence in the state administration. Hayes Marriot was appointed as the state’s new General Adviser in December 1920 and reorganised the state administration.
Sultan Ibrahim took on the role of a ceremonial monarch from the 1920s onwards, and his duties were largely limited to gracing various opening ceremonies around the state. He occasionally expressed his views on the state administration and economic developments whenever he had grievances, which the British colonial government often took into account as a result of his political influence in the state. He began to take time off to travel abroad from 1928, after he began to suffer from chronic gout and myocardial degeneration. London was one destination which he often visited, and frequented the Colonial Office whenever he had grievances with the state administration. As a result of his frequent complaints of maladministration of state affairs by the local British government, Sultan Ibrahim’s relations with each General Adviser became strained.[fn 1] Sir Cecil Clementi, who served as the Governor of the Straits Settlements as well as the High Commissioner of the Malay States from 1930 to 1934, remarked in December 1932 that Sultan Ibrahim was too independent in state affairs and proposed to the Sultan that he should approach Clementi in future under the capacity of the High Commissioner instead of the Straits Governor. Clementi’s proposals apparently angered the Sultan, who boycotted the Durbar in February 1934.
Sultan Ibrahim was a close friend of Frank Buck and often assisted Buck in his animal collecting endeavors.
Early Malay nationalism took root in Johor during the 1920s as a Malay aristocrat, Onn Jaafar, whom the Sultan had treated him as an adopted son, became a journalist and wrote articles on the welfare of the Malays. Some of Onn’s articles were critical of Sultan Ibrahim’s policies, which led to a strained personal relations with the Sultan. In particular, Sultan Ibrahim expelled Onn from Johor after he published an article in the Sunday Mirror, a Singapore-based English tabloid and criticised the Sultan’s poor treatment of the Johor Military Forces personnel and the welfare of the Orang Asli. Onn became very popular after he continued to cover issues on Malay grievances, and Sultan Ibrahim invited Onn to return to Johor in 1936. Sultan Ibrahim became an active patron of the state’s forestry department around 1930, and encouraged the state forestry department to designate some of the remaining virgin forests in the state as nature reserves, as Johor witnessed a reduction in timber supplies due to extensive logging in the past. Nature reserves covered about 15 per cent of the state’s land area by 1934, mainly in the northern regions of the state.
Sultan Ibrahim’s relations with Clementi’s successor,
Sir Shenton Thomas did not fare well as
As the Second World War broke out in 1939, Thomas introduced
the Pan-Malayan war tax scheme to fund for Britain’s war efforts. Sultan Ibrahim’s rejected proposals, and made a £250,000 cash gift to George VI of the United Kingdom on his 44th birthday in 1939 during his trip to Europe in 1939. From 1934 to 1940 the Sultan’s name was associated with that of the cabaret dancer Lydia Cecilia Hill, who was buried in 1940 at Eddington, Kent.
They shaped the history of the state but, sadly, their names are forgotten.
Datuk Seri Amar DiRaya Abdul Rahman Andak fought against the British administration in the 1900s.
Born in 1850, Abdul Rahman was Johor’s first state secretary. He was among the first who had used Jawi as the official script in government letters.
LASTING LEGACY: Jalan Abdul Rahman Andak in Johor Baru
Japanese Occupation (1941-1945)
Sultan Ibrahim became a personal friend of
Read more info
The Japanese Occupation of the Malay Peninsula
Japanese Governor Marquis Tokugawa Yoshichika inspecting an army honour guard at the Istana (Palace), Klang, 1942.
The Japanese moved swiftly and harshly to re-establish law and order in the Malay Peninsula. The pre-existing British administrative machinery was kept largely intact, while the Malay Rulers retained a reduced role. Life was extremely difficult; the population faced a daily struggle for survival. Racial tensions were created by Japanese policies
When the Japanese invaded Malaya, Tokugawa accompanied
General Yamashita Tomoyuki‘s troops
and was warmly received by Sultan Ibrahim when they reached Johor Bahru at the end of January 1942. Yamashita and his officers then stationed themselves at the Sultan’s residence, Istana Bukit Serene and the state secretariat building, Sultan Ibrahim Building to plan for the invasion of Singapore.
The Japanese established a military government in February, shortly after they settled down in Malaya. Tokugawa was appointed as its political adviser at the recommendation of Sultan Ibrahim. Relations between the military government and the monarchy were initially coordial throughout the Japanese occupation years, and Tokugawa briefly envisioned a plan for a united Malay Sultanate over the Malay Peninsula (including Pattani) with Sultan Ibrahim as its figurehead. However, as the Japanese began to experience economic difficulties and military defeats in the Pacific War from 1943 onwards, these plans were dropped and the military government channelled its efforts towards state agriculture. The Japanese continued the British policy of appointing a state adviser in Johor, and Sultan Ibrahim spent most of his time in his leisure activities.
Sultan Ibrahim, on his part, became resentful of the Japanese military government during the later part of the occupation years. The Japanese gave orders to the Malay Sultans to contribute an annual stipend of $10,000 to support the Japanese war efforts, and public speeches which the rulers made were drafted by the prpoaganda department. In particular, Sultan Ibrahim was once publicly rebuked for leaning on his walking stick before Japanese officers and humiliating him in the process. Shortly before the Japanese surrendered in 1945, Sultan Ibrahim was expelled from his residence at
Istana Bukit Serene
and was forced to reside at
Note: the Riau Archipelago comprises three main islands – Batam , Bintan and Bulan. Batam is just 20 kilometres from Sing apore and 415 km2 in size.
The word Johor is taken from the Arabic word, ‘Jauhar’, which literally means ‘Precious Stones’. The name illustrates the influence of the early Arab traders who traded spices in Johor. The multifaceted culture and ethnic mix evident in Johor today can be traced back through the centuries when it was fought over by the Malays, Portuguese, Chinese, Dutch and British sometimes on grounds of religion but more often because of trade.
With the Portuguese capture of Malacca in 1511, the Malay kingdom re-established itself in Johor. The history of Johor from the late 1500s to the late 1600s is characterized by a series of succession struggles interspersed with strategic alliances struck with regional clans and foreign powers to maintain its political and economic hold in the Straits. In 1641 Johor in cooperation with the Dutch succeeded in capturing Malacca. By 1660, Johor had become a flourishing entrepôt, although weakening and splintering of the empire in the late seventeenth and eighteenth century reduced its sovereignty.
the Johor -Riau Empire was broken into the mainland Johor, controlled by the Temenggong, and the Sultanate of Riau-Lingga, controlled by the Bugis. This is when the history of modern Johor began.
A postcard showing the palace which was built by Temenggong Abu Bakar in Johor Bahru, on the shore of the Tebrau strait, after he had moved the capital of the state of Johor from Singapore to Johor Bahru
British mediation and the new sultanate in Johor
The Johor sultans of the 16th and 17th centuries were direct descendants of the Melaka dynasty. However, this lineage came to an end
with the assassination of Sultan Mahmud,
who had no heirs. He was succeeded by
the Bendahara (prime minister), and the capital was moved to Riau-Lingga. Thus it was one of his descendants, Sultan Abdul Rahman, who was ruling the Johor-Riau-Lingga sultanate when the British established a free port in Singapore in 1819. Subsequently, British mediation, which favoured the Temenggongs, largely determined the lineage of the new sultanate of Johor
under the terms of a treaty between the British in Singapore
Sultan Ali of Johor, the control over the State was formally ceded
to Dato’ Temenggong Daing Ibrahim,
with the exception of the Kesang area (Muar), which was finally handed over in 1877. Temenggong Ibrahim opened up Bandar Tanjung Puteri (later to become Johor’s present-day capital) in south Johor as a major town.
Temenggong Ibrahim was succeeded by his son,
Dato’ Temenggong Abu Bakar, who later took the title Seri Maharaja Johor. In 1866, he was formally crowned the Sultan of Johor. Sultan Abu Bakar of Johor(1864 – 1895) was the one who gave Johor its own constitution and developed its efficient administration system and constructed the Istana Besar, the official residence of the Sultan. Due to these achievements, Sultan Abu Bakar is known by the title “Father of Modern Johor”.
The increased demand for black pepper and gambier in the nineteenth century lead to the opening up of farmlands to the influx of Chinese immigrants, creating Johor’s initial economic base.
Chinese workers in a gambier and pepper plantation in Singapore, circa 1900
The Kangchu system was put in place.
The Kangchu system was a socio-economic system of organization and administration developed by Chinese agricultural settlers in Johor[fn 1] during the 19th century. The settlers organized themselves into informal associations (similar to the Kongsi organizations found in other Chinese communities), and chose a leader from among themselves. In Chinese, “Kangchu” (Chinese: 港主, Pinyin: Gáng Zhǔ, Teochew: Kaang6 Zhu8) literally means ‘lord of the river’, and was the title given to the Chinese headmen of these river settlements.[fn 2] The “Kangchu” leaders are also called “Kapitan“.
The term “Kangchu” became widely used during the 19th century, as Chinese immigrants began to settle in and around Johor state and set up gambier and pepper[fn 3] plantations. The social and economic welfare of the early Chinese settlers came under the charge of local Chinese leaders, who were responsible for running these agricultural plantations, which were situated along the river banks.
The Kangchu system traces its origins from the 18th century when Chinese coolies settled in Penang and Riau and set up gambier and pepper plantations there. The sovereign rulers of Johor, Temenggong Ibrahim and his successor, Sultan Abu Bakar, took up the Kangchu system during the first half of the 19th century to provide a more organised form of administration as Chinese immigrants began to settle in the state in great numbers and developed the state’s agricultural economy. Variants of the Kangchu system also thrived in other parts of the Malay Archipelago, where gambier and pepper were extensively cultivated and where there were significant Chinese populations. The Kangchu and coolies who worked in the gambier and pepper plantations were mainly of Teochew origin, and were generally first- or second-generation Chinese immigrants. In 1917, the British colonial government in Johor implemented an act which abolished the Kangchu system in the state, and the value for gambier declined during the early 20th century.
The origins of the Kangchu system dates back to the mid-18th century, when early Chinese settlers in Penang experimented in cash crop plantations with various types of crops, including pepper, gambier, betelnut and clove. The plantations were later abandoned by the late 18th-century, as Penang experienced wars from Buginese seafarers that resulted in many gambier plantations being destroyed; contributing to the decline in plantations was the growing popularity of the spice trade that reaped much greater profits. At the beginning of the 19th century, these Chinese settlers began to look south to Malacca and Singapore, where gambier and pepper plantations had also been established.
In the late 1820s, Chinese settlers from Singapore also began to look towards Johor for gambier and pepper cultivation at the encouragement of Temenggong Abdul Rahman and his successor, Daing Ibrahim. As more Chinese settlers established gambier and pepper plantations in Johor during the 1840s, Temenggong Ibrahim formed a bureaucracy made up of Malay officials to oversee administrative affairs upon the Kangchu. He began issuing official permits, known as Surat Sungai (transliterated as “river documents”) in Malay, to the Kangchu (leaders of the settlers) which permitted them to establish these plantations along the river banks. In turn, the Kangchu were required to pay taxes from the profits generated by the gambier and pepper farms and the Surat Sungai, which had to be renewed after a specified period of time.
[Mid to late-19th century
The first gambier and pepper plantations appeared in Southern Johor, notably Skudai. Lau Lib Keng, a Chinese settler based in Skudai, was the first person to receive a Surat Sungai, whereby the river banks of Skudai were leased to Lau for the cultivation of gambier and pepper. More Chinese settlers came to Johor from the 1850s onwards, and forested areas in Southern Johor such as Tebrau, Plentong and Stulang were cleared for the cultivation of gambier and pepper. By the time Temenggong Ibrahim’s son, Abu Bakar took office from his father in 1862, at least 37 Surat Sungai have been issued to various Kangchu, all of whom were collectively responsible for the operations of the 1,200 gambier and pepper farms in the state. Most of these Chinese leaders were also members of secret societies, and communal warfare often broke out in Singapore between different dialect groups as a result of conflicting economic interests. From the late 1850s onwards, the Kangchu began to exert political influence in the state affairs by establishing close ties with Temenggong Abu Bakar. In 1865, Abu Bakar granted official recognition to the Teochew-dominated Johor branch of the Ngee Heng Kongsi after a Kangchu, Tan Kee Soon, raised a small army to subdue Sultan Ali’s forces, from whom Abu Bakar was facing considerable dissent but was unable to raise an organised army. Abu Bakar nevertheless called for the Ngee Heng Kongsi to accept Chinese settlers of other dialect groups to prevent possible communal warfare as a result of conflicting economic interests.
Chinese junks sailing in the Straits of Johor in 1879
The crop produce from these plantations were generally exported to other countries from Singapore with the assistance of Chinese merchants based in that city. From the 1860s onwards, many of these Kangchu chalked up debts and began to sell their property rights to these merchants or to larger business magnates (Kongsi in Teochew) based in Singapore, who were known to the locals as Tuan Sungai (literally Masters of the River). The Kangchu then were often hired as supervisors or managers by the merchants to keep watch on the day-to-day operations of the gambier and pepper plantations. Temenggong Abu Bakar began to issue contract-style letters of recognition to these Kangchu; the letters were known by their Malay name Surat Tauliah.
As the gambier and pepper plantations expanded in the 1870s, the more established Kangchu were entrusted with larger blocks of farms and made contracts with Chinese merchants from Singapore. The profits generated from harvests of these plantations formed the bulk of Johor’s economy, and financed the development of Johor’s infrastructure. Abu Bakar’s relationship with the Chinese leaders was excellent, and he appointed many of them to political positions in the state. Of particular note, Abu Bakar appointed two Chinese leaders to the Johor State Council: a Kangchu from Chaozhou, Tan Hiok Nee, and a contractor from Taishan, Wong Ah Fook, who also owned gambier and pepper farms in Mersing in the 1880s. As the land along the river banks in Southern Johor was already taken by the earlier waves of Chinese settlers, newer Chinese settlers began migrating northwards in the 1870s and established new gambier and pepper plantations further north; new plantations were established in Yong Peng, Batu Pahat, Benut, Endau and Kota Tinggi. In particular, Abu Bakar actively encouraged Chinese settlers to establish plantations in Muar, shortly after the British Colonial Government ruled in favour of Abu Bakar over Tengku Alam Shah (Sultan Ali’s eldest son) and his family, and granted Abu Bakar control of Muar.
At the end of the 19th century, Johor’s economy began to diversify from gambier and pepper plantations to other agricultural crops. Starting with coffee in 1881, crops such as tapioca, tea, pineapple and rubber were introduced into the state. Coffee and tapioca was quickly abandoned in the 1890s when the value of these crops experienced a drop, while rubber was introduced and quickly established a strong foothold in Johor, as the world demand for rubber increased greatly around 1910. Prices for gambier plunged between 1905 and 1906, and many Kangchu abandoned gambier in favour of rubber. Further decline in the number of gambier and pepper plantations was fuelled by the colonial government’s suppression of traditional farming methods employed by the Kangchu for planting gambier and pepper; these method led to soil exhaustion and a depletion of forests which was used as firewood in small factories. A few years before the Kangchu system was abolished, exports for both gambier and pepper plunged by a further 60% between 1912 and 1917.
The British had long frowned upon the Kangchu because of their links with secret societies in Singapore as well as their indulgence in social vices such as gambling and opium smoking, activities which the British had been actively suppressing in Singapore and the Federated Malay States. As early as 1890, the Governor of the Straits Settlements, Cecil Clementi Smith had lobbied Abu Bakar to adopt the Societies Ordinance and ban the Ngee Heng Kongsi, but was promptly turned down. Shortly after the British appointed an adviser to Johor, the British began attributing the high crime rates in the state to Chinese settlers loyal to the Kangchu. In 1915, the Johor state government, now effectively under the control of the British Colonial Government, passed the Societies Enactment which prompted the dissolution of the Ngee Heng Kongsi the following year. The Kangchu system was officially abolished December 1917 in an enactment passed by the Johor state government, which was by then effectively administered by the British colonial government.
Role of the Kangchu
The Temenggong of Johor (later Sultan of Johor) conferred upon the Kangchu with a large degree of administrative autonomy within the plot of land which each was granted. These included the right to collect taxes on behalf for the Temenggong, as well as for the welfare needs among the Chinese coolies living within the plot of land. The Kangchu generally granted tax exemption for the basic consumption by workers within the settlement. Some coolies took on new jobs such as shopkeepers and traders to serve the needs of other coolies within the settlement, and the Kangchu granted tax exemptions to these shopkeepers and traders on the sale of pork, opium and alcohol as well. The Kangchu reserved a portion of the land for the construction of a settlement for the coolies, from which small towns were formed and became the administrative centre of the Kangchu. These administrative centres were generally established within the coolie settlements located at the foot of the river, and were known as Kangkar (literally “Foot of the river”, Chinese: 港脚, Pinyin: Gáng Jiǎo, Teochew: Kaang6 Caar8).[fn 4]
The Kangchu acted as the middleman in the bulk purchase of the settlement’s commodities through suppliers based in Singapore. In particular, opium was highly popular among the coolies, although frowned upon by the British who took strong measures to suppress its distribution. The Kangchu formed illegal opium syndicates which had links to Chinese leaders from Singapore and other Malay states in the north, particularly Selangor. British contempt for the Kangchu was also fuelled by the coolies’ preference for gambling and prostitution, both of which were seen as social vices by the British colonial government. The Kangchu maintained friendly relations with the Temenggong (later Sultan), and worked closely with the Ngee Heng Kongsi in administrative matters. In particular, the state government attempted to forge close relations with the Kangchu by the appointment of a Malay official who was conversant in Teochew and literate in Chinese characters, Mohamed Salleh bin Perang, as the liaison officer between the Temenggong and the Kangchu. Several years later, in the early 1870s, the state government worked closely with the Ngee Heng Kongsi to draft the Kanun Kangchu which had legal clauses that defined the powers of the Kangchu in Johor. The Kanun Kangchu contained 81 clauses in total, and was implemented in 1873.
Variants outside Johor
Chinese coolies at the river base of Jurong River in 1860. The gambier and pepper plantation is in the picture background.
Chinese settlers began migrating from the Riau Islands to Singapore in the 19th century shortly before the founding of Singapore by Sir Stamford Raffles in 1819. The native Malays joined the Chinese in growing gambier, although they cultivated it for subsistence rather than for commercial purposes. The number of gambier and pepper farms expanded greatly between 1819 and 1840, fuelled by the increasing demand for gambier by Chinese traders from China as well as pepper by European traders. As land nearer to the town in the south was quickly used up in the 1820s, the Kangchu began to establish farms near the northern parts of Singapore, particularly stretches of land across the Straits of Johor from Jurong, to the west of Punggol in the northeast. By 1851, there were about 800 gambier and pepper farms which covered 75% of Singapore’s land surface, of which 24,220 acres (98.0 km2) was dedicated to gambier while 2,614 was dedicated to pepper.[fn 5]
In the 1850s and 1860s, many Kangchu abandoned their plantations in Singapore as gambier produce declined due to over farming of the soil, and began to establish new gambier and pepper plantations in neighbouring Johor. Nevertheless, many of these Kangchu settled down as merchants in Singapore and managed the gambier and pepper farms by proxy, mainly through the liaison body of the Ngee Heng Kongsi which had members in Singapore and Johor. Some of these merchants purchased the property rights of gambier and pepper farms from the Kangchu in Johor, who would then assume managerial tasks to ensure the smooth operation of the plantation and the settlement.[fn 6]
Unlike its counterpart in Johor, the Ngee Heng Kongsi (also called “Ghi Hin Kongsi” in Hokkien) was recognised as an illegal society in Singapore and its activities were actively suppressed by the colonial government. Factionalism appeared within the Ngee Heng Kongsi in Singapore by the 1850s, as business leaders from various dialect groups were unable to agree upon key issues. In particular, relations between the Teochews and Hokkiens were hostile, partly because some Hokkien merchants competed with the Teochew merchants in the gambier and pepper trade, most of whom had established their bases in the Boat Quay area along the Singapore River.
The existence of the Kangchu was not recognised by the British colonial government, even though they exercised a similar degree of autonomy as their counterparts in Johor. Nevertheless, the Kangchu in Singapore had easy access to forested land in Singapore compared to their counterparts in Johor, as the British colonial government adopted a laissez-faire attitude to the Kangchu and imposed very little regulation on their agricultural activities. However, the British were wary of the fact that many Kangchu in Singapore were members of the Ngee Heng Kongsi, which was illegal in Singapore and enjoyed monopoly rights over the regional opium trade. The British appointed a Chinese official among the Kangchu to oversee the social and economic affairs of the gambier and pepper plantations in Singapore and to act as the intermediary.
The first gambier and pepper plantations appeared in the Riau Islands in the 1730s
second Yamtuan Muda of Riau, Daing Chelak,
brought Chinese coolies from Malaya to Riau for the purpose of gambier cultivation, which was then widely used for medication among the locals.
Another exodus of Chinese migrated to Riau in 1740
following unrest which erupted in Batavia, during which many Chinese were massacred.
Read more info
Since the foundation of Batavia, the Chinese have settled in and around the city. At first, they were used for building Batavia and the cultivation of the surrounding areas.
Very soon a lot of Chinese tradesmen entered the country, which eventually resulted in the dependency of the VOC on these tradesmen for trade with China. In fact, the prosperity of the VOC depended on Inter-Asian trade, so in fact they were mostly dependent on the Chinese tradesmen from Batavia who naturally had the best trade contacts. Both parties needed each other, so peace and order was required.
However, the Dutch in Batavia started to get more and more annoyed by the privileges the Chinese had; they were a bit jealous. The Chinese were virtually equal to the Dutch on the level of status and this was an important deal for the Dutch, who felt superior to the Chinese. Just the Dutch and the Chinese paid taxes and this made a lot of people angry…
One of the branches that were mainly under control by the Chinese was, for instance, the growth of sugar in the Ommelanden of Batavia. The bigger part of the work was done by large amounts of Chinese koelies, who were hired by Chinese entrepreneurs. This resulted in an enormous growth of the Chinese population in the area reigned by the VOC in and around Batavia. Right before 1740 approximately half of the population in and around Batavia was Chinese.
Even around 1690 they tried to limit the immigration from China. The koelies were legally excluded from everything. They can be compared to our ‘illegal aliens’ of this time. So, for the Chinese traders it became more and more favourable to hire koelies: it was not possible to earn taxes for illegal Chinese. A well known vicious circle that is still applicable! This way it was possible for an extensive army of completely illegal, exploited Chinese labourers to rise in the Ommelanden. They were so afraid of being handed over to the Dutch authorities, that they did not even make demands to improve their situation of living. Moreover, the Dutch (as corrupt as they were) simply participated in these practises up to the level of the Governor-General: this way everybody had cheap labourers and so an economical balance developed between the Dutch, the Chinese and the koelies.
From 1720 on the sugar market slowly collapsed. The European markets became satisfied; moreover the competition from Brazil (which was cheaper) became bigger. Dozens of Chinese sugar tradesmen went bankrupt and with them the koelies. This way great unemployment arose and this almost automatically led to revengeful gangs of koelies who, without money or food, saw no other way out. Evidently nothing was done by Batavia to lessen the problems because that way their own corrupt practises would be discovered.
In July 1740 it was announced that all koelies from the Ommelanden would be transferred to the Dutch stations on Ceylon (Galle). The rumour that during the transfer the koelies would be thrown overboard was quickly born. True or not: the exploited Chines revolted. Large killing and plundering gangs roamed through the Ommelanden and they even tried to attack Batavia.
In the night of 8 October the run on Batavia could barely be rejected. Nobody dared to go in the Ommelanden anymore! That is when the rumour started that the Chinese in Batavia wanted to cooperate with the Chinese in the Ommelanden.
On 9 October, the houses of over 5000 Chinese living within the walls of Batavia were searched. This went completely out of hand: for three days in a row every Chinese was murdered. Even already captured Chinese and Chinese that were registered in ‘hospitals’ were killed. Even the government gave out a reward for every decapitated head… Order was reinstated after a few days by that same government. From that moment on the Chinese were allowed to live only in special districts. In Batavia that would be the Glodok district, where a lot of Chinese still live.
Very soon after the massacres they started searching the accountable : : for the first time the highest authorities from Batavia had to account for their actions at the Heeren XVII in Amsterdam! One of the responsible authorities Governor-General Valckenier died while he was taken into temporary arrest. Another responsible authority, the next Governor-General van Imhoff died in 1750.
And then the cover up came again.
It is estimated that 5,000 – 10,000 victims fell in three days. A preacher in Batavia even made it look like the massacre was carried out with Gods help… But even then there were people who protested and so the Heeren XVII were forced to take action.
In 1902 (during the pacification of Aceh!) even a pamphlet appeared: “The murder of 10,000 harmless Chinese was never punished. One of the most important people responsible, Governor-General Valckenier, died in prison and the Heeren XVII declared the trial that was run against him” abolished by death”.The case would be forever covered up.”
Chinese settlement in Riau continued into the 18th century, the majority of them coming from the Chaoshan area in Guangdong province, along with a sizeable minority from the southern parts of Fujian province.
Gambier and pepper farming were mainly confined to the Bintan (formerly spelled as Bentan) and Galang Islands. Similar to the Kangchu system in Johor, gambier and pepper plantations were established on grants of land by the Yamtuan Muda of Riau, who would issue land permits (Surat Sungai) to the Kangchu who would direct the operations of the plantation and workers within the settlement. In the early and middle 19th century, many Chinese settlers and merchants from Riau relocated their businesses to Singapore, and established trading links between Riau and Singapore. These settlers and merchants still maintained trading links with Riau, as the Kangchu from Riau often shipped their produce to Singapore for free trade to evade taxes imposed by the Dutch colonial government. Like Singapore, competition for the gambier and pepper trade between the Teochews and Hokkiens in Riau led to communal tensions and sporadic violence in Riau during the 1840s and 1850s. In the early 20th century, the Chinese abandoned gambier and pepper plantations in favour of other agricultural practices, as the worldwide prices for gambier experienced a drastic drop in value and many pepper plants fell prey to a disease plaguing the archipelago.
The Kangchu system facilitated the growth of the gambier and pepper plantations and developed Johor’s and Singapore’s economies in the 19th century. The development of Johor’s inland towns were attributed to the efforts by the various Kangchu, who were responsible for drawing the settlement plan for the coolies living within the plantation they were working on, from which new towns were formed. The Chinese immigrant population in Johor and Singapore grew in size during this period; Riau also experienced a similar growth during the 18th century. As a result of mass immigration by the Chinese into Johor, the Chinese quickly outnumbered the Malays in the state, although many Chinese coolies relocated to Singapore or other parts of Malaya as the gambier and pepper industry declined in the 20th century.[fn 7] Several towns and other places in Johor and Singapore, built upon sites of former gambier and pepper plantations, are named after former features of the Kangchu system, and are largely populated by ethnic Chinese.
The Teochew dialect became the lingua franca among the Chinese in many parts of Johor and Riau, as the majority of the Chinese from these areas were of Teochew origin, many of whom were descended from the Chinese coolies who had worked in the gambier and pepper plantations. The Teochews form the second-largest dialect group among Chinese Singaporeans, and many families can trace their family ancestry to immigrants who were Kangchu or coolies in these plantations
Under the British Resident system, Sultan Ibrahim, Sultan Abu Bakar’s successor, was forced to accept a British adviser in 1914. D.G. Campbell was dispatched as the first British adviser to Johor. During the Second World War Johor Bahru was the last city in Malay Peninsula to fall under Japanese occupation. In 1948, Johor joined the Federation of Malaya, which gained Independence in 1957.
The territory of Siak on the east coast used to be part of the Sultanate of Malacca (1400-1511)
Sandwiched between the states of Negeri Sembilan and Johor, Melaka is by comparison a small state with an area of only 1,651 square kilometers on the Western Peninsular of Malaysia. The states is divided into three districts, Melaka Tengah or Central Melaka, the District of Alor Gajah to the north and the District of Jasin to the south. However, almost all the interesting and historical sites are located in Central Melaka and mostly in the town area.
According to the legend, Malacca was founded in 1396 by Prince Parameswara from a dying ancient kingdom of Srivijaya. Parameswara came to Temasik (Singapore), killed the ruler who paid tribute to Siam (today’s Thailand) and reigned there for five years until the Siamese drove him out. Parameswara was out hunting one day and while resting under a tree, one of his dogs cornered a mouse-deer and in defense, the mouse-deer kicked the dog smartly on its nose. Amazed by the bravery of the mouse-deer’s and he believed what he saw as a good omen, he decided to build his empire on that sacred land and named it after the tree he was resting under, which was the Melaka Tree (Phylianthus emblica).
Originally a Hindu, Parameswara convert to Islam and took the name Sultan Iskandar Shah. Inevitably, Islam became the official religion. At that time, Malacca was nothing more than a small village beside a river, but under his rule, the kingdom flourished and its influence spread to the neighbouring countries of Sumatra and Indonesia.
In the past the city was geographically positioned along East-West trading route, at the busiest and narrowest point of Straits of Malacca. It was a major port along the spice-route, and its harbor bristled with the sails and masts of Chinese junks and spice-loaded vessels from all over world. Also was traded: silk and porcelain from China; textiles from Gujarat and Coromandel in India; camphor from Borneo; sandalwood from Timor; nutmeg, mace, and cloves from the Moluccas, gold and pepper from Sumatra; and tin from western Malaysia. The strong wind was always blowing from the right position for the sailors and Malacca was a safe place to be, when the sailors came ashore. No wonder that they took this city for provision. Malacca became important for all who wanted to rule the Strait of Malacca. And…that Strait was so important for the spice-route. That’s why Malacca had since 1400 so much occupiers and could grow to a world wide trade center.
The state experienced a unique culmination of cultural and historical influences from Malay Sultanate (1400-1511), Portuguese colonial (1511-1641), Dutch colonial (1641-1795), English colonial (1795-1942, 1945-1957) and Japanese occupancy (1942-1945).
Under Alfonso de Albuquerque, Malacca was conquered by the Portuguese in 1511. The Portuguese came to the East to capture the spice trade. The Portuguese failed to maintain the glory and prosperity of Malacca because of restrictive policies, competition and wars. The Portuguese ruled Malacca from 1511 to 1641. On the incline of the hill (St. Paul’s Hill) they built a fort: “A Famosa”. Later this was extended, so that the hill was surrounded by the wall of the fort. Inside these walls were two palaces, a castle, a meeting room for the Portuguese Council and there were five churches. Unfortunately, the only thing that’s left is the “Porta de Santiago”, a gate without a wall that leaded to the fort.
Drawing shows A Famosa or Porta de Santiago built by the Portuguese
After a siege of 7 months the conquered the fort in 1641. At that time Malacca wasn’t so rich and prosperous anymore. After the conquest, the Dutch could start rebuilding the fort and occupied it largely as a military base, using its strategic location to control the Straits of Malacca. Where the Portuguese had concentrated on the construction of fortification and churches, the Dutch on the other hand planned Malacca well, built comfortable brick houses (along Heeren Street and Jonker Street), protestant churches and large administrative buildings such as the Stadthuys.
and in its succession of the Sultanate of Johor (1511-1721).
After the fall of Melaka in 1511,
the Riau islands became the center of political power of the mighty
But history changed the fate of Riau as a political, cultural or economic center when European powers struggled to control the regional trade routes and took advantage of political weaknesses within the sultanate. Singapore island, that had been for centuries part of the same greater Malay kingdoms and sultanates, and under direct control of the Sultan of Johor, came under control of the British.
The creation of a European-controlled territory in the heart of the Johor-Riau natural boundaries broke the sultanate into two parts, destroying the cultural and political unity that had existed for centuries. The Anglo-Dutch Treaty of 1824 consolidated this separation, with the British controlling all territories north of the Singapore strait and the Dutch controlling territories from Riau to Java.
The independent Sultanate of Siak Sri Indrapura (1725-1946) expanded, making smaller states un the northeastern coast of Sumatra (Langkat, Deli, Serdang, Asahan, Tanah Putih) recognize her suzerainty. At its climax it bordered on the Sultanate on Aceh in the North, while Pelalawan and Indragiri (to the Sultanate of Riau) in the South separated it from the Sultanate of Jambi. Siak accepted the protectorate of the Dutch East Indies in 1858 and was terminated in 1945
The Stadhuys showing Christ Church in the middle, 1807
when the Netherlands was captured by French Revolutionary armies, Melaka was handed over to the British by the Dutch to avoid its capture by the French. Although the British returned the city to the Dutch in 1808, it was soon given back to the British once again in a trade for Bencoleen in Sumatra.
the English East India Company in Calcutta ruled the city until 1867, when the Straits Settlements ( Melaka, Penang and Singapore ) became a British Crown colony. The British continued their control until the Second World War and the Japanese occupation from 1942 to 1945.
Following the defeat of the Japanese, the British resumed their control until 31st. August 1957, when anti-colonial sentiment culminated in a proclamation of independence by His Highness Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra Al-Haj, Malaysia’s first Prime Minister
It is written the history that in glory of
Riau Lingga kingdom
when it took over the famous Johor kingdom, most parts of Riau islands territory were in the authority of kingdom of Riau Lingga. It is mentioned that the glorious time of Riau can be depicted by the incoming flow of international commerce since there were so many foreign traders lived in Bandar Riau. Furthermore, it was explained also about the prosperity of this Riau territory, especially at the time his young majesty King Ali held the power. Riau had experienced rapid development. Such historical meanings had implicated the economic situation in this territory nowadays.
Of the Regalia two have been preserved: a keris and a ritual fan:
From Riau Lingga, 19th century
(Museum Nasional Jakarta, inv. no. E28)
Jogan (Ritual Fan)
H.: 54,8 cm. From Riau Lingga, 19th century
(Museum Nasional Jakarta, inv. no. E13)
|The keris demonstrates the close link between the Riau Lingga Sultanate and the Bugis princes and follows closely Bugis models.The Fan is part of the pusaka of the Sultan. Its “leaf or mountain shape evokes the symbolism of the kayon or gunungan of the wayang drama. [....] The Malay text is written in Arabic characters and states that the kings of Melayu (the name of a kingdom that was situated in present Riau) are descended from Iskandar Zulkarnaen (Alexander the Great † 323 B.C.), who descended from Bukit Siguntang (a hill in the western part of Palembang, 27 m.).” [i]|
|Sultans of Riau Lingga (Residing on Lingga) [ii]|
The flag of the sultan himself, his pennon and two-pointed gonfanon were all white:
|Apart from the keris and the fan no royal emblem is known from the 19th century sultans of Riau Lingga. A picture of the last sultan shows him with a headdress decorated with a crescent and five-pointed star from which a lily-shaped ornament rises. The crescent and star symbolizes “Head of State” as the crescent is the islamic emblem of state, and a star the emblem of a (muslim) ruler. Generally the crescent and star is thought to be the symbol of Islam.
Sultan Abdul Rahman II of Riau Lingga (1883-1911)
The crescent-and-star appears in white on a red flag ascribed to the state of Riau-Lingga.[iii] This may have been the flag of the last years of the existence of the state or the flag of a movement for the autonomy of Riau.
|The flag of the royal boat was divided per pale white and green, in the first a green cross saltire:
The male members of the royal family had a yellow flag.
The flag of the chief commander or Pangeran Laksamana was white with a red bordure at the mast, the upper- and the lower side:
His pennon was red his gonfanon triangular white with a red bordure.
|Viceroys of Riau Lingga (Residing in Riau)|
| The Vice-Regal house of Riau claims descent from the rulers of Luwu, on Celebes. Leaders of the powerful Bugis maritime and military community, they came into prominence during the rise to power of Sultan ‘Abdu’l-Jalil Rahmat Shah. He is better known to history as Raja Kecil, the putative posthumous child of last Malacca Sultan of Johor, Sultan Mahmud II. He ruled over Johor from 1718 until 1722 when, allying themselves with his rivals, the Bugis princes captured the port of Riau and the whole Kingdom of Johore. He took refuge to Siak and the Bugis restored the Bendahara dynasty. The settlement of the debt of honour to the Bugis included a joint system of government of the Bugis conquerors and the descendants of Bendahara Dynasty until 1787. The Bugis leaders received the titles of Yang di-Pertuan Muda (deputy ruler or Viceroy) and Raja Tua (principal prince), enjoying the second and third highest offices in the realm. Although the latter title and office fell into disuse, the Viceroyalty prevailed until the merging of sovereignty of the two Royal dynasties in 1899.The Bugis developed not only the port of Riau but also that of Selangor (north of Malacca).
|The Bugis were a constant threat to the Dutch. Their leader, Daeng Kamboja, made Lingga his base and, from October 1756 till July 1757, besieged Dutch Malacca. In February 1757, help arrived from Batavia and the Bugis were forced to abandon the siege.In 1784 – to restore Dutch supremacy in the Strait of Malacca, and to prevent English occupation the Dutch attacked Riau and, on 29 October 1784, the Bugis were defeated. The resulting treaty ended Johore’s independence, and a Dutch fort was established at Tanjung Pinang (Riau). In the Malay Peninsula, Johore, Selangor, Perak, Trengganu and Pahang became Dutch territories. For the time being the VOC was truly dominant in the Straits.|
|The Bugis of Selangor and Rembau conquered parts of Malacca in January 1784. To reconquer Malacca an expedition to Selangor and Riau was conducted by Jacob Pieter van Braam of the Amsterdam Admiralty, who commanded a fleet of six ships of the line of 60 cannon each and two frigates of 40 cannon each. He arrived in Batavia on 9 March 1784 and on 29 May he landed on the beach of Malacca. The ensueing battle ended with a victory of Van Braam and the death of Haji the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau. On 14 July he set sail to Selangor and, with the help of the Sultan of Siak (Yahya Abdul Jalil Mazaffar Shah 1781-’97), conquered the ruler of Selangor, Ibrahim (1778-1826). On 23 October negotiations were openend with the successor of Raja Haji, Raja Ali. When these negotiations had no satisfying results Van Braam attacked on 29 October. Raja Ali fled and by treaty of November of the same year the Bugis were forbidden to return. [iv]The flags of the Bugis forces captured by Van Braam were sent to Holland and were exposed in the Hall in The Hague. There 27 of them, captured at the battles of Tulu Cattapang, Selangor and Marseh were drawn by Engel Hoogerheyden. This drawing, with the legend ‘VEROVERDE VLAGGEN TE TOELOE CATAPANG DOOR HET ESQUADER VAN DEN COMMANDEUR VAN BRAAM 1784’ is in the Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum in Amsterdam. Amongst them was the banner of Raja Haji and the flag of Raja Ibrahim of Selangor. Some of these flags are in the collection of the Legermuseum in Delft.[v]|
Chart of the flags captured by Van Braam in 1784
Coll. Nederlands Scheepvaartmuseum, Amsterdam, inv. nr S.0585 (04).
|In the head of the chart are the white and red ensigns of the Admiralty of Amsterdam squadrons of the Dutch fleet. The other flags are from the Bugis navy.The flags, which are depicted reversed (that is that the mast-ends have to be on the right instead of the left) are of three or four categories. The first two flags are triangular with a text in arab script. These may be the flags of the raja’s themselves. Ten other flags show the dhu’l fakr or Sword of Islam. These may have been the flags of the admirals, emirs or commanders of the Bugis squadrons. Thirteen flags are plain or decorated simply. These may have been the flags of the rear-admirals or captains of Bugis ships. A fourth category is the 1 Í 5 oblong flag. This may have been the flag of the commander of the fleet.|
Two banners, probably from the Yang di-Pertuan Besar of Selangor and the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau. The inscriptions in arab lettering are not yet deciphered but may give a clue to who were their owners.
| Whatever the banners of Raja Haji or Raja ‘Ali may have been, the banner of Raja Ja’afar was quite different. It was probably granted in 1813 when green and yellow flags were also granted by Raffles to the Mangkunegoro and the Paku Alam on Java. Another possibility is that the flag was granted in 1818 when a contract between the Dutch Government and the Sultan of Riau Lingga was concluded.The flag of the Yang di-Pertuan Muda of Riau was yellow with a green bordure at the mast-end and the upper- and lower side:
His pennon was divided horizontally of green and yellow and his gonfanon with two points the same as his flag.
The flag of the vice-royal boat was green with a white cross saltire:
Seal of the Yang Dipertuan Muda Riau IX
Raja Abdullah Ibni Raja Jaafar Ibni Raja Haji Fisabilillah
The legend of the seal reads: “Al Watik Baladun Al Aziz Al Ghaffar Sultan Alauddin Syah Ibni Al Marhum Raja Jaafar 1273-Hijri” (1857 AD). And on the circumference: ONDERKONING VAN RIOUW (Viceroy of Riau)
Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden
The Singkep tin Matschapy 1889
Koelies graven de ertsgrondlaag af in de groeve Ajer Poetih Singkep Tin Maatschappij Riouw
Op Singkep was sedert 1889 de Singkep Tin Maatschappij werkzaam. Deze onderneming besloot in 1933 tot algehele overdracht van het bedrijf aan de Gemeenschappelijke Mijnbouwmaatschappij Billiton, een in 1924 aangegane joint venture van het Gouvernement en de Billiton Mij. Ook op het kleine Singkep vond technologische vernieuwing plaats met de, op de foto afgebeelde, hydraulische ontginning als resultaat. Wel moest de ertsgrondlaag nog door koelies worden afgegraven. (P. Boomgaard, 2001). Koelies graven de ertsgrondlaag af in de groeve Ajer Poetih, Singkep Tin Maatschappij, Riouw
Resident Riouw Visit Sultan of linga riouw
Sambu Island during DEI
The Dutch office in sambu Island
In the back of above picture
Residentie Riouw en Onderhoorigheden
| Under Dutch direct rule the emblems of the Kingdom of the Netherlandswere valid in the residence.After Japanese occupation but also after the proclamation of the Republic of Indonesia on 17 August 1945, the Dutch Government tried to restore Dutch Rule in the Indies as well as on Sumatera. For that reason some troops of the Royal Dutch Indies Army (KNIL) were stationed on Sumatera. Most succesful were the KNIL-troops in Medan, Padang and Palembang. In Riau the VIII Infantry Battalion KNIL was stationed. The arms of this Battalion were:Arms:Vert, a sword per pale Argent, its hilt Or, charged with a vulture Sable, keeping a garland of branches of olive in his claws proper, and in base the cypher VIII Sable.The arms were adopted by resolution Clg 7492/GS/35 of 11 November 1946 and became obsolte after the dissolution of the KNIL on 20 July 1950.
|On 15 April 1948 Riau became a part of the Province of MiddleSumatra with the name of Karesidenan Riau. With the extinguishing of Sumatera Tenga in 1957 the Karesidenan Riau was upgrated into a province. For this province an emblem was adopted:Arms:Vert, a keris per pale charged with a Bugis sailing vessel in full sail on waves of the sea, surrounded by a garland of rice and cotton, in base the name RIAU in red lettering; and a chain of 90 shackles Or in orle.ð See illustration in the head of this essay. [vi]|
Karimun regency in the beginning was a small town with the name of Tanjung Balai Karimun and with its status as a sub district town with the area of only 275 sq km. Tanjung Balai Karimun, from the scope of history, cannot be separated from its main regency that is Riau islands.
Based on the decree of delegation of the Republic of Indonesia, the province of central Sumatra on may 18, 1956 joined the republic of Indonesia, and Riau island were given the status as level II autonomy rnegion which is led by a regent as head of the region who supervised 4 (four) districts, that are:
* Tanjung Pinang District, which covered sub district of South Bintan (incoming East Bintan, Galang, West Tanjung Pinang and East Tanjung Pinang now).
* Karimun District which covered sub district of Karimun, Kundur and Moro.
* Lingga District which covered sub district of Lingga, Singkep and Senayang.
* Tujuh Island District which covered sub district of Jemaja, Siantan, Midai, Serasan, Tambelan, West Bunguran and East Bunguran.
Karimun district, later were abolished based on the decree of governor, head of the level I region of Riau dated August 9, 1964 no. Up/247/5/1965.
Based on such stipulation, as of January 1, 1966,
all administrative territory of the district in the Riau Islands regency was abolished. Along with the spirit of regional autonomy,
Along with the spirit of regional autonomy, then on October 12 law no. 53, 1999 was stipulated which stated that Karimun regency together with kundur and moro regency were merged to one regency with the name of Karimun regency, with position at the same level with other regencies in Indonesia.
After the European powers withdrew from the region, the new independent governments had to reorganize and find balance after inheriting 100 years of colonial boundaries. Before finding their current status, the territories of Indonesia, Malaysia, Singapore, Brunei and Borneo struggled and even came into military conflict against each other, and the Riau islands once again found themselves in the middle of a regional struggle.
The strong cultural unity of the region with Riau in the heart of this region never returned, and the line drawn by the British in 1819 remained, dividing the area into three new countries in 1965: Singapore, the Malaysian federation in the north, and Indonesia in the south.
Some level of unity returned in the Riau region for the first time after 150 years, with the creation of the Sijori Growth Triangle in 1989. But while bringing back some economical wealth to Riau, the Sijori Growth Triangle somewhat further broke the cultural unity within the islands. With Batam island receiving most of the industrial investments and dramatically developing into a regional industrial center, it attracted hundreds of thousands of non-Malay Indonesian migrants, changing forever the demographic balance in the archipelago.
Today the name of Riau merely refers to this administrative region of Indonesia, a free trade zone heavily supported by Indonesian, Singaporean and international investments.
There have been various attempts at both independence and autonomy for this part of Indonesia since the founding of Indonesia in 1945.
This province is divided into 5 regencies:
- Karimun (Tanjung Balai Karimun)
- Bintan (Bandar Seri Bentan)
- Lingga (Daik)
- Natuna (Ranai)
- Anambas Islands (Tarempa)
and 2 cities:
- ^ a b Central Bureau of Statistics: Census 2010, retrieved 17 January 2011 (Indonesian)
- ^ Kepulauan Riau, Keberagaman Identitas dalam Kesatuan Kultur. http://epaper.kompas.com.+February 6.
- ^ BPS: Jumlah Penduduk Provinsi Kepulauan Riau Menurut
- ^ The Riau Islands and economic cooperation in the Singapore Indonesian border zone Karen Peachey, Martin Perry, Carl Grundy-Warr, Clive H Schofield, University of Durham. International Boundaries Research Unit, illustrated, IBRU, 1997, ISBN 1897643276, 9781897643273, pg. 6-10
- ^ paper on the Riau Independence movemen
is one of the most important islands in Riau Archipelago, due to its thriving economy and proximity to Singapore. Tanjung Balai Karimun is a medium-sized town, with a large Chinese community and shops selling a large variety of imported items. The town is linked by both sea and air.
Terkulai resortand Soreh resot
are resort islands nearby which are popular with holidaymakers.
Terkulai and Soreh are resort islands nearby which are popular with holidaymakers.
is one of the most important islands in Riau Archipelago, due to its thriving economy and proximity to Singapore. Tanjung Balai Karimun is a medium-sized town, with a large Chinese community and shops selling a large variety of imported items. The town is linked by both sea and air. Terkulai and Soreh are resort islands nearby which are popular with holidaymakers.
Karimun regency in the beginning was a small town with the name of Tanjung Balai Karimun and with its status as a sub district town with the area of only 275 sq km. Tanjung Balai Karimun
Karimun district, later were abolished based on the decree of governor, head of the level I region of Riau dated August 9, 1964 no. Up/247/5/1965. Based on such stipulation, as of January 1, 1966, all administrative territory of the district in the Riau Islands regency was abolished. It is written the history that in glory of Riau Lingga kingdom when it took over the famous Johor kingdom, most parts of Riau islands territory were in the authority of kingdom of Riau Lingga. It is mentioned that the glorious time of Riau can be depicted by the incoming flow of international commerce since there were so many foreign traders lived in Bandar Riau. Furthermore, it was explained also about the prosperity of this Riau territory, especially at the time his young majesty King Ali held the power. Riau had experienced rapid development. Such historical meanings had implicated the economic situation in this territory nowadays.
then on October 12 law no. 53, 1999 was stipulated which stated that Karimun regency together with kundur and moro regency were merged to one regency with the name of Karimun regency, with position at the same level with other regencies in Indonesia.
Siantan Tarempa [Flickr]
20 tahun lamanya tidak melihat kampung halaman ditanah kelahiran, 20 tahun lamanya tidak mengunjungi sanak saudaran ditanah kelahiran. Akhirnya liburan kemaren saya mendapatkan kesempatan untuk mengunjungi tanah kelahiran saya yang telah lama saya tinggalkan. Tarempa … itulah nama sebuah tempat dimana saya dilahirkan lebih kurang 24 tahun yang lalu, saya hijrah ke Tanjung Pinang saat usia saya masih 4 tahun, kemudian sebelum menginjakkan kaki ke bangku sekolah dasar saya sempat pulang sebentar… tapi hanya transit untuk mengunjungi kampung halaman ibu saya di
Semenjak saat itu saya tidak pernah pulang lagi untung menjenguk sanak saudara disana.
Sebelumnya mungkin kita pernah mendengan dengan sebutan Pulau Tujuh, gugusan kepulauan yang berada di Kepulauan Riau. Nah… salah satu dari kepulauan itu adalah Kepulauan Anambas yang terkenal dengan beberapa daerah seperti Siantan a.k.a Tarema, Jemaja a.k.a Letung dan Payaklaman a.k.a Matak. Klo mau saya jelaskan satu persatu gugusan pulau tujuh ini … mungkin hingga thesis saya selesai, belum tentu saya akan dapat merampungkan cerita tentang Ke-tujuh kepulauan itu. Saya hanya akan membahas tiga daerah dari kepulauan Anambas ini saja, Tarempa, Letung dan Matak. Baiklah … cerita ini akan saya ceritakan melalui perjalanan saya sehari-hari disana. Dimulai ketika proses keberangkatan hingga akhirnya saya harus pulang lagi ke Tanjung Pinang.
Perjalanan menuju Tarempa dapat ditempuh dengan 2 cara. Cara yang pertama adalah menggunakan transportasi laut. Kapal Pelni yang berangkat setiap 2 minggu sekali dapat kita gunakan. Alternatif kapal lainnya adalah Kapal Perintis yang memiliki 2 rute, sehingga waktu keberangkatannya tidak tetap. Perjalanan menggunakan kapal biasanya memakan waktu selama 18-20 jam. Cara yang kedua tentunya menggunakan transportasi udara, dengan menaiki pesawat dari Tanjung Pinang atau Batam. Pesawat dari Tanjung Pinang hanya menuju bandar udara Natuna sedangkan pesawat dari Batam dapat menuju bandar udara Natuna dan Matak. Mo lewat jalan darat? …. jangan pernah berharap yah
Liburan kemaren kebetulan saya menggunakan kapal Pelni yang berangkat dari pelabuhan Kijang menuju Tarempa. Rute dari kapal pelni ini dapat menempuh seluruh perjalanan di pulau tujuh. Setelah 15 jam perjalanan kapal memasuki perairan Jemaja Letung, disini kapan tidak dapat berlabuh dipelabuhan. Kapal pelni ini hanya berlabuh jangkar dilaut, penumpang yang akan turun diharuskan menaiki kapal motor kecil alias pompong. Tepat 3 jam setelah berangkat dari Letung, kapal pelni berlabuh di pelabuhan Tarempa. Kebetulan sampe sana pukul 23.00 wib, jadi sampe rumah langsung K.O.
Tarempa from Mountain [Flickr]
Kepulangan saya kekampung halaman ini bertepatan dengan acara sukuran dalam rangka terbentuknya Kabupaten Kepulauan Anambas. Dahulunya daerah ini hanyalah sebuah kecamatan dibawah kabupaten Natuna. Pembentukan kabupaten baru ini disambut gembira oleh seluruh lapisan masyarakat disana, sehingga diadakanlah acara sukuran. Nantinya akan saya cerita lebih lanjut tentang syukuran KKA ini.
Kehidupan masyarakat didaerah ini dimulai pada pagi hari, ada juga kegiatan dimalam hari tetapi tidak terlalu ramai. Hal tersebut dikarenakan sebagian besar penduduk bermata pencarian nelayan. Setelah sholat subuh saya pun keluar rumah untuk menghirup udara pagi yang segar, setelah menoleh kiri dan kanan, ternyata didepan rumah ada pasar ikan. Pasar ikan ini sangat ramai dipagi hari, karena hampir seluruh warga datang untuk membeli hasil tangkapan para nelayan yang masih fresh.
Perahu nelayan yang sedang parkir [Flickr]
Mungkin orang-orang disana pada bingung … nih anak pagi2 udah bawa kamera dan yang difoto malah pasar dan tukang ikan . Saya sempat dibilang wartawan … hehe , maklum orang-orang mungkin sudah tidak mengenali saya lagi. Hari ini misi yang harus dijalankan adalah mengunjungi seluruh rumah sanak saudara saya. Boleh dibilang, keluarga saya adalah keluarga besar. Ayah saya memiliki 9 saudara dan ibu saya 11 bersaudara. So, saya memiliki banyak paman dan bibi. Belum lagi saudara dari kakek dan nenek saya, alias saudara-saudara sepupu saya. Klo boleh dibilang, mau kemana aja di Tarempa ini masih ada hubungan saudara. Karena banyaknya saudara-saudara saya, saya sudah hampir tidak ingat kepada mereka semua. Hanya yang beberapa saja yang masih saya kenal. Mungkin inilah nasib dari seorang anak rantau yang jauh dari keluarga. Setiap ada acara kumpul-kumpul keluarga besar saya tidak dapat mengikutinya. Begitu juga dengan pernikahan sepupu saya pada waktu bulan Juli lalu
GALANG ISLAND COLLECTIONS
DEI NICA Dutch SMELT 5 CENT POSTAL STATIONER POSTALLY USED FROM GREAHAM ESTATATE p.k.GALANG CDAS TANDJOENG PINANG 1.8.50 TO Dactyloscopy Beaureu DPV&AVROS Medan about the information about A MAN WHO EVER WORK AT THE GEAHAM ESTAT
“We have to advise that this man was discharged from this estate on 29th April 1948 ,for using riffle bullete for shooting wild pig” from manager of graham estate.
UNHCR VIETNAM REFUGEE GALANG CAMP COLLECTIONS
Driwan Vietnam War Cybermuseum:”The Vietnam Refugee Pulau galang Camp After Vietnam War 1980″(koleksi camp refugee Vietnam pulau galang)
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA DR IWAN S.
Dr IWAN ‘S CYBERMUSEUM
THE FIRST INDONESIAN CYBERMUSEUM
MUSEUM DUNIA MAYA PERTAMA DI INDONESIA
DALAM PROSES UNTUK MENDAPATKAN SERTIFIKAT MURI
PENDIRI DAN PENEMU IDE
Dr IWAN SUWANDY, MHA
WELCOME TO THE MAIN HALL OF FREEDOM
SELAMAT DATANG DI GEDUNG UTAMA “MERDEKA
The Driwan’s Cybermuseum
(Museum Duniamaya Dr Iwan)
(Driwan Vietnam War Cybermuseum)Showcase:
The Vietnam War Document
Post Vietnam War
AFTER VIETNAM WAR 1980
e. VIETNAMSE BOAT’s PEOPLES -1980.
How to travel to Vietnam refugee Galang Island Camp
Galang Island : the Vietnamese Safe Haven
To reach this island, take a ferry to any of the Batam’s six ferry terminals. Batam’s Hang Nadim airport serves domestic flights from many cities in Indonesia. See: To get there for Batam island. The Vietnam refugee camp is located in Sijantung village on Galang Island some 50 kilometers from Batam Center.
The Galang Island where the vietnam refugee camp were built
The Map Of Galang island vietnam refugee
The Picture at Vietnam Refugee Camp at Galang Island,:
2.The house of refugee
3.The Church of vietnam refugee
4.The Maria Cave
5.The Ex Boat of the vietnam refugee
1) no info
1.January until march not yet info
In this month, Indonesia Police Mobile Brigade Kompi-06 West sumatra Padang Panjang have joined the “Halilintar”operation at Pulau Galang in order to keep the stabilty situation during the Vietnamese Refugees processing the island near Riau Island and Singapore, live temporary at the refugee Camp “ Vietnam Refugee Galang Island Camp”.look at the order to the police by te command chief staf of halilintar operation below(given by the man to me)
3.Since June and July 1979, many Vietnamese refiugee, thousands with small boats flee from Vietnam, they were called “Boat People” many died in the sea due to Boat crash due to many mans in small boat.
As a humanity , Indonesia give an Island of Galang where the processing by United nation were made.look at the Vietnamese Refugee Galang Island Camp picture below:
Vietnam Refugee Camp, Galang Island
3) no info
(1)The Operation of Indonesia Armed Forces (Police were in Armed Forces that this time) were called “HALILINTAR OPERATIONS” , from the Mobile Brigade-man I have found Postal History, document and memorabilia :
Order from the Command of Halilintar operations, The Chief Staff Navy General(laksmana Pertama) TNI(Indonesia National Army) Kunto Wibisono with the “Panglima”(Chief) of Halilintar Operation Command(Komando Operasi Halilintar) issued at Tanjung Pinang Riou 12 April 1980.(D)
the list of the policeman tasforce at Galang Island Vietnam refugee camp
The hansigned of comander in chief Brigade Mobile Padang Panjang Leutenan Fadjar Prihantoro(now He Inspektuer General Police ,the chief Of Aceh Police Departemen,read the recent info about him,he at right
BANDA ACEH, 4/1 – KAPOLDA ACEH BARU. Kapolda Aceh yang baru, Irjen Pol Iskandar Hasan (kanan) melakukan salam komando dengan Kapolda Aceh lama, Irjen Pol Fajar Prihantoro (kiri) usai upacara lepas sambut di Mapolda Aceh, Banda Aceh, Selasa (4/1). Irjen Pol. Fajar Prihantoro yang bertugas selama delapan bulan di Aceh itu akan menempati posisi Kabarharkam di Mabes Polri. FOTO ANTARA/Ampelsa/ss/pd/11
hallo general Fadjar are still remember me,greating and salute from Dr Iwan suwandy)
Bp Hadjar prihantoro profile now as the chief of Aceh Police departement
(b) Postal History
(2.1)Military cover from the Command of halilintar Operation to the command of Mobile Brigade Police Second Leutenant fajar Prihantoro, this cover sent via courier.(PH)
(2.2) Official Military Covers send via courier, from Komando(command) Satuan Pengaman (stability unit) and Perawatan (care) Pengungsi (Refu-gee) Vietnam Pulau(Island) Galang to WA(deputy) Dan (Commandant) Ki (Compi) 0-6 SB(Moblie Brigade west sumatra) at Tanjung Pinang. With the sign of the Deputy H.Prihantoro when he have given this cover to me.(D)
Money Order To Vietnamese Pulau galang Refugee
Inconu Vietnamese Pulau galang refugee postally used cover
The Postal History 1979
5)-9) no info
10) October 1979
(1) October 4th 1979
(a)Vietnamese refugee Pulau galang emblemed cover send postally CDS Tandjung Pinang 4.10.79 rate 60 Rupiah to his wife Padang Pandjang west sumatra .(PH)
(b) Return to sender registered covers I have send to the Police Pos Command of Vietnamese Pulau galang, with Sial Sdh berangkat (They have departured)
(c)Official letter sheet Vietnamese refugee Pulau galang (M)
(d)The Sticker of Vietnamese Refugee Pulau galang.
11) November 1980
12) December 1980
The civil homemade cover send with Military stamps 1976-1980 , 2×12 (?) from Tinh Ha Son Binh to Than Pho Ho chi Minh.
FINISH-FINISH- CONGRATULATION- VIETNAM UNITY- VIVA REPUBLIC SOCIALIST VIETNAM. bonus
1. The wedding double happiness dragon cover
the picture of brideman
2. Postally used Vietnam Aerograme
188.8.131.520 hundred years anniversary postal stationer of Ho Chi Minh
the end @ copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011