The sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-Rom Edition”The Best Pictures Collections”

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PLease Look the amizing Art Photography collections

Koleksi Art Photography Dari Museum Dunia Maya Dr Iwan

Driwancybermusueum

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Sun set on Israel-Gaza border, by Yannis Behrakis)

 

The sample Of Dr Iwan E-Book In CD-Rom Edition:The Best Pictures Collections”

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The Best picture Collections

Part  one

 Outermost Coffin of Tutankhamun, 1926, by Harry BurtonOutermost Coffin of Tutankhamun, 1926, by Harry Burton

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

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The Picture Of Tutankamun In 1926

By Harry Burton

Abu Simbel, Egypt, 1851-2, by Félix Teynard

Abu Simbel, Egypt, 1851-2, by Félix Teynard

The Alexander The great Mosaic  Pictures

The Sample Of Dr Iwan e-Book In CD-rom Edition”The Music History Collections”

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The Music History collections

Part

Early 20th Century

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

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Copyright @ 2012

Introduction

Koleksi Sejarah Plat gramophone(piring hitam) Di Indonesia Sebelum Perang Dunia kedua

(The Indonesian’s Phonograph Record   Historic collections) 

Frame One : Introduction

1. I have starting build the collections of  Gramophone plate since study in hish school at Padang city West Sumatra in 1960.

2. Until this day in 2011 I cannot found the complete informations about the Indonesian’s  gramophone plate History, that is why I have made reasech about this topic in order to give the young generations about the development of music gramophone technology in the world since found by Mr Thomas Alfa Edison and when first arrived in Indonesia during The Dutch East colionial Era.

3. I will show my collections with information from that very rare and amizing historic collections, very lucky I had found vintage book of gramophone and also many info fram google explorations,especially from wikipedia ,for that info thanks very much.

4. This exhibtion will divide into two parts, first before World War I and second Between WWI and WWII. all during Indonesia under Dutch east Indie Colonial time.

5.The earliest Gramophone’s Plate in 19Th Century produced by Addison inc with very thick plate almost 4 times then now circa 1 cm,then became half centimer and latest 0,2 cm more thin,please look the comperative picture below:

First the mechanic gramophone look the promotion picture of His Mater Voice company below:

and later electric gramophone, still used gramophone needle look the needle promotion label below :

6.In Indonesia during Colonial time , the gramophone’s plate sold by the chinese marchant ,many at Pasar Baru Market Batavia (Jakarta) please look the trader mark below :

7.I hope all the  collectors all over the world ,especially Indonesian Collectors plaes honor my copyright with donnot copy or tag this exhibitons without my permisssion,thanks.

Jakarta January 2011

Dr Iwan suwandy @ copyright 2011

 

The  Music Record History Collection E-Book In CD –Rom  is a project of Dr Iwan Cubermuseum .Wordpress.Com Web Blog  for Audio Visual Conservation.

 The goal of the Jukebox is to present to the widest audience possible early commercial sound recordings, offering a broad range of historical and cultural documents as a contribution to education and lifelong learning.

These selections are presented as part of the record of the past. They are historical documents which reflect the attitudes, perspectives, and beliefs of different times. Dr Iwan E-book In CD-ROM  does not endorse the views expressed in these recordings, which may contain content offensive to users

This Project dedicated to My son Albert suwandy Djohan Oetama because one of his hobbies were music record beside  the art of photography, I hope this informations will need for him to conservated my old music record collections in the future.

I hope one day when I am still alive this collections can chow in Indonesian television or may be there are the sponsorship for marketing promotion of the music record incoperations in Indonesia,

The old music record can be used for the listener in a special Old Music Café at Jakarta in the future

Driwan Masterpiece vintage International Music Record CollectionsI.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

.ORIGINAL SOUNDTRACT OF MOTION PICTURE

II. ELTON JOHN WHITE LABEL RECORD



III.DIANA ROSS WHITE LABEL RECORD

IV.THE GUITARIST MAESTRO LES PAUL RECORD

V. THE MICHAEL JACKSON WHITE LABEL RECORD : BAD

VI THE HOMOKORD RECORD LABEL

VII. THE MIDDLE OF THE ROAD WHITE LABEL RECORD

VIII. THE VINTAGE CHINESE OPERA MUSIC RECORD (COVER)

ix.THE WINSTON CHURCHILL AND MARTIN LUTHER KING JR SOUND RECORD


X.SANTANA WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI LED ZEPELLIN II WHITE LABEL RECORD

XI. PRINCE AKIHITO(NOW EMPEROR) AND PRINCE MICHIKO(NOE MEPRESS) WEDDING MUSIC COLUMBIA RECORD

XII.MISS RIBOET ODEON DARDANELLA ,JASIDI SONG, BEKA RECORD

XIII. BARRY MANILOW WHITE LABEL RECORD

ps. I hope the collectors who have this masterpiece collections to show us his collections with info and suggestion via comment,THIS INFO FOR RESEACRH HOW MUCH THIS RARE RECORD STILL EXIST NOW, THANKS VERYMUCH FOR YOUR INFO.

FOR MORE INFO,PLEASE LOOK AT MY CYBERMUSEUM BLOG,PLEASE CLICK
hhtp://www.Driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com
the end @ Copyright Dr Iwan Suwandy 2011

The Chronologic Music record History Collections

1900

Jan

1

  • Xavier Cugat born (Girona, Spain) Catalan-American latin and popular bandleader, violinist, cartoonist. Died 1990

3rd

  • Maurice Jaubert born (Nice) French composer, conductor. Died 1940

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  • JAUBERT, Maurice
  • Composer. Nationality: French. Born: Nice, 3 January 1900. Education: Attended Lycée Masséna and Nice Conservatory; studied law at the Sorbonne, Paris; studied music with Albert Groz. Military Service: 1920–22; 1939—recalled into the army, and killed in action.
  •  Family: Married
·        

  • Maurice Jaubert born (Nice) French composer, conductor.

 

  • Died 1940
  • JAUBERT, Maurice
  • Composer. Nationality: French. Born: Nice, 3 January 1900. Education: Attended Lycée Masséna and Nice Conservatory; studied law at the Sorbonne, Paris;
  • studied music with Albert Groz.
  •  
  •  Military Service: 1920–22;
  •  
  •  1939—recalled into the army, and killed in action.
  •  Family: Married
·        


 

  • the singer Marthe Bréga. Career: Practiced law briefly, then music director for Pleyela Records, 1925, and music director for Pathé-Natan Studios, 1930–35; also composed music for orchestra and for stage works. Died: In Azerailles, 19 June 1940

Joueur de Guitare, Paris, 1900

6th

  • Pierre-Octave Ferroud born (Lyon) French composer, critic. Died 1936

10

  • Leos Janácek’s Cossack Dance & Serbian Kolo-round dance premiered in Brno

11

  • Wilbur de Paris born (Crawfordsville, IA) American jazz bandleader, trombonist. Brother of Sidney de Paris (1905-67). Died 1973

12

  • Jan Blockx’s opera Thyl Uilenspiegel premiered in Brussels

13

  • Yasuji Kiyose born (Usa, Japan) Japanese composer, teacher. Died 1981

14

  • Gustav Mahler’s songs Das irdische Leben & Wo die schönen Trompeten blasen premiered in Vienna
  • Giacomo Puccini’s opera Tosca premiered in Rome, lib. G. Giacosa and L. Illica

16

  • Henry Kimball Hadley makes his conducting debut in New York

19

  • Albert Brunies born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz cornettist (Halfway House Orchestra). Brother of Merritt (1895-1973) and George (1902-74) Brunies. Died 1978

20

  • Tomás Bretón’s opera Raquel premiered in Madrid

22

  • Franz Salmhofer born (Vienna) Austrian composer, conductor, clarinetist, poet, director of the of Vienna State Opera 1945-54. Died 1975
  • David E. Hughes (68) dies
  • Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari’s opera Cenerentola premiered in Venice
  • Alexander von Zemlinsky’s opera Es war einmal premiered in Vienna

26

  • Clayton McMichen born (Allatoona, GA) American country fiddler (Hometown Boys, Skillet Lickers, Georgia Wildcats). Died 1970

27

  • Ernest Chausson’s String Quartet in C minor op.35 premiered in Paris (completed by Vincent d’Indy)
  • Maurice Ravel’s Deux épigrammes de Clément Marot premiered in Paris

30

  • Isaak Dunayevsky born (Lokhvitsa, Russia) Russian film and operetta composer, conductor. Died 1955

releases

  • Vess Osman – The Old Folks At Home (Berliner)

 

Feb

2

  • Emmett Miller born (Macon, GA) American minstrel and country singer, vaudevillian, songwriter. Died 1962
  • Gustave Charpentier’s opera Louise premiered in Paris, lib. Charpentier

3

  • Ottokar Novacek (33) dies from heart failure
  • Joseph Holbrooke’s The Raven op.25 premiered in London
  • James T. Tanner, Alfred Murray, Adrian Ross, Percy Greenbank, Ivan Caryll, Lionel Monckton, & Paul Rubens’ musical The Messenger Boy opened in London (429 performances)

7

  • Aleksandr Glazunov’s ballet The Seasons premiered in St. Petersburg

9

  • Walter Page born (Gallatin, MS) American jazz bandleader, bassist (Bennie Moten, Blue Devils, Count Basie). Died 1957

12

  • Pink Anderson born (Laurens, SC) American blues singer, guitarist. Died 1974
  • Lift Every Voice and Sing by James Weldon Johnson & J Rosamond Johnson first publicly performed in Jacksonville, FL

13

  • Joseph ‘Wingy’ Manone born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz bandleader, trumpeter, singer (Arcadian Serenaders, Harmony Kings, Benny Goodman, Cellar Boys, Wingy Manone Orchestra). Died 1982
  • Hamish MacCunn’s opera The Masque of War and Peace premiered in London

15

  • Gustav Mahler’s song Selbstgefühl premiered in Vienna

17

  • Eugen d’Albert’s opera Kain premiered in Berlin

19

  • Charles Lecocq’s opera La belle au bois dormant premiered in Paris

22

  • Ermanno Wolf-Ferrari’s opera Cenerentola premiered in Venice, lib. M. Pezzè-Pascolato

23

  • Riccardo Drigo’s ballet Les Millions d’Arlequin premiered in St Petersburg

unk

  • Karl Michael Ziehrer’s march Auf In’s XX.Jahrhundert! / Into the Twentieth Century! op.501 premiered in Vienna

Original sheet music publication of Lift Every Voice and Sing by JR & JW Johnson

Mar

2

  • Kurt Weill born (Berlin) German composer, songwriter. Husband of Lotte Lenya (1898-1982). Died 1950
  • Edward Elgar’s songs After (P.B. Marston) & A Song of Flight (C. Rossetti) premiered in London

6

  • Carl Bechstein (73) dies

8

  • Joe Robichaux born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz pianist, bandleader (Oscar Celestin, Lee Collins, New Orleans Rhythm Boys). Died 1965

10

  • Peter DeRose born (New York, NY) American popular songwriter. Died 1953
  • Karl Doppler (74) dies
  • Johan Peter Emilius Hartmann (94) dies
  • Claude Debussy’s Tarantelle styrienne premiered in Paris

11

  • Charlie Hicks aka Charley Lincoln born (Lithonia, GA) American blues singer, guitarist. Brother of Barbecue Bob Hicks (1902-31). Died 1963

12

  • Jean Sibelius’ Malinconia op.20 premiered in Helsinki

15

  • Colin McPhee born (Montreal) Canadian composer, musicologist, expert in Balinese music. Died 1964
  • Jules Massenet’s oratorio La terre promise premiered in Paris

16

  • Jean Sibelius’s Sandels for male chorus and orchestra premiered in Helsinki

17

  • Alfred Newman born (New Haven, CT) American film composer, conductor, arranger. Died 1970

19

  • Charles-Louis Hanon (80) dies
  • Harry Lauder makes his London debut at Gatti’s Music Hall

22

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s Hiawatha’s Departure for soprano, tenor, baritone, 4 voices and orchestra premiered in London, lib. H.W. Longfellow

26

  • Isadore Freed born (Brest, Belarus) American composer, teacher, broadcaster, synagogue organist and choirmaster. Died 1960

Programme for Gatti’s Music Hall, Charing Cross, London

Apr

2

  • Anis Fuleihan born (Kyrenia, Cyprus) Cypriot-American composer, conductor, pianist. Died 1970

4

  • Antonin Dvorák makes his last appearance as conductor in Prague
  • Amy Beach’s Piano Concerto in c# minor op.45 premiered in Boston

11

  • Camille Erlanger’s opera Le Juif polonais premiered in Paris

14

  • Salvatore Baccaloni born (Rome) Italian bass singer. Died 1969

17

  • Willy Burkhard born (Evilard-sur-Bienne, Switzerland) Swiss composer, teacher. Died 1955

23

  • Henry Barraud born (Bordeaux) French composer, radio and television station director. Died 1997

30

  • Edward Elgar’s song Pipes of Pan (A. Ross) premiered in London

Camille Erlanger 1863-1919

May

6

  • Manuel de Falla’s Vals-capricho premiered in Madrid

17

  • Nicolai Berezowsky born (St Petersburg) Russo-American pianist, composer. Died 1953
  • Maria Proksch (c.64) dies

21

  • Louis Vierne appointed organist at Notre Dame, Paris, a position he holds until his death in 1937

24

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s suite Scenes from an Everyday Romance for orchestra premiered in London

28

  • Tommy Ladnier born (Florence, LA) American jazz trumpeter (King Oliver, Fletcher Henderson, Noble Sissle, Sidney Bechet). Died 1939
  • George Grove (79) dies

29

  • Jack Palmer born (Nashville, TN) American composer, pianist. Died 1976
  • Dvorák’s Festival Song op.113 premiered in Prague

31

  • Camille Saint-Saëns’ Le feu céleste op.115 premiered in Paris

releases

  • Steve Porter – A Bird In A Gilded Cage (Columbia)

Jun

15

  • Otto Luening born (Milwaukee, WN) American composer, electronic music pioneer, conductor, teacher. Died 1996
  • Paul Mares born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz trumpeter, bandleader (New Orleans Rhythm Kings). Died 1949

17

  • Hermann Reutter born (Stuttgart) German composer, pianist, teacher. Died 1985

20

  • Jean Sibelius’ Isänmaalle (To My Country), tone poem Tiera & Preludio premiered in Helsinki

24

  • Gene Austin born (Gainesville, TX) American popular singer, songwriter. Died 1972
  • Ottorino Respighi’s Symphonic Variations premiered in Bologna

25

  • Charles Villiers Stanford’s The Last Post op.75 premiered in London

Charles Villiers Stanford 1852-1924

Jul

2

  • Jean Sibelius’s Finlandia for orchestra premiered in Helsinki

4

  • Jean Sibelius’s Porilaisten marssi [March of the Björneborgers] for orchestra premiered in Stockholm

8

  • George Antheil born (Trenton, NJ) American composer, pianist, author, inventor. Died 1959

10

  • Mitchell Parish aka Michael Hyman Pashelinsky born (Vilnius, Lithuania) American popular lyricist. Died 1993

13

  • George Lewis born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz clarinetist, bandleader (Black Eagle Band, Eureka Brass Band, Chris Kelly, Kid Ory, Bunk Johnson). Died 1968

18

  • Wilton Crawley born (Smithfield, VA) American jazz clarinetist, bandleader (Washboard Rhythm Kings). Died 1948
  • Jean Sibelius’ Symphony No. 1 premiered in Berlin

21

  • Scott Joplin’s Swipesy Cakewalk copyrighted
  • Arthur Sullivan’s Absent-Minded Beggar March for brass band premiered in London

29

  • Don Redman born (Piedmont, WV) American jazz composer, arranger, clarinetist, bandleader (Fletcher Henderson, McKinney’s Cotton Pickers, Don Redman Orchestra). Died 1964

First page of the score of Jean Sibelius’s Finlandia

Aug

2

  • Helen Morgan born (Danville, IL) American popular singer, actress. Died 1941
  • Edward German’s incidental music for A. Hope & E. Rose’s play English Nell premiered in London

6

  • Willie Lee Brown born (Clarkesdale, MS) American blues singer, guitarist. Died 1952

8

  • Lucius Venable ‘Lucky’ Millinder born (Anniston, AL) American jazz and R&B bandleader, singer (Mills Blue Rhythm Band, Bill Doggett, Lucky Millinder Orchestra). Some sources give 1910 as birth year. Died 1966
  • Victor Young born (Chicago) American popular composer, conductor, arranger, violinist. Died 1956

11

  • Alexander Mosolov born (Kiev) Russian composer. Died 1973

19

  • Jean-Baptiste Accolay (67) dies

21

  • Edward German’s Nell Gwynn Overture premiered in London

23

  • Ernst Krenek born (Vienna) Austro-American composer, teacher. Died 1991
  • Malvina Reynolds born (San Francisco, CA) American folk and blues singer, songwriter, activist. Died 1978

27

  • Gabriel Fauré’s opera Prométhée premiered in Béziers, lib. J. Lorrain and A.-F. Hérold

31

  • Todd Rhodes born (Hopkinsville, KY) American jazz and R&B bandleader, arranger, pianist (Benny Carter, Mckinney’s Cotton Pickers). Died 1965

Sep

7

  • Joan Cross born (London) English soprano singer, opera producer. Died 1993

11

  • Hubert Parry’s Thanksgiving Te Deum for chorus and orchestra premiered in Hereford

12

  • Alger ‘Texas’ Alexander born (Jewett, TX) American blues singer. Died 1954

13

  • Samuel Coleridge-Taylor’s The Soul’s Expression for choir and orchestra premiered in London, lib. E.B. Browning

20

  • Uuno Klami born (Virolahti, Finland) Finnish composer. Died 1961

28

  • Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov’s opera Asya premiered in Moscow

Mikhail Ippolitov-Ivanov 1859-1935

Oct

1

  • Claude Terrasse’s opera La petite femme de Loth premiered in Paris

3

  • Edward Elgar’s oratorio The Dream of Gerontius op.38 for choir and orchestra premiered in Birmingham, lib. J.H. Newman

4

  • Władysław Żeleński’s opera Janek premiered in Lvov

9

  • Elmer Snowden born (Baltimore, MD) American jazz banjo player, guitarist, bandleader (Washingtonians). Died 1973
  • Heinrich von Herzogenberg (57) dies

10

  • Mississippi Joe Callicott born (Nesbit, MS) American blues singer, guitarist, songwriter. Died 1969

15

  • Zdenek Fibich (49) dies
  • Paul Lincke’s operetta Fräulein Loreley premiered in Berlin

18

  • Sarah Makem born (Keady, Ireland) Irish folk singer. Mother of Tommy Makem (1932-2007). Died 1983

20

  • Jean Sibelius’s Snöfrid for speaker, chorus and orchestra premiered in Helsinki

24

  • Joe Watkins born (New Orleans, LA) American jazz drummer (George Lewis). Died 1969

27

  • Karl Millöcker (58) dies

Paul Lincke 1866-1946

Nov

3

  • Nikolay Rimsky-Korsakov’s opera Skazka o Tsare Saltane, o sïne yego slavnom i moguchem bogatïre knyaze Gvidone Saltanoviche i o prekrasnoy Tsarevne Lebedi [The Tale of Tsar Saltan, of his Son the Renowned and Mighty Bogatïr Prince Guidon Saltanovich, and of the Beautiful Swan Princess] premiered in Moscow, lib. V.N. Bel′sky

9

  • Zdenek Fibich’s opera Pád Arkuna premiered in Prague

8

  • André Messager’s ballet Une aventure de la guimard premiered in Paris

10

  • Ruggero Leoncavallo’s opera Zazà premiered in Milan, lib. Leoncavallo

14

  • Aaron Copland born (Brooklyn, NY) American composer, pianist, conductor. Died 1990
  • Adolf Pollitzer (68) dies

16

  • Hubert Parry’s incidental music for Aeschylus’s play Agamemnon premiered in Cambridge

22

  • Arthur Sullivan (58) dies of a heart attack

25

  • Arthur Schwartz born (New York, NY) American popular songwriter, film producer. Died 1984

27

  • Edward Elgar’s Sérénade lyrique for orchestra premiered in London

30

  • Carl Nielsen’s A Cantata for the Lorens Frølich Festival premiered in Copenhagen

unk

  • Aleksandr Scriabin’s Symphony no.1 premiered in St Petersburg

Dec

6

  • Aleksandr Scriabin’s Piano Sonata no.3 op.23 premiered in Paris

8

  • Jules Massenet’s incidental music for Racine’s play Phèdre premiered in Paris

11

  • Max Reger’s Sonata for Violin and Piano no.3 op.41 premiered in Munich

17

  • Lucijan Marija Škerjanc born (Graz) Slovenian composer, conductor, multi-instrumentalist, teacher. Died 1973

20

  • Alan Bush born (London) English composer, pianist. Died 1995

26

  • Enrico Caruso makes his first appearance at La Scala, Milan, in Giacomo Puccini’s opera La Boheme

Alexander Scriabin 1872-1915

date unknown

  • Emry Arthur born (Wayne County, KY) American country singer, songwriter, guitarist. Died 1966
  • The Rabbit’s Foot Company minstrel and variety troupe established by Pat Chappelle
  • Cyril Scott’s Symphony No.1 premiered in Darmstadt

songs published

A Bird in a Gilded Cage (Arthur J. Lamb, Harry Von Tilzer); Lift Ev’ry Voice And Sing (James Weldon Johnson, J. Rosamond Johnson


 

  • the singer Marthe Bréga. Career: Practiced law briefly, then music director for Pleyela Records, 1925, and music director for Pathé-Natan Studios, 1930–35; also composed music for orchestra and for stage works. Died: In Azerailles, 19 June 1940
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  • the end @ copyright 2012

The Sample Of dr Iwan E-book In CD-rom”The Thailand History Collections” Ayutthaya Period

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The Thailand History collections

 Ayutthaya Period

King Naresuan Ayutthaya

By

Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors and Who have work related with Thailand

Copyright @ 2012 

 

This E-Book dedicated to My son Anton jimmy suwandy because he work at Toyota Marketing (TAM) in Indonesia and the center of Asean TAM  at Thailand.

Preface

I have visit Thiland Three times, first in 1993 with my wifeas tourist , second in 19976with the Tim from my work for comperative study at The Thailand national Police Hospital with Mr Suryanatha(in memoriam) and dr Binsar Simorangkir Obstetry & gynaecology, and the Last in 2008 during my adventured to South East asia Thailand,Cambodge,Ho Chi Minh City,Hanoi and South china Nanning in other to get the the historic collections.

I have written avout Vietnamese History collections, and now I write about The Thailand history collections , Especially After I Found some artifact of celadon  and blue and white ceramic In Indonesia related to the Thailand ancient ceramic si sichanalai . ,  

 I met the difficulty in identification the source of that celadon artifact because near same in colour and design

 especially the incised decoration of the imperial celadon from China during sung dynasty, Yuan dynasty and early ming dynasty.

The Qing dynasty and Korean celadon more common and easty to identification due to the typical colour nad desaign  will not included  in this study.

The same colour and decorations of the early china celadon  with The Royal high quality Thailand celadon   during Sincanalai, sukhotai and sawankhalok era and from Vietnam during anamis era  made me difficult to identification 

After study from literature especially the report of Marine Archeologist from the shipwreck ceramic which found in Asean and the sample from celadon ceramic auction in the world, I have succeeded to open the mistery.

The late Ayutthaya ceramic easy to identification due to the multicolour and special design from bancharong, In Indonesia many found at Aceh province they call Aceh Flower Ceramic(kembang aceH0 look the picture below

Bencharong pottery, late Ayutthaya period (1350-1767) (ceramic)Bencharong pottery, late Ayutthaya period (1350-1767) (ceramic)

Credit: Bencharong pottery, late Ayutthaya period (1350-1767) (ceramic), Chinese School / Private Collection / Photo © Luca Tettoni / The Bridgeman Art Library

In 1989 I found  In West sumatra Indonesia the ayotthaya bullet coins at the gold shop whic used by the native minangkabau as the “Kacing” look the picture below

 During this study I found some information about the Thai Land History, and  I write the history based on this short history ,divide dinto several part.

Now You can read this private E-Book in CD-rom Edition part

The Thailand During Ayuthada History collections

This study still many lack and not complete that is why more info and correction ,also suggestion still need.

Jakarta October 2012

 Dr Iwan Suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 INTRODUCTION

 

Thailand’s Shorth History

 

Prehistoric Time

There has been humans in the South-East Asia region for tens of thousands years. Early, they got their food from hunting and fishing and later on they also became farmers and started to grow rice more than 5000 years ago. Also, one of the first bronze age cultures in the world, was found here.

The Dvaravati and Mon period

Theravada Buddhist missionaries came from India to the region in the 2nd century and the Mon and Dvaravati period was a loose collection of Indian city states. It was flourishing until about the 9th century but lasted in a few areas until the 11th or 12th century.

The Khmer Period

From about the 8th century the Khmer’s’ started to expand their territory around the capital of Angkor into Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and South China and finally they dominated the region. Lopburi became the Khmer’s head quarter in present Thailand. The influence of Khmer and language, culture, architecture and art was also effecting the whole region at this time. In the 13th century the Khmer domination was weakened from various reasons, such as; bad economy, mutual conflicts and malaria, plague and other diseases.

 

 

The Sukhothai Period

The Thais became the largest population in the area after the decline of the Khmer empire. Even if Thai states, such as Lanna, existed in the North, Sukhothai is often considered as the first Thai kingdom. The Sukhothai kingdom was founded in 1238 and Intradit became the first king. Forty years later, Ramkhamhaeng became the third king in this era, and he is often considered as one of the most important figures in the Thai history. The Theravada Buddhism became the state religion and Ramkhamheang was the inventor of the Thai written language. The Sukhothai culture was still flourishing and expanded it’s territory. It lasted until 1378.

The Ayutthaya Period

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by U Thong or king Ramathibodi as his name was after he ascended the throne. Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378. Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand. But in 1568/69 Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time. The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

 

The Thonburi Period

The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers. He became the king in 1768 and Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam. Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country. Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies. When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough. Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam.

The Chakri Dynasty (Rattanakosin)

The kings of the Chakri dynasty in Thailand:

King Buddha Yodfa Chulalok (Rama I) 1782-1809

Also known as Chao Phraya Chakri. He continued to defend the country against the Burmese troops and he also moved the capital city across the Chao Praya river. The name of the town became:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit

The world’s longest place name! It is popular called Krung Thep or The City of Angels. For most foreigners the town is known as Bangkok.

 

 

King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) 1809-1824

Also known as prince Issarasundhorn or Phuttaloetla Nabhalai and the son of Rama I. He expanded Thailand’s territory and strengthened it’s position in the area. Also the Englishmen, the Frenchmen and the Dutchmen strengthened their position in the South-East Asia during his regency and they colonized many of the countries around Thailand. Rama II became father of 73 children during his lifetime! (38 boys and 35 girls)

King Nangklao (Rama III) 1824-1851

Also known as Jessadabodindra. The oldest son of king Rama II. He increased the trade between Siam and China, defended Thailand successfully against Vietnamese troops and conquered parts of Cambodia and almost all Laos. Rama III also built and restored some of the most important temples in Thailand.

King Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-1868

Also known as Vajirayana. The son of Rama II. Many Thais and historians consider him to be on of the most significant kings of the Chakri dynasty. He prevented England and France from colonizing Siam, with lowered import and export duties. King Mongkut spoke English almost fluently. Thailand was one of few countries in the region that was not colonized by an European state. This is still a fact which makes Thai people proud. King Mongkut got infected by malaria and died in October 1868.

 

 

 

 

 

Read more info about Thailand

 

Thailand – The Land of Smiles


-  Thai name: Prathet Thai (
ประเทศไทย)
-  Area: 514,000 km2
-  Population: About 65,000,000
-  Location: South-East Asia
-  Capital city: Krung Thep (Bangkok)
-  Provinces: 76
-  Clim
ate: Tropical
-  Currency: Baht (divided into 100 satang)
-  Calling code: +66
-  National Anthem: Phleng Chat

 

Flag of Thailand:

 

Thailand’s History


Prehistoric Time
There has been humans in the South-East Asia region for tens of thousands years. Early, they got their food from hunting and fishing and later on they also became farmers and started to grow rice more than 5000 years ago. Also, one of the first bronze age cultures in the world, was found here.

The Dvaravati and Mon period
Theravada Buddhist missionaries came from India to the region in the 2nd century and the Mon and Dvaravati period was a loose collection of Indian city states. It was flourishing until about the 9th century but lasted in a few areas until the 11th or 12th century.

 


The Khmer Period
From about the 8th century the Khmer’s’ started to expand their territory around the capital of Angkor into Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and South China and finally they dominated the region. Lopburi became the Khmer’s head quarter in present Thailand. The influence of Khmer and language, culture, architecture and art was also effecting the whole region at this time. In the 13th century the Khmer domination was weakened from various reasons, such as; bad economy, mutual conflicts and malaria, plague and other diseases.

The Sukhothai Period
The Thais became the largest population in the area after the decline of the Khmer empire. Even if Thai states, such as Lanna, existed in the North, Sukhothai is often considered as the first Thai kingdom. The Sukhothai kingdom was founded in 1238 and Intradit became the first king. Forty years later, Ramkhamhaeng became the third king in this era, and he is often considered as one of the most important figures in the Thai history. The Theravada Buddhism became the state religion and Ramkhamheang was the inventor of the Thai written language. The Sukhothai culture was still flourishing and expanded it’s territory. It lasted until 1378.

The Ayutthaya Period
A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by U Thong or king Ramathibodi as his name was after he ascended the throne. Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378. Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand. But in 1568/69 Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time. The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 


The Thonburi Period
The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers. He became the king in 1768 and Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam. Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country. Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies. When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough. Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam.

The Chakri Dynasty (Rattanakosin)
The kings of the Chakri dynasty in Thailand:

King Buddha Yodfa Chulalok (Rama I) 1782-1809
Also known as Chao Phraya Chakri. He continued to defend the country against the Burmese troops and he also moved the capital city across the Chao Praya river. The name of the town became:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit

The world’s longest place name! It is popular called Krung Thep or The City of Angels. For most foreigners the town is known as Bangkok.

King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) 1809-1824
Also known as prince Issarasundhorn or Phuttaloetla Nabhalai and the son of Rama I. He expanded Thailand’s territory and strengthened it’s position in the area. Also the Englishmen, the Frenchmen and the Dutchmen strengthened their position in the South-East Asia during his regency and they colonized many of the countries around Thailand. Rama II became father of 73 children during his lifetime! (38 boys and 35 girls)

King Nangklao (Rama III) 1824-1851
Also known as Jessadabodindra. The oldest son of king Rama II. He increased the trade between Siam and China, defended Thailand successfully against Vietnamese troops and conquered parts of Cambodia and almost all Laos. Rama III also built and restored some of the most important temples in Thailand.

King Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-1868
Also known as Vajirayana. The son of Rama II. Many Thais and historians consider him to be on of the most significant kings of the Chakri dynasty. He prevented England and France from colonizing Siam, with lowered import and export duties. King Mongkut spoke English almost fluently. Thailand was one of few countries in the region that was not colonized by an European state. This is still a fact which makes Thai people proud. King Mongkut got infected by malaria and died in October 1868.
King Chulalongkorn (Rama V) 1868-1910
King Chulalongkorn was the oldest son of Rama IV. He is also considered as one of the most significant rulers in Thailand/Siam. He made several journeys in the world, first to Asiatic countries like Singapore, Indonesia and India and then to Europe, where he visited Sweden and Russia for example. King Chulalongkorn abolished slavery in Siam and started the work with the extensive railway system you find in Thailand today. In many Thai businesses, shops and restaurants you will find the portrait of King Chulalongkorn as respect for this regent and his highly appreciated deeds.

King Vajiravudh (Rama VI) 1910-1925
Rama VI was the son of King Chulalongkorn and Queen Sripatcharinthara. He partly got his education at University of Oxford in England. He continued his father’s work, to modernize Siam. Under the First World War, Thailand supported England and the Allied Powers. Unfortunately, Siam experienced an economic crisis under the 1920′s and some people was not satisfied with the progress of Siam. A number of young officers planned a Coup d’état against the King. The coup failed and the young soldiers were arrested. King Rama VI introduced the obligation of public education and he also founded the famous Chulalongkorn University, named after his father. He was also a highly recognized author and translator.

King Prajadhipok (Rama VII) 1925-1935
Known as Ratchakal Ti Jed (seventh regent) among the Thai people. He partly got his education at Woolwich Military Academy and Eton College in England. He was inspired by the democratic system with parliament in England, but constitutional monarchy was not introduced before in 1932 after a non-bloody coup. The People’s Party or Khana Ratsadorn (with the famous Thai politician Pridi Phanomyong in a leading role) took a temporary control of one of the Royal Palaces in Bangkok. The first elections were held in November 1933. But this was also the start of a sixty year period, when the military, more or less, controlled Thailand. King Prajadhipok abdicate at March 2, 1935. He moved permanently to England and lived there until he passed away in 1941.

King Ananda Mahidol (Rama VIII) 1935-1946
He was born in Heidelberg, Germany in 1925. When his predecessor abdicated, Ananda Mahidol succeed his uncle. But as he was a young student, three “temporary” regents was chosen. Ten years later, King Ananda Mahidol moved permanently to Thailand, and instantly he won the Thai people’s respect. But on July 9, 1946, he was found dead in his bed with a deadly shot wound. His brother; Bhumibol Adulyadej succeed him.

King Bhumibol Adulyadej (Rama IX) 1946-
He was born in Massachusetts, USA, on the December 5, 1927 and was known as Phra Worawongse Ther Phra Ong Chao Bhumibol Adulyadej. He studied science on the University of Lausanne in Switzerland and when his brother passed away, Bhumibol Adulyadej succeed him. He chosen to return to Switzerland first to finish his studies, focusing on politics and law, because of his changed future.

 

In 1949, Siam officially changed it’s name to Thailand and in Paris, the young King met Mom Rajawongse Sirikit Kitiyakara (later HM Queen Sirikit), daughter of Thailand’s ambassador in France.

They got married on the April 28, 1950, only a week before his coronation on the May 5, 1950. King Bhumibol Adulyadej is loved by the Thai people; poor or rich, young or old doesn’t matter. All Thais has a true high respect for their king. He has in a clam and objective way talked to the military and the people when disturbances have occurred in the country. He is a supporter of democracy and two separate examples can illustrate this; the disturbances in Bangkok 1973 and 1992.

In 1973 a large number of people gathered in the Thammasat University and protested against a weakened democracy in Thailand. The military was mobilized to stop this revolt, but King Bhumibol Adulyadej prevented the confrontation.

In May 1992 the military used live ammunition against demonstrators and many were killed (This occurrence was later known as “Black May”). The King then summoned the prime minister General Suchinda Kraprayoon, and the leader of the demonstrators; Chamlong Srimuang for a meeting, broadcast live on TV. These men crawled on their knees up to the king, who told them his opinion.

Shortly later, Suchinda resigned as Prime Minister and a democratic election was held. After this, no military coup has occurred in Thailand until 2006, when the prime minister Thaksin Shinawatra was removed from office in a Coup d’état.

King Bhumibol Adulyadej is also the initiator of a numerous of projects that has improved the living conditions for many of the Thais, as the farmers etc. He is also a skilled jazz musician, photographer and translator.

Remember, if you are visiting Thailand, that any criticism against the monarchy will probably be considered as an serious insult by the Thai people. This is easy to understand if you consider King Bhumibol Adulyadejs contributions to Thailand and it’s people.

The Climate in Thailand


The climate is tropical, warm and often humid. The temperature is normally about 30 Degrees Celsius in the daytime and about 25°C in the nighttime. However in the Northern parts of the country, the temperature can go down to 10°C (!) or in exceptional cases 0°C in the nighttime, during the chilly season.

In Southern Thailand, temperatures below 20 degrees are rare, even at night time. Instead, night temperatures between 25-30 degrees are common in the South. Therefore it’s nice to have a room with air conditioning or a proper functioning fan so the sleep is not disturbed by the heat

 


The Climate in Different Regions

Thailand’s weather is influenced by the monsoon period that creates different seasons in the northern, central and the southern parts of the country. The climate is subtropical and normal temperature is between 26-34 degrees Celsius during day time.

Northern Thailand

The climate in northern Thailand is generally a little cooler than in other regions. Light clothing is recommended year-round during daytime. Between December and March, temperatures are high in the daytime, but it can be much colder at night, so we recommend you to be prepared with some warm cloths when the temperature drops. Very little rain falls during this time.

During the rain season, which occurs between May and September, there can be heavy rainfalls, even if the temperature remains rather high.

We recommended you to buy an umbrella, if you don’t own one already, during this period. The humidity is high throughout the year except in the most mountainous regions.

The best time to visit northern Thailand is between December and May, when it is not raining that much


Central Thailand

Central Thailand covers a massive land area and the climate can be very different. Light clothing is recommended here as well, especially as the humidity is still pretty high throughout the year. Between December and March, the weather is often very hot during the day, but in the evening the temperature drops. Very little rain normally falls during March and April, while in May you could see an increase, which is the start of the rainy season. This monsoon normally starts in June and remains until October, with many rather heavy rainfalls, as a result, but anyhow relatively high temperatures.

The best time to visit Central Thailand is generally between December and May, but remember that May can be little rainy.


Southern Thailand – the West Coast

The climate in southern Thailand is affected by the monsoon, but it is still relatively hot and humid throughout the year. Light clothing is recommended all year and an umbrella is almost a must during the “wet months”.

 

During the rain season, which normally occurs between May and October, it may be ok to visit the west coast, because the rain can be relatively short-lived, with a lot of sunshine in between the showers. But September and October tend to exhibit greater rainfall and less sunny periods.

The best and most popular period to visit the West Coast is between November to April, when there normally are only a few days with rain.

 


Southern Thailand – The East Coast

The rainy season starts in September and decline in mid-November, or in early December. Rain showers during the monsoon may be from very short-lived up to days.

The best time to visit Thailand’s east coast is between December to August, when the weather usually is rather fine, with a lot of sunshine and not that much rain.

Thai Food Culture

The food in Thailand means a lot fore the people. The everyday social gatherings almost always include some type of food.

Usually it´s not so much food on every plate but instead you have many different meals to choose from. To eat six-seven meals a day is not unusual.

According to modern nutrition the Thai way to eat is the best fore your body. Normally Thai people eat with fork and spoon, but if you eat a dish with noodles you use chop sticks. Like Thailand’s language and culture, the Thai cooking is divided in to four main regions in the country: The northern part, the northeast (Isan and Isaan) the central parts and the south.

 A complete meal often includes the five different tastes: Sweet, Sour, salt, bitter and the famous, spicy (phet). Access to different types of food and influences from the neighboring country’s, has given the food in the respective regions its special mark:


North Thailand

The food culture in northern Thailand has bin influenced by Burmese and south chinese food traditions. The climate of the region has made the access of vegetables and herbs is satisfying. Moderate use of spices and the generous use of lime and garlic, has become one of the distinguishing features of northern art of cooking.

Examples of food from the north:

-  Khao Soi – Egg Noodles with curry
-  Nam Phrik Ong – Boiled pork with chili and toma

Northeast Thailand

Isan’s agriculture area is competing with the south of have the most spicy food in the country.

The famous chile and lime favored papaya salad often counts like Isan’s national dish. Worth mention is that in this region people eat things that can look strange fore people who come from the western world.

 A few examples are fried insects and dry frogs, this kind of food you eat like a snack. But food like snake and field rat functions as a main dish in some parts of the region. Anyhow, there is a lot of food that you can it even if you are a fastidious farang. Of course has the poverty played a big part in the food tradition in this region.

Examples of food from the northeast:

-  Khao Niaow – Sticky rice that you eat with your hands and dip in different sauces and food.
-  Som Tam – Very spicy papaya salad
-  Gai Naeng – Grilled chicken often marinade in fish sauce, lemon grass, garlic and pepper.

 

Central Thailand

The central parts of the country (included Bangkok) have strong Chinese and Indian influences in there food. Rice is often the base in Thai cooking (often describe as “kin khao” which means “eat rice”) and the central part of the country has made it self famous by producing the best rice in the country. The typical white jasmine rice is eaten as much as its exported abroad. One of the most typical dishes, Tom Yum Kung, has its origin in this parts of the country.
Examples of food from the central part:

-  Red Curry, Green Curry and Panang Curry
-  Tom Yum Kung – Thailand’s national dish. Its a soup with fresh shrimps, lemon grass etc.

 


Southern Thailand

The southern´s nearness to the ocean, as well as the nearness to Malaysia, has made fish, seafood and curries typical dish here. The generous use of chili do to food often serves very spicy. One of the most famous thai dishes is chicken satay or Gai Satay, has its origin in the southern parts of the country.

-  Masaman Curry – A creamy soup with coconut milk, potato and chicken or other kind of meat.
-  Yellow Curry – Different kind of dishes with yellow curry.

Common Menu

Even is every region and province has it’s typical style, is there a couple of dishes and food who is the same in all of the country. Beef, pork and chicken is often served in small pieces. Rice can be served in different forms: boiled, fried, sticky and in soup, and the soup is often the base in a Thai breakfast.

Together with the rice, noodles is the most common food in Thailand. As the rice, noodles is often served fried.

Many of the Thai dishes is flavored with curry. Red, green, yellow and panang is the most common curries in Thailand.

 A variation of filled omelet is often served as a main course, while a simplified version only made with egg and some times onion is served on the side. In Thailand they eat a lot of fruit.

If it something that the Thai people don’t have a lack of is vitamins and antioxidants. Small stands is often selling fresh fruit with sugar, salt and a chili mix. To the food you often drink water. Either on bottle or boiled (and then cold of) water in a jug. Even beer, soda or soda water is common drinks.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Ayutthaya Period History Collections

Ayutthaya Kingdom

 

1351

The Ayutthaya Period

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by

 

 U Thong or king Ramathibodi

as his name was after he ascended the throne.

 

 

Kingdom of Ayutthaya
อาณาจักรอยุธยา


 

1350–1767

   

Ensign

Seal

 

Map of Southeast Asia in the 1400′s:
Blue Violet: Ayutthaya Kingdom
Dark Green:
Lan Xang
Purple:
Lanna
Orange:
Sukhothai Kingdom
Red:
Khmer Empire
Yellow:
Champa
Blue:
Dai Viet

Capital

Ayutthaya

Language(s)

Thai

Religion

Theravada Buddhism, Hinduism, Roman Catholicism, Islam

Government

Monarchy

King

- 1350–69

Ramathibodi I

- 1590–1605

Naresuan

- 1656–88

Narai

- 1758–67

Boromaracha V

Legislature

Chatu Sadombh

Historical era

Middle Ages & Renaissance

- King Ramathibodi I ascends the throne in Ayutthaya

1350

- Personal union with Sukhothai kingdom

1468

- Vassal of Burma

1564, 1569

- Independence from Burma

1584

- End of Sukhothai Dynasty

1629

Fall of Ayutthaya

1767

 

 

This article contains Thai text. Without proper rendering support, you may see question marks, boxes, or other symbols instead of Thai script.

 

History of Thailand

 

Prehistory

Early history

Initial states[show]

Legendary
Suvarnabhumi
Central Thailand
Dvaravati
Lavo
Supannabhum
Northern Thailand
Singhanavati
Ngoenyang
Hariphunchai
Southern Thailand
Pan Pan
Raktamaritika
Langkasuka
Srivijaya
Tambralinga
Nakhon Si Thammarat
Sultanate of Pattani
Kedah Sultanate

History

Sukhothai Kingdom
Ayutthaya Kingdom
Thonburi Kingdom
Rattanakosin Kingdom
Military period
Democratic period

Regional history[show]

Isan
Lanna
Phitsanulok
Bangkok

Related topics[show]

Peopling of Thailand
Constitutional history
Military history
Economic history

 

 

Ayutthaya (Thai: อาณาจักรอยุธยา, RTGS: Anachak Ayutthaya, also Ayudhya, [ʔaːnaːtɕ͡àk ʔajúttʰajaː]) was a Siamese kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. Ayutthaya was friendly towards foreign traders, including the Chinese, Vietnamese (Annamese), Indians, Japanese and Persians, and later the Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch and French, permitting them to set up villages outside the walls of the capital, also called Ayutthaya.

 In the sixteenth century, it was described by foreign traders as one of the biggest and wealthiest cities in the East. The court of King Narai (1656–88) had strong links with that of King Louis XIV of France, whose ambassadors compared the city in size and wealth to Paris.

By 1550,

the kingdom’s vassals included some city-states in the Malay Peninsula, Sukhothai, and parts of Cambodia.[1]

In foreign accounts, Ayutthaya was called Siam, but many sources say the people of Ayutthaya called themselves Tai, and their kingdom Krung Tai, ‘Tai Kingdom’.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Contents

 [hide

[edit] Historical overview

[edit] Origins

 

 

The immense 19 meter high seated gold covered Buddha in Wat Phanan Choeng, the latter from 1324, pre-dates the founding of the city

 

Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai

became a vassal state of Ayutthaya

in 1378.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ayutthaya at its greatest extent in 1605, during the reign of Naresuan

According to the most widely accepted version of its origin, the Siamese state based at Ayutthaya in the valley of the Chao Phraya River rose from the earlier, nearby kingdoms of Lavo (at that time still under the Khmer control) and Suphannaphoom (Suvarnabhumi).

One source says that, in the mid-fourteenth century, due to the threat of an epidemic, King U Thong moved his court south into the rich floodplain of the Chao Phraya on an island surrounded by rivers, which was the former seaport city of Ayothaya, or Ayothaya Si Raam Thep Nakhon, the Angelic City of Sri Rama. The new city was known as Ayothaya, or Krung Thep Dvaravadi Si Ayothaya. Later it became widely known as Ayutthaya, the Invincible City.[2]

 

Other sources say that King Uthong was a rich merchant of Chinese origin from Phetchaburi, a coastal city in the south, who moved to seek fortune in Ayothaya city. The name of the city indicates the influence of Hinduism in the region. It is believed that this city is associated with the Thai national epic Ramakien, which is a southeastern version of Hindu epic Ramayana.

[edit] Conquests and expansion

By the end of the century,

Ayutthaya was regarded as the strongest power in mainland Southeast Asia. Ayutthaya began its hegemony by conquering northern kingdoms and city-states like Sukhothai, Kamphaeng Phet and Phitsanuloke.

Before the end of the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya launched attacks on Angkor, the classical great power of the region. Angkor’s influence eventually faded from the Chao Phraya River Plain while Ayutthaya became a new great power.

However, the kingdom of Ayutthaya was not a unified state but rather a patchwork of self-governing principalities and tributary provinces owing allegiance to the king of Ayutthaya under The Circle of Power, or the mandala system, as some scholars suggested .[3] These principalities might be ruled by members of the royal family of Ayutthaya, or by local rulers who had their own independent armies, having a duty to assist the capital when war or invasion occurred. However, it was evident that from time to time local revolts, led by local princes or kings, took place. Ayutthaya had to suppress them.

Due to the lack of succession law and a strong concept of meritocracy, whenever the succession was in dispute, princely governors or powerful dignitaries claiming their merit gathered their forces and moved on the capital to press their claims, culminating in several bloody coups.[4]

 

 

1686 French Map of Siam

From the fifteenth century, Ayutthaya showed an interest in the Malay Peninsula, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya launched several abortive conquests on Malacca. Due to the military support of Ming China, Malacca was diplomatically and economically fortified.

 In the early fifteenth century

 the Ming Admiral Zheng He had established one of his bases of operation in the port city, so the Chinese could not afford to lose such a strategic position to the Siamese.

 Under this protection, Malacca flourished into one of Ayutthaya’s great foes, until its conquest in 1511 by the Portuguese.[5]

Starting in the middle of 16th century,

 the kingdom came under repeated attacks by the Toungoo Dynasty of Burma.

  • Naresuan was born in Phitsanulok City on 25 April 1555 and was the son of a future King of Ayutthaya, King Sanpet 1 [ 1569 ]. At the time Phisanulok was the capital city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom.
  • When Naresuan was 7 the Burmese who then controlled Ayutthaya having conquered it in war, took Naresuan as a captive to Pegu Burma [ Myanmar ], to ensure his father, then a prince, would be compliant to the Burmese. King Bayinnaung, the Burmese King, raised him with the status of a prince and he was trained in the Burmese palace in the martial arts, literature and war strategies. Nine years later at the age of 16 he was swapped as a prisoner with his sister.
  • The Burmese began the hostilities with an invasion in 1548 but failed. The second Burmese invasion led by King Bayinnaung forced King Maha Chakkraphat to surrender

 in 1564.

The royal family was taken to Pegu, with the king’s eldest son Mahinthrathirat installed as the vassal king.[6][7]

In 1568,

Mahinthrathirat revolted when his father managed to return back from Pegu as a monk.

 The ensuing third invasion captured Ayutthaya

in 1569,

 and Bayinnaung made Maha Thammarachathirat vassal king.[7]

King Naresuan The Great of Ayutthaya

King Naresuan Ayutthaya
King Naresuan Portrait.
  • In 1571 his father as King of Ayutthaya appointed him as Governor of Phitsanulok.
  • In 1584 The Kingdom of Ayutthaya rejected its vassal status to the Burmese and soon was invaded again by the Burmese. Naresuan fought the Burmese and captured Lan Na then another vassel Kingdom of the Burmese.
  • In 1590 Naresuan replaced his father who then died. In 1591 the Burmese invaded yet again only to cancel their invasion upon the dual of their Prince Minchit Sra who was killed by King Naresuan is a personal dual on elephants at the battle of Nong Sarai [ now Suphanburi ].
  • In 1593 King Naresuan invaded the Khmer Kingdom in what is now Cambodia.
  • Naresuan was also significant in assisting the Shan [ Tai  ] gain independence for the Shan State in Burma. He was a friend of the Shan Prince, Prince Hsenwi, when both were prisoners in Pegu. The Shan say his ashes are buried in a stupa at Mongton, Myanmar.


King Naresuan enters an abandoned Pegu

in 1600,

mural painting by Phraya Anusatchitrakon, Wat Suwandararam, Ayutthaya.

After Bayinnaung’s death in 1581,

 

Maha Thammarachathirat proclaimed Ayutthaya’s independence

 in 1584.

 

 

Maha Thammarachathirat

 

 

1584-1591

 

The Siamese fought off repeated Burmese invasions (1584–1593),

 

 

 

capped by

 

an elephant duel between

 

 King Naresuan

And

 

 Burmese heir-apparent Mingyi Swa

 in 1593

 

in which Naresuan famously slew Mingyi Swa (observed 18 January as Royal Thai Armed Forces day).

The Siamese went on an offensive,

 

capturing the entire Tenasserim coast up to Martaban in 1595

 

 

look the map

 

and

 

Lan Na(Khmer temple) in 1602.

 Naresuan even invaded mainland Burma up to

Toungoo in 1600 but was driven back.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Toungoo Map

Read more  Toungou Kingdom

First Toungoo Empire (1510–1599)

 

Bayinnaung’s Empire in 1580

Starting in the 1480s, Ava faced constant internal rebellions and external attacks from the Shan States, and began to disintegrate. In 1510, Toungoo, located in the remote southeastern corner of the Ava kingdom, also declared independence.[17] When the Confederation of Shan States conquered Ava in 1527, many Burmans fled southeast to Toungoo, the only kingdom remaining under Burman rule, and one surrounded by larger hostile kingdoms.

Toungoo, led by its ambitious king Tabinshwehti and his deputy Gen. Bayinnaung, would go on to reunify the petty kingdoms that had existed since the fall of the Pagan Empire, and found the largest empire in the history of Southeast Asia. First, the upstart kingdom defeated a more powerful Hanthawaddy in the Toungoo–Hanthawaddy War (1535–1541).

Tabinshwehti moved the capital to newly captured Pegu in 1539. Toungoo expanded its authority up to Pagan in 1544 but failed to conquer Arakan in 1546–1547 and Siam in 1548. Tabinshwehti’s successor Bayinnaung continued the policy of expansion, conquering Ava in 1555, nearer Shan states (1557), Lan Na (1558), Manipur (1560), Farther/Trans-Salween Shan states (1562–1563), Siam (1564, 1569), and Lan Xang (1574), and bringing much of western and central mainland Southeast Asia under his rule.

Bayinnaung put in place a lasting administrative system that reduced the power of hereditary Shan chiefs, and brought Shan customs in line with low-land norms.[18] But he could not replicate an effective administrative system everywhere in his far flung empire. His empire was a loose collection of former sovereign kingdoms, whose kings were loyal to him as the Cakkavatti (စကြဝတေးမင်း, [sɛʔtɕà wədé mɪ́ɴ]; Universal Ruler), not the kingdom of Toungoo.

The overextended empire unraveled soon after Bayinnaung’s death in 1581. Siam declared independence in 1584 and went to war with Burma until 1605.

 By 1593,

the kingdom had lost its possessions in Siam, Lang Xang and Manipur.

 By 1597,

 all internal regions, including the city of Toungoo, the erstwhile home of the dynasty, had revolted.

 In 1599,

the Arakanese forces aided by Portuguese mercenaries, and in alliance with the rebellious Toungoo forces, sacked Pegu. The country fell into chaos, with each region claiming a king. Portuguese mercenary Filipe de Brito e Nicote promptly rebelled against his Arakanese masters, and established Goa-backed Portuguese rule at Thanlyin in 1603.

Restored Toungoo Kingdom (Nyaungyan Restoration) (1599–1752)

 

 

Restored Toungoo or Nyaungyan Dynasty c. 1650

While the interregnum that followed the fall of Pagan Empire lasted over 250 years (1287–1555), that following the fall of First Toungoo was relatively short-lived.

 One of Bayinnaung’s sons, Nyaungyan, immediately began the reunification effort, successfully restoring central authority over Upper Burma and nearer Shan states by 1606.

 His successor Anaukpetlun defeated the Portuguese at Thanlyin in 1613; recovered the upper Tenasserim coast to Tavoy and Lan Na from the Siamese by 1614; and the trans-Salween Shan states (Kengtung and Sipsongpanna) in 1622–1626.

 

His brother Thalun rebuilt the war torn country. He ordered the first ever census in Burmese history in 1635, which showed that the kingdom about two million people.

By 1650,

the three able kings–Nyaungyan, Anaukpetlun and Thalun–had successfully rebuilt a smaller but far more manageable kingdom.

More importantly, the new dynasty proceeded to create a legal and political system whose basic features would continue under the Konbaung dynasty well into the 19th century.

The crown completely replaced the hereditary chieftainships with appointed governorships in the entire Irrawaddy valley, and greatly reduced the hereditary rights of Shan chiefs. It also reined in the continuous growth of monastic wealth and autonomy, giving a greater tax base. Its trade and secular administrative reforms built a prosperous economy for more than 80 years.[19]

 Except for a few occasional rebellions and an external war—Burma defeated Siam’s attempt to take Lan Na and Martaban in 1662–64—the kingdom was largely at peace for the rest of the 17th century.

The kingdom entered a gradual decline, and the authority of the “palace kings” deteriorated rapidly in the 1720s. From 1724 onwards, the Manipuris began raiding the Upper Chindwin valley.

In 1727,

southern Lan Na (Chiang Mai) successfully revolted, leaving just northern Lan Na (Chiang Saen) under an increasingly nominal Burmese rule. The Manipuri raids intensified in the 1730s, reaching increasingly deeper parts of central Burma. In 1740, the Mon in Lower Burma began a rebellion, and founded the Restored Hanthawaddy Kingdom, and by 1745 controlled much of Lower Burma. The Siamese also moved their authority up the Tenasserim coast by 1752. Hanthawaddy invaded Upper Burma in November 1751, and captured Ava on 23 March 1752, ending the 266-year-old Toungoo dynasty

 

After Naresuan’s death in 1605,

northern Tenasserim and Lan Na

fell back to Burmese control in 1614.[8]

The kingdom’s attempt to take over Lan Na and northern Tenasserim in 1662–1664 failed.[9]

Foreign trade brought Ayutthaya not only luxury items but also new arms and weapons. In the mid-seventeenth century, during King Narai’s reign, Ayutthaya became very prosperous.[10]

The Ayutthaya Kingdom Collections

Ayutthaya Kingdom Ceramic

 

Rangkwien

The ceramics trade was a significant factor in Ayutthaya’s economy. 

Analysis of shipwrecks of vessels that were engaged in the ceramics trade has proved one of the richest sources of information on this aspect of Ayutthaya

 

 

 

 

 

 

 The Southeast Asia Ceramics Museum is developing a digital museum component for its collections, and has shared the images of ceramics with this project

         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         
         

 

 

 

Si-Satchanalai celadon of Turiang

 

 

Turiang:

a 14th century Chinese shipwreck,

 

This article was first published in “Southeast Asia – China Interactions” which was published by the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 2002.

Articles selected by Dr. Geoff Wade with foreword by Wang Gunawu.

 

upsetting Southeast Asian ceramic history

By Sten Sjostrand

Edited: Dr. Geoff Wade

Photographs, sketches, maps and images: Sten Sjostrand

 

Introduction

 

The Turiang is one of several 14-16th century wrecks discovered in the South China Sea by Sten Sjostrand.

 

All carried ceramics and offer new insights into this glorious period of maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics.

 

The Turiang was a Chinese ship with a multinational cargo of Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics, apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

The wreck is tentatively dated to AD 1305-1370. This is one of the earliest shipwrecks yet discovered with Thai export ceramics.

 

The find prompts a reassessment of the relative importance of the two major production centres at Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai. It also proves that almost-identical black underglaze ware was available simultaneously from Sukhothai and Vietnam.

 

 

Turiang’s ceramic significance

 

 

 

The Turiang cargo suggests that:

 

Decorated underglaze ware from Thailand and Vietnam was popular before Chinese blue-and-white

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celadon Chinese celadon guan

 

 

 

 

1.1328 is the latest estimate for the date of first export, to the Middle East, by Liu Xinyuan of the Ceramics Archaeological Research Institute at Jingdezhen in China. Liu Xinyuan, op.cit., 1999.

 

2.Jeremy Green and Rosemary Harper, 1987, op.cit., fig 15.

 

3.Common features of the Turiang and Longquan plates include a bracket-type mouthrim, accented with incised lines which follow their shape on the flattened part of the mouthrim; an inward-slanting footrim, covered with glaze; and wide striations on the interior walls.

 

Dating

 

The Turiang‘s multinational cargo both challenges the chronology of Thai ceramics and presents its own dating puzzle.

 

 One intriguing issue is the absence of blue-and-white porcelain from either China or Vietnam, and the large load of Chinese celadon.

 

Could this wreck be so old that it pre-dates the export of Chinese blue-and-white, now estimated to have started in 1328?(1)

 

Individual dish pictures on the Longquan page of the Nov’01 exhibition.

Longquan celadon’s made in China were fired on tubular supports, identical to those later used at Si-Satchanalai 7. Beta Analytical test report: Beta-130708, June 1999

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

THE “TURIANG ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1370)

Early Signs of China’s Ming Dynasty in Malaysian Waters

 

Among the oldest shipwreck findings in the South China Sea, it was discovered by a Swedish marine archaeologist, Sten Sjostrand on May 1998 about 100 nautcal miles from the nearest land. This ship was found to be from the Ming Dynasty era (CE 1368 – CE 1644). Numerous Sukhotai vases, Sisatchanalai green glazed wares and underglazed fish and flower plates of Thai and Vietnamese origin were found.

These ceramics offered new clues about the maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics. The Turiang was a Chinese ship apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

 

 

Thanks to Sten Sjostrand who discovered the Turiang, we got to know that Thai ceramics was BIG business in South-east Asia.

 

The Turiang (named after the kiln-sites in Thailand from which most of the stoneware was produced) was actually a Chinese ship but had Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics on board. It was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand to Borneo and/or Sulawesi. With over half the cargo making up Thai ceramics, historians began to reassess the importance of the two major production centres of Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai in Thailand.

The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 

 Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

 

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

 

At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

 

 

 

 

Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif.

 

 

 

This wreck was discovered at a depth of 46 meters, 40 nautical miles offshore from Kuantan, Malaysia.

 Four years of excavations were completed in September 1998. The recovered cargo from the Royal Nanhai includes 20,973 pieces of pottery. The largest portion is celedon in various shapes from the Si-Satchanalai, or “Sawankhalok” kilns.

The most unusual thing about this site is that it does not contain any remains of a ship’s structure.

Seven pieces of blue and white pottery from China and Vietnam were also discovered and the style of their painted designs, suggests a date for the wreck of mid 15th century. This date is supported by a carbon – 14 date corresponding to AD 1400 +/- 70 years.

Celadon is a term for ceramics denoting both a type glaze, and a ware of a specific color, also called celadon. Celadon glaze refers to a family of transparent, crackle glazes, produced in a wide variety of colors, generally used on porcelain or white stoneware clay bodies. However, the most famous celadons range in color from a very pale green crackle to deep intense greens, often meant to mimic the green shades of jade.

 By the end of the 14th century, Ayutthaya was regarded as the strongest power in Indochina, but it lacked the manpower to daminate the region.

 Eventually Ayutthaya subdued the territory that had belonged to Sukhothai, and the year after Ramathibodi died, his kingdom was recognized by the emperor of Ming Dynasty as Sukhothai’s rightful successor.

The kingdom of Ayutthaya was a Thai kingdom that existed from 1350 to 1767. King Ramathibodi I (Uthong) founded Ayutthaya as the capital of his kingdom in 1350 and absorbed Sukhothai, 640 km to the north, in 1376. Over the next four centuries the kingdom expanded to become nation of Siam, whose borders were roughly those modern Thailand, except for the north, the Kingdom of Lannathai.

During much of the fifteenth century Ayutthaya’s energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. Ayutthaya was successful with the military support of Ming China and Japan, who wanted to share the wealth of trade at Malacca

 

 

 

 

Ayutthaya Kingdom Coin

 

COIN AYUTTHAYA KINGDOM MONEY 1569-1629 AD. ANCIENT THAILAND TIN VERY RARE FINE

 

1 Fuang Rama I Ayyuthaya Kingdom Coin

 

 

 

 

 

15th CENTURY AYUDHAYA KINGDOM THAILAND 1/4 BAHT BULLET MONEY ELEPHANT SHELL 4 G.

 

 

 

 

Thailand Bullet Money Ayutaya Period set of 3 Conch Mark rare

 

 

 

 

 

Thailand Siam Old Ancient Ayutthaya Kingdom Tin Coin Money, Antique Baht Satang

Here are 3 ancient tin coins,

 from the Ayutthaya Kingdom, circa 16th to 17th century.

Excavated in Thailand. It is design like a flower. Guaranteed Genuine.

.

 

 

 

Genuine Lanna Thai Siam Thailand Silver Tok Money Coin 4 Baht Bride Divorce Wife

 

 

Cowrie shell money and terracotta coins from the Ayutthaya period (shell & terracotta)

 

Bullet coins from Ayutthaya period, Thailand

 

Ayutthaya Kingdom Gold  Collections

 

In the eighteenth century,

Ayutthaya gradually lost control over its provinces. Provincial governors exerted their power independently, and rebellions against the capital began.

In the mid-eighteenth century, Ayutthaya again became ensnared in wars with the Burmese. The first invasion by the Konbaung Dynasty of Burma failed. The second invasion succeeded in sacking the Ayutthaya city and ending the kingdom

in April 1767.

[edit] Kingship of Ayutthaya Kingdom

See also: Monarchy of Thailand

 

 

Ruins of the old city, Ayutthaya, after the Burmese invasion.

The kings of Ayutthaya were absolute monarchs with semi-religious status. Their authority derived from the ideologies of Hinduism and Buddhism as well as from natural leadership.

 The king of Sukhothai was the moral inspiration of the Inscription Number 1 found in Sukhothai, which stated that King Ramkhamhaeng would hear the petition of any subject who rang the bell at the palace gate. The king was thus considered as a father by his people.

At Ayutthaya, however, the paternal aspects of kingship disappeared. The king was considered chakkraphat, the Sanskrit-Pali term for the Chakravartin who through his adherence to the law made all the world revolve around him.[11] According to Hindu tradition, the king is the Avatar of God Vishnu, the Destroyer of Demons, who was born to be the defender of the people. The Buddhist belief in the king is as the Righteous ruler or Dhammaraja, aiming at the well-being of the people, who strictly follows the teaching of the Buddha.

The kings’ official names were reflections of those religions: Hinduism and Buddhism. They were considered as the incarnation of various Hindu gods: Indra, Shiva or Vishnu (Rama). The coronation ceremony was directed by Brahmins as the Hindu god Shiva was “lord of the universe”. However, according to the codes, the king had the ultimate duty as protector of the people and the annihilator of evil.

On the other hand, according to Buddhism‘s influence in place of Hinduism, the king was also believed to be a Bodhisattva or Buddha-like. He followed and respected the Dhamma of the Buddha. One of the most important duties of the king was to build a temple or a Buddha statue as a symbol of prosperity and peace.[11]

For locals, another aspect of the kingship was also the analogy of “The Lord of the Land”, (Phra Chao Phaendin), or He who Rules the Earth. According to the court etiquette, a special language, Rachasap (Sanskrit: Rājāśabda, Royal Language), was used to communicate with or about royalty.[12] In Ayutthaya, the king was said to grant control over land to his subjects, from nobles to commoners, according to the Sakna or Sakdina system[13] codified by King Trailokanat (1448–88). The Sakdina system was similar to, but not the same as feudalism, under which the monarch does not own the land.[14] While there is no concrete evidence that this land management system constituted a formal Palace economy, the French Abbé de Choisy, who came to Ayutthaya in 1685, wrote, “the king has absolute power. He is truly the god of the Siamese: no-one dares to utter his name.” Another 17th-century writer, the Dutchman Jan van Vliet, remarked that the King of Siam was “honoured and worshipped by his subjects second to god.” Laws and orders were issued by the king. For sometimes the king himself was also the highest judge who judged and punished important criminals such as traitors or rebels.[15]

In addition to the Sakdina system, another of the numerous institutional innovations of King Trailokanat was to adopt the position of uparaja, translated as “viceroy” or “prince”, usually held by the king’s senior son or full brother, in an attempt to regularize the succession to the throne—a particularly difficult feat for a polygamous dynasty. In practice, there was inherent conflict between king and uparaja and frequent disputed successions.[16] However, it is evident that the power of the Throne of Ayutthaya had its limit. The hegemony of the Ayutthaya king was always based on his charisma in terms of his age and supporters. Without supporters, bloody coups took place from time to time. The most powerful figures of the capital were always generals, or the Minister of Military Department, Kalahom. During the last century of Ayutthaya, the bloody fighting among princes and generals, aiming at the throne, plagued the court.

[edit] Social and political development

Main article: Mandala (Southeast Asian history)

 

 

Painting of Ayutthaya, ordered by the Dutch East India Company, Amsterdam

 

 

 

The reforms of King Trailok

(r.1448–1488)

placed the king of Ayutthaya at the centre of a highly stratified social and political hierarchy that extended throughout the realm. Despite a lack of evidence, it is believed that in the Ayutthaya Kingdom, the basic unit of social organization was the village community composed of extended family households. Title to land resided with the headman, who held it in the name of the community, although peasant proprietors enjoyed the use of land as long as they cultivated it.[17] The lords gradually became courtiers (อำมาตย์) and tributary rulers of minor cities. The king ultimately came to be recognized as the earthly incarnation of Shiva or Vishnu, and became the sacred object of politico-religious cult practices officiated over by royal court Brahmans, part of the Buddhist court retinue. In the Buddhist context, the devaraja (divine king) was a bodhisattva (an enlightened being who, out of compassion, forgoes nirvana in order to aid others). The belief in divine kingship prevailed into the eighteenth century, although by that time its religious implications had limited impact.

With ample reserves of land available for cultivation, the realm depended on the acquisition and control of adequate manpower for farm labor and defense. The dramatic rise of Ayutthaya had entailed constant warfare and, as none of the parties in the region possessed a technological advantage, the outcome of battles was usually determined by the size of the armies. After each victorious campaign, Ayutthaya carried away a number of conquered people to its own territory, where they were assimilated and added to the labor force.[17]Ramathibodi II (r.1491–1529) established the Siamese Corvée system, under which every freeman had to be registered as a servant (phrai) with the local lords, Chao Nai (เจ้านาย). When war broke out, male phrai were subject to impressment. Above the phrai was a nai, who was responsible for military service, corvée labor on public works, and on the land of the official to whom he was assigned. Phrai Suay (ไพร่ส่วย) met labor obligations by paying a tax. If he found the forced labor under his nai repugnant, he could sell himself as a slave (ทาส) to a more attractive nai or lord, who then paid a fee in compensation for the loss of corvée labor. As much as one-third of the manpower supply into the nineteenth century was composed of phrai.[17]

Wealth, status, and political influence were interrelated. The king allotted rice fields to court officials, provincial governors, military commanders, in payment for their services to the crown, according to the sakdi na system. The size of each official’s allotment was determined by the number of commoners or phrai he could command to work it. The amount of manpower a particular headman, or official, could command determined his status relative to others in the hierarchy and his wealth. At the apex of the hierarchy, the king, who was symbolically the realm’s largest landholder, theoretically commanded the services of the largest number of phrai, called phrai luang (royal servants), who paid taxes, served in the royal army, and worked on the crown lands.[17]

However, the recruitment of the armed forces depended on nai, or mun nai, literally meaning ‘lord’, officials who commanded their own phrai som, or subjects. These officials had to submit to the king’s command when war broke out. Officials thus became the key figures to the kingdom’s politics. At least two officials staged coups, taking the throne themselves while bloody struggles between the king and his officials, followed by purges of court officials, were always seen.[17]

King Trailok, in the early sixteenth century, established definite allotments of land and phrai for the royal officials at each rung in the hierarchy, thus determining the country’s social structure until the introduction of salaries for government officials in the nineteenth century.[17]

Outside this system to some extent were the Buddhist monkhood, or sangha, which all classes of Siamese men could join, and the Chinese. Buddhist monasteries (wats) became the centres of Siamese education and culture, while during this period the Chinese first began to settle in Siam, and soon began to establish control over the country’s economic life: another long-standing social problem.[17]

The Chinese were not obliged to register for corvée duty, so they were free to move about the kingdom at will and engage in commerce. By the sixteenth century, the Chinese controlled Ayutthaya’s internal trade and had found important places in the civil and military service. Most of these men took Thai wives because few women left China to accompany the men.[17]

Ramathibodi I was responsible for the compilation of the Dharmashastra, a legal code based on Hindu sources and traditional Thai custom. The Dharmashastra remained a tool of Thai law until late in the 19th century. A bureaucracy based on a hierarchy of ranked and titled officials was introduced, and society was organised in a related manner. Yet the Hindu caste system was not adopted.[18]

The sixteenth century witnessed the rise of Burma which, under an aggressive dynasty, had overrun Chiang Mai and Laos and made war on the Thai. In 1569 Burmese forces joined by Thai rebels, mostly royal family members of Siam, captured the city of Ayutthaya and carried off the whole royal family to Burma. Dhammaraja (1569–90), a Thai governor who had aided the Burmese, was installed as vassal king at Ayutthaya. Thai independence was restored by his son, King Naresuan (1590–1605), who turned on the Burmese and by 1600 had driven them from the country.[19]

Determined to prevent another treason like his father’s, Naresuan set about unifying the country’s administration directly under the royal court at Ayutthaya. He ended the practice of nominating royal princes to govern Ayutthaya’s provinces, assigning instead court officials who were expected to execute policies handed down by the king. Thereafter royal princes were confined to the capital. Their power struggles continued, but at court under the king’s watchful eye.[20]

In order to ensure his control over the new class of governors, Naresuan decreed that all freemen subject to phrai service had become phrai luang, bound directly to the king, who distributed the use of their services to his officials. This measure gave the king a theoretical monopoly on all manpower, and the idea developed that since the king owned the services of all the people, he also possessed all the land. Ministerial offices and governorships—-and the sakdina that went with them—-were usually inherited positions dominated by a few families often connected to the king by marriage. Indeed, marriage was frequently used by Thai kings to cement alliances between themselves and powerful families, a custom prevailing through the nineteenth century. As a result of this policy, the king’s wives usually numbered in the dozens.[20]

Even with Naresuan’s reforms, the effectiveness of the royal government over the next 150 years was unstable. Royal power outside the crown lands-—although in theory absolute—was in practice limited by the looseness of the civil administration. The influence of central government and the king was not extensive beyond the capital. When war with the Burmese broke out in late eighteenth century, provinces easily abandoned the capital. As the enforcing troops were not easily rallied to defend the capital, the City of Ayutthaya could not stand against the Burmese aggressors.[20]

[edit] Religion

 

 

Buddha head overgrown by fig tree in Wat Mahatat, Ayutthaya historical park

Ayutthaya’s main religion was Theravada Buddhism. Many areas of the kingdom also practiced Mahayana Buddhism, Islam[21] and, influenced by French Missionaries who arrived through China in the 17th century, some small areas converted to Catholicism.[22]

[edit] Economic development

The Thais never lacked a rich food supply. Peasants planted rice for their own consumption and to pay taxes. Whatever remained was used to support religious institutions. From the thirteenth to the fifteenth centuries, however, a remarkable transformation took place in Thai rice cultivation. In the highlands, where rainfall had to be supplemented by a system of irrigation that controlled the water level in flooded paddies, the Thais sowed the glutinous rice that is still the staple in the geographical regions of the North and Northeast. But in the floodplain of the Chao Phraya, farmers turned to a different variety of rice—-the so-called floating rice, a slender, non-glutinous grain introduced from Bengal—-that would grow fast enough to keep pace with the rise of the water level in the lowland fields.[23]

The new strain grew easily and abundantly, producing a surplus that could be sold cheaply abroad. Ayutthaya, situated at the southern extremity of the floodplain, thus became the hub of economic activity. Under royal patronage, corvée labor dug canals on which rice was brought from the fields to the king’s ships for export to China. In the process, the Chao Phraya Delta—-mud flats between the sea and firm land hitherto considered unsuitable for habitation—-was reclaimed and placed under cultivation. Traditionally the king had a duty to perform a religious ceremony blessing the rice plantation.[23]

Although rice was abundant in Ayutthaya, rice export was banned from time to time when famine occurred because of natural calamity or war. Rice was usually bartered for luxury goods and armaments from westerners, but rice cultivation was mainly for the domestic market and rice export was evidently unreliable. Trade with Europeans was lively in the seventeenth century. In fact European merchants traded their goods, mainly modern arms such as rifles and cannons, with local products from the inland jungle such as sapan(Bridge) woods, deerskin and rice. Tomé Pires, a Portuguese voyager, mentioned in the sixteenth century that Ayutthaya, or Odia, was rich in good merchandise. Most of the foreign merchants coming to Ayutthaya were European and Chinese, and were taxed by the authorities. The kingdom had an abundance of rice, salt, dried fish, arrack and vegetables.[24]

Trade with foreigners, mainly the Dutch, reached its peak in the seventeenth century. Ayutthaya became a main destination for merchants from China and Japan. It was apparent that foreigners began taking part in the kingdom’s politics. Ayutthayan kings employed foreign mercenaries who sometimes entered the wars with the kingdom’s enemies. However, after the purge of the French in late seventeenth century, the major traders with Ayutthaya were the Chinese. The Dutch from the Dutch East Indies Company (Vereenigde Oost-Indische Compagnie or VOC), were still active. Ayutthaya’s economy declined rapidly in the eighteenth century, until the Burmese invasion caused the total collapse of Ayutthaya’s economy in 1788.[25]

Contacts with the West

 

 

Memorial plate in Lopburi showing king Narai with French ambassadors

In 1511,

 immediately after having conquered Malacca, the Portuguese sent a diplomatic mission headed by Duarte Fernandes to the court of King Ramathibodi II of Ayutthaya.

Having established amicable relations between the kingdom of Portugal and the Kingdom of Siam, they returned with a Siamese envoy with gifts and letters to the King of Portugal.[26]

Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory.

1550

  Angkor was attacked by Ayuthya Kindom  and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand

 

They were probably the first Europeans to visit the country. Five years after that initial contact, Ayutthaya and Portugal concluded a treaty granting the Portuguese permission to trade in the kingdom. A similar treaty

in 1592

 gave the Dutch a privileged position in the rice trade.

Foreigners were cordially welcomed at the court of Narai (1657–1688), a ruler with a cosmopolitan outlook who was nonetheless wary of outside influence. Important commercial ties were forged with Japan. Dutch and English trading companies were allowed to establish factories, and Thai diplomatic missions were sent to Paris and The Hague. By maintaining all these ties, the Thai court skillfully played off the Dutch against the English and the French, avoiding the excessive influence of a single power.[27]

 

 1568/69

Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese.

The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years,

 Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time.

 

In 1664,

however, the Dutch used force to exact a treaty granting them extraterritorial rights as well as freer access to trade. At the urging of his foreign minister, the Greek adventurer Constantine Phaulkon, Narai turned to France for assistance. French engineers constructed fortifications for the Thais and built a new palace at Lopburi for Narai. In addition, French missionaries engaged in education and medicine and brought the first printing press into the country. Louis XIV’s personal interest was aroused by reports from missionaries suggesting that Narai might be converted to Christianity.[28]

 

 

 

Siamese embassy to Louis XIV in 1686, by Nicolas Larmessin.

The French presence encouraged by Phaulkon, however, stirred the resentment and suspicions of the Thai nobles and Buddhist clergy. When word spread that Narai was dying, a general, Phetracha, killed the designated heir, a Christian, and had Phaulkon put to death along with a number of missionaries.

The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai.

The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity

1688

When  King Narai  Of Ayyutaya died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed.

 

The arrival of English warships provoked a massacre of more Europeans. Phetracha (reigned 1688–93) seized the throne and expelled the remaining foreigners. Some studies said that Ayutthaya began a period of alienation from western traders, while welcoming more Chinese merchants. But other recent studies argue that, due to wars and conflicts in Europe in the mid-eighteenth century, European merchants reduced their activities in the East. However, it was apparent that the Dutch East Indies Company or VOC was still doing business in Ayutthaya despite political difficulties.[28]

[edit] The final phase

Main articles: Burmese–Siamese War (1759–1760) and Burmese–Siamese War (1765–1767)

 

 

Three pagodas of Wat Phra Si Sanphet which house the remains of King Borommatrailokanat, King Borommarachathirat III and King Ramathibodi II

After a bloody period of dynastic struggle, Ayutthaya entered into what has been called the golden age, a relatively peaceful episode in the second quarter of the eighteenth century when art, literature, and learning flourished. There were foreign wars. Ayutthaya fought with the Nguyễn Lords (Vietnamese rulers of South Vietnam) for control of Cambodia starting around 1715. But a greater threat came from Burma, where the new Alaungpaya dynasty had subdued the Shan states.[29]

The last fifty years of the kingdom witnessed a bloody struggle among the princes. The throne was their prime target. Purges of court officials and able generals followed. The last monarch, Ekathat, originally known as Prince Anurakmontree, forced the king, who was his younger brother, to step down and took the throne himself.[30]

According to a French source, Ayutthaya in the eighteenth century comprised these principal cities: Martaban, Ligor or Nakhon Sri Thammarat, Tenasserim, Jungceylon or Phuket Island, Singora or Songkhla. Her tributaries were Patani, Pahang, Perak, Kedah and Malacca.[31]

In 1765,

a combined 40,000-strong force of Burmese armies invaded the territories of Ayutthaya from the north and west.[32] Major outlying towns quickly capitulated. The only notable example of successful resistance to these forces was found at the village of Bang Rajan.

read more info

Friday, June 8, 2012

Cinematic History: Bang Rajan (2004)

 
Bang Rajan recounts a legendary event from Siamese history that exemplifies the hackneyed cinematic altruism of heroism-under-fire. In 1765 Burma invaded Siam (now Thailand) and sacked its then-capital of Ayutthaya. The Burmese army advanced on two fronts, but one column of 100,000 soldiers got held up at the small rural village Bang Rajan. The Burmese general’s assumption that his troops would easily overwhelm the town was a mistaken one. With their livelihood, homes, and very way of life threatened, every man woman and child picked up an axe, cleaver, crossbow, or musket and held off the invading Burmese army for five months.

Directed and co-written by Thai film veteran Thanit Jitnukul, the film tries almost too hard to achieve the status of a Hollywood-style action blockbuster. There is more than a hint of Braveheart-like self-sacrificing heroics, and a few of the buffed tribesmen would not be out of place in a Die Hard movie. Jitnukul makes no attempt to hide the obvious sources of his inspiration, even though it is hardly necessary. In between the impressive battle sequences, it is the collective force of many compelling characters, all engaged in believable relationships with one another, which serves as the dramatic engine driving the incredible tale to the inevitable final battle.

Unlike many historical recreations, this blood-soaked tale has a wonderfully primitive feel to it. No one wears elegant costumes, strolls through stately rooms, or spouts ponderous dialogue. Every effort has been made to convey the harsh reality of the villagers’ lives, rather than glamorize their situation to make it more palatable for the movies. The actors spend every moment covered in dirt, sweat, and gore. This is easily one of the bloodiest, most graphically violent movies ever made, but battle before the gadgetry of modern warfare wasn’t pretty, with close at-hand combat exacting a huge toll on life and limb.

While the faint-hearted might be put off by all the blood, if not the thunderous musical score, there is a great deal of beauty and nobility amidst all the sound and fury.. This commanding 18th-century war epic won 11 Suraswadee Awards (Thai Oscars) in 2000, but it did not receive a stateside release date until 2004. It’s not readily available on cable, but you can find it on stations that specialize in foreign language films.
- by Jonathan Lewis

 
Posted by

After a 14 months’ siege, the city of Ayutthaya capitulated and was burned in April 1767.[33]

Ayutthaya’s art treasures, the libraries containing its literature, and the archives housing its historic records were almost totally destroyed,[33] and the Burmese brought the Ayutthaya Kingdom to ruin.[33]

The Burmese rule lasted a mere few months. The Burmese, who had also been fighting a simultaneous war with the Chinese since 1765, were forced to withdraw in early 1768 when the Chinese forces threatened their own capital.[34]

With most Burmese forces having withdrawn, the country was reduced to chaos. All that remained of the old capital were some ruins of the royal palace. Provinces proclaimed independence under generals, rogue monks, and members of the royal family.

One general, Phraya Taksin, former governor of Taak, began the reunification effort.[35][36] He gathered forces and began striking back at the Burmese. He finally established a capital at Thonburi, across the Chao Phraya from the present capital, Bangkok. Taak-Sin ascended the throne, becoming known as King Taak-Sin or Taksin.[35][36]

The ruins of the historic city of Ayutthaya and “associated historic towns” in the Ayutthaya historical park have been listed by the UNESCO as World Heritage Site.[37] The city of Ayutthaya was refounded near the old city, and is now capital of the Ayutthaya province.[38]

!766

After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766,

1767

after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

[edit] Kings of Ayutthaya

[edit] 1st Uthong Dynasty (1350–1370)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Chao Uthong
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi I)

1314

1350

1369 (20 years)

 • First King of Ayutthaya

Somdet Phra Ramesuan (First Reign)

1339

1369

1370 (less than one year — abdicated)

1395

 • Son of Uthong

[edit] 1st Suphannaphum Dynasty (1370–1388)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat I
(Khun Luang Pha Ngua)

?

1370

1388 (18 years)

 • Usurper
 • Former Lord of Suphanburi

Somdet Phra Chao Thong Lan
(Chao Thong Chan)

?

1388 (7 days — usurped)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat I

[edit] 2nd Uthong Dynasty (1388–1409)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Ramesuan (Second Reign)

1339

1388

1395 (7 years)

 • Former King reclaiming the throne
 • Son of Uthong

Somdet Phra Rama Ratchathirat

1356

1395

1409 (14 years — usurped)

?

 • Son of Ramesuan

[edit] 2nd Suphannaphum Dynasty (1409–1569)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Intha Racha
(Phra Chao Nakhon Int)

1359

1409

1424 (15 years)

 • Grandson of Borommarachathirat I
 • Former Lord of Suphanburi, offered crown

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat II
(Chao Sam Phraya)

?

1424

1448 (24 years)

 • Son of Intha Racha

Somdet Phra Boromma Trailokanat

1431

1448

1488 (40 years)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat II

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat III

?

1488

1491 (3 years)

 • Son of Trailokanat

Somdet Phra Ramathibodi II
(Phra Chettathiraj)

1473

1491

1529 (38 years)

 • Younger brother of Borommarachathirat III
 • Son of Trailokanat

Somdet Phra Borommarachathirat IV
(Somdet Phra Borommaracha Nor Buddhankoon)
(Phra Athitawongse)

?

1529

1533 (4 years)

 • Son of Ramathibodi II

Phra Ratsadathirat

1529

1533 (4 months)
(usurped)

 • Son of Borommarachathirat IV
 • Child King, reign under regency

Somdet Phra Chairacha
(Somdet Phra Chairacha Thirat)

?

1533

1546 (13 years)

 • Uncle of Ratsadathirat
 • Son of Ramathibodi II
 • Usurper

Phra Yodfa
(Phra Keowfa)

1535

1546

1548 (2 years)

 • Son of Chairacha

Khun Worawongsathirat
(Khun Chinnarat)
(Bun Si)

?

1548 (42 days)
(Removed)

 • Usurper monarch, not accepted by some historians

Somdet Phra Maha Chakkraphat
(Phra Chao Chang Pueak)

1509

1548

1564 (16 years)

 • Son of Ramathibodi II
 • Younger brother of Borommarachathirat IV and Chairacha
 • Seized the throne from usurper
 • Became a monk at Pegu (1564–1568)

Vassal of Burma (1564–1568)

Somdet Phra Mahinthrathirat

1539

1564

1569 (4 years as vassal king,
1 year as king)

 • Son of Maha Chakkrapat and Queen Suriyothai

Vassal of Burma (1569–1584)

[edit] Sukhothai Dynasty (1569–1629)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Maha Thammarachathirat
(Somdet Phra Sanphet I)

1517

1569

29 July 1590 (21 years)

 • Former Lord of Sukhothai
 • Installed as vassal of Bayinnaung of Burma, declared independence in 1584

Somdet Phra Naresuan the Great
(Somdet Phra Sanphet II)

25 April 1555

29 July 1590

7 April 1605 (15 years)

 • Son of Maha Thammarachathirat

Somdet Phra Ekathotsarot
(Somdet Phra Sanphet III)

1557

25 April 1605

1620 (15 years)

 • Son of Maha Thammarachathirat

Somdet Phra Si Saowaphak
(Somdet Phra Sanphet IV)

?

1620 (less than a year)

 • Son of Ekathotsarot

Somdet Phra Songtham
(Somdet Phra Borommaracha I)

?

1620

12 December 1628 (8 years)

 • Minor relative, natural son of Ekathotsarot; invited to take the throne after leaving the Sangha

Somdet Phra Chetthathirat
(Somdet Phra Borommaracha II)

circa 1613

1628

1629 (1 year)
(assassinated)

 • Son of Songtham

Phra Athittayawong

1618

1629 (36 days — usurped)

 • Younger brother of Chetthathirat
 • Son of Songtham

[edit] Prasat Thong Dynasty (1630–1688)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Chao Prasat Thong
(Somdet Phra Sanphet V)

1599

1629

1656 (27 years)

 • Usurper, formerly the Kalahom
 • Rumored to be a son of Ekathotsarot

Somdet Chao Fa Chai
(Somdet Phra Sanphet VI)

?

1656 (9 months)
(usurped)

 • Son of Prasat Thong

Somdet Phra Si Suthammaracha
(Somdet Phra Sanphet VII)

?

1656 (2 months 17 days — usurped)

26 August 1656
(executed)

 • Usurper, Uncle of Chao Fa Chai
 • Younger brother of Prasat Thong

Somdet Phra Narai the Great
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi III)

1629

26 August 1656

11 July 1688 (32 years)

 • Usurper, nephew of Si Suthammaracha
 • Son of Prasat Thong
 • Half-brother of Chao Fa Chai

[edit] Ban Phlu Luang Dynasty (1688–1767)

Name

Birth

Reign From

Reign Until

Death

Relationship with Predecessor(s)

Somdet Phra Phetracha

1632

1688

1703 (15 years)

 • Usurper, cousin of Narai
 • Former commander of the Royal Elephant Corps

Somdet Phra Suriyenthrathibodi
(Somdet Phra Sanphet VIII)
(Phra Chao Suea)

?

1703

1708 (5 years)

 • Son of Narai

Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Thai Sa
(Somdet Phra Sanphet IX)

?

1708

1732 (24 years)

 • Son of Suriyenthrathibodi

Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Boromakot

?

1732

1758 (26 years)

 • Brother of Thai Sa, Former Front Palace
 • Son of Suriyenthrathibodi

Somdet Phra Chao Uthumphon
(Somdet Phra Ramathibodi IV)
(Khun Luang Hawat)

?

1758 (2 months — usurped)

1796

 • Son of Boromakot

Somdet Phra Chao Ekkathat
(Somdet Phra Chao Yu Hua Phra Thinang Suriyat Amarin)

?

1758

7 April 1767 (9 years — removed)

17 April 1767

 • Brother of Uthumphon
 • Usurper, Former Front Palace
 • Son of Boromakot

End of Ayutthaya

[edit] List of notable foreigners in seventeenth century Ayutthaya

[edit] Image Gallery

Detached Buddha head encased in fig tree roots

Seated Buddha , Ayutthaya

Seated Buddha, Ayutthaya

 

 

1768

 

The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers.

 He became the king in 1768 and

 

Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam.

 

 

 

Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country.

Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies.

When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough.

1782

Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam

 

[edit] See also

[edit] Notes

  1. ^ Hooker, Virginia Matheson (2003). A Short History of Malaysia: Linking East and West. St Leonards, New South Wales, AU: Allen & Unwin. pp. 72. ISBN 1-86448-955-3. http://books.google.com/books?id=6F7xthSLFNEC&pg=PA72&lpg=PA72&dq=Ayutthaya++malay&source=bl&ots=IWjog_W6PG&sig=NKxfDLm13dLnJ6Si72q-F744g5A&hl=en&ei=u7lQSsrsDou4M-2T8e0D&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=6. Retrieved 2009-07-05. 
  2. ^ “The Tai Kingdom of Ayutthaya”. The Nation: Thailand’s World. 2009. http://www.thailandsworld.com/index.cfm?p=213. Retrieved 2009-06-28. 
  3. ^ Higham 1989, p. 355
  4. ^ “The Aytthaya Era, 1350–1767″. U. S. Library of Congress. http://countrystudies.us/thailand/7.htm. Retrieved 2009-07-25. 
  5. ^ Jin, Shaoqing (2005). Office of the People’s Goverernment of Fujian Province. ed. Zheng He’s voyages down the western seas. Fujian, China: China Intercontinental Press. p. 58. http://books.google.com/books?id=QmpkR6l5MaMC&pg=PA58&lpg=PA58&dq=zheng+he+mansur+shah&source=bl&ots=IqDNCCxZKu&sig=HEX0vPAjTRnSNZGXuIOt_8gCkzY&hl=en&ei=LsF1SrL5Fo78MeGx-bAM&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1#v=onepage&q=zheng%20he%20mansur%20shah&f=false. Retrieved 2009-08-02. 
  6. ^ Lt. Gen. Sir Arthur P. Phayre (1883). History of Burma (1967 ed.). London: Susil Gupta. p. 111. 
  7. ^ a b GE Harvey (1925). History of Burma. London: Frank Cass & Co. Ltd.. pp. 167–170. 
  8. ^ Phayre, pp. 127–130
  9. ^ Phayre, p. 139
  10. ^ Wyatt 2003, pp. 90–121
  11. ^ a b “Introduction”. South East Asia site. Northern Illinois University. http://www.seasite.niu.edu:85/Thai/literature/ramakian/introduction.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-03. 
  12. ^ “The National Language”. Mahidol University. November 1, 2002. http://www.mahidol.ac.th/thailand/language.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  13. ^ “Thailand”. Brief Description of the Country and its National/State Government Structure. UN ESCAP. February 12, 2002. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/66ce5Cc8i. Retrieved April 2, 2012. “The traditional government system and social structure in Siam during this period was known as the Sakdina system. All land was owned by the ruler who granted land to members of the royal family and the nobility according to their ranks in the traditional bureaucratic hierarchy.” 
  14. ^ Giles Ji Ungpakorn (April 2, 2012). “Class and politics in Thailand”. Thailand’s Crisis and the Fight for Democracy. Links International Journal of Socialist Renewal. Archived from the original on April 2, 2012. http://www.webcitation.org/66cdtpsbh. Retrieved April 2, 2012. “This was a system of direct control over humans, rather than the use of land ownership to control labour….” 
  15. ^ Bavadam, Lyla (March 14, 2006). “Magnificint Ruins”. Frontline 26 (6). http://www.hindu.com/fline/fl2606/stories/20090327260606600.htm. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  16. ^ “HM Second King Pinklao”. Soravij. http://www.soravij.com/mahauparaja.html. Retrieved 2009-10-17. 
  17. ^ a b c d e f g h “Ayutthaya”. Mahidol University. November 1, 2002. http://www.mahidol.ac.th/thailand/ayutthaya.html. Retrieved 2009-11-01. 
  18. ^ “Background Note: Thailand”. U.S. Department of State. July 2009. Archived from the original on 4 November 2009. http://www.state.gov/r/pa/ei/bgn/2814.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  19. ^ Ross, Ph.D., Kelly L. (2008). “The Periphery of China – Korea, Vietnam, Thailand, Laos, Cambodia, Burma, Tibet, and Mongolia”. Freisian School. http://www.friesian.com/perigoku.htm. Retrieved 2009-11-08. 
  20. ^ a b c Ring, Trudy; Robert M. Salkin (1995). International Dictionary of Historic Places: Asia and Oceania. 5. Sharon La Boda. Chicago: Fitzroy Dearborn Publishers. pp. 56. ISBN [[Special:BookSources/18844964044|18844964044]]. http://books.google.com/books?id=vWLRxJEU49EC&pg=PA56&lpg=PA56&dq=Naresuan++freemen&source=bl&ots=REatqifhlS&sig=rBQpvLxkkyykDwU3qjfHTbHOHgw&hl=en&ei=flIgS_fHB4OysgPR8ImACg&sa=X&oi=book_result&ct=result&resnum=1&ved=0CAgQ6AEwAA#v=onepage&q=Naresuan%20%20freemen&f=false. Retrieved 2009-12-10. 
  21. ^ Sheik Ahmad, Omar Farouk. “Muslims in the Kingdom of Ayyuthaya”. UKM. http://journalarticle.ukm.my/514/1/1.pdf. Retrieved 2012-5-24. 
  22. ^ Indobhasa, Sao (2009). “Buddhism in Ayutthaya (1350–1767)”. Ceylon Journey. http://www.cjourney.info/english/cjarticles/112006/buddhisminayuttaya.php. Retrieved 2009-12-22. 
  23. ^ a b “The Economy and Economic Changes”. The Ayutthaya Administration. Department of Provincial Administration. http://www.dopa.go.th/English/history/econ2.htm. Retrieved 2010-01-30. 
  24. ^ Tome Pires. The Suma Oriental of Tome Pires. London, The Hakluyt Society,1944, p.107
  25. ^ Vandenberg, Tricky (March 2009). “The Dutch in Ayutthaya”. History of Ayutthaya. http://ayutthaya-history.com/Settlements_Dutch.html. Retrieved 2010-01-01. 
  26. ^ Donald Frederick Lach, Edwin J. Van Kley, “Asia in the making of Europe”, pp. 520–521, University of Chicago Press, 1994, ISBN 978-0-226-46731-3
  27. ^ “The Beginning of Relations with Buropean Nations and Japan (sic)”. Thai Ministry of Foreign Affairs. 2006. http://www.mfa.go.th/web/117.php. Retrieved 2010-02-11. 
  28. ^ a b Smithies, Michael (2002). Three military accounts of the 1688 “Revolution” in Siam. Bangkok: Orchid Press. pp. 12, 100, 183. ISBN 974-524-005-2
  29. ^ “Ayutthaya”. Thailand by Train. 2010. http://www.thailandbytrain.com/Ayutthaya.html. Retrieved 2010-06-06. 
  30. ^ Ruangsilp 2007, p. 203
  31. ^ Dictionaire geographique universel. Amsterdam & Utrecht: Chez Francois Halma, 1750. p.880.
  32. ^ Harvey, p. 250
  33. ^ a b c Ruangsilp 2007, p. 218
  34. ^ Harvey, p. 253
  35. ^ a b Syamananda 1990, p. 94
  36. ^ a b Wood 1924, pp. 254–264
  37. ^ “World Heritagae Site Ayutthaya”. UNESCO. Archived from the original on 10 April 2010. http://www.worldheritagesite.org/sites/ayutthaya.html. Retrieved 2010-04-03. 
  38. ^ “พระราชกฤษฎีกาเปลี่ยนชื่ออำเภอกรุงเก่า พ.ศ. ๒๕๐๐” (in Thai). Royal Gazette 74 (25 ก): 546. March 5, 1957. http://www.ratchakitcha.soc.go.th/DATA/PDF/2500/A/025/546.PDF

[edit] References

[edit] Further reading

  • Smithies, Michael. A Siamese Embassy Lost in Africa 1686: The Odyssey of Ok-Khun Chamman. Chiang Mai: Silkworm Books, 1999.

[edit] Dissertations retrieved from ProQuest-Dissertations and Theses on Aug.16,2006

Subject: Art History

Listopad, John A. “The art and architecture of the reign of Somdet Phra Narai.” Diss. U of Michigan, 1995.

Subject: Buddhist literature

Chrystall, Beatrice. “Connections without limit: The refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana.” Diss. Harvard U, 2004.

Subject: History

Smith, George V. “The Dutch East India Company in the Kingdom of Ayutthaya, 1604–1694.” Diss. Northern Illinois U, 1974.

Subject: Buddhist literature

Chrystall, Beatrice. “Connections without limit: The refiguring of the Buddha in the Jinamahanidana.” Diss. Harvard U, 2004.

Subject:Urban planning

Peerapun, Wannasilpa. “The economic impact of historic sites on the economy of Ayutthaya, Thailand.” Diss. U of Akron, 1991.

[edit] Phongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya

There are 18 versions of Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya (Phongsawadan Krung Si Ayutthaya) known to scholars.Wyatt, David K. (1999). Chronicle of the Kingdom of Ayutthaya. Tokyo: The Center for East Asian Cultural Studies for UNESCO, The Toyo Bunko. pp. Introduction, 14. ISBN 978-4-89656-613-0

  •  
    • Fifteenth-Century Fragment – covering roughly AD 1438–44
    • Van Vliet Chronicle (1640) – Translated and compiled by the Dutch merchant. The original Thai manuscripts disappeared.
    • The Luang Prasoet Version (1680) – Ayutthaha History (in Thai)
    • CS 1136 Version (1774)
    • The Nok Kaeo Version (1782)
    • CS 1145 Version (1783)
    • Sanggitiyavamsa – Pali chronicle compiled by Phra Phonnarat, generally discussing Buddhism History of Thailand.
    • CS 1157 Version of Phan Chanthanumat (1795)
    • Thonburi Chronicle (1795)
    • Somdet Phra Phonnarat Version (1795) – Thought to be identical to Bradley Version below.
    • Culayuddhakaravamsa Vol.2 – Pali chronicle.
    • Phra Chakraphatdiphong (Chat) Version (1808)
    • Brith Museum Version (1807)
    • Wat Ban Thalu Version (1812)
    • Culayuddhakaravamsa Sermon (1820) – Pali chronicle.
    • Bradley or Two-Volume Version (1864) – formerly called Krom Phra Paramanuchit Chinorot Version. Vol.1 Vol.2 Vol.3 or Vol.1 Vol.2
    • Pramanuchit’s Abridged Version (1850)
    • Royal Autograph Version (1855)

Some of these are available in Cushman, Richard D. (2000). The Royal Chronicles of Ayutthaya: A Synoptic Translation, edited by David K. Wyatt. Bangkok: The Siam Society.

[edit] Burmese account

These are Burmese historical accounts of Ayutthaya.

  • Kham Hai Kan Chao Krung Kao (Lit. Testimony of inhabitants of Old Capital (i.e. Ayutthaya)) [1]
  • Kham Hai Kan Khun Luang Ha Wat (Lit. Testimony of the “King who Seeks a Temple” (nickname of King Uthumphon))
  • Palm Leaf Manuscripts No.11997 of the Universities Central Library Collection or Yodaya Yazawin – Available in English in Tun Aung Chain tr. (2005) Chronicle of Ayutthaya, Yangon: Myanmar Historical Commission

[edit] Western account

  • Second Voyage du Pere Tachard et des Jesuites envoyes par le Roi au Royaume de Siam. Paris: Horthemels, 1689.

 

1350

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by

 

 U Thong or king Ramathibodi

as his name was after he ascended the throne.

Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378.

Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand.

Uthong

 

 

was the first Ayutthaya king of the kingdom Ayutthaya

 

 

reigning between 1351 to 1369.

He was also called Ramathibodi I. He was known as Prince U Thong.

He promoted Theravada Buddhism the state religion. He was married to a daughter of the ruler of Suphanburi; and he may also have married a princess connected to the ruling line of Lopburi.

This combination of relationships-to two powerful principalities and to a growing commercial community-represents a least in symbolic form the fundamental strength upon which U-Thong was to base and develop his political ambitions.
by Chris

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

 

 

Thanks to Sten Sjostrand who discovered the Turiang, we got to know that Thai ceramics was BIG business in South-east Asia.

 

The Turiang (named after the kiln-sites in Thailand from which most of the stoneware was produced) was actually a Chinese ship but had Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics on board. It was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand to Borneo and/or Sulawesi. With over half the cargo making up Thai ceramics, historians began to reassess the importance of the two major production centres of Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai in Thailand.

The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 

 Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

 

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

 

At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif.

 

 

Read more about si sichanalai

 

Si Satchanalai National Park :

 

Located 100 kilometers from the town of Sukhothai is one of the most picturesque locations in the entire Sukhothai province known as Si Satchanalai National Park. Spread over an area of around 300 acres, Si Satchanalai National Park is present in Amphoe Si Satchanalai and Amphoe Thung Saliam of Sukhothai province. The Government of Thailand declared this area as a national park on 8 May, 1981. .

 

Sri Satchanalai Historical Park  :

 

Located on the banks of Yom River in Sukhothai province is one of the valuable representation of ancient human life called as the Satchanalai Historical Park. Declared by UNESCO as a world heritage site, Satchanalai Historical Park houses some of the ancient remnants and relics depicting human life, their culture and traditions during Sukhothai and Ayutthaya periods.

Situated 50 kilometer north of Sukhothai city, Satchanalai Historical Park is spread over an area of almost 800 acres and it is located on the outskirts of Si Satchanalai city. Major attractions include ruins of various temples and kilns. Some important temples present inside the park are Wat Chang Lom,  

 

 

 

 

Read more at the next Cd-ROM

The Thailand History collections

Part Thonburi Perios

 

 

 

Refrences

1, King Ramathibodi (King U-Thong)

by Chris,Yo, Jun, Ayaka, Kouichi G11

THE EDN @ COPYRIGHT 2012

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-book In Cd-rom “The Mistery Of Celadon Ceramic”

THE COMPLETE CD WITH FULL ILLUSTRATION EXIST BUT ONLY FOR PREMIUM MEMBER

PLEASE SUBSCRIBED VIA COMMENT

The Mistery Of Celadon ceramic

The study Report Of

Celadon artifact found In Indonesia

 

 

By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Privated Limited E-book In CD-rom Edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

Introductions

I have found some artifact of celadon ceramic In Indonesia, and I met the difficulty in identification the source of that celadon artifact because near same in colour and design

 

 

 especially the incised decoration of the imperial celadon from China during sung dynasty, Yuan dynasty and early ming dynasty.

 

 

 

The Qing dynasty

and

 

Korean celadon more common and easty to identification due to the typical colour nad desaign  will not included  in this study.

The same colour and decorations of the early china celadon  with The Royal high quality Thailand celadon   during Sincanalai, sukhotai and sawankhalok era and from Vietnam during anamis era  made me difficult to identification 

 

type=text
 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif

After study from literature especially the report of Marine Archeologist from the shipwreck ceramin which found in Asean and the sample from celadon ceramic auction in the world, I have succeeded to open the mistery.

 And this are the report of the study special for senior collector s and historian to heklp them in identification their collections and artifact which found in their researching area.

This study still many lack and not complete that is why more info and correction ,also suggestion still need.

Jakarta October 2012

 Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sample Of Celadon ceramic

 China

Northern sung Lung Quan Kiln Celadon

 

 

Southern sung Celadon

 

 

Southern sung Celadon

 

 
 

Malacca Song Dynasty 10th – 13th century Celadon Bowl & Dish Plate

 

Malacca Song Dynasty 10th – 13th century Celadon dish plate, discovered at reclaimation developments projects adjacent seafront Straits of Malacca in early 1970s. Celadon production had a long history at Longquan and related sites, but it was not until the Five Dynasties (907 – 960) and Northern Song (960 – 1127) period that production of scale truly began. In the Northen Song period the Dayao kiln site alone produced wares at twenty – three separate kilns. This being said the era of greatest ceramic production.

The Song Dynasty was a ruling dynasty in China between 960 – 1279 CE; it succeeded the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms Period, and was followed by the Yuan Dynasty. It was the first government in world history to issue banknotes or paper money, and the first Chinese polity to establish a permanent standing navy. The Song Dynasty is divided into two distinct periods: the Northern Song and Southern Song. During the Northern Song 960 – 1127 and the Southern Song 1127 – 1279 refers to the period after the Song lost control pf northern China to the Jin Dynasty.

Southeast Asia has been inhabited since prehistoric times. The communities in the region evolved to form complex cultures with varying degrees of influence from India and China. The ancient kingdoms can be grouped into two distinct categories. The first is agrarian kingdoms. Agrarian kingdoms had agriculture as the main economic activity. Most agrarian states were located in mainland Southeast Asia. The second type is maritime states. Maritime states were dependent on sea trade. Srivijaya and Malacca were maritime states.

Srivijaya had established suzerainty over large areas of Sumatra, western Java and much of the Malay Peninsula. Dominating the Malacca and Sunda straits, Srivijaya controlled both the spice route traffic and local trade, charging a toll on passing ships. Serving as an entrepot for Chinese, Malay, and Indian markets, the port of Palembang, accessible from the cost by way of a river, accumulated great wealth. Envoys traveled to and from China frequently.

 
Posted by

Six dynasty celadon

 

 

 

Yuan dynasty celadon

THE BIGGER YUAN CELADON DOUBLE FISH PLATE”

FOUND AT WEST SUMATRA

*

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

West Java small cup

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Ming Dynasty celadon

 

 

Korean Celadon

 

 

 

 

 

Thailand

Si-Satchanalai celadon

 

type=text
 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif

Sawankhalok celadon

Vietnam

Anamis celadon

 

 

LITERATURE STUDY

Si-Satchanalai celadon

 

Turiang:

a 14th century Chinese shipwreck,

 

This article was first published in “Southeast Asia – China Interactions” which was published by the Malaysian Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society in 2002.

Articles selected by Dr. Geoff Wade with foreword by Wang Gunawu.

 

upsetting Southeast Asian ceramic history

By Sten Sjostrand

Edited: Dr. Geoff Wade

Photographs, sketches, maps and images: Sten Sjostrand

 

Introduction

 

The Turiang is one of several 14-16th century wrecks discovered in the South China Sea by Sten Sjostrand.

 

All carried ceramics and offer new insights into this glorious period of maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics.

 

The Turiang was a Chinese ship with a multinational cargo of Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics, apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

The wreck is tentatively dated to AD 1305-1370. This is one of the earliest shipwrecks yet discovered with Thai export ceramics.

 

The find prompts a reassessment of the relative importance of the two major production centres at Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai. It also proves that almost-identical black underglaze ware was available simultaneously from Sukhothai and Vietnam.

 

 

Turiang’s ceramic significance

 

 

 

The Turiang cargo suggests that:

 

Decorated underglaze ware from Thailand and Vietnam was popular before Chinese blue-and-white

 

 

 

 

 

 

Celadon Chinese celadon guan

 

 

 

 

1.1328 is the latest estimate for the date of first export, to the Middle East, by Liu Xinyuan of the Ceramics Archaeological Research Institute at Jingdezhen in China. Liu Xinyuan, op.cit., 1999.

 

2.Jeremy Green and Rosemary Harper, 1987, op.cit., fig 15.

 

3.Common features of the Turiang and Longquan plates include a bracket-type mouthrim, accented with incised lines which follow their shape on the flattened part of the mouthrim; an inward-slanting footrim, covered with glaze; and wide striations on the interior walls.

 

Dating

 

The Turiang‘s multinational cargo both challenges the chronology of Thai ceramics and presents its own dating puzzle.

 

 One intriguing issue is the absence of blue-and-white porcelain from either China or Vietnam, and the large load of Chinese celadon.

 

Could this wreck be so old that it pre-dates the export of Chinese blue-and-white, now estimated to have started in 1328?(1)

 

Individual dish pictures on the Longquan page of the Nov’01 exhibition.

Longquan celadon’s made in China were fired on tubular supports, identical to those later used at Si-Satchanalai 7. Beta Analytical test report: Beta-130708, June 1999

 

THE “TURIANG ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1370)

Early Signs of China’s Ming Dynasty in Malaysian Waters

 

Among the oldest shipwreck findings in the South China Sea, it was discovered by a Swedish marine archaeologist, Sten Sjostrand on May 1998 about 100 nautcal miles from the nearest land. This ship was found to be from the Ming Dynasty era (CE 1368 – CE 1644). Numerous Sukhotai vases, Sisatchanalai green glazed wares and underglazed fish and flower plates of Thai and Vietnamese origin were found.

These ceramics offered new clues about the maritime trade in Southeast Asia, and in particular into the history of Thai ceramics. The Turiang was a Chinese ship apparently heading for Borneo and/or Sulawesi.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

 

 

Thanks to Sten Sjostrand who discovered the Turiang, we got to know that Thai ceramics was BIG business in South-east Asia.

 

The Turiang (named after the kiln-sites in Thailand from which most of the stoneware was produced) was actually a Chinese ship but had Thai, Vietnamese and Chinese ceramics on board. It was probably sailing from Ayutthaya, then capital of Thailand to Borneo and/or Sulawesi. With over half the cargo making up Thai ceramics, historians began to reassess the importance of the two major production centres of Sukhothai and Si-Satchanalai in Thailand.

Ayutthaya City Founded by King Ramathibodi I (King U-Thong)
12-AUG-2010  

Ayutthaya City Founded by King Ramathibodi I (King U-Thong)

Uthong was the first Ayutthaya king of the kingdom Ayutthaya reigning between 1351 to 1369. He was also called Ramathibodi I. He was known as Prince U Thong. He promoted Theravada Buddhism the state religion. He was married to a daughter of the ruler of Suphanburi; and he may also have married a princess connected to the ruling line of Lopburi. This combination of relationships-to two powerful principalities and to a growing commercial community-represents a least in symbolic form the fundamental strength upon which U-Thong was to base and develop his political ambitions.
by Chris

But in 1568/69

Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time.

The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.  

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

 

A Sisatchanalai celadon plate with floral motif.

 

 

Thailand’s History

 

Prehistoric Time

There has been humans in the South-East Asia region for tens of thousands years. Early, they got their food from hunting and fishing and later on they also became farmers and started to grow rice more than 5000 years ago. Also, one of the first bronze age cultures in the world, was found here.

 

The Dvaravati and Mon period

Theravada Buddhist missionaries came from India to the region in the 2nd century and the Mon and Dvaravati period was a loose collection of Indian city states. It was flourishing until about the 9th century but lasted in a few areas until the 11th or 12th century.

 

The Khmer Period

From about the 8th century the Khmer’s’ started to expand their territory around the capital of Angkor into Thailand, Laos, Vietnam and South China and finally they dominated the region. Lopburi became the Khmer’s head quarter in present Thailand. The influence of Khmer and language, culture, architecture and art was also effecting the whole region at this time. In the 13th century the Khmer domination was weakened from various reasons, such as; bad economy, mutual conflicts and malaria, plague and other diseases.

 

The Sukhothai Period

The Thais became the largest population in the area after the decline of the Khmer empire. Even if Thai states, such as Lanna, existed in the North, Sukhothai is often considered as the first Thai kingdom. The Sukhothai kingdom was founded in 1238 and Intradit became the first king. Forty years later, Ramkhamhaeng became the third king in this era, and he is often considered as one of the most important figures in the Thai history. The Theravada Buddhism became the state religion and Ramkhamheang was the inventor of the Thai written language. The Sukhothai culture was still flourishing and expanded it’s territory. It lasted until 1378.

 

The Ayutthaya Period

A new powerful kingdom Ayutthaya, in the South, was founded in 1350/51 by U Thong or king Ramathibodi as his name was after he ascended the throne. Ayutthaya expand it’s territory and Sukhothai became a vassal state of Ayutthaya in 1378. Ayutthaya became a powerful and rich kingdom and King Ramathibodi and his successors expanded Ayutthaya’s territory. Also Angkor was attacked and in 1550 it had about same borders as present Thailand. But in 1568/69 Ayutthaya fell to the Burmese. The kingdom was however re conquered by King Naresuan after killing the Burmese crown prince with his lance, in a duel on elephant backs. In the coming 100 years, Ayutthaya started to established trade agreements and diplomatic relations with some of their neighbors and the leading European states at this time. The most “cosmopolitan” regent, at the Ayutthaya era, was King Narai. The Frenchmen tried to convert Narai to Christianity but when Narai died, in 1688, the French were driven out, and the king’s Greek advisor, Constantine Phaulkon was executed. After over a century of peace, the Burmese attacked Ayutthaya again in 1766, and after more than a year long siege the city was burned down.

 

The Thonburi Period

The Ayutthaya General Taksin fled southwards, with some of the remaining troops and soon they got many new followers. He became the king in 1768 and Thonburi (in present Krung Thep or Bangkok at the waterside of the Chao Praya river) became the new capital city in the Kingdom of Siam. Taksin and his troops attacked the Burmese troops northwards and successfully chased them away from the country. Thonburi grew to became a strong but peaceful state for 15 years, but Taksin himself probably started to have megalomania tendencies. When he proclaimed that he was a reincarnation of the Lord Buddha, his previous supporters had enough. Taksin was killed in 1782 and his former military advisor, the army general Chakri became the new King of Siam.

 

The Chakri Dynasty (Rattanakosin)

The kings of the Chakri dynasty in Thailand:

 

King Buddha Yodfa Chulalok (Rama I) 1782-1809

Also known as Chao Phraya Chakri. He continued to defend the country against the Burmese troops and he also moved the capital city across the Chao Praya river. The name of the town became:

Krung Thep Mahanakhon Amon Rattanakosin Mahinthara Yuthaya Mahadilok Phop Noppharat Ratchathani Burirom Udomratchaniwet Mahasathan Amon Phiman Awatan Sathit Sakkathattiya Witsanukam Prasit

The world’s longest place name! It is popular called Krung Thep or The City of Angels. For most foreigners the town is known as Bangkok.

 

King Buddha Loetla Nabhalai (Rama II) 1809-1824

Also known as prince Issarasundhorn or Phuttaloetla Nabhalai and the son of Rama I. He expanded Thailand’s territory and strengthened it’s position in the area. Also the Englishmen, the Frenchmen and the Dutchmen strengthened their position in the South-East Asia during his regency and they colonized many of the countries around Thailand. Rama II became father of 73 children during his lifetime! (38 boys and 35 girls)

 

King Nangklao (Rama III) 1824-1851

Also known as Jessadabodindra. The oldest son of king Rama II. He increased the trade between Siam and China, defended Thailand successfully against Vietnamese troops and conquered parts of Cambodia and almost all Laos. Rama III also built and restored some of the most important temples in Thailand.

 

King Mongkut (Rama IV) 1851-1868

Also known as Vajirayana. The son of Rama II. Many Thais and historians consider him to be on of the most significant kings of the Chakri dynasty. He prevented England and France from colonizing Siam, with lowered import and export duties. King Mongkut spoke English almost fluently. Thailand was one of few countries in the region that was not colonized by an European state. This is still a fact which makes Thai people proud. King Mongkut got infected by malaria and died in October 1868.

 

Other relevant wrecks

 

To set the context, this is a brief description of the other wrecks investigated by Sten Sjostrand which were carrying Thai ceramics.

 

 The advantage of the point-in-time snapshots presented by shipwrecks in analysing historical development can be seen, with tentative dates, in the following photograph:

 

 

 

 

 

Nanyang –

 c. AD 1380

 

The Nanyang is in Malaysian territorial water, 10 nautical miles from the island of Tioman, which was a popular stop for fresh water on the Southeast Asian routes.

 

The remains of the wreck sit upright on the seabed in 54 metres of water.

 

Excavation is intended, some time in the future. So far the site has been only partially surveyed.

 

The construction details noted so far, which include transverse bulkheads and wooden dowels, suggest a ship of the South China Sea type.

 

The remains indicate that the vessel measured about 18×5 metres.

The Nanyang carried an estimated 10-15,000 pieces of Si-Satchanalai celadon, and does not appear to have had any other ceramics on board. This may have been one of the earliest shipments including celadon plates. These are unusual for the spur marks on their face. Spur marks are also seen on the earlier underglaze decorated plates, but on celadon the disfiguring is more marked, and the practice of stacking with disc-shaped supports was thought to have been discontinued soon after celadon production started. By the time the Royal Nanhai sailed in the mid 15th century, spur marks on celadon are rare. Most of the large dishes among the 420 pieces recovered from the Nanyang display spur marks; only five of the thousands from the Royal Nanhai do. Instead, many pieces from the Royal Nanhai have circular scars on the base from tubular stacking supports; fewer Nanyang plates have these, and when they exist they are of larger diameter than the later examples – a size reflecting the earlier practice of stacking in piles.

The foot-ring of the celadon plates on the Nanyang is tapered inwards and is shorter than on later ware; it resembles the foot-ring of the earlier underglaze black decorated plates found on the Turiang. Most of the Nanyang plates have an undecorated exterior and plain rim, and provide a stylistic bridge between the earlier Turiang and the later Longquan.

The Nanyang also carried very large storage jars, maybe as large as the jars of approximately 260

litres on the Turiang and Longquan - much bigger than those on the later Royal Nanhai.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Longquan – c. AD 1390

 

The Longquan may be one of the largest trading ships of the period yet found. Like the Nanyang, the site has been only pre-surveyed, but suggests a vessel over 30 metres long and 8 metres wide.

 

The ship appears to have been built of tropical hardwood with a typical South China Sea design, and to be largely intact, so may eventually provide invaluable details on shipbuilding.

 

 Located 23 nautical miles from shore (15 from the nearest Malaysian island) and in 63 metres of water, this wreck would be time-consuming and costly to excavate.

 

The Longquan appears to have been fully loaded, and the cargo of ceramics is estimated at 100,000 pieces.

 

Samples collected from the surface include white-glazed porcellaneous bowls from southern China and celadon from the kilns of Longquan;

 

 Chinese ware represents perhaps 40% of the ceramics visible. Another 40% is Si-Satchanalai celadon of an early character, the majority distinguished by a rare bluish glaze unknown on the Si-Satchanalai celadon from other wrecks.

 

The decoration of these pieces is more similar to those of the Nanyang than to the more elaborate decoration of the Royal Nanhai celadon.

 

There are various dish shapes and jars; no jarlets have yet been seen. The remainder of the visible ceramics are Sukhothai ware, including underglaze black decorated plates, with fish and flower designs but not the cakra (solar whorl) motif which seems to have appeared around the mid 15th century.

 

 

 

 

 

 

The later Xuande wreck has bowls decorated with cakra, but no fish or flowers. No Vietnamese pieces have been found so far on the Longquan.

1/.Sten Sjostrand, 1996, The Royal Nanhai Shipwreck and its Ceramic Cargo, including preliminary report on the excavations to date, written for the Malacca Museum Corporation, unpublished. Sten Sjostrand, 1998, The Ceramic Cargo of the Royal Nanhai. Unpublished. Royal Nanhai discovered 1995; excavation completed 1998.

2.Royal Nanhai wood sample dating by Beta Analytical Inc. Radiocarbon report no. 125179. Conventional carbon age 560+/-50 years BP. Calibrated with the latest available data set and adjusted for additional year-rings of wood sample, seasoning/construction and the likely age of the ship when lost, the date of shipwreck was estimated as AD 1320-1460 at 95% probability.

3.Similar in the use of figures in landscape in scenes separated by cloud outline borders. See Larry Gotuaco, Rita C Tan and Allison I Diem, 1997, op.cit. p 126.

 

The Longquan is tentatively dated on the basis of the Chinese and Si-Satchanalai celadon to AD 1390. Sappanwood from the ship’s cargo will be recovered as soon as possible for radiocarbon dating.

No Chinese blue-and-white ceramics have yet been found on the Turiang, Nanyang and Longquan, which follow each other in time sequence. The earliest occurrence of Chinese blue-and-white will be interesting. These wares are believed to have been extremely scarce on Southeast Asian trade routes during the early Ming dynasty.

 

Royal Nanhai –

 c. AD 1450

 

The Royal Nanhai was a South China Sea vessel carrying more than 21,000 pieces of mature

Si-Satchanalai celadon,

 

which have provided new insights into mid 15th century techniques and developments.

 

The cargo and position suggest that the ship was heading from Ayudhya to Java or Sumatra. The only wreck to have been fully excavated(1), the Royal Nanhai was found 40 nautical miles east of Kuantan in Peninsular Malaysia, in 46 metres of water.

 

The vessel was about 28x7metres, and built of tropical hardwood of the Hopea species, which grows throughout Southeast Asia.

 

Transverse bulkheads were 1.35metres apart throughout the length of the vessel, and the bulkheads and limited remains of the hull planking were edge-joined with wooden dowels. The single layer of hull planking was 8cm thick. (Schematic plan of the site.)

 

Radiocarbon dating(2) of the timber gave a wide date range of AD 1320-1460. Four pieces of Chinese blue-and-white ware found in a hidden compartment next to the keel were similar(3) to others which have been dated to the Jingtai/Tienshun years of the Interregnum period, 1450-1564, and the style of the Thai ceramics also points to a date in the mid 15th century. (Two Vietnamese blue-and-white covered boxes in the same compartment could be dated only broadly as 15-16th century.)

 

4.Sten Sjostrand, 1997, op.cit.

 

5.The Xuande cannon were of Portuguese design, but probably cast in Asia. Portuguese designs and influence may have preceded the arrival of the Portuguese

 

The Royal Nanhai is therefore about the same age as the Pandanan wreck, found in the Philippines in 1993. Both carried Chinese blue-and-white ware of the Interregnum period, but in both cases it was a small percentage of the cargo; 75% of the Pandanan cargo was from central Vietnam. There were four 14th century Chinese ceramics on the Pandanan wreck, two of them blue-and-white, which are assumed to have been part of an early antique trade. From the first exports in 1328 to the mid 15th century, Chinese blue-and-white ware seems to have been a rare commodity. Analysis of thousands of the Si-Satchanalai celadon dishes distinguished one group which had survived in relatively good condition, with a straight foot-ring, and little re-oxidised colouring in the base. These are likely to have come from a particular kiln which had perfected its technique.

 

Besides Si-Satchanalai celadon and black-glazed storage jars, and various Chinese blackish brown glazed jars, a variety of utilitarian earthenware, probably used by the crew, was recovered. No Sukhothai ware was found on the Royal Nanhai, although there was some in the Pandanan cargo.

Non-ceramic finds included bar-shaped iron ingots and conical lead ingots, and large concretions of iron, which appears to have been shipped in a loose granular form, spaced along the centre line of the ship. The iron shipment must have weighed at least 20 tonnes. Traces and imprints of woven bamboo on the iron ore indicate that it was packed in bags. The Turiang appears to have carried similar granular iron, but no ingots of any kind. Conical lead ingots were found on the Nanyang and Longquan sites.

The hidden compartment contained exquisite items: a carved ivory sword handle (with traces of the vanished blade originally visible on the seabed), a cylindrical lacquer box and cover incised with floral designs, and an elephant-shaped bronze seal with a moon-hare impression.

 

 

 

 

Xuande –

c. AD 1500-1520

 

The Xuande site, which is 30 nautical miles north of the Malaysian island of Tioman, in 53 metres of water, offers no evidence of a ship’s structure.

 

The outline of the finds produced an acoustic image of a vessel approximately 28×8 metres in size, but site investigation produced no evidence of timber. Scattered ceramics on the surface of the seabed outlined the shape of a wreck, as did side-scan sonar, but the finds extended only a few inches into the muddy sea floor. Despite extensive scanning with a sub-bottom profiler and a magnetometer, plus probing three meters into the sea bed with water jets, no wood fragments at all could be found.(4)

 

The ceramics recovered include Chinese blue-and-white porcelain and monochrome white-glazed ceramics, and Si-Satchanalai and Sukhothai underglaze black decorated ware.

Seven of the Chinese pieces display the reign mark of the emperor Xuande (1426-1435), but two cannon imply that the wreck post-dated the arrival of the Portuguese in Asia(5), and date the wreck to the early sixteenth century. The ceramics may have been commemorative, as Xuande-reign pottery was highly regarded, rather than early counterfeits. The Sukhothai samples, with the ‘solar whorl’ motif believed to be from the later years of the Sukhothai kilns, confirm this later date

 

 

 

 

 

 

Shipwreck treasure In Malaysia

Sunken Treasure Uncovered

 

 

Mention the country Malaysia, people will probably tell you about the gastronomic delights of Penang, the Portuguese / Dutch ruins of Malacca and the orang-utans of Sarawak. Visitors here may rant about the captivating corals of Pulau Redang and white pristine beaches of Tioman. Talk exploration, there’s the National Park of Pahang

and the enchanting Mount Kinabalu. Famed for its lime-stone hills, Ipoh is also known for its beautiful women folk, which also happens to be the birth place of former Bond-girl, Michelle Yeoh.

 

By the way, the world famous shoe designer, Jimmy Choo is also Malaysian, did you know that?

Yeah, all the stuff associated with this charming place called Malaysia is nice and each topic richly deserves a separate lens. But today, I’d like to talk about Malaysian treasures.

 

No, not of the legal tender kind but in the form of artefacts salvaged from the bottom of the South China Sea and the Malacca Straits.

 

They are now on display at the National Museum of Malaysia and will be there for the remaining of 2011. I took some shots and thought of sharing them with you.

It’s been said that shipwrecks are like time capsules. The things they leave behind tell you a bit about the past; yup, we’re talking history here. Having said that, I’m sure you’d agree that unless you have a PhD in archaeology specializing in ancient Asian civilization, looking at shipwreck remains may not tell you very much.

 

Good thing though the museum provided some information on the ships and the exhibits so your’s truly didn’t look like a complete ignoramus.

 

That plus other people’s views on the subject (and my, ahem.. basic knowledge of Malayan history) sort of heightened my appreciation for shipwrecks (that didn’t sound quite right, did it?

 

What I really meant was my deepest sympathies for those who perished, but I appreciate the evidence they left behind).

 

Table of Contents

  1. 1.    WHAT LIES BENEATH THE MALAYSIAN SEAS?
  2. 2.    Malaya History in Brief
  3. 3.    A Ring-handled Storage Urn
  4. 4.    THE “TANJUNG SIMPANG MENGAYAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 960 – CE 1126)
  5. 5.    Who were the Songs ?
  6. 6.    EMPEROR TAIZU (CE 960 – CE 976) OF THE SONG DYNASTY

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1.WHAT LIES BENEATH THE MALAYSIAN SEAS?

2.Malaya History in Brief

3.A Ring-handled Storage Urn

4.THE “TANJUNG SIMPANG MENGAYAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 960 – CE 1126)

5.Who were the Songs ?

6.EMPEROR TAIZU (CE 960 – CE 976) OF THE SONG DYNASTY

7.THE “TURIANG ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1370)

8.Why were there so manyThai & Vietnamese ceramics on board a Chinese Ship?

9.Close Shot of a Celadon plate from The Turiang

10.Video on Shipwreck Expeditions in Malaysia

11.Books on Pottery

12.Books on Ceramics

13.THE “NANYANG” SHIPWRECK (CE 1380)

14.Close Shot of a Storage Jar from the Nanyang

15.THE “LONGQUAN” SHIPWRECK (CE 1400)

16.Celadon Jars from the Longquan

17.Books on Treasure Hunters

18.Books on Shipwrecks

19.THE “ROYAL NANHAI” SHIPWRECK (CE 1460)

20.Lacquer Box from the Royal Nanhai

21.Video on The Royal Nanhai Expedition

22.THE “XUANDE” SHIPWRECK (CE 1540)

23.Bronze Bangles from The Xuande

24.Blue & White Arabic-style Ewer from The Xuande

25.A little bit about the Emperor Xuande of The Ming Dynasty

26.Some Information on Admiral Zheng He (Cheng Ho)

27.Books on Malaysia

28.Books on Chinese Civilization

29.Books on South-east Asia

30.THE “SINGTAI” SHIPWRECK (CE 1550)

31.Covered box from the Singtai Shipwreck

32.THE “NASSAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 1606)

33.A bottle from The Nassau

34.The Admiral who led the Dutch fleet in the “Battle of Cape Rachado”

35.THE PORTUGUESE ADMIRAL WHO LED THE INVASION OF MALACCA (CE 1511)

36.AMONG THE BEST BEACHES AND DIVE SITES IN THE WORLD

37.Best Diving Spots and Beaches in Malaysia

38.THE “WANLI” SHIPWRECK (CE 1630)

39.Joss Stick Holder salvaged from the Wanli Shipwreck

40.Video on Wanli Expedition

41.The Emperor Wanli (CE 1563 – CE 1620)

42.THE “RISDAM ” SHIPWRECK (CE 1727)

43.A Model of “The Risdam”

44.THE “DIANA” SHIPWRECK (CE 1817)

45.BIG BIG MONEY FROM SHIPWRECK SALVAGE WORKS !!!

46.How to Scuba Dive

47.Scuba Diving

48.Various figurines found from the Diana Shipwreck

49.A Model of “The Diana”

50.The Qing Dynasty (CE 1644 – CE 1911)

51.THE “DESARU” SHIPWRECK (CE 1830)

52.Blue and white dish from the Desaru Shipwreck

53.Video on Desaru Expedition

54.THE “RANEE” SHIPWRECK (CE 1923)

55.MALAYSIAN PEOPLE TODAY

56.New Guestbook Comments

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WHAT LIES BENEATH THE MALAYSIAN SEAS?

Unravelling the Secrets of The Past

 

 

Malaya History in Brief

 

 

I’ll tell you a little bit about Malayan history. Not that all these shipwrecks are tied to Malayan history. But I was hoping to give you a glimpse of the events that took place here when these shipwrecks occured off our shores.

 

But I’ll keep it short so as not to bore you.. Also please note that the town Malacca is often quoted because a lot of stuff happened here. It’s like the icing of the Malayan cake, get it? So please don’t confuse Malacca with Malaya. One is a town, the other is an entire country.

Imagine a primordial civilization where the early Chinese, Arab and European merchant ships converge in this tropical port-town called Malacca and carrying on board spices, precious stones, silk, porcelain, food stuff and even luxuries such as kingfisher feather, elephant tusks, rhinoceros horns and pearls from the region.

 

Hundreds of Chinese “junks” dot the Malacca Straits and dozens of sail ships ferry traders and missionaries to our shores.

 

Looming in the distance, a darker picture emerges; a fleet of Portuguese warships laden with canons prepare for an all-out invasion of Malacca (CE 1511).

 

They capture Malacca after a fierce battle with the Malacca Sultanate, which later goes on to establish the Johor Sultanate. The Dutch, equally tempted to control this lucrative trade route subsequently overthrows the Portuguese with the help of the Johor Sultanate (CE 1641).

 

But the Dutch then surrenders Malacca to the British (CE 1824) who then rules the British colonies of Singapore, Penang and Malacca (CE 1826 – CE 1946).

 

And finally, the Second World War; the British relinquishes power to the Japanese without a fight but reclaims it three years later. That’s Malayan history condensed. After gaining independence from the British in 1957 it became Malaysia..

Those were the days when this peninsula was known as “Tanah Melayu” which is translated to English as “Malay Land” or simply “Malaya”.

 

From the writings of the Greek mathematician and geographer, Claudius Ptolemy (CE 90 – CE 168), we know that the early Europeans traversed our waters sometime in the first century.

 

The Chinese are also believed to have sailed our seas during the Han Dynasty (BCE 206 – CE 220) and had trade ties with the Roman Empire. That’s a long way back.

 

And the fact that Malacca Straits was part of the most happening trade route in the early days (known as the “Silk Road”), can you imagine the amount of maritime traffic here?

 

And considering the perils of sea travel; storms, pirates, treacherous reefs, people dozing off at the wheels, many poor souls must have succumbed to the dangers.

 

Over two thousand years of maritime trade, the ocean floor of the South China Sea would have become a graveyard of numerous shipwrecks.

 

The actual number of shipwrecks here is anyone’s guess. A Malaysian Minister recently announced there’s been 75 reported shipwrecks in our waters alone, and many more were not reported.

 

 Hmm… think about all the wreckage still lying there just waiting to be discovered? By the way, some of the shipwrecks discovered was as recent as in 2003, so I won’t be surprised if another discovery is made pretty soon.

Before I digress further into outer-space, let me get back to the topic at hand which is to show you the items salvaged from the Malaysian seas.

 

 I’ve arranged the photos in the chronological order of the shipwreck events with accompanying notes of the wreckage and recovered items.

 

To get a perspective of the TIMES during which these mishaps took place, I have included snippets of other information I thought was relevant.

 

 

 

 

A Ring-handled Storage Urn

An Antique Featured in The Exhibition

 

THE “TANJUNG SIMPANG MENGAYAU” SHIPWRECK (CE 960 – CE 1126)

The oldest shipwreck discovered from Malaysian waters

 

 

The wrecksite was found by a local fisherman in 2003. It was located 700 meters from the shores of Tanjung Simpang Mengayau, Kudat, Sabah. under 12 meters of water.

 

The artefacts included bronze gongs and ceramic wares believed to originate from the Song Dynasty of China (CE 960 – CE 1276).

 

This ship may have been sunk by strong north-east monsoon waves and then broken up almost instantly as the pounding waves smashed it against the coral rocks . Little remains of the timber that made up the ship.

 A sample was sent for analysis and the results indicated that it came from a tree species only found in temperate climate, which suggests that the ship was built in China

There was also extensive looting, so that may explain the limited items on display (couldn’t see any bronze gongs!).

 

 

Who were the Songs ?

 

 

This ewer has been fired with an olive green glaze and is appears to come from the Northern Song Dynasty of China.

Now a little background on the Songs. Who were they? Sources say they were the most advanced society of their time. That was around CE 1000. Credit goes to them for advancing international trade even with people from as far as the Arabian peninsula and east Africa.

 

They were also leading in the technological fields of agriculture, iron-workings and printing.

 

Not only that, they initiated an orderly system of government administration. May not be a big deal today, but people actually had to pass public examinations to get jobs as government officials.

But sadly, I read that the practice of binding feet of women flourished during the Song Dynasty (although it started with its predecessors, the T’angs).
I’m not getting into the details of binding little girls feet…it’s simply too ugly to describe.

EMPEROR TAIZU (CE 960 – CE 976) OF THE SONG DYNASTY

 

This emperor was responsible for unifying China, establishing a central government with an effective system of administration, promoting technological innovation and foreign diplomatic relations.

 

 

 

Indonesian Shipwreck treasure

 

A mind-bogglingly huge treasure trove found on a 1000-year-old shipwreck by Indonesian fishermen is going on sale in Jakarta Wednesday.

 

It’s the biggest treasure ever found in Asia, and comparable to the most valuable shipwreck ever found period, the Atocha, an early 17th century Spanish vessel found off the Florida coast.

On sale will be 271,000 individual pieces, including precious gems, Iranian glassware and Imperial Chinese porcelain all dating back to the first millennium A.D. The estimated value of the auction is a staggering 80 million dollars.

The pieces include the largest known vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125)

 

 

 

 

 

INDONESIA TREASURE SALE IN SINGAPORE CENTURY 10 Indonesia Treasures Worth 720 Billion Found In North Cirebon.

Treasure recovered from a ship that sank in the waters of Indonesia 1,000 years ago, eventually to be sold. This happened eight years after the goods from the 10th century AD were found.

 

Approximately 250 thousand objects, including ceramics, crystals, gems and gold were discovered by divers in Cirebon, West Java. Now, some of these treasures will be sold in Singapore. Two years earlier, these treasures auctioned in Indonesia failed in 2010 because there are no takers.

 

Treasure is estimated to be worth around Rp 720 billion. The existence of the treasure was originally revealed by the fishermen who found the wreckage of a ship as far as 187 feet below sea level.

According to Luc Heymans, director of Cosmix Underwater Research Ltd.., A company based in Dubai who raised these treasures from the sea, a remnant is the greatest treasure ever found in Southeast Asia in terms of quantity and quality.

 

Treasure worth Rp 720 billion was taken from shipwrecks in the waters of the Java Sea, north of Cirebon, by Paradigm PT Putra Sejahtera (PPS) in collaboration with the Cosmix Underwater Research Ltd (Cosmix).

 

Treasure hunters from Belgium, Luc Heymens, which is involved in the project says it needs to dive 22 thousand times to transport the treasure from the ocean floor within the period February 2004 until October 2005.

Belgian treasure-hunter Luc Heymans said the haul was one of the biggest found in Asia and was comparable to the most valuable shipwreck ever found anywhere, that of the Atocha, a Spanish vessel which sank off Florida in 1622

Items that are on sale include rubies, pearls, gold jewelry, rock crystal from the Fatimid, Iranian glassware and porcelain from China’s imperial heritage beautifully around the year 976 AD

Details of the auction treasures include the largest vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125), ceramic Yue Mise of the Five Dynasties era (907-960) with a special green color to the Emperor. There are also 11 000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 sapphires and more than 2,200 red agate.

And

 

 famous Yue Mise wares from the Five Dynasties (907-960), with the green colouring exclusive to the emperor.

 

Around 11,000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 dark red sapphires and more than 2,200 garnets were also pulled from the depths by [Belgian treasure-hunter Luc] Heymans and his team of international divers.

 

It took 22,000 dives to bring it all to shore. There was a great deal of trade between Arabia, India, Java and Sumatra back then, but even so, whoever was on that ship must have been a big shot. Heymans speculates that all the Imperial porcelain suggests there was an ambassador on board. There was so much of it that when he first dove to the site, all he could see was a mountain of porcelain, no wood from the ship structure at all.

Recovering the treasure turned out to be the least of Heymans’ difficulties. He had arranged permits for the excavation and retrieval of the shipwreck, but the Indonesian police still arrested two of the divers. They stayed in jail for a month while Heymans worked out the problem. Meanwhile, other treasure-hunters tried to poach the find, the Indonesian navy got all up in his grill and the government spent a couple of years drafting new legislation to deal with the discovery.

Finally he cut a deal: the Indonesian government declared some of the treasure national heritage and therefore not salable, and it gets 50% of the sale proceeds from the rest of the treasure. So Heymans and his backers will have to settle for a mere $40 million at minimum.

Source  under Medieval, Treasures.

Red more

“At the time there was a lot of trade going on between Arabia and India and coming down to Java and Sumatra,” said Heymans, who led the salvage effort and subsequent battles with Indonesian officialdom to bring the treasure to light.

“But  we think there must have been an ambassador on board because so many pieces are imperial Chinese porcelain.”

Descending for the first time onto the wreck site north of Cirebon, West Java, in 2004, the veteran diver said he couldn’t believe what appeared out of the gloom on the sea floor.

“The site was 40 metres (130 feet) by 40 metres and it was just a mountain of porcelain. You couldn’t see any wood,” he said.

And  not just any porcelain. The pieces include the largest known vase from the Liao Dynasty (907-1125) and famous Yue Mise wares from the Five Dynasties (907-960), with the green colouring exclusive to the emperor.

Around 11,000 pearls, 4,000 rubies, 400 dark red sapphires and more than 2,200 garnets were also pulled from the depths by Heymans and his team of international divers.

It took 22,000 dives to bring it all up but Heymans said the salvage work, from February 2004 to October 2005, was the easy part. “All the major problems began after we got the stuff on shore,” he said.

The police arrested two of the divers even though Heymans’ company, Cosmix Underwater Research Ltd., and his local partner, Paradigma Putra Sejathera PT, had painstakingly arranged survey and excavation licences.

The divers spent a month behind bars before the mix-up was resolved.

There were also run-ins with the Indonesian navy, efforts by rivals to move in on the wreck, a year of litigation and two years of waiting while Indonesia drafted new regulations to govern such work.

Some of Heymans’ backers who covered him to the tune of 10 million dollars began to worry that their investment would be lost at the bottom of the Java Strait, he said.

“I feel some relief now because so many people told me I would never be able to get the permits and get the stuff out of the country,” he said. He adds, however, that it was one of the most difficult ordeals of his career.

By coincidence, officials last week said another treasure hunter who is well-known to Indonesia, Michael Hatcher, is under investigation for allegedly plundering valuable Chinese porcelain from a new wreck.

Marine and Fisheries Ministry official Adji Sularso said the probe came after authorities seized 2,360 items dating from the Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) which Hatcher was allegedly trying to smuggle out of the country.

The porcelain was loaded in two ships that were intercepted in waters off West Java in September, he added.

No charges have been laid but police said Friday that Hatcher was a fugitive and alerted border officials to block him from attempting to flee the country. His current whereabouts are unknown.

Hatcher, who was reportedly born in Britain but grew up as an orphan in Australia, is believed to have made 17 million dollars from auctioning gold ingots and 160,000 pieces of porcelain salvaged from wreck found in the Riau islands in the mid-1980s.

Under the terms of Heymans’ arrangement with the Indonesian government, which declared some of his treasure to be of national heritage, the state will take 50 percent of the proceeds of Wednesday’s auction.

The remainder will be shared among the salvagers.

The auction will be conducted by the Indonesian government, bidders will have to front up a deposit of 16 million dollars to take part and the artefacts will be sold as a single lot. The deadline for registration is Monday.

“We hope to get more than 80 million dollars — it all depends on how the auction runs,” Marine and Fisheries Ministry official Ansori Zawawi said.

Bidders are expected from China, Singapore, Japan and Taiwan, he added.

 

CONCLUTION

 

1. The Turiang also tells us that the dominance of Chinese ceramics in export markets during the Song (CE 960 – CE 1276) and early Yuan (CE 1271 – CE 1368) dynasties later faced serious competition from Vietnamese and Thai ceramics (notably from the 14th century onwards during the Ming Dynasty).

 

2. Some believe it was due to Chinese potters fleeing the Mongol invasion in northern China for safer pastures in Thailand and Vietnam, implying a transfer of technical know-how of ceramic making from Chinese migrants to their would-be competitors. Some ship builders are also thought to have left China in CE 1371.

3. It has also been suggested that the decline in Chinese ceramics may be due to the ‘Ming ban’.

The ‘Ming ban’ was a ban imposed by the Emperor Hongwu on all maritime activities primarily to curb piracy activities.

 

Apparently this move was counter-productive and caused untold misery to the coastal communities and legitimate sea traders.

 

This ban not only made it painful for business, it also made it tough for foreigners to visit China.

 

4.At that time, the only way for foreigners to visit Ming China was via the tribute system.

 

5,Imperial Five dynasty Celadon

 

 

 

THE END @ COPYRIGHT @ 2012

Via Dolorosa Of Jerusalem, Jalan Kesengsaraan Jesus Kristus

Via Dolorosa Of Jerusalem

Created By

Dr Iwan suwandy,MHA

Copyright @ 2012

Introduction

sumeber

http://driwancybermuseum.wordpress.com/2012/09/30/via-dolorosa-of-jerusalem-jalan-kesengsaraan-jesus-kristus/

 

Bagi Yang belum pernah ke Jerusalewm, khusus saya tampilkan kisah jalan kesengsaraan Jesus Kristus yang dikenal sebagai jalan dolorosa, Ikutilah kisah ini dengan khidtmat untuk merasakan bagaimana Sang Penebus berkorban untuk kita manusia

For Which had never been to Jerusalewm, my particular story show the sufferings of Jesus Christ, known as a dolorosa, khidtmat Take this story with a feel for how the Messiah’s sacrifice for us humans

 

Jerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (June 1900)
[Church of the Holy Sepulchre] in 1892

Yerusalem (El Quds esh Sherif, Yerushalayim) (Juni 1900)
[Gereja Makam Kudus] tahun 1902

Gereja tersebut  Sekarang

Gereja Makam Suci

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church Now

//

Church of the Holy Sepulcher

The Church of the Holy Sepulcher is located in the Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem, and is known as the Church of the Resurrection to Eastern Orthodox Christians.

It is revered as the site of Golgotha or Calvary, the spot where Christ was crucified. It is also widely believed to be the site of his burial (sepulcher).

Gereja Makam Kudus terletak di kuartal Christian dari Kota Tua Yerusalem, dan dikenal sebagai Gereja Kebangkitan ke Timur Kristen Ortodoks.

Hal ini dihormati sebagai situs Golgota atau Kalvari, tempat di mana Kristus disalibkan. Hal ini juga diyakini sebagai tempat pemakaman-Nya (kubur).

Ini adalah suci dari situs Kristen, dan telah menjadi tujuan ziarah sejak abad keempat. Ini Apakah terletak kurang dari 2.000 meter dari

It is the holiest of Christian sites, and has been a pilgrimage destination since the fourth century. It Is located less than 2,000 feet from

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem, Israel Photo
Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) with Dome of the Rock and El Aqsa Mosque, Jerusalem

Temple Mount (Haram esh Sharif) dengan Kubah Batu dan El Aqsa, Yerusalem

Kubah Batu dan Temple Mount, yang merupakan situs tersuci dalam agama Yahudi dan ketiga paling suci dalam Islam.

Seperti Golgota adalah akhir dari perjalanan terakhir Kristus,

Gereja Makam Kudus ditetapkan pada penghentian

Via Dolorosa,

rute dia berjalan dari ia divonis oleh Pontius Pilatus dan penjara untuk penyaliban dan penguburan.

.

the Dome of the Rock and Temple Mount, which are the holiest sites in Judaism and the third holiest in Islam.

As Golgotha is the end of Christ’s last journey,

the Church of the Holy Sepulcher is set at the termination of

the Via Dolorosa,

the route he walked from his condemnation by Pontius Pilate and imprisonment to his crucifixion and burial.

The Via Dolorosa begins at

the Lion’s Gate (the first Station of the Cross)

in the Muslim Quarter of the Old City, and contains the 14 Stations of the Cross.

Via Dolorosa dimulai pada

singa Gate (Stasiun pertama dari Salib)

dalam kuartal Muslim di Kota Tua, dan berisi 14 Salib.

stasi 9 (stasiun 9)

Stasiun 10 sampai 14 Salib adalah semua dalam gereja.

Stations 10 to 14 of the Cross are all within the church.

Station 10 is where Jesus was stripped,

and is just outside the entrance to the church. Station 11 is just inside the entrance, marking the spot where he was nailed to the cross. The Rock of Golgotha marks the spot where he died.

Stasiun 10 adalah di mana Yesus dilucuti,

dan hanya di luar pintu masuk gereja. Stasiun 11 hanya di pintu masuk, menandai tempat di mana ia dipaku di salib. The Rock dari Golgota menandai tempat di mana ia meninggal.

Ini adalah Station 12,

This is Station 12,

and here is the church’s lovely Medici altar from Florence, Italy.

dan di sini indah gereja Medici altar dari Florence, Italia.

Stasiun 13

Station 13

is where he was taken down from the cross,

 

and is where there is a statue of Our Lady of Sorrows.

adalah di mana IA dibawa turun dari salib,

 

dan di mana ada patung Our Lady of Sorrows.

Stasiun 14

Station 14

is the tomb and place of resurrection, and is inside the chapel.

The actual Rock of the Calvary, around which the Church of the Resurrection was built, is here and visible under glass on either side of the main altar.

Most scholars believe in the historic accuracy of the geography involved in the location of this Christian site. It appears that early Christians held religious rites on this site beginning with the resurrection.

adalah makam dan tempat kebangkitan, dan di dalam kapel.

The Rock sebenarnya dari Kalvari, sekitar yang Gereja Kebangkitan dibangun, di sini dan terlihat di bawah kaca di kedua sisi altar utama.

Kebanyakan sarjana percaya pada akurasi bersejarah geografi yang terlibat dalam lokasi ini situs Kristen. Tampaknya orang-orang Kristen awal diadakan ritual keagamaan pada awal situs dengan kebangkitan.

Setelah kota ini diduduki oleh Romawi, Kaisar Hadrian membangun kuil Aphrodite di sini di 66 AD.

After the city was occupied by Romans, the Emperor Hadrian built a temple to Aphrodite here in 66 AD.

When Constantine converted to Christianity in 312 AD, he began construction on the Church of the Holy Sepulcher in 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgotha was reputedly uncovered by the builders. His mother, St. Helena, is said to have found three crosses, one of which was supposedly the True Cross.

The church was almost completely destroyed in 1009, and it was subsequently partially rebuilt. It was this Church of the Resurrection where the knights of the First Crusade prayed.

Their leader, Godfrey of Bouillon, became the first Christian King of Jerusalem and “Defender of the Holy Sepulcher.”

The history of the church can be seen in the mixtures of various architecture, which is a mixture of Byzantine, medieval, Crusader, and modern elements. Additionally, the church is jointly administered by orthodox and apostolic Christians from Greece, Armenia, and Ethiopia—in addition to the Roman Catholic Church. Their artistic and architectural influences are also evident.

Ketika Konstantin menjadi Kristen pada tahun 312, ia mulai konstruksi pada Gereja Makam Kudus di 326 AD.

The Rock of Golgota konon ditemukan oleh para pembangun. Ibunya, St Helena, dikatakan telah menemukan tiga salib, salah satunya adalah seharusnya Salib Sejati.

Gereja hampir sepenuhnya hancur pada 1009, dan kemudian dibangun kembali sebagian. Inilah Gereja Kebangkitan di mana para ksatria Perang Salib Pertama berdoa.

Pemimpin mereka, Godfrey dari Bouillon, menjadi Kristen pertama Raja Yerusalem dan “Pembela Makam Kudus.”

Sejarah gereja dapat dilihat dalam campuran arsitektur berbagai, yang merupakan campuran dari elemen Byzantium, Abad Pertengahan, Tentara Salib, dan modern.

Selain itu, gereja secara bersama-sama dikelola oleh orang-orang Kristen ortodoks dan apostolik dari Yunani, Armenia, dan Ethiopia-di samping Gereja Katolik Roma. Pengaruh mereka artistik dan arsitektur juga jelas

look more pictures related with Via  dolorosa’

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet

Jesus Mocked by the Soldiers, 1865, by Manet

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The History Of Via Dolorosa

Via Dolorosa

 

 

 
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Il Spasimo, Jesus carrying the cross, by Raphael, 1516

The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem.ogv
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The Via Dolorosa in Jerusalem

The Via Dolorosa (Latin,”Way of Grief” or “Way of Suffering”) is a street, in two parts, within the Old City of Jerusalem, held to be the path that Jesus walked, carrying his cross, on the way to his crucifixion. The winding route from the Antonia Fortress west to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre — a distance of about 600 metres (2,000 feet) — is a celebrated place of Christian pilgrimage. The current route has been established since the 18th century, replacing various earlier versions.[1] It is today marked by nine Stations of the Cross; there have been fourteen stations since the late 15th century,[1] with the remaining five stations being inside the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.

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[edit] History

The main roads – the cardines (north-south) and decumani (east-west) – in Aelia Capitolina. The Via Dolorosa is the northern decumanus

The Via Dolorosa is the modern remnant of one of the two main east-west routes (Decumanus Maximus) through Aelia Capitolina, as built by Hadrian. Standard Roman city design places the main east-west road through the middle of the city, but the presence of the Temple Mount in the middle of this position required Hadrian’s planners to add an extra east-west road at its north. In addition to the usual central north-south road (cardo), which in Jerusalem headed straight up the western hill, a second major north-south road was added down the line of the Tyropoeon Valley; these two cardines converge near the Damascus Gate, close to the Via Dolorosa. If the Via Dolorosa had continued west in a straight line across the two routes, it would have formed a triangular block too narrow to construct standard buildings; the decumanus (now the Via Dolorosa) west of the Cardo was constructed south of its eastern portion, creating the discontinuity in the road still present today.

The first reports of a pilgrimage route corresponding to the Biblical events dates from the Byzantine era; during that time, a Holy Thursday procession started from the top of the Mount of Olives, stopped in Gethsemane, entered the Old City at the Lions’ Gate, and followed approximately the current route to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre;[2] however, there were no actual stops during the route along the Via Dolorosa itself.[1] By the 8th century, however, the route went via the western hill instead; starting at Gethsemene, it continued to the alleged House of Caiaphas on Mount Zion, then to Hagia Sophia (viewed as the site of the Praetorium), and finally to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre.[1]

Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

During the Middle Ages, the Roman Catholics of Jerusalem split into two factions, one controlling the churches on the western hill, the other the churches on the eastern hill; they each supported the route which took pilgrims past the churches the faction in question controlled,[1] one arguing that the Roman Governor’s mansion (Praetorium) was on Mount Zion (where they had churches), the other that it was near the Antonia Fortress (where they had churches).

In fourteenth century, Pope Clement VI achieved some consistency in route with the Bull, “Nuper Carissimae,” establishing the Franciscan Custody of the Holy Land, and charging the friars with “the guidance, instruction, and care of Latin pilgrims as well as with the guardianship, maintenance, defense and rituals of the Catholic shrines of the Holy Land.”[3] Beginning around 1350, Franciscan friars conducted official tours of the Via Dolorosa, from the Holy Sepulchre to the House of Pilate—opposite the direction traveled by Christ in Bible.[4] The route was not reversed until c. 1517 when the Franciscans began to follow the events of Christ’s Passion chronologically-setting out from the House of Pilate and ending with the crucifixion at Golgotha.[5]

From the onset of Franciscan administration, the development of the Via Dolorosa was intimately linked to devotional practices in Europe. The Friars Minor were ardent proponents of devotional meditation as a means to access and understand the Passion. The hours and guides they produced, such as Meditaciones vite Christi (MVC), were widely circulated in Europe.

Necessarily, such devotional literature expanded on the terse accounts of the Via Dolorosa in the Bible; the period of time between Christ’s condemnation by Pilate and his resurrection receives no more than one or two lines in all four gospels. Throughout the fourteenth century, a number of events, marked by stations on the Via Dolorosa, emerged in devotional literature and on the physical site in Jerusalem.

The first stations to appear in pilgrimage accounts were the Encounter with Simon of Cyrene and the Daughters of Jerusalem. These were followed by a host of other, more or less ephemeral, stations, such as the House of Veronica, the House of Simon the Pharisee, the House of the Evil Rich Man Who Would Not Give Alms to the Poor, and the House of Herod.[6] In his book, The Stations of the Cross, Herbert Thurston notes: “…Whether we look to the sites which, according to the testimony of travelers, were held in honor in Jerusalem itself, or whether we look to the imitation pilgrimages which were carved in stone or set down in books for the devotion of the faithful at home, we must recognize that there was a complete want of any sort of uniformity in the enumeration of the Stations.”[7]

This negotiation of stations, between the European imagination and the physical site would continue for the next six centuries. Only in the 19th century was there general accord on the position of the first, fourth, fifth, and eighth stations. Ironically, archaeological discoveries in the 20th century now indicate that the early route of the Via Dolorosa on the Western hill was actually a more realistic path.[8]

The equation of the present Via Dolorosa with the biblical route is based on the assumption that the Praetorium was adjacent to the Antonia Fortress. However, like Philo, the late-first-century writer Josephus testifies that the Roman governors of Roman Judaea, who governed from Caesarea Maritima on the coast, stayed in Herod’s palace while they were in Jerusalem,[9] carried out their judgements on the pavement immediately outside it, and had those found guilty flogged there;[10] Josephus indicates that Herod’s palace is on the western hill,[11] and it has recently (2001) been rediscovered under a corner of the Jaffa Gate citadel. Furthermore, it is now confirmed by archaeology that prior to Hadrian‘s 2nd-century alterations (see Aelia Capitolina), the area adjacent to the Antonia Fortress was a large open-air pool of water.[8]

In 2009, Israeli archaeologist Shimon Gibson found the remains of a large paved courtyard south of the Jaffa Gate between two fortification walls with an outer gate and an inner one leading to a barracks. The courtyard contained a raised platform of around 2 square metres (22 sq ft). A survey of the ruins of the Praetorium, long thought to be the Roman barracks, indicated it was no more than a watchtower. These findings together “correspond perfectly” with the route as described in the Gospels and matched details found in other ancient writings.

The route traced by Gibson begins in a parking lot in the Armenian Quarter, then passes the Ottoman walls of the Old City next to the Tower of David near the Jaffa Gate before turning towards the Church of the Holy Sepulcher. The new research also indicates the crucifixion site is around 20 metres (66 ft) from the traditionally accepted site.[12][13]

Shop on the Via Dolorosa near Eece Homo Arch, Jerusalem, 1891

[edit] Current traditional stations

Sign along Via Dolorosa, Jerusalem.

The traditional route starts just inside the Lions’ Gate (St. Stephen’s Gate), at the Umariya Elementary School, near the location of the former Antonia Fortress, and makes its way westward through the Old City to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre. The current enumeration is partly based on a circular devotional walk, organised by the Franciscans in the 14th century; their devotional route, heading east along the Via Dolorosa (the opposite direction to the usual westward pilgrimage), began and ended at the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, also passing through both Gethsemene and Mount Zion during its course.

Whereas the names of many roads in Jerusalem are translated into English, Hebrew, and Arabic for their signs, the name Via Dolorosa is used in all three languages.

[edit] Trial by Pilate: stations one and two

The Monastery of the Flagellation

The first and second stations commemorate the events of Jesus’ encounter with Pontius Pilate, the former in memorial of the biblical account of the trial and Jesus’ subsequent scourging,[14] and the latter in memorial of the Ecce Homo speech, attributed by the Gospel of John to Pilate.[15] On the site are three early 19th-century Roman Catholic churches, taking their names from these events; the Church of the Condemnation and Imposition of the Cross, Church of the Flagellation, and Church of Ecce Homo; a large area of Roman paving, beneath these structures, was traditionally regarded as the pavement (Greek: lithostratos) described by the Bible as the location of Pilate’s judgment of Jesus.[16]

However, as mentioned above, scholars are now fairly certain that Pilate carried out his judgements at Herod’s Palace at the southwest side of the city, rather than at this point in the city’s northeast corner.[8] Archaeological studies have confirmed that the Roman pavement, at these two traditional stations, was built by Hadrian as the flooring of the eastern of two Forums.[8] Prior to Hadrian’s changes, the area had been a large open-air pool of water, the Strouthion Pool mentioned by Josephus;[8] the pool still survives, under vaulting added by Hadrian so that the Forum could be built over it, and can be accessed from the portion of Roman paving under the Convent of the Sisters of Zion, and from the Western Wall Tunnel.

The Ecce Homo Arch. Originally triple-arched, it is now mostly hidden in the surrounding fabric.

Adjacent to the Church of Ecce Homo is an arch, running across the Via Dolorosa; this arch was originally the central arch of a triple-arched gateway, built by Hadrian as the main entrance to the aforementioned Forum.[8] When later building works narrowed the Via Dolorosa, the two arches on either side of the central arch became incorporated into a succession of buildings; on the northern side, the Church of Ecce Homo now preserves the north arch; on the southern side, in the 16th century the south arch.

The three northern churches were gradually built after the site was partially acquired in 1857 by Marie-Alphonse Ratisbonne, a Jesuit who intended to use it as a base for proselytism against Judaism.[17] The most recent church of the three – the Church of the Flagellation – was built during the 1920s; above the high altar, under the central dome, is a mosaic on a golden ground showing The Crown of Thorns Pierced by Stars, and the church also contains modern stained-glass windows depicting Christ Scourged at the Pillar, Pilate Washing his Hands, and the Freeing of Barabbas. The Convent, which includes the Church of Ecce Homo, was the first part of the complex to be built, and contains the most extensive archaeological remains. Prior to Ratisbonne’s purchase, the site had lain in ruins for many centuries; the Crusaders had previously constructed a set of buildings here, but they were later abandoned[clarification needed].

 

[edit] The three Falls: stations three, seven, and nine

The exterior of the Polish Catholic Chapel at the third station

Although no such thing is recounted by the canonical Gospels, and no official Christian tenet makes these claims, popular tradition has it that Jesus stumbled three times during his walk along the route; this belief is currently manifested in the identification of the three stations at which these falls occurred. The tradition of the three falls appears to be a faded memory of an earlier belief in The Seven Falls;[18] these were not necessarily literal falls, but rather depictions of Jesus coincidentally being prostrate, or nearly so, during performance of some other activity. In the (then) famous late-15th-century depiction of the Seven Falls, by Adam Krafft, there is only one of the Falls that is actually on the subject of Jesus stumbling under the weight of the cross, the remaining Falls being either encounters with people on the journey, the crucifixion itself, or the removal of the dead body from the cross.

The ninth station, signified by the black disc on the wall. The alley is parallel to the Via Dolorosa, but some way to its south

The first fall is represented by the current third station, located at the west end of the eastern fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the 19th-century Polish Catholic Chapel; this chapel was constructed by the Armenian Catholics, who though ethnically Armenian, are actually based in Poland. The 1947–48 renovations, to the 19th-century chapel, were carried out with the aid of a large financial grant from the Polish army. The site was previously one of the city’s Turkish baths.

The second fall is represented by the current seventh station, located at a major crossroad junction, adjacent to a Franciscan chapel, built in 1875. In Hadrian’s era, this was the junction of the main cardo (north-south road), with the decumanus (east-west road) which became the Via Dolorosa; the remains of a tetrapylon, which marked this Roman junction, can be seen in the lower level of the Franciscan chapel. Prior to the 16th century, this location was the 8th and last station.[1]

The third fall is represented by the current ninth station, which is not actually located on the Via Dolorosa, instead being located at the entrance to the Ethiopian Orthodox Monastery and the Coptic Orthodox Monastery of Saint Anthony, which together form the roof structure of the subterranean Chapel of Saint Helena in the Church of the Holy Sepulchre; the Coptic and Ethiopian Orthodox churches split in 1959, and prior to that time the monastic buildings were considered a single Monastery. However, in the early 16th century, the third fall was located at the entrance courtyard to the Church of the Holy Sepulchre, and an engraved stone cross signifying this still remains in situ. Prior to the 15th century, the final station occurred before this point would even have been reached.[1]

[edit] The Encounters

The Christian Quarter of the Old City of Jerusalem – empty by night

Four stations commemorate encounters between Jesus and other people, in the city streets; one encounter is mentioned in all the Synoptic Gospels, one is mentioned only in the Gospel of Luke, and the remaining two encounters only exist in popular tradition.

[edit] With Mary, Jesus’ mother: fourth station

The New Testament makes no mention of a meeting between Jesus and his mother, during the walk to his crucifixion, but popular tradition introduces one. The fourth station, the location of a 19th-century Armenian Orthodox oratory, commemorates the events of this tradition; a lunette, over the entrance to the chapel, references these events by means of a bas-relief carved by the Polish artist Zieliensky. The oratory, named Our Lady of the Spasm, was built in 1881, but its crypt preserves some archaeological remains from former Byzantine buildings on the site, including a mosaic floor.

[edit] With Simon of Cyrene: fifth station

The exterior of the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, at the fifth station

The fifth station refers to the biblical episode in which Simon of Cyrene takes Jesus’ cross, and carries it for him.[19] Although this narrative is included in the three Synoptic Gospels, the Gospel of John does not mention Simon of Cyrene[20] but instead emphasizes the portion of the journey during which Jesus carried the cross himself.[21] The current traditional site for the station is located at the east end of the western fraction of the Via Dolorosa, adjacent to the Chapel of Simon of Cyrene, a Franciscan construction built in 1895. An inscription, in the architrave of one of the Chapel doors, references the Synoptic events.

Prior to the 15th century, this location was instead considered to be the House of the Poor Man, and honoured as the fifth station for that reason;[22] the name refers to the Lukan tale of Lazarus and Dives,[23] this Lazarus being a beggar, and Dives being the Latin word for [one who is] Rich. Adjacent to the alleged House of the Poor Man is an arch over the road; the house on the arch was thought to be the corresponding House of the Rich Man.[22] The houses in question, however, only date to the Middle Ages,[24] and the narrative of Lazarus and Dives is now widely held to be a parable.[25][26][27]

[edit] With Veronica: sixth station

A medieval Roman Catholic legend viewed a specific piece of cloth, known as the Veil of Veronica, as having been supernaturally imprinted with Jesus’ image, by physical contact with Jesus’ face. By metathesis of the Latin words vera icon (meaning true image) into Veronica,[28] it came to be said that the Veil of Veronica had gained its image when a Saint Veronica encountered Jesus, and wiped the sweat from his face with the cloth; no element of this legend is present in the bible, although the similar Image of Edessa is mentioned in The Epistles of Jesus Christ and Abgarus King of Edessa, a late piece of New Testament apocrypha. The Veil of Veronica relates to a pre-Crucifixion image, and is distinct from the post-Crucifixion Holy Face image, often related to the Shroud of Turin.

The current sixth station of the Via Dolorosa commemorates this legendary encounter between Jesus and Veronica. The location was identified as the site of the encounter in the 19th century; in 1883, Greek Roman Catholics purchased the 12th-century ruins at the location, and built the Church of the Holy Face and Saint Veronica on them, claiming that Veronica had encountered Jesus outside her own house, and that the house had formerly been positioned at this spot. The church includes some of the remains of the 12th-century buildings which had formerly been on the site, including arches from the Crusader-built Monastery of Saint Cosmas. The present building is administered by the Little Sisters of Jesus, and is not generally open to the public.

[edit] With Pious Women: eighth station

Pietro Lorenzetti‘s fresco of women following Jesus on Via Dolorosa, Assisi, 1320

The Eighth station commemorates an episode described by the Gospel of Luke, alone among the canonical gospels, in which Jesus encounters pious women on his journey, and is able to stop and give a sermon.[29] However, prior to the 15th century the final station in Jesus’ walk was believed to occur at a point earlier on the Via Dolorosa, before this location would have been reached. The present eighth station is adjacent to the Greek Orthodox Monastery of Saint Charalampus; it is marked by the word Nika (a Greek word meaning Victory) carved into the wall, and an embossed cross.

[edit] Modern re-enactments and processions

Reenacting the Stations of the Cross on Via Dolorosa

Each Friday, a Roman Catholic procession walks the Via Dolorosa route, starting out at the monastic complex by the first station; the procession is organized by the Franciscans of this monastery, who also lead the procession. Acted re-enactments also regularly take place on the route, ranging from amateur productions with, for example, soldiers wearing plastic helmets and vivid red polyester wraps, to more professional drama with historically accurate clothing and props.[30][31][32]

read more about Jesus

How did Jesus and the Hebrews become WHITE?

 

 

How did the Hebrews turn White? Of course they didn’t really; just in the imaginations, and then the histories of White people. Who for probably practical reasons, decided that Hebrews, and also the Blacks who originally lived in the Country’s that they took over, should all become White for posterity’s sake.

Seeing as how it only takes three generations to turn a Black person into a White person (and visa versa). No doubt there came a time when as Europe’s formerly bi-racial populations, became more homogeneously White, White people decided that they could no longer acknowledge that all that they knew and had, was derived from the minds and labors of Black people – even down to their religious beliefs. The logic no doubt being that Whites could not progress to their full potential, if they were always looking up to Blacks, as the personification of knowledge and wisdom. So a change had to be made, and at some point, by somebody, that change began.

Of course, we have no way of knowing when this process of Whitinizing Blacks began, or who did it, or where it was first done. But we do have some materials by which we can track the process, somewhat.

But first, let us go back to see what Hebrews REALLY looked like. The earliest authentic pictures of real Hebrews that we have, date back to before Christ. They are Assyrian relief’s showing Hebrews, and others that they conquered, in pictorial scenes detailing the battles fought, with associated text. These relief’s decorated Assyrian palaces, and were no doubt used to gloat over their conquest of the Hebrews and others. Here we are using pictures of: Assyrian King Shalmaneser IIIs “Black Obelisk” (858 B.C.). Assyrian king Tiglath-pilesar III’s relief’s of his conquest of a city near the Sea of Galilee (730 B.C.). Assyrian King Sennacherib’s relief’s of the conquest of the Judean City of Lachish (701 B.C.). The four pictures below, are from those Assyrian relief’s. (These relief’s are stored in the British Museum, London England).

 

 

 

 

It is worth mentioning, that the Hebrews were just as literate, and just as artistic as the other Black civilizations around them. The reason that we have to depend on outside sources for pictures of them, is because Whites destroyed all that the Hebrews ever created. Even down to the very religious writings that they claim to worship by. That fact is that ALL Hebrew writings, even the SEPTUAGINT {the original Bible}, which was only roughly Hebrew (it was made for the Greek King of Egypt, Ptolemy II (Philadelphus) in 282-246 B.C.), has been destroyed. Everything except for the “Dead Sea Scrolls” which were found in 1947, in Qumran, a village situated about twenty miles east of Jerusalem. The Scrolls are under the joint custody of the Catholic Church and the Israelis. The translated contents of those Scrolls has never been made public, and probably never will be – no doubt the differences in teachings and facts would be irreconcilable.  (A few inconsequential snippets have been made public – the entire Scrolls is a huge work, which contains the entire old Testament plus many other works).

Why wasn’t the material in these pages destroyed? Because after it’s fall, Assyria came under the control of the Persian Empire, which was itself a Black Empire. It then came under the control of Greeks, who were at that time, seeking to merge with the Black Persians, not in denying that they were Black people. Then Assyria again came under Persian control, and then finally under the control of the original Black Arabs. So at the time when Whites were destroying vestiges of Black history, they had no access to the Assyrian artifacts.

But at those times when Whites did have control of an area, they seem to have been very through in destroying all vestiges of the former Black inhabitants; there is nothing left to suggest that Carthage was a Black city, Mesopotamia and the Indus Valley civilizations are some of the oldest known, yet very little is left – next to nothing in the Indus valley. Ancient Anatolia (Turkey), was home to many great and famous civilizations, but very little has been found there. The Egyptian artifacts, of which there are many, were mostly recovered in modern times, when Whites rather than simply destroy, instead modify artifacts; sometimes just by breaking the noses off, in order to make them look like White people, and then proudly display them as proof of the White mans greatness.

The Khazars, a Turkish tribe who had established a Kingdom in the Caucasus region, and converted to Judaism in the 8th century A.D. Must have seen the doings of the Romans and Greeks, and seen it as an opportunity for them to take over the Hebrew identity, and thus control of the orthodox branch of the Hebrew religion – which indeed they did. They logically thinking that if Jesus can be White, why not then, the entire Hebrew nation – which was by then a diaspora anyway. The Islamist side-stepped the entire issue by forbidding imagery of any kind.

 

Let us proceed then, with our pictorial essay of how Jesus, and thus, the Hebrews TURNED WHITE!

Thanks to Religion Facts.com (Link)

 

The Alexamanos Graffito, dating from c.200 AD or earlier, is an interesting early parody of Christianity. This early graffito (wall-scratching; singular of graffiti) was discovered in 1857 in a guardroom on Palatine Hill near the Circus Maximus in Rome, and is now in the Palatine Antiquarian Museum.

The drawing shows a man with an ass’s head being crucified, to which a youth is raising his hand as if in prayer. The text in Greek reads: ALE, XAMENOS, SEBETE, THEON. which means, “Alexamenos worships his god.” Before Christianity, the Hebrews had already been charged with worshipping an ass; this was probably the basis of this accusation being directed at Christianity.

 

 

This wall painting, depicting the Healing of the Paralytic, is the earliest known representation of Jesus, dating from about 235 AD. The painting was found in 1921 on the left-hand wall of the baptismal chamber of the house-church at Dura-Europos on the Euphrates River in modern Syria. It is now part of the Dura Europos collection at the Yale University Gallery of Fine Arts.
 

 

 

This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco.

The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based on several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image.

 

 

 

This fresco of the Good Shepherd was found on the ceiling of the Vault of Lucina in the Catacomb of Callixtus in Rome. The construction of the vault itself has been dated to the second half of the 2nd century, but the use of the red and green lines to divide the space (similar to the chambers under San Sebastiano) has suggested the first half or middle of the 3rd century for this fresco.

The image of Jesus as the Good Shepherd was an especially popular motif in the early Christian centuries. It was based in several biblical passages, including the 23rd Psalm and sayings of Jesus, and is also an adaptation of a popular pagan image.

 

 

This fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. The Catacombs of Domitilla date from the 2nd through 4th centuries. According to W.F. Volbach, “The extent to which the type of the apostolic group as been developed suggests a 4th-century origin” for this particular fresco.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Christ at the Second Coming, In the center of the apse mosaic is Christ standing on red clouds (representing the dawn), dressed in golden robes labeled with the monogram I. He holds the scroll of the Law in his left hand.

The basilica of Santi Cosma e Damiano is one of the ancient churches of Rome called tituli, of which cardinals are patrons as deacons: the Cardinal Deacon of the Titulus Ss. Cosmae et Damiani is Giovanni Cheli. The basilica, devoted to the two Greek brothers, doctors, martyrs and saints Cosmas and Damian, is located in the Forum of Vespasian, also known as the Forum of Peace. The Temple of Romulus was dedicated by Emperor Maxentius to his son Valerius Romulus, who died in 309 and was rendered divine honours. It is possible that the temple was in origin the temple of “Iovis Stator” or the one dedicated to Penates, and that Maxentius restored it before the re-dedication.

The ancient Roman fabric was Christianized and dedicated to Sancti Cosma et Damiano in 527, when Theodoric the Great, king of the Ostrogoths, and his daughter Amalasuntha donated the library of the Forum of Peace (Bibliotheca Pacis) and a portion of the Temple of Romulus to Pope Felix IV. The pope united the two buildings to create a basilica devoted to two Greek brothers and saints, Cosmas and Damian, in contrast with the ancient pagan cult of the two brothers Castor and Pollux, who had been worshipped in the nearby Temple of Castor and Pollux. The apse was decorated with a Roman-Byzantine mosaic, representing a parousia, the Second Coming of Christ at the end of time. The bodies of Saints Mark and Marcellian were translated, perhaps in the ninth century, to this church, where they were rediscovered in 1583 during the reign of Pope Gregory XIII.

In 1632, Pope Urban VIII ordered the restoration of the basilica. The works, projected by Orazio Torriani and directed by Luigi Arrigucci, raised the floor level seven metres, bringing it equal with the Campo Vaccino, thus avoiding the infiltration of water. Also, a cloister was added. The old floor of the basilica is still visible in the lower church, which is actually the lower part of the first church. In 1947, the restorations of the Imperial Forums gave a new structure to the church. The old entrance, through the Temple of Romulus, was closed, and the temple restored to its original forms; with the Pantheon, the Temple of Romulus is the best preserved pagan temple in Rome. A new entrance was opened on the opposite side (on via dei Fori Imperiali), whose arch gives access to the cloister, and through this to the side of the basilica.

 

 

Jesus’ appearance from behind locked doors, by Duccio-di-Buoninsegna – 1308 A.D.

 

 

The Duccio-di-Buoninsegna above, which still has a “somewhat” Black looking Jesus, and some likewise “Black looking” Apostles, seems to mark the end of Black Jesus, and the beginnings of the total lie. No non-White depiction of Jesus is known to have been made after this time – by White people.

 

 

The last judgment by Pietro Cavallini – 1293 A.D. St Cecilia Trastevere, Rome.

 

 

Another fresco of Christ Among the Apostles is in an arcosolium of the Crypt of Ampliatus in the Catacombs of St. Domitilla in Rome. Probably from a later time than the first fresco.  Is this the beginning of the Whitinization of Black People?

It may be that later artists felt that since this fresco didn’t cause the artist to immediately burn in Hell, it might be okay to paint Jesus as White.

 

 

Santa Costanza mosiac – Santa Costanza is a church in Rome, built under Emperor Constantine I and place of burial (mausoleum) of his daughters Constantina and Helena. Later, Constantina was venerated as saint, with the Italian name of Costanza, and the church was dedicated to her. The church was built under Constantine, probably by Constantinia, next to the cemetery of Sant’Agnese fuori le mura, where Saint Agnes, who allegedly had healed Constantina, was buried.

After their deaths, Constantine’s daughters Constantina and Helena were buried here. Since Consantina was venerated as saint, the mausoleum was consecrated as a church in 1254 by Pope Alexander IV. After the church was restored in 1620 by Cardinal Fabrizio Veralli, Constantina’s magnificent porphyry sarcophagus was moved to the Vatican Museums. The Church was originally a mausoleum.

 

 

 

Dead Christ – Giovanni Bellini, 1460 A.D. Museum Poldi Pezzoli, Milan

 

 

The Modern Jesus

 

 

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

 

Tacitus: History Book 5

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

 

 

But before the modern era of pathetic White racism, with it’s White fright of all things Black, and Black identity theft. Where Khazar Turks are the new Hebrews, and Osman Turks are the new Berbers, Egyptians, Arabs, and Middle-Easterners. Before every ancient Black figure encountered in a museum or book was explained away as a Nubian-Ethiopian, a Slave, or a servant: All people knew Hebrews to be Black people, and depicted them as Black people.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Click here for big blow-up of picture

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Black Popes

According to the Albinos and their pronouncements from the Liber Pontificalis, three popes-Pope St Victor I (c. 186-198), Pope St Miltiades (311-14), and Pope St Gelasius (492-496)-were Africans. The Liber Pontificalis is composed of a series of biographical entries, which record the dates and important facts for each pope. It is the oldest and most detailed chronicle dating from the Early Church. The Liber Pontificalis is dated from the sixth century. The record of names begins with St Peter. As the work progressed the entries became longer and more detailed. The Liber Pontificalis continued to be written until 1431. So then, is the Liber Pontificalis deception by word play, differentiating between African and Black? Which is actually okay, if people know what you are doing. But somehow I doubt the criminals in the Vatican would let on to that.

 

It is likely that all Popes prior to the fall of the Black Holy Roman Empire (circa 1658) were Black.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

For histories and images of some of the first Christians: Click Here >>>

 

 

 

 

Selected historical quotes regarding the Hebrews

 

Lucius Cassius Dio Cocceianus (155 A.D. to circa after 229), was a Roman consul and a noted historian writing in Greek.

Cassius Dio
Roman History
Book XXXVII

14 – 3: After the death of Mithridates all portions of his dominion except a few were subjugated. A few garrisons which at that time were still holding forts outside of Bosporus, did not immediately come to terms, not so much because they were minded to resist Pompey as because they were afraid that others might seize the money which they were guarding and lay the blame upon them; hence they waited, wishing to show everything to Pompey himself. When, then, the regions in that quarter had been subdued, and Phraates remained quiet, while Syria and Phoenicia had become tranquil, Pompey turned against Aretas. The latter was king of the Arabians, now subjects of the Romans, as far as the Red Sea. Previously he had done the greatest injury to Syria and had on this account become involved in a battle with the Romans who were defending it; he was defeated by them, but nevertheless continued the war at that time. Pompey accordingly marched against him and his neighbours, and, overcoming them without effort, left them in charge of a garrison.

Thence he proceeded against Syria Palaestina, because its inhabitants had ravaged Phoenicia. Their rulers were two brothers, Hyrcanus and Aristobulus, who were quarrelling themselves, as it chanced, and were creating factions in the cities on account of the priesthood (for so they called their kingdom) of their god, whoever he is. Pompey immediately won over Hyrcanus without a battle, since the latter had no force worthy of note; and by shutting up Aristobulus in a certain place he compelled him to come to terms, and when he would surrender neither the money nor the garrison, he threw him into chains. After this he more easily overcame the rest, but had trouble in besieging Jerusalem. 16 Most of the city, to be sure, he took without any trouble, as he was received by the party of Hyrcanus; but the temple itself, which the other party had occupied, he captured only with difficulty. For it was on high ground and was fortified by a wall of its own, and if they had continued defending it on all days alike, he could not have got possession of it. As it was, they made an excavation of what are called the days of Saturn, and by doing no work at all on those days afforded the Romans an opportunity in this interval to batter down the wall. The latter, on learning of this superstitious awe of theirs, made no serious attempts the rest of the time, but on those days, when they came round in succession, assaulted most vigorously. Thus the defenders were captured on the day of Saturn, without making any defence, and all the wealth was plundered. The kingdom was given to Hyrcanus, and Aristobulus was carried away.

This was the course of events at that time in Palestine; for this is the name that has been given from of old to the whole country extending from Phoenicia to Egypt along the inner sea. They have also another name that they have acquired: the country has been named Judaea, and the people themselves Jews. I do not know how this title came to be given to them, but it applies also to all the rest of mankind, although of alien race, who affect their customs. This class exists even among the Romans, and though often repressed has increased to a very great extent and has won its way to the right of freedom in its observances. They are distinguished from the rest of mankind in practically every detail of life, and especially by the fact that they do not honour any of the usual gods, but show extreme reverence for one particular divinity. They never had any statue of him even in Jerusalem itself, but believing him to be unnamable and invisible, they worship him in the most extravagant fashion on earth. They built to him a temple that was extremely large and beautiful, except in so far as it was open and roofless, and likewise dedicated to him the day called the day of Saturn, on which, among many other most peculiar observances, they undertake no serious occupation.

Now as for him, who he is and why he has been so honoured, and how they got their superstitious awe of him, accounts have been given by many, and moreover these matters have naught to do with this history. The custom, however, of referring the days to the seven stars called planets was instituted by the Egyptians, but is now found among all mankind, though its adoption has been comparatively recent; at any rate the ancient Greeks never understood it, so far as I am aware. But since it is now quite the fashion with mankind generally and even with the Romans themselves, I wish to write briefly of it, telling how and in what way it has been so arranged. I have heard two explanations, which are not difficult of comprehension, it is true, though they involve certain theories. For if you apply the so-called “principle of the tetrachord” (which is believed to constitute the basis of music) to these stars, by which the whole universe of heaven is divided into regular intervals, in the order in which each of them revolves, and beginning at the outer orbit assigned to Saturn, then omitting the next two name the lord of the fourth, and after this passing over two others reach the seventh, and you then go back and repeat the process with the orbits and their presiding divinities in this same manner, assigning them to the several days, you will find all the days to be in a kind of musical connection with the arrangement of the heavens. This is one of the explanations given; the other is as follows. If you begin at the first hour to count the hours of the day and of the night, assigning the first to Saturn, the next to Jupiter, the third to Mars, the fourth to the Sun, the fifth to Venus, the sixth to Mercury, and the seventh to the Moon, according to the order of the cycles which the Egyptians observe, and if you repeat the process, you will find that the first hour of the following day comes to the Sun. And if you carry on the operation throughout the next twenty-four hours in the same manner as with the others, you will dedicate the first hour of the third day to the Moon, and if you proceed similarly through the rest, each day will receive its appropriate god. This, then, is the tradition.

 

The Roman historian Cornelius Tacitus (56-118 A.D.) had these thoughts on the origins and customs of the Hebrews, as the Romans prepared to destroy Jerusalem.

This is in the context of Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea.

Tacitus: History Book 5 [1]

1. EARLY in this year Titus Caesar, who had been selected by his father to complete the subjugation of Judaea, and who had gained distinction as a soldier while both were still subjects, began to rise in power and reputation, as armies and provinces emulated each other in their attachment to him. The young man himself, anxious to be thought superior to his station, was ever displaying his gracefulness and his energy in war. By his courtesy and affability he called forth a willing obedience, and he often mixed with the common soldiers, while working or marching, without impairing his dignity as general. He found in Judaea three legions, the 5th, the 10th, and the 15th, all old troops of Vespasian’s. To these he added the 12th from Syria, and some men belonging to the 18th and 3rd, whom he had withdrawn from Alexandria. This force was accompanied by twenty cohorts of allied troops and eight squadrons of cavalry, by the two kings Agrippa and Sohemus, by the auxiliary forces of king Antiochus, by a strong contingent of Arabs, who hated the Jews with the usual hatred of neighbours, and, lastly, by many persons brought from the capital and from Italy by private hopes of securing the yet unengaged affections of the Prince. With this force Titus entered the enemy’s territory, preserving strict order on his march, reconnoitring every spot, and always ready to give battle. At last he encamped near Jerusalem.

2. As I am about to relate the last days of a famous city, it seems appropriate to throw some light on its origin. Some say that the Jews were fugitives from the island of Crete, who settled on the nearest coast of Africa about the time when Saturn was driven from his throne by the power of Jupiter. Evidence of this is sought in the name. There is a famous mountain in Crete called Ida; the neighbouring tribe, the Idaei, came to be called Judaei by a barbarous lengthening of the national name. Others assert that in the reign of Isis the overflowing population of Egypt, led by Hierosolymus and Judas, discharged itself into the neighbouring countries. Many, again, say that they were a race of Ethiopian origin, who in the time of king Cepheus were driven by fear and hatred of their neighbours to seek a new dwelling-place. Others describe them as an Assyrian horde who, not having sufficient territory, took possession of part of Egypt, and founded cities of their own in what is called the Hebrew country, lying on the borders of Syria. Others, again, assign a very distinguished origin to the Jews, alleging that they were the Solymi, a nation celebrated in the poems of Homer, who called the city which they founded Hierosolyma after their own name.

3. Most writers, however, agree in stating that once a disease, which horribly disfigured the body, broke out over Egypt; that king Bocchoris, seeking a remedy, consulted the oracle of Hammon, and was bidden to cleanse his realm, and to convey into some foreign land this race detested by the gods. The people, who had been collected after diligent search, finding themselves left in a desert, sat for the most part in a stupor of grief, till one of the exiles, Moyses by name, warned them not to look for any relief from God or man, forsaken as they were of both, but to trust to themselves, taking for their heaven-sent leader that man who should first help them to be quit of their present misery. They agreed, and in utter ignorance began to advance at random. Nothing, however, distressed them so much as the scarcity of water, and they had sunk ready to perish in all directions over the plain, when a herd of wild asses was seen to retire from their pasture to a rock shaded by trees. Moyses followed them, and, guided by the appearance of a grassy spot, discovered an abundant spring of water. This furnished relief. After a continuous journey for six days, on the seventh they possessed themselves of a country, from which they expelled the inhabitants, and in which they founded a city and a temple.

4. Moyses, wishing to secure for the future his authority over the nation, gave them a novel form of worship, opposed to all that is practised by other men. Things sacred with us, with them have no sanctity, while they allow what with us is forbidden. In their holy place they have consecrated an image of the animal by whose guidance they found deliverance from their long and thirsty wanderings. They slay the ram, seemingly in derision of Hammon, and they sacrifice the ox, because the Egyptians worship it as Apis. They abstain from swine’s flesh, in consideration of what they suffered when they were infected by the leprosy to which this animal is liable. By their frequent fasts they still bear witness to the long hunger of former days, and the Jewish bread, made without leaven, is retained as a memorial of their hurried seizure of corn. We are told that the rest of the seventh day was adopted, because this day brought with it a termination of their toils; after a while the charm of indolence beguilded them into giving up the seventh year also to inaction. But others say that it is an observance in honour of Saturn, either from the primitive elements of their faith having been transmitted from the Idaei, who are said to have shared the flight of that God, and to have founded the race, or from the circumstance that of the seven stars which rule the destinies of men Saturn moves in the highest orbit and with the mightiest power, and that many of the heavenly bodies complete their revolutions and courses in multiples of seven.

5. This worship, however introduced, is upheld by its antiquity; all their other customs, which are at once perverse and disgusting, owe their strength to their very badness. The most degraded out of other races, scorning their national beliefs, brought to them their contributions and presents. This augmented the wealth of the Jews, as also did the fact, that among themselves they are inflexibly honest and ever ready to shew compassion, though they regard the rest of mankind with all the hatred of enemies. They sit apart at meals, they sleep apart, and though, as a nation, they are singularly prone to lust, they abstain from intercourse with foreign women; among themselves nothing is unlawful. Circumcision was adopted by them as a mark of difference from other men. Those who come over to their religion adopt the practice, and have this lesson first instilled into them, to despise all gods, to disown their country, and set at nought parents, children, and brethren. Still they provide for the increase of their numbers. It is a crime among them to kill any newly-born infant. They hold that the souls of all who perish in battle or by the hands of the executioner are immortal. Hence a passion for propagating their race and a contempt for death. They are wont to bury rather than to burn their dead, following in this the Egyptian custom; they bestow the same care on the dead, and they hold the same belief about the lower world. Quite different is their faith about things divine. The Egyptians worship many animals and images of monstrous form; the Jews have purely mental conceptions of Deity, as one in essence. They call those profane who make representations of God in human shape out of perishable materials. They believe that Being to be supreme and eternal, neither capable of representation, nor of decay. They therefore do not allow any images to stand in their cities, much less in their temples. This flattery is not paid to their kings, nor this honour to our Emperors. From the fact, however, that their priests used to chant to the music of flutes and cymbals, and to wear garlands of ivy, and that a golden vine was found in the temple, some have thought that they worshipped father Liber, the conqueror of the East, though their institutions do not by any means harmonize with the theory; for Liber established a festive and cheerful worship, while the Jewish religion is tasteless and mean.

 

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer

Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer is an aggadic-midrashic work on Genesis, part of Exodus, and a few sentences of Numbers, ascribed to R. Eliezer ben Hyrcanus (80-118 C.E.), a disciple of Rabbi Yochanan ben Zakai and teacher of Rabbi Akiva. It comprises fifty four chapters. Some parts appear to be written as late as the 8th century CE, although there are older elements. Pirke De-Rabbi Eliezer comprises ethical guidelines, legends and folklore, as well as astronomical discussions related to the story of the Creation. Many ancient customs that are not found in other sources are described in this work.

The Pirke appears, according to Zunz, to be incomplete, and to be merely a fragment of a larger work. S. Sachs, on the other hand, thinks that it was compiled from two previous works by the same author, the relation of the two productions to each other being that of text and commentary, the text giving merely the story of the Bible, which was interrupted by the commentary in the form of the Aggadah, and the commentary being intended for reading during the ten days of penitence. Meir ha-Levi Horwitz thinks that the author developed those Bible stories which bore relation to the entire nation, dealing lightly with those that concerned only individuals.

Jost was the first to point out that in the 30th chapter, in which at the end the author distinctly alludes to the three stages of the Muslim conquest, that of Arabia, of Spain, and of Rome (830 C.E.), the names of Fatima and Ayesha occur beside that of Ishmael, leading to the conclusion that the book originated in a time when Islam was predominant in Asia Minor. As in ch. xxxvi. two brothers reigning simultaneously are mentioned, after whose reign the Messiah shall come, the work might be ascribed to the beginning of the 9th century, for about that time the two sons of Harun al-Rashid, El-Amin and El-Mamun, were ruling over the Islamic realm. If a statement in ch. xxviii. did not point to an even earlier date, approximately the same date might be inferred from the enumeration of the four powerful kingdoms and the substitution of Ishmael for one of the four which are enumerated in the Talmud and the Mekilta.

The author seems to have been a rabbi of the Land of Israel; this appears not only from the fact that some of the customs to which he refers (in ch. xiii. and xx.) are known only as customs of the Land of Israel, but also from the fact that nearly all the authorities he quotes are from the Land of Israel, the exceptions being Rav Mesharshia and Rav Shemaiah, who are from Babylonia. The work is ascribed to R. Eliezer (80-118 C.E.), although he was a tanna, while the book itself the Pirḳe Abot is quoted. Late Talmudic authorities belonging to the 3rd century C.E., like Shemaiah (ch. xxiii.), Ze’era (ch. xxi., xxix.), and Shila (ch. xlii., xliv.), are also quoted, indicating that the work was edited or additions were made to it after the time of R. Eliezar.

The work is divided into 54 chapters, which may be divided into seven groups.

Supposedly a 10th century Palestinian Jewish author gives
the word of Roman era Ribbi Eli`ezer Hyrkanus that
“[God] blessed Shem and his sons, black and beautiful,
giving them the habitable earth.”, his Pirqe, daf 28a.
This blackness was not as dark as Ham’s raven similied
black skin.
Amos 9: (King James Version)
7: Are ye not as children of the Ethiopians unto me, O children of Israel? saith the LORD. Have not I brought up Israel out of the land of Egypt? and the Philistines from Caphtor, and the Syrians from Kir?

Isaiah 43: (King James Version)
3: For I am the LORD thy God, the Holy One of Israel, thy Saviour: I gave Egypt for thy ransom, Ethiopia and Seba for thee.

2 Kings 5 (King James Version)

1Now Naaman, captain of the host of the king of Syria, was a great man with his master, and honourable, because by him the LORD had given deliverance unto Syria: he was also a mighty man in valour, but he was a leper.

2And the Syrians had gone out by companies, and had brought away captive out of the land of Israel a little maid; and she waited on Naaman’s wife.

3And she said unto her mistress, Would God my lord were with the prophet that is in Samaria! for he would recover him of his leprosy.

4And one went in, and told his lord, saying, Thus and thus said the maid that is of the land of Israel.

5And the king of Syria said, Go to, go, and I will send a letter unto the king of Israel. And he departed, and took with him ten talents of silver, and six thousand pieces of gold, and ten changes of raiment.

6And he brought the letter to the king of Israel, saying, Now when this letter is come unto thee, behold, I have therewith sent Naaman my servant to thee, that thou mayest recover him of his leprosy.

7And it came to pass, when the king of Israel had read the letter, that he rent his clothes, and said, Am I God, to kill and to make alive, that this man doth send unto me to recover a man of his leprosy? wherefore consider, I pray you, and see how he seeketh a quarrel against me.

8And it was so, when Elisha the man of God had heard that the king of Israel had rent his clothes, that he sent to the king, saying, Wherefore hast thou rent thy clothes? let him come now to me, and he shall know that there is a prophet in Israel.

9So Naaman came with his horses and with his chariot, and stood at the door of the house of Elisha.

10And Elisha sent a messenger unto him, saying, Go and wash in Jordan seven times, and thy flesh shall come again to thee, and thou shalt be clean.

11But Naaman was wroth, and went away, and said, Behold, I thought, He will surely come out to me, and stand, and call on the name of the LORD his God, and strike his hand over the place, and recover the leper.

12Are not Abana and Pharpar, rivers of Damascus, better than all the waters of Israel? may I not wash in them, and be clean? So he turned and went away in a rage.

13And his servants came near, and spake unto him, and said, My father, if the prophet had bid thee do some great thing, wouldest thou not have done it? how much rather then, when he saith to thee, Wash, and be clean?

14Then went he down, and dipped himself seven times in Jordan, according to the saying of the man of God: and his flesh came again like unto the flesh of a little child, and he was clean.

15And he returned to the man of God, he and all his company, and came, and stood before him: and he said, Behold, now I know that there is no God in all the earth, but in Israel: now therefore, I pray thee, take a blessing of thy servant.

16But he said, As the LORD liveth, before whom I stand, I will receive none. And he urged him to take it; but he refused.

17And Naaman said, Shall there not then, I pray thee, be given to thy servant two mules’ burden of earth? for thy servant will henceforth offer neither burnt offering nor sacrifice unto other gods, but unto the LORD.

18In this thing the LORD pardon thy servant, that when my master goeth into the house of Rimmon to worship there, and he leaneth on my hand, and I bow myself in the house of Rimmon: when I bow down myself in the house of Rimmon, the LORD pardon thy servant in this thing.

19And he said unto him, Go in peace. So he departed from him a little way.

20But Gehazi, the servant of Elisha the man of God, said, Behold, my master hath spared Naaman this Syrian, in not receiving at his hands that which he brought: but, as the LORD liveth, I will run after him, and take somewhat of him.

21So Gehazi followed after Naaman. And when Naaman saw him running after him, he lighted down from the chariot to meet him, and said, Is all well?

22And he said, All is well. My master hath sent me, saying, Behold, even now there be come to me from mount Ephraim two young men of the sons of the prophets: give them, I pray thee, a talent of silver, and two changes of garments.

23And Naaman said, Be content, take two talents. And he urged him, and bound two talents of silver in two bags, with two changes of garments, and laid them upon two of his servants; and they bare them before him.

24And when he came to the tower, he took them from their hand, and bestowed them in the house: and he let the men go, and they departed.

25But he went in, and stood before his master. And Elisha said unto him, Whence comest thou, Gehazi? And he said, Thy servant went no whither.

26And he said unto him, Went not mine heart with thee, when the man turned again from his chariot to meet thee? Is it a time to receive money, and to receive garments, and oliveyards, and vineyards, and sheep, and oxen, and menservants, and maidservants?

27The leprosy therefore of Naaman shall cleave unto thee, and unto thy seed for ever. And he went out from his presence a leper as white as snow.

 

On differentiating between White people and Lepers.

 

Leviticus 13 (King James Version)

1And the LORD spake unto Moses and Aaron, saying,

2When a man shall have in the skin of his flesh a rising, a scab, or bright spot, and it be in the skin of his flesh like the plague of leprosy; then he shall be brought unto Aaron the priest, or unto one of his sons the priests:

3And the priest shall look on the plague in the skin of the flesh: and when the hair in the plague is turned white, and the plague in sight be deeper than the skin of his flesh, it is a plague of leprosy: and the priest shall look on him, and pronounce him unclean.

4If the bright spot be white in the skin of his flesh, and in sight be not deeper than the skin, and the hair thereof be not turned white; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague seven days:

5And the priest shall look on him the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague in his sight be at a stay, and the plague spread not in the skin; then the priest shall shut him up seven days more:

6And the priest shall look on him again the seventh day: and, behold, if the plague be somewhat dark, and the plague spread not in the skin, the priest shall pronounce him clean: it is but a scab: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

7But if the scab spread much abroad in the skin, after that he hath been seen of the priest for his cleansing, he shall be seen of the priest again.

8And if the priest see that, behold, the scab spreadeth in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a leprosy.

9When the plague of leprosy is in a man, then he shall be brought unto the priest;

10And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the rising be white in the skin, and it have turned the hair white, and there be quick raw flesh in the rising;

11It is an old leprosy in the skin of his flesh, and the priest shall pronounce him unclean, and shall not shut him up: for he is unclean.

12And if a leprosy break out abroad in the skin, and the leprosy cover all the skin of him that hath the plague from his head even to his foot, wheresoever the priest looketh;

13Then the priest shall consider: and, behold, if the leprosy have covered all his flesh, he shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: it is all turned white: he is clean.

14But when raw flesh appeareth in him, he shall be unclean.

15And the priest shall see the raw flesh, and pronounce him to be unclean: for the raw flesh is unclean: it is a leprosy.

16Or if the raw flesh turn again, and be changed unto white, he shall come unto the priest;

17And the priest shall see him: and, behold, if the plague be turned into white; then the priest shall pronounce him clean that hath the plague: he is clean.

18The flesh also, in which, even in the skin thereof, was a boil, and is healed,

19And in the place of the boil there be a white rising, or a bright spot, white, and somewhat reddish, and it be shewed to the priest;

20And if, when the priest seeth it, behold, it be in sight lower than the skin, and the hair thereof be turned white; the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague of leprosy broken out of the boil.

21But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hairs therein, and if it be not lower than the skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

22And if it spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a plague.

23But if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not, it is a burning boil; and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

24Or if there be any flesh, in the skin whereof there is a hot burning, and the quick flesh that burneth have a white bright spot, somewhat reddish, or white;

25Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the hair in the bright spot be turned white, and it be in sight deeper than the skin; it is a leprosy broken out of the burning: wherefore the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

26But if the priest look on it, and, behold, there be no white hair in the bright spot, and it be no lower than the other skin, but be somewhat dark; then the priest shall shut him up seven days:

27And the priest shall look upon him the seventh day: and if it be spread much abroad in the skin, then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is the plague of leprosy.

28And if the bright spot stay in his place, and spread not in the skin, but it be somewhat dark; it is a rising of the burning, and the priest shall pronounce him clean: for it is an inflammation of the burning.

29If a man or woman have a plague upon the head or the beard;

30Then the priest shall see the plague: and, behold, if it be in sight deeper than the skin; and there be in it a yellow thin hair; then the priest shall pronounce him unclean: it is a dry scall, even a leprosy upon the head or beard.

31And if the priest look on the plague of the scall, and, behold, it be not in sight deeper than the skin, and that there is no black hair in it; then the priest shall shut up him that hath the plague of the scall seven days:

32And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the plague: and, behold, if the scall spread not, and there be in it no yellow hair, and the scall be not in sight deeper than the skin;

33He shall be shaven, but the scall shall he not shave; and the priest shall shut up him that hath the scall seven days more:

34And in the seventh day the priest shall look on the scall: and, behold, if the scall be not spread in the skin, nor be in sight deeper than the skin; then the priest shall pronounce him clean: and he shall wash his clothes, and be clean.

35But if the scall spread much in the skin after his cleansing;

36Then the priest shall look on him: and, behold, if the scall be spread in the skin, the priest shall not seek for yellow hair; he is unclean.

37But if the scall be in his sight at a stay, and that there is black hair grown up therein; the scall is healed, he is clean: and the priest shall pronounce him clean.

38If a man also or a woman have in the skin of their flesh bright spots, even white bright spots;

39Then the priest shall look: and, behold, if the bright spots in the skin of their flesh be darkish white; it is a freckled spot that groweth in the skin; he is clean.

40And the man whose hair is fallen off his head, he is bald; yet is he clean.

41And he that hath his hair fallen off from the part of his head toward his face, he is forehead bald: yet is he clean.

42And if there be in the bald head, or bald forehead, a white reddish sore; it is a leprosy sprung up in his bald head, or his bald forehead.

43Then the priest shall look upon it: and, behold, if the rising of the sore be white reddish in his bald head, or in his bald forehead, as the leprosy appeareth in the skin of the flesh;

44He is a leprous man, he is unclean: the priest shall pronounce him utterly unclean; his plague is in his head.

45And the leper in whom the plague is, his clothes shall be rent, and his head bare, and he shall put a covering upon his upper lip, and shall cry, Unclean, unclean.

46All the days wherein the plague shall be in him he shall be defiled; he is unclean: he shall dwell alone; without the camp shall his habitation be.

47The garment also that the plague of leprosy is in, whether it be a woollen garment, or a linen garment;

48Whether it be in the warp, or woof; of linen, or of woollen; whether in a skin, or in any thing made of skin;

49And if the plague be greenish or reddish in the garment, or in the skin, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a plague of leprosy, and shall be shewed unto the priest:

50And the priest shall look upon the plague, and shut up it that hath the plague seven days:

51And he shall look on the plague on the seventh day: if the plague be spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in a skin, or in any work that is made of skin; the plague is a fretting leprosy; it is unclean.

52He shall therefore burn that garment, whether warp or woof, in woollen or in linen, or any thing of skin, wherein the plague is: for it is a fretting leprosy; it shall be burnt in the fire.

53And if the priest shall look, and, behold, the plague be not spread in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin;

54Then the priest shall command that they wash the thing wherein the plague is, and he shall shut it up seven days more:

55And the priest shall look on the plague, after that it is washed: and, behold, if the plague have not changed his colour, and the plague be not spread; it is unclean; thou shalt burn it in the fire; it is fret inward, whether it be bare within or without.

56And if the priest look, and, behold, the plague be somewhat dark after the washing of it; then he shall rend it out of the garment, or out of the skin, or out of the warp, or out of the woof:

57And if it appear still in the garment, either in the warp, or in the woof, or in any thing of skin; it is a spreading plague: thou shalt burn that wherein the plague is with fire.

58And the garment, either warp, or woof, or whatsoever thing of skin it be, which thou shalt wash, if the plague be departed from them, then it shall be washed the second time, and shall be clean.

59This is the law of the plague of leprosy in a garment of woollen or linen, either in the warp, or woof, or any thing of skins, to pronounce it clean, or to pronounce it unclean.

 

 

References

 
  1. ^ a b c d e f g Jerome Murphy-O’Connor, The Holy Land, (2008), page 37
  2. ^ Oxford Archaeological Guide: The Holy Land (paperback, 4th edition, 1998), pages 34–36
  3. ^ Wharton, Annabel Jane. Selling Jerusalem: Relics, Replicas, Theme Parks. Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2006. p. 109.
  4. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.34.
  5. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.55.
  6. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p. 21.
  7. ^ Thurston, Herbert. The Stations of the Cross. London: Burns and Oates, 1906. p.50.
  8. ^ a b c d e f Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  9. ^ Pierre Benoit, The Archaeological Reconstruction of the Antonia Fortress, page 87, in Jerusalem Revealed (edited by Yigael Yadin), (1976)
  10. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 2:14:8
  11. ^ Josephus, Jewish Wars, 5:2
  12. ^ Study shines light on final steps of Christ The Courier-Mail April 11, 2009
  13. ^ Archaeologist: Jesus took a different path 4VF News April 10, 2009
  14. ^ John 19:1–3
  15. ^ John 19.5
  16. ^ John 19:13
  17. ^ Encyclopedia Judaica, Ratisbonne Brothers, Volume 13, pp.1570–1571, Keter Publishing House, Jerusalem, 1972
  18. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry on Way of the Cross
  19. ^ Mark 15:21
  20. ^ John 19:17
  21. ^ Simon of Cyrene – Bible Study
  22. ^ a b Dave Winter, Israel handbook, page 126
  23. ^ Luke 16:19–31
  24. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, entry for Dives
  25. ^ The IVP Bible Background Commentary
  26. ^ N. T. Wright, Luke for Everyone
  27. ^ Joachim Jeremias, The Parables of Jesus
  28. ^ Catholic Encyclopedia, St. Veronica
  29. ^ Luke 23:27–31
  30. ^ Jerusalem of the heavens: the Eternal City in bird’s eye view by Yehuda Salomon, Mosheh Milner 1993 ISBN 965-474-000-1 page 187
  31. ^ Frommer’s Jerusalem Day by Day by Buzzy Gordon 2010 ISBN 0-470-67636-1 page 12
  32. ^ Frommer’s Israel by Robert Ullian 2010 ISBN 0-470-61820-5 page 179

The end @ copyright 2012

The Sample Of Dr Iwan E-book In CD-rom Edition :”The World War I History collections”

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The World War I

 History Collections

 

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Private Limited e-book In CR-rom edition

Special for Senior Collectors

Copyright @ 2012

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

INTRODUCTION

World War I (abbreviated as WW-I, WWI, or WW1), also known as the First World War, the Great War, the World War (prior to the outbreak of the Second World War), and the War to End All Wars, was a global military conflict which involved most of the world’s great powers,[1] assembled in two opposing alliances: the Allies of World War I centred around the Triple Entente and the Central Powers, centred around the Triple Alliance.[2] More than 70 million military personnel were mobilized in one of the largest wars in history.[3] More than 15 million people were killed, making it one of the deadliest conflicts in history.[4] During the conflict, the industrial and scientific capabilities of the main combatants were entirely devoted to the war effort.

The assassination, on 28 June 1914, of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, the heir to the throne of Austria-Hungary, is seen as the immediate trigger of the war, though long-term causes, such as imperialistic foreign policy, played a major role. The archduke’s assassination at the hands of Serbian nationalist Gavrilo Princip resulted in demands against the Kingdom of Serbia.[5] Several alliances that had been formed over the past decades were invoked, so within weeks the major powers were at war; with all having colonies, the conflict soon spread around the world.

By the war’s end in 1918, four major imperial powers—the German, Russian, Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman Empires—had been militarily and politically defeated, with the last two ceasing to exist as autonomous entities.[6] The revolutionized Soviet Union emerged from the Russian Empire, while the map of central Europe was completely redrawn into numerous smaller states.[7] The League of Nations was formed in the hope of preventing another such conflict. The European nationalism spawned by the war, the repercussions of Germany’s defeat, and the Treaty of Versailles would eventually lead to the beginning of World War II in 1939.[

Causes of World War I

In the 19th century, the major European powers had gone to great lengths to maintain a "balance of power" throughout Europe, resulting by 1900 in a complex network of political and military alliances throughout the continent.[2] These had started in 1815 with the Holy Alliance between Germany (then Prussia), Russia, and Austria–Hungary. Then, in October, 1873, German Chancellor Bismarck negotiated the League of the Three Emperors (German: Dreikaiserbund) between the monarchs of Austria–Hungary, Russia and Germany. This agreement failed because Austria–Hungary and Russia could not agree over Balkan policy, leaving Germany and Austria–Hungary in an alliance formed in 1879, called the Dual Alliance. This was seen as a method of combating Russian influence in the Balkans as the Ottoman Empire continued to weaken.[2] In 1882, this alliance was expanded to include Italy in what became the Triple Alliance.[9]

After 1870 European conflict was averted largely due to a carefully planned network of treaties between the German Empire and the remainder of Europe—orchestrated by Chancellor Otto von Bismarck. He especially worked to hold Russia at Germany’s side to avoid a two-front war with France and Russia. With the ascension of Kaiser Wilhelm II as emperor, Bismarck’s system of alliances was gradually de-emphasized. For example, the Kaiser refused to renew the Reinsurance Treaty with Russia in 1890. Two years later the Franco-Russian Alliance was signed to counteract the force of the Triple Alliance. In 1907, the British Empire joined France and Russia, signaling the beginning of the Triple Entente.[2]

 

 

HMS Dreadnought. A naval arms race existed between the United Kingdom and Germany.

German industrial and economic power had grown greatly after unification and the foundation of the empire in 1870. From the mid-1890s on the government of Kaiser Wilhelm II used this base to devote significant economic resources to building up the German Imperial Navy (German: Kaiserliche Marine), established by Admiral Alfred von Tirpitz, in rivalry with the British Royal Navy for world naval supremacy.[10] As a result, both nations strove to out-build each other in terms of capital ships. With the launch of HMS Dreadnought in 1906, the British Empire expanded on its significant advantage over their German rivals.[10] The arms race between Britain and Germany eventually extended to the rest of Europe, with all the major powers devoting their industrial base to the production of the equipment and weapons necessary for a pan-European conflict.[11] Between 1908 and 1913, the military spending of the European powers increased by 50%.[12]

Austria–Hungary precipitated the Bosnian crisis of 1908-1909 by officially annexing the former Ottoman territory of Bosnia-Herzegovina, which they had occupied since 1878. This greatly angered the Pan-Slavic and thus pro-Serbian Romanov Dynasty who ruled Russia and the Kingdom of Serbia, because Bosnia-Herzegovina contained a significant Slavic Serbian population.[13] Russian political maneuvering in the region destabilized peace accords that were already fracturing in what was known as “the Powder keg of Europe“.[13]

In 1912 and 1913, the First Balkan War was fought between the Balkan League and the fracturing Ottoman Empire. The resulting Treaty of London further shrank the Ottoman Empire, creating an independent Albanian State while enlarging the territorial holdings of Bulgaria, Serbia and Greece. When Bulgaria attacked both Serbia and Greece on 16 June 1913 it lost most of Macedonia to Serbia and Greece and Southern Dobruja to Romania in the 33-day Second Balkan War, further destabilizing the region.[14]

On 28 June 1914,

Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia.[15] This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvering between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to end Serbian interference in Bosnia conclusively, Austria–Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands which were deliberately unacceptable, made with the intention of deliberately initiating a war with Serbia.[16] When Serbia acceded to only eight of the ten demands levied against it in the ultimatum, Austria–Hungary declared war on Serbia on 28 July 1914. Strachan argues “Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning”.[17]

The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb proteges, ordered a partial mobilization one day later.[9] When the German Empire began to mobilize on 30 July 1914, France—sporting significant animosity over the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War—ordered French mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day.[18]

 

THE CHRONOLOGY HISTORY COLLECTIONS

On 28 June 1914,

Gavrilo Princip, a Bosnian-Serb student and member of Young Bosnia, assassinated the heir to the Austro-Hungarian throne, Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria in Sarajevo, Bosnia.[15]

This began a period of diplomatic manoeuvering between Austria-Hungary, Germany, Russia, France and Britain called the July Crisis. Wanting to end Serbian interference in Bosnia conclusively, Austria–Hungary delivered the July Ultimatum to Serbia, a series of ten demands which were deliberately unacceptable, made with the intention of deliberately initiating a war with Serbia.[16] \

When Serbia acceded to only eight of the ten demands levied against it in the ultimatum, Austria–Hungary declared war on Serbia

on 28 July 1914.

Strachan argues

“Whether an equivocal and early response by Serbia would have made any difference to Austria-Hungary’s behaviour must be doubtful. Franz Ferdinand was not the sort of personality who commanded popularity, and his demise did not cast the empire into deepest mourning“.[17]

The Russian Empire, unwilling to allow Austria–Hungary to eliminate its influence in the Balkans, and in support of its longtime Serb proteges, ordered a partial mobilization one day later.[9]

When the German Empire began to mobilize on 30 July 1914,

 France—sporting significant animosity over the German conquest of Alsace-Lorraine during the Franco-Prussian War—ordered French mobilization on 1 August. Germany declared war on Russia on the same day.[18]

 

 

 

 

Russian infantry.

 

 

Russian forest trench

While the Western Front had reached stalemate, the war continued in East Europe. Initial Russian plans called for simultaneous invasions of Austrian Galicia and German East Prussia. Although Russia’s initial advance into Galicia was largely successful, they were driven back from East Prussia by Hindenburg and Ludendorff at Tannenberg and the Masurian Lakes in August and September 1914.[65][66][67] Russia’s less developed industrial base and ineffective military leadership was instrumental in the events that unfolded. By the spring of 1915, the Russians had retreated into Galicia, and in May the Central Powers achieved a remarkable breakthrough on Poland’s southern frontiers. On 5 August they captured Warsaw and forced the Russians to withdraw from Poland.

 

 

August 1914

 

The Ottoman Empire joined the Central Powers in the war, the secret Ottoman-German Alliance having been signed in August 1914.[49] It threatened Russia’s Caucasian territories and Britain’s communications with India via the Suez Canal

August,7th.1914

: African theatre of World War I

Some of the first clashes of the war involved British, French and German colonial forces in Africa. On 7 August, French and British troops invaded the German protectorate of Togoland.

On 10 August 1914

German forces in South-West Africa attacked South Africa; sporadic and fierce fighting continued for the remainder of the war. The German colonial forces in German East Africa, led by Colonel Paul Emil von Lettow-Vorbeck, fought a guerilla warfare campaign for the duration of World War I and surrendered only two weeks after the armistice took effect in Europe.[20]

August,12th.1914

Serbian Campaign (World War I)

The Serbian army fought the Battle of Cer against the invading Austrians, beginning on 12 August, occupying defensive positions on the south side of the Drina and Sava rivers. Over the next two weeks Austrian attacks were thrown back with heavy losses, which marked the first major Allied victory of the war and dashed Austrian hopes of a swift victory.

 As a result, Austria had to keep sizable forces on the Serbian front, weakening its efforts against Russia.

German soldiers in a railway goods van on the way to the front in 1914. A message on the car spells out “Trip to Paris”; early in the war all sides expected the conflict to be a short one.

In Belgium, German troops, in fear of French and Belgian guerrilla fighters, or francs-tireurs, massacred townspeople in Andenne (211 dead), Tamines (384 dead), and Dinant (612 dead). On 25 August 1914, the Germans set fire to the town of Leuven, burned the library containing about 230,000 books, killed 209 civilians and forced 42,000 to evacuate. These actions brought worldwide condemnation.[152]

 

August,14th.1914

German forces In Belgium And France

: Western Front (World War I)

At the outbreak of the First World War, the German army (consisting in the West of Seven Field Armies) executed a modified version of the Schlieffen Plan, designed to quickly attack France through neutral Belgium before turning southwards to encircle the French army on the German border.[5] The plan called for the right flank of the German advance to converge on Paris and initially, the Germans were very successful, particularly in

 the Battle of the Frontiers

 (14 August–24 August).

August,30th.1942

Asian and Pacific theatre of World War I

New Zealand occupied German Samoa (later Western Samoa) on 30 August

On September 9, 1914

the Septemberprogramm, a plan which detailed Germany’s specific war aims and the conditions that Germany sought to force upon the Allied Powers, was outlined by German Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg.

 The strategy of the Central Powers suffered from miscommunication. Germany had promised to support Austria–Hungary’s invasion of Serbia, but interpretations of what this meant differed. Previously tested deployment plans had been replaced early in 1914, but never tested in exercises.

Austro-Hungarian leaders believed Germany would cover its northern flank against Russia.[19] Germany, however, envisioned Austria–Hungary directing the majority of its troops against Russia, while Germany dealt with France. This confusion forced the Austro-Hungarian Army to divide its forces between the Russian and Serbian fronts

September,11th.1942

On 11 September the Australian Naval and Military Expeditionary Force landed on the island of Neu Pommern (later New Britain), which formed part of German New Guinea. Japan seized Germany’s Micronesian colonies and after the Battle of Tsingtao the German coaling port of Qingdao in the Chinese Shandong peninsula. Within a few months, the Allied forces had seized all the German territories in the Pacific, only isolated commerce raiders and a few holdouts in New Guinea remained.[21][22]

 

By 12 September 1914 ,

 the French with assistance from the British forces halted the German advance east of Paris at the First Battle of the Marne (5 September–12 September). The last days of this battle signified the end of mobile warfare in the west.[5]

In the east, only one Field Army defended East Prussia and when Russia attacked in this region it diverted German forces intended for the Western Front. Germany defeated Russia in a series of battles collectively known as the First Battle of Tannenberg (17 August – 2 September), but this diversion exacerbated problems of insufficient speed of advance from rail-heads not foreseen by the German General Staff.

The Central Powers were thereby denied a quick victory and forced to fight a war on two fronts. The German army had fought its way into a good defensive position inside France and had permanently incapacitated 230,000 more French and British troops than it had lost itself. Despite this, communications problems and questionable command decisions cost Germany the chance of obtaining an early victory.

Here’s an interesting card that illustrates a different kind of censorship in WW1.

The unit stamp at the top says “General Staff Branch, K.u.K 11th Army Command”. The card was sent by then major general Franz von Steinhart to his wife in Innsbruck.

Anyway, the censorship is on the other side of the card:

In the middle it says “i’m healthy and well” in all the languages of the empire. Around the outside is a warning that nothing else must be written on the card.

 

If you read info below , you can learn quite a bit about the general here:

 

Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

SOURCE  Wikipedia,

 

 

von Steinhart als Major im Jahre 1902

Top of Form

, Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

(† 23 October 1949 in Innsbruck March 20, 1865 in Moravian-white churches)

 

 

He was a Lieutenant-General of the Austro-Hungarian army

The father of Franz Steinhart was a captain and artillery instructor, who resigned after the war against Prussia in retirement and with the family first moved to Graz and then to Klagenfurt.

 

 

In

 

Klagenfurt

 

from Steinhart visited the elementary school and the junior high school and then go to the fourth grade of the military-Realschule after Güns.

 

This was followed by the military high school in Moravian-white churches and the genius department of Military Academy of Technology in Vienna.

On 18 August 1885

 

 Steinhart was a lieutenant in K.K. Genie Regiment Kaiser Franz Josef I. No. 1 and the second appointed Battalion assigned in Krakow. After four years of army service he was simultaneously promoted to lieutenant in the fall of 1889 parked at the higher genius course to Vienna and, after his graduation with honors added to the genius Directorate for Bilek. Four years later, a temporary transfer to Komarno and after the carriage was a captain in the genius bar on 1 1895 July, the transfer to the new Directorate to Przemyśl genius.

In the fortress of Przemysl was entrusted to him by the completion of Fort XIIIa and configuring Fort XIII, also it was his responsibility to build a munitions depot field.


On 16 February 1897

 was the transfer of management genius of Trent, while secondment to the fortress of Riva. Here he worked on the planning of permanent fortifications, as well as on the Armierungsstraße Brione and the local agent battery.

On 1 May 1899 admixed Steinhart to the General genius inspection to Vienna, where he was in March 1901 graduated from the Staff Officer exam for the genius bar is successful and in July of the same year secondment as a teacher of the art of fortification and the Fortress War at the genius bar Department of Military University of Technology in Vienna.

On 1 November 1901 he was promoted to Major in the genius bar and the 27th July 1907, the appointment of a genius director in Klagenfurt.

 

 

On 1 May 1908

 

 is promoted to lieutenant colonel of Steinhart while posting a genius director to Riva. Here he was responsible for responsible for the fortification systems in the border region of Vallarsa from Passo di Pian della Fugazza up to Madonna di Campiglio. Under his task was, among other things, the completion of the tank plant Monte Tombio and the supervision of work on a tank factory Carriola. The work Valmorbia in Val d’Arsa was started but could not until the beginning of the war to be completed.

On 1 November 1910

 

he was promoted to colonel in the genius bar and on 25 April 1914 appointed the genius director of Trent.

 

Here he made until the outbreak of war with Italy on 23 May 1915 for the accelerated expansion of the fortress of Trento and the fortifications at the height of Dubuque / Lavarone

 

 

Here he was on 1 November 1914

and promoted to Major General on 27 January 1915 was appointed commandant of Trent.

 

 

: Naval Warfare of World War I

 

 

The British Grand Fleet making steam for Scapa Flow, 1914

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[36]

 

 

A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[37] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[38] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[39]

 

Balkans Campaign (World War I), Serbian Campaign (World War I), and Macedonian front (World War I)

Faced with Russia, Austria–Hungary could spare only one-third of its army to attack Serbia. After suffering heavy losses, the Austrians briefly occupied the Serbian capital, Belgrade. A Serbian counterattack in the battle of Kolubara, however, succeeded in driving them from the country by the end of 1914.

 

 

 

 

: Naval Warfare of World War I

 

 

The British Grand Fleet making steam for Scapa Flow, 1914

At the start of the war, the German Empire had cruisers scattered across the globe, some of which were subsequently used to attack Allied merchant shipping. The British Royal Navy systematically hunted them down, though not without some embarrassment from its inability to protect Allied shipping. For example, the German detached light cruiser SMS Emden, part of the East-Asia squadron stationed at Tsingtao, seized or destroyed 15 merchantmen, as well as sinking a Russian cruiser and a French destroyer. However, the bulk of the German East-Asia squadron—consisting of the armoured cruisers Scharnhorst and Gneisenau, light cruisers Nürnberg and Leipzig and two transport ships—did not have orders to raid shipping and was instead underway to Germany when it encountered elements of the British fleet. The German flotilla, along with Dresden, sank two armoured cruisers at the Battle of Coronel, but was almost destroyed at the Battle of the Falkland Islands in December 1914, with only Dresden and a few auxiliaries escaping, but at the Battle of Más a Tierra these too were destroyed or interned.[36]

 

 

A battleship squadron of the Hochseeflotte at sea

Soon after the outbreak of hostilities, Britain initiated a naval blockade of Germany. The strategy proved effective, cutting off vital military and civilian supplies, although this blockade violated generally accepted international law codified by several international agreements of the past two centuries.[37] Britain mined international waters to prevent any ships from entering entire sections of ocean, causing danger to even neutral ships.[38] Since there was limited response to this tactic, Germany expected a similar response to its unrestricted submarine warfare.[39]

December 1914

 

Russian armies generally had the best of it in the Caucasus. Enver Pasha, supreme commander of the Turkish armed forces, was ambitious and dreamed of conquering central Asia. He was, however, a poor commander.[50] He launched an offensive against the Russians in the Caucasus in December 1914 with 100,000 troops; insisting on a frontal attack against mountainous Russian positions in winter, he lost 86% of his force at the Battle of Sarikamis.[51]

December,12th.1914

 

1914

December,12th.1914

 

The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 

The part of Stamp cololecting magazine December,12th.1914

 German stamp Paper

info about War News

Pro Patria

The Belgian charity Stamps

War Mark still They Come !!

Censor Mark number

Swiss Field mark

Red Cross Stamps

 

1914


1d. Kangaroo, small OS, to Canada – 1914. PASSED handstamped, posted only a few weeks after teh war began.

 

 

1915

Beginning in 1915,

the Italians under Cadorna mounted eleven offensives on the Isonzo front along the Isonzo River, north-east of Trieste. All eleven offensives were repelled by the Austro-Hungarians, who held the higher ground.

The Russian commander from 1915 to 1916,

General Yudenich, drove the Turks out of most of the southern Caucasus with a string of victories.[51]

For the first ten months of 1915,

Austria–Hungary used most of its military reserves to fight Italy. German and Austro-Hungarian diplomats, however, scored a coup by persuading Bulgaria to join in attacking Serbia. The Austro-Hungarian provinces of Slovenia, Croatia and Bosnia provided troops for Austria–Hungary, invading Serbia as well as fighting Russia and Italy. Montenegro allied itself with Serbia.

The British and French opened overseas fronts with the Gallipoli (1915) and Mesopotamian campaigns. In Gallipoli, the Turks successfully repelled the British, French and Australian and New Zealand Army Corps (ANZACs).

 

In Mesopotamia, by contrast, after the disastrous Siege of Kut (1915–16),

 

April 1915

Military tactics before World War I had failed to keep pace with advances in technology. These changes resulted in the building of impressive defence systems, which out-of-date tactics could not break through for most of the war. Barbed wire was a significant hindrance to massed infantry advances. Artillery, vastly more lethal than in the 1870s, coupled with machine guns, made crossing open ground very difficult.[23] The Germans introduced poison gas; it soon became used by both sides, though it never proved decisive in winning a battle. Its effects were brutal, causing slow and painful death, and poison gas became one of the most-feared and best-remembered horrors of the war. Commanders on both sides failed to develop tactics for breaching entrenched positions without heavy casualties. In time, however, technology began to produce new offensive weapons, such as the tank.[24] Britain and France were its primary users; the Germans employed captured Allied tanks and small numbers of their own design.

After the First Battle of the Marne, both Entente and German forces began a series of outflanking maneuvers, in the so-called ‘Race to the Sea‘. Britain and France soon found themselves facing entrenched German forces from Lorraine to Belgium’s Flemish coast.[5] Britain and France sought to take the offensive, while Germany defended the occupied territories; consequently, German trenches were generally much better constructed than those of their enemy. Anglo-French trenches were only intended to be ‘temporary’ before their forces broke through German defenses.[25] Both sides attempted to break the stalemate using scientific and technological advances.

 

In April 1915

 the Germans used chlorine gas for the first time (in violation of the Hague Convention), opening a six kilometre (four mile) hole in the Allied lines when British and French colonial troops retreated. Canadian soldiers closed the breach at the Second Battle of Ypres. At the Third Battle of Ypres, Canadian and ANZAC troops took the village of Passchendaele.

 

Italian Campaign (World War I)

 

 

Austro-Hungarian mountain corps in Tyrol

Italy had been allied with the German and Austro-Hungarian Empires since 1882 as part of the Triple Alliance. However, the nation had its own designs on Austrian territory in Trentino, Istria and Dalmatia. Rome had a secret 1902 pact with France, effectively nullifying its alliance.[53] At the start of hostilities, Italy refused to commit troops, arguing that the Triple Alliance was defensive in nature, and that Austria–Hungary was an aggressor. The Austro-Hungarian government began negotiations to secure Italian neutrality, offering the French colony of Tunisia in return.

The Allies made a counter-offer in which Italy would receive the Alpine province of South Tyrol and territory on the Dalmatian coast after the defeat of Austria–Hungary. This was fomalised by the Treaty of London. Further encouraged by the Allied invasion of Turkey in April 1915

May,1915

Italy joined the Entente and declared war on Austria–Hungary on May 23. Fifteen months later Italy declared war on Germany.

Militarily, the Italians had numerical superiority. This advantage, however, was lost, not only because of the difficult terrain in which fighting took place, but also because of the strategies and tactics employed. Field Marshal Luigi Cadorna, a staunch proponent of the frontal assault, had dreams of breaking into the Slovenian plateau, taking Ljubljana and threatening Vienna. It was a Napoleonic plan, which had no realistic chance of success in an age of barbed wire, machine guns, and indirect artillery fire, combined with hilly and mountainous terrain

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

May,15 th.1915

A beauty. Mailed from Shanghai on May 15, 1915 to Jo/burg.

Recipient not there, so then re-directed TWICE within the UK. With a nice “re-posted Jo-Burg 31 July 15 cds” on back. Censor has opened again somewhere in transit, and sealed with brown plain tape. (Cover opening is on end of pink tape.)

 

 

 

 

.July 1915

censored cover WW1 to Sweden.

 

 

Some comments?
A side question how to detect the WMK on a stamp from a cover?

Faust

Watermark detection is helped by soaking off the cover. DONT on pain of a fateful death of horrors. Censored in Europe, not Australia, watermark???? Have you checked the date of mailing against the issue date….yet; first watermark printed and released 27th January, 1913, 2nd july 1915 and ignore others. Nice cover, single use , early in days of Roo’s, hope it was not the Christmas card, by the dates.


The kangaroo came from the other side of the world, but was placed upside down to feel at home. Do you know if this was a sign of any significance in Europe, at war, at this time? I have seen references (perhaps urban myths) of it being an offence in England to place a stamp of the Monarch upside down, Treason in fact?


this cover, that is was part of a larger lot at an auction 3 years ago. I am collecting for more than 25 years Australian stamps in mint condition and the ones I am missing today are very expensive so I decided to collect also pre-decimal covers and FDC´s and old postcards. This cover is one out of my collection. I can not answer your question in Belgium was this not common

 

In the summer of 1916,

 the Italians captured the town of Gorizia. After this minor victory, the front remained static for over a year, despite several Italian offensives.

October 1915

 

Serbia was conquered in a little more than a month. The attack began in October,

 when the Central Powers launched an offensive from the north; four days later the Bulgarians joined the attack from the east. The Serbian army, fighting on two fronts and facing certain defeat, retreated into Albania, halting only once to make a stand against the Bulgarians. The Serbs suffered defeat near modern day Gnjilane in the Battle of Kosovo.[48]

 

 

In late 1915

 a Franco-British force landed at Salonica in Greece, to offer assistance and to pressure the government to declare war against the Central Powers. Unfortunately for the Allies, the pro-German King Constantine I dismissed the pro-Allied government of Eleftherios Venizelos, before the Allied expeditionary force could arrive

 

The United States originally pursued a policy of isolationism,

 

avoiding conflict while trying to broker a peace. This resulted in increased tensions with Berlin and London. When a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania in 1915,

 

 with 128 Americans aboard, U.S. President Woodrow Wilson vowed, “America is too proud to fight” and demanded an end to attacks on passenger ships. Germany complied. Wilson unsuccessfully tried to mediate a settlement. He repeatedly warned the U.S. would not tolerate unrestricted submarine warfare, in violation of international law and U.S. ideas of human rights.

 

Wilson was under pressure from former president Theodore Roosevelt, who denounced German acts as “piracy”.[73]

 

 Wilson’s desire to have a seat at negotiations at war’s end to advance the League of Nations also played a role.[74]

 

Wilson’s Secretary of State, William Jennings Bryan, resigned in protest at what he felt was the President’s decidedly warmongering diplomacy.

 

Other factors contributing to the U.S. entry into the war include the suspected German sabotage of both Black Tom in Jersey City, New Jersey, and the Kingsland Explosion in what is now Lyndhurst, New Jersey

 

 

Armenian Genocide, Assyrian Genocide, and Greek genocide

The ethnic cleansing of the Ottoman Empire’s Christian population, with the most prominent among them being the deportation and massacres of Armenians (similar policies were enacted against the Assyrians and Ottoman Greeks) during the final years of the Ottoman Empire is considered genocide.[141] The Ottomans saw the entire Armenian population as an enemy[142] that had chosen to side with Russia at the beginning of the war.[143] In early 1915 a number of Armenian nationalist groups such as the Armenakan, Dashnak and Hunchak organizations joined the Russian forces, and the Ottoman government used this as a pretext to issue the Tehcir Law which started the deportation of the Armenians from eastern Anatolia to Syria between 1915 and 1917. The exact number of deaths is unknown, although a range of 250,000 to 1.5 million is given for the deaths of Armenians.[144] The government of Turkey has consistently rejected charges of genocide, arguing that those who died were victims of inter-ethnic fighting, famine or disease during the First World War.[145]

1916

 

the WW1 cover. This cover is a very rare thing. Sent from New Guinea to Holland and then forwarded to Germany. It seems like it was using an official system to tranmit mail. It still has the original note with a translation.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

There were several letters enclosed. Australian stamps used in New Guinea are very rare.(Tim)
The WWI cover is great- even more so because the transmittal letter re: original contents is still with it to explain what would otherwise look to be a mundane sending- A wonderful piece of history as well as postal history.

On the question of “undercover addresses”, there is a book , now in the third edition, covering WWII authored by Charles Entwistle that was published by Chavril Press. Thanks for sharing it.(dave)
Strange that NWPI o/prints weren’t used with the date being (I think) 1916 Still he used valid Aust. one’s and they are rare indeed from that period.

 

Australian OS stamps used by a German Missionary in 1916 to send mail to Germany, via Holland from New Guinea…….

Does the fact that all contents are still with it mean that it never got there?

What back stamps does it have.?

The mail route it went on would be very different – 90% of P &NG mail then seems to have gone south to Queensland or to Sydney then north again to Europe or where ever.

That censor stamp isnt Australian is it?

How do you think it got to Holland – maybe through Batavia? ( Dutch or Netherland New Guinea now Indonesia)


read more bout heinrich Zahn

FIGURE 4 The Rev. Dr. Heinrich Zahn and his band at Hocpoi, 1927. By permission of Neuendettelsau Seminary Archives, Germany. from mainly Western-based music to what remained of indigenous music. Services began to feature indigenous musical instruments. In the Anglican Church, especially at feasts, kundu-playing choirs sang and danced their way to the sanctuary, often in a version of indigenous dress. In varying proportions, worship added hymns accompanied by kundus, rattles, and conchs; newly composed hymns in local languages; and most popularly, hymns with stanzas and refrains, accompanied by one or two guitars.


2d halfpenny Second WMK to USA with nice 1916 cancel. surprisingly, NO censor markings at all.

 

 

 

Montenegro covered the Serbian retreat toward the Adriatic coast in the Battle of Mojkovac in 6–7 January 1916, but ultimately the Austrians conquered Montenegro, too. Serbian forces were evacuated by ship to Greece.

 

From 27 January 1916 to 6 March 1916

 Commander of

,

Major General Commandant of the Defense of Steinhart section Rayon I Stelvio

 

February 1916

 

General Franz Seraphin Edler von Steinhart

 When war broke out with Italy was an expansion of its area of ​​responsibility by 26 to February 1916 continued appointment as commander of the Eastern Front of Trento.

the Rayon II Tonale.

 

 

 

In the trenches: Royal Irish Rifles in a communications trench on the first day on the Somme,

June 1916

Despite the success of the June 1916 Brusilov offensive in eastern Galicia,[68] dissatisfaction with the Russian government’s conduct of the war grew. The success was undermined by the reluctance of other generals to commit their forces to support the victory.

 

The Arab Revolt (described in Seven Pillars of Wisdom) was a major cause of the Ottoman Empire‘s defeat.

The revolts started with the Battle of Mecca by Sherif Hussain of Mecca with the help of Britain in June 1916, and ended with the Ottoman surrender of Damascus.

 Fakhri Pasha the Ottoman commander of Medina showed stubborn resistance for over two and half years during the Siege of Medina

Along the border of Italian Libya and British Egypt, the Senussi tribe, incited and armed by the Turks, waged a small-scale guerrilla war against Allied troops. According to Martin Gilbert’s The First World War, the British were forced to dispatch 12,000 troops to deal with the Senussi. Their rebellion was finally crushed in mid-1916.

 

 1 July 1916.

The British Army endured the bloodiest day in its history, suffering 57,470 casualties and 19,240 dead on 1 July 1916, the first day of the Battle of the Somme. Most of the casualties occurred in the first hour of the attack. The entire Somme offensive cost the British Army almost half a million men.[26]

Neither side proved able to deliver a decisive blow for the next two years, though protracted German action at Verdun throughout 1916,[27] combined with the bloodletting at the Somme, brought the exhausted French army to the brink of collapse. Futile attempts at frontal assault came at a high price for both the British and the French poilu (infantry) and led to widespread mutinies, especially during the Nivelle Offensive.[28]

 

On the Trentino front, the Austro-Hungarians took advantage of the mountainous terrain, which favoured the defender. After an initial strategic retreat, the front remained largely unchanged, while Austrian Kaiserschützen and Standschützen (German wikipedia) engaged Italian Alpini in bitter hand-to-hand combat throughout the summer. The Austro-Hungarians counter-attacked in the Altopiano of Asiago, towards Verona and Padua, in the spring of 1916 (Strafexpedition), but made little progress.

August,27th.1916

Allied and Russian forces were revived only temporarily with Romania‘s entry into the war on 27 August.

 

With the 1st November 1916

 

 he was appointed commander of the 43rd Landwehr Infantry Brigade (at this time in the association of III. Corps at Monte Interrotto in Valsugana used), already on the 6th November, the order to the commander of the infantry troops Pusteria Division (consisting of the 96th Infantry, 21 mountain and 56 Mountain Brigade) followed. The division was responsible for the defense of the Pusteria of the Carinthian border to the Marmolada over about 100 kilometers frontline.

 

 

 

November,19th.1916

 

The Macedonian Front proved static for the most part. Serbian forces retook part of Macedonia by recapturing Bitola on 19 November 1916. Only at the end of the conflict were the Entente powers able to break through, after most of the German and Austro-Hungarian troops had withdrawn.

 

December 1916

 

 

German forces came to the aid of embattled Austrian units in Transylvania and Bucharest fell to the Central Powers on 6 December. Meanwhile, unrest grew in Russia, as the Tsar remained at the front. Empress Alexandra’s increasingly incompetent rule drew protests and resulted in the murder of her favourite, Rasputin, at the end of 1916.

 

1916 Feldpost PPC sent by a soldier of the light infantry batallion No2 from Landshut in Bavaria to Austria, censored in Linz.

 

 

 

 

Oskar Schilling’s 2008 work “Zivilpost-Zensur in Österreich-Ungarn 1914-1918″ notes that the Austro-Hungarian empire produced over 2500 different mail censorship marks during WW1. This is one of them:

1916 Feldpost PPC sent by a soldier of the light infantry batallion No2 from Landshut in Bavaria to Austria, censored in Linz.

That’s an interesting card. After Familie Buebestinger kk what does it say?


It’s difficult handwriting to decipher. It looks to me that it says “K.K. Finanz Ober Aufseher” which would make the receiver a senior supervisor in the finance ministry

 

 

 

 

!917

 

 

January 1917:

Wilhelm Victory declaration

German poster quotes Wilhelm II, lambasting the Allies for their decision to fight on.

In December 1916, after ten brutal months of the Battle of Verdun, the Germans attempted to negotiate peace with the Allies, declaring themselves the victors. U.S. President Wilson attempted to intervene, asking both sides to state their demands. The Allies, in a weak bargaining position, rebuffed the offer.[69]

 

 

 

 

 

1917

January 1917

In January 1917,

 after the Navy pressured the Kaiser, Germany resumed unrestricted submarine warfare. Britain’s secret Royal Navy cryptanalytic group, Room 40, had broken the German diplomatic code. They intercepted a proposal from Berlin (the Zimmermann Telegram) to Mexico to join the war as Germany’s ally against the United States, should the U.S. join. The proposal suggested, if the U.S. were to enter the war, Mexico should declare war against the United States and enlist Japan as an ally. This would prevent the United States from joining the Allies and deploying troops to Europe, and would give Germany more time for their unrestricted submarine warfare program to strangle Britain’s vital war supplies. In return, the Germans would promise Mexico support in reclaiming Texas, New Mexico, and Arizona.[75]

 

 

February 1917

 

Entry Of United States

 

 

 

President Wilson before Congress, announcing the break in official relations with Germany on 3 February 1917

March 1917

 

 

 

Austrian troops executing captured Serbians in 1917.

After conquest, Serbia was divided between Austro-Hungary and Bulgaria. Bulgarians commenced bulgarization of the Serbian population in their occupation zone, banishing Serbian Cyrillic and the Serbian Orthodox Church.

After forced conscription of the Serbian population into the Bulgarian army in 1917, the Toplica Uprising began. Serbian rebels liberated for a short time the area between the Kopaonik mountains and the South Morava river.

The uprising was crushed by joint efforts of Bulgarian and Austrian forces at the end of March 1917.

 

 

British artillery placements in the Battle of Jerusalem (1917).

. British Imperial forces reorganised and captured Baghdad in March 1917.

 

Middle Eastern theatre of World War I(Ottoman empire)

In 1917,

 Russian Grand Duke Nicholas assumed command of the Caucasus front. Nicholas planned a railway from Russian Georgia to the conquered territories, so that fresh supplies could be brought up for a new offensive in 1917.

March 1917

However, in March 1917, (February in the pre-revolutionary Russian calendar), the Czar was overthrown in the February Revolution and the Russian Caucasus Army began to fall apart. In this situation, the army corps of Armenian volunteer units realigned themselves under the command of General Tovmas Nazarbekian, with Dro as a civilian commissioner of the Administration for Western Armenia. The front line had three main divisions: Movses Silikyan, Andranik, and Mikhail Areshian. Another regular unit was under Colonel Korganian. There were Armenian partisan guerrilla detachments (more than 40,000[52]) accompanying these main units.

 

 

 

 

early Red Cross card (1917)(dace)

this is not a Red Cross Card but “Bundesfeier-Postkarte”, 4 different where issued in 1917. The flags are the Swiss flag.
The 5c cards where sold for 20C.
Part of the collected money was donnated to th Red Cross.
The title of the card Wohltätigkeit, La charité, Charity. (Frederik)

 

a fairly grubby Post Card with Censor marks…

 the Multi Ringed Blue Circular mark on the Top Post Card.
if so any info would be nice.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Russian Revolution of 1917

 

 

Vladimir Illyich Lenin

In March 1917, demonstrations in Petrograd culminated in the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II and the appointment of a weak Provisional Government which shared power with the Petrograd Soviet socialists. This arrangement led to confusion and chaos both at the front and at home. The army became increasingly ineffective.

The war and the government became increasingly unpopular. Discontent led to a rise in popularity of the Bolshevik party, led by Vladimir Lenin. He promised to pull Russia out of the war and was able to gain power. The triumph of the Bolsheviks in November was followed in December by an armistice and negotiations with Germany.

At first the Bolsheviks refused the German terms, but when Germany resumed the war and marched across Ukraine with impunity, the new government acceded to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk on 3 March 1918.

 

It took Russia out of the war and ceded vast territories, including Finland, the Baltic provinces, parts of Poland and Ukraine to the Central Powers. The manpower required for German occupation of former Russian territory may have contributed to the failure of the Spring Offensive, however, and secured relatively little food or other war materiel.

With the Bolsheviks’ accession to the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, the Entente no longer existed. The Allied powers led a small-scale invasion of Russia to stop Germany from exploiting Russian resources and, to a lesser extent, to support the Whites in the Russian Civil War. Allied troops landed in Archangel and in Vladivostok

Anti-Jewish pogroms in the Russian Empire

Approximately 200,000 Germans living in Volhynia and about 600,000 Jews were deported by the Russian authorities.[146][147][148] In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out.[149] Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War, 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire.[150][151]

April 1917

After the British revealed the telegram to the United States, President Wilson, who had won reelection on his keeping the country out of the war, released the captured telegram as a way of building support for U.S. entry into the war. He had previously claimed neutrality, while calling for the arming of U.S. merchant ships delivering munitions to combatant Britain and quietly supporting the British blockading of German ports and mining of international waters, preventing the shipment of food from America and elsewhere to combatant Germany. After submarines sank seven U.S. merchant ships and the publication of the Zimmerman telegram, Wilson called for war on Germany, which the U.S. Congress declared on 6 April 1917.[76]

 

 

African-American soldiers marching in France.[77]

Crucial to U.S. participation was the sweeping domestic propaganda campaign executed by the Committee on Public Information overseen by George Creel. The campaign included tens of thousands of government-selected community leaders giving brief carefully scripted pro-war speeches at thousands of public gatherings. Along with other branches of government and private vigilante groups like the American Protective League, it also included the general repression and harassment of people either opposed to American entry into the war or of German heritage. Other forms of propaganda included newsreels, photos, large-print posters (designed by several well-known illustrators of the day, including Louis D. Fancher and Henry Reuterdahl), magazine and newspaper articles, etc.

August 1917

 

 The only previously held by them acting command of the division was the final designation on 23 August 1917, the unit in the 49th Infantry Division was renamed troops.

 

In the autumn of 1917,

thanks to the improving situation on the Eastern front, the Austrians received large numbers of reinforcements, including German Stormtroopers and the elite Alpenkorps. The Central Powers launched a crushing offensive on 26 October 1917, spearheaded by the Germans. They achieved a victory at Caporetto. The Italian army was routed and retreated more than 100 km (60 miles) to reorganise, stabilizing the front at the Piave River. Since in the Battle of Caporetto Italian Army had heavy losses, the Italian Government called to arms the so called ’99 Boys (Ragazzi del ’99), that is, all males who were 18 years old.

On 1 November 1917

 

had been appointed by the Lieutenant-Steinhart.

By the end of the war he commanded the 49th Infantry Division troops in Madonna di Campiglio to Val di Concei.

Western Front (World War I)

 

 

Canadian troops advancing behind a British Mark II tank at the Battle of Vimy Ridge.

 

 

A French assault on German positions. Champagne, France, 1917.

Throughout 1915–17, the British Empire and France suffered more casualties than Germany, due both to the strategic and tactical stances chosen by the sides. At the strategic level, while the Germans only mounted a single main offensive at Verdun, the Allies made several attempts to break through German lines. At the tactical level, Ludendorff’s defensive doctrine of “elastic defense” was well suited for trench warfare. This defense had a relatively lightly defended forward position and a more powerful main position farther back beyond artillery range, from which an immediate and powerful counter-offensive could be launched.[29][30]

Ludendorff wrote on the fighting in 1917, “The 25th of August concluded the second phase of the Flanders battle. It had cost us heavily. … The costly August battles in Flanders and at Verdun imposed a heavy strain on the Western troops. In spite of all the concrete protection they seemed more or less powerless under the enormous weight of the enemy’s artillery. At some points they no longer displayed the firmness which I, in common with the local commanders, had hoped for. The enemy managed to adapt himself to our method of employing counter attacks… I myself was being put to a terrible strain. The state of affairs in the West appeared to prevent the execution of our plans elsewhere. Our wastage had been so high as to cause grave misgivings, and had exceeded all expectation.”[31]

On the battle of the Menin Road Ridge Ludendorff wrote: “Another terrific assault was made on our lines on the 20 September…. The enemy’s onslaught on the 20th was successful, which proved the superiority of the attack over the defence. Its strength did not consist in the tanks; we found them inconvenient, but put them out of action all the same. The power of the attack lay in the artillery, and in the fact that ours did not do enough damage to the hostile infantry as they were assembling, and above all, at the actual time of the assault.”[32]

 

 

Officers and senior enlisted men of the Bermuda Militia Artillery‘s Bermuda Contingent, Royal Garrison Artillery, in Europe.

Around 1.1 to 1.2 million soldiers from the British and Dominion armies were on the Western Front at any one time[33] A thousand battalions, occupying sectors of the line from the North Sea to the Orne River, operated on a month-long four-stage rotation system, unless an offensive was underway. The front contained over 9,600 kilometres (5,965 mi) of trenches. Each battalion held its sector for about a week before moving back to support lines and then further back to the reserve lines before a week out-of-line, often in the Poperinge or Amiens areas.

In the 1917 Battle of Arras the only significant British military success was the capture of Vimy Ridge by the Canadian Corps under Sir Arthur Currie and Julian Byng. The assaulting troops were able for the first time to overrun, rapidly reinforce and hold the ridge defending the coal-rich Douai plain.[34][35]

 

 

 

 

December 1917

 

Further to the west, in the Sinai and Palestine Campaign, initial British setbacks were overcome when Jerusalem was captured in December 1917

. In 1917,

 the U.S. Congress gave U.S. citizenship to Puerto Ricans when they were drafted to participate in World War I, as part of the Jones Act. Germany had miscalculated, believing it would be many more months before they would arrive and that the arrival could be stopped by U-boats.[78]

 

 

M1905 Howitzer used by Allied Forces

The United States Navy sent a battleship group to Scapa Flow to join with the British Grand Fleet, destroyers to Queenstown, Ireland and submarines to help guard convoys. Several regiments of U.S. Marines were also dispatched to France. The British and French wanted U.S. units used to reinforce their troops already on the battle lines and not waste scarce shipping on bringing over supplies. The U.S. rejected the first proposition and accepted the second. General John J. Pershing, American Expeditionary Force (AEF) commander, refused to break up U.S. units to be used as reinforcements for British Empire and French units. As an exception, he did allow African-American combat regiments to be used in French divisions. The Harlem Hellfighters fought as part of the French 16th Division, earning a unit Croix de Guerre for their actions at Chateau-Thierry, Belleau Wood and Sechault.[79] AEF doctrine called for the use of frontal assaults, which had long since been discarded by British Empire and French commanders because of the large loss of life.[80]

 

 

 

Technology during World War I and Weapons of World War I

 

 

Armoured cars

The First World War began as a clash of 20th century technology and 19th century tactics, with inevitably large casualties. By the end of 1917, however, the major armies, now numbering millions of men, had modernised and were making use of telephone, wireless communication,[109] armoured cars, tanks,[110] and aircraft. Infantry formations were reorganised, so that 100-man companies were no longer the main unit of maneuver. Instead, squads of 10 or so men, under the command of a junior NCO, were favoured. Artillery also underwent a revolution.

In 1914, cannons were positioned in the front line and fired directly at their targets. By 1917, indirect fire with guns (as well as mortars and even machine guns) was commonplace, using new techniques for spotting and ranging, notably aircraft and the often overlooked field telephone. Counter-battery missions became commonplace, also, and sound detection was used to locate enemy batteries.

Germany was far ahead of the Allies in utilizing heavy indirect fire. She employed 150 and 210 mm howitzers in 1914 when the typical French and British guns were only 75 and 105 mm. The British had a 6 inch (152 mm) howitzer, but it was so heavy it had to be assembled for firing. Germans also fielded Austrian 305 mm and 420 mm guns, and already by the beginning of the war had inventories of various calibers of Minenwerfer ideally suited for trench warfare.[111]

Much of the combat involved trench warfare, where hundreds often died for each yard gained. Many of the deadliest battles in history occurred during the First World War. Such battles include Ypres, the Marne, Cambrai, the Somme, Verdun, and Gallipoli. The Haber process of nitrogen fixation was employed to provide the German forces with a constant supply of gunpowder, in the face of British naval blockade.[112] Artillery was responsible for the largest number of casualties[113] and consumed vast quantities of explosives. The large number of head-wounds caused by exploding shells and fragmentation forced the combatant nations to develop the modern steel helmet, led by the French, who introduced the Adrian helmet in 1915. It was quickly followed by the Brodie helmet, worn by British Imperial and U.S. troops, and in 1916 by the distinctive German Stahlhelm, a design, with improvements, still in use today.

The widespread use of chemical warfare was a distinguishing feature of the conflict. Gases used included chlorine, mustard gas and phosgene. Few war casualties were caused by gas,[114] as effective countermeasures to gas attacks were quickly created, such as gas masks. The use of chemical warfare and small-scale strategic bombing were both outlawed by the 1907 Hague Conventions, and both proved to be of limited effectiveness,[115] though they captured the public imagination.[116]

The most powerful land-based weapons were railway guns weighing hundreds of tons apiece. These were nicknamed Big Berthas, even though the namesake was not a railway gun. Germany developed the Paris Gun, able to bombard Paris from over 100 km (60 mi), though shells were relatively light at 94 kilograms (210 lb). While the Allies had railway guns, German models severely out-ranged and out-classed them.

 

 

RAF Sopwith Camel.

Fixed-wing aircraft were first used militarily by the Italians in Libya 23 October 1911 during the Italo-Turkish War for reconnaissance, soon followed by the dropping of grenades and aerial photography the next year. By 1914 the military utility was obvious. They were initially used for reconnaissance and ground attack. To shoot down enemy planes, anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft were developed. Strategic bombers were created, principally by the Germans and British, though the former used Zeppelins as well. Towards the end of the conflict, aircraft carriers were used for the first time, with HMS Furious launching Sopwith Camels in a raid to destroy the Zeppelin hangars at Tondern in 1918.

German U-boats (submarines) were deployed after the war began. Alternating between restricted and unrestricted submarine warfare in the Atlantic, they were employed by the Kaiserliche Marine in a strategy to deprive the British Isles of vital supplies. The deaths of British merchant sailors and the seeming invulnerability of U-boats led to the development of depth charges (1916), hydrophones (passive sonar, 1917), blimps, hunter-killer submarines (HMS R-1, 1917), forward-throwing anti-submarine weapons, and dipping hydrophones (the latter two both abandoned in 1918).[117] To extend their operations, the Germans proposed supply submarines (1916). Most of these would be forgotten in the interwar period until World War II revived the need.

 

 

British Army Vickers machine gun.

Trenches, machineguns, air reconnaissance, barbed wire, and modern artillery with fragmentation shells helped bring the battle lines of World War I to a stalemate. The British sought a solution with the creation of the tank and mechanised warfare. The first tanks were used during the Battle of the Somme on 15 September 1916. Mechanical reliability became an issue, but the experiment proved its worth. Within a year, the British were fielding tanks by the hundreds and showed their potential during the Battle of Cambrai in November 1917, by breaking the Hindenburg Line, while combined arms teams captured 8000 enemy soldiers and 100 guns. Light automatic weapons also were introduced, such as the Lewis Gun and Browning automatic rifle.

Manned observation balloons, floating high above the trenches, were used as stationary reconnaissance platforms, reporting enemy movements and directing artillery. Balloons commonly had a crew of two, equipped with parachutes.[118] If there was an enemy air attack, the crew could parachute to safety. At the time, parachutes were too heavy to be used by pilots of aircraft (with their marginal power output) and smaller versions would not be developed until the end of the war; they were also opposed by British leadership, who feared they might promote cowardice.[119] Recognised for their value as observation platforms, balloons were important targets of enemy aircraft.

 

 

Johnson’s Nieuport 11 armed with Le Prieur rockets for attacking observation balloons

To defend against air attack, they were heavily protected by antiaircraft guns and patrolled by friendly aircraft; to attack them, unusual weapons such as air-to-air rockets were even tried. Blimps and balloons contributed to air-to-air combat among aircraft, because of their reconnaissance value, and to the trench stalemate, because it was impossible to move large numbers of troops undetected. The Germans conducted air raids on England during 1915 and 1916 with airships, hoping to damage British morale and cause aircraft to be diverted from the front lines. The resulting panic took several squadrons of fighters from France.[119]

Another new weapon, flamethrowers, were first used by the German army and later adopted by other forces. Although not of high tactical value, they were a powerful, demoralizing weapon and caused terror on the battlefield. It was a dangerous weapon to wield, as its heavy weight made operators vulnerable targets.

Trench railways evolved to supply the enormous quantities of food, water, and ammunition required to support large numbers of soldiers in areas where conventional transportation systems had been destroyed. A trench railway system was included in construction of the Maginot Line, but internal combustion engines and improved traction systems for wheeled vehicles rendered trench railways obsolete within a decade.

 

1918

 

.

 

 

Photographic documentation of combat

Events of 1917 proved decisive in ending the war, although their effects were not fully felt until 1918. The British naval blockade began to have a serious impact on Germany. In response, in February 1917, the German General Staff convinced Chancellor Theobald von Bethmann Hollweg to declare unrestricted submarine warfare, with the goal of starving Britain out of the war. Tonnage sunk rose above 500,000 tons per month from February to July. It peaked at 860,000 tons in April. After July, the reintroduced convoy system became extremely effective in neutralizing the U-boat threat. Britain was safe from starvation and German industrial output fell.

 

 

Haut-Rhin, France, 1917

On 3 May 1917 during the Nivelle Offensive the weary French 2nd Colonial Division, veterans of the Battle of Verdun, refused their orders, arriving drunk and without their weapons. Their officers lacked the means to punish an entire division, and harsh measures were not immediately implemented. There upon the mutinies afflicted 54 French divisions and saw 20,000 men desert. The other Allied forces attacked but sustained tremendous casualties.[70] However, appeals to patriotism and duty, as well as mass arrests and trials, encouraged the soldiers to return to defend their trenches, although the French soldiers refused to participate in further offensive action.[71] Robert Nivelle was removed from command by 15 May, replaced by General Philippe Pétain, who suspended bloody large-scale attacks.

The victory of Austria–Hungary and Germany at the Battle of Caporetto led the Allies at the Rapallo Conference to form the Supreme War Council to coordinate planning. Previously, British and French armies had operated under separate commands.

In December, the Central Powers signed an armistice with Russia. This released troops for use in the west. Ironically, German troop transfers could have been greater if their territorial acquisitions had not been so dramatic. With German reinforcements and new American troops pouring in, the outcome was to be decided on the Western front. The Central Powers knew that they could not win a protracted war, but they held high hopes for a quick offensive. Furthermore, the leaders of the Central Powers and the Allies became increasingly fearful of social unrest and revolution in Europe. Thus, both sides urgently sought a decisive victory.[72]

The Egyptian Expeditionary Force, under Field Marshal Edmund Allenby, broke the Ottoman forces at the Battle of Megiddo in September 1918.

The United States was never formally a member of the Allies but became a self-styled “Associated Power”. The United States had a small army, but it drafted four million men and by summer 1918 was sending 10,000 fresh soldiers to France every day

 

 June 1918

German Spring Spring Offensive of 1918

 

 

For most of World War I, Allied forces were stalled at trenches on the Western Front

German General Erich Ludendorff drew up plans (codenamed Operation Michael) for the 1918 offensive on the Western Front. The Spring Offensive sought to divide the British and French forces with a series of feints and advances. The German leadership hoped to strike a decisive blow before significant U.S. forces arrived. The operation commenced on 21 March 1918 with an attack on British forces near Amiens. German forces achieved an unprecedented advance of 60 kilometers (40 miles).[81]

British and French trenches were penetrated using novel infiltration tactics, also named Hutier tactics, after General Oskar von Hutier. Previously, attacks had been characterised by long artillery bombardments and massed assaults. However, in the Spring Offensive of 1918, Ludendorff used artillery only briefly and infiltrated small groups of infantry at weak points. They attacked command and logistics areas and bypassed points of serious resistance. More heavily armed infantry then destroyed these isolated positions. German success relied greatly on the element of surprise.[82]

The front moved to within 120 kilometers (75 mi) of Paris. Three heavy Krupp railway guns fired 183 shells on the capital, causing many Parisians to flee. The initial offensive was so successful that Kaiser Wilhelm II declared 24 March a national holiday. Many Germans thought victory was near. After heavy fighting, however, the offensive was halted. Lacking tanks or motorised artillery, the Germans were unable to consolidate their gains. This situation was not helped by the supply lines now being stretched as a result of their advance.[83] The sudden stop was also a result of the four AIF (Australian Imperial Forces) divisions that were “rushed” down, thus doing what no other army had done and stopping the German advance in its tracks. During that time the first Australian division was hurriedly sent north again to stop the second German breakthrough.

 

 

British 55th (West Lancashire) Division troops blinded by tear gas during the Battle of Estaires, 10 April 1918

American divisions, which Pershing had sought to field as an independent force, were assigned to the depleted French and British Empire commands on 28 March. A Supreme War Council of Allied forces was created at the Doullens Conference on 5 November 1917.[84] General Foch was appointed as supreme commander of the allied forces. Haig, Petain and Pershing retained tactical control of their respective armies; Foch assumed a coordinating role, rather than a directing role and the British, French and U.S. commands operated largely independently.[84]

Following Operation Michael, Germany launched Operation Georgette against the northern English channel ports. The Allies halted the drive with limited territorial gains for Germany. The German Army to the south then conducted Operations Blücher and Yorck, broadly towards Paris. Operation Marne was launched on 15 July, attempting to encircle Reims and beginning the Second Battle of the Marne. The resulting counterattack, starting the Hundred Days Offensive, marked their first successful Allied offensive of the war.

By 20 July the Germans were back across the Marne at their Kaiserschlacht starting lines,[85] having achieved nothing. Following this last phase of the war in the West, the German Army never again regained the initiative. German casualties between March and April 1918 were 270,000, including many highly trained stormtroops.

Meanwhile, Germany was falling apart at home. Anti-war marches become frequent and morale in the army fell. Industrial output was 53% of 1913 levels.

In 1918,

the internationally recognized Azerbaijan Democratic Republic, Democratic Republic of Armenia and Democratic Republic of Georgia bordering the Ottoman Empire and Russian Empire were established, as well as the unrecognized Centrocaspian Dictatorship and South West Caucasian Republic. Later, these unrecognized states were eliminated by Azerbaijan and Turkey.

Further information: [[Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire]]

In 1918, the Dashnaks of the Armenian national liberation movement declared the Democratic Republic of Armenia (DRA) through the Armenian Congress of Eastern Armenians (unified form of Armenian National Councils) after the dissolution of the Transcaucasian Democratic Federative Republic. Tovmas Nazarbekian became the first Commander-in-chief of the DRA. Enver Pasha ordered the creation of a new army to be named the Army of Islam. He ordered the Army of Islam into the DRA, with the goal of taking Baku on the Caspian Sea. This new offensive was strongly opposed by the Germans. In early May 1918, the Ottoman army attacked the newly declared DRA. Although the Armenians managed to inflict one defeat on the Ottomans at the Battle of Sardarapat, the Ottoman army won a later battle and scattered the Armenian army. The Republic of Armenia signed the Treaty of Batum in June 1918.[86]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

September 1918

 

Allied Victory 1918

 Hundred Days Offensive and Weimar Republic

 

 

U.S. engineers returning from the front during the Battle of Saint-Mihiel in September 1918

The Allied counteroffensive, known as the Hundred Days Offensive, began on 8 August 1918. The Battle of Amiens developed with III Corps Fourth British Army on the left, the First French Army on the right, and the Australian and Canadian Corps spearheading the offensive in the centre through Harbonnières.[87][88] It involved 414 tanks of the Mark IV and Mark V type, and 120,000 men. They advanced 12 kilometers (7 miles) into German-held territory in just seven hours. Erich Ludendorff referred to this day as the “Black Day of the German army”.[87][89]

The Australian-Canadian spearhead at Amiens, a battle that was the beginning of Germany’s downfall,[90] helped pull the British armies to the north and the French armies to the south forward. While German resistance on the British Fourth Army front at Amiens stiffened, after an advance as far as 14 miles (23 km) and concluded the battle there, the French Third Army lengthened the Amiens front on 10 August, when it was thrown in on the right of the French First Army, and advanced 4 miles (6 km) liberating Lassigny in fighting which lasted until the 16th. South of the French Third Army, General Charles Mangin (The Butcher) drove his French Tenth Army forward at Soissons on 20 August to capture eight thousand prisoners, two hundred guns and the Aisne heights overlooking and menacing the German position north of the Vesle.[91] Another “Black day” as described by Ludendorff.

Meanwhile General Byng of the Third British Army, reporting that the enemy on his front was thinning in a limited withdrawal, was ordered to attack with 200 tanks toward Bapaume, opening what is known as the Battle of Albert with the specific orders of “To break the enemy’s front, in order to outflank the enemies present battle front” (opposite the British Fourth Army at Amiens).[32] Allied leaders had now realized that to continue an attack after resistance had hardened was a waste of lives and it was better to turn a line than to try and roll over it. Attacks were being undertaken in quick order to take advantage of the successful advances on the flanks and then broken off when that attack lost its initial impetus.[91]

The British Third Army’s 15-mile (24 km) front north of Albert progressed after stalling for a day against the main resistance line to which the enemy had withdrawn.[92] Rawlinson’s Fourth British Army was able to battle its left flank forward between Albert and the Somme straightening the line between the advanced positions of the Third Army and the Amiens front which resulted in recapturing Albert at the same time.[91] On 26 August the British First Army on the left of the Third Army was drawn into the battle extending it northward to beyond Arras. The Canadian Corps already being back in the vanguard of the First Army fought their way from Arras eastward 5 miles (8 km) astride the heavily defended Arras-Cambrai before reaching the outer defenses of the Hindenburg line, breaching them on the 28th and 29th. Bapaume fell on the 29th to the New Zealand Division of the Third Army and the Australians, still leading the advance of the Fourth Army, were again able to push forward at Amiens to take Peronne and Mont St. Quentin on August 31. Further south the French First and Third Armies had slowly fought forward while the Tenth Army, who had by now crossed the Ailette and was east of the Chemin des Dames, was now near to the Alberich position of the Hindenburg line.[93] During the last week of August the pressure along a 70-mile (113 km) front against the enemy was heavy and unrelenting. From German accounts, “Each day was spent in bloody fighting against an ever and again on-storming enemy, and nights passed without sleep in retirements to new lines.”[91] Even to the north in Flanders the British Second and Fifth Armies during August and September were able to make progress taking prisoners and positions that were previously denied them.[93]

 

 

Close-up view of an American major in the basket of an observation balloon flying over territory near front lines.

On 2 September the Canadian Corps outflanking of the Hindenburg line, with the breaching of the Wotan Position, made it possible for the Third Army to advance and sent repercussions all along the Western Front. That same day OHL had no choice but to issue orders to six armies for withdrawal back into the Hindenburg line in the south, behind the Canal Du Nord on the Canadian-First Army’s front and back to a line east of the Lys in the north, giving up without a fight the salient seized in the previous April.[94] According to Ludendorff “We had to admit the necessity…to withdraw the entire front from the Scarpe to the Vesle.”[95]

In nearly four weeks of fighting since 8 August over 100,000 German prisoners were taken, 75,000 by the BEF and the rest by the French. Since “The Black Day of the German Army” the German High Command realized the war was lost and made attempts for a satisfactory end. The day after the battle Ludenforff told Colonel Mertz “We cannot win the war any more, but we must not lose it either.” On 11 August he offered his resignation to the Kaiser, who refused it and replied, “I see that we must strike a balance. We have nearly reached the limit of our powers of resistance. The war must be ended.” On 13 August at Spa, Hindenburg, Ludendorff, Chancellor and Foreign minister Hintz agreed that the war could not be ended militarily and on the following day the German Crown Council decided victory in the field was now most improbable. Austria and Hungary warned that they could only continue the war until December and Ludendorff recommended immediate peace negotiations, to which the Kaiser responded by instructing Hintz to seek the Queen of Holland’s mediation. Prince Rupprecht warned Prince Max of Baden “Our military situation has deteriorated so rapidly that I no longer believe we can hold out over the winter; it is even possible that a catastrophe will come earlier.” On 10 September Hindenburg urged peace moves to Emperor Charles of Austria and Germany appealed to Holland for mediation. On the 14th Austria sent a note to all belligerents and neutrals suggesting a meeting for peace talks on neutral soil and on 15 September Germany made a peace offer to Belgium. Both peace offers were rejected and on 24 September OHL informed the leaders in Berlin that armistice talks were inevitable.[93]

September saw the Germans continuing to fight strong rear guard actions and launching numerous counter attacks on lost positions, with only a few succeeding and then only temporarily. Contested towns, villages, heights and trenches in the screening positions and outposts of the Hindenburg Line continued to fall to the Allies as well as thousands of prisoners, with the BEF alone taking 30,441 in the last week of September. Further small advances eastward would follow the Third Army victory at Ivincourt on 12 September, the Fourth Armies at Epheny on the 18th and the French gain of Essigny-le-Grand a day later. On the 24th a final assault by both the British and French on a four mile (6 km) front would come within two miles (3 km) of St. Quentin.[93] With the outposts and preliminary defensive lines of the Siegfried and Alberich Positions eliminated the Germans were now completely back in the Hindenburg line. With the Wotan position of that line already breached and the Siegfried position in danger of being turned from the north the time had now come for an assault on the whole length of the line.

The Allied attack on the Hindenburg Line began on 26 September. A total of 260,000 U.S. soldiers went “over the top”. All initial objectives were captured; the U.S. 79th Infantry Division, which met stiff resistance at Montfaucon, took an extra day to capture its objective. The U.S. Army stalled due to supply problems because its inexperienced headquarters had to cope with large units and a difficult landscape.[96] The following week cooperating French and American units broke through in Champagne at the Battle of Blanc Mont Ridge, forcing the Germans off the commanding heights, and closing towards the Belgian frontier.[97] The last Belgian town to be liberated before the armistice was Ghent, which the Germans held as a pivot until Allied artillery was brought up.[98][99] The German army had to shorten its front and use the Dutch frontier as an anchor to fight rear-guard actions.

When Bulgaria signed a separate armistice on 29 September, the Allies gained control of Serbia and Greece. Ludendorff, having been under great stress for months, suffered something similar to a breakdown. It was evident that Germany could no longer mount a successful defence.[100][101]

Meanwhile, news of Germany’s impending military defeat spread throughout the German armed forces. The threat of mutiny was rife. Admiral Reinhard Scheer and Ludendorff decided to launch a last attempt to restore the “valour” of the German Navy. Knowing the government of Prince Maximilian of Baden would veto any such action, Ludendorff decided not to inform him. Nonetheless, word of the impending assault reached sailors at Kiel. Many rebelled and were arrested, refusing to be part of a naval offensive which they believed to be suicidal. Ludendorff took the blame—the Kaiser dismissed him on 26 October. The collapse of the Balkans meant that Germany was about to lose its main supplies of oil and food. The reserves had been used up, but U.S. troops kept arriving at the rate of 10,000 per day.[102]

Having suffered over 6 million casualties, Germany moved toward peace. Prince Max von Baden took charge of a new government as Chancellor of Germany to negotiate with the Allies. Telegraphic negotiations with President Wilson began immediately, in the vain hope that better terms would be offered than by the British and French. Instead Wilson demanded the abdication of the Kaiser. There was no resistance when the social democrat Philipp Scheidemann on 9 November declared Germany to be a republic. Imperial Germany was dead; a new Germany had been born: the Weimar Republic.[103]

 

 

September ,29th.1918

 

The Bulgarians suffered their only defeat of the war at the Battle of Dobro Pole but days later, they decisively defeated British and Greek forces at the Battle of Doiran, avoiding occupation. Bulgaria signed an armistice on 29 September 1918.

In 1918,

 the Austro-Hungarians failed to break through, in a series of battles on the Asiago Plateau, finally being decisively defeated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto in October of that year. Austria–Hungary surrendered in early November 1918.[54][55][56]

Fighting In India

The war began with an unprecedented outpouring of loyalty and goodwill towards the United Kingdom from within the mainstream political leadership, contrary to initial British fears of an Indian revolt. India under British rule contributed greatly to the British war effort by providing men and resources. This was done by the Indian Congress in hope of achieving self-government as India was very much under the control of the British. The United Kingdom disappointed the Indians by not providing self-governance, leading to the Gandhian Era in Indian history. About 1.3 million Indian soldiers and labourers served in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East, while both the Indian government and the princes sent large supplies of food, money, and ammunition. In all 140,000 men served on the Western Front and nearly 700,000 in the Middle East. Casualties of Indian soldiers totaled 47,746 killed and 65,126 wounded during World War I.[57]

Bengal and Punjab remained hotbeds of anti-colonial activities. Terrorism in Bengal, increasingly closely linked with the unrests in Punjab, was significant enough to nearly paralyse the regional administration. Also from the beginning of the war, expatriate Indian population, notably in Germany, United States and Canada, headed by the Indian Independence Committee and the Ghadar Party respectively, attempted to trigger insurrections in India on the lines of the 1857 uprising with Irish Republican, German and Turkish help in a great conspiracy that has since become known as the Hindu German conspiracy. The conspiracy also made attempts to rally the Amir of Afghanistan against British India, starting a political process in that country that culminated three years later in the assassination of Amir Habibullah and precipitation of the Third Anglo-Afghan war. A number of failed attempts at mutiny were made in India, of which the February mutiny plan and the Singapore mutiny remain most notable. This movement was suppressed by means of a vast international counterintelligence operation and draconian political acts (including the Defence of India act 1915) that lasted nearly ten years.[58][59][60]

The Ghadarites also attempted to organise incursions from the western border of India, recruiting Indian prisoners of war from Turkey, Germany, Mesopotamia. Ghadarite rebels, led by Sufi Amba Prasad, fought along with Turkish forces in Iran and in Turkey. Plans were made in Constantinopole to organise a campaign from Persia, through Baluchistan, to Punjab. These forces were involved skirmishes that captured the frontier city of Karman, taking into custody the British consul. Percy Sykes‘s campaign in Persia was directed mostly against these composite forces. It was at this time that the Aga Khan and his brother were recruited into the British War effort. However, the Aga Khan’s brother was captured and shot dead by the rebels, who also successfully harassed British Forces in Sistan in Afghanistan, confining British forces to Karamshir in Baluchistan, later moving towards Karachi. They were able to take control of the coastal towns of Gawador and Dawar. The Baluchi chief of Bampur, having declared his independence from the British rule, also joined the Ghadarite forces. It was not before the war in Europe turned for the worse for Turkey and Baghdad was captured by the British forces that the Ghadarite forces, their supply lines starved, were finally dislodged. They retreated to regroup at Shiraz, where they were finally defeated after a bitter fight. Amba Prasad Sufi was killed in this battle. The Ghadarites carried on guerrilla warfare along with the Iranian partisans till 1919.[61][62][63][64]

Although the conflict in India was not explicitly a part of the First World War, it was part of the wider strategic context. The British attempt to subjugate the rebelling tribal leaders drew away much needed troops from other theaters, in particular, of course, the Western Front, where the real decisive victory would be made.

The reason some Indian and Afghani tribes rose up simply came down to years of discontent which erupted, probably not coincidentally, during the First World War. It is likely that the tribal leaders were aware that Britain would not be able to field the required men, in terms of either number or quality, but underestimated the strategic importance of India to the British. Despite being far from the epicenter of the conflict, India provided a bounty of men for the fronts. Its produce was also needed for the British war effort and many trade routes running to other profitable areas of the Empire ran through India. Therefore, although the British were not able to send the men that they wanted, they were able to send enough to mount a gradual but effective counter-guerrilla war against the tribesmen. The fighting continued into 1919 and in some areas lasted even longer.

 

October 1948

 

 

Armiestices  and Capitulations

 

 

In the forest of Compiègne after agreeing to the armistice that ended the war, Foch is seen second from the right. The carriage seen in the background, where the armistice was signed, later was chosen as the symbolic setting of Pétain’s June 1940 armistice. It was moved to Berlin as a prize, but due to Allied bombing it was eventually moved to Crawinkel, Thuringia, where it was deliberately destroyed by SS troops in 1945[104].

The collapse of the Central Powers came swiftly. Bulgaria was the first to sign an armistice on 29 September 1918 at Saloniki.[105] On 30 October the Ottoman Empire capitulated at Mudros.[105]

On 24 October the Italians began a push which rapidly recovered territory lost after the Battle of Caporetto. This culminated in the Battle of Vittorio Veneto, which marked the end of the Austro-Hungarian Army as an effective fighting force. The offensive also triggered the disintegration of Austro-Hungarian Empire. During the last week of October declarations of independence were made in Budapest, Prague and Zagreb. On 29 October, the imperial authorities asked Italy for an armistice. But the Italians continued advancing, reaching Trento, Udine and Trieste. On 3 November Austria–Hungary sent a flag of truce to ask for an Armistice. The terms, arranged by telegraph with the Allied Authorities in Paris, were communicated to the Austrian Commander and accepted. The Armistice with Austria was signed in the Villa Giusti, near Padua, on 3 November. Austria and Hungary signed separate armistices following the overthrow of the Habsburg monarchy.

Following the outbreak of the German Revolution, a republic was proclaimed on 9 November. The Kaiser fled to the Netherlands. On 11 November an armistice with Germany was signed in a railroad carriage at Compiègne. At 11 a.m. on 11 November 1918—”the eleventh hour of the eleventh day of the eleventh month”—a ceasefire came into effect. Opposing armies on the Western Front began to withdraw from their positions. Canadian Private George Lawrence Price is traditionally regarded as the last soldier killed in the Great War: he was shot by a German sniper at 10:57 and died at 10:58.[106]

In November 1918

the Allies had ample supplies of men and materiel; continuation of the war would have meant the invasion of Germany. Berlin was almost 900 miles (1,400 km) from the Western Front; no Allied soldier had ever set foot on German soil in anger, and the Kaiser’s armies retreated from the battlefield in good order, though up to a million of them were suffering from the Spanish Flu and unfit to fight. Hindenburgh and other senior German leaders spread the story that their armies had not really been defeated, resulting in the stab-in-the-back legend.[107][108]

A formal state of war between the two sides persisted for another seven months, until signing of the Treaty of Versailles with Germany on 28 June 1919. Later treaties with Austria, Hungary, Bulgaria and the Ottoman Empire were signed. However, the latter treaty with the Ottoman Empire was followed by strife (the Turkish Independence War) and a final peace treaty was signed between the Allied Powers and the country that would shortly become the Republic of Turkey, at Lausanne on 24 July 1923.

Some war memorials date the end of the war as being when the Versailles treaty was signed in 1919; by contrast, most commemorations of the war’s end concentrate on the armistice of 11 November 1918. Legally the last formal peace treaties were not signed until the Treaty of Lausanne. Under its terms, the Allied forces divested Constantinople on 23 August 1923.

1918

 

 

 

 

 

 

The Sgt J Merelie who received the two cards above was my wife’s great grandfather Joe(courtecy peter)

 

: Surviving veterans of World War I,

World War I casualties, Commonwealth War Graves Commission, and American Battle Monuments Commission

 

 

The First Contingent of the Bermuda Volunteer Rifle Corps to the 1 Lincolns, training in Bermuda for the Western Front, Winter 1914-15. One in four survived the war.

The soldiers of the war were initially volunteers, except for Italy, but increasingly were conscripted into service. Britain’s Imperial War Museum has collected more than 2,500 recordings of soldiers’ personal accounts and selected transcripts, edited by military author Max Arthur, have been published. The museum believes that historians have not taken full account of this material and accordingly has made the full archive of recordings available to authors and researchers.[120] Surviving veterans, returning home, often found that they could only discuss their experiences amongst themselves. Grouping together, they formed “veteran’s associations” or “Legions”, as listed at Category:Veterans’ organizations

On 4 -November 1918

 

 Leutenant General Steinhart

 in Italian prisoner of war

 

 

look the POW Postcard from

 

 

The Intalian POW Camp,

 

from the 24th as he Kriegsinvalider on Was released in June 1919th

On 1 September 1919,

 

he was forced to retire.

He was married to Valerie Noble of Steinhart (15 May 1878 to 22 August 1971). His son Franz Edler von Steinhart Hantken fell Major iG as the German Wehrmacht on 29 June 1944 in Russia.

 

 

including the sad fact that he outlived his son, a major in the wehrmacht, who fell in 1944 in Russia.

At the time of writing this card, he commanded the 49th Infantry Division defending the Carinthian border against the italians.

 

Prisoner Of War

 

 

This photograph shows an emaciated Indian Army soldier who survived the Siege of Kut

About 8 million men surrendered and were held in POW camps during the war. All nations pledged to follow the Hague Convention on fair treatment of prisoners of war. A POW’s rate of survival was generally much higher than their peers at the front.[121] Individual surrenders were uncommon. Large units usually surrendered en masse. At the Battle of Tannenberg 92,000 Russians surrendered. When the besieged garrison of Kaunas surrendered in 1915, 20,000 Russians became prisoners. Over half of Russian losses were prisoners (as a proportion of those captured, wounded or killed); for Austria 32%, for Italy 26%, for France 12%, for Germany 9%; for Britain 7%. Prisoners from the Allied armies totalled about 1.4 million (not including Russia, which lost between 2.5 and 3.5 million men as prisoners.) From the Central Powers about 3.3 million men became prisoners.[122]

Germany held 2.5 million prisoners; Russia held 2.9 million and Britain and France held about 720,000. Most were captured just prior to the Armistice. The U.S. held 48,000. The most dangerous moment was the act of surrender, when helpless soldiers were sometimes gunned down.[123][124] Once prisoners reached a camp, in general, conditions were satisfactory (and much better than in World War II), thanks in part to the efforts of the International Red Cross and inspections by neutral nations. Conditions were terrible in Russia, starvation was common for prisoners and civilians alike; about 15–20% of the prisoners in Russia died. In Germany food was scarce, but only 5% died.[125][126][127]

The Ottoman Empire often treated POWs poorly.[128] Some 11,800 British Empire soldiers, most of them Indians, became prisoners after the Siege of Kut, in Mesopotamia, in April 1916; 4,250 died in captivity.[129] Although many were in very bad condition when captured, Ottoman officers forced them to march 1,100 kilometres (684 mi) to Anatolia. A survivor said: “we were driven along like beasts, to drop out was to die.”[130] The survivors were then forced to build a railway through the Taurus Mountains.

In Russia, where the prisoners from the Czech Legion of the Austro-Hungarian army were released in 1917 they re-armed themselves and briefly became a military and diplomatic force during the Russian Civil War.

Military attachés and war correspondents in the First World War

Military and civilian observers from every major power closely followed the course of the war. Many were able to report on events from a perspective somewhat like what is now termed “embedded” positions within the opposing land and naval forces. These military attachés and other observers prepared voluminous first-hand accounts of the war and analytical papers.

For example, former U.S. Army Captain Granville Fortescue followed the developments of the Gallipoli campaign from an embedded perspective within the ranks of the Turkish defenders; and his report was passed through Turkish censors before being printed in London and New York.[131] However, this observer’s role was abandoned when the U.S. entered the war, as Fortescue immediately re-enlisted, sustaining wounds at Montfaucon d’Argonne in the Meuse-Argonne Offensive, September 1918.[132]

In-depth observer narratives of the war and more narrowly focused professional journal articles were written soon after the war; and these post-war reports conclusively illustrated the battlefield destructiveness of this conflict. This was the not first time the tactics of entrenched positions for infantry defended with machine guns and artillery became vitally important. The Russo-Japanese War had been closely observed by Military attachés, war correspondents and other observers; but, from a 21st Century perspective, it is now apparent that a range of tactical lessons were disregarded or not used in the preparations for war in Europe and throughout the Great War.[133]

An early recorded use of the term “World War” is attributed to a well-known journalist for The Times, Colonel Charles Repington, who wrote in his diary on 10 September 1918: “We discussed the right name of the war. I said the we called it now The War, but that this could not last. The Napoleonic War was The Great War. To call it The German War was too much flattery for the Boche. I suggested The World War as a shade better title, and finally we mutually agreed to call it The First World War in order to prevent the millennium folk from forgetting that the history of the world was the history of war.”[134]

 

Opposition to World War I and French Army Mutinies (1917)

 

 

1917 – Execution at Verdun at the time of the mutinies

The trade union and socialist movements had long voiced their opposition to a war, which they argued, meant only that workers would kill other workers in the interest of capitalism. Once war was declared, however, many socialists and trade unions backed their governments. Among the exceptions were the Bolsheviks, the Socialist Party of America, and the Italian Socialist Party, and individuals such as Karl Liebknecht, Rosa Luxemburg and their followers in Germany. There were also small anti-war groups in Britain and France.

Many countries jailed those who spoke out against the conflict. These included Eugene Debs in the United States and Bertrand Russell in Britain. In the U.S. the 1917 Espionage Act effectively made free speech illegal and many served long prison sentences for statements of fact deemed unpatriotic. The Sedition Act of 1918 made any statements deemed “disloyal” a federal crime. Publications at all critical of the government were removed from circulation by postal censors.[74]

Other opposition came from conscientious objectors – some socialist, some religious – who refused to fight. In Britain 16,000 people asked for conscientious objector status.[135] Many suffered years of prison, including solitary confinement and bread and water diets. Even after the war, in Britain many job advertisements were marked “No conscientious objectors need apply”.

The Central Asian Revolt started in the summer of 1916, when the Russian Empire government ended its exemption of Muslims from military service.[136]

In 1917, a series of mutinies in the French army led to dozens of soldiers being executed and many more imprisoned.

In September 1917 the Russian soldiers in France began questioning why they were fighting for the French at all and mutinied.[137] In Russia, opposition to the war led to soldiers also establishing their own revolutionary committees and helped foment the October Revolution of 1917, with the call going up for “bread, land, and peace”. The Bolsheviks agreed a peace treaty with Germany, the peace of Brest-Litovsk, despite its harsh conditions.

In 1917, Emperor Charles I of Austria secretly attempted separate peace negotiations with Clemenceau, with his wife’s brother Sixtus in Belgium as an intermediary, without the knowledge of Germany. When the negotiations failed, his attempt was revealed to Germany, a diplomatic catastrophy. [138][139][140]

: Aftermath of World War I

 

 

American Red Cross nurses tend to Spanish flu patients in temporary wards set up inside Oakland Municipal Auditorium, 1918

No other war had changed the map of Europe so dramatically—four empires disappeared: the German, Austro-Hungarian, Ottoman and the Russian. Four defunct dynasties, the Hohenzollerns, the Habsburg, Romanovs and the Ottomans together with all their ancillary aristocracies, all fell after the war. Belgium and Serbia were badly damaged, as was France with 1.4 million soldiers dead, not counting other casualties. Germany and Russia were similarly affected.

Of the 60 million European soldiers who were mobilized from 1914 – 1918, 8 million were killed, 7 million were permanently disabled, and 15 million were seriously injured. Germany lost 15.1% of its active male population, Austria–Hungary lost 17.1%, and France lost 10.5%.[153] About 750,000 German civilians died from starvation caused by the British blockade during the war.[154] By the end of the war, famine had killed approximately 100,000 people in Lebanon.[155] The war had profound economic consequences. In addition, a major influenza epidemic spread around the world. Overall, the Spanish flu killed at least 50 million people.[156][157] In 1914 alone, epidemic typhus killed 200,000 in Serbia.[158] There were about 25 million infections and 3 million deaths from epidemic typhus in Russia from 1918 to 1922.[159]

Approximately 200,000 Germans living in Volhynia and about 600,000 Jews were deported by the Russian authorities.[160][161][162] In 1916, an order was issued to deport around 650,000 Volga Germans to the east as well, but the Russian Revolution prevented this from being carried out.[163] Many pogroms accompanied the Revolution of 1917 and the ensuing Russian Civil War, 60,000–200,000 civilian Jews were killed in the atrocities throughout the former Russian Empire.[164][165] The best estimates of the death toll from the Russian famine of 1921 run from 5 million to 10 million people.[166] By 1922 there were at least 7 million homeless children in Russia as a result of nearly a decade of devastation from World War I and the Russian Civil War.[167] Considerable numbers of anti-Soviet Russians fled the country after the Revolution; by the 1930s the northern Chinese city of Harbin had 100,000 Russians.[168]

[edit] Later conflicts

The end of World War I set the stage for other world conflicts, some of which are continuing into the 21st century. The Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, pushed for socialist revolution. Out of German discontent with the still controversial Treaty of Versailles, Adolf Hitler was able to gain popularity and power.[169][170] World War II was in part a continuation of the power struggle that was never fully resolved by the First World War; in fact, it was common for Germans in the 1930s and 1940s to justify acts of international aggression because of perceived injustices imposed by the victors of the First World War.[171]

The establishment of the modern state of Israel and the roots of the continuing Israeli-Palestinian Conflict are partially found in the unstable power dynamics of the Middle East which were born at the end of World War I.[172] Previous to the end of fighting in the war, the Ottoman Empire had maintained a modest level of peace and stability throughout the Middle East.[173] With the end of the war and the fall of Ottoman government, power vacuums developed and conflicting claims to land and nationhood began to emerge.[174] Sometimes after only cursory consultation with the local population, the political boundaries drawn by the victors of the First World War were quickly imposed, and in many cases are still problematic in the 21st century struggles for national identity.[175][176] While the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire at the end of World War I was a pivotal milestone in the creation of the modern political situation of the Middle East, including especially the Arab-Israeli conflict,[177][178][179] the end of Ottoman rule also spawned lesser known disputes over water and other natural resources.[180]

Further information: Sykes–Picot Agreement

[edit] Peace treaties

After the war, the Allies imposed a series of peace treaties on the Central Powers. The 1919 Treaty of Versailles, which Germany was kept under blockade until she signed, ended the war. It declared Germany responsible for the war and required Germany to pay enormous war reparations and award territory to the victors. Unable to pay them with exports (a result of territorial losses and postwar recession),[181] she did so by borrowing from the United States, until the reparations were suspended in 1931. The “Guilt Thesis” became a controversial explanation of events in Britain and the United States. The Treaty of Versailles caused enormous bitterness in Germany, which nationalist movements, especially the Nazis, exploited with a conspiracy theory they called the Dolchstosslegende. The treaty contributed to the economic collapse of the Weimar Republic by sparking runaway inflation in the 1920s.

The German Empire lost its colonial possessions and was saddled with accepting blame for the war, as well as paying punitive reparations for it. The Austro-Hungarian and Ottoman empires were completely dissolved.

Austria–Hungary was also partitioned, largely along ethnic lines, into several successor states including Austria, Hungary, Czechoslovakia, and Yugoslavia, as well as adding Transylvania to the Greater Romania who was allied with the victors. The details were contained in the Treaty of Saint-Germain and the Treaty of Trianon.

The Russian Empire, which had withdrawn from the war in 1917 after the October Revolution, lost much of its western frontier as the newly independent nations of Estonia, Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, and Poland were carved from it; Bessarabia was also re-attached to the Greater Romania as it had been a Romanian territory for more than a thousand years.[182]

The Ottoman Empire disintegrated, and much of its non-Anatolian territory was awarded as protectorates of various Allied powers, while the remaining Turkish core was reorganised as the Republic of Turkey. The Ottoman Empire was to be partitioned